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Title: Report of the Committee Appointed to Investigate the Railroad Riots in July, 1877 - Read in the Senate and House of Representatives May 23, 1878
Author: Various
Language: English
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REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE
APPOINTED TO INVESTIGATE THE
Railroad Riots IN JULY, 1877.

_Read in the Senate and House of Representatives May 23, 1878._

HARRISBURG:
LANE S. HART, STATE PRINTER.
1878.



Transcriber's Note: Minor spelling and typographical errors have
been corrected without note. Missing words, dialect spellings, and
inconsistencies have been retained as printed.



    LEG. DOC.]                                            No. 29.

    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE
    APPOINTED TO INVESTIGATE THE
    RAILROAD RIOTS IN JULY, 1877.

_Read in the Senate and House of Representatives May 23, 1878._


Mr. Reyburn, from the committee appointed to investigate the causes of
the riots in July last, made a report; which was read as follows, viz:

_To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania_:

The committee appointed on the 3d day of February last, by virtue of a
concurrent resolution of your honorable bodies, which resolution reads
as follows, viz:

"_Resolved_, That a committee consisting of five members of the House
of Representatives and three Senators, none of whom shall be from any
of the counties in which said riots occurred, be appointed, whose duty
it shall be to examine into all the circumstances attending the late
disturbance of the peace in certain parts of the Commonwealth, known as
the railroad riots, and endeavor, if possible, to ascertain the causes,
and by what authority the troops of the State were called out, for what
purpose, and the service and conduct of the same; and said committee
shall have power, in pursuing their investigations, to send for persons
and papers, examine witnesses under oath or affirmation, administer
oaths, and employ a competent phonographer to take all the proceedings
of the committee, and the testimony; the committee shall report in
full, in writing, to the Senate and House of Representatives within
twenty days, &c.,"

Beg leave to submit the following report, viz:

On the 4th day of February, 1878, the committee met at Harrisburg,
and organized by the election of William M. Lindsey as chairman,
Samuel B. Collins as clerk and stenographer, and J. J. Cromer as
sergeant-at-arms. At said meeting it was also decided to commence
taking testimony, first at Pittsburgh, that being the point where the
first, and by far the most serious, riots occurred.

Your committee arrived at Pittsburgh at half-past eleven, P.M.,
February 5th, and on the 6th instant met at the orphans' court-room in
said city, the authorities having kindly tendered the use of the same
to the committee for the purposes of the investigation, and discussed
the manner in which the testimony should be taken, and what class of
witnesses should be subpoenaed, whereupon it was decided that the
chairman should conduct the examination of the witnesses generally on
behalf of the committee, and that all citizens who knew any facts of
importance should be subpoenaed to testify and to furnish to the
committee the names of those known to possess valuable information. The
taking of testimony was commenced on February 7th, and proceeded with
as promptly as possible. After a =week's continuous work it became
evident to the committee that they could not accomplish the work
required of them and report within the time named in the above
resolution. They therefore returned to the capital and presented to
your honorable body a preliminary report setting forth what they had
done, and what was still necessary to be done to complete the work
required of them, when the following resolution was adopted by the
Senate and House of Representatives:

_Resolved, (if the Senate concur)_, That the joint committee of the
Senate and House of Representatives, appointed to investigate the late
railroad riots, etc., be and are hereby authorized to pursue their
investigations according to the plan indicated in their preliminary
report, and that to this end an extension of time over and above the
limitation of twenty days of the resolution under which they are acting
be given and granted under this direction, that the committee make a
full and thorough inquiry, and report as soon as practicable. The
committee afterwards took testimony at Harrisburg, at Philadelphia, at
Scranton, and at Reading, and have made as thorough an investigation of
the matter submitted to them as they reasonably could. As the result of
the testimony taken, your committee is of the opinion that the
following state of facts has been proved, viz:

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, some time after the panic in 1873,
reduced the wages of its employés ten per cent., and on account of the
general decline in business made another reduction of ten per cent.,
which took effect on the 1st day of June, A.D. 1877; these reductions
to apply to all employés, from the president of the company down to
those whose wages by the month or otherwise amounted to one dollar per
day or less.

These reductions applied not only to the Pennsylvania railroad proper,
but also to the roads which were run by the Pennsylvania Company, a
corporation controlling several railroads, including the Pittsburgh,
Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad and the Pan Handle railroad, each
having one of its _termini_ at Pittsburgh, and running these railroads
in connection with the Pennsylvania railroad, and all being practically
under one management.

These were not the only railroads in the country to reduce the wages of
employés, a reduction of ten per cent. having gone into effect on the
New York Central railway on the 1st day of July, A.D. 1877, and a
similar reduction on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad on the 16th day of
July, A.D. 1877; your committee having no information as to whether or
not any prior reduction had been made by the last named roads. In
consequence of these reductions of wages a great deal of
dissatisfaction was produced among the employés of the roads,
especially those known as trainmen, consisting of freight engineers,
firemen, conductors, brakemen, and flagmen.

These employés had consulted together in relation to the question of
wages, and as the result of these consultations, a committee had been
appointed some time the latter part of May, composed principally of
engineers, who waited on Thomas A. Scott, President of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, and stated the position of the men and their alleged
grievances. Colonel Scott talked frankly with the committee, and stated
the position of the railroad company, which was, in substance, that in
consequence of the depression in all branches of trade, commerce, and
manufactures throughout the country, the business of the company had so
fallen off that it became a matter of necessity to reduce the wages of
the employés, and, that as soon as the business of the company would
warrant it the wages would be increased. The committee expressed their
satisfaction at the statement made by Colonel Scott, and said they
would go back to Pittsburgh and report the same to the employés, and
that everything would be satisfactory and all right thereafter. The
committee retired, and soon returned with their views set forth in
writing, and signed by them, stating that their conference with Colonel
Scott had proved satisfactory, and that his propositions were
acceptable to the committee. No complaint as to wages was made
thereafter by any of the employés of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company
or of the Pennsylvania Company to any of the proper officers until
after the strike of July 19th.

Immediately after the order for the ten per cent. reduction, to go into
effect on June 1st, 1877, was issued, the employés of the different
railroads having their termini at Pittsburgh, commenced agitating the
question of a strike on account of said reduction, which agitation
resulted in the organization of "The Train Men's Union," a secret,
oath-bound society, the declared object of which was the protection of
its members, in all lawful ways, by combination, but more particularly
to bring the railroad companies to terms by all striking on a given
day, and leaving the railroads with no men of experience to run the
trains. The first meeting to organize a lodge of the society was held
in Allegheny City, on the 2d day of June, A.D. 1877, and the first
person to take the oath of membership was R. A. Ammon, better known as
"Boss Ammon," then a brakeman on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago
railroad, who had been in the employ of the company about nine months.
Boss Ammon seems to have been the leading spirit of the society, and he
was immediately appointed as general organizer, to go out and organize
branches of the Union on all the leading trunk lines of the country,
especially on those centering at Pittsburgh. In a short time the Union
was in full working order on the Pennsylvania railroad, the Pittsburgh,
Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the
New York Central railroad, the Erie railway, and the Atlantic and Great
Western railway, and some others, and a general strike by the members
of the Union was arranged to take place on the 27th of June, A.D. 1877,
at twelve o'clock, noon. The report of the committee of engineers of
the result of their conference with Colonel Scott was not satisfactory
to the members of the Union, they believing, or at least saying, that
the engineers were only looking after their own interests and taking
care of themselves, and therefore the action of the committee did not
arrest the preparations going on within the Union for the proposed
strike. Allegheny City was the headquarters of the organization, and it
was here that the general arrangements for the operations of the Union
were perfected, the members claiming that at least three fourths of all
the train men, whose headquarters were at the two cities of Pittsburgh
and Allegheny City, belonged to the organization. The proposed strike
on the 27th of June was to take place on the Pennsylvania railroad, the
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, the Allegheny Valley
railroad, Pan Handle railroad, and the branches of the roads named, the
Union having been more thoroughly and better organized on these roads
than on any others, and the movements were to be directed from
Allegheny City. Other roads were to be brought into the strike as fast
as possible, so as to make it general and comprehensive.

In accordance with this plan of operations, on Sunday, June 24th, some
forty members of the Union were sent out on the different lines
centering at Pittsburgh, to notify the members on these roads of the
time for the strike to take place, and to make the necessary
arrangements to make it a success. On Monday night, June 25th, a
meeting of the members of the Union on the Pan Handle division was
held, and it was there developed that a portion of them were
dissatisfied with the proposed strike, and trouble ensued on this
account. It was also ascertained that some member or members had
divulged the plans of the Union to the railroad officials, and that the
latter were taking measures to counteract and defeat the strike. The
moving spirits saw at once that with divided counsels, and their plans
known to the railroad officials, the strike, if commenced, would prove
a failure, and measures were at once adopted to prevent it from taking
place by writing and sending word to all points possible in the short
time left. The strike did not take place on the 27th, and the members
of the Union felt as if they had met with a defeat, which left a sore
spot in their bosoms, and which rankled for a long time. It may be well
to state here that the subsequent strike on the Baltimore and Ohio
railroad, at Martinsburg, West Virginia, on the 16th of July, and the
strike at Pittsburgh, on July 19th, was not a strike of the Trainmen's
Union, nor did the Union, as an organization, have anything to do with
either, there having been no meeting of the society either at
Pittsburgh or Allegheny City, after the 27th of June, 1877, up to that
time. The main and almost the only grounds for the proposed strike was
the ten per cent. reduction of wages, although some complaint was made
of the abuse of power and overbearing actions of the minor railroad
officials. Some time in July, 1877, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company
issued an order that all freight trains from Pittsburgh east to Derry
should be run as "double-headers," the order to take effect on the 19th
of that month.

A so called "double-header" consists of thirty four cars, and is hauled
by two engines, a single train consisting of seventeen cars, hauled by
one engine. This was one of the measures of economy adopted by the
company in consequence of the great reduction in business, caused by
the financial situation of the country, and the reduced rates at which
the business was done, caused by the great competition of the different
railroads to secure business, and would enable the company to dispense
with the services of one half of their freight conductors, brakemen,
and flagmen on the Pittsburgh division of the road between that place
and Derry, as only one set of men, aside from the engineers and
firemen, were used on a "double-header." One engine could haul the same
train from Derry to Philadelphia that it took two engines to haul from
Pittsburgh to Derry. "Double-headers" had been previously run between
these two points, especially coal trains, but no general order for all
freight trains to run as "double-headers" had ever before been issued.
In selecting men to discharge under the order to run "double-headers,"
single men, and men who had been the shortest time in the employ of the
company, were chosen, and the men with families, and old men, were kept
so far as they could be. Quite a number of men had been discharged by
the company prior to this time, some for cause, and more on account of
the decrease in business since the panic of 1873; and the company had
still in its employ many more men than could be employed at full time,
keeping them along and allowing them each to work a portion of the
time, probably believing in the old adage that "half a loaf is better
than no bread."

Robert Pitcairn, the general agent and superintendent of the Pittsburgh
division of the Pennsylvania railroad, had leave of absence for a short
time, to commence on the 19th of July, and that morning he left for the
east with his family, over the Pennsylvania railroad, no complaint, as
he says, having been made to the officers of the company by the men, on
account of the order to run "double-headers," and he having no
knowledge or suspicion that any trouble was brewing or expected. The
early morning freight trains left Pittsburgh as "double-headers," but
when the time (8.40 A.M.) came for the next train to leave, the men
(two brakemen and one flagman) refused to go out on a "double-header,"
and the train did not go. The conductor notified the dispatcher that
the men had struck, and the dispatcher undertook to find men who would
go, but all the train men refused. He then made up two crews from the
yard men, and gave orders for the engine to back down and couple on the
train, when the striking men, led by one Andrew Hice, threw coupling
pins and other missiles at the brakeman who was attempting to couple on
the engine, one of which hit him, and, in the words of one witness, he
had to run for his life. There was some twenty or twenty-five men in
the crowd at this time; all men in the employ of the railroad company.
The strikers took possession of the switches over which the trains
would have to move, and refused to let any train pass out, and their
number was from this time gradually increased by the addition of the
men who came in on freight trains, who were induced to join the
strikers as fast as they came in. Between ten and eleven o'clock, A.M.,
David M. Watt, chief clerk of the Pittsburgh division, who was acting
in place of Mr. Pitcairn in his absence, went to the mayor's office and
asked for ten policemen to be sent up to the yard of the company, to
protect the men who were willing to go out on the trains, and arrest
any one who should commit a breach of the peace, telling the mayor
that, in his opinion, ten good men, with his (the mayor's) presence,
would be sufficient for the purpose.

The mayor answered that he did not have the men; that the day force,
with the exception of nine men, had some time previously been
discharged by the action of the city council, and he could not send the
night force, and also refused to go himself, saying he had other
business, and it was not necessary for him to be there. He said,
however, that they might get some of the discharged men to go, if Mr.
Watt would become responsible for their pay, to which Mr. Watt
assented, and the ten men were found, sent out under charge of Officer
Charles McGovern. This force went along with Mr. Watt to the
Twenty-eighth street crossing, the scene of the difficulty, and five of
the police were placed at one switch just above Twenty-eighth street,
and Officer McGovern with the balance took possession of a switch just
below Twenty-eighth street. An engine was there ready to back down and
couple on to the train, and Mr. Watt gave orders to one of his men to
open the switch, so the engine could run down on the proper track, but
the man refused, saying he was afraid he would be injured by the
strikers if he did so. Mr. Watt then stepped up and said "I will open
the switch," when a brakeman by the name of Davis stepped in front of
him, and said "boys we might as well die right here," and made some
demonstrations. At this moment a man named McCall, standing behind
Davis, struck Mr. Watt in the eye; that ended the attempt to open the
switch at that time. After some difficulty and considerable chasing,
McCall was arrested by the police, and taken to the lock-up. At this
time, between twelve and one o'clock, P.M., there was about one hundred
persons in the crowd, about one half of which were mere spectators.
Twenty-five or thirty of the strikers attempted to prevent McCall's
arrest by dodging around in the way, and by coaxing the police to let
him alone. A few stones were thrown, but no very serious efforts were
made beyond this by the strikers at this time. Soon after this, Mr.
Watt sent one of his men to the mayor's office for fifty more
policemen, and in answer to this call some five or six men came out
about one, P.M., in charge of Officer White. With these men, Mr. Watt
went out to the stock-yards, at Torrens station, a distance of five and
one tenth miles from the Union depot, to see if the stock trains at
that place, which had been some time loaded, could be got off.

At this place there was a large crowd of persons, a large portion of
whom were either present employés of the railroad company or were
discharged men, and others were unknown to the railroad officials. One
train of stock was coupled on by the yard engine, and run out by
stratagem before the crowd were aware that it was an attempt to send
the train east, and this was the last freight train that was forwarded,
until after the troubles were over. About four, P.M., another attempt
to move a stock train from Torrens was made, but the engineers all
refused to undertake to couple on to the train, as they had all been
threatened by the strikers, and were afraid of their lives, and at any
move made by the engineer the crowd would interfere, so that the crew
gave up their trains. Mr. Watt returned to Pittsburgh, and the stock
was unloaded. Mr. Watt, on his return to Pittsburgh, went again to the
mayor's office, about five, P.M., and asked for one hundred or one
hundred and fifty police. The mayor was not in, having gone, as he
testified, to Castle Shannon, to see his wife, who was sick. The
mayor's clerk was at the office, and informed Mr. Watt that the men
could not be furnished, that the day force of nine men in all were all
busy, that the night force, which consisted of one hundred and
twenty-two men, were not yet on duty, and could not be spared to be
sent out to the scene of the disturbances, as they must be kept in the
thicker portions of the city, and advised Mr. Watt to call on the
sheriff of the county for assistance. On Friday morning, July 20, A. J.
Cassatt sent David Stewart, of Pittsburgh, to invite the mayor to come
to the Union depot, as he wished to consult him in regard to the
situation, and had sent a carriage to convey him to the depot. The
mayor replied that he would have nothing to do with it; the whole
matter was taken out of his hands; they had no business to bring troops
there. Mr. Stewart asked him if he would see Mr. Cassatt, if he would
bring him down to the mayor's office. His answer was: "No, I will have
nothing to do with it," and he turned and left. It will be noticed that
this was some time before any troops were brought there, and a day and
a half before the Philadelphia troops arrived. This ended the call, by
the railroad officials, on the mayor for assistance to disperse the
crowd interfering with their property, although, on that day, warrants
were placed in the hands of the police for the arrest of some fifteen
or twenty of the ringleaders of the strike, and after this time there
does not appear to have been any very serious attempt made by the mayor
or police to assist in quelling the riots. The whole extra force raised
by the mayor, as testified to by J. J. Davis, clerk of the chief of
police, for whom bills were sent in for pay, was twenty-nine men.

During the afternoon of the 19th of July, one or two attempts were made
to start freight trains from Twenty-eighth street, but when the engine
was started some of the crowd would step in front of it, swing their
hands, and the engineer would leave his engine, and soon all efforts to
start trains from this place were abandoned for that day.

Although the engineers and firemen and some of the conductors and
brakemen professed to be willing to run at any time, yet, on the
slightest demonstration being made by any of the strikers, they would
abandon their engines and trains without making one decent effort to do
their duty. The railroad officials claimed that they had plenty of men
willing to run out the trains if they only had the opportunity, but
when the opportunity was made for them the men did not care to take
advantage of it. In the meantime the crowd was increasing at
Twenty-eighth street, and Mr. Watt, after he left the mayor's office,
went to the sheriff's office, and not finding him there drove to his
residence, but he was not there. It was ascertained that he would be
back in the course of the evening, and Mr. Watt returned to his own
office.

The crowd had so increased at the Twenty-eighth street crossing that
they had full possession of the railroad tracks there, and the yard
engines could not be moved to transfer the cars in the yard from place
to place, and orders were given to the engineers to put up their
engines. Between eleven and twelve o'clock, P.M., Mr. Watt started for
the sheriff's residence, and on his way called at the office of
Honorable John Scott, solicitor for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
to have that gentleman go with him. The sheriff was at home, and they
called on him for protection for the property of the company, and
advised him of all that had taken place up to that time. The sheriff
went with them to the outer depot, near Twenty-sixth street, where they
found General Pearson, who had come to Mr. Pitcairn's office to
ascertain the condition of affairs, so as to report the same to
Adjutant General Latta, who had telegraphed him from Philadelphia,
making inquiry if he knew anything of the disturbances on the
Pennsylvania railroad. Governor Hartranft was at that time out of the
State, and somewhere in the West, on his way to California, and before
going had given instructions to Adjutant General Latta, that in case of
trouble requiring the presence of the military, he must, on the
requisition of the proper civil authorities, assume the responsibility,
and act as occasion demanded.

A little after midnight the sheriff, together with General Pearson, Mr.
Watt, and some fifteen or twenty railroad employés, walked out to
Twenty-eighth street, and there getting up on a gondola or flat car so
as to be above the crowd, addressed them, advising them to disperse and
go to their homes, stating to them his duty in case they refused. The
crowd refused to disperse, and hooted and yelled at the sheriff, and
fired pistol shots in the air while he was addressing them. They told
the sheriff to go home, that they were not going to allow any freight
trains to leave until the difficulty between them and the railroad
company was settled, that the mayor and policemen were on their side,
and that prominent citizens had offered to assist them in provisions
and money to carry on the strike. It should be here stated that there
is no proof that any such offers of assistance were actually made,
except that tradesmen with whom the strikers were dealing offered to
trust them until they got work again, and one prominent citizen, whose
name was used by the mob, came forward testified that he had never made
any such offer. Some of the mob also read messages purporting to come
from other places, urging them to hold their ground, and assistance in
men and means would be sent them. There is no means of ascertaining
whether these messages were really sent as they purported to be, or
were only bogus ones, used for the purpose of firing up the mob, and
inducing them to hold out in their purpose. They were probably bogus,
and they, without doubt, produced the effect intended by their authors.
At this time the crowd numbered some two hundred men and boys, and was
composed of some railroad men, some discharged men, quite a number of
mill men, (that is men from the iron mills, glass factories, &c.,) and
some strangers as they were called by the witnesses, repulsive, hard
looking men, probably tramps and criminals, who always flock to a scene
of disturbance like vultures to the carrion. The sheriff, as he
testifies, becoming satisfied that he could not raise force sufficient
to control the crowd, made a call on the Governor, by telegraph, for
military to suppress the riot. The sheriff at this time had made no
effort whatever to raise a posse to disperse the mob, and in view of
subsequent developments it is probable that such an effort would have
been futile. The copy of the telegram of the sheriff to the Governor is
given in the report of the Adjutant General for 1877, as are also
copies of all other telegrams sent and received by him during the
troubles, and most of them in the evidence taken by your committee, and
therefore they need not be copied here.

In view of the absence of the Governor, the telegram was also sent to
the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and the Adjutant General, the one to
the latter reaching him at Lancaster on his way to Harrisburg. General
Latta immediately telegraphed General Pearson, who held the rank of
major general, and commanded the Sixth division, National Guard, with
headquarters at Pittsburgh, to assume charge of the military situation,
place one regiment on duty, and if he found one regiment not
sufficiently strong, to order out the balance of the division and to
report generally. General Pearson immediately ordered out the
Eighteenth regiment, Colonel P. N. Guthrie, and this order was soon
followed by one ordering out the Fourteenth regiment, Colonel Gray, the
Nineteenth regiment, Colonel Howard, and Hutchinson's battery in
command of Captain Breck. These orders were responded to very slowly,
as it was in the night time, and the men were scattered about the city,
and some companies were made up of men at some little towns outside of
the city. Colonel Guthrie resides at East Liberty, and received his
orders about half past four, A.M., on the 20th. He at once notified his
officers, and they notified the men, but as it was too early to be able
to get messengers the colonel had to go personally to the officers and
it was about twelve o'clock, noon, when the regiment reported at the
Union depot hotel two hundred and fifty strong. This regiment was
ordered out to Torrens Station to protect property and clear the track
at the stock yards, and on its arrival there, at half past one, found a
crowd of from twelve hundred to fifteen hundred persons assembled. The
regiment had no difficulty in getting into proper position, and Colonel
Guthrie then lay in position waiting further orders. It was understood
between General Pearson and Colonel Guthrie that the Fourteenth and
Nineteenth regiments and the battery should clear the track at
Twenty-eighth street, and protect the men on the trains in getting them
started, and that Colonel Guthrie should clear the track at Torrens and
protect the trains in passing that place. The Fourteenth and Nineteenth
regiments assembled very slowly, and it was not until about five P.M.,
that General Brown, commanding the brigade, got together three or four
companies, and these not half full, and marched out to Twenty-eighth
street. Before taking a position there, he received orders from General
Pearson to return to the Union depot, as he had not force sufficient to
accomplish anything, and accordingly he returned with his command.

In the meantime, General Pearson, fearing that the majority of the men
in these regiments sympathized with the strikers, telegraphed Adjutant
General Latta to that effect, and suggested that troops from
Philadelphia should be sent on, and gave it as his opinion that two
thousand troops would be needed to disperse the mob, as it was now (six
thirty-five, P.M.,) very large (four thousand to five thousand men) and
increasing hourly. General Latta at once telegraphed Major General
Brinton, commanding the First division of the National Guard, at
Philadelphia, to get his command ready to move to Pittsburgh. General
Brinton received this order in the evening, and at two o'clock on the
morning of the 21st he had six hundred men at the railroad depot ready
to start. At Harrisburg, General Brinton received some ammunition and
two Gatling guns, and reached Pittsburgh at one, P.M., and reported to
General Latta at the Union depot hotel, and there distributed twenty
rounds of ammunition to his men. In order to understand the situation
of things and the future movements of the troops, a description of the
depots, buildings, tracks, and surroundings of the Pennsylvania
railroad property at Pittsburgh is here necessary. The Union depot was
situated between Seventh and Eighth streets, and from this place the
line of the railroad ran eastwardly, at the foot of a steep bluff, from
one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet high on the right, and with
Liberty street on the left. There were a great number of tracks running
side by side out to and some distance beyond Twenty-eighth street, with
numerous switches in order that the tracks might be used conveniently,
and many of these tracks were filled with cars, passenger and baggage
cars near the depot, and freight cars further out. The outer depot,
lower round house, machine shops, &c., were situated at and near
Twenty-sixth street, about a mile from the Union depot, some other
shops were scattered along there to Twenty-eighth street, near which
street was what was called the upper round-house. From Twenty-eighth
street down to the Union depot the tracks were several feet higher than
Liberty street, and a strong wall was built up at the side of Liberty
street to support the embankment and keep it from caving into the
street. At Twenty-eighth street there was a crossing much used, the
bluff not being as steep or as high here as it is further down, and the
hill is ascended by a diagonal road or path from the crossing.

About two o'clock, A.M., of the 21st, the Nineteenth regiment and
Breck's battery were sent out to Twenty-eighth street, the battery to
take a position at the foot of the bluff, near the crossing, and the
regiment a position on the side hill, a little above and commanding the
crossing. About four, A.M., of the same day, the Fourteenth regiment
was sent out, and ordered to take a position higher up the hill, and
above the Nineteenth regiment, and the orders given by General Pearson
were to hold this position, and keep the Twenty-eighth street crossing
and the tracks in the vicinity clear of the crowd. This Twenty-eighth
street crossing was the gathering point of the mob, and but very little
effort seems to have been made during the day (the 21st) to carry out
General Pearson's order. A few times in the forenoon one or two
companies were ordered down, across the tracks at the crossing, and
back again, and for the time would clear away the crowd in their
immediate path, but as no effort was made to hold the crossing, nor to
clear the tracks on each side of it, the effort amounted to nothing,
and when the soldiers went back to their position on the hill the crowd
would again resume possession of the ground cleared. The soldiers also
fraternized with the mob. Most of the time their arms were stacked, and
they were mingled indiscriminately with the crowd, lying about on the
ground talking with them, and when, about four, P.M., the Philadelphia
troops were marched out to Twenty-eighth street, a dense crowd filled
the Twenty-eighth street crossing and vicinity, and was so mixed up
with soldiers that no lines of regiments or companies could be
observed, and it was with difficulty that soldiers could be discovered
at all. On the morning of the 20th warrants had been issued for the
arrest of some fifteen or twenty of the ringleaders of the strikers,
and were placed in the hands of police officer McGovern and his men to
be executed. His orders were not to attempt to execute the warrants in
the crowd, as they were excited, and a collision might be provoked, and
if arrests were made at all they must be made quietly. If the
opportunity for quiet arrests occurred, it was not taken advantage of,
for no arrests were made, and no attempts seem to have been made to
spot the men, or ascertain their whereabouts, or to do anything towards
executing the warrants while they were in the hands of the officers. On
the morning of the 21st, bench warrants for the arrest of the same
persons were issued by Judge Ewing, and these were placed in the hands
of Constable Richardson, who called on the sheriff for a posse to
assist in making the arrests. The sheriff sent out ten of his deputies
to raise a posse for the purpose, and the deputies claim they were
vigilant and thorough in their efforts to find men willing to serve,
but were unable to raise any considerable number of persons. All sorts
of excuses were made, and not over ten persons in all responded. No
peremptory summons or call, such as it was his right and duty to make,
was ever issued by the sheriff, and, as testified by him, when he
reached the Union depot with his deputies and posse, a short time
before the Philadelphia troops arrived, all but six of his posse had
left.

On Saturday it is the custom for the different mills and shops at
Pittsburgh and vicinity to shut down about noon, or soon after; and on
that eventful Saturday, July 21st, those in the neighborhood of the
Twenty-eighth street crossing saw the crowd at that point suddenly and
largely increased soon after the hour for shutting down the mills. A
prominent manufacturer of Pittsburgh was at the Union depot on
Saturday, about the time of the arrival of the Philadelphia troops, and
had a talk with Mr. A. J. Cassatt, third vice president of the
Pennsylvania railroad, and, in this conversation, told him that
Saturday was an idle day with their workmen in Pittsburgh, and that it
would be great wisdom in him to wait until Monday, when the laboring
men would be at their work, before attempting to open their road; that
it was natural that their home troops should sympathize with the
strikers, and they could not be fully depended on in case of a riot.
Mr. Cassatt refused to give any directions to delay the movements of
the military, saying they had already lost a great deal of time, and it
was the duty of the government to put them in possession of their
property at once. General Brinton, with his command, arrived at
Pittsburgh at three, P.M., and, after being furnished with coffee and
sandwiches at the Union depot, were formed and marched out along the
tracks to the Twenty-eighth street crossing. Before starting from the
depot, General Brinton gave orders that the mob must not be fired upon,
even if they spat in the soldiers' faces, but if they were attacked,
however, they must defend themselves.

The plan adopted for the afternoon's operations was for a portion of
the Philadelphia troops to take possession of the premises of the
railroad company at and in the vicinity of Twenty-fifth and
Twenty-sixth streets, where the freight trains that had been prepared
to send out stood, and clear this portion of the tracks from the crowd,
so that when the tracks and switches at Twenty-eighth street were
cleared and put in possession of the company, the trains could at once
be moved, as the engineers and men were said to be ready to start with
the trains. The balance of the Philadelphia troops were to move up to
Twenty-eighth street and coöperate with the Pittsburg troops in
clearing the tracks at that point, and when this was done the trains
were to be started, and after a few trains had been run out it was
believed that the strike would be broken up; that the strikers would
see the futility of trying to resist the law when backed up by the
military, and would give up the contest.

The sheriff and his deputies (he had no posse to speak of) started from
the Union depot towards Twenty-eighth street, to execute the warrants
in the hands of Constable Richardson, a little in advance of the
Philadelphia troops, but were delayed on the way out, somewhat, by
looking after men, and before arriving at Twenty-eighth street, were
overtaken by the troops, but no arrests were made by them. The second
division, in command of Brigadier General E. De. C. Loud, was left on
Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth streets, with orders to disperse the
crowd at that point and protect the employés in starting the trains.
The order was promptly executed by throwing out skirmish lines and
clearing the tracks in the vicinity of the trains. The first division
brigade, under the command of General E. W. Mathews, and the battery of
Gatling guns, all under command of General Brinton, marched out to near
the Twenty-eighth street crossing. The command marched out by column
far into the crowd as far as possible, and then General Brinton gave
the command to wheel into line by the right flank, which brought one
line lengthwise of the tracks, below the Twenty-eighth street crossing,
facing Liberty street, and another line was formed parallel with the
first, on the opposite side of the tracks facing the hill. The crowd
was ordered to disperse by the sheriff, and he was answered by hoots,
jeers, and rough language. The move made by the troops had cleared the
tracks between the two lines, and the crowd now began forcing itself
down from Twenty-eighth street, between the lines formed each side of
the tracks. General Brinton ordered two companies to form across the
tracks at right angles with the two lines already formed, and between
them, facing Twenty-eighth street, and to march up and press the crowd
back and clear the crossing. The sheriff and his deputies had been in
front up to this time, but they now took a position in rear of the two
companies. General Pearson had been with the command until this time,
when, seeing the size of the crowd, and its determination, he went back
to Mr. Pitcairn's office to telegraph General Latta, for the purpose of
having more troops ordered to the place. The two companies, in carrying
out their orders, marched up against the crowd, with their pieces "arms
port," and endeavored to press them back in this way, but no impression
could be made on them. General Mathews, at this juncture, seeing, as he
said, that the mob was firm and determined, and would not bear
temporizing with, gave his men orders to load.

The two companies were then ordered to charge bayonets; many of their
guns were seized and some of the bayonets nearly twisted off, but no
impression was made on the crowd. While these movements were being
made, the mob was becoming more and more noisy, defiant, and
boisterous, and were throwing stones and other missiles at the troops,
several of the latter having been hit, and one or two seriously
injured. Several pistol shots were also fired by the crowd, and
immediately after the pistol shots the troops commenced firing on the
mob. The firing was scattering, commencing at a point near where the
pistol firing took place, and running along the line in a desultory
manner, until it became almost a volley for a moment. The officers
ordered the firing to cease, and stopped it very soon. There is a
conflict in the evidence as to whether or not an order was given the
troops to fire, but the great weight of the testimony is that no such
order was given. The most of those who testify that such an order was
given, say it was given by General Pearson, but General Pearson was not
present when the firing took place, but was at the superintendent's
office. Every person, however, from General Pearson down, who have
given an opinion on the subject, say that an order to fire was
justified and should have been given, and the officers in command say
that the order would have been given very soon. The firing had the
effect to disperse the crowd at once, they scattering in all
directions, and leaving the troops in full possession of the
Twenty-eighth street crossing and the tracks in the vicinity. Several
persons were killed and wounded, and as is usually the case, a number
of innocent people suffered. The coroner held inquests on the bodies of
twenty-two persons in all, the most of whom were killed by the soldiers
at this time at Twenty-eighth street, but a few were killed the
following night and Sunday morning at or near Twenty-sixth street. The
number cannot be ascertained with any certainty, but several were
seriously injured. It is believed, by those best situated to know the
facts, that a number of the mob were secretly disposed of or taken care
of by their friends, and whose names have never been given. If men had
been ready and willing to man the trains, they could have been sent out
after the dispersal of the crowd, but the occurrence at Twenty-eighth
street seems to have thrown everybody into confusion, and, as usual,
the engineers and train men were glad to find some excuse for not
going. No attempt seems to have been made to move the trains, which
were supposed to be ready at Twenty-sixth street, and the cars remained
there until they and their contents were burned. The troops remained on
the ground from the time of the firing about five, P M., until about
dusk, when they were ordered, by General Pearson, to move into the
lower round-house and machine-shop, near Twenty-sixth street, and
remain for the night, as all attempts to move trains had been
abandoned, and the troops needed rest and food.

The crowd had come together again gradually, in the vicinity of the
Twenty-eighth street crossing, but whenever the troops made any move
towards them, they would scatter, and when the troops marched into the
lower round house and machine shop, the mob took possession of, and had
full sway again at the crossing. General Pearson had ordered the
Fourteenth and Nineteenth regiments to go down and take possession of
the transfer depot as it was called, about two hundred yards below the
lower round house, and these regiments marched down there about the
time that General Brinton's command went into the round house and
machine shop. Colonel Gray, at request of Colonel Howard, assumed
command at the transfer depot, and held possession until about ten
P.M., when General Brown came and told Colonel Gray that the place was
untenable, and could not be held; that he had information which made it
necessary for them to get out, and ordered the command to go to the
Union depot. Colonel Gray had been disgusted at the order to leave the
side hill above the Twenty-eighth street crossing, thinking it a great
mistake, and was also disgusted at the order to move down to the Union
depot. Colonel Gray, received orders from General Brown to disband his
command, and at once called around him his officers, and protested
against it. Said it was a disgrace to do so, with the mob in force in
the vicinity, and a disgrace to desert the Philadelphia troops, but the
order was obeyed, and the men dispersed to their homes, carrying their
guns with them; about eleven P.M., General Brown testified, that
leading citizens and military men advised him that it was best to
disband these troops, that their being kept under arms aggravated and
exasperated the mob, and that this advice coincided with his opinion,
and therefore the order was given. About two hundred men were present
at the time they were disbanded, nearly as many more having left from
time to time, during the day and evening, and it is General Brown's
opinion, that they were absent on account of their sympathy with the
strikers, and not on account of fear. When these troops marched down to
the transfer depot, the mob did not jeer or rail at them, as they did
at all times at the Philadelphia troops, and it does not seem from the
evidence, that anything had been done by them to aggravate or
exasperate the mob in the least. General Pearson entered the round
house with General Brinton's command, and left them about half past
eight, to see about getting provisions for the men, who had received no
regular meal since leaving Philadelphia. They had been furnished with
coffee and sandwiches at Altoona, and the same at Pittsburgh.

On leaving, General Pearson gave General Brinton orders to hold the
position until he returned, which he thought would be within an hour.
On reaching Union depot General Pearson was informed that the mob was
very much exasperated against him, as they held him responsible for the
firing on them by the troops, and was advised by General Latta and
others that his presence would still further aggravate the crowd, and
that he had better retire to some place of safety until the excitement
was over, which advice was followed, and he therefore did not return to
General Brinton. The effort to provision General Brinton's troops was a
failure, as the mob seized, used, and destroyed the food which was sent
out for the purpose. The round house and machine shop overlooked
Liberty street on one side, on the other side were the tracks, many of
them filled with cars, and near the machine shop were piles of lumber
and materials used in repairs. Pickets were put out on this side of the
machine shop so as to prevent the mob from taking shelter behind the
piles of lumber, and firing on the troops from these places. The mob
had broken into two or three gun stores in the city between eight and
nine o'clock that evening, and had, by this means, secured guns and
ammunition, and soon after dark commenced firing on the round house and
machine shops, firing in at the windows and at any soldiers they could
get sight of, one of the mob firing an explosive bullet, which the
troops could see explode every time it struck anything in their
vicinity.

Two of the soldiers were wounded, one in the arm and one in the leg,
during the night, which is all the casualties that occurred among them
until after they left the round house and shop in the morning. About
ten o'clock P.M., the mob began setting fire to the cars, and running
them down the track nearest the round house, in order, if possible, to
set it on fire, and thus drive out the troops. From some distance above
Twenty-eighth street to below Twenty-sixth street it is down grade, and
the cars will run of their own gravitation, on being started, down to
and below the buildings in which the troops were located. The first car
fired was a car of coal, and, after being set on fire, it was started
on the down grade with one of the mob on it, and he, on arriving at the
round house, broke up the car and stopped it. Other cars were fired and
run down against the first one, and there was soon a string of fire the
whole length of the shops on the side next the tracks. The round house
was well supplied with water, and the troops were enabled to keep the
fire from communicating with the buildings during the night.

About one o'clock, on the morning of the 22d, (Sunday,) it was
discovered that the mob had a field piece on Liberty street, ready to
fire on the round house. By General Brinton's orders his men were
stationed at the windows ready to fire, and the mob were notified to
abandon the gun and not attempt to fire it, or they would be fired on.
They paid no attention to the warning, and when one of them was seen
with the lanyard in his hand ready to discharge the piece, orders were
given the troops to fire, and several of the mob fell, and the rest ran
away. Several attempts were made by the mob during the night to creep
up and discharge the gun, but the soldiers kept close watch on it and
allowed them no opportunity to do so. General Brinton succeeded in
communicating with General Latta during the night by sending out one of
his men, Sergeant Joseph F. Wilson, who, by disguising himself,
succeeded in getting out and back twice, but would not undertake it
again. He brought orders from General Latta to hold on as long as
possible, that Guthrie had been ordered to report to him, and ought to
reach him at five or six o'clock, but if compelled to escape at last,
to do so to the eastward, to take Penn avenue if possible, and make for
Colonel Guthrie, at Torrens. The scout, Wilson, brought in the last
dispatch about two o'clock, A.M., the 22d, and this was the last
communication that reached General Brinton while in the round house.
The ordeal through which these men passed that night was fearful.
Tired, hungry, worn out, surrounded by a mob of infuriated men, yelling
like demons, fire on nearly all sides of them, suffocated and blinded
by smoke, with no chance to rest, and but little knowledge of what
efforts were being made for their relief, with orders not to fire on
the mob unless in necessary self defense, the wonder is that they were
not totally demoralized; but the evidence of all the officers is that
the men behaved like veterans, obeyed all orders cheerfully and with
promptness, and during the whole night but one company manifested any
spirit of insubordination, and these proposed to lay down their arms
and quit, as they were not allowed to use them on the mob, while the
latter were taking every opportunity of shooting down the soldiers.
This insubordination was quickly brought to an end as soon as the
attention of the proper officer was called to it, and when the troops
marched out in the morning, no one could tell by their actions which of
the men had wavered during the night. About half-past seven, Sunday
morning, the 22d instant, the machine shop caught fire in many places,
the roof of the round house also was on fire, and it became necessary
to evacuate the buildings. The two Napoleon guns could not be removed,
and were spiked, and about eight, A.M., the command marched out into
the street in good, order, taking their Gatling guns with them. The mob
scattered in every direction at sight of the troops coming out, and no
attempt was made to molest the soldiers until they began their march
eastward by Penn avenue, in pursuance of the orders received from
General Latta.

After marching two or three squares, the troops were harassed by a fire
in their rear. They were fired at from second story windows, from the
corners of the streets, and from every place where one of the mob could
fire from under cover so as to be safe himself from a return fire. They
were also fired at from a police station, where eight or ten policemen
stood in uniform, as they passed, and when they were a convenient
distance from the station, shots were fired at them from the crowd
there assembled. It is hard to believe charges of this kind, but the
evidence is too positive and circumstantial to leave room for doubt. At
one point, just before reaching the United States arsenal, there was
some confusion among the men in the rear of the column, caused by an
attack by the mob that was following up, and a halt was made, and the
Gatling guns used on the attacking party, which dispersed them, and
this ended all attacks on the troops. In this retreat, three of the
soldiers were killed and several wounded, one of whom, Lieutenant Ashe,
died a few days afterwards, at the United States arsenal. On arriving
at the arsenal several of the soldiers climbed over the fence, into the
grounds, and General Brinton called on the commandant, Major
Buffington, for leave to feed and shelter his troops there. General
Brinton and Major Buffington disagreed as to what occurred between them
at that time, which question of veracity the purposes of this report
does not require us to decide, but General Brinton is corroborated by
the testimony of one of his officers, and Major Buffington has no
corroborating witness. The result of the conference was, that General
Brinton and his well men went on, and his wounded were left, and well
cared for, at the arsenal. General Brinton, hearing nothing from
Colonel Guthrie, continued his march out to and through Sharpsburg, and
finally brought up in the vicinity of the work-house, and encamped on
the grounds near that institution, where he was furnished with rations
for his men, and gave them a chance to get the rest they so much
needed. These rations reached General Brinton's command during Sunday
afternoon, through the personal exertions of A. J. Cassatt, who, from
the time of the occupation of the round-house by the troops, had been
unwearied in his endeavors to get provisions to them. The command was
also furnished with blankets and other necessary camp equipments, by
Colonel Thomas A. Scott, who had also been vigilant in looking after
the welfare of the men, and all necessary transportation needed on
their behalf, after their departure from Philadelphia, unprepared for a
campaign, on account of the brief notice given them. To these two
gentlemen, the friends of the National Guard owe a debt of gratitude
for the personal interest taken by them, at all times, during the
campaign, to render any service that lay in their power to make the men
comfortable.

The destruction of the railroad property by the mob had been continued
all night, the cars and goods contained in them that could not be
carried off being burned as fast as they could be broken open, the
goods thrown out and the cars set on fire. Crowds of men, women, and
children were engaged in the work of pillage, and everything portable,
of any value, was seized as fast as thrown from the cars, and carried
away and secreted. One feature of the mob at Pittsburgh is new in this
country. A large number of women were in the crowd at Twenty-eighth
street, on Saturday, the 21st instant, and according to testimony, they
talked to the sheriff, and others who tried to get the crowd to
disperse, worse than the men, used viler epithets, and more indecent
language, and did everything in their power to influence and excite the
mob to resistance. They also, during Saturday night and Sunday, brought
out tea and coffee for the men engaged in the destruction of property,
and were the most active in carrying away the goods taken from the
cars. This work of pillage and destruction continued all day Sunday,
and the actual destruction was participated in by only thirty to fifty
men, the citizens in the meantime standing looking helplessly on, and
no effort made to stay the damage by the bystanders. There was a very
large crowd in the vicinity of the burning, who were supposed to be in
sympathy with the destruction, and this probably deterred anyone from
interfering to put a stop to it. The police, on Sunday, arrested some
seventy-five persons who were carrying off goods, the arrests being
made some distance from the place where the articles were taken. Those
arrested were taken before Deputy Mayor Butler, and most of them were
by him discharged. This seems to be all that the police did to restrain
the rioting that day, and it is in evidence that one policeman in
uniform got into one of the cars and threw goods out to the mob.

On Saturday morning, General Latta had sent written orders by Captain
Aull to General Brinton, for the latter to make a junction with Colonel
Guthrie, at Torrens, and with the whole force to march to Pittsburgh,
and fearing that Captain Aull might fail to reach General Brinton, the
order was read to Colonel Norris, who volunteered to go in search of
General Brinton.

Colonel Norris, in company with J. M. Stewart, overtook General
Brinton's command a little beyond Sharpsburg, and they both testify
that Colonel Norris told General Brinton that Captain Aull had been
sent by General Latta in search of him with orders, and communicated to
him, (General Brinton,) the substance of the orders, and that General
Brinton refused to go back, saying that his men had been fired at from
houses, street crossings, and police stations, and were almost famished
for want of food, and he was going into the open country where he could
intrench and defend himself, and procure food for his men, but that if
he received positive orders he might return.

General Brinton and several of his officers testify that although
Colonel Norris visited him at the time and place stated, yet that he
delivered no orders whatever, and stated that his errand was to find
out where the command was. In regard to these counter-statements your
committee will have something to say under the head of "conduct of the
militia." It is proper to state here, however, that the written order
given to Captain Aull to take to General Brinton was not delivered to
him till the 1st day of August, a week from its date.

Soon after the first car was set on fire, Saturday night, the alarm of
fire was given, and the firemen with their engines at once turned out
and arrived in the vicinity of the fire about eleven o'clock, but were
not allowed to attempt to stop the destruction of the railroad company
property. They tried several times to lay their hose, so as to play on
the fire, but the mob cut their hose and threatened them with death if
they persisted. Some of the police testify that they cleared away the
mob at one place and notified the firemen that they were ready to
protect them if they would go to work and put out the fire; but the
firemen deny this, and testify that no such offer was made, and that at
no time did they see half a dozen police together.

In view of the general failure of the police to do what must be
considered their duty in regard to the rioters, during the whole time
of the trouble, they need not think it strange if the majority of
people are inclined to believe the statements of the firemen. The
officers of the fire department testify that the firemen were well
organized at the place of danger, ready to do their duty at all times,
and that this department was the only one in the city that was
organized trying to do its duty during the time of the riot. The
firemen, after some remonstrance on the part of a portion of the
rioters, were allowed to save private property, and to this fact may be
ascribed the safety of a good portion of the city; for the fire from
the railroad property communicated to the adjoining property of
individuals, and but for the labors of the firemen there must have been
a very extensive conflagration throughout Pittsburgh. The destruction
of property did not cease until about five o'clock, P.M., on Sunday,
the 22d, and then only when the limit of the corporation property had
been reached at Seventh street by the destruction of the Union depot,
Union depot hotel, and the grain elevator. The latter did not belong to
the railroad company, but it was believed by the mob to be owned by a
corporation, and therefore it was doomed to destruction with the rest.
Several times during the day--Sunday--the cry of "police" was made by
some one in the crowd, and whenever this was done the mob would scatter
in all directions, but as soon as it was ascertained to be a false
alarm they would again return to the work of destruction. It was
demonstrated also that whenever any citizen gave a determined and
positive order to any of the mob it was usually obeyed.

A notice had been published in the Sunday morning papers, and had also
been given out in the various churches, that a meeting of the citizens
would be held at the old city hall, at noon, for the purpose of
organizing to protect the city. Some citizens met at the old city hall,
according to notice, but there seemed to be no head to the movement,
and it adjourned to meet at the new city hall immediately. At this
place a committee of safety was appointed, and a sort of an
organization for defense commenced, but in the language of a prominent
witness engaged in the movement: "They were all day doing very little;
there was no head anywhere; the mayor did nothing, and seemed to be
powerless, and the sheriff had run away. The mayor seemed to be
confused; he ran around some, but really did nothing." A nucleus for an
organization of the responsible citizens of the city was formed,
however, which on the following day developed into vigorous action, and
the best men of the city came forward and subscribed liberally to a
fund to pay an extra police force, and pledged themselves to subscribe
any amount necessary to put the city in a complete state of defense
against the mob element. Some sixty thousand dollars was actually
subscribed, of which about fifteen thousand dollars was used to pay the
extra police force called into existence by the action of the citizens
during the emergency.

About four to five o'clock, P.M., a body of fifty or sixty men,
composed of professional and business men, were organized under the
lead of Doctor Donnelly, and armed at first with ax-helves, and
afterwards with some old muskets and no ammunition, and with white
handkerchiefs on their left arms, appeared at the scene of the trouble,
near the Union depot and elevator, but it was too late to save these
buildings, as they were already burned. The crowd gave way to this
force, but as the destruction was completed here but little could be
accomplished. The doctor ordered the mob to take hold and tear down a
fence so as to stop the spread of the fire, and they obeyed orders.

There was such an apathy among the citizens, that it took all the day
to raise this force led by Doctor Donnelly, and after being on the
ground a short time, and finding nothing for them to do, they
disbanded.

During the day (Sunday) a car load of whisky or high wines was broken
open by the mob, and they drank very freely of it, and towards night,
at the time the Union depot and elevator were burned, most of the
active rioters were so drunk as to be unable to continue the work of
destruction, if they had been so disposed. Whisky had done good service
in this case, if never before. The fatigue consequent upon the labors
of Saturday night and Sunday was also producing its effect upon the
rioters, and taken in connection with the fact, that most of them must
have been filled to satiety with rioting and destruction of property,
shows a good cause for the waning of the riot on Sunday afternoon. A
few of the rioters, between five and six o'clock, P.M., went to the
Duquesne depot, (the property of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,) at
the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, with the
intention of burning it and the cars in the vicinity. One car was set
on fire and an attempt made to set the depot on fire, but some six or
eight of the citizens' safety committee arrived there about the time
the rioters did, and they interfered at once to put a stop to
destruction, and had no difficulty in doing so, as the rioters desisted
and left as soon as they saw any authority exerted in opposition to
their schemes.

The Eighteenth regiment (Colonel Guthrie) had remained at Torrens
station, keeping the track clear at that point, and waiting for the
expected trains. The crowd at that place numbered about fifteen hundred
men, composed of mill men, some railroad men, boys, roughs, and tramps.
The passenger trains were allowed to run by the mob, but between
Pittsburgh and Torrens they were filled to overflowing by the roughest
of the crowd, who traveled backwards and forwards between those places
on the trains at their pleasure, and no one dared to interfere with
them. They even climbed on the engine and tender, and roofs of the
cars, and controlled the movements of the trains whenever they chose so
to do between those two points. At Torrens, the crowd would
occasionally become demonstrative and defiant, and Colonel Guthrie was
obliged to charge bayonets on them several times, and each time had no
difficulty in dispersing them. Twice he ordered his men to load in
presence of the crowd, and this of itself dispersed them. Colonel
Guthrie's troops were not allowed to fraternize with the mob, but were
kept entirely aloof from them, and this regiment does not seem to have
become demoralized, as the Fourteenth and Nineteenth regiments were.
About four o'clock, P.M., Sunday, Colonel Guthrie, hearing that the
Fourteenth and Nineteenth regiments had been disbanded, and being
unable to ascertain the exact condition of affairs at Pittsburgh, went
there and consulted with General Latta, and his regiment was ordered to
march to that place, where they arrived about dark, and, of course, too
late to be of any service in stopping the destruction of property,
which had all taken place before their arrival. They marched to the
armory and stayed all night, and on Monday forenoon, the Twenty-third,
together with the Fourteenth and Nineteenth regiments, which had been
ordered to reassemble that morning, marched through the principal
streets of the city for the purpose of overawing any riotous
disposition that might still remain in those who had been engaged in
the work of destruction the day before. Colonel Guthrie assumed command
of the division, his commission being older than Colonel Gray's or
Colonel Howard's, and when General Brown wished to assume command
Colonel Guthrie refused to recognize his authority, on account of the
manner in which he had managed matters on Saturday, the 21st. On
Saturday night, a few of the leading citizens had suggested to the
mayor that it would be well to call out all of the old police force
that had been discharged, and in accordance with this suggestion the
chief of police caused a notice to be published, calling on them to
report at his office and they would be assigned to duty. During the day
several reported and were employed, and afterwards most of the old
force were taken back and assigned to duty for a time. This extra
force, together with the force of citizens organized for the purpose,
patrolled the city that Sunday night, and succeeding nights, until the
danger had passed.

From the first commencement of the strike, the strikers had the active
sympathy of a large portion of the people of Pittsburgh. The citizens
had a bitter feeling against the Pennsylvania Railroad Company on
account of, as they believed, an unjust discrimination by the railroad
company against them in freight rates, which made it very difficult for
their manufacturers to compete successfully with manufacturers further
west, and this feeling had existed and been intensified for years, and
pervaded all classes. A large portion of the people also believed that
the railroad company was not dealing fairly by its men in making the
last reduction in wages, and the tradesmen with whom the trainmen dealt
also had a direct sympathy with the men in this reduction, for its
results would affect their pockets.

The large class of laborers in the different mills, manufactories,
mines, and other industries in Pittsburgh and vicinity, were also
strongly in sympathy with the railroad strikers, considering the cause
of the railroad men their cause, as their wages had also been reduced
for the same causes as were those of the railroad men, and they were
not only willing but anxious to make a common fight against the
corporations. This feeling of aversion to the railroad company and
sympathy with the strikers was indulged in by the Pittsburgh troops to
the same extent that it was by the other classes, and as many of them
had friends and relatives in the mob, it is not much to be wondered at
that they did not show much anxiety to assist in dispersing the crowd
and enforcing the law.

With the repulse of the attempt to set fire to the Duquesne depot ended
all active efforts by the mob to destroy property, and after that
Sunday night no mob of any size was again assembled, although it was
several days before complete order was fully restored, as the people
had lost confidence in all the laboring men, and no one knew who to
trust or what to expect from others on account of the extent to which
the demoralization had gone.

About sixteen hundred cars, (mostly freight,) including passenger and
baggage cars, with such of their contents as were not carried away by
the thieves; one hundred and twenty-six locomotives, and all the shops'
materials and buildings, except one or two small ones, of the railroad
company, from above Twenty-eighth street to the Union depot, were
burned on that Saturday night and Sunday.

