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Title: Extracts from the Diary and Correspondence of the Late Amos Lawrence; with a brief account of some incidents of his life
Author: Lawrence, Amos
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Extracts from the Diary and Correspondence of the Late Amos Lawrence; with a brief account of some incidents of his life" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Illustration: Truly Yours Amos Lawrence

R Andrews Print.]







  +Brief Account of Some Incidents in his Life.+





  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by


  In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the
           District of Massachusetts


  Stereotyped by
  New England Type and Stereotype Foundery.

  Press of George C. Rand & Avery.

  +To his+


  A M O S  A.  L A W R E N C E,


  +This Volume is Affectionately Inscribed+,




Among the papers of the late Amos Lawrence were found copies of a
large number of letters addressed to his children.

With the hope that the good counsels there given, during a succession
of years, extending from their childhood to adult age, might still be
made profitable to their descendants, he had caused them to be
carefully preserved.

These letters, as well as an irregular record of his daily experience,
were scattered through many volumes, and required arrangement before
they could be of use to those for whom they were intended.

As no one else of the immediate family could conveniently undertake
the task, the editor considered it his duty to do that which could not
properly be committed to one less nearly connected with the deceased.

The present volume, containing what was thought most interesting among
those letters and extracts, was accordingly prepared for private
circulation; and an edition of one hundred copies was printed and
distributed among the nearest relatives and friends.

It has been thought by many that the record of such a life as is here
portrayed would be useful to other readers, and especially to young
men,--a class in whom Mr. Lawrence was deeply interested, and with
whom circumstances in his own life had given him a peculiar bond of

Although many, among both friends and strangers, have urged the
publication of the present memorial, and some have even questioned the
moral right of withholding from the view of others the light of an
example so worthy of imitation, much hesitation has been felt in
submitting to the public the recital of such domestic incidents as are
treasured in the memory of every family; those incidents which cast a
sunbeam or a shadow across every fireside, and yet possess little or
no interest for the busy world without.

At the solicitation of the "Boston Young Men's Christian Union," the
"Boston Young Men's Christian Association," and the students of
Williams College, through their respective committees, and at the
request of many esteemed citizens, the pages which were prepared for
the eye of kindred and friends alone are now submitted to the public.
Personal feeling is forgotten in the hope that the principles here
inculcated may tend to promote the ends for which the subject of this
memorial lived and labored.

The interest manifested in his life, and the tributes rendered to his
memory, have been a source of sincere gratification to his family; and
they would here tender their acknowledgments to all those who have
expressed their interest and their wishes in regard to this

The present volume is submitted with a few unimportant omissions, and
with the addition of some materials, received after the issue of the
first edition, which will throw light upon the character and
principles of Mr. Lawrence during his early business career.

His course was that of a private citizen, who took but little part in
public measures or in public life.

To the general reader, therefore, there may be but little to amuse in
a career so devoid of incident, and so little connected with the
stirring events of his times; but there cannot fail to be something to
interest those who can appreciate the spirit which, in this instance,
led to a rare fidelity in the fulfilment of important trusts, and the
consecration of a life to the highest duties.

Mr. Lawrence was eminently a religious man, and a deep sense of
accountability may be discovered at the foundation of those acts of
beneficence, which, during his lifetime, might have been attributed to
a less worthy motive.

It has been the object of the editor to allow the subject of this
memorial to tell his own story, and to add merely what is necessary to
preserve the thread of the narrative, or to throw light upon the
various matters touched upon in the correspondence.

It is designed to furnish such materials as will afford a history of
Mr. Lawrence's charitable efforts, rather than give a detailed account
of what was otherwise an uneventful career.

Such selections from his correspondence are made as seemed best
adapted to illustrate the character of the man; such as exhibit his
good and valuable traits, without attempting to conceal those
imperfections, an exemption from which would elevate him above the
common sphere of mortals.

Most of his letters are of a strictly private nature, and involve the
record of many private details. His domestic tastes, and his affection
for his family, often led him to make mention of persons and events in
such a way that few letters could be wholly given without invading the
precincts of the family circle.

The engraving at the commencement of the volume is from an original
portrait, by Harding, in the possession of the editor, a copy of which
hangs in the library of Williams College.

It seems also fitting to include a portrait of the Hon. Abbott
Lawrence, who, for forty-three years, was so intimately associated
with the subject of this memorial in all the trials, as well as in the
triumphs, of business life, and who was still more closely connected
by the bonds of fraternal affection and sympathy. A few days only have
elapsed since he was removed from the scene of his earthly labors.

The grave has rarely closed over one who to such energy of character
and strength of purpose united a disposition so gentle and forbearing.
Amidst the perplexities attending his extended business relations, and
in the excitement of the political struggles in which he was called to
take part, he was never tempted to overstep the bounds of courtesy, or
to regard his opponents otherwise than with feelings of kindness.

His wealth was used freely for the benefit of others, and for the
advancement of all those good objects which tended to promote the
welfare of his fellow-men.

That divine spark of charity, which burned with such ceaseless energy
in the bosom of his elder brother, was caught up by him, and exhibited
its fruits in those acts of munificence which will make him long
remembered as a benefactor of his race.

BOSTON, _September_ 1st, 1855.



                _Rooms of the Boston Young Men's Christian Union,
                        6 Bedford-street, Boston, June 22, 1855._


  DEAR SIR: The undersigned, members of the Government of the Boston
Young Men's Christian Union, some of whom have perused the excellent
memoir of your honored father, feel deeply impressed with the desire
that it should be published and circulated, knowing that its
publication and perusal would greatly benefit the young, the old, and
all classes of our busy mercantile community.

Remembering with pleasure the friendship which your father expressed,
not only in kind words, but in substantial offerings to the treasury
and library of our Society, the Union would be most happy, should it
comport with your feelings, to be made the medium of the publication
and circulation of the memoir, which you have compiled with so much
ability and faithfulness.

Hoping to receive a favorable response to our desire,

                                         We are most truly yours,

                  THOMAS GAFFIELD,           H. K. WHITE,
                  JOHN SWEETSER,             J. F. AINSWORTH,
                  JOSEPH H. ALLEN,           W. H. RICHARDSON,
                  CHAS. C. SMITH,            FRANCIS S. RUSSELL,
                  C. J. BISHOP,              FREDERIC H. HENSHAW,
                  F. H. PEABODY,             CHARLES F. POTTER,
                  W. IRVING SMITH,           THORNTON K. LOTHROP,
                  ARTHUR W. HOBART.          GEO. S. HALE.

       *       *       *       *       *

          _Rooms of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association,
                          Tremont Temple, Boston, July 10, 1855._


The Committee on the Library of the Boston Young Men's Christian
Association beg leave, in its behalf, to tender you sincere thanks for
your donation of a copy of the "Diary and Correspondence of Amos
Lawrence." It will remain to the members of the Association a valued
memorial of one of its earliest benefactors. It will be yet more
prized for its record of his invaluable legacy,--the history of a long
life--a bright example.

The Committee, uniting with the subscribers, managers of the
Association, are happy to improve this opportunity to express the hope
that you may be induced to give the book a more general circulation.
The kindly charities of your late lamented parent are still fresh in
impressions of gratitude upon their recipients. They require no herald
to give them publicity. The voice of fame would do violence to their

Yet, now that "the good man" can no more utter his words of sympathy
and counsel,--that his pen can no more subscribe its noble
benefactions, or indite its lessons of wisdom and experience,--the
press may silently perpetuate those which survive him.

We must assure you of our pleasure in the knowledge that the liberal
interest in the Association, so constantly manifested by your revered
father, is actively maintained by yourself.

  We remain, in the fraternal bonds of Christian regard,

                      Yours, truly,

               JACOB SLEEPER,            FRANCIS D. STEDMAN,
               J. S. WARREN,             ELIJAH SWIFT,
               SAMUEL GREGORY,           B. C. CLARK, JR.,
               LUTHER L. TARBELL,        JOSEPH P. ELLICOTT,
               ALONZO C. TENNEY,         GEO. N. NOYES,
               MOSES W. POND,            PEARL MARTIN,
               STEPHEN G. DEBLOIS,       W. H. JAMESON,
               HENRY FURNAS,             W. F. STORY.

                          FRANKLIN W. SMITH, }
                          E. M. PUTNAM,      }    _Committee
                          CHAS. L. ANDREWS,  }        on
                          GEO. C. RAND,      } Library and Rooms_
                          H. C. GILBERT,     }


       *       *       *       *       *

                               _Williams College, June 30, 1855._


The students of Williams College having learned that you have
prepared, for private distribution, a volume illustrating the
character of the late Amos Lawrence, whose munificence to this
Institution they appreciate, and whose memory they honor; the
undersigned, a Committee appointed for the purpose, express to you
their earnest desire that you would allow it to be published.

                          Very truly yours,

                                                SAMUEL B. FORBES,
                                                E. C. SMITH,
                                                FRED. W. BEECHER,
                                                HENRY HOPKINS.

    W. R. LAWRENCE, M.D., _Boston_.




  BIRTH.--ANCESTRY.--PARENTS,                                       15


  EARLY YEARS.--SCHOOL DAYS.--APPRENTICESHIP,                       20




  OF BROTHERS IN BOSTON,                                            35




        BROTHER,                                                    47


  DEATH OF SISTER.--LETTERS,                                        54


  DOMESTIC HABITS.--ILLNESS AND DEATH OF WIFE,                      59


  JOURNEYS.--LETTERS.--JOURNEY TO NEW YORK,                         68


        REFLECTIONS,                                                77






  CORRESPONDENCE WITH MR. WEBSTER.--LETTERS,                        96




        AT HOSPITAL.--LETTERS,                                     109






        REV. DR. STONE.--DIARY,                                    147


        HILL MONUMENT,                                             165


        McILVAINE.--LETTER FROM JUDGE STORY,                       175


        LETTERS.--AMESBURY CO.,                                    182


        COLLEGE.--BENEFICENCE.--LETTERS,                           193


        LETTERS.--AFFLICTIONS,                                     203




        HOSPITAL,                                                  221


        PRESCOTT.--SIR WILLIAM COLEBROOKE,                         234


        TO A CREDITOR.--LETTERS,                                   242




        DIARY.--DR. HAMILTON.--FATHER MATHEW,                      264




        CORRESPONDENCE,                                            278






        CRESSON.--LETTERS,                                         298


  LETTERS.--REV. DR. SCORESBY.--WABASH COLLEGE,                    304


        UNCLE TOBY.--REV. DR. LOWELL,                              311


  CORRESPONDENCE.--DIARY,                                          324


        PIERCE--SUDDEN DEATH.--FUNERAL,                            334




  CONCLUSION,                                                      352

  INDEX,                                                           361




Amos Lawrence was born in Groton, Mass., on the 22d of April, 1786.
His ancestor, John Lawrence, was baptized, according to the records,
on the 8th of October, 1609, at Wisset, County of Suffolk, England,
where the family had resided for a long period, though originally from
the County of Lancaster.

Butler, in his "History of Groton," has, among other details, the

     "The first account of the ancestor of the numerous families of
     this name in Groton and Pepperell, which can be relied upon as
     certain, is, that he was an inhabitant of Watertown as early as
     1635. He probably came in the company which came with Governor
     Winthrop, in 1630. His given name was John, and that of his wife
     was Elizabeth. Whether they were married in England or not, has
     not been ascertained. Their eldest child was born in Watertown,
     January 14, 1635. He removed to Groton, with probably all his
     family, at an early period of its settlement, as his name is
     found in the records there in 1663. He was an original
     proprietor, having a twenty-acre right."

Of the parents of the subject of this memoir, the same author writes:

     "Samuel Lawrence, the son of Captain Amos Lawrence, sen., was an
     officer in the continental army, in the former part of the
     Revolutionary War. He was in the battle of Bunker Hill, where a
     musket-ball passed through his beaver hat. He was also in the
     battle in Rhode Island, where he served as adjutant under General
     Sullivan. On the 22d day of July, 1777, being at home, on a
     furlough, for the express purpose, he was married to Susanna
     Parker. * * * *

     "Having faithfully served in the cause of his country during the
     term of his engagement, he returned to his native town, to enjoy
     the peace and quiet of domestic life on his farm. He was elected
     by his townsmen to some of the highest offices in their gift; he
     was a deacon of the church, and a justice of the peace _quorum
     unus_. He took a deep interest in providing means for the
     education of youth, particularly in establishing and supporting
     the seminary in Groton, which now, in gratitude to him and his
     sons, bears the family name. Of this institution he was a trustee
     thirty-three years, and in its benefits and advantages he gave
     ample opportunities for all his children to participate. Here
     their minds undoubtedly received some of those early impressions,
     the developments and consequences of which it will be the work of
     their biographers hereafter to portray. No deduction, however,
     should here be made from the importance of parental instruction,
     to add to the merit of academical education. The correct lessons
     given by the mother in the nursery are as necessary to give the
     right inclination to the tender mind as are those of the tutor in
     the highest seminary to prepare it for the business of life and
     intellectual greatness. In the present case, all the duties
     incumbent on a mother to teach her offspring to be good, and
     consequently great, were discharged with fidelity and success.
     Both parents lived to see, in the subject of their care, all that
     they could reasonably hope or desire. He died November 8, 1827,
     æt. seventy-three; and his venerable widow, May 2, 1845, æt.

Mr. Lawrence writes, in 1849, to a friend:

     "My father belonged to a company of _minute-men_ in Groton, at
     the commencement of the Revolution. On the morning of the 19th of
     April, 1775, when the news reached town that the British troops
     were on the road from Boston, General Prescott, who was a
     neighbor, came towards the house on horseback, at rapid speed,
     and cried out, 'Samuel, notify your men: _the British are
     coming_.' My father mounted the general's horse, rode a distance
     of seven miles, notified the men of his circuit, and was back
     again at his father's house in forty minutes. In three hours the
     company was ready to march, and on the next day (the 20th)
     reached Cambridge. My father was in the battle of Bunker Hill;
     received a bullet through his cap, which cut his hair from front
     to rear; received a spent grape-shot upon his arm, without
     breaking the bone; and lost a large number of men. His veteran
     Captain Farwell was shot through the body, was taken up for dead,
     and was so reported by the man who was directed to carry him off.
     This report brought back the captain's voice, and he exclaimed,
     with his utmost power, '_It an't true; don't let my poor wife
     hear of this; I shall live to see my country free._' And so it
     turned out. This good man, who had served at the capture of Cape
     Breton in 1745, again in 1755, and now on Bunker Hill in 1775, is
     connected with everything interesting in my early days. The
     bullet was extracted, and remains, as a memento, with his
     descendants. My father and mother were acquainted from their
     childhood, and engaged to be married some time in 1775. They kept
     up a correspondence through 1776, when he was at New York; but,
     on a visit to her, in 1777 (his mother having advised them to be
     married, as Susan had better be Sam's widow than his forlorn
     damsel), they were married; but, while the ceremony was going
     forward, the signal was given to call all soldiers to their
     posts; and, within the hour, he left his wife, father, mother,
     and friends, to join his regiment, then at Cambridge. This was on
     the 22d day of July, 1777. In consideration of the circumstances,
     his colonel allowed him to return to his wife, and to join the
     army at Rhode Island in a brief time (two or three days). He did
     so, and saw nothing more of home until the last day of that year.
     The army being in winter quarters, he got a furlough for a short
     period, and reached home in time to assist at the ordination of
     the Rev. Daniel Chaplin, of whose church both my parents were
     then members. His return was a season of great joy to all his
     family. His stay was brief, and nothing more was seen of him
     until the autumn of 1778, when he retired from the army, in time
     to be with his wife at the birth of their first child. From that
     time he was identified with everything connected with the good of
     the town. As we children came forward, we were carefully looked
     after, but were taught to use the talents intrusted to us; and
     every nerve was strained to provide for us the academy which is
     now doing so much there. We _sons_ are doing less for education
     _for our means_ than our father for his means."

Of his mother Mr. Lawrence always spoke in the strongest terms of
veneration and love, and in many of his letters are found messages of
affection, such as could have emanated only from a heart overflowing
with filial gratitude. Her form bending over their bed in silent
prayer, at the hour of twilight, when she was about leaving them for
the night, is still among the earliest recollections of her children.

She was a woman well fitted to train a family for the troubled times
in which she lived. To the kindest affections and sympathies she
united energy and decision, and in her household enforced that strict
and unhesitating obedience, which she considered as the foundation of
all success in the education of children. Her hands were never idle,
as may be supposed, when it is remembered that in those days,
throughout New England, in addition to the cares of a farming
establishment, much of the material for clothing was manufactured by
the inmates of the family. Many hours each day she passed at the
hand-loom, and the hum of the almost obsolete spinning-wheel even now
comes across the memory like the remembrance of a pleasant but
half-forgotten melody.



The first public instruction received by Mr. Lawrence was at the
district school kept at a short distance from his father's house.
Possessing a feeble constitution, he was often detained at home by
sickness, where he employed himself industriously with his books and
tools, in the use of which he acquired a good degree of skill, as may
be seen from a letter to his son, at Groton, in 1839:

     "Near the barn used to be an old fort, where the people went to
     protect themselves from the Indians; and, long since my
     remembrance, the old cellar was there, surrounded by elder-bushes
     and the like. I made use of many a piece of the elder for
     pop-guns and squirts, in the preparation of which I acquired a
     strong taste for the use of the pen-knife and jack-knife. I like
     the plan of boys acquiring the taste for tools, and of their
     taking pains to learn their use; for they may be so situated as
     to make a very slight acquaintance very valuable to them. And,
     then, another advantage is that they may have exercise of body
     and mind in some situations where they would suffer without. How
     do you employ yourself? Learn as much as you can of farming; for
     the work of your hands in this way may prove the best resource
     in securing comfort to you. The beautiful images of early life
     come up in these bright moonlight nights, the like of which I
     used to enjoy in the fields below our old mansion, where I was
     sent to watch the cattle. There I studied astronomy to more
     account than ever afterwards; for the heavens were impressive
     teachers of the goodness of that Father who is ever near to each
     one of his children. May you never lose sight of this truth, and
     so conduct yourself that at any moment you may be ready to answer
     when He calls!"

He did not allow himself to be idle, but, from his earliest years,
exhibited the same spirit of industry which led to success in after
life. With a natural quickness of apprehension, and a fondness for
books, he made commendable progress, in spite of his disadvantages.
His father's social disposition and hospitable feelings made the house
a favorite resort for both friends and strangers; and among the most
welcome were old messmates and fellow-soldiers, to whose marvellous
adventures and escapes the youthful listener lent a most attentive
ear. In after life he often alluded to the intense interest with which
he hung upon these accounts of revolutionary scenes, and times which
"tried men's souls." The schoolmaster was usually billeted upon the
family; and there are now living individuals high in political and
social life who served in that capacity, and who look back with
pleasure to the days passed under that hospitable roof.

At a later period, he seems to have been transferred to another
school, in the adjoining district, as will be seen by the following
extract of a letter, written in 1844, to a youth at the Groton

     "More than fifty years ago, your father and I were school
     children together. I attended then at the old meeting-house, or
     North Barn, as it was called, by way of derision, where I once
     remember being in great tribulation at having lost my
     spelling-book on the way. It was afterwards restored to me by
     Captain Richardson, who found it under his pear-tree, where I had
     been, without leave, on my way to school, and with the other
     children helped myself to his fruit."

From the district school, Mr. Lawrence entered the Groton Academy, of
which all his brothers and sisters were members at various times. As
his strength was not sufficient to make him useful upon the farm, in
the autumn of 1799 he was placed in a small store, in the neighboring
town of Dunstable. There he passed but a few months; and, on account,
perhaps, of greater facilities for acquiring a knowledge of business,
he was transferred to the establishment of James Brazer, Esq., of
Groton, an enterprising and thrifty country merchant, who transacted a
large business, for those times, with his own and surrounding towns.
The store was situated on the high road leading from Boston to New
Hampshire and Canada, and was, consequently, a place of much resort,
both for travellers and neighbors who took an interest in passing
events. Several clerks were employed; and, as Mr. Brazer did not take
a very active part in the management of the business, after a year or
two nearly the whole responsibility of the establishment rested upon
young Lawrence. The stock consisted of the usual variety kept in the
country stores of those days, when neighbors could not, as now, run
down to the city, thirty or forty miles distant, for any little matter
of fancy, and return before dinner-time. Puncheons of rum and brandy,
bales of cloth, kegs of tobacco, with hardware and hosiery, shared
attention in common with silks and thread, and all other articles for
female use. Among other duties, the young clerk was obliged to
dispense medicines, not only to customers, but to all the physicians
within twenty miles around, who depended on this establishment for
their supply.

The confidence in his good judgment was such that he was often
consulted, in preference to the physician, by those who were suffering
from minor ails; and many were the extemporaneous doses which he
administered for the weal or woe of the patient. The same confidence
was extended to him in all other matters, no one doubted his
assertion; and the character for probity and fairness which
accompanied him through life was here established.

The quantity of rum and brandy sold would surprise the temperance men
of modern days. At eleven o'clock, each forenoon, some stimulating
beverage, according to the taste of the clerk who compounded it, was
served out for the benefit of clerks and customers. Mr. Lawrence
partook with the others; but, soon finding that the desire became more
pressing at the approach of the hour for indulgence, he resolved to
discontinue the habit altogether:

     "His mind was soon made up. Understanding perfectly the ridicule
     he should meet with, and which for a time he did meet with in its
     fullest measure, he yet took at once the ground of _total
     abstinence_. Such a stand, taken at such an age, in such
     circumstances of temptation, before temperance societies had been
     heard of, or the investigations had been commenced on which they
     are based, was a practical instance of that judgment and decision
     which characterized him through life."[1]

  [1] President Hopkins's Sermon in commemoration of Amos Lawrence

In regard to this resolution, he writes, many years afterward, to a
young student in college:

     "In the first place, take this for your motto at the commencement
     of your journey, that the difference of going _just right_, or a
     _little wrong_, will be the difference of finding yourself in
     good quarters, or in a miserable bog or slough, at the end of it.
     Of the whole number educated in the Groton stores for some years
     before and after myself, no one else, to my knowledge, escaped
     the bog or slough; and my escape I trace to the simple fact of my
     having put a restraint upon my appetite. We five boys were in the
     habit, every forenoon, of making a drink compounded of rum,
     raisins, sugar, nutmeg, &c., with biscuit,--all palatable to eat
     and drink. After being in the store four weeks, I found myself
     admonished by my appetite of the approach of the hour for
     indulgence. Thinking the habit might make trouble if allowed to
     grow stronger, without further apology to my seniors I declined
     partaking with them. My first resolution was to abstain for a
     week, and, when the week was out, for a month, and then for a
     year. Finally, I resolved to abstain for the rest of my
     apprenticeship, which was for five years longer. During that
     whole period, I never drank a spoonful, though I mixed gallons
     daily for my old master and his customers. I decided not to be a
     slave to tobacco in any form, though I loved the odor of it then,
     and even now have in my drawer a superior Havana cigar, given me,
     not long since, by a friend, but only to smell of. I have never
     in my life smoked a cigar; never chewed but one quid, and that
     was before I was fifteen; and never took an ounce of snuff,
     though the scented rappee of forty years ago had great charms for
     me. Now, I say, to this simple fact of starting _just right_ am I
     indebted, with God's blessing on my labors, for my present
     position, as well as that of the numerous connections sprung up
     around me. I have many details that now appear as plain to me as
     the sun at noonday, by which events are connected together, and
     which have led to results that call on me to bless the Lord for
     all his benefits, and to use the opportunities thus permitted to
     me in cheering on the generation of young men who have claims
     upon my sympathies as relations, fellow-townsmen, or brethren on
     a more enlarged scale."

Of this period he writes elsewhere, as follows:

     "When I look back, I can trace the small events which happened at
     your age as having an influence upon all the after things. My
     academy lessons, little academy balls, and eight-cent expenses
     for music and gingerbread, the agreeable partners in the hall,
     and pleasant companions in the stroll, all helped to make me feel
     that I had a character even then; and, after leaving school and
     going into the store, there was not a month passed before I
     became impressed with the opinion that restraint upon appetite
     was necessary to prevent the slavery I saw destroying numbers
     around me. Many and many of the farmers, mechanics, and
     apprentices, of that day, have filled drunkards' graves, and have
     left destitute families and friends.

     "The knowledge of every-day affairs which I acquired in my
     business apprenticeship in Groton has been a source of pleasure
     and profit even in my last ten years' discipline."

The responsibility thrown upon the young clerk was very great; and he
seems cheerfully to have accepted it, and to have given himself up
entirely to the performance of his business duties. His time, from
early dawn till evening, was fully taken up; and, although living in
the family of his employer, and within a mile of his father's house, a
whole week would sometimes pass without his having leisure to pay even
a flying visit.

But few details of his apprenticeship can now be gathered either from
his contemporaries or from any allusions in his own writings. He was
disabled for a time by an accident which came near being fatal. In
assisting an acquaintance to unload a gun, by some means the charge
exploded, and passed directly through the middle of his hand, making
a round hole like that of a bullet. Sixty-three shot were picked out
of the floor after the accident, and it seemed almost a miracle that
he ever again had the use of his hand.



On the 22d of April, 1807, Mr. Lawrence became of age; and his
apprenticeship, which had lasted seven years, was terminated.

On the 29th of the same month, he took his father's horse and chaise,
and engaged a neighbor to drive him to Boston, with, as he says, many
years afterwards,--

     "Twenty dollars in my pocket, but feeling richer than I had ever
     felt before, or have felt since; so rich that I gave the man who
     came with me two dollars to save him from any expense, and insure
     him against loss by his spending two days on the journey here and
     back (for which he was glad of an excuse)."

His object was to make acquaintances, and to establish a credit which
would enable him to commence business in Groton on his own account, in
company with a fellow-apprentice.

A few days after his arrival in Boston, he received the offer of a
clerkship from a respectable house; and, wishing to familiarize
himself with the modes of conducting mercantile affairs in the
metropolis, and with the desire of extending his acquaintance with
business men, he accepted the offer. His employers were so well
satisfied with the capacity of their new clerk, that, in the course of
a few months, they made a proposition to admit him into partnership.
Without any very definite knowledge of their affairs, he, much to
their surprise, declined the offer. He did not consider the principles
on which the business was conducted as the true ones. The result
showed his sagacity; for, in the course of a few months, the firm
became insolvent, and he was appointed by the creditors to settle
their affairs. This he did to their satisfaction; and, having no
further occupation, decided upon commencing business on his own
account. He accordingly hired a small store in what was then called
Cornhill, and furnished it by means of the credit which he had been
able to obtain through the confidence with which he had inspired those
whose acquaintance he had made during his brief sojourn in Boston.

On the 17th of December, 1807, he commenced business, after having
engaged as his clerk Henry Whiting, in after years well and honorably
known as Brigadier-General Whiting, of the United States Army.

Mr. Lawrence writes to General Whiting, in 1849, as follows:

     "I have just looked into my first sales-book, and there see the
     entries made by you more than forty-one years ago. Ever since,
     you have been going up from the cornet of dragoons to the present
     station. Abbott, who took your place, is now the representative
     of his country at the Court of St. James."

In a memorandum in one of his account-books, he thus alludes to his
condition at that time:

     "I was then, in the matter of property, not worth a dollar. My
     father was comfortably off as a farmer, somewhat in debt; with
     perhaps four thousand dollars. My brother Luther was in the
     practice of law, getting forward, but not worth two thousand
     dollars; William had nothing; Abbott, a lad just fifteen years
     old, at school; and Samuel, a child seven years old."

Of the manner in which he occupied himself when not engaged about his
business, he writes to his son in 1832:

     "When I first came to this city, I took lodgings in the family of
     a widow who had commenced keeping boarders for a living. I was
     one of her first, and perhaps had been in the city two months
     when I went to this place; and she, of course, while I remained,
     was inclined to adopt any rules for the boarders that I
     prescribed. The only one I ever made was, that, after supper, all
     the boarders who remained in the public room should remain quiet
     at least for one hour, to give those who chose to study or read
     an opportunity of doing so without disturbance. The consequence
     was, that we had the most quiet and improving set of young men in
     the town. The few who did not wish to comply with the regulation
     went abroad after tea, sometimes to the theatre, sometimes to
     other places, but, to a man, became bankrupt in after life, not
     only in fortune, but in reputation; while a majority of the other
     class sustained good characters, and some are now living who are
     ornaments to society, and fill important stations. The influence
     of this small measure will perhaps be felt throughout
     generations. It was not less favorable on myself than on others."

Mr. Lawrence was remarkable through life for the most punctilious
exactness in all matters relating to business. Ever prompt himself in
all that he undertook, he submitted with little grace to the want of
the same good trait in others. He writes to a friend:

     "And now having delivered the message, having the power at the
     present moment, and not having the assurance that I shall be able
     to do it the next hour, I will state that I practised upon the
     maxim, '_Business before friends_,' from the commencement of my
     course. During the first seven years of my business in this city,
     I never allowed a bill against me to stand unsettled over the
     Sabbath. If the purchase of goods was made at auction on
     Saturday, and delivered to me, I always examined and settled the
     bill by note or by crediting it, and having it clear, so that, in
     case I was not on duty on Monday, there would be no trouble for
     my boys; thus keeping the business _before_ me, instead of
     allowing it to _drive_ me."

Absence from his home seemed only to strengthen the feelings of
attachment with which he regarded its inmates.

     "My interest in home, and my desire to have something to tell my
     sisters to instruct and improve them, as well as to hear their
     comments upon whatever I communicated, was a powerful motive for
     me to spend a portion of each evening in my boarding-house, the
     first year I came to Boston, in reading and study."

During the same month in which he commenced his business, he opened a
correspondence with one of his sisters by the following letter:

                                         "BOSTON, December, 1807.

     "DEAR E.: Although the youngest, you are no less dear to me than
     the other sisters. To you, therefore, I ought to be as liberal in
     affording pleasure (if you can find any in reading my letters) as
     to S. and M.; and, if there is any benefit resulting from them,
     you have a claim to it as well as they. From these
     considerations, and with the hope that you will write to me
     whenever you can do so with convenience, I have begun a
     correspondence which I hope will end only with life. To be able
     to write a handsome letter is certainly a very great
     accomplishment, and can best be attained by practice; and, if you
     now begin, I have no hesitation in saying, that, by the time you
     are sixteen, you will be mistress of a handsome style, and thrice
     the quantity of ideas you would otherwise possess, by omitting
     this part of education. At present, you can write about any
     subject that will afford you an opportunity of putting together a
     sentence, and I shall read it with pleasure. I mention this, that
     you need not fear writing on subjects not particularly
     interesting to me; the manner at present being of as much
     consequence as the matter.

     "For our mutual pleasure and benefit, dear E., I hope you will
     not fail to gratify your affectionate brother


To show the nature of the correspondence between the parties, extracts
are given below from a letter dated within a few days of the
preceding, and addressed to another sister:

     "From you, my dear sister, the injunction not to forget the
     duties of religion comes with peculiar grace. You beg I will
     pardon you for presuming to offer good advice. Does a good act
     require pardon? Not having committed an offence, I can grant you
     no pardon; but my thanks I can give, which you will accept, with
     an injunction never to withhold any caution or advice which you
     may think necessary or beneficial on account of fewer years
     having passed over your head. * * * *

     "Many, when speaking of perfection, say it is not attainable, or
     hitherto unattainable, and it is therefore vain to try or hope
     for it. To such I would observe, that, from motives of duty to
     our Creator, and ambition in ourselves, we ought to strive for
     it, at least so far as not to be distanced by those who have
     preceded us. Morality is strict justice between man and man;
     therefore, a man being moral does not imply he is a Christian,
     but being a Christian implies he is a moral man. * * * *

     "We ought to use our utmost endeavors to conquer our passions and
     evil propensities, to conform our lives to the strict rules of
     morality and the best practice of Christianity. I cannot go
     further, without introducing the subject of evil speaking, which
     you will perhaps think I have exhausted. * * *

     "I do not, my dear M., set myself up as a reformer of human
     nature, or to find fault with it; but these observations (which
     have occurred to me as I am writing) may serve to show how apt we
     are to do things which afford us no pleasure, and which
     oftentimes are attended with the most disagreeable consequences.
     If you receive any improvement from the sentiments, or pleasure
     from the perusal, of this letter, the time in writing will be
     considered as well spent by your affectionate brother




Mr. Lawrence had early formed, in the management of his affairs,
certain principles, to which he rigidly adhered till the close of
life. He writes:

     "I adopted the plan of keeping an accurate account of merchandise
     bought and sold each day, with the profit as far as practicable.
     This plan was pursued for a number of years; and I never found my
     merchandise fall short in taking an account of stock, which I did
     as often at least as once in each year. I was thus enabled to
     form an opinion of my actual state as a business man. I adopted
     also the rule always to have property, after my second year's
     business, to represent forty per cent. at least more than I owed;
     that is, never to be in debt more than two and a half times my
     capital. This caution saved me from ever getting embarrassed. If
     it were more generally adopted, we should see fewer failures in
     business. Excessive credit is the rock on which so many business
     men are broken.

     "When I commenced, the embargo had just been laid, and with such
     restrictions on trade that many were induced to leave it. But I
     felt great confidence, that, by industry, economy, and integrity,
     I could get a living; and the experiment showed that I was right.
     Most of the young men who commenced at that period failed by
     spending too much money, and using credit too freely.

     "I made about fifteen hundred dollars the first year, and more
     than four thousand the second. Probably, had I made four thousand
     the first year, I should have failed the second or third year. I
     practised a system of rigid economy, and never allowed myself to
     spend a fourpence for unnecessary objects until I had acquired

It is known to many of Mr. Lawrence's friends that his father
mortgaged his farm, and loaned the proceeds to his son; thereby
enabling him, as some suppose, to do what he could not have done by
his own unaided efforts. To show how far this supposition is correct,
the following extract is given. It is copied from the back of the
original mortgage deed, now lying before the writer, and bearing date
of September 1, 1807. The extract is dated March, 1847:

     "The review of this transaction always calls up the deep feelings
     of my heart. My honored father brought to me the one thousand
     dollars, and asked me to give him my note for it. I told him he
     did wrong to place himself in a situation to be made unhappy, if
     I lost the money. He told me he _guessed I wouldn't lose it_, and
     I gave him my note. The first thing I did was to take four per
     cent. premium on my Boston bills (the difference then between
     passable and Boston money), and send a thousand dollars in bills
     of the Hillsborough Bank to Amherst, New Hampshire, by my father,
     to my brother L. to carry to the bank and get specie, as he was
     going there to attend court that week. My brother succeeded in
     getting specie, principally in silver change, for the bills, and
     returned it to me in a few days. In the mean time, or shortly
     after, the bank had been sued, the bills discredited, and, in the
     end, proved nearly worthless. I determined not to use the money,
     except in the safest way; and therefore loaned it to Messrs.
     Parkman, in whom I had entire confidence. After I had been in
     business, and had made more than a thousand dollars, I felt that
     I could repay the money, come what would of it; being insured
     against fire, and trusting nobody for goods. I used it in my
     business, but took care to pay off the mortgage as soon as it
     would be received. The whole transaction is deeply interesting,
     and calls forth humble and devout thanksgiving to that merciful
     Father who has been to us better than our most sanguine hopes."

In alluding to this transaction in another place, he says:

     "This incident shows how dangerous it is to the independence and
     comfort of families, for parents to take pecuniary
     responsibilities for their sons in trade, beyond their power of
     meeting them without embarrassment. Had my Hillsborough Bank
     notes not been paid as they were, nearly the whole amount would
     have been lost, and myself and family might probably have been
     ruined. The incident was so striking, that I have uniformly
     discouraged young men who have applied to me for credit, offering
     their fathers as bondsmen; and, by doing so, I have, I believe,
     saved some respectable families from ruin. My advice, however,
     has been sometimes rejected with anger. A young man who cannot
     get along without such aid will not be likely to get along with
     it. On the first day of January, 1808, I had been but a few days
     in business; and the profits on all my sales to that day were one
     hundred and seventy-five dollars and eighteen cents. The
     expenses were to come out, and the balance was my capital. In
     1842, the sum had increased to such an amount as I thought would
     be good for my descendants; and, from that time, I have been my
     own executor. How shall I show my sense of responsibility? Surely
     by active deeds more than by unmeaning words. God grant me to be
     true and faithful in his work!"

Having become fairly established in Boston, Mr. Lawrence concluded to
take his brother Abbott, then fifteen years of age, as an apprentice.
On the 8th of October, 1808, Abbott accordingly joined his brother,
who says of him:

     "In 1808, he came to me as my apprentice, bringing his bundle
     under his arm, with less than three dollars in his pocket (and
     this was his fortune); a first-rate business lad he was, but,
     like other bright lads, needed the careful eye of a senior to
     guard him from the pitfalls that he was exposed to."

In his diary of February 10, 1847, he writes:

     "In the autumn of 1809, I boarded at Granger's Coffee House,
     opposite Brattle-street Church; and, in the same house, Mr.
     Charles White took up his quarters, to prepare his then new play,
     called the 'Clergyman's Daughter.' He spent some months in
     preparing it to secure a _run_ for the winter; and used to have
     Tennett, Canfield, Robert Treat Paine, and a host of others, to
     dine with him very often. I not unfrequently left the party at
     the dinner-table, and found them there when I returned to tea.
     Among the boarders was a fair proportion of respectable young
     men, of different pursuits; and, having got somewhat interested
     for White, we all agreed to go, and help bring out his
     'Clergyman's Daughter.' Mrs. Darley was the lady to personate
     her, and a more beautiful creature could not be found. She and
     her husband (who sung his songs better than any man I had ever
     heard then) had all the spirit of parties in interest. We filled
     the boxes, and encored, and all promised a great run. After three
     nights, we found few beside the friends, and it was laid aside a
     failure. In looking back, the picture comes fresh before me; and,
     among all, I do not recollect one who was the better, and most
     were ruined. The theatre is no better now."

In 1849, he resumes:

     "About this time, my brother William made me a little visit to
     recruit his health, which he had impaired by hard work on the
     farm, and by a generous attention to the joyous meetings of the
     young folks of both sexes, from six miles around, which meetings
     he never allowed to break in upon his work. He continued his
     visit through the winter, and became so much interested in my
     business that I agreed to furnish the store next my own for his
     benefit. Soon after that, I was taken sick; and he bought goods
     for himself to start with, and pushed on without fear. From that
     time, he was successful as a business man. He used his property
     faithfully, and I trust acceptably to the Master, who has called
     him to account for his talents. Our father's advice to us was,

     "'Do not fall out by the way, for a three-fold cord is not
     quickly broken.'"



During these years, Mr. Lawrence was in the habit of making occasional
visits to his parents in Groton, thirty-five miles distant. His custom
was to drive himself, leaving Boston at a late hour on Saturday
afternoon, and often, as he says, encroaching upon the Sabbath before
reaching home. After midnight, on Sunday, he would leave on his
return; and thus was enabled to reach Boston about daybreak on Monday
morning, without losing a moment's time in his business.

In 1810, Mr. Lawrence was seized with an alarming illness, through
which he enjoyed the care and skill of his friend and physician, the
late Dr. G. C. Shattuck, who, shortly before his own death,
transmitted the following account of this illness to the editor of
these pages, who also had the privilege of enjoying a friendship so
much prized by his father:

                                                  "Feb. 28, 1853.

     "More than forty years ago, New England was visited with a
     pestilence. The people were stricken with panic. The first
     victims were taken off unawares. In many towns in the interior
     of the commonwealth, the people assembled in town meeting, and
     voted to pay, from the town treasury, physicians to be in
     readiness to attend on any one assailed with the premonitory
     symptoms of disease. The distemper was variously named, cold
     plague, spotted fever, and malignant remittent fever. After a day
     of unusual exercise, your father was suddenly taken ill. The
     worthy family in which he boarded were prompt in their sympathy.
     A physician was called: neighbors and friends volunteered their
     aid. Remedies were diligently employed. Prayers in the church
     were offered up for the sick one. A pious father left his home,
     on the banks of the Nashua, to be with his son. To the physician
     in attendance he gave a convulsive grasp of the hand, and, with
     eyes brimful of tears, and choked utterance, articulated,
     'Doctor, if Amos has not money enough, I have!' To the anxious
     father his acres seemed like dust in the balance contrasted with
     the life of his son. He was a sensible man, acting on the
     principle that the stimulus of reward is a salutary adjunct to
     the promptings of humanity. God rebuked the disorder, though the
     convalescence was slow. A constitution with an originally
     susceptible nervous temperament had received a shock which
     rendered him a long time feeble. An apprentice, with a discretion
     beyond his years, maintained a healthy activity in his mercantile
     operations, to the quiet of his mind. He did not need great
     strength; for sagacity and decision supplied every other lack.
     Supply and demand were as familiar to him as the alphabet. He
     knew the wants of the country, and sources of supply.
     Accumulation followed his operations, and religious principle
     regulated the distribution of the cumbrous surplus. A sensible
     and pious father, aided by a prudent mother, had trained the
     child to become the future man. You will excuse my now addressing
     you, when you recur to the tradition that I had participated in
     the joy of the house when you first opened your eyes to the
     light. That God's promises to the seed of the righteous may
     extend to you and yours, is the prayer of your _early_

                                            "GEORGE C. SHATTUCK."

But few details of Mr. Lawrence's business from this date until 1815
are now found. Suffice it to say, that, through the difficult and
troubled times in which the United States were engaged in the war with
England, his efforts were crowned with success. Dark clouds sometimes
arose in the horizon, and various causes of discouragement from time
to time cast a gloom over the mercantile world; but despondency formed
no part of his character, while cool sagacity and unceasing
watchfulness and perseverance enabled him to weather many a storm
which made shipwreck of others around him.

Amidst the engrossing cares of business, however, Mr. Lawrence found
time to indulge in more genial pursuits, as will be seen from the
following lines, addressed to his sister:

                                         "BOSTON, March 17, 1811.

     "My not having written to you since your return, my dear M., has
     proceeded from my having other numerous avocations, and partly
     from a carelessness in such affairs reprehensible in me. You
     will, perhaps, be surprised to learn the extent and importance of
     my avocations; for, in addition to my usual routine of mercantile
     affairs, I have lately been engaged in a negotiation of the
     first importance, and which I have accomplished very much to my
     own satisfaction. It is no other than having offered myself as a
     husband to your very good friend Sarah Richards, which offer she
     has agreed to accept. So, next fall, you must set your mind on a
     wedding. Sarah I have long known and esteemed: there is such a
     reciprocity of feelings, sentiments, and principles, that I have
     long thought her the most suitable person I have seen for me to
     be united with. Much of my time, as you may well suppose, is
     spent in her society; and here I cannot but observe the infinite
     advantage of good sense and good principles over the merely
     elegant accomplishments of fashionable education. By the latter
     we may be fascinated for a time; but they will afford no
     satisfaction on retrospection. The former you are compelled to
     respect and to love. Such qualities are possessed by Sarah; and,
     were I to say anything further in her favor, it would be that she
     is beloved by you. Adieu, my dear sister,

                                                           A. L."

As this volume is intended only for the perusal of the family and
friends of the late Amos Lawrence, no apology need be made for
introducing such incidents of his life, of a domestic nature, as may
be thought interesting, and which it might not seem advisable to
introduce under other circumstances. Of this nature are some details
connected with this engagement. The young lady here alluded to, whose
solid qualities he thus, at the age of twenty-five and in the first
flush of a successful courtship, so calmly discusses, in addition to
these, possessed personal charms sufficient to captivate the fancy of
even a more philosophical admirer than himself. Her father, Giles
Richards, was a man of great ingenuity, who resided in Boston at the
close of the Revolutionary War. He owned an establishment for the
manufactory of cards for preparing wool. A large number of men were
employed; and, at that time, it was considered one of the objects
worthy of notice by strangers. As such, it was visited by General
Washington on his northern tour; and may be found described, in the
early editions of Morse's Geography, among the industrial
establishments of Boston. As in the case of many more noted men of
inventive genius, his plans were more vast than the means of
accomplishment; and the result was, loss of a handsome competency, and
embarrassment in business, from which he retired with unsullied
reputation, and passed his latter years in the vicinity of Boston.
Here the evening of his life was cheered by the constant and watchful
care of his wife, whose cheerful and happy temperament shed a radiance
around his path, which, from a naturally desponding character, might
otherwise have terminated in gloom. She had been the constant
companion of her husband in all his journeyings and residences in
nearly every State in the Union, where his business had called him;
and, after forty years, returned to die in the house where she was
born,--the parsonage once occupied by her father, the Rev. Amos Adams,
of Roxbury, who, at the time of the Revolution, was minister of the
church now under the pastoral care of the Rev. Dr. Putnam.

Sarah had been placed in the family of the Rev. Dr. Chaplin, minister
of the church at Groton, and was a member of the academy when Mr.
Lawrence first made her acquaintance. "The academy balls, the
agreeable partners in the hall, the pleasant companions in the
stroll," remembered with so much pleasure in after life, were not
improbably associated with this acquaintance, who had become a visitor
and friend to his own sisters. After a separation of four years, the
acquaintance was accidentally renewed in the year 1807. Sarah was on a
visit at Cambridge to the family of Caleb Gannett, Esq., then and for
many years afterwards Steward of Harvard University. In a letter to
Rev. Dr. Gannett, dated February 15, 1845, Mr. Lawrence thus alludes
to this interview:

     "My first interview with you, thirty-eight years ago, when you
     were led by the hand into the store where I then was, in
     Cornhill, by that friend (who was afterwards my wife),
     unconscious of my being within thirty miles, after a four years'
     separation, connects you in my thoughts with her, her children
     and grandchildren, in a way that no one can appreciate who has
     not had the experience."

Enclosed in this letter was a faded paper, on which were written
several verses of poetry, with the following explanation:

     "Only think of your sainted mother writing this little scrap
     thirty-eight years ago, when on her death-bed, for her young
     friend, then on a visit to her, to teach to you, who could not
     read; and this scrap, written upon a blank term-bill without
     premeditation, being preserved by that friend while she lived,
     and, after her death, by her daughter while she lived, and, after
     her death, being restored to me as the rightful disposer of it;
     and my happening, within four days after, to meet you under such
     circumstances as made it proper to show it to you."


             How can a child forgetful prove
             Of all that wakes the heart to love,
             And from the path of duty stray,
             To spend his time in sport and play;
             Neglectful of the blessing given,
             Which marks the path to peace and heaven?

             O! how can I, who daily share
             A mother's kind, assiduous care,
             Be idle, and ungrateful too;
             Forsake the good, the bad pursue;
             Neglectful of the blessings given,
             Which mark the path to peace and heaven?

             O! how can I such folly show,
             When faults indulged to vices grow,--
             Who know that idle days ne'er make
             Men that are useful, good, or great?
             Dear mother, still be thou my guide,
             Nor suffer me my faults to hide;
             And O may God his grace impart
             To fix my feeble, foolish heart,
             That I may wait the blessing given,
             Which marks the path to peace and heaven!

     MEM.--Mrs. Gannett died soon after writing this on a blank
     term-bill of Harvard College, in 1807.--A. L., 1847.

The marriage of Mr. Lawrence took place in Boston, on the 6th of June,
1811, three months after announcing his engagement to his sister.



In 1849, Mr. Lawrence writes as follows:

     "On the 1st of January, 1814, I took my brother Abbott into
     partnership on equal shares, putting fifty thousand dollars, that
     I had then earned, into the concern. Three days afterwards, the
     'Bramble News' came, by which the excessive high price of goods
     was knocked down. Our stock was then large, and had cost a high
     price. He was in great anguish, considering himself a bankrupt
     for at least five thousand dollars. I cheered him by offering to
     cancel our copartnership indentures, give him up his note, and,
     at the end of the year, pay him five thousand dollars. He
     declined the offer, saying I should lose that, and more beside,
     and, as he had enlisted, would do the best he could. This was in
     character, and it was well for us both. He was called off to do
     duty as a soldier, through most of the year. I took care of the
     business, and prepared to retreat with my family into the country
     whenever the town seemed liable to fall into the hands of the
     British, who were very threatening in their demonstrations. We
     still continue mercantile business under the first set of
     indentures, and under the same firm, merely adding '& Co.,' as
     new partners have been admitted."

In March, 1815, the junior partner embarked on board the ship Milo,
the first vessel which sailed from Boston for England after the
proclamation of peace. On the eve of his departure, he received from
his brother and senior partner a letter containing many good counsels
for his future moral guidance, as well as instructions in relation to
the course of business to be pursued. From that letter, dated March
11th, the following extracts are taken:

     "MY DEAR BROTHER: I have thought best, before you go abroad, to
     suggest a few hints for your benefit in your intercourse with the
     people among whom you are going. As a first and leading
     principle, let every transaction be of that pure and honest
     character that you would not be ashamed to have appear before the
     whole world as clearly as to yourself. In addition to the
     advantages arising from an honest course of conduct with your
     fellow-men, there is the satisfaction of reflecting within
     yourself that you have endeavored to do your duty; and, however
     greatly the best may fall short of doing all they ought, they
     will be sure not to do more than their principles enjoin.

     "It is, therefore, of the highest consequence that you should not
     only cultivate correct principles, but that you should place your
     standard of action so high as to require great vigilance in
     living up to it.

     "In regard to your business transactions, let everything be so
     registered in your books, that any person, without difficulty,
     can understand the whole of your concerns. You may be cut off in
     the midst of your pursuits, and it is of no small consequence
     that your temporal affairs should always be so arranged that you
     may be in readiness.

     "If it is important that you should be well prepared in this
     point of view, how much more important is it that you should be
     prepared in that which relates to eternity!

     "You are young, and the course of life seems open, and pleasant
     prospects greet your ardent hopes; but you must remember that the
     race is not always to the swift, and that however flattering may
     be your prospects, and however zealously you may seek pleasure,
     you can never find it except by cherishing pure principles, and
     practising right conduct. My heart is full on this subject, my
     dear brother, and it is the only one on which I feel the least

     "While here, your conduct has been such as to meet my entire
     approbation; but the scenes of another land may be more than your
     principles will stand against. I say, _may be_, because young
     men, of as fair promise as yourself, have been lost by giving a
     small latitude (innocent in the first instance) to their
     propensities. But I pray the Father of all mercies to have you in
     his keeping, and preserve you amid temptations.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "I can only add my wish to have you write me frequently and
     particularly, and that you will embrace every opportunity of
     gaining information.

                                       Your affectionate brother,
                                                  "AMOS LAWRENCE.

Again, on the 28th of the month, he writes to the same, after his

     "I hope you will have arrived in England early in April; and if
     so, you will be awaiting with anxious solicitude the arrival of
     the 'Galen,' by which vessel you will receive letters from
     _home_, a word which brings more agreeable associations to the
     mind and feelings of a young stranger in a foreign land than any
     other in our language. I have had many fears that you have had a
     rough passage, as the weather on the Friday following your
     departure was very boisterous, and continued so for a number of
     days, and much of the time since has been uncomfortable. I trust,
     however, that the same good Hand which supplies our daily wants
     has directed your course to the desired port.

     "With a just reliance on that Power, we need have no fear, though
     winds and waves should threaten our destruction. The interval
     between the time of bidding adieu and of actual departure called
     into exercise those fine feelings which those only have who can
     prize friends, and on that account I was happy to see so much
     feeling in yourself.

     "Since your departure nothing of a public nature has transpired
     of particular interest. All that there is of news or interest
     among us you will gather from the papers forwarded.

     "Those affairs which relate particularly to ourselves will be of
     as much interest as any; I shall therefore detail our business

       *       *       *       *       *

     "My next and constant direction will be to keep a particular
     watch over yourself, that you do not fall into any habits of
     vice; and, as a means of preserving yourself, I would most
     strictly enjoin that your Sabbaths be not spent in noise and
     riot, but that you attend the public worship of God. This you may
     think an unnecessary direction to you, who have always been in
     the habit of doing so. I hope it may be; at any rate, it will do
     no harm.

     "That you may be blessed with health, and enjoy properly the
     blessings of life, is the wish of your ever affectionate brother,

                                                           "A. L.

                          (TO ABBOTT LAWRENCE.)

                                       "BOSTON, April 15th, 1815.

     "MY DEAR BROTHER: By the favor of Heaven I trust ere this you
     have landed upon the soil from which sprang our forefathers. In
     the contemplation of that wonderful 'Isle' on your first arrival,
     there must be a feeling bordering on devotion. The thousand new
     objects, which make such constant demand on your attention, will
     not, I hope, displace the transatlantic friends from the place
     they should occupy in your remembrance. Already do I begin to
     count the days when I may reasonably hear from you.

     "I pray you to let no opportunity pass without writing, as you
     will be enabled to appreciate the pleasure your letters will give
     by those which you receive from home. Since your departure, our
     father has been dangerously ill; he seems fast recovering, but we
     much fear a relapse, when he would, in all probability, be
     immediately deprived of life, or his disease would so far weaken
     him as to terminate his usefulness. Our mother continues as
     comfortable as when you left us. Should you live to return,
     probably one or both our parents may not be here to welcome you;
     we have particular reason for thankfulness that they have both
     been spared to us so long, and have been so useful in the
     education of their children.

     "All others of our connection have been in health since your
     departure, and a comfortable share of happiness seems to have
     been enjoyed by all.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "Now for advice: you are placed in a particularly favorable
     situation, my dear brother, for improving yourself in the
     knowledge of such things as will hereafter be useful to you. Let
     no opportunity pass without making the most of it. There are
     necessarily many vacant hours in your business, which ought not
     to pass unemployed. I pretend not to suggest particular objects
     for your attention, but only the habit generally of active
     employment, which, while making your time useful and agreeable to
     yourself, will be the best safeguard to your virtue. The American
     character, I trust, is somewhat respected in England at this
     time, notwithstanding it was lately at so low an ebb; and I would
     wish every American to endeavor to do something to improve it.
     Especially do I wish you, my dear A., who visit that country
     under circumstances so favorable, to do your part in establishing
     a character for your country as well as for yourself. Thus prays
     your affectionate brother,

                                                           A. L."

To his wife, at Groton, Mr. Lawrence writes, under date of June 4,

     "The Milo got in yesterday, and brought letters from Abbott,
     dated 4th April. He was then in Manchester, and enjoyed the best
     health. He wrote to our father, which letter, I hope, will arrive
     at Groton by to-morrow's mail. I received from him merchandise,
     which I hope to get out of the ship and sell this week. I suspect
     there are few instances of a young man leaving this town, sending
     out goods, and having them sold within ninety days from the time
     of his departure. It is eighty-four days this morning since he
     left home."

                         (TO ABBOTT LAWRENCE.)

                                           "BOSTON, June 7, 1815.

     "DEAR BROTHER: By the arrival of the Milo last Saturday, and
     packet on Monday, I received your several letters, giving an
     account of your proceedings. You are as famous among your
     acquaintances here for the rapidity of your movements as
     Bonaparte. Mr. ---- thinks that you leave Bonaparte entirely in
     the background. I really feel a little proud, my dear brother,
     of your conduct. Few instances of like despatch are known.

     "The sensations you experienced in being greeted so heartily by
     the citizens of Liverpool, were not unlike those you felt on
     hearing the news of peace. I am happy to state to you that our
     father has so far recovered from his illness as to be able to
     attend to his farm. Our mother's health is much as when you left.

     "Your friends here feel a good deal of interest in your welfare,
     and read with deep interest your letters to them. The opportunity
     is peculiarly favorable for establishing a reputation as a close
     observer of men and manners, and for those improvements which
     travelling is reputed to give.

     "When writing to you sentences of advice, my heart feels all the
     tender sympathies and affections which bind me to my own
     children. This is my apology, if any be necessary, for so
     frequently touching on subjects for your moral improvement.

     "In any condition I can subscribe myself no other than your ever
     affectionate brother,

                                                           A. L."



On the 19th of August, 1815, Mr. Lawrence, in the following letter to
his brother, announced the sudden death of a sister, who to youth and
beauty united many valuable qualities of mind and character:

     "To you, who are at such a distance from home, and employed in
     the busy pursuits of life, the description of domestic woe will
     not come with such force as on us who were eye-witnesses to an
     event which we and all our friends shall not cease to deplore. We
     have attended this morning to the last sad office of affection to
     our loved sister S. Although for ourselves we mourn the loss of
     so much excellence, yet for her we rejoice that her race is so
     soon run. We are permitted to hope that she is now a saint in
     heaven, celebrating before the throne of her Father the praises
     of the redeemed. She met death in the enjoyment of that hope
     which is the peculiar consolation of the believer. This event, I
     know, my dear brother, is calculated to awaken all the tender
     recollections of home, and to call forth all your sympathy for
     the anguish of friends; but it is also calculated to soften the
     heart, and to guide you in your own preparation for that great
     day of account. The admonition, I hope, may not be lost on any of
     us, and happy will it be for us if we use it aright."

