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´╗┐Title: Better Homes in America: Plan Book for Demonstration Week October 9 to 14, 1922
Author: Meloney, Marie Mattingly, 1878-1943
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Better Homes in America: Plan Book for Demonstration Week October 9 to 14, 1922" ***

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Plan Book

_for Demonstration Week October 9 to 14, 1922_


July 21, 1922.

My dear Mrs. Meloney:

I am directed by the President to assure you of his earnest endorsement
of the Better Homes Campaign which has been launched by the Advisory
Council and is being carried on by representative women of America. He
regards the campaign as of particular importance, because it places
emphasis not only upon home ownership, which he regards as absolutely
elemental in the development of the best citizenship, but upon
furnishing, sanitation and equipment of the home.

The President feels that as many millions of dollars and the best minds
of this generation have been devoted to improve factory conditions, the
home is deserving of its share of the same intensive consideration.
There are twenty millions of house-keepers in America. For them, the
home is their industrial center as well as their place of abode, and it
is felt that altogether too little attention has been paid to
lightening the labors and bettering the working conditions of these

The President feels that the women, who are so successfully conducting
this campaign are entitled to all consideration and recognition, and he
hopes that every community in America will exhibit a model home.

Your sincerely,

Secretary to the President.

Mrs. W. B. Meloney, Sec'y., Advisory Council for Better Homes Campaign,
223 Spring Street, New York City, N. Y.


Advisory Council

CALVIN COOLIDGE _Vice-President of the United States_

HERBERT HOOVER _Secretary of Commerce_

HENRY C. WALLACE _Secretary of Agriculture_

JAMES JOHN DAVIS _Secretary of Labor_

Dr. HUGH S. CUMMING _Surgeon-General United States Public Health

Dr. JOHN JAMES TIGERT _U. S. Commissioner of Education_

C. W. PUGSLEY _Assistant Secretary of Agriculture_

JOHN M. GRIES _Director Division of Building and Housing, Dept. of

JULIUS H. BARNES _President Chamber of Commerce of the United States_

JOHN IHLDER _Director Housing Conditions, Chamber of Commerce of the
United States_

DONN BARBER _Fellow American Institute of Architects_

JOHN BARTON PAYNE _Chairman Central Committee American Red Cross_

LIVINGSTON FARRAND _Chairman National Health Council_

Mrs. THOMAS G. WINTER _President General Federation of Women's Clubs_

MRS. LENA LAKE FORREST _President National Federation of Business and
Professional Women's Clubs_

       *       *       *       *       *

Bureau of Information, THE DELINEATOR, 223 Spring Street

IN AMERICA--October Ninth to Fourteenth

Co-operating Governors

  ALASKA SCOTT C. BONE, _Governor_
  ARKANSAS T. C. McRAE, _Governor_
  COLORADO O. H. SHOUP, _Governor_
  IDAHO D. W. DAVIS, _Governor_
  INDIANA W. T. McCRAY, _Governor_
  KENTUCKY E. P. MORROW, _Governor_
  MARYLAND A. C. RITCHIE, _Governor_
  MISSOURI A. M. HYDE, _Governor_
  NEBRASKA S. R. McKELVlE, _Governor_
  NEVADA E. D. BOYLE, _Governor_
  OHIO H. L. DAVIS, _Governor_
  OREGON B. W. OLCOTT, _Governor_
  UTAH CHAS. R. MABEY, _Governor_
  VIRGINIA E. L. TRINKLE, _Governor_

       *       *       *       *       *

New York City Secretary, Mrs. William Brown Meloney

_Better Homes_


We spend too much time in longing for the things that are far off and
too little in the enjoyment of the things that are near at hand. We
live too much in dreams and too little in realities. We cherish too
many impossible projects of setting worlds in order, which are bound to
fail. We consider too little plans for putting our own households in
order, which might easily be made to succeed. A large part of our
seeming ills would be dispelled if we could but turn from the visionary
to the practical. We need the influence of vision, we need the
inspiring power of ideals, but all these are worthless unless they can
be translated into positive actions.

The world has been through a great spiritual and moral awakening in
these last few years. There are those who fear that this may all be
dissipated. It will be unless it can be turned into something actual.
In our own country conditions have developed which make this more than
ever easy of accomplishment. It ought to be expressed not merely in
official and public deeds, but in personal and private actions. It must
come through a realization that the great things of life are not
reserved for the enjoyment of a few, but are within the reach of all.

There are two shrines at which mankind has always worshipped, must
always worship: the altar which represents religion, and the
hearthstone which represents the home.

These are the product of fixed beliefs and fixed modes of living. They
have not grown up by accident; they are the means, deliberate, mature,
sanctified, by which the human race, in harmony with its own great
nature, is developed and perfected. They are at once the source and the
result of the inborn longing for what is completed, for what has that
finality and security required to give to society the necessary element
of stability.

The genius of America has long been directed to the construction of
great highways and railroads, the erection of massive buildings for the
promotion of trade and the transaction of public business. It has
supplied hospitals, institutions of learning and places of religious
worship. All of these are worthy of the great effort and the sustained
purpose which alone has made them possible. They contribute to the
general welfare of all the people, but they are all too detached, too
remote; they do not make the necessary contribution of a feeling of
proprietorship and ownership. They do not complete the circuit. They
are for the people, but not of the people. They do not satisfy that
longing which exists in every human breast to be able to say: "This is

We believe in American institutions. We believe that they are justified
by the light of reason, and by the result of experience. We believe in
the right of self-government. We believe in the protection of the
personal rights of life and liberty and the enjoyment of the rewards of
industry. We believe in the right to acquire, to hold, and transmit
property. We believe in all that which is represented under the general
designation of a republic.

But while we hold that these principles are sound we do not claim that
they have yet become fully established. We do not claim that our
institutions are yet perfected.

It is of little avail to assert that there is an inherent right to own
property unless there is an open opportunity that this right may be
enjoyed in a fair degree by all. That which is referred to in such
critical terms as capitalism cannot prevail unless it is adapted to the
general requirements. Unless it be of the people it will cease to have
a place under our institutions, even as slavery ceased.

It is time to demonstrate more effectively that property is of the
people. It is time to transfer some of the approbation and effort that
has gone into the building of public works to the building,
ornamenting, and owning of private homes by the people at
large--attractive, worthy, permanent homes.

Society rests on the home. It is the foundation of our institutions.
Around it are gathered all the cherished memories of childhood, the
accomplishments of maturity, and the consolations of age. So long as a
people hold the home sacred they will be in the possession of a
strength of character which it will be impossible to destroy.

Apparently the world at large, certainly our own country, is turning
more and more for guidance to that wisdom born of affection which we
call the intuition of woman. Her first thought is always of the home.
Her first care is for its provision. As our laws and customs are
improved by her influence, it is likely to be first in the direction of
greater facility for acquiring, and greater security in holding a home.

Some of the fine enthusiasm which was developed by the required
sacrifices of war may well find a new expression in turning towards the
making of the home. It is the final answer to every challenge of the
soundness of the fundamental principles of our institutions. It holds
the assurance and prospect of contentment and of satisfaction.

Under present conditions any ambition of America to become a nation of
home owners would be by no means impossible of fulfillment. The land is
available, the materials are at hand, the necessary accumulation of
credit exists, the courage, the endurance and the sacrifice of the
people are not wanting. Let them begin, however slender their means,
the building and perfecting of the national character by the building
and adorning of a home which shall be worthy of the habitation of an
American family, calm in the assurance that "the gods send thread for a
web begun."

Here will be found that satisfaction which comes from possession and
achievement. Here is the opportunity to express the soul in art. Here
is the Sacred influence, here in the earth at our feet, around the
hearthstone, which raises man to his true estate.

(Signed) Calvin Coolidge



One can always safely judge of the character of a nation by its homes.
For it is mainly through the hope of enjoying the ownership of a home
that the latent energy of any citizenry is called forth. This universal
yearning for better homes and the larger security, independence and
freedom that they imply, was the aspiration that carried our pioneers
westward. Since the preemption acts passed early in the last century,
the United States, in its land laws, has recognized and put a premium
upon this great incentive. It has stimulated the building of rural
homes through the wide distribution of land under the Homestead Acts
and by the distribution of credit through the Farm Loan Banks. Indeed,
this desire for home ownership has, without question, stimulated more
people to purposeful saving than any other factor. Saving, in the
abstract, is, of course, a perfunctory process as compared with
purposeful saving for a home, the possession of which may change the
very physical, mental, and moral fibre of one's own children.

Now, in the main because of the diversion of our economic strength from
permanent construction to manufacturing of consumable commodities
during and after the war, we are short about a million homes. In cities
such a shortage implies the challenge of congestion. It means that in
practically every American city of more than 200,000, from 20 to 30 per
cent, of the population is adversely affected, and that thousands of
families are forced into unsanitary and dangerous quarters. This
condition, in turn, means a large increase in rents, a throw-back in
human efficiency and that unrest which inevitably results from
inhibition of the primal instinct in us all for home ownership. It
makes for nomads and vagrants. In rural areas it means aggravation and
increase of farm tenantry on one hand, an increase of landlordism on
the other hand, and general disturbance to the prosperity and
contentment of rural life.

There is no incentive to thrift like the ownership of property. The man
who owns his own home has a happy sense of security. He will invest his
hard earned savings to improve the house he owns. He will develop it
and defend it. No man ever worked for, or fought for a boarding-house.

But the appalling anomaly of a nation as prosperous as ours thwarted
largely in its common yearning for better homes, is now giving way to
the gratifying revival of home construction. Accordingly the time is
ripe for this revival to afford an opportunity to our people to look to
more homes and better ones, to better, more economical and more uniform
building codes, and to universal establishment and application of
zoning rules that make for the development of better towns and cities.
We have the productive capacity wasted annually in the United States
sufficient to raise in large measure the housing conditions of our
entire people to the level that only fifty per cent, of them now enjoy.
We have wastes in the building industry itself which, if constructively
applied, would go a long way toward supplying better homes, so that
what is needed imperatively is organized intelligence and direction.
For the problem is essentially one of ways and means.

And, finally, while we are about Better Homes for America and are
lending such indirect support to the movement as the Government,
States, counties, communities, and patriotic individuals and
organizations can rightfully give, let us have in mind not houses
merely, but homes! There is a large distinction. It may have been a
typesetter who confounded the two words. For, curiously, with all our
American ingenuity and resourcefulness, we have overlooked the laundry
and the kitchen, and thrown the bulk of our efforts in directions other
than those designed to make better homes by adding to the facilities of
our very habitations. If, in other words, the family is the unit of
modern civilization, the home, its shelter and gathering-point, should,
it would seem, warrant in its design and furnishing quite as large a
share of attention as the power plant or the factory.

We believe, therefore, that in every community in which it is possible
a "_Better Homes in America_" Demonstration should be planned and
carried through during the week of October 9th to 14th, 1922.

(Signed) Herbert Hoover



July 24, 1922.

