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Title: The Magazine Style-Code
Author: Irvine, Leigh H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  PUBLISHED BY
  THE MYSELL-ROLLINS BANK NOTE CO.



  THE
  MAGAZINE
  STYLE-CODE

  BY
  LEIGH H. IRVINE


  CROWN PUBLISHING CO.
  SAN FRANCISCO
  1906

  PRINTERS LITHOGRAPHERS ENGRAVERS
  22 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal.



  THE MAGAZINE STYLE-CODE

  A MANUAL FOR THE GUIDANCE OF AUTHORS,
  REPORTERS, TYPEWRITERS, MINISTERS,
  PUBLISHERS, AND
  ALL WHO WRITE.

  LARGELY CODIFIED FROM THE SYSTEM OF
  THEODORE LOW DE VINNE, FROM THE
  CENTURY MAGAZINE, THE CENTURY
  COMPANY’S BOOKS,
  AND THE TREATISES
  OF F. HORACE
  TEALL.

  ABBREVIATIONS, THE USE OF CAPITAL
  LETTERS, COMPOUND WORDS,
  ETC., FULLY ILLUSTRATED
  AND EXPLAINED.

  BY
  LEIGH H. IRVINE

  _Author of The New California, An Affair in the South Seas,
  The Writer’s Blue Book, and Other Works._

  CROWN PUBLISHING COMPANY
  SAN FRANCISCO.
  1906.

  _Copyright, 1906_,
  SAMUEL EPPSTEIN


  DEDICATED
  TO
  THEODORE LOW DE VINNE,

  WHOSE WORKS ON TYPOGRAPHY HAVE BEEN
  THE AUTHOR’S GUIDE AND INSPIRATION
  IN THE PREPARATION OF
  THIS LITTLE BOOK.



SOURCES OF AUTHORITY.


=1.= It is to be regretted that every publishing-house does not start on
the principle that a thorough system of doing things right should
precede the turning out of printed matter; but the press of business is
so great, the demands for ‘rush work’ are so many, that system comes
last, if at all. Managers are busy with the cash account and the
pay-roll, for which reason a great deal is left to chance.

Thus it falls that the negligence, incompetence, or preoccupation of
printing-office managers makes good systems of typography the exception
rather than the rule. It is a reflection on the art preservative that
the slipshod methods and unscholarly composition of the daily newspaper
type often corrupt the pages of trade-and class-publications, as well as
of magazines and books. See paragraph 45 of this book for an explanation
of the use of hyphens in the foregoing sentence. See paragraph 68 for
the use of single quote-marks herein.

The hurried work of newspapermen may be partly excused on the ground of
haste, yet in another sense it requires no more time to do a thing the
right way than to do it the wrong way.

Printing-houses that pretend to turn out careful work, such as
publishing books and periodicals, should follow some model of
unquestioned authority; but as proper exemplars are not often at hand,
the daily newspaper, being omnipresent, is taken for a pattern.

The purpose of this handbook is to furnish a guide based on the
scholarship and technical knowledge of some of the world’s greatest
authors and printers. As blunders and inconsistencies creep into print
everywhere, even when special care is taken to avoid them, the author
expects this very work to be an example of the mistakes it warns others
to avoid. Such shortcomings as here appear, however, should serve to
emphasize the need of great pains by all who write and print.

Some years ago it fell to the author to harmonize the style-codes of
three printing-houses that were doing work for him. In seeking a model
of accuracy and typographical neatness the system expounded by Theodore
Low De Vinne, used by the _Century Magazine_ and the Century Company,
was chosen.

It was discovered that there never has been any formal style-code in use
by the De Vinne-Century printers. They have learned the style by
studying De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_ and like works of his on
typography. Office experience teaches printers the written and unwritten
laws of the De Vinne code.

The method of the Century printers has been largely the method of the
author of this manual. By correspondence with Mr. De Vinne, by studying
his books, and by the practical application of his rules to the work of
many offices the writer has come to know his methods, which are believed
to be the simplest and most scholarly in use in the United States
to-day. More than eighty per cent of the rules herein expounded are
codified from the works of De Vinne, or gleaned from Teall and similar
sources of indisputable authority. The work of the Chicago Proofreaders’
Association has been found helpful in the compounding of words.

System is as necessary in a printing-house as in a bank, and
classification and obedience to the law of the office are absolutely
essential to the production of correct composition. Since many editors
and patrons, authors and others are usually either careless or untrained
in the art of preparing copy, the printer must be extremely painstaking
and methodic, or his work will be censured, and he will be blamed for
every fault that shows itself in ‘cold type.’ The owners of newspapers
printed at other men’s offices are especially unreasonable when mistakes
occur. No matter how careless such customers are with their work, they
expect the printer to be infallible. Every publisher of wide experience
will corroborate this statement. The skilful writer expects reasonable
accuracy, the ignoramus wants printers to be Macaulays and mind-readers
as well.


=2. Why Style-codes are Necessary.= Style-codes are necessary because
much of the copy that is presented to printers is neither written nor
edited with reference to accuracy, consistency, or the rules of orderly
typography. Indeed much copy is not edited at all; it reaches the case
or the machine with its original crudities thick upon it, and if
blunders are discovered by the public the slovenly authors defend
themselves by charging them to ‘errors of the types,’ or blunders of the
printers. On account of the general carelessness of writers, style-codes
are necessary; they enable printers and proofreaders to hold writers
within reasonable bounds. If all things were written just as they should
be printed, style-codes would be useless.


=3. Edited Manuscripts Save Money.= Just as short words and short,
simple sentences save the time and energy required to gather the meaning
that would be clouded by the use of long, involved sentences, so clearly
written and accurately prepared manuscripts save time, energy, and money
in the printing-office.

Typewritten copy is almost a necessity in this busy age, but whether
penned or typed, manuscripts should be consistent in style, and above
all readily legible. Fast typesetting machines should not be made slow
and expensive by the carelessness and indistinct manuscripts of editors
and other writers for the press.


=4. Uniformity is Essential to Success.= Uniformity in the method of
using capital letters, compound words, punctuation marks, etc., is
essential where any care is taken with printed matter. It is astonishing
that many editors, reporters, ministers, lawyers, and others who write
for publication are not only ignorant of typographical niceties, but of
fundamentals as well. Going further, it may be said that many
printing-houses are conducted in a haphazard way, as if uniformity and
accuracy were luxuries beyond price. Even under the best system,
contradictions and other errors are certain to abound. The best that can
be expected is to reduce blunders to the minimum.


=5. Passing the Blame to Printers.= Many writers pass the responsibility
and the blame to printers. This is a slovenly and unreasonable course.
Printers do not agree, some are incompetent, all are busy with other
details than editing copy, and it is not the duty of printers to correct
the blunders of writers. Again, a printer may see but a fraction of a
given manuscript, and may not know, unless there is an office
style-card, what system is the author’s desire. A style-card will show
printers the way out of many dark places, and will overcome many of the
obstacles presented by the copy of untrained editors and writers. In
well-arranged offices, however, the compositor’s right to make changes
is a limited one.

It is the duty of typographers to follow copy unless there is a clear
inadvertence, such as going =too= town instead of =to= town, for
example. Writers should understand that printers, though often highly
competent to write or edit manuscripts better than those who present
them as copy, are too busy at the case or the machine to stop and edit
copy, form a style-code, consult dictionaries, verify quotations,
harmonize discrepancies, and prevent the blunders of writers in general.
If nobody edits copy, one of two things happens--the blunders are put
into type for the public eye, or they are corrected by the proofreader.
The former course destroys the printer’s reputation, the latter adds to
the cost of work.


=6. Making Copy is an Art.= The world’s universities do not teach how to
prepare copy for printers. Often college men are not only poor writers
of English, but they are as careless of the niceties of typography as
are printers in most houses, editors of some publications, ministers,
school-teachers, reporters, and public officers. In most manuscripts
inconsistencies abound. Numbers, for example, should be spelled out, or
written in arabic or in roman numerals, yet the three methods are
sometimes seen on one page of copy.


=7. Uniform Methods Throughout.= Abbreviations, the use of italic, of
smaller bodies of types, of varying measures, of bold-face, light-faced
antique, and like typographical methods for indicating headings, cut-in
notes, emphatic words, etc., should be under some definite and sensible
plan.


=8. Points for Writers.= Paper for linotype operators as well as that
for hand-compositors should be about the size of commercial note, and
the writing should run the long way of the page, the reason being that
sheets of the commercial note size fit into the machine ‘copy-holder’
very neatly. Good margins should be left at the top and sides, this for
side-notes and catch-lines for headings. Names of persons, etc., should
be ‘printed out’ carefully in manuscripts, and interlineations should be
avoided. Blind hands have always caused infinite trouble in
printing-houses. (Consult ‘blind’ in the _Standard Dictionary_.)


=9. Style-codes Should be Mastered.= Those in authority in
publishing-houses and elsewhere should compel reporters, editors,
printers, proofreaders, and others whose duty it is to know =style= to
master the office code. In many instances the carelessness of writers
adds to the cost of production in every other department of publishing.
Strangely, however, many writers assume offhand that anybody can
capitalize words correctly and uniformly. Such writers jump to
conclusions in the most reckless way imaginable. Their methods and
definitions are no more correct than were the definitions given by a
band of amateur scientists who described a crab in answer to the great
Cuvier’s question. They said a crab was a small, red fish that walks
backward. “A perfect definition,” said Cuvier, “except that the crab is
not a fish, is not red, and does not walk backward.”


=10. Office Dictionary Should Govern.= One dictionary should be selected
as the sovereign guide in every printing-house. If some things in the
chosen dictionary seem wrong there should be a list or card of
variations from authority. For many reasons the author of this little
book prefers the _Standard Dictionary_ to all others. It seems to have,
among other things, the most consistent and thorough method of
compounding words. Its spellings are the simplest, its pronunciations
the most rational. The incomparable work of F. Horace Teall shines in
the department that deals with the important subject of compounding
English words. Teall’s _English Compound Words and Phrases_ should be
before every editor. As elsewhere explained, his system is a little
behind the times, owing to a recent movement to solidify words. See
paragraph 41.


=11. What Printers Should Edit.= There is a class of matter which
printers should edit as they proceed in their work, and this they should
do without delay or risk of exceeding authority. Reprint should be made
to conform to the office style. Often editors have ample time to read
clippings with sufficient care for acceptance, but without time or means
to make such excerpts conform to the governing code. Owing to lack of
marginal space and space between printed lines, there is no room for
certain emendations, the changing of compounds, and the rearrangement
of capitals. For these reasons most reprint reaches the printer as it
originally appeared in the ‘exchange’ from which it was clipped.

Even if an editor should take pains to change the style of reprint the
result would be an unsatisfactory net-work of interlineations, carets,
transpositions, rings, and other marks--in short, it would be bad copy.
Some editors make it a rule to quote the general style of the clipping,
holding that the style of the clipping is as much a part of the author’s
personality as are his words and sentences. Unfortunately there are
usually so many contradictions and inaccuracies, so many evidences of
_no style whatever_, that it is not a sensible plan to follow reprint
copy. The best system is for the compositor to follow the code of his
office, and the code should be so well known to him that to follow it
would be a pleasure.