It has been estimated, by a competent person, that the damage,
including loss of property and loss of business, consequent upon the
interruption of business, which was inflicted by the mob, at Pittsburgh
alone, was $5,000,000. This may be a large estimate, but if the
consequential damages could be correctly arrived at, the total damage
would fall but little short of the figures given. The actual loss of
property by the railroad company alone, not including the freight they
were transporting, is estimated at two million dollars, by the officers
of the company, from actual figures made. The authorities of Allegheny
county adopted thorough measures to ascertain the extent of the loss of
property, and to that end appointed a committee to investigate claims
of those claiming damage. One hundred and sixty-nine claims were
settled by the committee, that is, the amount of each claim of this
number was adjusted and agreed upon by the committee and the parties,
and the total amount thus adjusted is about one hundred and sixty
thousand dollars, and all this is strictly private property. Some
persons refused to adjust the amount of their claims with the
committee, among which is the claim of the elevator company, amounting
to the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. Property that was stolen
was also recovered and returned to the railroad company, amounting in
value to at least sixty thousand dollars.

The tracks from Union depot out to and beyond Twenty-eighth street were
nearly all ruined by the fire, the rails being warped and twisted and
the ties burned; they were also covered with the debris of the burned
cars, and it was about a week after the destruction, or until July
30th, before the railroad company were enabled to get their trains all
running regularly again over this portion of the track.

During the troubles of the 20th and 21st, efforts were made by the
strikers to come to an understanding or compromise with the railroad
officials, and a committee to confer with the officials was appointed.

Some time on Friday, the 20th, the committee met Mr. Pitcairn, the
superintendent of the Pittsburgh division, and presented him with a
written statement of the demand made by the strikers, of which the
following is a copy, viz:

    "BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS,
    PITTSBURGH DIVISION, NO. 50,
    PITTSBURGH, PA., _July 20, 1877_.

    _To the Superintendent Western Division, Pennsylvania Railroad_:

    _First._ We, the undersigned committee appointed by the employés of
    the western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, do
    hereby demand from the said company, through the proper officers of
    said company, the wages as per department of engineers, firemen,
    conductors, brakemen, and flagmen as received prior to June 1,
    1877.

    _Second._ That each and every employé that has been dismissed for
    taking part or parts in said strikes to be restored to their
    respective positions.

    _Third._ That the classification of each of said department be
    abolished now and forever hereafter.

    _Fourth._ That engineers and conductors receive the wages as
    received by said engineers and conductors of the highest class
    prior to June 1, 1877.

    _Fifth._ That the running of double trains be abolished, excepting
    coal trains.

    _Sixth._ That each and every engine, whether road or shifting,
    shall have its own fireman.

    Respectfully submitted to you for immediate consideration.

    J. S. MCCAULEY,
    D. H. NEWHARD,
    JOHN SHANA,
    G. HARRIS,
    J. P. KESSLER,
      _Committee_."

Mr. Pitcairn informed the committee, that these terms could not be
accepted by the railroad company, and that he could not send such a
proposition to Colonel Scott, the president of the company, and the
negotiations were broken off. An attempt was made on Sunday, by some of
the citizens, to induce the railroad officials to submit some
proposition for a compromise to the strikers, but the officials
refused, saying that the men had taken the law into their own hands,
and that no proposition could be made to them until their property was
restored, and all opposition had ceased, and that it was now a matter
of law, and the State authorities must settle the question with the men
first.

The propositions embraced in the papers submitted by the committee of
engineers, proposed that the railroad company should make concessions
that had never been asked before. The first and second explain
themselves fully, and had been grounds of complaint before. The third,
requiring the abolishment of the classification of conductors and
engineers, had never been a ground of complaint by the men. The
conductors were divided into three classes: The first of which received
a certain rate of pay per month the first year of service; an addition
of ten per cent. for the second year, and another addition of the ten
per cent. for the third year. The engineers were divided into four
classes, and received an advance of ten per cent. for each year of
service after the first until the fourth class was reached. This
classification was adopted at the request of the men themselves, some
years previous, and no complaint in regard to it had ever reached the
officers of the company.

This principle of classification had been practiced by other railroads,
and has worked well, and is a good rule for both the men and the
railroads, as its tendency is to secure and retain better men to run
the trains.

The fourth proposition, if accepted, would have placed the new,
inexperienced men on the same footing as the men of experience, and to
give them at once the highest wages paid the older and more experienced
men.

The fifth proposition was for the railroad company to back down and
rescind the order made to run double-headers and the sixth that the
company should employ a fireman on all shifting engines, a place where
they are not usually needed, as the engine is not engaged in steady
work, and the engineer can do his own firing without trouble or
over-work. No proposition of compromise was submitted to the strikers
on the part of the railroad company, and what would have been the
result if one had been made, it is useless to speculate about.

As tending to show the feeling of the people of Pittsburgh on the
subject of the difficulties between the Pennsylvania Railroad Company
and its employés and in regard to the strike, some copies of editorials
from several of the newspapers of the city, written and published at
the time of the strike, have been inserted in the evidence accompanying
their report.

More space has been given to the history of the riots at Pittsburgh
than to any other place, as it was here the troubles first commenced in
this State; here was the greatest loss of life, and it was here that,
by far, the greatest destruction of property took place. We turn now to
Allegheny City, just across the river from Pittsburgh, and the termini
of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, the Allegheny
Valley railroad, the Pan Handle railroad, and the Connellsville
division of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. On Friday morning, July
20th, the freight conductors and brakemen on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne
and Chicago railroad refused to go out with their trains, and the
railroad officers, fearing trouble, sent up to the mayor's office for
some policemen to preserve the peace, and ten were sent them. The mayor
was not at his office at the time, but, on his return, he immediately
went up to the depot to look after the troubles himself. At the time
the mayor arrived on the ground there was a crowd of two hundred and
fifty to three hundred and fifty men assembled and no man could be
found to man the trains. One engineer came out with his engine, which
was surrounded by the crowd, but no violence was used and there is no
evidence of any threats being made at the time, but he returned with
his engine to the round house. After this time no attempt to run a
freight train was made on this road until the troubles were all over
and the men had given up the strike.

The strikers here were under the leadership of one R. A. Ammon, better
known as Boss Ammon, and declared their intention to use no violence to
prevent trains from running; that if the railroad company could get
"scabs" (as the strikers called any man who was willing to work during
a strike) to run their trains, they were willing the trains should run,
but as the company was unable to find men willing to go out on the
trains, the good intentions of the strikers were not tested. As this
road was run directly in connection with the Pennsylvania railroad on
the general western through traffic, it was but little object to force
the freight trains out as long as the Pennsylvania railroad was
blockaded, and, hence, no effort was made, after the first day, to run
freight trains. The main efforts were in the direction of keeping the
peace and preventing the destruction of property. The strikers declared
their intentions to keep the peace, and prevent the destruction of
property, and not interfere with the running of passenger trains, and
they were told that so long as they did this in good faith, they would
not be interfered with. Mayor Phillips immediately ordered out all his
police to patrol the city, organized an extra force of citizens, and
swore them in, made a requisition on the Secretary of War for five
hundred guns, and got them, and placed them in the hands of the
citizens, and generally had everything so well organized and arranged
that any attempt at a riot could have been met and quelled at once. It
was rumored that the mob had broken, or was going to break, into the
armory and get the guns (about forty) stored there, and the mayor at
once sent and had the guns all removed to a place of safety. It was
also rumored that the mob from Pittsburgh intended to come over into
Allegheny City, and destroy the railroad property there, and the mayor
had the bridges all guarded by armed men, with two field pieces at the
principal ones, which he was enabled to get, and there being no balls
with them, he caused them to be loaded with square iron burs, an inch
or so in size.

The city had fifty-five policemen, and these were kept on duty as much
of the time as it was possible for men to be out, and no opportunity
was given any of the Pittsburgh mob to cross over to Allegheny.

At the time it was alleged that the Pittsburgh mob was coming to
Allegheny City, to destroy the property of the railroad company there,
an arrangement was made with Ammon and his men to take the freight cars
out of the city, which was accordingly done, and ten miles of cars were
hauled out from the city some miles, and stowed away on the side
tracks, until the troubles were over, when the same men brought them
back and turned them over, in good order, to the railroad authorities.
It was also arranged with Ammon and his men, that as long as the men
behaved themselves and protected the property of the company, no
soldier should be brought there to interfere with them, and if, at any
time, they found themselves unable to preserve the peace and take care
of the property, they were to notify the mayor, who would then furnish
a force to preserve order. The mayor also, at the commencement of the
troubles, sent his policemen around to notify the saloon-keepers, and
others, to close their bars, and sell no strong drink to any one, and
afterwards sent the force around to see that the order was obeyed.
Although not legally binding, the order was very generally observed,
and no trouble was experienced on account of the crowd using strong
drink. The mayor had notices posted throughout the city that, if
necessity required it, ten taps of the bell was to be the signal for
the general assembling of the citizens at a given place for defense,
which signal, fortunately, was not required to be given.

Mayor Phillips considered himself as the chief peace officer of the
city, and if the sheriff or military had been called on for assistance,
he did not consider either or both superseded him, but that it would
have been his duty to have cooperated with them to the full extent of
his power.

"Boss" Ammon and his party, which consisted of about one hundred
railroad men and a crowd of two or three hundred outsiders, roughs, and
laborers, continued to run the Pittsburgh division of the Pittsburgh,
Fort Wayne and Chicago road until Tuesday evening, the 24th instant, at
which time Governor Hartranft arrived from the West. When Ammon heard
that the Governor was on the train, coming to Pittsburgh, he
telegraphed him, welcoming him to the State, and assuring him a safe
passage. On the Governor's arrival he was met by Ammon and introduced
to the crowd, and gave them a short talk, counseling obedience to the
laws, which was well received. It was now felt by all that the strike
must come to an end immediately; that there was a man at the head of
affairs who knew his duty and would not be trifled with, and that all
parties would be fairly and justly treated. Boss Ammon immediately made
arrangements to turn over the railroad to the proper authorities, he
seeing very clearly that the proper time to do so had now come, and
that further delay was dangerous. Some of his men could not agree with
him that it was best to make terms while they could, and, at a meeting
of the men, he was hissed, and they refused to hear him speak.

Thus fell from his position of boss the man who, with only eleven
months' experience as a brakeman, for four or five days successfully
ran one division of a great railroad.

It has by some been considered an extraordinary performance for a young
man of twenty-five, with the small experience he had, to control the
men he did, and keep the passenger trains running regularly without
accident on such a railroad; but when the circumstances are considered
it is nothing wonderful. In the first place, a mob or crowd are always
willing to follow any person who has nerve, and is willing to assume
the responsibility and take the lead. Ammon had the nerve; was
naturally shrewd and sharp, and knew how to control men, and they had
been used to look up to him as the organizer of the Trainmen's Union.
The mob always wants a dictator, and in Ammon they had one. In the next
place, the great railroads of the country are so organized, and their
trains are run by such a regular system in connection with the
telegraph, that the trains can be run for days without a break if the
superintendent should abandon the road entirely. Ammon was a king so
long as he led in the direction the crowd wished to go; when he
undertook to put on the brakes and get them to reason about their
situation, and ran counter to their opinions, he was dethroned with as
little ceremony or compunction as one school boy shows in knocking off
the hat of another.

Human nature is the same everywhere; in politics, society, or with the
mob, the leader must go in the direction his followers would have him
go, or he is replaced for one more subservient. From Wednesday, the
25th of July, the officers of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago
railroad began to be able to get control of their road, and in a few
days all the trains were running regularly. The other railroads running
into Allegheny City had nearly the same difficulty with their men as
did the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, and their trains
for a few days were not regularly run, but they got along without any
rioting or destruction of property, and were soon able to start all
their trains again.

On Friday, July 20th, the freight conductors and brakemen on the
Pennsylvania railroad, at Philadelphia, began to be uneasy, and on
Saturday, the 21st, a strike was in full operation among them. They
gathered in crowds at the yards of the company where the freight trains
were made up to start out, and they, as in other places, were joined by
a large crowd of idle men, tramps, and vagabonds, such as are found
around a large city, and who scent out a chance for trouble or a riot,
as a crow scents carrion. The officials called on Mayor Stokley for
policemen to keep the peace, and protect the property of the company.
The mayor at once acted vigorously; sent out his police with orders to
disperse any crowd that might gather on the grounds of the railroad
company, and, on advising with the citizens, he was authorized to call
out an extra force, which he did at once. His action was so thorough
and efficient, that no serious interruption of traffic was experienced
at that place, although crowds of rough men had gathered to the number
of two or three thousand, and at one time, as estimated, to the number
of four thousand to five thousand. They were dispersed by the prompt
and vigorous action of the police, who would charge into the crowd,
using their clubs freely and scattered them at once. It was the policy
of the mayor not to allow a mob to collect, and this prevented a
serious rioting.

To Mayor Stokley and his police force, the State, as well as the city
of Philadelphia, is greatly indebted, and to their efforts may be
ascribed the salvation of that city from the disgraceful scenes enacted
at Pittsburg.

On Saturday, July 21st, an uneasiness among the trainmen at Harrisburg
and Scranton was observed, which, within the following two or three
days, ripened into a strike. The first crowd which gathered in
Harrisburg was on Saturday evening, the 21st of July, at the
Pennsylvania railroad depot, to prevent the shipping of ammunition to
Pittsburgh. The mayor was notified about ten o'clock, P.M., of what was
going on, and he immediately sent for the chief of police, to make
arrangements to meet the threatened danger. A lieutenant of police and
another policeman being the only members of the force then available
for prompt service, were sent to the scene of the trouble, and, by
arrangement, arrested a man and started for the mayor's office with
him, to draw the crowd from the depot. This ruse proved successful, and
the ammunition was shipped before the crowd returned. Some three
hundred or four hundred persons followed the policemen with their
prisoner to the mayor's office, and, on their arrival there, the mayor
went out and asked them to disperse, when about one half of the crowd
left. The person arrested then appeared at the door, and informed the
crowd that he had been arrested for drunkenness and disorderly conduct,
and the balance of them dispersed.

On Sunday, the 22d, the trainmen, whose head-quarters were at
Harrisburg, struck, and in consequence thereof a large crowd gathered
on the common, and listened to harangues from some of their number,
among whom was an insane man from the lunatic asylum. From the common,
the mob went to the Pennsylvania railroad depot, and prevented a train
from going out, and the mayor, having notice of their movements,
appeared upon the scene and found some boys uncoupling an engine from
the train, which the mayor put a stop to, and requested the engineer to
move on, which he refused to do, giving as an excuse that he was told
there were obstructions on the track a short distance out of town. The
crowd at this time was composed of all kinds of citizens, good, bad,
and indifferent, and they soon dispersed, and no violence took place.
On Monday, the 23d, the mob gathered in large force about the railroad
premises, and there being a larger number of roughs and tramps, became
more turbulent and interfered with the running of the trains. The mayor
consulted the leading men about raising a posse to assist the police,
there being only seventeen in the service of the city, and it was
determined to raise a force of citizens, to be called the "law and
order posse," who were to assemble at the mayor's office, on a given
signal from the court-house bell.

The sheriff of the county was at Atlantic City at the commencement of
the trouble, and was telegraphed to when matters began to assume a
serious aspect, and he arrived at Harrisburg on the evening of the 23d.
At this time the mob had increased largely, and was becoming
demonstrative. The sheriff was informed as to what measures had been
taken so far, and the mayor requested him to take charge of the
situation and control the movements generally, which the sheriff
assented to, and at once prepared a proclamation, ordering all good
citizens to turn out and assist in enforcing law and order, which
proclamation was published in the papers the next morning. In the
evening of the 23d a portion of the mob had gone to Aultmeyer's gun
store, on Second street, and demanded admittance, and the proprietor
had opened the doors to them. Word was sent to the mayor of the
occurrence, and he took his police and repaired to the place
immediately. He found the store full of men and boys, who had helped
themselves to guns and knives. The mayor formed his police in front of
the store and went in and talked with them, and after a little
parleying they delivered up the weapons they had seized and left. About
eleven o'clock, P.M., the mob gathered in large numbers on Market
street, where it crosses the railroad, and working up Market street
they broke into two or three stores. The signal for the assembling of
the citizens was given, and they assembled immediately at the corner of
Third and Market streets to the number of three hundred to four
hundred, together with the sheriff, the mayor, and the police. The
sheriff being a man of considerable military experience, had caused the
citizens to adopt company and regimental organizations, by reason of
which they were more quickly assembled and more easily handled and
moved. The sheriff and mayor went down to the mob and ordered them to
disperse, which they refused to do, and then the police and citizens,
armed with pistols and clubs, were marched toward the mob, the police
and mayor at the head of the column. The mob numbered from seven
hundred to one thousand, and two thirds of them dispersed on seeing the
force marching against them, but some two hundred stood their ground.
The force in command of the mayor and sheriff marched into this body,
using their clubs freely, and completely dispersed them without firing
a shot. Several of the rioters were arrested at the time, and quite a
number during the week; in all some forty-five or fifty of the leaders
were arrested, many of them being taken in their beds that night.

This determination on the part of the civil authorities, backed by the
citizens, broke the spirit of the mob, and they did not again assemble
in any great number, or commit any further breaches of the peace,
although the citizens' organization was kept up for several days, and a
special force of some fifty men was employed to be on the watch for
some time, and until matters became quiet throughout the State. The
whole number of citizens enrolled was about fifteen hundred, and more
than one thousand were out on a parade at one time. On receiving news
of the uneasiness manifested at Harrisburg, General Latta, then at
Pittsburgh, telegraphed Major General J. K. Sigfried, commanding Fourth
division National Guard, with head-quarters at Pottsville, to put the
City Grays, of Harrisburg, on duty at the arsenal at once, and order
his whole division under arms, and move to Harrisburg. He also received
a similar telegram from Governor Hartranft, from Medicine Bow, Wyoming
Territory. The telegrams were dated July 22d. General Sigfried had, on
the previous day, as a precautionary measure, ordered Captain Maloney,
of the Harrisburg City Grays, to ship his arms and ammunition to the
State arsenal, located just outside of the city, and to stay there and
guard the same, to prevent it from falling into the hands of any mob
that might undertake to capture it. General Sigfried arrived at
Harrisburg with nine companies of the Seventh and Eighth regiments on
the 23d, and was there joined by eight other companies, making a force
under his command of some eight hundred men. These troops were
stationed at the arsenal at the time the mob was dispersed by the
police and sheriff's posse, on the night of the 23d, but were not
called on by the civil authorities, they evidently understanding their
duty, which was to attempt to enforce the law by the means within their
power, before calling on the military for assistance. Had this been
done as promptly in some other places, much expense to the State might
have been saved, and the riot nipped in the bud, instead of being
allowed to become strong and organized, while waiting for troops to
arrive. The mayor testified that when the disturbance first commenced
the citizens were lukewarm, and seemed to have considerable sympathy
with the strikers, but as soon as affairs began to assume a serious
aspect, they came forward and enrolled themselves freely in the law and
order posse, and urged prompt and vigorous action, and by so doing they
no doubt prevented the enacting at this place of the terrible
destruction of life and property which took place in other localities.

At Reading, on Saturday, July 21st, the idle men began to gather in
small bodies and talk of strikes, and showed a disposition to interfere
with railroad property, but no overt act was committed until Sunday the
22d. The mob at this place was composed primarily of discharged
employés of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, who had been
discharged in the month of April preceding. The officers of that road
learning that the society called the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers intended to make the company trouble, commenced preparing for
it, and when in April the engineers demanded an advance in wages of
twenty per centum, they were notified that any person who belonged to
the brotherhood could not remain in the employ of the company unless he
severed his connection with that society, and that, as the society was
a beneficial one, and had a fund for its members to draw on in ease of
sickness, the company would establish such a fund for its engineers. In
consequence of this demand, and the circular of the company, some four
hundred engineers, firemen, and brakemen left the service of the
company, whose places were filled by promoting firemen and hiring new
men, and those coming from other roads who held certificates of
competency and good behavior. Many of these men who left the employ of
the company had remained in and about Reading, and on hearing of the
riots at Pittsburgh, thought it would be a good time to take their
revenge on the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, and these,
with other idle men, composed the nucleus of the mob, and were, as in
other places, soon joined by all the tramps and criminals in the
vicinity. None of the regular employés of the railroad company struck
at that time, nor were they engaged in the riots. On Sunday trains were
interfered with near the depot, and one or two cars burned, and on
Sunday night, the 22d, the Lebanon Valley railroad bridge, which is a
very high one, crossing the Schuylkill at Reading, and costing a large
sum of money, was burned. On the evening of July 22d, Adjutant General
Latta telegraphed to Major General William J. Bolton, commanding the
Second division National Guard, with head-quarters at Norristown, to
concentrate the Sixteenth regiment, under arms, at once at Norristown,
and the Fourth regiment, at Allentown, which was done as soon as
possible, and the Fourth regiment, General Reeder, reported on the
morning of the 23d, that all the companies were in hand except company
A, which was in the hands of the mob at Reading.

At 3.50, P.M., of that day, J. E. Wootten, general manager of the
Reading Railroad Company, telegraphed General Bolton, that they were in
need of protection at Reading, and asked that General Reeder be sent to
that place with his command, which request was complied with, and
General Reeder ordered to proceed to Reading at once. General Reeder,
with the Fourth regiment, Colonel Good, arrived at Reading about seven
o'clock, P.M., of the 23d, and instead of finding the mob in possession
of the depot of the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, as he expected,
found it in possession of a squad of the coal and iron police. The mob
had had pretty much its own way all day, and had stopped the running of
all freight trains, and interfered with the passenger trains. The
sheriff of the county, George R. Yorgey, who was out of the city, had
been telegraphed to by the chief of police, in regard to the trouble,
and having been furnished an extra train, arrived in the city about
five, A.M., of the 23d.

On his arrival, he refused to take any steps to raise a posse, although
men were offered him by the railroad officials, and the only step taken
by him to disperse the rioters, and preserve order during the troubles,
was to issue a proclamation at night, on the 23d, requesting all good
citizens to remain at their homes. When the chief executive officer of
the county, so fails in his duty, it is no wonder that mobs become
defiant and destroy life and property.

The mayor was absent from the city, and the chief of police, Peter
Cullen, was the only civil officer who did any thing to preserve order.
He, with the police force of twenty-seven men, did all that men could
do under the circumstances. On Sunday night, with a few police, he
tried to prevent the burning of the cars, and stopped it after a short
time. On Monday, with his force he cleared the crossing at Seventh and
Penn streets, so that the street cars and people could pass, although
the crowd numbered several thousands. He also sent out his men to raise
a posse of two hundred men among the citizens, but they all refused,
and laughed at the police, and he did not consider that he had the
authority to summon them or order them out.

The police force was still at the Penn street crossing when General
Reeder arrived at the depot. The railroad officials requested General
Reeder to move into the railroad cut to release a train that was in the
hands of the mob, and as that was on the direct route to Penn street
crossing, the point to which he wished to go with his force, he
commenced his march through the cut. The cut is some three squares
long; the banks about thirty feet high at the highest place, and at the
ends tapering down to nothing, with streets crossing it by bridges in
two places, and walks at each side near the top of the bank, with a
stone wall down the face of the bank, and a parapet three or four feet
high to protect the walks.

On nearing the cut, General Reeder's force was met by a large crowd
hooting and jeering at the soldiers, and throwing stones, and the
General, seeing the temper of the mob, ordered his musicians to the
rear and his men to lead. The mob gave away, but as the troops entered
the cut the mob, which lined both sides of the cut, began to throw
brickbats, paving stones, and other missiles down on them, which the
soldiers bore until they were two thirds of the way through the cut,
when one or two pistol shots were fired at them, and one soldier fired
his piece in the air, which was followed by scattering shots, and then
by a regular volley, and firing was kept up until they reached the Penn
street crossing, where the police were stationed. Of the two hundred
and fifty-three soldiers only about fifty escaped being hurt, but none
were seriously injured. Of the crowd eleven were killed, and over fifty
wounded, two of the killed and some of the wounded being mere lookers
on, and not engaged in the riots.

It being so dark that no one could be readily distinguished, seven of
the policemen who were in line across the railroad at the Penn street
crossing were wounded by the fire of the troops, some of them quite
seriously, but they all recovered. This collision broke the spirit of
the mob, and no destruction took place after that at this place. But
the mob was threatening for several days, so much so that five
companies of the Sixteenth regiment were immediately sent to General
Reeder, from Norristown. This did not improve the condition of affairs,
as the men of the Sixteenth regiment openly fraternized with the
rioters, and declared their intention, in case of further trouble, of
siding with them, and furnished them with ammunition. This soon
destroyed the morale of the Fourth regiment, and General Reeder asked
leave to move them to Allentown, which was granted, and General Bolton
started for Reading on a special train, after giving orders for the
movement and disposition of the balance of the men of his division. On
arriving at Reading he found matters rather quiet at the depot, with
the Sixteenth regiment in possession. The authorities fearing trouble
that night, and the police having been out that day again trying to
raise extra men for the force, and failing, General Bolton telegraphed
to General Reeder, who was at Temple station, six miles distant, to
return at once with the Fourth regiment; to which General Reeder
answered that "the men positively refused to return to Reading
to-night; the regiment and company officers are perfectly helpless;"
and from Colonel Good: "The men of the Fourth positively refuse to
return to-night; I can't get twenty-five men," and General Bolton
finally ordered General Reeder to rendezvous at Allentown and await
further orders. It is enough to say that three hundred United States
troops arrived that day at Reading, and no further serious trouble was
apprehended or occurred; that General Bolton ordered the Sixteenth
regiment to return to Norristown; but company I mutinied and refused to
return, and was disbanded in dishonor by the general. He afterwards
issued an order to disband companies C, D, E, and H, of the Sixteenth
regiment, subject to the approval of the Governor, for general
insubordination and mutinous conduct while under orders.

At Scranton, the railroad men began to feel the effects of the strikes
in other places, and on Monday, the 23d of July, rumors were circulated
that a strike was to be inaugurated on the roads running through that
place. Mayor R. H. McKune was at Ocean Grove, and seeing the accounts
of the troubles at Pittsburgh in the newspapers, hurried home, where he
arrived on the evening of the 23d. On the 24th, he tried to get the
city council together to prepare for the emergency, as the strike,
according to rumor, was to take place the next day, the 25th; but the
council were opposed to doing anything in that direction, and refused
to take any action. On Wednesday, the 25th, a committee of trainmen
waited on the superintendent of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western
railroad, and informed him that no trains would be allowed to leave,
except the engine with a mail car. The superintendent asked the mayor
for a force to protect the trains, but the regular police force of the
city had been reduced to ten men, which was entirely insufficient, and
the superintendent was advised to run the mail cars for the present,
and not undertake to move regular trains until more assistance could be
got, which advice was finally followed.

On the 26th of July, the miners of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company
held a meeting at the Round woods, at which from six thousand to eight
thousand persons were present, and a committee was appointed to confer
with the general manager in regard to wages, and the crowds began to
gather in the streets. The mayor called an advisory committee of seven
of the leading citizens, on Thursday morning, the 26th, and it was
agreed to raise and swear in a special police force of the citizens, to
act during the emergency, which arrangement was carried out, and quite
a number of them raised that day, and placed under the command of
officers who had seen service in the army. A room was procured at the
company store, as it was called, for this special force to meet and
organize in, and meetings were held and necessary arrangements made to
meet any emergency.

The miners had resolved to quit work and not allow the mines to be
pumped, and there was great danger that they would be flooded and
immense damage inflicted. On Sunday, the 29th, the authorities met a
committee of the miners and represented to them that the damage of
flooding the mines would--a great portion of it--fall on them, as the
mines could not then be worked for a long time if once flooded, and it
was finally concluded that the pumps might be worked, so that on Monday
the pumps were generally going again. On Monday the city council met,
and resolved that no necessity existed for special police, and that
none would be paid by the city. The mayor on that day sent for the
executive committee of the trainmen, and informed them that on Tuesday,
the 31st, it was proposed to start the regular trains at nine,
A.M., and if resisted the mayor would use all the force at his command
to put the trains through. In the afternoon the trainmen had a meeting
and resolved, by a large majority, to resume work, and by evening of
that day all fears of any further trouble had passed. The special force
of citizens which had been sworn in were armed partly with Remington
rifles and partly with muskets, and it was arranged that they should
assemble at headquarters on a given signal through the church bells.
Wednesday morning, August 1st, a meeting of the laboring men of the
vicinity was held at the silk-works, a mile or so below the city, at
which some seven thousand or eight thousand men were present. Accounts
conflict as to the purpose of this meeting, some contending that it was
called to hear a report of some committee, and some that no object was
specified in the call, which was by word of mouth from man to man. No
committee made any report, but a letter was read by some demagogue,
purporting to be written by W. W. Scranton, general manager of the
Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company, saying that he meant to have the men
at work for fifty cents a day, and when they died bury them in a culm
pile. Mr. Scranton denies having written any such letter, but it
answered the purpose of its author by inflaming the minds of those at
the meeting, and they broke up with the cry, "let us clean out the
company's shops." About half-past ten, A.M., the mayor was informed
that a crowd of men was coming up from the silk-works. The mayor, with
a friend, started out to see what was the trouble, and on his way
notified some of the special police to meet at head-quarters.

On arriving at the corner of Lackawanna and Washington avenues, they
saw a crowd of from three to four thousand coming up the latter street,
and swarming about the machine and other shops, and about the railroad.
The mayor went down into the crowd, which opened for him, and he went
as far as the machine shop, and turned and came back to the roadway of
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western shops. He had said to them: "Boys,
you are doing wrong; you must disperse and go home." On arriving at the
roadway, a company of one hundred and fifty or two hundred, who had
been driving the men from the shops, and beating and maltreating them,
came along, and the leader asked who that was. On being told it was the
mayor, he said, "kill the son of a bitch; he has no business here," and
immediately two shots were fired, and the mayor was struck between the
shoulders by a club, or some heavy weapon, so hard as to cause
hemorrhage of the lungs; a stone struck him in the small of the back,
and several persons struck him with sticks. Several friends gathered
about the mayor, and Father Dunn, a Catholic priest, came along to
assist him. He was slipped out under the railroad bridge and toward
Lackawanna avenue, followed by the crowd. The mayor had, before
entering the crowd, given orders to have the signal given for the
assembling of the extra police force, which order had not been
executed, but word had been passed to a number of men, and when he got
back to the avenue, he saw a body of them coming down towards him. At
this point the mayor was hit by some heavy instrument, which broke his
jaw and knocked him senseless for a time, but he went a short distance
down the street and back again to where the mob and extra force of
citizens were just about to meet. The mob, on leaving the machine
shops, had cried out, "now let's clean out Lackawanna avenue," (the
principal street of the city.) "Let's clean out the town." The force of
citizens--about fifty in number--were passing Washington avenue just as
the mob came up it and struck Lackawanna avenue, and they closed in
behind the citizens and on both sides of the street around them; then a
large number of stones and other missiles were thrown at the special
police, with cries of "kill them; take their guns from them," and
similar threats, and shortly two or three pistol shots were fired by
the mob, and then the order was given the citizens to fire, which was
immediately done, and three of the ringleaders killed the first fire.
This dispersed the mob, which fled in every direction. The citizens
gathered again at the company store to the number of two hundred, and a
policeman soon reported the crowd gathering again.

The mayor, at the head of twenty-five of his men, immediately went to
the crowd and ordered them to disperse, which order they obeyed. This
force of citizens kept up their vigilance, not allowing any crowd to
gather until the troops arrived on August 2d, and took charge of the
military affairs at that place. A great deal of ill feeling and
dissatisfaction still existed among the miners and mill men, but no
open outbreak occurred, and before the troops left that section quiet
and order was fully restored. Too much praise cannot be awarded the
mayor and citizens' special police force of Scranton for the admirable
organization they created, and for the prompt and vigorous measures
taken when the emergency arrived. Had the action of the city council
been approved and its advice taken, no special police force would have
been raised, or had there been timidity among them when called out,
Scranton would, no doubt, have suffered as badly as did Pittsburgh; for
nowhere in the State was there a harder set of men than at Scranton and
vicinity, many of the Molly Maguires, driven out of Schuylkill county,
having gathered in and about that city, besides the scores of other
hard cases who had been there for years. Riotous demonstrations were
made at several other points in the State, but none of them assumed any
great magnitude, except at Altoona and a few places in the anthracite
coal region, and the occurrences at these places being described in the
movements of the military as reported in the report of the Adjutant
General for the year 1877, and being so similar to those that took
place at the points particularly described herein, except as to
magnitude, it is not deemed necessary to further notice them in this
report.

Your committee has not thought it necessary to give a detailed account
of the general movements of troops, except so far as they relate to the
troubles at some particular point, where the same was necessary to a
correct idea of all the circumstances occurring at such point, these
general movements being all detailed fully in the Adjutant General's
report above referred to.

As it is made the duty of your committee to report "by what authority
the troops of the State were called out, for what purpose, and the
service and conduct of the same," we approach this part of our labors
with considerable diffidence, on account of the peculiar situation of
affairs at many of the points to which troops were sent; the fact that
this kind of service was new to most of them, and that, unaccustomed as
our people are to the use of the military to enforce the laws, the
opportunities for forming a correct judgment are few, and the chances
for being mistaken are many. It is perhaps easy, after a thing has
happened, to criticise the actions of those engaged in the transaction,
to point out where they failed, and to say where they ought to have
done different, but if the theories of the critic had been tested by
actual experience, he too might have produced no better results than
did those he criticises. Bearing this in mind, and endeavoring to treat
the whole subject fairly and conscientiously, we proceed to give our
views upon this part of the matter under consideration. And first, the
troops of the State were called out, in the first instance, by orders
from James W. Latta, Adjutant General of the State, on a call from the
sheriff of Allegheny county, the orders being signed by him, the
Adjutant General, the Governor's name not being attached thereto, the
Governor, as before stated, being absent from the State. He, with his
family, started for California on the 16th of July, and before leaving
had a conference with the Attorney General, Adjutant General, and
Secretary of the Commonwealth, as to whether there was any reason why
he should not go. It was agreed by all, that everything in the State
was quiet at the time, and no prospects of any disturbance, and that
there was no reason whatever, why he should not take the contemplated
trip. Before leaving, however, he instructed Adjutant General Latta
that if there was any trouble in his absence he should exercise the
authority vested in the Commander-in-Chief, in accordance with the same
rule and principles previously established, which were that on a call
from the sheriff of a county for troops to assist in enforcing the law,
the military should only be sent after he became satisfied that the
sheriff had exhausted his powers and authority to suppress the
disorder, and that the lawless element was too strong to be controlled
by the civil authorities.

General Latta, after directing General Pearson, at Pittsburgh, to order
out one regiment, and to take command of the military situation,
reported what had occurred, and his order to General Pearson, to the
Governor, which dispatch reached the latter at Antelope, on the Union
Pacific railroad, July 20, before noon, which was answered by the
Governor from Cheyenne, at half past one, P.M., the same day, directing
General Latta to "order promptly all troops necessary to support the
sheriff in protecting moving trains on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad,
and go to Pittsburgh and keep supervision of all troops ordered out."
From this time communication by telegraph was kept up by the Governor
until his return, and all troops were ordered out in pursuance to
general orders given by him. The Governor received a telegram from C.
N. Farr, his private secretary, and General Latta, at 2.20, P.M., the
20th instant, that everything was going on well, and the riot would be
suppressed, and for him to go on. He accordingly pursued his journey to
Salt Lake City, where he received a telegram Saturday evening, the
21st, at nine o'clock, giving an account of the collision between the
troops and the mob at Pittsburgh, when he immediately procured a
special train, and started on his return. These facts show that the
troops were called out by the proper authority of the State, on a
requisition of the civil authorities of the locality where the troops
were to be sent.

We believe that neither the mayor of Pittsburgh, nor the sheriff of
Allegheny county, had exhausted their powers under the law to disperse
the mob before calling for troops, and that under the rules adopted by
the commander-in-chief the steps prerequisite to ordering out the
troops had not been properly taken by the civil authorities. The
purpose for which the troops were called out was to assist the civil
authorities in enforcing the law, and preserving the public peace, and
it was at no time supposed by any one of the military officers that
they superseded the civil power, although at some places they were
obliged to act in the absence of the civil officers, the latter having
run away, or refused to do anything to suppress the riotous
disturbances.

The service and conduct of the troops was generally good, considering
the circumstances under which they went into service, except in a few
instances, which will be more particularly specified hereafter. It
should be remembered that never before were the militia of the State
placed in so trying a position as that in which they were placed in
July last. Rarely, if ever, were regular soldiers placed in more trying
circumstances. Called upon without a moment's warning, they left their
homes, with but little or no preparation, and hastened to the scene of
the troubles. Nothing had occurred to give the people of the State or
the railroad officials any indications of an outbreak at that time, but
all at once the storm burst upon the city of Pittsburgh, and threatened
its destruction. In this emergency the National Guard was called out,
and most of the commands arrived at the scene of the troubles with
great promptness, and there met a foe more formidable than they had any
expectation of meeting. The active National Guard of the Commonwealth,
being made up of volunteers from the people of the locality in which
the military organization exists, is usually composed of all classes of
the citizens of the locality, and the members of the military will,
therefore, naturally be impressed with all the feelings of the
community in which they reside, and be infected with any spirit of
resistance to constituted authority that may exist among any great
class of their neighbors.

Hence it is that this guard cannot be always relied upon to do its full
duty in case of troubles at home, requiring the intervention of the
military.

Not being brought up to the profession of soldiers, and the officers
being their friends and neighbors, and when at home being no better and
having no more authority than themselves, they are sometimes loth to
obey orders when these orders run contrary to their wishes and
inclinations. The military discipline, which comes from actual service,
is wanting, and being accustomed to do their own thinking, having an
opinion on all matters that come before them, and freely expressing it,
it is very hard to come down to the condition of executing orders
without a why or wherefore, even in ordinary cases; but when it comes
to using their weapons against their friends, neighbors, and perhaps
relatives, it is not to be wondered at if they sometimes waver in their
duty. Every member of the active National Guard ought, however, to be
taught that as a soldier it is his duty to obey the orders of his
superior officers without question; that in case of a mob or riot in
his neighborhood, strong enough to defy the civil authority, the
organization of which he is a member is the first to be called upon,
and that this aid to the civil powers is one of the principal duties
which devolve upon him, and one of the principal reasons for
maintaining such an organization. Taking into account the difficulty of
overcoming these natural feelings of men, a large majority of the
troops called out in July last may be said to have behaved nobly.
General Pearson has been severely censured for having (as was alleged)
given the command to the troops at Twenty-eighth street to fire on the
mob, and the troops have also been denounced for the firing which
occurred at that point.

Your committee have found, from the evidence, that General Pearson did
not give the orders to fire, but we are of the opinion that he would
have been justified in so doing, and that if he had been present at the
time, he would not have been justified in withholding such an order for
a moment later than the firing actually occurred. Neither can any blame
be attached to the troops themselves. They had been pelted with clubs,
stones, and other missiles by the mob, and this was continually growing
more severe, when some persons in the mob fired pistols into the ranks
of the men, and others were trying to wrench their guns from their
hands, and it had become a question of submission to the mob on their
part, or to fire in self-defense before a gun was discharged by them.

As it is usually the case in such occurrences, some innocent persons
were killed and others injured, but for this the soldiers were not to
blame. Being where they ought not to be, their presence whether so
intended or not encouraged the mob, and the soldiers could not in such
a crowd distinguish friend from foe. Spectators ought to keep away from
such mobs at all times and not let their curiosity get the better of
their judgment and discretion. It has been questioned whether it was a
wise movement to order General Brinton's command into the round-house
and shops on the evening of the 21st. The move itself we do not care to
criticise, but having been made, we think a stronger picket guard
should have been thrown out, all approaches more thoroughly guarded,
communication kept up with the Union depot, where the supplies of
ammunition and food were stored, and whenever the mob began to assemble
in the neighborhood a sufficient force should have been ordered out to
disperse them, which could have been done with the means at General
Brinton's command.

The great mistake was made by General Pearson in ordering General
Brinton not to allow his men to fire on the mob when they began to
re-assemble, and showed their murderous disposition by firing on the
troops, and the other measures taken by them in the early evening.
General Brinton asked for leave to fire on the mob when they began to
assemble around the round house and fire on his men, but General
Pearson would not allow it. It was of no use to march out for the
purpose of dispersing such a mob unless the men were allowed to fire,
if necessary, as blood had been shed, the mob had become enraged by
this and emboldened by the position and apparent inactivity of the
troops, and nothing but the most severe measures would now be
sufficient to overawe and disperse them. General Pearson was evidently
intimidated by the denunciation which he received, at the hands of the
press and people of Pittsburgh, as the supposed author of the order to
fire on the mob at Twenty-eighth street. In his evidence he states that
if he had given the command to fire at Twenty-eighth street, and it had
not been followed by the frightful destruction of property which
ensued, he would have been tried, convicted, and hung for murder, such
was the sentiment of the people of Pittsburgh at that time. We think he
should have taken vigorous measures against the mob after the
occurrences at Twenty-eighth street, and not have allowed it to
assemble again in that vicinity, and that he ought not to have left the
round house at the time he did. For what occurred after that time he is
blameless, for on reaching the Union Depot Hotel he was practically
relieved from his command by General Latta. We think this was a mistake
also; that it was giving way to the sentiment still prevailing in
Pittsburgh that the attempt to disperse the mob at Twenty-eighth street
was wrong, and the killing of the persons at that place nothing less
than murder. The military had commenced a move to accomplish a certain
purpose under the lead of the sheriff, and as his posse; a collision
had occurred, the sheriff had left, the mayor refused to cooperate with
the sheriff or military, and it was the duty of the military officers
to carry out the movement, (to wit: dispersing the mob,) in a vigorous
manner, and not in any way be swayed from their duty by the sentiment
above spoken of.

We think the order given by General Latta, sent by Sergeant Wilson to
General Brinton in the round house, which closed as follows, viz: "If
compelled to escape at last, do so to the eastward; take Penn avenue if
possible, and make for Guthrie, at Torrens," was a mistake. Some
question has arisen as to the right of General Latta to give orders to
General Brinton at all. We think that it is enough to say that General
Latta was directed by the commander-in-chief to "go to Pittsburgh and
keep supervision of all troops ordered out;" that he went there in
pursuance of these directions, issued orders as if he understood
himself to be at the head of military affairs after General Pearson
left, was so recognized by all, and his orders obeyed as if coming from
the commander-in-chief, and that, therefore, he cannot escape the
responsibility of any orders issued by him, or the failure to take such
steps as a military commander should have taken under the
circumstances. If General Brinton was to leave the round house he
should have been ordered to the Union depot, where he could have fed
his men, and received a supply of ammunition, and from there he could
have taken the most available position to disperse the mob and protect
property. Of General Brinton's ability to have made this movement, if
so ordered at any time, there can be no doubt.

Life would probably have been sacrificed in making such a move, but law
and order must be upheld, even at the sacrifice of the lives of such
persons as composed that lawless mob, or those who innocently mingled
with it. The loss of life on the part of the troops could not have been
greater than it was by pursuing the course afterwards taken, and it
probably would have been much less, as mobs are always cowardly, and
every demonstration made against this mob after the collision at
Twenty-eighth street by any persons having authority, either civil or
military, scattered it. Colonel Guthrie, with the Eighteenth regiment,
should have been ordered from Torrens to Pittsburgh Saturday night, and
the only excuse we can conceive for not doing this promptly, without
waiting for the troops from Walls Station, is the fear that being
Pittsburgh men they would refuse to obey any orders which would bring
them in collision with the mob. This is not sufficient excuse. The
proper order should have been given, as this regiment had not shown any
insubordination, was not allowed to mix or talk with the mob, and would
no doubt have obeyed all orders.

The conduct of the Fourteenth and Nineteenth regiments has been
severely criticised by some, but many considerations are to be taken
into account in coming to a just conclusion in regard to these men. The
mob was made up in part of their neighbors and their fellow-laborers,
and it was hard for them to take up arms to assist the sheriff in
enforcing the law as against men having so much of their sympathy. This
accounts for their dilatory movements in assembling when first called
out, and the failure to report of many of their men. Their officers
were to blame for allowing them to mingle with the mob, or rather for
allowing the mob to mingle with them, and for the lack of strict
discipline on Saturday, the 21st of July. Neither the officers nor men
were to blame for their mismanagement on the night of the 21st, General
Brown being alone responsible for that order.

This conduct of General Brown was unaccountable, until it was
ascertained that he had been for some time previous suffering from
severe physical ailments which had seriously affected his mind, and
that he was not responsible for a failure in judgment at the time. It
is no wonder the order called forth the indignant protest of Colonel
Gray, but coming as it did from a superior officer, it was reluctantly
obeyed. These regiments were afterwards sent to the coal fields, and
there acquitted themselves like true soldiers.

As to the dispute between Colonel Norris and General Brinton, it is
important only in treating of the conduct of General Brinton. The
Adjutant General, in his evidence before your committee, stated that
his duty was to assemble the troops, and that the command devolved upon
the senior major general, (in the absence of the commander-in-chief,)
who was General A. L. Pearson. He further stated that when General
Pearson came to the Union depot hotel, before relieving him of his
command, he was particular to ask him if he had left General Brinton in
command, and that General Pearson replied that he had left him in full
command. If General Brinton was in command, he had a right to act on
his own judgment. But while General Latta's statement is correct when
applied to him as Adjutant General, yet it must be remembered that he
had assumed to act for the commander-in-chief, and gave orders to
General Brinton during the night, and assumed the direction of the
troops. It is evident that General Brinton considered himself bound to
obey the orders of the Adjutant General, and we take it for granted
that he was. The important question then is, did General Brinton
disobey the orders of General Latta? It is clearly proven and conceded
by all parties that General Brinton did not receive the written order
given to Captain Aull to convey to him until the 1st day of August, a
week or more after it was dated. Colonel Norris says in his testimony
that he did not deliver it as an order to General Brinton; that he did
not consider he had a right to do so, but that he told him that Captain
Aull was on the way to him with an order from General Latta, and
communicated to him the substance of the order. He further said General
Brinton said he might return if he got positive orders to do so. This
remark shows that General Brinton did not receive it as an order.

And further, Captain Aull not reaching General Brinton during the day,
in the evening he sent Major Baugh, a member of his staff, to the
Adjutant General's head-quarters, at the Monongahela House, for orders.
The Adjutant General gave Major Baugh a written order, which he
delivered to General Brinton, who obeyed it promptly. If Colonel Norris
had reported it to General Brinton as an order coming from General
Latta, and General Brinton had received it as such, he would not have
sent to head-quarters for orders, as he did. As your committee
understand the evidence, all that Colonel Norris claims is, that he
told General Brinton that Captain Aull had an order for him, and
communicated the substance of it to him, and that General Brinton
understood it. True, that in this he is disputed by General Brinton,
but it is not necessary for your committee to settle this question of
veracity between them. The only question for us to settle is, did
General Brinton disobey the order? We do not think that he did. Colonel
Norris does not say he gave him the order. He simply told him Captain
Aull had an order, giving him the substance of it. General Brinton, it
seems, did not consider it his duty to act until the order reached him.
Captain Aull not reaching him, he did what was very proper, sent to
head-quarters for orders.

General Brinton has been censured for going so far out from the city,
and not staying in its immediate vicinity. No one in his position could
be expected to do differently. Ordered into the round house, not
allowed to fire on the mob which was gathering around with the avowed
purpose of killing his men, hooted at by the same mob which cheered the
Pittsburgh troops, the Pittsburgh troops disbanded at a time when the
mob had surrounded and besieged the shops in which his command was
stationed, fired at from the windows of the houses, street corners, and
even from a police station, not an official (except the sheriff) or
citizen of the place to come near him at any time, or express a word of
sympathy or encouragement in the disagreeable and delicate duty he was
bound to perform, and after all, rebuffed at the United States arsenal,
where he expected aid and sympathy, he had good reason to believe he
was not wanted in the city, and needs no excuse for putting a
reasonable distance between his command and that place.

The Sixteenth regiment seems to have been the most unreliable of all
the regiments called on for service during the time of the troubles.
Company I was disbanded in dishonor, for insubordination, cowardice,
and mutinous conduct in disobeying orders and furnishing ammunition to
rioters at Reading, by Major General Bolton, and he afterwards
disbanded companies C, D, E, and H for mutinous conduct, subject to the
approval of the Governor. The bad conduct of these companies commenced
before they left home, in refusing at first to go aboard the cars, and
continued until they got back again. The Fourth regiment, after having
a serious collision with the mob at Reading, and behaving like men
through that trouble, became badly demoralized by the action of the
above named companies of the Sixteenth regiment, and, for a day or two,
was entirely unreliable, but afterwards recovered its morale and did
good service. A squad of some fifteen or twenty men, of General
Brinton's division, (company and regiment not known,) which failed to
report in time to leave with him for Pittsburgh, afterwards came on and
were stopped near Altoona, and being unable to go further came back to
a short distance above Harrisburg, and then left the cars to pass that
place on foot by a circuitous route, as it was reported that the mob
was in possession of the railroad, and would allow no soldiers to pass
through. This squad stopped at some place across the river from
Harrisburg. Some two hundred to two hundred and fifty men and boys, on
the 23d of July, went across the river and came back escorting this
squad of soldiers, a lot of boys carrying their guns, and they were
taken to some place near the railroad, fed and afterwards put on the
cars for Philadelphia. Such an isolated instance as this ought not to
condemn the command to which it belongs, but it is discreditable to
those engaged in it, and, it is learned, a court-martial has been
ordered to sit on their case.

The National Guard of the Commonwealth is a necessity, and in a State
like ours, with large numbers of illiterate and unprincipled men
concentrated in certain localities, many of whom are foreigners, and
imbued with the spirit of foreign communism, which is spreading in this
country, the Guard must occasionally be called on as a posse to assist
in enforcing the law; but it never should be called on until all other
means are tried and exhausted. It has become too common to call on the
Governor for troops, in ease of a mob, and the experience of the summer
of 1877, demonstrates that in any community where the civil authorities
and the citizens wish the law enforced, and act together harmoniously
and vigorously, order may be maintained and mobs dispersed without the
intervention of the military. At Philadelphia, large and angry mobs
were dispersed by the police, which, if allowed to have been together
for a day or two, would have become so strong, as to defy the ordinary
authorities, and the result would have been riot and destruction. It
was the same at Harrisburg, and also at Scranton, except at the latter
place the city council refused to cooperate with the mayor and
citizens, but notwithstanding this disadvantage, the wisdom of the
measures of the mayor was vindicated at the first collision with the
mob. It is but just to the people of Pittsburgh to say that the above
places had the example of the latter place before them, and had learned
the danger of temporizing or in any way sympathizing with anything like
a mob, however just they may believe their original demands to be.

In conclusion your committee adopt the following clause of the
Governor's message, which fully coincides with their views, viz:

"I have been thus solicitous to present the conditions of a militia
campaign, because the conduct of our troops during the late crisis has
elicited every variety of criticism, from mild censure to absolute
condemnation, and because there has grown up in Pennsylvania a spirit
of caviling at its militia, in marked contrast with the kindly feeling
and pride manifested by other States towards their citizen soldiery.
Now, that a temperate review of the facts may be made, I believe it
will not be considered a partial judgment to say that during the
conduct of the State troops during the late strike was, upon the whole,
commendable and creditable. In Pittsburgh before a final decision, many
considerations must modify our judgment. The conditions were not purely
military. It was not simply a question of preserving a body of soldiery
intact, of holding a position or defeating an enemy. Expecting to march
into a friendly community, whose moral support would be cheerfully
given them, they entered a practically hostile city, were denounced and
threatened by press and people, and attacked by men who lurked in the
security of a sympathetic crowd, and used women and children as shields
and instruments. If, under such circumstances, their action lacked the
energy and severity that purely military canons would have justified,
it cannot be a matter of surprise, that having so long been accustomed
to peace, they were unable to comprehend at once the sudden conditions
of war. As it was, though not executed with the skilled precision of
regular troops, the movement accomplished its purpose, and the failure
to move the freight trains out of the city, to which more than any fact
the subsequent burning is attributed, was the result of the want of
cooperation of an adequate and competent police, and the desertion, at
the critical moment, of the railroad employés.

"The behavior of the Pittsburgh troops, in a military sense, is without
excuse; but was it any worse than the defection of officers and men in
the regular army, who, in 1861, deserted their comrades in arms to join
the communities in which they were born and bred? Such things are not
military, they are political or social; and it cannot be expected that
they should be judged by the severest military code. It was, in fact,
the temporary excitement of unthinking men, carried away by the
universal clamor around them. For that reason, when the burst of
passion was over, I re-instated them; otherwise, new troops would have
had to be enlisted, while these might be trusted to have a keener sense
of duty, from a desire to retrieve their fame. In the case of the
Philadelphia troops, although disheartened by being placed on the
defensive, and a part of the command demoralized by a too precipitate
retreat, the general steadiness and obedience to orders, under
comparative hardships, and in real danger, show them to have been
composed of the best of soldiery material. The failure to subdue a city
in insurrection against the laws is not to be attributed to the want of
courage, capacity, or fidelity in the officers and men, but to a
natural disinclination to take life indiscriminately, and the
uncertainty as to how far, under the laws, they could exercise a purely
military discretion. For myself, I have every confidence in the Guard,
and shall not hesitate, if another occasion should unhappily arise, to
rely upon its fidelity and courage. The after service of the Guard,
when assembled together, prepared for active campaigning, was all that
could be desired. The fact that as many answered the call for a service
likely to be long and dangerous, as assembled in the pleasant
encampment at the centennial, is conclusive proof of the general zeal
and fidelity of the troops."