                                  (TO THE SAME.)

                                       "BOSTON, October 19, 1815.

     "DEAR ABBOTT: By this vessel I have written to you, but am always
     desirous of communicating the last intelligence from home,
     therefore I write again. The situation of our town, our country,
     our friends, and all the objects of endearment, continues the
     same as heretofore. We are, to be sure, getting into a religious
     controversy which does not promise to increase the stock of
     charity among us, but good will undoubtedly arise from it. The
     passions of some of our brethren are too much engaged, and it
     would seem from present appearances that consequences unfavorable
     to the cause of our Master may ensue; but the wrath of man is
     frequently made subservient to the best purposes, and the good of
     mankind may in this case be greatly promoted by what at present
     seems a great evil. Men's passions are but poor guides to the
     discovery of truth, but they may sometimes elicit light by which
     others may get at the truth.

     "It does seem to me that a man need only use his common sense,
     and feel a willingness to be instructed in the reading of the
     Scriptures, and there is enough made plain to his understanding
     to direct him in the way he should go.

     "Others, however, think differently; but that should not be a
     reason with me for calling them hard names, especially if by
     their lives they show that they are followers of the same

On December 2d, he writes again:

     "I heard from you verbally on the 1st of October, in company with
     a platoon of New England Guards; and hope the head of the corps
     allowed Lord Wellington the honor of an introduction, and of
     inspecting this choice corps, which once had the honor of
     protecting the constitution and independence of the United
     States, when menaced by the 'proud sons of Britain.' This is a
     theme on which _you_ may be allowed to dwell with some delight,
     although there are no recitals of hair-breadth escapes and
     hard-fought actions, when numbers bit the dust. Yet to you, who
     were active in performing duty, this should be a source of
     comfortable feeling, as the amount of human misery has not been
     increased by your means. Shakspeare's knight of sack thought 'the
     better part of valor was discretion,' but I do not believe the
     Guards would have confirmed this sentiment, had the opportunity
     offered for a trial. I am really glad to hear of you in Paris,
     and hope you will improve every moment of your time in acquiring
     information that will be agreeable and interesting; and, more
     particularly, I hope you will have gone over the ground where the
     great events have happened that now allow Europe to repose in
     peace. How much should I delight in a few hours' intercourse with
     you; but that must be deferred to another period, perhaps to a
     very distant period.

     "I feel very healthy and very happy; my wife and children all
     enjoying health, and a good share of the bounties of Providence
     in various ways. Well you may be contented, you will say. What
     more is wanting? Such is not always the lot of man possessing
     those blessings. There is often a voracious appetite for other
     and greater blessings. The desire for more splendor, the
     possession of more wealth, is coveted, without the disposition to
     use it as an accountable creature; and too late the poor man
     finds that all his toil for these earthly objects of his worship
     fails in satisfying or giving a good degree of content. I,
     therefore, have reason for thankfulness that I am blessed with a
     disposition to appreciate tolerably the temporal blessings I
     enjoy. To the Father of all mercies I am indebted for this and
     every other good thing; even for the increased affection with
     which I think of you. That he may bless and keep you, dear
     Abbott, is the prayer of your brother,

  A. L."

On June 6th, 1817, a few days after the birth of a daughter, he writes
to a friend:

     "I am the richest man, I suppose, that there is on this side of
     the water, and the richest because I am the happiest. On the 23d
     ult. I was blessed by the birth of a fine little daughter; this,
     as you may well suppose, has filled our hearts with joy. S. is
     very comfortable, and is not less gratified than I am. I wish you
     were a married man, and then (if you had a good wife) you would
     know how to appreciate the pleasures of a parent. I have lately
     thought more than ever of the propriety of your settling soon. It
     is extremely dangerous to defer making a connection until a late
     period; for a man is in more and more danger of not forming one
     the longer he puts it off; and any man who does not form this
     connection grossly miscalculates in the use of the means which
     God has given him to supply himself with pleasures in the
     downhill journey of life.

     "He is also foolish to allow himself to be cheated in this
     connection by the prospect of a few present advantages, to the
     exclusion of the more permanent ones. Every man's best pleasures
     should be at home; for there is the sphere for the exercise of
     his best virtues; and he should be particularly careful, in the
     selection of a partner, to get one who will jeopardize neither.
     On this subject, you know, I am always eloquent. But, at this
     time, there is reason for my being so, as it is the anniversary
     of my wedding day.

     "S. has put her eye on a _rib_ for you. The said person, you
     must know, is of a comely appearance (not beautiful), is rather
     taller than ----, has a good constitution, is perfectly
     acquainted with domestic economy, and has all the most desirable
     of the fashionable accomplishments, such as music, painting &c.;
     and my only objection to her is, as far as I have observed her,
     that she has a few thousand dollars in cash. This, however, might
     be remedied; for, after furnishing a house, the balance might be
     given to her near connections, or to some public institution. I
     will give no further description, but will only say that her
     connections are such as you would find pleasure in. No more on
     this subject. The subject of principal interest among us now is
     the new tariff of duties." * * * *



In searching for records of the business at this period, the first
copied letters are found in a volume commencing with the date of March
10, 1815; since which period the correspondence, contained in many
volumes, is complete. On the first page of this volume is a letter
from the senior partner somewhat characteristic. It relates to a bill
of exchange for two thousand rupees, which he knew was a doubtful one,
but which he had taken to relieve the pressing necessities of a young
Englishwoman from Calcutta, with a worthless husband. He writes to his
friends in that city:

     "We have been so particular as to send a clerk to her with the
     money, that we might be sure of her receiving it. Previous to her
     receiving the money from us, we were told her children were
     ragged, barefooted, and hungry; afterwards we knew they were kept
     comfortably clad."

In tracing the course of business as revealed by the perusal of the
correspondence, it is evident that Mr. Lawrence's time and attention
must have been engrossed by the increasing importance and magnitude
of the mercantile operations of his firm. The cares and perplexities
of the day did not, however, unfit him for the quiet enjoyments of
domestic life; and, however great and urgent were the calls upon his
time and his thoughts from abroad, home, with its endearments,
occupied the first place in his affections. So much did its interests
transcend all others in his feelings, that he speaks in after life of
having "watched night and day without leaving, for a fortnight," a
sick child; and then being rewarded for his care by having it restored
to him after the diligent application of remedies, when the physician
and friends had given up all hope of recovery.

With such affections and sources of happiness, connected with
prosperity in his affairs, it may well be supposed that the current of
life flowed smoothly on. His evenings were passed at home; and urgent
must have been the call which could draw him from his fireside, where
the social chat or friendly book banished the cares of the day.

A gentleman, now a prominent merchant in New York, who was a clerk
with Mr. Lawrence at this time, says of him:

     "When the business season was over, he would sit down with me,
     and converse freely and familiarly, and would have something
     interesting and useful to say. I used to enjoy these sittings;
     and, while I always feared to do anything, or leave anything
     undone, which would displease him, I at the same time had a very
     high regard, and I may say love, for him, such as I never felt
     for any other man beside my own father. He had a remarkable
     faculty of bringing the sterling money into our currency, with
     any advance, by a calculation in his mind, and would give the
     result with great accuracy in one quarter of the time which it
     took me to do it by figures. I used to try hard to acquire this
     faculty, but could not, and never saw any other person who
     possessed it to the degree he did. His mind was remarkably
     vigorous and accurate; and consequently his business was
     transacted in a prompt and correct manner. Nothing was left
     undone until to-morrow which could be done to-day. He was master
     of and controlled his business, instead of allowing his business
     to master and control him. When I took charge of the books, they
     were kept by single entry; and Mr. Lawrence daily examined every
     entry to detect errors. He was dissatisfied with this loose way
     of keeping the books; and, at his request, I studied book-keeping
     by double entry with Mr. Gershom Cobb, who had just introduced
     the new and shorter method of double entry. I then transferred
     the accounts into a new set of books on this plan, and well
     remember his anxiety during the process, and his expression of
     delight when the work was completed, and I had succeeded in
     making the first trial-balance come out right. This was the first
     set of books opened in Boston on the new system. While Mr.
     Lawrence required all to fulfil their engagements fully and
     promptly, so long as they were able to do so, he was lenient to
     those who were unfortunate, and always ready to compromise
     demands against such. No case occurred, while I was with him,
     which I thought he dealt harshly with a debtor who had failed in

The year 1818 opened with cheering prospects; but a cloud was
gathering which was destined to cast a shadow over all these pleasant
hopes. During the spring, Mrs. Lawrence was troubled with a cough,
which became so obstinate at the beginning of the summer, that she was
persuaded to remain at Groton for a short period, in order to try the
benefit of country air. Mr. Lawrence writes to her, July 16:

     "I am forcibly reminded of the blessings of wife, children, and
     friends, by the privation of wife and children; and, when at
     home, I really feel homesick and lonesome. Here I am, in two
     great rooms, almost alone; so you must prepare at a minute's
     notice to follow your husband."

She remained in the country for several weeks, and was summoned
suddenly home by the alarming illness of her husband; the result of
which, for a time, seemed very doubtful. After a season of intense
anxiety and unremitted watchings at his bedside, Mrs. Lawrence was
seized during the night with a hemorrhage from the lungs. This
symptom, which so much alarmed her friends, was hailed by herself with
joy, as she now had no wish to outlive her husband, whose life she had
despaired of. Mr. Lawrence's recovery was slow; and, as soon as it was
deemed prudent, he was sent to Groton to recruit his strength. He
writes, under date of November 5, 1818:

     "DEAREST SARAH: We have heard of the fire on Tuesday evening, and
     hope the alarm has not impaired your health. I enjoy myself here
     as much as it is possible for any one to do under like
     circumstances: The idea of leaving the objects most dear to me, a
     wife and child sick, is too great a drawback upon my happiness to
     allow me as much quiet as is desirable. Yet I have great reason
     for thankfulness that I am at this time able to enjoy the society
     of friends, and that you are so comfortable as to give good
     reason to hope that the next season will restore to you a
     tolerable share of health."

Mrs. Lawrence writes, in reply to his letter:

     "I have just received yours, and feel better to hear that you are
     so well. I hope that you will leave no means unimproved to regain
     health. Do not allow unreasonable fears on my account. I am as
     well as I was the week past; but we are uneasy mortals, and I do
     not improve as I could wish. You know me: therefore make all
     allowances. It is a cloudy day."

It soon became evident to all that the disease under which Mrs.
Lawrence labored was a settled consumption, and that there could be
little hope of recovery. To her mother Mr. Lawrence writes, Dec. 7:

     "Since I last wrote to you, there has been no material change in
     Sarah's situation. She suffers less pain, and has more cheerful
     spirits than when you were here. She is very well apprised of her
     situation, and complains that those who are admitted to see her
     look so sorrowful, that it has a painful effect upon her
     feelings. She is desirous of being kept cheerful and happy; and,
     as far as I am capable of making her so, I do it. Yet I am a poor
     hand to attempt doing, with my feeble health, what is so foreign
     to my feelings. Although she is much more comfortable than she
     was, I cannot flatter myself that she is any better. She still
     retains a faint hope that she may be so; yet it is but a faint
     one. It takes much from my distress to see her so calm, and so
     resigned to the will of the Almighty. Although her attachments to
     life are as strong and as numerous as are the attachments of
     most, I believe the principle of resignation is stronger. She is
     a genuine disciple of Christ; and, if my children walk in her
     steps, they will all be gathered among the blest, and sing the
     song of the redeemed. Should it be the will of God that we be
     separated for a season, there is an animation in the hope that we
     shall meet again, purified from the grossness of the flesh, and
     never to be parted. 'God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.' I
     shall have, therefore, no more put upon me than I am able to
     bear; yet I know not how to bring my mind to part with so
     excellent a friend, and so good a counsellor."

On Jan. 13, 1819, he writes:

     "Sarah has continued to sink since you left, and is now
     apparently very easy, and very near the termination of her
     earthly career. She may continue two or three days; but the
     prospect is, that she will not open her eyes upon another
     morning. She suffers nothing, and it is, therefore, no trial to
     our feelings, compared with what it would be did she suffer. Her
     mind is a little clouded at times, but, in the main, quite clear.
     We shall give you early information of the event which blasts our
     dearest earthly hopes. _But God reigns: let us rejoice._"

A few hours before her death, she called for a paper (now in
possession of the writer), and, with a pencil, traced, in a trembling
hand, some directions respecting small memorials to friends, and then

     "Feeling that I must soon depart from this, I trust, to a better
     world, I resign very dear friends to God, who has done so much
     for me. I am in ecstacies of love. How can I praise him enough!
     To my friends I give these tokens of remembrance."

On the 14th of January, 1819, Mr. Lawrence closed the eyes of this
most beloved of all his earthly objects, and immediately relapsed into
a state of melancholy and gloom, which was, no doubt, greatly promoted
by the peculiar state of health and physical debility under which he
had labored since his last illness.

A valued friend writes, a few days after the death of Mrs. L.:

     "It was my privilege to witness the closing scene; to behold
     faith triumphing over sense, and raising the soul above this
     world of shadows. It was a spectacle to convince the sceptic, and
     to animate and confirm the Christian. About a week before her
     death, her increasing weakness taught her the fallacy of all hope
     of recovery. From this time, it was the business of every moment
     to prepare herself and her friends for the change which awaited
     her. Serene, and even cheerful, she could look forward without
     apprehension into the dark valley, and beyond it she beheld those
     bright regions where she should meet her Saviour, through whose
     mediation she had the blessed assurance that her sins were
     pardoned, and her inheritance secure. God permitted a cloud to
     obscure the bright prospect; it was but for a moment, and the sun
     broke forth with redoubled splendor. On the last night of her
     life, she appeared to suffer extremely, though, when asked, she
     constantly replied in the negative. She repeated, in a feeble
     voice, detached portions of hymns of which she had been fond.
     Towards morning, as she appeared nearly insensible, Mrs. R. was
     persuaded to lie down and rest. Shortly after, Sarah roused
     herself, and said to L., 'I am going; call my mother.' Mrs. R.
     was at her bedside immediately, and asked her if she was sensible
     that she was leaving the world. She answered 'Yes,' and expressed
     her resignation.

     "Mrs. R. then repeated a few lines of Pope's Dying Christian, and
     the expiring saint, in broken accents, followed her. On her
     mother's saying 'the world recedes,' she added, 'It
     disappears,--heaven opens.' These were the last words I heard her
     utter. She then became insensible, and in about ten minutes
     expired. Not a sound interrupted the sacred silence; the tear of
     affection was shed, but no lamentation was heard. The eye of
     affection dwelt on the faded form, but faith pointed to those
     regions where the blessed spirit was admitted to those joys which
     eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the
     heart of man to conceive. Mr. L. is wonderfully supported. He
     feels as a man and a Christian."

Upon this letter Mr. Lawrence has endorsed the following memorandum:

     "I saw this letter to-day for the first time. My son-in-law
     handed to me yesterday a number of memorials of my beloved
     daughter, who was called home on the second day of December
     last, when only a few months younger than her mother, whose death
     is so beautifully described within. The description brought the
     scene back to my mind with a force that unmanned me for a time,
     and leads me to pray most earnestly and humbly that I may be
     found worthy to join them through the beloved, when my summons

                                                            A. L.
     "February 5th, 1845."



The sense of loss and the state of depression under which Mr. Lawrence
labored were so great, that he was advised to try a change of scene;
and accordingly, after having placed his three children with kind
relatives in the country, he left Boston, on a tour, which lasted some
weeks, through the Middle States and Virginia. He wrote many letters
during this time, describing the scenes which he daily witnessed, and
particularly the pleasure which he experienced in Virginia from the
unbounded hospitality with which he was welcomed by those with whom he
had become acquainted. He also visited Washington, and listened to
some important debates on the admission of Missouri into the Union,
which produced a strong and lasting influence upon his mind respecting
the great questions then discussed.

In a letter to his brother from the latter city, dated Feb. 25th,
after describing a visit to the tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon, he

     "Friend Webster has taken a stand here which no man can surpass;
     very few are able to keep even with him. He has made a wonderful
     argument for the United States Bank. If he does not stand
     confessedly first among the advocates here, he does not stand
     second. Tell brother L. of this; it will do him good."

On March 30, he writes to his sister, after his return to Boston:

     "I am once more near the remains of her who was lately more dear
     to me than any other earthly object, after an absence of two
     months; my health much improved,--I may say restored; my heart
     filled with gratitude to the Author of all good for so many and
     rich blessings, so rapidly succeeding such severe privations and

A few days later, he writes to his sister-in-law:

  "Sunday evening, April 4, 1819.

     "DEAR S.: It is proper that I should explain to you why my
     feelings got so much the better of my reason at the celebration
     of the sacrament this morning. The last time I attended that
     service was with my beloved S., after an absence on her part of
     fifteen months, during which period you well know what passed in
     both our minds. On this occasion our minds and feelings were
     elevated with devotion, and (as I trust) suitably affected with
     gratitude to the Father of mercies for once more permitting her
     to celebrate with her husband this memorial of our Saviour. Then,
     indeed, were our hearts gladdened by the cheering prospect of her
     returning health and continued life. The consideration that I had
     since this period been almost within the purlieu of the grave,
     that my beloved Sarah had fallen a sacrifice to her care and
     anxiety for me, and that I was for the first time at the table
     of the Lord without her, with a view to celebrate the most solemn
     service of our religion, overwhelmed me as a torrent, and my
     feelings were too powerful to be restrained; I was almost
     suffocated in the attempt.

     "Comment is unnecessary. God grant us a suitable improvement of
     the scene!

                  "Your affectionate brother,
                                                           A. L."

On April 6, he writes to a friend in England:

     "Since I last wrote, family misfortunes, of which you have from
     time to time been apprised, have pressed heavily upon me. I am
     now in tolerable health, and hope soon to see it entirely

After a visit to his parents, at Groton, he says, on April 9:

     "I arrived at home last Saturday night, at eleven o'clock, after
     rather an uncomfortable ride. However, I had the satisfaction on
     Monday of exercising my right of suffrage, which, had I not done,
     I should have felt unpleasantly. I wrote to M., on Tuesday, under
     a depression of spirits altogether greater than I have before
     felt. The effect of hope upon my feelings, before I saw the
     little ones, was very animating; since that time (although I
     found them all I could desire), the stimulus is gone, and I have
     been very wretched. The principles I cherish will now have their
     proper effect, although nature must first find its level. Do not
     imagine I feel severely depressed all the time; although I
     certainly have much less of animal spirits than I had before my
     return, I do not feel positively unhappy. Under all the
     circumstances it is thought best for me to journey. Hitherto, I
     have experienced the kind protection of an almighty Friend; it
     will not hereafter be withheld. Commending all dear friends and
     myself to Him, I remain your truly affectionate brother,

                                                          "A. L."

To another sister he writes five days afterwards, before commencing a
second journey:

     "In a few moments I am off. I gladly seize the leisure they
     furnish me, to tell you I feel well, and have no doubt of having
     such a flow of spirits as will make my journey pleasant. At any
     rate, I start with this determination. You know not, dear E., the
     delight I feel in contemplating the situation of my little ones;
     this (if no higher principle) should be sufficient to do away all
     repining and vain regrets for the loss of an object so dear as
     was their mother. In short, her own wishes should operate very
     strongly against these regrets. I hope to be forgiven the
     offence, if such it be; and to make such improvement of it as
     will subserve the purposes of my heavenly Father, who doth not
     willingly afflict the children of men, but for their improvement.
     My prayer to God is, that the affliction may not be lost upon me;
     but that it may have the effect of making me estimate more justly
     the value of all temporal objects, and, by thus softening the
     heart, open it to the kind influences of our holy religion, and
     produce that love and charity well pleasing to our Father. I have
     no object in view further south than Baltimore; from thence I
     shall go across the Alleghanies, or journey through the interior
     to the northern border of this country. At Baltimore I remain a
     few days; my business there is as delegate from Brattle-street
     Church, in the settlement of a minister, a young gentleman named
     Sparks, from Connecticut."

                           (TO ABBOTT LAWRENCE.)

                                   "PHILADELPHIA, April 26, 1819.

     "DEAR BROTHER: When I see how people in other places are doing
     business, I feel that we have reason to thank God that we are not
     obliged to do as they do, but are following that regular and
     profitably safe business that allows us to sleep well o' nights,
     and eat the bread of industry and quietness. The more I see of
     the changes produced by violent speculation, the more satisfied I
     am that our maxims are the only true ones for a life together.
     Different maxims may prove successful for a part of life, but
     will frequently produce disastrous results just at the time we
     stand most in need; that is, when life is on the wane, and a
     family is growing around us.

     "Two young brokers in ---- have played a dashing game. They have
     taken nearly one hundred thousand dollars from the bank, without
     the consent of the directors. A clerk discounted for them. They
     have lost it by United States Bank speculations.

     "Look after clerks well, if you wish to keep them honest. Too
     good a reputation sometimes tempts men to sin, upon the strength
     of their reputation.

     "As to business, it must be bad enough; that is nothing new; but
     patience and perseverance will overcome all obstacles, and,
     notwithstanding all things look so dark, I look for a good year's

     "You must remember that I have done nothing yet, and I have never
     failed of accomplishing more than my expectations; so I say
     again, we will make a good year's work of it yet, by the blessing
     of Heaven."

From Lancaster, Penn., April 29, he writes to his sister:

     "My feelings are usually buoyant, except occasionally when
     imagination wanders back to departed days; then comes over me a
     shadow, which, by its frequency, I am now enabled to dispel
     without violence, and even to dwell upon without injury."

                       (TO ABBOTT LAWRENCE.)

                                        "BALTIMORE, May 25, 1819.

     "DEAR BROTHER: I arrived in this city this morning, in the
     steamboat, from Norfolk, and have found a number of letters from
     you and brother W. From the present aspect of affairs in this
     city, I fear that I shall make but a short stay. At no period has
     the face of affairs been more trying to the feelings of the
     citizens. Baltimore has never seen but two days which will
     compare with last Friday: one of those was the mob day, the other
     was the day of the attack by the British.

     "Nearly one half the city, embracing its most active and hitherto
     wealthiest citizens, have stopped or must stop payment.
     Confidence is prostrated, capital vanished.

     "I am rejoiced to hear of your easy situation, and hope it may
     continue. Avoid responsibilities, and all is well with us. I am
     in no wise avaricious, and of course care not whether we make
     five thousand dollars more or less, if we risk twenty thousand to
     do it.

     "I have a high eulogium to pay the Virginians, which I must
     reserve for another letter; as also an account of my travels from

In a letter to a friend, dated at Baltimore, he says:

     "Since I have been here, I have been constantly occupied; and,
     although the heavy cloud which overhangs this city is discharging
     its contents upon their heads, they bear it well, resolving
     that, if they are poor, they will not be unsocial, nor uncivil,
     and on this principle they meet in little groups, without much
     style or ceremony, and pass sensible and sociable evenings

     "I have really become very much interested in some of the people

     "And now my advice to you is, get married, and have no fear about
     the expense being too great. If you have two children born unto
     you within a twelve-month, you will be the richer man for it.
     Nothing sharpens a man's wits, in earning property and using it,
     better than to see a little flock growing up around him. So I say
     again, man, fear not."

On his return, it seems to have been his object to interest himself as
much as possible in business, and thus endeavor to divert his mind
from those painful associations, which, in spite of all his efforts,
would sometimes obtain the mastery. In the mean time, he had given up
his house, and resided in the family of his brother Abbott; where he
was welcomed as an inmate, and treated with so much sympathy and
considerate kindness, that his mind, after a time, recovered its tone:
his health was restored, and he was once more enabled to give his full
powers to the growing interests of his firm. For the few succeeding
years, he was engaged in the usual routine of mercantile affairs, and
has left but few memorials or letters, except those relating to his
business. In the winter of 1820, he made a visit to New York, which
he describes in his diary under date of February 15, 1846:

     "Yesterday was one of the most lovely winter days. To-day the
     snow drives into all the cracks and corners, it being a
     boisterous easterly snow-storm, which recalls to my mind a
     similar one, which I shall never forget, in February, 1820.

     "I went to New York during that month, for the New England Bank,
     with about one hundred thousand dollars in foreign gold, the
     value of which by law at the mint was soon to be reduced from
     eighty-seven to eighty-five cents per pennyweight, or about that.
     I also had orders to buy bills with it, at the best rate I could.
     Accordingly I invested it, and had to analyze the standing of
     many who offered bills, as drawers or endorsers.

     "Some of the bills were protested for non-acceptance, and were
     returned at once, and damages claimed. This was new law in New
     York, and resisted; but the merchants were convinced by suits,
     and paid the twenty per cent. damages. The law of damage was
     altered soon after.

     "On my return, I took a packet for Providence, and came at the
     rate of ten knots an hour for the first seven hours of the night.
     I was alarmed by a crash, which seemed to me to be breaking in
     the side of the ship, within a few inches of my head. I ran upon
     deck, and it was a scene to be remembered. Beside the crew, on
     board were the officers of a wrecked vessel from Portsmouth, N.
     H., and some other old ship-masters, all at work, and giving
     directions to a coaster, which had run foul of us, and had lost
     its way. By favor and labor, we were saved from being wrecked;
     but were obliged to land at some fifteen miles from Providence,
     and get there as we could through the snow. I arrived there
     almost dead with headache and sickness. Madam Dexter and her
     daughter left the day before, and reached home in perfect safety
     before the storm. Such are the scenes of human life! Here am I
     enjoying my own fireside, while all who were then active with me
     in the scenes thus recalled are called to their account,
     excepting Philip Hone, M. Van Schaick, N. Goddard, Chancellor
     Kent, and his son-in-law, Isaac Hone."



In April, 1821, Mr. Lawrence was married to Mrs. Nancy Ellis, widow of
the late Judge Ellis, of Claremont, N. H., and daughter of Robert
Means, Esq., of Amherst, in the same State. His children, who had been
placed with his parents and sisters at Groton, were brought home; and
he was now permitted again to unite his family under his own roof, and
to enjoy once more those domestic comforts so congenial to his taste,
and which each revolving year seemed to increase until the close of
his life.

Mr. Lawrence was elected a representative from Boston to the
Legislature for the session of 1821 and 22; and this was the only
occasion on which he ever served in a public legislative body.
Although deeply engaged in his own commercial pursuits, he was
constantly at his post in the House of Representatives; and attended
faithfully to the duties of his office, although with much sacrifice
to his own personal interests. Very little is found among his
memoranda relating to this new experience. As a member of a committee
of the Legislature having in charge the subject of the erection of
wooden buildings in Boston, he seems to have had a correspondence with
the late Hon. John Lowell, who took strong ground before the committee
against the multiplication of buildings of this material, and backed
his arguments with some very characteristic statements and
observations. On one of these letters Mr. Lawrence made a memorandum,
dated March, 1845, as follows:

     "The _Boston Rebel_ was a true man, such as we need more of in
     these latter days. The open-mouthed lovers of the _dear people_
     are self-seekers in most instances. Beware of such."

The following extract is taken from a letter, dated January 4th, 1822,
addressed by Mr. Lawrence to Hon. Frederic Wolcott, of Connecticut,
respecting a son who was about to be placed in his counting-room, and
who, in after years, became his partner in business:

     "H. will have much leisure in the evening, which, if he choose,
     may be profitably devoted to study; and we hope he will lay out
     such a course for himself, as to leave no portion of his time
     unappropriated. It is on account of so much leisure, that so many
     fine youths are ruined in this town. The habit of industry once
     well fixed, the danger is over.

     "Will it not be well for him to furnish you, at stated periods,
     an exact account of his expenditures? The habit of keeping such
     an account will be serviceable, and, if he is prudent, the
     satisfaction will be great, ten years hence, in looking back and
     observing the process by which his character has been formed. If
     he does as well as he is capable, we have no doubt of your
     experiencing the reward of your care over him."

For the several following years, Mr. Lawrence was deeply engaged in
business; and the firm of which he was the senior partner became
interested in domestic manufactures, which, with the aid of other
capitalists, afterwards grew into so much importance, until now it has
become one of the great interests of the country. Apart from all
selfish motives, he early became one of the strongest advocates for
the protection of American industry, believing that the first duty of
a government is to advance the interests of its own citizens, when it
can be accomplished with justice to others; and in opposition to the
system of free trade, which, however plausible in theory, he
considered prejudicial to the true interests of our own people. He was
conscientious in these opinions; and, in their support, corresponded
largely with some of the leading statesmen at Washington, as well as
with prominent opponents at the South, who combatted his opinions
while they respected the motives by which he was actuated. He tested
his sincerity, by embarking a large proportion of his property in
these enterprises; and, to the last, entertained the belief that the
climate, the soil, and the habits of the people, rendered domestic
manufactures one of the permanent and abiding interests of New
England. During seasons of high political excitement and sectional
strife, he wrote to various friends at the South, urging them to
discard all local prejudices, and to enter with the North into manly
competition in all those branches of domestic industry which would
tend, not only to enrich, but also to improve the moral and
intellectual character of their people. He watched, with increasing
interest, the progress of Lowell and other manufacturing districts,
and was ever ready to lend a helping hand to any scheme which tended
to advance their welfare. Churches, hospitals, libraries, in these
growing communities, had in him a warm and earnest advocate; and it
was always with honest pride that he pointed out to the intelligent
foreigner the moral condition of the operative here, when compared
with that of the same class in other countries.

On the 1st of January, in each year, Mr. Lawrence was in the habit of
noting down, in a small memorandum-book, an accurate account of all
his property, in order that he might have a clear view of his own
affairs, and also as a guide to his executors in the settlement of his
estate, in case of his death. This annual statement commences in 1814,
and, with the exception of 1819, when he was in great affliction on
account of the death of his wife, is continued every year until that
of his own death, in 1852. In this little volume the following
memorandum occurs, dated January 1, 1826:

     "I have been extensively engaged in business during the last two
     years, and have added much to my worldly possessions; but have
     come to the same conclusions in regard to them that I did in
     1818. I feel distressed in mind that the resolutions then made
     have not been more effectual in keeping me from this
     _overengagedness_ in business. I now find myself so engrossed
     with its cares, as to occupy my thoughts, waking or sleeping, to
     a degree entirely disproportioned to its importance. The quiet
     and comfort of home are broken in upon by the anxiety arising
     from the losses and mischances of a business so extensive as
     ours; and, above all, that communion which ought ever to be kept
     free between man and his Maker is interrupted by the incessant
     calls of the multifarious pursuits of our establishment."

After noting down several rules for curtailing his affairs, he

     "Property acquired at such sacrifices as I have been obliged to
     make the past year costs more than it's worth; and the anxiety in
     protecting it is the extreme of folly."

       *       *       *       *       *

     _1st of January, 1827._--"The principles of business laid down a
     year ago have been very nearly practised upon. Our
     responsibilities and anxieties have greatly diminished, as also
     have the accustomed profits of business; but there is sufficient
     remaining for the reward of our labor to impose on us increased
     responsibilities and duties, as agents who must at last render an
     account. God grant that mine be found correct!"



_1st of January, 1828._--After an account of his affairs, he remarks:

     "The amount of property is great for a young man under forty-two
     years of age, who came to this town when he was twenty-one years
     old with no other possessions than a common country education, a
     sincere love for his own family, and habits of industry, economy,
     and sobriety. Under God, it is these same self-denying habits,
     and a desire I always had to please, so far as I could without
     sinful compliance, that I can now look back upon and see as the
     true ground of my success. I have many things to reproach myself
     with; but among them is not idling away my time, or spending
     money for such things as are improper. My property imposes upon
     me many duties, which can only be known to my Maker. May a sense
     of these duties be constantly impressed upon my mind; and, by a
     constant discharge of them, God grant me the happiness at last of
     hearing the joyful sound, 'Well done, good and faithful servant,
     enter thou into the joy of thy Lord!' Amen. Amen."

Previous to this date, but few private letters written by Mr. Lawrence
were preserved. From that time, however, many volumes have been
collected, a greater part of them addressed to his children. Out of a
very large correspondence with them and with friends, such selections
will be made as are thought most interesting, and most worthy to be
preserved by his family and their descendants. The nature of this
correspondence is such, involving many personal matters of transient
interest that often scraps of letters only can be given; and, although
it will be the aim of the editor to give an outline of the life of the
author of these letters, it will be his object to allow him to speak
for himself, and to reveal his own sentiments and character, rather
than to follow out, from year to year, the details of his personal
history. This correspondence commences with a series of letters
extending through several years, and addressed to his eldest son, who
was, during that time, at school in France and Spain.

                                      "BOSTON, November 11, 1828.

     "I trust that you will have had favoring gales and a pleasant
     passage, and will be safely landed at Havre within twenty days
     after sailing. You will see things so different from what you
     have been accustomed to, that you may think the French are far
     before or behind us in the arts of life, and formation of
     society. But you must remember that what is best for one people
     may be the worst for another; and that it is true wisdom to study
     the character of the people among whom you are, before adopting
     their manners, habits, or feelings, and carrying them to another
     people. I wish to see you, as long as you live, a well-bred,
     upright _Yankee_. Brother Jonathan should never forget his
     self-respect, nor should he be impertinent in claiming more for
     his country or himself than is due; but on no account should he
     speak ungraciously of his country or its friends abroad, whatever
     may be said by others. Lafayette in France is not what he is
     here; and, whatever may be said of him there, he is an ardent
     friend of the United States; and I will venture to say, if you
     introduce yourself to him as a grandson of one of his old Yankee
     officers, he will treat you with the kindness of a father. You
     must visit La Grange, and G. will go with you. He will not
     recollect your grandfather, or any of us. But tell him that your
     father and three uncles were introduced to him here in the State
     House; that they are much engaged in forwarding the Bunker Hill
     Monument; and, if ever he return to this country, it will be the
     pride of your father to lead him to the top of it."

Among Mr. Lawrence's papers, this is the first allusion to the Bunker
Hill Monument, in the erection of which he afterwards took so
prominent a part, and to which he most liberally contributed both time
and money. From early associations, perhaps from the accounts received
from his father, who was present during the battle, his mind became
strongly interested in the project of erecting a monument, and
particularly in that of reserving the whole battle-ground for the use
of the public forever. He had been chosen one of the Building
Committee of the Board of Directors in October, 1825, in company with
Dr. John C. Warren, General H. A. S. Dearborn, George Blake, and
William Sullivan. From this time until the completion of the monument,
the object occupied a prominent place in his thoughts; and allusion to
his efforts in its behalf during the succeeding years will, from time
to time, be introduced.

On December 13, 1828, he thus alludes to the death of an invalid
daughter six years of age:

     "She was taken with lung fever on the 4th, and died, after much
     suffering and distress, on the 8th. Nothing seemed to relieve her
     at all; and I was thankful when the dear child ceased to suffer,
     and was taken to the bosom of her Saviour, where sickness and
     suffering will no more reach her, and the imperfections of her
     earthly tenement will be corrected, and her mind and spirit will
     be allowed to expand and grow to their full stature in Christ. In
     his hands I most joyfully leave her, hoping that I may rejoin her
     with the other children whom it has pleased God to give me."

                                (TO HIS SON.)

                                                    "December 29.

     "My thoughts are often led to contemplate the condition of my
     children in every variety of situation, more especially in
     sickness, since the death of dear M. Although I do not allow
     myself to indulge in melancholy or fearful forebodings, I cannot
     but feel the deepest solicitude that their minds and principles
     should be so strengthened and stayed upon their God and Saviour
     as to give them all needed support in a time of such trial and
     suffering. You are so situated as perhaps not to recall so
     frequently to your mind as may be necessary the principles in
     which you have been educated. But let me, in the absence of these
     objects, remind you that God is ever present, and sees the inmost
     thoughts; and, while he allows every one to act freely, he gives
     to such as earnestly and honestly desire to do right all needed
     strength and encouragement to do it. Therefore, my dear son, do
     not cheat yourself by doing what you suspect _may_ be wrong. You
     are as much accountable to your Maker for an enlightened exercise
     of your conscience, as you would be to me to use due diligence in
     taking care of a bag of money which I might send by you to Mr. W.
     If you were to throw it upon deck, or into the bottom of the
     coach, you would certainly be culpable; but, if you packed it
     carefully in your trunk, and placed the trunk in the usual
     situation, it would be using common care. So in the exercise of
     your conscience: if you refuse to examine whether an action is
     right or wrong, you voluntarily defraud yourself of the guide
     provided by the Almighty. If you do wrong, you have no better
     excuse than he who had done so willingly and wilfully. It is the
     sincere desire that will be accepted."

To his second son, then at school in Andover, he writes:

     "I received your note yesterday, and was prepared to hear your
     cash fell short, as a dollar-bill was found in your chamber on
     the morning you left home. You now see the benefit of keeping
     accounts, as you would not have been sure about this loss without
     having added up your account. Get the habit firmly fixed of
     putting down every cent you receive and every cent you expend. In
     this way you will acquire some knowledge of the relative value of
     things, and a habit of judging and of care which will be of use
     to you during all your life. Among the numerous people who have
     failed in business within my knowledge, a prominent cause has
     been a want of system in their affairs, by which to know when
     their expenses and losses exceeded their profits. This habit is
     as necessary for professional men as for a merchant; because, in
     their business, there are numerous ways to make little savings,
     if they find their income too small, which they would not adopt
     without looking at the detail of all their expenses. It is the
     habit of consideration I wish you to acquire; and the habit of
     being accurate will have an influence upon your whole character
     in life."

                            (TO HIS SON IN FRANCE.)

                                                 "April 28, 1829.

     "I beseech you to consider well the advantages you enjoy, and to
     avail yourself of your opportunities to give your manners a
     little more ease and polish; for, you may depend upon it, manners
     are highly important in your intercourse with the world. Good
     principles, good temper, and good manners, will carry a man
     through the world much better than he can get along with the
     absence of either. The most important is good principles. Without
     these, the best manners, although, for a time, very acceptable,
     cannot sustain a person in trying situations.

     "If you live to attain the age of thirty, the interim will appear
     but a span; and yet at that time you will be in the full force of
     manhood. To look forward to that period, it seems very long; and
     it is long enough to make great improvement. Do not omit the
     opportunity to acquire a character and habits that will continue
     to improve during the remainder of life. At its close, the
     reflection that you have thus done will be a support and stay
     worth more than any sacrifice you may ever feel called on to make
     in acquiring these habits."

                              (TO THE SAME.)

                                                   "June 7, 1829.

     "I was forcibly reminded, on entering our tomb last evening, of
     the inroads which death has made in our family since 1811, at the
     period when I purchased it. How soon any of us who survive may
     mingle our dust with theirs, is only known to Omniscience; but,
     at longest, it can be in his view but a moment, a mere point of
     time. How important, then, to us who can use this mere point for
     our everlasting good, that we should do it, and not squander it
     as a thing without value! Think upon this, my son; and do not
     merely admit the thought into your mind and drive it out by vain
     imaginations, but give it an abiding and practical use. To set a
     just value upon time, and to make a just use of it, deprives no
     one of any rational pleasure: on the contrary, it encourages
     temperance in the enjoyment of all the good things which a good
     Providence has placed within our reach, and thankfulness for all
     opportunities of bestowing happiness on our fellow-beings. Thus
     you have an opportunity of making me and your other friends
     happy, by diligence in your studies, temperance, truth,
     integrity, and purity of life and conversation. I may not write
     to you again for a number of weeks, as I shall commence a journey
     to Canada in a few days. You will get an account of the journey
     from some of the party."



Mr. Lawrence, with a large party, left Boston on the 13th of June, and
passed through Vermont, across the Green Mountains, to Montreal and
Quebec. Compared with these days of railroad facilities, the journey
was slow. It was performed very leisurely in hired private vehicles,
and seems to have been much enjoyed. He gives a glowing account of the
beauty of the country through which he passed, as well as his
impressions of the condition of the population.

From Quebec the party proceeded to Niagara Falls, and returned through
the State of New York to Boston, "greatly improved in health and
spirits." This, with one other visit to Canada several years before,
was the only occasion on which Mr. Lawrence ever left the territory of
the United States; for, though sometimes tempted, in after years, to
visit the Old World, his occupations and long-continued feeble health
prevented his doing so.

                               (TO HIS SON.)

                                                        "July 27.

     "If, in an endeavor to do right, we fall short, we shall still be
     in the way of duty; and that is first to be looked at. We must
     keep in mind that we are to render an account of the use of those
     talents which are committed to us; and we are to be judged by
     unerring Wisdom, which can distinguish all the motives of action,
     as well as weigh the actions. As our stewardship has been
     faithful or otherwise, will be the sentence pronounced upon us.
     Give this your best thoughts, for it is a consideration of vast

                                                      "August 27.

     "Bring home no foreign fancies which are inapplicable to our
     state of society. It is very common for our young men to come
     home and appear quite ridiculous in attempting to introduce their
     foreign fashions. It should be always kept in mind that the state
     of society is widely different here from that in Europe; and our
     comfort and character require it should long remain so. Those who
     strive to introduce many of the European habits and fashions, by
     displacing our own, do a serious injury to the republic, and
     deserve censure. An idle person, with good powers of mind,
     becomes torpid and inactive after a few years of indulgence, and
     is incapable of making any high effort; highly important it is,
     then, to avoid this enemy of mental and moral improvement. I have
     no wish that you pursue trade. I would rather see you on a farm,
     or studying any profession."

                                                     "October 16.

     "It should always be your aim so to conduct yourself that those
     whom you value most in the world would approve your conduct, if
     all your actions were laid bare to their inspection; and thus you
     will be pretty sure that He who sees the motive of all our
     actions will accept the good designed, though it fall short in
     its accomplishment. You are young, and are placed in a situation
     of great peril, and are perhaps sometimes tempted to do things
     which you would not do if you knew yourself under the eye of your
     guardian. The blandishments of a beautiful city may lead you to
     forget that you are always surrounded, supported, and seen, by
     that best Guardian."

                                                    "December 27.

     "I suppose Christmas is observed with great pomp in France. It is
     a day which our Puritan forefathers, in their separation from the
     Church of England, endeavored to blot out from the days of
     religious festivals; and this because it was observed with so
     much pomp by the Romish Church. In this, as well as in many other
     things, they were as unreasonable as though they had said they
     would not eat bread because the Roman Catholics do. I hope and
     trust the time is not far distant when Christmas will be observed
     by the descendants of the Puritans with all suitable respect, as
     the first and highest holiday of Christians; combining all the
     feelings and views of New England Thanksgiving with all the other
     feelings appropriate to it."

                                               "January 31, 1830.

     "You have seen, perhaps, that the Directors of the Bunker Hill
     Monument Association have applied to the Legislature for a
     lottery. I am extremely sorry for it. I opposed the measure in
     all its stages, and feel mortified that they have done so. They
     cannot get it, and I desire that General Lafayette may understand
     this; and, if he will write us a few lines during the coming
     year, it will help us in getting forward a subscription. When our
     citizens shall have had one year of successful business, they
     will be ready to give the means to finish the monument. My
     feelings are deeply interested in it, believing it highly
     valuable as a nucleus for the affections of the people in after
     time; and, if my life be spared and my success continue, I will
     never cease my efforts until it be completed."

Further details will be given in this volume to show now nobly Mr.
Lawrence persevered in the resolution thus deliberately formed; and,
though he was destined to witness many fruitless efforts, he had the
satisfaction at last of seeing the completion of the monument, and
from its summit of pointing out the details of the battle to the son
of one of the British generals in command[2] on that eventful day.

  [2] Lord Prudhoe, now Duke of Northumberland.

On the same page with the estimate of his property for the year 1830,
he writes:

     "With a view to know the amount of my expenditures for objects
     other than the support of my family, I have, for the year 1829,
     kept a particular account of such other expenses as come under
     the denomination of charities, and appropriations for the benefit
     of others not of my own household, for many of whom I feel under
     the same obligation as for my own family."

This memorandum was commenced on the 1st of January, 1829, and is
continued until December 30, 1852, the last day of his life. It
contains a complete statement of his charities during that whole
period, including not only what he contributed in money, but also all
other donations, in the shape of clothing materials, books,
provisions, &c. His custom was to note down at cost the value of the
donation, after it had been despatched; whether in the shape of a
book, a turkey, or one of his immense bundles of varieties to some
poor country minister's family, as large, as he says in addressing
one, "as a small haycock." Two rooms in his house, and sometimes
three, were used principally for the reception of useful articles for
distribution. There, when stormy weather or ill health prevented him
from taking his usual drive, he was in the habit of passing hours in
selecting and packing up articles which he considered suitable to the
wants of those whom he wished to aid. On such days, his coachman's
services were put in requisition to pack and tie up "the small
haycocks;" and many an illness was the result of over-exertion and
fatigue in supplying the wants of his poorer brethren. These packages
were selected according to the wants of the recipients, and a
memorandum made of the contents. In one case, he notifies Professor
----, of ---- College, that he has sent by railroad "a barrel and a
bundle of books, with broadcloth and pantaloon stuffs, with odds and
ends for poor students when they go out to keep school in the winter."
Another, for the president of a college at the West, one piece of silk
and worsted, for three dresses; one piece of plaid, for "M. and
mamma;" a lot of pretty books; a piece of lignum-vitæ from the Navy
Yard, as a text for the support of the navy; and various items for
the children: value, twenty-five dollars.

To a professor in a college in a remote region he sends a package
containing "dressing-gown, vest, hat, slippers, jack-knife, scissors,
pins, neck-handkerchiefs, pantaloons, cloth for coat, 'History of
Groton,' lot of pamphlets," &c.

Most of the packages forwarded contained substantial articles for
domestic use, and were often accompanied by a note containing from
five to fifty dollars in money.

The distribution of books was another mode of usefulness to which Mr.
Lawrence attached much importance.

In his daily drives, his carriage was well stored with useful volumes,
which he scattered among persons of all classes and ages as he had

These books were generally of a religious character, while others of a
miscellaneous nature were purchased in large numbers, and sent to
institutions, or individuals in remote parts of the country.

He purchased largely the very useful as well as tasteful volumes of
the American Tract Society and the Sunday-School Union. An agent of
the latter society writes: "I had almost felt intimately acquainted
with him, as nearly every pleasant day he visited the depository to
fill the front seat of his coach with books for distribution."

Old and young, rich and poor, shared equally in these distributions;
and he rarely allowed an occasion to pass unimproved when he thought
an influence could be exerted by the gift of an appropriate volume.

While waiting one day in his carriage with a friend, in one of the
principal thoroughfares of the city, he beckoned to a genteelly-dressed
young man who was passing, and handed him a book. Upon being asked
whether the young man was an acquaintance, he replied:

"No, he is not; but you remember where it is written, 'Cast thy bread
upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after many days.'"

"A barrel of books" is no uncommon item found in his record of
articles almost daily forwarded to one and another of his distant



                           (TO HIS SON.)

                                               "February 5, 1830.

     "Be sure and visit La Grange before you return; say to General
     Lafayette that the Bunker Hill Monument will _certainly be
     finished_, and that the foolish project of a lottery has been
     abandoned. If, in the course of Providence, I should be taken
     away, I hope my children will feel it a duty to continue the
     efforts that are made in this work, which I have had so much at
     heart, and have labored so much for."

To his son, then at school at Versailles, he writes on Feb. 26, 1830:

     "After hearing from you again, I can judge better what to advise
     respecting your going into Spain. At all events, let no hope of
     going, or seeing, or doing anything else, prevent your using the
     present time for improving yourself in whatever you find to do.
     My greatest fear is, that you may form a wrong judgment of what
     constitutes your true respectability, happiness, and usefulness.
     To a youth just entering on the scenes of life, the roses on the
     wayside appear without thorns; but, in the eagerness to snatch
     them, many find, to their sorrow, that all which appears so fair
     is not in possession what it was in prospect, and that beneath
     the rose there is a thorn that sometimes wounds like a serpent's
     bite. Let not appearances deceive you; for, when once you have
     strayed, the second temptation is more likely to be fallen into
     than the first."

                                                  "March 6, 1830.

     "We are all in New England deeply interested by Mr. Webster's
     late grand speech in the Senate, vindicating New England men and
     New England measures from reproach heaped upon them by the South;
     it was his most powerful effort, and you will see the American
     papers are full of it. You should read the whole debate between
     him and Mr. Hayne of South Carolina; you will find much to
     instruct and interest you, and much of what you ought to know.
     Mr. Webster never stood so high in this country as, at this
     moment; and I doubt if there be any man, either in Europe or
     America, his superior. The doctrines upon the Constitution in
     this speech should be read as a text-book by all our youth."

After reading the great speech of Mr. Webster, Mr. Lawrence addressed
to that gentleman a letter, expressing his admiration of the manner in
which New England had been vindicated, and also his own personal
feelings of gratitude for the proud stand thus taken.

Mr. Webster replied as follows:

                                      "WASHINGTON, March 8, 1830.

     "DEAR SIR: I thank you very sincerely for your very kind and
     friendly letter. The sacrifices made in being here, and the
     mortifications sometimes experienced, are amply compensated by
     the consciousness that my friends at home feel that I have done
     some little service to our New England. I pray you to remember me
     with very true regard to Mrs. Lawrence, and believe me

            "Very faithfully and gratefully yours,
                                                 "DANIEL WEBSTER.

                    EXTRACTS OF LETTERS TO HIS SON.

                                                 "April 13, 1830.

     "You may feel very sure that any study which keeps your mind
     engaged will be likely to strengthen it; and that, if you leave
     your mind inactive, it will run to waste. Your arm is
     strengthened by wielding a broadsword, or even a foil. Your legs
     by various gymnastic exercises, and the organs of sight and
     hearing by careful and systematic use, are greatly improved; even
     the finger is trained, by the absence of sight, to perform almost
     the service of the eye. All this shows how natural it is for all
     the powers to grow stronger by use. You needed not these examples
     to convince you; but my desire to have you estimate your
     advantages properly induces me to write upon them very often.
     Every American youth owes his country his best talents and
     services, and should devote them to the country's welfare. In
     doing that, you will promote not only your own welfare, but your
     highest enjoyment.

     "The duty of an American citizen, at this period of the world, is
     that of a responsible agent; and he should endeavor to transmit
     to the next age the institutions of our country uninjured and
     improved. We hope, in your next letter, to hear something more of
     General Lafayette. The old gentleman is most warm in his
     affection for Americans. May he live long to encourage and bless
     by his example the good of all countries! In contemplating a life
     like his, who can say that compensation even here is not fully
     made for all the anguish and suffering he has formerly endured?
     Long life does not consist in many years; but in the period being
     filled with good services to our fellow-beings. He whose life
     ends at thirty may have done much, while he who has reached the
     age of one hundred may have done little. With the Almighty, a
     thousand years are a moment; and he will therefore give no credit
     to any talents not used to his glory; which use is the same thing
     as promoting, by all means in our power, the welfare and
     happiness of the beings among whom we are placed."

                                                    "May 7, 1830.

     "I have been pretty steady at my business, without working hard,
     or having anxious feelings about it. It is well to have an
     agreeable pursuit to employ the mind and body. I think that I can
     work for the next six years with as good a relish as ever I did;
     but I make labor a pleasure. I have just passed into my
     forty-fifth year, you know. At my age, I hope you will feel as
     vigorous and youthful as I now do. A temperate use of the good
     things of life, and a freedom from anxious cares, tend, as much
     as anything, to keep off old age."

                                                  "June 17, 1830.

     "To-day completes fifty-five years since the glorious battle of
     Bunker Hill, and five years since the nation's guest assisted at
     the laying of the corner-stone of the monument which is to
     commemorate to all future times the events which followed that
     battle. If it should please God to remove me before this
     structure is completed, I hope to remember it in my will, and
     that my sons will live to see it finished. But what I deem of
     more consequence is to retain for posterity the battle-field, now
     in the possession of the Bunker Hill Monument Association. The
     Association is in debt, and a part of the land may pass out of
     its possession; but I hope, if it do, there will be spirit
     enough among individuals to purchase it and restore it again;
     for I would rather the whole work should not be resumed for
     twenty years, than resume it by parting with the land. I name
     this to you now, that you may have a distinct intimation of my
     wishes to keep the land open for our children's children to the
     end of time."

                                                  "July 17, 1830.

     "Temptation, if successfully resisted, strengthens the character;
     but it should always be avoided. 'Lead us not into temptation'
     are words of deep meaning, and should always carry with them
     corresponding desires of obedience. At a large meeting of
     merchants and others held ten days ago, it was resolved to make
     an effort to prevent the licensing of such numbers of soda-shops,
     retailers of spirits and the like, which have, in my opinion,
     done more than anything else to debase and ruin the youth of our
     city. It is a gross perversion of our privileges to waste and
     destroy ourselves in this way. God has given us a good land and
     many blessings. We misuse them, and make them minister to our
     vices. We shall be called to a strict account. Every good citizen
     owes it to his God and his country to stop, as far as he can,
     this moral desolation. Let me see you, on your return, an
     advocate of good order and good morals. * * *

     "Our old neighbor the sea-serpent was more than usually
     accommodating the day after we left Portsmouth. He exhibited
     himself to a great number of people who were at Hampton Beach
     last Saturday. They had a full view of his snakeship from the
     shore. He was so civil as to raise his head about four feet, and
     look into a boat, where were three men, who thought it the wisest
     way to retreat to their cabin. His length is supposed to be about
     one hundred feet, his head the size of a ten-gallon cask, and his
     body, in the largest part, about the size of a barrel. I have
     never had any more doubt respecting the existence of this animal,
     since he was seen here eleven years ago, than I have had of the
     existence of Bonaparte. The evidence was as strong to my mind of
     the one as of the other. I had never seen either; but I was as
     well satisfied of the existence of both, as I should have been
     had I seen both. And yet the idea of the sea-serpent's existence
     has been scouted and ridiculed."

                                                   "September 25.

     "The events of the late French Revolution have reached us up to
     the 17th August. The consideration of them is animating, and
     speaks in almost more than human language. We are poor, frail,
     and mortal beings; but there is something elevating in the
     thought of a whole people acting as with the mind and the aim of
     one man, a part which allies man to a higher order of beings. I
     confess it makes me feel a sort of veneration for them; and trust
     that no extravagance will occur to mar the glory and the dignity
     of this enterprise. Our beloved old hero, too, acting as the
     guiding and presiding genius of this wonderful event! May God
     prosper them, and make it to the French people what it is capable
     of being, if they make a right use of it! I hope that you have
     been careful to see and learn everything, and that you will
     preserve the information you obtain in such a form as to recall
     the events to your mind a long time hence. We are all very well
     and very busy, and in fine spirits, here in the old town of
     Boston. Those who fell behind last year have some of them placed
     themselves in the rear rank, and are again on duty. Others are
     laid up, unfit for duty; and the places of all are supplied with
     fresh troops. We now present as happy and as busy a community as
     you would desire to see."



During the autumn of 1830, in order to testify in a more marked manner
his appreciation of Mr. Webster's distinguished services in the Senate
of the United States, Mr. Lawrence presented to that gentleman a
service of silver plate, accompanied by the following note:

                                       "BOSTON, October 23, 1830.


     "DEAR SIR: Permit me to request your acceptance of the
     accompanying small service of plate, as a testimony of my
     gratitude for your services to the country in your late efforts
     in the Senate; especially for your vindication of the character
     of Massachusetts and of New England.

                   "From your friend and fellow-citizen,

                                                  "AMOS LAWRENCE.

     "P. S.--If by any emblem or inscription on any piece of this
     service, referring to the circumstances of which this is a
     memorial, the whole will be made more acceptable, I shall be glad
     to have you designate what it shall be, and permit me the
     opportunity of adding it."

To which Mr. Webster replied, on the same evening, as follows:

                                "SUMMER-STREET, October 23, 1830.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I cannot well express my sense of your kindness,
     manifested in the present of plate, which I have received this
     evening. I know that, from you, this token of respect is sincere;
     and I shall ever value it, and be happy in leaving it to my
     children, as a most gratifying evidence of your friendship. The
     only thing that can add to its value is your permission that it
     may be made to bear an inscription expressive of the donation.

                 "I am, dear sir, with unfeigned esteem,
                               "Your friend and obedient servant,

                                                 "DANIEL WEBSTER.

                                (TO HIS SON.)

                                       "BOSTON, January 16, 1831.

