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Title: 棋經
Author: Zhang, Ni
Language: Chinese
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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棋經

張擬

〈序〉

《傳》曰:「飽食終日,無所用心,不有博弈者乎。」桓譚《新論》曰:「世
有圍棋之戲,或言是兵法之類。上者,遠其疏,張罝以會,圍困而成,得道
妊荂C中者,則務相絕遮,要以爭便利,故勝負狐疑,須計數以定。下者,則
守邊隅、趨作罫,以自生於小地。」春秋而下,代有其人。則弈棋之道,從來
|矣。今取勝敗之要,分為十三篇,有與兵法合者,亦附于中云爾。張靖序。


〈論局篇〉第一

夫萬物之數,從一而起。局之路,三百六十有一。一者,生數之主,據其極
而運四方也。三百六十,以象周天之數。分而為四,以象四時。隅各九十路,
以象其日。外周七二路,以象其候。枯棋三百六十,白黑相半,以法陰陽。局
局u道,謂之枰。線道之間,謂之罫。局方而靜,棋圓而動。自古及今,弈者無
同局。《傳》曰:「日日新。」故宜用意深而存慮精,以求其勝負之由,則至
其所未至矣。


〈得算篇〉第二

棋者,以正合其勢,以權製其敵。故計定於內,而勢成於外。戰未合而算勝者
,得算多也。算不勝者,得算少也。戰已合而不知勝負者,無算也。兵法曰:
「多算勝,少算不勝,而況於無算乎?由此觀之,勝負見矣。」


〈權輿篇〉第三

權輿者,弈棋布置,務守綱格。先於四隅分定勢子,然後拆二斜飛,下勢子一
央C立二可以拆三,立三可以拆四,與勢子相望可以拆五。近不必比,遠不必乖
。此皆古人之論,後學之規,舍此改作,未之或知。《詩》曰:「靡不有初
,鮮克有終。」


〈合戰篇〉第四

博弈之道,貴乎謹嚴。高者在腹,下者在邊,中者佔角,此棋家之常然。法曰
:寧輸數子,勿失一先。有先而後,有後而先。擊左則視右,攻後則瞻前。兩
生勿斷,皆活勿連。闊不可太疏,密不可太促。與其戀子以求生,不若棄子而
取勢;與其無事而強行,不若因之而自補。彼眾我寡,先謀其生;我眾彼寡,
務張其勢。善勝者不爭,善陣者不戰,善戰者不敗,善敗者不亂。夫棋始以正
合,終以奇勝。必也,四顧其地,牢不可破,方可出人不意,掩人不備。凡
敵無事而自補者,有侵襲之意也;棄小而不就者,有圖大之心也;隨手而下者
,無謀之人也;不思而應者,取敗之道也。《詩》云:「惴惴小心,如臨於谷
。」


〈虛實篇〉第五

夫弈棋,緒多則勢分,勢分則難救。投棋勿逼,逼則使彼實而我虛。虛則易攻
,實則難破。臨時變通,宜勿執一。《傳》曰:「見可而進,知難而退。」


〈自知篇〉第六

夫智者見於未萌,愚者暗於成事。故知己之害而圖彼之利者,勝。知可以戰不
可以戰者,勝。識眾寡之用者,勝。以虞待不虞者,勝。以逸待勞者,勝。不
戰而屈人者,勝。《老子》曰:「自知者明。」



〈審局篇〉第七

夫弈棋布勢,務相接連。自始至終,著著求先。臨局離爭,雌雄未決,毫厘不
可以差焉。局勢已羸,專精求生。局勢已弱,銳意侵綽。沿邊而走,雖得其
生者,敗。弱而不伏者,愈屈;躁而求勝者,多敗。兩勢相違,先蹙其外;
勢孤援寡,則勿走。機危陣潰,則勿下。是故,棋有不走之走,不下之下。誤
人者多方,成功者一路而已。能審局者多勝。《易》曰:「窮則變,變則通
,通則久。」



〈度情篇〉第八

人生而靜,其情難見;感物而動,然後可辨。推之於棋,勝敗可得而先驗。持
咻虓G者多得,輕易而貪者多喪;不爭而自保者多勝,務殺而不顧者多敗。因敗
而思者,其勢進;戰勝而驕者,其勢退。求己弊不求人之弊者,益;攻其敵而
不知敵之攻己者,損。目凝一局者,其思周;心役他事者,其慮散。行遠而
羲怞N,機淺而詐者凶。能畏敵者強,謂人莫己若者亡。意旁通者高,心執一者
卑。語默有常,使敵難量。動靜無度,招人所惡。《詩》云:「他人之心,
予時度之。」