The causes which led to the riots are, in the opinion of your
committee, as follows, to wit: The riots grew out of the strike of the
railroad men, and the strikers themselves were the protest of the
laborer against the system by which his wages were arbitrarily fixed
and lowered by his employer without consultation with him, and without
his consent. There are many other causes that combined to bring about
the strikes, but the cause mentioned underlies the whole question, and
it is the foundation of all the trouble.

Instead of capital and labor working together in harmony, as their
community of interests would dictate, a conflict has been growing up
between them, which, if not averted or discontinued, will lead to more
serious troubles than any that have yet occurred, and which must
result, as all such conflicts do, in the defeat of the labor interests
and in consequence thereof placing labor at a still greater
disadvantage than it now occupies. This conflict has been engendered
and kept up by demagogues who, for their own advantage, seek to control
the votes of the laboring men for base and partisan motives and who, in
order to more surely secure their ends, profess to be the only and true
friends of the laborer, and persistently misrepresent the capitalist.
It is much easier to move a body of men (which, like a large portion of
the laboring class, has but little time to investigate the problem of
the true position of labor and capital towards each other) by appealing
to passion and prejudice, and in this respect your demagogue knows the
material he has to work upon and allows no scruples of either honesty
or modesty to restrain him. He is the leading spirit in organizing and
keeping up so-called labor organizations of one kind or another, and
which organizations, as heretofore managed in this country, have never
resulted in any advantage to the men in whose ostensible interests they
are gotten up, but, on the contrary, have inflicted untold damage on
them. The demagogue likes to be appointed to some position in the labor
organizations, and is not slow in suggesting a traveling agent or
lecturer, with some supposed duty, where he can travel about the
country, living at his ease on the fruits of the hard labor of his
comrades, and spending freely the money that is as freely furnished
him.

Why cannot the laboring men of the country see through the flimsy
disguise of these men, and look at them as they are, the leeches and
vampires who prey upon the life-blood of the interest they profess to
befriend. There are men in all parties who have, or claim to have, some
reputation as statesmen, who are not above the arts of the common
demagogue, and who seem at times to be running a race with him to see
which can stoop to the lowest tricks to secure the votes of the dear
laborer. By the efforts of these men, and the tricks they practice,
this conflict has been brought on. But the capitalist himself has not
been blameless; instead of, in the common phrase, meeting his workmen
half-way, and trying to come to a fair understanding with them, he has
put himself on his dignity, and has placed all the blame of the results
brought about by the demagogue upon the laborer himself. He must
remember that the laborer is human, with hopes and aspirations as well
as passions and prejudices, and that it is much better to cultivate the
former by fair, frank, and courteous treatment, than to inflame the
latter by the opposite course. The laborer believes, as he has a right
to believe, that his wishes should be sometimes consulted, and that he
should be recognized as one of the parties to the contract, and as
such, fully consulted whenever the same is to be changed or abrogated.
We believe it is in the power of the capitalist who is an employer of
men, by fair, frank, and just treatment of his employés, not only in
the immediate question of wages, but also in looking after their social
and educational interests, to completely undermine and destroy the
occupation and influence of the demagogue spoken of, and create that
mutual trust and friendship which ought to exist between labor and
capital, and thereby put an end to the frequently recurring strikes
which inflict such serious damage on the business of the country, and
do no man or set of men the least particle of good.

Many instances of the favorable results following such action might be
given, but we will only refer to one instance, which occurred in
Yorkshire, England. Titus Salt, whose father was a woolen manufacturer
at Bradford, in Yorkshire, at the age of twenty-one years, started out
in business for himself, by hiring a small mill and one or two men,
who, with himself, did the work of the establishment, and so diligently
and wisely were his affairs managed that in a few years he found
himself doing a successful and rapidly increasing business, and by a
lucky discovery of the value of the wool of the Alpaca sheep, and its
manufacture in dress goods, he soon acquired a fortune. This
necessitated the enlargement of his mill, and to do this the more
conveniently, he moved some two miles from town and erected a large
manufactory, in which he gave employment to some four thousand
operatives. Having been a laboring man himself, he knew the needs and
wants of the laborer, and he accordingly erected neat and convenient
cottages for the use of his employés, which were rented to them at a
moderate rental, with the privilege of buying to those who were able,
thus assisting them to procure a home of their own, and giving them a
substantial interest in the success of the business they were employed
in. He also caused to be erected churches which all could attend, and
also school-houses, wherein every child could receive a good and
thorough education. A public park was laid out and completed,
bath-houses built, and clubs and lyceums established, Mr. Salt taking
the lead and encouraging his people to carry out and sustain these
institutions. In a short time a thriving town was built up which was
named Saltaire, in honor of its founder, and here the laborer has an
opportunity to enjoy himself like other human beings, with no thought
of occasion for strikes, the employer or capitalist and employés all
feeling a common interest in the fortunes of their place, and with none
of the jealousies or prejudices now commonly existing between these two
classes. Mr. Salt has been created a baronet, but this can add no
additional honor to the name of a man who has successfully solved the
problem of the true relations between labor and capital, and who has
taught the capitalist to what noble duties it is possible to devote
himself, and the laborer, that the barrier between the sympathies of
the master who employs and overlooks, and the man who works, may be
broken down in other and better ways than by hostile combination. Such
a town as Saltaire, with its neat cottages, pleasant parks, clean
streets, fine churches and schools, where labor is respected, and
intemperance banished, is a better monument than any made of marble or
stone, and will perpetuate the name of its founder more surely and
completely than if he had made a fortune by grinding down his human
help to the last farthing, and then on his death-bed bequeathing it to
some public institution.

The immediate cause of the first strike which took place in
Pennsylvania, in July, 1877, to wit: that at Pittsburgh, July 19th, was
the order by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to run "double-headers"
from that place to Derry. This order of itself, had there been no
previous reductions of wages or dismissals of men on account of the
depression in business, would probably have caused no strike, but
following so soon after the second reduction, while the ill feeling
engendered thereby was still having its effect on the men, together
with the spirit of independence and probably recklessness which was
brought about by the organization of the Trainmen's Union, with its
general plan for a strike on the 27th of June, and the feeling of
uneasiness and dissatisfaction existing among the laboring men of the
country generally, caused by the want of labor and the low price
thereof as compared with a few years previous, all together combined to
set in motion this strike, which was followed by results so disastrous
as to be forever memorable in the history of the State, results
unforeseen and unanticipated at the commencement by the actors therein.
The few trainmen who refused to take out the freight trains on the
morning of July 19th, while not intending or wishing to cause any
destruction of property or loss of life by their action, still cannot
escape the primary responsibility of the fearful scenes enacted at
Pittsburgh during the few following days. The order which the railroad
company made was one it had a right to make, and if the men did not
wish to work under the order, they had a right to refuse to do so. So
far there can be no question among reasonable men. The order having
been promulgated several days before it was to go into effect, gave the
men plenty of time to consider its effect, and if they did not wish to
go out on double-headers, fair treatment would have dictated that they
should have given the officers of the company reasonable notice of
their decision prior to the time at which the order was to take effect,
but this did not comport with the intentions of the men. They not only
did not intend to work themselves under that order, but they did not
propose to allow those who might be willing to accept service of the
company on the double-header trains to do so, and when they combined
together and raised their hands to prevent other men from working, they
committed an act for which there can be no excuse.

It was hard for them to see not only their wages cut down, but also to
see an order issued, which, if carried out, would result in the
discharge of one half of their number, at a time when work was not to
be had, but this does not justify, and cannot excuse their interference
with the right of a corporation to take such measures as it may think
most beneficial for its own interest, so long as it does not interfere
with the rights of others, and especially can it be no excuse for one
man, or set of men, who do not wish to work under certain regulations,
to interfere with those who are willing to do so. The property of all
citizens must be protected, and the laws must be enforced, and those
who undertake to interfere with the one, or stand in the way of the
enforcement of the other, must learn, however severe the lesson, that
these things cannot be tolerated in a land of liberty and of law, and
that however much trouble and expense they may succeed in inflicting on
the subjects of their spite, in the end law and order will triumph, and
those who stand in the way are those who suffer the most.

Every violation of law, if suppressed or punished, is done so at the
expense of the community where the violation occurs, and the greater
the violation the greater the expense. This expense must be met by
taxation, and as taxation is so arranged as to reach every member of
the community, the result of this, therefore, is that the person who
creates a disturbance or commits a crime which requires the
intervention of the officers of the law, is forced to pay from his own
pocket a portion of the expense incurred in its vindication.

The practice of a little arithmetic ought to convince any one that
violating the law is a very expensive luxury, besides bringing him into
disgrace and subjecting him to a penalty. This argument is not intended
for the professional criminal, as it is not expected that he can be
reached by any argument, but it is hoped that it may reach those who
usually intend to be law-abiding citizens, and whose fortunes are
affected by the good or evil fortune of the community in which they
reside, and that this class may be induced to pause and consider before
they attempt to use unlawful means to redress any grievances, however
great it may seem to them. The destruction of property, although it may
belong to a corporation, results in a direct loss to the labor of the
country. It is conceded that all property and capital is created or
produced by labor, and, therefore, any absolute loss, by the
destruction of either, must, in the end, fall upon the laborer. The
argument sometimes used, that if property is destroyed its replacement
gives employment to the laborer, and that, therefore, it is a benefit
to him, is fallacious, for the reason that the capital necessary to pay
for the reproduction of the property destroyed must be originally
created by labor. The capitalist who loses his property by fire is much
less able to furnish employment than he was before, and if this
destruction overtakes the property of a whole community, capital to
replace what is lost must be drawn from some other locality by
borrowing, and while times may seem prosperous during the time the
re-building is being done, yet there has been an actual loss to the
community, which, sooner or later, must be felt. The draining of
capital from one place, to any great extent, causes its loss to be felt
there, and there is no way in which the destruction of property, in one
place, can be made good there, without the loss being felt somewhere,
and in the end most fully and completely realized at the locality where
it occurred.

The effects of such destruction of property may be temporarily
prevented by bringing capital from other localities, as before
suggested, and business affairs may, for a time, seem even more
prosperous than ever; but when the capital thus brought is to be
repaid, comes the re-action, and the loss is felt even worse than it
would have been had no such borrowing have taken place. Witness the
city of Chicago, as a notable instance in the recent history of the
country. The buildings destroyed by the great fire at that place were
speedily rebuilt, a good portion being done by borrowed capital, and it
was really surprising to see with what amazing rapidity the losses
seemed to be replaced, and the city rise, as the phrase goes, "Phoenix
like from its ashes." Business went on, seemingly, as brisk as ever,
and it was boastingly proclaimed that Chicago beat any city on the
continent in recuperating power, and that it was a greater city than
before the fire. But pay day must come. The property destroyed had been
replaced, but not by the creation of capital by labor. The seeming
wealth had no substantial foundation, the re-growth having been too
rapid to come from this source, and how stands that city to-day?

The city treasury bankrupt, with a very serious question arising
whether the municipal government can be maintained much longer, and
private bankruptcy on every hand, for the pay day has come to
considerable of the indebtedness, and the shift of borrowing cannot be
resorted to forever. The lesson to be drawn by the striking laborers of
Pittsburgh, from this illustration is obvious, and it should be taken
to heart and pondered on by all labor organizations throughout the
country, lest, by their unwise and hasty action, they may strike a blow
which will re-act on themselves with treble the force with which it is
aimed at some corporation or capitalist. It may be expected that an
opinion will be given as to whether or not the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company were justified in making the reduction in wages of ten per
cent. on June 11, 1877, and, ordinarily, the question might be answered
that this, or any other, corporation or individual has the right to pay
such wages as it or he pleases, and to require such services for the
money paid as it or he may choose. This rule must be received with
considerable modification, in the case of a great corporation,
receiving special privileges from the State, and employing thousands of
men, scattered from one end of the State to another.

If such corporation should execute a written contract with all of its
employés on taking them into its service, specifying fully and
particularly the hours and service required from them, the length of
time for which each was hired, and the causes for which he could be
discharged, no one would claim that they could vary the terms of that
contract, without the assent of the employé. From the manner of the
employment of the railroad employés in this country, and especially of
the trainmen, there is in good faith an implied contract that the
employé shall continue to receive the wages the company is at that time
paying for the particular duty which he discharges, until the price is
changed by mutual consent, and that his term of service shall continue
as long as he behaves himself well and performs the services required
of men in his position. This ought to be, and is in equity the implied
contract between the parties, although not legally enforceable. But the
railroad employé has a right to expect such treatment by the company
into whose employ he enters. He is required to be on hand whenever
called for, to give his entire attention to the business of the
corporation, and he settles down with his family in such place as will
make it most convenient for him to attend to the business of the
company. His whole services are theirs, his arrangements are all made
with reference to their business, and when he is discharged, without
any reasonable cause, without any prior notice, or his wages reduced
while his labor is not reduced, and, as is sometimes the case,
increased without his consent, and the order for that purpose made
without consulting him in any manner, he has a right to find fault. He
is like a soldier, whose whole time has been spent in the service. His
occupation is more dangerous than that followed by others, and the kind
of services he has to perform unfits him for other duties, and railroad
officers should always take these facts into consideration in dealing
with him.

The wages of the trainmen, after the reduction in June, 1877, were as
follows, to wit; Freight conductors: first class, two dollars and
twelve cents per day; second class, one dollar and ninety-one cents per
day; brakemen, one dollar and forty-five cents per day, and the day's
work averaged from seven hours and twenty-five minutes, the shortest
time, to eight hours and thirty-five minutes, the longest time. These
wages were good wages for the amount of labor performed per day, and if
the men could make full time, would amount to thirty-eight dollars and
seventy cents per month for brakemen, and fifty-five dollars and twelve
cents for first class conductors. This was higher wages than the same
class of men could get in other employments and seemed to be, as stated
by the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, some twenty per
cent. higher than the wages paid in other lines of business, the
company intending to keep the wages of its men about so much more than
is paid in other occupations on account of the risk taken by the
trainmen. It is claimed by the railroad officials that the depression
in freight traffic on the railroads, both in amount and in price,
required a consequent reduction in the expenses of the railroads, and
the reduction of June, 1877, they asserted to be justifiable, under all
the circumstances, and it is the opinion of your committee that, if
before it had gone into effect, the men had been made fully acquainted
with the reasons for the step taken, and the necessity of it, in short,
treated as if they were reasonable men and entitled to consideration,
very much of the dissatisfaction would not have existed, and the
country might possibly have been spared the troublous scenes through
which it passed at that time. No doubt the fact that a strike of the
trainmen of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad had taken place at
Martinsburg, West Virginia, on the 16th of July, and was gaining
strength and headway, had its influence in determining the trainmen of
the Pennsylvania railroad, at Pittsburgh, to commence their strike at
that place, and, in consequence thereof, a much less grievance was
needed than would otherwise have sufficed, as an excuse for their
action. The fact, also, that the trainmen on other railroads were
rapidly following suit, and stopping the running of freight trains on
such roads, encouraged the men to persist in their course to stand out
and prevent, by force, trains from being run on the Pennsylvania
railroad.

There seemed at this time to be an epidemic of strikes running through
the country, not only among the railroad men, but among all classes of
laborers, and this helped to precipitate and bring about strikes at all
the places about which this report will treat. The general feeling of
uneasiness existing among the laboring classes of the country before
mentioned, and the sympathy felt by these classes for each other made
them very susceptible to anything which affected their fellow laborers,
and, to use a medical phrase, the labor system was in a good condition
to receive the epidemic which was spreading over the country, and in a
very poor condition to resist and throw off the disease. The strike
once inaugurated at Pittsburgh, was strengthened and encouraged by the
sympathy the strikers received from nearly all classes of the citizens,
and more especially by the sympathy shown by the city officials. Had
the community frowned on the attempt of the strikers to prevent, by
force, the running of freight trains, as it should have been done, and
had the civil authorities shown a firm determination to enforce the law
at the outset, as it was their sworn duty to do, there can be no doubt
but the mob would have been dispersed without bloodshed and riot, as it
was in Philadelphia, Scranton, and other places. Philadelphia and
Scranton are particularly mentioned, for at these places there is a
much larger proportion of the turbulent class than at Pittsburgh, and
consequently a great deal more of the material of which riotous mobs
are composed. When any community winks at a small violation of the law,
by any person, and more especially by a combination of persons, it is
laying the foundation for trouble and difficulty. A crowd of people
assembled for the purpose of accomplishing, however worthy, a purpose
in a questionable manner, is very easily converted into a riot, and
when a crowd proposed to carry out an unlawful object by violence it
soon becomes an uncontrollable mob, if encouraged in its purposes by
the sympathy, either expressed or passive, of the community and the
civil authorities. The small show of force made by the police in the
spasmodic manner, it was on July 19th and 20th, was worse than if no
police force had ever appeared on the ground, for the strikers knew
they had nothing to fear from them, and the lawless characters, who had
begun to gather around, construed this action as a sort of license to
do what they chose as long as they interfered with nothing but
railroad interests.

The refusal of the mayor to go to the scene of the disturbance himself,
when specially requested to do so, and to raise a special police to
meet the emergency, is inexplicable on any theory of a wish on his part
to do his duty and enforce the law, and when contrasted with the
vigorous measures taken by the mayor of the sister city of Allegheny,
and of nearly every other place in which riots occurred, must be most
humiliating to the people who elected such a man as their chief
magistrate. Had he shown a proper appreciation of his duty by going to
the grounds of the railroad company when requested, he would have known
better the extent of the troubles threatened, and if determined to
enforce the law, could have prepared to do so by swearing in special
policemen, as was done in all other places. If he chose to rely on a
subordinate to do what was manifestly his duty, and that subordinate
failed from any cause, either incapacity or sympathy with the mob, to
appreciate the danger, and take measures to prepare for it, the
responsibility must still rest on him. His evidence, that he received
reports from his officers through the night of the 19th and 20th, that
all was quiet, is belied by all the testimony in the case. When a call
was first made by the railroad officials for ten policemen, and for his
personal presence, followed in a short time by a call for fifty
policemen, and that by a call for one hundred and fifty, most men would
have concluded that all was not quiet, even if the police should report
to the contrary. This taken in connection with the fact that the
morning papers of the 20th, contained the call of the sheriff on the
Governor for troops, and the orders for the troops to assemble, and
that this was done only after an appeal, soon after midnight, by the
sheriff in person to the crowd to disperse, and their answer to him by
blasphemy, and hooting, and yelling, and other indignities would leave
the people generally to believe that the mayor had willfully shut his
eyes to what was transpiring on the premises of the railroad company.

Very blind or confiding policemen they must have been that night of the
19th and 20th, and very confiding was the mayor to go to Castle
Shannon, a distance of six miles, and let matters take care of
themselves. The mayor, to excuse himself for doing nothing after the
sheriff made a call for the troops, says that he considered himself
superseded by the sheriff and by the military. It has usually been
considered that the military was subordinate to the civil authority,
and that the clause of the Constitution, which reads: "The military
shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to
the civil power," means something, and was placed in the Constitution
for a purpose. If the construction of the law, given by the mayor, is
to prevail, people have been very much mistaken in their understanding
of what is the law, and that all the military need do, under the
mayor's dispensation, is to get some authority to call them out, and
then, as they supersede the civil authority, they have full control,
and can decide for themselves, when the necessity for their services
has ceased, and can, therefore, take charge of the affairs of the
community as long as any ambitious officer may elect. It is a new
doctrine, this of the mayor's, in this country, and he must excuse this
committee if they fail to take any stock in it. The other excuse given
by the mayor for his inaction, to wit: That the men (meaning the
sheriff and military officers,) who had charge of matters after the
19th, were narrow gauge men, and he could not coöperate with them in
their views, and the measures necessary to be taken in the emergency,
is also untenable. It does not appear that he ever consulted with these
men, or any one of them, in regard to what should be done, while it
does appear that he was sought after, and frequent attempts made to
consult with him by the railroad officials, until they learned that
nothing could be expected of him. If his excuse for neglecting his duty
in the matters within his immediate jurisdiction, (to wit: Keeping the
peace, dispersing a mob, and enforcing the law in the city of which he
was chief executive officer,) is a valid one, the others might, with
the same propriety, claim that his gauge did not suit them, and,
therefore, they could not coöperate with him, to keep the peace in his
bailiwick, and refuse to do anything, and the mob allowed to have its
own way.

If the officers referred to were superior to the mayor, he should have
done what he could to coöperate with them, in dispersing the mob, and
suppressing the riot, and on them would rest the responsibility for the
measures they adopted; if they were not superior to him, then even he
will not claim that he had a right to do nothing. All peace officers
(and the military when called out to suppress a riot, is only a posse
for the peace officers) are expected, and it is their duty, to
coöperate for the purpose of keeping the peace. An officer, willing and
anxious to do his duty, will never object to do what he can to enforce
the law because some other officer or officers are trying to assist in
the same object, even if they do not consult him, while one who is
looking for some excuse for evading his duty is very apt to find one
that will satisfy himself, although it may be satisfy no one else.
Mayor McCarthy, at any time on the 19th day of July, at the head of a
determined posse of fifty men, could have dispersed the strikers, and
allowed trains to go out, and the trains once running, the strikers
would have given up the contest. On the 20th of July, the mayor, with
one hundred men, could have dispersed the crowd, and by the arrest of a
few ringleaders broken the strength of the strike.

These statements are made on the supposition that the mayor had been in
earnest, and acted with the vigor that characterized several of the
mayors who were called upon for the same duty in their respective
cities at nearly the same time.

The mob knows instinctively the feelings of the bystanders and
officers, and a little encouragement makes it very bold, while a
determination to enforce the law by a few brave officers will cause the
same mob to disperse, for it is an old and true saying that mobs are
cowardly. This report has already stated, as a matter of fact, proved
by the evidence before the committee, that all classes of the citizens
of Pittsburgh sympathized with the trainmen in their strike. Some of
the citizens claim this is hardly true, but most of them admit it, but
deny that any of them sympathized with the riotous conduct of the mob
and the destruction of property by it. The best description of the
feeling of that community was given by Sheriff Fife, who testified that
there was a general sympathy with the strikers; the entire laboring
class sympathized with them; the merchants sympathized with them to a
certain extent; that the responsible portion of the people of
Pittsburgh were not in sympathy with the riot, but that it took a
certain amount of riot to bring them to their senses. That this
sympathy with the strikers pervaded the whole community does not admit
of a reasonable doubt. There may have been, and no doubt were persons
who did not sympathize, but they were isolated cases, and so few as to
be of no use in controlling or directing public sentiment. There are a
great many evidences of this aside from the direct testimony of most of
the witnesses who were asked the question. The fact that Sheriff Fife
testifies to that he did not undertake to raise a posse to disperse the
mob before calling on the Governor for troops, as it would have been
folly to have tried it in the city for he knew the feeling of the
people, he might possibly have raised a posse in the country, if he had
had time, is one evidence. On Saturday, the 21st, he sent out twenty
deputies to raise a posse to assist in arresting the ringleaders, and
they did not raise an average of one each, after, as they testify,
making a vigorous effort. The action of the Pittsburgh troops, also
shows that the same feeling of sympathy pervaded them, and the actions
of the mayor and police show conclusively the same thing, so far as
they were concerned. The editorials in the newspapers of the city show
as strongly as any evidence can, where the sympathy of the community
was, these being the best exponents of public sentiment when not
repudiated by the people. The prejudice among the shippers over the
Pennsylvania railroad against that company on account of the alleged
discrimination in freight against them, caused them also to sympathize
with the trainmen, and the general feeling was, after the commencement
of the strike, to let the company take care of itself. No one can doubt
that the existence of this feeling in the community was well known to
the strikers, and that it encouraged them to hold out in their purposes
and make them more bold in their adoption of measures to resist the
company, and prevent by force any freight trains from leaving
Pittsburgh.

This feeling of boldness and confidence in disregarding the law
communicated itself to the new comers in the crowd, many of them being
the worst criminals and tramps, until the mob became so confident that
they could do as they pleased, that they did not believe any serious
attempt would be made to disperse them, until the railroad company had
yielded to the demand of the strikers, and that if such an attempt
should be made they could easily repel it. None of the citizens had the
remotest idea that the strike would culminate in any serious riot or
destruction of property, neither did the strikers themselves expect
this would be the result, but the resistance to law once started, the
original movers soon lost all control of the movement, and the
consequences were such as to astonish the most reckless among them. No
one could have foreseen the result, and the experience of the people of
Pittsburgh, with strikes prior to that time, had not been such as to
lead them to anticipate anything serious in this case. There being many
manufacturing establishments in and around that place, employing a
large number of men, strikes were quite familiar to them, but as they
were usually confined to the men of one establishment, or one branch of
trade, they were arranged without serious disturbance of the public
peace, and no one realized the danger in winking at the course of the
strikers in this case. No strike had ever before taken place under such
favorable circumstances to make trouble. Never before were so many of
the resident laborers out of work, never before was the country so
filled with tramps to flock to such a scene of disturbance, never
before was the laboring class of the whole country so ready to join in
a move of that kind, and never before were the civil authorities of the
city so utterly incompetent to deal with such an outbreak, or if not
incompetent, then criminally negligent, in not making an earnest effort
to enforce the law. The railroad riots of 1877, have by some been
called an insurrection, for the reason that strikes occurred at nearly
the same time on several of the main trunk lines of the country, that
several Governors of States issued proclamations warning the rioters to
disperse, &c., some of them calling on the President of the United
States for troops to assist the civil authorities in dispersing the
mobs and enforcing the law, and the large number of men engaged in
these troubles in the different parts of the county. Insurrection is
defined to be "a rising against civil or political authority; the open
and active opposition of a number of persons to the execution of law in
a city or State; a rebellion; a revolt."

The railroad riots in Pennsylvania were not a rising against civil or
political authority; in their origin were not intended by their movers
as an open and active opposition to the execution of the law. Most of
the riots were the result of the strikes by a portion of the railroad
men, the strikes being intended to bring the railroad officers to a
compromise with the strikers, of the differences between them. In some
places the men merely proposed to quit work, and not interfere with the
running of trains by any men the railroad authorities could get; in
other places they would not allow other men to work in their places,
nor railroad officials to send out freight trains, if in their power to
prevent. It was in no case an uprising against the law as such, but a
combination of men to assert an illegal right as between them and the
railroad company. There was no organized movement throughout the
country, no pre-arranged plan of the trainmen to prevent the running of
freight trains by violence or combination, understanding or agreement
between the men on any one railroad and the men on another. Each strike
was independent of those on other roads, each having a local cause
particularly its own. As before stated, there was a sort of an epidemic
of strikes running through the laboring classes of the country, more
particularly those in the employ of large corporations, caused by the
great depression of business, which followed the panic of 1873, by
means whereof many men were thrown out of work, and the wages of those
who could get work were reduced to correspond with the reduction in the
prices of all commodities and the reduced amount of business to be
done. Each strike, except at Reading, although commenced originally by
men then at work for a railroad or some other corporation, to carry out
their own purposes, was soon joined by all the idlers and vagabonds in
the vicinity, and these being by far the largest in number, soon took
the movement out of the hands of the originators and carried it clear
beyond anything they ever anticipated. The vagabonds having no object
but plunder, and having no particular interest in anything else, were
ready to resort to violent measures to accomplish their object.

The immediate cause of the strike at Pittsburgh was not similar to any
other that has come to the knowledge of this committee, it being the
order to run double-headers. No such cause existed anywhere else, and,
therefore, the troubles there could not be considered as a part of any
general understanding between trainmen. At Reading, the railroad men
were not engaged in any strike, nor did they take any part in the riots
there. The troubles there were caused solely by idle men, who had some
time previously been discharged from the employ of the Philadelphia and
Reading Railroad Company, and for the purpose of venting their spite on
the company. At Scranton, although there had been a strike of the
railroad men, this had been adjusted, and the men were at work again,
when the riots occurred, the riots being engaged in by the idle men and
striking miners and mill men. If a riot, growing out of any of these
isolated movements, is to be called an insurrection, or if these
movements, altogether, are to rise to the dignity of an insurrection,
then the word must be given a new definition, for as it now stands,
there must have been some pre-concerted arrangement between the men at
the different points, to resist the laws of the country, or the move at
some point must have been for the purpose of resisting constituted
authority, and not the mere purpose of forcing railroad companies, or
any other corporations, to come to terms with the strikers, by
obstructing the business of the railroad or other corporation. No
pre-concerted arrangement of any kind has been proved before your
committee, although such persons as might be supposed to know the fact,
if it existed at all, were subpoenaed and testified before us, and
all of them positively deny that there was any concert of action
whatever, among the trainmen, for a strike after the 27th of June, and
a local cause for the different strikes in Pennsylvania is given by
them all. It has been asserted by many that no rioting or destruction
of property would have taken place at Pittsburgh, if the troops had not
been called out, and had not fired on the mob. The trifling with the
mob, at this place, by the civil authorities, and the sympathy shown by
the citizens, with the original strikers, had emboldened and encouraged
it to such an extent, that when the Philadelphia troops arrived on the
ground, it had, no doubt, got beyond the control of the civil power, as
then constituted, and there can be no doubt of the necessity for the
presence of those troops. Such mobs as that at the Twenty-eighth street
crossing, on Saturday evening, July 21st, at the time the Philadelphia
troops were marched out there, would never have dispersed without
making serious trouble, troops or no troops.

How long it would take a mob to disperse and melt away of its own
accord, which on Thursday numbered from fifty to two hundred men, on
Friday from five hundred to fifteen hundred, and on Saturday from two
thousand in the morning to seven or eight thousand in the afternoon,
and which was growing all the time more turbulent and excited, we leave
for the advocates of the do nothing policy to determine if they can.
The firing on the mob by the troops, and the subsequent inaction
precipitated and aggravated its action, but did not create the riots.
When a great line of public travel and traffic like the Pennsylvania
railroad is blockaded by a mob, the public interests suffer more than
the railroad interests, and every day that it is allowed to continue,
damages the community to the extent of thousands of dollars, and it was
the duty of the local civil authorities to adopt the most vigorous
measures to break the blockade, but if instead of doing this, they
temporize with the mob until, in consequence thereof, it becomes too
strong to be suppressed by them, and the troops of the State are called
on for assistance, the latter cannot be said to have caused the riots,
or held responsible for the consequences of an honest effort to enforce
the law. If the rioting was caused by the calling out of the troops,
and their subsequent actions, then the claim that that was an
insurrection falls to the ground, and if there was an insurrection,
then the troops cannot have been the cause of the rioting, as the two
positions are inconsistent, although held and advocated by a number of
prominent men.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

    JOHN E. REYBURN,
    _Chairman_.

    E. D. YUTZY,
    W. L. TORBERT,
    _Committee of the Senate_.

    W. M. LINDSEY,
    _Chairman Joint Committee_.

    D. C. LARRABEE,
    A. F. ENGELBERT,
    SAMU'L W. MEANS,
    P. P. DEWEES,
    _Committee of the House_.

Laid on the table.



    PROCEEDINGS AND TESTIMONY.


    SENATE COMMITTEE ROOM,
    HARRISBURG, _February 4, 1878_.

The committee met and organized by the election of the following
officers:

    W. M. Lindsey, _Chairman_.
    Samuel B. Collins, _Clerk and Stenographer_.
    J. J. Cromer, _Sergeant-at-Arms_.
    ---- ----, _Messenger_.

Adjourned to meet in Pittsburgh, an the 6th instant.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _Wednesday, February 6, 1878_.

The committee met at half past ten o'clock, A.M., this day, in the
orphans' court room, city of Pittsburgh.

The roll of members being called, it was found that all the members
were present.

The committee engaged in a consultation as to the mode of procedure in
taking testimony--as to whether the sessions of the committee should be
public, and as to whether counsel should be admitted to represent
parties who might be summoned as witnesses.

G. H. Geyer, Esquire, counsel for the county commissioners, was invited
before the committee for the purpose of ascertaining what the
commissioners desired; also W. B. Rogers, Esquire, counsel for the city
of Allegheny, was invited before the committee for the same purpose.
The county commissioners in person also appeared before the committee.

The committee was waited upon by Mr. Johnson, a member of the chamber
of commerce, who gave information that the chamber had appointed a
committee, of which he had been elected chairman, for the purpose of
giving aid in obtaining information relative to matters being
investigated by the committee. On behalf of the chamber of commerce, he
also tendered the use of their hall for the sittings of the committee.

Upon motion of Senator Reyburn, it was ordered that a session should be
held this afternoon, from three to six o'clock.

Adjourned.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _Wednesday, February 6, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at three o'clock,
P.M., this day.

The debate was resumed, as to the mode of procedure in taking
testimony.

Upon motion of Senator Reyburn, the chairman of the committee, Mr.
Lindsey, was selected to conduct the examination of witnesses on behalf
of the committee.

Adjourned.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _February 7, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee met at ten o'clock, A.M., this
day.

The committee proceeded to the examination of witnesses. The first
witness called was:

John Scott, _sworn_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. I am still a citizen of Pittsburgh, although I have been attending
to my business for the last three months in Philadelphia.

Q. What is your official relation to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

A. At present I am the general solicitor of the company.

Q. What was it in July last?

A. I was then what was called the general counsel of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, resident at Pittsburgh.

Q. Can you tell the committee whether, prior to July last, there were
any differences existing between the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and
its employés?

A. On that subject I have no personal knowledge. Any differences, if
they did exist, between the employés and the company were known to the
operating officers of the company, over whom I have no control. I only
know it as a matter of public history, as other persons.

Q. Were you present at the disturbances of the peace within the city of
Pittsburgh in July last?

A. I was during a portion of those disturbances, but not during all of
them. If it is desired that I should give you a connected statement of
what I did see, I would begin with where my personal knowledge of the
transactions commenced.

Q. That is what the committee desire?

A. On the morning of Thursday--that week in which the disturbances
occurred--I cannot recollect the date--on that morning there was no
appearance of disturbance. I state this from the fact that Mr.
Pitcairn, the superintendent of the western division, and I live within
a very short distance of each other. We take trains at the same
station, and when I went there that morning I found him there with his
family, preparing to go, for a visit of some length, to Long Branch.
The strike which had occurred on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was
the subject of conversation between us during the few moments that we
were together there, and I know, at that moment, he had not the most
remote apprehension of any disturbance. I came into town on the train,
and knew nothing of any disturbance until about noon, when I heard of
the assault having been made upon Mr. Watt. I did not see it, or I
would narrate it.

Q. Who was Mr. Watt?

A. He was the chief clerk, or assistant to Mr. Pitcairn. About nine
o'clock that evening I received a dispatch, stating that Messrs.
Hampton and Dalzell, the local solicitors, who took charge of the
local business, were absent from the city, and requesting me to come to
the outer depot. I did so. I got off at the Twenty-eighth street
station. There was quite a large crowd of people at that station. Just
when I got off, an engine was coming up from the direction of the Union
depot. I do not know from whence it had started. Immediately, there was
a cry that it must be stopped, and there was a rush of a large number
of that crowd towards the engine. It did stop, and a loud halloo went
up from that crowd.

Q. Who composed that crowd, so far as you observed?

A. That I cannot tell. My point was to reach the outer depot, and I
spent no more time there than was necessary. At the outer depot I found
that Mr. Pitcairn had not yet reached the city, although he had been
telegraphed for. I found Mr. Watt there, his assistant, and learned
from him the extent to which the disturbance had gone. That he can give
you personally. Finding from that statement that a call had been made
upon the mayor for assistance to regain the property of the company,
and that it had been ineffectual, I went up to my office for the
purpose of looking at the act of Assembly passed in 1877, and also the
law providing for calling out the military by the Governor. I spent
some time in doing that, leaving word for Mr. Watt to come to my
office, so we might call upon the sheriff for the purpose of dispersing
the mob, and regaining possession of the company's property. He came up
in a short time, and we rode to the sheriff's residence, and woke him
up out of bed.

Q. Where is his residence?

A. In Washington street, between Wylie and Fifth avenue.

Q. What time was that?

A. That was, probably, between ten--no I am not certain about the
hour--about ten or eleven o'clock. I stated to the sheriff that the
property of the company was in the possession of a large number of the
employés and of citizens--the information was that--I had no personal
knowledge of it--Mr. Watt was with me--and that an effort had been
made, through the mayor, to regain possession, which had not succeeded,
and that we called upon him, as officers of the company, to ask him to
go to the outer depot and exert his power, as sheriff of the county, to
disperse the crowd assembled there, and to restore possession to the
company of its property. I said I came as counsel of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, and, that as it would probably be one of the most
delicate exercises of power he could be called upon to make, I insisted
he should send for his own counsel to accompany him, as if he found his
power insufficient to disperse the mob, and to restore to the company
possession of its property, we would ask him further to advise the
Governor, so he might exercise his power, if he found it necessary. The
sheriff replied that Mr. Carnahan was his counsel, and that he resided
at East Liberty, and that he could not get him in time to go to the
depot. He went for a deputy, who lived across the street--Mr. Haymaker,
I think--and we all drove to the outer depot, on the way finding Mr.
Pitcairn, who had arrived in a train from the East. When we reached the
outer depot, General Pearson was there. He had been apprized by the
Adjutant General. The sheriff was again informed of the desire of the
company to obtain possession of its property, and have the crowd
dispersed.

Q. Can you give the date of this?

A. I have said this was on the Thursday preceding the actual burning
and destruction. As a matter of memory, my recollection is that it was
the 19th, although I am cautious about dates, as I have not a good
recollection about dates. The sheriff then went out with General
Pearson to Twenty-eighth street. I did not go with him. He came back
after the lapse of probably three quarters of an hour, reporting that
he found himself unable to disperse the mob, and that he could get no
force to enable him to disperse it. I then said to the sheriff that it
was a question for him to determine whether he had exhausted his power
for the protection of the company's property. He said he had exhausted
it, and that he had made up his mind to ask the Governor to call out
the troops to disperse the mob. At his request, I wrote a dispatch to
the Governor, and submitted it to him, General Pearson, being present
as I understood, acting as his counsel at the time. Some requests had
come to send a dispatch to the Lieutenant Governor. I was satisfied
that it was not such an occasion as authorized the Lieutenant Governor
to act; but public information in the newspapers being that the
Governor was absent from the Commonwealth, I suggested to the sheriff,
as a matter of prudence, that a dispatch should be sent to the
executive office, at Harrisburg, addressed to the Governor; that a copy
of it should be sent to the Secretary of State, who was then in Beaver,
we understood, with information that it had been sent to executive
office; that another copy should be sent to the Adjutant General, who
was understood to be in Philadelphia, and that the Lieutenant Governor
should be informed of the fact that such a dispatch had been sent to
the Governor, that he might have that information, and, if he had the
authority to act, might exercise it.

Q. Who signed that dispatch?

A. The sheriff.

Q. At what time?

A. That was in the neighborhood of twelve o'clock that night. I am
giving my judgment about those hours. Those dispatches signed by the
sheriff were sent. There was a great deal of telegraphing that evening
there, between myself and the officials of the railroad company, Mr.
Pitcairn and others, the details of which I cannot now recollect. In
the course of several hours after that dispatches were received from
Mr. Quay and the Adjutant General by the Sheriff, informing him that
the Governor had ordered out the troops. Dispatches were also received
there by General Pearson, from the Adjutant General, giving him the
same information. I cannot give the hour of those dispatches; but I
know before we left the office, probably about five o'clock in the
morning--four or five o'clock, perhaps--the sheriff and General Pearson
had both received dispatches to the effect that the Governor had
ordered out the military to the assistance of the sheriff, and that
General Pearson had drawn an order, in pursuance of those dispatches,
for one of his own regiments of this city to turn out. Probably about
five or six o'clock that morning several of us left the office and went
to bed at the Union depot. That was Friday morning. Now as to the
actual progress of the strike. What occurred at the outer depot during
Friday, I believe, I have no personal knowledge, and I do not know that
I had any intercourse with any of the officials of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, and not, probably, with the military officers, until
about four or five o'clock that evening. There was delay in the
military responding to the general's orders. Some information reached
our office, where I was engaged in other business in the office of the
Penn company, that General Pearson was about to open the tracks with
the military, and was starting for that purpose from Union depot. Mr.
Thaw and I went up there together. When we arrived, there was a company
ready to go to Twenty-eighth street. Mr. Cassatt was there, one of the
vice-presidents of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. I do not know
what was said when I got there; but in some way my opinion was asked as
to the propriety of the movement. Somebody asked me, I do not know who.
There were a great many people around the dispatcher's office, where
General Pearson was. I was asked the question. I said in reply, that as
an officer of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company I had no opinion at all
to give, that the civil power of the country having been called upon,
and the sheriff having been called upon, and the military being there
with General Pearson in command of them, I certainly would not give any
instructions that would interfere with the discretion either of the
sheriff or of General Pearson. I might reply, as a citizen of
Pittsburgh, that there was no need of repeating the old maximum, which
had got very trite, that there was no use in firing blank shot at a
mob; but that when they were ready to strike, they should do it
effectually, and disperse the mob. The General stated to me there the
force he had, some sixty men in that company and a battery called
Breck's Battery, the remainder of his force was at Torrens station. He
also stated he had a number of men then at Twenty-eighth street.

Q. What is the distance of Torrens station from Twenty-eight street?

A. Out to East Liberty is four miles, and Torrens station is probably a
quarter of a mile beyond that. From the length of time that had
elapsed, and a number of the men not having responded, I felt satisfied
it would be prudent to have more troops before striking, and I so
telegraphed to Philadelphia. General Pearson, at that point, said: I
believe I could take this battery up there and open the track at that
point, but it would be with very great sacrifice of life.

Q. To whom did you telegraph to Philadelphia?

A. To the president of the road--Colonel Scott. I said in that
dispatch, from the dilatory way in which the troops were coming, I
thought that the troops ought to come from some other quarter than from
Pittsburgh. General Pearson was evidently reluctant to sacrifice life,
even if he could open the road by doing so, and wished Mr. Thaw and
myself, as officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, to sign a
request asking him to delay his movement. I refused to do so, saying
that I would not control his discretion as a military man--that what
should be done, at that time, should be left to him to decide. I left
then and went out home that evening, and staid at home Friday night and
saw nothing more of the riot than a passenger would see in passing out
through the large crowd assembled at and about Twenty-eight street. I
cannot estimate the number there, but the road was blocked and the hill
was largely covered, when we went out on Friday evening. I returned to
the city on Saturday morning, but did not see what transpired along the
Pennsylvania railroad during that morning, as I was busy in my own
office at Tenth and Penn streets. There was a great deal of
communicating back and forth between the officials of the road, between
Philadelphia and here, and west of this point, in reference to the
strike. I was not present when the troops arrived from Philadelphia. I
was pursuing my business in my department that evening until I went
over to go out to my home, at Shady Side. The train I took was delayed,
the firing having already commenced at Twenty-eight street. Word had
come by telegraph, before that train started, that the firing had
occurred. I went out in that train, through a dense crowd, both of
civil and military men, at Twenty-eight street; and I was at my home
during that night. The firing began that night, probably about eight or
nine o'clock. I came into the city the next morning, and went to the
Union Depot Hotel with some ladies who had been left on the train that
could not get in the night before. It is not necessary for me to say
what occurred. I found a place of safety for them. I found that the
Union Depot Hotel was not a safe place at that time. I saw at that time
the fire progressing up, but I was not any nearer to the scene of the
riot at that time than the Union Depot Hotel. Secretary Quay and
Adjutant General Latta were in the Union Depot Hotel making
preparations to leave it.

Q. State the distance of your residence from the Union depot.

A. The station where I get off is a fraction over three miles from the
Union Depot Hotel, and my residence is probably four or five hundred
yards from the station.

Q. State whether at this time there was any rioting nearer to the Union
depot than Twenty-eighth street, at the time you speak about when
General Latta and Secretary Quay were in the Union Depot Hotel.

A. The fire had progressed, and was then progressing on this side of
Twenty-eighth street up toward the Union Depot Hotel. I cannot say
where the fire first originated, but looking up Liberty street from the
Union Depot Hotel, when I was there, I should say the fire was then
some six or seven blocks from the Union Depot Hotel. I could see it
distinctly spreading across the street. I was not at the scene of the
riot during Sunday; I was with the officers of the railroad company in
Allegheny City, in conference as to the best mode of preventing further
trouble, destruction, and rioting over portions of the road west of
Pittsburgh. I do not know that I can give any further information in
giving my personal knowledge of what I saw of the actual disturbances.

Q. Have you any knowledge as to what was done by the railroad company
after that time?

A. In the way of suppressing the riot?

Q. Yes.

A. I might state upon that subject, that upon Saturday afternoon, while
the officers of the western lines were in Allegheny City, a committee
of citizens--at least a committee appointed at a citizens' meeting--a
representative of Bishop Twigg--one of his clergymen, whose name I do
not recollect--and Reverend Mr. Scoville, of the Presbyterian Church,
and James I. Bennett, came to see what we could do in the way of
suppressing the riot, and asking that some concession should be made to
the men on the road. We replied to them substantially, that so far as
the railroad company was concerned, we thought the mob had done about
its worst. This was when the Union depot was burning--at least Mr. Thaw
and I were on the hill a short time before, and saw the fire so near
that we supposed it was then burning. We said it had now ceased to be a
question between the railroad company and the employés, and was one
between the public authorities and the mob, between government and
anarchy, and that so far as we had anything to do with the question, we
were now in an utterly defenseless position, and we thought, being in
that position, if we were to make the concessions which had been
demanded in the beginning, we would be breaking down the only barrier
between anarchy and their property, and that now the question for the
citizens to determine was whether they would make any effort to stop
that lawlessness which would next reach them after it had spent its
fury on the railroad company. So far as the efforts to stop the rioting
by negotiations or compromising with the men were concerned, I had no
direct connection with them. That occurred between others--friends of
the road, the general management, and the representatives of the
men--and I knew of them only in a general way, from hearing what was
said by the officers, which was substantially, that while the men were
in the position of law breakers, and holding control of the company's
property, we could not yield to the demands extorted by that kind of
violence; but that, if things were restored to their normal condition,
the company was perfectly willing to meet the men, and negotiate with
them in regard to this matter just as in regard to any other
difference.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Upon this Thursday you speak of, you say you found, at a certain
stage, that the road was in possession of the mob--substantially a
mob--that then you went to the sheriff, and then, with him, to the
depot, and found General Pearson there. Now, can you state to us who
called for, or who sent for the militia--who called upon the State
Government?

A. I have already stated that the call for the militia was made by
Sheriff Fife, after he had gone out with General Pearson, and
endeavored to disperse the mob at Twenty-eighth street. He then came
back and reported his inability to do so, and that he had no further
power at his command, and announced his decision that he would call
upon the Governor, and, at his request, I wrote a dispatch to the
Governor, announcing his conclusion, and asking for the Governor's aid.

Q. At the request of the sheriff?

A. Yes; he signed that dispatch sent to the Governor.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you call upon the mayor for assistance before you called upon
the sheriff?

A. I did not personally. Mr. Watt informed me he did. He can give you
that.

Q. Was General Pearson connected with the sheriff's office at that time
as a deputy?

A. I don't know.

Q. You stated he was counsel for the sheriff?

A. Oh, no. I stated to the sheriff that I was calling upon him as
counsel for the railroad company, and I insisted that he ought to have
his own counsel to guide him in determining his duty in this emergency;
but, saying that Mr. Carnahan was his regular counsel, and that he
could not send for him, he went to the depot without him, with a deputy
named Haymaker. When we reached the depot General Pearson was there,
saying he had been requested by the Adjutant General to be there. When
Sheriff Fife saw him there, he turned to me and said: "Mr. Scott, I
know him, and for this occasion I will be governed by his counsel."
General Pearson was not there as a deputy or a clerk, but in obedience
to the dispatch of the Adjutant General, and the sheriff, finding him
there, was governed by his counsel at that time.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Have you any knowledge as to who sent for the troops at
Philadelphia, who ordered them here?

A. I have no other knowledge of it than that which came in the
dispatches that night, which was that the Adjutant General had ordered
them. A dispatch came from Mr. Quay saying that the Governor had
ordered out the militia.

Q. The Philadelphia troops of the First division?

A. I have no actual knowledge as to who ordered them out, except in a
general way; the Adjutant General was here afterwards, and when those
troops came it was my understanding, derived from my intercourse with
General Latta and all the others, that the military had been ordered
out by the Adjutant General, he being the military officer of the State
under the Governor. In speaking of all this, I am giving what occurred
by the dispatches in the outer depot while I was there.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Can you give the extent of the destruction of the railroad property
by the fire?

A. I cannot, with any accuracy.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Approximately?

A. I have been informed that the officers of the road are yet engaged
in making up a full statement of the losses of the company, and any
estimate I might make would be so entirely unreliable that, if it is
important to the committee, I prefer sending for those who have that
subject in charge.

Q. Can you give the extent of the burning, the destruction of property
in general?

A. My statement would be simply from observation--that the burning of
property commenced at or very near the station of Lawrenceville.

Q. How far from the Union depot?

A. I would suppose a mile and a quarter or a mile and a half. That is
an estimate. I do not know, I may be wrong about that. It is the second
stopping place out from the Union depot. The destruction on the track,
of cars that were there, and buildings extending from Lawrenceville all
along past the Union depot and embracing property of the Pittsburgh,
Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad Company, on Seventh street, in this
city, the number of cars burnt, the number of locomotives destroyed or
disabled, the value of the goods in those cars, and the value of the
buildings that were destroyed, and the injury done on the road are all
matters of computation upon which my estimate would not be worth
anything. It will have to be obtained from actual examination of those
who inspected them.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Was the first burning of cars or of buildings?

A. I cannot say, except as a matter of public information. I was not
present. I have already stated I was at Shady Side on Saturday evening,
when the fire commenced.

Q. Have you any knowledge about what time that fire commenced?

A. I saw the light in the evening about nine or ten o'clock, and sent
my son in to ascertain the state of things.

Q. Of your own knowledge you do not know whether it was a car that was
first burned or a building?

A. Of my own knowledge I cannot say at what point the fire began, or by
whom it was kindled.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Can you state of your own knowledge what classes of men composed the
rioters during the burning. Whether the mob was composed of railroad
employés or of others than those, and if of others, of what class?

A. That would be in part my personal knowledge, but I could not give an
answer to that without confounding together my personal knowledge and
matters of information. I will give the result, if you wish it.

Q. State it?

A. The first difficulties, which were brought on by the employés of the
company taking possession of the engines and trains, were, so far as I
could judge, or saw, exclusively by those who had been railroad
employés up to that point. The action which Mr. Pitcairn took with
reference to that when they took that possession I cannot state. Things
went on, with a great crowd accumulating from that Thursday morning,
and while I say, as a lawyer, that there was a riot and mob there from
Thursday morning down until the firing began, with a crowd constantly
accumulating, as it would on account of any disturbance that had
occurred, yet there seemed to be a feeling that it was not that kind of
a riot or mob that called for the interposition of a very vigorous
public sentiment to put it down; but, when the military were brought
for the purpose of regaining possession of the property, and the
collision was actually brought on, I can say that the mob was made up
of a great many other people than railroad employés. I did not see
them, nor was actually among them so I could identify any of the
railroad employés, or any persons outside, but from my knowledge of the
immense crowd which was assembled at Twenty-eight street as I went in
and out, there were undoubtedly a great many other than railroad
employés about the scene of violence, and I have no doubt participating
in it.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. You say that while the employés were in possession of the cars of
the company, there seemed to be no such riot as required the
intervention of public sentiment to put it down?

A. I did not intend to say that, but that while it was confined to
railroad employés public sentiment did not seem to manifest itself as
requiring any decided interposition to put that down. In other words, I
am bound in candor to say, when asked for it, that public sentiment
here very clearly distinguished between the act of breaking the law on
the part of the employés in taking possession of the railroad property,
and stopping commerce at this point, and the act of rioting and
incendiarism which followed in consequence of that initial breaking of
the law.

Q. That is, that public sentiment did not assert itself vigorously
against the employés taking possession of the cars and engines prior to
the actual outbreak and destruction of property?

A. That is what I mean.

Q. In other words, public sentiment sympathized with the rioters?

A. I am a citizen of Pittsburgh, and here along with the rest of them,
am bound to say that the newspapers pretty fairly reflected the public
sentiment in what they said. If you wish to see what it was, instead of
asking my opinion, owing to my relation with the railroad company, if
you will take the editorials of the various morning and evening
newspapers from the 19th of July, from the day on which this thing
occurred, down until some days after the actual firing occurred, I
think you will find that the editors evidently tried to reflect the
public sentiment, and I think they succeeded pretty well in doing it.
If you wish to get that you had better ask the sheriff what responses
the people made to him when he asked them to become part of his
_posse_. I did not hear what was said, but the sheriff knows.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did the sheriff succeed in raising a _posse comitatus?_

A. He said to us in the Union depot he could not, and reported to me
the next morning that he could not do it.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Have you any knowledge whether the mayor tried to subdue the riot or
assist the sheriff in trying to subdue the riot?

A. I have not any personal knowledge of the mayor's action.

Q. Was he in the city during the time, or not?

A. Not to my personal knowledge, again. I did make one effort to have
accomplished what I thought would have conduced somewhat to the public
peace that afternoon, Saturday afternoon. That is the only fact within
my own knowledge. About one o'clock, Saturday, seeing a large number of
people attracted to the depot, and knowing that a large number of
operatives were free from work that afternoon, I thought it a measure
of precaution for the mayor to close the drinking saloons in the city.
I drew up a paper, stating this fact, as politely as I could, and that
paper was signed by Mr. Thaw and Mr. McCullough, officers of the
company, and I took it over and had Secretary Quay and Adjutant General
Latta sign it also, and then sent it up to the mayor, and the messenger
reported to me that he had left it at the mayor's office in the hands
of his chief clerk, I think he said; I never heard any more of it.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who was that messenger?