     "Our local affairs are very delightful in this state and city. We
     have no violent political animosities; and the prosperity of the
     people is very great. In our city, in particular, the people have
     not had greater prosperity for twenty years. There is a general
     industry and talent in our population, that is calculated to
     produce striking results upon their character. In your
     reflections upon your course, you may settle it as a principle,
     that no man can attain any valuable influence or character among
     us, who does not labor with whatever talents he has to increase
     the sum of human improvement and happiness. An idler, who feels
     that he has no responsibilities, but is contriving to get rid of
     time without being useful to any one, whatever be his fortune,
     can find no comfort in staying here. We have not enough such to
     make up a society. We are literally all working-men; and the
     attempt to get up a 'Working-men's party' is a libel upon the
     whole population, as it implies that there are among us large
     numbers who are not working-men. He is a working-man whose mind
     is employed, whether in making researches into the meaning of
     hieroglyphics or in demonstrating any invention in the arts, just
     as much as he who cuts down the forests, or holds the plough, or
     swings the sledge-hammer. Therefore let it be the sentiment of
     your heart to use all the talents and powers you may possess in
     the advancement of the moral and political influence of New
     England. New England, I say; for here is to be the stronghold of
     liberty, and the seat of influence to the vast multitude of
     millions who are to people this republic."

At the period when the preceding letter was written, the manufacturing
interests had become of vast importance in this community; and the
house of which Mr. Lawrence was the senior partner had identified
itself with many of the great manufacturing corporations already
created, or then in progress. With such pecuniary interests at stake,
and with a sense of responsibility for the success of these
enterprises, which had been projected on a scale and plan hitherto
unknown, it may be supposed that his mind and energies were fully
taxed, and that he could be fairly ranked among the working-men
alluded to. While in the full tide of active life, and, as it were, at
the crowning point of a successful career, the hand of Providence was
laid upon him to remove him, for the rest of his days, from this
sphere of honor and activity to the chamber of the invalid, and the
comparatively tame and obscure walks of domestic life. Ever after
this, his life hung upon a thread; and its very uncertainty, far from
causing him to despond and rest from future effort, seemed only to
excite the desire to work while the day lasted. The discipline thus
acquired, instead of consigning him to the inglorious obscurity of a
sick chamber, was the means of his entering upon that career of active
philanthropy which is now the great source of whatever distinction
there may be attached to his memory. His business life was ended; and,
though he was enabled to advise with others, and give sometimes a
direction to the course of affairs, he assumed no responsibility, and
had virtually retired from the field.

On the 1st of June, 1831, the weather being very warm, Mr. Lawrence,
while engaged in the business of his counting-room, drank moderately
of cold water, and, soon after, was seized with a violent and alarming
illness. The functions of the stomach seemed to have been destroyed;
and, for many days, there remained but small hope of his recovery.
Much sympathy was expressed by his friends and the public, and in such
a manner as to afford gratification to his family, as well as surprise
to himself when sufficiently recovered to be informed of it. He had
not yet learned the place which he had earned, in the estimation of
those around him, as a merchant and a citizen; and it was, not
improbably, a stimulus to merit, by his future course, the high
encomiums which were then lavished upon him.

Mr. Lawrence announced his sickness to his son, then in Spain, in the
following letter, dated

                                          "BOSTON, June 27, 1831.

     "I desire to bless God for being again permitted to address you
     in this way. On the 1st day of this month, I was seized with a
     violent illness, which caused both myself and my friends almost
     to despair of my life. But, by the blessing of God, the remedies
     proved efficacious; and I am still in the land of the living,
     with a comfortable prospect of acquiring my usual health,
     although, thus far, not allowed to leave my chamber. In that
     dread hour when I thought that the next perhaps would be my last
     on earth,--my thoughts resting upon my God and Saviour, then upon
     the past scenes of my life, then upon my dear children,--the
     belief that their minds are well directed, and that they will
     prove blessings to society, and fulfil, in some good degree, the
     design of Providence in placing them here, was a balm to my
     spirits that proved more favorable to my recovery than any of the
     other remedies. May you never forget that every man is
     individually responsible for his actions, and must be held
     accountable for his opportunities! Thus he who has ten talents
     will receive a proportionate reward, if he makes a right use of
     them; and he who receives one will be punished, if he hides it in
     a napkin."

                                                  "June 29, 1831.

     "MY DEAR AND EVER-HONORED MOTHER: Through the divine goodness, I
     am once more enabled to address you by letter, after having
     passed through a sickness alarming to my friends, although to
     myself a comparatively quiet one. I cannot in words express my
     grateful sense of God's goodness in thus carrying me, as it
     were, in his hand, and lighting the way by the brightness of his
     countenance. During that period in which I considered my recovery
     as hardly probable, my mind was calm; and, while in review of the
     past I found many things to lament, and in contemplation of the
     future much to fear, but more to hope, I could find no other
     words in which to express my thoughts than the words of the
     publican, 'God be merciful to me a sinner!' All the small
     distinctions of sects and forms dwindled into air, thin air, and
     seemed to me even more worthless than ever. The cares and
     anxieties of the world did not disturb me, believing it to be of
     small moment whether I should be taken now or spared a few years
     longer. With returning health and strength, different prospects
     open, and different feelings take the place of those which were
     then so appropriate; and the social feelings and sympathies have
     their full share in their hold upon me. * * * *

  "From your ever-loving and dutiful son,
                                                           A. L."

                             (TO HIS SON.)

                                                        "July 14.

     "I have been constantly gaining since my last to you, and with
     constant care, hope to acquire my usual health. I am, however,
     admonished, by the two attacks I have experienced within a month,
     that the continuance of my life for any considerable period will
     be very likely to depend upon a rigid prudence in my labor and
     living. The recovery from this last sickness is almost like being
     restored to life; and I hope the span that may be allowed me may
     be employed in better service than any period of my past life. We
     are placed here to be disciplined for another and higher state;
     and whatever happens to us makes a part of this discipline. In
     this view, we ought never to murmur, but to consider, when ills
     befall us, how we can make them subserve our highest good. What I
     am more desirous than anything else for you is, that you may feel
     that you are accountable for all your talents, and that you may
     so use them as to have an approving conscience, and the final
     recompense of a faithful servant at last. The period of trial is
     short; but the consequences are never-ending. How important to
     each individual, then,--to you and to me,--that we use aright the
     period assigned us!"



A few days after the date of the preceding letter, a change was
thought desirable for the improvement of Mr. Lawrence's health; and he
accordingly, with Mrs. L., went to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and
remained a week with his friend and brother-in-law, the late Hon.
Jeremiah Mason. From thence he proceeded to visit friends in Amherst,
New Hampshire, where he was attacked by a severe rheumatic fever,
which confined him for several weeks; and it was with great difficulty
that he succeeded in reaching home about the 20th of September, after
an absence of nearly two months. On the 27th of September, he writes
to his son:

     "It is only within a few days that I have been able to be removed
     to my own house. I am now able to walk my chamber, and sit up
     half the day; and, by the best care in the world, I have a fair
     hope of again enjoying so much health as to feel that I may yet
     be of some use in the world. My bodily sufferings have been great
     during this last sickness; but my mind in general has been
     quiet. I seem to want nothing which this world can give to make
     me an enviably happy man, but your presence and a return of my
     health; but these last are wisely withheld. We are apt, in the
     abundance of the gift, to lose the recollection whence it came,
     and feel that by our own power we can go forward. Happy for us
     that we are thus made to feel that all we have is from God; this
     recurrence to the Source of all our blessings makes us better
     men. I do not expect to be able to leave the house before the
     next spring; and, in the mean time, must be subject to the
     casualties incident to a person in my situation."

On October 29, Mr. Lawrence, in a letter to the same son, expresses
his gratitude for the enjoyment of life, "even in a sick chamber, as
mine must be termed."

     "I receive my friends here, and once only have walked abroad for
     a few minutes. I drive in a carriage every pleasant day, and I
     can truly say that my days pass in the full enjoyment of more
     than the average of comfort. 'My mind is as easy as it ever is,
     and as active as is safe for the body. I employed myself
     yesterday in looking over your letters since you left home three
     years ago, and was reminded by them that the fourth year of your
     absence has just commenced. Although a brief space since it is
     passed, an equal time, if we look forward, appears to be far
     distant. The question you will naturally ask yourself is, How has
     the time been spent? and from the answer you may gather much
     instruction for the future. If you have made the best use of this
     period, happy is it for you, as the habit of the useful
     application of your time will make its continuance more natural
     and easy. If you have misused and abused your opportunities,
     there is not a moment to be lost in retracing your steps, and
     making good, by future effort, what has been lost by want of it.
     In short, we can none of us know that a future will be allowed us
     to amend and to correct our previous misdoings and omissions; and
     it is not less the part of wisdom than of duty to be always up
     and doing, that whenever our Master comes we may be ready. I
     never was made so sensible before of the power of the mind over
     the body. It is a matter of surprise to some of my friends, who
     have known my constant habits of business for a quarter of a
     century, that I can find so much comfort and quiet in the
     confinement of my house, when I feel so well, and there are so
     many calls for my labors abroad. I hope to pursue such a discreet
     course as shall allow me to come forth in the spring with my poor
     frame so far renovated and restored as to enable me to take my
     place among the active laborers of the day, and do what little I
     may for the advancement and well-being of my generation. If,
     however, I should, by any accident or exposure, be again brought
     to a bed of pain and suffering, may God grant me a patient and
     submissive temper to bear whatever may be put upon me, with a
     full conviction that such chastisements will tend to my good, if
     I make a right use of them!"

The first of January, 1832, found Mr. Lawrence confined to his sick
room, and unable, from bodily weakness, to drive out in the open air,
as he had hitherto done. He writes to his son:

     "I am reminded, by the new year, that another portion of time has
     passed, by which we are accustomed to measure in prospect the
     space that is allotted us here; and the reflections at the close
     of the old and the commencement of the new year are calculated,
     if we do not cheat ourselves, to make us better than we otherwise
     should be. I am enjoying myself highly under the close
     confinement of two parlor chambers, from which I have only
     travelled into the entry since November. I have lived pretty much
     as other prisoners of a different character live, as regards
     food; namely, on bread and water, or bread and coffee or cocoa. I
     have come to the conclusion that the man who lives on bread and
     water, if he have enough, is the genuine epicure, according to
     the original and true meaning. I am favored with the visits of
     more pretty and interesting ladies than any _layman_ in the city,
     I believe. My rooms are quite a resort; and, old fellow as I am,
     I have the vanity to suppose I render myself quite agreeable to

On the same day, in a letter of sympathy to his sister-in-law, whose
invalid son was about to leave for a long voyage, he writes:

     "While my family are all absent at church, I am sitting alone, my
     mind going back to the beginning of the year just ended and
     forward through that just commenced; and, in view of both
     periods, I can see nothing but the unbounded goodness of our
     heavenly Father and best friend, in all that has been taken from
     me, as well as in all that is left to me. I can say, with
     sincerity, that I never have had so much to call forth my warmest
     and deepest gratitude for favors bestowed as at the present time.
     Among my sources of happiness is a settled conviction that, in
     chastening his children, God desires their good; and if his
     chastisements are thus viewed, we cannot receive them in any
     other light than as manifestations of his fatherly care and
     kindness. Although, at times, 'clouds and darkness are round
     about him,' we do certainly know, by the words of inspiration,
     'that justice and judgment are the habitation of his throne,' and
     goodness and mercy the attributes of his character; and if it
     should please him further to try me with disease during the
     period of my probation, my prayer to him is that my mind and
     heart may remain stayed on him, and that I may practically
     illustrate those words of our blessed Saviour, 'Not my will, but
     thine be done.' It is quite possible that there may still be a
     few years of probation for me; but it is more probable that I may
     not remain here to the close of the present; but whether I remain
     longer or shorter is of little consequence, compared with the
     preparation or the dress in which I may be found when called
     away. It has seemed to me that the habit of mind we cultivate
     here will be that which will abide with us hereafter; and that
     heaven is as truly begun here as that the affections which make
     us love our friends grow stronger by use, and improve by
     cultivation. We are here in our infancy; the feelings cherished
     at this period grow with our growth, and, in the progress of
     time, will fit us for the highest enjoyments of the most distant
     future. I say, then, what sources of happiness are open to us,
     not only for the present, but for all future time! These hasty
     remarks are elicited on occasion of the separation so soon to
     take place from your son. I know full well the anxieties of a
     parent on such an occasion.

     "His health cannot, of course, be certainly predicted; but you
     will have the comfort of knowing that you have done everything
     that the fondest parents could do in this particular, whatever
     effect the absence may have upon him.

     "---- should feel that his obligations are increased, with his
     means and opportunities for improvement. If by travel he acquire
     a better education, and can make himself more useful on his
     return, he can no more divest himself of his increased duties,
     than he can divest himself of his duty to be honest. The account
     is to be rendered for the use of the talents, whether they be
     ten, or five, or one. If I have opportunity, I shall write a few
     lines to ---- before he leaves. If I should not, I desire him to
     feel that I have great affection for him, and deep interest in
     his progress, and an ardent hope that his health, improvement,
     and knowledge, may be commensurate with the rare advantages he
     will enjoy for the acquisition of all.

     "I know the tender feelings of your husband on all things
     touching his family or friends; and perhaps I may find
     opportunity to speak a word of comfort to him. But I know not
     what more to say than to reiterate the sentiment here expressed.
     Nature will have its way for a time, but I hope reason will be
     sufficient to make that time very short. Whatever time it may be,
     of this I feel confident, that, after the feelings have once
     subsided, ---- will have all the sunshine and joy which the event
     is calculated to produce. He cannot know until he has realized
     the pleasure of hearing the absent ones speak, as it were, in his
     ear, from a distance of three thousand miles.

     "May the best blessings of the Almighty rest on you and yours!
     From your ever affectionate

                                                           A. L."

                                (TO HIS SON.)

                                   "Sunday morning, Feb. 5, 1832.

     "I have seated myself at my writing-desk, notwithstanding it is
     holy time, in the hope and belief that I am in the way of duty.
     This consecration of one day in seven to the duties of
     religion,--comprising, as these do, every duty,--and if they be
     well performed, to self-examination, is a glorious renovation of
     the world. Who that has witnessed the effects of this rest upon
     the moral and physical condition of a people, can doubt the
     wisdom of the appointment? Wherever we turn our eyes or our
     thoughts, if we only will be as honest and candid, in our
     estimate of the value of the provision made for us, as we
     ordinarily are in our estimate of the character and conduct of
     our fellow-men, we must be struck with admiration and gratitude
     to that merciful Father who has seen our wants, and provided for
     our comfort to an extent to which the care and provision of the
     best earthly parents for their children hardly gives the name of

In speaking of some application for aid which he had received from a
charitable institution, he writes to his son:

     "Our people are liberally disposed, and contribute to most
     objects which present a fair claim to their aid. I think you will
     find great advantage in doing this part of your duty upon a
     system which you can adopt; thus, for instance, divide your
     expenses into ten parts, nine of which may be termed for what is
     considered necessary, making a liberal calculation for such as
     your situation would render proper, and one part applied for the
     promotion of objects not directly or legally claiming your
     support, but such as every good citizen would desire to have
     succeed. This, I think, you will find the most agreeable part of
     your expense; and, if you should be favored with an abundance of
     means later in life, you may enlarge your appropriations of this
     sort, so as to be equal to one tenth of your income. Neither
     yourself nor those who depend upon you will ever feel the poorer.
     I assume that you have plenty, in thus fixing the proportion. I
     believe the rule might be profitably adopted by many who have
     small means; for they would save more by method than they would
     be required to pay.

     "To-morrow completes a hundred years since the birth of
     Washington. The day will be celebrated, from one end of the
     country to the other, with suitable demonstrations of respect, by
     processions, orations, and religious ceremonies, according to the
     feelings of the people who join in it. I think the spectacle will
     be a grand one, of a whole people brought together to commemorate
     the birth of one of their fellow-mortals, who by his virtues and
     his talents has made his memory immortal, and whose precepts and
     example are calculated to secure happiness to the countless
     millions of his fellow-beings who are to people this vast empire
     through all future time. It is permitted to few to have open to
     them such a field as Washington had; but no one since the
     Christian era has filled his sphere so gloriously. We are jogging
     along, in political, theological and commercial affairs, very
     much as usual."

During the month of January, Mr. Lawrence, on account of ill health,
resigned his seat in the Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts
General Hospital, in which he had served for several years. This duty
had always been one of unmingled pleasure to him; and, by means of his
visits there, and at the McLean Asylum for the Insane, under the
management of the same board, he became conversant with a class of
sufferers who had excited a great interest in his mind, and whom he
often visited during the remainder of his life, to cheer them in their
sadness, and to convey to them such little tokens of kindness as
assured them of his interest and sympathy.

In a letter to his second son, at Andover, he writes, April 21:

     "You will be glad to hear I have got along very well through the
     wet, cold weather of the week, and am looking forward with
     cheerful hope to the sunny days to come. If it were not for my
     faculty of turning present disappointments to future pleasures in
     prospect, I should run down in spirits. I have always indulged
     myself in castle-building; but have generally taken care so to
     build as to be in no danger of their falling on my head, so that
     when I have gone as far with one as is safe, if it does not
     promise well, I transfer my labor to another, and thus am always
     supplied with objects. The last one finished was commenced last
     May, and it is one I delight to think of. It was then I
     determined to get your Uncle Mason[3] here. N. thought it a
     castle without foundation, but the result shows otherwise.

     "I send some of W.'s late letters, by which you perceive he is
     not idle; the thought of the dear fellow makes the tears start.
     God in mercy grant him a safe return, fully impressed with his
     obligations as a man and a Christian! That I am now living in the
     enjoyment of so much health, surrounded by so many blessings, is
     overpowering to my feelings. What shall I render unto God for all
     these benefits? I feel my unworthiness, and devoutly pray him
     that I may never lose sight of the great end of my being; and
     that, whenever it shall please him to call me hence, I may be
     found in the company of the redeemed through the merits and
     mediation of the Son of his love. If there is any one thing I
     would impress on your mind more strongly than another, it is to
     give good heed to the religious impressions with which you may
     be imbued; and, at a future day, these may prove a foundation
     that will support you when all other supports would fail. The
     youthful imagination frequently magnifies objects at a distance;
     experience is an able teacher, and detects, too late, perhaps,
     the fraud upon youth. Be wise in time, and avoid this fraud."

  [3] Hon. Jeremiah Mason, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, who passed the
  rest of his life in Boston.

A few days later, he writes to the same son, on the subject of
systematic charity:

     "It is one of my privileges, not less than one of my duties, to
     be able thus to administer to the comfort of a circle of very
     dear friends. I hope you will one day have the delightful
     consciousness of using a portion of your means in a way to give
     you as much pleasure as I now experience. Your wants may be
     brought within a very moderate compass; and I hope you will never
     feel yourself at liberty to waste on yourself such means, as, by
     system and right principles, may be beneficially applied to the
     good of those around you. Providence has given us unerring
     principles to guide us in our duties of this sort. Our first duty
     is to those of our own household, then extending to kindred,
     friends, neighbors (and the term 'neighbor' may, in its broadest
     sense, take in the whole human family), citizens of our state,
     then of our country, then of the other countries of the world."

In another letter, written soon after the preceding, he speaks of
certain principles of business which governed him in early life, and

     "The secret of the whole matter was, that we had formed the habit
     of promptly acting, thus taking the _top of the tide_; while the
     habit of some others was to delay until about _half-tide_, thus
     getting on the flats; while we were all the time prepared for
     action, and ready to put into any port that promised well. I
     wish, by all these remarks, to impress upon you the necessity of
     qualifying yourself to support yourself. The best education that
     I can secure shall be yours, and such facilities for usefulness
     as may be in my power shall be rendered; but no food to pamper
     idleness or wickedness will I ever supply willingly to any
     connection, however near. I trust I have none who will ever
     misuse so basely anything that may come to them as a blessing.
     This letter, you may think, has an undue proportion of advice.
     'Line upon line, precept upon precept,' is recommended by one
     wiser than I am."

                           (TO HIS DAUGHTER.)

                                                    "Sunday morn.

     "MY DEAR DAUGHTER: In the quiet of this morning, my mind
     naturally rests on those objects nearest and dearest to me; and
     you, my child, are among the first.

     "The family are all at church, but the weather is not such as to
     permit my going; and the season by them employed in the service
     of the sanctuary will by me be employed in communicating with

     "You have now arrived at an age when the mind and heart are most
     susceptible of impressions for weal or woe; and the direction
     which may be given to them is what no parent can view with
     indifference, or pass over without incurring the guilt of being
     unfaithful in his duties. My earnest desire for you is, that you
     may fully appreciate your opportunities and responsibilities, and
     so use them that you may acquire a reasonable hope that you may
     secure the object for which we are placed here. The probation is
     short, but long enough to do all that is required of us, if
     faithfully used; the consequences are never-ending.

     "These simple views are such as any child of your age can
     comprehend, and should be made as familiar to your mind as the
     every-day duties of life. If the mind, from early days, be thus
     accustomed to look upon life as a school of preparation for
     higher services, then the changes and adversities to which we are
     all liable can only be viewed as necessary discipline to fit us
     for those higher services, and as such be considered as applied
     for our good, however painful they may seem at first. There is no
     truth better settled than this: that all the discipline of our
     heavenly Parent, if rightly used, will eventuate in our good.
     How, then, can we murmur and repine at his dealings with us? This
     conduct only shows our weakness and folly, and illustrates the
     better care of us than we should take of ourselves.

     "We are in the condition of the sick man, who sometimes craves
     that which, if given him by his friend, would cause his certain
     death; but he is not aware at the time that it is withheld for
     his good. The importance, then, of cultivating a right
     understanding of the things of which our duties and our happiness
     are composed, is second to no object which can employ the mind;
     for, with this knowledge, we must suppose that no one can be so
     lost to his own interest as not to feel that in the performance
     of these duties is to result the possession of those riches which
     are promised to the faithful by our Father in heaven, through the
     Son of his love. In the preparation which awaits you, do not stop
     at the things which are seen, but look to those which are unseen.
     These views, perhaps, may be profitably pondered long after I
     have been gathered to my fathers.

     "The tenure of my life seems very frail; still it may continue
     longer than the lives of my children; but, whenever it shall
     please God to call me hence, I hope to feel resigned to his will,
     and to leave behind me such an influence as shall help forward
     the timid and faint-hearted in the path of duty; and particularly
     on you, my child, do I urge these views. They debar you from no
     real or reasonable pleasure; they speak to you, in strong
     language, to enjoy all those blessings which a bountiful Parent
     has scattered in your path with unsparing plenty, and admonish
     you that to enjoy is not to abuse them; when abused, they cease
     to be enjoyed."



During the summer and autumn of 1832, Mr. Lawrence's health and
strength were so much improved, that he was enabled to take exercise
on horseback; and almost daily he took long rides, sometimes alone,
sometimes with a friend, about the environs of the city. This habit he
was enabled to continue, with some intermissions, for two or three
years, through summer and winter. The effect of the exercise amidst
the beautiful scenery of the environs of Boston, of which he was an
enthusiastic admirer, was most beneficial to his health, and, it is
believed, was a great means of prolonging his life. Whenever he could
do so, he secured the company of a friend, and kept a horse expressly
for the purpose. As the ride was taken in the morning, when his
business acquaintances were occupied, his most usual companion was
some one of the city clergy, whom he secured for the occasion, or one
of his sons. No denominational distinctions seemed to regulate his
choice on these occasions. His own beloved pastor and friend, the Rev.
Dr. Lothrop, Rev. Drs. Stone and Greenwood, and Father Taylor, the
seamen's chaplain, were often his companions. Occasionally a stray
merchant or lawyer was engaged; and, as was sometimes the case where
they had not been much accustomed to the exercise, a long trot of many
miles in the sun, or in the face of a keen winter north-wester, would
severely tax their own strength, while they wondered how so frail a
figure as that of Mr. Lawrence could possess so much endurance. With
all this apparent energy and strength, he was extremely liable to
illness, which would come when least expected, and confine him for
days to his house. An item of bad news, some annoying incident, a
little anxiety, or a slight cold, would, as it were, paralyze his
digestive functions, and reduce his strength to the lowest point. It
was this extreme sensitiveness which unfitted him to engage in the
general current of business, and which compelled him to keep aloof
from participation in commercial affairs, and to adopt that peculiar
system in diet and living which he adhered to for the remainder of his
life. This system limited him to the use of certain kinds of food,
which, from time to time, was slightly modified, as was thought
expedient. This food was of the most simple kind, and was taken in
small quantities, after being weighed in a balance, which always stood
before him upon his writing-table. To secure perfect quiet during his
meals, and also that he might not be tempted to overstep the bounds
of prudence, a certain amount was sent to him in his chamber, from
which he took what was allowed. The amount of liquid was also weighed;
and so rigid was he in this system of diet, that, for the last sixteen
years of his life, he sat down at no meal with his family. The amount
of food taken varied, of course, with his strength and condition. In a
letter to his friend, President Hopkins, of Williams College, he says:

     "If your young folks want to know the meaning of epicureanism,
     tell them to take some, bits of coarse bread (one ounce and a
     little more), soak them in three gills of coarse-meal gruel, and
     make their dinner of them and nothing else; beginning very
     hungry, and leaving off more hungry. The food is delicious, and
     such as no modern epicureanism can equal."

For a considerable period, he kept a regular diet-table, in which he
noted down the quantity of solid and liquid food taken during the
twenty-four hours. One of his memorandum-books, labelled "Record of
Diet and Discipline for 1839 and 1840," contains accurate records of
this sort.

In October, 1832, in writing to his son in the country, he alludes to
this improvement in his health and strength:

     "We are all doing as well as usual here, myself among them doing
     better than usual. My little 'Doctor'[4] does wonders for me. I
     ride so much, and so advantageously, that I do not know but I
     shall be bold enough, by and by, to ride to B---- and back in a
     day, but shall hardly dare do so until I have practised a little
     more in this neighborhood.

     "I want you to analyze more closely the tendency of principles,
     associations, and conduct, and strive to adopt such as will make
     it easier for you to go right than go wrong. The moral taste,
     like the natural, is vitiated by abuse. Gluttony, tobacco, and
     intoxicating drink, are not less dangerous to the latter, than
     loose principles, bad associations, and profligate conduct, are
     to the former. Look well to all these things."

  [4] The name of his horse.

The year 1833 opened with bright and cheering prospects; for, with Mr.
Lawrence's increasing strength and improved health, there seemed a
strong ground of hope that he might yet recover all his powers, and
once more take his place among his former business associates.

He writes at this time to his son at Andover:

     "I am as light as a feather this morning, and feel as if I could
     mount upon a zephyr, and ride upon its back to A----; but I am
     admonished to be careful when my spirits are thus buoyant, lest I
     come down to the torpor of the insect, which is shut up by the
     frost. Extremes are apt to follow, unless I take great care. Last
     Sabbath, I kept my bed, most of the day, with a poor turn.
     Brother A. said, on Saturday, he knew I was going to have one,
     for I talked _right on_."

In March, he writes:

     "The season is coming forward now so as to allow me the use of
     the roads around Roxbury and Dorchester. My 'Doctor' looks so
     altered by a two hours' canter, that his own mother would hardly
     know him at first sight. We continue excellent friends; and I
     think he has never used me better than during the last few days.
     We both 'feel our oats' and our youth. I feel like sweet
     twenty-five; and he, I judge, like vigorous seven."

On April 28, he writes to a young friend:

     "When you get married, do not expect a higher degree of
     perfection than is consistent with mortality in your wife. If you
     do, you will be disappointed. Be careful, and do not choose upon
     a theory either. I dislike much of the nonsense and quackery that
     is dignified with the name of intellectual among people.
     Old-fashioned common sense is a deal better. * * * *

     "There was a part of Boston which used to be visited by young men
     out of curiosity when I first came here, into which I never set
     foot for the whole time I remained a single man. I avoided it,
     because I not only wished to keep clear of the temptations common
     in that part, but to avoid the appearance of evil. I never
     regretted it; and I would advise all young men to strengthen
     their good resolutions by reflection, and to plant deep and
     strong the principles of right, and to avoid temptation, as time
     gives them strength to stand against it."

On December 23, he writes to his wife, who had been summoned to the
bedside of a dying relative:

     "Your absence makes a great blank in the family; and I feel that
     I must be very careful lest any little accident should make me
     feel of a _deep blue_ while you are away. Confidence is a great
     matter, not only in curing, but in preventing disease, whether of
     the body or the mind; and I have somehow got the notion that I am
     more safe when you[5] are looking after me than when you are not,
     and that any trouble is sooner cured when you are present than
     when you are not. This is, I suppose, the true charm which some
     people have faith in to keep off their ills. I have been forcibly
     reminded of the passage of time, by reviewing the scenes of the
     last three years, and am deeply sensible of the mercies that have
     been extended to me. What little I do is a poor return: may a
     better spirit prompt and guide my future services! What few I
     have rendered are estimated by my brethren beyond their value,
     and of course tend to flatter my self-love. This should not be;
     and I ought to see myself as I am seen by that eye that never
     sleeps. The situation I occupy is one that I would not exchange,
     if I had the power, with any man living: it is full of agreeable
     incidents, and free from the toils and anxieties frequently
     attendant on a high state of prosperity; and is, beside, free
     from that jealousy, or from any other cause of uneasiness, so
     common among the ardent and successful in this world's race."

[5] The editor, in justice to his own feelings, will here remark, that
he believes the continuation of Mr. Lawrence's life, after he became a
confirmed invalid, was, under Providence, in a great measure due to
the care and faithful attentions of his wife. For more than twenty
years, and during his frequent seasons of languor and sickness, she
submitted to many sacrifices, and bestowed a degree of care and
watchfulness such as affection alone could have enabled her to render.

To his daughter, who was on a visit at Washington, he writes:

                         "BOSTON, May 18th, 1834. Sunday evening.

     "MY DEAR CHILD: The contrast in the weather to-day with what it
     has been most of the time since you left home, is as great as is
     usual between a bleak November day and the soft air of June.
     To-day it is beautiful, but on Wednesday it snowed, hailed, and
     rained, and I am told, indeed, that a few miles beyond Amherst
     the snow fell four inches in depth. You have reason to be
     thankful that you have been in a milder climate, and, at the same
     time, are seeing all the wonders that open upon you in the new
     world on which you have entered.

     "I shall be expecting a letter from you within a day or two;
     there can be no want of materials where so many new objects are
     constantly presenting themselves, and there is a pleasure in
     receiving them just as they appear to you; so you need not be
     afraid to place before me the first sketches, precisely as you
     catch them.

     "To-day I suppose you are in Philadelphia, and, if so, I hope you
     have attended a Friends' meeting. The manner of worship and the
     appearance of the people are different from anything you have
     seen; and the influence of this sect upon the taste and manners
     of the people is very striking, particularly in the matter of
     their dress. It is said that you can judge something of the
     character of a lady from her dress. Without deeming it an
     essential, I think it of some consequence. This strikes the eye
     only, and may deceive; how much more important that the dress of
     the heart and mind and affections be right, and that no deception
     be found there! I do most earnestly pray God that every
     opportunity may be improved by you, my dear S., to adorn yourself
     with all those graces that shall not only charm the eye, but also
     with those that shall win the affections of those whose affection
     you would prize, and more especially that you will secure the
     approval of our best Friend.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_Monday afternoon, May 19._--I have received your charming
     letter, dated on Thursday last. It is just the thing, a simple
     narrative of facts; and you will find plenty of materials of this
     sort, as I stated to you before. I have been in the saddle to-day
     nearly five hours with your Uncle W. and Father Taylor, and am
     very tired, but shall get refreshed by a night's rest.

     "The day is beautiful, finer than any we have had since you left
     home. We went to Mount Auburn, and it appears very lovely; how
     much better than the dreary resting-places for the dead so common
     in New England, overgrown with thistles, and the graves hardly
     designated by a rude stone! Our Puritan forefathers mistook very
     much, I think, in making the place of deposit for our mortal
     remains so forbidding in appearance to the living. A better taste
     is growing among us. It may become a matter of ostentation (we
     are so apt to go to extremes), to build sepulchres and monuments
     to hold our bodies, that will speak to our shame when we are no
     longer subjects of trial; when, in short, we shall have gone to
     our account. If these monuments could speak to their living
     owners, and induce them to labor to merit, while they may, a good
     word from the future lookers on, then they would be valuable
     indeed. As it is, I have no fault to find; it is decidedly better
     than the old fashion of making these tenements look as dreary as
     anything in this world can look."

To the same he writes, a few days later:

     "Tell ---- that I saw little ---- this morning. She is the
     sweetest little creature that ever lived, and I find myself
     smiling whenever I think of the dear child in health. Sympathy is
     a powerful agent in illustrating through the countenance the
     feelings within. I believe my face is as arrant a tell-tale as
     ever was worn; and whenever I think of those I love, under happy
     circumstances, I am happy, too. So you may judge how much I
     enjoy in the belief that you are enjoying so much, and doing so
     well, in this journey."

On February 8, 1835, he writes to a young friend:

     "Take care that fancy does not beguile you of your understanding
     in making your choice: a mere picture is not all that is needful
     in the up and down hills of life. The arrangements of the
     household and the sick room have more in them to fasten upon the
     heart than all the beauties and honors of the mere gala days,
     however successfully shown off. Be careful, when you pick, to get
     a heart, a soul, and a body; not a show of a body that has mere
     vitality. All this comes in _by the ears_; but it is in,--I will
     not blot it out."

March 16, he writes to his sister.

     "I have had so much call for my sympathy, assistance, and advice,
     among my brethren in trade, that I have little inclination or
     spirit to write social or family letters since my last; but, in
     all this turmoil and trouble (and it really is as disastrous as a
     siege or a famine to the country), I have kept up a good heart,
     and have been able to view the work of destruction with as much
     composure as the nature of the case will allow. Whatever effects
     it shall produce on my property, I shall submit to, as the
     inevitable destruction that comes without any fault of my own, of
     course without any self-reproaches; but for the authors I feel a
     just indignation. As regards the pecuniary distress among us, it
     is subsiding: there have been fewer failures than were
     anticipated; but there have been numbers on the brink, who have
     been saved by the help of friends. A few persons have done great
     service in helping those who could not help themselves; and the
     consequences will be felt here for years to come in the credit
     and standing of many worthy people, who must otherwise have been
     broken down. Brother A. has had a load of care and responsibility
     much too severe for him, and has now agreed to throw off a part
     of the business as soon as the present pressure is past."

April 29, he writes:

     "I am busy these days, but have no very important duties, except
     riding with the ministers and the young ladies."

Again, a few days later:

     "I am completely on one side, while I appear to be quite busy in
     putting in an oar now and then."

To his daughter, on her eighteenth birth-day, he writes:

                                           "BOSTON, May 23, 1835.

     "MY DEAR S.: You have been much in my mind to-day, and now that I
     am sitting alone this evening, I place myself at your
     writing-desk to communicate with you, and thus impart some
     portion of those feelings of interest and affection which a
     return of this day brings more strongly into play. Eighteen years
     of your life are now passed, and the events of this period have
     been deeply interesting to me, and have made such impressions on
     you, and have left such marks of progress, I hope, in the divine
     life, as will insure your onward and upward course, until you
     shall join that dear one whose home has been in heaven for nearly
     the whole period of your life. When I look upon you, or think of
     your appearance, the image of your mother is before me, and then
     I feel that deep solicitude that your mind and heart may be
     imbued with those heavenly influences that gave a grace and charm
     to all she did.

     "There is no substitute for those traits, and you may feel entire
     confidence that a practical use of them in prosperity will prove
     the best security against the changes which adversity brings
     about. If I were to select for you the richest portion which a
     fond father could choose, it would be that you might have a mind
     and a heart to perform all those duties which your station and
     condition in life require, upon the true Christian principle of
     using your one or more talents, and thus, at the day of account,
     receive the cheering sound of the Master's voice.

     "What treasure will compare with this? The charms of life are
     captivating to the imagination, but there are none more
     calculated to add to our joys here than elevated Christian
     principles, however they may be branded by the mere worldling as
     'cold, unsocial,' and the like. You see how important it is to
     form a just estimate of the value of these different objects.
     When a mistake is made here, the consequences may be
     never-ending. Our danger is in cheating ourselves, by leaving
     undone those things our conscience tells us we ought to do, and
     doing others that it tells us we ought not to do.

     "I have thought, for some time past, my dear child, that your
     mind was laboring under the influence of religious truth, and I
     have been made most comfortable in this belief. "Cultivate those
     feelings, and study to make your example good to others, as well
     as safe for yourself. Our time here is short, but it is long
     enough to accomplish the work we are sent to perform, and the
     consequences will be on our own heads if we omit or neglect to do

                               (TO THE SAME.)

                                         "GROTON, August 9, 1835.

     "DEAR S.: I have been talking with your grandmother, for the last
     hour, upon the events of her early days, and I feel (as I always
     do when I contrast our present condition with the past) that we,
     as a whole people, and as individuals, have more reasons for
     gratitude and obedience to our heavenly Father than have ever
     before been placed before any people; and it seems to me we are
     more likely to disregard them than any other people I have any
     knowledge of. The fact is, we are so prosperous that we seem to
     forget the source of our prosperity, and take it as a matter of
     course that the character and conduct of a people cannot
     influence their condition. We are ready to say of an individual
     when he has been reckless and extravagant, that he has brought
     destruction on himself. Why, then, may not a whole people be
     judged by the same standard? Our great danger arises from false
     principles. We never act above the standard we adopt; and if our
     standard be so low as to authorize the gratification of the
     basest passions, how natural that our tastes become conformed to
     this standard!

     "These reflections arose in my mind by hearing from my mother the
     stories of the 'times that tried men's souls;' how she was
     separated from her husband immediately after her marriage, when
     he joined the army in Rhode Island; how, after a battle, his
     mother said to her 'she did not know but Sam was killed;' how she
     fell instantly upon the floor, and how, within a day or two,
     after a separation of eight months, she was rejoiced to see her
     husband safe and sound (although at the time alluded to he had
     been in great peril, having been saved from captivity by the
     desperate efforts of a company of blacks, and by the fleetness
     and force of his fine charger); and how, by confidence in the
     justness of the cause and the aid of the Almighty, they trusted
     they should get through the contest, and be permitted to enjoy
     the fruits of their own labor in their own way. And now, what
     proportion of the people do you suppose refer to the aid of the
     Almighty, or to his justice or judgment as a motive to their
     actions, or how far does his fear or his love influence their
     conduct? These questions are more easily asked than answered; but
     they fill the mind with mournful forebodings of the necessary
     consequences to any people of forgetting God and departing from
     his love. You and I, and every individual, have it in our power
     to keep off in some degree this fatal consummation. Let us,
     therefore, examine well ourselves, and strive to be numbered
     among those faithful stewards who, at their Master's coming,
     shall be placed among the happy company who enter the joy of
     their Lord.

     "This morning is one of those delightful quiet Sabbaths that seem
     to be like the rest of the saints above. We are all soon to be on
     our way to public worship. * * * *

                               (TO HIS MOTHER.)

                                                  "Aug. 16, 1835.

     "MY DEAR AND HONORED MOTHER: My mind turns back to you almost as
     frequently as its powers are brought into separate action, and
     always with an interest that animates and quickens my pulse; for,
     under God, it is by your good influence and teachings that I am
     prepared to enjoy those blessings which he has so richly
     scattered in my path in all my onward progress in life. How could
     it be otherwise than that your image should be with me, unless I
     should prove wholly unworthy of you? Your journey is so much of
     it performed, that those objects which interested you greatly in
     its early stages have lost their charms; and well it is that they
     have; for they now would prove _clogs_ in the way and it is to
     your children, to your Saviour, and your God, that your mind and
     heart now turn as the natural sources of pleasure. Each of these,
     I trust, in their proper place and degree, supply all your wants.
     The cheering promise that has encouraged you when your powers
     were the highest, will not fail you when the weight of years and
     infirmities have made it more necessary to your comfort to get
     over the few remaining spans of the journey. To God I commend
     you; and pray him to make the path light, and your way confiding
     and joyful, until you shall reach that home prepared for the

In a letter to his sister, dated Oct. 25, he further alludes to his
mother, as follows

     "My thoughts this morning have been much engaged with my early
     home. I conclude it best to embody them in part, and send them
     forward to add (if they may) a token of gratitude and
     thankfulness to that dear one who is left to us, for her care of
     our early days, and her Christian instruction and example to her
     children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren; each generation
     of whom, I trust, will be made better in some of its members by
     her. It is more natural, when in our weakness and want, to turn
     our thoughts to those whom they have been accustomed to look to
     for assistance; and thus to me the impression of the blessing I
     enjoy in having such a home as mine is, and the blessing I early
     enjoyed of having such a home as mine was under my father's roof,
     say to my heart: 'All these increase thy responsibilities, and
     for their use thou must account.' I have had one of my slight ill
     turns within the last two days, that has brought back all these
     feelings with increased force; and I look upon these as gentle
     monitors, calculated to make me estimate more fully my blessings
     and my duties. Frequently as I am admonished of the frail tenure
     by which I hold my life, I am negligent and careless in the
     performance of those high and every-day duties which I should
     never lose sight of for an hour. I have also such buoyancy of
     spirits, that life seems to me a very, very great blessing, and I
     do at times strive to make it useful to those around me."



From memorandum-book of property, December 31, 1835:

     "My expenses have been ---- thousand dollars this year; of which
     about one half went for persons and objects that make me feel
     that it has been well expended, and is better used than to remain
     in my possession. God grant that I may have the disposition to
     use these talents in such manner as to receive at last the joyful
     sound of 'Well done!'"

On March 29, 1836, Mr. Lawrence writes:

     "My anxiety for a day or two about little things kept me from the
     enjoyment of those bright scenes that are so common to me when
     not oppressed by any of these _may_ be events. My nerves are in
     such a shattered state, that I am quite unfit to encounter the
     responsibilities incident to my station, and I am ashamed of
     myself thus to expose my weakness."

During the spring, Mr. Lawrence's health was so feeble, and his
nervous system so shattered, that a journey was recommended; and, in
the month of May, in company with his friend and pastor, the Rev. Dr.
Lothrop, he paid a visit to his brother Abbott, at Washington, then
the representative in Congress for Boston. During this journey, he
experienced a severe illness, and was shortly joined by Mrs. Lawrence.
The visit to Washington extended through several weeks: and, although
his health remained feeble and the weather unfavorable, he seems to
have been alive to objects around him, and interested in what was
going forward in the halls of Congress as well as in the society of
the capital. He speaks of visits to the houses of Congress, and
pleasant rides on horseback, "with hosts of agreeable companions ready
to sally forth when the weather shall permit." He also takes a survey
of the general state of society in Washington, with an occasional
allusion to some particular personage. He writes:

     "It used to be said that Washington and the Springs were the
     places for matrimonial speculations. I feel a natural dislike to
     a lady being brought out as an extraordinary affair, having all
     perfections, and having refused _forty-nine_ offers, and still
     being on the carpet. It shows that she is either very silly
     herself, or has very silly friends, or both. Good strong common
     sense is worth more than forty-nine offers, with any quantity of
     slaves, or bank-notes, or lands, without it. * * * * *

     "I have passed two hours in the Representatives' Hall and Senate
     Chamber to-day. I heard the usual sparring, and confess myself
     greatly interested in it. I could learn nothing of the merits of
     any of the questions; but I had a preference, such as one feels
     in seeing two dogs fight, that one should beat. It was very
     agreeable to me to see and hear those various distinguished
     characters, and goes to demonstrate the common saying, that some
     objects appear smaller by our getting nearer to them."

During this absence, one of his family remaining at home had
experienced a light attack of varioloid; and, according to the law
then in force, was obliged to be transported to the Quarantine
Hospital, situated in Boston Harbor. Soon after Mr. Lawrence's return
from the South, he paid a visit to Rainsford Island, on the invitation
of Dr. J. V. C. Smith, then Quarantine Physician, and there passed
some weeks very pleasantly, riding about the island on his horse, and
watching, from the shores, the sea-views, which, with the passing
ships, here afford an endless variety.

In August, he returned to his own house in Boston; and, on the 21st,
writes to his sister as follows:

     "The scenery in front, side, and rear, and all within, is
     unrivalled, except by the charms of the dear old home of my
     mother and sister; in short, it seems to me that no two spots
     combine so many charms as my early and present homes; and they
     impress me more fully now by my being so well as to enjoy not
     only natural scenery, but the social intercourse with loved ones,
     that more than compensate for anything I may have lost by
     sickness and suffering. I yesterday was on horseback nearly three
     hours, but did not ride more than ten miles; and, in that
     distance, I went over some scenes that I felt unwilling to leave,
     especially some of the old works on and near Dorchester Heights,
     for they appeared more interesting than ever before, from the
     circumstance of your showing me that mass of original letters
     from Washington, Hancock, Samuel Adams, and various other
     revolutionary characters, to General Ward; some of them touching
     the occupation of these heights sixty years ago, and some of them
     alluding to scenes which have scarcely been noticed in the
     published histories of those days. All go to show, however, the
     whole souls of those men to have been engaged in their work; and,
     further, how vain it is for us of this day, who are ambitious of
     distinction, to found it on any other basis than uprightness of
     character, purity of life, and the active performance of all
     those duties included in 'the doing justly, loving mercy, and
     walking humbly.' How few of us remember this! I hardly know when
     I have been more forcibly impressed with a plain truth than I was
     yesterday, while sitting alone on horseback, on the top of the
     redoubt on Dorchester Heights, and the considerations of the
     past, the present, and the future, were the subject of my
     thoughts, connecting the men of those days with the present, and
     the men of these days with the future. The evidence is
     irresistible, that there is a downhill tendency in the character
     of the people, which, in sixty years more, will make us more
     corrupt than any other enlightened nation so young as ours,
     unless we are checked by adversity and suffering. But this is not
     what I intended to write about, so I will go to something else.
     The old revolutionary documents, memorials of our father, never
     appeared to me so interesting as now; and those I now return to
     you will be carefully preserved, and such others as you may find,
     added to them. I would give a great sum of money, if by it I
     could get all the documents I used to see when I was a child, and
     which we thought of so little value that we did not preserve them
     with that care which should have been used in a family which
     cherishes such deep feelings of respect and affection for

The year 1837 will be remembered as one of great pecuniary
embarrassment and distress in the commercial world. Mr. Lawrence
alludes to it as follows, on May 13

     "The violent pecuniary revulsion that has been anticipated for
     more than a year has at length overtaken this country, and is
     more severe than our worst fears. In addition to the failure of
     people to pay their debts, in all sections of the country, for
     the last two months, the banks, from Baltimore to Boston, and
     probably throughout the Union, as fast as the intelligence
     spreads, have suspended specie payment, and will not probably
     resume again very soon."

On December 17 of the same year, he writes to his mother as follows

     "This day completes thirty years since my commencing business,
     with the hope of acquiring no very definite amount of property,
     or having in my mind any anticipation of ever enjoying a tithe of
     that consideration my friends and the public are disposed to
     award me at this time. In looking back to that period, and
     reviewing the events as they come along, I can see the good hand
     of God in all my experience; and acknowledge, with deep
     humiliation, my want of gratitude and proper return for all his
     mercies. May each day I live impress me more deeply with a sense
     of duty, and find me better prepared to answer his call, and
     account for my stewardship! The changes in our family have been
     perhaps no greater than usual in other families in that period,
     excepting in the matter of the eminent success that has attended
     our efforts of a worldly nature. This worldly success is the
     great cause of our danger in its uses, and may prove a snare,
     unless we strive to keep constantly in mind, that to whom much is
     given, of him will much be required. I feel my own deficiencies,
     and lament them; but am encouraged and rewarded by the enjoyment,
     in a high degree, of all my well-meant efforts for the good of
     those around me. In short, I feel as though I can still do a
     little to advance the cause of human happiness while I remain
     here. My maxim is, that I ought to 'work while the day lasts; for
     the night of death will soon overtake me, when I can no more
     work.' I continue to mend in strength, and feel at times the
     buoyancy of early days. It is now raining in torrents, keeping us
     all within doors. I have been at work with gimblet, saw,
     fore-plane, and hammer, thus securing a good share of exercise
     without leaving my chamber."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_January 1, 1838._--Bless the Lord, O my soul! and forget not
     all his benefits; for he has restored my life twice during the
     past year, when I was apparently dead, and has permitted me to
     live, and see and enjoy much, and has surrounded me with
     blessings that call for thankfulness. The possession of my mind,
     the intercourse with beloved friends, the opportunity of
     performing some labor as his steward (although imperfectly done),
     all call upon me for thanksgiving and praise. The violent
     revulsion in the business of the country during the past year has
     been ruinous to many; but, so far as my own interests are
     concerned, has been less than I anticipated. My property remains
     much as it was a year ago. Something beyond my income has been
     disposed of; and I have no debts against me, either as a partner
     in the firm or individually. Everything is in a better form for
     settlement than at any former period, and I hope to feel ready
     to depart whenever called."

The following is copied from an account-book, presented at the
commencement of the year to his youngest son, then twelve years of

     "MY DEAR SON: I give you this little book, that you may write in
     it how much money you receive, and how you use it. It is of much
     importance, in forming your early character, to have correct
     habits, and a strict regard to truth in all you do. For this
     purpose, I advise you never to cheat yourself by making a false
     entry in this book. If you spend money for an object you would
     not willingly have known, you will be more likely to avoid doing
     the same thing again if you call it by its right name here,
     remembering always that there is _One_ who cannot be deceived,
     and that _He_ requires his children to render an account of all
     their doings at last. I pray God so to guide and direct you that,
     when your stewardship here is ended, he may say to you that the
     talents intrusted to your care have been faithfully employed.

  "Your affectionate father,

  A. L."

In transmitting to his sister a letter received from Baltimore, from a
mutual friend, he writes, on March 12, in a postscript:

     "This morning seems almost like a foretaste of heaven. The sun
     shines bright, the air is soft; I am comfortable, and expect a
     pleasant drive in the neighborhood. It is indeed brilliant,
     beautiful, and interesting to me, beyond any former experience of
     my life. I am the happiest man alive, and yet would willingly
     exchange worlds this day, if it be the good pleasure of our best
     Friend and Father in heaven."

The extract quoted above will give an idea of that state of mind in
which Mr. Lawrence was often found by his friends, and which he
unceasingly strove to cultivate. He could not always exult in the same
buoyant and almost rapturous feelings here expressed; for, with his
feeble frame and extreme susceptibility to outward influences, to
believe such was the case would be to suppose him more than mortal.
The willingness to exchange worlds was, however, a constant frame of
mind; and the daily probability of such an event he always kept in
view. The work of each day was performed with the feeling that it
might be his last; and there is, throughout his correspondence and
diary, frequent allusion to the uncertain tenure by which he held
life, and his determination to work while the day lasted. If a matter
was to be attended to, of great or little importance, whether the
founding a professorship, signing a will, or paying a household bill,
all was done at the earliest moment, with the habitual remark, "I may
not be here to-morrow to do it."

In the same cheerful spirit, he writes to his son a few days after his
marriage, and then on a journey to Virginia:

     "The whole scene here on Thursday last was so delightful that I
     hardly knew whether I was on the earth, or floating between earth
     and heaven. I have been exalted ever since, and the group of
     happy friends will be a sunny spot in your no less than in their

To his sister he writes, Dec. 22:

     "It is thirty-one years this week since I commenced business on
     my own account, and the prospects were as gloomy at that period
     for its successful pursuit as at any time since; but I never had
     any doubt or misgiving as to my success, for I then had no more
     wants than my means would justify. The habits then formed, and
     since confirmed and strengthened by use, have been the foundation
     of my good name, good fortune, and present happy condition. At
     that time (when you know I used to visit you as often as I could,
     by riding in the night until I sometimes encroached upon the
     earliest hour of the Sabbath before reaching my beloved home, to
     be at my business at the dawn of day on Monday morning), my gains
     were more than my expenses; thus strengthening and encouraging me
     in the steady pursuit of those objects I had in view as a
     beginner. From that time to this, I am not aware of ever desiring
     or acquiring any great amount by a single operation, or of taking
     any part of the property of any other man and mingling it with my
     own, where I had the legal right to do so. I have had such
     uniform success as to make my fidelity a matter of deep concern
     to myself; and my prayer to God is, that I may be found to have
     acted a uniform part, and receive the joyful 'Well done,' which
     is substantial wealth, that no man can take away. If my
     experience could be made available by my successors, I sometimes
     feel that it would be a guaranty that they would keep in the best
     path; but, as they are to be fitted by discipline for the
     journey, it is perhaps a vain thing for me to allow any doubts
     to rest upon my mind that _that_ discipline is not for their
     highest good. The pleasures of memory have never been more highly
     enjoyed than during the period of my last sickness. They have
     solaced my pains, and supported me through numerous fainting
     fits, growing out of the surgical treatment I have endured. I
     would ask you, my dear sister, if a merciful Parent has not
     stretched forth his hand almost visibly to support me through
     this trying scene, by scattering in my path these flowers and
     fruits so freely as almost to make me forget bodily pains; and
     bless him for what is past, and trust that what is future will be
     the means of making me a better man."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_December 31, 1838._--The business of the year now brought to a
     close has been unexpectedly productive, and the prospects of
     continued success are very flattering. At the commencement of the
     year, my life seemed a flickering light, with small hope of its
     continuance through the winter; but a merciful Providence has
     permitted a brighter view, and my happiness through the year has
     been superior to that of any year of my life."

After enumerating some domestic events which had contributed to this
result, he adds:

     "My own health is so far restored as to allow me the enjoyment of
     everything around me in perfection. May God in mercy keep me
     mindful of my duties, and prepared to surrender my account at any
     moment he may call me hence!"



If, at the close of the last year, Mr. Lawrence could say that "his
happiness had been superior to that of any year of his life," it could
not be said that its successor was one of unmingled brightness. The
unbroken band of brothers who had marched thus far hand in hand,
united by a common bond of sympathy and affection, sustaining each
other in all trials, and rejoicing together in their common
prosperity, was about to be sundered. Since their earliest days, they
had had but one interest, and, residing near each other after leaving
their early home, had been in the habit of most constant and intimate
intercourse. Many of their friends will well remember seeing four, and
sometimes five, of them, on Sunday evening, after service, walking
together abreast, arm in arm; and have been tempted to exclaim,
"Behold how good and pleasant a thing it is for brethren to dwell
together in unity." They had more than obeyed their father's
injunction "not to fall out by the way, for a three-fold cord is not
quickly broken." With them, it had been a five-fold cord; and, amidst
all the perplexities of business, the management of important
interests, and the various vicissitudes of domestic life, no strand
had been broken until severed by the ruthless hand of death. The
eldest brother, Luther, had been educated at Harvard College; had
studied law with the Hon. Timothy Bigelow, then of Groton, afterwards
of Medford, whose sister he subsequently married; and had commenced
the practice of his profession in his native town. There he met with
good success, and, for many years, represented the town in the House
of Representatives, of which he was chosen Speaker for the session of
1821 and 1822. He was induced by his brothers, who had become largely
interested in the new town of Lowell, to remove thither; and he
accordingly took up his residence there in 1831, having accepted the
presidency of the bank which had been lately established. In 1838, he
had been elected Mayor of the city, and had given himself up to the
pressing duties incident to the office in a new and growing community.
While holding this office, he, on the 17th of April, 1839, accompanied
an old friend and connection, who was on a visit at Lowell, to inspect
the works of the Middlesex Manufacturing Company, recently erected by
his brothers. In passing rapidly through one of the rooms, he made a
misstep, and was precipitated many feet into a wheel-pit, causing
almost instant death. This sad event was deeply felt by Mr. Lawrence,
as well as by all who knew and appreciated the character of the
deceased. In a letter to his sisters, dated April 22, he says:

     "I should have addressed a word of comfort to you before this.
     That he should be taken, and I left, is beyond my _ken_, and is a
     mystery which will be cleared up hereafter. I do, however, know
     _now_ that all is right, and better ordered than we could have
     done it. We _must_ submit, and _should_ be resigned. Brother L.'s
     death may, perhaps, be more efficient in instructing us in the
     path of duty than would have been his life; and the whole
     community around is admonished by this event in a way that I have
     rarely seen so marked. The homage to his character is a legacy to
     his children of more value than all the gold of the mint. Shall
     we, then, repine at his separation from us? Surely not. He has
     fulfilled his mission, and is taken home, with all his powers
     fresh and perfect, and with the character of having used these
     powers for the best and highest good of all around him. We shall
     all soon be called away, and should make his departure the signal
     to be also ready. This is the anniversary of my birth, and has
     been marked by many circumstances of peculiar interest."

On the same date, he writes to a connection, who was about to take
possession of his house on that day for the first time after his

     "I intended speaking a word in your ear before your leaving us
     for your own fireside and home, but have concluded to take this
     mode of doing it; and it is to say, that you possess a jewel in
     your wife, above price, which should be worn in such an
     atmosphere as will increase its purity and value the longer you
     possess it; and that is around the family altar. That you intend
     to establish it, I have no doubt; but, as to the precise time,
     you may not be fixed. What time so good as the present time, when
     the first evening of possession of this paradise on earth (a
     house and home of your own with such a wife), to make that
     offering to the Father of mercies which ascends to his throne as
     sweet incense from his children? It is the nutriment and
     efficient producing power of the best principles and the best
     fruits of our nature. Be wise in time, and strive to secure
     these, that you may go on from one degree to another, until you
     shall have reached our Father's house, and shall hear the
     cheering 'Well done!' promised to such as have used their talents
     without abusing them. My blessing attend you!"