Dear Mrs. Meloney:

Naturally I am interested in the "Better Homes in America" movement.
When we consider the all powerful influence of home conditions and home
atmosphere on the lives and character of our people, both young and
old, surely every proper effort to improve those conditions should have
the support of all good citizens.

Our people in the Department of Agriculture will be glad to advise with
your committee chairmen on any matters in which they can lend
assistance. Our home demonstration agents in different sections of the
country can no doubt be helpful in advising as to the setting up of
demonstration kitchens.

You seem to have gathered to your help the cooperation of a large
number of state governors and also a number of other gentlemen who,
because of their public work, can possibly contribute to the success of
the campaign.

With very best wishes, I am

Sincerely yours,


Mrs. William Brown Meloney,
  Secretary to the Advisory Council
  for the "Better Homes" Campaign,
    223 Spring Street,
    New York City.

[Illustration: DEMONSTRATION OF BETTER. HOMES--October 9 to 14, 1922]


_Demonstration Week October 9th to 14th, 1922_

_The future history of America will be shaped in large measure by the
character of its homes. If we continue to be a home-loving people we
shall have the strength that comes only from a virile family life. This
means that our homes must be attractive, comfortable, convenient,
wholesome. They must keep pace with the progress made outside the home.
Realization of this has crystallized into a national civic campaign for
Better Homes in America endorsed and encouraged by Federal and State
officials and by prominent men in public life as set forth in this Plan

The following plan has been prepared to give practical help to citizens
of any community organizing for a _Better Homes in America_
Demonstration Week, October 9th to 14th, 1922.

The Campaign in each community centers about a _Better
Home_--completely equipped, furnished and decorated, in accordance with
approved modern practice, and placed on exhibition during Demonstration

Better Homes exhibitions have already been held, but now for the first
time a national organization, endorsed and supported by the President
of the United States and other Federal and State officials, is prepared
to give practical help to every community wishing to share in the
_Better Homes in America_ movement.

The community which exhibits a _Better Home_ during Demonstration Week
will be given a powerful impetus for good. Every civic interest, every
business and industry will be favorably affected. A _Better Homes_
demonstration is a stimulus to better living, civic pride and community
morale. It encourages thrift and industry. It develops a higher
standard of taste. It means a better community in every way. This has
been proved by the experience of many communities which have held
successful exhibitions. They have ranged from cities as large as
Cleveland, Milwaukee, Columbus, Kansas City and Dayton to villages of a
few hundred population. In every case where the demonstration has been
properly organized lasting benefits have followed.

_Follow the Plan_

The National Advisory Council of _Better Homes in America_, through its
Bureau of Information, has made a thorough investigation of previous
exhibitions of this character.

This investigation has shown clearly that when the local organizations
proceed in the right way a _Better Homes_ demonstration may easily be
made a great success. Causes of trouble as well as of success have been
analyzed to bring out the methods that should be avoided. The Advisory
Council, therefore, is in a position to recommend plans that have stood
the test of practical experience.

With Federal and State governments endorsing and encouraging this Plan
of educating the people to _Better Homes in America_, the conduct of
local demonstrations is given tremendous impetus and support. And with
the suggestions and the Plan for conducting such demonstrations
herewith presented, any community may confidently undertake the
production of a _Better Homes_ Exhibition during Demonstration Week,
October 9th to 14th, 1922.

A comparatively few energetic and capable women, with the support of
local civic organizations, can effectively put into practice the ideas
and plans with which they will be supplied by the Bureau of
Information. The expense of a _Better Home_ demonstration need not be
great; in some communities it may be kept as low as $25.00. Builders,
merchants and prominent citizens will combine to supply the Model
_Better Home_, and to furnish it. Civic organizations and newspapers
will cooperate to interest the public.

The most successful demonstrations have been so managed as to impress
upon visitors that they were not selfish enterprises, intended to help
special interests, particular firms or individuals. They have been so
conducted as to benefit every line of business and to help the
community as a whole. Neither the name of the builder or owner of the
home exhibited, nor the name of any person or business firm furnishing
any portion of the exhibit, is permitted to be displayed.

The motive behind the demonstration is primarily educational.

_How to Form a General Committee for Better Homes Demonstration Week_

A Better Homes Demonstration should be organized and directed by a
disinterested group of prominent women, working from motives of public
service. This group should be formed of a Chairman and a General
Committee of from four to seven members, depending upon the size of the

Each member of the General Committee is Chairman of one or more
sub-committees as outlined later in this Plan.

The Chairman of the General Committee is appointed through the National
Advisory Council of _Better Homes in America_. She appoints the members
of the local General Committee. They in turn appoint the members of the
Sub-committees. In the case of the Sub-committees it is particularly
important that appointments should be made with the knowledge and
approval of the local civic and commercial interests whose co-operation
is desired. Detailed suggestions for procedure are outlined later.

The duties of the members of the General Committee fit naturally into
the following arrangement of Sub-committees with a member of the
General Committee as Chairman of each Sub-committee:

  (1) Sub-committee on Advertising and Publicity.
  (2) Sub-committee on Selection of Demonstration Home.
  (3) Sub-committee on Equipment of Demonstration Home.
  (4) Sub-committee on Furnishing and Decorating.
  (5) Sub-committee on Reception of Visitors and Management of Home.
  (6) Sub-committee on Program of Events.
  (7) Sub-committee on Budget for Demonstration Week.

Where the size of the community makes it desirable to have a General
Committee of only four members, some such distribution of the
Sub-committees as this is recommended:

  (1) Chairman (a member of the General Committee) heading
    (a) Sub-committee on Advertising and Publicity; and
    (b) Sub-committee on Progress of Events.
  (2) Chairman (a member of the General Committee) heading
    (a) Sub-committee on Equipment of Demonstration Home; and
    (b) Sub-committee on Furnishing and Decorating.
  (3) Chairman (a member of the General Committee) heading
    (a) Sub-committee on Selection of Demonstration Home; and
    (b) Sub-committee on Reception of Visitors and Management of Home.
  (4) Chairman (a member of the General Committee) heading
    (a) Sub-committee on Budget for Demonstration Week.

_How To Secure Patrons for Better Homes Demonstration; Full Cooperation
of All Local Interests Essential_

Following the organization of the General Committee, the first duty of
its Chairman should be the arrangement for meetings of the
Committee--or its individual members--with the various City Officials,
and Civic and Commercial Organizations in the community, to explain the
Plan for a _Better Homes_ Demonstration and to secure their endorsement
and active support.

Those endorsing and supporting the Demonstration may be known as
Patrons and should comprise the following:

  The Mayor Commissioner of Education (or Superintendent of Public School)
  Publishers or Owners of Local Newspapers
  Presidents of Important Women's Clubs
  President of Chamber of Commerce Agricultural Home Bureau, etc.
  President of Real Estate Board
  President of Rotary Club
  President of Kiwanis Club
  Presidents of Building & Loan Associations
  Presidents of other Business or Trade Associations related to the
Home Building and Furnishing Industries.

Churches should also be asked to support the movement.

Additional Patrons may properly be selected from prominent citizens of
the community, who are noted for their public spirit and are not
included in the above list.

The two essentials for a successful _Better Homes in America_
Demonstration are genuine co-operation from all local civic, financial,
commercial and educational interests, and full and extensive publicity
through the local newspapers. From the youngest boy or girl scout to
bank president, business man, school teacher, minister, manufacturer
and city official, everybody in a community should have a real personal
interest in the Demonstration. When the benefits of a successful
_Better Homes_ Demonstration are once understood this interest is
readily aroused.

Investigation of successful exhibitions in Kansas City, Indianapolis,
Cleveland and elsewhere proved conclusively that the cooperation of all
local interests was the biggest single factor of success.

_How to Form Sub-Committees_

It is important to appoint as Chairman of each Sub-committee a member
of the General Committee who is particularly fitted to the specific
work assigned to her Sub-committee. The special abilities of the
members of the General Committee should be taken into careful
consideration and so used in the arrangement of the Sub-committees as
to secure the best and quickest results.

The formation of Sub-committees is necessary not only to divide the
work effectively, but also to arouse the interest and cooperation of
the various local interests directly affected by home building and home
betterment. All the local business groups--furniture dealers, hardware
dealers, wall-paper and paint dealers, electrical dealers, real estate
dealers, etc.--should be interviewed and asked to nominate a
representative from each group to serve on the appropriate
Sub-committee. In this way the appearance of favoring special interests
will be avoided and the fullest co-operation secured.

It may be well to stress here that the Chairman of the General
Committee should not become immersed in the details of the
Sub-committees' work. She establishes a point of contact and a clearing
house for _all_ Sub-committees and directs the _Better Homes_
Demonstration as a whole, but not in detail. Neither should the
Chairman of a Sub-committee attempt to enter into details of the work
of other Sub-committees not under her direction. The Chairman of each
Sub-committee is responsible to the Chairman of the General Committee,
and to her alone.

Suggestions for the formation and activities of the various
Sub-committees are given in the following:

_I--How to Form Sub-Committee on Budget for Demonstration Week_

A member of the General Committee is the Chairman.

This Sub-committee should be made up of prominent citizens,
representing both the financial and mercantile interests of the
community. It would be appropriate to secure a Bank Cashier, who is
accustomed to keeping accurate records of receipts and expenses, to act
as Vice-chairman of the Sub-Committee. He may also act as Treasurer of
the General Committee. This committee should have charge not only of
the securing of the modest expense fund necessary for Demonstration
Week, but also of the recording of facts and figures regarding the
operation of the Demonstration Home, and the results obtained. Such a
record will be exceedingly useful to the local General Committee as
well as the National Advisory Council. Accurate figures on the local
_Better Homes_ Demonstrations will be invaluable in continuing the
_Better Homes_ in America Campaign, and arrangements have been made for
prizes to be given to those Committees submitting the best reports and
records of successful demonstrations.

_Suggestions for the Sub-Committee_

There will be certain general expenses incurred in conducting a _Better
Homes_ Demonstration. These general expenses may range from $25 to $500
or more, depending upon the size of the committee and the extensiveness
and completeness of the Demonstration.

Some of the items of expense which may be incurred are: insurance of
borrowed property; special advertising in the form of street signs,
window cards and posters; printing; prizes for contests; lecturers,
and, possibly, special forms of entertainment.

In many communities where Demonstrations have been held, the small
contributions necessary have been readily volunteered by the various
organizations, business firms or individuals directly interested in the
financing and furnishing of homes. Contributions may be secured from
bankers, stores, public utilities, real estate dealers, building
material dealers, insurance men, etc. The amounts contributed by the
various interests should be carefully apportioned and only a sufficient
sum collected to pay the actual expenses of the Demonstration.

In Dayton and other cities it was found that volunteer contributions
were readily made by manufacturers of, or dealers in, trade-marked
articles, such as pianos, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, electrical
equipment, etc. As these articles, because of the trade name affixed,
received special advertising in the Demonstration Home, it was
considered proper to accept contributions from the dealers. The
selection of trade-marked articles which may be shown in a
Demonstration Home should be made in a disinterested manner by the
Subcommittee on Equipment.