A. His name I cannot give you, but I placed it in the hands of D. H.
Rudy; he can give you the name of the messenger who sent it up. That is
the answer that I got, that he left it in the mayor's office. What was
done with it I do not know.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Do you know whether he complied with it or not?

A. I can only say that the drinking saloons were not closed, and I did
not see any proclamation closing them.

Q. So if you were not a citizen of Pittsburgh, do you suppose you would
think that the mayor had done his duty, as an officer ought to, at that
particular time?

A. Being a citizen of Pittsburgh, I cannot put myself in the position
of not being one. I will have to leave you to judge.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. At the time you first spoke of meeting the crowd of employés, and
their taking possession of the engines on Thursday--the first outbreak
you spoke of what was done on the part of the railroad company to
ascertain the cause of that commotion?

A. I did not understand that there was any secret about the causes of
it all. I am giving now the public understanding. My understanding was
simply this: That an order had been made--Mr. Pitcairn can tell you
more fully about that--an order requiring the running of, what are
called double header trains--two engines to one train, and some of the
employés alleged that that imposed on them additional work without
additional pay. I believe that is the short of it, and rather than
comply with it, they struck. I understood that was made the cause of
beginning the disturbances here.

Q. Did you or any one, on behalf of the railroad company, communicate
with those men?

A. I did not. I understood the operating officers did, but I cannot
tell what occurred between them.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Robert Pitcairn, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your residence?

A. Shady Side.

Q. What is your official connection with the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company?

A. General agent or superintendent of the Pittsburgh division.

Q. How long have you held that position?

A. I came here the last time in the spring of 1865. I have been here
three times. Since that spring I have been superintendent of the
division.

Q. Now give us your statement about the riots. Tell us whether there
were any differences of opinion or disagreements between the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company and the employés prior to the 20th of
July last.

A. There were no more differences than there have been since the road
has been opened. There have always been differences.

Q. Was there any difference existing at that time?

A. No more than heretofore. The company reduced the wages of all
officers and employés ten per cent. in June.

Q. Of 1877?

A. Yes. There was a good deal of friction and complaint. Committees
called upon me, and committees from the different divisions of the road
visited Mr. Scott, the president, and had conferences with him on the
subject. They complained because of the reduction. He explained that
the cause of it was the condition of the country, and that as soon as
business would become brighter, that then the company would entertain
their petitions and would act fairly with them, when the committee, as
they informed me, as Colonel Scott and others informed me, professed
their satisfaction, and said there would be no trouble, but that they
would work harmoniously.

Q. That was on what date?

A. I cannot remember the date; it was after the ten per cent.
reduction.

Q. What was the date of that?

A. I think it was in June--May or June.

Q. Was there any further reduction after that time, and prior to the
riot?

A. There was no reduction in wages.

Q. Was there an increase of duty or work placed upon the employés?

A. That is a question of opinion altogether. The company for many years
back--the officers have been trying all in their power to economically
manage the road, loading the engines to their full capacity and making
them up differently. There is hardly a year passes, but that some of
the officers finds some way of more economically running the road.
There was an order given to make up what we call double-headers between
Pittsburgh and Derry. Since the road has been opened we have always run
double-headed, and sometimes three engines ahead and one behind,
between Altoona and Conemaugh. The object in running the double-headers
to Derry was for the purpose of making the trains go through to
Philadelphia without being divided; that is, it takes two engines to
haul a train from Pittsburgh to Derry, whether two engines ahead or
behind, or two separate trains; and to avoid the delay of running two
separate trains to Derry, one ahead waiting for the other, we put two
engines in front of the trains, when one engine cuts the train going to
Conemaugh, and the one put behind goes down to Altoona, and goes
through from there.

Q. What was the date of that order?

A. The order of running double-headers on all through trains was the
morning of Thursday, but we had always run double-headers between
Pittsburgh and Derry, perhaps from one half to two thirds. The order
was to take effect on that Thursday, and was to make them all
double-headers.

Q. Did the men make any complaint about that order?

A. They made no complaint.

Q. To you or to any other officer of the road?

A. Not that I am aware of. Up to that time we always considered the
double-headers a question of economy.

Q. Did that order require the discharge of any number of men, or did it
not?

A. It did.

Q. By that order you could run your trains with a less number of men?

A. We could run them with a less number of conductors and brakemen, but
not of engineers and firemen. As many double-headers as we had would
take off one single crew of conductors and brakemen each.

Q. You heard no complaint about that order?

A. Not that I am aware of; but the men were always complaining about
something.

Q. That was on Thursday. What was the first riotous occurrence showing
that the men were dissatisfied after the issuing of that order?

A. I had leave of absence on Thursday morning to go to Philadelphia.
For a few days previous I had asked the men--asked the subordinate
officers--as I always do when I see them, if there is any trouble. I
was assured then that our men were more satisfied and loyal than they
had been, and I was perfectly free in my mind in going away on Thursday
morning. I left in the day express on the Thursday morning when the
trouble began.

Q. How far did you go before receiving intelligence of the trouble?

A. When I reached Altoona I got a telegram from Mr. Watt, who
represented me here, saying that a few of the men, after the train I
was on had left, had refused to go out on the double-headers, and that
they were trying to create a disturbance, and saying what action he had
taken, and that his idea was that it would be all right, and for me not
to stop off but to go on, that the matter would be all right.

Q. What hour did you receive that?

A. About twelve twenty, when I reached Altoona. I had no train to
return on and I thought I would go on the day express and think over
the subject, and when I reached Lewistown I made up my mind that I
would return. So I arranged for my family, who were accompanying me, to
go on, and I returned on the fast line from Lewistown, reaching here at
eleven thirty.

Q. In the evening?

A. Yes; eleven twenty-five. On my way west I telegraphed to my
subordinate officers to meet me in Pittsburgh. I intended to get off at
the outer depot, Twenty-eighth street, but there was a large crowd
there, and I came to Union depot, and walked up to where my office then
was, at Twenty-sixth street, and on my way I met a carriage with the
Honorable John Scott and Mr. Watt and the sheriff. I got in the
carriage and went to my office, at Twenty-sixth street, and there found
my subordinate officers, and General Pearson was there.

Q. Who were your subordinate officers?

A. Joseph Fox, road foreman; John Major, road foreman; David Garrett,
assistant trainmaster; Edward Pitcairn, trainmaster; Joseph McCabe,
general dispatcher. Mr. Scott, the sheriff, and all the parties there
were consulting and talking together, when the sheriff made up his mind
to go up to Twenty-eighth street, where the crowd was interfering and
preventing trains from running. I wanted to go up and talk to the men,
when my subordinates prevented me, and said there was no use of my
going up, because none of our men were there. Few, if any, of our own
men were there. It was a crowd. They persuaded me to remain, while the
sheriff and General Pearson went up to Twenty-eighth street. They came
back and reported the result of their attempt to disperse the crowd,
when the communications, as stated by Mr. Scott----

Q. What did the sheriff and General Pearson report to you?

A. They said they went up and went to the crowd and called to the crowd
to disperse and go to their homes, and they made no impression, and
received nothing but vulgar abuse.

Q. Did they go alone?

A. Unless one or two of my men went with them. One or two went with
them.

Q. At what hour was that?

A. About twelve o'clock, Thursday night.

Q. What then occurred?

A. Then came the communications to the different parties. The Governor,
and Mr. Quay, and Lieutenant Governor Latta, and Adjutant General
Latta, and then came the replies, and the message to General Pearson to
order out one of the regiments, I think, which he did.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. From whom did this order come?

A. Adjutant General Latta.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What time did he receive that dispatch from General Latta?

A. Between twelve and half past four in the morning. I think the order
calling out the troops came after the Governor's message. All left the
office about half past four. General Pearson, who had written his
orders about the regiment before, and I parted at the Union depot.
General Pearson went down town, and Mr. Scott, Mr. Watt, and myself
went to the Union depot hotel for the purpose of retiring.

Q. When you came in from Altoona did you notice the disturbance at
Twenty-eighth street?

A. Yes.

Q. To what extent?

A. It was dark, and I could not see any of the crowd. I do not know how
many were there.

Q. What was the crowd doing then?

A. Yelling--talking loud.

Q. Were they stopping trains?

A. I do not know; they did not stop our train. I went to bed; but it
was not five minutes until I received another telegram, and another,
pertaining to the business of the road. So I got up. There were a
number of messages from President Scott and the general superintendent.
They had an idea we could move the trains in the morning, and were
giving different orders about stock and different things.

Q. Did you make any effort to move a train on Friday morning?

A. We were continually making efforts; we never ceased.

Q. What effort did you make to move the trains on Friday morning?

A. The efforts to move the trains on Friday morning were, securing the
crews and firing up the engines, and having everything ready to move
when we could get through the crowd.

Q. Did you succeed in securing the crews?

A. Yes.

Q. Were they new men, or old employés?

A. Old employés. I want you to bear in mind, that in starting the
trains, the crews were always there, professing their readiness to go
out, and at no time had we not sufficient crews to take the whole
number of cars out.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Who stopped you from running the trains?

A. The crowd.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What was the crowd?

A. I did not know them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Any of your own men?

A. I was about continually, and I do not think I ever saw over three or
four of my own men in any crowd, if you leave out the sub-officers.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. On Friday morning you had crews enough to start all the trains; did
you give orders to start?

A. To be ready to start.

Q. But you did not give any order to start?

A. No.

Q. For what reasons?

A. To get assistance to keep the crowd off our property.

Q. Did you think at that time that the crowd was so large that the
trains could not run through it?

A. Not without killing them. They had charge of the switches there.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The crowd had?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you think if a train had started you could have run it through
the crowd, and gone on--in your opinion?

A. If the crowd had not turned the switches. The switchmen were there,
but under the management of the crowd.

Q. Did you go up there where that crowd was Friday morning, to see, of
your own knowledge, whether the trains could run through or not?

A. On Friday morning we had a crowd at two points, Twenty-eighth street
and at Torrens station. To both places I went.

Q. How large a crowd was at Twenty-eighth street that morning--Friday
morning?

A. On Friday morning, to connect my story, I went up with General
Pearson at Twenty-eighth street, and he talked to the crowd. I think
the sheriff was along.

Q. How large a crowd did you find there?

A. I never was at Twenty-eighth street that evening.

Q. On Friday morning?

A. I have very little idea about the numbers of a crowd--it was a very
large crowd.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was your road-way blocked up?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were any of your men among that crowd--your employés?

A. As I said before, I never recognized, I would be safe in saying half
a dozen of our men that I knew.

Q. From Twenty-eighth street did you go out to Torrens?

A. Yes.

Q. How large a crowd was there?

A. I would say six hundred or a thousand. There was a crowd. I have no
idea what number a crowd is.

Q. Did you find any of the railroad employés among that crowd?

A. I found one man that I knew as an employé, but I cannot name him. He
talked to me, that is the reason I remember him.

Q. Were any of the switches turned, at that time, at Torrens?

A. None, to my knowledge.

Q. The track was clear at that time, so that the trains could have run
through if they had allowed it?

A. Not to my personal knowledge.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Who seemed to be directing the crowd. That is, the mob?

A. There seemed to be an understanding, from the remarks made by the
crowd, that they had sufficient force to prevent the trains going out.
As for example: At Torrens a party told me it was bread or blood, and
they could get any number of men to come up and prevent the running
through of any train until the matter was arranged with them.

Q. Was that man an employé of the road?

A. He was, but I do not remember his name.

Q. What position did he hold on the road?

A. A train man. He may have been a flag man. I thought I knew his name,
and came down to see a party arrested, but it was not the man. I have
not seen him since.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were those threats made by the crowd or by this one man?

A. By a single man.

Q. Were the threats made about preventing the running of the trains by
employés or others?

A. By outsiders. They could not get enough employés to stop the trains.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. When you doubled up the trains, how many men did you relieve. That
is, on the morning of the Thursday that this outbreak occurred?

A. If there were ten single trains and I doubled up, I saved five
conductors and five flagmen and ten brakemen.

Q. What became of those men?

A. They were suspended.

Q. Was anything said to them, that they were suspended for a certain
time, or were they just dropped?

A. Those crews were not suspended, but that many men, and a great many
more, because the business had gone down, were suspended, and we were
choosing the married men and the old men. The old men and the married
men were chosen, in preference to the single men.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. But by suspension do you mean discharge, or do you mean suspension
temporarily?

A. They were given to understand that there was no more work.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. This was one of the causes, this doubling up, as I understood you to
say, that created the dissatisfaction here at this point?

A. That is what they say.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you not only reduce your crews, so far as the conductors and
brakemen and flagmen were concerned, one half of a train, if it was
sent out as a double-header?

A. One half of the trains we were running single between Pittsburgh and
Derry.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were any of the discharged men among the crowd at Twenty-eighth
street or at Torren's station that morning?

A. Yes; I saw quite a number of men who had been discharged for cause
as well as suspended on account of the reduction.

Q. You deemed it unsafe from that time on to start your trains, from
the time you visited Twenty-eighth street and Torren's station that
morning?

A. The sheriff and General Pearson--the sheriff ordered the crowd to
disperse and General Pearson, in fact, made a calm and warning speech,
and told them what his orders were, that the military had been ordered
out and what the consequences would be, and coaxed and pleaded with
them to disperse before the military came up that had been ordered out.

Q. What time did the military come up?

A. In regard to the time of any of those occurrences, from Thursday
until it was all over I was not in bed, and it is kind of cloudy in my
mind as to the different hours; but as to the hour, I should say that
this was about twelve or one o'clock, Friday.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When the military came at the crowd?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many companies came on the ground at that time?

A. First one company--they were very straggling.

Q. Who commanded the first company that came?

A. I do not know.

Q. It was under the general direction of General Pearson?

A. Yes.

Q. At what point were they stationed?

A. That I cannot tell. On Friday--I cannot tell. I do not remember if
there were any soldiers at Twenty-eighth street. I cannot tell. Friday
night the Pittsburgh troops were brought out.

Q. What time did the first burning or destruction of property by fire
commence?

A. Friday night the troops were stationed at Torrens.

Q. What time did the first burning commence?

A. I do not know that--I cannot say.

Q. Do you know where it commenced?

A. Only from hearsay. A great deal occurred between Friday night and
Saturday night.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. When the sheriff and General Pearson went to the mob, was the mayor
of the city, at that time, acting in conjunction with them?

A. I never saw the mayor.

Q. You do not know whether he issued a proclamation or assisted in any
way whatever?

A. No.

Q. You do not know whether he took an active part in the matter of
suppressing the riot?

A. No.

Q. Was he called on?

A. Only Mr. Watt informed me on Thursday morning, and then the sheriff
was called Thursday evening.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Who was called first?

A. The mayor, according to my information.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. He did not respond?

A. Mr. Watt will tell you that.

Q. You have no personal knowledge about that?

A. No; it was before I arrived on Thursday night.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you know when the first call was made on the sheriff, of your own
knowledge?

A. Thursday night.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did he respond?

A. Yes--in my office.

Q. With a force?

A. He had one man.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who was the man with him?

A. I did not know him.

Q. Do you know what effort he made to secure a force?

A. Only what he told me.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were you there when the dispatch was sent for troops--the first
dispatch, when the sheriff made up his mind to call upon the military?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. What time was that?

A. It was about twelve o'clock Thursday night.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. The call upon the mayor and on the sheriff was not made until after
you returned?

A. The call on the mayor was made on Thursday morning and the call on
the sheriff was made on Thursday evening.

Q. Had you become satisfied then that you could not run your trains on
account of the mob which had assembled?

A. Yes; I knew we could not run the trains.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. With safety?

A. No way.

Q. Did this ten per cent. reduction apply to all the officers and
employés of the railroad company?

A. All the officers and employés, except those who got one dollar a day
or less, either by the month or day--the track men getting ten cents an
hour for ten hours. All above one dollar were reduced.


    By Senator Torbert:

Q. That took effect on the 1st of June?

A. I think so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. It applied to the general superintendent?

A. He told me so. It applied to me.

Q. To the president of the company?

A. I believe so.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. In regard to the dispatch which you received from Mr. Watt--did you
receive any other dispatch except the one you received at Altoona,
asking you to come back, or which caused you to make up your mind to
return?

A. No.

Q. After you got back you say the crowd had assembled--had there been
any attempt by the crowd to prevent trains from running?

A. They told me so--no trains went out.

Q. At what time was any train stopped?

A. The first double headers went out from Pittsburgh all right--they
were not troubled.

Q. At what hour?

A. From three o'clock in the morning up to nine o'clock or eight
o'clock in the morning.

Q. What trains were first prevented from leaving regularly on time?

A. The trains that should have left between eight and nine o'clock.

Q. A freight train?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. That was prevented from leaving?

A. The crew on that train would not go out.

Q. It was not the crowd that prevented that first train from leaving?

A. I was not there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Could you have got back any sooner?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You say the crew of that train would not go out. Were they
discharged then when they refused to obey orders?

A. After I got home, I had too little control, and wanted to get along
as well as I could.

Q. Do you know what your officers did when that crew refused to go?

A. I understood that they had either to go out or be discharged.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. I was endeavoring to ascertain the first time that the crowd
interfered?

A. I was not here, but you can get that testimony if you want it.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Can you give any idea of the loss to property that occurred through
this riot?

A. No; not of my own knowledge. I have no idea. The bills are coming in
every day.

Q. About what was it in round numbers--the loss sustained by the
company?

A. I have my own idea.

Q. Who can give us the figures?

A. I suppose our controller or one of the vice presidents could give
them as estimated up to to-day.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. How many cars and engines did you lose?

A. We lost one hundred and four engines, and about sixteen hundred
cars.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The engines would average what?

A. I do not think the engines are all re-built yet.

Q. The cars are about how much?

A. About $800 a piece.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. On the freight cars could any of the iron be re-placed?

A. I might say no. Of course, occasionally, a wheel or two might be an
exception, but none could be used again.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Who is your controller?

A. R. W. Downing, of Philadelphia.

Q. He can give us an approximate estimate?

A. He or one of our vice presidents.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You were here when the troops arrived from Philadelphia?

A. Yes; I saw all the movements of the troops.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Tell us now the movements of the troops, the Pittsburgh troops
first, and then the Philadelphia troops?

A. The Pittsburgh troops--most of them--were moved at night. One
regiment was moved or went up the hill east from here on the arch of
the hill, and then came down on Twenty-eighth street, so as to come
down on the crowd.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When was this?

A. On Saturday morning. General Pearson ordered the battery to be taken
up to the same place. It was loaded in the cars at the Union depot, and
I was requested to move it up about two or three o'clock in the
morning, to get there when the troops would be there. About two and one
half or three o'clock, I had just gone to bed when they told me that
they would not take the gondolas with the guns up.

Q. The men would not?

A. That is it. I went down and saw the men, and asked them why they
would not do it, and they told me they were afraid of the crowd, that
they would like to oblige me. I said if you don't take those trucks up,
I will have to discharge you. They told me that they would like to do
it, but their lives were threatened. They would not do it, so I had to
take them up myself. I went up to Twenty-eighth street with the guns,
and then I saw this large crowd.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Were you interfered with when you took up the gondolas?

A. No one said anything to me at the Union depot, only they kind of
crowded around. When I got to Twenty-eighth street, they made a kind of
rush, and when they saw I was running the engine, I expected them to
attack me, but they did not. They did not say anything to me, only kind
of crowded around. They got on the tank and saw no one but myself, and
did not say anything.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Who got on?

A. The crowd.

Q. Employés of the railroad?

A. I did not recognize them as railroad men.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Give us the detailed movements, now, of the troops?

A. We brought the troops to Twenty-eight street with the battery on
Saturday morning, and at the same time there was a regiment at Torrens.
General Pearson and the sheriff and I went to those two places at
different times to see what we could do. At Torrens that regiment,
apparently, had the mob under control, that is they would not crowd
around the tracks. The military seemed to be by themselves, while at
Twenty-eighth street they were all mixed up--the military and the mob.
Then I received word that General Brinton's command was coming on
Friday night or Saturday morning. They ought to have arrived about
noon; but did not get here until about four o'clock. They arrived at
the Union depot about four o'clock on Saturday afternoon. We unloaded
them, and got some coffee and sandwiches, and word was given to them to
march to Twenty-eighth street, and clear the tracks.

Q. Who gave the order?

A. Some of the military. Mr. Cassatt, who arrived here on Friday,
directed me to get two crews together, that General Brinton's command
would clear the tracks, and that I could slip the trains out, and that
everything, then, would go all right. Then General Brinton's command
commenced to march, and the sheriff came up with about twenty members
of his posse, and I urged him to hurry up and get there before the
troops, and that if any of our men were there, I would talk to them,
and perhaps prevent trouble. I went up. The crowd kept coming in on us
all the way from the Union depot, so we took a large crowd up there.
The crowd followed us up. We were so delayed in warning the crowd to
get away that they came up close to us, and when we got to
Twenty-eighth street, General Pearson was there, and the sheriff and
his posse ahead of the military. The sheriff, I think, attempted to
arrest one man who was very noisy, and then there was a general rumpus,
and I was thrown back by the crowd and got in among the military
companies, who had formed on Twenty-eighth street. They formed up and
down on the north side, and up and down on the south side, and brought
a company up between Then a man threw me back, and the company coming
up the street allowed me to get in between. They went up, I suppose, to
disperse the mob.

Q. Who threw you back?

A. I do not know; he was a great big man; he was a friend of mine, I
know; it was not an attempt to hurt me. This company moved up, and
dispersed the mob, and the command was given to charge bayonets, and
put the bayonets between the people so as not to hurt them.

Q. Who gave that command?

A. I do not know.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. The object was not to use force, but to try and press the crowd
back?

A. That is it. They were going to push them away. Then the crowd
commenced cheering, and I saw two or three bayonets twisted off, and
then a lot of stones were thrown at the military. General Pearson came
back to me then, and said he was going to the office--was going to get
more troops. He then went away. I could not get out. Then they
commenced firing.

Q. What time was that?

A. About five o'clock on Saturday afternoon. I could not get out until
the firing was all over and the crowd dispersed.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were not shots fired from the crowd before the firing commenced?

A. Yes; two shots were fired. I was near to the men.

Q. Fired at the military?

A. Yes; and stones came around and clouded the horizon.

Q. Before there was any firing by the military?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was any command given to fire?

A. No; all the officers I saw were begging the men not to fire.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When the soldiers went up they did not attempt to injure the crowd?
Were any of the soldiers hit and wounded at that time, before the
firing--before they attempted to fire?

A. I saw two or three wounded right around me.

Q. Before that firing began?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. In other words, they attempted to do it without using force. Just by
pressing back the crowd?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Will you describe the crowd? Who composed it?

A. The crowd immediately around Twenty-eighth street, on the track,
were workingmen--mill men. The other men, from their appearance on the
hillside, were citizens. A great many people that I knew.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Women and children?

A. I saw no children, but some women.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Mixed in with the crowd?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Close to the railroad?

A. They were apparently urging on the men. Some women were on the
railroad.

Q. Encouraging the men?

A. They were yelling, and in through the men. There were very few women
that I saw. They were all laughing and jeering at the soldiers.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How long did the militia stand fire from the mob? Stand those stones
and clubs before they fired?

A. Then the company moved up and got in the crowd, and there was a man
in the crowd hallooed shoot, and two pistol shots and a great many
stones followed, and then the soldiers commenced firing, and then there
was shooting just that quick.

Q. Was any order given for the soldiers to shoot?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was it a scattering fire, or did it appear to be a volley?

A. It was in every way and in every direction.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. When those stones were fired, you were among the military?

A. I was among the military, in the hollow square.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Proceed with the military movements?

A. They dispersed the crowd by the firing, and as soon as I got out, I
went down to my office, at Twenty-sixth street. I there found General
Pearson, and I reported to Mr. Cassatt what had been done. He was
talking to General Pearson, and General Pearson was writing telegrams
to General Latta at the Union depot. Then General Pearson and General
Brinton were discussing what to do next, and whether Twenty-eighth
street was a proper position for them to take, or to go up the hill or
to come into the shops--what they had best do with the men. General
Pearson was telegraphing for orders. They decided they would come into
the shops, in order to get under shelter. The crowd was congregated
around my office, and around the shops. General Pearson told me he
would stay there, and as he had had nothing to eat that day, asked if I
would send up some provisions: I told him I would go down to the Union
depot and send all the provisions I could. So Mr. Cassatt and myself
went to the Union depot, and I tried to get provisions up to the
soldiers, but they were all confiscated by the crowd before they got
any. I then went up to the room where General Latta and staff were. All
this time the drums were beating, and crowd after crowd was moving up
toward Twenty-sixth street. Mr. Cassatt said we were powerless to do
anything, and directed me, or rather relieved me altogether of any--he
said I had no business in Pittsburgh. All the time, during Friday and
Saturday, one after another had come to me and said I had better leave.
At the Union depot, they had got a report that I had given the order
for the troops to fire. They had a coffin and a rope for General
Pearson. All these reports were spreading about. Numbers of people told
me to leave, and Mr. Cassatt directed me to leave. I afterwards left in
company with Mr. Watt and Mr. Cassatt.

Q. Where did you go?

A. We loafed around the outskirts, and then went to Blairsville and
reported, and made our head-quarters there at the Blairsville
intersection. There I remained until I received word from Mr. Garrett
that some of the old men wanted to see me to see if the matter could
not be arranged, and to see if the trains could not be moved.

Q. When was it that you received that word?

A. On Tuesday. I was informed that some of the old men wanted to see
me, and had other messages that I should come, and I came down to
Pittsburgh.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you meet any of the men?

A. I met the men.

Q. To what number?

A. About eight or ten.

Q. What proposition did they make?

A. None. On Friday a committee of the men met me, making a certain
proposition.

Q. You did not meet them until Friday after you came back?

A. I mean I met them the Friday of the trouble. I told them I could not
possibly send such a paper to Mr. Scott. Then this other committee met
me on Wednesday after I came back. I met that committee, and instead of
what I expected, they brought out the old proposition.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What was the nature of that?

A. It was that no double headers, and full crews, and, I think, twenty
per cent. advance. It was everything. I have got the paper. There are
about four, or five, or six demands.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You have that paper?

A. Yes, sir.

Adjourned to meet again at three o'clock, P.M.


    SAME DAY.

    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    THURSDAY, _February 8, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at three o'clock,
P.M., and continued taking of testimony.

Robert Pitcairn, re-called:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Commence with the troops at the round-house, and tell us what troops
were quartered there, and give a detailed statement of the movements of
the troops from that point during the continuance of the riot?

A. I said that the Philadelphia troops had dispersed the crowd, and
that made an opening for me to get to my office, where I found Mr.
Cassett and General Pearson. General Pearson was telegraphing for more
troops to come up. General Brinton arrived just behind me, and reported
to General Pearson the result, that the troops had fired without
orders, and what had been done. Then there was a consultation as to the
disposition of the troops, whether they should go up the hill or remain
an Twenty-eighth street, or come in to the round-house. They were
asking our opinion. I remember, they asked Mr. Cassatt's opinion. I
told Mr. Cassatt that I did not think he had any opinion. I remained
there, and Mr. Cassatt with me. Before I left they decided that they
were going to take the shops and the round-house to protect their men.
I left, promising to send provisions, and went to the Union depot where
I remained until some time in the night, and then went to Blairsville.
When I left Mr. Cassatt, we had word that Brinton had gone to the
Allegheny side, by the West Penn. That was what induced me to go to
Blairsville. Not knowing where to go to, I felt that was my
head-quarters for the time, we being compelled to run trains over the
West Penn.

Q. When did you arrive at Blairsville?

A. On Monday morning.

Q. When did General Brinton's command arrive there?

A. I think that afternoon or evening. It might have been the next
morning, but I think it was that evening. The next day, though, I was
ordered to remain at Blairsville. I met this committee. Train-master
Geyer wanted me to come down. I came down Tuesday, I think, or it might
have been Wednesday morning, but I met the committee with the
confidence that everything was going to be settled, but they brought
this paper out that I told you was presented to me at Pittsburg, and
with the committee that met me, instead of being very old men that we
considered loyal men, there were some members of the committee who were
among the suspended men. Nevertheless, I communicated the whole
petition to President Scott, and asked for a reply. Mr. Scott's reply
was in substance what Senator Scott told you was their reply to the
citizens here, namely: that the welfare of the country would not allow
him to give way to the men at the present time; that there were other
interests involved, and that if they would go to work to start the
trains again he would be glad to receive them. The conference with that
committee amounted to nothing. The fact of the matter was, I was caught
in a trap. I came down to see my old loyal men, and found suspended
men, who, in an official way, I could not deal with, not being in our
employ. A question was put to me this morning about the number of men
suspended. I do not know how many suspended men we had at that time. I
then came to Pittsburgh. I had orders to repair the damage, and try to
get the main track through to the Union depot as quickly as possible,
to gather up the force then scattered through the city, and the men who
had gone to their homes, to repair the track and get to Union depot as
quickly as possible. I went to the mayor, and asked him if we would
commence work there if he would give protection. He said he would.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What day was that?

A. I think Thursday. I was gathering up the men, but was cautioned by
some of the citizens not to go out and work too brash in the
beginning--not to take too many men about the ruins to clear them off,
but to commence moderately, explaining the feeling of the city, how
matters were not quiet there, and that delayed me some days. I met
Governor Hartranft at Blairsville before I left, going to Harrisburg.
After he came here we got a large force.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you recollect the day he arrived here?

A. As I have said, it was all one day to me. He came here with a force,
and we went to work with a large force and commenced repairing the
damage. On the Sabbath after--that was the Sabbath after the Sabbath
succeeding the Saturday of the fight, we arranged to move our trains,
and we then had force enough to move all the trains, as we had during
all the time, with the exception that this time the men asked for the
military to be sent with each train, to get them through the coal
regions, and through Johnstown. That matter was arranged with Governor
Hartranft to send a lot of soldiers with the men, to get them through
the different points where we had trouble. I think it was the first or
second train that went out from Pittsburgh on that Sabbath evening that
was wrecked at Spring Hill, by a switch being removed by some parties
while the train was passing over. From that Saturday night or Monday
morning next, we gradually sent more trains and more trains, until we
got our road running as heretofore, and gradually repaired the damages.
Governor Hartranft stayed here a few days, and the committees urged
them to stay until, at least, he left for Scranton.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You stated that when you commenced work you commenced with a small
force, and that after Governor Hartranft arrived with the troops, then
you increased your force?

A. Yes, sir; to as many men as we could work.

Q. Did you feel perfectly safe, after the Governor arrived with the
troops, in going to work?

A. Yes. We had a large body of men.

Q. It was under their protection that you felt safe?

A. It was only under their protection.

Q. Did you feel safe from another demonstration of the railroad
employés, or from any other source?

A. I have no hesitation in saying that we were never afraid of our own
men. So far as our own men striking we were not afraid. We were
perfectly able to manage our own men, so far as our own employés were
concerned, if you took away from us the men suspended. But I do not
pretend to say that we were not afraid of the party or parties they
brought. But I know nothing about that, of my own personal knowledge. I
say this: We always had enough men to move our trains, if other parties
had not come in. Who they were brought by, I do not know.

Q. Your own men would never have given you any trouble, had not
outsiders interfered?

A. I say that, but do not pretend to say who brought them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. It was General Brinton's command which was present when the military
dispersed the crowd by their fire. Was not any portion of General
Pearson's command present?

A. General Pearson's command was at Twenty-eighth street. There were
very few of the soldiers and some of the officers at Twenty-eighth
street. The battery I had taken up on Saturday morning and some few men
were there, and General Pearson's command was on the hill.

Q. Can you tell me why they did not hold their position that they then
occupied--the militia. What necessity was there for retiring to the
round house?

A. I knew what they thought--it was that they were coming under cover
to prevent them from being struck. I was not a military man. However, I
know what I should have done.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What motives actuated them, after dispersing the crowd, in retiring
their troops to the flat position of the street?

A. After dispersing the crowd, immediately the crowd--not that crowd,
perhaps, but other crowds came back in front of my office--a great
crowd. They were marching by and gathering from all quarters. By
dispersing the crowd, I mean they all ran away, and then they commenced
immediately coming back, and I had pretty hard work to come down to the
office. The crowds were coming up the railway as I was coming down to
the Union depot. All I can say is, they said that the reason for going
to the round house was to get under cover.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was any effort made by the military to drive back that crowd when
they commenced to reassemble?

A. I was in the office at that time.

Q. Only General Brinton's command went into the round-house?

A. General Pearson's command, I think, was dispersed, but I do not know
it. I know this, that there were there soldiers that came with General
Brinton's command, because some of them came down to the Union depot
with messages.

Q. Had any property been fired or burned at that time?

A. Up to the time that I left no property had been burned.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Would it not have been natural, under military discipline, for the
military to have held their position when they had obtained a position?

A. I think they ought to have gone up on the hill.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. When you returned from Blairsville, you said you expected to meet
your old employés. Now, during all these negotiations, were the old men
and the married men, that you have spoken of as being retained in your
employ, engaged in this riot?

A. Not to my personal knowledge or observation. The majority of them
were running.

Q. Did they make any complaint or any demand upon the company of any
kind?

A. The general remarks of these men then were that they had nothing to
do with this riot. Some of them said they ought to have the ten per
cent. put back, but all deprecated this trouble, and said they had
nothing to do with it.

Q. Were they ready to go to work at all times when you wanted them?

A. They always professed to be, but we never tried them to Sunday
night, and then they wanted protection, and when we gave them
protection they went out.

The following is the paper of the committee appointed by the employés
making certain demands, to which I have already alluded in my
testimony:

    BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS,
    PITTSBURGH DIVISION, NO. 50,
    PITTSBURGH, PA., _July 20, 1877_.

    _To the Superintendent Western Division Pennsylvania Railroad_:

    _First._ We, the undersigned committee, appointed by the employés
    of the western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, do
    hereby demand from the said company, through the proper officers of
    said company, the wages as per departments of engineers, firemen,
    conductors, brakemen, and flagmen as received prior to June 1,
    1877.

    _Second._ That each and every employé that has been dismissed for
    taking part or parts in said strikes, to be restored to their
    respective positions.

    _Third._ That the classification of each said department be
    abolished now and forever hereafter.

    _Fourth._ That engineers and conductors receive the wages as
    received by said engineers and conductors of the highest class
    prior to June 1, 1877.

    _Fifth._ That the running of double trains be abolished, excepting
    coal trains.

    _Sixth._ That each and every engine, whether road or shifting,
    shall have its own fireman.

    Respectfully submitted to you for immediate consideration.

    J. S. MCCAULEY,
    D. H. NEWHARD,
    JOHN SHANA,
    G. HARRIS,
    JOHN P. KESSLER,

    _Committee_.

In regard to the classification mentioned in the paper, I will say
this, that there is no classification in brakemen or flagmen. When you
come to the conductors, they receive a certain rate, which I do not
remember, for the first year, and ten per cent. over that for the
second, and ten per cent. over that for the third, where they remain so
long conductors. Now come the engineers. When promoted from firemen to
engineers, they receive a certain rate, and the second year ten per
cent. more, and the third year ten per cent. more, and the fourth year
ten per cent. more--four classifications. That arrangement was made at
their request, some four years ago, perhaps longer.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. These men were men who would have been suspended under the orders to
run double-headers?

A. No. These men had taken such an active part previous to this
Saturday, that I do not think they would have been kept in our employ,
but we had no opportunity to discharge them.

                     *      *      *      *      *

David M. Watt, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At East Liberty, on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad.

Q. You are in the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

A. Yes; in the capacity of chief clerk of the Pittsburg division.

Q. How long have you been employed in that capacity?

A. It will be fourteen years in July next.

Q. You were filling the place of Mr. Pitcairn on the Thursday before
the riot occurred?

A. Yes; during his absence.

Q. Have you any knowledge of any disagreements between the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company and their employés prior to that date?

A. There are continually matters coming up for settlement in the
superintendent's office.

Q. But disagreements leading to the riots?

A. There were none to my knowledge. Had there been, I should have known
it.

Q. Had there been any reduction in wages?

A. Yes; a reduction of ten per cent., which had been notified in May,
to take effect on all the employés from and after June 1.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. All employés?

A. Except those whose pay amounted to one dollar per day, or who were
paid by the month, and whose pay amounted to the rate of one dollar per
day or less.

Q. Did that cause any complaint from the employés?

A. We were compelled to reduce our force on account of the condition of
business. The volume of traffic governs the amount of wages, and the
number of men we work. We had more men than we had the opportunity to
give full time to. It was decided to reduce the force after the 1st of
June, and the idea was to select the older men, and the men who by
their services had proven themselves good and capable. To retain these
and let the single men go, so as to give the married men a chance to
make all the time we could afford to give them in the running of the
traffic. It was also decided to run all the trains double-headers. A
portion of them had been running for years as double-headers, but a
notice was issued in July, advising all the employés that on and after
a certain date--July 19, was the date fixed upon--all trains to and
from Derry would be run as double trains. No complaint in the interval,
between the date of the issuing of the order and the date upon which it
was to go into effect, had been made at the superintendent's office, to
either the superintendent or myself. Nor had there been any, so far as
we had knowledge, to any of the subordinate officers, such as
train-masters and others. Some of the men complained, of course, at not
having work. It was a mooted question as to who would be the ones to go
off.

Q. What date was that order to go into effect?

A. Upon July 19; Thursday. Mr. Pitcairn had arranged to go east on
Thursday, July 19, in the day express, and I came to town, reaching the
office about eight and a half o'clock in the morning, and up to that
time no trouble had occurred, nor was any anticipated by the
train-masters nor any one in our employ. About the time the
eight-forty's--the extras--were to leave, the dispatcher came to the
office and reported that some of the men had refused to go out. I made
inquiry as to the reason of their refusal, and was told that they
refused to go out on account of its being a double-header. Conductor
Ryan was the man whose train did not go out. In the making up of his
train he was ready to go out, but his men refused to go. I then
instructed the dispatcher to call upon all the men on the road, with
those out at the train-men's room. He called upon, I believe, some
twenty-five men, brakemen, who refused to go out. They gave different
reasons, some because they were double-headers, and some because they
would not go if others did not go. Mr. Garrett, the assistant
train-master, came in on the train that reaches there about nine
o'clock. I sent for him, and told him what had been reported to me, and
asked him to go out and see the men and see what they wanted, and
report. Mr. Garrett, and Mr. McCabe, and Mr. Hunter, dispatchers, all
three tried to induce the men to go out, but these twenty-five that had
first refused got the balance to join them in refusing to man the
trains. Mr. Garrett, I believe, requested Mr. McCabe, the general yard
dispatcher, to make up a crew from the yard brakemen to man that train.
Conductor Ryan was at all times ready to go out, and the engineers
belonging to that train professed a readiness to run. We had a number
of conductors there ready to run, and Conductor Gordon was the man who
was going to take the train out after Mr. McCabe had secured the crew
among his yard men. The crew, in making up their train, were assaulted
with stones, and links, and pins, and driven from the train by a number
of those men who had first refused to go out. I found that we were
unable to get the train out. Then it came time for the nine-forty's to
go out. In the meantime the crowd had increased somewhat, and they had
taken possession of the switch which is west of Twenty-eighth street,
leading on to the main track, over which a train to go east would have
to be moved. It was reported to me that they would not allow the engine
to go over that switch. The crowd was increasing. I then started, after
a consultation with Mr. Garrett and other men there, to call upon the
mayor. I asked that he should protect us in the movement of our trains,
by removing from Twenty-eighth street, or that immediate neighborhood,
those parties interfering with the switches.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you call in person upon the mayor?

A. I did; between ten and eleven o'clock. I drove to the mayor's
office, and stated the trouble to him, and called upon him in the name
of the company for protection. He replied that he had no force.

Q. Mayor McCarthy?

A. Yes; he said that the day-light force had been taken off, probably,
about the 1st of July, and that he had nothing but the night force. I
asked him to give me the front office force. He said he could not send
them away. I told him I must have protection of some kind. He said that
he might send out and gather up a force. He wanted to know how many men
I wanted. I told him if he would send up ten men in uniform, that with
our own force from the depot, if he could go up to the ground with me,
and I had a buggy to take him, I thought the trouble would be all over
before twelve o'clock. I thought the simple fact of his presence,
without the police, would disperse the crowd there at that time. He
refused to go, saying that he could not leave the office. I rather
urged the matter upon him. The mayor then said he had been sick, and
was not fit to go. He gathered a force of some ten men, I believe, and
sent officer Charles McGovern, one of the front office men, in charge
of them. They were to report at the Union depot, and be moved from
there by a passenger car to run especially to Twenty-eighth street.
Before the force was sent, the question was asked of me, who was to pay
for the men.

Q. By whom?

A. The question was suggested by Mr. O'Mora, and addressed to the
mayor. The mayor then addressed me, and desired to know whether I was
in a position to assume the expense. I told him certainly, that I must
have protection, and that if he could not give the force, and I must
pay for it, I was then ready, and would become responsible for the
payment of the men. I went to the outer depot, and got there a few
minutes before the squad of police arrived. I walked up to
Twenty-eighth street, in company with one of the dispatchers, I think
McCabe, and was then advised that we could not turn the switch, that
those parties held the switch, and would not allow the engine to back
down. The engineer was John Sweeny, and the conductor was S. K. Moore.
We wanted to take the engine down to couple on to a draft of cars to
take them out on the Wilkensburg siding. I directed Moore to turn the
switch. He refused, saying to me that he was afraid, that there were
men there to shoot him the moment he attempted to turn the switch. I
replied: "Very good, I will turn the switch," and I made a step forward
for the purpose of getting to the switch, when the crowd gathered
around me, and a brakeman by the name of D. D. Davis, who, I believe,
at the time was in the employ of the Pan Handle road, or else a
discharged employé from there--he was not in our employ--jumped in
front of me, and waving his hand, or his hat, called out: "Boys, we
will die right here." I placed my hand upon his coat, and called upon
officer McGovern to arrest him. While my hand was upon his coat, some
one delivered a blow, and hit me in the eye. That was from behind this
man Davis. Immediately an attempt was made on the part of the police
officers to arrest him. Others interested with him were throwing
themselves in the way of the police officers to prevent the capture,
but he was finally captured, and taken to the station-house. Prior to
that time, however, I had reported to Mr. Pitcairn on the day express
east that there was trouble, but that I did not anticipate it would
amount to a great deal, and that he need not hurry home, unless further
advised by me. The first place I could reach him was at Altoona. After
having been struck, and finding the crowd increasing, and determined to
prevent the running of the trains, I made a still further report,
stating the condition of things, and he came back to Pittsburgh on the
next train on which he could reach here, the fast line west that night.
After I was struck, I believe I directed Mr. Smith to write a message,
either in my name, or in Mr. Pitcairn's, I do not recollect, and
addressed to the mayor, calling upon him for an additional force of not
less than fifty men. It may have been a portion of those men who came
up on the Atlantic express, six or eight, in charge of William J.
White. Mr. Garrett reported from Torrens an immense crowd gathered
there. I went up on the Atlantic with this police force to try to
endeavor to get the stock. There were forty-six cars, all loaded with
stock, waiting for this train to come out. We expected every moment to
get some train started. Mr. Garrett had made an arrangement to side
track some train coming west, and to take the engines and turn them at
Torrens, and go east with the stock. They were there interfered with by
quite a large crowd, who notified the employés on the trains that had
come west that they must not couple to or touch the cars, intimidating
them and threatening that they would be killed, or that something would
happen.

Q. Who composed that crowd?

A. A number of railroad employés of our road and other roads and
parties I didn't know, but supposed them to be not railroad men.

Q. Who seemed to be leading the crowd at Torrens?

A. A man who had been in our employ until the morning of
Thursday--Andrew Hice. He notified the parties that he would be damned
if any stock should move there, and that no train should pass there
until the matter was settled.

Q. Was he an engineer?

A. He had been at one time a conductor on the road. Up until that
Thursday morning he was in the employ of the company as a flagman. I
might here state that when I directed Mr. Garrett to go out and see the
men, he was told to notify all those employés who were called upon, and
who refused to go out, that they might consider themselves as
discharged. One party was paid off immediately; the others had not come
for their pay, and nothing was said about paying or reporting them
discharged until after the troubles were over.

Q. Did you have any conversation with those men yourself at that time?

A. Which men?

Q. With that crowd--those leaders?

A. I did have a conversation at Twenty-eighth street, before going to
Torrens. I called upon the crowd to disperse and leave the ground of
the company, that we proposed to move our trains, and did not desire to
have any trouble.

Q. Did they make any demands at that time, and if so, what were the
nature of those demands?

A. They did not. They simply said it was a question of bread or blood
with them. At Torrens I had a conversation with the engineers and
conductors of the trains coming west, and tried to persuade them to
couple on to the stock and go ahead. They, however, refused, and gave
as a reason, that they were afraid for their lives to do so. Mr. Thomas
Scott, day stock agent at East Liberty, and the dispatcher both said to
the crews that they would couple the cars if they would back the
engines; but the crews were too much intimidated to do that. Mr.
Garrett started with those engines to go east, and was to stop at
Wilkensburg to take there a draft of twenty-two to thirty-two freight
cars, and start for Derry with them. He and I had an understanding that
I would attempt to get the stock from there somehow. I was to advise
him after he left whether he might expect it. We gave it out that the
stock was to be unloaded, and the shifting engine at the station, there
for the purpose of shifting around the yard, backed down against the
stock, and, that being coupled to the train, they started at once, and
before they discovered what we were after, the train was out of reach,
and this train that Mr. Garrett had taken east stopped and took on the
stock at Walls. This was the last stock that we got away from East
Liberty. East Liberty is four and five tenths miles, and Torrens is
half a mile further east. I staid at Torrens waiting the movements of a
train from Pittsburgh--the train that should come out in the afternoon.
An attempt was made about four o'clock to move that train. A crowd
interfered after the engines had started, and the engineers left their
engines, and the crews gave up the trains. I then came back to
Pittsburgh and went to the office, and made a still further report to
Mr. Pitcairn. I then drove again to the mayor's office. I met Captain
Bachelor at the office. He wanted to know if he could do me any
service.

Q. He called in the capacity of a private citizen?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Who is he?

A. The president of the Mason's bank. I found, on inquiry, that the
mayor was not about when I got to his office. I was informed by his
clerk, Mr. Metzgar, that he had gone out to Castle Shannon in the
afternoon. That his wife was sick, and that he had gone to see her. I
then asked whether anything could be done to call out the night force,
fearing from the way the crowd was increasing that there might be
considerable trouble. They said they could not send the police force
out there and leave the balance of the city unprotected. I then drove
up here to the sheriff's office--or rather the captain drove up--and
found all closed here. I then drove to the sheriff's residence, on
Washington street, and they replied that he was out of the city, but
was expected back during the evening. I then went back to the office,
and found that we could not make any movement that night, though we
held the crews ready to go in case we had a chance to move.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What night was this?

A. It was on Thursday night. I reported the condition of affairs to Mr.
John Scott, who had called at the office on his way into town, in
pursuance of a message from the east, to consult with Mr. Pitcairn.
During that night, and before twelve o'clock, the crowd was
accumulating, and had entire possession of the tracks at Twenty-eighth
street, so that we were unable to move even the engines engaged in the
yard transfer work. The engineers had all been notified to put up their
engines, and go into the house, and the movement of stock was
interfered with. The movement of stock from the western roads--some was
turned back. There seemed to be some trouble among the parties
themselves as to whether the stock should go on or be sent back. I
called at the office of the Pennsylvania company, to get the Honorable
John Scott to go with me, and we called upon the sheriff in the name of
the company for protection, and stated all that had been done up to
that time. The sheriff got his deputy, who lived across the way, and we
all drove out to the outer depot. On the way out we saw Mr. Pitcairn
walking up, and took him in and rode to the outer depot--I think a
little after twelve o'clock, midnight; the sheriff, after a
consultation, went with General Pearson and some twenty or thirty men
of our employés, myself among the number, to Twenty-eighth street. He
there mounted upon a plank leading up on to a gondola, so that his head
was above the crowd, and addressed them, advising them to leave and go
to their homes, stating what his duty would be in case they did not go.
He was greeted with all sorts of vile abuse, and told to go home. I
will not repeat the language. He found he could do nothing there with
them. He was jeered at, and while he was addressing the crowd pistol
shots were fired in the air. That crowd was composed of some few
railroad men, but the majority were not railroad men--a great number of
them were mill men, and some of them with no occupation at all.

Q. How large was the crowd at that time?

A. I should judge in the neighborhood of two hundred men. The sheriff
then went back to the superintendent's office, and entered into
communication with Harrisburg and other points, sending the telegrams
as described by Mr. Scott. There was no other attempt made that night
to move anything, except stock to the stockyard from the connecting
lines.

Q. What occurred on Friday morning?

A. We had crews brought in from Derry--that is the train-masters. They
came in as passengers, ready to take the trains east. The majority of
the engineers, up to this time, had professed their entire willingness
to run at any and all times, but the crowd, on Friday, had increased to
such an extent that it was not deemed prudent to attempt to start the
trains without some protection afforded to the men running them, at
least through the crowd. Very little was done during Friday, except the
movement of stock. Friday night the troops were moved, the Fourteenth
and Nineteenth regiments, I believe, to the neighborhood of
Twenty-eighth street. I expected on Saturday morning that we would
start our trains without much trouble. I believe they took almost
complete and entire possession of Twenty-eighth street and the switches
that we needed to get our trains out.

Q. That is the troops took possession?

A. Yes; they had full possession of Twenty-eighth street on Saturday
morning.

Q. And all the switches you needed to get your trains out?

A. Yes. But the crowd assembled in very large numbers, and it was not
long before the crowd had possession of them, and all the ground.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Driving the troops off?

A. There was no conflict at all. The troops were stationed, one
regiment on the hillside, probably some two hundred feet back from the
line of the railroad, with their arms stacked, and another regiment was
stationed on the road leading up to the hospital grounds, east of
Twenty-eighth street, with their arms stacked, and a few men were on
the crossing.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. I want to know if those troops left their arms stacked while the
crowd was still accumulating?

A. The crowd was in and about there. Do you mean whether or not the
crowd could have taken possession of any of those arms without
interference?

Q. No; but whether while the crowd was still accumulating the troops
had their arms stacked?

A. The crowd was accumulating, and continued accumulating up to the
time of the firing.

Q. And the arms were still stacked?

A. Yes, sir; while I was there.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. That is Friday evening?

A. No; Saturday morning. Mr. Pitcairn, and Mr. Cassett, and General
Pearson, and other officers were at the Union depot. I remained at
Twenty-sixth street, awaiting any instruction that might be sent me. I
was advised by Mr. Pitcairn to hold myself in readiness to move some
trains on Saturday afternoon--that the sheriff and posse were coming up
the track, and that they would be followed by the troops, and that he
expected that the crowd would be dispersed, and that we would be
furnished a sufficient guard to place upon each one of those trains to
move them out beyond Torrens, or to any other point where we might
expect trouble. I waited, and met them as they came up. They were
followed by quite a large concourse of persons. The troops held the
track about opposite Twenty-fifth street, and there the Second brigade
of the Philadelphia troops was left. I do not now remember the name of
the general in command. However I was left with him. The First brigade
moved on to Twenty-eighth street. This Second brigade threw out a
skirmish line across the entire yard, with instructions from the
general to drive back everybody. It was General Loud. He threw out a
skirmish line and drove all parties west a sufficient distance for us
to couple together all our cars and to make up our trains to go out.

Q. Drove them towards the city, you mean?

A. Yes; quite a crowd of the transfer clerks, and some of our
engineers, and oil men, and repair men were on the tops of the cars,
who claimed to be employés, and had business there. General Loud sent
an officer to me and asked if they were to remain there or whether we
wanted them. I told him that we did not want anybody within a certain
distance. When we had made attempts, prior to that, to couple up the
trains, the links and pins all along had been taken out. I went down
and advised the transfer clerks to go into the office, and I told the
officer that when any of our men had business to be inside, they should
be let through, and I told them that if we wanted them we could advise
them. After having cleared off that space, we heard firing. I looked up
in the direction of Twenty-eighth street, and saw a crowd coming down,
a portion of them coming down towards where I was, right opposite the
mouth of Twenty-sixth street. Seeing the crowd coming, I had the gate
thrown open--the gate that closes the shops and the exit gate on
Liberty street thrown open--and directed colonel, some one of the
Greys, to throw a body across to prevent them going down the space he
had cleared, and that we could turn them out at that point out on
Twenty-sixth street. That firing occurred about five o'clock. When I
speak of time in my testimony, I speak altogether of railroad time.
There was no further attempt made that night to start trains. The
excitement was so great, and it was quite late, so the men refused to
go for fear of being thrown off the track at some point on the road. I
believe that brings me up to the time of the firing.

Q. You had a space sufficient cleared to enable you to get your cars
out?

A. Our engines were backed down from the round-house on to those tracks
that the trains were standing on. We had cleared off a space there from
the side hill to the line of the "transfer" clear of anyone and
everyone.

Q. What prevented you from moving out your trains at that time?

A. The men got frightened at the firing, and started off. They were
afraid that if they made an attempt at that time in that excitement
that they would be thrown from the track.

Q. Where were the militia then?

A. General Loud was still in his position between Twenty-sixth street,
and, I should judge, Twenty-fourth. The First division was at
Twenty-eighth street, and a considerable portion of the crowd was
between Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth streets, between the two bodies
of troops. I asked the colonel in charge of this Grey regiment not to
allow his men to fire on the crowd coming down, that they could be
turned out at Twenty-sixth street, and that some of our men were there
who were all right. He got in front of his men and cautioned them. He
first gave the command to a captain to have his men load their pieces.
That was done, and then he cautioned his men, saying it was a very
delicate matter, indeed, and that the men should be very careful, and
that when there was any necessity for any firing that the men must
remember that he would give the command.