                        (TO HIS DAUGHTER.)

                                                 "Monday evening.

     "DEAR S.: The admonition of the last week comes home to me in a
     way not to be neglected, and I hope to keep in mind that, in my
     best days, I am as likely to be called off, as in these days of
     anxious care, when pressed down with pain and weakness, and
     surrounded by those dear ones who look upon every emotion with
     deep solicitude. On comparing myself now with myself a year ago,
     I have much to animate and cheer in the increased strength of
     body and renewed powers, by which I can enjoy life; but I have
     also much to speak to the heart, and to tell me to be constantly
     ready to be called off without previous note of preparation. May
     I never lose sight, for a single hour, of the tenure by which I
     hold the privilege of seeing the dear ones settled so happily! It
     is more than I had reason to anticipate.

     "May you, dear child, never lose sight of the end for which your
     privileges are made so ample, nor forego the happiness of doing
     the best in your power at every stage of your journey, so that
     whenever you may be called hence, you may feel that you are
     ready, and that your work is done. It will not do for me to rely
     upon my every-day firmness to secure me against attacks of the
     kind last experienced. I do most fervently desire to be kept in
     mind of my exposure, and never for an hour forget that it may be
     my last."

[Illustration: BIRTH PLACE AT GROTON.]

Several passages in Mr. Lawrence's letters will show the attachment
which he felt towards the place of his birth, connected as it was with
so many associations and memories of the past. The old house, with the
great elm in front and its welcome shade; the green meadow, stretching
for a mile along a gentle declivity to the river; the range of
mountains in the west, just distant enough to afford that tinge of
blue which adds an indescribable charm to every landscape; the
graceful undulations of the hills on the east, with the quiet village
sleeping at their base, all seemed in his mind so associated with the
loved inmates of his early home, that he ever contemplated the picture
with delight.

On June 4, in a letter to his sisters, he writes:

     "R. leaves us this morning, on his way to the old homestead,
     which, to my mind's eye, has all the charms of the most lovely
     associations of early days, with all the real beauty of those
     splendid descriptions given by the prophets of the holy city. I
     would earnestly impress all my children with a deep sense of the
     beauty and benefit of cherishing and cultivating a respect and
     affection for this dear spot, and for those more dear objects
     that have served to make it what it really is to all us

In a letter to his son, whose visit is alluded to above, he says:

     "The beautiful scenery from Gibbet Hill, in Groton, and from the
     road from our old mansion south for a mile, towards the Wachusett
     and the Monadnock Mountains, comes next, in point of beauty, to
     my taste, to these views around the Boston Common. Be careful to
     do all things as you will wish you had done, that you may look
     back upon this visit with pleasure, and forward to another visit
     with increased relish. Remember that in the best performance of
     all your duties lies the highest enjoyment of all your pleasures.
     Those pleasures that flow from plans and doings that your
     conscience condemns are to be shunned as the net of the wicked
     one. When once entangled, the desire and effort to be released
     grow weaker, till, at length, conscience is put asleep, and the
     sleep of death comes over the soul. Be careful, therefore, to
     avoid evil, and not only so, but to avoid all appearance of evil.
     In this way, you will grow up with principles and fixed habits
     that will secure you against the ills of life, and supply a
     foretaste of the enjoyments of a better life to come."

During a visit which he made to his early home a few months subsequent
to the date of the preceding extract, he writes to his daughter:

     "I was very tired on arriving here last evening, but a quiet
     sleep has brought me into my best state.

     "This morning has allowed me to ride for two hours, and I have
     enjoyed everything and everybody here to the utmost. Groton is
     beautiful beyond any other place I have ever seen; but perhaps I
     am in the situation of old Mr. ----, whose opinion of his wife's
     beauty, when questioned of its accuracy, was justified by the
     declaration that the person must have his eyes to look through.

     "The whole country is full of charms; nothing seems wanting to
     impress upon the heart the goodness of that Parent who seeks by
     all means to bring us nearer to himself.

     "This visit has been full of interest, and it is a source of
     unfeigned thanksgiving that it has been permitted to me."

Mr. Lawrence always took great delight in sending to friends and
relatives, little and great, mementoes of his affection; and a great
deal of time was spent in penning and reading the letters and notes
which such transactions called forth. He had a rare faculty of
adapting his gift to the peculiar necessities or tastes of the
recipient; and, whether the matter treated of was a check for
thousands or a bouquet of flowers, equal pleasure seemed to be given
and received. In sending a gift of the former description, he notices
the commencement of the year 1840 as follows:

                                                      "January 1.

     "DEAR S.: W. will prize the enclosed more highly from your hand;
     for he will have proof that a good wife brings many blessings,
     that he never would know the value of but for you. May you
     experience many returns of the 'new year,' and each more happy
     than the past!"

In a letter to his second son, then on a visit to Europe, he writes,
under date of March 5, 1840:

     "We are all curious to know what impressions your visit to France
     and Italy produces, and still more what impressions a careful
     overlooking of our fatherland makes upon you. There is much food
     for reflection, and abundant material for the exercise of your
     powers of observation, in every league of the '_fast_-anchored
     isle,' especially in the scenes so beautifully portrayed in many
     of the books we have access to. In fact, I have an extensive
     collection of materials to renew your travels and observations,
     and shall value them more highly when you point out this or that
     seat or castle or abbey, which has arrested your notice. But the
     best scenes will be those in which the living souls of the
     present day are engaged. The habits and tastes of the people of
     England have doubtless much changed since the _Spectator_ days;
     but, in many important particulars, I should hope they had not.
     Some thirty years ago, I had a good specimen of the feelings and
     principles of a great variety of people, embracing almost all
     classes, from the year 1774 to 1776, in a multitude of letters
     that had accumulated in the post-office in this town, under
     Tuthill Hubbart. After his death, his house was pulled down; and,
     among the strange things found in it, were bushels of letters, of
     which I was permitted to take what I pleased. These letters
     showed a deeper religious feeling in the writers of those days,
     from England, Ireland, and Scotland, than I have seen in any
     miscellaneous collections of a later date. If that deep-toned
     piety which pervaded them has not been extinguished by the
     Jacobinism and freethinking of later days, happy for the people
     and the government! But I fear it has, in some great measure,
     been blotted out or obscured, as there seems to be a spirit of
     reckless adventure in politics and religion not contemplated
     seventy years ago. How far our experience in self-government in
     this country is going to advance the cause of good government,
     and the ultimate happiness of man, is yet a problem. Our
     principles are of the most elevating character; our practices
     under them, of the most debasing; and, if we continue in this way
     another generation, there will not be virtue enough in active use
     to save the forms of our government. We may hope that a better
     heart may be given us."

In a letter to his son-in-law, the Rev. Charles Mason, who was at that
time in company with his own son on a visit to England, he writes on
June 28th, 1840:

     "I intended to defer writing until to-morrow morning; but the
     beauty of the western scenery and sunset is so striking, that I
     am strongly impelled to tell you that, much as you see, and
     highly as you enjoy the scenes of old England, there is nothing
     there more beautiful and sublime than this very scene from my
     chamber windows. It seems as though nature never was so
     beautifully dressed at this time of the year as at present. The
     season has been unusually favorable for the foliage, fruits, and
     flowers; and all around bears evidence of that goodness that
     never rests, and in my own person I feel that I am enjoying in a
     month what ought to content me for a year."

The foregoing extract is selected from among many others of a similar
nature, as an illustration of Mr. Lawrence's appreciation of the
beauties of natural scenery.

Towards the close of the day, his favorite seat was at a window, from
which he could witness the glories of the setting sun, and, still
later, the fading beauties of the twilight. Nature to him was no
sealed volume; and with her, in all her phases, he loved to commune.

The gorgeous hues of the western sky, the changing tints of the
autumnal foliage, and the smiling features of the landscape, were in
his mind typical of the more resplendent beauties of the future world.
He writes:

     "To-day is one of those holy spring days which make us feel that,
     with right principles and conduct, we may enjoy a foretaste of
     that beautiful home we all long for. I have been over the Roxbury
     and Dorchester hills, which are a transcript of the beautiful
     scenery around Jerusalem. Mount Zion seemed before me, and by
     stretching my arms, I could almost fly upon its sides."

He loved to think that the spirits of the departed may be permitted to
hover around, and minister to those whom they have once loved on
earth; and sometimes, as he viewed nature in her softer moods, he
would imagine himself as holding communion with former cherished
objects of affection. He writes to a friend:

     "Dear S. and R. speak in words without sounds, through every
     breeze and in every flower, and in the fragrance of every perfume
     from the field or the trees."

And again:

     "Is there anything in Scripture to discourage the belief that the
     spirits of departed friends are still ministering spirits to such
     as are left here, and that a recognition and reünion will follow
     when we are called off? I believe fully in this happy reünion;
     and it is, next to the example of the beloved, the most animating
     feeling that prompts me through this wearisome journey."

To a friend who had invited him to pay her a visit at her residence in
the country, he writes:

     "N---- says I am like a child in the matter of the visit, and
     would be as much disappointed if it should not be accomplished;
     and I must admit that I am guilty of this weakness. There are so
     many loved ones on the old spot, so many lessons to be reviewed,
     and so many friends 'passed on,' whose spirits surround and fill
     the place with the peculiar halo and charm of the good angels
     (those ministering spirits in whose company we may ever find
     comfort, if we will think so). I say, with all these things, can
     I be blamed for being a child in this matter? You will all say
     No, and will love me the better for it."

On the anniversary of his commencing his business, Dec. 17, Mr.
Lawrence, as usual, reviews his past life and mercies, and adds:

     "My daily aspirations are for wisdom and integrity to do what is
     required of me; but the excuses for omissions, and the hidden
     promptings of pride or selfishness in the sins of commission,
     take away all confidence that all is done as it should be. I am
     in the enjoyment of as much as belongs to our condition here.
     Wife, children, and friends, those three little blessings that
     were spared to us after the fall, impart enjoyment that makes my
     home as near a heaven on earth as is allowed to mortals.

     "_Dec. 23._--This morning has been clear and beautiful, and I
     have enjoyed it highly. Have been sleigh-riding with Chancellor
     Kent. Went over to Bunker Hill Monument, and around by the
     river-side to Charlestown Neck, and had a regular old-fashioned
     talk with him. He gave me an account of the scenes which occurred
     where he was studying, in Connecticut, when the news came of the
     Lexington fight. As we parted, he promised to come again in the
     spring, take another ride, and resume the conversation. He leaves
     for New York at three o'clock, and is as bright and lively as a
     boy, though seventy-eight years old. The old gentleman attends to
     all his own affairs, had walked around the city this morning some
     miles, been to the Providence Railroad Dépôt for his ticket,
     overlooked divers bookstores, and so forth. He is very
     interesting, and has all the simplicity of a child."

About this time, also, Mr. Lawrence seems to have had pleasant
intercourse with the Chevalier Hulsemann, the Austrian Minister, so
well known by his correspondence with Mr. Webster when the latter was
Secretary of State. The minister was on a visit to Boston, and, from
the correspondence which ensued, seems to have conceived a high regard
for Mr. Lawrence, expressed in very kind and courteous terms; and this
regard seems to have been fully reciprocated.

     "_April 1, 1841._--S. N., of T., an apprentice on board the
     United States ship 'Columbus,' in this harbor, thirteen years
     old, whom I picked up intoxicated in Beacon-street a month ago,
     and to whom I gave some books, with request to call and see me
     when on shore, came to-day, and appears very well. Gave him a
     Testament and some good counsel.

     "_June 6._--G. M. called to sell a lot of sermons called the
     ----, which he said he caused to be published to do good; he
     repeated it so often that I doubted him. He seems to me a _wooden
     nutmeg_ fellow, although he has the Rev. Mr. ----'s certificate."

The preceding entry is given here merely as a sample of many such
which are found in Mr. Lawrence's diary. Few who have not had the like
experience can estimate the annoyance to which his reputation for
benevolence and well-doing subjected him, in the shape of applications
for aid in every imaginable form. His perceptions were naturally
acute; and a long experience and intercourse with men enabled him to
form, at a single glance, a pretty fair estimate of the merits of the
applicant. He may sometimes have judged precipitately, and perhaps
harshly; but, when he discovered that he had done so, no one could
have been more ready to confess his fault and make reparation. A few
years after this time, the annoyance became so serious, from the
number and character of the applicants, that he felt obliged, on
account of ill-health, to deny himself to all, unless personally known
to him, or accredited by some one in whose statement he had
confidence. Further than this, he was confirmed in his decision by
actual abuse which had occasionally been administered to him by
disappointed candidates for charitable aid. He kept upon his table a
small memorandum-book, in which he recorded the names of those who
sought aid, with their business, and often their age, the age and
number of their children, sometimes facts in their past history, and
any other information which could enable him to form an opinion of
their claim upon him for assistance. He sometimes indulges also in
somewhat quaint remarks respecting those who apply, or the manner in
which they have presented their application.

To the Rev. Robert Turnbull, a Baptist clergyman then settled in
Boston, and who had sent to Mr. Lawrence a copy of his work entitled
"Claims of Jesus," he writes under date of Nov. 2:

     "REV. AND DEAR SIR: I thank you for the little volume so kindly
     presented, and deem it the duty of all the friends of the Saviour
     to do what they can to stop the flood of infidelity and atheism
     that threatens such waste and devastation among us. However we
     may seem to be, I trust many may be found, in the ranks of my
     Unitarian friends, who admit the 'claims of Jesus' in their most
     elevated character, and who repudiate the doctrine of those who
     sink him to the level of a mere human teacher, as subversive of
     his authority and as nullifying his teachings. We take the
     record, and what is clearly declared; we do not go behind, even
     though we do not clearly comprehend it. It gives me pleasure to
     learn you are so well recovered from the injury you received from
     the overturn of your carriage near my house.

     "With great respect, believe me truly yours,
                                                           A. L."

     "_January, 1842._--This year opens with renewed calls upon me to
     bless God for his mercies throughout its course. My family circle
     has not been broken by the death of any one of our whole number,
     and my own health has been better for the last half-year than for
     five years before. I have not had occasion to call a physician
     through the year. My brothers A. and W. have been dangerously
     sick, but are happily recovered; and both feel, I believe, that
     their hold on life is not as firm as they have felt it to be in
     former years. My dear children are growing up around me to bless
     and comfort me; and all I need is a right understanding of my
     duties, and a sincere purpose to fulfil them. I hope to have the
     will to continue them in as faithful a manner as heretofore, to
     say the least."

Among the traits in Mr. Lawrence's character was that enlarged spirit
of Christian feeling which enabled him to appreciate goodness in
others, without reference to sect or denomination. This spirit of
universal brotherhood was not in him a matter of mere theory, but was
carried out in the practice of daily life, and was the means of
cementing many and lasting friendships, especially among the clergy of
various denominations around him. It may not be uninteresting in
future years, for those now in childhood, for whom this volume has
been prepared, to be reminded of the strong feeling of sympathy and
affection which their grandfather entertained for the Rev. John S.
Stone, D.D., once the Rector of St. Paul's Church, in Boston, and now
the Rector of St. Paul's, in Brookline, Mass. The following is an
extract from a letter written by that gentleman from Brooklyn, N. Y.,
daring the year 1842, with a memorandum endorsed by Mr. Lawrence,
dated October, 1847, in which he says:

     "This letter was very interesting to me when received. I kept it
     in my pocket-book with one from Judge Story, which he had
     requested me to keep for my children. While son ---- was in
     Europe, I did not expect to live but a short time, and sent him
     the two letters, as the proper person to keep them for the use of
     his children."

The letter commences by strong expressions of affection and regard,
over which Mr. Lawrence's modesty had induced him to paste a slip of
paper, endorsed as follows: "Personal matters between the writer and
myself, covered up here, and not to be read by any of the friends to
whom I may show this letter." The letter continues as follows:

     "Shall I ever forget the happy moments, hours, days, I may say
     weeks, which I have spent in riding with you, and chatting, as we
     rode, of all things as we passed them, till I seemed to myself to
     be living in the by-gone days of Boston and its neighborhood; and
     all its old families, houses, names, and anecdotes, became as
     familiar to my mind as the stories of my boyhood? Can I forget it
     all? I trow not. These things are all blended in with the
     beautiful scenery through which we used to ride, and associated
     with those graver lessons and reflections which you used to give
     me; insomuch that the picture which my memory retains of nature,
     society, history, and feeling, truth, friendship, and religion,
     and in which Boston and the living friends there are
     comprehended, has become imperishable. It never can fade out of
     my mind. It is a picture in which man has done much, friendship
     more, religion most, and God all; for religion is his, and
     friendship is from him, and man is his creature, and the green
     earth and glorious heavens are his home. There are many, very
     many, objects in this picture, which I contemplate with special
     delight; and few which give me pain, or which I would not have
     had there, had the whole ordering of its composition been left to
     me. Indeed, had this whole ordering been left to me, it may well
     be doubted whether, as a whole, it would have contained half of
     the beautiful and blessed things which it now contains. Taking it
     as it is, therefore, I am well content to receive it, hang it up
     in the choicest apartment of my memory, and keep it clean and in
     good order for use." * * *

As an illustration of the pleasant intercourse alluded to above, among
Mr. Lawrence's papers is found another most friendly letter from the
Rev. Henry Ware, jun., dated a few days afterwards, with the following

     "I went on Friday to Mr. Ware's house, and had a free, full, and
     deeply-interesting conversation upon the appointment of his
     successor; and was delighted to find him with the same views I
     have upon the necessity of removing the theological department
     from Cambridge."

Dec. 2, Mr. Lawrence alludes to the probability of his own death
taking place in the manner in which it actually occurred ten years
afterwards, as follows:

     "Yesterday I was very well, and have been so for some time past.
     Experienced a severe ill turn this morning at five o'clock, more
     so than for years. This check brings me back to the reflection
     that, when I feel the best, I am most likely to experience one of
     my ill turns; some one of which will probably end my journey in
     this life. God grant me due preparation for the next!"



In the memorandum-book of property for 1843 is found the usual
estimate and list of expenditures; after which Mr. Lawrence writes as

     "My outlay for other objects than my own family, for the last
     fourteen years, has been ---- dollars, which sum I esteem better
     invested than if in bond and mortgage in the city; and I have
     reason to believe many have been comforted and assisted by it,
     and its influence will be good on those who follow me. God grant
     me grace to be faithful to my trust!"

To Hon. R. C. Winthrop, Member of Congress, at Washington, enclosing a
letter from a young colored man:

  "BOSTON, Feb. 15, 1843.

     "DEAR SIR: This young man, as you will observe by his style, is
     well educated; and the circumstances he states, I have no doubt,
     are true. He applied to me, about two years since, for employment
     in writing or other business, to obtain means for further
     education; and I interested myself to secure to him what was
     required. A few months since, he started from here to go to
     Jamaica, to commence the practice of law, and was supplied by
     those who had taken an interest in him with a library suited to
     his wants. He received his early education in Indiana; and his
     parents were once slaves. He is a handsome colored fellow,
     better-mannered, better-looking, and more to be respected, than
     many young gentlemen who move in the higher walks of life, either
     in Carolina or Massachusetts. Now, I should like to know, if he
     should be admitted as an attorney to practice in our courts, and
     should take passage for Jamaica, and put into Charleston, would
     he be imprisoned, as is now the practice in regard to our black
     sailors? I feel a much stronger desire to see your report upon
     this subject of imprisoning our colored people, after the unfair
     course taken by the majority of your house to smother it; and I
     hope still to see it in print before the adjournment. I would
     further remark, that N. T. is a member of Grace Church in this
     city, I believe, under the care of Rev. T. M. Clark; and would,
     doubtless, bear affliction, if it should ever be his fortune to
     be afflicted by being imprisoned because his skin is dark, with a
     spirit becoming his profession. With great respect and esteem,
     believe me very truly yours,

                                                  AMOS LAWRENCE."

                            (TO HIS SISTER.)

                                         "BOSTON, April 19, 1843.

     "DEAR SISTER M.: When I heard a gun this morning, I was
     immediately transported back in imagination to the 19th of April,
     1775, when our grandmother retreated from her house on the
     roadside in Concord, with her family, to keep out of the way of
     the 'regulars;' and that day and its scenes, as described, came
     back upon me with a force which kept me awake in considering
     whether the gun was fired to recall the facts to the people of
     this day; and, if recalled, whether we can profit by the events
     which followed. I found, however, on receiving my newspapers,
     that the gun was not for commemoration of Lexington and Concord,
     but to announce the arrival of the British steamer from
     Liverpool. The news by this steamer is of no more than common
     interest; and the intercourse is now so easy and rapid, that the
     interest felt to learn what is passing in Europe is not much
     greater than we used to feel on Call's stage-coach arriving at
     Groton from Boston once a week, fifty years ago. The changes
     within my own recollection are such as almost to make me distrust
     my own senses; and many of the changes are at the cost of much
     good. The downhill tendency in the standard of character is a bad
     sign, and threatens the prostration of our political fabric.
     Built as it is on the virtue and intelligence of the people,
     every waste of these endangers the stability of the whole

     "_April 24._--I resume, though not in the same train of thought,
     which is slept off. My birth-day has passed since then; and I am
     now in my fifty-eighth year. This is the birth-day of our father,
     who would have been eighty-nine if living; and this week on
     Saturday will also complete thirty-six years since I left home to
     spend a few months in this city, preparatory to my commencing
     business in Groton. Here I have continued; and the consequences
     to our family seem to have stamped upon us such marks as make us
     objects of influence, for good or evil, to a much greater extent
     than if I had returned to commence my business career in my
     native town. I view in this a hand pointing upward,--'Seek me and
     ye shall find,'--and a caution to us to use without abusing the
     good things intrusted to us. How hard it is for those in
     prosperity to bring home to their feelings their dependence,
     their abuse of their privileges, their desires for objects wholly
     disproportionate to their value, their anxiety about trifles,
     while they are so utterly careless and indifferent about those of
     the highest moment! How we strive unceasingly to secure objects
     that can, at best, give us but a slight reward, and, in many
     cases, if attained to the full extent of our hopes, only serve
     to sharpen our appetite for more; thus demonstrating the
     benevolence of our heavenly Father in removing these obstacles to
     our progress in the ways and works of godliness! How important,
     then, for us to see a Father's hand in the disappointments, not
     less than in the success, of our plans! I now speak practically
     of those anxieties which I feel and condemn myself for, in
     looking forward to the condition of my family. This is all wrong;
     and I pray God to pardon me the want of faith this feeling

     "I have thought much of your account of Mrs. N. going out, on the
     Sabbath after her husband's death, with her nine children. I
     remember her, and many others of my youthful schoolmates, with
     interest and regard. Please say so to her. And now, dear M., as
     the clouds seem thinner, I may hope to secure a little run, and
     shall take the post-office in my way; so must bid you adieu."

                           (TO GENERAL ----.)

                                                    "May 5, 1843.

     "MY DEAR OLD GENERAL: Our anticipated drive to-day is not to be:
     the weather settles it that I must keep house; and, to indemnify
     myself for the disappointment, will you allow me to feel that I
     have not gone too far in requesting you to receive the enclosed
     check? I am spared here for some object, and do not feel that to
     hoard money is that object. While I am in the receipt of an
     income so ample, I find it sometimes troublesome to invest
     exactly to my mind. In the present case, the hope that you may,
     by using this, add something to your enjoyment, makes me feel
     that it is one of my best investments; and for the reason that
     your proverbial good-will cannot refuse me such a boon, I have
     made this request. My heart yearns strongly toward the
     old-fashioned John Jay school in politics and morals; and, when
     I have an opportunity to minister in any way to one of the early
     members, it is a pleasure that sweetens my days as they pass."

On the letter written in reply to the above, Mr. Lawrence has

     "This letter from old General ----, now eighty-eight years old,
     and blind, is an acknowledgment of some little kindnesses I was
     enabled to render through the hand of Judge Story. It has
     afforded me more pleasure than it could have done either the
     Judge or the General. I am sure the good old man's feelings were
     gratified; and I am thankful that I could comfort him."

On the 17th of June, 1843, took place the celebration in honor of the
completion of the Bunker Hill Monument; an event which was regarded
with no ordinary emotions by Mr. Lawrence, after so many years of
effort and expectation. His only regret was that the whole
battle-field could not have been preserved, and have remained, to use
his own words, "a field-preacher for posterity." Eleven years before
this, he had written to his son in Europe:

     "If we be true to ourselves, our city is destined to be the
     Athens of America, and the hallowed spots in our neighborhood to
     be the objects of interest throughout all future time. In this
     view, I would never permit a foot of the battle-field of Bunker
     Hill to be alienated; but keep it for your
     great-great-grandchildren, as a legacy of patriotism worth more
     than their portion of it, if covered with gold by measure. Until
     you are older, I do not expect you to feel as I do on this

This would seem to be the proper place to mention a few facts in
regard to Mr. Lawrence's agency in securing the completion of the
monument. It has already been mentioned that he was one of the
earliest friends of the project to erect a monument, and, in 1825, had
been placed upon the Standing Committee of Directors, with full powers
to manage the affairs of the Association. In September, 1831, in a
letter to his friend, Dr. J. C. Warren, who himself had been one of
the warmest and most efficient advocates of the measure, he proposed
to subscribe five thousand dollars, on condition that fifty thousand
dollars should be raised within one year. The following passage occurs
in that letter:

     "I think it inexpedient to allude to the sale of the land on
     Bunker Hill, as a resource for paying the debt, except in case of
     extreme necessity; and, at this time, I should personally sooner
     vote to sell ten acres of the Common, in front of my house, to
     pay the city debt (of Boston), than vote to sell the ten acres on
     Bunker Hill, until it shall appear that our citizens will not
     contribute the means of saving it."

The proposition thus made was not responded to by the public.[6] As
early as December, 1830, he had made provision by his will, in case of
his own death, to secure the battle-field, liquidate the debts of the
corporation, and complete the monument. These provisions were
superseded by another will, executed April 1, 1833, after his health
had failed, so as to forbid active participation in affairs. An
extract from this document will show the views of the testator:

     "I am of opinion that the land owned by the Bunker Hill Monument
     Association, in Charlestown, will be of great value to posterity,
     if left as public ground. The spot is the most interesting in the
     country; and it seems to me it is calculated to impress the
     feelings of those who come after us with gratitude to the people
     of this generation, if we preserve it to them. The whole field
     contains about fifteen acres; and, in the hope of preserving it
     entire, either as the property of the State, of this city, or of
     any other competent body, and with the further view of insuring
     the completion of the monument, which now stands as a reproach to
     us, I have set apart a larger share of my property than would be
     necessary, had not the subject been presented to the public in
     such a manner as to discourage future attempts at raising the
     necessary funds by voluntary contribution."

  [6] For a history of the Bunker Hill Monument, see an article in
  collections of "Maine Historical Society," vol. iii., by Professor
  Packard, of Bowdoin College.

The amount thus devised for the monument, in case that amount should
not be raised in other ways, was fifty thousand dollars. In June,
1832, before the annual meeting of the Bunker Hill Monument
Association, the same offer of five thousand dollars, as first named,
was renewed, with an urgent appeal for the preservation of the land,
and completion of the monument. A movement followed this appeal, but
was not successful. In April, 1833, Mr. Lawrence proposed to the
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association to attempt the raising
of fifty thousand dollars, to be secured within three months, for
completing the monument and preserving the field; accompanying the
proposition was an offer of five thousand dollars, or ten per cent. on
any less sum that might be raised, as a donation to the Association. A
public meeting was held in Faneuil Hall in response to this
proposition, at which Hon. Edward Everett made a most powerful appeal,
which produced so great an effect upon his auditors that the object
was considered as accomplished. The effort was again unsuccessful.
Early in 1839, Mr. Lawrence addressed a letter to George Darracott,
Esq., President of the Mechanic Association, in which, after
expressing regret that his feeble and precarious health would not
permit him to make personal application to the citizens of Boston, he

     "The next best thing I can do is to give money. The Monument
     Association owes a debt. To discharge the debt, finish the
     monument, surround it with a handsome iron fence, and otherwise
     ornament the ground as it deserves, will require forty thousand
     dollars more than it now has. If the Association will collect
     thirty thousand dollars the present year, and pay off the debt, I
     will give to the Charitable Mechanic Association ten thousand
     dollars to enable it to complete the work in a manner which our
     fathers would have done, had they been here to direct it."

A further donation of ten thousand dollars was made by Judah Touro,
Esq., of New Orleans; five thousand dollars were received from other
sources; and this, with thirty thousand dollars received at the great
fair held in Quincy Hall, September, 1840, afforded the means of
completing the monument according to the original design. Thus was
consummated a work which had been very near to Mr. Lawrence's heart,
and which had cost him many a sleepless night, as well as days of toil
and perplexity. To his associates in this work too much credit cannot
be awarded, discouraged, as they often were, by indifference, and even
censure. Their names will be handed down for centuries, in connection
with a monument, which, while it commemorates a nation's freedom,
teaches also a practical lesson of the perseverance and energy of man.

The following is an extract from a newspaper published about the time
the monument was completed, giving an account of a festival held in
commemoration of the event:

     "The president remarked, that, among the benefactors to whom the
     Association had been particularly indebted for the means of
     completing the monument, two, whose names were written on a
     scroll at the other end of the hall, were Amos Lawrence and Judah
     Touro, each of whom had made a donation of ten thousand dollars.
     He thought it proper they should be remembered at the festive
     board, and gave the following:

             "Amos and Judah! venerated names!
             Patriarch and prophet press their equal claims;
             Like generous coursers, running neck and neck,
             Each aids the work by giving it a check.
             Christian and Jew, they carry out a plan;
             For, though of different faith, each is in heart a man."



After the establishment of the cemetery at Mount Auburn, Mr. Lawrence
had taken a deep interest in its progress, as well as in every plan
for its gradual improvement and embellishment. In connection with his
brothers, he had purchased a large space, which had been enclosed by a
permanent granite wall and iron railing. To this spot he habitually
resorted, containing, as it did, the remains of some of the dearest
earthly objects of his affection, and destined, as it was, to be the
final resting-place of not only himself, but of the various branches
of his family. When this enclosure had been finished, it became an
object with him to gather around him in death those whom he had loved
and honored in life. In this way, he had been instrumental in causing
to be removed to a burial-lot adjoining his own the remains of the
Rev. J. S. Buckminster, the former minister of Brattle-street Church;
and had also presented another lot to his friend and pastor, the Rev.
Dr. Lothrop. Another friend, whose grave he wished to have near his
own, was the Rev. Daniel Sharp, D.D., minister of the Charles-street
Baptist Church, in Boston. There were few in Boston who were not
familiar with the appearance of this venerable clergyman, as he daily
appeared in the streets; and fewer still who had not learned to
appreciate the truly catholic and Christian spirit which animated him
in his intercourse with men of all sects and parties. Mr. Lawrence had
early entertained a great esteem for his character; and this esteem
had become mutual, and had ripened into the closest intimacy and
friendship. On receiving a deed of a lot at Mount Auburn, Dr. Sharp
writes as follows:

                                        "BOSTON, August 23, 1843.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I cannot find words with which to express my sense
     of your unexpected and considerate kindness, in providing so
     beautiful a resting-place in Mount Auburn for me and my loved
     ones. It is soothing to me to anticipate that my grave will be so
     near your own. May the Almighty, in his infinite mercy, grant,
     that, when the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall awake, we
     may both rise together, to be forever with the Lord! If the
     proximity of my last place of repose to ministers of another
     denomination shall teach candor, charity, and peace, I enjoy the
     sweet consciousness that this will be in harmony with the object
     of my life.

                                             Yours, gratefully,
                                                   "DANIEL SHARP.

The enlarged Christian spirit which formed so prominent a trait in Mr.
Lawrence's character, and which enabled him to appreciate goodness
wherever it could be found, without reference to nation, sect, or
color, may be further illustrated by the following note of
acknowledgment, received about the same time with the preceding, from
Bishop McIlvaine, of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Ohio, who was
then on a visit to Boston to procure funds in aid of Kenyon College:

                                              "Wednesday evening.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I have just received your very kind and grateful
     letter, with its cheering enclosure of a hundred dollars towards
     an object which engrosses me much just now. Thank you, dear sir,
     most truly, for your kindness, and the _first fruits_ of Boston,
     for I came only to-day. I trust the ingathering will not
     dispossess the first ripe sheaf. Coming from one not of my own
     church, it is the more kind and grateful. O, sir! if God shall so
     bless my present effort as to send me home with the sum I seek, I
     shall know a freedom of mind from care and anxiety such as I have
     not experienced for many years, during which our present crisis
     has been anticipated. I shall have great pleasure in riding with
     you, according to your note to Mr. R. To-morrow will probably be
     a day of more leisure to me than any other while I shall be in

                    "Yours, very truly and respectfully,
                                          "CHARLES P. MCILVAINE."

                          (TO ONE OF HIS PARTNERS.)

                                              "December 18, 1843.

     "DEAR MR. PARKER: I am _puffed up_ (with ague), but not in a
     manner to gratify my pride, as I am housed, and denied the sight
     of most of those who call, but not the privilege of reading
     their papers, and spending money. In short, I have more use for
     money when in the house than when able to be abroad. If you will
     tell Brother Sharp[7] his beautiful bills find an exceedingly
     ready use, I shall be glad of one hundred in ones and twos, two
     hundred in fives, and three hundred in tens and twenties; say six
     hundred dollars, just to keep me along till the end of the month.
     The calls are frequent and striking. 'Do with thy might what thy
     hand findeth to do; for the night cometh, when no man can work.'
     God grant me the blessing of being ready to answer the call,
     whether it be at noon or at midnight!"

  [7] For more than forty years Teller in Massachusetts Bank.

Twelve days after, he writes to the same gentleman for another supply;
the sum already received not having been sufficient apparently to
carry him through the year:

                                              "December 30, 1843.

     "'The good there is in riches lieth altogether in their use, like
     the woman's box of ointment; if it be not broken and the contents
     poured out for the refreshment of Jesus Christ, in his distressed
     members, they lose their worth; the covetous man may therefore
     truly write upon his rusting heaps, "These are good for nothing."
     He is not rich who lays up much, but he who lays out much; for it
     is all one not to have, as not to use. I will therefore be the
     richer by charitable laying out, while the worldling will be
     poorer by his covetous hoarding up.'

     "Here is the embodiment of a volume, and whoever wrote it
     deserves the thanks of good men. I would fain be rich, according
     as he defines riches; but _possession, possession, is the devil_,
     as the old Frenchman at ---- said to George Cabot. This devil I
     would try to cast out; you will therefore please send me twelve
     hundred dollars, which may do something for the comfort of those
     who have seen better days.

                             Your friend,
                                                            A. L.
    "TO C. H. PARKER, Esq."

The following letter from Judge Story was received at about the time
the preceding letter was written; but no memorandum is found by which
to ascertain the occasion which called it forth. It may be that he had
been made the channel, as was the case a few months before, of some
donation to a third person; a mode which Mr. Lawrence often adopted
when he felt a delicacy in proffering direct aid to some one whose
sensitiveness might be wounded in receiving assistance from a
comparative stranger:

                                       "CAMBRIDGE, Saturday noon.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I have this moment finished reading your letter and
     its enclosures, which did not reach me until this noon, and I can
     scarcely describe to you how deeply I have been affected by them.
     I almost feel that you are too much oppressed by the constant
     calls for charitable purposes, and that your liberal and
     conscientious spirit is tasked to its utmost extent. 'The poor
     have ye always with you' is a Christian truth; and I know not, in
     the whole circle of my friends, any one who realizes it so fully,
     and acts upon it so nobly, as yourself. God, my dear sir, will
     reward you for all your goodness; man never can. And yet the
     gratitude of the many whom you relieve, their prayers for your
     happiness, their consciousness of your expanded benevolence, is
     of itself a treasure of inestimable value. It is a source of
     consolation, which you would not exchange for any earthly boon
     of equal value. Wealth is to you an enlightened trust, for the
     benefit of your race. You administer it so gracefully, as well as
     so justly, that I can only regret that your means are not ten
     times as great. Gracious Heavens! What a contrast is your life to
     that of some wealthy men, who have lived many years, and have yet
     to learn how to give, or, as you beautifully expressed it the
     other day, who have yet to learn to be their own executors! My
     heart is so full of you, and of the whole matter, that I would
     fain pour out my thoughts at large to you; for you understand
     _me_, and I can sympathize with _you_. But just now I am full of
     all sorts of business, and without a moment to spare, having many
     judicial opinions to prepare in the few remaining days before I
     go to Washington; and, withal, having Mrs. S. very ill, in
     respect to whom I feel a deep anxiety. But, wherever I am, I pray
     you to believe that you are always in my thoughts, with the
     warmest affection and dearest remembrance. And, if this hasty
     scrawl is not too slight for such a matter, pray preserve it
     among your papers, that your children may know what I thought of
     their father, when you and I shall be both in our graves.

             "I am most truly and faithfully your obliged friend,
                                                   "JOSEPH STORY.

     "P. S.--I have sent the letter and its accompaniments to Mr.
     ----. Think of ----. Think of those rich men in ----, who have
     never dreamed of the duties of charity. Cast a view to their own
     posterity. How striking a memento is the very case of ----,
     presented in his own letters, of the instability of human

Mr. Lawrence closes the year 1843 by a review of his temporal affairs,
and by fresh resolutions of fidelity to his trusts. He then gives an
estimate of his income and expenditures, showing a somewhat large
excess of the latter, though, as he says, from the state of the times,
not to the detriment of his property.


     "MY YOUNG FRIENDS: It cheers and comforts me to learn of your
     well-doing, and encourages me to offer a word of counsel, as
     prosperity is often more dangerous in its time than adversity.
     Now is your seed-time. See to it that it is good; for 'whatsoever
     a man soweth, that shall he also reap.' The integrity,
     intelligence, and elevated bearing, of the Boston mechanics, have
     been and are a property for each citizen of great value; inasmuch
     as the good name of our beloved city is a common property, that
     every citizen has an interest in, and should help to preserve. At
     your time of life, habits are formed that grow with your years.
     Avoid rum and tobacco, in all forms, unless prescribed as a
     medicine; and I will promise you better contracts, heavier
     purses, happier families, and a more youthful and vigorous old
     age, by thus avoiding the beginning of evil. God speed you, my
     young friends, in all your good works! With the enclosed, I pray
     you to accept the felicitations of the season.

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."



At the commencement of the year 1844, President Hopkins, of Williams
College, delivered a course of lectures on the "Evidences of
Christianity," before the Lowell Institute, in Boston. Mr. Lawrence
had previously seen him, and had thought that he detected, in some
features of his face, a resemblance to the family of his first wife.
In allusion to this acquaintance, he writes to his son about this

     "President H. has the family look of your mother enough to belong
     to them; and it was in consequence of that resemblance, when I
     was first introduced to him many years ago, that I inquired his
     origin, and found him to be of the same stock."

The acquaintance was renewed, and an intimacy ensued, which was not
only the cause of much happiness to Mr. Lawrence through the remainder
of his life, but was also the means of directing his attention to the
wants of Williams College, of which he eventually became the greatest
benefactor. An active and constant correspondence followed this
acquaintance, and was so much prized by Mr. Lawrence that he had most
of the letters copied, thereby filling several volumes, from which
extracts will from time to time be made. In one of his first letters
to that gentleman, dated May 11, he says:

     "If, by the consecration of my earthly possessions to some
     extent, I can make the Christian character practically more
     lovely, and illustrate, in my own case, that the higher
     enjoyments here are promoted by the free use of the good things
     intrusted to me, what so good use can I make of them? I feel that
     my stewardship is a very imperfect one, and that the use of these
     good things might be extended profitably to myself; and, since I
     have known how much good the little donation did your college, I
     feel ashamed of myself it had not been larger,--at any rate,
     sufficient to have cleared the debt."

To the same gentleman, who had informed Mr. Lawrence that an accident
had befallen a plaster bust of himself, he writes, under date of May

     "DEAR PRESIDENT: You know the phrase 'Such a man's head is full
     of notions' has a meaning that we all understand to be not to his
     credit for discretion, whatever else may be said of him. As I
     propose throwing in a caveat against this general meaning, I
     proceed to state my case. And, firstly, President H. is made
     debtor to the Western Railroad Corporation for the transportation
     of a barrel to Pittsfield. The bill is receipted, so that you can
     have the barrel to-morrow by sending for it; which barrel
     contains neither biscuit nor flour, but the clay image of your
     friend. In the head are divers notions that my hand fell upon as
     I was preparing it for the jaunt; and, when the head was filled
     with things new and old, I was careful to secure the region under
     the shoulders, especially on the _left side_, and near the heart,
     by placing there that part of a lady's dress which designates a
     government that we men are unwilling openly to acknowledge, but
     is, withal, very conservative. Within its folds I wrapped up very
     securely 'Pilgrim's Progress,' and stuffed the empty space
     between my shoulders, and near my heart, _brim full_, I hope my
     young friend will find a motive and a moral in the image and in
     the book, to cheer him on in his pilgrimage of life."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_July 22, 1844._--Sixty-seven years ago this day, my mother, now
     living, was married; and, while standing up for the ceremony, the
     alarm-bell rang, calling all soldiers to their posts. My father
     left her within the hour, and repaired to Cambridge; but the
     colonel, in consideration of the circumstances, allowed him to
     return to Groton to his wife, and to join his regiment within
     three days at Rhode Island. This he did, spending but a few hours
     with his wife; and she saw nothing more of him until the last day
     of the year, when he made her a visit. I have ordered a thousand
     dollars paid to the Massachusetts General Hospital, to aid in
     enlarging its wings, and to commemorate this event. The girls of
     this day know nothing of the privations and trials of their

On the same day with the above entry in his diary occurs another, in
which he alludes to assistance afforded to some young persons in
Brattle-street Church,--"sons of Brattle-street, and, as such,
assisted by me." Mr. Lawrence's early religious associations were
connected with this church, where, it is believed, he attended from
the first Sunday after his coming to Boston. With such associations,
and connected as they were with the most endeared recollections of
those who had worshipped there with him in early days, all that
pertained to this venerable church possessed a strong and abiding
interest. In this connection is quoted the beautiful testimony of his
pastor, the Rev. Dr. Lothrop, furnished in the funeral sermon
delivered by him, where he speaks of Mr. Lawrence's love for the
church, as well as of his religious character:

     "The prominent feature in Mr. Lawrence's life and character, its
     inspiration and its guide, was religion,--religious faith,
     affection, and hope. He loved God, and therefore he loved all
     God's creatures. He believed in Christ as the Messiah and Saviour
     of the world, and therefore found peace and strength in his soul,
     amid all the perils, duties, and sorrows of life. His religious
     opinions lay distinct and clear in his own mind. They were the
     result of careful reading and of serious reflection, and were
     marked by a profound reverence for the Sacred Scriptures, and the
     divine authority of Jesus Christ. A constant worshipper here
     during the forty-six years of his residence in this city, for
     more than forty years of this period a communicant, and for more
     than ten a deacon of this church,--resigning the office, at
     length, because of his invalid state of health,--he had strong
     attachments to this house of God. 'Our venerable church,' he says
     in one of his notes to me, 'has in it deeply impressive,
     improving, instructive, and interesting associations, going back
     to the early days of my worshipping there; and the prayers of my
     friends and fellow-worshippers of three generations, in part now
     belonging there, come in aid of my weakness in time of need; and
     no other spot, but that home where I was first taught my prayers,
     and this my domestic fireside, where my children have been taught
     theirs, has the same interest as our own old Brattle-square

To an old business friend and acquaintance, Joshua Aubin, Esq., the
agent of the Amesbury Company, who had from the beginning been
associated with him in this first and favorite manufacturing
enterprise in which he had engaged, he writes on September 18, after
receiving a quantity of manufactured articles for distribution among
the poor:

     "You are brought very near to me on such a day as this (when I am
     shut up in the house), by your work as well as by your words.

     "Now, as to your last consignment, I have derived, and expect to
     derive, as much comfort and enjoyment from it as I ordinarily
     should from a cash dividend on my shares. In truth, I am able to
     employ these _odds and ends_ to such uses and for such persons as
     will make me feel as though I were spared here for some use.

     "For instance, I had a call from a most respectable friend
     (president of one of the best colleges in the West) last week,
     who agreed to come again this week to do some shopping as soon as
     he got some money for preaching on Sunday, and look over my stock
     of goods.

     "I intend making him up a good parcel of your work, and, depend
     on it, it is good seed, and will take root at the West. He says
     that they have no money, but plenty of corn, and beef, and pork.
     Corn pays for growing at ten cents a bushel, and will not bring
     that in cash; and ten bushels will not pay for a calico gown, or
     a flannel petticoat.

     "With his large family of children, don't you think these _odds
     and ends_ will come as a blessing? Besides, he is an
     old-fashioned Massachusetts Whig; loves the old Bay State as well
     as ever the Jews loved their State, and is, through his college
     exercising an influence in ---- that no body of men in that State
     can do; and will, in the end, bring them into regular line, as to
     education and elevation of character. Send me some of your
     flannels to give to Madam ---- for her family of one or two
     hundred children in the Children's Friend Society.

     "---- will give them over to these poor little destitute, unclad
     creatures. They are taken and saved by this interesting society.

     "A rainy day like this is the very time for me to work among my
     household goods. Many a poor minister and his family, and many a
     needy student at school or college, fare the better for your
     spinning and weaving.

     "I am living in my chamber, and on very close allowance. Every
     day to me is a day of glorious anticipations, if I am free from
     bodily suffering, and if my mind is free."

On another occasion he writes to the same gentleman:

     "I have your letter and package; the cold of this morning will
     make the articles doubly acceptable to the shivering and sick
     poor among us. J. C.'s case is one for sympathy and relief.
     Engage to supply him a hundred dollars, which I will hand to you
     when you visit me; and tell the poor fellow to keep in good
     heart, for our merciful Father afflicts in love, and thus I trust
     that this will prove a stepping-stone to the mansions of bliss.
     I shall never cease to remember with interest the veterans of
     the A. F. Co. How are my friends B. and others of early days?
     Also, how is old father F.? Does he need my warm outside coat,
     when I get supplied with a better?

     "After your call upon me a few weeks since, I went back in memory
     to scenes of olden times, which had an interest that you can
     sympathize in, and which I intended to express to you before
     this; but I have had one of those admonitory ill turns since,
     that kept me under the eye of the doctor for a number of days.

     "In reviewing my beginnings in manufacturing, under your
     recommendation and care, almost a quarter of a century ago, I can
     see the men, the machines, the wheel-pit, and the speed-gauge,
     and especially I can see our old friend W. lying on the bottom of
     the pit, lamp in hand, with his best coat on, eying the wheels
     and cogs as an astronomer makes observations in an observatory.
     All these scenes are as fresh in my memory as though seen but

     "Do you remember C. B., the brother of J. and G. B.? All three of
     whom were business men here at the time you were, and all were
     unfortunate. C. tried his; hand in ----, and did not succeed
     there; returned to this country, and settled on a tract of land
     in ----, where he has been hard at work for ten years, and has
     maintained his family. His wife died a few months since. One
     after another of his family sickened, and he became somewhat
     straitened, and knew not what to do. He wrote to an old business
     friend, who was his debtor, and who had failed, had paid a part
     only, and was discharged thirty years ago, and who has since been
     prosperous. He stated his case, and asked me to say a good word
     for him. That person sent one half, and I sent the other half,
     the day before Thanksgiving. It will reach him on Monday next,
     and will make his eyes glisten with joy.

     "Remember me to Capt. ---- and J. C, and B., and any other of the

Sept. 23, Mr. Lawrence receives from an old debtor, once a clerk in
his establishment, a check for five hundred dollars, which a sense of
justice had induced him to send, though the debt of some thousands had
been long since legally discharged. On receiving it, he writes, in a
memorandum at the bottom of the letter received, to his brother and

     "DEAR ABBOTT: I have the money. J. D. was always a person of
     truth. I take the statement as true; but I had no recollection of
     the thing till recalled by his statement. What say you to putting
     this money into the life office, in trust for his sister?

                        Your affectionate brother,

     "MEMORANDUM. _November 23._--Done, and policy sent to the

There are but few men, distinguished in public or private life, who
are burdened with an undue amount of praise from their contemporaries;
and yet this was the case with Mr. Lawrence, who was often chagrined,
after some deed of charity, or some written expression of sympathy, to
see it emblazoned, with superadded colors, in the public prints. Some
one had enclosed to him a newspaper from another city, which contained
a most labored and flattering notice of the kind referred to, to which
he writes the following reply:

                                                "September, 1844.

     "DEAR ----: I received the paper last evening, and have read and
     re-read it with deep interest and attention. However true it may
     he, it is not calculated to promote the ultimate good of any of
     us; for we are all inclined to think full well enough of
     ourselves; and such puffs should be left for our obituaries.
     Truth is not always to be pushed forward; and its advocates may
     sometimes retard it by injudicious urging. Such is the danger in
     the present case. The writer appears to be a young man who has
     received favors, and is laboring to repay them or secure more. He
     has told the truth; but, as I before said, neither you nor I, nor
     any one of our families, are improved or benefited in any degree
     by it. God grant us to be humble, diligent, and faithful to the
     end of our journey, that we may then receive his approval, and be
     placed among the good of all nations and times!"

On the 29th. of October, Mrs. Appleton, his sister-in-law, and widow
of the Rev. Jesse Appleton, D.D., formerly President of Bowdoin
College, died at his house, after a lingering illness. In a letter to
his son, after describing her character and peaceful death, he says:

     "With such a life and such hopes, who can view the change as any
     other than putting away the fugitive and restless pleasures of an
     hour for the quiet and fixed enjoyments of eternity? Let us,
     then, my dear children, not look upon the separation of a few
     short years as a calamity to be dreaded, should we not meet here
     again in any other way than as we now meet. While I am here,
     every joy and enjoyment you experience, and give us an account
     of, is not less so to us than if we were with you to partake, as
     we have done of all such heretofore; and, in this source of
     enjoyment, few people have such ample stores. Three families of
     children and grandchildren within my daily walk,--is not this
     enough for any man? And here I would impress upon my grandsons
     the importance of looking carefully to their steps. The
     difference between going just right and a little wrong in the
     commencement of the journey of life, is the difference between
     their finding a happy home or a miserable slough at the end of
     the journey. Teach them to avoid tobacco and intoxicating drink,
     and all temptations that can lead them into evil, as it is easier
     to prevent than to remedy a fault. 'An ounce of prevention is
     worth a pound of cure.' I was going on to say that, according to
     my estimate of men and things, I would not change conditions with
     Louis Philippe if I could by a wish, rich as he is in the matter
     of good children. I have a great liking for him, and a sincere
     respect for his family, as they are reported to me; but I trust
     that mine will not be tried by the temptations of great worldly
     grandeur, but that they will be found faithful stewards of the
     talents intrusted to them. Bring up your boys to do their work
     first, and enjoy their play afterwards. Begin early to teach them
     habits of order, a proper economy, and exact accountability in
     their affairs. This simple rule of making a child, after he is
     twelve years old, keep an exact account of all that he wears,
     uses, or expends, in any and every way, would save more suffering
     to families than can fairly be estimated by those who have not
     observed its operation.

     "And now, to change the subject," he writes Nov. 15, "we have got
     through the elections, and are humbled as Americans. The
     questions affecting our local labor, produce, and pecuniary
     interests, are of small moment, compared with that of annexing
     Texas to this Union. I wrote a brief note yesterday to our friend
     Chapman, late Mayor of the city, and a member of the Whig
     Committee, which speaks the language of my heart. It was as

       "'MY DEAR SIR: The result of the election in Massachusetts is
       matter of devout and grateful feelings to every good citizen,
       and, so far as pride is allowable, is a subject of pride to every
       citizen, whatever his politics; for, wherever he goes, and
       carries the evidence of belonging to the old Bay State, he may be
       sure of the respect of all parties. This glorious result has not
       been wrought "without works;" and for it we, the people, are
       greatly indebted to your committee. So far as may be needed, I
       trust you will find no backwardness on our part in putting
       matters right. I bless God for sparing my life to this time; and
       I humbly beseech him to crown your labors with success in future.
       If Texas can be kept off, there will be hope for our government.
       All other questions are insignificant in comparison with this.
       The damning sin of adding it to this nation to extend slavery
       will be as certain to destroy us as death is to overtake us. The
       false step, once taken, cannot be retraced, and will be to the
       people who occupy what rum is to the toper. It eats up and
       uproots the very foundation on which Christian nations are based,
       and will make us the scorn of all Christendom. Let us work, then,
       in a Christian spirit, as we would for our individual salvation,
       to prevent this sad calamity befalling us.'"



On the 29th of November, Mr. Lawrence addressed to his son a most
joyous letter, announcing the birth of twin-grand daughters, and the
comfortable health of his daughter, the wife of the Rev. Charles
Mason, Rector of St. Peter's Church, at Salem, Massachusetts. The
letter is filled with the most devout expressions of gratitude at the
event, and cheering anticipations for the future, and yet with some
feelings of uneasiness lest the strength of his daughter should not be
sufficient to sustain her in these trying circumstances. He adds:

     "Why, then, should I worry myself, about what I cannot help, and
     practically distrust that goodness that sustains and cheers and
     enlivens my days?"

The fears expressed were too soon and sadly realized; the powers of
her constitution had been too severely taxed, nature gave way, and,
four days afterwards, she ceased to live. Mr. Lawrence announced the
death of this cherished and only daughter in the following letter:

                                      "BOSTON, December 14, 1844.

     "MY DEAR SON: The joyous event I mentioned of S.'s twins has in
     it sad memorials of the uncertainty of all joys, excepting those
     arising from the happiness of friends whose journey is ended, and
     whose joys are commencing. Long life does not consist in many
     years, but in the use of the years allowed us; so that many a man
     who has seen his four-score has, for all the purposes of life,
     not lived at all. And, again, others, who have impressed distinct
     marks, and have been called away before twenty-eight years have
     passed over them, may have lived long lives, and have been
     objects of grateful interest to multitudes who hardly spoke to
     them while living. Such has been the case with our hearts' love
     and desire, Susan Mason. The giving birth to those two babes,
     either of whom would have been her pride and delight, was more
     than she could recruit from. The exhaustion and faintness at the
     time were great, but not alarming; and the joy of our hearts for
     a season seemed unmixed. After three days, the alarm for her
     safety had taken stronger hold of her other friends than of
     myself; and, at the time I wrote you last, I felt strong
     confidence in her recovery. On Sunday evening, at seven o'clock,
     a great change came over her, that precluded all hope, and she
     was told by C. how it was. She seemed prepared for it, was clear
     in her mind, and, with what little strength she had, sent
     messages of love. 'Give love to my father, and tell him I hope we
     shall meet in heaven,' was her graphic and characteristic
     message; and then she desired C. to lead and guide her thoughts
     in prayer, which he continued to do for as many as six times,
     until within the last half-hour of her life. At three o'clock on
     Monday morning, the 2d instant, her pure spirit passed out of its
     earthly tenement to its heavenly home, where our Father has
     called her to be secured from the trials and pains and exposures
     to which she was here liable. It is a merciful Father, who knows
     better than we do what is for our good. What is now mysterious
     will be made plain at the right time; for 'He doeth all things
     well.' Shall we, then, my dear children, doubt him in this?
     Surely not. S. was ripe for heaven, and, as a good scholar, has
     passed on in advance of her beloved ones; but beckons us on, to
     be reünited, and become joint heirs with her of those treasures
     provided for those who are found worthy. We are now to think of
     her as on the other side of Jordan, before the same altar that we
     worship at, without any of the alloy that mixes in ours; she
     praising, and we praying, and all hoping an interest in the
     Beloved that shall make all things seem less than nothing in
     comparison with this. We have had the sympathy of friends; and
     the circumstances have brought to light new friends, that make us
     feel our work here is not done. I feel called two ways at once:
     S. beckoning me to come up; the little ones appealing to the
     inmost recesses of my heart to stay, and lead them, with an old
     grandfather's fondest, strongest, tenderest emotions, as the
     embodiment of my child. Her remains are placed at the head of her
     mother's; and those two young mothers, thus placed, will speak to
     their kindred with an eloquence that words cannot. I try to say,
     in these renewed tokens of a Father's discipline, 'Thy will be
     done,' and to look more carefully after my tendency to have some
     idol growing upon me that is inconsistent with that first place
     _he_ requires; and I further try to keep in mind, that, if I
     loved S. much, _he_ loved her more, and has provided against the
     changes she was exposed to under the best care I could render.
     Let us praise God for her long life in a few years, and profit by
     the example she has left. The people of her own church are deeply
     afflicted, and not until her death were any of us aware of the
     strong hold she had upon them. Some touching incidents have
     occurred, which are a better monument to her memory than any
     marble that can be reared. * * * *

     "This morning opens most splendidly, and beautifully illustrates,
     in the appearance of the sky, that glorious eternity so much
     cherished in the mind of the believer.