_2--How to Form Sub-Committee on Advertising and Publicity_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman.

The success of the Demonstration rests largely upon the thoroughness
with which this Committee does its work. It should, therefore, be
composed of all of the Publishers or Advertising Managers of local
Newspapers, and the Advertising Managers of Department Stores and other
large business houses. The fullest co-operation should be secured from
all the local publishing and advertising interests.

Local newspapers will gladly aid a _Better Homes_ Demonstration, for
such an exhibition presents unusual opportunities for selling
advertising space to local merchants. In some of the cities where
Demonstrations have been held, the newspapers have brought out large
special editions carrying a great amount of local advertising, and
filled with interesting and instructive reading matter regarding home
building and home betterment.

_Suggestions for the Sub-Committee_

The campaign publicity should commence with an announcement of the
organization of the General Committee and the selection of Patrons. It
should be continued, in advance of the opening of the Demonstration
Home, by the use of reading matter descriptive of home planning,
furnishing, decoration and equipment.

The local newspapers should co-operate with the Sub-committee in seeing
that advertisements of exhibitors during the demonstration week do not
mention the fact that the advertiser is an exhibitor. This, of course,
should not preclude the general advertising of goods suitable for the
equipment or furnishing of _Better Homes_. This regulation is in line
with the non-commercial policy of the campaign, and merchants will
readily understand its fairness.

This Sub-committee should provide painted signs announcing the location
of the Exhibition Home. These signs should be placed at neighboring
street intersections. Signs in the form of arrow pointers should be
tacked on telephone poles in all parts of the city pointing in the
direction of the Demonstration Home and announcing its exact location.

Automobile Posters or Banners for the cars of the members of the
Committee may be furnished by local sign painters or printers.

The Committee should also see that show cards advertising the
Demonstration are properly distributed and displayed in store windows
and that posters are put up in suitable public places.

Show cards, posters and stickers bearing the imprint of the _Better
Homes in America_ campaign, with space left for local announcements,
may be obtained by application to the Bureau of Information, _The
Delineator_, 223 Spring Street, New York City, Secretary, Mrs. William
Brown Meloney.

A circular descriptive of the show cards, posters and stickers may also
be obtained through the Bureau of Information, which has arranged to
have this advertising display matter prepared for the use of local
Committees. It is strongly recommended that these posters and cards be
used in order to standardize the various local Demonstrations.

The stickers should be widely distributed among local merchants for use
on city mail during the week preceding and the week of the campaign.

Small electrotypes of the _Better Homes in America_ campaign insignia,
or trade-mark, may be obtained through the Bureau of Information for
use on printed matter and in newspapers. They are shown in the circular
descriptive of the advertising display material.

_3--How to Form Sub-Committee on Selection of Demonstration Home_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman.

The selection of the home to be used for the Demonstration should be
made by a _disinterested_ committee. Experience has shown that this is
the only satisfactory method, as all personal interests are thus
eliminated and criticism avoided.

Previous experience also indicates that this Sub-committee, with a
member of the General Committee as Chairman, of course, should be
composed of the President of the local Real Estate Board (if there is
one in the community), a representative of the Chamber of Commerce or
Merchants Association, a representative architect, and a representative
of the Building Material Dealers. Here again is illustrated the
importance of securing the full co-operation of the various groups of
business men directly affected by home building and owning. These
groups should be interviewed and each group asked to appoint its
representative on this committee. When the National campaign for
_Better Homes in America_, and the Plan as outlined here, have been
clearly explained to these interests, a Sub-committee for selecting the
Demonstration Home may be organized, which will act disinterestedly and

_Suggestions for the Sub-Committee_

The three cardinal principles to be observed in the selection of a
Demonstration Home are: first, situation with respect to accessibility
and nearness to street car lines; second, type of architecture; and
third, cost.

A Demonstration Home should be situated within a reasonable distance of
the business section of a community, and it should not be more than
four blocks from the nearest street car line. In a city where the
Demonstration Home was selected some eight blocks from the car line and
upon a hill, the attendance was disappointingly small. The
Demonstration Home should not be situated in the outskirts of a
community. This was found to be a disadvantage in a city where a
Demonstration Home was selected in a new, partially developed suburb,
some distance from the city limits.

An extreme type of architecture should be avoided in a Demonstration

With respect to the cost of the home selected, it has been shown in a
number of cities that a house priced slightly above the average cost of
homes in the community attracted the larger number of visitors. The
public apparently likes to visit a home costing more than the average,
because of a desire to see and admire better things. Demonstration
Homes, therefore, may range in price from $5,000 to $15,000, including
the land, but not including the furnishings and equipment.

Other essentials of an ideal home for demonstration purposes are fully
outlined in an article prepared by direction of Secretary of Commerce
Hoover and included in this Plan Book on pages 7 and 8. The builder or
owner of the Home selected should be willing to loan it to the General
Committee for the Demonstration Week, without charge. He should also be
willing to landscape the grounds, decorate the walls and carry all
insurance and damage risks. This has been gladly done by builders in
Syracuse, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Kansas City and elsewhere. There is no
better selling method for homes than that of putting on display a
completely furnished and equipped home.

If the entire plan of campaign is explained to the builder or owner of
a suitable home, and the advantages of indirect selling methods are
pointed out to him, his co-operation will be readily secured.

The name of the builder or owner is not to be displayed on the
Demonstration Home in any manner, shape or form, nor is his name to be
carried in any of the advertising during the campaign.

This will do away with all appearance of favoritism in the choice of
the house to be used. It is proper, however, to insert a reading notice
in the newspapers announcing the selection of the Demonstration Home
and giving the name of the owner or builder. No further reference
should be made to him in any of the advertising matter during
Demonstration Week, though the attendants in the home may properly give
his name to any person inquiring for it.

_4--How to Form Sub-Committee on Equipment of Demonstration Home_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman.

The selection and installation of all practicable labor-saving devices
and appliances in the Demonstration Home is left to this Sub-committee.
It should be composed of representatives of dealers in home equipment,
architects, builders, and, if possible, a Home Demonstration agent of
the Agricultural Department. (See announcement of special co-operation
of Department of Agriculture by Secretary Wallace on page 9).

_Suggestions for Sub-Committee_

On pages 47-49 will be found a statement of the best modern practise in
the equipment of a home permitting the most efficient and economical

It is probable that many communities will be unable to equip the
Demonstration Home completely, in accordance with the standards laid
down. So far as practicable these suggestions should be followed, but
local conditions and the stock of equipment carried by local dealers
may require some modifications in detail.

_5--How to Form Sub-Committee on Furnishing and Decorating_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman. In the selection of this
Sub-committee the greatest care must be taken to secure the cooperation
of all the business firms and individuals concerned in the furnishing
and decorating of homes. Each group--furniture dealers, hardware
dealers, paint and wallpaper dealers, department stores (if any),
decorators (if any), art and book stores--should be interviewed on this
important subject and asked to appoint representatives to serve on this

_Suggestions for Sub-Committee_

In order to maintain the non-commercial aspect of Demonstration Week,
no exhibitor's name should be displayed on any article shown in the
Demonstration Home. No price tags should be permitted on any article.
In this way all appearance of commercialism is avoided. This feature
will appeal to the fair and broad-minded merchant and will secure the
enthusiastic support of all the merchants in the community, no matter
how small their business may be.

The attendants at the Home, in response to inquiries as to where
certain articles may be secured, should be instructed to reply that
they may be had from the inquirer's own dealer or from any dealer in
the city.

In Dayton this non-commercial plan was wonderfully successful.

In communities where suitable furnishings and decorations are not
obtainable from the local stores they may be borrowed from public
spirited citizens, who have such articles as are adapted to the scheme
of decoration and furnishing. For the guidance of the Sub-committee,
which may not include expert decorators or furnishers as members,
practical suggestions on good furnishing and decorating have been set
forth on pages 30-42 of this Plan Book. These suggestions will
undoubtedly prove helpful in assembling the furnishings and decorations
for a Demonstration Home. If more detailed information is required,
write to the Bureau of Information, _The Delineator_, 223 Spring
Street, New York City, Secretary, Mrs. William Brown Meloney.

In all cases the basement of the Demonstration Home should be very
carefully arranged, equipped and prepared for exhibition.

The furnishing of the Demonstration Home should include well-selected,
standard home literature and reference books, properly arranged in
book-cases or on shelves. A printed list of this selected library may
be supplied for distribution to the visitors.

_6--How to Form Sub-Committee on Management and Reception_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman.

The members of this Sub-committee should be selected for their ability
to manage the Demonstration Home and to receive and care for the
visitors. It may be composed of representatives of the various women's
organizations in the city.

In order to insure the keeping of accurate records of attendance, one
or more bank tellers should be members of the Sub-committee.

This Sub-committee is to provide the attendants at the Demonstration
Home and to handle the visitors in such a way as to avoid confusion and
damage. It should also keep an accurate record of attendance, of
interesting inquiries and the general results. It should report in
detail to the Budget Committee, so that the General Committee may have
an opportunity to compete for the prizes offered for the best report of
a successful Demonstration.

_Suggestions for the Sub-Committee_

During the hours of exhibition the Demonstration Home should be in
charge of a capable woman of suitable personality. This may be a
volunteer, or a paid worker, for the entire week, or several volunteer
workers may undertake the management of the Home, having definite days
of attendance assigned to them.

The hours of exhibition should be from 1:00 to 10:00 p.m. continuously.
It has been found in exhibitions that the home need not be kept open
during the morning hours. During this period it may be cleaned and
placed in readiness for visitors.

An attendant for the bedrooms and two attendants for the first
floor--one in the hall or living room and the other in the dining room
and kitchen--will be required to direct and control the visitors and to
keep the house in perfect order during the exhibition hours. These
attendants may be club or committee members who volunteer their
services for certain days in the week.

It has been noted in several exhibitions that visitors usually
congregate at certain hours in the afternoon and evening, and
frequently overcrowd upon the lawns. It is necessary, therefore, to
erect light guard rails along the sidewalk leading from the street to
the house. And it may sometimes be necessary to have an outside
attendant who will keep the visitors in an orderly line of entrance.
This is work that may very well be performed by Boy Scouts.

During times of congestion visitors should be taken through the house
in groups not to exceed fifteen in number. They should be conducted
through the rooms in an orderly manner by the attendants. In some cases
it has been found advisable to send the visitors to the second floor
first, so that they may depart through the kitchen after inspecting the
first floor and basement. Girl Scouts may be used for conducting the
visitors through the home.

A careful check on the attendance at the Demonstration Home should be
kept. This can best be done by assigning a Boy or Girl Scout to count
the visitors as they enter the home and keep an accurate tally, which
should be reported to the manager in charge. In some cities it has been
found that a list of visitors to the home may be readily obtained by
having them register upon a numbered card, which can be used for a
drawing contest--a prize being awarded to the lucky number. In smaller
communities where the attendance will not be large at any one time the
names of visitors may be kept in a small register or list book.