In many small offices, where copy-readers or copy-editors are not
employed, a knowledge of the style-code by printers and proofreaders is
of vital importance. It has been computed by a committee of printers of
wide experience that a style-code will save from three to five per cent
of the cost of composition. In offices conducted along the lines of
chaos the waste of time is great.


=12. Authors are the Supreme Authority.= There is no doubt that every
author has the right to dictate what shall be the typographical form of
his work, but no self-respecting publisher’s imprint or hall-mark ever
appears on the pages of slovenly work. Even the author who demands his
own way should be shown his inconsistencies and slacknesses, if they
exist. The productions of some authors, who insist that copy be followed
by the printer, betray lack of system before the work has reached the
end of a galley; but if a writer urges that his faults be put in type
his orders should be followed. Instructions are often obeyed, greatly to
the amusement of everybody in the office, including the battery boy and
the devil.



ABBREVIATIONS IN GENERAL.


=13. Anno Domini= should be printed with small capitals when abbreviated
as A. D.


=14. Apostrophes for Plural of Letters Wrong.= De Vinne aptly says on
page 285 of _Correct Composition_ that the apostrophe is not proper to
express plurality. Its use in print for this purpose is the repetition
of an indefensible colloquialism, even though the dictionaries record
the form. Letters should be spelled as follows; aes, bees, cees, dees,
ees, efs, gees, aitches, ies, jays, kays, els, ems, ens, oes, pees,
ques, ars, esses, tees, ues, vees, ws or dubleyuz, exes, wyes, zees.
With the exception of esses this is the form given by the _Standard
Dictionary_.


=15. Apostrophe to be Omitted.= Mida’s _Criterion_ and Dean’s Landing
need the apostrophe as a sign of possession, but when referred to as
_Midas_ and Deans, the apostrophe is useless, and should be omitted.
Harper’s Ferry, but only Harpers when used in the curtailed form for the
Ferry, meaning Harper’s Ferry. See De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_,
page 284. Consult paragraph 68 of this book.


=16. Apostrophe in Possessives.= Do not omit the apostrophe in such
names as James’s, Banks’s, and Williams’s in possessive use. It is a
slovenly newspaper custom to omit apostrophes, except when the sound of
a second ess makes a disagreeable hissing. Whenever the second ess is
distinctly pronounced it should be inserted after the apostrophe. De
Vinne, Teall, Bain, Alford, Moon, and others are firm in demanding the
ess and the apostrophe whenever the sound of the second ess is given in
speech. Bain says: “We say St. James’s and St. Giles’s, Burns’s, and
Douglas’s.” This is also the style of such magazines as the _Century_.
See paragraphs 15 and 68.


=17. Arabic Numbers.= Books should be disfigured as little as possible
by arabic numerals in the text. Numbers thus set are always dry and
forbidding in appearance. See paragraphs 19, 24, and Words, under
paragraph 27, division (16).


=18. A. M., etc.= Capital and small capital letters are not needed in
abbreviating time, as a. m. and p. m. for ante meridiem and post
meridiem. It is best to spell out =six o’clock=, etc. A. M. means
master of arts and anno mundi. P. M. means postmaster. If _time_ is
meant, confusion sometimes arises. De Vinne uses the period, and says
the colon is an ignorant substitution in this sense: =2.30= p. m. and
=1.45= a. m., not =2:30=, or =1:45=. See De Vinne’s _Correct
Composition_, page 82.


=19. Ages of Persons.= Spell out the ages of persons. John Jones is not
=aged= twenty-one years. He is twenty-one years =of age=, or twenty-one
years old--not an =aged= person. The last use of =aged= is proper.


=20. Books.= See paragraphs 36, 52; also see division twelve under
paragraph 27.


=21. Co. and Company.= Co. should be set in capitals (=CO.=) when the
firm name is in capitals. The name JOHN BROWN’S Co. is unsightly. Unless
=Co.= is the style of the company, or incorporation, spell out the
word. In Co’s no period is needed after the =o=. De Vinne’s _Correct
Composition_, page 291.


=22. Credits.= See paragraph 52. Credits at the end of matter are best
set in italic lower-case, without any em dash to connect the credit with
the quotation. See De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_, page 150.


=23. Dates.= When the numeral precedes the name of the month it may be
written as the =28th= of November, but when the numeral follows, it
should be November =28=. In =2d=, =3d=, and like abbreviations, there is
no need of =n=, as in =2nd=.

=Years.= Two consecutive years should be run thus: During 1897-98, and
not 1897-8. It is proper to say the heroes of ’49. See paragraph 24.


=24. Figures.= Commas are not needed in four figures, as: 1897, 5798.
The comma should not be inserted between figures expressive of dates, as
in June, 1898.

Numbers of infrequent occurrence should be spelled out rather than put
in roman numerals. The engine weighed five thousand tons, there were
fifty-two gallons in the barrel, there were seventeen thousand men in
the regiments. See paragraph 17.


=25. Hours.= Print 11.30 a. m., and not 11:30 a. m. Use the period
rather than the colon. See paragraph 18.


=26. Month, etc.= Month, inst., prox., and ult., often abbreviated in
letters, are improper in all first-class work. Spell out the name of the
month, as March and January, not Mar. and Jan. Spell out days of the
week.



27. MISCELLANEOUS.


(1) =e. g.= for exempli gratia, i. e. for id est, q. v. for quod vide,
viz. for videlicet or to wit, etc. for et cetera, are barely tolerated
in good work and are discarded by many houses. If authors will use such
symbols they should spell them out. Italic is not needed in these
examples. See De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_, page 41.

(2) =Dep’t=, treas., sec., gov’t, and similar abbreviations are not
permissible.

(3) =Do= not use Xmas and Xtns for Christmas and Christians.

(4) =MS. and MSS.= MS. for manuscript and MSS. for manuscripts. There
should be no period after the =M=.

(5) =New York.= Do not use N. Y. when you refer to New York City.

(6) =Towns and Cities.= Do not abbreviate the names of towns and
cities, and avoid abbreviation of the names of states, except when they
follow town and city names. See paragraph 29.

(7) =Titles.= It is a proper and decorous system to spell out doctor,
professor, general, colonel, captain, major, and like titles. Good book
and magazine work oppose abbreviations of such titles. Mr., Mrs., Jr.,
Sr., are allowed as here written.

(8) =To wit= should not be compounded.

(9) =Spell out= fort, mount, point, port, saint, etc. in every use.

(10) =Parentheses.= Inclose the names of states in parentheses when used
in the following way: The Albany (N. Y.) Law School; the Milpitas (Cal.)
_Gazette_. See paragraph 29.

(11) =Pet Names.= Bill, Bob, Jim, Tom, Joe, etc., are not abbreviations,
and therefore they need no period after the last letter.

(12) =Quarto=, octavo, twelvemo, thirty-twomo, etc., are best, but 4to,
8vo, and 12mo may be used, if they do not begin a sentence.

(13) =Streets.= The numerical names of streets should be spelled out, as
Fifteenth Street, Twenty-second Street.

(14) =Time.= See paragraph 18. Spell out the names of days of the week,
as well as names of months.

(15) =Titles.= If John Jones has many titles following his name, it is
best to set them in small capitals, as: M. D., F. R. S., PH. D., K. C.
B. To set all in capitals is to give the name too little prominence. One
or two titles may be set in capitals, but when there are three or four,
use small capitals.

(16) =Words.= Words are preferred in legal documents, as: Jean must
appear in court on the tenth of August, in the year of our Lord one
thousand nine hundred and six.

(17) =PS.= PS. (for postscript or postscriptum) without a period or
space between the letters. See MS., number (4), paragraph 27.

(18) =Commas Essential.= Commas are essential in certain cases where
they are often omitted. Many printers seem to think it is treason to put
a comma before =and= in a series of three words, and the Chicago
Proofreaders’ Association omits commas in such instances. The system is
slovenly, however. De Vinne properly expounds the rule. On page 253 of
_Correct Composition_ he says: “The comma is needed when the simplicity
and directness of a sentence are broken by the addition or repetition of
nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs that do not qualify the words that
directly follow.” He cites this example: “Ulysses was wise, eloquent,
cautious, and intrepid.” Note the comma after =cautious=. Use the comma
without hesitation when the qualifying words are more than two in
number; as, the bay was calm, beautiful, and clear as crystal. The comma
is sometimes erroneously omitted before the conjunction in such cases
as: Jean, Lucinda and Alice have departed. There is no person whose name
is Lucinda and Alice. Again, the impression may be made, by the omission
of the comma, that Lucinda and Alice went together, and not with Jean.

Another point to be remembered is that when the words are not in pairs,
the comma must be used, even if =or= frequently intervenes. _Correct
Composition_, page 254. When the words are in pairs, connected by the
word =and=, or disconnected by the word =or=, the comma is needed only
at the end of each pair. _De Vinne._


=28. Names.= Never abbreviate Jas., Jos., Thos., Geo., Wm., Theo.,
Chas., and other Christian names. The decorous system is to spell the
names in full, except when following exact signatures in legal documents
and other formal matter.


=29. Names of States.= Names of states following names of towns, except
the names of Alaska, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, and Utah, are
abbreviated as follows:

  Alabama                    Ala.
  Arizona                   Ariz.
  Arkansas                   Ark.
  California                 Cal.
  Colorado                  Colo.
  Connecticut               Conn.
  Delaware                   Del.
  Florida                    Fla.
  Georgia                     Ga.
  Illinois                   Ill.
  Indiana                    Ind.
  Indian Territory          I. T.
  Kansas                     Kan.
  Kentucky                    Ky.
  Louisiana                   La.
  Maryland                    Md.
  Massachusetts             Mass.
  Michigan                  Mich.
  Minnesota                 Minn.
  Mississippi               Miss.
  Missouri                    Mo.
  Montana                   Mont.
  Nebraska                   Neb.
  Nevada                     Nev.
  New Hampshire             N. H.
  New Jersey                N. J.
  New Mexico                N. M.
  New York                  N. Y.
  North Carolina            N. C.
  North Dakota              N. D.
  Oklahoma                  Okla.
  Oregon                     Ore.
  Pennsylvania                Pa.
  Rhode Island              R. I.
  South Carolina            S. C.
  South Dakota              S. D.
  Tennessee                 Tenn.
  Texas                      Tex.
  Vermont                     Vt.
  Washington                Wash.
  Virginia                    Va.
  West Virginia            W. Va.
  Wisconsin                  Wis.
  Wyoming                    Wyo.


=30. Brackets.= Teall says that an insertion not merely disconnected,
but having no effect upon the meaning of the context, should be inclosed
within brackets. Examples: I swear that I was naturalized [here state
name] in Missouri. My son, I must tell you all. [Some private details
are here blotted out. _Editor._] You must keep these things secret. De
Vinne says: “Parentheses always inclose remarks apparently made by the
writer of the text. Brackets inclose remarks certainly made by the
editor or reporter of that text.” See _Correct Composition_, page 279.