                "With sincerest affection, your father,
                                                           A. L."

                                "TREMONT-STREET, Tuesday morning.

     "DEAR PARTNERS: The weather is such as to keep me housed to-day,
     and it is important to me to have something to think of beside
     myself. The sense of loss will press upon me more than I desire
     it, without the other side of the account. All is ordered in
     wisdom and in mercy; and we pay a poor tribute to our Father and
     best Friend in distrusting him. I do most sincerely hope that I
     may say, from the heart, 'Thy will be done.' Please send me a
     thousand dollars by G., in small bills, thus enabling me to fill
     up the time to some practical purpose. It is a painful thought to
     me that I shall see my beloved daughter no more on earth; but it
     is a happy one to think of joining her in heaven.

                              Yours, ever,
                                                            A. L.
     "A. & A. LAWRENCE & CO."

On the last day of 1844, a date now to be remembered by his friends as
that on which his own departure took place, eight years later, he
writes to his children in France:

     "This last day of the year seems to have in it such tokens and
     emblems as are calculated to comfort and encourage the youthful
     pilgrim, just in his vigor, not less than the old one, near the
     end of his journey; for the sun in the heavens, the hills in the
     west, and the ocean on the east, all speak, in tones not to be
     mistaken, 'Be of good courage,' 'Work while it is day,' and
     receive, without murmuring, the discipline a Father applies; for
     he knows what is best for his children. Whether he plants thorns
     in the path, or afflicts them in any way, he does all for their
     good. Thus, my dear children, are we to view the removal of our
     beloved S. This year had been one of unusual prosperity and
     enjoyment, from the first day to the present month; and all
     seemed so lovely here that there was danger of our feeling too
     much reliance on these temporals. The gem in the centre has been
     removed, to show us the tenure by which we held the others."

At the opening of the year 1845, Mr. Lawrence, after noting in his
property-book the usual annual details, makes the following

     "The business of the past year has been eminently successful, and
     the increased value of many of the investments large. In view of
     these trusts, how shall we appear when the Master calls? I would
     earnestly strive to keep constantly in mind the fact that he
     _will_ call, and that speedily, upon each and all of us; and
     that, when he calls, the question will be, How have you used
     these? not How much have you hoarded?"

With the new year, he set himself at work with renewed zeal to carry
into effect his good resolutions. One of the first results was a
donation of ten thousand dollars to Williams College, which he enters
upon his book with the following memorandum:

     "I am so well satisfied with the appropriations heretofore made
     for the advancement and improvement of Williams College that I
     desire to make further investment in the same, to the amount of
     ten thousand dollars. In case any new professorship is
     established in the college, I should be gratified to have it
     called the Hopkins Professorship, entertaining, as I do, the most
     entire confidence and respect for its distinguished President."

Nearly every day, at this period, bears some record of his charities;
and among others was a considerable donation to a Baptist college, in
another State, enclosed to a Baptist clergyman in Boston, with a check
of fifty dollars for himself, to enable him to take a journey for
recruiting his health and strength, of which he was much in need. Soon
after Mr. Lawrence's death, an article appeared in an influential
religious publication giving an estimate of the amount of his
charities, and also stating that his pocket-book had written upon it a
text of Scripture, calculated to remind him of his duties in the
distribution of his wealth. The text was said to be, "What shall it
profit a man if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?"

After making diligent search, the editor of this volume, rather to
correct the statement in regard to the amount of his charities than
for any other object, contradicted the assertion, and also expressed
the opinion that Mr. Lawrence needed no such memorial as this to
remind him of his duties; for the law of charity was too deeply graven
on his heart to require the insertion of the text in the manner
described. Some time afterward, an old pocket-book was found, which
had not probably been in use for many years, but which contained the
text alluded to, inscribed in ink, though faded from the lapse of time
and constant use. It may have been useful to him in early years,
before he engaged systematically in the work of charity; but, during
the latter years of his life, if we can judge from his writings, as
well as from his daily actions, his sense of accountability was
extreme, if there can be an extreme in the zealous performance of
one's duty in this respect.

If the class of politicians alluded to in the following extract could
have foreseen the course of events with the same sagacity, it might
have saved them from much uncertainty, and have been of service in
their career:

     "We are in a poor way, politically, in this country. This
     practice of taking up demagogues for high office is no way to
     perpetuate liberty. The new party of Native Americans is likely
     to go forward, and will break up the Whig party, and where it
     will stop is to be learned."

     "_March 1._--Spring opens upon us this morning with a frowning
     face; the whole heaven is veiled, and the horizon dark and

     "_May 7._--My venerated mother finished her earthly course last
     Friday, with the setting sun, which was emblematic of her end.
     She was such a woman as I am thankful to have descended from.
     Many interesting circumstances connected with her life, before
     and after her marriage (in July, 1777), are worth recording. She
     was in her ninetieth year."

                              (TO HIS SON.)

                                                        "April 30

     "I began a record yesterday morning, referring to my position and
     duties thirty-eight years ago, when I left my father's house (one
     week after I was free), with less than twenty dollars in my
     possession. I came an unknown and unfriended young man, but
     feeling richer the morning after I came than I have ever felt
     since; so that I gave the man who came with me, in my father's
     chaise, a couple of dollars to save him from any expense, and
     insure him against loss, by his spending two days on the journey,
     for which he was glad of an excuse. Had he been as industrious
     and temperate and frugal, he would have left his wife and
     children independent, instead of leaving them poor and dependent.
     These contrasts, and the duties they impose, have pressed heavily
     upon my strength for a few days past; and, in endeavoring to
     place in a clear view my hopes and wishes, I became pressed down,
     and, since yesterday, have been upon my abstinence remedy. My
     wish has been to do a good work for our Athenæum and our
     Institution for Savings, by making it the interest of the Savings
     Institution to sell their building to the Athenæum, so that a
     handsome and convenient building may be erected while we are
     about it. To this end, I have offered to supply the beautiful
     temple built for the Washington Bank, rent free, for one year, or
     a longer period to the end of time, while used as a Savings Bank;
     intending, by this, to express to those who deposit their money
     there that I feel deeply interested in their welfare, and would
     earnestly impress upon them the importance of saving, and, when
     they become rich, of spending for the good of their
     fellow-mortals the surplus which a bountiful Father in heaven
     allows them to acquire. This surplus with me, at the present
     time, will be sufficient to allow me to speak with earnestness,
     sincerity, and power, to the tens of thousands of industrious
     _Thomases_ and _Marthas_,[8] as well as to the young mechanics,
     or the youngsters who have had little sums deposited for their
     education. All these characters appreciate a kind act as fully as
     those who move in a different sphere in the world.

     "7 P. M.--I have just learned that there is some difficulty not
     easily overcome in this removal of the Bank; and, after all,
     nothing may come out of my offer. If not, I shall have more spare
     means for something else."

  [8] Names of two faithful domestics.

The value of the building thus offered was about twenty thousand
dollars. Owing to the difficulties alluded to in the preceding letter,
the offer was declined, though the motive for the act was fully

                              (TO A FRIEND.)

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: I have this moment learned the death of your
     dear boy J. L., and am with you in spirit in this trying scene.
     Our Father adapts his discipline to our needs; and in this
     (although to our weak perception it may seem harsh discipline) he
     has a Father's love and care of and for you; and the time will
     come when all will be made clear to you. In this trust and
     confidence, I hope both your dear wife and self will be able to
     say from the heart, 'Thy will be done.' Our business in this
     world is to prepare for another; and, if we act wisely, we shall
     view aright the calls upon us to make this world our great
     object, by attaining its honors, its houses, its lands, its
     praises for generosity, disinterestedness, and divers other
     things that pass well among men. Where we hope to be welcomed,
     temptations are not needed. We pray, therefore, to be accepted,
     through the Beloved, and so make all things work together to help
     us safely through our course.

                             Yours ever,
                                                           A. L."

To the agent of a manufactory in which he was largely interested he

     "We must make a good thing out of this establishment, unless you
     ruin us by working on Sundays. Nothing but works of necessity
     should be done in holy time; and I am a firm believer in the
     doctrine that a blessing will more surely follow those exertions
     which are made with reference to our religious obligations, than
     upon those made without such reference. The more you can impress
     your people with a sense of religious obligation, the better they
     will serve you."



The Rev. Dr. Sharp, of the Baptist denomination, who has been
previously alluded to as a valued friend of Mr. Lawrence, had made a
visit to England, the land of his birth, after an absence of forty
years, and thus addresses him from Leeds, July 1:

     "I esteem it one of the happy events of my life that I have been
     made personally acquainted with you. Not certainly because of
     your kind benefactions to me and mine, but because I have enjoyed
     your conversation, and have been delighted with those
     manifestations of principle and conduct, which, let them grow
     under what Christian culture they may, I know how to honor, to
     knowledge, and to love."

The same gentleman writes, shortly afterwards:

     "I thank you for the kind manner in which you express yourself in
     regard to my occasional sermons. I never had any taste for
     controversy, nor for theological speculation; although, as a
     Christian watchman, I have kept myself informed of the religious
     opinions that have been, and that are. I thank you, as does my
     dear wife, for your thoughtful concern of the sacred spot so
     dear both to my recollections and hopes. There, when life's
     journey is ended, I hope to rest by the side of those whose
     company and unfailing affection have gladdened so many of my
     years; and it has given me a subdued pleasure, when I have
     thought that my own bed of death would be so near that of the
     kind and gentle-hearted friend who provided me with mine. May all
     who shall repose near that interesting spot be imbued with a pure
     and loving Christian spirit, that, when the trumpet shall sound,
     and the dead shall arise, we may all rise together in glorious
     forms, to be forever with the Lord!"

                          (TO ONE OF HIS PARTNERS.)

                             "Tremont-street, September 30, 1845.

     "DEAR MR. PARKER: I am buoyant and afloat again, and able to
     enjoy the good things you are so liberal in providing. The
     widow's box of ointment was broken before its value was learned.
     The sermon is significant and practical. I would be thankful to
     improve under its teaching. Will you send me two thousand dollars
     this morning in Mr. Sharp's clean money? thus allowing me the
     opportunity of expressing my gratitude to a merciful Father
     above, that he still permits me to administer the good things he
     has intrusted to me. Dear R. had a quiet night, although he did
     not sleep much during the first part. This experience is, indeed,
     the most trying; but I hope to be able to say truly, 'Thy will be

                                  Your friend,
                                                           "A. L.
     "C. H. PARKER, Esq."

The trying experience alluded to was the serious illness of his
youngest son, Robert, then a member of Harvard College. He had for
some time been troubled by a cough, which had now become alarming,
and excited the worst apprehensions of his friends. In relation to
this sickness, he writes several letters to his son, from which the
following extracts are made:

                                                      "October 15

     "We are in great anguish of spirit on account of dear R. We are
     getting reconciled to parting with the dear child, and to feel
     that he has done for us what any parents might feel thankful for,
     by living a good life, and in nineteen years giving us no cause
     to wish any one of them blotted out. If now called away, he will
     have lived a long life in a few years, and will be spared the
     trials and sufferings that flesh is heir to, and will be gathered
     like early fruit, before the blight or frost or mildew has marked

                                                     "October 29.

     "R. remains gradually failing with consumption, but without much
     suffering, and perfectly aware of his situation. He never
     appeared so lovely as he has on his sick bed; so that his happy
     spirit and resignation, without a complaint or a wish that
     anything had been done differently, keep us as happy as we can be
     under such a weight of apprehension that we may so soon part with
     him. He asked me yesterday what I should write to you about him.
     I told him I should say that he was very sick, and might never be
     any better; but that he might also be better if the great
     Physician saw best, as it is only for him to speak, and the
     disease would be cured. If he were taken before me, I told him,
     it would be, I hoped, to welcome me to the company of the loved
     ones of our kindred and friends who have gone before, and to the
     society of angels and just men made perfect, who compose the
     great congregation that are gathered there from all the world,
     that God's love, through Christ, has redeemed. God so loved the
     world that he gave his only-begotten Son to redeem it from sin;
     and his teachings should not be lost on us, while we have power
     to profit by them. In this spirit, we talked of the good men
     whose writings have an influence in helping on this good work;
     and especially we talked of Dr. Doddridge, and his 'Rise and

     "P. M.--I have been with M. to Brookline since writing the above.
     The falling leaves teach a beautiful lesson. The green leaf, the
     rose, the cypress, now enclosed to you, and all from your
     grounds, are instructive. These were cut within the last two

                                                     "November 1.

     "Dear R. had a trying day yesterday, and we thought might not
     continue through the night. He is still alive, and may continue
     some time; was conscious and clear in his mind after he revived
     yesterday; feels ready and willing and hoping to be with his

                                                    "November 14.

     "We toil for treasure through our years of active labor, and,
     when acquired, are anxious to have it well secured against the
     time when we or our children may have need of it; and we feel
     entire confidence in this security. We allow the common flurries
     of the world to pass by without disturbing our quiet or comfort
     essentially. What treasure of a temporal character is comparable
     with a child who is everything a Christian parent could desire,
     and who is just coming into mature life universally respected and
     beloved, and who is taken before any cloud or spot has touched
     him, and who has left bright and clear marks upon those who have
     come within his sphere of influence? Such was R. The green earth
     of Mount Auburn covers his mortal remains; the heavens above
     have his immortal; he was a ripe child of God, and I therefore
     feel that blessed assurance of entire security which adds another
     charm to that blessed company to which I hope, through mercy, to
     be admitted in our Father's own good time. This early death of
     our beloved youngest comes upon us as an additional lesson,
     necessary, without doubt, to prepare us for our last summons; and
     the reasons which now seem mysterious will be fully understood,
     and will show us that our good required this safe keeping of this
     treasure, so liable to be made our idol. R. had passed the
     dangerous period of his college life without blemish, and was
     only absent from prayers three times (which were for good cause),
     and had a settled purpose, from the beginning of his college
     life, so to conduct in all respects as to give his parents no
     cause for anxiety; and, for the last year, I have felt perfectly
     easy in regard to him. We have visited his grave to-day. The
     teachings there are such as speak to the heart with an eloquence
     that language cannot. Dear S. and R.! She the only daughter, he
     the only son of his mother! and both placed there since you

                                                    "November 22.

     "President H., in a letter a few days before I wrote to you, had
     this sentiment: 'The old oak, shorn of its green branches, is
     more liable to decay.' Applying this to the old oak fronting the
     graves of those loved ones who have passed on, the outspread
     branches of which make the spot more lovely, I was more deeply
     impressed than mere words could have impressed me. A few months
     after the death of S., a violent storm tore off a main limb of
     the old oak about midway between the ground and the top, in such
     way as to mar its beauty, and endanger its life. The limb fell
     upon the graves, but avoided the injury to the monuments which
     might have been expected. Since then, I noticed that some of the
     lower limbs cast a sort of blight or mildew upon the pure white
     of your mother's monument, and they required dressing. I desired
     the 'master' to do this, and also to come and heal the wound
     occasioned by the loss of this main limb on that side of the
     tree. The trimming out was done at once; the other was left
     undone until the request was renewed. On my visit there last
     week, I discovered, for the first time, that the wound had been
     healed, and the body of the tree appeared smooth, and of its
     natural color, and its health such as to give good hope that its
     other branches will spread out their shade more copiously than
     before. What a lesson was here! The appeal was to the heart; and,
     in my whole life, I remember none more eloquent. To-day I have
     been to Mount Auburn again; and the spot seems to be none other
     than the gate of heaven.'"

                                                    "December 22.

     "Twenty-five years ago this morning, I came home from Plymouth,
     where I had spent the night previous, and heard Webster's great
     address. He has never done anything to surpass it; and it now is
     a model and a text for the youth of our country. The people who
     then were present are principally taken hence; and the
     consideration of how the time allowed has been spent, and how it
     now fares with us, is of deep interest. God in mercy grant us to
     act our part so as to meet his approval, when called to answer
     for the trust in our hands! I have thought of the emblem of the
     'old oak,' till it has assumed a beauty almost beyond anything in
     nature; and, if I live to see the fresh leaves of spring
     spreading their covering over the head of the stranger or the
     friend who may stop under its shade, I will have a sketch of the
     spot painted, if the right person can be found. There is in the
     spot and scene a touching eloquence that language can scarcely
     communicate. The dear child's expressive look, and motion of his
     finger, when he said 'I am going up,' will abide with me while I
     live. The dealings of a Father with me have been marked, but
     ofttimes mysterious for a season. Now many things are clear; and
     all others will be, I trust, when I am fitted to know them."

                             (TO HIS GRANDSON.)

                                      "BOSTON, December 30, 1845.

     "MY DEAR F.: Your charming letter of 28th November reached me by
     last steamer, and showed, in a practical way, how important the
     lessons of childhood are to the proper performance of the duties
     of manhood. It carried me back to the time when my own mother
     taught me, and, from that period, forward through the early
     lessons inculcated upon your father, and especially to the time
     when he began to write me letters, which I always encouraged him
     in, and thus formed a habit which has been the best security for
     our home affections that can be devised when separated from those
     most dear to us. If the prayers and labors of your ancestors are
     answered by your good progress and good conduct in the use of the
     privileges you enjoy, you will come forth a better and more
     useful man than any of the generations preceding; for you enjoy
     advantages that none of us have enjoyed. My heart beats quicker
     and stronger whenever I think of you; and my prayers ascend for
     you at all hours, and through every scene connecting us. Last
     Saturday, I had the first sleigh-ride of the season. The day was
     beautiful; and there was just snow enough to make the sleigh run
     smoothly. I visited Mount Auburn; and the day and place, the 'old
     oak' standing in front of our graves leafless and apparently
     almost lifeless, spoke to me a language as intelligible as if
     utterance had been given in sounds. I thought of you, dear F., as
     my eldest grandson, and in a manner the representative of the
     family to future times, and asked myself whether I was doing all
     I ought to make you feel the force of your trusts. There lie the
     mortal parts of your dear aunt and uncle, both placed there since
     you left home; and the spirits of both, I trust, are now
     rejoicing with the multitude of the beloved ones, whose work here
     is well done, and whom the Saviour has bid to 'come unto him,'
     and through whom they hoped to be accepted. Dear R. seems to call
     to us to 'come up;' and, whether I ever see you again or not, I
     pray you never to forget that he was such an uncle as you might
     well feel anxious to copy in your conduct to your parents; for he
     had a settled principle to do nothing to cause his parents
     anxiety. So, if you see your young companions indulging in any
     evil practices which may lead to bad habits, avoid them; for
     prevention is better than remedy. When you stand near the 'old
     oak,' whether its branches are green with shady leaves, or dry
     from natural decay, let it speak to your conscience, 'Come up,'
     and receive the reward promised to the faithful.

                   "Ever your affectionate grandfather,
                                                           A. L."

The year 1845 closed with many sad recollections; and nearly every
letter written at this period dwells upon the mournful events which
had marked its course. In one letter, he says, "Death has cut right
and left in my family." In a little more than twelve months, ten of
his own immediate family and near connections were removed, and most
of them when least expected. Although bowed down, and penetrated with
grief at each successive blow, there was a deep-seated principle in
Mr. Lawrence's heart, which made him rise above them all, and receive
each call in that spirit of submission which the Christian faith alone
can give. His own sorrows seemed only to augment his sympathy for the
woes of others, and to excite him to renewed efforts in the great
cause of charity and truth, to which he had consecrated every talent
he possessed. In this spirit he makes an entry in his memorandum-book
on the first day of the opening year.



     "_January 1, 1846._--The business of the past year has been very
     prosperous in our country; and my own duties seem more clearly
     pointed out than ever before. What am I left here for, and the
     young branches taken home? Is it not to teach me the danger of
     being unfaithful to my trusts? Dear R. taken! the delight of my
     eyes, a treasure secured! which explains better than in any other
     way what my Father sees me in need of. I hope to be faithful in
     applying some of my trusts to the uses God manifestly explains to
     me by his dealings. I repeat, 'Thy will be done.'"

That his trusts, so far as the use of his property was concerned, were
faithfully performed, may be inferred from the fact that, in July, or
at the termination of the half-year, in making up his estimate of
income and expenditures, he remarks that the latter are nearly twenty
thousand dollars in advance of the former.

Mr. Lawrence was often much disturbed by the publicity which attended
his benevolent operations. There are, perhaps, thousands of the
recipients of his favors now living, who alone are cognizant of his
bounty towards themselves; but when a public institution became the
subject of his liberality, the name of the donor could not so easily
be concealed. The following letter will illustrate the mode which he
sometimes was obliged to adopt to avoid that publicity; and it was his
custom not unfrequently to contribute liberally to objects of charity
through some person on whom he wished the credit of the donation to

                            (TO PRESIDENT HOPKINS.)

                                          "BOSTON, Jan. 26, 1846.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Since Saturday, I have thought much of the best
     mode of helping your college to a library building without
     getting into the newspapers, and have concluded that you had
     better assume the responsibility of building it; and, if anybody
     objects that you can't afford it, you may say you have friends
     whom you hope to have aid from; and I will be responsible to you
     for the cost to an amount not exceeding five thousand dollars; so
     that you may feel at liberty to prepare such a building as you
     will be satisfied with, and which will do credit to your taste
     and judgment fifty years hence. If I am taken before this is
     finished, which must be this year, my estate will be answerable,
     as I have made an entry in my book, stating the case. I had
     written a longer story, after you left me, on Saturday evening,
     but have laid it aside to hand you this, with best wishes, and
     that all may be done 'decently and in order.' I will pay a
     thousand or two dollars whenever it is wanted for the work.

                                         "Your friend,
                                                           A. L."

Mr. Lawrence had read in the newspapers the memorial to Congress of
Mrs. Martha Gray, widow of Captain Robert Gray, the well-known
navigator, who discovered, first entered, and gave its present name to
the Columbia River. Captain Gray had been in the naval service of his
country; and his widow, who had survived him for forty years, amidst
many difficulties and struggles for support, petitioned for a pension,
in consideration of the important discovery, and for the services
rendered by her husband. Mr. Lawrence sent to Mrs. Gray a memorial of
his regard, with the following note:

     "As a token of respect to the widow of one whose name and fame
     make a part of the property of every American who has a true
     heart, will Mrs. Gray accept the accompanying trifle from one,
     who, though personally unknown, felt her memorial to Congress
     through every nerve, and will hope to be allowed the pleasure of
     paying his respects in person when his health permits."

About the same date, he says to President Hopkins:

     "I am happily employed, these days, in administering upon my own
     earnings, and have hope of hearing soon from you and your good
     work. I am still on my good behavior, but have been able to chat
     a little with Mr. D., and administer to His Excellency Governor
     Briggs, who has had a severe trial of fever and ague. On Saturday
     he rode an hour with me, and returned with his face shortened
     considerably. I can only say to you that I believe I am left here
     to do something more to improve and help on the brethren and
     sons who have more mind and less money than I have; but the
     precise way to do it is not so clear to me as it may be by and

After receiving the proposed plan of the library which he had
authorized to be built at Williams College, Mr. Lawrence writes to the
same, on May 15:

     "I left off, after a brief note to you, three hours since,
     furnishing you a text on epicureanism to preach from, which I
     trust will find favor and use.

     "What think you? Why, that I am interfering in your business.
     When I awoke this morning, thinks I to myself, My friend won't
     have elbow-room in the centre of his octagon; and, as there is
     plenty of land to build upon, he may as well make his outside to
     outside fifty feet as forty-four feet, and thus give himself more
     space in the centre. The alcoves appear to me to be very nice;
     and, in the matter of expense, my young friend A. L. H. will see
     to that, to the tune of one or two thousand dollars. So you may
     feel yourself his representative in acting in this matter."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_April 22._--My birth-day! Three-score years old! My life,
     hanging by a thread for years, and apparently, at times, within a
     few hours of its close, still continued, while so many around in
     the prime of life and vigor have been called away!"

                              (TO A FRIEND.)

                                    "Tremont-street, April, 1846.

     "MY FRIEND ----: I have arisen after my siesta, and, as the
     Quakers say, am moved by the spirit to speak. So you will give
     what I have to say the value you consider it worth. And, in the
     first place, I will say, that this period of the year is so full
     of deeply-interesting memories of the past, that I hardly know
     where to begin. From my earliest days, the story of the
     intelligence reaching Groton at ten o'clock on the 19th April,
     1775, that the British were coming, was a most interesting one.
     My father mounted Gen. Prescott's horse, and rode, at a speed
     which young men even of the present day would think rapid, to the
     south end of the town, by Sandy Pond, and notified the minute-men
     to assemble at the centre of the town forthwith. He made a range
     of seven miles, calling on all the men, and was back at his
     father's house in forty minutes. At one o'clock, P. M., the
     company was in readiness to march, and under way to Concord to
     meet the British. They kept on until they reached Cambridge; but,
     before that, they had seen and heard all that had been done by
     the troops sent out to Concord. The plough was left in the field;
     and my grandfather, with his horse and wagon, brought provisions
     to his neighbors and his son shortly after. My grandmother on my
     mother's side, then living in Concord, has described to me over
     and over again the appearance of the British, as she first saw
     them coming over the bill from Lincoln, about two miles from the
     centre of Concord; the sun just rising; and the red coats,
     glittering muskets, and fearful array, so captivating to us in
     peace-times, appearing to her as the angel of destruction, to be
     loathed and hated. She therefore left her house with her children
     (the house was standing within the last thirty years, and may be
     now, near the turn to go through Bedford, half a mile or more
     this side of Concord meeting-house), and went through the fields,
     and over the hills, to a safe place of retreat. The British, you
     are aware, on their retreat, had a hard time of it. They were
     shot down like wild game, and left by the wayside to die or be
     taken up as it might happen. Three thus left within gun-shot of
     my grandmother's house were taken up, and died in the course of a
     very few hours. But what I am coming to is this: Lord Percy, you
     know, was sent out from Boston with a strong body of troops to
     protect those first sent out; and, but for this, the whole would
     have been destroyed or made prisoners. About three years ago,
     Lord Prudhoe, second son of Lord Percy, was here; and I had
     considerable delightful intercourse with him. He, as you may well
     suppose, was deeply interested in all that related to his father;
     and I met him in the library at Cambridge, where he was very
     observant of the order and arrangement, and especially of the
     curious old documents and books, so nicely arranged, touching the
     early history of the province. After leaving Cambridge, he went
     to Mr. Cushing's and Mr. Pratt's, at Watertown, and was much
     interested in all that we in this city are proud of. I had not
     strength to be devoted to him more than an hour or two at a time,
     having then some other strangers under my care, belonging to Gov.
     Colebrooke's family, Lady Colebrooke being a niece of Major
     André; so that I had only some half-dozen interviews with him,
     all of which were instructive and interesting."

The dissection of human bodies by medical students has always been a
subject of deep-rooted prejudice in New England; and, even to this
day, it exists in so great a degree that the facilities for this
important and absolutely essential branch of instruction are not
nearly as great as they should be, nor such as are afforded in the
schools of other countries. When these difficulties shall be removed,
and the prejudice allayed against the acquisition of a kind of
knowledge which it is of the utmost interest to every one that the
surgeon and physician shall receive, many young men will remain at
home, and acquire that education which, with few exceptions, might be
attained here as well as by a resort to foreign schools. In this
prejudice Mr. Lawrence could not sympathize, as will be seen in the
following extract of a letter to a friend

       *       *       *       *       *
     "Many years ago, there was a great stir, on account of graves
     being robbed for subjects for dissection, and some laws were
     passed: the want became so pressing, that subjects were brought
     from a long distance, and in a very bad state. Dr. Warren was
     attending me, and said he had invited the Legislature, then in
     session, to attend a lecture in the Medical College. He told me
     he intended to explain the necessity of having fit subjects, he
     having been poisoned in his lecture to his students a few days
     before, and was then suffering from it. He invited me also to
     attend, which I did, and took with me my precious boy R. While
     lecturing, the doctor had a man's hand, which he had just taken
     off at the hospital, brought in, nicely wrapped up in a wet
     cloth, by his son J. M. W., then a youngster. There were present
     about two hundred representatives; and, as soon as they saw the
     real hand, two or three fainted nearly away, and a half-dozen or
     more made their escape from the room. The scene was so striking,
     that I told Dr. Warren it was a pity that such a prejudice should
     exist; and, as I was desirous to be of use as far as in my power,
     and probably should be a good subject for him, I would gladly
     have him use me in the way to instruct the young men; but to take
     care of my remains, and have them consumed or buried, unless my
     bones were kept. I also told him that I desired very much to have
     this false feeling corrected, and perhaps my example might do
     something toward it. Some time afterwards, I spoke to ---- upon
     the subject; but I found it gave pain, and the plan was given up.
     * * *

                                                           A. L."

     "Outward gains are ordinarily attended with inward losses. He
     indeed is rich in grace whose graces are not hindered by his

In a letter, dated June 3, Mr. Lawrence bears testimony to the
character and services of the late Louis Dwight, so long and favorably
known as the zealous Secretary of the Massachusetts Prison Discipline

     "I have this moment had an interview with Louis Dwight, who
     leaves for Europe in two days. My labors and experience with him
     for nearly a quarter of a century enable me to testify to his
     ability, and unceasing efforts in the cause."

     "_May 27, 1846._--The following commentary[9] on the Lectures of
     the Rev. Dr. ---- accompanied their return to me from one to whom
     I had loaned the volume. I have now no recollection who the
     person is; but the words are full, and to the point:

     "'This sucking the marrow all out of our Bible, and leaving it as
     dry as a husk, pray what good to man, or honor to God, does that
     do? If we are going to fling away the old book from which ten
     thousand thousand men have drawn and are still drawing the life
     of their souls, then let us stand boldly up, and fling it away,
     cover and all; unless, indeed, a better way would be to save the
     boards and gilding, and make a family checker-board of it.'"

  [9] Supposed to be by Hon. Jeremiah Mason.



Mr. Lawrence had always taken a deep interest in the academy at
Groton, of which he, with all his brothers and sisters, had been
members. The residence of his former master, James Brazer, Esq., with
whom he lived when an apprentice, bordered on the academy grounds. It
was a large, square, old-fashioned house, and easily convertible to
some useful purpose, whenever the growing prosperity of the
institution should require it. He accordingly purchased the estate;
and, in July, 1846, presented it to the Board of Trustees by a deed,
with the following preamble:

     "To all persons to whom these presents shall come, I, Amos
     Lawrence, of the City of Boston, in the County of Suffolk, and
     Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Esquire, send greeting:

     "Born and educated in Groton, in the County of Middlesex, in said
     Commonwealth, and deeply interested in the welfare of that town,
     and especially of the Lawrence Academy, established in it by my
     honored father, Samuel Lawrence, and his worthy associates, and
     grateful for the benefits which his and their descendants have
     derived from that institution, I am desirous to promote its
     future prosperity; trusting that those charged with the care and
     superintendence of it will ever strive zealously and faithfully
     to maintain it as a nursery of piety and sound learning."

This had been preceded by a donation of two thousand dollars, with
smaller gifts, at various dates, of valuable books, a telescope, etc.,
besides the foundation of several free scholarships. The present
prosperity of the academy is, however, mainly due to his brother,
William Lawrence, who has been by far its greatest benefactor; having,
in 1844, made a donation of ten thousand dollars, followed by another,
in 1846, of five thousand, and, finally, by will, bequeathed to it the
sum of twenty thousand. The following memoranda are copied from Mr.
Lawrence's donation-book:

     "_August 20, 1847._--I have felt a deep interest in Groton
     Academy for a long time; and while brother L. was living, and its
     president, he had it in charge to do what should be best to
     secure its greatest usefulness, and, while perfecting these
     plans, he was suddenly taken from this world. Since then, I have
     kept on doing for it; which makes my outlay for the school about
     twenty thousand dollars. I had prepared ten thousand dollars
     more, which brother William has assumed, and has taken the school
     upon himself, to give it such facilities as will make it a very
     desirable place for young men to enter to get a good preparation
     for business or college life."

In an address[10] delivered at the jubilee celebration of the
Lawrence Academy, held in Groton, July 12, 1854, the Rev. James Means,
a former preceptor of the Institution, thus speaks of the benefactions
of the two brothers:

     "It was my good fortune, after becoming the preceptor, in 1845,
     to have frequent intercourse with them in this particular
     regard,--the interests of the school. I shall never forget the
     impression made upon my mind by the depth of their feeling, and
     the strength of their attachment. They were both of them men of
     business; had been trained to business habits, and would not
     foolishly throw away the funds which God had intrusted to them as
     stewards. But it seemed to me then, as the event has proved, that
     they were willing to go as far as they could see their way clear
     before them to establish this school on a foundation that never
     should be shaken.

     "There was a singular difference in the character of these two
     brothers, and there is a similar difference in the results of
     their benefactions. I have reason personally to know that they
     conferred frequently and earnestly respecting the parts which
     they should severally perform in upbuilding this school. There
     was an emulation; but there was no selfishness, there was no
     difference of opinion. Both loved the academy, both wished to
     bless it and make it a blessing; each desired to accommodate the
     feelings of the other, each was unwilling to interfere with the
     other, each was ready to do what the other declined. Out of more
     than forty-five thousand dollars provided for the academy by Mr.
     William Lawrence, forty thousand still remain in the hands of the
     trustees for purposes of instruction. Of the library Mr. Amos
     Lawrence says, in one of his letters: 'I trust it will be second
     to no other in the country except that of Cambridge, and that the
     place will become a favorite resort of students of all ages
     before another fifty years have passed away. When he presented a
     cabinet of medals, he writes, 'I present them to the Institution
     in the name of my grandsons, F. W. and A. L., in the hope and
     expectation of implanting among their early objects of regard
     this school, so dear to us brothers of the old race, and which
     was more dear to our honored father, who labored with his hands,
     and gave from his scanty means, in the beginning, much more in
     proportion than we are required to do, if we place it at the head
     of this class of institutions, by furnishing all it can want.'"

  [10] See account of Jubilee of Lawrence Academy.

At the same celebration, the Hon. John P. Bigelow, president of the
day, in his opening address, said:

     "Charles Sprague, so loved and so honored as a man and a poet,
     was an intimate friend of the lamented William and Amos Lawrence.
     I invited him hither to-day. He cannot come, but sends a
     minstrel's tribute to their memory, from a harp, which, till now,
     has been silent for many years.

             'These, these no marble columns need:
             Their monument is in the deed;
             A moral pyramid, to stand
             As long as wisdom lights the land.
             The granite pillar shall decay,
             The chisel's beauty pass away;
             But this shall last, in strength sublime,
             Unshaken through the storms of time.'"

On July 15, Mr. Lawrence made a considerable donation of books to the
Johnson School for girls, accompanied by a note to R. G. Parker, Esq.,
the Principal, from which the following extract is taken:

     "The sleigh-ride comes to me as though daguerreotyped, and I can
     hardly realize that I am here to enjoy still further the comfort
     that I then enjoyed. If the pupils of your school at that time
     were gratified, I was more than satisfied, and feel myself a
     debtor to your school of this day; and, in asking you to accept,
     for the use of the five hundred dear girls who attend upon your
     instruction, such of the books accompanying as you think proper
     for them, I only pay a debt which I feel to be justly due. The
     Johnson School is in my own district; and many a time, as I have
     passed it in my rides, have I enjoyed the appropriate animation
     and glee they have manifested in their gambols and sports during
     their intermission, and have felt as though I would gladly be
     among them to encourage them. Say to them, although personally
     unknown, I have looked on, and felt as though I wanted to put my
     hand upon their heads, and give them a word of counsel,
     encouragement, and my blessing. This is what I am left here for;
     and, when the Master calls, if I am only well enough prepared to
     pass examination, and receive the 'Well done' promised to such as
     are faithful, then I may feel that all things here are less than
     nothing in comparison to the riches of the future."

The allusion to the sleigh-ride was called forth by a note received
from Mr. Parker a day or two before, in which that gentleman writes:

     "As you have not the credit of a very good memory, so far as your
     own good actions are concerned, it will be proper that I should
     remind you that the occasion to which I refer was the time that
     the pupils of the Franklin School were about enjoying a
     sleigh-ride, from which pleasure a large number were excluded. On
     that occasion, as you were riding by, you were induced to
     inquire the reason of the exclusion of so many sad little faces;
     and, on learning that their inability to contribute to the
     expense of the excursion would cause them to be left behind, you
     very generously directed that all should be furnished with seats,
     and a draft made upon you for the additional expense."

To a fondness for children, there seemed to be united in Mr. Lawrence
a constant desire to exert an influence upon the youthful mind; and
rarely was the opportunity passed over, when, by a word of advice or
encouragement, or the gift of an appropriate book, he thought he could
effect his object. His person was well known to the boys and girls who
passed him in the streets; and, in the winter season, his large, open
sleigh might often be seen filled with his youthful friends, whom he
had allowed to crowd in to the utmost capacity of his vehicle.

The acquaintances thus made would often, by his invitation, call to
see him at his residence, and there would receive a kind notice,
joined with such words of encouragement and advice as could not
sometimes fail to have a lasting and beneficial influence.

     "_August 2._--'Give an account of thy stewardship, for thou
     mayest be no longer steward.'--Luke 16:2.

     "How ought this to be sounded in our ears! and how ought we to be
     influenced by the words! Surely there can be no double meaning
     here. The words are emphatic, clear, and of vast concern to every
     man. Let us profit by them while it is day, lest the night
     overtake us, when we can no longer do the work of the day."

On the 22d of August, Mr. Lawrence sent a cane to Governor Briggs, at
Pittsfield, with the following inscription graven upon it:

                 FROM THE "OLD OAK" OF MOUNT AUBURN:

               +A Memento of Loved Ones gone before+.



The cane was accompanied by the following note:

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Your letter of Monday last came, as all your
     letters do, just right as a comforter through a feeble week; for
     I have been confined to the house, and unable to speak above a
     whisper, most of the time, and am still not allowed to talk or
     work much. The corresponding week of the last year, when our
     precious R. was your guest, comes over my mind and heart, at all
     hours of the night and the day, in a manner I need not attempt to
     describe to _you_; and it is only distressing when I see the
     suffering of his dear mother. But we feel that he is now the
     guest of the Supreme Governor, whose care and kindness takes from
     him all that can interrupt his perfect happiness through all
     time; and this surely ought to satisfy us. The good opinion of
     good men you know how to value, and can therefore judge how much
     I prize yours. Acting upon the public mind for good as you do,
     the memorial from the old oak will not be without its use in your
     instruction and advice to the young, whose special improvement
     and safety you have so much at heart. The cane is a part of the
     same branch as that sent to President H., and came to me since
     noon to-day. Accept it with assurances of continued and increased
     affection and respect.

                              Most sincerely yours,
                                                          "A. L."

     "_August 28._--Called at ---- shop, Washington-street, and there
     saw a nice-looking boy seventeen or eighteen years old, named T.
     S., to whom I gave a word of good counsel and encouragement.
     Shall look after him a little, as I like his manners."

     "_August 29._--A woman writes a figuring letter, calling herself
     S. M.; says she is sixty years old; has lost her sons, and wants
     help; came from New Hampshire. Also, N. T. wants aid to study, or
     something else. Also, a Mr. F., with a great share of hair on his
     face, gold ring, and chains, wants to travel for his health; has
     a wife and child. Those three cases within twenty-four hours are
     very forbidding."

In a letter of advice to a young gentleman who was a stranger to him,
but who through a mutual friend had asked his opinion on a matter of
business, he writes, on Sept. 19th:

     "Your letter of the 17th is a flattering token of confidence and
     respect, that I wish were better merited. Such as I am, I am at
     your service; _but there is nothing of me_. I have been stricken
     down within a few days, and am hardly able to stand up. A kind
     Father keeps me vigilant by striking without notice, and when
     least expected; and on some one of these occasions I am to close
     the account of my stewardship, and no matter when, if the
     accounts are right. I cannot advise you except in one particular:
     Do with your might what your hands find to do; spend no man's
     money but your own, and look carefully after little items that
     tempt you."

The notoriety attendant upon acts of beneficence which Mr. Lawrence
instinctively shrunk from, and which so often deters the sensitive
from the good acts which, without this penalty, they would gladly
perform, was, as has before been stated, a subject of serious
annoyance. This is illustrated by the following note, written to Mr.
Parker, the Principal of the Johnson School for girls:

                                                "October 2, 1846.

     "I hope to send a few volumes to help forward the young guides of
     the mind and heart of the sons of New England, wherever they may
     be; for it is the mothers who act upon their sons more than all
     others. I hope to be felt as long as I am able, to work, and am
     quite as vain as I ought to be of my name and fame, but am really
     afraid I shall wear out my welcome if my little paragraphs are
     printed so frequently in the newspapers. I gave some books last
     Monday, and saw them acknowledged yesterday in the newspaper, and
     since have received the letter from the children. Now, my dear
     sir, I merely want to say, that I hope you will not put me in the
     newspaper at present; and, when my work is done here, if you have
     anything to say about me that will not hurt my children and
     grandchildren, _say on_."

A few days afterwards, Mr. Lawrence received a letter from the parties
to whom the books above alluded to had been sent, inquiring if he
could suggest the name of some benevolent individual, to whom
application might be made for aid in furthering the objects of the
Association. He writes:

     "In reply to yours of to-day, I know of no one, but must request
     that my name be not thrust forward, as though I was to be a
     byword for my vanity. I want to do good, but am sorry to be
     published, as in the recent case."

During the autumn of this year, Mr. Lawrence purchased the large
building in Mason-street, which had, for many years, been used as the
Medical School of Harvard College, with the intention of founding a
charitable hospital for children. He had heard of the manner in which
such institutions were conducted in France, and believed that a great
benefit would be conferred on the poorer classes by caring for their
sick children when their own poverty or occupations prevented their
giving them that attention which could be secured in an institution of
this kind. The great object was to secure the confidence of that
class, and to overcome their repugnance to giving up their children to
the care of others. The plan had not been tried in this country;
though in France, where there exists a much larger and more needy
population, the system was completely successful. Although but an
experiment, Mr. Lawrence considered the results which might be
obtained of sufficient magnitude to warrant the large outlays
required. He viewed it not only as a mode of relieving sickness and
suffering, but as a means of exercising a humanizing effect upon those
who should come directly under its influence, as well as upon that
class of persons generally for whose benefit it was designed. His
heart was ever open to the cry of suffering; and he was equally ready
to relieve it, whether it came from native or foreigner, bond or free.
The building which had been purchased for the object, from its
internal arrangement, and from its too confined position, was found
less suitable than another, in the southerly part of the city, where
an open view and ample grounds were more appropriate for the purpose;
while there was no cause for that prejudice which, it was found,
existed toward the project in the situation first thought of. With
characteristic liberality, Mr. Lawrence offered the Medical College,
now not required, to the Boston Society of Natural History at the
cost, with a subscription from himself of five thousand dollars. The
offer was accepted. An effort was made by the Society to raise by
subscription the necessary funds; and the result was their possession
of the beautiful building since occupied by their various collections
in the different departments of natural history. The large house on
Washington-street was soon put in complete repair, suitably furnished,
provided with physicians and nurses, and opened as the Children's
Infirmary, with accommodations for thirty patients. The following
spring was marked by a great degree of mortality and suffering among
the emigrant passengers, and consequently the beds were soon occupied
by whole families of children, who arrived in the greatest state of
destitution and misery. Many cases of ship-fever were admitted; so
that several of the attendants were attacked by it, and the service
became one of considerable danger. Many now living in comfort
attribute the preservation of their life to the timely succor then
furnished; and, had no other benefits followed, the good bestowed
during the few weeks of spring would have compensated for the labor
and cost. This institution continued in operation for about eighteen
months, during which time some hundreds of patients were provided for.
The prejudices of parents, which had been foreseen, were found to
exist, but disappeared with the benefits received; and the whole
experiment proved conclusively that such an institution may be
sustained in this community with vast benefit to a large class of the
suffering; and it is hoped that it may one day lead to an
establishment of the kind on a larger scale, and with a more extensive
organization and means of usefulness. In this experiment, it was
found, from the limited number of beds, that the cost of each patient
was much greater than if four times the number had been provided for,
and so large that Mr. Lawrence decided that the same amount of money
could be made to afford relief to much larger numbers of the same
class of sufferers applied in some other way. He was a constant
visitor at the Infirmary, and took a deep interest in many of the
patients, whose varied history had been recited to him; and in after
years, as he passed through the streets, many an eye would brighten
as it caught a glimpse of the kind friend who had whispered words of
consolation and hope in the lonely hours of sickness.




                                               "November 2, 1846.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I was exceedingly gratified by your kind
     remembrance of me, a few days since, in sending me a copy of your
     'Life of Decatur,' which to its merits as a biography adds the
     charm of bringing before me my old friend Bainbridge, and the
     writer, whom I have felt a strong interest in ever since reading
     his 'Year in Spain;' for my son resided in the same family soon
     after you left, and made me acquainted with you before I had seen
     you. I am a 'minute-man' in life, but, while I remain here, shall
     always be glad to take you by the hand when you visit us. Whether
     we meet here is of less importance than that our work be done,
     and be said by the Master to be well done, when called off.

                         Respectfully and faithfully yours,
                                                          "A. L."

     "_December 17._--Thirty-nine years have passed since my first
     entry in this book; and, in reviewing this period, I have
     abundant reason to bless God for his great mercies, and
     especially for continuing us four brothers, engaged as we have
     been in business, an unbroken band to this day, and for the
     success attending our labors. We have been blessed more than most
     men, and have the power, by our right use of these blessings, of
     benefiting our fellow-men. God grant that the spirits of our
     parents may be cheered in their heavenly home by our doing the
     work here that we ought to do! To my descendants I commend this
     memorial, with the prayer that they may each of them be better
     than I am." * * *

     "Fifteen years hence, and the chief interest in us will be found
     in our Mount Auburn enclosure; and we ought to look well to the

As an expression of the feeling here referred to, he purchased a gold
box of beautiful workmanship, and forwarded it to his youngest
brother, then a resident of Lowell, with the following inscription
engraven upon it:

                        TOGETHER IN UNITY!"

                       TO SAMUEL LAWRENCE,


                        HIS BROTHER AMOS.

     "_December 19._--Rode to-day to the Asylum for the Blind with
     Major Arthur Lawrence, of the Rifle Brigade, British Army, and
     had a very interesting visit. Dr. Howe very attentive; and Laura
     Bridgman and Oliver Caswell both appeared well."

     "_December 27._--Rev. Mr. Rogers said to-day, 'Gold is not the
     coin of heaven: if it had been, Christ would have been rich; but
     he was a poor man.'"

     "_January 1, 1847._--In July last, I had spent the advance of my
     income, but am thankful now to be able to state the case
     differently, being in the receipt of ample means to be a comfort
     to the needy."

From the various entries quoted in his Diary, it will be inferred that
Mr. Lawrence's means for charitable distribution varied considerably
in amount from year to year. To explain this difference, it may not be
amiss to state here, that he had, from the first efforts to establish
home manufactures in New England, taken a deep interest in their
success, and had consequently invested a large proportion of his
property in the various manufacturing corporations which had been
built up in Lowell and other towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire.
The great fluctuations in this department of industry are known to
every one; for, while the returns of one year would be ample, those of
the next year would, from embarrassments in the commercial world, or
from some other cause, be little or nothing.

     "_January 8._--T. R. and S. J., two Englishmen in the employ of
     J. C., mended our pump to-day. I gave them some books and a word
     of counsel, and hope to observe their progress."

     "_February 15._--T. J. called, and is to embark to-morrow, on his
     way to the war in Mexico. He asked me to give him money to buy a
     pistol, which I declined, as I could not wish them success in
     Mexico; but gave him some books, a Bible, and good counsel."

During the month of February, an appeal was made to the citizens of
Boston in behalf of the famished population of Ireland, and resulted
in the sending to that country a large quantity of food and clothing.
Mr. Lawrence contributed himself towards the object, and, as was
often the case, endeavored to interest others equally with himself. On
the 24th of that month, he addressed a note to J. A. Stearns, Esq.,
Principal of the Mather School, at South Boston, for the pupils of his
school composing the Lawrence Association. This Association,
comprising a large number of boys and girls, had been formed for moral
and intellectual improvement, and had been named in honor of Mr.
Lawrence, who had, from its commencement, taken a deep interest in its
success, and had often contributed books and money when needed.

                                             "Wednesday, March 2.

     "MY FRIENDS: The value of the offering to suffering Ireland from
     our city will be enhanced by the numbers contributing, as the
     offering will do more good as an expression of sympathy than as a
     matter of relief. The spirit of dear R. seems to speak through
     your 'Oak Leaf,'[11] and to say, 'Let all who will of the
     Association subscribe a half-dollar each, and all others a
     quarter each, for their suffering brethren, and children of a
     common Father.'

                                                            A. L.

     "P. S.--The purses were presents to me, and must be returned. One
     of them from the lady of Sir John Strachan, herself a descendant
     of one of our Boston girls; the two open-work ones from ladies in
     this city. Take from them what is required, and return the
     balance, if any be left. If more is required, let me know, as I
     do not know the amount in the purses.

                                                          "A. L."

  [11] A little newspaper published by the Association.

One hundred and two members of the Association, and four hundred and
thirty-eight other members of the school, in all five hundred and
forty, availed themselves of the privilege thus offered them, and
contributed the sum of one hundred and sixty dollars towards the

At the church in Brattle-street, a collection was taken in aid of the
same object; and, among other contributions, was a twenty-dollar
bank-note, with the following attached to it, probably by Mr.

     "A ship of war to carry bread to the hungry and suffering,
     instead of powder and ball to inflict more suffering on our
     brethren,--children of the same Father,--is as it should be; and
     this is in aid of the plan."

Among the most respected and valued friends of Mr. Lawrence was the
venerable Madam Prescott, widow of the late Judge William Prescott,
and mother of the distinguished historian of "Ferdinand and Isabella."
Years seemed rather to quicken her naturally warm sympathies for the
distresses of others; and, at the age of more than four-score, she was
to be daily seen on foot in the streets, actively engaged upon her
errands of mercy. Mr. Lawrence had, the year before, found a small
volume, entitled the "Comforts of Old Age," by Sir Thomas Bernard; and
had sent it to several of his friends, principally those in advanced
age, asking for some record of their experience. His note to Madam
Prescott on this subject was as follows.

                                                  "March 8, 1847.

     "DEAR MADAM PRESCOTT: I have been a long time anxious to receive
     a favor from you, and have felt diffident in asking it; but am
     now at the required state of resolution. The book I send you is
     so much in character with your own life, that my grandchildren,
     who love you, will read to their grandchildren your words,
     written by your own hand in this book, if you will but place them
     there. I must beg you, my excellent friend, to believe that I am
     desirous of securing for my descendants some of your precious
     encouragements in the discipline of life.

                          "Your friend,
                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

The volume was returned with the following record:

                                         "BOSTON, March 10, 1847.

     "MY DEAR SIR: You ask me what are the comforts of old age. I
     answer, the retrospection of a well-spent life. The man who
     devotes himself to the cause of humanity, who clothes the naked,
     feeds the hungry, soothes the sorrows of the afflicted, and
     comforts the mourner,--whom each rising sun finds in the
     contemplation of some good deed, and each night closes with the
     assurance that it has been performed,--surely such a life must be
     the comfort of an old age. But where shall we find such a man?
     May I not be permitted to apply the character to my highly valued
     and respected friend, whose charities are boundless, and who
     daily dispenses blessings to all around him? May the enduring oak
     be emblematical of the continuance of your life! I depend much
     upon accompanying you to Mount Auburn, and to visit the spot
     which contains the precious relics of him whose life it is sweet
     to contemplate, and whose death has taught us how a Christian
     should die. The perusal of this little volume has increased my
     veneration and friendship for its owner.

                        "Respectfully and affectionately,
                                                "C. G. PRESCOTT."

     "MEM. _by A. L., May 20, 1850._--Madam P., now much passed
     four-score years of age (born August 1, 1767), is as bright and
     active in body and mind as most ladies of fifty."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_April 10._--Mrs. T. called to ask aid for a poor widow, which I
     declined, by telling her I did not hear or read people's stories
     from necessity, and I could not inquire this evening. She claims
     to be acquainted with Rev. Mr. ---- and Rev. Mr. ----. She gave
     me a severe lecture, and berated me soundly."

     "_April 19._--Mrs. C., of Lowell, asks me to loan her three
     hundred dollars to furnish a boarding-house for twelve young
     ladies at S., which I declined by mail this morning."

In reply to Sir William Colebrooke, Governor of New Brunswick, who
requested Mr. Lawrence to notify certain poor people in the
neighborhood of Boston that their deposits in the Frederickstown
Savings' Bank, which had been previously withheld, would be paid by
means of an appropriation for the purpose recently made by the
Provincial Assembly, he writes:

                                         "BOSTON, April 26, 1847.

     "MY DEAR SIR WILLIAM: Your kind letter of the 8th instant reached
     me on the 13th, and is most welcome and grateful, in making me
     the medium of so much solid comfort to the numerous people whose
     earnings are thus restored to them through your unceasing and
     faithful labors. May God reward you, and enable you to enjoy
     through life the elevated satisfaction that follows such good
     works to those who can give you nothing but their prayers! It is
     alike creditable to your Provincial Government and those true
     principles which are the best riches of all free governments; and
     I hope may exercise some good influence upon our State
     Governments, which have done injustice to many poor persons who
     have given credit to their promises. I have caused your notice to
     be scattered broadcast, and trust that all who have any interest
     in the Frederickstown Savings' Bank will know that their money
     and interest are ready for them. Pray present me most
     affectionately to Lady Colebrooke and your daughters; and assure
     her we shall take more comfort than ever in showing her over our
     beautiful hills, that have health and joy in every breeze. My own
     health continues as good as when you were last here; and my
     family (who have not been taken hence) seem devoted to my
     comfort. What reason have we for devout thanksgiving, that our
     two countries are not at swords' points, and that the true
     feeling of our common ancestry is now sweeping over our land! We
     are in deep disgrace on account of this wicked Mexican business.
     What the end is to be can only be known to Infinite Wisdom; but
     one thing is certain,--no good can come to us from it.

     "Again I pray you to be assured of my highest respect and regard,
     and am very faithfully yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."



It was not uncommon for Mr. Lawrence, when a good work was in
progress, to give not only his own means, but to lend a helping hand
by soliciting contributions from others. The following note, addressed
to a wealthy bachelor, is a specimen:

                                          "BOSTON, June 11, 1847.

     "MY DEAR SIR: You will be surprised at this letter, coming as it
     does as a first; but I know, from my experience of your skill and
     talents as a business man, how pleasant it is to you to make good
     bargains and safe investments; and, although you are a bachelor,
     the early business habits you acquired are marked, and are to be
     carried forward till the footing up of the account, and the
     trial-balance presented to the Master at his coming. As I said
     before, you like safe investments, that shall be returned
     four-fold, if such can be made. Now, I am free to say to you, I
     know of such an one; and the promisor is a more secure one than
     A. & A. L. & Co., Uncle Sam, the Old Bay State, or bonds and
     mortgages in your own neighborhood. You ask, Then why not take it
     yourself? I answer, Because I have invested in advance in the
     same sort of stock in other quarters, but am willing to give my
     guaranty that you shall be satisfied that it is all I represent
     when you make your final settlement. It is this: Amherst College
     you know all about; and that is now in especial need of new
     instructors, and increased funds for their support. Twenty
     thousand dollars from you will place it on high ground, give a
     name to a professorship, make you feel happier and richer than
     you ever did in your life. What say you?--will you do it? The
     respect of good men will be of more value to you through your
     remaining days than any amount of increase, even if as vast as
     Girard's or Astor's. As I am a mere looker-on, you will take
     this, as I design it, as an expression of good-will to the
     college, no less than to you."

     "MEM. by A. L.--Received an answer on the 16th, very good and
     kind, from Mr. ----."

In addition to the "very good answer," Mr. Lawrence had soon after the
gratification of knowing that the application had been successful, and
that the necessary sum had been contributed by his correspondent.