_7--How to Form Sub-Committee on Program of Events_

A member of the General Committee is Chairman. This Sub-committee
should be composed of persons who are particularly capable in arranging
programs of entertainment, and may be selected from members of the
Board of Education, School Principals and Teachers, Theatrical and
Moving Picture Managers, Community and Song Leaders, etc.

_The Following Events Are Suggested_

1--Sermons, Addresses and Sunday School talks in all churches on the
Sunday preceding the opening of the exhibition.

2--Color slides relating to home owning, home management, home
furnishing and decoration to be shown in moving picture houses.

3--Four-Minute Talks on thrift, home owning, home financing, home
furnishing, home decoration, etc., in all moving picture houses.

4--Block Parties in front of the Demonstration Home. Lights for the
block party may be supplied from the headlights and searchlights of
automobiles properly arranged.

5--Window Dressing Contests for hardware merchants, house furnishing
merchants, department stores, etc.

6--Erection of Miniature Home, suitable for a girl's playhouse, on
Public Square--this playhouse may be given as first prize to the girl
of school age writing the best essay on "Why You Should Own Your Home."

7--Showing special _Better Homes_ films in all moving picture houses.
(See special announcement on page 24.)

8--Prizes for the best example of a Model Kitchen in the community.

9--Cooking Demonstrations by Home Demonstration Agent, or some
well-known local cook, High School or Normal School student.

10--Singing by Choir or Quartette on porch of Demonstration Home each
evening at about 7:30 and 8:00 o'clock.

11--(a) Guessing contest as to how many visitors enter Demonstration

11--(b) Prize for best essay by a boy on Home Owning.
    (c) Prize for best essay by a girl on Home Equipment or Furnishing.
    (d) Prize for best landscape design for Small Home by High School
or Art student.

12--Radio Program at Demonstration Home, or elsewhere in the city.

13--Lectures on Home Equipment, Decoration or Furnishing by experts, in
local auditorium. It has been found that admission to these lectures
may be charged, to help defray the expense of lecturers.

_Lecture Courses and Lectures_

Lectures on Home Building, Furnishing, Decoration and allied subjects
have been found to attract large audiences in cities where they have
been given under the auspices of local organizations. Undoubtedly many
communities co-operating in the _Better Homes in America_ Demonstration
Week, October 9th to 14th, will desire to include in their program of
events lectures on _Better Homes_ subjects.

_Better Homes in America Bureau of Information

The Delineator 223 Spring Street, New York City


The Bureau of Information has been established to support and
coordinate the work of local _Better Homes in America_ committees.

Additional copies of this Plan Book may be obtained from the Bureau of

Other data and material will be supplied as indicated in the Plan Book.

Bulletins will be sent out from time to time to keep local committees
posted on the national development of the _Better Homes in America_

In the following pages of the Plan Book are special articles prepared
by governmental and other authorities on various phases of home
building, equipment, decorating, sanitation, etc. The Bureau of
Information will either answer inquiries in regard to any of these
special articles or, when necessary, will refer the questions to the
authors of the articles.



  WILL H. HAYS president
  Telephone Vandebilt 2110

  July 19, 1922

Mrs. W. B. Meloney, 233 Spring Street, New York City.

My dear Mrs. Meloney:

I am immensely interested in the Better Homes Campaign. This is
something that the motion picture industry should be interested in and
I am sure that they will want to be.

I would like to help you to have available for your Better Homes week,
October 9-14, pictures that would show clearly just what the modern
home should be.

I am glad that the Better Homes Council has had such an encouraging
response from the governors of the various states and from the women of
this country. Certainly it is a matter to which all of us should give
our very best. It will have an enduring influence on the lives of our
people and it is one of the most creditable movements that I know of.

I have a little home in Sullivan, Indiana, that we are most anxious to
equip in just exactly the best way, and I am as much interested as any
one could be in learning how this should be done, so I am looking
forward to October 9-14 with much interest.

With best wishes always, I am,

Sincerely yours,


Essentials for Demonstration Home Suggestions on Buildings and Grounds



Different parts of the country have quite distinct types of one-family
dwellings. The best, unquestionably, is the detached house with
adequate yard space on all four sides; the house which gets sun and air
no matter which way it faces or what the direction of the prevailing
breeze; the house whose yard makes it possible for the family, and
especially for the children, to live much in the open. But, though this
is the best type, it may prove impracticable for people of moderate
means in communities where past practice has resulted in crowding the
land to such an extent that group or row houses have become the

Whatever the type of house, however, there are certain fundamentals of
an essentially good house. The exhibition house should, as far as
possible, embody these fundamentals as given below.

_Open Space Belonging to the House_

If the house is of the detached type (open on all four sides) it should
have a lot wide enough to permit fifteen feet of yard space on each
side. Then it is protected from any danger of side windows being
darkened and air cut off by any building which is permissible in a
one-family house residence district (see Zoning and What it Means to
the Home). Where there are no zoning regulations to give protection,
even fifteen feet of side yard will not prevent injury from a tall
apartment house or commercial building.

Under no circumstances should the demonstration house, if of the
detached type, have less than ten feet of side yard. If no detached
house with ten feet or more (preferably fifteen feet or a little more)
of side yard can be secured, then seek a house of another type.

Next in order of excellence is the semi-detached house (twin--two
houses side by side with a party wall). The single side yard of this
house should be fifteen feet wide and never less than ten feet.

Next in order is the group house, or the row house. The row house may
be a perfectly good house if it is wide enough in proportion to its
depth so that there may be adequate open spaces before every window,
and if it is so planned as to take full advantage of these open spaces.
Moreover a row of houses may be so designed--perhaps as one unit so far
as the front elevation is concerned--that they will be very attractive
in appearance. A wide, row house (18 to 20 feet or more), properly
planned, is much better to live in than a detached or a semi-detached
house whose side yards are so narrow that they do not give adequate
light and air to middle rooms.

The really good house is bright and airy. Consequently the
demonstration house should be set back from the street and its front
yard should be deep enough not only to assure privacy from the street,
but also to permit at least a well sodded grass plot.

The rear yard will, of course, extend across the whole lot. Or the rear
yard may be 100 feet deep. But in this connection, it is necessary to
bear in mind that a yard may be too large as well as too small. It must
fit in with the house, and some account must be taken of the probable
habits of its occupants. A family which has no servants, and in which
the breadwinner works long hours away from home, may find a large yard
a burden unless some member is an enthusiastic gardener. Lacking this
gardener the back of a deep yard is likely to become a dump-heap.

_The House Itself_

Given adequate open space as described above there are certain
essentials in the house itself.


A house is, or should be, an investment. Therefore it should be
honestly constructed. One of the most important lessons for the home
buyer to learn is that the initial cost of a house is not its full
cost. It pays well to spend a little more on purchase price if,
thereby, repair bills and maintenance costs are kept down. And it pays
not only in dollars and cents but in satisfaction as well, for the
house that soon begins to go to pieces, that soon looks shabby, is
quite the opposite of a "joy forever."

Consequently the demonstration house should be well built, and one of
the most valuable parts of the demonstration should lie in pointing out
by suitable placards its structural excellencies. Has the ground
immediately outside the walls been drained so that water will not lie
against these walls and gradually soak into them? Is the cellar well
drained and dry; well lighted and ventilated? Is the foundation well
built? Are the beams and joists heavy enough and of good material? Are
the floors and woodwork of good material, well seasoned, and of good
workmanship? Is the hardware (locks, hinges, lighting fixtures, etc.)
strong enough to stand usage? Are the outside walls of good
material--if of brick, of good quality with good quality mortar; if of
frame, of good lumber, well seasoned and well painted with three coats
of paint? What kind of sheathing is used? Is wood well seasoned? Is the
roofing of a material adapted to the climate and of good quality? What
material is used for flashing?

Recently there has been some discussion of the heat-retaining quality
of walls. It is advocated that openings which permit circulation of
cold air between outer and inner walls shall be filled. This adds but
little to the cost of building and in cold climates reduces materially
the coal bill. Incidentally it also aids both in reducing the fire
hazard and in rat proofing. For the latter, care must be taken that
there are no unscreened openings through foundation walls into a
cellar, and that all openings from the cellar to the space between
outer and inner walls of stories above shall be filled with rat-proof

Much attention is now being given to standardizing the parts of a
house, both to reduce initial cost and to make replacement easier and
less expensive. Are the doors, windows and other parts of the
demonstration house of standard stock sizes?

_Light and Ventilation_

_Every_ room must have adequate window areas giving upon wide outdoor
spaces. An interior room, or one poorly lighted from a narrow court, or
receiving its only light from a wide porch, may not impress the
visitor, who sees it only when the house is new and the room
artificially lighted, but it does in time impress the family who
inhabit it. Row houses are best when they are only two rooms deep from
front to rear. If, however, an extension is built upon the rear of a
row house, the court on one side of this extension, from which middle
rooms are lighted, should be _at least six_ feet wide for a two-story
dwelling and seven feet for a three-story dwelling. If there is a front
porch on a row house it should not extend clear across the front,
darkening every window of the front ground-floor room, but should
extend only part way, leaving one window free. This also adds to the
value of the porch by giving it greater privacy, but of course it
necessitates a house at least 18 feet wide, if the porch is to be large
enough to use as an outdoor sitting room for the whole family in warm

So far as practicable, each room should have at least two windows, and
corner rooms should have windows in two walls.

The rooms should be planned so that they may be opened into each other
and the breeze permitted to sweep through.


While the family is a unit, and a function of the house is to symbolize
and emphasize family unity, there should, nevertheless, be provision
for some individual privacy. The most elementary provision, of course,
is that there be at least three bedrooms--on the assumption that the
normal family will contain both boys and girls. Consequently the
demonstration house must contain not less than three bedrooms. But
beyond this, the grouping of rooms possible in a two-story house
(bedrooms and bath on the second floor, common living rooms on the
first floor) as against a one-story house, adds greatly to privacy. At
the same time the two-story house is nearly always the more economical
both to build and to operate, while one flight of stairs does not add
appreciably to the house-wife's work. With the kitchen, dining room,
living room and a lavatory on the ground floor there is comparatively
little need of running up and downstairs, even when there are young
children in the family. A third story, an upstairs sitting room, no
ground floor lavatory, do add appreciably to the amount of stair

Stair climbing is reduced by having the laundry on the same floor as
the kitchen instead of in the basement or cellar. Though it is the
scene of greatest activity only one or two days a week, it is often
used at other times, and often in connection with kitchen work. On the
score that the number of steps is thereby reduced, laundry tubs may be
placed in the kitchen; but against this must be balanced the annoyance,
or worse, that comes from having the kitchen full of steam and all
cluttered up with clothes in process of washing when meals must be
prepared. Because of this many women prefer a separate laundry in an
ell or extension opening off the kitchen. From the latitude of
Philadelphia south, this extension may be of light construction without
danger of pipes freezing except in the coldest weather; and it is a
simple matter to install a cut-off, so that these pipes may be emptied
when not in use.