Q. How long did the troops remain stationed as you have described?

A. I cannot answer that as to time. I went to the office and there saw
General Pearson and General Brinton, and some of the others in
consultation. They were all close around the shops, and they then
turned and moved into the shops. I suppose it was then about six
o'clock.

Q. Where did the troops stay during the night?

A. I was not there during the night.

Q. Do you know from your own knowledge?

A. They stayed in what we call the lower round-house and lock-shops.

Q. What troops stayed there?

A. I understand the Philadelphia troops, General Brinton's command, and
the two pieces belonging to the battery here were taken into the
round-house. The Fourteenth regiment had been stationed at the transfer
building. The reason, I think, for their going into the shops, as I
understood it, was that the men who were there had come without any
preparation, and as there were to be no trains run out that night, they
would go into the shops to be as comfortable as possible.

Q. Was any further effort made during that night to start any trains?

A. We were unable to make any efforts further.

Q. Can you tell us what became of the crowd during the night?

A. The crowd around the buildings accumulated so that in front of the
office, at the corner of Twenty-sixth and Liberty, and for some
distance on either side of it--that being the head-quarters--the
office--they had taken possession of Mr. Pitcairn's office for the
head-quarters--the crowd was very dense, and packed down Twenty-sixth
street, probably half way to Penn, and on Liberty street, in every
direction, for a square--an immense crowd of people yelling with rage
against the troops.

Q. How many would you judge were there at that time?

A. Not less than five thousand people.

Q. Did they remain in force during all the night?

A. I was not there during all the time, but I understood they were
constantly accumulating.

Q. Until Sunday morning?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. How large was the crowd on Sunday morning?

A. I cannot answer that. I was on the side hill early on Sunday
morning, and I could see immense crowds in all directions moving up
Liberty street.

Q. Can you tell us what the result of that firing, at the point
cleared, was as to loss of life?

A. I am not prepared to answer that. If you will remember, I was
stationed at Twenty-sixth street, and was not at Twenty-eighth street.
At the time of the firing, I was with the second brigade of General
Brinton's division. There passed me, and were taken into our office,
several soldiers belonging to the First regiment, and a boy who was
shot down. I should judge a boy about twelve or fourteen years of age.
There were two men carrying him. Quite a number of wounded soldiers
were taken to the office, and they sent for Doctor Hamilton.

Q. Can you state what efforts were made, after the troops were taken
into the round-house and the shops, by the officers of the militia to
drive back the crowd and disperse it there that night or Sunday
morning, or during the day of Sunday?

A. When they went into the round-house, I understood they would keep
under cover. I do not think, from all I understood, it was the
intention of the troops to come into any collision. They felt that they
were brought there to protect the movement of trains, and that there
would be a guard go out on each train, after having obtained possession
of the Twenty-eighth street switches.

Q. What time did the firing of cars commence by the mob?

A. I cannot answer that from my own knowledge. I believe in the
neighborhood of ten o'clock.

Q. Saturday night?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was any attempt made by the officers of the troops, or by the civil
authorities, either of the county or city, to prevent that, and to
drive back the crowd when they began to fire the cars and destroy
property?

A. I cannot answer that. I did not see any.

Q. By any of the authorities?

A. I did not see any.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Did it appear that the citizens were in sympathy with the strikers?

A. I am a Pittsburgher.

Q. But I ask were the citizens in sympathy with the strikers?

By Senator Yutzy: I think, Mr. Chairman, that that question ought to be
modified. All the citizens were not present.


    By the witness:

A. If you asked me the question whether or not the citizens, or any
number of them, came to me and offered their assistance, then I might
answer the question. The crowd certainly manifested no disposition to
assist in the running of trains. The crowd, of course, was in sympathy.
I speak of those who were present at Twenty-eighth street and
Twenty-sixth street, on Liberty street, fronting the office, and I
should say there were none at all in sympathy with the railroad
company, but the soldiers.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. But that does not answer my question. I desire to know whether the
citizens were not in sympathy with the strikers?

By Senator Yutzy: I repeat, Mr. Chairman, that I do not think this
question should be put to the witness. I move that the committee retire
for a few moments' consultation.

This motion being agreed to, the committee retired.

Upon returning, the chairman of the committee announced to the witness
that the question would not be pressed for the present.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What time did the first firing occur?

A. In the neighborhood of five o'clock. It was, probably, a few minutes
after five o'clock.

Q. But when did the first firing occur--that is, when was the fire
first kindled by the mob?

A. In the neighborhood of ten o'clock.

Q. Was any effort made by the railroad company, during the night, to
prevent the firing and destruction of property?

A. I would hardly know how to answer that. The railroad employés that
we had considered loyal and ready to run, when we desired them to go on
the trains, had gone to their homes, it not being deemed prudent to run
any trains that night. I left the outer depot in the neighborhood of
seven o'clock, to go down to the Union depot for supper, and to arrange
for the sending of supper for General Pearson's staff, and General
Brinton's staff, and all his brigade generals' staff. I went to the
Union depot with Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Cassatt, and, I think, Colonel
Smith, on engine forty-five. At that time the military were in
possession of the shops and round-house, and I did not anticipate that
anything would be done until daylight. The firing of the cars was, I
understand, up at Lawrenceville, or just within sight of there, and the
cars were dropped down, and the switches so turned that they would run
towards the round-house--the burning cars, these, of course, would
communicate to other cars.

Q. Would the cars run themselves?

A. It is down grade from East Liberty to Lawrenceville, and there a
moderate down grade until about Twenty-sixth street, where there is a
short level space, probably, two or three squares, and then there is an
up grade west of that point until you reach about opposite St.
Bridget's church, where again it is down grade, so that a car started
from the east would run towards the round-house, and a car started from
the west end of the yard would run toward the round-house.

Q. Do you know how long the troops remained in the round-house?

A. I understand they left between five and six o'clock that morning.

Q. Sunday morning?

A. Yes.

Q. You were not present there?

A. No.

Q. You do not know what occurred from your own knowledge?

A. Except from what I saw from the hillside.

Q. You were present during the day--Sunday?

A. No.

Q. Were you where you could see the movement of the rioters?

A. Not after four o'clock, Sunday morning.

Q. How long did the riotous proceedings continue--in other words, when
did the mob disperse and cease their burning and destruction of
property?

A. I left town on Sunday night at nine o'clock, and I understand they
were still riotous. Of my own knowledge I know nothing after that time.
Our head-quarters were at Blairsville intersection.

Q. When did you first get control of your road and property at this
point?

A. Mr. Pitcairn came west from Blairsville intersection on Wednesday,
July 25, I think on the Johnstown accommodation. We were then running
our through connections over the West Penn Division, from Allegheny
city to Blairsville intersection, and on the main line as far as East
Liberty, our mail trains, and our passenger trains, and our Uniontown
express over the south-west road.

Q. Were you present when the troops fired upon the crowd? If so, state
all the circumstances that took place at that time?

A. I have already said that I was not at Twenty-eighth street at the
time of the firing, but was with General Loud at Twenty-sixth street.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You know nothing then as to what transpired at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Except by seeing the crowd running, and hearing the firing, which
was of an irregular character--not a volley at all.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. The firing was something like the firing of a skirmish line?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who composed the crowd at that time? Were they railroad employés or
stragglers in general, or were there any other persons in the vicinity
mixed with the crowd to any extent?

A. There was quite a very large number of lookers on, stationed on the
hill side above--men, women, and children, scattered all along,
probably for a distance of fifty thousand feet.

Q. How close were they to the persons carrying on the riot?

A. Probably from a hundred to two hundred and fifty feet above them.
And at Twenty-eighth street, and east and west of Twenty-eighth street,
and covering all of the tracks before the troops came up, there were
many people. All our trains passing--we were running all the
accommodation trains east and west--were boarded at Twenty-eighth
street by the crowd, who filled them up, and ran through the cars, and
piled upon the engines, so as to seriously interfere with the men in
the performance of their duties. The crowd, many through curiosity,
went upon the trains in such force that it was useless for any of our
men to attempt to collect fare. The engines were perfectly black, both
in front of the engine and the tank and the platform. A great number of
those men got on and would go through the trains to see who was in
them, before they would let them proceed.

Q. Were the passenger trains interfered with by the mob?

A. All were stopped at Twenty-eighth street, and the mob went through
and examined each and every train for soldiers.

Q. And then allowed them to go on?

A. Sometimes it was a very serious question. If we had not had some
engineers determined that they were going to try to get their trains
through, they would have cut the passenger trains off and allowed
nothing but mail cars to go.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. On the 23d of July, did the sheriff not throw a guard around the
burned district?

A. I was stationed then at Blairsville Intersection, and I cannot
answer that question of my own knowledge.

Q. Then you do not know whether on or after the 23d day of July the
railroad company could or could not have had entire control, if they
had seen fit?

A. Most decidedly they could not, simply for the fact that they could
not get beyond Lawrenceville station.

Q. But did not the sheriff throw a guard around the burned district?

A. I don't know. I was not in the city on the 23d of July. But the
tracks were all burned between Thirty-third street, or Lawrenceville,
and the Union depot.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, FRIDAY, _February 8, 1878_.

    MORNING SESSION.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at ten o'clock,
A.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was:

                     *      *      *      *      *

Norman M. Smith, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. State where you reside and what your official connection with the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company is?

A. I reside in the Twenty-second ward of Pittsburgh. I am manager of
the Pittsburgh transfer station.

Q. How long have you filled that position?

A. About twelve and a half years.

Q. State to the committee, in your own way, what the causes were that
led to the riot, or what the disagreements were between the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company and their employés, and give the history
of what you saw.

A. My position was not such that I can speak from personal observation
as to the causes. Of course, I understood them to be the ten per cent.
reduction, which had taken place on the 1st of June, and after that the
increased running of double-headers on freight trains. I understood
these to be the causes. My more immediate connection with the trouble
commenced on the morning of Thursday, July 19. About nine o'clock that
morning my foreman came to me, and informed me that there was
difficulty in getting out our east bound freights--that the train men
had refused to go out, unless the trains stopped running as
double-headers. I went from my office up to the outer depot, and there
found that the crews had refused to run. Shortly after that I met Mr.
Garrett, the assistant train master, and Mr. McCabe, the general
dispatcher, and they informed me that they were going to the transfer
station to detail our yard crews to run along the road. I remained
there long enough to see one of the crews arrive. They came and
attempted to couple a caboose car on one of the engines. A brakeman by
the name of Gerry was making the coupling, when he was attacked by a
number of train men, and driven away with a shower of stones, and
links, and coupling-pins. I saw him struck. A further effort to remove
the train was not made. About a quarter before twelve, I walked up to
the outer depot again, and just at that moment a car came up with some
ten or a dozen policemen. I then met Mr. Watt, and walked with him and
the policemen up to Twenty-eighth street. A yard engine was standing on
the switch there, and an attempt was made to get it out. Mr. Watt
instructed a conductor named Moore to turn the switch, in order to let
the engine out. Moore declined to do it, giving as his reason that he
had been threatened with violence if he did so. Mr. Watt then made the
attempt to turn the switch himself. Just at that moment, a man standing
there raised his hand, perhaps with his hat in it, and said: "Come on,
boys, we will die right here." Mr. Watt directed an officer to arrest
him, and at that moment he was struck, by a man named McCullough, in
the eye. The policemen made a rush on McCullough, and, after being
interfered with by his friends, he was arrested. Mr. Watt then
requested me to go to the telegraph office, and telegraph to Mayor
McCarthy for fifty additional policemen. I sent a message, as near as I
recollect, in these words: "Please send fifty additional policemen at
once," and signed Mr. Watt's name to it. That message went a quarter
before one, Philadelphia time. I then returned to Twenty-eighth street,
and remained there perhaps two hours, and then returned to my office
about three o'clock, and then returned to the outer depot. An
additional police force of perhaps five or six men had responded to the
call for fifty. A train was made up, two engines were attached to it,
and it was ready to move. When the order was given to go ahead, a
number of strikers got in front, and signaled it to stop, when it
commenced moving. One of the engineers whistled down brakes, and the
train stopped. There was some wrangling there, and the engineer of the
forward engine, a man named Woodward, got off the engine, and was
immediately greeted with cheers by the crowd, and made a hero of. I had
an engagement at the house then, and left. I did not return until the
next morning. The next morning I found the crowd still at Twenty-eighth
street, and the condition of the yard the same as the night before. No
trains had been moved. About eleven o'clock, a committee of employés at
the transfer station came to the office, and informed us that they
intended to strike, unless the ten per cent. was restored. We told them
we could only submit their demand to those in authority over us, that
we had no function in the matter at all. The committee retired to
discuss the matter with their fellow workmen. About twelve o'clock,
perhaps a little before, a committee from the strikers--a committee of
brakemen, I am told--I was not present at the time--came to the men,
and made a speech to them, and told them if they would strike, they
would protect them, and guarantee places after the strike was over. A
majority of our men then went with this committee that came down in the
direction of Twenty-eighth street. I remained on the platform, and saw
such of the men as I could, and I found those I talked with were
opposed to striking, and ready to go to work; and one by one the men
who had gone off with the committee returned, or a number of them.
These men said they were led into the thing against their wishes and
judgment, and that they were ready to work. Of course, they did not
like the reduction, but they must work if they could get it. I told
them to leave their names with the foreman, directed him to take them,
and told them as soon as they had given their names to return to their
homes, and that as soon as we wanted them we would send for them. Our
work, of course, had stopped with the stopping of the trains. I
remained about the office until four o'clock in the afternoon, and then
went to the Union depot. I there met Mr. Pitcairn, and he requested me
to remain with him. Shortly after my arrival there, I found that a
section of artillery and a portion of the Nineteenth regiment had
reported for duty. The Eighteenth regiment, under Colonel Guthrie, I
had seen going east on a passenger train, about noon, on the way, I
ascertained, to Torrens station. Breck's two guns and the Nineteenth
regiment were ready for orders. We started out Liberty street. After we
had gone a square or so, we halted, and I heard Senator Scott, and Mr.
Thaw, and Mr. Cassatt, and Mr. Pitcairn, and General Pearson in
consultation. Certain of these gentlemen deprecated the movement of the
troops at that time, thinking that the number was not sufficient to
meet the strikers then at Twenty-eighth street, and fearing a
precipitation of the conflict. After this consultation, those troops
were recalled, and brought on to the platform of the Union depot. A
number of us, Mr. Pitcairn, Mr. Cassatt, General Pearson, Mr. Watt, and
myself, and, perhaps, others, I do not recollect now, discussed the
matter there, and General Pearson said that he would await the arrival
of the Fourteenth regiment. When that came, probably about nine
o'clock, on Friday the 20th, he proposed moving out the tracks to
Twenty-eighth street, and hauling his guns after him. I objected to the
movement, and was asked the reasons for my objection. I stated them to
be, that I thought that at eight or nine o'clock that night the crowd
would be very large, and that the movement would be a mistake. I
suggested, instead of that movement, to wait until about three o'clock
in the morning, when the crowd would be at a minimum, and then move out
Bedford avenue with the Fourteenth regiment, and so give time for the
Nineteenth regiment to arrive by the time the ground was cleared by the
Fourteenth. Then, if the crowd did not go away, to drive them away, and
occupy the hill and crossing, and keep them clear. Then, I thought, we
could start the trains. After considerable discussion, that plan was
adopted. I remained at the Union depot, and met Adjutant General Latta
when he arrived.

Q. What time did he arrive?

A. On the fast line, that came in about twelve o'clock Friday
night--may be a few minutes later. General Latta was advised of the
proposed movement, and was particular in his inquiries in regard to it.
He first hesitated in authorizing it, fearing a precipitation of the
conflict. We argued that the probability of a conflict would be avoided
by making that movement; that perhaps there would only be a couple of
hundred men there and that we could occupy the place without
difficulty, and once in control could keep it without further trouble.
After the facts were presented, he declined to interfere with General
Pearson's arrangement. About two o'clock, the Fourteenth regiment was
ordered to return to the city, with the understanding that as soon as
they got to a certain point they were to turn and go out Bedford
avenue. Before this, however, I was directed to arrange to have two
gondola cars to mount the guns on, and to have two engines to push them
up. I was to man them and run them up on parallel tracks, with the
Nineteenth regiment supporting them. I went to the depot master, and
requested him to get the gondolas, and asked him how many engines he
had. He replied that he had one yard shifter. I told him to order out
two engines for the Pacific express, and told him I had authority from
Mr. Pitcairn to give the order. The engines were ordered out, but the
mob refused to allow but one to go. The Fourteenth regiment had started
out Bedford avenue. After my return, I started out the track, and went
up through the ravine there west of Twenty-eighth street, overlooking
the location of the mob, then I passed the Pest house and met the
Fourteenth regiment on Bedford avenue, and turned them through the
ravine east of the Pest house, explaining the topography of the hill to
the commanding officer, telling him how to deploy his regiment. We then
moved forward in regimental front. We started a few people on the hill,
and they ran down the track. Just as we got to the lower bench of the
hill the battery and the Nineteenth regiment arrived on the ground. The
crossing was occupied and cleared. We then returned to the Union depot
to prepare some provision for the troops. About seven o'clock we
started out, Mr. Pitcairn, General Pearson, myself, and others. At
Twenty-eighth street we halted, and I called General Pearson's
attention to the hill, and the general location. We had some
consultation about it, and General Pearson admitted that it was a
position to be occupied and held. He then went to the other side of the
tank of the engine, and directed somebody to hold the hill and allow
nobody to go on it, and to keep the crossings clear, and to allow
nobody to come on them. We then went on to Torren's station, to Colonel
Guthrie's camp. He gave his orders, and he then said he would return to
the city and await the arrival of the Philadelphia troops. The first
detachment arrived at one o'clock, and the second about half past two
o'clock. They were given a lunch there, and at about four o'clock,
perhaps a little after, we started out the tracks. Sheriff Fife, with a
posse of perhaps twelve or fifteen men, marched ahead of the column
some distance, with warrants for the arrest of certain parties who were
supposed to be ringleaders, and Mr. Pitcairn and myself accompanied the
sheriff to point out these men. When we came opposite the transfer
station, I pointed out a couple of avenues leading in from Liberty
street, and said it might be well to guard them, and we made a detail
to guard that place. The rest of the column then moved on. We saw,
directly, that the hill side, instead of being kept clear was covered
with people, and also the crossings. The troops marched up with the
First regiment--I think the regiment of Colonel Benson--in advance, and
on Twenty-eighth street came into line. Colonel Benson then formed two
sides of a square, making the north and south sides of the square, and
two companies came up in company front and formed the first side of the
square, facing east. The Gatling guns took position in the rear of the
east side of the square. Before this square had been formed, Mr.
Pitcairn and myself went with the sheriff among the crowd, but were
unable to find the parties for whom the sheriff held warrants. We had
some discussion there with the strikers, and General Pearson, I
observed, passed us going up the hill where the Pittsburgh troops
seemed to have been formed. After the square had been formed, we gave
up our discussion with those people, and Mr. Pitcairn and myself sat
down on some plank about the center of the square. General Pearson
passed us and made some remarks. I forget his words. He referred to the
thing looking serious, that more troops should be had, and said he was
going to telegraph General Latta, and left us, starting in the
direction of the telegraph office.

Q. What time was that?

A. That was about five o'clock. Mr. Pitcairn and myself were chatting
together about the situation, when my attention was called to an
attempt made by the company that formed the east side of the square to
press the crowd back. They formed with arms across, and tried to push
the crowd back, but the mob grasped the muskets of some of them. The
troops found they could not make any impression, and then the order was
given to charge bayonets.

Q. Who gave that order?

A. I do not know. I simply heard the order given. The troops came to a
charge bayonets on the mob. Then I recollect seeing one man--one of the
mob with a musket in one hand draw a pistol with the other, and fire,
and I saw a man fall--whether he was dodging only or whether he was
struck, I do not know. At the same moment one or two other pistol shots
were fired, and then a volley of stones and pieces of clinker came from
the hill on the sides of the square. A number of the troops were struck
down. Several of them fell within two or three feet of me. Then one or
two shots were fired from the muskets, and others followed, and a
fusillade was kept up for a couple of minutes. Mr. Pitcairn and myself
were still sitting there, and I said to him it would be prudent to lie
down. We kept close for a moment or two, and as soon as the crowd broke
we walked to the north side of the square, and I told a lieutenant
there, who was in command of a company, perhaps, that he had better
make a right wheel, and drive some people out who had got behind a
gondola car loaded with coal there. I believe he acted on my
suggestion. At the first firing the crowd had broken and run in every
direction. Mr. Pitcairn and myself then returned to his office. There I
found General Pearson, and I judged, by his surprise, that I gave him
the first intimation he had of the firing. Shortly after Mr. Cassatt
came into the room. A few minutes after a gentleman on General
Brinton's staff. I think Colonel Wilson came in. He was directed to
tell General Brinton to report. General Brinton reported, and, after
some consultation, General Brinton suggested a move into the
round-house. I think I objected, but to no avail, because, as he said,
the mob was driven away and he could go into the round-house and get
shelter for his men and give them some rest, and that he could protect
the property of the company in case of an attack just as well from the
round-house as from the position he then occupied. I said to Mr.
Pitcairn that I thought it was a great mistake--that the hill should be
occupied; but General Brinton and General Pearson, of course, were the
military officers who were in charge of the situation, and for the time
the railroad officers had relinquished all control. We remained there
some time, and the question of supplies came up--of provision for those
men--and Mr. Pitcairn, Mr. Watt, Mr. Cassatt, and myself got on an
engine and went to the Union depot, and gave orders for provisions.
Those provisions were loaded up and started to the outer depot, and I
afterwards understood were captured by the mob. We remained at the
Union depot that evening. About ten o'clock a person came and told me I
had better leave. I asked for his reason, and he said that the mob were
then at Saint Fulvia's church, at Fourteenth and Liberty streets, on
their way to the Union depot, and said they were going to hang Mr.
Cassatt, Mr. Pitcairn, Mr. Watt, and me. I did not place much reliance
on the report, but it was afterwards verified that the mob was there
and moving down in that direction. The other three gentlemen went away.
I was in a different part of the hotel at the time, and remained there
some time, but several friends came to me and urged me to leave. I went
out through the front door of the depot, and when I got near the
elevator, true enough the mob did come, but I do not know what for. I
then got into a carriage and drove to my house.

Q. What time was that?

A. About a quarter after ten o'clock on Saturday night. I locate the
time from the fact that after I got to my home, I threw myself on the
bed, and my wife came to me and said the fire alarm was striking from
box sixty-four. I said it was the outer depot, and it would be a big
fire in a few minutes, but I did not want to be disturbed. I looked at
my watch, and it was a quarter to eleven. Shortly afterward I was again
awakened to come and look at the fire. I saw at once that it was the
oil cars. I slept a few minutes, and then went to the stock yards. At
Torrens station I met Colonel Guthrie, and there we chatted a while,
and then I returned to the city. Probably about seven or eight o'clock,
I am not sure about the hour, in walking up the track, I met some of
our clerks, and they told me that my office was on fire, and that
everything was burned, and there was no use to go up. I went up far
enough to see the fire there, which was then extending, and I went then
to the west end of the Union depot in the endeavor to get a few men
together to throw some cars off the track to block it. I feared they
would set fire to cars, and run them down the track to burn the depot.
I got a number of men together and left them in charge of it. They
succeeded afterwards in throwing some cars off, and blocking all the
tracks but two. The reason of my leaving was, that I recollected that
the night before, Saturday night, I had been requested by General Latta
to remove a lot of ammunition which had been stored in the store-room
at the east end of the Union depot--some twenty or thirty thousand
rounds, perhaps more. I had gone there the evening before with a few
gentlemen, and loaded this ammunition up on baggage hoppers, and stored
it away in the cellar. I thought of the ammunition, and knew it was
important to be saved. I left the parties at the cars and went to
General Latta, and asked if any arrangement had been made to get the
ammunition out. He said, "yes," that he had requested Captain Breck to
attend to it, and that he was then at it, but he asked me to go and see
if I could render him any assistance. I went to Captain Breck, and
found he was making some effort in that direction. I offered him my
services, but he said that he had all the assistance that he required,
except that he had no wagon. I then went to a livery stable right
opposite the depot and got a large express wagon and had it brought
over, and Captain Breck said he had ample assistance to load the
ammunition up and get it out. Shortly after I went to the Monongahela
house, to which General Latta's head-quarter's had been removed.

Q. Was that ammunition for the troops?

A. It had been brought out with General Brinton's command.

Q. What time did it arrive?

A. It arrived with the troops that came on Saturday afternoon. It
remained in the store-room, into which they put it first, until nine
o'clock Saturday night, when those gentlemen and myself loaded it up
and took it down into the cellar of the hotel. I went to the
Monongahela house. I was anxious to see Mr. Cassatt and Mr. Pitcairn. I
found Mr. Cassatt there. Previous to this, information had been
received of General Brinton's retiring--that he had gone east, and then
we heard he was in the Allegheny cemetery. The question of provisions
was uppermost in the mind of everybody for those men, and orders were
sent to Allegheny for the different bakers to prepare sandwiches, and
get all the provisions ready they could. Mr. Scott, the stock agent at
East Liberty, came to the hotel about noon, and said that Colonel
Guthrie was anxious about ammunition--that he had but little, and had
divided what he had with the Philadelphia troops stopped at Wall's
station. I wrote out an order on Captain Breck to give to Mr. Scott
what ammunition he wanted, and took it to General Latta, who signed it.
I knew Colonel Guthrie's position in regard to ammunition, and in about
a quarter of an hour I followed Mr. Scott to the Union depot. I found
him, and he said that the party with whom he had come in the buggy to
get this ammunition had become demoralized and left, at any rate he
could not get the ammunition. I think that was the reason he gave. I
walked through the depot, and went to the place where the ammunition
was stored, and I found it all remaining there; none of it was removed.
I walked on the platform, and found the upper end on fire. I came down
and walked through the lower part of the depot, and then up stairs
through the hotel. I saw very few people--scarcely anybody. I then
returned through the crowd, who were dragging every sort of property
away from the robbed cars--got through them, and returned to the
Monongahela house. General Latta then expressed an anxiety to form a
junction between those troops at Wall's station and General Brinton's
command, since ascertained to be in the vicinity of Sharpsburg, and
expressed an additional anxiety in regard to the question of
provisions. After consultation, I volunteered to do what I could to
effect a junction between the two commands. Colonel Guthrie had
returned from Torrens station, in citizens dress, to consult with
General Latta, as he was unable to make any communication with him
because the wires were burned. It was decided that I should take a
buggy and communicate between those two detachments, and make what
effort I could to get provisions. Mr. Cassatt was to take the north
side of the river with a provision wagon, and get through the best he
could, and I was to take the south side of the river and get through
the best I could. I was to remain at General Brinton's camp until I
heard from Mr. Cassatt. An order was also given to Colonel Guthrie to
bring his regiment from Torrens station into the city. They thought,
perhaps, that that regiment could stop the further burning. That
regiment had remained solid and intact through the whole trouble.

Q. What time were these orders given?

A. About three o'clock on Sunday afternoon. I drove, then, first out to
Torrens, and left Major Sellers there, and returned to my house, and
changed my clothes, and then started for General Brinton's camp. I went
across the Sharpsburg bridge, and then returned and took the river
road. Being unacquainted with the location of General Brinton's
command, I stopped at a hotel on the road, and endeavored to make some
inquiries. I was not interfered with. In consequence of some replies I
got, I went on to Aetna, and there ascertained the exact locality of
General Brinton, and met Mr. Campbell Herron, of the firm of Spang,
Chalfant, & Co., of the large works there. I explained to him the state
of the troops in regard to food, and asked if he could help me. He sent
for his manager, and directed that everything in the company's store
should be turned over to my order. I arranged with the manager that
provisions should be loaded up as soon as it was dark, and hauled out
to the camp. I then went on to Claremont, and found General Brinton in
camp at that point. I told General Brinton that I had orders from
General Latta to effect a junction, if possible, between his command
and the detachment of his division at Wall's station, under the command
of Colonel Rogers. After talking the matter over, we concluded we had
best bring them across from Walls, by the way of the Fairview ferry.
General Brinton was to take a detachment at daylight to the ferry, and
seize the boat, and hold it until we appeared on the opposite bank. I
waited there, awaiting word from Mr. Cassatt. At ten o'clock a citizen
of Allegheny came from Walls with word for me from Mr. Cassatt. I then
started for Walls Station, distant some eighteen miles from that point.
I returned by way of Sharpsburg bridge. I lost my way and got in Barren
valley, but finally got on the right road again, and reached Walls
station about two o'clock in the morning. I found some men there, and
supposed it was a picket post of the troops, but found instead it was
some men there, who, I suppose, were railroad men or miners. After some
parleying with them, they permitted me to go to the house of one of the
passenger conductors of the road, and from him I ascertained that the
troops had gone to Blairsville. While talking to them, this party had
taken my horse and buggy, but after some difficulty I got it back
again, and returned to Claremont, and got there about six and a half
o'clock, in the morning. I then found that the First brigade of General
Brinton's division was loaded on cars, and was just then pulling out on
the way to Blairsville. They had been instructed during my absence to
report there. I remained until they were all loaded up, and then
returned to my home, changed my clothes, and returned to the city. On
my arrival at home, I was told that my neighbors had held a meeting,
and had organized a vigilance committee, and placed me in command, and
I spent the day in obtaining arms and ammunition for the committee. I
remained on duty with that committee for the next week, patrolling the
streets--twenty miles of streets. On Friday morning or Saturday, about
sun rise, I was on the picket post at Torrens station, and there met
Governor Hartranft and the troops returning to Pittsburgh. I remained
on duty with my patrol. The next Sunday morning I was sent for by Mr.
Pitcairn. He told me that he expected to commence moving trains that
day, and wanted me to get ready. I got a force of clerks together, and
we commenced starting trains, and in a few weeks things resumed there
normal condition.

Q. Did you endeavour to ascertain whether the outbreak on Thursday was
the result of a pre-arranged plan among the railroad employés or not?

A. I made no effort to ascertain that. From observation, I think there
was a plan in course of arrangement, but I think the execution of it
was premature on their part. I believe they did not strike here
intentionally, but that it was precipitated by the crews that first
refused to go that morning.

Q. What facts have led you to that conclusions?

A. I know from newspaper reports, and from rumors among the employés,
that they were organizing a union of some description, to oppose this
reduction. I simply have it from general rumor--from report.

Q. Have you ever succeeded in getting anything from the employés
themselves--any statement from them that would lead you to that
conclusion?

A. Nothing that I can re-call. I have heard them talking among
themselves, saying that they would be organized by and by--some passing
remark of that description, but nothing very tangible.

Q. Did this commence prior to the issuing of the order to run
double-headers?

A. My impression is that it was started with the reduction in pay--the
order for it. The order for double-headers affected only the
Pennsylvania railroad, but, that for the reduction in pay was
general--affecting all the roads.

Q. Have you succeeded in gathering any facts from the men, or from any
reliable source, to show whether or not there was any understanding
among the men on Thursday morning, in relation to a general strike?

A. I have not, but from my observation, I should think the thing was
not understood at all. It was started by one crew and the others
gradually came in.

Q. Can you give us the names of the parties for whom the warrants were
issued?

A. I cannot now. It is a matter of record in this court-house. I think
they were bench warrants.

Q. What reply did the mayor make to the telegram that was sent calling
for fifty more policemen?

A. I do not know of a reply of any description. If there had been any
reply made it would have come to Mr. Watts. I signed his name.

Q. Explain to us the condition of the crowd at three o'clock on Sunday
afternoon, when the orders were given to form this junction between
Brinton's men and Colonel Roger's men--the crowd about the depot, and
from that point out to Lawrenceville?

A. I went out on this side of the city. I did not pass up the railroad.
At the Union depot, when I was there, there was a crowd of half drunken
men and women dragging and hauling away every sort of plunder they
could lay their hands on. I saw nobody that claims respectability among
the crowd committing any depredation. Of course there were some lookers
on.

Q. Was the riot still progressing--was the plundering and burning still
going on?

A. It was at its heights. The fire was then at the east end of the
shed, at the Union depot, and by the time I crossed the Ewalt street
bridge I looked back and saw the elevator in flames. After that it
burned all the way down to Seventh avenue. They were still burning and
destroying property and carrying things away.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What kind of property?

A. For instance, I saw a woman dragging a sack of salt, another woman a
bag of flour in a wheelbarrow, and a great many others carrying leaf
tobacco, and some rolling tierces of lard--railroad goods in
general--the products of the west going east.

Q. Was it all railroad property?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Freight?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Can you tell us whether, at that time, there was any reason to
apprehend further destruction of property, not only of the railroad
company, but of the city itself?

A. There were certainly such reasons. It looked then as if half the
city would be burned.

Q. State whether or not you recognized any of the train men among the
crowd assembled at Twenty-eighth street?

A. At what time?

Q. On Saturday, I refer to particularly, but at any time during the
progress of the riot?

A. I know of but one man thus far that I have been able to recognize,
and I know their faces. For instance, I can generally tell an employé
of the road here--in a great many cases. But I do not know them all by
name. There are one or two now under indictment that I have not seen
since the riot. I expect to recognize one when I am called on to give
my testimony.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Do you know of any requisition being made on the mayor of Pittsburgh
or the sheriff of the county for a force to protect the company's
property prior to the arrival of the military, and if so, did either of
them respond to the call made?

A. The only requisition that I know of, to my personal knowledge, was
the telegram that I sent myself, that I spoke of before, in which I
requested the mayor, in Mr. Watt's name, to send fifty additional
policemen at once. From the number of policemen we had that afternoon,
I should judge that perhaps eight or ten came. I know of no other
requisition of my own knowledge.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You know of no requisition being made on the sheriff, of your own
personal knowledge?

A. I do not.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How large was the vigilance committee that was organized--that you
were at the head of?

A. There were a number of them. Mine was only one of the number. I had,
I should judge, over a hundred men immediately under my command. Some
were armed with their own arms.

Q. When was this committee organized?

A. The first meeting was held on Sunday evening. I was absent, but I
was informed the following morning that they had held a meeting, and we
were under arms that day.

Q. Monday?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Were there any other such vigilance committees organized?

A. Yes. One was formed on my right and another on my left, in the East
End, and I am told there were others in the city.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You have stated that you were advised to go away for safety?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was it a railroad employé or was it railroad employés, or a citizen
or citizens that advised you and Mr. Pitcairn to leave the city?

A. I do not know who advised Mr. Pitcairn. The advice was given to me
by myself. I was not with Mr. Pitcairn at the time. To my recollection,
I think the notice was given to me by Mr. Elder, the night depot
master.

Q. A railroad employé?

A. Yes. Various of my friends and citizens generally, advised me to
leave afterwards.

Q. They considered your life in danger, if you remained?

A. Yes. I had notice sent to my house that I had better leave the city.
They said they were going to burn the house.

Q. Was the intimation that Mr. Pitcairn's life was in danger along with
the rest?

A. Yes; Mr. Pitcairn's, Mr. Watt's, Mr. Cassatt's, and mine.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was any attempt made to interfere with your property or to burn your
house?

A. Nothing.

Q. The mob did not go there?

A. It was too far away.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. It was said that they would very likely take your life if you did
not go away?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Who were the men that interfered with Gerry. Do you know them?

A. I think I do; but I am not prepared to say. One of the men, I think,
is still in the criminal court.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You stated that General Pearson gave orders to keep the hill clear,
and to let no one on the tracks. At that time was any one besides the
military on the hill side?

A. Nobody except the military--not more than half a dozen. Probably the
people living up there were passing up and down; but there was no crowd
congregated there at all. I am unable to say to whom the order was
given. He was on one side of the tank, and I was on the other. I
presume it was some officer in charge; but who it was I cannot say.

Q. The object of the order was to keep the mob of people from
congregating on the hill side?

A. Yes; and on the tracks.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What was the name of the person to whom the order was given to move
the ammunition.

A. That was Captain Breck--E. Y. Breck, commander of the Pittsburgh
battery.

Q. Can you give the reason why he did not move it?

A. I cannot. I was not present long enough to ascertain.

Q. Could it have been moved at that time without much danger?

A. I think it could. He may have had reasons or difficulties that I
know nothing about. He was on the ground all the time, and had a better
opportunity of judging than I had.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What troops were on the hill when General Pearson gave the orders to
keep the hillside clear?

A. I am not positive about that, but I think the Fourteenth regiment
was on the hill, and the Nineteenth regiment on the track, and the
battery was on the flat just above the track.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Joseph McCabe sworn _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the Twentieth ward.

Q. State whether you are connected with the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company, and if so, in what capacity?

A. I am the general yard dispatcher at Pittsburgh.

Q. As such, what are your duties?

A. I make up trains and see that they go out properly.

Q. Were you on duty on the 19th of July last?

A. Yes.

Q. You may go on and give a statement of what occurred, beginning with
Thursday morning?

A. On the morning of the 19th of July I was in the western part of the
yard. I saw that the train did not move at the proper time, and went to
the middle of the yard, at Twenty-sixth street, to ascertain why it did
not go. The yard dispatcher there and assistant train master told me
that some of the men had refused to go out. I and Mr. Hunter, then yard
dispatcher, went to the men and asked them if they would go out, and
all that we would go to, said they would not go out on the
double-headers.

Q. About how many men did you see?

A. All that we could find. We went into the caboose cars.

Q. All refused to go out on the double-headers?

A. Yes; except the first train. The conductor was willing to go out,
but not the crew.

Q. What classes of men refused--conductors and brakemen?

A. Yes; they refused to go, and I went then to get up the yard crews to
put on, and brakemen to go in the place of conductors. I got an engine
out. We were just going to make a coupling. I had got two crews and
brought them up, and I had told a brakeman named W. S. Gerry to couple
the engine. He made an effort to do so, and while doing so, they threw
at him with pins and links and stones. One of the pins struck him on
the side, and he had to run for his life to the Philadelphia fast
passenger train, which was standing on the track where he was, and he
jumped on it. Had it not been for that they would have been very apt to
have caught him.

Q. Who threw those missiles?

A. I cannot say who threw them, but the whole crowd apparently made a
rush.

Q. How large was the crowd?

A. Not over twenty.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were they train men?

A. Yes.

Q. What time was that?

A. It must have been between nine and ten o'clock.

Q. Thursday?

A. Yes.

Q. The crowd was composed of about twenty men?

A. Yes.

Q. Who were those men?

A. Some of them I don't know the names of. Some are up in court, and
they are now trying them. One of them is "over the river."

Q. Name as many as you can?

A. One was Andrew Hice; another Alonzo Milliner, and several more of
them. I can't just remember their names now.

Q. Were they all railroad employés?

A. As far as I saw, they were at that time.

Q. Men in actual employment at that time?

A. Yes.

Q. Were there any men there at that time who had previously been
discharged?

A. None that I know of.

Q. What was the next incident that occurred that came under your
observation?

A. The next thing, I went to Twenty-eighth street with Mr. Watt, and
tried to get engine seven hundred and eighty-five out--Conductor S. K.
Moore.

Q. What time was that?

A. Pretty close to twelve o'clock. I told him to bring his engine out,
and he told me that they would not allow him to turn the switch.

Q. Who do you mean by "they?"

A. He said all of them--the crowd. They would not let him turn the
switch. Mr. Watt said he would turn it. While he was stooping to turn
it, one of them struck him. They arrested him, and after they arrested
him I turned the switch and brought the engine out on the track and
down the yard, and coupled her to sixteen cars, and sent her to
Wilkinsburg with them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was that the same crowd that had assembled about ten o'clock?

A. Yes; it was Twenty-sixth street, and they went to Twenty-eighth
street. The second engine was at Twenty-eighth street. It was the same
crowd.

Q. Had it increased in numbers?

A. Yes; in the meantime.

Q. Who were the men that joined them? Were they railroad employés too?

A. I cannot say. Afterwards I went to the west end of the yard with
another engine. I had the dispatcher at the west end to get sixteen
cars on another track, and I went there with another engine at about
the time the Atlantic express should leave the depot. We got that train
out, and that was the last.

Q. What time did that train go out?

A. It left Seventeenth street about one-five. I got to Twenty-eighth
street before I ought to. The engineers left their engines there at
Twenty-sixth street after we had got the trains ready to go. The mob
got in front, and the first engineer blew down brakes, and got off.
Then the second engineer did the same. The assistant engineer came to
me and asked what he was going to do. I said I didn't know. He said he
would run that engine if anybody else would. The road foreman came up,
and I told him what Mr. Phillips had said, and he got on one engine and
Phillips got on another. Then some person hallooed: "If you move that
engine we will blow your brains out." Then they did not start. They all
went out. There were about sixteen policemen there, but they could not
apparently do anything with them.

Q. How many men got in front?

A. Suppose forty or fifty.

Q. Were they all railroad employés?

A. I don't think they were.

Q. Who composed the balance of the crowd?

A. I am not able to say.

Q. What time was that?

A. I can't say that positively, either.

Q. As near as you can tell?

A. Somewhere about twelve o'clock.

Q. Thursday?

A. Yes.

Q. You say that some policemen came up there?

A. About sixteen.

Q. Who was at the head of the police?

A. I can't say who.

Q. Just explain what effort they made to disperse the mob?

A. We got the train ready to start, and five or six of them got on one
engine and the same on the other, and the balance of them got on the
train. At Twenty-eighth street they arrested McCullough.

Q. Who made the arrest?

A. Four or five of them had hold of him.

Q. Policemen?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Torbert:

Q. He was the person that struck Mr. Watt?

A. I suppose so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was not any attack made on the crowd by the policemen?

A. They tried to get them away.

Q. How? With their clubs?

A. No. By pushing them with their hands, I suppose.

Q. What was done next?

A. The balance of the day the men could not do anything. The crowd
appeared to increase all the time.

Q. Did you have any conversation with those men that refused to go at
first to ascertain their reasons for their refusal?

A. I asked what their reason was for not going, and they allowed that
they would not run on double-headers.

Q. All gave that as their reason?

A. Yes.

Q. Had you any knowledge before Thursday morning that such a refusal
would be made?

A. No; I didn't have the slightest idea until I went up that morning
from the west end of the yard.

Q. Did you talk with the men to find out whether there was any
prearranged plan to strike that morning?

A. I did not ask them anything about it. They might have had an idea of
striking, but I don't think the time was set. That being the morning
that the double-headers was to go out, they picked on that morning very
suddenly.

Q. When was that order first promulgated or known to the men?

A. I don't remember the date. I think it must have been a few days
before that, but I can't say how many.

Q. Had you heard anything said by the men about the order prior to that
morning?

A. No. Whatever they did do in the matter, they kept among themselves.

Q. Were you on the ground during the day of Friday?

A. Yes.

Q. Relate to us what occurred. Had double-headers been run before that
day on the road?

A. Yes; the Union and National lines were double-headers, and our coal
trains were double-headers. Some trains, such as coal trains between
Derry--they were running them double for a number of years.

Q. Had you run through freight trains as double-headers before
Thursday?

A. Yes; the Union and National lines.

Q. That morning, the order to run double-headers on all freight trains
went into effect?

A. Yes.

Q. That required the discharge of a number of men, did it not?

A. I don't know whether they intended to discharge them or suspend them
temporarily.

Q. Were any of those men who were suspended or not retained in the
employ of the company among that crowd of twenty that you spoke of?

A. Not that I remember of seeing.

Q. That crowd of twenty was composed of men retained in the employ of
the company?

A. Principally, but there might have been some others scattered among
them.

Q. How are those men paid--the brakemen and conductors--by the hour, or
the day, or the month?

A. They are paid by the day.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What do you mean by the day?

A. In the yard a day of twelve hours constitutes a day--eleven
hours--they get paid extra for the meal hour.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. And over hours?

A. In the yard. I simply sent a message again, telling them to await at
Rochester, and to send an escort of men down the road to receive me.

Q. To whom did you direct it?

A. To Colonel Carpenter, at Rochester. I expected he would be at
Rochester. He was the commanding officer of the troops. When I got to
Rochester, I went up and found he had not arrived--that the division
had not arrived. I immediately telegraphed for it to move immediately
down. I found it was at Greenville, and I gave the direction again to
the officer in charge, not specifying any person in particular. In
about an hour, after several attempts to get messages or several
attempts to get answers, I went again for an answer, and after the
instrument fluttering for half a minute, and all communication being
suspended for half an hour, I got a message saying that the troops were
at dinner, and would move immediately after dinner.

Q. What time was that?

A. Twelve o'clock, on Sunday. In the meantime, I had communication with
General Latta. He told me to address him again at Union Depot hotel,
and in the next communication to address him at the Monongahela house.
Up to three o'clock he remained, I believe, at Union Depot hotel. All
the communications I had from him were at the Union Depot hotel.
Hearing that the Philadelphia troops had left the round-house and left
the city, and fearing for my own ammunition, which the mob around me
threatened to burn----

Q. At Rochester?

A. Yes; but which I afterwards saved by going out and stating in a loud
voice, that I had thrown it all in the river half an hour ago. I
concluded to let the division remain at Greenville, and ordered it to
remain there.

Q. What time did you give that order?

A. Probably about half past twelve, as near as I can remember.

Q. On Sunday?

A. Yes.

Q. To whom was it addressed?

A. I forget whether it was addressed to Colonel Carpenter or not. I
think it was to the officer in command of the troops there.

Q. Did it reach Colonel Carpenter?

A. Yes; delivered by the agent there. Then I telegraphed to General
Latta, that I was going to Greenville. At three o'clock I started for
Greenville, but didn't reach there until ten o'clock the next morning,
having to go to Ohio. I went to the troops, but I didn't have any
communications from General Latta, and fearing that my ammunition would
be entirely destroyed at Rochester, I thought it best to try to form
the division at some other point, and so I ordered them home. Then I
started to meet the Governor, knowing he was coming from Chicago, but
not meeting him, I returned immediately to Greenville, and ordered
Colonel Carpenter to re-assemble the whole division at Franklin, and by
Friday night I had everybody and everything in camp, and in so fair a
way, that I was confident I could handle them, and ordered a movement
for Saturday morning to Pittsburgh, which no person knew. I had
received a communication from the Governor on Saturday night, to know
when I would move, which I answered, that he might expect me shortly,
at any time. After starting at Franklin, on the way, I received a
dispatch from him or from General Latta, who I don't remember, saying
he didn't think it was safe for me to come to Pittsburgh with the small
amount of ammunition I had. I answered back, I was on the way, and
unless I received peremptory orders, I would be in Pittsburgh that
night. I came there Saturday night; as soon as I came, the Governor
came down--it was raining fearfully--and said he wanted me to open the
road on Monday, and for me to select what troops I wanted to use, and
that night or the next morning, I selected Colonel Carpenter's regiment
for the work, and the Governor sent for me, and said he wanted all the
stock trains moved out that day. The stock trains were moved out on
Sunday, and the freight trains on Monday, without particular
opposition.

Q. Will you give us the time when Colonel Carpenter's regiment reached
Greenville?

A. All the regiment didn't reach Greenville. Some of the companies kept
back in Meadville. Having only one train, one engine, and one engineer
under our control, the officers decided very wisely, as I should have
done, to remain there until the division should be concentrated, and
then move down together. The whole division was not concentrated at
Greenville. There was a company from Ridgway, one from Corry, one
company from Union, two companies from Meadville, and there was one
company from Clarion county, which was not ordered out, because it was
so far away at the time.

Q. The order you sent for Colonel Carpenter to go to Rochester--do you
know whether he received that order or not?

A. I didn't send it directly to Colonel Carpenter, for at no time was I
certain Colonel Carpenter was there; but to the officer in charge of
the troops. I was not certain my adjutant general was there.

Q. The North East company, and the Erie company, and the Conneautville
company were at Greenville?

A. If I remember right, the North East company, under Captain Orton;
Captains Riddle and Curtiss's company, of Erie; Captain Rupert, of
Conneautville; Captain Kreps, of Greenville; Captain Fruit, of
Jefferson; Captain Dight, of Pine Grove; and Captain Wright, of
Mercer--eight or nine companies.

Q. What day did they assemble at Greenville?

A. They probably got there Sunday morning--possibly some of them
Saturday night.

Q. Did Colonel Carpenter, who was in command there, receive your orders
to move to Rochester?

A. He received the orders to move to Rochester, because he replied that
the men were at dinner, and that as soon as dinner was over they would
move.

Q. Did he receive any orders from you before that?

A. No; I don't think I sent him direct orders before that. The orders I
sent before were from Chicago to Colonel Clarke to move the division to
Rochester.

Q. Then it was three or four o'clock on Sunday afternoon when you sent
the order to him to form?

A. No; about twelve and a half o'clock.

Q. Then he had no time to start?

A. No; they were about starting out the depot when I got my order not
to start.

Q. Did you approve of his course in remaining at Greenville?

A. I did. Captain Riddle wanted to move down right away with all the
men they had, but some of the rest didn't want to go, and Colonel
Carpenter said to me that he had got into somewhat of a trouble about
moving, and asked if I approved of his action, and I said perfectly--I
didn't expect the division to move until it was in shape to take care
of itself, and I entirely approve of your course. I went to Riddle, and
called him to one side, and said this thing has gone further than I
expected, and I don't want any more trouble. I didn't want the division
to move down without being strong enough, although we had men enough I
am confident, if we had ammunition, to wipe the whole city of
Pittsburgh right out.

Q. Would it have been proper for him, with the nine companies he had,
in case they were there early on Sunday morning, at Greenville--would
it have been proper for him, as a military officer, to have gone on
with them to Rochester?

A. No. If the division had got into a fight, he would have been the
officer to handle the division, if I was not present. He never got the
orders from me until I ordered him at twelve o'clock, and then I had
reason to believe he was going to move immediately. The troops had been
in Greenville for a day, and they were scattered around, and visiting
in saloons and hotels. The men had to support themselves the best they
could, and they could not keep them together, even by companies.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How do the brakemen get paid, and the conductors?

A. They get paid by the trip.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. In case they are delayed on the trip, are the men not paid extra for
the time they are delayed?

A. Generally, when they are delayed any ways long, the conductor refers
his case to the train master, and if he approves of it, they get paid
extra.

Q. Did the men retained in the employ of the company and the discharged
men have any communication with each other on the morning of Thursday,
that you know of?

A. Not that I have any knowledge of.

Q. Did they not have a secret organization?

A. I believe they have an order called the Train Men's Union.

Q. Do you know the object of that organization?

A. No; I do not.

Q. Do you know whether those twenty men assembled there were members of
that organization or not?

A. I don't know. I have an idea that they were.

Q. Were there any double-headers that succeeded in starting that
morning of Thursday?

A. No; not from Pittsburgh.

Q. What time was the first train regularly to start?

A. Eight-forty.

Q. Can you tell us whether between the hour of twelve, midnight, and
eight-forty, any double-headers left on Thursday morning.

A. The four o'clock trains went out double.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many went out at four o'clock?

A. All, I believe.

Q. Were you on the ground on Friday?

A. Yes; I was around there.

Q. How was the crowd on Friday morning?

A. It appeared to increase all the time.

Q. How large was it on Friday morning?

A. I can't exactly say how large. They were coming and going all the
time.

Q. Give us an estimate?

A. In the neighborhood of a couple of thousand.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were they noisy?

A. Some of them were and some of them were not.

Q. Were they making threats?

A. I just occasionally heard them making threats.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How had it been there during the night?

A. Some of them were there all night stopping everything, so that we
could not get along. The engines would stop.

Q. Were they noisy and boisterous?

A. The western engines coming up with the live stock were stopped and
sent back on the same track.

Q. Was the crowd on Friday morning composed of the same men as on
Thursday--were the same men leading the crowd?

A. I cannot say whether they were leading it or not; the crowd was so
big they were all mixed up through it.

Q. Did you see any of the same men in the crowd on Friday?

A. I don't remember that I did. Some of the leaders of the crowd there
on Thursday night had gone to Lawrenceville on Friday.

Q. Did you have any conversation with the train men on Friday about
starting the trains.

A. No.

Q. Did you try to raise any crew on Friday?

A. We had a yard crew still there and two or three crews already to go
out, provided they would let them go.

Q. Were you able to take any trains out on Friday, or if not, what
hindered them from going out?

A. The mob at Twenty-eighth street----

Q. Were you able to take any trains out on Friday?

A. No; on account of the crowd at Twenty-eighth street making threats
to the men--what they would do.

Q. State the condition of the crowd during the day, whether it was
increasing or not, and whether it was demonstrative and boisterous or
not?

A. Later in the day it appeared to increase.

Q. Did they allow the passenger cars to pass?

A. They allowed them to go. Some of them were stopped, but they let
them pass afterwards.

Q. What means did they take to stop those trains?

A. Some of them would halloo and make threats, and others would get up
and spring on the engines, and the engineers would have to stop to see
what was the matter.

Q. Did they turn any of the switches?

A. Not that I remember of.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. They just piled on the trains?

A. Yes; they filled the engines and cars.

Q. Did they attempt any violence on the men running the trains during
the day of Friday by throwing stones or clubs?

A. Not there, they didn't.

Q. Did they anywhere along the road?

A. I don't know whether they did outside of Pittsburgh or not. We
didn't move anything on Friday except live stock. They agreed that we
might move that, but nothing else.

Q. You say the live stock was moved?

A. Yes; on Friday. First in the morning--then they stopped it. Then Mr.
Garrett, the train master, and me went up and saw them, and he talked
to them. There was a big run of stock coming off the Fort Wayne road,
and some of them said they would let him have one engine to haul it. He
said that they ought to know better, that one engine was not
sufficient, and they agreed to let him have two. So we got engines
enough to move the stock to East Liberty.