About the same date, he writes to his friend, Professor Packard, of
Bowdoin College, as follows:

     "Your visit to us the last week has opened new views and visions,
     that are better described in the last chapter of Revelations than
     in any account I can give. Bowdoin College is connected with all
     that is near and dear to President Appleton,--not only those on
     the stage of action with him, but all who came after, embracing
     in this latter class your own loved ones, who may continue to
     exercise an important agency in making the college what the good
     man, in his lifetime, strove to make it. The love, veneration,
     and respect, my dear wife had for him, makes her feel a peculiar
     pleasure in doing what would have cheered and comforted him so
     much had he lived till this time. The thousand dollars handed to
     you is a first payment of six thousand that she will give to the
     college in aid of the fund now in progress of collection; and she
     directs that the Lawrence Academy, at Groton, may be allowed to
     send one scholar each year to Bowdoin College, to be carried
     through the four years without charge for instruction; and that,
     whenever the trustees of the academy do not supply a pupil, the
     college may fill the place. I will hold myself responsible to
     make good Mrs. L.'s intentions, should she be deprived in any way
     of this privilege before the work is done."

Early in the summer of this year, the Hon. Abbott Lawrence made his
munificent donation of fifty thousand dollars to Harvard College, for
the purpose of founding what was afterwards called, in honor of the
donor, the Lawrence Scientific School. After reading the letter
accompanying this donation, Mr. Lawrence addressed to his brother the

                                "Wednesday morning, June 9, 1847.

     "DEAR BROTHER ABBOTT: I hardly dare trust myself to speak what I
     feel, and therefore write a word to say that I thank God I am
     spared to this day to see accomplished by one so near and dear to
     me this last best work ever done by one of our name, which will
     prove a better title to true nobility than any from the
     potentates of the world. It is more honorable, and more to be
     coveted, than the highest political station in our country,
     purchased as these stations often are by time-serving. It is to
     impress on unborn millions the great truth that our talents are
     trusts committed to us for use, and to be accounted for when the
     Master calls. This magnificent plan is the great thing that you
     will see carried out, if your life is spared; and you may well
     cherish it as the thing nearest your heart. It enriches your
     descendants in a way that mere money never can do, and is a
     better investment than any one you have ever made.

                                   "Your affectionate brother,

To a friend he writes, soon after:

     "This noble plan is worthy of him; and I can say truly to you,
     that I feel enlarged by his doing it. Instead of our sons going
     to France and other foreign lands for instruction, here will be a
     place, second to no other on earth, for such teaching as our
     country stands now in absolute need of. Here, at this moment, it
     is not in the power of the great railroad companies to secure a
     competent engineer to carry forward their work, so much are the
     services of such men in demand."

       *       *       *       *       *

                                          "BOSTON, June 18, 1847.

     "DEAR PARTNERS: Please pass to the credit of my friend, the Rev.
     Mark Hopkins, two thousand dollars, to pay for four scholarships
     at Williams College, to be used through all time by the Trustees
     of Lawrence Academy, in Groton. The said trustees, or their
     representatives, may send and keep in college four pupils from
     the academy, without any charge for tuition; and, whenever they
     omit or decline keeping up their full number, the government or
     the proper authorities of the college are authorized to fill the
     vacancy or vacancies from their own college pupils. Charge the
     same to my account.

                                                           A. L."
     "To A. & A. L. & Co."

During the last twenty years of his life, Mr. Lawrence was unable to
attend more than the morning services of the church on Sunday, on
account of the state of his health.

He was a most devout and constant worshipper, and many of those who
have conducted the religious services of the church which he attended
will well remember the upturned countenance, the earnest attention,
and the significant motions of his head, as he listened with an
expression of approval to the faithful declarations of the speaker. He
loved to listen to those who "did not shun to declare all the counsel
of God," and would sometimes express disappointment when the preacher
failed to declare what he considered the important truths of the

In writing to a friend, after listening to a discourse of the latter
description from a stranger, he compares it, in its adaptation to the
spiritual wants of the hearers, to the nourishment which a
wood-chopper would receive by placing him in the top of a flowering
tree, and allowing him to feed only on the odor of its blossoms. His
feelings on this subject are expressed in a letter to an esteemed
clergyman, who had solicited his aid in behalf of a church in a
distant city.

                                          "BOSTON, June 11, 1847.

     "MY FRIEND: I have your letter of yesterday; and, in reply, I
     offer it as my opinion that the Unitarianism growing up among us
     the few years past has so much philosophy as to endanger the
     Christian character of our denomination, and to make us mere
     rationalists of the German school, which I dread more than
     anything in the way of religious progress. The church at ---- may
     be of use in spreading Christianity; but it may also be a
     reproval to it. I do not feel sufficient confidence in it to give
     money to keep life in it until I see evidence of some of the
     conservative influences that my own beloved and honored pastor is
     calling back among us.

                    Your well-wisher and friend,
                                                           "A. L.

     "P. S.--I fully agree in the opinion that ---- is an important
     point for the dissemination of truth; and, before giving aid, I
     must know the man before I help support the minister, having
     small confidence in the teachings of many who enjoy considerable
     reputation as teachers of righteousness. I may have expressed
     doubts and fears that may not seem well founded; but I feel

The following entry in his diary will give some idea of Mr. Lawrence's
exactness in his daily business:

     "_Saturday, July 24, 1847._--Enclosed in a note to the Rev. ----
     ----, of ----, a fifty-dollar bank-note, of the Atlantic Bank,
     No. 93, dated Jan. 1, 1846, payable to George William Dodd;
     letter A at each end of the bill, and A. P. P. in blue ink, in my
     writing, at the top. Sent the letter to the post-office by
     coachman, and paid the postage; he keeping a memorandum of his
     having delivered it, and paid for it.

                                                           A. L."

     "_Sept. 14._--Professor ----, of the Baptist College in ----, has
     called, to whom I shall give a parcel of books for the use of
     the college, and also a good word, which I hope will make him
     remember in whose service he is engaged."

     "_Sept. 15._--Delivered him about two hundred and fifty volumes,
     various; all of value to him and his college, he said. He is a
     young man (under thirty years) and a minister."

     "_September 16, 1847, Sabbath-day._[12]--'O most blessed Lord and
     Saviour; thou who didst, by thy precious death and burial, take
     away the sting of death and the darkness of the grave! grant unto
     me the precious fruit of this holy triumph of thine, and be my
     guide both in life and in death. In thy name will I lay me down
     in peace and rest; for thou, O Lord, makest me to dwell in
     safety! Enlighten, O Lord, the eyes of my understanding, that I
     may not sleep the sleep of death! Into thy hands I commend my
     spirit; for thou hast redeemed me, O thou covenant-keeping God!
     Bless and preserve me, therefore, both now and forever! Amen!'

     "These are suitable thoughts and aspirations, such as every
     Christian may profitably indulge on retiring each night. His bed
     should remind him of his grave; and, as the day past brings him
     so much nearer to it, the appearance, when summoned hence, should
     be the point most distinctly before him. If he pass on with the
     'Well done,' no time can be amiss when called up. O God! grant me
     to be ever ready; and, by thy blessing and thy mercy, grant me to
     be allowed to join company with those loved and precious ones
     whom I feel entirely assured are at thy right hand, then to be no
     more separated!

                                                  AMOS LAWRENCE."

  [12] The opposite page is a fac-simile of the original manuscript
  found in Mr. Lawrence's pocket-book after his death. It may serve as a
  fair specimen of his chirography during his latter years.

[Illustration: Fac-Simile of Mr Lawrence's Hand-writing in 1847.]

The following note and memorandum by Mr. Lawrence will show how he
dealt with an old debtor:

                               (TO MR. G.)

     "MY DEAR SIR: If you have any mode by which I can have the
     pleasure of receiving your note and interest, amounting to
     twenty-three hundred dollars, to be vested by me for the benefit
     of your wife, I shall be pleased to do it, having long since
     determined to appropriate this money, whenever received, in this

                                   "Yours, truly,
                                                            A. L.
                                     "For himself and brother A."

     "MEM.--Mr. ---- was an invalid, and confined to his house at that
     period, and sent for me to call and see him. I did so, and he
     seemed much affected at my offer; but told me he was in better
     circumstances than I had supposed him, and declined the proffered
     aid. The information thus given me in this last interview was
     most welcome: from that time, I never mentioned his debt. After
     his decease, it was paid by his sons; and the family has been
     prosperous since. I spent the money for others in need, and am
     rejoiced that all his are so comfortable."

Many of our readers who can look back a few years will recall to
memory the manly form, and fine, open countenance, of William L.
Green, who was so suddenly cut off at the very threshold of what
promised to be an honorable and useful career. He had come to Boston
from his native town of Groton; and, after serving an apprenticeship,
had entered upon a successful business. He had endeared himself to a
large circle of friends, and possessed such qualities of mind and
heart as had made him the stay and hope of his parents in their
declining years.

Upon hearing of the death of this nephew, Mr. Lawrence addressed to
his parents the following letter of sympathy:

                                       "BOSTON, October 22, 1847.

     "DEAR BROTHER AND SISTER: God speaks to us through the rustling
     of the leaves no less distinctly than in the voice of the
     whirlwind and the storm; and it is now our business and our
     privilege to look at him and to him for the lesson of yesterday.
     Dear W., as he parted from me the Sabbath noon before the last,
     looked the embodiment of health, long life, and happiness. Now,
     that noble figure, face, expression, and loved spirit, which
     lightened his path, is no longer among us, to be in danger of
     injury from our yielding him that which belongs to God only. Were
     we not liable, dear brother and sister, to interrupt those
     communings which God calls us to with himself? He is our merciful
     Father, and does for us what he sees is best; and, if we receive
     his teachings, however dark they may appear to us at present, all
     will be made clear at the right time. Your precious treasure is
     secured, I trust, and will prove an increased attraction to you
     to follow; and it seems to me that our children are uniting in
     their joyful meeting in heaven. May we see in this event, more
     clearly than ever, where we are to look for direction,
     instruction, and support! May we be ready when called! So prays
     your affectionate and afflicted brother,

                                                           A. L."

To a friend he writes, Dec. 27:

     "In our domestic relations, we are all as we could desire, save
     the individual case of my brother William, who is barely
     remaining this side Jordan, and in a happy state, I trust, to
     pass over. For a number of days, we have supposed each might be
     the last but he may continue for some days, or possibly weeks.
     Death strikes right and left, and takes from our midst the
     long-honored and beloved, in their maturity. Dr. Codman and Judge
     Hubbard are both to be buried to-day; two men whose places will
     not soon be filled, I fear. Only last Tuesday, in my ride with
     good Dr. Sharp, we agreed to call and pay our respects to Dr. C.
     on Thursday; but, on that morning, learned that he was dead. On
     Thursday, Judge Hubbard rode out, and transacted legal business
     as a magistrate; in the evening went to bed as usual; in the
     night-time was turned over in bed, as he requested to be, and
     ceased to breathe. How could a good man pass over Jordan more
     triumphantly and gloriously?"

The reader will not fail to note the coïncidence, that, almost exactly
five years later, Mr. Lawrence was summoned to "pass over" in the same
manner, which, from the expression used, seems to have been to him so
desirable; though his own departure was still more sudden and

                           (TO A PHYSICIAN.)

                                 "Sabbath evening, seven o'clock.

     "DEAR W.: I have been reading to ---- the last hour, beginning at
     the second chapter of Matthew, and so on in course. Please look
     at the fourth chapter, and the latter part of the twenty-third
     verse, and I think you will need no apology for doing what you
     do, with such instruction. Christ's example, no less than his
     precepts, is designed to be practically useful to the whole
     family of man; and I feel humbled and grieved that I have not
     followed him better, and preached better by all the motives he
     has thus spread out. I say, then, to you and yours, God bless you
     in your good work, and make you a worthy follower of the Beloved!

                                                           A. L."



     "_Jan. 1, 1848._--In reviewing the scenes and the business of the
     past year, I have continued evidence of that mercy which a Father
     bestows on his children, and a louder call to yield more fully
     than I ever yet have done to the teachings he designs. Many
     things that seem dark, of which the reasons are not understood,
     will be made clear at the right time. It is manifest that my
     stewardship is not so far well done as to permit me to fold my
     arms and feel easy. No: my life is spared for more work. May its
     every day be marked by some token that shall meet Thine approval,
     when the final call shall come!"

                           (TO PRESIDENT HOPKINS.)

                                                "BOSTON, March 9.

     "This religious awakening among your college students is among
     the blessings that our Father vouchsafes to his servants who
     labor faithfully in their work; and I can see his hand as plainly
     in it as though it were thrust before my face as I write this
     sentence. Let us, then, bless his holy name, and thank him, as
     disciples and followers of Christ the Beloved; and urge upon
     these young men to come forward, as doves to their windows. If my
     life and my trusteeship have been in any manner instrumental in
     this good work in your college, it will be matter of grateful
     thanksgiving while I live. Mrs. L. and myself both felt our
     hearts drawn out to you as we read your letter; and we commend
     you, and the good work of guiding these interesting young
     Christians in the ways and the works that lead to that blessed
     home to which our loved ones have been called, and to which we
     hope to be welcomed. To his grace and guidance we commend all
     things touching this onward and upward movement. I have been
     under the smarting-rod a few days within the past fortnight.
     Severe pain took all my courage and light-heartedness out of me,
     and made me a sorry companion; and my friends, seeing me in my
     every-day dress, would hardly know me in this sombre garb. Again,
     dear friend, I bid you God-speed in the good work; and, at last,
     may you receive the 'Well done' promised to the faithful!"

In the presidential campaign of 1848, the Hon. Abbott Lawrence was
made a prominent candidate of the Whig party for the Vice-Presidency;
and, in the convention which assembled at Philadelphia in June, was
voted for, and received but one vote short of that which would have
secured the nomination. Mr. Fillmore, it will be recollected, was the
successful candidate. During the canvass, a gentleman, editing a
newspaper which strongly advocated the nomination of Taylor and
Lawrence, addressed a very courteous letter to Mr. Amos Lawrence,
asking for aid in supporting this movement, which he supposed he would
of course be deeply interested in. The reply is given here, as an
illustration of his views in regard to holding high political office:

     "DEAR SIR: In reply to yours, this moment handed me, I state that
     my income is so reduced, thus far, this year, that I am compelled
     to use prudence in the expenditure of money, and must therefore
     decline making the loan. If my vote would make my brother
     Vice-President, I would not give it, as I think it lowering his
     good name to accept office of any sort, by employing such means
     as are now needful to get votes. I hope 'Old Zack' will be

                         "Respectfully yours,
                                                           A. L."

To President Hopkins he writes, April 15:

     "What should we do, if the Bible[13] were not the foundation of
     our system of self-government? and what will become of us, when
     we wilfully and wickedly cast it behind us? We have all more than
     common reason to pray, in the depths of our sins, God be merciful
     to us sinners. The efforts made to lessen respect for it, and
     confidence in it, will bring to its rescue multitudes who
     otherwise would not have learned how much they owe it. The 'Age
     of Reason,' fifty years ago, told, on the whole, in advancing
     truth, by bringing to its support the best minds of Christendom.
     I hope it may be so now. This is a theme for your head and heart
     and pen. No man in New England can make a deeper mark. What say
     ye? The Bible is our great charter, and does more than all
     others, written or unwritten."

     "W. C. writes from N., asking me to loan him three thousand
     dollars to buy a farm, and to improve his health and mind;
     stating that he is a cripple, but wants to do something for the

             "That man may last, but never lives,
             Who much receives, but nothing gives,
             Whom none can love, whom none can thank,
             Creation's blot, creation's blank."

  [13] In looking over the list of Life Directors of the American Bible
  Society, made such by the payment of one hundred and fifty dollars
  each, there are found at least ten who are known to have been
  constituted by Mr. Lawrence.

                      (TO PRESIDENT HOPKINS.)

                                           "BOSTON, June 12, 1848

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Only think what changes a few weeks have
     produced in Europe, and the probable effects upon this country.
     It seems now certain that vast numbers will emigrate here, rich
     and poor, from the continent and from England. The question for
     us is, How shall we treat them? It is certain that foreigners
     will come here. We have land enough for them, but have not the
     needful discipline to make them safe associates in maintaining
     our system of government. Virtue and intelligence are our
     platform; but the base passions of our country have been
     ministered to so abundantly by unscrupulous politicians, that our
     moral sense has been blunted; and these poor, ignorant foreigners
     are brought into use for selfish purposes, and the prospects for
     the future are appalling. Yet a ray of light has just broken in
     upon us by the nomination of General Taylor for President; and my
     belief is, he is the best man for the place who can be named,
     with any prospect of success. He is not a politician, but a
     plain, straight-forward, honest man, anxious to do his duty in
     all his relations. As to my brother's nomination for
     Vice-President, I am thankful they did not make it in convention:
     he is in a higher position before the country than he would be if
     chosen Vice-President. His course has been elevated and
     magnanimous in this matter; for he might, by his personal
     influence and efforts, have received the nomination.

     "ADDITIONAL.--It is now almost two, P. M., and I have but just
     returned from Mount Auburn. The visit has been deeply
     interesting, on many accounts, and has almost unfitted me to
     finish this letter. However, there is nothing in the visit but
     what ought to make me thankful that my treasures, though removed,
     are secured; and, if my poor efforts can bring me again into
     their society through the blessed Saviour, I ought not allow this
     gush of feeling to unman me."

A few days later, he writes to the same friend:

     "I have not as yet heard of the examination of yesterday at the
     Lawrence Academy, which son. A. A. attended, but hope for a good
     report. In truth, I feel as if that school and your college are
     to go hand in hand in making whole men for generations to come.
     There is a pleasant vision which opens to me when I look forward
     to the characters that the academy and the college are to send
     forth for the next hundred years. I bless God for my old home,
     and the great elm in front, which has a teaching and a
     significance that I shall endeavor to make use of in training my
     grandchildren and dear ones of my family connection. How
     important, then, that our places of education be sustained, as
     supplying the pure and living streams that shall irrigate every
     hill and valley of this vast empire, and train men to know and do
     their duty! I will not quarrel with a man's Presbyterian,
     Episcopal, or Baptist creed, so be he will act the part of a good
     soldier of Christ; for I verily believe great multitudes, of all
     creeds, desire to serve him faithfully."

     "_Aug. 23._--T. G. sent me a paper this morning, having many
     names on it, with a polite note. The paper I returned without
     reading; telling him I did not read such, or hear stories, and
     must be excused. He took the answer in high dudgeon, and sent
     another note, saying he had mistaken me, and desired that his
     first note should be returned. I wrote upon it that I lived by
     the day and hour, an invalid, and, for two years, had adopted
     this course, and had treated bishops, clergymen, and laymen, with
     the fewest words; that I intended no disrespect, and begged his
     pardon if I had done anything wrong. I also told him this course
     was urged upon me by my medical adviser; but, with all my care,
     there is now an average of six applications a day through the

Mr. Lawrence had, many years previous to this date, formed an
acquaintance with Captain Slidell McKenzie, of the United States Navy,
which had been continued, and was a source of mutual pleasure. Among
other relics in the possession of the writer, is a cane of palm-wood,
presented by Capt. McKenzie, on his return from Mexico as commander of
the United States Steamship "Mississippi," to Mr. Lawrence, who had
caused to be engraven upon it, on a silver plate, the following





The latter part of the inscription is in allusion to the course which
Capt. McKenzie felt obliged to adopt in the mutiny on board the United
States Brig "Somers," in 184--.

On Sept. 15, he thus notices the death of that officer in his diary:

     "This, morning's newspapers give the intelligence that the
     excellent and accomplished Capt. McKenzie died at Sing Sing, N.
     Y., two days ago. He fell from his horse by an affection of the
     heart; and died almost instantly. Thus has departed a man whom I
     esteemed as among the best and purest I am acquainted with, and
     whose character should be a treasure for his family and the
     nation. I think him a model officer and a good Christian."

       *       *       *       *       *

                                                    "_Oct. 11._--

                         CANADIAN BOAT-SONG.

             'Faintly as tolls the evening chime,
             Our voices keep tune, and our oars keep time;
             Soon as the woods on shore look dim,
             We'll sing at St. Ann's our parting hymn.
             Row, brothers, row: the stream runs fast,
             The rapids are near, and daylight's past.'

     I first heard this song sung and played on the piano by ----,
     afterwards Mrs. ----, at her house in ---- street, in 1809. The
     song rang in my ears sweetly for weeks, as I was taken down with
     fever the next morning. I never think of it but with delight."

     "_Oct. 15._--My brother William died on Saturday, Oct. 14, at
     three, P. M., in the sixty-sixth year of his age; and my brother
     Mason died only five hours afterwards, in his eighty-first
     year,--within three doors of each other. Both were very dear to
     me in life, and both are very dear to me in death; and, in God's
     good time, I trust that I shall meet them again, not subject to
     the ills and changes of my present abode."

In a letter of the same date to a friend, he says:

     "My letter of last Tuesday will have prepared you for the sad
     intelligence in this. Brother William continued without much
     suffering or consciousness till two o'clock yesterday, and then
     ceased breathing, without a groan. Yesterday morning, the hand of
     death was manifestly upon Brother Mason, who was conscious to
     objects around, and requested C. to pray with him; and, when
     asked if he understood what was said, answered, 'Yes,' and
     expressed by words and signs his wants and feelings. He continued
     in a quiet, humble, and hopeful frame, we judge, until just eight
     o'clock, when, with a single gasp and a slight noise, his mighty
     spirit passed out of its immense citadel of clay, to join the
     throng of the loved ones gone before. Brother W. was in his
     sixty-sixth year, Brother M. in his eighty-first; and both were
     such men as we need, true as steel in all good works and words.
     Mr. M. was never sick a day to disable him from attending to his
     professional and public duties in fifty years, and, until within
     a short time, never confined a day to his house by illness. On
     the last Sunday evening, I passed a most refreshing half-hour
     with him. He appeared as well as he had done for a year; inquired
     very particularly into Brother W.'s state; expressed the opinion
     that his own time was near at hand, and a hope that he might be
     taken without losing his mental and bodily powers. He remarked
     that protracted old age, after the loss of power to give and
     receive comfort, was not to be desired. He has often expressed
     to me the hope that he should be taken just as he has been. Have
     we not reason to praise and bless God in taking, no less than in
     sparing, these honored and loved ones?"



     "_January 1, 1849._--THE habit of keeping an account of my
     expenditures for objects other than for my family, and for
     strictly legal calls, I have found exceedingly convenient and
     satisfactory; as I have been sometimes encouraged, by looking
     back to some entry of aid to a needy institution or individual,
     to do twice as much for some other needy institution or
     individual. I can truly say, that I deem these outlays my best,
     and would not, if I could by a wish, have any of them back again.
     I adopted the practice, ten years ago, of spending my income. The
     more I give, the more I have; and do most devoutly and heartily
     pray God that I may be faithful in the use of the good things
     intrusted to me."

     "_January 2._--Yesterday, Peter C. Brooks died, aged eighty-two;
     a man who has minded his own business through life, and from a
     poor boy became the richest man in the city. I honor him as an
     honest man."

                     (FROM PROF. STUART, OF ANDOVER.)

                                      "ANDOVER, January 23, 1849.

     "MY DEAR SIR: Soon after my daughter's return from Boston, I
     received a garment exceedingly appropriate to the severe cold to
     which I am daily exposed in my rides. Many, many hearty thanks
     for your kindness! To me the article in question is of peculiar
     value. The cold can hardly penetrate beneath such a garment. God
     has blessed you with wealth; but he has given you a richer
     blessing still; that is, a heart overflowing with kindness to
     your fellow-beings, and a willingness to do good to all as you
     have opportunity. I accept, with warm emotions of gratitude and
     thankfulness, the kindness you have done to me. I would not
     exchange your gift for a large lump of the California gold. Be
     assured you have my fervent prayer and wishes, that you may at
     last receive a thousand-fold for all the kindness that you have
     shown to your fellow-men. You and I are near our final account.
     May I not hope that this will also be entering on our final
     reward? I do hope this; I must hope it. What else is there in
     life that can make us patiently and submissively and calmly
     endure its ills? God Almighty bless and sustain and guide and
     comfort you until death; and then may you pass through the dark
     valley without a fear, cheerfully looking to what lies beyond it!

     "I am, my dear sir, with sincere gratitude, your friend and
     obedient servant,

                                                   MOSES STUART."

To President Hopkins he writes, Jan. 3:

     "Your letters always bring light to our path, and joy to our
     hearts, in one way or another. The two last seemed to come at the
     very time to do both, in a way to impress our senses and
     feelings, as the clear heavens, and brilliant sky, and
     exhilarating atmosphere, of this charming cold day, do mine, in
     contrast with a beautiful bouquet of flowers on my table as a
     love-token from some of my young sleigh-riding friends, and which
     makes me feel a boy with these boys, and an old man with such
     wise ones as you.

     "In the scenes of the past year, much that will mark its
     character stands out in bold relief; and, if we of this country
     are true to our principles, the great brotherhood of man will be
     elevated; for there have been overturns and overturns which will
     act until He whose right it is shall reign. If we live up to our
     political professions, our Protestant religion will elevate the
     millions who will be brought under our levelling process. 'Level
     up,' but not down, was Judge Story's maxim of democratic
     levelling, as he began his political career. In the business of
     levelling up, the Lawrence Academy, I trust, may do something.
     The late notices of it have been somewhat various by the
     newspaper editors to whom the preceptor sent catalogues."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_February 25._--Attended Brattle-street Church this morning, and
     heard a consolatory sermon; and, at the closing prayer, the
     giving of thanks to our Father in heaven, through Jesus Christ,
     who lived to serve us, and died to save us."

On the 28th, he writes to his brother Abbott, who had had tendered to
him, by General Taylor, the office of Secretary of the Navy:

     "DEAR BROTHER: I have heard since noon that you have the
     invitation of General Taylor to take a seat in his cabinet, and
     that you will proceed to Washington forthwith to answer for
     yourself. I am not less gratified by the offer than you can be;
     but I should feel deep anguish, if I thought you could be induced
     to accept it, even for a brief period. Your name and fame as a
     private citizen is a better inheritance for your children than
     any distinction you may attain from official station; and the
     influence you can exercise for your country and friends, as you
     are, is higher and better than any you can exercise as an
     official of the government."

On March 3, he writes to his brother at Washington:

     "I awoke this morning very early, and, after a while, fixed my
     mind in prayer to God, that your duty may be clearly seen, and
     that you may perform it in the spirit of a true disciple."

And again on March 5, after hearing that his brother had declined the
proffered seat in the cabinet, he writes to him:

     "The morning papers confirm my convictions of what you would do;
     and I do most heartily rejoice, and say that I never felt as
     proud before."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_April 11._--A subscription paper, with an introductory letter
     from ----, was handed me, on which were seven or eight names for
     a hundred dollars each, to aid the family of ----, lately
     deceased. Not having any acquaintance with him or family, I did
     not subscribe. Applications come in from all quarters, for all
     objects. The reputation of giving freely is a very bad
     reputation, so far as my personal comfort is concerned."

April 21, he writes to a friend:

     "The matters of deepest interest in my last were ----, the
     religious movement, ----'s ill-health, and ----'s accident. All
     these matters are presenting a sunny show now. Our dead
     Unitarianism of ten or fifteen years ago is stirred up, and the
     deep feelings of sin, and salvation through the Beloved, are
     awakened, where there seemed to be nothing but indifference and
     coldness; my hope and belief are that great good will follow. In
     the matter of the enjoyment of life, you judge me rightly; few
     men have so many and rich blessings to be thankful for; and,
     while I am spared with sufficient understanding to comprehend
     these, I pray that I may have the honesty to use them in the way
     that the Master will approve. Of what use will it be to have my
     thoughts directed to the increase of my property, at the cost of
     my hopes of heaven? There, a Lazarus is better off than a score
     of Dives. Pray without ceasing, that I may be faithful."

The following extract of a letter is taken from a work entitled "A
Romance of the Sea-Serpent, or the Ichthyosaurus," and will show Mr.
Lawrence's views respecting the much contested subject of which it

                                         "BOSTON, April 26, 1849.

     "I have never had any doubt of the existence of the _Sea-Serpent_
     since the morning he was seen off Nahant by Martial Prince,
     through his famous mast-head spy-glass. For, within the next two
     hours, I conversed with Mr. Samuel Cabot, and Mr. Daniel P.
     Parker, I think, and one or more persons beside, who had spent a
     part of that morning in witnessing his movements. In addition,
     Colonel Harris, the commander at Fort Independence, told me that
     the creature had been seen by a number of his soldiers while
     standing sentry in the early dawn, some time before this show at
     Nahant; and Colonel Harris believed it as firmly as though the
     creature were drawn up before us in State-street, where we then

     "I again say, I have never, from that day to this, had a doubt of
     the _Sea-Serpent's existence_. The revival of the stories will
     bring out many facts that will place the matter before our people
     in such a light as will make them _as much ashamed_ to doubt, as
     _they formerly_ were to believe in its existence.

                            "Yours truly,
                                                  AMOS LAWRENCE."

To a friend he writes, July 18:

     "Brother A. has received the place of Minister to the Court of
     St. James; the most flattering testimony of his worth and
     character that is within the gift of the present administration,
     and the only office that I would not advise against his

About this time, Mr. Lawrence read a small work, entitled "Life in
Earnest," by the Rev. James Hamilton, D.D., Minister of the Scotch
Church, Regent's Square, London. The sentiments of this little volume
were so much akin to his own, and were withal so forcibly exemplified,
that he commenced a correspondence with the author, which became a
most interesting one, and continued until the close of his life.

                                          "BOSTON, July 18, 1849.


     "SIR: The few lines on the other side of this sheet are addressed
     to me by our excellent governor, whose good word may be grateful
     to you, coming as it does from a Christian brother across the
     Atlantic. If it should ever happen to you to visit this country,
     I need not say how great would be my pleasure to see you. I am a
     minute-man, living by the day and by the ounce; but am
     compensated for all privations, by reading such tracts as 'Life
     in Earnest,' in such a way that few are allowed. I have cleared
     out the Sunday-school depository three times in the last four
     weeks, and have scattered the work broadcast, and intend to
     continue to do so if my health allows. Among those to whom I have
     given one is my younger brother, who is soon to be with you in
     England, as Minister to your Court. I recommend him to your
     prayers and your confidence.

      "With great respect for your character, I am yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

     "_July 23._--We are to have Father Matthew here to-morrow: he is
     a lion, but I probably shall only see him at a distance. The
     influence he is said to have upon his Irish people may result in
     making many of them industrious citizens, who would, without him,
     be criminals, and a pest to honest people. The evil of such
     masses being thrown upon us we must bear, and study how to
     relieve ourselves in any practicable way. I see none but to
     educate the children, and circulate the Bible and good books
     among them, which shall encourage them to do the best they can
     for themselves.

     "The Christian banner may have many local influences and
     teachings; but its broad folds, I trust, will cover many true
     followers, however exact its worldly interpreters may be of what
     constitutes a true follower. I saw, in the _New York Observer_ (I
     think it was), a statement of a district in the South-west, where
     were forty-one Christian denominations, and no two of whose
     ministers could exchange pulpit labors. Do not these people need
     a Christian teacher?"

     "_August 3_.--Father Matthew is doing a good work here; and the
     result of his power is in his benevolent and sincere expression,
     and charming head and face. He has called to see me twice, and I
     intend to call and see him to-morrow. His ease and eloquence
     could not do for him what his heavenly expression does."



In August, 1849, Mr. Lawrence reviewed his will and added to it the
following codicil:

     "Through the mercy of God, my life has been prolonged to this
     time, and my mental and bodily powers continued to me to an
     extent that has enabled me to see to the application of those
     trusts that have been confided to me; and, should my stewardship
     end now or next year, and the 'Well done' of the Master be
     pronounced upon my labors, all things here will seem nothing, and
     less than nothing, in comparison.

     "In short, my life, cheerful and happy as it is made by the three
     blessings conferred upon man after his fall (wife, children, and
     friends), is in the keeping of a merciful Father, who, by thus
     continuing it, allows me a foretaste of that future home I hope
     for whenever he calls.

     "In reviewing my will, above written, executed on the 21st day of
     February, A. D. 1846, I see nothing to alter, and everything to
     confirm. And I do hereby declare it still my will, and this
     codicil is to be taken as a confirmation of it; and I do
     earnestly hope all in interest will see clearly the meaning of
     every clause, and carry out my meaning without any quibbling,
     question, or controversy. I have been my own executor, for many
     years, of the surplus property I have received, and intend to be
     while my powers of mind will allow it. Many near and dear friends
     to whom I looked for counsel and direction, at the time my will
     was executed, have been taken hence, which makes me more desirous
     of giving a renewed expression at this time."

In this connection was the following note to his sons, found in his
pocket-book after his decease:

     "DEAR W. AND A.: In my will, I have made no bequests as tokens of
     remembrance, and have endeavored to do for all (whom I am
     interested in out of my own family connections) what is needful
     and proper and best; yet I wish some expression of kindness to M.
     and F., if in the family when I am taken." * * * *

Here follow donations to domestics who had been for many years in his

About the 20th of September, Mr. Lawrence experienced a severe attack
of cholera morbus, which was then a sort of epidemic in the community.
Of this attack, he writes to President Hopkins as follows:

     "I hardly know how to address you, since I find myself once more
     spared to lay open my heart to you; for I do indeed feel all the
     force of the words, What shall I render unto God for all his
     unspeakable goodness? I have been upon the brink of Jordan, and,
     with my outstretched hand, seized hold of our merciful Father's
     hand, that was held out towards me, and was supported by his
     grasp as plainly as I could have been by your own hand. I was
     waiting, and praying to him to conduct me to the other side and
     permit me to join the company of loved ones _passed on_, and
     felt almost sure I should never see the sunlight of this world
     again, when, to my amazement, I found my pains subsiding, and
     that I had not finished the work he had assigned. When you were
     here, I gave you some little outline of my plan of work for ----.
     On the 18th of September, I completed that work, and felt
     stronger on that day than on any day for a month. Under the
     excitement of the scene and a sudden change of weather, I took
     cold, and had a terrible attack of cholera, which, by the
     immediate administration of remedies, was in a degree quieted.
     Thus my poor old worn-out machine was still kept from parting, as
     the sole of the shoe is sometimes kept on by freezing snow and
     water upon it."

In the beginning of this volume, mention is made of the first clerk
whom Mr. Lawrence employed after entering business in the year 1807.
To that gentleman, now Brigadier-General Whiting, was addressed the
following letter, which was the recommencement of a correspondence
which had ceased for many years:

                                         "BOSTON, November, 1849.

     "MY DEAR GENERAL: I have been deeply interested in overlooking
     your volume of revolutionary orders of Washington, selected from
     your father's manuscripts, as it brought back scenes and memories
     of forty years and more ago, when I used to visit at your house
     in Lancaster, and to read those papers with a relish that might
     well be coveted by the youth of the present day. I thank you for
     this token of auld lang syne, and shall feel the more thankful if
     you will come and see me. I would certainly go to you, if I had
     the strength, and could do it safely; but shall never go so far
     from home, being at any moment liable to be called off. My
     earnest desire is to be 'in line,' and to be able to answer,
     promptly, 'here.' I hope to hear from you and your wife and wee
     things: all have a hold upon me, and you will give them an old
     man's love. I have taken the opportunity to send you some little
     reminiscences of old times. Butler's 'History of Groton' (which
     connects Lancaster in early days) is a model for its exact
     truthfulness: he was the preceptor of the academy until long
     after you entered the army. Then I have sent a catalogue of the
     school, from its beginning for fifty years or more; 'History of
     Lowell as it Was, and Lowell as it Is,' well written and true;
     'Boston Notions,' put together by old Mr. Dearborn, the printer,
     whom you knew; and some other little matters, which will serve to
     freshen old things, as your 'Evolutionary Orders of Washington'
     have done with me. I have just looked into my first sales-book,
     and there see the entries made by you more than forty years ago.
     Ever since, you have been going up, from the cornet of dragoons
     to the present station.

                        "Farewell. Your old friend,
                                                   AMOS LAWRENCE.
    "GEN. HENRY WHITING, Fort Hamilton, N. Y."


                                          "BOSTON, Dec. 12, 1849.

     "MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of November 30 reached me in due
     course, and gave me unfeigned pleasure in seeing my hopes
     confirmed, that the practical common sense of South Carolina was
     returning, and that the use of their head and hands was getting
     to be felt among the citizens, as necessary to their salvation as
     common brethren in the great family of States. Without the use of
     those trusts placed in their hands by our common Father, the
     State will not be worth the parchment on which to draw the deeds
     fifty years hence; and I most earnestly pray God to guide,
     guard, and save the State from their childishness in their fears
     that our northern agitators can harm them. I spent the winter of
     1819 in Washington, and heard the whole of the debate upon
     admitting Alabama and Missouri into the Union. Alabama was
     admitted, Missouri rejected; and I made up my mind then that I
     would never interfere until requested by my brethren of the
     Slave-holding States; which resolution I have carried out from
     that day to this; and I still hold to it. But I would not have
     admitted Alabama then or Missouri on the terms they were
     admitted. We of the North have windy, frothy politicians, who
     hope to make capital out of their ultraism; but, in the
     aggregate, they soon find their level. Now, of the point to which
     I desire to come, I do earnestly desire your State to carry out
     your prophecy, that, in ten years, you will spin all your own
     crop of cotton; for we of Massachusetts will gladly surrender to
     you the manufacture of coarse fabrics, and turn our industry to
     making fine articles. In short, we could now, if you are ready,
     give up to you the coarse fabrics, and turn one half of our
     machinery into spinning and weaving cotton hose; and nothing will
     help us all so much as specific duties. The whole kingdom of
     Saxony is employed at this moment in making cotton hose for the
     United States from yarns purchased in England, and made of your
     cotton. How much better would it be for you and for us to save
     these treble profits and transport, by making up the cotton at
     home! Think of these matters, and look at them without the
     prejudice that prevails so extensively in your State. A few years
     ago, I asked our kinsman, Gen. ----, of your State, how the
     forty-bale theory was esteemed at that time. His answer was, 'We
     all thought it true when it was started, and it had its effect;
     but nobody is of that mind now.' Still, I believe, when an error
     gets strong hold of the popular mind, it is much more difficult
     to eradicate it than it is to supply the truth in its place. If I
     know myself, I would not mete to you any different measure from
     what I would ask of you; and I must say to you, that your State
     and people have placed themselves in a false position, which will
     be as apparent to them in a few years as the sun is at noonday.
     My own family and friends are in usual health; and no man this
     side heaven enjoys earth better than I do. I do pray you to come
     and see us. I hope to see your son at Cambridge this week.

                          Most respectfully yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

       *       *       *       *       *

                                     "BOSTON, December 11, 1849.

      "To Gen. HENRY WHITING, U. S. A., Fort Hamilton, N. Y.

     "MY EARLY FRIEND: Forty years and more ago, we used to talk over
     together the dismemberment of Poland and the scenes that
     followed, and to pour out together our feelings for those martyrs
     of liberty. At the present moment, my feelings are deeply moved
     by taking by the hand Colonel P. and Major F., just landed here,
     and driven from their country, martyrs to the same cause. I need
     only say to you that they are strangers among us, and any
     attentions from you will be grateful to them, and duly felt by
     your old friend,

                                                           A. L."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_December 24, 1849._--I have been daily employed, of late, in
     accompanying visitors to our public institutions; among these,
     Mr. Charles Carroll, of Maryland, to the Mather School and the
     Perkins Asylum for the Blind. The effect of kindness upon the
     character of children is more strikingly illustrated in the
     Mather School than in any other I know of. Three fifths of the
     pupils are children of foreigners,--English, Irish, Scotch,
     German, Swiss, and the like,--mostly very poor. Two fifths are
     American; and these foreign children, after a few months, are
     ambitious to look as well and do as well as the best. The little
     Irish creatures are as anxious to have their faces clean, their
     hair smooth, their clothes mended, and to learn to read, write,
     and explain their lessons, as the upper children. These upper
     children, to the number of about one hundred, belong to the
     Lawrence Association."

     "_December 25, Christmas afternoon._--The following beautiful
     little note, accompanied by a silver cup, almost unmanned me.
     Forty-three girls signed the note; two others engaged in it are
     sick; and one died, and was buried at Mount Auburn by her
     particular request,--making forty-six of these children, who, of
     their own motion, got up this token. Their note is dated to-day,
     and runs thus:

     "'RESPECTED SIR: The misses of the Lawrence Association, anxious
     to testify their gratitude for the kind interest which you have
     ever manifested towards them, would most respectfully request
     your acceptance of this small token of their gratitude.'" (Signed
     by forty-three girls.)

"_26._--We had great times with the children last evening at Sister
M.'s. It really seemed to me that the entertainment gave me as much
pleasure as any child among them; beside which, I went to the house of
my old friend Dr. Bowditch (where I used to visit twenty-five years
ago on like occasions), for a few minutes, and there found seventeen
of his grandchildren enjoying the fruits of the Christmas-tree in the
best manner possible."



On the first of January, 1850, Mr. Lawrence, as usual, reviews, in his
property-book, the state of his affairs during the preceding year,
with an estimate of his expenditures. The entry for the present year
is as follows:

     "The amount of my expenditures for all objects (taxes included)
     is about one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. I consider the
     money well spent, and pray God constantly that I may be watchful
     in the use of the blessings he bestows, so that at last he may
     admit me among the faithful that surround his throne."

The above entry will give some idea of the fidelity with which his
trusts had been fulfilled, so far as regarded his worldly possessions.
Each year, as it rolled by, as well as each successive attack of
illness, seemed only to stimulate him in his efforts to accomplish
what he could while the day lasted. No anxious fears disturbed him as
he looked forward to the near approach of "that night when no man can
work." That night to him was but a prelude of rest from bodily
weakness and suffering, and the forerunner of a brighter day, of
which, even in this world, he was sometimes permitted to obtain a
glimpse. He says:

     "My own health and strength seem renewed. That cholera attack has
     changed the whole man; and it is only now and then I am brought
     to a pause that quickens me in my work when again started. A week
     since, I ventured on two ounces of solid food for my dinner,
     differing from what I have taken for many years. Nine hours
     after, in my sleep, I fainted, and was brought to life by dear N.
     standing over me, giving ammonia, rubbing, and the like. Fasting
     the day following brought me back to the usual vigor and
     enjoyments. Do you not see in this the sentence, 'Do with thy
     might what thy hand findeth to do,' stereotyped in large letters
     before me. This it is that brings me to the work at this hour in
     the morning."

       *       *       *       *       *

     "_March 24._--Received a letter from Rev. Mr. Hallock, Secretary
     of the American Tract Society, saying that the Society will
     publish Dr. Hamilton's lecture on the literary attractions of the
     Bible, which I had sent them a few weeks since; and will supply
     me with two thousand copies, as I requested.

     "Received also, this morning, another tract of Dr. H. from sister
     K., in London; called the 'Happy Home,' which finished that
     series to the working people. After reading this number, I feel a
     strong desire to see the preceding nine numbers."

                    (TO THE REV. JAMES HAMILTON, D.D.)

                                         "BOSTON, March 24, 1850.

     "REV. AND DEAR SIR: I need not repeat to you how deeply
     interesting all your writings which I have seen have been to me;
     but you may not feel indifferent to the fact that the lecture you
     delivered four months ago, on the literary attractions of the
     Bible (which I received from my sister, Mrs. Abbott Lawrence, a
     few weeks since), is now in process of republication by the
     American Tract Society, agreeably to my request. I hope to assist
     in scattering it broadcast over our broad land; and thus you will
     be speaking from your own desk, with the speed of light, to an
     audience from Passamaquoddy to Oregon. Will you do me the favor
     to give me a copy of 'Happy Home,' from which I may teach my
     children and grandchildren.

          "Respectfully your friend, and brother in Christ,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."


                                           "BOSTON, May 16, 1850.

     "REV. AND DEAR SIR: I make no apology in asking your acceptance
     of the above, as I am quite sure it cannot come amiss to a poor
     clergyman, situated as you are. I pray that you will feel, in
     using it, you cheer my labors, and make me more happy while I am
     able to enjoy life, in thus sending an occasional remembrancer to
     one for whom I have always felt the highest respect and esteem.

                                 Your friend,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

The above letter contained a draft for one hundred dollars, of which
Mr. Lawrence makes the following memorandum, dated on the 18th:

     "Mr. ---- acknowledges the above letter in very grateful terms,
     being what his pressing wants require."

In a letter to President Hopkins, dated June 22, Mr. Lawrence says:

     "If I cannot visit you bodily, as I had vainly hoped to do, I can
     convince you that the life and hope of younger days are still in
     me. Your parting word touched me to the quick, and I cannot
     repeat or read it without a sympathetic tear filling my own eye.
     I am not able to stand up; but am cheered by the hope that,
     before many weeks, I may be able to stand alone. Our good friend
     Governor Briggs called to see me this week, and was quite
     horrified to see me trundled about on a hospital chair; however,
     after a good talk, he concluded that what was cut off from the
     lower works was added to the upper, and the account in my favor.
     It has always been so with me; the dark places have been made
     clear at the right time; so I am no object of pity."

The lameness here mentioned was caused by a slight sprain of the
ankle, but was followed by great prostration of the bodily strength,
and a feeble state of all the functions, resulting in that vitiated
state of the blood called by physicians "purpura." Violent hemorrhages
from the nose succeeded; and these, with the intense heat of the
weather, so reduced his strength, that the only hope of recovery
seemed to be in removing him from the city to the bracing air of the
sea-shore. Towards the end of July, he was accordingly removed upon a
mattress to the house of his son, at Nahant; and, from the moment he
came within the influence of the fresh sea-breeze, he began to recover
his spirits and his strength. A day or two after reaching Nahant, he
received from his friend, the Rev. Dr. Sharp, the following letter,
which is so characteristic, and reminds one so forcibly of the calm
and staid manner of that venerable man, that it is given entire:

                                          "BOSTON, July 30, 1850.

     "MY VERY DEAR FRIEND: It was with deep regret I learned, on
     Friday last, that you were quite unwell, and at Nahant. It was in
     my mind yesterday morning to visit you; nothing prevented me but
     an apprehension that it might be deemed inexpedient to admit any
     one to your sick room, except your own family. But, although I
     have not seen you in person since your last sickness, yet I have
     been with you in spirit. I have felt exceedingly sad at the
     probability of your earthly departure. Seldom as we have seen
     each other, your friendship has been precious to me; and, to say
     nothing of your dear family, your continuance in life is of great
     importance to that large family of humanity, the poor, who have
     so often participated in your bounty. Indeed, as we cannot well
     spare you, I rather cherish the hope that, in his good
     providence, God will continue you to us a little longer. But,
     whatever may be the issue of your present illness, I trust that
     you, with all your friends, will be enabled to say, 'The will of
     the Lord be done.' If he 'lives the longest who answers life's
     great end,' your life, compared with most, has not been short.
     Not that any of us have done more than our duty. Nay, we have all
     come short, and may say, with all modesty and truthfulness, we
     are unprofitable servants; although, in some respects, and to our
     fellow-beings, we may have been profitable. I trust, my dear
     friend, you are looking for the mercy of God, through our Lord
     Jesus Christ, unto eternal life. Death is not an eternal sleep;
     no, it is the gate to life. It opens up a blessed immortality to
     all who, in this world, have feared God and wrought
     righteousness. This world is a probationary state; if we have
     been faithful, in some humble degree, to our convictions of duty;
     if we have regretted our follies and sins; if we have sought to
     do the will of our heavenly Father, and sought forgiveness
     through the mediation of his Son,--God will receive us to his
     heavenly glory. I believe, in his own good time, he will receive
     you, my very dear friend; although my prayer is, with submission,
     that he will restore you to comfortable health, and allow you to
     remain with us a little longer. May God be with you, and bless
     you, in life, in death, and forevermore! With most respectful
     regard to Mrs. L., and sympathy with you in your afflictions, in
     which my dear wife joins,

                                   I am truly yours,

                                                   DANIEL SHARP."

From Little Nahant, Mr. Lawrence writes to a friend, under date of
Aug. 16:

     "I have just arisen from bed, and am full of the matter to tell
     you how much good your letter has done. I came here as the last
     remedy for a sinking man; and, blessed be God, it promises me
     renewed life and enjoyment. What is it for, that I am thus saved
     in life, as by a miracle? Surely it must be in mercy, to finish
     out my work begun (in your college and other places), yet
     unfinished. Pray, give us what time you can when you visit
     Andover. If I continue to improve as I have done for ten days, I
     hope to return home next week; but may have some drawback that
     will alter the whole aspect of affairs. This beautiful Little
     Nahant seems to have been purchased, built up, and provided, by
     the good influence of our merciful Father in heaven upon the
     heart of ----, that he might save me from death, when it was made
     certain I could not hold out many days longer. Surely I am called
     on by angel voices to render praise to God."

The five weeks' residence upon the sea-shore was greatly enjoyed by
Mr. Lawrence. As the weather was generally fine, much of his time was
passed in the open air, in watching the ever-varying sea-views, in
reading, or in receiving the visits of his friends. Near the end of
August, his health and strength had become so far restored as to
warrant his return to the city, and, as his memoranda show, to
increased efforts in the field of charity.



In November, 1850, Amin Bey, Envoy from the Sultan of Turkey to the
United States, visited Boston. Among other attentions, Mr. Lawrence
accompanied him on a visit to the Female Orphan Asylum, then
containing about one hundred inmates; and the pleasant intercourse was
continued by a visit of the minister at Mr. Lawrence's house.

The following note accompanied a number of volumes relating to Boston
and its vicinity:

                   (TO HIS EXCELLENCY AMIN BEY.)

     "MY BROTHER: The manifest pleasure you felt in visiting our
     Female Orphan Asylum yesterday has left a sunbeam on my path,
     that will illumine my journey to our Father's house. When we meet
     there, may the joy of that reünion you hope for with the loved
     ones in your own country be yours and mine, and all the good of
     all the world be our companions for all time! With the highest
     respect, believe me your friend,

                                                           A. L."

                       (TO PRESIDENT HOPKINS.)

                                      "BOSTON, November 11, 1850.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: My brief letter of introduction by my young
     friend S., and your answer to it, which I mislaid or lost soon
     after it came, has made me feel a wish to write every day since
     the first week after I received yours. S. made me out better than
     I was when he saw me. I could walk across the rooms, get down and
     up stairs without much aid, and bear my weight on each foot;
     having strength in my ankle-bones that enabled me to enter the
     temple walking, not leaping, but praising God. If ever I am able
     to walk so far as around the Common, what gratitude to God should
     I feel to take your arm as my support! I am frequently admonished
     by faint turns that I am merely a 'minute-man,' liable to be
     called for at any moment. Only a few days since, I had a charming
     call from Amin Bey and suite, whom I received in my parlors
     below, where were some friends to meet him. All seemed
     interested, and Amin as much so as a Turk ever does. When he left
     us, I went with him to the door, saw him out and in his carriage,
     turned to open the inner entry-door, became faint just as M. was
     leaving the party, and leaned on her to get into the parlor. I
     was laid on the sofa, insensible for a short time, but, by labor,
     abstinence, and great care, for two or three days, have got upon
     my high horse again, and rode with N. to make calls upon the good
     people of Cambridge. After dinner, when I awoke, I tried to go
     about my work, but was called off again, and, from that time to
     this, have been up a little, and then down a little; thus asking
     me, with angels' voices, Why are you left here? The answer is
     plain: You have more work to do. Pray, my dear friend, for me to
     be faithful while my powers are left with me. The reports of and
     from your college make me feel that my labors in helping it to
     get on its legs have been repaid four-fold. I am its debtor, and
     will allow the money out of the next year's income to be used for
     a telescope, if you deem it best. I have made no further inquiry
     for the one in progress here, but will ask W. to look and see
     what progress is making. When I leave off writing, I shall ride
     to the office in Court-square, and deposit my Whig vote for
     Governor Briggs and the others. We are so mixed up here as hardly
     to know who are supporters of the regular ticket, and who not.
     This fugitive-slave business will keep our people excited till
     the law is blotted out. In some of our best circles the law is
     pronounced unconstitutional; and my belief is that Franklin
     Dexter's argument on that point will settle the question by
     starting it, our great men to the contrary notwithstanding."

In the above letter Mr. Lawrence speaks of the gratification which he
had derived from the results of his efforts in behalf of Williams
College; and, as there may be no more fitting place to give an account
of these efforts, the following record is here introduced, from the
pen of President Hopkins. It is found in his sermon commemorative of
the donor, delivered at the request of the students, on February 21,

     "In October, 1841, the building known as the East College was
     burned. Needy as the institution was before, this rendered
     necessary an application to the Legislature for funds; and, when
     this failed, to the public at large. Owing to a panic in the
     money market, this application was but slightly responded to,
     except in this town. In Boston the sum raised was less than two
     thousand dollars; and the largest sum given by any individual was
     one hundred dollars. This sum was given by Mr. Lawrence, who was
     applied to by a friend of the college; and this, it is believed,
     was the only application ever made to him on our behalf. This
     directed his attention to the wants of the college; but nothing
     more was heard from him till January, 1844. At that time, I was
     delivering a course of the Lowell Lectures, in Boston, when his
     son, Mr. Amos A. Lawrence, called and informed me that his father
     had five thousand dollars which he wished to place at the
     disposal of the college. As I was previously but slightly
     acquainted with Mr. Lawrence, and had had no conversation with
     him on the subject, this was to me an entire surprise; and,
     embarrassed as the institution then was by its debt for the new
     buildings, the relief and encouragement which it brought to my
     own mind, and to the minds of others, friends of the college, can
     hardly be expressed. Still, this did not wholly remove the debt.
     On hearing this casually mentioned, he said, if he had known how
     we were situated, he thought he should have given us more; and
     the following July, without another word on the subject, he sent
     me a check for five thousand dollars. This put the college out of
     debt, and added two or three thousand dollars to its available
     funds. In January, 1846, he wrote, saying he wished to see me;
     and, on meeting him, he said his object was to consult me about
     the disposition of ten thousand dollars, which he proposed to
     give the college. He wished to know how I thought it would do the
     most good. I replied, at once, By being placed at the disposal of
     the trustees, to be used at their discretion. He said, 'Very
     well;' and that was all that passed on that point. So I thought;
     and, knowing his simplicity of character, and singleness of
     purpose, I felt no embarrassment in making that reply. Here was a
     beautiful exemplification of the precept of the apostle, 'He that
     giveth, let him do it with simplicity.' Such a man had a right to
     have, for one of his mottoes, 'Deeds, not words.' This was just
     what was needed; but it gave us some breadth and enlargement, and
     was a beginning in what it had long been felt must, sooner or
     later, be undertaken,--the securing of an available fund
     suitable as a basis for such an institution. His next large gift
     was the library. This came from his asking me, as I was riding
     with him the following winter, if we wanted anything. Nothing
     occurred to me at the time, and I replied in the negative; but,
     the next day, I remembered that the trustees had voted to build a
     library, provided the treasurer should find it could be done for
     twenty-five hundred dollars. This I mentioned to him. He inquired
     what I supposed it would cost. I replied, 'Five thousand
     dollars.' He said, at once, 'I will give it.' With his
     approbation, the plan of a building was subsequently adopted that
     would cost seven thousand dollars; and he paid that sum. A year
     or two subsequently, he inquired of me the price of tuition here,
     saying he should like to connect Groton Academy with Williams
     College; and he paid two thousand dollars to establish four
     scholarships for any one who might come from that institution.
     His next gift was the telescope, which cost about fifteen hundred
     dollars. The history of this would involve some details which I
     have not now time to give. In 1851, accompanied by Mrs. Lawrence,
     he made a visit here. This was the first time either of them had
     seen the place. In walking over the grounds, he said they had
     great capabilities, but that we needed more land; and authorized
     the purchase of an adjoining piece of four acres. This purchase
     was made for one thousand dollars; and, if the college can have
     the means of laying it out, and adorning it suitably, it will,
     besides furnishing scope for exercise, be a fit addition of the
     charms of culture to great beauty of natural scenery. In addition
     to these gifts, he has, at different times, enriched the library
     with costly books, of the expense of which I know nothing. Almost
     everything we have in the form of art was given by him. In
     December, 1845, I received a letter from him, dated the 22d, or
     'Forefathers' Day,' which enclosed one hundred dollars, to be
     used for the aid of needy students in those emergencies which
     often arise. This was entirely at his own suggestion; and nothing
     could have been more timely or appropriate in an institution like
     this, where so many young men are struggling to make their own
     way. Since that time, he has furnished me with at least one
     hundred dollars annually for that purpose; and he regarded the
     expenditure with much interest. Thus, in different ways, Mr.
     Lawrence had given to the college between thirty and forty
     thousand dollars; and he had expressed the purpose, if he should
     live, of aiding it still further. Understanding as he did the
     position and wants of this college, he sympathized fully with the
     trustees in their purpose to raise the sum of fifty thousand
     dollars, and, at the time of his death, was exerting a most
     warm-hearted and powerful influence for its accomplishment. In
     reference to this great effort, we feel that a strong helper is
     taken away. The aid which Mr. Lawrence thus gave to the college
     was great and indispensable; and probably no memorial of him will
     be more enduring than what he has done here. By this, being dead,
     he yet speaks, and will continue to speak in all coming time.
     From him will flow down enjoyment and instruction to those who
     shall walk these grounds, and look at the heavens through this
     telescope, and read the books gathered in this library, and hear
     instruction from teachers sustained, wholly or in part, by his
     bounty. Probably he could not have spent this money more
     usefully; and there is reason to believe that he could have spent
     it in no way to bring to himself more enjoyment. The prosperity
     of the college was a source of great gratification to him; and he
     said, more than once, that he had been many times repaid for what
     he had done here. That he should have thus done what he did
     unsolicited, and that he--and, I may add, his family--should have
     continued to find in it so much of satisfaction, is most grateful
     to my own feelings, and must be so to every friend of the
     college. In doing it, he seemed to place himself in the relation,
     not so much of a patron of the college, as of a sympathizer and
     helper in a great and good work."