〈斜正篇〉第九

或曰:「棋以變詐為務,劫殺為名,豈非詭道耶?」予曰:「不然。」《易》
云:「師出以律,否藏,凶。」兵本不尚詐,謀言詭行者,乃戰國縱橫之說。
棋雖小道,實與兵合。故棋之品甚繁,而弈之者不一。得品之下者,舉無思慮
,動則變詐。或用手以影其勢,或發言以泄其機。得品之上者,則異於是。皆
沉思而遠慮,因形而用權。神游局內,意在子先。圖勝於無朕,滅行於未然。
豈假言辭喋喋,手勢翩翩者哉?《傳》曰:「正而不譎。」其是之謂歟?


〈洞微篇〉第十

凡棋有益之而損者,有損之而益者。有侵而利者,有侵而害者。有宜左投者,
有宜右投者。有先著者,有後著者。有緊避者,有慢行者。粘子勿前,棄子思
後。有始近而終遠者,有始少而終多者。欲強外先攻內,欲實東先擊西。路虛
而無眼,則先覷。無害於他棋,則做劫。饒路則宜疏,受路則勿戰。擇地而侵
,無礙而進。此皆棋家之幽微也,不可不知也。《易》曰:「非天下之至精,
其孰能與於此!」


〈名數篇〉第十一

夫弈棋者,凡下一子,皆有定名。棋之形勢、死生、存亡,因名而可見。有沖
,有斡,有綽,有約,有飛,有關,有劄,有粘,有頂,有尖,有覷,有門,
有打,有斷,有行,有捺,有立,有點,有聚,有蹺,有夾,有拶,有避,有
刺,有勒,有撲,有徵,有劫,有持,有殺,有松,有槃。圍棋之名,三十有
二,圍棋之人,意在可周。臨局變化,遠近縱橫,吾不得而知也。用倖取勝
,難逃此名。《傳》曰:「必也,正名乎棋!」


〈品格篇〉第十二

夫圍棋之品有九。一曰入神,二曰坐照,三曰具體,四曰通幽,五曰用智,六
曰小巧,七曰鬥力,八曰若愚,九曰守拙。九品之外不可勝計,未能入格,今
不複云。《傳》曰:「生而知之者,上也;學而知之者,次也;困而學之,又
其次也。」


〈雜說篇〉第十三

夫棋邊不如角,角不如腹。約輕於捺,捺輕於避。夾有虛實,打有情偽。逢綽
多約,遇拶多粘。大眼可贏小眼,斜行不如正行。兩關對直則先覷,前途有礙
則勿徵。施行未成,不可先動。角盤曲四,局終乃亡。直四扳六,皆是活棋
;花聚透點,多無生路。十字不可先紐;勢子在心,勿打角圖。弈不欲數,數
則怠,怠則不精;弈不欲疏,疏則忘,忘則多失。勝不言,敗不語。振廉讓之
楫怴A君子也;起忿怒之色者,小人也。高者無亢,卑者無怯。氣和而韻舒者
,喜其將勝也。心動而色變者,憂其將敗也。赧莫赧於易,恥莫恥於盜。妙莫
妙於用松,昏莫昏於複劫。

凡棋直行三則改,方聚四則非。勝而路多,名曰贏局;敗而無路,名曰輸籌。
皆籌為溢,停路為[艸巾]。打籌不得過三,淘子不限其數。劫有金井、轆轤,
有無休之勢,有交遞之圖。弈棋者不可不知也。凡棋有敵手,有半先,有先兩
,有桃花五,有北斗七。夫棋者有無之相生,遠近之相成,強弱之相形,利害
妞蛚氶A不可不察也。是以安而不泰,存而不驕。安而泰則危,存而驕則亡。
《易》曰:「君子安而不忘危,存而不忘亡。」


〈跋〉

自宋以弈顯名天下者,昔年待詔老劉宗。今日劉仲甫、楊中隱,以至王琬、
]侁、郭範、李百祥輩。人人皆能誦此十三篇,體其常而生其變也。古人謂猶盤
中走圓,橫斜曲直,繫於臨時,不可盡知,而必可知者,是圓不能出於盤也。
棋經,盤也;弈者,圓也。士君子無所用心,則可觀焉。





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