Q. They said you could have one engine. Who was it that told this to
Mr. Garrett?

A. I don't know who it was.

Q. Did you hear the conversation between the men and Mr. Garrett?

A. I was with him in the crowd. We had to go right into it like a
wedge.

Q. Were they railroad men?

A. Some of them were railroad men.

Q. Men then in the employ of the company, or who had been up to the
morning of Thursday?

A. Yes; they were still in the employ of the company, so far as I know.

Q. They were the spokesmen for the crowd, were they?

A. One of them was the spokesmen. We asked for the spokesman when we
went there.

Q. Who was that man?

A. I don't remember now who he was.

Q. An engineer, conductor, or brakeman?

A. I think he was a brakeman.

Q. What is Mr. Garrett's first name?

A. His name is David Garrett.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. At Twenty-eighth street, did the mob of men stop the train going
east?

A. They stopped everything.

Q. Who did that?

A. I don't know whether it was by employés or others.

Q. They prevented the engines from connecting with your stock trains?

A. Yes; sometimes they told the engineers to go on back.

Q. They sent the engines back?

A. Yes; they were sent right back on going out the track, and sent in
again on coming out the track.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Describe the crowd during Friday night?

A. I was not there during that night.

Q. Were you there during Saturday morning?

A. Yes.

Q. Describe things then?

A. Early in the morning there was not such a very large crowd, but
towards evening, just before the soldiers came up----

Q. How large was it in the morning early?

A. I don't suppose there were over two hundred people.

Q. What time was that?

A. About seven o'clock--that is outside of the soldiers. The Fourteenth
and Eighteenth regiments were there then, I believe. In the evening
along about five o'clock, at the time the firing began, in the
neighborhood of the railroad, and in the streets there were from five
to seven thousand people.

Q. Who composed that crowd then--what class of men?

A. They appeared to be all classes.

Q. Railroad employés?

A. Railroad and mill men, and I guess a few of every kind.

Q. When you refer to the crowd of five thousand, do you mean to say
that all of that crowd were riotous or engaged in riotous conduct?

A. I don't mean to say that.

Q. You say that a portion of them were lookers-on?

A. Yes.

Q. How many were actually engaged in the riot at that time?

A. I cannot say. They were scattered around here and there and
everywhere.

Q. Was there any division or separation between the rioters and the
crowd that was looking on?

A. I guess they were scattered through the crowd everywhere around the
railroad.

Q. Down on the railroad were any persons looking on--were they along
the railroad track, or were they back on the hill?

A. They were standing on the hill and on the railroad track, too. Some
of them might be railroad men of other roads, and I never know it.

Q. Were there any women and children mixed up with the crowd?

A. There were some on the street and hill-side.

Q. That crowd had been accumulating all day I suppose?

A. Yes.

Q. How was it in regard to any boisterous or noisy demonstrations?

A. I would say that some of them were pretty boisterous. Some of them
would be about half tight, and were raising a little excitement here
and among themselves.

Q. When did the crowd begin to get demonstrative or boisterous, at what
time in the day?

A. Along about twelve o'clock probably, and about five it got worse.
The work shops and all the mills, as a general thing, shut down about
three o'clock on Saturday. I suppose that helped to increase the crowd.

Q. Were you among the crowd during Saturday night?

A. No.

Q. Were you present at Twenty-eighth street when the firing of the
soldiers took place?

A. I was between Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth streets when they began
to shoot--about half way.

Q. You were in sight so that you could see?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you hear any orders given to fire?

A. No; I was not near enough to hear, but I saw one or two missiles
thrown from the hillside and the shooting began after that.

Q. By whom were the missiles thrown?

A. I cannot say that; they came from the thick part of the crowd on the
hillside.

Q. Was there any firing before the missiles were thrown?

A. I don't remember; it was a little after.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did it appear to be pistol shots or musketry?

A. I cannot tell.

Q. Were any shots fired from the hill?

A. I cannot tell whether they came from the hill or from the soldiers.
There were some scattering shots, and then a kind of general volley.

Q. Were those shots pistol shots or musket shots?

A. I cannot tell.

Q. What effect did the firing have upon the crowd?

A. It appeared to drive them back for a while.

Q. Which way did they go?

A. They scattered in all directions--some went north, south, east, and
west--in every direction--the best way they could get out.

Q. Did it clear the track?

A. It cleared the track for a while.

Q. For what distance?

A. Near down to Twenty-eighth street--that is about the only place that
was obstructed.

Q. When did the mob begin to reassemble after that?

A. It took place somewhere along about six o'clock, I suppose. I was
not there.

Q. When were you there next?

A. Sunday morning when I came in everything was on fire--was
burning--seven and a half o'clock.

Q. How far?

A. To Twenty-eighth street.

Q. From what point?

A. What we call the south yard--the tracks south of the main track
between Lawrenceville and Twenty-eighth street--they were burning, and
they were burning the upper round-house then. I was along on the hill
side, within sight of the track, from seven and a half that morning
until eight o'clock that night.

Q. Where were the soldiers or troops?

A. They had left there then, and went into the work-house, I believe.
They left the round-house between five and six o'clock in the morning.

Q. What took place during the day of Sunday--how large was the crowd
Sunday morning?

A. The crowd that was burning?

Q. Engaged in actual riotous conduct?

A. There were these right in the yard--there appeared to be somewhere
in the neighborhood of a thousand people. I cannot tell whether they
all belonged to the crowd or not. They appeared to be following after
it--breaking the cars open and taking out what they wanted, and then
setting fire to them.

Q. Who was breaking open the cars?

A. I cannot tell who they were.

Q. Did you go to see?

A. I didn't go near enough to recognize any of them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. From their appearance could you form any idea as to whether they
were railroad men or not?

A. I could not tell.

Q. Was there nothing to distinguish them?

A. No.

Q. Who was engaged in firing the cars at that time?

A. I cannot tell that.

Q. Were they setting the cars on fire with torches and fire brands?

A. Yes. Wherever there was a gap they would carry the fire over the gap
to the next place.

Q. Did you make any effort to see who those men were?

A. I could not tell who they were.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What kind of men were they?

A. They were rough looking men.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How near did you go?

A. I was a hundred feet or so from them. I heard that detectives were
there. Some of them told me, in fact, that they understood detectives
were among them watching them.

Q. Did you see any of your men among the crowd on Sunday morning?

A. No; I did not.

Adjourned to meet at three o'clock, P.M.


    SAME DAY.

    ORPHAN'S COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, FRIDAY, _February 8, 1878_--3 P.M.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at three, P.M.,
this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was

                     *      *      *      *      *

William Ryan, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the Fifteenth ward of the city of Pittsburgh.

Q. Are you in the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

A. Yes.

Q. How long have you been in their employ, and in what capacity?

A. I cannot state the precise date when I entered the service of the
company; but I judge it is between eight and ten years.

Q. In what capacity were you employed in July last?

A. As freight conductor.

Q. Between what points?

A. Pittsburgh and Derry, or between Pittsburgh and Conemaugh.

Q. You were a conductor on trains that ran double-headers?

A. Yes.

Q. How long have you been running on trains that run in that way?

A. I cannot tell the length of time precisely, but I was running them
from the time they started--that is, from the time they started to run
through freight as double.

Q. About how long?

A. I cannot tell.

Q. Two or three years?

A. I hardly fancy it could be that long. I should say a year.

Q. Were you at the depot or about the depot on the morning of the
19th--Thursday morning?

A. Yes.

Q. Was that your morning for going out as conductor of the train?

A. It was my train that should have started out. It was my morning.

Q. What was your time for going out?

A. If I recollect right, it was eight-forty.

Q. Did you start that morning or make any attempt to start?

A. We made every preparation to start, with the exception of coupling
up the train. I examined the train as I was going into the yard. I
thought the men were rather long in getting the engine out. I started
up, and on going to the train men's room met two of my brakemen, and
asked the cause of the delay. They told me they didn't intend to go
out. I asked the reason. They said they had either quit or struck--I
don't recollect. I asked what their object was in striking. They said
they didn't intend to run on double-headers--that they were not making
any more than a living at that time, and that by running
double-headers, it would cause some of them to be dismissed or
suspended. That they didn't know who it would be, and as they had the
advantage at that time, they would make the best use of it they could.

Q. Those were your brakemen?

A. Yes.

Q. What were their names?

A. One was named John Vensel and the other I cannot give his first
name. In giving in his time, I always gave it as M. Martin.

Q. What time had you this conversation with them?

A. I judge about nine o'clock.

Q. They said that some of them would be dismissed?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you have any further conversation with them?

A. I did.

Q. What about?

A. I tried to advise them not to strike, and showed them the folly of
it. I told them that the times were hard at present and that freight
was very slack, and that the company was trying to economize and that
their chances were just as good as mine. I advised them to stay. They
claimed "no," that they had determined to quit, and were going to do it
or had done it. I notified the dispatcher then that the men had quit,
and asked what I was to do. He told me to remain, and that he would
provide men for me. He went around and made an effort to get men but
could not get them. I then asked permission to go to dinner, and I
went, and came back about twelve or one. There was no change in the
affair at all, everything remained just as it had been.

Q. Where did these men go when they refused to go out on the train?

A. In the yard.

Q. They did not go home?

A. No; they remained in the yard up to the time I left, and I saw them
there in the afternoon.

Q. Were there any other men about at that time?

A. Yes; men were continually coming in off the road.

Q. How many men were there when you left to go to dinner?

A. I should judge about eighteen or twenty men at that time.

Q. Did you have any conversation with any other men?

A. With my flagman.

Q. What did he say?

A. He thought as the rest did, that now was the time to strike or quit,
and that they all had concluded to do it, and that all my conversation
with him would not change his ideas a particle.

Q. What men were coming in?

A. The men off the regular freight trains kept coming in there during
the day.

Q. They joined the other men?

A. Yes; and swelled the crowd.

Q. Did you talk with those men to find out whether they had arranged
for this strike previously?

A. I did not. I blamed them for it, but they denied it. Whether they
had made an arrangement or not for that day, I don't know.

Q. They denied an arrangement?

A. Yes.

Q. How many of them denied it?

A. Two or three of them I think denied it. They had made an arrangement
previous to this to strike, but from some cause or other it was not
carried into effect, and my being a non-union man, I concluded that
they had arranged it in such a way that the responsibility would fall
on me, and in case it would be a failure I would be the man discharged,
and that the union men would not suffer. That was the opinion I formed
that morning.

Q. How long previous had they made this arrangement?

A. A month or two months before.

Q. What prevented the carrying of the arrangement into effect?

A. I do not know. When a railroad man came to me, and requested me to
join them, I told them I could not do it; that my opinion was different
from theirs with reference to strikes; that I did not feel justified in
doing it. He asked me if I had any injury. I told him I could not say.
He said: "I am going to strike to-morrow." I went as far as Derry, and
laid over two or three hours. The only person there I saw by himself
was the dispatcher. I went to him and told him in confidence that these
men were going to strike.

Q. When was that?

A. It was previous to this affair of the men going out--a month or two
months.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. After the reduction of ten per cent.?

A. Yes. I told the dispatcher that these men had come to the conclusion
to strike, and told him I wanted to let it be known--that two thirds of
them were not friends of mine, and it would only cause me trouble by
their going out, and I would notify the proper officers in time to give
them a chance to prevent in case it should occur. I returned to the
city that morning with the train. Coming in, I wondered how to get at
the superintendent's office without being seen. I did not care about
being known, and after putting the train away, I concluded I would go
out on the accommodation, but I met one of my men, and I got into
conversation with him, and I asked him if he knew anything about it. He
said he did, and he said it had fallen through. I asked him if he was
positive of it, he said he was--that he knew it had. I told him I was
very glad to hear it. Says he, I am not. I concluded then not to go
out. I made inquiries among other men, and found it to be the fact,
that they had concluded not to strike at the time appointed.

Q. Did this man give you any reasons?

A. He did not.

Q. Who was he?

A. His name was Sloan.

Q. Did you hear any other conversation or learn anything of any other
union or organization to strike from that morning until the 19th?

A. No.

Q. Had you any knowledge that your men would not go out until you met
them--those two men?

A. None whatever.

Q. How long before that morning was it known to the men that the order
had been issued to run double-headers?

A. It was known in six hours, I should judge, to all the men on the
line after the order was posted on the bulletin boards.

Q. When was it posted?

A. I cannot give the date, but fancy it was posted twenty-four hours
before the order should have gone into effect.

Q. Did you discover that it produced any commotion among the men?

A. Not more so than at other times. There was general dissatisfaction
among the men on account of the double trains. Of course it increased
it somewhat. There were several trains running before this order was
issued, but when this order would go into effect it would make all
trains double, and this would cause them to feel more dissatisfied.

Q. After you returned from your dinner on Friday, how large a crowd did
you find in the yard?

A. I judge about twenty men--twenty-five--probably more.

Q. All railroad employés?

A. I cannot say that, but the greater portion of them at that time were
railroad employés. The crowd gradually increased until evening.

Q. Did you have any conversation with the men after you returned from
your dinner?

A. With some of them.

Q. About going out?

A. I spoke to them, and asked them who had organized it, and what they
were going to do about it. They said they did not know, that they had
quit because the rest had, and intended to see it through.

Q. Was there any effort made that afternoon to start the trains?

A. I believe not that afternoon to my knowledge.

Q. When was the first effort made to start the trains, to your
knowledge?

A. Thursday morning.

Q. Was there none made on Friday morning, to your knowledge?

A. I think not.

Q. Or during the day Friday?

A. An effort was made, I think, in the afternoon of Friday.

Q. Were you present when that effort was made?

A. I was.

Q. How large was the crowd at that time?

A. I cannot tell the number, but it was a very large crowd.

Q. Composed of employés of your railroad, and of the different roads?

A. Almost all classes of men were there.

Q. Who seemed to be the leaders, at that time, of the crowd?

A. It would be a very difficult matter for me to say. In fact they all
seemed to lead--where one would go, the rest would follow.

Q. Do you mean helter-skelter?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did there seem to be any leader who was taking charge of the riot?

A. In the beginning there was one man that seemed to take the lead--on
the morning of Thursday, but after that I lost all trace of him.

Q. Who was he?

A. His name was Hice. I was in the telegraph office on Thursday
morning, after the strike occurred, talking to the train runner. He
came up, after the conversation with me, and I saw him in the act of
trying to couple an engine on to some caboose cars. They failed to do
so on account of the throwing of stones and other missiles.

Q. What time was that?

A. I judge about ten o'clock--along there somewhere.

Q. Thursday?

A. Yes.

Q. Was that the first violence that was used?

A. The first I saw.

Q. Who were those persons who were throwing the stones?

A. I cannot say who they were.

Q. How many composed the crowd at that time?

A. I fancy some fifteen or eighteen men that I saw there, but might
have been more.

Q. Were they all railroad employés?

A. I cannot say that.

Q. Were those brakemen who had refused to go out with you among them?

A. That I cannot say. I was not close enough to see whether my men were
among them or not.

Q. On Friday afternoon, when the attempt was made to start the train,
will you tell us what occurred then?

A. As near as I can recollect, the train was made up, and it was pulled
up out of the freight yard. I don't know whether the caboose car was
coupled or not. I cannot recollect, but I saw the train start as though
it was going to go out. I saw men run in front of the engines to stop
them, and I saw the parties get off of them, and the train then was
backed into the yard after that.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was that on Friday?

A. I cannot say whether it was Thursday afternoon or Friday, but it was
one of those two days. It seems to me it was Thursday afternoon--the
same day.

Q. When the resistance was made there, was it a combined resistance of
all the men, or did only two or three seem to be leading the others?

A. It was a general rush, a swinging of hands, and a yelling and
hooting.

Q. Were any missiles thrown of any kind?

A. Not that I saw.

Q. Was any violence used towards those who were trying to take the
train out?

A. Not that I saw.

Q. Were any threats made to the loyal men who were willing to work?

A. I was not close enough to hear the conversation.

Q. Were you threatened at any time if you did not leave the yard?

A. Not directly. Two or three men came to me, and asked me if I was
going out. I told them yes, if I could get a crew, and one of them
intimated to me that I had better not go, or words to that effect--that
they did not want to hurt me, or something like that. That was about
all.

Q. Whom did you report to when your men refused to go out?

A. The dispatcher.

Q. What is his name?

A. William Hunter.

Q. How many trains were to go out at that hour--eight-forty?

A. I think mine was the only one at that time, with the exception of
the single train going on the branch.

Q. When were the next trains to start?

A. The next, I believe, would have been eleven o'clock--no; the next
would have been nine-forty.

Q. Do you know whether the conductors of those trains were all prepared
to start them or not?

A. I believe one of them was there.

Q. Did you have any talk with him?

A. I did.

Q. Was he willing to go?

A. No; he was not.

Q. He was among the strikers?

A. Yes.

Q. Were the engineers willing to go?

A. That I do not know. One of them came to me and ask if I was going
out, and I told him yes, if I could get a crew. He turned around and
walked away, and did not say anything more to me about it.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What was this conductor's name?

A. Meredith.

Q. You said that two or three men came and asked you if you were going
out, and you said yes, if you could get a crew, and that then they
intimated it would be well for you if you did not. Who were these men?

A. One was D. W. Davis. The other name I do not recollect.

Q. What was his position at that time?

A. A brakeman, I believe.

Q. Had he been discharged or was he still in the employ of the company?

A. He was in the employ of the company up to that morning, so far as I
know.

Q. Do you know where he is now?

A. No.

Q. Has he been in the employ of the company since?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. The other's name you do not remember?

A. I don't remember at all.

Q. Where is this Conductor Meredith?

A. I think he is in some part of Kentucky.

Q. How many men did you have as trainmen for one train?

A. Three.

Q. Besides yourself, and aside from the engineer and fireman?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did you have any fear of violence from the employés of the road if
you started out?

A. Well, I had a fear, but no serious fear. I did not think that they
would kill me.

Q. You did not believe on the morning of the riot that they would do
so?

A. No; besides I was determined to protect myself in the best way I
could.

                     *      *      *      *      *

John Plender, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. I am living at Walls station.

Q. Are you in the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

A. Yes, sir; I am running a passenger engine--the "accommodation"--as
engineer.

Q. Were you in July last?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Between what points?

A. Between Walls and Pittsburgh.

Q. What is the distance of Walls from Pittsburgh?

A. Sixteen miles.

Q. How often do you make your trips?

A. I make three round trips a day.

Q. Were you at the Union depot on Thursday morning, the 19th?

A. I came in that morning from Walls, at eight-fifteen.

Q. What time did you go out?

A. At twelve-five.

Q. Where were you between eight-fifteen and twelve-five?

A. In the round-house, at work on my engine.

Q. When did you first learn that any men had refused to go out on their
trains?

A. I suppose it was half-past nine when one of the men told me. It was
an engineer that told me.

Q. Was he one that had refused to go out?

A. No; he had just come in.

Q. Did you learn anything more about it between that time and twelve
o'clock?

A. No. The "Yioughiougheny" came in, and he told me that there was a
strike.

Q. What then took place?

A. That was all that took place between him and me.

Q. Did you remain in the round-house?

A. I remained in there until eleven o'clock, when I backed out, and
came down and took out the train.

Q. Were you interfered with in any way?

A. No.

Q. Did you have any conversation with the strikers that day?

A. Not until evening.

Q. Whom did you see in the evening?

A. I had no conversation, no more than a man stopped me at
Twenty-eighth street, and asked me what I was hauling.

Q. Were you coming in or going out?

A. I was going out on the last trip, at eleven-forty. I told him I was
hauling an accommodation train. He told me I could go on, and he got
down off the engine.

Q. Did they stop you?

A. No; they were all standing there, and when I came up--we all have to
stop there--he got on the engine.

Q. At what point?

A. At Twenty-eighth street.

Q. How many were standing there then?

A. Quite a number--I suppose about thirty-five or forty of them.

Q. Did you know any of them?

A. I knew him. It was dark, and I couldn't see who the rest were.

Q. What was the name of that man?

A. D. W. Davis, I think.

Q. Did he say anything more to you?

A. No; nothing more. He said it was all right, that I could go on,
after I told him what I was hauling.

Q. What was the manner of the crowd at that time as to their being
boisterous or demonstrative?

A. Indeed, I could not tell you. We just stop for a couple of minutes,
and sometimes not that long.

Q. You had no conversation with any other excepting the one who got on
your engine?

A. That is all. He was discharged off this road a couple of times, and
off the Pan-Handle, I believe.

Q. Why was he discharged?

A. I cannot tell.

Q. Where did he live?

A. Somewhere about Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Did you learn that day, or any time after that, when these parties
resolved to strike?

A. No.

Q. Did you know of any preconceived plan of striking?

A. No; I did not.

Q. Do you know whether they have a secret organization or not?

A. All I heard of was the Train Men's Union--that is all I know of.

Q. What is the object of that?

A. That I cannot tell you. I never was in any of their meetings, and
know nothing about it.

Q. Do you know whether there was any other organization?

A. The Engineers' Brotherhood.

Q. What is the object of that?

A. That I cannot tell you. It is something I never belonged to.

Q. Did you come in on your regular trip in the morning?

A. Yes.

Q. Were you molested in any way?

A. No.

Q. Did you go out on time and come in on time all day Friday?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Without being molested?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Did you run on Saturday?

A. Until eight-fifteen, Saturday night.

Q. What stopped you then?

A. I did not go out at eleven-forty, because I could not get out at
eleven-forty.

Q. Why?

A. The fire was too hot.

Q. I suppose you didn't go out for a week or so then?

A. I went to work on Tuesday.

Q. At what time?

A. I think I went out at six-five on Tuesday night.

Q. Was there still a crowd about then?

A. Yes.

Q. How large about?

A. I cannot tell how large the crowd was.

Q. Had the work commenced then, by the company, in clearing off the
tracks--the _debris_?

A. Indeed, I cannot tell you whether it had or not.

Q. Were you interfered with in any way on Tuesday night when you went
out?

A. Not on Tuesday night.

Q. What was the mob doing at that time on Tuesday night?

A. The mob was cleared away then, on Tuesday, partly.

Q. Partly, you say?

A. From Thirty-third street. It was as far as we could get. I went to
work on Tuesday after the Sunday of the fire.

Q. You run your trains regularly up to Saturday night?

A. Yes; we came in at eight-fifteen.

Q. Were you there when any of the demonstrations were made by the crowd
in firing or throwing stones?

A. No.

Q. You were not about Twenty-eighth street then?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you see any interference?

A. I saw the interfering on Thursday with the Union Line that they were
trying to take out.

Q. Stopping of the train?

A. Yes.

Q. Was there any violence or assaulting of the engineer, or any train
men of that train?

A. No; the crowd just got in front of the engines, and sprung on them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Who were those men?

A. They were other men than railroad men.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you know any of those men who got on your train?

A. No.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Couldn't you guess from their appearance what their trades or
occupations were?

A. No.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did they get on and off the engine as if they were men used to being
around the cars?

A. No; some of them would get off and fall, and some of them would get
off pretty good.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Were they sober or not?

A. I could not tell that.

                     *      *      *      *      *

W. A. Kirk, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At Wilkensburg.

Q. What is your connection with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

A. I am a conductor on the Wilkensburg accommodation.

Q. Were you a conductor in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. How far is Wilkensburg from Pittsburgh?

A. Seven miles.

Q. How many trips do you make between these points a day?

A. Five round trips.

Q. What is your time for leaving?

A. The first trip in the morning we leave Wilkensburg at
six-fifty-four, and get there at night at ten-fifteen.

Q. What time do you get to Pittsburgh?

A. Seven-thirty first, and leave at nine-forty, going out on the last
trip.

Q. On the morning of July 19th, were you disturbed in coming in or
going out?

A. No.

Q. When did you first learn of any difficulty or any strike?

A. When I came as far as Twenty-eighth street with the twelve-five
train--coming in on that trip--with the train due at the depot at that
time. I then heard of it. I had heard remarks of a strike, but heard
nothing definite until I came in on that trip.

Q. What occurred on Friday?

A. I saw men standing around there on Friday, I did not see anything at
all, except seeing men standing around.

Q. Were you molested in any way?

A. Not on Friday. I did not see anything unusual on Friday. No; I was
not molested on Thursday in any shape, but on Friday they were around
by hundreds. Parties that I did not know where they came from, and we
could not do anything with them. They would get on the trains, and we
could not do anything with them. They did pretty much as they pleased,
and I saw that we had better keep quiet. They were riding between
Twenty-eighth street and Lawrenceville and Torren's station, during
Friday. They were just riding when it suited them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What did they seem to be?

A. They seemed to be mill men, as much as any thing else, from their
appearance. They seemed to work somewhere where the sun did not strike
them.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. They refused to pay fare?

A. Yes; they paid nothing. On Saturday morning, coming in on the first
trip, I did not see any of them. I had the usual run of passengers in
that morning. Going out at nine-forty, I got a crowd on that covered
the engine, and tank, and train, and every place. After I left
Twenty-eighth street, I made up my mind between there and Lawrenceville
that I would not go any further until I had got those parties off. I
got to Lawrenceville, and went to the engine, and got a big coal pick,
and then went to them, and said the first man that refuses to get off
here, I am going to stick the coal pick in him. I found that they all
got off, and seeing that I had it my own way with those on the engine,
I thought I would try it with the others on the train. I did try it on
them, and so pulled on to Millvale, when I did not have anybody on that
did not pay any fare, and I kept that up all day Saturday, except one
trip. On the half-past three trip, they were a little too thick. I
threw them off, and knocked them off the train, and drove them off the
engine with the pick. At Liberty, coming in on the twelve o'clock trip
that day, I was about five minutes putting them off there. A crowd of
them got on at Torrens. I got them all off, that did not pay any fare.
My crew stood by me very well. During the whole trouble, if I had had a
few more men on the train--I only had two of a crew--I could have
cleaned them out all the time. I was not molested or troubled at all by
the railroad men--that is on the train, in that way. I was told at
Liberty, on Saturday night, that I could not run the train out the city
there by one railroad man and one other.

Q. Who was the railroad man?

A. His name was Hice, and the name of the other was Smith.

Q. Smith was not a railroad man?

A. No.

Q. Do you know what his occupation is?

A. A one-horse stock dealer. He went around the country buying up
calves. I do not know what he is doing now. He is under indictment at
present.

Q. Was Hice in the employ of the company at that time?

A. He was when the riot commenced. He has not been since.

Q. You say you ran your train without carrying passengers that refused
to pay fare except once. What day was that?

A. It was Friday that I could not do anything with them.

Q. Did you attempt on that day to eject those men?

A. I did, but I concluded it was not going to be very healthy, and I
gave it up. They would not get off, and made all sorts of threats. I
did not know any of them that made the threats. They threatened that if
there was any putting off, they would be the parties to do it, and I
would be the one to go off.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Can you tell us any of the occurrences of the riot?

A. I cannot, for I was just simply running on the train. I did not
stop. The firing that took place at Twenty-eighth street occurred while
I was out on a trip. They held me at Lawrenceville until it was all
over and quiet, so that the track was clear when I came down. When I
came in, there were not many there, but there was a big crowd there
when I went out. I ran my train every trip except the last one,
Saturday night. I went for information to the telegraph office, but
could not get any, and I kept the train out there and did not make the
last trip.

Q. During all the excitement you were free to run in and out?

A. Except a little detention waiting for the crowds to open. They would
always get out of the road. Nothing was said to me by any person--by
any employé, except this man Hice. He asked me once if I did not think
I had better stop, and I told him I did not think I had, that I would
go on as long as there was a track to run on, and make the trips, if I
could.

Q. Did you have any conversation with any of these men except Hice, or
did you hear any of the strikers talking?

A. Two or three railroad men--I do not know their names--went out on my
train at three o'clock on Thursday afternoon; they were going out home.
I asked them what the trouble was, but I got but little satisfaction
out of them, no more than they were swearing at the double-headers;
that was all I could hear.

Q. They were not taking part in the riot?

A. No; they said they were not going out, but they had nothing to do
with the trouble. I think they went home, for I would see them still
out down there when I went out. They were not in the crowds at all.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Frederick Fleck, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At Spring Hill, on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad.

Q. What is your occupation?

A. I am a locomotive engineer.

Q. Were you so engaged during the riots in July?

A. I was.

Q. Can you give the committee any information upon the occurrences that
came under your observation?

A. On the morning of Thursday, the 19th, I started out on my usual
time, at seven-twenty, with a coal train. I ran what is called the
Pittsburgh coal train--making two round trips from Pittsburgh to
Brinton's about eleven miles out. We left in the morning without any
indication or sign of trouble on the road. Everything appeared to be
going on as usual. There was no intimation of any trouble. Coming in on
the road, about East Liberty or Torrens, we usually met the trains
going out--the eight-forty's. We did not meet them. We should have
passed them between those points. We did not know what was the matter,
but thought there was some delay or no freight; but when we came to
Torrens, some of the men about the stock-yards, by signs in this
manner, [indicating,] showed there was a strike, as we understood; but
we knew nothing definite until we got to Lawrenceville, and there
ascertained there was a strike. We usually cut the engine loose on
running by the upper round-house. There was a conductor came on the
engine, and asked me if I was going out. I told him I certainly was,
that I had no reason why I should not go out. He said the boys were on
a strike, and they did not propose to let anybody go out.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Who was that conductor?

A. His name was Leech Reynolds.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was he an employé of the railroad company?

A. He was a conductor at that time.

Q. Do you know where he resides?

A. I think he then resided in the Twelfth ward. I did not pay any
attention to him, whatever, and the train was dropped past, and I
pushed on to the west end of the yard, as usual. I believe there were
no objections to putting trains away that came in.

Q. Is Reynolds living in Pittsburgh now?

A. I think he is, although he is not employed at present. I paid no
attention to the threats. I asked what would be the consequence if I
did go out, and he said that I would get my neck broke. I smiled. I told
him I did not know--that it was pretty hard to break, as it was short
and thick. I went on to Lawrenceville with the engine and crew. We
carry four men on that train. It is a train that does a great deal of
work, and we require two flagmen. There was a great deal of work to be
done on that train, as it is a double train, and we take local traffic.
At Lawrenceville I started to go down the track, when the conductor and
crew left the engine. I said, boys are you not going out? They
concluded not to go out, that they did not want to be black sheep. I
told them that I did not know that the double-header business
interfered with us, and it was only a question of double-headers, so
far as I knew. Nevertheless, they concluded not to go out. I then took
the engine down, and reported that there was no crew to go out. This
was about eleven o'clock on Thursday morning. In the meantime, there
was some scuffling about there. I saw men rush back and forward, and
there were some policemen there. I did not know what the trouble was,
and went down to make some inquiries from Mr. Fox. I asked what the
matter was, and was told that they were trying to arrest a man that had
struck Mr. Watt. They had got hold of him, but he was limber as an eel.
The engine was taken into the round-house. About two or three o'clock
that afternoon, an attempt was made to take the double train out--what
is called the Union Line. Conductor France was to take it out. He asked
me what to do about the matter. I said he ought to judge for
himself--you know your business--but, if I were you, I would attempt to
take the train out, and if they won't let you, then you have done your
duty. He is a rather bold, brave fellow, and sometimes would go further
than other men would. He said, I have got shooting-irons, and if they
stop me I may hurt somebody. They coupled up the train, but they were
stopped at the lower round-house. There were some parleying there, and
some difficulty. A crowd was there, of twenty or thirty or forty,
stretched along from Twenty-sixth to Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Who were this crowd?

A. They were railroad men--I can hardly tell who they were--principally
railroad men at that time. The order was given to start the train. I
think Mr. Watt was there, and the engineers made an effort to start,
but the crowd got in front and commenced swinging their hands, and I
saw one man flourishing a revolver. I think his name was Harris. They
stopped them, and the engineers got off, and the firemen, and the train
did not move. That was on Thursday, about three o'clock. On Thursday
evening the engineers called a meeting over Clark's hotel, and I went
to see what action would be taken in regard to the strike. Up to that
time I understood the engineers had not taken any part--that they were
a kind of silent party, looking on. They met and discussed the matter
_pro_ and _con_ for some time. The older men advised not to have
anything to do with the matter, that it was a conductors' and
brakemen's fight, and that they should be left to fight it out
themselves; but some time previous to this, there had been a reduction
of ten per cent., and the engineers had sent a committee to
Philadelphia to the general office, to see what could be done about it.
The committee returned, and they had accepted the reduction in good
faith. I told the meeting that the men had consented to take the
reduction, and that so far as the double-headers were concerned, they
had run them before, and that there was no objection--that it did not
require any less engineers or firemen to run the double-headers, and
that it did not effect us in that respect, but before the meeting broke
up some men came in under the influence of liquor, and got a little
noisy, and the thing dropped until Friday morning. On Friday morning
they had another meeting, and I also went to that. The older engineers
thought that we could keep the men out of it--the engineers and
firemen--but it appeared to be determined on the part of the majority
of the freight engineers and firemen to go into the matter, and the
meeting was postponed until three o'clock. They did not come to any
conclusion. The majority of the men there that morning were opposed to
the strike. They concluded to have another meeting in the afternoon;
and I saw, with a few others, that a resolution would be adopted that
they would go for the strike, so I did not go, and I advised some of
the younger men that I knew, not to go near the meeting. This was at
Engineers' hall. About one o'clock they had organized the meeting, but
I was not down there. They sent a sub-committee to come up and take me
down by force to the meeting. I refused to go. Then they organized and
concluded to go into the Trainmen's Union, and they went into it, and
went into the strike--that is the majority of our freight
men--engineers. Up to that time I did not know of any organized
committee or anything else waiting on the officers, and I told our men
in the morning you cannot consistently demand anything until you see
the officers and have a refusal. I told them you have not made any
request, and you are going into this thing without making any request,
and that you have violated the law at the start, and you cannot expect
to be successful; but they said that the iron was hot, and that they
were going to strike. So after that time until the trouble was over, I
had nothing to do with the men. I staid there until Saturday evening,
ready to go out. In fact on Saturday my engine was fired up and ready
to go out. I never refused to go out because I had never quit the
service of the company.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What kind of a meeting was this?

A. It was meeting of engineers and firemen.

Q. A secret organization?

A. No; it was an open meeting.

Q. Participated in by men belonging to this organization and others?

A. By the brakemen, conductors, engineers, and firemen, and all those
that wished to be there. On Saturday evening the troops came up, and I
was back and forward to the shops. I was up on Twenty-eighth street,
but I saw no violent demonstrations, although there was a big crowd
there. I suppose, though, if there had been any effort on Friday or
Saturday, to send trains out, there would have been violence. Plenty of
revolvers and fire-arms were displayed there, by plenty of men outside
of railroad men.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Was it railroad men who flourished and displayed the revolvers and
fire-arms?

A. I think the majority were outsiders.

Q. Were they citizens of the city of Pittsburgh, or strangers?

A. I don't know. I suppose they were citizens from the East End--from
the east of the city. There were thieves, and robbers, and rogues, and
tramps there from the whole country.

Q. Were they citizens of Pittsburgh, or were they strangers?

A. I think the majority of them were outside of the railroad employés.
Whether they were glass-blowers, or puddlers, or citizens of any other
occupation, I could not tell. The Pittsburgh troops were on good terms
with the mob. Some were giving them muskets, and marching up and down
with the mob, and eating hard-tack with them, and there was a good
feeling, generally, between them. The report came that the troops were
coming from Philadelphia, and that there would quite likely be trouble
with them, because they were strangers here, and would not know the
position of things here, but would obey orders. From that, I inferred
that the Pittsburgh soldiers had not exactly obeyed orders. I only
inferred that. This was the kind of tone or feeling around there. When
the Philadelphia troops came marching up through the yard, my engine
was out. I think that General Pearson was there at the same time that
the Philadelphia troops came up from Twenty-eighth street. I think that
General Pearson was, and I am positive about Mr. Cassatt. He said to
me: Fred., are you willing to go out? I said: Certainly. I have never
refused to go out. Certainly, on condition that the mob is dispersed. I
would not like to run through it. I don't want to hurt anybody. He
said: We don't want to send anybody out, until the mob is dispersed. I
thought that if there was any determination displayed on the part of
the troops, the mob would go away. Shortly after that, I was at the
upper end of the lower round-house, half way between Twenty-sixth and
Twenty-eighth streets. After the troops got up there, somebody made a
speech--some one of the officers, or somebody--made a little speech,
warning the people to go away, and disperse. I couldn't hear exactly
what was said. Then I saw some of the soldiers come down shortly after
that, and one of them, particularly, had the whole side of his face
knocked off by a brick. They were the Philadelphia troops. Some of the
others came down sick. I don't know whether they were sunstruck, or
what kind of struck, but they were weak about the knees, some of them.
Then, by and by, I heard a little bit of musketry rattling, and then
heard them shoot in every direction, and saw the crowd dispersing in
every direction--some running up the hill, and some up the railroad,
and some down Twenty-eighth street. In a short time, nobody was there.
The troops came down to the round-house, and were quartered there, with
the Gatling gun put in position, off Twenty-eighth street. I heard one
of the officers of the troops saying, that they could not stand it much
longer--that they were yelled at and struck--that they had not come to
Pittsburgh to hurt anybody, but that they couldn't stand it much
longer. But General Brinton told them, in my hearing, that they
shouldn't shoot at all. They had barricaded Twenty-eighth street. The
troops were barricaded there. Guards were posted properly, I suppose;
but they had no rations, and a good many of the men commenced to
complain about something to eat--that they had only had a small lunch
since they had left Altoona, or somewhere. Somebody remarked, that they
would open up the Gatling gun on the mob, if it didn't quit throwing
the stones and missiles at the men. This was about six o'clock. The
General came, and said, I don't want a man to shoot, without the
barricades are broken in. Stand back, and don't use any violence. I
won't allow any shooting to be done, without, it is in self-defense. I
remained there until half past eight or nine o'clock. The mob had
gathered so thick that it was almost impossible to get through. From
Penn up to Liberty, and from Twenty-sixth up to Twenty-eighth streets,
there was a solid mass of people. At that time, the old telegraph
office was shot into, and stones were thrown into it, and the only
thing that prevented them from shooting everybody there, was simply
because the street was so much lower, and they had to shoot up, and the
balls struck in the ceiling. One or two of the soldiers were struck in
the back by missiles, or with stones in the face. One of the officers
was struck, and it kind of riled him. By that time, an order came to
send to Union depot to take the fast line out. Nobody was about. They
had the engine, but no engineer. Mr. White asked me to go down. I said
I would, if I could. I tried to get out at the rear of the shops, but
the mob would not let me out. An officer was called up to pass me out
of the round-house. I said, if you let me out between the office and
the old round-house, I can jump off the wall, and get down. Previous to
this time, it was generally thought, in the crowd outside, that Mr.
Pitcairn and some of the officers, (Mr. Watt,) were in the office--in
the outer depot office. It appeared that there was an antipathy against
these men, and they wanted to get at them. Some remarks were made that
they had coffins for them, and others said: Get them out of there. Just
such threats the mob would make. They seemed to have made up their
minds that those men had ordered the double-headers, or the reduction,
and they were going to take their revenge out of them. They were
instructed so (the mob was) by the railroad men. I thought that they
were up there. I didn't know they were away. I thought they were there.
Then I jumped off the wall. In the act of jumping, I was fired at. I
suppose some ten or twelve balls were fired at me by some men there who
had no love for me.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Who fired?

A. The mob outside. I got out of the crowd and into the Union depot. I
found then that it was countermanded--that the fast line was not to go
out. I went into the depot, and I don't know who I found, now--but I
found out that the train was not to go. I found Mr. Pitcairn there, and
I told him I thought it was not a wholesome place for him, that he had
better leave. I told him I thought that some of the men were disposed
to do him some personal damage if they came across him, and from the
way in which the mob or the crowd felt, I didn't think it would be very
well for anybody to get in their way at that time. About nine o'clock
there was somebody came and asked for volunteers to take an engine out
to the outer depot, to take provisions up to the troops. I told them I
would, and I waited for some time, and then I found out that they had
come to the conclusion that it would not be safe to go up. I heard no
more of it until morning. I staid with the engine during that whole
night, and saw the fires getting brighter and brighter, and coming
closer down. I staid there at Union depot until eleven o'clock Sunday,
when I drew the fires out of the engine and left her standing there by
the orders of the depot-master, and went home by the way of the Fifth
avenue street cars. While waiting for dinner, my brother-in-law heard a
train, and I went out on the road, and I saw a train coming backward. I
gave a slight signal and the engineer stopped. It was not very hard to
stop a train then. The conductor inquired what I wanted; he said that
he was going out as far as Walls. I said I would like to go. It seemed
that some of the troops were coming in and came as far as Torrens, and
were ordered back. I went to bed early in the afternoon after getting
there. I came in on Monday, and was at our head-quarters at Fast
Liberty. I thought our foreman was there. I reported for duty. About
noon he asked me to run the Walls accommodation train. I said,
certainly, I will run the train. I run it--no, I did not go out that
trip, for the man who had the engine refused to get off, although he
had asked in the first place to get off. When I came he refused to give
it up. He pulled out a pistol and displayed it, and refused to give the
engine up, yet he had asked in the first place to be relieved. So I
told Mr. Whetman, our foreman of the round-house. Well, says he, let
him run it, but he told me sometime ago, that he was tired and wanted
to be relieved. I remained there until afternoon, when I got orders to
take the engine. I went down again, and said, I have orders to take
this engine. So I took her and run her sometime--I run her that night
from Thirty-third street to Walls and back on regular trips. But I
didn't make the last trip. In the morning I came in at the usual time.
When I came in, it appears that a committee had waited on Mr. Whetman,
and told him to take me off that engine. I believe the man Reynolds
told him that they would not allow me to run the engine. Then Mr. Henry
took the engine and run one round trip, when Mr. Blender took her. But
before this, I was to go to Lawrenceville to take a train down to find
a committee of men to have a conference about the thing. Mr. Garrett
got on the engine. I asked where I was to go at East Liberty. John
Shires and McCullough, who were on, were both of this committee, and
Mr. Garrett told me that these parties wanted to go down for this
conference. Shires spoke up and said, we will give you orders where we
want you to go--we are running this road now. In fact I did not know
who was running it. I had nothing to say. Five or six more parties got
on, and we came to Pittsburgh. Shires gave me orders to go on down.
Things went on so all that week. No train went out until the following
Sunday, when I was ordered to take the yard engine at Torrens, and load
some stock.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who was Shires?

A. He was a conductor on a shifting engine at that time. On Sunday we
loaded some stock at Torrens I took the engine that usually did that
work. Nobody was on her. I examined the fire and water, and found all
right, and went to move the engine, when the engineer that had been on
her came up and asked me what I was going to do. I said I had orders to
run this engine. He said, I am running this engine. I said all right,
and got off, and reported to Mr. Whetman. He said that the man had
refused to move the stock; but said he would move passenger cars. He
was not willing to move stock. He went down to the man and talked to
him; but it appeared it had no effect. He would not do it. He came back
and said, I want you to take that engine. I went down and tried to
persuade the man. He was a man of family, and I thought he had better
sense. I said to him this thing is all broken up, and it was a mistake
from the start. This stock ought to be loaded, and I said you are
taking revenge out of innocent parties. I said I don't know who will
provide for your family if you are out of work, and I am confident if
you won't work now they won't give you work when you want it. He said
they would have to take him. He would not take the stock, so I took the
engine and loaded the stock.

Q. Did they resist?

A. No; I had no crew then; so Mr. Scott, the agent at the stock-yards,
and Mr. Gummey, volunteered to couple the cars and do the work. So he,
and I, and Mr. Scott did the work. We loaded three or four double
trains that afternoon.

Q. What class of men were engaged in the riot when it first broke out?

A. Well, so far as I know, I think it was caused by one man only
refusing to go out--the flagman of that train.

Q. Of what train?

A. Of the eight-forty.

Q. On Thursday morning?

A. Yes; and I think the rest fell in kind of spontaneously as they came
in off the road.

Q. Have you been able to gather anything from the men, showing that
they had a pre-arranged plan for a strike that morning?

A. Not that particular strike. I understood a month or so before, that
the Trainmen's Union had organized a strike for a certain time, but I
don't remember the day or date. I know there was such talk among the
men, that there would be a strike that day among the brakemen and
conductors. There was nothing of the kind among the engineers, that I
know of, because had the engineers held meetings at other places, I
would have heard them speak of it. Previous to that time there was
nothing among the engineers and firemen; but, the day passed over, and
there was no strike; and, of this strike on Thursday, the 19th, I heard
nothing of it--I knew nothing of it, and our crew knew nothing of
it--at least they said nothing to me, and it appeared to be a surprise
to them when we came in. Railroad men sometimes are very communicative;
they generally let one know, directly or indirectly, what is in the
wind. They generally know one among the other.

Q. Had they any secret organization?

A. I don't know what this Trainmen's Union is. It was a new thing to
me. I heard of it, that is all. I believe that such an organization
existed, and had for some time.

Q. Do you know the objects of the organization?

A. I don't really know--I never heard particularly--only from the
talk of the men It was kind of protective or like all labor
organizations--something of that kind--to unite the men together, and
get them to act in unity.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was it of a beneficial character?

A. No.

Q. It was not like the engineers' organization.

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. It had no connection with it?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. I suppose it is secret?

A. I think it is.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. At the meeting you spoke of, did the engineers and firemen agree to
go into that union?

A. I understood so, but I don't know it.

Q. Do you know whether the Engineers' Brotherhood assisted or
encouraged this strike of the Trainmen's Union?

A. I don't know that they did. If they did, they violated their
obligations. They might have been in sympathy.

Q. They took no formal action in the matter?

A. No; not up to that time.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You have stated that the strike was commenced by one man refusing to
go out?

A. As far as I understand.

Q. At what time was the first effort made to prevent men from going out
who were willing to go?

A. As far as I know--I was out on the road at that time that this
refusal was made--that occurred sometime about eight o'clock in the
morning. I left Pittsburgh at seven-twenty, and didn't get back until
eleven o'clock. What transpired in the meantime, I cannot tell you. I
know nothing about it, only from hearsay.

Q. Do you know, of your own knowledge, whether it was discharged men or
men in the employ of the company who would prevent others from going
out, either by persuasion or by force?

A. I don't know that. I know that sometime in the afternoon, when that
attempt was made at three o'clock, or thereabouts, there were employés
and non-employés among the party.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. And some of them had been in the service of the company and
discharged?

A. Yes; and some that had never been in the service.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you hear any talk about men coming from a distance?

A. It was generally supposed--at the time of the fire and riot, I was
at Union Depot, and I saw them carrying off goods--hauling them off by
wagon loads and wheelbarrow loads--men, women, and children--it was
generally supposed that all the thieves that could get here in two
days, from all the country around, had got here; and I suppose,
everybody thought that the property had better be carried off than be
burned.

Q. Can you give the name of the flagman who first refused to go out?

A. No.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Do you know whether the strike was confined to freight men entirely?

A. I think so; although some of the passenger men may have been in
sympathy with them.


    William Ryan, recalled:

By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Please state whether it was discharged men, or whether it was men
who were then in the employ of the railroad company who first prevented
the trains from going out, either by persuasion or by interference?

A. As far as I could see it was men still in the employ of the company.
On the morning that this occurred they conversed about it. I suppose in
that way they persuaded them not to go out.

Q. Was it known then what men would be discharged under this order?

A. No, sir; it was a mystery to all.

Q. Can you give us the name of the flagman who refused to go out first?

A. Harris, his name was. I gave his name in as Gus. Whether it was
proper or not, I don't know.

                     *      *      *      *      *

John Alexander, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your occupation?

A. I am an engineer.

Q. In whose employ were you in July last?

A. In the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.

Q. As a freight engineer?

A. As a passenger engineer.

Q. On what train?

A. On the Walls accommodation.

Q. At what hours did you leave the Union depot?

A. In the morning, on the first trip, at six-twenty, and on the last
trip leaving Pittsburgh, at five-twenty.

Q. What time did you arrive at Pittsburgh in the morning?

A. Eight-twenty-five.

Q. State whether you were interfered with on the morning of July 19?

A. I was not.

Q. When did you first learn there was any disturbance among the men?

A. About four o'clock that afternoon.

Q. How did you learn it?

A. I was coming down to go out on the five-twenty trip, and when I came
to the round-house, above Twenty-eighth street, I saw a crowd of boys
there. I asked what was going on--I asked somebody that I was
acquainted with, and was told that the freight men were on a strike.
That was, as near as I can tell, about four o'clock.

Q. Who told you that?

A. Robert Hardy.

Q. Do you know whether he was among the strikers?

A. I don't know.

Q. How large a crowd was assembled there?

A. I suppose about fifty persons. I thought that somebody was hurt by
the Johnstown accommodation. It was just such a crowd as gathers when
an accident takes place.

Q. Were they boisterous and noisy?

A. No; I didn't go into the crowd.

Q. Did you have any conversation with any of the men?

A. Nothing further than ascertaining what was going on. I went down to
the lower round-house after my engine.

Q. Did you go out that night?

A. I did.

Q. Were you interfered with?

A. Not in the least--further than having to run carefully through the
crowd.

Q. Were you present during the riotous conduct, on any of those days
from Thursday morning?

A. I made my usual trips on Thursday and on Friday without any trouble,
any more than this crowd getting on and off the engine between Torrens
and Pittsburgh.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What kind of men were those?

A. The majority of them were not railroad men. They didn't appear to be
accustomed to riding trains.

Q. Did they talk?

A. Only among themselves.

Q. What seemed to be their object?

A. They had no object, that I could see.

Q. Merely curiosity?

A. More curiosity than anything else.

Q. Have you any knowledge of new facts not related by the other
engineers or conductors here who have testified?

A. Nothing. They have filled up all I can say.

Q. Can you give us any new light, as to the organization of the men or
their plans of action, or the names of the prominent strikers?

A. I don't know the names of many of them.

Q. What do you know about the causes of the riot?

A. Nothing, only the double-headers.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were you permitted to run the passenger trains without interference?

A. Until Saturday night.

Q. How about the freight trains. Were they permitted to run?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. They were stopped?

A. Except when I passed through with the train. I was not there. I
didn't see the freight trains from that Thursday until the Sunday after
running. I was aware of the fact that there was a suspension of
business.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What was the difficulty with the passenger trains on Saturday night?

A. Coming in from the five-twenty trip, they told us that we couldn't
go out again. Some men got on the engine and told me so.

Q. Do you know where those men were from?

A. I don't know. It was night, and I didn't pay much attention to their
appearance.

Q. Were they miners, or mill men, or tramps, or railroad men?

A. They were not railroad men; they didn't talk like it, or look like
it.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you hear any threats?

A. They only told me I was not to go out again.

Q, They only complained about the orders for running double-headers?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. These men gave no reasons for refusing to allow you to go out again
on Saturday night?

A. No; I suppose they thought I knew.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did the men know of any reason why the double-headers were to be
run?

A. I was not running freight.

Q. You know nothing about freight?

A. It was about that order I heard them talking.

Adjourned until to-morrow, at three o'clock, P.M.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, SATURDAY, _February 9, 1878_

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee assembled at three o'clock,
P.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was

                     *      *      *      *      *

Archibald Jeffrey, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. No. 32 Anderson street.

Q. How long have you resided there?

A. Going on three years.

Q. What is your business?

A. I am a machinist.

Q. Were you in the vicinity of the disorders that occurred, commencing
on the 19th day of July last--that day or at any time following?

A. I was out there on the 22d--I believe that is Saturday evening.

Q. At what point?

A. About Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Tell us what you saw there?

A. There was a great deal of noise around there for awhile.

Q. Made by whom?

A. I can't just exactly tell who.

Q. There was a crowd there?

A. Yes.

Q. Composed of what classes?

A. Of most every class.

Q. How large a crowd was there?

A. I have no idea--I suppose a thousand or fifteen hundred men--I
suppose so.

Q. How long before the burning was it that you speak about?

A. I went out there in the evening about five o'clock--along there--and
I think the burning commenced about ten and a half o'clock.

Q. What was the conduct of the crowd at five or six o'clock, when you
went there first?

A. That was after the shooting had been done out there.

Q. After the firing by the militia, you mean?

A. Yes.

Q. What was the condition of the crowd at that time?

A. There was a lot of talking going on about the soldiers; but not
being interested in the thing at all, I didn't pay much attention to
it.

Q. What kind of talk was it?

A. They appeared to be angry about the soldiers firing at the crowd.

Q. Where was the crowd assembled then?

A. About Twenty-eighth street, near the crossing.

Q. Did you see anybody set fire to any car or building, or anything in
the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street?

A. I did see one man. He was the only man.

Q. Who was he?

A. Matthew Marshall.

Q. What time was that?

A. It was in the afterpart of the night. I can't say exactly.

Q. What was it he fired?

A. A car of coke.

Q. Where was the car standing?

A. On the track, about two squares above Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Just describe how he did it; where he got his fire; how it took
place?

A. I don't know where he got his fire. When I noticed him first he was
in the car. He had a bunch of shavings, and was in a sitting down
position, and appeared to me to be kindling a fire. When the fire got
kindled he jumped out. I saw him fifteen or twenty minutes afterwards.
He was the only person I know of.

Q. Did you speak to him?

A. No.

Q. Was anybody with him?

A. I didn't notice anybody with him.

Q. What was the result of the kindling of the fire?

A. If there had been no other fire it would have burnt that car up; but
there was fire all around.

Q. Other cars were then on fire?

A. Yes; burning at the same time.

Q. What has become of Mr. Marshall?

A. He is in prison--over the river.

Q. At whose instigation was he arrested?

A. I can't say that myself.

Q. You were not present when the firing took place by the militia?

A. No.

Q. Did you see any other fires kindled?

A. I don't believe I did.

Q. Describe whether there were other fires going on then, and how they
were kindled, and what the mob were doing, and describe all the
circumstances that took place at that time?