At the beginning of the year 1851, Mr. Lawrence writes to President

     "The closing of the old year was like our western horizon after
     sunset, bright and beautiful; the opening of the new, radiant
     with life, light, and hope, and crowned with such a costume of
     love as few old fathers, grandfathers, and uncles, can muster; in
     short, my old sleigh is the pet of the season, and rarely appears
     without being well filled, outside and inside. It is a teacher to
     the school-children, no less than to my grandchildren; for they
     all understand that, if they are well-behaved, they can ride with
     me when I make the signal; and I have a strong persuasion that
     this attention to them, with a present of a book and a kind word
     now and then, makes the little fellows think more of their
     conduct and behavior. At any rate, it does me good to hear them
     call out, 'How do you do, Mr. Lawrence?' as I am driving along
     the streets and by-ways of the city." * * *

To an aged clergyman in the country, who was blind and in indigent
circumstances, he writes:

                                                        "Jan. 14.

     "Your letter of last week reached me on Saturday, and was indeed
     a sunbeam, which quickened me to do what I had intended for a
     'happy new-year,' before receiving yours. I trust you will have
     received a parcel sent by railroad, on Monday, directed to you,
     and containing such things as I deemed to be useful in your
     family; and I shall be more than paid, if they add one tint to
     the 'purple light' you speak of, that opens upon your further
     hopes of visiting us the coming season. For many months I was
     unable to walk; but my feet and ankle-bones have now received
     strength. I feel that the prayers of friends have been answered
     by my renewed power to do more work. How, then, can I enjoy life
     better than by distributing the good things intrusted to me among
     those who are comforted by receiving them? So you need not feel,
     my friend, that you are any more obliged than I am. The enclosed
     bank-bills may serve to fit up the materials for use; at any
     rate, will not be out of place in your pocket. I trust to see you
     again in this world, which has to me so many interesting
     connecting links between the first and only time I have ever seen
     you (thirty-five or more years ago, in Dr. Huntington's pulpit,
     Old South Church) and the present."

                       (FROM REV. JAMES HAMILTON, D.D.)

                         "42 GOWER-STREET, LONDON, Feb. 15, 1851.

     "MY DEAR SIR: No letter which authorship has brought to me ever
     gave me such pleasure as I received from yours of July, 1849,
     enclosing one which Governor Briggs had written to you. That
     strangers so distinguished should take such interest in my
     writings, and should express yourselves so kindly towards myself,
     overwhelmed me with a pleasing surprise, and with thankfulness to
     God who had given me such favor. I confess, too, it helped to
     make me love more the country which has always been to me the
     dearest next to my own. In conjunction with some much-prized
     friendships which I have formed among your ministers, it would
     almost tempt me to cross the Atlantic. But I am so bad a sailor
     that I fear I must postpone personal intercourse with those
     American friends who do not come to England, until we reach the
     land where there is no more sea. However feebly expressed, please
     accept my heartfelt thanks for all the cost and trouble you have
     incurred in circulating my publications. It is pleasant to me to
     think that your motive in distributing them, in the first
     instance, could not be friendship for the author; and to both of
     us it will be the most welcome result, if they promote the cause
     of practical Christianity. Owing to weakness in the throat and
     chest, I cannot preach so much as many of my neighbors, and
     therefore I feel the more anxious that my tracts should do
     something for the honor of the Saviour and the welfare of
     mankind. You were kind enough to reprint my last lecture to young
     men. I could scarcely wish the same distinction bestowed on its
     successor, because it is a fragment. I have some thoughts of
     extending it into a short exposition of Ecclesiastes, which is a
     book well suited to the times, and but little understood. * * *

                            "Yours, most truly,

                                                 JAMES HAMILTON."

[Illustration: ABBOTT LAWRENCE

Print. by R. Andrews.]

In reply to the above letter, Mr. Lawrence writes, April 8:

     "I will not attempt to express to you in words my pleasure in
     receiving your letter of Feb. 15, with its accompaniments. The
     lecture delivered to the young men on the 4th of February,
     although designated by you as a fragment, I sent to my friend,
     with a copy of your letter, asking him whether he would advise
     its publication, and whether he would scatter it with its
     predecessor; and, if so, I would pay the expense. His answer you
     have here, and I have the pleasure of saying that the 'Fragment'
     will be ready to circulate by thousands the present week; and,
     when you shall have added your further comments upon Solomon and
     his works, our American Tract Society will be ready to publish
     the whole by hundreds of thousands, I trust, thus enabling you to
     preach through our whole country. The Memoir of Lady Colquhon is
     a precious jewel, which I shall keep among my treasures to leave
     my descendants. I had previously purchased a number of copies of
     the American edition, and scattered them among my friends, so
     that there is great interest to see your copy sent me. The part
     of your letter which touched my heart most was that in which you
     speak of my brother Abbott, and say of him that 'no foreign
     minister is such a favorite with the British public.' It brought
     him before me like a daguerreotype likeness, through every period
     of his life for fifty years. First, as the guiding spirit of the
     boys of our neighborhood, in breaking through the deep
     snow-drifts which often blocked up the roads in winter; then as
     my apprentice in the city; and, in a few years, as the young
     military champion, to watch night and day, under arms, on the
     point of Bunker Hill nearest the ocean, the movements of a
     British fleet lying within four or five miles of him, and
     threatening the storming of Boston; then, soon after, as
     embarking in the very first ship for England, after the close of
     the war, to purchase goods, which were received here in
     eighty-three days after he sailed. Since that time, our firm has
     never been changed, except by adding '& Co.,' when other partners
     were admitted. He has been making his way to the people's respect
     and affection from that time to this, and now fills the only
     public station I would not have protested against his accepting,
     feeling that _place_ cannot impart _grace_. My prayers ascend
     continually for him, that he may do his work under the full
     impression that he must give an account to Him whose eye is
     constantly upon him, and whose 'Well done' will be infinitely
     better than all things else. I believe he is awakening an
     interest to learn more about this country; and the people will be
     amazed to see what opportunities are here enjoyed for happiness
     for the great mass. What we most fear is _that_ ignorance which
     will bring everything down to its own level, instead of that true
     knowledge, which shall level up the lowest places, now inundated
     with foreign emigrants. Our duty is plain; and, if we do not
     educate and elevate this class of our people they will change our
     system of government within fifty years. Virtue and intelligence
     are the basis of this government; and the duty of all good men is
     to keep it pure. * * *

     "And now, my friend, what can I say that will influence you to
     come here, and enjoy with me the beautiful scenes upon and around
     our Mount Zion?

     "With the highest respect and affection, I am most truly yours,

                                                  "AMOS LAWRENCE.

     "P. S.--Mrs. L. desires me to present to you and your lady her
     most respectful regard, with the assurance that your writings are
     very precious to her. She is a granddaughter to a clergyman of
     your 'Kirk,' and enjoys much its best writings."

To the same gentleman he writes soon after:

     "And now let me speak about the 'Royal Preacher.'[14] I expected
     much, but not so much as I found in it. We, on this side the
     Atlantic, thank you; and the pictures of some of our own great
     men are drawn to the life, although their history and character
     could not have been in your eye. Truth is the same now as in
     Solomon's time; and it is surprising that the mass of men do not
     see and acknowledge that 'the saint is greater than the sage,
     and discipleship to Jesus the pinnacle of human dignity.' I have
     had, this morning, two calls, from different sections of our
     Union, for your 'Life in Earnest,' 'Literary Attractions of the
     Bible,' 'Solomon,' 'Redeemed in Glory,' &c., which I responded to
     with hearty good-will. Some of the books will go out of the
     country many thousand miles, and will do good. I must shake hands
     with you across the Atlantic, if you can't 'screw up' your
     courage to come here, and bid you God-speed in all your broad
     plans for the good of your fellow-men.

     "I have a great respect for deep religious feelings, even when I
     cannot see as my friends do; and therefore pray God to clear
     away, in his good time, all that is now dark and veiled.

     "It is time for me to say farewell."

  [14] A tract by Dr. Hamilton.



After the death of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Mr. Lawrence had read
what had been published respecting his life and character, and had
formed an exalted opinion of his labors in behalf of the African race.
A small volume had been issued, entitled "A Study for Young Men, or a
Sketch of Sir T. F. Buxton," by Rev. T. Binney, of London. Mr.
Lawrence had purchased and circulated large numbers of this work,
which recorded the deeds of one upon whom he considered the mantle of
Wilberforce to have fallen; and, through a mutual friend, he had been
made known to Lady Buxton, who writes to him as follows:

     "Very, very grateful am I for your love for him, and, through
     him, to me and my children. I desire that you may be enriched by
     all spiritual blessings; and that, through languor and illness
     and infirmity, the Lord may bless and prosper you and the work of
     your hands. I beg your acceptance of the third edition, in the
     large octavo, of the memoir of Sir Fowell."

Those who have read the memoir referred to will remember the writer,
before her marriage, as Miss Hannah Gurney, a member of that
distinguished family of Friends of which Mrs. Fry was the elder
sister. During the remaining short period of Mr. Lawrence's life, a
pleasant correspondence was kept up, from which a few extracts will
hereafter be given.

To Elliott Cresson, of Philadelphia, the enthusiastic and veteran
champion of the colonization cause, Mr. Lawrence writes, June 12,

     "MY DEAR OLD FRIEND CRESSON: I have just re-read your kind letter
     of June 2, and have been feasting upon the treasure you sent me
     in the interesting volume entitled 'Africa Redeemed.' I will set
     your heart at rest at once by assuring you that I feel just as
     you do towards that land. Do you remember visiting me, a dozen or
     more years ago, to get me to lead off with a thousand-dollar
     subscription for colonization, and my refusing by assuring you
     that I would not interfere with the burden of slavery, then
     pressing on our own Slave States, until requested by them? * * *
     * Liberia, in the mean time, has gone on, and now promises to be
     to the black man what New England has been to the Pilgrims, and
     Pennsylvania to the Friends. I say, with all my heart, to Gov.
     Roberts and his associates, God speed you, and carry onward and
     upward the glorious work of redeeming Africa! I had a charming
     message from a young missionary in Africa a few days since,--the
     Rev. Mr. Hoffman, of the Episcopal Mission; and you will be glad
     to hear that the good work of education for Liberia progresses
     surely and steadily here. My son A. is one of the trustees and
     directors (Prof. Greenleaf is president), and has given a
     thousand dollars from 'a young merchant;' and I bid him give
     another thousand from 'an old merchant,' which he will do as soon
     as he returns from our old home with his family. Now I say to
     you, my friend, I can sympathize and work with you while I am
     spared. God be praised! we are greatly favored in many things. No
     period of my life has been more joyous.

                "With constant affection, I am yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

Among other memoranda of the present month is found a cancelled note
of five hundred dollars, which had been given by a clergyman in
another State to a corporation, which, by reason of various
misfortunes, he had not been able to pay. Mr. Lawrence had heard of
the circumstance, and, without the knowledge of the clergyman, had
sent the required sum to the treasurer of the corporation, with
directions to cancel the obligation.

                             (TO LADY BUXTON.)

                                           "BOSTON, July 8, 1851.

     "DEAR LADY BUXTON: Your letter, and the beautiful copy of the
     memoir of your revered and world-wide honored husband, reached me
     on the 26th of June. I have read and re-read your heart-touching
     note with an interest you can understand better than I can
     describe. I can say that I thank you, and leave you to imagine
     the rest. Sir Fowell was born the same year, and in the same
     month, that I was; and his character and his labors I have been
     well acquainted with since he came into public life; and no man
     of his time stood higher in my confidence and respect. Although I
     have never been in public life, I have been much interested in
     public men; and have sometimes had my confidence abused, but
     have generally given it to men who said what they meant, and did
     what they said. I feel no respect for the demagogue, however
     successful he may be; but am able to say, with the dear and
     honored friend whose mantle fell upon Sir Fowell, 'What shadows
     we are, and what shadows we pursue!' I feel pity for the man who
     sacrifices his hopes of heaven for such vain objects as end in
     the mere gaze of this world. The 'Study for Young Men,'
     republished here a short time since, is doing such work among us
     as must cheer the spirit of your husband in his heavenly home.

     "I enclose you a note from Laura Bridgman, a deaf, dumb, and
     blind girl, who has been educated at our asylum for the last
     twelve years or more (now about twenty-two years old), which may
     interest you from the fact of her extraordinary situation.

           "With great respect, I remain most truly yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

                      (TO A LADY IN PHILADELPHIA.)

     "DEAR L.: Your call on me to 'pay up' makes me feel that I had
     forgotten, and therefore neglected, my promise. I begin without
     preface. When a child, and all the way up to fifty years of age,
     the incidents of revolutionary history were so often talked over
     by the old soldiers who made our house their rendezvous whenever
     they came near it, that I feel as if I had been an actor in the
     scenes described. Among these, the Battle of Bunker Hill was more
     strongly impressed upon my mind than any other event. My father,
     then twenty-one years old, was in Captain Farwell's company, a
     subaltern, full of the right spirit, as you may know, having some
     sparks left when you used to ride on his sled and in his wagon,
     and eat his 'rattle apples,' which were coveted by all the
     children. He was in the breastwork; and his captain was shot
     through the body just before or just after Pitcairn was shot. My
     father did not know Major Pitcairn personally, but understood it
     was he who mounted the breastwork, calling to his soldiers to
     follow, when he pitched into the slight trench outside, riddled
     and dead, as my father always thought as long as he lived. But it
     turned out otherwise. He was brought from the field, and lodged
     in a house in Prince-street, now standing (the third from
     Charlestown Bridge); and the intelligence was immediately
     communicated to the Governor, then in the Royal House, now called
     the Province House. He sent Dr. Kast and an officer, accompanied
     by young Bowdoin as an amateur, to see to the major, and report.
     On entering the chamber, the doctor wished to examine the wound;
     but Pitcairn declined allowing him, saying it was of no use, as
     he should soon die. When pressed by the argument that his
     excellency desired it, he allowed Dr. Kast to open his vest, and
     the blood, which had been stanched, spirted out upon the floor;
     so that the room carried the mark, and was called 'Pitcairn's
     Chamber' until long after the peace. The doctor returned
     immediately to the Governor to report; and, before he could get
     back, life had fled. He was laid out in his regimentals, and was
     deposited in the vault of St. George's Church, now the Stone
     Chapel, and there remained until 1788, when Dr. Winship, of
     Roxbury, then on a visit to London, had occasion to call on Dr.
     C. Letsom, and informed him that he had in his possession the key
     of the vault; that he had examined the body, which was in so good
     a state of preservation, that he recognized the features; and
     that he had counted at least thirty marks of musket-balls in
     various parts of the body. An arrangement was made, through Dr.
     Winship, for the removal of the body to England. Dr. William
     Pitcairn built a vault in the Burying-ground of St. Bartholomew,
     near the hospital, for its reception. Capt. James Scott, the
     commander of a trading vessel between Boston and London at that
     period, undertook the service of removal, although he foresaw
     difficulty in undertaking the business, on account of the strong
     prejudice of sailors to having a corpse on board. With a view to
     concealment, the coffin was enclosed in a square deal case,
     containing the church-organ, which was to be sent to England for
     repairs. This case, with 'Organ' inscribed upon it, was placed,
     as it was said, for better security, in a part of the ship near
     the sailors' berths, and in that situation was used occasionally
     during the passage for their seat or table. On arrival of the
     ship in the river, an order was obtained for the landing of the
     case; and, as it was necessary to describe its contents, the
     order expressed permission to land a corpse. This revealed the
     stratagem of Capt. Scott, and raised such a feeling among the
     sailors as to show that they would not have been quiet had they
     known the truth respecting their fellow-lodger. Major Pitcairn
     was the only British officer particularly regarded by our
     citizens, as ready to listen to their complaints, and, as far as
     in his power, to relieve them, when not impeded by his military
     duties. Our excellent old friend B. will be interested in the
     'Stone Chapel' part of this story, and probably can add
     particulars that I may have omitted.

                          "Your affectionate

                                                  AMOS LAWRENCE."



After receiving a note from a relative of Lady Colebrooke, announcing
her death, at Dunscombe, in the island of Barbadoes, Mr. Lawrence
wrote the following note of sympathy to her husband, Sir William
Colebrooke, then Governor of that island. She will be remembered as
the lady who had formerly visited Boston, and who was alluded to in
one of his letters, as a niece of Major André:

     "DEAR SIR WILLIAM: I lose no time in expressing to you the
     feelings of my heart, on reading the brief notice of the last
     hours of dear Lady Colebrooke. All my recollections and
     associations of her are of the most interesting character; and
     for yourself I feel more than a common regard. We may never meet
     again in this world; but it matters little, if, when we are
     called off, we are found 'in line,' and ready to receive the
     cheering 'Well done' when we reach that better world we hope for.
     I trust that you, and all your dear ones, have been in the hollow
     of our Father's hand, through the shadings of his face from you;
     and that, in his own good time, all will be cleared away.

                   "Faithfully and respectfully yours,

                                                   AMOS LAWRENCE.
    "BOSTON, Aug. 8, 1851."

                             TO PORTUGAL.)

                                          "BOSTON, Aug. 19, 1851.

     "DEAR AND KIND-HEARTED FRIEND: Your letters to me before leaving
     the country, and after reaching England, awakened many tender
     remembrances of times past, and agreeable hopes of times to come.
     In that, I felt as though I had you by the hand, with that
     encouraging 'Go forward' in the fear of God, and confidence in
     his fatherly care and guidance. I know your views have always put
     this trust at the head of practical duties, and that you will go
     forward in your present duties, and do better service to the
     country than any man who could be sent. Portugal is a sealed
     book, in a great degree, to us. Who so able to unlock and lay
     open its history as yourself? Now, then, what leisure you have
     may be most profitably applied to the spreading out the treasures
     before us; and, my word for it, your reputation as a writer and a
     thinker will make whatever you may publish of this sort desirable
     to be read by the great mass of our reading population.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "I hold that God has given us our highest enjoyments, in every
     period, from childhood to old age, in the exercise of our talents
     and our feelings with reference to his presence and oversight;
     and that, at any moment, he may call us off, and that we may thus
     be left to be among the children of light or of darkness,
     according to his word and our preparation. These enjoyments of
     childhood, of middle age, of mature life, and of old age, are all
     greatly increased by a constant reference to the source from
     whence they come; and the danger of great success in life is more
     to be feared, in our closing account, than anything else. A brief
     space will find us in the earth, and of no further consequence
     than as we shall have marked for good the generation of men
     growing up to take our places. The title of an honest man, who
     feared God, is worth more than all the honors and distinction of
     the world. Pray, let me hear from you, and the dear lady, whom I
     hope to escort once more over the sides of our Mount Zion, and
     introduce to some of my children and grandchildren settled upon
     the borders; and, if any stranger coming this way from you will
     accept such facilities as I can give to our institutions, I shall
     gladly render them. It is now many years since I have sat at
     table with my family, and I am now better than I have been at any
     time during that period; in short, I am light-hearted as a child,
     and enjoy the children's society with all the zest of early days.
     I must say, 'God speed you, my friend,' and have you constantly
     in the hollow of his hand! In all kind remembrances, Mrs. L.
     joins me, to your lady and yourself.

                 "Faithfully and respectfully your friend,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

On the same day that the preceding letter was penned, Mr. Lawrence, in
acknowledgment of some work sent to him by the Rev. Dr. Scoresby, of
Bradford, England, wrote the following letter. That gentleman had
visited this country twice, and had made many friends in Boston. Once
an Arctic traveller, and a man of great scientific acquirement, he has
now become an eminent and active clergyman in the Church of England,
and has devoted all his energies to the task of elevating the lower
orders of the population where his field of labor has been cast.

                                          "BOSTON, Aug. 19, 1851.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Your letter from Torquay, of ninth July, reached
     me on the sixth of this month. It brought to memory our agreeable
     intercourse of former years, and cheered me with the hope that I
     might again see you in this world, and again shake your hand in
     that cordial, social way that goes direct to the heart. I had
     been much interested in the account brought by ----, and in your
     kind messages by him. Your memorials of your father interest me
     exceedingly, and I thank you most sincerely for the volume and
     the sermon you sent. This sermon I sent to a friend of mine, and
     also a friend of yours, who became such after hearing you preach
     in Liverpool. Professor ----, of ---- College, is a most
     talented, efficient, and popular teacher; and his present
     position he has attained by his industry and his merit. He was a
     poor youth, in Liverpool, who followed you in your preaching;
     came here, and went as an apprentice to a mechanical business;
     was noticed as a bright fellow; was educated by persons assisting
     him, and graduated at ---- College. He became a tutor, and is now
     a professor, and is an honor to the college and his nation. We
     are all at work in New England, and now feel a twinge from too
     fast driving in some branches of business; but, in the aggregate,
     our country is rapidly advancing in wealth, power, and strength,
     notwithstanding the discontent of our Southern brethren. We have
     allowed the 'black spot' to be too far spread over our land; it
     should have been restrained more than thirty years ago, and then
     our old Slave States would have had no just cause of complaint. I
     am called off, and must bid you farewell, with kind regards of
     Mrs. L., and my own most faithful and affectionate remembrance.

                                                   AMOS LAWRENCE.
  "REV. WILLIAM SCORESBY, D.D., Torquay, Devonshire, Eng."

                     (TO PRESIDENT HOPKINS.)

                                          "BOSTON, Nov. 15, 1851.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: This is a rainy day, which keeps me housed; and,
     to improve it in 'pursuit,' I have a bundle made up, of the size
     of a small 'haycock,' and directed to you by railroad, with a few
     lines enclosed for the amusement of the children. I have told A.
     and L. that they couldn't jump over it; but H. could, by having a
     clear course of two rods. Louis Dwight has spent a half-hour with
     me this morning, exhibiting and explaining his plan for the new
     Lunatic Asylum of the State, which I think is the best model I
     have ever seen, and is a decided improvement on all our old ones.
     The committee, of which Governor Briggs is chairman, will give it
     a careful consideration and comparison with Dr. Bell's, and
     perhaps Dr. Butler's and others; and, with such an amount of
     talent and experience, the new asylum will be the best, I trust,
     that there is on this side of the Atlantic. Louis Dwight is in
     fine spirits, and in full employ in his peculiar line. The new
     institution in New York for vagrant children will very likely be
     built on his plan. He is really doing his work most successfully,
     in classing and separating these young sinners, so that they may
     be reclaimed, and trained to become useful citizens; in that
     light, he is a public benefactor. * * *

                "Faithfully and affectionately yours,

                                                 "AMOS LAWRENCE."

In a letter to a friend, written on Sunday, and within a few days of
the preceding, Mr. Lawrence says, after describing one of his severe

     "I am not doing wrong, I think, in consecrating a part of the day
     to you, being kept within doors by one of those kindly
     admonitions which speaks through the body, and tells me that my
     home here is no shelter from the storm. I had been unusually well
     for some weeks past, and it seemed to me that my days passed with
     a rapidity and joyousness that nothing short of the intercourse
     with the loved ones around me could have caused. What can be more
     emphatic, until my final summons? If my work is done, and well
     done, I should not dread the summons; pray that it may be, and
     that we may meet again after a brief separation. I am hoping to
     be safely housed by and by where cold and heat, splendid
     furniture, luxurious living, and handsome houses, and attendants,
     will all be thought of as they really merit."

Mr. Lawrence had, for a considerable time, been interested in the
Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, Indiana; and, on the 24th of
November, announced to the Trustees a donation from Mrs. L. of twelve
hundred dollars, to found four free scholarships for the use of the
academy at Groton. He adds:

     "I would recommend that candidates for the scholarships who
     abstain from the use of intoxicating drinks and tobacco always
     have a preference. This is not to be taken as a prohibition, but
     only as a condition to give a preference."

Mr. Lawrence speaks of his interest in Wabash College, growing out of
his affection and respect for its President, the Rev. Charles White,
D.D., who went from New England, and with whom he had become
acquainted during a visit which that gentleman had made to his native
State. Eight days after this donation to Wabash College, Mr. Lawrence
enclosed to Rev. Dr. Pond, of the Theological School at Bangor, Maine,
the sum of five hundred dollars; which he says, with other sums
already subscribed by others for new professorships, would "prove a
great blessing to all who resort to the institution through all



     "_January 1, 1852._--The value of my property is somewhat more
     than it was a year ago, and I pray God that I may be faithful in
     its use. My life seems now more likely to be spared for a longer
     season than for many years past; and I never enjoyed myself more
     highly. Praise the Lord, O my soul!

     "P. S.--The outgoes for all objects since January 1, 1842 (ten
     years), have been six hundred and four thousand dollars more than
     five sixths of which have been applied in making other people
     happy; and it is no trouble to find objects for all I have to

This sum, in addition to the subscriptions and donations for the year
1852, makes the amount of his expenditures for charitable purposes,
during the last eleven years of his life, to be about five hundred and
twenty-five thousand dollars. From 1829 to 1842, the sum expended for
like appropriations was, according to his memoranda, one hundred and
fourteen thousand dollars; making, for the last twenty-three years of
his life the sum of six hundred and thirty-nine thousand dollars
expended in charity. Taking the amount of his property at various
times, as noted by himself, from the year 1807 to 1829, a period of
twenty-two years, with his known liberality and habits of systematic
charity, it would be safe to assert that during his life he expended
seven hundred thousand dollars for the benefit of his fellow-men. Many
persons have done more; but few perhaps have done as much in
proportion to the means which they had to bestow.

In a letter to President Hopkins, dated March 31, Mr. Lawrence writes:

     "I am interested in everything you write about in your last
     letter; but among the items of deepest interest is the fact of
     the religious feeling manifested by the young men; and I pray God
     it may take deep root, and grow, and become the controlling power
     in forming their character for immortality. I trust they will
     count the cost, and act consistently. May God speed them in this
     holy work!"

A few days later, he writes on the same subject:

     "And now let us turn to matters of more importance; the awakening
     of the young men of your college to their highest interest,--the
     salvation of their souls. I have been moved to tears in reading
     the simple statement of the case, and I pray God to perfect the
     good work thus begun. I have much to think of to-day, this being
     my sixty-sixth birth-day. The question comes home to me, What I
     am rendering to the Lord for all his benefits; and the answer of
     conscience is, Imperfect service. If accepted, it will be
     through mercy; and, with this feeling of hope, I keep about,
     endeavoring to scatter good seed as I go forth in my daily

The following correspondence was not received in time to be placed in
the order of its date, but is now given as an illustration of Mr.
Lawrence's views on some important points, and also as an instance of
his self-control. In the autumn of 1847, he became acquainted with the
Rev. Dr. ----, a Scotch Presbyterian clergyman, then on a visit to
some friends in Boston. During a drive in the environs, with this
gentleman and the Rev. Dr. Blagden, Mr. Lawrence made a remark of a
practical nature upon some religious topic, which did not coincide
with the views of his Scotch friend; and a debate ensued, which was
characterized by somewhat more of warmth than was warranted by the
nature of the subject. Mutual explanations and apologies followed, and
the correspondence, which was continued after the return of Dr. ----
to Scotland, shows that the discussion on the occasion referred to had
caused no diminution of their mutual regard or good-will.

The Rev. Dr. Blagden, in a note to the editor, dated Boston, April 18,
1855, writes as follows:

     "As the result of our incidental conversation on Monday last, let
     me say, that the facts of which we spoke occurred during a drive
     which the Rev. Dr. ----, of Scotland, and I were enjoying with
     your father, in his carriage, at his kind invitation, in October,

     "Without being able to recall the precise connection in which the
     remarks were made, I only now remember that Mr. Lawrence was led
     to speak with some degree of warmth, but with entire kindness, on
     the great error of relying on any idea of justification before
     God by faith, without corresponding works; so that, to one not
     familiar with the religious events in the history of this
     community, which, by operating on Mr. Lawrence's habits of
     thought, might well lead him to be jealous of any view of faith
     which did not directly express the necessity of good works, his
     remarks might very readily have seemed like a direct attack on
     that great truth of justification by faith, which Luther affirmed
     to be, as it was held or rejected, the test of a falling or
     rising church.

     "Immediately, that which the late Edward Irving, in one of his
     sermons, under the name of 'Orations,' calls the 'ingenium
     perfervidum Scotorum,' burst from the Rev. Dr. ----, with
     something of that zeal for the doctrines of Knox and Calvin for
     which I understand he has been somewhat remarkable in his own
     country. He vehemently declared his abhorrence of any such denial
     of the first and fundamental truth of the Gospel, evidently
     taking it somewhat in the light of an insult to us as the
     preachers of that truth. He ended by saying, with much force and
     warmth, that the apostle Paul sometimes condensed the whole of
     the Gospel into a single phrase; and one of these phrases, as
     expressed in the Epistle to the Philippians, he commended to the
     notice of Mr. Lawrence, namely, 'We are the circumcision which
     worship God in the spirit; and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have
     no confidence in the flesh.'

     "Mr. Lawrence met this strong, and apparently indignant and truly
     honest expression of feeling, with entire courtesy and
     self-command, but with evident and deep emotion; and, repressing
     all expression of displeasure, he gradually led the conversation
     to less unwelcome subjects, so that our ride ended pleasantly,
     though the embarrassment created by this event continued, in a
     lessening degree, to its close.

     "It will probably add to the interest of the whole transaction,
     in your own mind, if I state, not only what you seemed aware of
     on Monday, that your father sent me, a day or two after, 'Barr's
     Help' (I believe is the name of the volume), with a very kind and
     polite note, alluding to what had passed, and a paper containing
     some development of his own religious belief; but Rev. Dr. ----,
     also, soon after, in alluding to the circumstances in a note to
     me, on another subject, and which is now before me, wrote:

     "'I regret the warmth with which I did so. Alas! it is my
     infirmity; but it was only a momentary flash, for I was enabled,
     through a silent act of prayer, to get my mind purged of all
     heat, before I ventured to resume the conversation on the vital
     topic which our good and kind friend himself was led to

     "I suspect this will reach you at an hour too late entirely for
     the use which you thought might possibly be made of it. It may,
     however, have some little interest, as a further development of
     the excellent character of your father; and it refers to a scene
     of which I have never been in the habit of speaking to others,
     but which I shall always remember with great interest, as one
     among many pleasing and profitable recollections of him."

The following extracts are taken from the paper referred to in the
preceding communication:
                                       "BOSTON, November 4, 1847.

     "To Rev. G. W. BLAGDEN, D.D.

     "REV. AND DEAR SIR: Our interesting ride last Thursday has
     peculiar claims upon me as a teacher and a preacher for a better
     world. To one who knows me well, my unceremonious manner to our
     friend would not seem so strange; but it was none the less unkind
     in me to treat him thus.

     "My first impressions are generally the right ones, and govern
     the actions of daily and hourly experience here; and these
     impressions were entirely favorable to our friend; and my
     treatment, up to the moment that you 'poured your oil upon the
     waters,' had been such as I am now well pleased with. But the
     conversation then commenced; and the lecture, illustrations,
     arguments, and consequences, were all stereotyped in my mind,
     having been placed there twenty-seven years ago by a learned and
     pious Scotchman, whose character came back to my memory like a
     flash of light. It is enough to say that a multitude of matters
     wholly adverse to my first impressions left me no command of my
     courtesies; and I stopped the conversation. * * *

     "I believe that our Saviour came among men to do them good, and,
     having performed his mission, has returned to his Father and to
     our Father, to his God and our God; and if, by any means, he will
     receive me as a poor and needy sinner with the 'Well done' into
     the society of those whom he shall have accepted, I care not what
     sort of _ism_ I am ranked under here.

     "There is much, I think, that may be safely laid aside among
     Christians who are honest, earnest, and self-denying. Again I
     say, I have no hope in _isms_, but have strong hope in the cross
     of Christ.

     "The little book[15] I send is a fuller exposition of the Kirk's
     doctrine than our friend's. I have reviewed it, and see no reason
     to alter a prayer or an expression. Return it at your leisure,
     with the two notes of our friend to me since our drive. Soon
     after I left you, I came home, sat down at my table to write a
     note as an apology to him for my rudeness in stopping his
     discourse, fainted, went to bed; next day, ate three ounces of
     crusts, rode out, and went to bed sick with a cold in my face.
     For the following forty-eight hours, I did not take an ounce of
     food; the slightest amount of liquid sustained me; and yesterday
     was the first day of my being a man. To-day, I called to see and
     apologize to you." * * * * *

  [15] "Help to Professing Christians. By Rev. John Barr. Published by
  Perkins and Marvin. Boston, 1831."

                      (TO A FRIEND IN SOUTH CAROLINA.)

                                          "BOSTON, June 12, 1852.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: The announcement of the death of your beloved
     wife, and the queries and suggestions you made, touched me in a
     tender place. You and your dear wife are separated, it is true;
     but she is in the upper room, you in the lower. She is with
     Jesus, where, with his disciples, he keeps the feast; and, not
     long hence, he will say to you, 'Come up hither.' Your spirit and
     hers meet daily at the same throne,--hers to praise, yours to
     pray; and, when you next join her in person, it will be to part
     no more. Is not the prospect such as to gild the way with all
     those charms, which, in our childhood, used to make our hours
     pass too slowly? * * * * *

     "My connection with the people of your State, growing out of my
     marriage, has brought me into personal intercourse, for more than
     thirty years past, with a great family connection, embracing in
     its circle many of your distinguished characters. All the M.
     family, of whom your present Governor is one, came from the same
     stock; and the various ramifications of that family at the South
     include, I suppose, a great many thousand souls. I, therefore
     take a lively interest in everything interesting to your people.
     We have hot heads, and so have you; but I think your people
     misjudge, when they think of setting up an independent
     government. The peculiar institution which is so dear to them
     will never be interfered with by sober, honest men; but will
     never be allowed to be carried where it is not now, under the
     Federal government. Politicians, like horse-jockeys, strive to
     cover up wind-broken constitutions, as though in full health; but
     hard driving reveals the defect, and, within thirty years, the
     old Slave States will feel compelled to send their chattels away
     to save themselves from bankruptcy and starvation. I have never
     countenanced these abolition movements at the North; and have
     lately lent a hand to the cause of Colonization, which is
     destined to make a greater change in the condition of the blacks
     than any event since the Christian era. * * *

     "You need no new assurance of my interest in, and respect for,
     yourself, and the loved ones around you. I enjoy life as few old
     men do, I believe; for my family seem to live around and for me.
     My nephew by marriage, Franklin Pierce, seems to be a prominent
     candidate for the 'White House' for the next four years. He is
     the soul of honor, and an old-fashioned Democrat, born and bred,
     and to be depended on as such; but, as I am an old-fashioned
     George Washington, John Jay Federalist, from my earliest days,
     and hope to continue to be, I shall prefer one of this stamp to
     him. * * *

     "With a heart overflowing, I hardly know where to stop. We shall
     meet in the presence of the Saviour, if we hold fast to the hem
     of his garment; and I hope may be of the number of those whose
     sins are forgiven.

                                "Ever yours,

                                                  AMOS LAWRENCE."

During the summer, a small volume appeared, entitled "Uncle Toby's
Stories on Tobacco." Mr. Lawrence read it; and the views there
inculcated so nearly coincided with his own, so often expressed during
his whole life, that he caused two editions, of some thousands of
copies, to be published and circulated, principally by the boys of the
Mather School. On this subject, he writes to President Hopkins, under
date of Aug. 5:

     "My two last scraps told their own stories to the children, and
     to-day you will receive a package by express that may require
     explanation. Uncle Toby has hit the nail on the head in telling
     his tobacco stories to American lads; and I think your students
     will do good service in carrying them among their friends
     wherever they are, to show them how much better it is to prevent
     an evil than to remedy it; and, taking school-boys as they are,
     these stories will do more good than any that have been
     published. I met the author yesterday accidentally at the
     American Sabbath School Union Depository, where I had just paid
     for the fifty copies sent to you, and he was very earnest to have
     me write a few lines for him to publish in his book; but I
     referred him to the three hundred boys of the Mather School, who
     are full of the matter to help other school-boys to do as they
     are doing. However, I may say to him, that, as a school-boy, I
     was anxious to be _manly_, like the larger boys; and, by the
     advice of one, I took a quid, and kept it till I was very sick,
     but did not tell my parents what the matter was; and, from that
     time to this, have never chewed, smoked, or snuffed. To this
     abstinence from its use (and from spirit) I owe, under God, my
     present position in society. Further, I have always given the
     preference to such persons as I have employed, for more than
     forty years past, who have avoided rum and tobacco; and my
     experience has been such as to confirm me that it is true wisdom
     to have done so. The evil is growing in a fearfully rapid ratio
     among us; and requires the steady course of respected and honored
     men to prevent its spread, by influencing the school-children of
     our land against becoming its slaves. You will please use the
     fifty copies in the way you think best. If my life is spared, the
     Mather School boys will be allowed to tell their own experience
     to the boys of all the other public schools in this city and
     neighborhood. In short, I look to these boys influencing three
     millions of boys within the next thirty or forty years. Is not
     this work worth looking after?"

The following well-merited tribute to the character of a respected
citizen, who devoted his life to the promotion of every good object,
is extracted from a note written by Mr. Lawrence to the Hon. Benjamin
Seaver, then Mayor of the city, and dated Aug. 23:

     "MY FRIEND SEAVER: I have desired, for some weeks past, to
     inquire of you some further particulars of the disposition our
     friend Tarbell[16] made of his property. You mentioned that
     something would be paid over to A. & A. Lawrence, and something
     to the Old Ladies' Home, which institution he helped forward by
     his labors and his influence, in an important stage of its
     existence; and he was called off just as he was beginning to
     enjoy the fruits of his labor, in making a multitude of old
     ladies happy in thus supplying them a home for the remainder of
     their days on earth. Our friend has passed on; but I doubt not
     that his labors have prepared him to enter that world where
     there is no weariness or want, and all sufferings are at an end.
     I have journeyed side by side, for more than three-score years,
     with our friend; and can say, with truth, that I never knew him
     guilty of a dishonest or dishonorable act, and that his life was
     a practical exponent of his Christian principles. I pray to our
     Father to make me more faithful in doing the work our friend had
     so much at heart, while I can do it. My share of the money,[17]
     coming from his estate, I shall wish paid over to the Old Ladies'
     Home, and I doubt not brother A. will wish the same done with his
     share. This appropriation will increase our friend's happiness,
     even in his heavenly home; for the voice from Heaven proclaims,
     'Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth; that
     they may rest from their labors, and their works do follow

  [16] The late Thomas Tarbell, originally from Groton, Mass.

  [17] This was a debt contracted by Mr. T., in 1826, amounting, at that
  time, to about fifteen hundred dollars, when he failed in business.
  The amount of the debt was soon after transferred to the "Old Ladies'

The editor feels some delicacy in inserting the following, from a
gentleman still living, and in our own vicinity; but the tribute to
Mr. Lawrence, coming, as it does, from a divine so distinguished in
all those qualities which adorn his own profession, as well as for
every Christian virtue, is too flattering to be omitted:

                                               "ELMWOOD, Sept. 3.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: I take such paper as happens to be near me, in
     my sick chamber, to thank you for the books and pamphlets, which
     I have read as much as my dim sight and weak nerves will allow me
     at present to read. I wish, when you write to your friend Dr.
     Hamilton, you would thank him for me for his eloquent and
     evangelical appeals for Christian truth and duty. Tell him I am a
     Congregational Minister of Boston, but no sectarian; that I was
     matriculated at the University of Edinburgh, fifty years ago, and
     studied divinity there under Drs. Hunter, Micklejohn, Moodie,
     &c., and moral philosophy, under Dugald Stewart;--that my
     particular friends were David Dickson, since Minister of St.
     Cuthbert's, Edinburgh; David Wilkie, since Minister of Old Gray
     Friar's Church, Edinburgh; Patrick McFarlane, since Minister in
     Glasgow and Greenock; Thomas Brown, since Professor of Moral
     Philosophy at Edinburgh; David Brewster, since Sir David, &c.:
     most of whom he probably knows. Tell him I should be glad of his
     correspondence, as I have that of his friend, Principal Lee, of
     the University of Edinburgh; and that we should be glad to see
     him in Boston. I was happy to see your name appended to a
     petition on the subject of the liquor law, though I always expect
     to find it among the advocates of every benevolent enterprise
     within your reach. Your visit did me much good. I have much
     valued your friendship, and your manifestations of respect and
     regard for me. Heaven bless you and yours, and make you more and
     more a blessing! Come and see me when you can, my dear friend.
     With much affection and respect,

                                "Your old friend,

                                                  CHARLES LOWELL.

     "P. S.--I write with a feeble hand, dim sight, and nervous

In enclosing the preceding note to the Rev. Dr. Hamilton, Mr. Lawrence
writes, Sept. 4:

     "The writer of the foregoing is the Rev. Dr. Lowell, of this
     city, who is broken down in health, but not at all in his
     confidence and hope and joy in the beloved Jesus. Of all men I
     have ever known, Dr. Lowell is one of the brightest exemplars of
     the character and teachings of the Master; for all denominations
     respect him, and confide in him. For more than forty years I have
     known him; and, in all the relations of a good pastor to his
     people, I have never known a better. I have met him in the sick
     chamber, with the dying, and in the house of prayer. In the
     character of a teacher, and a leader of the people heavenward, no
     one among us has been more valued. Although I have not been a
     member of his church, he has, in times of great urgency, supplied
     our pulpit, and has always been ready to attend my family and
     friends when asked. I sent him such of your writings as I had in
     store for circulation, 'The Royal Preacher' among them; and I
     must say to you that I think no living man is preaching to
     greater multitudes than you are at this day. I have circulated
     tens of thousands of your tracts and volumes, and, if I am
     spared, hope to continue the good work. Millions of souls will be
     influenced by your labors."



                           (FROM LADY BUXTON.)

                                "NORTHRUPP'S HILL, Sept. 8, 1852.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Again I have to thank you for your kind
     remembrance of me in your note and little book on the abuse of
     tobacco, and your sympathy with me in my late deep anxiety,
     ending in the removal of my most tenderly beloved and valued
     daughter Priscilla. It pleased God to take her to himself on June
     18, to the inexpressible loss and grief of myself, and her
     husband and children. We surely sorrow with hope; for she had
     loved and followed the Lord Jesus from her childhood, and had
     known and obeyed the Holy Scriptures, which did make her, under
     the influence of the blessed Spirit, wise unto salvation. To her,
     to live was Christ, and therefore to die, gain; and we are
     thankful, and rejoice for her. Her spirit is with the Lord,
     beholding and sharing his glory, and reünited to her dearest
     father, brothers, and sisters, and many beloved on earth, in joy
     unspeakable. Still, we do and are permitted to mourn. * *

     "Priscilla traced the foundation of her illness to the great
     exertion she used in revising and altering her father's work on
     the remedy for the slave-trade. The stress upon her feelings and
     mind was too great for her susceptible nature. I believe it might
     be traced further back to her very great efforts to assist her
     father in his public business; so that I may say, I have had to
     part with the two most beloved, and gifted nearly, I have ever
     known, for the cause of God. But the comfort is intense that they
     cannot lose the abundant recompense of reward given through mercy
     and favor, not for any merits of their own, to those who love and
     serve the Lord. I must thank you most warmly again for the
     valuable gift of 'Uncle Tom's Cabin.' When it arrived, it was
     unknown in this country; now it is universally read, but sold at
     such a cheap rate, in such poor print, that this very beautiful
     copy is quite sought after. How wonderfully successful a work it
     has proved! I hope your little book upon tobacco may be of use
     here. I shall send it to my grandsons at Rugby. I fear you have
     been suffering much from bodily illness and infirmity, my dear
     friend. I trust your interesting circle about you are all well
     and prospering, and enjoying the blessing and presence of the
     Saviour. With kindest regards and affection, I am yours very

                                                      H. BUXTON."

     "_September 23, 1852._--By a singular coincidence, at the same
     time I received Lady Buxton's letter, I received one from 'Mrs.
     Sunny Side,'[18] from her sick chamber, asking the loan of some
     of Miss Edgeworth's works; also a note from Mrs. Stowe, giving me
     some information respecting the publication of 'Uncle Tom's
     Cabin' in England and Germany; also a letter from our minister in
     Portugal; and, three or four hours later, 'Uncle Toby' called,
     having spent the day in the Mather School, lecturing on tobacco."

  [18] Mrs. Phelps, wife of Professor Phelps, of Andover, and daughter
  of Professor Stuart, the authoress of "Sunny Side," "Peep at Number
  Five," and other popular works.

From a letter written about this time, an extract is made, which is
interesting as showing his system of diet.

     "My own wants are next to nothing, as I live on the most simple
     food,--crusts and coffee for breakfast; crusts and champagne for
     dinner, with never more than three ounces of chicken, or two
     ounces of tender beef, without any vegetable, together eight
     ounces; coarse wheat-meal crusts, and two or three ounces of
     meat, in the twenty-four hours,--beginning hungry, and leaving
     off more hungry. I have not sat at table with my family for
     fifteen years, nor eaten a full meal during that time, and am now
     more hale and hearty than during that whole period."

                     (TO A LADY IN FLORIDA.)

                                          "BOSTON, Oct. 14, 1852.

     "DEAR MRS. ----: Your deeply interesting note reached me within
     the last half-hour; and I feel that no time should be lost in my
     reply. My life has been protracted beyond all my friends'
     expectations, and almost beyond my own hopes; yet I enjoy the
     days with all the zest of early youth, and feel myself a spare
     hand to do such work as the Master lays out before me. This of
     aiding you is one of the things for which I am spared; and I
     therefore forward one hundred dollars, which, if you are not
     willing to accept, you may use for the benefit of some other
     person or persons, at your discretion. Your precious brother has
     passed on; and, in God's good time, I hope to see him face to
     face, and to receive, through the Beloved, the 'Well done'
     promised to such as have used their Lord's trusts as he approves.
     I enclose you Lieut. ----'s letter on his return from sea. * * *

     "I had a charming ride yesterday with my nephew Frank Pierce, and
     told him I thought he must occupy the White House the next term,
     but that I should go for Scott. Pierce is a fine, spirited
     fellow, and will do his duty wherever placed; but Scott will be
     my choice for President of the United States. God bless you, my
     child, and have you in the hollow of his hand, in these days of

                                   Your friend,

                                                           A. L."

                         (TO THE HON. JONATHAN PHILLIPS.)

                                          "BOSTON, Oct. 25, 1852.

     "TO MY RESPECTED AND HONORED FRIEND: The changing scenes of life
     sometimes recall with peculiar freshness the events and feelings
     of years long past; and such is the case with me, growing out of
     the death of our great New England statesman, who has, for a long
     period of years, been looked up to as preaching and teaching the
     highest duties of American citizens with a power rarely equalled,
     never surpassed. He is now suddenly called to the bar of that
     Judge who sees not as man sees, and where mercy, not merit, will
     render the cheering 'Well done' to all who have used their trusts
     as faithful stewards of their Lord,--the richest prize to be
     thought of. Our great man had great virtues, and, doubtless, some
     defects; and I pray God that the former may be written in the
     hearts of his countrymen, the latter in the sea. Here I begin the
     story that comes over my thoughts.

     "About forty years ago, walking past your father's house, with my
     wife and some of our family friends, on a bright, moonlight
     night, we were led to discuss the character of the owner (your
     honored father); some of the party wishing they might possess a
     small part of the property which would make them happy, others
     something else, when my own wish was expressed. It was, that I
     might use whatever Providence might allow me to possess as
     faithfully as your father used his possessions, and that I should
     esteem such a reputation as his a better inheritance for my
     children than the highest political honors the country could
     bestow. A few years later, I was visiting Stafford Springs with
     my wife, and there met you and Mrs. P., and first made your
     acquaintance. Still a few years later, I became personally
     acquainted with your father by being chosen a Director of the
     Massachusetts Bank, he being President. Still later, I became
     more intimate with yourself by being a member of the Legislature
     with you, when the seceders from Williams College petitioned to
     be chartered as Amherst College, which you opposed by the best
     speech that was made; and we voted against the separation, and, I
     believe, acted together on all the subjects brought up during
     that session. Since then, which is about thirty years, I have
     been a successful business man, although, for the last twenty
     years, I have been a broken machine, that, by all common
     experience, should have been cast aside. But I am still moving;
     and no period of my life has had more to charm, or has had more
     flowers by the wayside, than my every-day life, with all my
     privations. The great secret of the enjoyment is, that I am able
     to do some further work, as your father's example taught me, when
     the question was discussed near forty years ago. Can you wonder,
     then, my friend, that I wish our names associated in one of the
     best literary institutions in this country; viz., Williams
     College? My interest in it seemed to be accidental, but must have
     been providential; for we cannot tell, till we reach a better
     world, what influence your speech had in directing my especial
     attention to the noble head of the college, when I first met him
     in a private circle in this city; and, since then, my respect for
     his character, my love for him as a man and a brother, has caused
     me to feel an interest in his college that I never should have
     felt without this personal intercourse. The two hundred young men
     there need more teachers; and the college, in view of its wants
     has appealed to the public for fifty thousand dollars, to place
     it upon an independent footing. * * * * *

     "There is money enough for all these good objects; and, if our
     worthy citizens can only be made to see that it will be returned
     to them four-fold, in the enjoyment of life in the way that never
     clogs, it will not be thought presumptuous in me to advise to
     such investments. From long observation, I am satisfied that we
     do better by being our own executors, than by hoarding large sums
     for our descendants. Pardon me for thus writing to you; but
     knowing, as I do, that the college has commenced its appeal for
     aid, I am sure you will excuse me, whether you contribute to its
     aid or not. With great respect, I am, as I have always been,

                              "Your friend,

                                                   AMOS LAWRENCE.

     "P. S.--If you wish to talk with me, I shall be rejoiced to say
     what I know about the college."

In his diary of the same date, Mr. Lawrence writes:

     "6 P. M.--My good old friend has called to see and talk with me,
     and a most agreeable conversation we have had. He expressed good
     wishes for the college, and will subscribe a thousand dollars at
     once, which is a cheering beginning in this city. The interest in
     the college will grow here, when people know more about it."

     "BOSTON, _Saturday morning, Nov. 13, 1852_.--The circumstances
     which have brought me the following letter from my valued friend,
     'Honest John Davis,' are these: Many years ago, I learned, from
     undoubted sources, that his pecuniary losses, through the agency
     of others, had so straitened him as to decide him to take his two
     sons from Williams College, which seemed to me a pity; and I
     therefore enclosed to him five hundred dollars, with a request
     that he would keep his boys in college, and, when his affairs
     became right again, that he might pay the same to the college for
     some future needy pupils. Two or three years afterwards, he said
     he was intending to hand over to the college the five hundred
     dollars, which I advised not to do until it was perfectly
     convenient for him. The circumstances which now call him out are
     very interesting; and, to me, the money seems worth ten times the
     amount received in the common business of life. Within ten
     minutes after Mr. Davis's letter was read to me, Dr. Peters, the
     agent of the college to collect funds for its necessities, called
     in to report progress in his work. I immediately handed over the
     five hundred dollars from John Davis, with a request that he
     would acknowledge its reception to my friend at once."

                                       "WORCESTER, Nov. 12, 1852.

     "MY DEAR SIR: I have been in Boston but once since my return from
     Washington, and then failed to see you. Nevertheless, you are
     seldom absent from our thoughts; you do so much which reminds us
     of the duties of life, and fixes in our minds sentiments of
     cherished regard and unalterable affection. No one can desire a
     more enviable distinction, a more emphatic name, than he whom all
     tongues proclaim to be the good man; the man who comprehends his
     mission, and, with unvarying steadiness of purpose, fulfils it.
     There is such a thing as mental superiority, as elevated station,
     as commanding influence, as glory, as honor; and these are
     sometimes all centered in the same individual; but, if that
     individual has no heart; if humanity is not mixed in his nature;
     if he has no ear for the infirmities, the weaknesses, and
     sufferings of his fellow-beings,--he is like the massive, coarse
     walls of a lofty fortress, having strength, greatness, and power;
     but, as a man, he is unfinished. He may have much to excite
     surprise or to overawe, but nothing to awaken the finer
     sensibilities of our nature, or to win our love. The divine
     efflatus has never softened the soul of such a man. The heavenly
     attributes of mercy, brotherly love, and charity, have never
     touched his heart with sympathy for his race. He forgets that a
     fellow-being, however humble, is the work of the same God who
     made him, and that the work of the Almighty has a purpose. He
     forgets the great command to love our neighbor. He forgets that
     all who are stricken down with disease, poverty, affliction, or
     suffering, are our neighbors; and that he who ministers to such,
     be he Jew or Samaritan, is, in the lofty, scriptural sense, a
     neighbor. Neither the hereditary descent of the Levite, nor the
     purple of the priest, makes a neighbor; but it is he who binds up
     the bleeding wound. This is the act upon which Heaven places its
     seal of approval, as pleasing in the sight of him that is
     perfect. Where there is an absence of purity of heart or generous
     sympathy, the man lacks the most ornate embellishment of
     character, that lustrous brightness which is the type of heaven.
     To minister to the necessities of the humble and lowly is the
     work of God's angels; and the man who follows their example
     cannot be far from his Maker. You have the means of doing good;
     but have what is greater, and a more marked distinction, the
     disposition to do it when and where it is needed. Your heart is
     always alive, and your hand untiring. * * * * *

     "Some years ago, you did that for me and mine which will command
     my gratitude while I live. I needed aid to educate my children;
     and you, in a spirit of marked generosity, came unasked to my
     relief. I need not say how deeply, how sincerely thankful I was,
     that one, upon whom I had no claim, should manifest so generous a
     spirit. After a while, times changed somewhat for the better;
     and, feeling that I was able to do it, I asked permission to
     restore the sum advanced, that you, to whom it belonged, might
     have the disposition of it, since it had performed with me the
     good that was intended. You kindly gave me leave to hand it over
     to the college, but advised me to take my own time, and suit my
     convenience. That time has now come; and, as you are again
     extending to the college your sustaining arm, and may wish to
     take this matter into the account, I herewith enclose a check for
     five hundred dollars, with the renewed thanks of myself and my
     wife for the great and generous service which you have done us.
     We shall, in all respects, have profited greatly by it; and have
     no wish to cancel our obligations by this act, but to recognize
     them in their fullest extent. I am, most truly and faithfully,

                   "Your friend and obedient servant,

                                                    "JOHN DAVIS."

Some inquiries having been made of Mr. Lawrence respecting the early
history of the Bunker Hill Monument, he writes, on the 12th of
November, in a short note:

     DEAR SON: You may be glad to copy the twelfth section of my will,
     executed in 1833. This information is not before the world, but
     may be interesting to your children. I could have finished the
     monument, sick as I was, at any time before Edmund Dwight's
     death, by enlisting with him, who made me the offer, to join a
     small number of friends (three Appletons, Robert G. Shaw, and us
     three Lawrences), without saying, 'by your leave,' to the

       *       *       *       *       *

     "Surety-ship is a dangerous craft to embark in. Avoid it as you
     would a sail-boat with no other fastenings than mere wooden pegs
     and cobweb sails."



In November, Robert G. Shaw, Esq., and Mr. Lawrence, were chosen
Presidential Electors for the district in which they resided. Both, at
that time, were in the enjoyment of their usual health, and yet both
were removed within a few months by death. The Electoral College was
convened in the State House at Boston, in December; and Mr. Lawrence
has noticed the event by a memorandum, endorsed upon his commission of
Elector, as follows:

     "_December 1._--I have attended to the duty, and have given my
     vote to Winfield Scott for President, and William A. Graham for

He did not add, that, before leaving the State House, he gave the
customary fee paid in such cases towards freeing the family of a negro
from slavery.