=31. By-laws.= De Vinne says: “By-laws are frequently printed with the
side-headings Art. 1 for Article 1, Sec. 2 for Section 2, etc., but it
is better practice to print the word in full in the paragraph where it
first appears, and to omit the word in subsequent paragraphs, using the
proper figure only, as is customary in verses of the Bible and in
hymn-books.”


=32. Can not.= =Can not= is preferred to =cannot=, though there is
authority for both forms. =Can not= and =shall not=, according to the
usage of good writers, are treated as shown.



33. CAPITAL LETTERS IN GENERAL.


A

  Arbor Day, Decoration Day, Labor Day, Black Friday.

  Ascension Day, in Bible sense.

  Almighty and like terms in lieu of God.

  arctic ivory and all similar mercantile uses of such words as arctic
    in that sense. Even titanic and herculean, in some uses.

  Arctic when referring to that region.

  algebra, botany and all sciences. See sciences.

  arabic when referring to letters of that name or to merchandise.

  autumn unless the word is personified. Seasons are not capitalized.
    See seasons.

  association, church, companies, political, and similar names are
    written in small letters, thus: trustee, councilman, supervisor,
    congressman, director, secretary, president, governor,
    superintendent, etc., unless the title precedes a surname, in which
    case it is capitalized as a title. If a title selected may be
    applied to two or more persons use the small letter, not the
    capital. Abbreviated expressions take the capital letter as an
    initial, as: =the= Union, =the= Club, =the= Church, =the= Senate,
    =the= Company, =the= Chamber, =the= State, =the= Nation, when such
    shortened expressions are clearly used in place of the full name of
    the body in question. The Union, if you mean of states, or if you
    mean a certain typographical union.


B

  Bank Holiday, because this is its proper name as much as Wednesday is
    the name of a day.

  Bible, and all names like Scriptures, Holy Writ.

  the Board of Education, meaning a special one.

  a board of education, meaning any one.

  Bay of Naples.

  a bay, meaning any one.

  Baconian philosophy, because with direct reference to Bacon; but
    =herculean=, meaning strong, platonic, etc., unless referring
    directly to Plato.

  Bills are capitalized, as: Pure Food Bill, Highway Bill, Labor Bill,
    Revenue Bill.

  Buildings. Capitalize Chronicle Building, White House, Pressmen’s
    Hall, Linotype Building, Carnegie Free Library Block, etc.


C

  Christmas and all synonyms, as Yule-tide.

  city of New York, but New York City, its official name.

  a city of Kentucky, or any city of a class, because common nouns.
  this City, meaning San Francisco or any other place clearly meant.

  a chief-justice.

  the Chief-justice of Missouri.

  an aged justice, or a former chief-justice.

  castile soap. See merchandise.

  china goods, china silk, etc. See merchandise.

  cisalpine, transatlantic, etc.

  county of Holt, but Holt County, its exact name. See counties.

  the County, meaning one in particular; in lieu of full name.

  a county--any one.

  Counties: Holt County is the name of the political division or
    corporation, and when =the County= is used as a shorter expression,
    it is clearly a synonym for the full name.

  the Congress of the United States, or Congress, the Legislature.

  the Congressman, meaning a special one. Several congressmen and
    senators were there. In this sense the nouns are common.

  =Congressman= illustrates De Vinne’s rule that a title not a synonym
    for a specified person (one only) should not begin with a capital.
    See Association.

  Centuries take a lower-case letter: fifteenth century, nineteenth,
    twentieth, etc. This is an exception to the rule concerning
    historical epochs, but custom has made it proper.

  a club, meaning any.

  the Club, meaning the Century Club.

  Columbia College, Stanford University, etc.

  the Constitution of the United States, of any particular state or
    society.

  a constitution, meaning any.

  the Continent, meaning of Europe, or when used as a substitute for
    the full name of any other continent.

  coolie, negro, greaser, gringo, gipsy. See nicknames, which are never
    capitalized.


D

  Decoration Day, like all historic names. See Historic names.

  Deity, God, Father, Son, Holy Ghost, Jehovah, Holy Spirit, =Saviour=,
    Creator, Providence, Heaven, when used for God, and all words that
    refer directly to Deity as a name, heaven and hell in ordinary use.
    Heaven, meaning God.

  devil as an expletive.

  Devil, if John Milton’s is meant, also Satan, Beelzebub.

  Definite Titles. When definite titles or names are shortened, like the
    Senate, the Club, etc., meaning a particular senate or club, use
    capitals. Likewise where =the= State or =the= Government means one
    in particular, as following a reference to California, capitals
    should be used. The Union, =the= Nation, etc., follow the same rule.


E

  the East, meaning an undefined geographical section.

  an east wind blew, however, meaning mere direction.

  the Ex-president.

  an ex-president, ex-mayor, ex-governor, etc. When capitalized, the
    first letter of the compound takes the capital, as: Ex-president
    Cleveland. Many good writers prefer the expression _former_
    president, etc.

  Erie Canal.

  the earth. Though the name of a definite planet, this word is not
    capitalized. It is a clear exception to the rule. The sun and the
    moon usually go in lower-case.


F

  Fast Day.

  the Flood of the Bible.

  Fourth of July.

  Father, meaning God. See Deity.

  fall of the year, except when personified. See seasons.

  Federal Government, meaning the Government of the United States.


G

  Golden Rule, the.

  Good Friday.

  God in every sense, but the gods of fable. See Deity.

  the General when referring to one in particular. See official titles.

  a general, any one. See official titles, definite titles, etc.

  grammar, same as botany, chemistry, and other sciences.

  Geographical names thus: The South Side, the East Side, the West, the
    Northeast, Back Bay, Tenderloin District, Monterey Bay, Missouri
    River, Goat Island, Gold Mountain. Sherwood’s Pier, Idora Park, Ross
    Valley, Waverley Place.

  Glacial, Triassic, etc., referring to geological uses.

  the Gospels, and all like terms; Scriptures, Holy Writ, the Word.

  the Governor, when in lieu of his name, or meaning one in particular.

  a governor, meaning any one. See official titles.


H

  Holy Spirit, but see Deity.

  Historic names, thus: Civil War, Middle Ages, Commencement Day, Lord’s
    Day, Silurian Age, Dark Ages, the Deluge, the Victorian Era, the
    Renaissance.

  herculean, meaning full of strength, and unless direct reference is
    made to Hercules and his age.

  hell and heaven. See Deity.

  House of Commons.

  House of Lords.

  heathen.

  Hades and like poetical names of a future abode.

  Holy Writ.


I

  india ink, used as merchandise.

  india rubber. Same as india ink.

  italic letters, never Italic.

  the Island, meaning Long Island, or any one previously named; the
    Islands, meaning a special group previously named or suggested. The
    various islands of the sea, however, but the South Sea Islands.


J

  Jesus Christ.

  Jehovah. See Deity.


K

  a king, but the King. See association. Kaiser, Czar, and President
    follow this rule.


L

  Labor Day. See historic names.

  Lady Day. See historic names.

  Lord, Deity, Jesus Christ, God, etc.

  the Levant.

  A lord and a lady, but =the= Lord.


M

  a mayor, president, lord, governor, czar, etc. See association,
    governor, official titles.

  the Mayor, King, President, Czar, Governor, etc.

  morocco goods. See merchandise.

  the Manager. See official titles.

  a manager. See official titles.

  Merchandise. Arctic, Tropics, Levant, Orient, and all geographical
    names used as proper nouns go up; but nouns used to specify
    merchandise go down, as: arctic ivory, india ink, russia leather,
    morocco, turkey red, port wine, chinese blue. When words derived
    from proper nouns have thus lost the direct connection or literal
    sense of the name there is no need of capitals. Consult De Vinne’s
    _Correct Composition_, page 119.


N

  Names. White House, Gillis Opera House, Handel Hall, etc.

  New Year’s.

  the North, meaning an undefined geographical section.

  a north wind.

  Northeast, Northwest, etc., follow same rule. Do not compound such
    words.

  Nicknames: Creole, negro, mulatto, gipsy, quadroon, greaser, coolie,
    peon, and like nicknames do not begin with a capital. See De Vinne.

  Nation, when in lieu of the United States or of any other particular
    government. See state, etc.

  a nation of workers, however.

  nature ordinarily, except when in lieu of God. See Deity.

  negro. See nicknames.

  Nature when used for God. See Deity.


O

  oriental silk. See merchandise.

  the Orient.

  the Occident.

  Official titles: Mayor, judge, justice, king, governor, and the like
    follow one rule, as do the terms treasurer, secretary of state, etc.
    If they precede the name of one person (not of two or more) they
    take the capital initial. If they follow a name or are preceded by
    =the indefinite article a=, they need no capital. The name of the
    office is never written with a capital in this sense: He ran for the
    office of justice of the peace, president, governor, mayor, etc.
    See association.


P

  a president. See official titles.

  the President, Czar, King, Governor, Mayor, etc. See official titles
    and association.

  prussian blue. See merchandise.

  purgatory.

  paradise, except the Paradise of John Milton.

  Parliament. Same as Congress. See association.

  platonic follows herculean and Baconian. If meaning direct reference
    to Plato or his system, capitalize; if meaning merely philosophical,
    write =platonic=. See herculean.

  Political parties: Antis, Nationalist, Populist, Radical, Tory,
    Democrat, Prohibitionist. Adjectives of the same, same rule.

  Personification: Anything may be personified, and all personified
    words should be capitalized, as: The spirit of Fire; the voice of
    Crime; the call of Duty; the ghost of Want.

  Pronouns standing for Deity go thus: his wisdom; him we fear; thou
    God; thy Word; thee we adore. This is Biblical use. Capitalizing was
    an error of hymn-books of the long ago.


Q

  Queen. See king, president, governor, official titles, etc.


R

  russia leather. See merchandise.

  Religious denominations: Catholics, Protestants, Jews,
    Mohammedans--but pagan and heathen, for these terms are too
    indefinite to take the capital.

  Republican. See political parties.

  rhetoric. See sciences.


S

  Saviour is the approved spelling when referring to Jesus Christ.

  a senate.

  the Senate of Illinois.

  the Society for the Prevention of Vice, and like names.

  a society for prevention of vice.

  the Southern Railroad.

  a southern railroad.

  a state of the United States.

  the State, meaning California; but the state of California. See
    states.

  the South, an undefined geographical location.

  the Southeast. Same as South.

  a south wind.

  States: The state of New York, the empire of Germany; but New York
    State, the German Empire, because the official names. The Southern
    States, the Northern States, but the states and territories of the
    United States.

  Sciences: All references to algebra, botany, geometry, chemistry, and
    like names of science are written without the capital initial.

  Streets: First Street, Sixty-first Avenue, etc.

  Second Corps.

  Seasons: The seasons are not capitalized, unless in personification.

  spring is here.

  summer has departed.

  the Scriptures. See Bible and Gospels.


T

  =the= preceding the name of a newspaper or magazine is not
    capitalized: =the= Herald, =the= Century, but in books it goes in
    capital initial; as, “The Life of Emerson.”

  the Tropics.

  tropical plants, tropical weather, etc.

  turkey red. See merchandise.

  Titles: It is as proper to say Scavenger Smith or Barber Brown as to
    say Judge Jones and President Roosevelt. All such titles as
    director, manager, weigher, inspector, and like names follow the
    general rule. See association and official titles.

  a township. See county, association, etc.

  transatlantic, transpacific, transmissouri.