A. There appeared to me to be a gang of men. I don't know who they
were--whether railroaders or not.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did they seem to have any organized leaders, or were they directed
by anybody?

A. It appeared to me they had at that time.

Q. Were they not running helter-skelter?

A. They were ordering each other around. I can't say whether they had
an organization or not.

Q. Did it strike you that they had?

A. It did, at that time.

Q. That it was an organization?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. An organization without a head--do you mean to say that?

A. It appeared to me at that time that it was an organization, but I
don't say it positively myself.

Q. Was there any particular party to command it?

A. Yes; it looked to me so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What did the crowd seem to be aiming at, at that time--was it the
destruction of property?

A. I can't say that. There was a great deal of destruction and thieving
going on.

Q. Pillage and plunder?

A. Yes.

Q. What was said by the rioters?

A. I can't state.

Q. Was this firing confined entirely to railroad property?

A. It was at that time.

Q. Was there any attempt made by any one, so far as you saw, to fire
private property?

A. No.

Q. It seemed to be confined entirely to railroad property?

A. Yes.

Q. This man Marshall you spoke of, was entirely alone when you saw him
fire the car?

A. So far as I know.

Q. Nobody seemed to be acting in concert with him?

A. No.

Q. Did this coke car stand entirely alone?

A. It stood in a train. They kept running cars down, six or seven at a
time, against each other. This came down with the rest of them.

Q. Describe that. The firing of this car would communicate to others?

A. Yes.

Q. After the car was fired, was it put in motion?

A. Not that I noticed.

Q. When you speak of running cars down, where were they running them
from?

A. From out the road some place. I think it is down grade this way.

Q. Did the cars stop at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Above Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Near the round-house?

A. The round-house is on Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Did the cars stop near the round-house?

A. Yes.

Q. Where were the troops then?

A. I suppose they were in one of the round-houses.

Q. Do you know that to be a fact?

A. I walked down, and the guard was standing there. I suppose so.

Q. The cars that were run down, then, would stop somewhere near the
round-house?

A. Yes.

Q. Was there any effort made to fire the round-house, that you saw?

A. No; I didn't get near enough.

Q. Was there any attack being made upon the round-house by the mob at
that time?

A. I can't say that there was. Not that I know of.

Q. Was there anything said by the mob about the soldiers being
quartered in the round-house?

A. Not that I can remember.

Q. How long were you there?

A. I went out in the evening about six or seven o'clock, along there. I
stayed along Liberty street and was once or twice on the railroad, and
saw Marshall, and along Liberty street at four or five o'clock in the
morning.

Q. How close to the mob?

A. I was twice, once or twice, upon the railroad.

Q. At what point on the railroad?

A. Just about where I saw this man.

Q. How far from the mob?

A. That just appeared to be--I stood along the edge of the railroad,
and this car was on the second or third track, off the edge of the
railroad.

Q. How many rods or feet from the mob?

A. Not more than five or six rods--something like that.


    By Mr. Reyburn:

Q. You were in the crowd, were you?

A. No; not just in the crowd. I was standing looking at them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were within five or six rods?

A. Yes.

Q. Was the crowd noisy and boisterous?

A. Yes.

Q. What did they appear to be saying?

A. I paid no attention to that.

Q. Did you hear them say anything?

A. I could hear them say a good bit, but it is a long time ago.

Q. What did they appear to be doing?

A. Dragging things off.

Q. What?

A. Goods and things.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was this man Marshall a railroad man or an outsider?

A. I never knew him to be a railroad man.

Q. Do you know anything about him at all--you knew the man?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Where did he reside?

A. He lived in the First ward, Allegheny, some place.

Q. Had you known him for years?

A. Yes.

Q. He had lived in Allegheny for some time?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What was his business?

A. He was a machinist.

Q. In whose employ was he at that time?

A. I don't know.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What were you doing there--what led you to go there?

A. I heard of the excitement, and I went down town and went out to see
it.

Q. It was curiosity?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you say that other cars were burning when this man Marshall
fired this coke car?

A. Yes.

Q. At that time?

A. Yes.

Q. It was not the first car burned?

A. No.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Were you there when the first car was fired?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What kind of things were they dragging off--merchandise from the
cars?

A. Yes.

Q. Were any railroad men among that party?

A. I don't know. I didn't know anybody but the one man.

Q. Did they have the appearance of railroad men--familiar with tracks
and with getting on and going about cars?

A. I can't say that.

Q. You could not judge anything from their actions?

A. No.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. How long was Marshall sent to the penitentiary for?

A. Six years, I believe.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. In whose employ were you at that time?

A. In the employ of McIntosh, Hemphill & Co.

Q. Where are their works located?

A. Twelfth and Pike.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. How far were the other cars that were burning from this one?

A. They were close. There were cars all around, I suppose within
thirty, or forty, or fifty feet.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. The crowd of spectators was not interfering with property?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were there until five o'clock in the morning?

A. About that time.

Q. How large was the crowd there during the night--take an average.--I
mean the crowd engaged in burning or pillaging or plundering?

A. I couldn't just give an idea.

Q. What is your opinion as to how large the crowd was--a thousand men
or five thousand or ten thousand?

A. Two or three thousand.

Q. You mean that were about in the vicinity, and seemed to be taking
part in the destruction of property?

A. If I were to give an estimate I would give you something that I
don't know.

Q. Was there any effort made to stop the destruction of property during
the night?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Was there any interference with it by any person?

A. Not that I saw.

Q. They were running things there themselves during the entire night?

A. It appeared so to me.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You did not see any soldiers, except the guard at the round-house?

A. I saw the guard and two or three standing there with him.

Q. There were none active in trying to beat back the crowd?

A. No.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Thomas M. King, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In Verona borough.

Q. You are officially connected with the Allegheny Valley Railroad--in
what capacity?

A. I am superintendent of the river division.

Q. Did you occupy that position in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. State whether there were any differences between the Allegheny
Valley Railroad Company and their employés, existing prior to the 19th
day of July last?

A. There was some dissatisfaction among the men in regard to the ten
per cent. reduction, but they all appeared to accept it.

Q. When was the ten per cent. reduction made?

A. The 1st of June.

Q. To what classes of employés did that apply?

A. To all classes receiving over a dollar a day.

Q. And to the officers, from the president down?

A. Yes.

Q. There was some complaint at the time?

A. Some dissatisfaction.

Q. Between the 1st of June and the 19th of July, was there any
organization among the men, so far as you could learn, or any
pre-arranged plan to strike?

A. There was nothing positive. I understood that quite a number of the
men were joining what was called the Trainmen's Union.

Q. Did you know the object of the Trainmen's Union.

A. Of my own knowledge I did not. I understood it was being organized
for the purpose of organizing a strike.

Q. Did you, as superintendent, have any communication with the men that
you understood were joining the organization in relation to it?

A. A short time before the strike, three or four of our men, I
understood, were very active in it, and I think I suspended one or two
temporarily, and talked to some others about it. My information just
previous to the strike led me to suppose that our men were not going to
stand by it, or were withdrawing--that they would not go into the
strike.

Q. Did you get that information from conversation with your men?

A. Yes.

Q. With what class of employés?

A. Conductors and engineers.

Q. What class seemed to be most dissatisfied with the reduction?

A. Generally those of the lower grade of pay--such as brakemen; that
class of men.

Q. When did the first strike occur on your road?

A. I think on Monday morning, the 23d, I believe.

Q. What class of men struck first?

A. I would qualify the other statement by stating that on Saturday,
about ten o'clock, I got a message stating that the shop men had held a
meeting and determined not to work any longer without the ten per cent.
was restored. We went out and called the men together, and Mr. Shinn,
our vice president, made a speech, and explained the situation to them,
and they held a meeting and agreed to stand by the reduction and go to
work again. That was the first difficulty we had. On Monday, I think
was the first refusal, on the part of the train men, to perform
service.

Q. What was said and done to get the men to resume work?

A. On Monday, I went down with an empty train, and turned up Pike
street. There they drew up, and I went on to the shops. We had a street
engine that far. After getting to the Thirty-fourth street station, I
was surprised to see a road engine standing there. I imagined, at once,
there was going to be a difficulty, and I got off the engine and walked
up to the round-house, and there was quite a large number of our men
congregated there. I spoke to them, and asked them what this meant.
None of them made any reply. I told them that the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company had made some arrangement with their men, and that, of course,
we would be governed by any arrangement made on the trunk lines. I told
them they were foolish to go into the strike in the midst of the
excitement--that it would do them no good. I then asked one of the
engineers to go on the express engine standing there, and take her out.
I got no reply. I said: "Boys, I am very sorry you are acting badly,
and if you don't take the engine out, I will have to take her myself."
I got on the engine and took her out, and made a coupling on a train
and started. In the meantime, one of the firemen came down and got on
with me. By the time I got up to the round-house, one of the engineers
came and took the engine from me.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You don't mean took it forcibly?

A. Oh, no. I went back to the men, and by that time quite a crowd was
gathered around, and there was a great deal of excitement. There were a
great many people around that I never saw before. The men said they
were going to call a meeting. I told them as a great many strangers,
apparently, were around, I would sooner they would go away from the
shops, and call their meeting at some other place where they could do
it quietly. They did so, and concluded that they would not go to work.
I succeeded in running all the trains that day that I cared about
running.

Q. How did you accomplish that?

A. By working myself, and by calling on the dispatchers and two or
three of the engineers. The next day a great many strangers were in our
yard, apparently influencing our men. I sent for some of our men, and
told them that I could not understand their conduct, that we had always
endeavored to treat them kindly and squarely, then they said it was not
their fault, that they were forced into it, and were doing what they
did by intimidation; that it would be as much as their lives were worth
to undertake to run those trains. By Tuesday noon I had a great deal of
difficulty in getting the passenger trains to run. The men would be
scared off and desert them. I gave the men notice on Tuesday afternoon,
at three o'clock, that if they wanted the _onus_ of stopping all
the passenger trains on our road, they would have to do it--that we
would not be justified in undertaking to run trains and run the risk of
having an accident occur to them by their refusing to perform their
duty.

Q. What action did they take then?

A. They called a meeting about four o'clock. I sent up to that meeting
and asked them to send me down a man to take out the passengers that
had come into the city that morning, so that we could get them home. I
could not get any person to do that, and had to do it myself. I took
the train out. That evening there was a committee waited on me with a
proposal that they would run two of our trains--would select the crew
to take charge of them. I had been unable to get any protection
whatever either from the military or civil authorities.

Q. Did they carry out that arrangement?

A. I sent a request to the committee of public safety, and had also
gone and seen General Brown, personally, to get some protection for our
shops, and also some ammunition for a company that we had at Verona
guarding our property there. General Brown said he could give me no
assistance, whatever, and so far as his ammunition was concerned, he
had but very few cartridges for his command. He, however, gave me
forty, and an order to gather up the company at Verona, and place them
on duty there. He said he could not allow any troops to be sent out of
the city at all, as he deemed it of more importance to keep them in the
city than to send them on the outskirts. From Mr. Thaw, I learned also,
that the committee of public safety had declined to send any persons.
After the men had made their proposal, I notified them that I would
give them an answer in the morning, and started up to the east end and
saw Mr. Shinn, our vice president, and submitted their proposal to him,
and explained the position we were in--that we could get no protection
either from the civil or military authorities, and that if our men were
willing to work, I thought it would be prudent, on our part, to submit
to the men until such times as the authorities could regain control. He
agreed with me, and authorized me to let the men take charge of the
trains and run them, so as not to stop the United States mails. The
trains were run under the charge of the men for two days--Wednesday and
Thursday. On Friday, we took charge of the trains ourselves again. We
ran the passenger trains on Friday and on Saturday--all we desired to,
and notified the men on Saturday that we proposed to commence running
trains on Monday. And I advised all the men that desired to retain
their positions, and who wanted to go to work again, that if they would
come down on Monday and take their trains they could do so.

Q. How many responded on Monday?

A. We had some difficulty up until two o'clock, and I was compelled to
employ a few new men. After that, the men saw that we were determined,
to start the business on the road again, and the majority came in, and
we had all the men we wanted.

Q. Did you have any assistance from the military at any time?

A. Yes.

Q. When was it?

A. I think on Thursday night. I went down to General Brown, and got an
order from him to bring the company that was at Verona, doing duty
there, to Forty-third street. He also sent a detail of cavalry from the
city, and we took charge of the road on Friday morning, and started our
trains.

Q. I understand it was on Tuesday you made the application to him.

A. On Monday night and Tuesday both.

Q. The troops were refused?

A. Yes.

Q. When was it you made application to the citizen's protective
committee?

A. On Tuesday, Mr. Paul came to me, and told me. He said: "Mr. King,
you are running a great risk. There is a great deal of excitement, and
I have heard a great many threats, not only against you, but your
road." I think it was at nine o'clock in the morning--between nine and
ten. I said to him: "Mr. Paul, you see the condition of things here. If
you can do anything with the committee of public safety, I think you
should go and explain our position to them." He remarked to me that he
had heard some threats among the men on Butler street, about burning
the bridges and destroying property, and, also, some threats against me
personalty, on account of my having been running trains out. The men
were afraid to take them at the station, on account of the threats made
against them. I could not get the trains run out, but as soon as I
would get out of the city limits, an engineer would come forward, and
relieve me. In that way, we were enabled to keep the passenger trains
going.

Q. Who was Mr. Paul?

A. He was a neighbor of mine, living at Verona--of the firm of Metcalf,
Paul & Co.--a member of that firm.

Q. Did you see any of the committee of public safety?

A. No. I was very busy, watching our property, and could not get down
town during the day. Everybody was excited, and there were a good many
outsiders around.

Q. Did Mr. Paul report to you after seeing the committee?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you know who he saw of the committee of public safety?

A. He did tell me, but I don't recollect now. I think he went in before
the committee, and made a speech to them, and explained the
situation--at least, that is my recollection.

Q. What kind of assistance was the committee of public safety rendering
at that time?

A. I can't answer that. They were organizing the citizens into
companies, for the purpose of protecting the city.

Q. Mutual protection?

A. Yes. The night I drove out to see Mr. Shinn the whole city appeared
to be patrolled. It was midnight, and I was halted at almost every
corner. The citizens were all apparently out.

Q. Were they armed?

A. Yes.

Q. On Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, were your men all at work?

A. Yes.

Q. What time did the shopmen quit work on Saturday?

A. At the usual hour.

Q. What is that hour?

A. Half past five in the evening. Mr. Shinn was there at half past two
or three, and called the men together, and made a speech. I left then,
and I think they all returned to work.

Q. Did I understand you to say that all the trains, both passenger and
freight, were running on Saturday?

A. Yes; we sent out the night trains on Saturday evening, after the
trouble had commenced.

Q. Was the same order issued by your company that was issued by the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, as to running double headers?

A. There was no necessity for it on our road.

Q. The only reduction in any way was the ten per cent. reduction, on
the 1st of June, on your road?

A. Yes.

Q. Had you any reason to apprehend any strike, prior to the breaking
out of the one here among your men?

A. No; I had an assurance from quite a number that they would not go
into the strike.

Q. Did you receive any order from Colonel Grey upon Captain Patterson
to furnish you with men?

A. I think that is the order I referred to. I went and saw General
Brown, and he gave me an order to Captain Patterson, to get the men
together and report for duty at Verona shops.

Q. On Tuesday?

A. Yes; I am not sure whether it was Monday night or Tuesday. My
recollection is, it was Monday night, but probably it was Tuesday.

Q. Did he give you the order when you first saw him--the first time he
was called upon?

A. I was to see him two or three times during that period, and I am not
positive about it. I think it was the second time; it may have been the
first. I am not positive.

Q. Did he make any refusal the first time you saw him?

A. I explained to him, that we had a guard of seventy-five men, that we
had organized ourselves at Verona, among whom were some of the Verona
company, but they had no ammunition. I think that the General said to
me, if I could get that company together, he would let it remain, but
he could not send any troops from the city hall.

Q. Did he state his reasons?

A. He deemed it more important to keep the command together than to
separate them.

Q. Did you make any application to the mayor or sheriff of the county
for aid?

A. No; we did not need it until after the riot. It was only from the
desire to protect our men who were willing to work. And I had been
advised on Monday or Tuesday of some incendiary speech, made among the
miners, and I looked for some trouble among them.

Q. Was any of the property of the Allegheny Valley railroad destroyed?

A. Nothing but a baggage car at Union depot and the tracks running in
front of the round-house where we approached Union depot.

Q. Had you any number of cars there at the time the burning occurred?

A. I think we had about two hundred south of Forty-third street.

Q. Were any of them laden with freight?

A. Some with ore; the merchandise cars I removed Sunday night myself.
Word was sent to me that the men were going to burn the freight
station.

Q. Were you interfered with in any way?

A. No.

Q. In the interviews you had with your men before the strike--between
the 1st of June and the strike--what reasons did the men give for their
anticipated strike?

Q. They were dissatisfied with the reduction of wages. There had been
one the previous year or so, and this one coming in that time, made
them very much dissatisfied.

Q. How long before was the other reduction?

A. I think in 1874 or 1875.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Is it not a habit for the men, when their wages are reduced, to
complain?

A. Oh, yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was it deemed necessary on the part of the company to make that
reduction?

A. The board of directors thought so.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Had there been a falling off in business?

A. The business was very irregular and spurty. Sometimes we were
running all the trains we could, and then they would drop off. And
rates were not so good as they had been.

Q. From your position, you should judge that was the reason why the
reduction was made?

A. I should judge it was a necessity on the part of the management to
do it, on account of the condition of the trade of the country.

Q. There had been strikes in other parts of the country before this
trouble occurred here--for instance, at Martinsburg?

A. I believe so--from newspaper reports.

Q. Did you have any consultation with the railroad authorities when
this occurred--or did you take any measures to avert this?

A. So far as we were concerned, we did not anticipate it.

Q. You had no anticipation of any trouble on your road?

A. There had been some talk in regard to the train men's union, that it
was for the purpose of getting up a strike. But many of our men, I
understood, were withdrawing from it, and would not lend themselves to
anything of the kind. For that reason I did not anticipate any trouble
among our men.

Q. Do you know whether there was any aid asked of or any consultation
held with the authorities before the strike came about?

A. I cannot answer that. I was not in the city that day.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How did the business that the road was doing for three months prior
to June 1st, when the reduction was made in wages, compare with the
same three months of the year before?

A. My recollection is that our average may have been a little heavier,
but I am not positive about that.

Q. In the three months preceding June, 1877.

A. Yes; our business is spasmodic. It is the oil business. A part of
the year they are doing a good business, and then it drops off to
nothing.

Q. How did the prices for the carrying of freight compare in 1877 with
those in 1876?

A. I cannot answer that. I did not make the rates.

Q. Had there been any change in rates, so far as you know?

A. My impression is that the rates in 1877 were lower than in 1876. I
want to say here, that our shifting engines handling freight on the
street had been interfered with two or three times during Saturday
morning by the crowd going down Twenty-eighth street, and sent back. I
walked out the street, from Eleventh street to Forty-third--between
eleven and twelve o'clock. I saw that there was a very considerable
excitement among the people, and a good deal of feeling. From there I
went up on to Twenty-eighth street, where the strikers were in
possession of the track. I saw but very few people there that I knew.
Some faces were familiar to me. I came back to the office, and got a
report about the action of the men at the shop, and went out there at
half-past two o'clock, and on my return I walked up to the Pennsylvania
railroad shops, and found the troops were moving out. I went in through
the yard, and followed in the rear of the column. After the troops
reached the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street, I got up on a car right
in the rear of them, and I watched their movements--the formation of
the command. The crossings were cleared. I saw a few stones thrown
among the crowd, and I saw a man with a cap on--saw him draw a pistol,
and fire into the troops.

Q. Do you know who it was?

A. No.

Q. Do you know whether he was a railroad man or not?

A. I cannot answer that. When the company struck the crowd on the
crossing there was a recoil like jumping up against a rock. There did
not appear to be any give to it. Then there was a struggle, and some of
the men reached for the muskets, and two or three of the soldiers
pulled back and brought their muskets to a charge, and three or four
shots were fired.

Q. By the troops?

A. Yes; and then there appeared to be a volley from the entire
command--a rattling fire--starting at the front rank and breaking back
to the rear.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What do you mean by the entire command?

A. The head commenced firing, and then it run back on the wings. It was
an irregular roll of musketry. I got off the car, and fell back after
the firing ceased. My position was somewhat exposed.

Q. Did you hear any command to fire?

A. I do not think there was any command given.

Q. You were in a position to hear it?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many shots were fired by the crowd before the militia began to
fire?

A. I only saw one. I saw some stones thrown.

Q. Was a volley of stones thrown in among the militia, or was it
scattering?

A. Scattering.

Q. From what point were the stones thrown?

A. They appeared to come from the hill side--in the vicinity of the
watch-box, near the crossing.

Q. What was the effect of the firing of the stones among the
militia--was there any damage done to life or limb?

A. I noticed a sergeant of one of the Philadelphia companies with a bad
cut on the face. He came back with his face shattered. The thing came
very quick.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you hear any command to cease firing?

A. I did not. I went to the rear of the cars I was standing on, and the
soldiers were breaking back in my direction, and I did not notice what
was going on in front after that. There was just one volley. The
soldiers just emptied their muskets.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What was the result of the volley?

A. A panic on the hill side--every person ran from the hill side and
the crossing.

Q. It dispersed the crowd, did it?

A. Yes.

Q. In what direction did they retire?

A. In all directions.

Q. What became of the soldier's then?

A. I left the crossing, and went from there to the telegraph office,
and wrote some messages to the freight depot and shops, directing them
to put on a heavy guard during the night. While I was there Mr. Watt
came in, and told me that the mob had started for the arsenal. I
telegraphed to the commandant to take care of our shops, and advised
him to be on his guard. The message was delivered within five or ten
minutes after it was sent.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Was any actual violence used by the strikers to prevent the trains
running on your road?

A. Our men were threatened.

Q. But there was no actual violence?

A. No.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. When you were running that engine yourself, what was the mob
composed of--men that had been in your employ, or in the employ of the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, or tramps? Describe the crowd?

A. They were strangers to me. I do not know them.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. I understood you to say that application was made to the civil
authorities. What do you mean by that?

A. I did not say that application had been made to the civil
authorities.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. If you were present when the first firing occurred, I wish you would
give us a description of it--what it was started by, and what the
condition of the crowd was at that time?

A. I was at the corner of Penn and Twelfth streets when the alarm was
struck, 10.40 o'clock by city time, or a few minutes later. I saw a
flash in the sky and heard the alarm, and hurried on up Penn street. I
knew what it meant. There were some oil cars stored in the Pennsylvania
yard at the time, and I saw it was the flash of an oil fire. I think
about Twentieth street the fire commenced. I then went about a square,
and I heard a torpedo explode, and I got to the next corner and saw the
fire on Penn street, and on the side street.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. A railroad torpedo, you mean?

A. Yes; it made a noise similar to that. The engines were driving fast
at the time. I went to the vicinity of the coke yards, and remained
there until half past two or three o'clock in the morning.

Q. Did you go with the engines during this time?

A. No, I was walking. When I got up there, they were dropping the cars
down to the cars that had already been set on fire--quite a crowd was
around. The burning of the cars appeared to have commenced. People were
passing with their arms full of dry goods and things of that kind. As
fast as the cars were dropped down, they were set fire to. Every few
minutes there would be a panic among them, and they would flee like
wolves or sheep, but seeing that there was no danger, they would come
back again. I remained there until three o'clock, and then walked to
the shops to see if everything was quiet there. After I got there, I
got a message from Colonel McKee, of the Oil City command, stating that
he was on his way, but had no ammunition. I telegraphed to General
Latta, and asked him where it could be got at some point on the road,
before reaching the city. I did not get any answer. The wires were
interrupted between the city and our place, and at four and a half
o'clock, I started down to Union depot, to hunt up General Latta.

Q. On Sunday morning?

A. Yes, sir; I met a great many people coming from the vicinity of the
Pennsylvania yards, all having more or less plunder. A great many of
them were in liquor. I got to Union depot, I believe, at six and a half
o'clock. I went up to General Latta, after getting to Union depot, and
he told me he had some ammunition, and would give me some after a bit,
for Colonel McKee's command. He appeared to be very much exercised over
the condition of the troops at the round-house at that time. A short
time after, Captain Breck came in and reported that General Brinton had
broken cover and started for the country. I think he told General Latta
and one or two others sitting in the hotel at the time. The general and
the captain went up stairs, and after that I did not see them. I
remained in the vicinity of our shops and the Union depot until twelve
o'clock Sunday, and then went up among the mob. I went to see what the
character of the crowd was, and to see if I knew any of them. There
appeared to me to be about seventy-five or one hundred and fifty men
that were organized. One man, particularly, I noticed with black
whiskers with a stick in his hand that appeared to be the leader. They
would go on and destroy a lot of cars and then meet apparently to
consult. He would wave his stick, the mob would follow, and do as he
directed. I saw them setting fire to the cars there. Such a hard
looking set of people I never saw before. I did not recognize anybody
that I had ever seen. Quite a number of them appeared to be in liquor.
They had cleaned out everything down as far as what is called the
"brewery switches."

Q. About what street is that?

A. About Fifteenth or Sixteenth street. One of them got up on a car and
made a speech, and declared that, as near as I could judge from their
actions--I could not hear their words--that the Union depot would be
the next point affected. Two cars loaded with plunder were got into
position and set fire to, and shoved up over the hill and down to the
other cars on the other side. As fast as the gang appeared to make an
advance, the plunderers kept ahead of them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did these men appear to be railroad men?

A. No, sir; they were not railroad men. They looked to me like roughs
of the lowest description. They had the vilest countenances I ever saw.
One man, I noticed, was so intoxicated that he could hardly stand on
his legs, but he would go in among the cars and do what a sober man
could not do.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you make any effort to find out who the black-whiskered man was?

A. I recognized him as the leader of the party, and I would know his
face again. If I should ever see him, I would recognize him. They
appeared determined to drop the burning cars into the depot, and I went
down and threw an engine off the track, and blocked the track so that
they could not do that. A great many people were around at the time,
and it was thought that by the time they reached the depot they would
not have the courage to come in there. The police were there, and I did
not think that they would undertake to fire it.

Q. How many police were there at that time?

A. Fifteen or twenty. They retired right in front of the mob.

Q. When they reached Union depot, how many did the mob number, that
were actually engaged in the burning?

A. I cannot answer that. A great many people were around in the
vicinity, and in the streets, and on the hill side, and all around--a
great many people were there.

Q. You spoke of about seventy-five or a hundred?

A. They were followed by an army of plunderers. This gang appeared to
be the center, and as they went along, the plunderers demolished
everything that came in their way. After they found they could not drop
any cars into the depot they walked right into the office, at the north
end of the depot, and knocked the windows out, and presently there was
a flash there, and in a few minutes the shed was on fire. After the
depot was fired, I walked to Forty-third street to see how things were
going. I returned after the elevator took fire. I saw from that
position that it was on fire, and I commenced to have grave doubts
whether they could check it--whether they could prevent the lower end
of the town from burning.

Q. Did this gang of men fire property below the depot, or did that
catch from the depot?

A. I was not in the vicinity of the depot when the property on the
other side was fired, and I cannot answer that, nor when the elevator
was fired.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. When you came back did you see this same gang?

A. The crowd was scattered then. The elevator was on fire, and the Pan
Handle yards were on fire. I got word then that they were going to
attack our property, and I started right to the shops, and took an
engine and removed what property we had.

                     *      *      *      *      *

David Garrett, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the Twentieth ward of Pittsburgh.

Q. What is your occupation?

A. I am an assistant train master.

Q. Of the Pennsylvania railroad?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you occupy that position in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. State what knowledge you have as to any dissatisfaction among the
employés of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in regard to wages prior
to the 19th of July last?

A. I have no knowledge more than any person would have who has his
wages reduced. The men spoke about the reduction of their wages, that
it was a little hard. They talked to me about the order. I told them
that we were all in the same fix, and tried to point out to them that
the reduction was general--that the business of the company had become
reduced, and I supposed that they thought it was necessary to make a
reduction. Most of the men that I talked to on the subject seemed to be
satisfied. They didn't feel good about it, but they didn't say that
they would offer any resistance to a reduction, or that they would
strike, or anything of that sort.

Q. That was after the ten per cent. reduction?

A. Yes; they talked about it some. Of course we had heard about the
troubles on the Baltimore and Ohio, and had heard about the Trainmen's
Union, and also heard about men withdrawing from that, and also about
its being bursted up. What I think the cause of the trouble was the
very light business that was doing. Then in June, when the reduction
was made, we found we had a large surplus of men, and we reduced the
force to suit about the volume of business doing then. In doing that,
we had regard to the condition of the men. Those who were married we
tried to retain, and those who had been a long time in the service we
tried to retain, and occasionally if we had a man who could get along
at something else, or who was in particularly good circumstances, we
would discharge him, in order to keep some man who was not so well
favored. That threw some men out of employment. Then on the 16th of
July--that was the morning on which the new arrangement was to go into
effect--the running of double-headers. That is, instead of taking two
trains from Pittsburgh to Derry, with seventeen cars, we would run one
train with thirty-four cars.

Q. Was the order issued on the 16th?

A. It was to take effect on the 19th. The order had been issued some
time previously, and posted on the bulletin boards where the men could
see it. When this order was posted up, the men would come, and I saw
them looking at the bulletin boards. No one expressed any
dissatisfaction. There had been some talk among the men that it would
dispense with the services of quite a number, which, of course, we
admitted it would, and the more so, from the fact that while formerly
we were running men from Conemaugh, the company found it inconvenient
to run trains to Conemaugh, and were making Derry the dividing point.
We were running from Pittsburgh to Derry and back again. That would
give the smaller portion of the run to the men on this end of the road,
and, of course, a smaller number of men were required. But to fix that,
the day previous to the strike I went out to Derry, and there had a
consultation with Mr. Edward Pitcairn, who is the train master at
Derry. We saw the difficulty, and tried to provide for it, by taking
seven or eight crews, of four men to a crew, to run between Derry and
Altoona. As we were getting along with a less number of men, at the
other end they would require a greater number of men. That was on
Wednesday, the day preceding the riot. We had the thing all arranged,
as I thought. I came into Pittsburgh the next morning about nine
o'clock, when one of the dispatchers told me on my arrival, that one of
the trains had not gone out. I asked him the reason, and he said that
the brakemen had refused to go out on the train. I asked him the number
of men he had asked to go out, and he said quite a number--eighteen or
twenty, perhaps more. I told him I would go out and talk with the men
about the matter. I felt about that, that we had a large surplus of
men, and if only a portion of the men were insubordinate and refused to
run, it would relieve us from embarrassment. I had no idea that it
would extend beyond that. I went out and found eighteen or twenty men,
and asked them if they had any objections to go out. Some just declined
to go out on double trains, and others said nothing. Of the men
present, I couldn't get any to go. The conductors were willing to go. I
conferred then with Mr. McCabe, and he suggested that we should get
some of the yard men to man the trains. We called on several of them,
and finally got three to go as brakemen. Preparation was made to start
the train. I walked some distance in advance of the engine that was to
take the train, and met some men coming along that seemed to be
somewhat demonstrative, and among them one man very violent--one now
undergoing his trial. He remarked to me--I said something about the
switches--I cannot remember now what--and he remarked to me that no
trains would go out, or something to that effect. I asked why, and he
said that they had resolved not to let anything go out. I remonstrated
with him, and said: "Hice, you have a perfect right to refuse to go out
if you don't want to go out, but you have no right to interfere with
others." He said it had got to be a question of bread or blood, and
that they were going to resist. I left him, and then came to attend to
some other matter towards the switches. I heard something behind me and
turned around, and saw a considerable confusion. I saw links and pins
being hurled at these yard men on the train. I saw one of them struck.
I saw a link or pin falling from his person, and saw it hit him. I also
saw men going on the engine. I came forward then and found no person on
the engine at all, and found that the men we had expected to run the
train all driven away. I found that we were defeated in getting the
train out. It was not worth while to parley with the men at all. We had
no force at all--no police at all--or not very strong. I went to the
office of Mr. Watt, who was acting in the place of Mr. Pitcairn, who
was absent, and it was suggested that inasmuch as a large quantity of
live stock was at East Liberty, and it was important to get that away,
that I should go there and anticipate any power that might be coming
west, and put the cars away, and take the power and send the live stock
away from East Liberty. I immediately did that, and went there on the
first train I met. I went to Torrens, and at East Liberty I met a coal
train, and I stopped the train and went to the conductor and told him
what I wanted. I told him to put his cars in there and to take a train
of live stock from East Liberty. I didn't tell him anything about the
trouble in Pittsburgh. He went away and conferred with some person, and
then came and told me that he declined to do that. I left him go. I
then went to Torrens, not wishing to lose any time, and while there
received a message from the superintendent's office telling me that two
engines were on the way there and would soon arrive--two engines
westward. I then received another message to make haste, that Hice and
his crowd had started for Torrens to interfere with the live stock. I
made all the haste I could. I went down to Gray's switches, and there
waited the arrival of the two engines, took the cars from them, crossed
the engines coming west over to the other track, adjusted the switches,
and went on down. When I got down there, Hice and his party had just
arrived.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. How did they get there?

A. I don't know. The distance is not very great. I don't know what time
they started, and I don't know by what route. I rather think they
walked up the track to Torrens. At that time, when we got back, the
party was there and surrounding the engines. I got up on one of the
engines and asked the engine man what was wrong. He said he couldn't
take the stock. They said that their lives had been threatened if they
moved the stock. I telegraphed to Pittsburgh, stating the situation of
affairs, and that we couldn't do anything at all without we had more
protection, and Pittsburgh told me, after a bit, that more police were
coming--that there would be fifteen of them. They had made a
requisition, I understood, upon the mayor, and that fifteen police were
to come up. They were to come up on the Atlantic express, I think.
About the time the Atlantic express was due, I went out to where the
engines were standing, and backed up against the stock. I didn't tell
the crowd or any person that I had information of any assistance
coming, but I just remarked to them that we proposed now to commence
moving that stock, and that those who were in no way concerned with the
railroad, or who had no interest in the matter, except as
lookers-on--that I would take it as a favor if they would retire, and
give us room to work. There was a large crowd there. Just at that time,
this same man Hice called out, they are going to bring the militia--the
Duquesne Grays. He immediately called out and said, I want four good
men. They came up to him, and he said, I want you to go to Pittsburgh
and get out two thousand mill men. Four young men started--a couple of
them were, I think, our own men, and a couple were not in our service.
I can't say who they were. One little thing occurred before this
conversation with Hice--before the Atlantic express came. I had gone
some distance east to the telegraph office, and I found Hice there, and
I got into conversation again about it, and I told him: "Hice, be
careful not to do anything you will be sorry for." He said it is a
question of bread or blood, and said, if I go to the penitentiary I can
get bread and water, and that is about all I can get now. I saw it was
no use to talk to him, and I left him. When the express came along it
didn't have the force on that I expected. It had some men, but not
enough for the emergency. A great many men came up on the train. We
found that we couldn't move the stock. Mr. Watt had come up, and I
called his attention to the situation. I suggested that we should move
some of the stock by deceiving the men. That I would get two engines,
and say I couldn't move the stock, and I might as well go on back, and
that under pretense of shifting the stock on to the siding he should
get it past the crowd, and run it to some point on the road--to Spring
Hill, and that there I would take it with those two engines, and that,
in the meantime, if he couldn't do that, that I would couple to a train
of cars that had been brought from Wilkinsburg in the morning, and take
it as far as Spring Hill, and if the stock didn't come would take it on
through. After we started from Torrens with the engines, I told the
conductor and men what I wanted to do--to couple on to the train at
Wilkinsburg. The men seemed to have a little fear that the crowd would
overtake us before we could get the train out. However, I told them to
hurry up, and I succeeded in getting it out. We took it on as far as
Spring Hill, and, while the engines were taking fuel and water, I told
them to remain until I came back and gave a signal, and I walked on to
Walls to ascertain whether or not the stock was coming. When I got to
Walls I learned from Mr. Watt the stock was coming. I then went back,
and, when the stock arrived, coupled on, and sent it out. That was the
last train moved, and it was done by deceiving the men. I then returned
to Pittsburgh. It was pretty near night. I found the crowd at Torrens
was indignant at us deceiving them in moving the stock. Some of the
stock couldn't be moved, and had to be unloaded. I then came to
Pittsburgh, and I found that while I had been away that they had a
great deal of trouble in the Pittsburgh yard. But I don't know anything
that occurred in Pittsburgh that day from the time I left until six or
seven o'clock that night. But I remained there then all that night.

Q. As train master, tell us how the traffic on your road for the three
months prior to June 1, compared with the traffic during the same time
of the year previous?

A. I can give my impression, that it was very much below the
corresponding period of the year previous. My impression is, it was
below. Of course, in that, I may be mistaken.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You judge from the number of trains and the amount of stuff you
hauled?

A. Yes; our trade is peculiar. There are times when the through freight
may be heavy, but at points east of Pittsburgh, the coal and other
local business may be very light. We will start from Pittsburgh with an
unusually heavy business, but it won't aggregate nearly as much when it
arrives at Altoona, as on other occasions, when we start from
Pittsburgh with a comparatively light business. I was present at the
time of the firing of the troops, but about that, what I can say is
about what Mr. King has said.

Q. If you were present at that time, however, you may state what you
saw?

A. I was at Union depot when the troops arrived. I went to the outer
depot, two blocks west of Twenty-eighth street. We kept ourselves
advised by wire as to about the time the troops would move from Union
depot to Twenty-eighth street. We were expecting that they would clear
the track, and that then, if possible, we would get the trains started.
We had a crew in readiness to go just as soon as they got protection
enough to start. I remained on some gondolas there until the troops,
with the Gatling gun, passed along up the track. Then I followed up. I
didn't intend to go very close, but got much nearer than I had
intended, and so got near enough to see the movements of the troops. I
saw them form on Twenty-eighth street into what is called a square, and
saw the confusion that Mr. King spoke about. I heard the shots very
soon after that. I thought at first it was blank cartridges, but soon
learned such was not the case.

Q. Have you any idea as to how many were hurt?

A. Seven, eight, or ten--and some killed.

Q. You saw this yourself?

A. I didn't see any myself. I saw them carrying people away very soon
afterwards. I saw afterwards the man that Mr. King mentioned as having
been hit in the face by a stone before the firing. While I was in the
superintendent's office, after the firing, a report came that they were
going to attack the arsenal, and also the superintendent's office. I
afterwards went home and got my supper and returned. When returning,
the mass of people at Twenty-eighth street was enormous. They were
solid on both sides of the track. By the way, some soldiers were there,
enough to keep the men off the track. I had intended to go up and walk
to the superintendent's office, but found I couldn't do it with safety.
I thought they possibly might want me, and I intended to go. I went to
Union depot, and made an arrangement to get to the office. After that,
I learned that the military had charge of everything. I staid at Union
depot until ten o'clock, and left on the last train that went out. That
was on Saturday night. About three or four o'clock in the morning I was
awakened by a great deal of noise and hallowing, and saw a great many
roughs passing my place, and heard wagons passing.

Q. Did they seem to be coming in wagons from a distance?

A. Yes; various wagons went past my house. It was three or four o'clock
in the morning. It was getting daylight; and during all that day the
people were carrying plunder past our house; and those same wagons
returned during the afternoon loaded. I remained at home on Sunday, for
the reason that they said they were going to commence at East Liberty
and burn everything to Pittsburgh, and I thought that possibly my house
might be burned.

Q. If you had succeeded in starting a train from Pittsburgh, would it
have been able to get ten miles away.

A. All the trains that we started previous to, say, nine or nine and a
half o'clock on Thursday, went through--went through all right.

Q. What do you mean by through?

A. To the destination, wherever it was.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. During this time, before the military arrived, was there any
considerable effort made on the part of the police to protect you and
your men and property?

A. No, sir; nothing at all equal to the emergency.

Q. What number of policemen were there in force, at any time, to
protect you?

A. I cannot say that I ever saw a dozen. A small force of police were
brought to the outer depot on Thursday, but it was after I had gone to
Torrens, and I remained away the remainder of the day. It was after the
time that we were trying to get out another train, when the men refused
to let it go, and when Mr. Watt was struck.

Q. What were the police doing all this time?

A. I suppose the police were too weak in numbers.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. When you saw them they were inadequate to the emergency?

A. Yes; altogether.

Q. Up to Saturday night, any train that could have been started would
have gone through to its destination?

A. No; only on Thursday. After Thursday, I think, no freight train
could have gone through, because all the trains were stopped; and even
the passenger trains were stopped at East Liberty and Lawrenceville.

Q. From the information that the railroad authorities had, they could
not have run trains through to their destination?

A. I don't think so, after Thursday. The men allowed our trains to come
west, but as fast as they came west they prevented them from going
east.

Adjourned until Monday morning, at ten o'clock.


    PITTSBURGH, MONDAY, _February 11, 1878, 10 o'clock_, A.M.
    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM.

Pursuant to adjournment the committee re-assembled at ten o'clock,
A.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Charles McGovern, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. On Boyd street, in the Sixth ward, Pittsburgh.

Q. Were you on the police force of the city of Pittsburgh, in last
July?

A. I was.

Q. In what capacity?

A. I was a detective.

Q. Were you in the city on the 19th day of July?

A. I was. That was Thursday.

Q. Were you employed by the mayor as a special detective?

A. I was serving under his administration.

Q. Had you any communication with the mayor on that day with reference
to the disturbance of the peace?

A. I had.

Q. State what it was?

A. A little after eleven o'clock on Thursday, the 19th day of July, Mr.
Watt came to the mayor's office and had a conversation with the mayor,
and after he was through the mayor called me in. It was my week in the
office. We took our turns in the office. He instructed me to gather
what men I could find and go out to Twenty-eighth street--that there
was some trouble with the railroad employés out there on account of a
strike. The week before that our police force had been reduced from two
hundred and thirty-six men to one hundred and twenty, I think. That
left us without any men in the day time at all, except six men that
were employed in the office as detectives, and one man on Fifth street,
and two specials, I believe; but on this day it happened that the men
that had been dropped from the rolls were in the City hall for the
purpose of getting their money. I told the mayor that I could not get a
sufficient number of men to go out there to amount to anything, if
there was any serious trouble, but that a number of these men were
there, and that I could raise a squad from them if necessary. So
failing to find the necessary number of our men--who were in bed at
this time because they were on duty at night--I gathered ten men
belonging to the force that had been dropped, and started out to the
Union depot. Mr. Watt met us there and took us out to the crossing at
Twenty-eighth street. He had some two or three of his own men there.
When I got out there he told me what we were brought there for--that
there was a strike in progress, and he anticipated some trouble with
the employés--that is they would likely resist the running of trains.
We were moved out to Twenty-eighth street, and at Twenty-eighth street,
or a little this side of the street--that is, west--there is a switch.
He told me he was going to move the trains, and I sent the men to
protect those switches, and to see they were not interfered with by the
strikers. I divided the men into two squads, and sent one squad to the
western switch and took charge of the other myself.

Q. How many men were there in a squad?

A. Five; I had ten men and myself. Quite a number of the people there
were boys, and there didn't appear to be much excitement just then.

Q. What time was that?

A. A little before twelve o'clock.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What were they, railroad men?

A. Yes; a number of them. Some I knew.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Could you mention their names?

A. One I recollect now. I knew him to be a railroad man. I had a
conversation with him. It was Samuel Muckle. I talked with him. The
leading men of them seemed to be disposed to keep the peace. They
didn't want any trouble with the police. We didn't anticipate much
trouble then.

Q. How many were there?

A. One hundred were there, but a number of those were spectators, who
had just come from curiosity.

Q. How many were engaged in the strike?

A. I can only judge of the number actively engaged in the strike, from
the number of persons that interfered with the first arrest that we
made. That occurred when Mr. Watt attempted to open the switch to let
the train out. That is where the first trouble commenced. As soon as he
did that, a man named McCall, and another man named Davis, both of whom
have been tried in the courts since--they jumped on to the switch, and
one of them struck Mr. Watt. When I saw that, I was at the other
switch. I ran down, and after considerable trouble, we succeeded in
arresting McCall and in taking him down to the watch-house. Then
probably there were fifteen or twenty persons that appeared to take an
active part in preventing McCall from being arrested. They seemed to be
very anxious to have us let him go. There were a number of stones
thrown, and some of my officers were hit. I saw a number of stones
thrown, and it was principally the work of boys. The railroad men
wanted to persuade us to let him go, but we finally got him down to the
watch-house. He resisted very stoutly. None of the railroad men
attempted to use violence at that time.

Q. You placed him in the lock-up?

A. Yes; at the Twelfth ward station.

Q. How many of your men remained there on the ground?

A. After we locked him up we came right back there again.

Q. What occurred then?

A. Mr. Watt left then and went to get more men. Along about one
o'clock, I judge, there were some five or six men came, in charge of
officer White, of the mayor's force, and went on out to East Liberty,
and my impression is that Mr. Watt went with them.

Q. How many men were with officer White?

A. Five or six men--also men dropped from the rolls. Then three or
four--probably more--there may have been ten--came to my assistance and
remained with me at the crossing.

Q. How long did you remain at the crossing?

A. Until about three o'clock. In the meantime there did not appear to
be any effort made on the part of the railroad authorities to move any
more trains after this assault at the switch, and my impression was at
the time that they had given the matter up just then. There seemed to
be a general disposition on the part of the railroad employés--the men
not on strike--to rest easy, as it were. They didn't want to work. I
heard the men talking with each other. They did not appear to make any
effort to work. Those not engaged in the strike actively--they seemed
to be in sympathy with those in the strike.

Q. What was the condition of the crowd there from one o'clock up to
three o'clock?

A. It kept on increasing.

Q. How was it as to being demonstrative or boisterous?

A. There was no trouble there after this assault on Mr. Watt, because
no effort was made on the part of the railroad officials to run out
trains.

Q. Where did you go when you left there?

A. I telegraphed to the chief, in town, from the Twelfth ward station,
that things were at a stand-still; that there was no attempt on the
part of the railroad men to run out trains, and that the men were still
stationed at the crossing, and he instructed me to place the men in
charge of officer Fowler, and to come in to the central office. I did
so after three o'clock.

Q. Did you go out again?

A. Not that afternoon.

Q. Did you receive any further instructions?

A. Not that day. The men remained there that day and night--all night.

Q. Were you present when Mr. Watt came to consult with the mayor?

A. I was in the office.

Q. Did you hear the conversation?

A. No.

Q. What did Mr. Watt tell you that time in the presence of the mayor?

A. I do not think the mayor was present at that time. It was in regard
to what I was going out there for. He told me a few of the men were on
a strike, and that they would probably undertake to interfere with the
running of the trains, but he did not anticipate any serious trouble.
He thought that a few men would be sufficient. He did not think it
would amount to anything, and said that the presence of a few men would
stop the whole thing. He looked on it very lightly at that time.

Q. After Mr. Watt went away it was that Mayor McCarthy gave you
instructions?

A. Yes.

Q. What did he tell you to do?

A. He told me to collect as many men as I could get.

Q. Of the force on duty?

A. There was no force on duty.

Q. From what source were you to collect them?

A. He told me to get as many men as I could get. He meant the office
men. But they were only on duty at night, and at this time none of them
were about except the chief of detectives, Mr. O'Mara, who was busy, I
believe. I so reported to the mayor. I told him I could get a number of
the men who were dropped from the rolls. He told me to go ahead and get
them.

Q. How many of those men were there then?

A. I suppose there may have been twenty or twenty-five.

Q. You selected ten of them?

A. I thought that would be a sufficient number on account of what Mr.
Watt had told me.

Q. You could have got more if you had wanted them?

A. Yes; I did get more afterwards. I think ten more came out. Of course
we could not get those men and bring them into service as our men in
actual service, because those men had been dropped from the rolls, and
it was only those willing to go on duty or not.

Q. But plenty of them were willing to go?

A. Yes; they showed a willingness to go.

Q. When you got to Twenty-eighth street, how many men were engaged
there then in preventing the trains from moving?

A. The first intimation I had of any men, who were going to prevent
trains from running, was when Mr. Watt was assaulted, and then I should
judge that those men actively engaged, numbered, probably, ten or
fifteen--that seemed to be the leaders.

Q. When you undertook to arrest McCall, how many men took his part?

A. I suppose ten or fifteen of those men gathered around us, and wanted
us to let him go.

Q. Did you arrest all of those who undertook to take McCall's part?

A. They did not use any violence at all. McCall appealed to them, and
asked them not to allow him to be arrested, that they were there for
the purpose of preventing the trains from running, and that they were
not surely going to allow him to go to the watch-house, but there was
not a man of them that attempted to interfere with the officers. The
only interference was some stones thrown from the hill-side around. I
saw some of them thrown, and most of them by boys.

Q. I understand, after you returned from the lock-up, you found the
crowd still assembled at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Yes.

Q. How large was it then?

A. It was increased then, I estimate, to about the number of two
hundred people, women, and children, and boys, and men.

Q. What were they doing at that time?

A. They were just standing around there chatting and talking among
themselves. The excitement was still increasing.

Q. No effort was made to start the trains from that time until three
o'clock?

A. When those men came from the office--the second force--Mr. Watt went
up to Torren's station. I believe there was no person there that
appeared to make any effort to do anything. Mr. Fox, the chief of the
Pennsylvania railroad police was there, and I was under his
instructions to do anything he wanted done. From that time, until I
left, no effort was made on their part to run out trains east. There
was an attempt made after I left to run trains out, but of course I did
not see that.

Q. Did you command the crowd to disperse?

A. We undertook to keep the crowd off the tracks, but our force was not
sufficient. As soon as we would get one track cleared, they would come
in on the other. It would have required at two or three o'clock--it
would have required a hundred men to clear the tracks, and do it
effectually, and I did not have the necessary force to do it with. They
appeared to loiter around there talking, and the crowd kept on
increasing.

Q. Did you get any further instructions after you returned to the city
and reported to the chief of police?

A. I got no further instructions, I remember, from the chief; he
instructed me to turn the force over to officer Fowler, and report at
the city hall.

Q. Do you know, of your own knowledge, what were the movements of the
police force there during the balance of the day?

A. During the balance of the day the force was increased to, I think,
at Twenty-eighth street, thirty men--twenty-five or thirty men--during
the evening. They remained on duty all night.

Q. Was there any effort made to run out trains during the afternoon of
Thursday?

A. I believe there was.

Q. Were you not on an engine, and were you not driven off?

A. I was not; the officers can be got here that went on that engine.

Q. Will you tell us who they were?

A. Officer Saul Coulston and officer Robert Fowler.

Q. Did you have any further connection with the movements of the
police?

A. Not in the capacity of commander or leader.

Q. Were you present at any of the disturbances after that?

A. I went through it all, backward and forward, around the city, in the
capacity of an officer.

Q. Were the police, to your knowledge, reinforced in the morning of the
20th--Friday morning.

A. No, sir; the police force was not reinforced until Tuesday
morning--the following Tuesday--that is, were not organized. Then the
regular force was filled up and organized by the committee of safety.
But a number of the men who were called on on Monday and Sunday
responded. But the regular organization did not take place until
Tuesday.

Q. They responded whenever the calls were made?

A. A number of them responded on Sunday, after the fire was going on.

Q. Was there any difficulty, so far as you know, in reinforcing the
police force?

A. I know, from my own experience, that there was considerable
difficulty in bringing the men dropped from the rolls when there was no
trouble,--in bringing them to the front after the trouble commenced. A
great many of them objected to going on duty.

Q. Why?

A. I suppose they looked on it in this way. I inferred this from the
tone of their conversation--that they were discharged--that the
councils had thought proper to dispense with their services when there
was no trouble, and that, when they were in trouble they did not
propose to put their heads into the halter. I know one of them left my
squad--or two of them. One of them did not reflect that he might be
taken to where he would get hurt or get hit with a stone. He left and
the other left.

Q. What reason did he give?

A. He simply left.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. These men were not organized at all?

A. They had been dropped from the rolls the week previous. They were
not bound in any way to the city.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did not a demand have to be made on them?

A. No, sir; I simply told them. Those that wanted to go, fell into
line, and marched out as volunteers.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. They could leave as soon as they wanted?

A. Yes; the same as any other citizens. They were not under pay--not
under pay at all.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you not have the right from the mayor to demand them to go with
you?

A. I did not know I had a right any more than I could command you to
assist me.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you get such instructions from the mayor?

A. At the time we went out we did not expect any such trouble.

Q. But did the mayor give you instructions to demand them to go with
you?

A. He did not think of it, and I did not either. I thought that the
presence, as Mr. Watt told me--that the presence of five or six men
would have the desired effect.

Q. Did you make any report to the mayor, during the afternoon?

A. I reported to the chief of police.

Q. That is the only report you made?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Who was he?

A. Philip Demmel.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you know of an order, given by the mayor to his officers, to
compel men to serve on the police force, during those troubles?

A. I do not know of any order of that kind. I know of orders given by
the mayor to summon all the men that had been dropped from the rolls,
and to get them organized with the men we had, and go on duty. A number
of them responded. That was on Sunday.

Q. What do you mean by summoned?

A. Just notified them.

Q. Compelling them to serve?

A. I did not understand it as compulsory at all. I did not think it
was.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. It was simply a call for volunteers to go out?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Did you state to them anything about their pay--as to how they would
be paid?

A. I do not know as I stated anything to them probably the first day,
but the understanding was after they got out there that Mr. Watt was
responsible for the pay of these men.

Q. The mayor did not make any call on the night police to go out there
at all on Thursday?

A. Not on Thursday. The night men were not there.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. There was no effort made, that you know of, to get the night men out
there?