But little is found in the handwriting of Mr. Lawrence for the month
of December, except his usual record of donations to charitable
objects. He seems to have written but few letters, which may in part
be accounted for by having had his time much occupied by a most
agreeable intercourse with Gen. Franklin Pierce, who, with his family,
were his guests during a part of the month. That gentleman had for
many years been on terms of intimate friendship with Mr. Lawrence, and
had kept up a familiar correspondence from Washington and elsewhere,
which no political differences had abated. He had always been a
favorite; and now, having been elected to the Presidential chair, and
engaged in plans for his future administration, it may be imagined
what interest this intercourse excited in Mr. Lawrence, deeply
concerned as he was in every movement that tended to promote the
political and moral welfare of the country. Many excursions were made
to the interesting spots and charitable institutions of Boston and its
vicinity, during this visit, which has a melancholy interest from the
events which immediately followed it. On the twenty-sixth, General and
Mrs. Pierce left Boston for their home at Concord, N. H., with the
intention of spending a few days with their friends at Andover. They
were accompanied by their only child Benjamin, a bright and promising
boy, twelve years of age, whose melancholy death, but a few days
afterwards, will give an interest to the following note, which he
wrote to Mr. Lawrence in acknowledgment of a little token of

                                         "ANDOVER, Dec. 27, 1852.

     "DEAR UNCLE LAWRENCE: I admire the beautiful pencil you sent me,
     and I think I shall find it very useful. I shall keep it very
     carefully for your sake, and I hope that I may learn to write all
     the better with it. It was kind in you to write such a good
     little note, too; and I see that being industrious while you were
     young enables you to be kind and benevolent now that you are old.
     I think that you have given me very good advice, and I hope I
     shall profit by it. So, dear uncle, with much love to aunt, I am

                          "Your affectionate nephew,

                                                     "B. PIERCE."

The brief history of this promising boy, who exhibited a maturity and
thoughtfulness far beyond his years, is soon told. Nine days
afterwards, in company with his father and mother, he left Andover on
his return home. A few minutes after starting, the cars were
precipitated down a steep bank, among the rocks, causing the instant
death of Benjamin, and bruising the father and many other passengers
severely. The accident sent a thrill of sympathy throughout the Union,
and cast a withering blight upon the prospects of the bereaved
parents, which, amidst all earthly distinctions, can never be
forgotten, and which has perhaps rendered more irksome the great and
unceasing responsibilities of high official station.

     "_Dec. 28._--I sent a large bundle of clothing materials, books,
     and other items, with sixty dollars, by steamer for Bangor, to
     Professor Pond, of Bangor Theological Seminary, for the students.
     Also gave a parcel, costing twenty-five dollars, to Mrs. ----,
     who is a Groton girl, and now having twins, making twenty
     children: is very poor.

     "_Dec. 30._--To Professor ----, by dear S., one hundred dollars.
     Books and items to-day, five dollars."

These were his last entries.

On the afternoon of the above date, the writer, in his usual walk,
passed Mr. Lawrence's door with the intention of calling on his
return, but, after proceeding a few steps, decided, from some
unaccountable motive, to give up the accustomed exercise, and pass the
time with his father. Mr. Lawrence appeared in excellent health and
spirits; and nearly an hour was agreeably spent in discussing the
topics of the day. He seemed more than usually communicative; and,
although always kind and affectionate, there was, on this occasion, an
unusual softness of manner, and tenderness of expression, which cannot
be forgotten. The last topic touched upon was the character of a
prominent statesman, just deceased, and the evidence which he had
given of preparation for an exchange of worlds. He spoke somewhat
fully upon the nature of such preparation, and expressed a strong
hope, that, in the present instance, the exchange had been a happy

In the latter part of the evening, Mr. Lawrence addressed to his
friend, Prof. Packard, of Bowdoin College, the following note, in
reply to some questions asked by that gentleman in regard to the
Bunker Hill Monument, of which he was preparing a history for
publication among the records of the Maine Historical Society:

                             "BOSTON, December 30, 1852, evening.

     "MY DEAR FRIEND: Your letter of Tuesday reached me just before my
     morning excursion to Longwood to see our loved one there. In
     reply to your first query, I answer, that Mr. E. Everett
     presented a design of Bunker Hill Monument, which was very
     classic, and was supported by Col. Perkins and Gen. Dearborn, I
     believe, and perhaps one or two more. Young Greenough (Horatio),
     then a student of Harvard College, sent in a plan with an essay,
     that manifested extraordinary talents, and was substantially
     adopted, although the column was amended by the talents, taste,
     and influence of Loammi Baldwin, one of our directors. The
     discussion of the model was very interesting; and, among the
     whole mass of plans, this of Mr. Everett and Mr. Baldwin, or, as
     I before said, a modification of Greenough's, were the only ones
     that were thought of. Mr. Everett, and those who favored his
     classic plan, were very cordial in their support of the plan of
     the monument as it is, very soon after its adoption. Mr. Ticknor
     was very active in support of the plan as adopted; and I have a
     strong impression that young Greenough's arguments were wholly
     just, and, abating some assertions which seemed a little strong
     for a mere college-lad, were true and unexceptionable. I write
     from memory, and not from overlooking the plans carefully since
     the time they were considered. Young Greenough I felt a deep
     interest in, and advanced money to his father to allow him to go
     abroad to study, which has been repaid since his father's death.
     Here I have an interesting story to tell you of this debt, which
     I wished to cancel, that the widow might receive the amount. Mr.
     Greenough was near his end, and deeply affected, but fully
     persuaded that, by the provisions of his will, his widow would
     soon have an ample income, and declined the offer. It has turned
     out better than he ever anticipated. The books shall go forward,
     as you requested. All our family, 'kith and kin,' are pretty
     well. The President elect has, I think, the hardest time, being
     over-worked; and, as we are now without any one, we shall be
     rejoiced to see you here. Pray, come. I shall write again when I
     send the 'red book' you request.

     "With love to all, N. and I join; and I bid you adieu.

                          "From your friend,

                                                  "AMOS LAWRENCE.
  "To Prof. PACKARD, Brunswick, Me."

The above letter was folded, directed, and left upon his table, and
doubtless contained the last words he ever wrote.

After the usual family devotions, he retired at about ten o'clock,
and, before his attendant left the room, asked a few questions
relating to the situation of a poor family which he had relieved a day
or two before. Mrs. Lawrence had been in an adjoining room, and, on
returning, found him lying quietly, and apparently engaged in silent
prayer. She did not, therefore, disturb him, but retired for the night
without speaking. In less than two hours, she was awakened by one of
his usual attacks. Remedies were applied; but, no rallying symptoms
appearing, the physician and family were summoned. All that medical
skill could do was in vain; and, at a quarter past twelve, on the last
day of the year, he quietly breathed his last, without having
awakened to consciousness after his first sleep.

All his temporal affairs seemed to have been arranged in view of this
event. The partnership with his brother, which had existed for nearly
forty years, was dissolved in that way which he had resolved in former
years should alone terminate it. From various prudential reasons,
however, he had changed his opinion, and had decided to withdraw from
all business relations, and accordingly furnished the advertisement,
which was to appear on the next day in the public prints, announcing
his withdrawal. Four days previous, he had executed a codicil to his
will; and thus seemed to have settled his concerns with the closing
year. The summons did not find him unprepared; for it was such as he
had long expected, and had alluded to many times in his conversation,
as well as in his letters to friends. The plans of each day were made
with reference to such a call. Nor can we doubt that he was, in the
highest sense, prepared to exchange what he sometimes was permitted to
call "the heaven on earth" for that higher heaven where so many of his
most cherished objects of earthly affection had preceded him. On the
morning of his death, the editor found upon his table the following
lines, which had been copied by him a few days previous, and which are
the more interesting from being a part of the same hymn containing the
lines repeated by his wife upon her death-bed, thirty-three years

             "Vital spark of heavenly flame,
             Quit, O, quit this mortal frame!
             Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying,--
             O, the pain, the bliss, of dying!
             Cease, fond nature,--cease the strife,
             And let me languish into life.

It would almost seem that a vision of the angel-messenger had been
afforded, and that the sound of his distant footsteps had fallen upon
his ear; for, with the unfinished line, the pen thus abruptly stops.

The funeral ceremonies were performed on Tuesday, the 4th of January.
A prayer was first offered before the body was taken from the house,
in the presence of the family and friends of the deceased, by the Rev.
A. H. Vinton, D.D., Rector of St. Paul's Church. Public exercises in
Brattle-street Church were then performed, in the presence of a
crowded congregation, composed of the numerous friends and former
associates of the deceased, clergymen of all denominations, and large
numbers representing the various professions and trades of the

The religious services were conducted by three of Mr. Lawrence's most
intimate and valued friends, representing three different
denominations. These were the Rev. Dr. Lothrop, pastor of
Brattle-street Church; the Rev. Dr. Hopkins, President of Williams
College; and the Rev. Dr. Sharp, pastor of the Baptist Society in
Charles-street. A beautiful and appropriate hymn was sung by the
members of the Lawrence Association, from the Mather School, who
surrounded the coffin, and, at the conclusion of the hymn, covered it
with flowers. The body, followed by a large procession of mourning
friends, was then conveyed to Mount Auburn, and deposited by the side
of the loved ones who had preceded him, and under the shade of the
"Old Oak," where may it rest until summoned to the presence of that
Saviour whose example and precepts he so much loved on earth, and
through whom alone he looked for happiness in heaven!



The correspondence in the preceding pages will, perhaps, give a
clearer view of the character of Mr. Lawrence than anything which can
be adduced by others. It may not be amiss, however, to quote what has
been written by two of his most intimate friends, who had the most
ample means of forming a just estimate of the man, and of the motives
by which he was actuated. Dr. Lothrop, in his sermon preached on the
Sunday after the funeral, says:

     "I have intimated that Mr. Lawrence was intellectually great. I
     think he was so. By this, I do not mean he was a scholar or
     learned man, with a mind developed and disciplined by severe
     training, and enlarged and enriched by varied culture in the
     various departments of human thought and study. This, we know, he
     was not; although he was a man of considerable reading, who loved
     and appreciated the best books in English literature. But I mean
     that he was a man of great native vigor of intellect, whose mind
     was clear, strong, comprehensive in its grasp, penetrating,
     far-reaching in its observation, discerning and discriminating in
     its judgments, sagacious in its conclusions; a mind, which, if
     enriched by the requisite culture, and directed to such objects,
     would have made him eminent in any of the walks of literary or
     professional life, as, without that culture, it did make him
     eminent in those walks of practical, commercial life to which he
     did direct it. I mention this, not to dwell upon it, but simply
     because some who have known him little, and that only since
     disease had somewhat sapped his strength, may not do him justice
     in this respect. Those who remember his early manhood; who saw
     the strong, bold, and vigorous tread with which he walked forward
     to his rightful place among the merchants of the city; those who
     remember the sagacity of his enterprises, his quick and accurate
     discernment of character, and the commanding influence he
     exercised over others; the ease and rapidity with which he
     managed the concerns of a large commercial establishment, and
     decided and despatched the most important commercial
     negotiation,--these will be ready to admit that he was
     intellectually a strong man. To the last this vigor of intellect
     showed itself; if not always in his conversation, yet always in
     his letters, many of which will be found to have a force of
     thought, a fulness of wisdom and sound judgment, a terse,
     epigrammatic comprehensiveness of expression, of which no man,
     however distinguished by his learning and scholarship, would have
     need to be ashamed. The merchants of this city have ever been
     distinguished, I believe, for their integrity and benevolence.
     Nowhere is wealth acquired by a more honest and healthy activity;
     nowhere is a larger portion of it devoted to all the objects
     which a wise philanthropy, an extended patriotism, and a tender
     Christian sympathy, would foster and promote. Mr. Lawrence was
     conspicuous for these qualities. His integrity, I may venture to
     say, stands absolutely unimpeached, without spot or blemish. His
     history, as a merchant, from first to last, will bear the
     strictest scrutiny. Its minutest incidents, which have faded from
     the memory of those concerned; its most secret acts, those of
     which no human eye could take knowledge,--might all be brought
     into the light before us; and like those, I trust, of many of his
     fraternity, they would seem only to illustrate the purity and
     integrity of his principles, the conscientious regard to truth
     and right and justice with which he conducted all the
     negotiations of business, and all the affairs of his life. He
     seemed ever to me to have a reverence for right, unalloyed,
     unfaltering, supreme; a moral perception and a moral sensibility,
     which kept him from deviating a hair's breadth from what he saw
     and felt to be his duty. It was this that constituted the
     strength of his character, and was one of the great secrets of
     his success. It was this that secured him, when a young man, the
     entire confidence, and an almost unlimited use of capital, of
     some of the wealthiest and best men of that day. * * * * *

     "The prominent feature in Mr. Lawrence's life and character, its
     inspiration and its guide, was religion; religious faith,
     affection, and hope. He loved God, and therefore he loved all
     God's creatures. He believed in Christ, as the promised Messiah
     and Saviour of the world; and therefore found peace and strength
     to his soul, amid all the perils, duties, and sorrows of life. *
     * * * *

     "There was nothing narrow or sectarian about Mr. Lawrence's
     religious opinions or feelings. He had a large, catholic spirit,
     which embraced within the arms of its love, and of its pecuniary
     bounty also when needed, all denominations of Christians; and it
     is to be hoped that the influence of his example and character
     has done something, and will continue to do more, to rebuke that
     bigotry which 'makes its own light the measure of another's
     illumination.' He took no pleasure in religious disputes or
     discussions. The practical in Christianity was what interested
     him. His great aim was to illustrate his faith by his daily
     walk, and authenticate his creed by a life of practical
     usefulness, constant benevolence, and cheerful piety. This aim he
     successfully accomplished, to the conviction of persons of all
     creeds and of every name. These will all give him a name in the
     church universal; will all admit that he was a noble specimen of
     a true Christian,--a loving and believing disciple, who had the
     very spirit of his Master. That spirit pervaded his daily life,
     and formed the moral atmosphere in which he lived and breathed.
     It quickened in him all holy, devout, and pious affections; gave
     him a profound reverence, a cheerful submission, a bright and
     glorious hope,--a hope that crowned every hour with gladness,
     robbed death of all terrors, and, in _his_ soul, brought heaven
     down to earth."

The following extracts are taken from the sermon, by President
Hopkins, before the students of Williams College,--a sermon from which
extracts have been already made:

     "Having thus spoken of the use of his property by Mr. Lawrence, I
     observe that it was distinguished by the three characteristics
     which seem to me essential to the most perfect accomplishment of
     the ends of benevolence, and that in two of these he was

     "The first of these is, that he gave the money in his life-time.
     No man, I presume, has lived on this continent who has
     approximated him in the amount thus given; and in this course
     there are principles involved which deserve the careful attention
     of those who would act conscientiously, and with the highest
     wisdom. There may doubtless be good reasons why property destined
     for benevolent uses should be retained till death, and he is
     justly honored who then gives it a wise direction; but giving
     thus cannot furnish either the same test or discipline of
     character, or the same enjoyment, nor can it always accomplish
     the same ends. By his course, Mr. Lawrence put his money to its
     true work long before it could have done anything on the
     principle of accumulation; and to a work, too, to which it never
     could have been put in any other way. He made it sure, also, that
     that work should be done; and had the pleasure of seeing its
     results, and of knowing that through it he became the object of
     gratitude and affection. So doing, he showed that he stood
     completely above that tendency to accumulate which seems to form
     the chief end of most successful business men; and which, unless
     strongly counteracted, narrows itself into avarice, as old age
     comes on, almost with the certainty of a natural law. He did
     stand completely above this. No one could know him, without
     perceiving, that, in his giving, there was no remnant of grudging
     or reluctance; that he gave, not only freely, but with gladness,
     as if it were the appropriate action of a vital energy. And in so
     doing, and in witnessing the results, and in the atmosphere of
     sympathy and love thus created, there was a test and a discipline
     and an enjoyment, as well as a benefit to others, that could have
     been reached in no other way.

     "The second peculiarity in the bounty of Mr. Lawrence, and in
     which he was preëminent, was the personal attention and sympathy
     which he bestowed with it. He had in his house a room where he
     kept stores of useful articles for distribution. _He_ made up the
     bundle; _he_ directed the package. No detail was overlooked. He
     remembered the children, and designated for each the toy, the
     book, the elegant gift. He thought of every want, and was
     ingenious and happy in devising appropriate gifts. In this
     attention to the minutest token of regard, while, at the same
     time, he could give away thousands like a prince, I have known no
     one like him. And, if the gift was appropriate, the manner of
     giving was not less so. There was in this the nicest appreciation
     of the feelings of others, and an intuitive perception of
     delicacy and propriety. These were the characteristics that gave
     him a hold upon the hearts of many, and made his death really
     felt as that of few other men in Boston could have been. In this,
     we find not a little of the utility, and much of the beauty, of
     charity. Even in his human life, man does not live by bread
     alone, but by sympathy and the play of reciprocal affection, and
     is often more touched by the kindness than by the relief. Only
     this sympathy it is that can establish the right relation between
     the rich and the poor; and the necessity for this can be
     superseded by no legal provision. This only can neutralize the
     repellent and aggressive tendencies of individuals and of
     classes, and make society a brotherhood, where the various
     inequalities shall work out moral good, and where acts of mutual
     kindness and helpfulness may pass and repass, as upon a golden
     chain, during a brief pilgrimage and scene of probation. It is a
     great and a good thing for a rich man to set the stream of
     charity in motion, to employ an agent, to send a check, to found
     an asylum, to endow a professorship, to open a fountain that
     shall flow for ages; but it is as different from sympathy with
     present suffering, and the relief of immediate want, as the
     building of a dam to turn a factory by one great sluiceway is
     from the irrigation of the fields. By Mr. Lawrence both were

     "The third characteristic referred to of the bounty of Mr.
     Lawrence was, that he gave as a Christian man,--from a sense of
     religious obligation. Not that all his gifts had a religious
     aspect: he gave gifts of friendship and of affection. There was a
     large enclosure, where the affections walked foremost, and where,
     though they asked leave of Duty, they yet received no prompting
     from her. Whether he always drew this line rightly; whether, in
     the measure and direction of his charities, he was always right;
     whether so much of diffusion and individuality was wise,--it is
     not for me to say. Certain it is, that this form of charity holds
     a place in the church now less prominent relatively than it did
     in the early ages; and it may be that the proportions of
     Christian character, in portions of the church, need to be
     remodelled and recast in this respect. These are questions for
     each individual. It is sufficient to know that Mr. Lawrence
     looked the great doctrine of stewardship full in the face, and
     prayed earnestly over it, and responded to it practically, as few
     have done. * * * *

     "Undoubtedly, he was a man of great original powers. On this
     point, I have had but one opinion since knowing him. His mind was
     not speculative, discursive, metaphysical: but, in the high moral
     qualities; in decision and energy; in intuitive perception, and
     sound, practical judgment; in the sensibility and affections, and
     in the imagination,--he was great. Like all remarkable men who
     are not one-sided, he had large faculties, which found their
     harmony in their conflict, or rather in their balance. He was
     quick and tender in his feelings, yet firm; ardent in his
     affections, yet judicious; large in his gifts, yet
     discriminating; he was a keen observer, yet kind in his feelings;
     he had a fertile and shaping imagination: he built air-castles,
     and they vanished, and then he built others; but, when he decided
     to build anything on the ground, it was well-planned and promptly
     finished. His tastes were natural and simple, his habits plain,
     and his feelings always fresh, genuine, and youthful. Not even
     the smell of the fire of prosperity had passed on him. He shunned
     notoriety. He had a strong repugnance to all affectation and
     pretence and misplaced finery. A young man with rings on his
     fingers had small chance of favor or employment from him. He was
     impatient of talk when action was called for, and of all
     attempts to substitute talk for action. His command over the
     English language, especially in writing, indicated his power.
     Style is no mechanical product, that can be formed by rules, but
     is the outgrowth and image of the mind; and his had often great
     felicity and strength. When he wrote under the impulse of his
     feelings, he seemed to impregnate the very paper, and make it
     redolent of them. He loved nature; and, instead of becoming
     insensible to it as years came on, it seemed rather to open upon
     him like a new revelation. It was full of life and of teaching,
     and the charms of natural beauty were heightened by those
     associations which his quick imagination connected with its
     objects and scenes. After the death of two of his children, he
     says: 'Dear S. and R. speak in words without sound through every
     breeze, and in every flower, and in the fragrance of every
     perfume from the fields or the trees.' Years ago, after a long
     confinement, with little hope of recovery, he visited, when first
     able to get out, the Panorama of Jerusalem, then on exhibition in
     Boston, and remained there till the scene took full possession of
     his mind. Shortly after, on a fine day, he rode out to Brookline;
     and, as returning health threw over those hills a mantle of
     beauty that he had never seen before, they were immediately
     associated in his mind with the Panorama of Jerusalem, and then
     with the glories of the Jerusalem above. This association was
     indissoluble, and he would take his friends out to see his 'Mount
     Zion.' In 1850, he says, 'It really seems to me like the sides of
     Mount Zion, and that I can cling to them as I view them.' * * * *

     "He was a deeply religious man. His trust in God, and his hope of
     salvation through Christ, were the basis of his character. He
     believed in the providence of God as concerned in all events, and
     as discriminating and retributive in this world. He felt that he
     could trust God in his providence, where he could not see. 'The
     events of my life,' he writes, 'have been so far ordered in a way
     to make me feel that I know nothing at the time, except that a
     Father rules; and his discipline, however severe, is never more
     so than is required.' He believed in the Bible, and saw rightly
     its relation to all our blessings. 'What,' he writes again,
     'should we do, if the Bible were not the foundation of our
     self-government? and what will become of us, when we wilfully and
     wickedly past it behind us?' He read the Bible morning and
     evening in his family, and prayed with them; and it may aid those
     who are acquainted with the prayers of Thornton, in forming a
     conception of his religious character, to know that he used them.
     Family religion he esteemed as above all price; and, when he
     first learned that a beloved relative had established family
     worship, he wept for joy. He distributed religious books very
     extensively, chiefly those of the American Tract Society, and of
     the American Sunday School Union. * * * * Of creeds held in the
     understanding, but not influencing the life, he thought little;
     and the tendency of his mind was to practical rather than
     doctrinal views. He believed in our Lord Jesus Christ as a
     Saviour, and trusted in him for salvation. He was a man of
     habitual prayer. The last time I visited him, he said to me, that
     he had been restless during the night, and that the only way in
     which he could 'get quieted was by getting near to God,' and that
     he went to sleep repeating a prayer. During the same visit, he
     spoke strongly of his readiness, and even of his desire, to
     depart. He viewed death with tranquillity and hope and
     preparation, for it was habitual with him. What need I say more?
     At midnight the summons came, and his work was done."



Mr. Lawrence was of about the medium height, and, until reduced by
sickness, was erect in person, and active and vigorous in his
movements. The expression of his countenance was mild and cheerful,
partaking of that benevolent cast which one would have been led to
expect from the tenor of his daily life. His affections were warm, and
his feelings quick and ardent. His temperament was of a nervous
character, thereby inclining him to impatience. With this defect he
had to struggle much in early life. It is related of him, that he
once, by some hasty reply, wounded the sensitive feelings of a
cherished sister, who afterwards died; and so much did he regret his
impatience, that he made a resolution to persevere in his efforts
until he had conquered the fault. A great change was soon remarked in
him in this respect; so much so, that a relative, who passed several
months under his roof during his early married life, was surprised at
not seeing the least evidence of this tendency. During his latter
years, when weakened by disease, and when his nervous system had been
shattered by his violent and peculiar attacks of illness, he had more
difficulty in controlling his feelings and expressions. On the second,
sober thought, however, no one could have been more ready to confess
the fault, and to make such reparation as the case demanded.

His daily actions were guided by the most exalted sense of right and
wrong; and in his strict sense of justice, Aristides himself could not
surpass him. He was a living example of a successful merchant, who
had, from the earliest period of his business career, risen above all
artifice, and had never been willing to turn to his own advantage the
ignorance or misfortune of others. He demonstrated in his own case the
possibility of success, while practising the highest standard of moral
obligation. He had ever commanded the confidence of those around him.
When an apprentice in his native town, many of his customers relied
upon his judgment rather than their own. He never deceived them, and
early adopted as his rule of life, to do to others as he would have
them do to him. Thus he stood high in the confidence, as well as in
the estimation, of his neighbors. What "Amos" said was right, and no
one could gainsay.

If any one thing was, more than another, the means of promoting his
success in life, we should say it was this faculty of commanding the
confidence of others. To this can be traced the prosperity of his
earliest business years; and, as his sphere enlarged, and his
financial operations were extended, the same feeling of confidence
gave him the unlimited command of the means of some of the wealthiest
capitalists in New England, who, through the most critical seasons in
the mercantile world, placed implicit confidence in the house of which
he was the senior partner.

Mr. Lawrence had no fluency in conversation. His mind was ever active;
but the volume of thought found no corresponding channel of utterance.
The very number of ideas seemed to impede the power of expression.

Had his talents been devoted to literary or scientific pursuits, he
would have earned distinction by his pen. His mind was not of that
logical cast, which, from patient reasoning, can deduce effects from a
succession of causes; but arrived at its conclusions by a kind of
intuition, somewhat like those rare instances of mathematicians who
solve a difficult problem, and yet can give no account of the mental
process by which the solution has been reached.

As a husband and father, he was ever kind and affectionate. He was
domestic in his tastes, and found his greatest enjoyment in his home.
Here he was eminently favored, and ever found the warmest sympathy,
and that considerate care and kindness so necessary in latter years to
his feeble health. No one who has read the preceding correspondence
can have failed to see the interest which he ever took in all that
concerned the welfare of those whom Providence had committed to his
keeping. His letters to his children would fill many volumes, and are
in themselves an enduring testimony to his fidelity and watchful care
during a long series of years. His motto was, "Line upon line, precept
upon precept;" and thus his constant aim was to impress upon their
minds the great principles of religion and morality. No parent could
be more indulgent when such indulgence was consistent with the true
welfare of his children, or more resolute in denying what was hurtful.
Their present happiness was a great object; but his desire for their
ultimate good was still greater.

As a friend, he was most faithful and sympathizing; and many now
living can testify to the value of his friendship. Few, perhaps, have
had more friends. Their affection for him was not founded so much upon
gratitude for his constantly recurring favors, as upon the warm
sympathy and affection with which his heart, was filled toward them
and theirs.

As a citizen, his views were comprehensive, and were bounded by no
lines of sectional or party feeling. He was most deeply interested in
all that concerned the honor and prosperity of his country, and keenly
sensitive to the injury inflicted by such measures as tended to
depreciate her standing in the estimation of other nations, or of good
men among her own citizens. He was a true patriot, and had adopted the
views and aims of the best men of the republic in former days, while
he viewed with distrust many of the popular movements of more modern
times. From his father he had inherited the most profound veneration
for Gen. Washington, and faith in his public policy; while the
political principles of Alexander Hamilton and John Jay were those
alone by which he thought the permanent happiness and prosperity of
the country could be secured.

As a Christian, he endeavored to walk in the footsteps of his Master.
He had no taste for the discussion of those minor points of doctrine
upon which good men so often differ, but embraced with all his heart
the revealed truths of the Gospel, which the great body of Christians
can unite in upholding. He sought those fields of labor where all can
meet, rather than those which are hedged in by the dividing lines of
sect and party.

He reverenced the Bible, and, from the first chapter of the Old
Testament to the last chapter of the New, received it as the inspired
Word of God. This was his sheet-anchor; and to doubt was, in his view,
to leave a safe and peaceful haven, to embark upon an unknown ocean of
danger and uncertainty.

Religion was for him a practical thing for every-day use, consisting
not so much in frames and emotions as in the steady and persevering
performance of the daily duties of life. His view of duty did not
limit him to the common obligations of morality, but included the
highest sense of duty towards God; or, as he has expressed it in one
of his early letters, "to be a moral man merely, is not to be a
Christian." He was an active helper in all that tended to promote the
cause of Christianity among nations, as well as to promote spiritual
progress among individuals. The Christian banner, in his view, covered
many denominations; and, with this belief, his charities were directed
to the building up of institutions under the influence of the various
sects differing from that under which he himself was classed.

What has been said of John Thornton might be applied to him:

     "He was a merchant renowned in his generation for a munificence
     more than princely. He was one of those rare men in whom the
     desire to relieve distress assumes the form of a master-passion.
     Conscious of no aims but such as may invite the scrutiny of God
     and man, he pursued them after his own fearless fashion, yielding
     to every honest impulse, choosing his associates in scorn of mere
     worldly precepts, and worshipping with any fellow-Christian whose
     heart beat in unison with his own, however inharmonious might be
     some of the articles of their respective creeds. His benevolence
     was as unsectarian as his general habits; and he stood ready to
     assist a beneficent design in every party, but would be the
     creature of none. He not only gave largely, but he gave wisely.
     He kept a regular account (not for ostentation, or the
     gratification of vanity, but for method) of every pound he gave.
     With him, his givings were made a matter of business, as Cowper
     says, in an 'Elegy' he wrote upon him,--

             'Thou hadst an industry in doing good,
             Restless as his who toils and sweats for food'"

Those who were not acquainted with Mr. Lawrence might suppose that his
long continued ill-health, extending through a period of twenty-one
years, permitted the formation of a character which few could attain
who should not be called upon to pass through a similar discipline.

That the isolation from the business-world, and freedom from the cares
and struggles of active life, to which most men are subjected, tended
to give him a more just and dispassionate view of his relations to
God, as well as to his fellow-men, cannot be doubted.

The peculiar elevation and spirituality of mind which he acquired must
not, however, be looked upon as the hot-bed growth of the invalid's
chamber; but rather as the gradual development of a character whose
germ was planted far back in the years of childhood. The principles of
religion and truth which were inculcated by a faithful and sensible
mother upon the heart of the child, shone forth in all the events
which marked the life of the future man.

Of Mr. Lawrence's religious opinions respecting those doctrinal points
upon which Christians are divided, the writer will not speak; though,
from repeated conversations with his father on the subject, in the
hours of health as well as of sickness, he might consistently do so.
Rather than make assertions which might lead to discussion, it is more
grateful to his feelings to leave the subject to the unbiassed
judgment of those who shall read the preceding correspondence.

Let it rather be the aim of those who loved and honored him in life to
imitate his example, now that he is dead. They may rejoice that they
were permitted to claim as a relative, and to have daily intercourse
with, one who has exhibited, in such an abundant degree, those fruits
which are the truest and best evidence of a genuine faith.

In completing this volume, the editor feels that he has fulfilled a
sacred trust; and his great regret is, that the work could not have
been undertaken by some one more fitted, by his qualifications and
past experience, to do justice to the subject. For reasons given in
the Preface, this could not be; and it is, therefore, with great
diffidence that these pages are submitted as a memorial of one whose
life and character deserve more than a passing record.

If, however, what has been done shall be the means of directing the
attention of those for whom the volume has been prepared to the
consideration of the precepts here recorded; and, above all, if those
precepts shall be the means of influencing them for good in their
future course in life,--the effort will not have been in vain.


  Abstinence; total, from tobacco and intoxicating drinks, by
        Mr. Lawrence, 25

  Accounts, benefit of keeping, illustrated, 86

  Adams, Amos, 44

  Adams, Samuel, 140

  Advice, letters of, to Abbott Lawrence, 48-53

  Amherst College, effort of Mr. Lawrence in behalf of, 243

  Amin Bey, letter to, from Mr. Lawrence, 285

  Anatomy, views of Mr. Lawrence respecting the dissection of human
        bodies, 218

  André, Major, 217

  Appleton, Jesse, 190

  Appleton, Mrs., death of, 190

  Athenæum, in Boston, Mr. Lawrence's plans for benefit of, 200

  Baldwin, Loammi, 338

  Baltimore, derangement of business in, 73

  Bangor Theological Seminary, donation by Mr. Lawrence to, 310
    donation for students in, 337

  Banks, suspension of in 1837, 141

  Bible, Mr. Lawrence's estimate of the, 257

  Birth-place, attachment to expressed by Mr. Lawrence, 151
    of Mr. Lawrence, engraving of, 151

  Blagden, George W., note from, respecting Rev. Dr. ----, of
        Scotland, 313
    letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 316

  Blake, George, 84

  Bondsmen, advice respecting fathers becoming, 37

  Book-keeping by double entry, adopted by Mr. Lawrence, 61

  Boston, religious controversy in, 65
    Mr. Lawrence elected representative of, 77
    wooden buildings in, 78
    post-office, dead letters from, 154

  Bowdoin College, donation by Mrs. Lawrence to, 244

  Brattle-street Church, Mr. Lawrence's connection with, 184

  Brazer, James, 22, 221
    his store described, 23

  Bridgman, Laura, 235

  Briggs, George N., 214, 281
    presentation of a cane to, by Mr. Lawrence, 227

  Brooks, Peter C., death and character of, 263

  Buckminster, J. S., remains of removed to Mount Auburn by Mr.
        Lawrence, 175

  Bunker Hill, desire of Mr. Lawrence to retain for posterity the
        battlefield, 99

  Bunker Hill Monument, Mr. Lawrence's interest in, 84
    objection to a lottery for, 91
    completion of, 169
    Mr. Lawrence's agency in securing the completion of, 170-174
    note from Mr. Lawrence respecting early history of, 332
    history of the plan of, 338

  Burial-places, Mr. Lawrence's views respecting, 129

  Business, secret of Mr. Lawrence's success in, 145

  Buxton, Lady, letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 298
    letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 324

  Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, 298

  Cabot, Samuel, 268

  Cambridge Theological School, views respecting, 163

  Canada, journey of Mr. Lawrence to, 89

  Canadian Boat-song, 261

  Canfield, Mr., 38

  Carroll, Charles, 276

  Caswell, Oliver, 235

  Chaplin, Daniel, 18

  Chapman, Jonathan, 192

  Charities, memorandum of, 92-95
    proportion of, in 1835, 137
    money for, 178
    "odds and ends" for, 186-187
    correction of a public statement respecting Mr. Lawrence's, 198
    amount expended during ten years in, 311
    total amount expended in, 312

  Charity, systematic, inculcated by Mr. Lawrence, 118

  Children, fondness of Mr. Lawrence for, 225-226
    hospital for, founded by Mr. Lawrence, 230-233

  Christ, object of his death, 266

  Christmas, Mr. Lawrence's view of, 91

  Cobb, Gershom, introduces book-keeping by double entry, 61

  Codman, Dr., 253

  Colebrooke, Lady, 217
    death of, 304

  Colebrooke, Sir William, letter to, from Mr. Lawrence, 240
    letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 304

  Colonization of Africa, aided by Mr. Lawrence, 299, 318

  Concord, Mr. Lawrence's account of the fight in 1775 at, 215-217

  Controversy, religious, in Boston, 55

  Copartnership, offer of Amos Lawrence to dissolve,--declined by
        Abbott Lawrence, 47

  Copartnership of A. & A. Lawrence dissolved by death, 340

  Cornhill-street, store of Mr. Lawrence in, 29

  Credit system, Mr. Lawrence's view of, 35

  Cresson, Elliott, letter to, from Mr. Lawrence, 299

  Darley, Mrs., 39

  Darracott, George, 172

  Davis, John, loan of $500 by Mr. Lawrence to, 330
    letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 330

  Dearborn, H. A. S., 84, 338

  Debts, Mr. Lawrence's promptness in paying, 31

  Dexter, Franklin, estimate of his argument on the fugitive
        slave law, 287

  Dexter, Madam, 75

  Diet of Mr. Lawrence, 123, 326
    table of, kept by Mr. Lawrence, 124

  Dorchester Heights, reflections on, 140

  Drinking habits in Mr. Lawrence's early days, 23

  Dwight, Edmund, 332

  Dwight, Louis, 308
    testimony of Mr. Lawrence respecting, 219

  Ellis, Judge, 77

  Ellis, Mrs. Nancy, marriage of Mr. Lawrence to, 77

  Epicureanism, Mr. Lawrence's notion of, 124

  European fashions, introduction of discountenanced, 90

  Everett, Edward, 172, 338

  Expenditures, by Mr. Lawrence, in 1849, 278
    from 1842 to 1852, 311

  Fac-simile of Mr. Lawrence's hand-writing, 248

  Family worship, Mr. Lawrence's remarks on, 150

  Farwell, Captain, 17, 301

  Fillmore, Millard, 256

  Foreign gold, exchange of negotiated, 75

  Fraternal affection, example of, 147

  French Revolution of 1830, Mr. Lawrence's sympathy with, 101

  Fugitive slave law, Mr. Lawrence's opinion of the, 287

  Funeral ceremonies at the death of Amos Lawrence, 341, 342

  Gannett, Ezra S., letter to, 45

  Gannett, Caleb, 45

  Gannett, Mrs., hymn for her little boy by, 46

  Goddard, N., 76

  Granger's Coffee House, 38

  Gray, Mrs. Martha, present from Mr. Lawrence to, 214

  Gray, Robert, 214

  Green, Wm. L., death of, 251

  Greenough, Horatio, 338

  Greenwood, Rev. Dr., 123

  Groton, scenery in, 152, 153

  Groton Academy, donations of Mr. Lawrence to, preamble of the
        deed, 221
    amount of donations to, by Mr. Lawrence, 222
    donations of $45,000 by William Lawrence to, 222
    extract from address at jubilee of, 223

  Gurney, Hannah (see Buxton, Lady), 299

  Haddock, Charles B., letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 305

  Hallock, Rev. Mr., 279

  Hamilton, James, letters from Mr. Lawrence to, 269, 279, 322
    letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 293

  Hancock, John, 140

  Harris, Colonel, 268

  Harvard College, donation of $50,000 by Abbott Lawrence to, 244

  Heaven, reunion of friends in, 157

  Hillsborough Bank, Mr. Lawrence's draft on for specie, 36, 37

  Hone, Isaac, 76

  Hone, Philip, 76

  Hopkins, Mark, President of Williams College, 341
    letters to, from Mr. Lawrence, 124, 183, 213, 214, 255, 257,
          258, 259, 265, 272, 280, 285, 292
    lectures in Boston, 182

  Hopkins, Mark, extract from his sermon on death of Mr. Lawrence, 287
    peculiarities of Mr. Lawrence's bounty sketched by, 346-360

  Howe, Dr., 235

  Hubbard, Judge, 253

  Hubbart, Tuthill, 154

  Hulsemann, Chevalier, interview of Mr. Lawrence with, 158

  Immigration from Europe, Mr. Lawrence's view of, 258, 270

  Income, net, of Mr. Lawrence in the first two years, 36
    practice of spending it, adopted by Mr. Lawrence, 263

  Intoxicating liquors, total abstinence from, by Mr. Lawrence, 25

  Ireland, Mr. Lawrence's contributions to the famished in, 236, 238

  Johnson School, donation to, by Mr. Lawrence, 224

  Kast, Dr., 302

  Kent, Chancellor, 76
    ride with--character of, 158

  Kenyon College, aid to by Mr. Lawrence, 177

  Lafayette, General, Mr. Lawrence's opinion of, 84
    message to, 96

  Lothrop, Samuel K., 122, 138, 175, 342
    extract from his sermon on the death of Mr. Lawrence, 185
    sketch of character of Mr. Lawrence by, 343-346

  Lawrence, Abbott, 30, 131, 138
    letters to, 48, 49, 51, 52, 55, 56, 72, 73, 189, 244, 266, 267
    becomes partner with Amos, 38
    character as an apprentice, 38
    declines offer to dissolve copartnership, 47
    sails for Europe, 48
    his dispatch of business, 52
    his military service in the last war with Great Britain, 56, 295
    donation of $50,000 to Harvard College, 244
    candidate for the Vice-Presidency, 256
    tendered the office of Secretary of the Navy, 266
    appointed Minister to the Court of St. James, 269
    his popularity in Great Britain, 295
    likeness of, 295

  Lawrence, Mrs. Abbott, 280

  Lawrence, Amos, when and where born, 15
    ancestry of, 15
    early instruction of, 20
    his mechanical skill in boyhood, 20
    anecdote of his school-days, 22
    enters Groton Academy, 22
    becomes a merchant's clerk, 22
    adopts the principle and practice of total abstinence, 24
    wounded by a gun-shot, 26
    apprenticeship terminated, 28
    accepts a clerkship in Boston, 29
    commences business in Boston, 29
    his boarding-house rule, 30
    his promptness in paying bills, 31
    motive for daily study, 32
    his remarks on letter-writing, 32
    his distinction between morality and religion, 34
    his mercantile principles, 35
    view of the credit system, 35
    net income of first two years, 36
    advice against parents becoming bondsmen for their sons, 37
    his opinion of the theatre, 39
    assists to establish his brother William in business, 39
    flying visits to Groton, 40
    alarming illness, 40
    engagement of marriage, 43
    marriage, 46
    offer to dissolve copartnership declined, 47
    letter on the death of his sister, 54
    letter on the birth of his daughter, 57
    recommends marriage, 57
    domestic attachments, 60
    adoption of book-keeping by double entry, 61
    leniency to unfortunate debtors, 61
    second alarming illness, 62
    resignation in prospect of his wife's death, 64
    tour through the Middle States, 68
    appreciation of the right of suffrage, 70
    delegate to assist in settlement of Jared Sparks, 71
    becomes an inmate of his brother's family, 74
    negotiates an exchange of foreign gold, 75
    narrow escape from shipwreck, 75
    second marriage of, 77
    resumes housekeeping, 77
    representative in the Legislature, 77
    letter to Mr. Wolcott respecting his son, 78
    becomes a manufacturer, 79
    curtailment of his business, 81
    extent of his correspondence, 83
    opinion of Lafayette, 84
    interest in Bunker Hill Monument, 84
    journey to Canada, 89
    objection to European fashions, 90
    objection to a lottery for Bunker Hill Monument, 91
    presentation of plate to Daniel Webster, 102, 103
    dangerous illness of, 105
    feelings in sickness, 106, 107, 111
    visit to New Hampshire, 109
    his life in a sick chamber, 112
    his submission under divine chastisements, 112-114
    inculcates systematic charity, 118
    secret of his success, 118
    exercise on horseback, 122
    his diet, 123
    improvement of health, 125
    avoids the appearance of evil,126
    his views of burial-places, 129
    advice about selecting a wife, 130
    advice to his daughter, 131, 132
    gratitude towards his mother, 135
    visit to Washington, 138
    aversion to matrimonial speculations, 138
    estimate of Congressional debates, 139
    visit to Rainsford Island, 139
    reflections on completing thirty years of business, 141
    pecuniary condition, January 1st, 1838, 142
    habits of promptness, 144
    prospects on December 31st, 1838, 146
    reflections on the death of his brother, 149
    advocates family worship, 150
    engraving of his birth-place, 151
    character in the bestowal of gifts, 153
    enjoyment of natural scenery, 155, 156
    belief in reunion of friends hereafter, 157
    annoyances arising from his reputation for benevolence, 159
    his religious belief, 160
    interest in a young colored lawyer, 165-6
    reflections on his fifty-eighth birth-day, 167
    his agency in securing completion of Bunker Hill Monument, 170-174
    poetical toast to, 174
    renders aid to Kenyon College, 177
    acquaintance with Pres. Hopkins, 182
    presents sent to President Hopkins, 183-4
    his aversion to public commendation of himself, 189, 229
    advice respecting his grandchildren, 191
    opposes annexation of Texas, 192
    joy at birth of twin granddaughters, 193
    letter on death of his daughter, 194-196
    sentiments in view of his prosperity, 197
    his view of keeping the Sabbath, 202
    offer of his remains for the dissecting-room, 218
    his interest in the Johnson School, 224
    fondness for children, 226
    provides a hospital for sick children, 230
    his gratitude for prosperity, 234
    contributes to the famished in Ireland, 236
    his application in behalf of Amherst College, 242
    congratulates Abbott Lawrence on his donation to Harvard College, 244
    his attendance at church, 246
    his exactness in business, 247
    kindness to an old debtor, 248
    fac-simile of his hand-writing, 248
    sentiments respecting a religious awakening in college, 255, 312
    objects to his brother's taking political office, 256-257, 258, 266
    estimate of the Bible, 257
    prefers Gen. Taylor for President, 258
    treatment of an applicant for aid, 260
    joy at a revival of religion among Unitarians, 267
    interview with Father Mathew, 270
    adds a codicil to his will, 271
    illness, 272
    desire for death, 272
    keeps Christmas with children, 277
    circulates Dr. Hamilton's works, 279, 291, 292, 294
    lameness, 281
    attentions to children, 292
    circulates Buxton's Life, 298
    cancels a note for $500 against a clergyman, 300
    interest in Wabash College, 309
    controversy with a Scotch clergyman, 313-315
    his ground of religious hope, 316
    circulates Uncle Toby's Stories on Tobacco, 319
    his diet, 326
    prefers Scott for President, 327
    solicits aid for Williams College, from Jonathan Phillips, 328
    relieves the straitened circumstances of Gov. Davis, 330
    chosen presidential elector, 333
    votes for Scott and Graham, 334
    intercourse with Franklin Pierce, 335
    his last writing, 339
    death of, 340
    funeral ceremonies, 341, 342
    sketches of his character, 343
    personal appearance, 352
    character of John Thornton applied to, 357
    general character, 352-359

  Lawrence, Amos A., 288

  Lawrence, Arthur, 235

  Lawrence, John, 15

  Lawrence, Luther, value of his property, 30
    Speaker of House of Representatives, 148
    Mayor of Lowell, 148
    death of, 148, 149

  Lawrence, Robert, illness of, 205
    letters of Mr. Lawrence respecting, 206-210

  Lawrence, Samuel, Sen., 30
    account of, 16
    sketch of his military career, 17, 18

  Lawrence, Samuel, presentation of a gold box to, by Mr. Lawrence, 235

  Lawrence, Mrs. Sarah, illness of, 62
    letter to her husband, 63
    her condition described by Mr. Lawrence, 64
    death of, 65
    her death-bed scene described, 65-6

  Lawrence, Mrs. Susanna, character of, 19
    death of, 199

  Lawrence, William, 30, 252
    commences business in Boston, 39
    donations of $45,000 to Groton Academy by, 222
    death and character of, 261, 262

  Lawrence Association, in the Mather School, note to, 237
    contributions for Ireland by, 238
    presentation of a silver cup to Mr. Lawrence by, 277
    hymn sung at funeral of Mr. Lawrence by, 342

  Letsom, Dr. C., 302

  Letters from Amos Lawrence, 47
    to a friend, 17, 57, 70, 73, 126, 130, 157, 186, 187, 190, 201,
          215, 245, 246, 252, 262, 267, 283
    to his son, 20, 30, 85, 99, 100, 101, 112, 114, 115, 124, 152,
          190, 194, 200, 205, 206, 207, 332
    to a college student, 24, 25
    to Gen. Henry Whiting, 30, 273, 276
    to a sister, 32, 33, 42, 68, 71, 73, 130, 166, 145
    to Dr. Gannett, 45
    to Abbott Lawrence, 48, 49, 51, 52, 55, 56, 72, 73, 189, 244,
          266, 267
    to his wife, 52, 63, 126
    to a brother, 54, 68
    to his mother-in-law, 63
    to his sister-in-law, 69, 112
    to Frederic Wolcott, 78
    to his eldest son, abroad, 83, 87, 90, 91, 96, 98, 103, 106
    to his second son, at Andover, 86, 117, 118, 125
    to Daniel Webster, 97, 102
    to his mother, 106, 107, 109, 110, 134, 141
    to his daughter, 119, 127, 129, 131, 133, 150, 152
    to his youngest son, 143
    to his sisters, 149, 151
    to a connection, 149
    to his second son, in Europe, 154
    to Rev. Charles Mason, 155
    to Rev. Robert Turnbull, D.D., 160
    to Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 165
    to General ----, 168
    to Mr. Parker (a partner), 177, 204
    to the Mechanic Apprentices' Library Association, 181
    to President Hopkins, 183, 213, 214, 255, 257, 258, 259, 265,
         272, 280, 285, 292
    to his partners, 196, 245
    to his children in France, 196
    to his grandson, 209
    to R. G. Parker, 224, 229
    to Gov. Briggs, 227
    to Alexander S. McKenzie, 234
    to J. A. Stearns, for Lawrence Association, 237
    to Madam Prescott, 239
    to Sir Wm. Colebrooke, 240, 304
    to a wealthy bachelor, 242
    to Prof. Packard, 243, 338
    to Mr. G----, 251
    to Mr. and Mrs. Green, 252
    to a physician, 253
    to a newspaper editor, 257
    to Rev. James Hamilton, D.D., 269, 279, 294, 296, 322
    to his sons, 272
    to Robert Barnwell Rhett, 274
    to a country clergyman, 280
    to an aged clergyman, 292
    to Elliott Cresson, 299
    to Lady Buxton, 300
    to a lady in Philadelphia, 301
    to Charles B. Haddock, 305
    to Rev. Dr. Scoresby, 307
    to. Rev. Geo. W. Blagden, D.D., 316
    to a friend in South Carolina, 317
    to Benjamin Seaver, 320
    to a lady in Florida, 326
    to Jonathan Phillips, 327

  Levelling, Judge Story's maxim of, 266

  Loan of money to Mr. Lawrence by his father, 36

  Lowell, Charles, letter to Mr. Lawrence from, 321

  Lowell, John, 78

  Lunatic Asylum, plan for the new, 308

  Manufactures, engagement of Mr. Lawrence in, 79
    largeness of his interest in, 104
    fluctuations in, 236
    views of Mr. Lawrence respecting coarse and fine, 275

  Marriage of Amos Lawrence, 46

  Mason, Charles, 193 letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 155

  Mason, Jeremiah, 109, 117
    remarks of, on Rev, Dr. ----'s lectures, 219, 220
    death and character of, 261, 262

  Mason, Mrs. Susan, Mr. Lawrence's letter on the death of, 194-196

  Massachusetts General Hospital, place of Trustee resigned by Mr.
        Lawrence, 116

  Mather School, character of, 276

  Mathew, Father, 270

  Matrimonial speculations, aversion of Mr. Lawrence to, 138

  Maxims of business--speculation condemned, 72

  McIlvaine, Charles P., letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 177

  McKenzie, Alexander S., letter to,
    from Mr. Lawrence, 234
    present of a cane to Mr. Lawrence from, 260
    death of, 261

  Means, James, extract from address at jubilee of Groton Academy,
        by, 223

  Means, Robert, 77

  Mercantile principles adopted by Mr. Lawrence, 35

  "Milo," arrival of ship, 52

  Money, advice about spending, 143

  Morality and religion, Mr. Lawrence's distinction between, 34

  Mortgage of his father's farm, 36

  Mount Auburn, interest taken in, by Mr. Lawrence, 175

  National character, reflections upon, 133, 134

  Native Americans, Mr. Lawrence's view of, 199

  Natural History Society, donation to, by Mr. Lawrence, 231

  Old Ladies' Home, donation to, by Mr. Lawrence, 321

  "Old Oak," in Mount Auburn, 207, 208

  Paine, Robert Treat, 38

  Parker, C. H., letter to, 177

  Parker, Daniel P., 268

  Parker, R. G., letter from to Mr. Lawrence, 225

  Parker, Susanna, 16

  Parkman, Messrs., 37

  Percy, Lord, 217

  Perkins, Thomas H., 338

  Pestilence, Dr. Shattuck's account of the, 40-42

  Phelps, Mrs., 325

  Phillips, Jonathan, letter from Mr. Lawrence to, respecting aid
        to Williams College, 327
    donation from, to Williams College, 229

  Pierce, Benjamin, son of President Pierce, note from, to Mr.
      Lawrence, 336
    sudden death of, 336

  Pierce, Franklin, character of, 318, 326
    his intercourse with Mr. Lawrence, 335

  Pitcairn, Major, account of his death, 302
    removal of his remains to England, 303

  Pitcairn, William, 302

  Pond, Rev. Dr., 310

  Prayer adopted by Mr. Lawrence, 248

  Prescott, General, 17
    Madam, note from Mr. Lawrence to, 239
    her views on the comforts of old age, 239

  Presidential Elector, Mr. Lawrence chosen in 1852, 334

  Prince, Martial, 268

  Property, memorandum-book of Mr. Lawrence respecting his, 80

  Prudhoe, Lord, 217

  Rainsford Island, visit to, and description of scenery, 139

  Religion. (See Morality.)
    its cultivation urged upon his daughter, 119-121

  Representative, Mr. Lawrence elected, 77

  Richards, Giles, his card manufactory, 44

  Richards, Sarah, Mr. Lawrence's engagement of marriage with, 43

  Richardson, Captain, 22

  Sabbath, Mr. Lawrence's view of keeping the, 202

  Savings Institution. (See Athenæum.)

  Scenery, Mr. Lawrence's enjoyment of, 155, 156

  Scoresby, Wm., letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 307

  Sea-serpent seen at Hampton Beach in 1830, Mr. Lawrence's belief
        in the, 100
    Mr. Lawrence's belief in the existence of the, 268

  Sectarianism, Mr. Lawrence's freedom from, 161

  Sharp, Daniel, 253, 342
    letters from, to Mr. Lawrence, 176, 203, 282

  Shattuck, George C, his account of the New England pestilence, 40-42

  Shaw, Robert G., 333, 334

  Shipwreck, narrow escape of Mr. Lawrence from, 75

  Slavery, views of Mr. Lawrence on questions of, 275
    view of its tendencies, 318
    contribution for freeing a negro from, 334

  South Carolina, manufactures in, encouraged by Mr. Lawrence, 275

  Sparks, Jared, Mr. Lawrence a delegate to assist in the
        settlement of, 71

  Story, Joseph, 169
    letter from, to Mr. Lawrence, 179, 180
    his maxim of "levelling," 266

  Stone, John S., 123
    letter from to Mr. Lawrence, 162

  Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 325

  Strachan, Lady, 237

  Stuart, Moses, letter of thanks from, 263

  Sullivan, William, 84

  Tarbell, Thomas, tribute to the memory of, 320

  Taylor, Father, 123
    Zachary, preferred for President by Mr. Lawrence, 258

  Tennett, Mr., 38

  Texas, letter of Mr. Lawrence to Mayor Chapman, on the annexation
        of, 192

  Ticknor, George, 338

  Tobacco, total abstinence from, by Mr. Lawrence, 25
    book against, circulated by Mr. Lawrence, 319
    letter respecting use of, 319

  Touro, Judah, his donation for Bunker Hill Monument, 173

  Turnbull, Robert, letter from Mr. Lawrence to, 160

  Uncle Tom's Cabin, Lady Buxton's testimony respecting, 325

  Unitarianism, Mr. Lawrence's opinion of, 246, 247

  Van Schaick, M., 76

  Vinton, Alexander H., 341

  Wabash College, donation from Mrs. Lawrence to, 309

  Ward, General, 140

  Ware, Henry, Jr., 163

  Warren, John C., 84, 170, 218

  Washington, General, 44
    celebration of his birth-day, 116

  Webster, Daniel, letter from Mr. Lawrence respecting, 68, 69
    Mr. Lawrence's view of his speech in reply to Hayne, 97
    letter to Mr. Lawrence from, 97
    letter to, from Mr. Lawrence, accompanying a presentation of
          plate, 102
    letter from to Mr. Lawrence, 103
    remarks on his address at Plymouth, 208
    view of his character by Mr. Lawrence, 327
    of his preparation for death, 337

  White, Charles, account of his play, the "Clergyman's Daughter,"
        38, 39

  White, Charles, President of Wabash College, 309

  Whiting, Henry, clerk to Mr. Lawrence, 29

  Will of Amos Lawrence, codicil to, 271

  Williams College, Mr. Lawrence's interest in, 182
    donation of $10,000 to, by Mr. Lawrence, 197
    donation of $5,000 by Mr. Lawrence, for a library building at, 213
    enlargement of library building proposed, 215
    scholarships established in, by Mr. Lawrence, 245
    account of Mr. Lawrence's benefactions to, 287-291
    donation to, by Jonathan Phillips, 329

  Winship, Dr., 302

  Wolcott, Frederic, letter to, from Mr. Lawrence, 78

       *       *       *       *       *







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       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

On the Fronstispiece:
"Truly Yours
Amos Lawrence"
is hand written.

In the Table of Contents the page number for Chapter XXIX
has been changed from 262 to 264.

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

Text enclosed by +so+ is in blackletter font.

Small capital text has been replaced with all capitals.

++- refers to a right pointing finger symbol.

On the Frontispiece: Handwritten note is unclear, but may read
"Truly Yours Amos Lawrence".

Page 294: Abbott Lawrence's signature is handwritten below his picture.

Variations in spelling, punctuation and hyphenation have been retained
except in obvious cases of typographical error.

The cover for the eBook version of this book was created by the
transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

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