There should be a fully equipped bathroom on the bedroom floor and a
toilet--preferably a wash bowl also--on the ground floor. A toilet in
the cellar is only a half-way measure. It does give an added
convenience of very real value, especially when there are servants; but
it is usually less accessible than the upstairs bathroom and, unless
the cellar is unusually well lighted and ventilated--unless it is
heated and unless its floor is high enough above the sewer to provide
for the necessary slope of the soil pipe--it is very likely to become a
nuisance. A sewer-connected toilet in the yard is only a step above the
old-time privy vault. It is inaccessible in bad weather; after dark it
is public; and it is likely to freeze.

_Suggestion for Furnishing and Decorating the Demonstration Home_


Changing an empty house into a furnished, restful place of beauty is no
less a task than transforming a piece of paper into a lovely picture.
In one sense, interior decoration is a creative art. It is true that
decorators, or persons furnishing houses, do not weave their own
hangings, build their own furniture, or design their own wall-paper,
but they select the things they require from shops, where they have
been designed by others, and choose in such a way as to make a
beautiful and harmonious whole.

Persons who must furnish a house for the occupancy of a family face
four distinct problems: first, they must see that the things selected
suit the house in size, coloring, and style; second, that the pieces
selected are harmonious with each other, and that they are comfortable
and well-made; third, that they suit the requirements of the family;
and fourth, that they fit the family purse.


The first requisite of a house is that it be restful; therefore, it is
wise to use wall coverings that are plain in effect. Plain paints or
tints, and wall-papers of a cloudy, all-over pattern, make the best

When a room faces north, the best colors to use are the yellows, which
might range from a cream color to a deep pumpkin yellow.

In rooms that face south, it is possible to use light grays, which
might range to a deep putty color; though it is possible in sunny rooms
to use almost any color except those which might fade easily.

The best way to treat rooms which have wide doorways connecting them
with other rooms is to have the walls of both rooms alike, preferably
in some plain color.

_Floor Coverings_

Rugs and floor coverings should be several shades darker than the
walls, and be either in plain colors or have a small or indefinite
all-over design. Where walls are plain, the latter type of carpet
should be used. When walls have on them any figured covering, plain
carpet should be used.


The hangings for rooms which have plain wall coverings could be striped
or figured, but in rooms where there is a figured wall covering, the
hangings should be in plain colors, taking the color scheme for these
from the dominating color note in walls and carpet.


A good rule to follow in choosing furnishings is to avoid anything
which strikes you as elaborate, or prominent. If a piece of furniture,
carpet, or curtain material stands out in a shop, you may be quite
certain that it will be even more noticeable in a house.

A house can only be considered properly furnished when it meets the
real needs of the occupants. Comfortable chairs, sofas, and beds, good
tables, and soft carpets, make up the most important objects, and these
should be the best that the family can afford. No definite rule can be
applied to the arrangement of the furniture, but balance and wall space
should be considered first. Where a single opening is placed in the
center of the wall, or like openings at equal distances, the wall
spaces will be in balance; in the case of unequal openings, the wall
spaces will be out of balance.

At balanced wall spaces, place pieces of furniture of relative size and
contour. These may be tables, chairs, sofas, and pictures. Leave the
more intimate and personal furniture, such as favorite chairs, sewing
table, and foot stool, for a grouping at one side or in the center of
the room. Lay all carpets and rugs parallel with the longest sides of
the room.

In a room with unbalanced wall spaces, place against the longest spaces
the largest pieces of furniture--the piano, the bookcase, the
davenport--grouping perhaps a table, mirror, and chair against a
smaller and opposite wall space. This permits the comfortable chairs,
tables, lamps, and pottery to relieve the stiffness, allowing them to
be grouped in the center of the room.

Do not indulge in too many pictures, but select a few of interest and
good quality. These few should be hung on a level with the average eye.
Small pictures should be hung somewhat lower.

Do not invest in many ornaments. A few bits of colored pottery, or some
brass ware, is all that is required to strike a lively note. Place
these so that they will balance other objects arranged on the same
mantel or bookshelf. For example, a pair of brass candlesticks placed
at either end of a mantel, with a pottery bowl, clock, or ornament in
the center, strikes a balance. Never have a large jar on a small table
or stand, or small ornaments on a large table. A good thing to remember
is that ornaments decrease in value as they increase in number.

In the following pages will be found suggestive lists of articles which
the rooms in a Better Home might contain. For further assistance and
more detail, write the Bureau of Information.

_Suggestions for Furnishing the Hall_

[Illustration: HALL A Modern Colonial Hall of good proportions and
design, with the simple but necessary furnishings for convenience and

The first impression of a house and its occupants comes as one enters
through the front door into the hall. Thus, nowhere in the entire house
is it more important to strike the right keynote in furnishing and
decoration. If there is no closet in the hall for wraps and umbrellas,
it will be necessary to have in some obscure corner a wooden strip
painted the same color as the woodwork, in which are solid brass hooks,
placed low enough so that the young members of the family can reach
them. Also, for umbrellas, provide a plain pottery jar which will
harmonize with the color scheme of walls and carpets.

On the hall table have a card tray--brass if the hardware is
brass--silver if the hardware is nickel or iron--and a medium-sized
pottery vase in crackle ware, or some natural color. A hall lantern or
scones would be in harmony with these furnishings, and have decorative

_A Suggested Color Scheme for the Hall_

_Walls_--Ivory paper or paint.

_Woodwork_--Paint--dull finish.

_Floors_--Hardwood--Stained antique oak, finished with wax or varnish.

_Floors_--Softwood--Painted a deep yellow, or gray, or stained to
represent hardwood.

_Floors_--Linoleum--In a tile pattern of black and white, provided the
living room is not directly connected with the hall; in such case use
only plain brown, grey, or Jaspe linoleum.

_Below is a Suggested List of Furnishings Which the Hall Might Contain_

_A table_--Of oak, mahogany, or walnut, either drop-leaf, gate-leg, or

_A mirror_--Gilt, or to match the wood in the table, Early American or

_A straight chair or two_--With or without rush seats, enameled black,
with stencil design, or to match the wood of the tables.

_A low-boy_--Of mahogany or walnut, with drawers for gloves, string,

_A large chest_--Of oak or brass-trimmed mahogany, for overshoes, etc.

_One or two rugs_--May be _Oriental_ in blues, browns, tans or black;
or wool braided, in blues, browns, tans or black; or Wilton, in blues,
browns, tans or black; or Axminster, in blues, browns, tans or black.

_A cocoa mat_ placed at front door.

_The Living Room_

As the living room is the gathering place for family and friends, it
may well be considered the most important room in the house. It should
take its keynote for decoration from the hall. If there is a wide
doorway connecting the living room with the hall, the color scheme
should be the same. As the living room serves as library also, open
book shelves, painted the same as the woodwork, are essential, and more
substantial than book cases.

The first requisite of such a room is that it shall be restful. Avoid
using rocking chairs. Use little bric-a-brac. Nothing which does not
contribute to the necessity and beauty of the room should be allowed.

Tan or ivory is good in a room which is inclined to be dark, or gray
and gray-green in a room inclined to be bright.

_A Suggested Color Scheme for Living Room_

_Walls_--Ivory, cream or gray--paper or paint.

_Woodwork_--Ivory paint--dull finish.

_Floors_--Hardwood--Stained antique oak with wax or varnish finish.

_Floors_--Softwood--Painted a deep yellow or gray, or stained to
represent hardwoods.

_A Suggested List of Furnishings for Living Room_

_Table_--Drop-leaf--in mahogany, weathered oak, or walnut; Gateleg--in
mahogany, weathered oak, or walnut; Modern Chippendale--mahogany,
weathered oak, or walnut, or Sheraton type of table.

_Sofa_--Upholstered in either sage green or brown upholsterer's velvet;
blue, yellow, mauve satin or taffeta sofa cushions.

_Armchair_--Overstuffed chair in indefinite striped upholsterer's
velvet in sage green; satin cushion in corn color.

_Armchair_--Back and seat upholstered in brown like sofa--arms of

_Desk_--A reproduction of a Sheraton, Hepplewhite, or Early English

_Chair_--Rush bottom--same wood as desk, or in dull black or sage green
dull enamel, conventional stencil design.

_Wicker chair_--Of brown or natural wicker, with printed linen cushions
in floral pattern.

_Tilt table for cards or tea_--Mahogany or walnut.

_Fireplace_ (If any)--A wood-box or basket; andirons and fire screen,
hearth brush and tongs.

_A Reading Lamp_--Sage green or black pottery base; an old gold colored
paper shade, fluted or plain, top and bottom bound with sage green tape
ribbon, or guimpe.

_A Clock_--In simple, plain design of wood, antique gilt, or leather.

_Footstool_--Small ottoman, covered in black and yellow needlework, or
velvet same as sofa (brown).

_Waste paper basket_--Small black wicker next to desk.

_Decorative Accessories_--Green vase, gold luster bowl, mauve pottery
piece; Desk appointments in dull brass, bronze, or leather;
Book-ends--Library Shears. Match box and ash tray on table in brass or

_Carpet_--One large or several small Orientals, or a Wilton, Axminster,
or velvet in two tone of brown or tan, or in plain colors.
 _Glass curtains_--Cream, marquisette, cheese-cloth, or scrim, made

_Overdraperies_--(If desired)--Can be either printed linen, same as
cushion in wicker chair, lined with sage green sateen, or brown or sage
green poplin, silk damask or sunfast.

_Chairs_--If the room is large enough, one or two chairs, chosen to
correspond with those already in the room, may be added.

_Dining Room_

The dining room should be one of the most cheerful and inspiring rooms
of the house. It is the place where the family gathers to enjoy meals
together, and nothing insures a better start than having breakfast in a
bright, cheerful room.

If the dining room and living room are connected by wide doorways, have
the walls of both rooms alike. If they are connected by a small door,
the walls may be in some light cloudy landscape paper, or in a small
allover pattern in light cream, buff, gray, tan, or putty color.
Because there is so much blue china, persons feel that they want blue
dining rooms. This is a mistake, as blue used in large quantities in
either walls, china, or hanging absorbs the light and makes a room
gloomy. Do not display china or glassware in a so-called china closet.
A built-in corner cupboard, or a small mahogany or rosewood cabinet,
which might hold rare bits of pottery and china, is permissible. It is
far better to use the pantry shelves for china than to crowd it into a
china closet.

It is best to use a rug with small figures. The hangings should be in
plain colors, taken from the predominating colors in the wall covering;
or if the walls are the same as the living room, the hangings should be
chosen from the predominating color in the living room. This will bring
the rooms into perfect harmony, without having them just alike.

_Suggested Color Scheme for Dining Room_

_Walls_--Ivory or cream, if closely connected with living room. A
cloudy landscape, crepe, or cartridge paper in buffs, pale grays, fawn,
or cream if closed off from living room.