U

  universe.

  =the= Union, meaning the United States; the Nation, Republic, Federal
    Government, etc.

  the Union, meaning one organization in particular, or when used in
    lieu of the full name. See definite titles.


W

  Whitsunday.

  Whitsuntide.

  the West, meaning an undefined geographical section.

  a west wind.

  a ward meeting.

  the Sixth Ward politicians.

  the wards of the city.

  winter. See seasons.


Y

  Your Grace.

  Your Honor.

  Your Majesty.

  Your Reverence.

  Your Royal Highness.

  Yule-tide. See Christmas.


Z

  zoology. See sciences.

  the zodiac.

  the zenith.

  Zeus, the Greek god.


=34. Illustrations of the Code.= The following sentences illustrate the
rules herein expounded. See section 49:

Saloon-keepers of the Reservation are in session at the Log Cabin Saloon
in this City, and Government officials of Federal and State power will
be asked to do nothing until the Supreme Court passes on the decisions
of other courts. If no satisfaction is obtained, the State will be asked
to refund sums expended in the two Kansas Citys--Kansas City, Mo., and
Kansas City, Kan. Notice that _the two Kansas cities_ would convey the
idea of two cities in Kansas, and _the two Kansas Cities_ would not be
an improvement.

A NIGHT OF HORRORS.

It was Labor Day, but there was a celebration equal to that of the
Fourth of July. No pagan holiday ever surpassed some of the heathenish
performances there enacted. According to the New York Herald
Ex-president Cleveland was there, accompanied by Colonel Hay, secretary
of state. The President of the United States was there, and various
ex-presidents’ memories were honored. There were senators, assemblymen,
judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, and judges from other
supreme courts in the throng--but not one from the Supreme Court of the
state of Georgia, or from New York State. David Bennett Hill wore an
arctic coat from the Arctic. During the evening a German sang, and a
gipsy danced a jig. The Orient, the Arctic, the Tropics, and the Levant
contributed to the decorations. The dances were on a brussels carpet
direct from Brussels, according to the word of two doctors of divinity
who sat near six masters of art. The titled gentlemen laughed until they
shook down a bowl of paris green, and a shelf containing chinaware. The
Government (or Nation or Union, meaning the United States) was honored
by Alexis, grand duke and envoy extraordinary, who presented every
senator and every judge a morocco badge--two badges to the Chief Justice
of the highest court. A governor took umbrage, but the Governor of
California took native claret; and as he sipped it an old greaser with a
nose of turkey-red color, who looked like a ward politician from the
Fourth Ward of San Francisco, disgraced the South. Later a breeze sprang
from the east side of the Bay of Fundy and cooled off the representative
of the empire of Germany greatly to the relief of the German Empire
itself. Every man present hunted for his bowie-knife, except a Methodist
member of the Salvation Army, who quoted the Gospels, speaking often of
God and his Word, the Holy Writ. The Middle Ages would have been
disgraced if such italic head-lines as our papers contained had ever
disturbed their quiet life. It was a wonderful demonstration, even for a
night of the nineteenth century. Let us hope that foot-, side-, and
end-notes in small volumes of history may tell the story to coming
generations.--_Maritime World Code_, January, 1899.


=35. Chemical Terms.= In many chemical terms the final =e= is dropped,
as: Oxid, chlorid, quinin, chlorin, fibrin.



CITATIONS IN GENERAL.


=36. Books.= See paragraphs 22, 27, 52. Here is a standard form:
Macaulay’s 2 History, iv, 14. This means the second volume of the work,
the fourth chapter, the fourteenth page. The iv should be set in
lower-case.

Law Books. In citing law books abbreviate as follows: Briggs vs. Ewart,
51 Ala., 576; 78 Fed. Rep., 398, etc.


=37. Paragraphs.= Paragraphs, pages, verses, and sections of books are
marked in arabic, but cantos of poetry should be set in lower-case
roman.


=38. Pages.= Pages 145, 168, 172, and never p 145 or pp 145, 168, 172.
Spell out all such references.


=39. Publications.= In citing such publications as periodicals and
newspapers it is not necessary to use a capital for _the_ in _the New
York Herald_. In _The Life of Christ_ or the title of any other book
capitalize _The_. See paragraph 52.


=40. Scriptural Citations.= Unless many citations are made it is best to
spell out the names of books of Scripture, but when the references are
numerous they should be as follows:

Old Testament.

  Gen. xi, 17
  Ex.
  Lev.
  Num.
  Deut.
  Joshua
  Judges
  Ruth
  1 Sam.
  2 Sam.
  1 Kings
  2 Kings
  1 Chron.
  2 Chron.
  Ezra
  Neh.
  Esther
  Job
  Ps.
  Prov.
  Eccles.
  Cant. or Song of Sol.
  Isa.
  Jer.
  Lam.
  Ezek.
  Dan.
  Hos.
  Joel
  Amos
  Obad.
  Jonah
  Mic.
  Nahum.
  Hab.
  Zeph.
  Hag.
  Zech.
  Mal.

New Testament.

  Matt.
  Mark
  Luke
  John
  Acts
  Rom.
  1 Cor.
  2 Cor.
  Gal.
  Eph.
  Phil.
  Col.
  1 Thess.
  2 Thess.
  1 Tim.
  2 Tim.
  Titus
  Philem.
  Heb.
  Jas.
  1 Pet.
  2 Pet.
  1 John
  2 John
  3 John
  Jude
  Rev.

The Apocrypha.

  1 Esdras
  2 Esdras
  Tobit
  Judith
  Rest of Esth.
  Wisd. of Sol.
  Ecclus.
  Baruch
  Song of Three Childr.
  Susanna
  Bel and Dragon
  Pr. of Manasses
  1 Macc.
  2 Macc.

=Scriptural Citations.= Scriptural citations of chapter and verse should
be thus: Chapter in lower-case roman numerals, and verse in figures, as:
Acts vii, 16.


=41. Compounds.= See also paragraphs 10 and 27. As stated in the
introduction, the _Standard Dictionary_ seems to be the only one that
gives the compounding of words. By its system both solidified and
hyphenated words of the compound type are shown. Teall’s book on this
subject is really a codification of the compounds appearing in the
_Standard Dictionary_. Since Teall’s list was made there have been some
changes in the system preferred by good writers. Every change has been
in the direction of solidifying. Teall gives bookkeeper as one word, but
make proof-reader two. He makes postmaster one word, post-office a
compound. The Chicago Proofreaders’ Association is more consistent in
such cases, printing all words of this type in the solidified form.

The following list is believed to be more consistent than the
Standard-Teall handling of the same words, and is therefore preferred:


=42. Some Examples.= (a) Words denoting an occupation or calling, as
baggagemaster, bagmaker, watchmaker, proofreader, bricklayer.

(b) Words denoting a connecting use, as barnyard, crosshead, carwheel,
footboard, gaspipe.

(c) Words denoting a state of being, as motherhood, fatherhood,
widowhood.

(d) Words that are pronounced as one word and usually printed as such,
as claptrap, crackerjack, daredevil, haphazard.


=43. Approved Consolidations.= Words like steamboat, railroad, fishline,
firearms, pineapple, catfish, bluebird, blackboard, quartermaster are
best as here printed. It is proper to consolidate all words denoting a
species, kind or class of birds, animals or plants, as kingfisher,
meadowlark, bulldog, bloodhound, wildcat, goldenseal.

(a) Anybody, anything, anywhere, evermore, everybody, everything,
everywhere, forevermore, somewhere, nobody, something, nowhere, nothing,
afterpiece, crossexamine, crossquestion, countermarch, antislavery,
antedate, schoolboy, schoolmate, schoolmistress, but school teacher,
school children and school teaching.

(b) Other approved solidifications are words denoting tools, materials,
and implements, as: Strawboard, halftone, guidebook, screwdriver,
rosewater, typewriter, handbook.


=44. Compounds and Solids.= The following list of compound words should
be used with hyphens or in the solidified form, as indicated:

  afterthought
  after-years
  agateware
  aide-de-camp
  air-brake
  air-castle
  air-cushion
  air-faucet
  air-filter
  air-dried
  alarm-clock
  alcohol-engine
  ale-bench
  ale-brewer
  ale-drinker
  ale-drinking
  alepot
  alevat
  alleyway
  apple-moth
  apple-seed
  apple-peel
  alehouse
  almshouse
  anglebar
  angleworm
  antechamber

  baggagemaster
  bakeshop
  ballroom
  barn-yard
  bartender
  baseball
  bath-house
  bathroom
  bearskin
  bedchamber
  billboard
  billposter
  birdhouse
  birdseye
  blackboard
  blackmail
  blacktail
  blockhouse
  bloodroot
  bluebird
  bluefish
  bluestone
  bluewing
  bobtail
  boilermaker
  bondholder
  bookbindery
  bookkeeper-ing
  bookmaker
  bookmaking
  bookman
  bookmark
  bookroom
  bookstore
  brakebeam
  brakeshoe
  brassfounder
  brickyard
  brownstone
  bulldog
  bullseye

  cakewalk
  candlelight
  cardboard
  carwheel
  casehardened
  cashbook
  catbird
  catchline
  catchword
  catfish
  churchyard
  clambake
  claptrap
  clingstone
  clockmaker
  clockwork
  clubhouse
  clubroom
  coalhod
  coalmine
  coalyard
  coonskin
  copperplate
  cornerstone
  cornfield
  cornmeal
  cornstalk
  cottontail
  cottonwood
  countershaft
  countersunk
  countinghouse
  countingroom
  courthouse
  courtyard
  cowbell
  cowboy
  crackerjack
  crosshatch
  crosshead
  crosspiece
  cutthroat

  daredevil
  darkroom
  daybook
  deathbed
  deerhound
  dewdrop
  dockyard
  doorkeeper
  doormat
  downpour
  drawbar
  dreamland
  drugstore
  drumfish
  dugout
  dustproof
  dyewood

  earmark
  eggcase
  electroplate
  eyebolt
  eyepiece

  facewise
  facsimile
  fairyland
  farmhouse
  farmyard
  feedlot
  fencerow
  fieldbook
  filmholder
  firearm
  firefly
  fireplace
  fireproof
  fishplate
  fishoil
  flagship
  flagstaff
  flintlock
  flourmill
  flywheel
  foodstuffs
  football
  footboard
  footbridge
  foothills
  footnote
  footplate
  footrace
  footsore
  footstool
  fourfold, etc.
  fourscore (80)
  foxhound
  foxskin
  Freemason
  freestone

  gagewheel
  gamebag
  gamedealer
  gamekeeper
  gaspipe
  gatepost
  glassblower
  glassworks
  goldenrod
  goldenseal
  goldmine
  grandam
  granddaughter
  greenhouse
  greenstone
  gristmill
  guidebook
  gunmaker

  hailstorm
  hairbreadth
  halftone
  handbook
  handcar
  handrail
  haphazard
  harbormaster
  hardtack
  headband
  headboard
  hilltop
  homemade
  horsecar
  horseshoe
  hothouse

  indoor
  inkmaker
  inkmaking
  ironclad
  ironfounder
  ironware

  jackscrew
  jacksnipe
  jellyfish
  jobroom
  junkshop

  keelboat
  kennelman
  keyboard
  knifebar

  ladylike
  lambskin
  landholder
  landowner
  lawbreaker
  lawmaker
  lawsuit
  lifelong
  lifetime
  lighthouse
  lockout
  loophole

  manhole
  mantelpiece
  meadowlark
  milestone
  milldam
  millpond
  millstone
  mockingbird
  moldboard
  mopboard
  mouthpiece
  mudhen
  multicolor
  multiphase

  nailhole
  newsdealer
  notebook
  nowadays

  oatmeal
  Oddfellowship
  officeholder
  officeseeker
  oilcloth
  onlooker
  outbuilding
  outdoor (a.)
  outhouse
  oxgall

  packhorse
  packmule
  payroll
  pinkroot
  plateholder
  platemaker
  pocketbook
  pokeroot
  poolroom
  portemonnaie
  postoffice
  postmaster
  pressroom
  proofreader-ing
  proofroom
  prorate

  racecourse
  racehorse
  racetrack
  rainfall
  rainstorm
  rattletrap
  redbird
  ricebird
  redhead
  redwing
  reedbird
  roadbed
  rollermaker
  ropewalk
  rosewater
  roundhouse
  rowboat
  runway

  sagebrush
  sagehen
  sailboat
  saloonkeeper
  salthouse
  sandbar
  sandhill
  sandstone
  sawmill
  scalebeam
  scattergun
  schoolbook
  schoolboy
  schooldame
  schoolfellow
  schoolgirl
  schoolhouse
  schoolmaster
  schoolmate
  schoolmistress
  schoolroom
  scorecard
  scrapbook
  screwdriver
  seagirt
  sealskin
  seashore
  sedgefield
  sheepdog
  sheepskin
  sheetwise
  shipbuilding
  shipchandler
  shotgun
  showcase
  sidenote
  signboard
  skylark
  slavepen
  slidemaker
  slugcasting
  smokestack
  snowdrift
  snowflake
  snowstorm
  spaceband
  spacebar
  sprigtail
  staghound
  standpoint
  statehouse
  staybolt
  stockholder
  stockhouse
  stockyard
  stonecutter
  stonedresser
  storehouse
  storeroom
  storekeeper
  strawboard
  subhead
  sunburned
  switchboard

  tablecloth
  tablespoonful
  tailpiece
  tapeworm
  taxpayer
  teaspoon
  telltale
  textbook
  thoroughbred
  threefold
  thumbscrew
  thunderstorm
  tidewater
  tieplate
  tinware
  tiptoe
  to-day
  to-morrow
  trademark
  transshipment
  triphase
  turnout
  turnover
  twofold, etc.
  twoscore (40, etc.)
  typefounder
  typefoundry
  typemaking

  voltmeter

  walkover
  warehouse
  washstand
  wastepipe
  watchcase
  watercourse
  watermark
  watershed
  waterworks
  waterproof
  wayfaring
  weakfish
  weekday
  wellwisher
  whitefish
  windrow
  windstorm
  wirehaired
  wolfskin
  woodyard
  workaday
  workbag
  workday
  workingman

  yellowlegs


=45. Interrupted Compounds.= Benjamin Drew says, in _Pens and Types_:
When two words connected by a conjunction are severally compound parts
of a following word, the hyphen is omitted, as:

  We use cast and wrought iron pillars.

  I have pruned my peach and apple trees.

Some authors follow the German style, inserting the hyphens, thus:

  We use cast- and wrought-iron pillars.

  I have pruned my peach- and apple-trees.

The style in the last example is known as the =interrupted compound=. It
is gaining ground rapidly in the best printing-houses, and is
recommended by De Vinne, who uses it in his books. Here are some
examples: Foot-, top-, and side-notes; quarter-, eighth-, and half-kegs;
base- and foot-ball, foot- or side-note. This is good usage. See the
_Century_ magazine for examples, or see any books published by the
Century Company. There seems to be no other way to signify that both
words in such examples are compounds.


=46. No Fixed Rules.= There are no hard and fast rules regarding
compounds. It is, in fact, almost impossible to hold to a uniform,
consistent style. Here are some of De Vinne’s compoundings:

(a) Subject-matter, lower-case, making-up, memorandum-book,
proof-reader, fault-finding, type-setting, style-card, letter-writing,
printing-house, quote-marks, quotation-marks, piece-compositors,
five-to-em body, book-making, book-work, pre-historic, pre-raphaelite,
ill-bred, well-formed, good-looking, composing-room, dining-table,
canal-boat, ferry-house, dwelling-house [See list on page 74 of De
Vinne’s _Composition_], over-wide, spelled-out, title-page, table-work,
old-style, bold-faced, hymn-book, to-morrow, to-day, head-lines,
type-writing, catch-lines, hair-space, thin-space, type-founders,
side-heading, type-setting, foot-note, letter-writer, side-notes,
six-point, cut-in note, center-note, shoulder-note, three-em indention,
wide-leaded, double-leaded, every-day world. Note that they do not agree
with the Chicago Proofreaders’ Association list.

(b) The following are approved forms: Fine-tooth saw, six-bit machine,
six-foot pole, two-year-old horse, but six-months-old baby. Bluewing,
whitefish, bricklayer, gaspipe, footboard, motherhood, widowhood.


=47. Specials.= The following list is for use in trade-journals:
Hopvine, hopyard, hop-picker, labor-union, labor-saving, liquordealer,
liquorseller, liquor-saloon, liquor-store, liquor-bottle, wine-merchant,
wineroom, winedealer, wine-taster, wine-press, wine-party, wine-vault,
wine-vinegar, wineglass, wineglassful, wine-stone, vine-disease,
trade-union, trade-mark, trade-journal, trade-name, trade-wind,
street-car, street-railroad, street-sweeper, street-sprinkler,
street-walker, pastepot, paperknife, papercutter, saloonmen,
saloonkeeper, barkeeper, barkeep, wood-alcohol.

(a) Many words that might be solidified, under the rules of logic, are
set with hyphens because they present an unsightly appearance as one
word. These things are largely matters of fancy.

(b) There are some such expressions as, =Italian and Chinese American
citizens=, which are very puzzling. The question arises whether hyphens
should be used in such expressions, and how. Such sentences are
sometimes erroneously written with one hyphen, as, =Italian and
Chinese-American citizens=. The sentence is proper enough as first
written, but a somewhat more discriminating use would be, =Italian- and
Chinese-American citizens=. In expressions like these the interrupted
compounds are properly written with hyphens. See paragraph 45.


=48. Dashes.= Avoid dashes in side-headings, as in this _Style-code_.
They are not needed at the end of a quotation, between it and the
credit. See paragraph 22.

Also see De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_, page 273.


=49. De Vinne Rules Violated.= Though the Century Company, the _Century
Magazine_, and editors high in authority follow the simple rules laid
down by De Vinne, there are many violations of these rules in the
_Century_ itself, as well as in its publications. Sometimes names of
newspapers are quoted, and sometimes they are set in italic. The system
of capitals is not closely followed. In a letter to the editor of this
work, Mr. De Vinne thus explained the failure of the publications of
the Century Company to show uniformity: “The Century Company has many
editors, and each editor has notions of his own that printers are
directed to follow. Though most of these editors abide by the rules
expounded by me in my works on typography, a study of some of our books
shows that the neglect to capitalize Bay, City, Island, etc., when the
word refers distinctly to a proper name, is a common error--so common
that the proofreaders find it a waste of time to suggest to editors and
authors the need of a capital. Yet I hold stoutly to the correctness of
the capital. Even careful editors are often overruled by authors. The
Century printing-house can not be held responsible, with justice, for
some of the eccentricities of our printing. It should be borne in mind
that a printer’s business is to do what he is told.”


=50. Division of Words.= De Vinne says the system most approved now
authorizes the division of a word, when consistent with pronunciation,
on the vowel at the end of the syllable. The system is defective in its
inability to make provision for the syllables that end with consonants.
Divisions of all kinds should be prevented as often as possible. The
Chicago Proofreaders’ Association offers the following rules concerning
divisions. The reprint ‘follows copy’ as published by the Association:

The proper division of words is an important matter. An improper
division is as much an error as a misplaced letter, and is oftentimes
more misleading.

Follow the American rule of dividing words at the end of the line
according to pronunciation rather than the British rule of dividing on
the vowel or to show derivation. The dictionary in use in any particular
office should be followed, unless otherwise directed.

Where a vowel constitutes a syllable in the middle of a word, place this
vowel in the first line, as promi-nent is preferable to prom-inent,
quali-ties to qual-ities, particu-lar to partic-ular, dili-gence to
dil-igence, sepa-rate to sep-arate, etc. Exceptions: In words ending in
-able or -ible, the single vowel should be carried into the second line.

There are frequent instances where a particular division of a word will
aid the reader in its pronunciation at first sight, obviating a
faltering or repetition, as pro-gress, verb, and prog-ress, noun;
distrib-ute, verb, and distri-bution, noun; pre-fer, verb, and
pref-erable, adjective.

Never divide a word pronounced as one syllable, as “changed,”
“drowned,” “dipped,” etc.

Avoid all two-letter divisions except in very narrow measures or where
very large types are used.

Avoid having three or more successive divisions at the ends of lines.

Divide En-gland and En-glish as pronounced and as they are here printed.

The addition of s to form the plural of a word--as horses, fences,
etc.--does not justify a division on the last portion so formed, as,
circumstan-ces, etc. Avoid all such divisions.



51. EDITORIAL OBSERVATIONS.


(1) =Employee= is a good English word. Avoid employe whenever possible
to do so.

(2) =Headquarters= is usually plural, sometimes singular.

(3) =Last held= meeting. =Held= is useless. Newcomer and Teall oppose
such expressions.

(4) =Etc.= It is a common error to write =etc., etc.= Once is enough.

(5) =Et al.= The use of =et als= is an error. It is always =et al.=

(6) =Follows, as follows.= As follows is always the form, because it is
impersonal. =As follow= is not needed where the nominative is plural.
This is on the authority of the _Oxford Dictionary_, also of Doctor
Fernald of the _Standard_.

(7) =Plurals.= These are preferred plurals: Cannon, craft for vessels,
heathen, fowl, cherubs, indexes, seraphs, beaus. In scientific writings
it may be =seraphim=, =formulae= instead of =formulas=, =beaux=, etc.

(8) =Spoonfuls= and handfuls rather than spoonsfull and handsfull.

(9) =The following named persons.= Omit =named=. Newcomer and Teall say
named is useless.

(10) =Some preferences.= Use controller, not comptroller; draft, not
draught; drouth, not drought; program, not programme; dulness, not
dullness; fulness, not fullness; skilful, not skillful; wilful, not
willful; bazar, not bazaar; employee, not employe.

(11) =On yesterday, on Sunday.= On is usually superfluous, except in
some sentences, where euphony or emphasis may make the =on= seem an
element of strength.