[Illustration: DINING ROOM This well-proportioned dining room with its
plain walls and figured floor covering has a square mahogany table and
eight chairs of the Georgian period.]


_Floors--Hardwood_--Stained antique oak, with wax or varnish finish.

_Floors--Softwood_--Painted a deep yellow or gray, or covered in plain
brown, gray, or Jaspe linoleum.

_Suggested List of Furniture for Dining Room_

_Table_--Round or square extension, or drop-leaf--six legs--in
mahogany, walnut, weathered oak, or painted black, gray, or coco. Might
be reproduction of Hepplewhite, Sheraton, or Georgian period. A glass,
silver, or pottery bowl, containing flowers, on the table; plain ecru
linen doilies.

_Chairs_--8 chairs--Mahogany--Damask seats, Hepplewhite backs.
Walnut--English linen seats, Sheraton backs. Weathered Oak--Velvet
Seats, Queen Anne backs. Painted--Rush seats, or wooden seats, Windsor
or straight backs.

_Sideboard_--Low, broad, after Hepplewhite or Sheraton, a Welsh dresser
with Windsor chairs. (Here keep either a few good pieces of silver with
candlesticks on either end, or a large pottery bowl filled with fruit
in the center, and candlesticks to match the bowl placed at either end,
or some bits of red or yellow glass, but do not combine all three. Do
not use delicate lace runners or doilies. Plain linen, or heavy real
filet is far more effective Display no cut glass or hand-painted china.)

_Mirror or Mellow, dark-toned painting_--Framed in antique gilt or to
correspond with the wood of the furniture selected, and hung on level
with the eye, directly in the center and over the sideboard.

_Serving Table_--To correspond with other furniture selected, and
placed as near the kitchen door as possible.

Here keep two or four silver or glass candlesticks which are used on
the table at night, also a silver, mahogany, or wicker tray.

_Mirror_--Queen Anne type--over serving table--especially if serving
table is between two windows, it gives effect of space.

_Muffin stand_--Especially for maidless house--of mahogany, walnut, or
painted to correspond with furniture selected.

_Nest of Tables_--Small, square, of either mahogany, walnut, or black
lacquer, to be kept in a corner and used for tea parties, functions,

_Rug--Large Oriental_--In blues, yellows, browns, or old rose and
black; Wilton--in blues, yellows, brown, or old rose, and black;
Axminster--in blues, yellows, browns, or old rose, and black; Chenille
or velvet, in plain colors.

_Curtains_--Glass curtains to match living room, in either marquisette,
cheese cloth, or scrim, made plain.

_Overdraperies_--If desired, can be either like the living room, if
rooms are in close proximity, or taken from the predominating color
note of living room hangings if these are figured.

With a cloudy or landscape paper, use plain poplin, rep, or sunfast, in
warm tans, sage green, with bands of black or orange, or both, across
the bottom; this would give character to the room.

_Uniformity in furniture chosen_--Be sure in choosing your furniture
that uniformity is observed as to period, wood, and type. For example,
if a Sheraton sideboard in mahogany is selected, then the entire
furniture of the dining room should be of the Sheraton type in mahogany.


The first requisite in furnishing a bedroom is that it appears crisp
and clean. The walls, light in color, must be restful and simple in
design. The woodwork should be white, if possible. Painted furniture is
very popular for a bedroom because of its dainty appearance, but
dull-finished mahogany or walnut in four post or Colonial design, with
rag, braided, or hooked rugs, makes a charming bedroom.

Place the bed where the sleeper will not be subject to strong light or
cross drafts (see page 27 for proper ventilation). A dressing table is
fashionable, but not as practical as a chest of drawers with mirror
above. A full-length mirror installed in a closet door, or hung in a
narrow wall space, is a very decided adjunct. Be sure to place the
dressing table or chest of drawers where the light is not reflected
from an opposite window. To secure a good view, the light should be
directed upon the person to be reflected, and not upon the mirror.

Avoid placing the furniture all on one side of the room. If possible,
intermingle high and low pieces to secure a proper balance. If one bed
is used, be sure to place beside it a table on which should be a lamp,
telephone, and small water bottle and glass. If two beds are used,
place this table between the two beds.

If the walls are plain in color, figured draperies and bedspreads can
be used. If the walls have on them a small design, plain materials for
these purposes should be used.

_Suggested Color Scheme for Bedroom_

_Walls_--Corn colored cross-bar paper.

_Woodwork_--White, dull finish, paint.

_Floors_--_Hardwood_--Stained antique oak, with wax or varnish finish.

_Floors_--_Softwood_--Painted a deep yellow, or covered in plain brown,
tan, or Jaspe linoleum.

_Suggested List of Furnishings for the Bedroom_

_Bed_--Full size, or twin beds--In mahogany, walnut, ivory paint, or
enamel. Box or wire springs. Mattress and pillows.

Bedspreads and bureau covers may be made of unbleached muslin, bound
with wide bands of plain yellow, blue, and brown, these colors
overlapping each other, or plain white Swiss, dimity, or Marseilles.

_One high-boy_, or high chest of drawers for man--In mahogany, walnut,
or painted. This piece should conform with or match other furniture in
room. Brushes, comb, box for odds and ends, clothes brush.

_Mirror_--Hung flat against the wall--in same wood as high-boy.

_One Dressing Table_--or low chest of drawers--for lady--with mirror
hung over the chest of drawers. May be in mahogany, walnut, or painted.
With toilet articles in silver or tortoise shell, or ivory; pin
cushion, scent bottles. The mirror may be of Queen Anne type in antique
gilt, to correspond with woods used in room.

_Two straight back chairs_--In mahogany, walnut, or painted, with plain
wood, rush, or caned seats.

_Natural wicker arm chair_--Sturdy type placed near window, with
cushions of chintz or sateen to match the bedspreads.

_Small flat-top desk and chair_--In either mahogany, walnut, or
painted, to correspond with furniture.

Supply with note paper, silver or brass ink-well, and blue feather pen.

_Small Sewing Table_--Of Martha Washington design, or a Colonial type,
in mahogany or rosewood. Place on it small lamp with base of wood, in
brown or tan porcelain, and having a shade of blue silk lined with tan

_A Chest_--In either cedar, mahogany, or cretonne-covered, and placed
under a window or in a corner for storage of summer or winter clothes.

_Rugs_--Oriental in black, blues, or yellows, plain brown or tan
carpet, made into a large rug, or wool braided, hooked, or heavy rag
rugs, in black, blues, tans, browns.

Small rugs should be placed near the bed, dressing table, and high-boy.

_Curtains_--Glass curtains of scrim, marquisette, or cheese-cloth, to
correspond with those of living room and dining room.

_Draperies_--Draperies of either cretonne or muslin to match
bedspreads, with bands of yellow, blue and brown sateen to correspond
with bedspreads.

_Bedroom for Either Boys or Girls_

It has been proven that furnishings and color produce either desirable
or disastrous effects upon the sensitive minds of children. As all
children's rooms are usually a combination of bedroom, play room, and
study, it is well to keep in mind colors, design, arrangement, and
practicality for all purposes.

To most children, a spotty or too often repeated design is distracting.
Blues and violets soothe, while reds, yellows, and sometimes greens are
exciting and stimulating colors. We so often send our children to study
and amuse themselves in their room, but have we done our share in
providing them with the comforts and necessities that will assist them
to produce better school work?

_Boys_--With no frills, light fabrics, or woodwork for them to soil and
mar, their rooms still may be made interesting--even beautiful--but
convenience and masculinity should be kept foremost in mind.

_Girls_--A girl's room, on the other hand, should be dainty, bright,
and frivolous. Her personality, even at a very tender age, will clearly
be disclosed by the way she cares for her room. There is no need of a
great expenditure of money in buying furniture or hangings for a girl's
room. Some of the cheaper fabrics and simplest furniture will make the
most charming room.


_A Suggested Color Scheme_

_Walls_--Buff-colored paint, or tinted walls.

_Woodwork_--Stained mission oak or walnut.

_Floors_--Hardwood floor, strips of coco matting, or woolbraided rugs.
Softwood--a large square of linoleum.

_Suggested List of Furnishings_

_Bed_--Something of the day bed type. Bedspread of blue denim, with
stitched bands of yellow sateen at edge.

_Chest of Drawers_--Painted buff or brown, or walnut or mission oak.

_A Mirror_--Antique gilt, or of wood to match chest of drawers, hung

_A Desk_--Of the craftsman type, with stool or bench to match.

_Two Wooden Chairs_--Either painted or of mission oak.

_A Table_--Low, plain wooden table, of walnut, or stained to match the

_One Comfortable Chair_--Brown wicker, or the Windsor type.

_A Lamp_--Of the student type, or on a bracket, securely fastened on
the wall.

_A Tie Rack_--Hung near chest of drawers.

_One or two shelves_--For books, trophies, etc. Made of plain wood,
stained to match the woodwork of a plain bookcase of mission oak.

_Curtains_--Of blue denim, with stitched bands of sateen at edge--hung


_A Suggested Color Scheme_

_Walls_--Papered in a soft gray-rose, allover design paper.

_Woodwork_--Cream paint.

_Floor_--Hardwood--Rag rugs, with rose stripes or a gray chenille
carpet. Softwood--Battleship gray paint, with rag rugs or rose chenille

_Suggested List of Furnishings_

_Bed_--_Single_--Painted ivory or cream--four post, or with some low,
simple headboard.

Bedspread of rose dotted swiss, with wide ruffle.

_A Dressing Table_--To match bed, with rose colored sateen mats--bound
in pale-gray with drawers.

_A Large Box_--For waists, etc. Covered in rose and gray cretonne.

_A Desk_--To correspond with painted furniture; a gray blotter and rose
colored pen.

_Two Chairs_--One of natural wicker with cushions of rose sateen, and
one of wood to correspond with painted furniture, caned seat.

_A Sewing Table_--Of mahogany or cherry.

_A Lamp_--China base with a shade of silk, dotted swiss, or
rose-colored paper.

_The Nursery_

The ideal nursery is also a play room. It should, as nearly as
possible, meet the ideals of the child's own world. In that room are
received early impressions which are never forgotten, and which have a
lasting influence on the adult life.

Don't bedeck the cribs, beds, or curtains with ribbons and laces, and
expect your child to be happy. The "don'ts" and "be carefuls" make
children irritable and unhappy. Choose the room with a thought to
sunlight, and be sure it has outside blinds which will darken the room
without keeping out the air.

The floor should be bare with the exception of one rug near the bed, or
should be covered with a good grade of plain linoleum.

The walls and woodwork should be painted, if possible, a cream or light
gray. Some fairy tale friezes are attractive, and afford opportunities
of introducing color, but, if used, should not be placed too high on
the wall--about three-quarters of the way up from the floor is a
reasonable height. Child-study has taught that many and oft-repeated
designs and subjects become meaningless, especially to older children.

The furniture in the nursery should be practical. Painted furniture and
wicker chairs are attractive. A comfortable winged or overstuffed chair
for the grown-ups is essential. Low shelves and cupboards, built for
toys and books, are necessary if the room is to be kept neat and tidy.
A stationary blackboard, and a large box for books and cherished
belongings, are very welcome additions.

_A Suggested Color Scheme for the Nursery_

_Walls_--A soft, misty, gray paint, tint, or plain paper.

_Woodwork_--A dull white.

_Floors_--Plain hardwood, with a rag or braided rug in sapphire
blue--or softwood, entirely covered in taupe Jaspe linoleum.

_Below Is a Suggested List of Furnishings Which the Nursery Might

_A Crib_--White iron or wood, on ball bearing casters.

Bedspread of yellow and white seersucker, or a silky yellow sunfast.

_A Tall Chest of Drawers_--Painted cream or white, with plenty of

_Table_--Low nursery table or tall one which has had its legs cut.

_Two Chairs_--Low, with wooden seats, and painted to match the

_A Desk_--Flat top with plenty of paper and pencils.

_Waste Paper Basket_--White or natural wicker.

_One Large Fireside Chair_--With slip cover of blue and yellow striped

_Glass Curtains_--Of best quality of cream colored cheesecloth, bound
in yellow tape.

_Over draperies_ (If desired)--Of primrose yellow silk, or sunfast, or
striped yellow and blue linen to match slip cover.

_Clothes Rack_--Low wooden rack, painted white, with at least four

_Closet_--Should have a low pole on which could be hung plenty of
hangers. Also a shelf about 6 inches from the floor for shoes, etc.

_Large Cushions_ for the floor--One each of blue, yellow, nile green
and orange.

_Color Scheme_--If you desire another color scheme, such as
blue-and-white, or pink-and-white, write for information.

_Model Kitchen_


The first consideration in arranging kitchen equipment is to save steps
and labor. The kitchen should be clean, odorless and attractive.

_Size_--Not more than 120 square feet of working space for preparing
food and washing dishes. More space when kitchen is used for laundry or
has dining alcove.

_Ventilation_--If no cross drafts are provided for, cut a transom over
back door if possible and arrange window boards to allow ventilation
through top and bottom of window. Is desirable to have hood installed
over stove to carry off drafts.

_Lighting_--Two or three windows desirable and a glass pane in kitchen
door. If unavailable, increase light by having very pale walls and
mirrors in dark corners. Artificial light should be from powerful
burner hung from center of ceiling. Electric light should be indirect.
Additional side lights should be added near sink and stove, unless they
receive full light.

_Wall Coverings_--(1) Commercial oil cloth wall covering; or (2) good
oil enamel paint. Color--Light tones. On Southern exposure--pale gray,
green or pale blue; on Northern exposure--buff walls with a deeper buff
or tan woodwork are good. For very dark rooms--white. Avoid white in
well lighted rooms because of glare. If natural color, woodwork should
have two coats of water proof varnish; if painted, two coats of flat
paint and one of enamel paint.

_Floor Coverings_--If room has cement floors, provide rubber mats
before sink, stove and cabinet to avoid foot strain. Otherwise, use
linoleum slightly darker than walls and harmonizing or contrasting in
color; or any other surface easy to keep clean.

_List of Kitchen Fixtures_

The Kitchen should have the following equipment:

_Range_--Coal, wood, gas, oil or electric. Good hood for ventilation is
desirable. Height of all working surfaces depends upon height of woman
who will work in kitchen. All working surfaces including top of range
should be as near the same height as possible. Height should be at
least 32 inches, or more, if worker is tall. A label should state this
fact. If coal range is the main one, have supplementary gas, electric
or oil range. Gas range should have stove pipe from oven.

_Sink_--Sink should be large enough to accommodate both a washing and
rinsing dish pan. Have large drain board on each side with raised edge
or beading. It should either slope gradually toward sink or have
sloping grooves. If only one drain board is provided, add an adjustable
folding board. Bottom of sink should be at least 32 inches from floor.
Sink should be placed under or near a window to insure coolness and

_Cabinet_--White or colored enameled metal or natural wood finish with
broad working shelf 32 inches from floor or higher according to height
of worker. Shelves and bins for most commonly used supplies and
utensils. If a cabinet with a good work shelf is not available an
additional table near cabinet should be provided.

_Tables_--One or two tables, porcelain, glass, enamel, or zinc topped.
If none of these can be had, linoleum may be fitted with waterproof
cement to a wooden table. It should be at least 32 inches high. A table
with drawers underneath and a swinging stool and space for knees is

_Cupboard_--If there is no dining room pantry, a cupboard should be
added for the china; if space permits, this should be added anyhow for
less frequently used utensils and supplies.

_Stool_--Stool, preferably white, should be of right height to allow
sitting at table, work-shelf or sink. Add a plain chair if space

_Refrigerator_--A well insulated ice box, preferably white. Ice
compartment should be at side or top. Straight easily cleaned drain
pipe should attach to plumbing. If refrigerator is indoors a door for
icing from the outside is desirable.

_Towel Rods_--Wood or nickel with space for four or five dish towels.

_Hand Towel Rack_--If only one person uses it, roller towel rack may be
installed. Otherwise, paper toweling or individual hand towels hung on
cup hooks near sink by loops on corners.

_Wall Clock_--Simple, with clear figures.

_Housekeepers' Rest Corner_--If space permits, a comfortable chair,
footrest and small table for books and sewing should occupy a
little-used portion of the room, to permit rest and recreation while
waiting for food to cook.

_Garbage Pail_--Covered; with foot lever to raise cover without
stooping; fireproof trash basket.

_Arrangement of Equipment_

Sink, cabinet with broad working shelf and dish cabinet (if dishes are
washed in kitchen) should be as close together as possible without
cramping passage room. Stove should be convenient to, but slightly away
from, work shelf for hot weather. An ideal arrangement is china
cupboard at right of sink, cabinet with broad work shelf at left of
sink and, in a narrow kitchen, range on opposite wall from sink across
narrowest part of room; if range is far from any broad working surface
a table should be very near range. All kitchen equipment, except range,
should be as near as possible to dining room door. If no dining room
pantry with sink is provided, kitchen sink should be near dining room
door. Range with supplementary range beside it should be so placed that
full day light will light the oven. If stove is already installed in a
dark place in exhibition house, move it into light, even though
repiping and wiring may be required. Mirrors may be hung to throw
additional light on range. If there is no good working shelf on
cabinet, a table should be near cabinet for mixing food. There will
then have to be a second table with a heat proof top near the stove
unless stove is so near to cabinet that one table will serve both for
mixing and setting hot utensils on. If possible, install a gas range,
or an electric range if current is cheap enough to warrant. The range
should, if possible, have an oven heat regulator. Where gas is
unavailable and cost of electric current high, install a good oil stove
with an oven. Refrigerator should be on porch or vestibule just outside
kitchen door or should be in the kitchen near the back door away from
the stove. If space permits, table next to refrigerator is a
convenience. An out-icer is a convenience; in cold weather the ice
compartment may be left empty and open for the air to cool the food.

Dish towel and hand towel racks should be as near as possible to sink,
high enough to be out of the way. The dish towel rack should be on side
towards window for drying and airing.

Wall clock should be within sight of stove without worker turning
around. Garbage pail and trash basket should be under sink. Stove
should be near chief working surface; either table or cabinet.

_Decorations_--Simple, easily washed curtains of gingham, striped
calico or unbleached muslin with a colored tape border add to the
attractiveness of the room. They should not obscure the light. If the
windows are near working centers, curtains may be half length, that is,
from top of window to center sash, and finished with a fringe.

Smaller up-to-date equipment, such as a fireless cooker, a pressure
cooker, utensils, electric whippers, cutlery, strainers and so on,
should also be installed. Further information is given in another

_The Kitchen as Laundry_

If the Kitchen is also used as Laundry, laundry equipment should be
away from cooking equipment if possible. _Two Tubs_--well-lighted, tops
34 inches, a _Washing Machine_ run by whatever power the locality
affords, preferably electricity. Washing Machine may have direct
connection with plumbing, or good pipe hose should be provided for
draining and filling machine. Copper lined _Wash Boiler_ with spigot
for emptying. _Zinc Topped Table_--on rollers, same height as top of
stove, for carrying wash-boiler between sink and stove. _Ironing
Board_--If possible, board that folds into cupboard. Board should have
its own support far enough in from ends to permit of putting garment
over it. _Clothes Basket_--_with Casters on Bottom_.

_Iron_--Electric Iron, or if electricity is unavailable, gas iron.
Electric or hand _Mangle_ for ironing.

Have tubs, washing machine, ironing board and plug for electric iron
grouped together.

_The Equipment of the House_

Having a house that is structurally sound, well planned and with
adequate yard space, the next question is its equipment. Equipment has
to do with the operation, with the house work. On the one hand this is
more or less determined by the size and plan of the building, on the
other by the furnishing and decoration. A well planned house makes
house work lighter; and furnishing and decoration which add
unnecessarily to the number of things which must be cleaned or cared
for, or heavy pieces which must be moved, add to the labor of house
work. Nevertheless, equipment occupies a clear outfield of its own that
calls for separate discussion.


_Central Heating_--Central heating preferred. May be hot air, steam,
hot water, or vapor. Insulate heater and pipes. Large furnace water
pan, or radiator waterpans, desirable. Select heating system, using
fuel most economical for your locality. Thermostat heat regulator
installed in living room is desirable. Write placards describing why
you selected this heating plant; why it is so well insulated; why large
water pan or radiator water pans are important.

_Supplementary Heat_--Open fireplace, Franklin stove or gas logs
desirable in living room for beauty and comfort in spring and fall.

_Water Supply_

Should have running hot and cold water. If city water not available,
should be pumped by power rams. Hot water boiler may be attached to
coal range with auxiliary gas or oil heater for summer. Where gas rate
is low, gas may be used alone. Automatic gas hot water heaters very


_Size_--Should be large enough for tub, basin, toilet, clothes-hamper,
stool, medicine cabinet and towel cabinet.

_Floor_--Should be most sanitary. Tile, stone or linoleums are the most
sanitary. Small black and white pattern or light blue and white are
good. A well-filled painted wood floor of battleship gray or colonial
buff may be used.

_Walls_--Tile or plaster painted with two coats flat paint and one coat
of enamel, or oil cloth wall covering. White, blue and cream are the
best colors.

_Ventilation_--Window board should be in window to allow top and bottom
ventilation. An additional separate ventilator is desirable.

_Fixtures_--Porcelain or enameled iron tub with hot and cold running
water; shower with spray set at angle not to wet hair.

_Basin_--Porcelain or enamel with hot and cold water.
_Toilet_--porcelain, white enameled seat desirable. _Medicine Cabinet_
with door and mirror over basin, shelves for shaving equipment,
lotions, antiseptics, etc. _Cupboard_ large enough to hold supply of
towels, soap, toilet paper, and equipment for cleaning bathroom

_Clothes hamper_ unless chute to bin near wash tubs is provided. Hamper
should have white smooth surface. Enameled metal or wood desirable.