(12) =Welsh rarebit.= Welsh =rabbit= is the correct expression. The use
of rarebit in this connection is from ignorance long current. See
Walsh’s _Handbook of Literary Curiosities, Greenough & Kittredge’s Words
and Their Ways in English Speech_, and the late editions of standard
dictionaries.

(13) =Self-confessed.= Omit =self= in such expressions as
=self-confessed= murderer, etc. =Confessed= conveys the idea without any
assistance from =self=.

(14) =er= words. Spell =theater=, =center=, and like words er, never
ending re.


=52. Books=, papers, plays, operas, and periodicals should be cited in
italic, as: Bowie’s _Tenting On Coral Strands_, the _Sun_, _Lucia_,
_Mascot_, the _Century_. De Vinne notices an irregularity in the style
of setting credits. However, bibliographers prefer italic; but printers
(on account of the saving of labor), select quote-marks. If the name of
the play and that of the character are the same, as _Ingomar_, the name
of the play must be quoted, the character italicized. See De Vinne’s
_Correct Composition_, page 224. See also paragraphs 22, 39.


=53. Ships and Vessels.= There is not any need to either quote or
italicize the names of vessels, unless there would be doubt as to what
the name means. In such cases italics are preferred, though quoting the
name will do.


=54. Newspapers and Magazines.= Names of newspapers and magazines should
be set in italic. Some papers and magazines quote magazines and
italicize newspapers. Italics are better in both cases. De Vinne runs
both in roman. The name of one’s own paper is run in small capitals.
Linotype machines have upset these rules somewhat, but unwisely so in
careful work.


=55. Farther.= Use farther for distance. Further is used in the sense of
besides, moreover, being equivalent to additional. “I have gone further
in astronomy, you have traveled farther in miles.”


=56. Foreign Words and Phrases.= All foreign words and phrases that have
not been Englished by long use should be italicized. Vice versa, en
route, pro tem, and like words should go in roman. Aid-de-camp, addenda,
ad valorem, alias, alibi, alma mater, anno Domini, ante bellum, a
propos, billet doux, bona fide, bravos, cafe, cantos, carte blanche,
viva voce, rendezvous, ultimatum, post-mortem, per cent., per capita,
per annum, facsimile, and about fifty like words go under the same rule.


=57. Unfamiliar Words.= Unfamiliar words are run in italic the first
time, but in roman thereafter, as: _Aloha_, _renigging_, _mulching_. But
see paragraph 68.


=58. Plays.= _Julius Caesar_ should be set in italic when it refers to
the character in Shakespeare’s play, but the name Julius Caesar for the
man. The play itself should be “Julius Caesar,” or _Julius Caesar_. See
paragraph 52.


=59. Salutations.= Under the old way salutations such as _Dear Sir_:
were put in italics with the colon as indicated. Dear Sir: as here
written is just as proper. Take your choice and you will not err. The
dash is not needed. It is well to let =Dear Sir:= occupy a line by
itself, properly indented.

De Vinne says he never writes such salutations as Dear Sir in italic
though he admits that italic with a colon and no dash is the commonly
accepted form. He advises roman lower-case.


=60. Salutations and Indentions.= Salutations should be set in ordinary
roman, with hanging indention, thus:

  The Writers’ and Proofreaders’ Society for the Prevention of
    Burial in the Potter’s Field, 216 Goodfellows street. Office
    of the Secretary, 37 New Testament House, New Orleans,
    January 1, 1908.

  To the Superintendent of the Home for the Unfortunate Dead.

   _Dear Sir_:

      In reply to your request for a list of our members, etc.
  The signature should be set in small capital letters. See De
  Vinne’s _Correct Composition_, page 168.


=61. Punctuation.= The Chicago Proofreaders’ Association has these
rules:

Omit periods after per cent, and after roman numerals when used strictly
as figures, but not when used in names, as Napoleon III.

Use em dash in conversations such as this:

  Mr. Smith--Is your task completed?

  Mr. Brown--Nearly.


=62. Punctuation with Parentheses.= The comma should usually go after
the last parenthesis; it is seldom needed before the first one. De Vinne
says: “When any complete sentence is enclosed by parentheses, the period
should be before the last parenthesis, but when these parentheses
enclose a few words at the end of a sentence, the period should be after
the last parenthesis.”


=63. Medieval= and such words are spelled the simplest way. See the
_Standard Dictionary_. Subpena, diarrhea, Etna Company.


=64. O, Oh, Oh!= These expressions are punctuated thus: O for a South
Sea home! O that I had insured in the Etna! Oh, how my tooth aches! Oh!
my crimes are deep and dark.


=65. Plural of Proper Names.= It is a common newspaper error to run
sentences like this, from the social columns of the San Francisco
_Examiner_ of July 15, 1906: “The Thomas H. Williams have been visiting
the City.” The attempt to make the singular do the duty of the plural in
such a case is ridiculous. Williamses is the plural of Williams.
Printers and writers should learn how to write the plural of proper
names.


=66. Quote-marks.= It is sometimes a puzzle where to place quote-marks.
There is no better rule than that stated by De Vinne, who says that the
closing marks of quotation always should be placed after the comma or
the period in all places where these marks are needed; but the fact is
the proper place of the closing marks of quotation should be determined
by the quoted words only; they must inclose those words, and no more;
they may be before or after the points, according to the construction of
the sentence. When the quotation makes a complete sentence, put the
quotation-marks after the period at the end of that sentence; when the
quotation is at the end of but a portion of this sentence which
terminates with a colon, semicolon, or any other point, then put the
marks before the point. The mark of punctuation intended to define the
construction of the completed sentence should not be made a portion of
the fragmentary quoted matter.

A fine example of this is seen in the following: He asked, “Who said my
mother lied?” and didn’t Jones reply, “Nobody dared to say that”?


=67. Smaller Type.= Quote-marks are not needed when extracts or
quotations are set in smaller type than the body of the book or paper.
Some reputable publications do not quote the extracts, even when they
are set in the regular type of the publication and run in separate
paragraphs. The indenting of the matter one em at the beginning and one
em at the end of a line suffices. Such matter should be set solid when
the main text is leaded.


=68. Quote-marks, single.= When especial attention is called to a word
the single quote-marks are used in lieu of the old way of double quotes
or italic. Thus: He said he thought the word ‘grafting’ applied to
politics, not to horticulture. See De Vinne’s _Correct Composition_,
page 213, where authors are advised to make one such emphasis of a word
suffice, because repetition irritates the reader.


=69. Reverend and the reverend.= Never say Reverend John Brown. It must
always be the Reverend John Brown, for reverend is not a title to be
used like captain or doctor. Honorable should be used in the same way,
if at all.


=70. Saviour and savior.= Preserve the historic way of spelling the
Saviour when Jesus Christ is meant. Other saviors are without the _u_.


=71. Specials.= Print birdsnest, birdseye, bullseye, heartsease (a plant
or flower), calvesfoot and neatsfoot as single words, without apostrophe
or hyphen, except when signifying the actual nest of a bird, the eye of
a bird or of a bull, etc.


=72. Spellings.= The Chicago _Proofreaders’ Stylebook_ has given the
following list of generally misspelled words. The spellings here given
are in accordance with the _Century_, the _Standard_, and _Webster_.

  absinthin
  acoustic
  ax
  amidin
  antemetic
  arabin
  adz

  backward
  baptize
  barytone
  benzoin
  Bering (Sea)
  blond (adj.)
  bluing
  bouquet
  Budapest
  bur

  caldron
  calk, -er, -ing
  calligraphy
  camellia
  cantharadin
  carbureted
  Chile (S. A.)
  colter
  consensus
  cozy

  darky
  defense
  denouement
  dilettante
  downward
  dram (weight)
  dumfounded

  Eskimo

  forward

  gelatin
  glycerin
  gully

  hacienda
  Hindu
  Hindustan

  Mohammedan
  mold, -er, -ing
  molt, -ed, -ing
  moneys
  mustache

  nickel

  oculist
  offense

  paraffin
  pedagogy
  polt

  quartet
  quintet

  rarefy
  ruble
  Rumania

  straitlaced
  sestet or
  sextet
  smolder, -ing
  sobriquet
  stanch
  supersede

  tranquility
  typify

  upward (not wards)
  upward

  veranda
  vermilion
  vitreous

  whir
  whisky


=73. United States are or United States Is.= If the expression is used
as a collective term, designating one great nation, the singular is
correct, but there are many sentences in which the plural verb must be
used. It is proper to follow copy or query the expression, if there is
doubt as to its correctness.


=74. Verbs, singular or plural.= There should be no hesitation in using
the singular form of a verb when the subject has a singular meaning.
Sometimes the logical subject is singular, the grammatical plural, as
in, =Ten dollars was paid.= By ellipsis, =the sum of= is understood.

(a) =Addition.= Shall we say “two and two is four?” Professor William
Dwight Whitney decided for the _Century Dictionary_ (of which he was one
of the editors), that =two and two is four=, because the full meaning is
=the sum of= two and two, or something “=similarly unifying= in the
sense of two and two.”

(b) The singular verb should be used when the subject is plural in form,
though it represents a number of things to be taken together as forming
a unit. Here is an example: Thirty-four years =affects= one’s
remembrance of some circumstances. _De Quincey._

(c) The singular verb is to be used with =book titles= and =similar
names and singulars= that are plural in form but logically a unit. See
Baskervill and Sewell’s _English Grammar_, pages 312, 313. An example
from Goldsmith is: “The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.” So,
we should say the Odd Fellows meets to-night, meaning, by ellipsis, the
lodge of Odd Fellows.

(d) Companies, associations, etc., are usually singular in meaning, as:
The Southern Pacific Company =is= in trouble, the Bar Association =is=
incorporated. However, collective nouns are to be followed by a plural
verb when the individuals are thought of separately, as: A multitude
=go= mad about it. _Emerson._ All our household =are= at rest.
_Coleridge._

(e) The following is from Teall: Three dollars =was= paid, ten dollars
=was= the price. When the meaning is simply a sum of money as one sum,
and not so many actual separate dollars, the verb should be singular.
Though the verb should be singular, this is so under the rules of logic,
rather than those of grammar. In literal strictness it would not be
ungrammatical to say ten dollars =were= paid.

(f) Collective nouns are always singular in form, but many of them, if
not most, may be used even in that form with a plural verb, but such use
depends upon the nature of the thought to be expressed. Considered as
really singular are a =crowd=, an =army=, a =multitude=. It should be
remembered that these words also have regular plural forms, though often
used with the plural verb in the collective form.

(g) All words like ethics, mathematics, physics, and politics are plural
in form, but they are usually treated as singular in meaning. The
dictionary definitions of such words all begin, “the science which
treats,” etc. James Russell Lowell wrote politics _are_, and this has
been held sufficient justification for this use. _Teall._

(h) Either =bricks= or =brick= is proper as a plural. =Brick= probably
has the better standing. The _Century Dictionary_ says =brick= is the
proper singular collective.


=75. Whereabouts.= Whereabouts =is=, which is never =are=, is often
written with the plural verb, but it should not be considered a plural.
The error doubtless occurs from some fancied resemblance to
=headquarters=, which may be either singular or plural.


=76. Women.= Women’s names should never be preceded by their husbands’
titles, as: Mrs. Governor Pardee, Mrs. General John Jones, Mrs. Doctor
Charles Ketchum.


=77. Variations.= In many of the job offices of the country, also in
newspaper offices where composition is done by the linotype, there will
be many variations from the style expounded in this little manual. For
example, it will not be practical to follow the italic citations of
books, magazines, newspapers, etc., in offices where the equipment does
not contain italic magazines. In such cases the use of roman is
recommended, without quote-marks, which are unnecessary and unsightly.
If the equipment does not carry small capitals, newspapers should run
their own names in roman, making no distinction between their own and
other publications.

When there is no italic, it may be well to quote the names of books and
plays, also the names of vessels and characters in novels, plays, etc.
This should not be the custom with vessels and characters, except when
it is necessary to indicate that a vessel or a character, rather than a
person, is meant.

Offices not able to carry out the code as set forth in detail in these
pages, should make notes of deviations, abiding by such portions of the
code as their equipments make possible. By a few interlineations,
notations, etc., or by an office card of deviations this work will be
made useful even where it is not followed to the letter.


=78. Wave-lines, etc.= The custom is almost too well known to record
that one line under a word or words means that the underscored matter is
to be set in italics, that two lines mean small capitals, and that three
signify capitals. Similarly, a wave-line under a word or words means
that the portions of the manuscript thus underscored are to be set in
lower-case bold-faced type. Two wave-lines under matter mean that it is
to be set in bold-faced capitals. A single line down the left side of
matter means that it is to be set in type smaller than the body of the
article, and two lines indicate that the matter is to be set in type of
still smaller face.


=79. Writers’ Absurdities.= Book-offices have their own intricacies of
style, with the additional bother of having to suit the varying whims of
authors and publishers. “Many men of many minds” write for the papers,
but their various whims need not be humored as those of book-writers
need be. Authors of books frequently insist upon having things their own
way, and too often the printers have to make that way for them, in
opposition to what the authors write. This is certainly something for
which the authors should be made to pay. If an author is determined to
have certain matters of style conform to a certain set of whims, or
even of good, logical opinions, he should write accordingly, or pay
extra for the necessary changes. _Teall._


=80. Work of Stenographers.= If stenographers would master the
principles of the system explained herein they would increase their
efficiency. As conducted nowadays there is great lack of system in the
work turned out by stenographers and others who use typewriting
machines.

Though many of the principles and rules herein set forth are with
reference to the work of printing-houses, the fact remains that the
principles that make for good printing make also for good composition in
general. The De Vinne system should be mastered by typewriters, and used
by them on all work that is left to their own judgment.


=81. Words Spelled Anew.= There has been considerable recent (September,
1906) discussion of the reformed spelling as recommended by the
Simplified Spelling Board, of New York City. The list has been
recommended by eminent scholars of both Europe and America, and many of
the words have been in general use for many years. In adopting the list
recently, President Roosevelt said: “It is not an attack on the language
of Shakespeare and Milton, because it is in some instances a going back
to the forms they used, and in others merely the extension of changes
which, as regards other words, have taken place since their time. It is
not an attempt to do anything far-reaching or sudden or violent, or,
indeed, anything very great at all. It is merely an attempt to cast what
slight weight can properly be cast on the side of the popular forces
which are endeavoring to make our spelling a little less foolish and
fantastic.”



82. THREE HUNDRED WORDS.


The complete list is as follows:

  =Use=                       =Instead of=

  abridgment                  abridgement
  accouter                    accoutre
  accurst                     accursed
  acknowledgment              acknowledgement
  addrest                     addressed
  adz                         adze
  affixt                      affixed
  altho                       although
  anapest                     anapaest
  anemia                      anaemia
  anesthesia                  anaesthesia
  anesthetic                  anaesthetic
  antipyrin                   antipyrine
  antitoxin                   antitoxine
  apothem                     apothegm
  apprize                     apprise
  arbor                       arbour
  archeology                  archaeology
  ardor                       ardour
  armor                       armour
  artizan                     artisan
  assize                      assise
  ax                          axe

  bans                        banns
  bark                        barque
  behavior                    behaviour
  blest                       blessed
  blusht                      blushed
  brazen                      brasen
  brazier                     brasier
  bun                         bunn
  bur                         burr

  caliber                     calibre
  caliper                     calliper
  candor                      candour
  carest                      caressed
  catalog                     catalogue
  catechize                   catechise
  center                      centre
  chapt                       chapped
  check                       cheque
  checker                     chequer
  chimera                     chimaera
  civilize                    civilise
  clamor                      clamour
  clangor                     clangour
  clapt                       clapped
  claspt                      clasped
  clipt                       clipped
  clue                        clew
  coeval                      coaeval
  color                       colour
  colter                      coulter
  commixt                     commixed
  comprest                    compressed
  comprize                    comprise
  confest                     confessed
  controller                  comptroller
  coquet                      coquette
  criticize                   criticise
  cropt                       cropped
  crost                       crossed
  crusht                      crushed
  cue                         queue
  curst                       cursed
  cutlas                      cutlass
  cyclopedia                  cyclopaedia

  dactyl                      dactyle
  dasht                       dashed
  decalog                     decalogue
  defense                     defence
  demagog                     demagogue
  demeanor                    demeanour
  deposit                     deposite
  deprest                     depressed
  develop                     develope
  dieresis                    diaeresis
  dike                        dyke
  dipt                        dipped
  discust                     discussed
  dispatch                    despatch
  distil                      distill
  distrest                    distressed
  dolor                       dolour
  domicil                     domicile
  draft                       draught
  dram                        drachm
  drest                       dressed
  dript                       dripped
  droopt                      drooped
  dropt                       dropped
  dulness                     dullness

  ecumenical                  oecumenical
  edile                       aedile
  egis                        aegis
  enamor                      enamour
  encyclopedia                encyclopaedia
  endeavor                    endeavour
  envelop                     envelope
  Eolian                      Aeolian
  eon                         aeon
  epaulet                     epaulette
  eponym                      eponyme
  era                         aera
  esophagus                   oesophagus
  esthetic                    aesthetic
  esthetics                   aesthetics
  estivate                    aestivate
  ether                       aether
  etiology                    aetiology
  exorcize                    exorcise
  exprest                     expressed

  fagot                       faggot
  fantasm                     phantasm
  fantasy                     phantasy
  fantom                      phantom
  favor                       favour
  favorite                    favourite
  fervor                      fervour
  fiber                       fibre
  fixt                        fixed
  flavor                      flavour
  fulfil                      fulfill
  fulness                     fullness

  gage                        gauge
  gazel                       gazelle
  gelatin                     gelatine
  gloze                       glose
  glycerin                    glycerine
  good-by                     good-bye
  gram                        gramme
  gript                       gripped

  harbor                      harbour
  harken                      hearken
  heapt                       heaped
  hematin                     haematin
  hiccup                      hiccough
  hock                        hough
  homeopathy                  homoeopathy
  homonym                     homonyme
  honor                       honour
  humor                       humour
  husht                       hushed
  hypotenuse                  hypothenuse

  idolize                     idolise
  imprest                     impressed
  instil                      instill

  jail                        gaol
  judgment                    judgement

  kist                        kissed

  labor                       labour
  lacrimal                    lachrymal
  lapt                        lapped
  lasht                       lashed
  leapt                       leaped
  legalize                    legalise
  license                     licence
  licorice                    liquorice
  liter                       litre
  lodgment                    lodgement
  lookt                       looked
  lopt                        lopped
  luster                      lustre

  mama                        mamma
  maneuver                    manoeuver
  materialize                 materialise
  meager                      meagre
  medieval                    mediaeval
  meter                       metre
  mist                        missed
  miter                       mitre
  mixt                        mixed
  mold                        mould
  molder                      moulder
  molding                     moulding
  moldy                       mouldy
  molt                        moult
  mullen                      mullein

  naturalize                  naturalise
  neighbor                    neigh
  nipt                        nipped

  ocher                       ochre
  odor                        odour
  offense                     offence
  omelet                      omelette
  opprest                     oppressed
  orthopedic                  orthopaedic

  paleography                 palaeography
  paleontology                palaeontology
  paleozoic                   palaeozoic
  parlor                      parlour
  partizan                    partisan
  past                        passed
  patronize                   patronise
  pedagog                     pedagogue
  pedobaptist                 paedobaptist
  phenix                      phoenix
  phenomenon                  phaenomenon
  pigmy                       pygmy
  plow                        plough
  polyp                       polype
  possest                     possessed
  practise (v. and n.)        practice
  prefixt                     prefixed
  prenomen                    praenomen
  prest                       pressed
  pretense                    pretence
  preterit                    preterite
  pretermit                   praetermit
  primeval                    primaeval
  profest                     professed
  program                     programme
  prolog                      prologue
  propt                       propped
  pur                         purr

  quartet                     quartette
  questor                     quaestor
  quintet                     quintette

  rancor                      rancour
  rapt                        rapped
  raze                        rase
  recognize                   recognise
  reconnoiter                 reconnoitre
  rigor                       rigour
  rime                        rhyme
  ript                        ripped
  rumor                       rumour

  saber                       sabre
  savior                      saviour
  scepter                     sceptre
  septet                      septette
  sepulcher                   sepulchre
  sextet                      sextette
  silvan                      sylvan
  simitar                     cimeter
  sipt                        sipped
  skilful                     skillful
  skipt                       skipped
  slipt                       slipped
  smolder                     smoulder
  snapt                       snapped
  somber                      sombre
  specter                     spectre
  splendor                    splendour
  stedfast                    steadfast
  stept                       stepped
  stopt                       stopped
  strest                      stressed
  stript                      stripped
  subpena                     subpoena
  succor                      succour
  suffixt                     suffixed
  sulfate                     sulphate
  sulfur                      sulphur
  sumac                       sumach
  supprest                    suppressed
  surprize                    surprise
  synonym                     synonyme

  tabor                       tabour
  tapt                        tapped
  teazel                      teasel
  tenor                       tenour
  theater                     theatre
  tho                         though
  thoro                       thorough
  thorofare                   thoroughfare
  thoroly                     thoroughly
  thru                        through
  thruout                     throughout
  tipt                        tipped
  topt                        topped
  tost                        tossed
  transgrest                  transgressed
  trapt                       trapped
  tript                       tripped
  tumor                       tumour

  valor                       valour
  vapor                       vapour
  vext                        vexed
  vigor                       vigour
  vizor                       visor

  wagon                       waggon
  washt                       washed
  whipt                       whipped
  whisky                      whiskey
  wilful                      willful
  winkt                       winked
  wisht                       wished
  wo                          woe
  woful                       woeful
  woolen                      woollen
  wrapt                       wrapped



83. FORMS OF ADDRESS.


The following correct forms of address are believed to conform to the
recognized custom, as indorsed by official, social, and scholarly
sources of authority. Most of the examples are from Westlake’s “How to
Write Letters,” but some are from Harper’s Cyclopedia:

=Army Officers.= See Military, Colonel, etc.