_Towel racks_--A nickel or enameled wood rack for each member of family
to keep towels separate.

_Miscellaneous fixtures_--Two nickel or enameled metal soap racks, one
beside basin and one beside or hooked to tub. Tooth brush rack to hold
tooth brushes well separated. Toilet paper basket or rack. Individual
mugs or glasses for each member of family. Shelf of glass or wood
covered with oil cloth over basin.

_Stool_--White enamel, preferably. _Clothes hooks_ on back of door, or
clothes tree. _Sash curtains_ of white material, easy to launder.

_Lavatory_--It is well to have additional lavatory on ground floor to
save steps. It should contain toilet, wash bowl, stool and fixtures for
accessories. Should be as easy to clean and hygienic as bathroom.


Electricity if possible. Bulbs in all rooms should be frosted or
shaded. _Hall_--Electricity or lamp hung from center in form of lantern
or cast iron bracket to hold at least one bulb or one lamp. If side
lights are desired, fixtures of brass, cast iron, or enameled iron are

_Living Room_--If possible, at least one baseboard plug, one center
ceiling light or side brackets if desired. If room is large a center
floor plug is desirable. Plugs permit lamps to be used without
unnecessary cords showing. If wire must pass through rug, do not cut
rug but push threads apart.

_Dining Room_--If a center light in shape of dome is used, hang low
enough to avoid shining in eyes of those dining. A soft effect is
gained by side brackets representing sconces. Wired metal or glass
candlesticks on mantel and side-board, give pleasing effect. Floor plug
near dining table for electrical table appliances.

_Bedrooms_--Fixtures should be placed in long wall space convenient to
bureau or dressing table. Have plug near bed for lamp for reading in
bed. If space permits, night light on table in upper hall is useful.
All plugs and sockets should be of standard shape and size.


House should be easy to clean with hard smooth floors, with cracks well
filled, and rugs rather than carpets. Rounded edges and corners of
baseboards desirable, also simple baseboards. One flight of stairs is
sufficient if located out of sight of living room. This saves labor of
cleaning two flights. Two cleaning closets, one on ground floor and one
on second floor, are labor savers. Have space for vacuum cleaner and
for hanging all brushes, brooms and dusters, and a shelf above or at
side for the cleaning compounds. Zinc or other fireproof lining to
cupboard and ventilator desirable.

_Storage Space_--Attic with rows of shelves for storing boxes and small
objects is desirable. Wooden chests, trunks, and a cedar lined chest or
cupboard useful. Built-in closets or rows of inexpensive chests of
drawers with space to pass between are good.

_Storage Closets_

Every bedroom should have clothes closet with hooks and a rod for
hangers, a shelf for hats and a bottom shelf for shoes. A tall closet
may have near ceiling an additional rod for hangers for less often used
clothes, and long rod lifter to reach hangers. A cupboard for bed linen
should be in upstairs hall or in a centrally located room. On ground
floor coat closet is desirable; also tool cupboard or chest, large
china cupboard, low enough for all china to be within reach. Cold
closet with open wire screen cabinets in basement.


If kitchen is well ventilated and stove has hood, pass pantry not
necessary. It makes extra steps. If pass pantry is in house, only its
narrowest dimension should divide kitchen from dining room. Partitions
under sink for trays to stand; a narrow space for table leaves; a china
cupboard with reachable shelves, and a sink and drainboards like those
described for kitchen are desirable. Drawer on small shelf for cleaning
compounds and brushes for cleaning silver, steel, brass and copper.



_1.--What You Buy and How to Buy It_

In purchasing a home a misstep may be unfortunate, so get the best
advice you can, and watch every step. First of all, what you buy is the
site and the improvements on it. If a building and loan association, or
bank, loans you money on the property, it has a direct financial
interest in helping you guard yourself on certain points, such as
making sure that there are no old mortgages, no unpaid back taxes, or
bills for building materials, or other claims against the property.

Be certain your title is clear, or have it insured or guaranteed. Learn
of any easements, such as the right of a telephone company to place its
poles upon your lot.

If you make a purchase offer with a cash deposit, include a statement
as to whether window shades, stoves, and other movable property are
included. Risk from loss by fire or elements should be assumed by the
owner until the title passes to you.

Your offer should be dependent on your obtaining a satisfactory loan to
finance the proposition, and the ability of the owners to furnish
papers to show a good marketable title, free from liens or
encumbrances. In other words, do not bind yourself to the purchase
until you are sure of what you are paying for, and that you can finance

You must be prepared to pay taxes on your property, and special
assessments for installation of water, sewerage, electric light, gas or
other public utilities, or street paving and sidewalks. Note what
improvements are already made, and what additional ones you may have to
pay for.

_2.--How to Pay for Your Home_

In buying a house and lot you must borrow what you cannot pay in cash.
Remember that the more risks you assume, the fewer the lender will have
to charge you for. Your promise to pay back what you borrow will be
secured by a mortgage or trust on the property. A first mortgage loan
on not over one-half or two-thirds of the value of a piece of property
is a very safe investment, and the rates of interest should be low. The
lender on a second mortgage takes more risk, and rates of interest and
discounts are higher. If you agree to buy a home without the title
passing to you at once, the seller takes less risk, and you may save

_3.--Where to Get Loans_

There are building and loan associations throughout the country,
usually organized to serve the needs of people like yourself, who wish
to finance a home. Their plan of weekly or monthly payments, both on
principal and for interest, has proved sound from the experience of
millions of people as an aid to systematic saving. Loans may often be
obtained from savings banks, trust companies, state banks, individuals,
and trustees for estates.

Obtaining money on a second mortgage is usually not so easy. Remember
that when the owner of a house takes a second mortgage in payment he
may plan to sell it for four-fifths or less of its face value, and that
he probably charges you accordingly.

Above all, when you start to save for a home do not throw your money
into glittering schemes that promise big dividends and the chance to
borrow money at 3 per cent or less. The concerns behind such schemes
cannot be trusted.

_4.--How Much Can You Afford?_

It is said that a man may own a home worth one and one-half to two and
one-half times his annual income but the payments you make during the
first few years after purchasing are what you should pay most attention
to. Rent ordinarily requires from ten per cent, to twenty-five, or even
more, of a family's annual income. In addition to what you ordinarily
pay for rent, you can devote your customary savings, or more, to paying
off the principal of loans on your home.

Following is an example: A man who earns $2,000 a year buys a house and
lot costing $4,000. He has $1,000 cash to pay down on it, and obtains a
loan of $3,000, or 75 per cent, of the value of the property, from a
building and loan association.

Cost per year for a $4,000 house (not including depreciation)

  Payments on $3,000 B. & L. Shares at
  1/2% a month or 6% a year (savings) $180.00 a year
  Interest on $3,000 loan at 6%        180.00 "  "
  Interest on $1,000 cash at $%         50.00 "  "
  Taxes (vary locally)                  75.00 "  "
  Insurance                              5.00 "  "
  Upkeep at 1-1/2%                      60.00 "  "

Of the total income of $2,000, the $550 represents 27-1/2% divided as
follows: 18-1/2% for rent; 9% for savings. In about twelve years the
loan is paid off, and the home owned free and clear.

Zoning and What it Means to the Home



Zoning helps home owners by establishing residential districts from
which garages, and business and factory buildings are excluded.
Apartments or houses covering more than 30 or 40 per cent. of the area
of a lot may be prohibited in some sections. This all means a better
and fairer chance for each family to have a home with enough light and
air, and healthful, decent surroundings, near to schools, playgrounds
and transportation facilities.

It may be added that zoning, when wisely carried out, provides for
grouping of neighborhood stores at convenient points, and for guided
growth of business and industrial districts, in the directions best
suited for them.

In the words of the Advisory Committee on Zoning appointed by Secretary

"Zoning is the application of common sense and fairness to the public
regulations governing the use of private real estate. It is a
painstaking, honest effort to provide each district or neighborhood, as
nearly as practicable, with just such protection and just such liberty
as are sensible in that particular district. It avoids the error of
trying to apply exactly the same building regulations to every part of
a city or town regardless of whether it is a suburban residence section
or a factory district, or a business and financial center.

"Zoning gives everyone who lives or does business in a community a
chance for the reasonable enjoyment of his rights. At the same time it
protects him from unreasonable injury by neighbors who would seek
private gain at his expense.

"Zoning regulations differ in different districts according to the
determined uses of the land for residence, business, or manufacturing,
and according to the advisable heights and ground areas.

"But these differing regulations are the same for all districts of the
same type. They treat all men alike."

But the benefits of zoning are not confined to safeguarding the home
and its surroundings. It can reduce losses due to topsy-turvy growth of
cities, and cut the cost of living. Every year millions of dollars are
wasted in American cities from the scrapping of buildings in "blighted"
districts. For instance, fine residential districts may be threatened
by sporadic factories or junk yards, and owners may become panicky and
sell at a sacrifice millions of dollars worth of valuable dwellings
which will be left to stand practically idle. The public must pay for
this loss in one way or another. Frequently money for street, sewers
and other utilities need never be spent if it is known in advance that
large factories are to occupy new developments. Industry and homes are
both more efficient if kept generally separate, though separation need
not mean great distances for workers to travel.

"How has zoning worked?" "What has it accomplished?" About 70 cities
and towns have adopted zoning ordinances since 1916, and the idea has
worked well. Reliable authorities declare that "the New York zoning
regulations have prevented vast depreciation in many districts and
effected savings in values amounting to millions of dollars in
established sections." The highest class residential districts in New
York, in which only 30 per cent of the lot area may be used for
dwellings, have developed with much greater confidence, due to the
knowledge that houses built would be safe from invasion by apartments
or industry.

In St. Louis "it was found that residences tended to follow the
residence districts, and did not even attempt to seek locations in
industrial or unrestricted areas. Except commercial buildings which
were built partly in commercial and partly in industrial districts, the
development of St. Louis is said to be fitting itself very closely to
the zoning plan.

"In New Jersey it has been found that the unzoned suburban town is at a
distinct disadvantage as compared with the community protected by a
zoning ordinance."

It is sometimes said that zoning is arbitrary and restricts the liberty
of the individual to do as he wishes; but when zoning laws have been
sensibly and comprehensively drawn, the courts have approved them as a
reasonable exercise of the police power "for the public health, safety
and general welfare."

Zoning should always be undertaken in close relation to a city plan. It
is essentially a neighborly proposition, and there should be
neighborhood meetings to explain it and gather suggestions.

The purpose of a zoning ordinance is to insure that growth, instead of
taking place sporadically and wastefully, should go on in an orderly
way in response to generally recognized needs, and with due notice to
all concerned.

Zoning today is giving security and the sense of security to hundreds
of thousands of families in America, in the enjoyment of happy homes
amid the right kind of surroundings.

_Is your city zoned_?

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Better Homes in America: Plan Book for Demonstration Week October 9 to 14, 1922" ***

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