=Associate Justice= of the Supreme Court of the United States, or of the
supreme court of any state. To Honorable John Brown, justice. Sir:

=Assistant Secretaries= of Federal departments, heads of bureaus, etc.
To John Brown, Esq., secretary of state. Sir:

=Bishop.= Except in the case of Methodists address a bishop as the Right
Reverend John Brown. Salutation--Right Reverend Sir: or Right Reverend
and Dear Sir:

=Board of Education, Board of Trade, etc.= To the President and Members
of the ----. Sirs: or Honorable Sirs: or May it Please Your Honorable
Body. Other organizations of similar character are addressed after this
style.

=Cabinet Members.= To the Honorable E. M. Stanton, secretary of war.
Another form is Honorable E. M. Stanton. The salutation is simply Sir:

=Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.= To the Honorable Joseph McKenna,
chief justice of the Supreme Court, or To the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court. Sir: or Mr. Chief Justice:

=College Presidents.= Either Dear Sir: or Reverend and Dear Sir: as the
case may be.

=Company, President of.= John Jones, president of the North German
Cracker Company. Sir: or Dear Sir:

=Court or Judge.= Honorable Thomas F. Graham, judge of the Superior
Court. Sir: Dear Sir: or Your Honor:

=Colonel.= Colonel John Brown, commanding the First Cavalry. Or Colonel
John Brown, U. S. A. Colonel:

=Doctors.= Women doctors may be addressed as Doctor Mary Walker, or as
Mary Walker, M. D. See physicians.

=Dentists.= Doctor John Brown. Sir: or Dear Sir:

=Excellency.= Excellency, Your Excellency, His Excellency, etc., were
formerly applied to the President, but now such use is wrong. Foreign
ministers and governors are addressed as Excellency.

=General.= General John Brown, commanding the armies of the U. S.
General: or Sir: The former is preferred.

=Governor of a State.= To His Excellency Governor George C. Pardee,
Governor of the State of California, or His Excellency Governor George
C. Pardee. Sir: or Your Excellency:

=Foreign Ministers.= To His Excellency Edward Everett, Envoy
Extraordinary at the Court of St. James. Your Excellency: or Sir:

=Heads of State Departments, Members of State Senates, etc.= Honorable
John Brown, Attorney General, etc. Sir:

=House of Representatives.= To the Honorable the Speaker of the House of
Representatives. Sir: or Mr. Speaker:

=Honorable.= This title is applicable to judges, mayors, senators,
representatives in Congress, the heads of government departments and
others of similar rank below that of governor or President. It is
improper to thus designate the chiefs of bureaus, and other
subordinates. In official communications the official designation only
should be employed.

=Judges in General.= Honorable John Brown. Sir: Dear Sir:

=Justice of the Peace.= John Brown, Esq. Dear Sir:

=Mayor.= Honorable John Brown, Mayor of ----. Sir: or Your Honor:

=Navy Officers.= Admiral Bowman McCalla, Commanding U. S. N. Sir:
Commodores and others are addressed similarly, changing title to suit
the office.

=Mr. and Esq.= These terms are somewhat interchangeable in America, but
an ignorant man should not be addressed as Esq. It is proper to confine
the title to persons of refinement.

=My Dear Sir.= This implies closer friendship than Dear Sir.

=Miss.= Miss Clara Barton. Dear Madam: or Dear Miss: or Miss Barton:

=Mrs.= May be used, contrary to views expressed elsewhere in this
volume, before such titles as Mrs. General Sheridan, Mrs. Admiral
Porter. This custom has the sanction of good usage at the National
Capital, though critics condemn it.

=Mrs.= Do not address a married woman as Mrs. Jane Smith. Address her as
Mrs. Erastus Smith if Erastus is her husband’s name.

=Mr.= Mr. is sometimes used before such titles as President, Chief
Justice, Attorney General, etc.

=Military and Naval.= Those who rank under captain in the Army, and
commodore in the Navy, are addressed as Mr., Sir, or Dr., with U. S. N.
or U. S. A. after their names.

=Physicians and Surgeons.= Doctor John Brown. Dear Sir: See Doctor for
women.

=President of a Board of Education, Directors, Commissions, etc.= To
John Brown, Esq., President of ----. Sir:

=President of the Senate.= To Honorable John Brown, President of the
Senate of the U. S. Sir: or Honorable Sir:

=President of the U. S.= To the President, Washington, D. C., or To the
President, Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C. Salutation is Sir: or
Mr. President: Omit all further ceremony.

=Professor.= This title is conferred by election or by courtesy to men
of just scholarship. The title should not be applied to barbers, horse
trainers, dancing teachers and like persons.

=Rector, Minister, Priest, Rabbi, or Reader.= The Reverend.
Salutation--Sir: Reverend Sir: Reverend and Dear Sir:

=Reverend.= Always write =the= before the title Reverend. Never use Rev.
immediately before the surname.


ROMAN CATHOLIC CLERGY.

=The Pope.= To Our Most Holy Father, Pope Pius IX:, or To His Holiness
Pope Pius IX. Most Holy Father:, or Your Holiness: Catholics write at
the end of the letter: Prostrate at the feet of Your Holiness, and
begging the Apostolic Benediction, I protest myself now and at all times
to be of Your Holiness the most obedient son,        JOHN BROWN.

Those who are not Catholics should trust to good sense to conclude
respectfully.

=Cardinals.= To His Eminence Cardinal Brown, Bishop of ----: or To His
Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Brown. Most Eminent Sir: or Most
Eminent and Most Reverend Sir: Conclude thus: Of Your Eminence the most
obedient and most humble servant; or, I have the honor to remain, Most
Eminent Sir, with profound respect your obedient and humble servant.

=Archbishop.= Most Reverend Archbishop Riordan, or Most Reverend John
Brown, Archbishop of ----. Most Reverend and Respected Sir:, or Most
Reverend and Dear Sir: Conclude thus: Most Reverend Sir, or Most
Reverend Archbishop, or Most Reverend and Dear Sir, Your obedient
servant. Most Reverend and Dear Sir: should be used by a clergyman or a
friend only.

=Bishop.= Right Reverend John Brown, Bishop of ----. Right Reverend Sir:
Conclude: I have the honor to remain, Right Reverend Sir, Your obedient
servant.

=Women Superiors.= Mother Angelica, Superior of ----. (Sisters of
Charity.)

=Priests.= See Rector, etc.

=Legal Titles.= Members of the bar should always be addressed with Esq.
following their names.

=State Legislatures.= Same as the houses of Congress, except the name
and the phrase, in Congress assembled.

=Senate of the United States.= To the Honorable the Senate of the United
States in Congress assembled. Honorable Sirs: or May It Please Your
Honorable Body: or The Honorable Senate:

=Vice President.= To the Honorable Henry Wilson, Vice President of the
U. S., or (unofficial) Honorable Henry Wilson. Sir:



INDEX.

Unless otherwise designated the citations are to paragraphs.


  Abbreviations in general, 13 to 26

  Abbreviations of names of states, 29

  Address, forms of, 83

  Ages of persons, 19

  A. M., and like references, 18

  Anno Domini, 13

  Apostrophes to be omitted, when, 15

  Apostrophe in possessives, 16

  Apostrophe wrong for plurals, 14

  Arabic numerals, 17

  Authors are supreme, 12

  Authority, sources of, 1


  Books, how cited, 22, 36, 52 and (12) under 27

  Brick or bricks as plural, (h) 74


  Cantos, how cited, 37

  Capital letters, when needed, 33, 34

  Chemical terms, 35

  Co. and Company, 21

  Company, singular verb, (d) 74

  Collective nouns, 74

  Compounds in detail, 10, 27, 41, 42, 43 to 47

  Commas essential, (18) under 27

  Copymaking is an art, 6

  Credits, how printed, 52


  Dashes, when omitted, 48

  Dates, 23, 24

  Dep’t and similar abbreviations, (2) under 27

  De Vinne’s System, 1

  De Vinne violated, 49

  Dictionary of capital letters in detail, being alphabetically
      arranged, 33

  Dictionary should govern, 10

  Division of words, 50


  Edited MSS. save money, 3

  Editorial observations, 51

  Employee preferred to employe, (1) under 51

  Er words rather than re, Page 54

  Et al., Page 52

  Etc., Page 52

  Ethics and similar words, (g) under 74


  Farther and further, 55

  Figures, how used in dates, 24

  Follows and as follow, Page 52

  Following named, Page 53

  Foreign words and phrases, 56


  Headquarters is or are, Page 52

  Hours, how written, 25


  Interrupted compounds, 45


  Last held meeting, Page 52

  Law books, how cited, 36


  Magazines, how named, 54

  Medieval, etc., 63

  Month, how written, 26

  Money, ten dollars was paid, 74

  MS. and MSS., (4) under 27


  Names not abbreviated, 28

  Names, plural of, 65

  Newspapers and magazines, 54

  Night of Horrors, 34

  Numbers, spell out, 24


  O, Oh, Oh!, 64

  On yesterday or yesterday, Page 53

  Operas and plays, 52 and 58


  Pages, how cited, 38

  Paper, size for printers, 8

  Paragraphs, how cited, 37

  Parentheses and punctuation, 62

  Parentheses for states, (10) under 27

  Pet names, how used, (11) under 27

  Plays and operas, how cited, 52

  Plurals, Page 53

  Plurals of names, 65

  Preferred words, Page 53

  Printers blamed, 5

  Printers to edit reprint, 11

  PS., (17) under 27

  Publications, how cited, 39

  Punctuation, some forms of, 61, 62


  Quarto, (12) under 27

  Quote-marks in general, 66 and 68

  Quote-marks, use of single, 68


  Reverend, the, 69


  Salutations, how written, 59, 60

  Saviour and savior, 70

  Scriptural citations, 40

  Self-confessed, Page 54

  Ships and vessels, 53

  Simplified spelling, 82

  Singulars and plurals, 74

  Single quote-marks, 68

  Singulars again, (c) under 74

  Smaller type, 67

  Specials, 71

  Spellings preferred, 72

  Spoonfuls, Page 53

  States, names of abbreviated, 29

  Stenographers need the code, 80

  Streets, how printed, (13) under 27

  Style-codes to be mastered, 9

  Style-codes needed, 2

  Sums-two and two is four, (a) under 74


  Time references, (14) under 27

  Titles, how written, (7) and (15) under 27

  To wit, (8) under 27

  Towns and cities, (6) under 27


  Unfamiliar words, 57

  United States is or are, 73


  Verbs, singular or plural, 74


  Wave-lines, 78

  Welsh rabbit, Page 53

  Whereabouts is, 75

  Women and husband’s titles, 76

  Words, division of, 50

  Words in legal papers, (16) under 27


  Years, 23


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Transcriber's Note:

Bold text is surrounded by =equals signs=, and small caps have been
changed to ALL CAPS.

Punctuation has been standardised. Variations in hyphenation and
obsolete or variant spelling have all been preserved.

The following changes have been made:

Page 20: twelvemo => 12mo: (12mo may be used)

Page 45: standstone => sandstone

Index: Abbreviations of names of states, 28 => 29

Index: States, names of abbreviated, 28 => 29

Index: Ethics and similar words, (9) under 74 => (g) under 74

Index: Headquarters is or are, 52 => Page 52

Index: Last held meeting, 52 => Page 52





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