A. There was no apparent necessity at that time. The night force went
on duty on Friday night, and they remained on duty in and around the
city hall until the trouble was all over.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What do you mean by that?

A. Going out in squads from the city hall wherever they were required
to go.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did they serve during the day on Friday?

A. I do not recollect that they did. I cannot say that.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did they serve during the day Saturday?

A. I think they were on duty from Friday night until the trouble was
all over. That is my impression. I cannot be positive, however.

Q. The night force numbered one hundred and twenty?

A. One hundred and sixteen men we had left for the whole city.

Q. Were any of that number detailed to go to the depot or to that
section of the city?

A. On Thursday?

Q. Yes; or on Friday or on Saturday?

A. The men were on duty continually Friday, and on Saturday all the men
were out.

Q. Where?

A. In the neighborhood of Twenty-eighth street, and along where the
trouble was.

Q. How many were at Twenty-eighth street on Saturday?

A. I cannot say.

Q. How many on Friday?

A. That I cannot say. I suppose the chief would know.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You were on duty that day?

A. I was on duty continuously from that time until the trouble was
over.

Q. When you talked with those men, what reason did they give you. You
have said you talked with one?

A. They assigned as a reason for striking that it was on account of the
double-headers, slim pay, and so forth. That the men were starving, and
all that kind of thing, and that now they proposed to reduce the force,
and compel one crew to run two trains, and they did not propose to do
it. Various reasons were assigned.

Q. Did he express any intention to use violence?

A. He did not. He and a number of the others had considerable influence
over the men, and no violence was to be used at all. It seemed that the
men not in the strike were in sympathy with those that were, and that
no trains would be run out.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When was this?

A. It was after Mr. Watt was struck.

Q. Did he take any part with them?

A. No, sir.

Q. How many men were arrested in that crowd on Thursday in the vicinity
of the trouble?

A. McCall was the only one I arrested. I left about three o'clock.
While I was there no other act was committed by any person in the
party, and no effort was made by the railroad to run out trains, and we
were simply there under the instruction of the railroad men.

Q. You do not know of any others being arrested that day in that
vicinity?

A. I do not.

Q. Nor on Friday in that vicinity to your knowledge?

A. On Friday morning, I think, the military was out with the sheriff
and his posse.

Q. But answer my question?

A. No.

Q. On Saturday?

A. On Saturday, no, not on Saturday. The military were in charge of the
railroad property on Saturday.

Q. Did you or any other officer that you know of have a warrant in his
hands for the arrest of some ten or twelve men?

A. Yes; I had a warrant for the arrest of ten or twelve men that were
interfering with the railroad employés.

Q. You had the names of those parties?

A. Before the warrants were served they were re-called from me.

Q. By whom?

A. The information was taken away by the attorneys of the railroad
company.

Q. Did they recall them?

A. Yes.

Q. From you?

A. Not the warrants; but I was notified by the mayor that the
information was taken from the office, and that the matter was placed
in the hands of the sheriff.

Q. Did he instruct you to return the warrants?

A. The warrants were null and void then when the information was taken
away. The warrants were transferred to the sheriff.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did you hear anybody make any threats against the railroad officers?

A. Well, Davis jumped on the switch, and swore that no trains should go
out, that he would die in his tracks first. Those were the only threats
I heard on Thursday.

Q. Were those directed against the railroad officers or any of their
employés?

A. The threats were against the running out of the trains.

Q. Do you know anybody going to the officers of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, and advising them to leave the city for fear that
they would suffer violence?

A. Not to my own knowledge.

Q. You did not hear anybody make such threats?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When did you first get the warrants for the arrest of those
men--what day was it?

A. It seems to me the warrants were issued on Thursday afternoon or
Friday morning, but I am not positive about that. I can refer to the
warrants and see.

Q. How long did you hold them before you got notice that the
information was withdrawn.

A. I think the warrants were held by me--I am not positive about the
time that they were issued to me--but it seems to me that the warrants
were in my hands; just one day and night.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were not your instructions to quietly take those men?

A. My instructions were to quietly take those men up. They were my
instructions. At the time the warrants were issued there was
considerable excitement, and the instructions I got in relation to it
were that after the excitement allayed somewhat, the warrants could be
quietly served without bringing about a conflict, and owing to the
pretty slim police force, it was considered wise to wait until the
trouble would be over.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who gave you those instructions?

A. The mayor--the chief of detectives, I think it was. I do not say the
mayor, but one of my superior officers, I know it was.

Q. Who was the chief of detectives at that time?

A. Mr. O'Mara, I believe.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Your instructions were to wait until the excitement was allayed?

A. Yes.

Q. And not to go after your men that night after the men had retired to
their homes, and take them up quietly, and take them to the station
house?

A. My impression is, that the men did not retire to their homes on that
day or night; the crowd kept there all night, or staid around the
tracks at Twenty-eighth street, and also at Torrens station.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was any effort made by the police to disperse the crowd during the
night?

A. I was not there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Could you at any time have taken the men out of the crowd with your
force?

A. If they had resisted I could not, I know.

Q. Could you not have quietly slipped up and taken them?

A. Those men I had warrants for were employés of the road, and I did
not know anything about their being in any crowd, but it appears they
were active leaders. I did not know they were in any crowd, but owing
to the state of excitement at the time, it was considered advisable to
wait until the excitement was allayed before arresting those men.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who made the information against those men?

A. I think it was Mr. Watt. That is my impression. The information was
drawn by Messrs. Hampton and Dalzell, and sworn to by Mr. Watt.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Roger O'Mara, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. No. 267 Webster avenue.

Q. What was your business in July last?

A. I was chief of detectives of the city of Pittsburgh.

Q. Were you in the city on the 10th of July?

A. Yes.

Q. State what knowledge you have of any disturbance of the peace on
that day?

A. The first knowledge I had, Mr. Watt came to the mayor's office that
morning. I was in the office at the time. He stated that there was a
disturbance, that the men were on a strike, and he wanted to get some
officers to go out with him. Our force was reduced shortly before that,
and no men were on duty in the day time. We only had one hundred and
twenty men, and ten were lamp watchers, and ten were at the
station-houses. One hundred and one in all were left for police duty.

Q. State what occurred?

A. I asked Mr. Watt how many men he thought would do, and he said about
ten men. I had the men gathered up from those men who were dropped from
the rolls, and brought them in there, and told Officer Fowler to take
charge of them, and to go with Mr. Watt. I afterwards asked the mayor,
and he told me that Mr. McGovern should be placed in charge. I then
sent him on up.

Q. Did you have any difficulty in getting the men you wanted?

A. I gathered them in about five minutes. I just asked for ten, and got
them.

Q. Plenty of others were willing to go?

A. I suppose so.

Q. Was anything said between Mr. Watt and the mayor about the pay of
the men?

A. Mr. Watt told me he would pay the men.

Q. Who introduced that subject of pay?

A. I do not know. I told him these men are not on the force, but we
could gather them up if he agreed to pay them.

Q. They went then?

A. Yes; in charge of McGovern.

Q. State what occurred from the time that they went away--whether any
report was made to you or not?

A. I understood about the trouble. McGovern told me about arresting
this party after he came back.

Q. Was any report made to you of what occurred?

A. I had a conversation with him after he came back.

Q. At what time?

A. About four o'clock on Thursday.

Q. What did he state to you when he came back?

A. He told me he had arrested that party--that Mr. Watt went to turn
the switch, and somebody hit him, and he arrested him, and put him in
the Twelfth ward station-house. Information was afterwards made against
some ten parties.

Q. What time was that?

A. I think on Thursday afternoon, after this arrest.

Q. You say against some ten parties?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. In whose hands were the warrants placed?

A. They were given to me first. A lawyer in Mr. Hampton's office was
here. He had them drawn up. I gave the warrants to McGovern. On account
of the excitement we proposed to locate the parties in their houses,
and to get them there. But the next morning a young man in Hampton's
office came in and told me not to make the arrests until further
orders. I thought then that the men were going to work, perhaps. I then
told McGovern not to make the arrests.

Q. Do you state you told McGovern not to arrest the men, but to get
them at their houses?

A. Yes.

Q. How many policemen do you think you could have gathered up that
afternoon for duty?

A. I have no idea how many. A good many of them were about there just
at the time that Mr. Watt came in and said he wanted some. We might
have gotten thirty then. More went out afterwards.

Q. Who sent them out?

A. I do not know. But I understood, however, more men were wanted, and
they were sent out.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. These men that were picked up--these men that had been dropped from
the rolls, did they go out on the ground in uniform, or did they go out
in citizen's dress?

A. I guess some in uniform and some in citizen's dress. I cannot say
whether they were in uniform or not.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were they armed as usual with maces?

A. I cannot say that.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Usually when you send out a squad, don't you arm them with maces?

A. Yes; but these men were not on the rolls, and I just gathered them
up, and sent them out as quickly as possible.

Q. If not armed, they would not have been of much use?

A. No; not of much use, if there was much disturbance, without arms.

Q. You do not know whether they were armed or not?

A. I do not, because I did not go out with them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was there any call made on the night force for it?

A. I do not think there was that night.

Q. They were on duty regularly on Thursday evening, I suppose?

A. Throughout the city, yes.

Q. The one hundred and one men were on service throughout the city
proper?

A. On Thursday night, yes.

Q. None of them went to the scene of this disturbance?

A. Not to my knowledge, except the men on in that district.

Q. How many men were regularly stationed in that district?

A. I suppose about ten men were on in that district--the third
district--from the Union depot to Twenty-eighth street. The lieutenant
in charge of the district may have had his men there.

Q. Who had charge of that district?

A. Henry Coates, I think. I think he had charge of it.

Q. Were any of them sent out there on Friday morning--any of the night
force?

A. I do not think they were, to my knowledge.

Q. Or during the day Friday, at any time?

A. I do not know that they were.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Were you at the scene of the disturbance at any time during the
trouble?

A. I was out there on Sunday morning early, along the line on Liberty
street. There was a good deal of trouble about the city, and we were
gathering the police in and sending them out throughout the city. We
were afraid that the mob would break into the gun shops. The excitement
was so great that I thought they might attempt to break into places,
and so I gathered the men up and sent them to different places.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. If the mayor had made a call for policemen on Thursday afternoon,
how many men could he have raised?

A. I do not know. I have no idea.

Q. Would there have been any difficulty in raising any number of
policemen, do you think?

A. There might have been some. That call was made through the Sunday
papers, and a good many responded.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. How many officers and men does the night force consist of?

A. The whole force was one hundred and twenty men--nine of them
were engaged in the station-houses, and ten of them watched
lamps--patrolmen, detectives, and all. That was for the whole city.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many men were discharged from the day force?

A. One hundred and sixteen men were discharged. Our whole force
consisted of two hundred and thirty-six men, all told. The
appropriation ran out, and we had to knock the men off.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What reason was given by the officer for not serving the warrants?
He had them one night, had he not?

A. We did not get the houses all located. It seems they were out that
night, and we could not get them served, and the next morning we were
ordered not to serve them. The case was put into the hands of the
sheriff on Friday, I think.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. While you had those warrants for the arrest of those ten men, could
you not have arrested them?

A. I do not think, with the few men we could have got, that we could
have arrested them out there, on account of those men out there. It
might have made the thing worse if we had attempted to arrest them on
the ground. I thought it was better to arrest them away from there.

Q. Did you attempt to locate them at their homes that night--you did
not go to their homes?

A. No; we did not go to their homes, but we got information from the
parties who made the information.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you have any arrangement to watch those men?

A. From all accounts, the men seemed to be in the crowd. We had no one
watching their houses that night, because we did not find out that
night were they all lived.

Q. Did you not have men to watch these men or follow them around?

A. No, sir; not to my knowledge.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Didn't you see some of these men out there on Friday?

A. I did not. I was not out there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. How did you expect to know that these men went to their homes, if
you did not follow them or have them watched?

A. The warrants were withdrawn before we located the men.

Q. What efforts were you making to locate them?

A. We were making inquiries from parties who knew them.

Q. Were you trying all the time to find out where they were?

A. We asked the parties who made the information. We wanted to locate
them all, and to make the arrests. We did not expect to arrest them in
the crowd. We thought we could not do it there.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Did you have any spotters out in the crowd at all?

A. Several of the officers there saw the different parties, and what
they did. Or, if information was made against them, we had them
arrested and tried. Some of them are not tried yet. Any of the officers
who knew any men, or saw them do anything, afterwards made information
against them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. The officers reported to you, did they?

A. Some of them.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You being the chief of detectives, did you send any men out to spot
those parties?

A. No, sir; after Friday, the thing was taken out of our hands. If any
party gave information in regard to what was done, we would have them
arrested. The detectives were out. We made inquiries of people as to
what they saw other people do.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Was it not on Saturday morning that you considered the complaint
withdrawn upon which the warrants were based?

A. I think on Friday, it was, that I was notified to hold them until
further orders.

Q. Was it not on Saturday morning instead of on Friday morning?

A. My recollection is, that it was Friday.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were you present at any time during the destruction of the property
of the railroad company by fire?

A. I was along the line Sunday morning, in Liberty street. I drove
along with the mayor in a buggy. My mother and sister both lived back
of the Union depot, and they were burned out. I tried to help them get
their things away.

Q. During the fire, were you ever called on by the chief of the fire
department, or by anybody connected with the fire department, to
protect them in their attempts to put out the fire?

A. No, sir.

Q. Do you know of any other officer of the police force being called
upon to assist them?

A. No.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you take any measures to prevent this destruction?

A. We could not do anything after the first firing was done. With what
police force we had, we could do nothing at all. They commenced
breaking into houses, and gun stores, &c., and we tried to prevent them
from doing that.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you see them breaking into any gun stores?

A. Yes; on Penn street I saw a couple of men breaking into a pawn shop.
I heard of the mob coming, and I hurried up the officers, and placed
men in front of different gun stores, but on Wood street they got into
one in spite of the men. Before that, we had notified the different
parties to put their guns away, that the excitement was very great, and
that the soldiers had fired upon the men, and that they would be apt to
break into places to try to get arms. I notified the different parties
to put their goods away that the mob should not get them.

Q. Who composed that crowd--did you recognize any of them?

A. They seemed to be working men--men that came from the south side.
One squad that came from the south side--I saw them going down the
street--a couple of young men--the same that I saw marching down Penn
street. Some of them have been arrested since.

Q. You think the men were principally from the south side who broke
into the gun stores?

A. About the time that they broke into them, at different places, I had
squads of men. On Fifth street a couple of young men came down firing
off guns, and I went to the mayor's office for more men, and I was not
there two minutes when word came that Brown's gun store was broke into.
I then got some men and placed them in front of the door.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you succeed in keeping the crowd out then?

A. Yes; but it was not much good then, for the things were gone. They
had ransacked the place.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What time was that?

A. It was on Saturday night. It was just about dusk when this party
came down, and went in on Liberty street and on Penn street. I was
going up that way towards Twenty-eighth street, when I saw this mob
coming down. I followed on down to see what they proposed to do.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You had no men stationed about any of these gun stores before they
broke into them?

A. Yes, sir; at Brown's, on Wood street.

Q. Were they uniformed men?

A. Yes; on the regular city force. I sent them to the places where I
thought they were most needed, and I tried to prevent the mob from
getting fire-arms.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Charles McGovern, re-called.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were those men that you took to Twenty-eighth street dressed in
uniform?

A. No; just a few of them had vests on with uniform buttons on. And all
of them that had badges about them, I had them place them on their
coats in order to show that they were officers.

Q. Were there any that had neither vests nor badges among them?

A. I think there were. Some of them did not happen to have anything
with which to show that they were officers.

Q. Were they armed in any way?

A. No.

Q. They had no maces?

A. No; they were taken out in a hurry from the city hall--just taken
out on the spur of the moment.

Q. What time were those warrants placed in your hands for the arrest of
those parties?

A. My recollection of the warrants--I could very easily give you a
definite answer if I had time to go to the office and refer to my
memoranda. Then I could tell you. But I think it was Friday. That is my
impression. I think it was Friday morning or Thursday afternoon.

Q. How long did you keep them in your possession?

A. A day, I think, and a night. That is my impression.

Q. Did you make any effort to arrest the parties?

A. We were so busy on other matters that there was no effort made, any
more than to make inquiries and locating the parties. We did not
anticipate any trouble in getting them after the excitement was
somewhat allayed.

Q. Did you go to their houses during the time that you had the
warrants?

A. No.

Q. Did you try to spot the men among the crowd?

A. No; I cannot say that I did, because it was a secondary
consideration in regard to those men. The information was interfering
with railroad employés, and we considered it a light matter towards
what was going on at Twenty-eighth street--the riotous proceedings. We
were kept busy that day and night trying to keep order.

Q. Those men were all participating in the riot as leaders when you
first went out there?

A. I do not know that of my own knowledge, but I, of course, inferred
it from the fact of the information made against them.

Q. Did you know any of the ten or twelve men that stood around, trying
to prevent the arrest of McCall?

A. None of them tried to prevent the arrest of McCall. I knew some of
them by face and a few by name.

Q. Were any of those men's names included in those warrants?

A. I believe they were, but I did not have those warrants at the time.

Q. You did not get them until that evening or the next morning?

A. I think it was the next morning.

Q. Then you did not go up to arrest them when you got the warrants?

A. Not immediately. It was considered a matter of judgment at the
office by the mayor, and, of course, I was under his instructions.

Q. You followed the mayor's instructions?

A. Not specially his instructions, but chief O'Mara's instructions. I
considered it would be easier to serve them afterwards than at the
present time.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. When you summoned those men to go out, you did not provide them with
maces and equipments as you usually do?

A. The police force of this city provide everything for themselves. If
they want to carry a pistol, they must provide it. Our maces we buy,
and our clothes we buy. The city supplies nothing. At one time the city
supplied those things, but now we have got to supply all those things
ourselves. We did not think it would be necessary to have them armed at
that time.

Q. At the time of a row, if the men are armed, it is all right, and if
they are not armed, it is all right, too?

A. It was a sudden summons, and nobody understood the extent of it. Of
course, the gentleman who summoned us, said he did not anticipate any
serious trouble at all; that he thought that our official appearance
would be sufficient; that the presence of the officers there would be
all that was necessary.

Q. But you, as an officer, did not exactly believe in official
appearance, without something to knock down with in case of a row?

A. In case of a riot we ought to be provided with arms; but there was
no riot at that time, nor did we anticipate any.

    [A paper exhibited to witness.]

Q. State whether this is the information made upon which the warrants
were issued?

A. I never saw it.

Q. What did you do with the warrants?

A. They are still in the office.

Q. You returned them to the mayor?

A. No; they are still in the closet at the office. I think they are
there yet. I may have destroyed them.

Q. Do you know the date of the warrants?

A. I cannot remember the date. I told you I thought it was Thursday
evening or Friday; that would be the 19th or 20th.

                     *      *      *      *      *

John J. Davis, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. No. 114, Sixteenth street, on the south side.

Q. What was your business in July last?

A. I was clerk to the chief of police.

Q. Where were you on the 19th day of July--Thursday?

A. At the mayor's office, and at the railroad.

Q. State if you have any knowledge of the disturbances that occurred?

A. I was not at the railroad during the time of the disturbances.

Q. Did you receive information of them?

A. We got a second dispatch, or rather a young man came from the ticket
office asking for fifty men. I was present in the office at the time.

Q. What time did you receive that dispatch?

A. Between twelve and one o'clock.

Q. By whom was it signed?

A. I cannot say now. It was brought by a young man at the ticket
office?

Q. You mean the railroad ticket office?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Asking for fifty men?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. To whom was it addressed?

A. To the mayor. I started out and hunted up all the men I could find,
and during my progress I saw the mayor, and he gave me orders to hunt
up all the men I could, both the old men and the men that had been
dropped. I met him on Fifth avenue.

Q. Did you inform him of the dispatch?

A. I did, and he ordered me to hunt up all the men I could possibly
find.

Q. How many did you get?

A. In the neighborhood of twenty-five or twenty-eight that afternoon. I
can not say exactly.

Q. What did you do with them?

A. Some went out on a train, and some walked out. I went out with one
squad, with Mr. White. We saw Mr. Watt, and he suggested the sending of
the men to Torrens station, six or eight of them; the balance of them
stayed at Twenty-eighth street.

Q. What time did you meet the mayor on Fifth avenue?

A. I suppose five minutes after the dispatch came. I started out and
went down to the station-house to see if any officers were there, but I
found none there. I then went two squares, and on my way coming back, I
met the mayor on Fifth avenue. It was not over five or ten minutes.

Q. You informed him about the dispatch calling for fifty men?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Where was he during the rest of that afternoon?

A. As I stated before, I went to Twenty-eighth street, and stayed there
all that afternoon.

Q. Did you have any communication with him that afternoon?

A. No; everything was quiet at Twenty-eighth street that afternoon. My
instructions were to communicate if anything was wrong. I went to
Torrens station about four o'clock. Quite a crowd was there.

Q. What was the crowd doing?

A. They were watching to see if any trains would go out. It was
curiosity.

Q. How many were there?

A. One hundred or one hundred and fifty, while I was there.

Q. Of whom was this crowd composed?

A. Of laboring men, and railroad men, and business men, and women and
children.

Q. All mixed together?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Were the railroad men noisy and boisterous?

A. Not that I saw.

Q. Were they stopping the trains?

Q. The only one I saw stopped was at Twenty-eighth street.

Q. What time was that?

A. I heard the men saying it was three-forty, schedule time.

Q. They stopped it?

A. They started out, and three or four officers were put on the engine.
After they started, some parties got on the track and waved their
hands, and the engine stopped and the engineer jumped off. The officers
were still on the engine after the engineer got off.

Q. You simply called for volunteers when you went out to hunt up those
men?

A. Only one man refused to go.

Q. Was any demand made on the night force that afternoon?

A. The mayor instructed me to hunt up all the men I could find, both
the men on duty and the men dropped, and I did so.

Q. The men on regular duty went out, did they?

A. Those that I found. At that time we only had one hundred and twenty
men, including lamp-washers and station-house keepers.

Q. How many men did you get that afternoon on actual duty--the night
force?

A. To my best recollection, five or six, but I won't be positive. I
only sent in the bill for the men not on regular duty--twenty-nine the
company paid for--for those men on duty we sent in no bill at all. It
was only for the men not paid by the city.

Q. How long were those men on duty there?

A. Until morning. They reported at the office between seven and seven
and a half o'clock.

Q. Friday morning?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. All of them?

A. Some went home for breakfast.

Q. Were they sent on duty again?

A. They were sent out to the depot in the morning, but they came back
and said they were not wanted, that Officer Fox had all the men he
wanted.

Q. Who was he?

A. He has charge of the officers around the depot.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. He is an employé of the railroad?

A. I think so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did he tell you that he had all the men that they wanted?

A. The men I sent up to the depot reported that to me.

Q. Who reported that?

A. Officer William Johnson. Several of them, I think. Officer Crosby.
The men came back and they said that they were not wanted. He kept
three at the depot, M. A. Davis, Matthew Goddard, and Ernest Ehring.

Q. Where was the mayor during the night?

A. When I came back in the evening, about seven o'clock, I brought the
men to supper, and after they had supper, I sent them out again, and I
went to the office. I am not positive whether I saw the mayor there or
not. I am not positive about that. The next time I saw him, was in the
neighborhood of twelve o'clock, at the office.

Q. Thursday night?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Where did he remain during the balance of the night?

A. In the office. I stayed there also all night.

Q. Were you out during the night?

A. I went out and stayed until about ten o'clock, and then I came back.

Q. Did the mayor have any communication with the men out there during
the night?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Where was the chief of police during the night?

A. I cannot say that.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You say you sent the men back on Friday. Where did you instruct them
to go--to the Union depot or to Twenty-eighth street?

A. To the Union depot. I directed them to ask if they were wanted, and
they came back and said that they were told that they were not wanted;
that they had all the men they wanted.

Q. Do you know where the mayor was on Friday?

A. I cannot answer that, because I was at Twenty-eighth street, almost
all day on Friday. My instructions were to go there, and if I saw a
disturbance, to telegraph immediately to the city to the office.

Q. You did not see him on the ground at any time?

A. No--not on Thursday nor on Friday.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. While you were there, on Friday, did you see any effort made to take
possession of the tracks?

A. No; no effort was made at all.

Q. You saw no disturbance at all on Friday?

A. No.

Q. Or Saturday?

A. No disturbance, until after the trouble about the firing.

Q. Was any effort made during Friday to run out trains?

A. Not while I was there--not on Friday.

Q. The crowd was there?

A. Quite a crowd was gathered there. They appeared to be going and
coming all day.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You saw no effort made on Friday. How long were you there on Friday?

A. I suppose I was there three quarters of the day--walking all along,
and seeing what was going on.

Q. There might have been an effort made, and you not have seen it?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. It appeared to be an orderly assemblage?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What were they doing?

A. Standing together and chatting--talking.

Q. Standing there all day?

A. They appeared to be coming and going.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did the subject of conversation appear to be the stopping of the
trains?

A. I did not hear them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What were they there for?

A. For curiosity, I suppose.

Q. Where is this William Johnson that you spoke of?

A. He is on the police force now.

Q. What is Crosby's first name?

A. George.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Philip Demmel, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. No. 26 Twelfth street, in the south side.

Q. What was your business during last July?

A. I was chief of the police of Pittsburgh.

Q. State whether any knowledge was brought to you in regard to the
disturbance at Twenty-eighth street, on the 19th of July, and if so,
state what time it was.

A. I came to the office sometime after dinner, and went into the
mayor's office, and I was told that some of the railroad employés had
gone on a strike at about Twenty-eighth street, and that Mr. Watt had
sent for some policemen, and that about ten or a dozen had been sent
out in charge of Detective McGovern. A short time after a dispatch came
in signed by Mr. Watt, asking for fifty more men. I went on the street
myself then. Our police force, of course, was in bed. They did duty at
night. I went on the street, and saw a few of those discharged men, and
asked them to go. Some went and some did not. I did not hear anything
more of it until evening, when I came in from supper. They reported
then that one man had been arrested, and after that everything was
quiet. The men got their suppers, and we sent them out again. There
were only a few that would not go. In the morning they came back--those
who were on duty all night--and some of them said that the railroad
officers had got as many men as they thought sufficient, and that the
military was called out. It was thought at the mayor's office then that
the services of the police would not be needed any longer.

Q. That the services of the police would not be needed any longer, you
say?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Did the mayor say that?

A. I do not remember that the mayor said that, but----

Q. That was the decision you came to?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. After a consultation with the mayor, was it?

A. I cannot recollect any direct consultation with the mayor.


    By Mr. Reyburn:

Q. Was he there?

A. Yes, sir; but I am satisfied that he was of the same opinion.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did Officer McGovern report to the mayor during the afternoon?

A. I believe he came in before the rest came for supper, and reported
this disturbance--about a man being arrested for striking Mr. Watt, and
he then reported all quiet after that.

Q: Did he report to you by telegraph?

A. No; yes--I believe they did telegraph this arrest first from the
Twelfth ward station.

Q. You have arrangements at the station-house to receive reports from
all parts of the city, have you not?

A. From eight different parts of the city--yes, sir.

Q. From that portion of the city?

A. Yes, sir; there is a station-house within two blocks of
Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Did you receive any report from Officer McGovern during the
afternoon?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. What was the nature of it?

A. That all was quiet--that this man had been arrested for striking Mr.
Watt.

Q. Was there a dispatch sent you, or communicated to you from Mr. Watt
during the afternoon, that he wanted fifty more men?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. What time was that?

A. I do not remember--perhaps an hour after the first squad of police
went out.

Q. What did you do?

A. I stated that before. I went out on the street, and saw some of the
discharged men.

Q. Did you raise the fifty men you wanted?

A. No, sir; I did not raise twenty men. I did not raise seven men, no
more than that.

Q. Could you not have got fifty men at that time?

A. No.

Q. Did you make any call on the night force?

A. No.

Q. Did you make any call for police--any demand for a posse of police?

A. Of the regular force?

Q. Or any force?

A. I simply went on the street, and around Fifth avenue and Smithfield
street, and asked these men if they would go.

Q. Did you have any conversation with the mayor?

A. I think the mayor handed me this dispatch.

Q. Did he make any call for a posse of police?

A. No; no more than telling me to do as I did--to see if I could get
the men.

Q. Did he tell you how the men were to be paid?

A. I do not know. That was one objection with these men. They wanted to
know about their pay, and whether it was going to be a regular thing. I
could not satisfy them about that, and they did not care much about
going.

Q. You just went around and hunted up the men that would go voluntarily
of their own accord?

A. Yes; after getting this report from the Twelfth ward station-house.
We thought that fifty men would hardly be necessary anyhow; but we
could not have raised them if we had wanted them.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Could you not have got them if you had commanded them?

A. We could not command them any more than I could command you.

Q. Could not the mayor have commanded them?

A. He had no right to command them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. He did not tell you to command any men to serve.

A. No.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. What was the reason you could not get these men to go out?

A. Well, we had a reduction of our force a short time before, and some
of these men thought that they were not treated right, and when I asked
them to go out, they wanted to know if they would be placed on the
force permanently. Of course I could not satisfy them, and they did not
want to go.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. At any time you were there, did the firemen call on you to assist
them?

A. I saw the firemen only on Sunday, and it was understood then that
the mob would not allow them to put water on the property.

Q. Did they ask the police officers to help them?

A. I do not know that they did. I was out there with the mayor, and we
had too few men. The firemen would change their place time after time
as the fire came down. A man came and said that they wanted to throw
water on the fire, indicating a car burning, and the mayor said: "All
right, we will protect you." We immediately formed the men to protect
them, but afterwards they did not throw water on that fire at all.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where was the mayor during Thursday afternoon?

A. I saw him in the office, I think, once or twice.

Q. Where was he during Thursday night?

A. I think in the office.

Q. Did you receive any instructions from him during the night?

A. I went to him during Thursday night to place one of our lieutenants
in charge over the force at Twenty-eighth street--Lieutenant Coates. It
was his suggestion, I believe.

Q. At the mayor's suggestion?

A. Yes; or mine, and he agreed with it.

Q. What time was that?

A. About supper time.

Q. Where was he during the day Friday?

A. I remember seeing him in the office.

Q. Did you receive any instructions from him during the day in regard
to this disturbance at Twenty-eighth street?

A. No; there was no disturbance there during that day. There was a
crowd there, and the military were there.

Q. Where was the mayor during Friday night?

A. I cannot answer that.

Q. Where was he on Saturday?

A. On Saturday he was in the office. In and out as usual. At the time
we got the report of the firing he was in the office, I know, because
he sent for me and asked me to take a couple of men out Penn avenue,
and close all the saloons in the vicinity of this disturbance.

Q. What time was that?

A. I think along about four o'clock.

Q. Four o'clock on Saturday he asked you to take two men out and close
all the saloons in what district?

A. You mean what police district?

Q. Yes.

A. The third police district.

Q. Extending over how much space?

A. Over the city in the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street. We closed all
the saloons there from Thirtieth to Twenty-fourth street. We then came
in and sent another squad out to close the balance.

Q. How far?

A. Down to Eleventh street.

Q. Had you received any instructions from him during the day, (Saturday
before this,) in regard to the disturbance out there?

A. No.

Q. The saloons had been open out there until three or four o'clock on
Saturday?

A. Yes; they were open at the time we went there.

Q. What time did you arrive there?

A. I can't tell. It was immediately after hearing of the firing. We
walked up Liberty street as fast as we could.

Q. You went with the two men, and saw that your orders were executed?

A. We went in and asked these men, and told them it was the request of
the mayor to have them close their saloons.

Q. Did they comply?

A. Most generally.

Q. During the day, Sunday, did you receive any orders from the mayor?

A. No; except I was out with him at the scene of action in the
afternoon. The mayor was out there before daylight, and I was out there
myself. I came in about six or seven o'clock, and got my breakfast, and
went out at ten o'clock, and then I found the mayor there.

Q. Did you receive any orders during Sunday night from the mayor?

A. Nothing, except about handling the police, in trying to prevent the
mob getting into those stores.

Q. What did you do to prevent that?

A. They called some of the south side police over, and had them doing
duty around in places where they anticipated there might be a break
made, but there was considerable damage done before the police arrived.

Q. What damage was done before the police arrived?

A. A couple of stores were gutted, on Penn avenue and on Liberty
street.

Q. What kind of stores?

A. The one on Penn avenue was a pawnbroker's and the one on Liberty
street was a gun shop.

Q. Do you know who broke open the stores?

A. Since then I know of one party that was a leader in it. But I do not
know the others.

Q. Were any policemen in the vicinity at the time?

A. No; at that time there were no police on duty. They didn't go on
duty until eight o'clock.

Q. Were any policemen on duty throughout the city during the day,
Friday?

A. No.

Q. During the day, Saturday, throughout the city, I mean?

A. No.

Q. They were not on duty until eight o'clock, Saturday night?

A. No.

Q. Then these stores were broken open before eight o'clock?

A. Yes; that is, the first two.

Q. When there were no policemen on duty?

A. Yes.

Q. When did the mayor put on any day force, or was there any day force
on Sunday?

A. On Saturday night I put a notice, by the order of the mayor, into
two of the Sunday papers, to have all those ex-policemen report at
eleven o'clock on Sunday, but got very few reports.

Q. How many reports did you get?

A. I do not remember now--not probably over fifteen or twenty reported
in time.

Q. Were they placed on duty during Sunday?

A. Yes.

Q. Were there any policemen on duty throughout the city on Sunday?

A. Yes.

Q. How many?

A. Well, the third district had some of the south side police on duty
on Sunday night, in the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street, and the
police there I brought in on Sunday morning, and got their breakfasts,
and sent them out again. Some of them strayed off, of course.

Q. As chief of police, can you not give us the number of policemen on
duty during Sunday, in the whole city?

A. I do not think there were more than eighty. That is, we got more men
on as it grew later in the day.

Q. This notice you placed in the papers was merely a request for the
discharged police force to report at eleven o'clock?

A. Yes; I had the orders, and I think the mayor had consulted with the
committee of safety, or some one who assured him they would be
responsible for the pay of the police, and would see that the police
stayed on.

Q. What time did you get that notice into the papers?

A. It was given to the papers on Saturday night.

Q. Was it published in the evening editions?

A. It was published in the _Globe_ and _Leader_ of Sunday morning.

Q. By whom was the notice signed?

A. By myself.

Q. As chief of police?

A. Yes.

Q. You say you got very few reports?

A. Very few; that is, at eleven o'clock.

Q. During Sunday night how many police did you have on duty?

A. I had all the old force, and I expect, perhaps, about forty or fifty
of the discharged men.

Q. That would make about one hundred and forty or one hundred and fifty
men during Sunday night?

A. Yes.

Q. How many did you have on duty during the day--Monday?

A. Well, those policemen came reporting in one after another from
Sunday until Tuesday, and they never went off duty at anytime from
Sunday night, from the time they went on, until about Wednesday, I
guess.

Q. Where did the mayor spend the day--Sunday?

A. Along Liberty street, part of the day.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. About the scene of the riot?

A. Right there.

Q. What was he doing there?

A. All he could to prevent the depredations. He was with the police;
but we could not do anything. He went to Union depot and made a speech
to the mob; but that did not have any effect. They stoned him, and he
had to get out.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What time was that?

A. I do not have any distinct recollection of any time that day. It
was, perhaps, half an hour previous to the burning of Union depot.

Q. Was he out there on Sunday when the fire was going on?

A. Yes.

Q. The fire commenced out beyond Twenty-eighth street and worked down
this way?

A. Yes.

Q. How many men were engaged in burning cars, or in the actual
destruction of property there, during Sunday?

A. That is a hard matter for me to say. The track in some places--I
suppose there are three or four or five rows--and the freight cars were
packed in alongside of one another, and on the top of those cars and in
between them, there was a crowd of people all the time. Some of them
may not have had a hand in doing any damage, but I think that most
everybody that was on the track--of course there were some spectators
that didn't have any hand in it--but the majority of the people there
would break open a car or gut a car whenever they could. I could not
say how many, but a great many, three hundred or four hundred anyhow.

Q. Were those men armed? Had they weapons?

A. I didn't see any weapons except a few revolvers.

Q. As chief of police, I ask you if you do not think you could have
taken one hundred policemen, with their maces, or the weapons that they
usually carry, and have thrown them across the track there, and driven
back that crowd?

A. No.

Q. Why not?

A. Because the crowd was on all sides, and I would not know how to form
the men to do that to have a solid line. The crowd was along the track
and in between the cars as much as five hundred or six hundred yards at
a time, and they would come rushing in and yelling every way, from
below and above.

Q. I ask you if, in your judgment, you do not think that you could have
taken one hundred policemen and stationed them across the track in
front of Union depot, from the hill down to the block of buildings, and
have driven back the crowd as they came up?

A. If I had had one hundred men there that might have been
accomplished. I did try it with what men I had.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. How many men did you have?

A. Not more than fifteen or sixteen together at one time. The
policemen, of course, got around among the people, or the mob, and we
could not find them.

Q. It was not possible to keep them together?

A. I could not keep them together. In order to get at the men, the
policemen would have to divide, and it was such a big mob, we could not
keep them together.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Could you not have formed at some cross street, say Fifteenth or
Sixteenth street, and then have resisted the crowd and kept them back?

A. On the street?

Q. Yes?

A. Well, the crowd on the street was not so unruly as those on the
railroad.

Q. But Sixteenth street runs up to the railroad. Now, could you not
have formed the men at Sixteenth street and thrown them across the
railroad, with one wing running out towards the hill, and then have
kept the crowd back?

A. No; because you could not have got the mob together at any one
point--because the mob most all the time extended five hundred or six
hundred yards.

Q. To what point did the mob extend, coming towards the city?

A. Nearly into Union depot.

Q. Then could you not have formed at Union depot and kept them back?

A. It would have taken a great many more men than that.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was any effort made at all to get control of this crowd at any time
during the disturbance?

A. Yes.

Q. With your fifteen or sixteen men, you mean?

A. Sometimes we had twenty--all the men we had, or that could be got
together--perhaps, sometimes, twenty-five or thirty men. They would be
getting in among the mob and trying to drive them back.

Q. Had the police authorities no organization or no arrangement to keep
the crowd from coming, or did they allow people to come from all
directions when they knew a disturbance of this kind was going on--did
you have any organization at all?

A. Not a very good organization. The men went out there in the morning,
and they had been up all night, and they were tired, and it would have
been impossible to keep the crowd back. They flocked in from all parts
of the city, and from the country for miles around.


    By Mr. Englebert:

Q. In other words, you really had not any organization of the police
force?

A. When I went up there, our men were scattered. I took them on the
railroad several times, but was unable to do any good. I took them on
the railroad in a body, but they could not be kept there any time
without being separated.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was any effort made to make any arrests, during this disturbance, of
parties engaged in the riot?

A. On Sunday morning, we arrested about one hundred and thirty--that
was the beginning of the fire--when they began to pillage the freight
cars.

Q. Did you arrest any of the parties that were pillaging?

A. We arrested them coming away with goods.

Q. What did you do with them?

A. We brought them down in the morning, in the "black maria," to the
Central station, but Deputy Mayor Butler, I believe, discharged most of
them, and fined some of them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you know how many were fined?

A. I cannot tell. I did not stay to the hearing myself.

Q. What is Mr. Butler's first name?

A. Joseph.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Your people took these men up, going away with goods?

A. Yes. We put them in the Twelfth Ward station, and then put them in
the "black maria," and brought them to the Central station, and heard
them there. Mayor McCarthy was up all night, and he was tired, and he
deputized Deputy Mayor Butler to hear them.

Q. And he discharged them?

A. Yes; he discharged a good many of them.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Do you know whether those people were citizens of Pittsburgh, or
people that had just run in?

A. Some were citizens of Pittsburgh and some were strangers.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did the mayor or anybody else say to you, at any time, that it was
necessary for the railroad officials to get out of town--that their
lives were in jeopardy.

A. I never heard any such expression coming from the mayor.

Q. That it was necessary for the railroad officials to get out of
town--that their lives were in jeopardy? Was that said to you by the
mayor or by anybody else?

A. I am satisfied that I didn't hear any expression like that coming
from the mayor, but I heard talk like that on the street.

Q. From whom?

A. Most any of the crowd that would be congregated together would be
talking about this thing.

Q. Citizens of Pittsburgh?

A. Yes.

Q. Could you name any of them?

A. Not now. It was the general talk. General Pearson, I guess, was
named in such talk more often than the railroad officers.

Q. But you heard that talk about the railroad officials?

A. Yes; that it would not be safe for them to show up.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. One question about this plundering and thieving: Were those parties
discharged the same day that they were arrested--on Sunday?

A. The same day--Sunday.

Q. Then the arrests amounted virtually to nothing?

A. Yes; except in saving the property of the company, or whoever it
belonged to.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was the mayor present when you offered protection to the firemen, at
the fire engine, when they proposed to throw water on those burning
cars?

A. Yes; the mayor was present. One of the firemen asked him, if he
would protect them, and he said yes, and the fireman said, that is what
we want. Then they made the attachment, but did not throw any water
afterward on the fire.

Q. Did they make any proposal to the mayor, to take an active part
himself--to hold the nozzle?

A. No; I do not think they did.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Why did they not throw the water?

A. Because, I suppose, they were intimidated.

Q. But when you gave them the protection they asked, did they not make
an effort to throw the water?

A. No.

Q. Did the mob make a rush?

A. No; no more than following the engine.

Q. What reason did they give for not throwing the water?

A. I do not know.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who had charge of the engine at that point?

A. I do not know; I do not know what engine it was.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Did the firemen throw water on private property when it was burning?

A. All the time.

Q. But not on the railroad property?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you know who the man was who asked protection from the mayor?

A. I do not know.

Q. Did the mob interfere with private property at any time?

A. Not during that day. They did attempt to during that night and also
during Sunday night.

Q. What attempts were made on Sunday night?

A. The American house, I think, or some place near it, was gutted, but
by that time we had a pretty good force, and we went there and drove
them away and arrested some of them.

Q. Who had command there?

A. Lieutenant Coates.

Q. He had no trouble in beating the crowd away?

A. He had some trouble, but he did it.

Q. How many men had he?

A. I went there afterwards, and we had, I suppose, some forty men
there.

Q. After the railroad property was destroyed--by that time you had a
pretty good police force?

A. Yes; the men were reporting during the day.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. You stated you had sixteen policemen at Union depot?

A. I stated I had sixteen in line.

Q. Where were the balance of your police at that time?

A. They were scattered among the mob.

Q. The whole police of the city were there?

A. No, sir; all I could gather up at that time were there.

Q. Are you still the chief of police?

A. No, sir; there is another administration.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Have you a police commission or police committee, that have any
special duty in taking charge of the police or in regulating the
police?

A. No, sir; it is the mayor that has that power here.

Adjourned to meet at three o'clock, P.M.


    AFTERNOON SESSION.

    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _Monday, February 11, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at three o'clock,
P.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was--

                     *      *      *      *      *

Henry Metzgar, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the Eighth ward, Pittsburgh.

Q. What official position did you hold in the city last July?

A. I was the mayor's clerk.

Q. What knowledge had you on Thursday of any disturbance among the
railroad employés?

A. I think my first knowledge was on Wednesday, but to get at the data
I would request to send for the information made against Thomas McCall.

    [A paper exhibited to witness.]

Q. Is that a copy of the information?

A. Yes. On Thursday, the 19th, Mr. Watt came into the office, and asked
for a number of policemen. As to the exact number I don't know, I
didn't exactly hear the number, but I understood he wanted ten
policemen to go out on the Pennsylvania railroad. The mayor went out
with me to the chief of detectives, and they got a number of policemen,
and arranged them up in line, and I think I asked Mr. Watt how many he
wanted, and he said ten. One or more of them then stepped out of the
ranks. Ten policemen went out, I believe, to the railroad. About twelve
o'clock of that day we received a telegram, asking, I think, for fifty
policemen additional.

Q. From whom?

A. To the best of my recollection the telegram was from Mr. Watt. I
immediately went out and hunted some of the policemen who had been
discharged--I hunted them up, and several of the officers went out and
hunted them up. I notified a number myself to report at the office for
duty at the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's depot. How many reported I
don't know. It not being my special duty, I paid no attention to it.
But I know a number of them reported. Where they went to I don't know
personally. About four o'clock that evening, the mayor asked me if
there was any news from the Twelfth ward. I told him I could telegraph
to the Twelfth ward and see. We did so, and the report came from the
station that all was quiet.

Q. The Twelfth ward takes in this district at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Yes; the mayor then left the office to go to Castle Shannon where
his family is, as I believed, for the night. About that time--about
five o'clock, Mr. Watt came in and asked for from fifty to a hundred
additional policemen. I told him I didn't know where we could get
them--that all we had for effective duty was ninety men, and, in the
absence of the mayor, I couldn't take away the policemen from all
portions of the city, for the purpose of protecting the property of the
railroad company. Mr. Watt said to me, what will I do. I said, I don't
know--the only thing--if you have a fear of any danger to your
property--you had better call upon the sheriff, and the sheriff can
call a _posse comitatus_ to protect the property if there is any
danger. Mr. Watt said he would do so. That is the last I saw of him
until some time after the riot. No--the next morning--the morning of
the 20th--he came in, and made this information against Thomas McCall.
The mayor, at the time, said to him, that our police force was very
limited, and in making those arrests we would have to make quiet
arrests. The warrants were placed in the hands of the officers, for the
purpose of ascertaining where those parties lived, and to find out who
they were, and all about them. For the most part, they were strangers,
as far as we knew. Officer McGovern had the warrants. The next morning
Mr. Houseman, of the firm of Hampton & Dalzell, came into the office,
and asked me how many of the parties had been arrested. I told him I
didn't know that any were arrested. That the mayor's instructions were
to proceed quietly. He said, can you give me this information. I said,
no, it is part of the record, and cannot go out of our hands. He then
asked for the names of the parties against whom the information was
brought, and he copied the names, and as he was going out he said, I am
instructed by Mr. Hampton to tell you folks not to execute these
warrants. I said, very well--this is a matter entirely in your own
hands. I went out with him to the officer, and told the officer to
produce his warrants. He produced them, and I told him, you are
instructed by Mr. Hampton, through Mr. Houseman, not to execute them.
He said, that was all right. That is all I know, unless some special
question may arise.

Q. How many policemen had been discharged prior to Thursday?

A. One hundred and sixteen.

Q. How long had they been discharged before that?

A. They were discharged, I think, sometime about the latter part of
June, or may be the 1st of July. I am not certain as to the date.

Q. Had you any knowledge of any anticipated outbreak or strike by the
men before it was communicated to you by Mr. Watt?

A. Not the slightest. And at that time we had no idea there was going
to be any such trouble at all, as we have had sometimes in this city.

Q. You were present when Mr. Watt asked the mayor to furnish him with
the police?

A. I was in the office.

Q. You heard the mayor's reply?

A. He went out with Mr. Watt and instructed the chief of police to get
the men.

Q. Did Mr. Watt have to promise to pay the men before the mayor gave
that instruction?

A. I believe something was said about pay. These men, you see, were not
on the pay-rolls of the city. The regular men were in bed or scattered
all over the city. These men happened to be there that day, being paid
off.

Q. Did the mayor require Mr. Watt to become responsible for their pay?

A. I believe something was said about the railroad company--that it
would have to pay the men, as no provision was made by the city for
their pay. I think very few of these men were on the regular force.

Q. Did the mayor make that a condition before he instructed you to send
out for the men?

A. He never instructed me to send out for anybody.

Q. Who did he instruct?

A. Either the chief of detectives or the chief of police--I cannot
remember which.

Q. Did he make any order at that time, calling out policemen?

A. Not as I know of.

Q. These men went out as volunteers?

A. Yes; in that sense. They were men who had been discharged. They went
out under the control of Officer Charles McGovern.

Q. They volunteered to go?

A. We had no right to make a demand on them as a police force. They
were not in the employ of the city.

Q. When the telegram came to you calling for fifty policemen, what
effort did you make to get them?

A. We hunted them up as well as we could. A great many of these men
wouldn't go because they were incensed at the city for discharging
them, but a number of them did respond.

Q. You hunted up as many as you could get to go willingly?

A. Yes.

Q. How many?

A. About thirty-five. It not being my special business, I didn't pay
much attention to it.

Q. Did you notify the mayor of that call for fifty additional police?

A. Yes; he sent us out, and says, go hunt them up.

Q. How many did you get?

A. I think about thirty-five. I never burdened my mind specially with
that.

Q. Did you get another call from the railroad company?

A. I have no recollection of another call, except when Mr. Watt came
and said he wanted from fifty to one hundred men additional.

Q. Did you communicate that to the mayor?

A. I did when he came into the city, at eight o'clock on that evening.

Q. What evening?

A. Thursday evening.

Q. What did the mayor say?

A. He said he didn't know where he could get the policemen. Our
intention in calling the police was simply to protect property from
getting stolen.

Q. Did he make a demand upon the citizens of the city to join the
police force at any time?

A. We made a demand--certainly we did.

Q. When?

A. On Sunday night, for instance, when I made a call upon the citizens
to volunteer to protect the water works of the city.

Q. Had you made any demand prior to that Sunday night?

A. I cannot say. I know of that for a fact.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What demand?

A. He said, how many people will volunteer to protect the water-works
of the city, and I ask for volunteers. As I understood, they intended
to burn them down. Out of some two hundred men, four responded, I
think. He said he understood they were in danger.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. But he summoned no posse from the citizens of the city during the
riots, did he?

A. I don't know that he did.

Q. How many of those discharged policemen were at the city hall on
Thursday when those ten men went out?

A. I cannot say how many were there. They were in and out, being paid
off. I cannot say how many. Quite a number of them, I know.

Q. How many could you have got to go out there at that time, do you
think?

A. We got all we could.

Q. To go voluntarily?

A. Yes; I know, personally, I used every exertion I could, and I know
Mr. Davis was out hunting up men.

Q. Were you out there during the riots at any time?

A. I was out on Friday.

Q. At what point?

A. At Twenty-eighth street.

Q. How large a crowd was there?

A. At the time I was there I suppose probably a thousand people were
there.

Q. How many were engaged in the riotous proceedings?

A. None that I saw.

Q. What were they doing at that time?

A. They were assembled there listening to a speech made by Doctor
Donnelly, counseling moderation, and advising those not connected with
the railroad to go home and attend to their own business. Some other
speeches were made by one or two more.

Q. What was the effect of the speech upon the crowd?

A. I don't know that it had any effect. It had no special effect
particularly one way or another.

Q. Did they listen to it?

A. Yes.

Q. Did they make any response to it in any way?

A. Some response was made to Doctor Donnelly when he counseled those
having no business there to go home. Some of them made some remarks
from the outside of the crowd--that is enough now, you just stop there;
and things of that kind.

Q. What time did the mayor return from Castle Shannon?

A. Shortly after eight o'clock. It may have been eight and a half
o'clock.

Q. Where did he remain during the night?

A. In the office, I think.

Q. All night?

A. I can't say, for I didn't stay there.

Q. Where was the mayor Friday, during the day?

A. In and out the office all day, so far as I know. I know he was
there.

Q. Was any effort made to increase the police force on Friday?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Nor on Saturday?

A. No.

Q. When were the discharged men placed back on the police force?

A. They were not placed back on the police force until Monday. I think
Monday a number of them reported for duty. A committee of councils, or
councils held a session on Sunday morning; but there was so much
confusion that nothing was done. The police force was not replaced
until Monday or Tuesday; that is, the additional men.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Where is the mayor at the present time?

A. In Philadelphia, I believe. He has left a note that he would be home
to-morrow.

Q. What was said about these men being paid?

A. There was some conversation about the railroad company--that it
would have to pay these men, because the men were not on the pay-rolls
of the city at the time.

Q. Did the mayor make that inquiry of Mr. Watt, as to who would pay?

A. I know there was some conversation on that subject.

Q. Did or did not the mayor say to you that it was necessary for the
officers of the railroad to go out of town, that their lives were in
jeopardy?

A. No.

Q. Did anybody else say so?

A. No.

Q. Did you ever hear it said?

A. No; only after the riots. I understood they left town for fear of
that, and I was rather astonished to find that some of them had been
out of town.

Q. Did anybody there state to you that General Pearson had better go
out of town?

A. No.

Q. Did you know of his being out of town?

A. No.

Q. Did you know of any of those railroad officers being out of town?

A. No; only subsequently.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did any of the citizens call upon the mayor, requesting him to put
on an additional force?

A. Well, I guess--I do not know that. They did not up to Saturday
afternoon, until the time of this firing.

Q. Didn't they do it on Friday?

A. No.

Q. On Saturday?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Did they offer to become responsible for the payment of the
additional police?

A. When?

Q. Friday, Saturday, or Sunday?

A. I never heard of it at all. I never heard any such an offer made.
The committee of public safety afterwards agreed to pay a certain
number of men on the police force from that time until the end of the
year.

Q. When did they make that proposition?

A. I think Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday, but it was after all the
trouble had occurred, so far as I know anything of it.

Q. You know nothing of any such offer having been made on Friday,
Saturday, or Sunday?

A. No.

Q. Were you with the mayor during those days?

A. Off and on, Friday and Saturday. On Sunday I was at the central
station until twelve o'clock, noon. We had about one hundred and
twenty-five prisoners there Sunday morning, and it took all my
attention until noon that day to get through with the business.

Q. What were they arrested for?

A. For carrying away property, and stuff, and various things, and
disorderly conduct. One thing and another of that kind.

Q. For larceny and disorderly conduct?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Before whom were they taken?

A. Before Deputy Mayor Butler.

Q. What was done with those persons?

A. Some were fined, and some were held for court, and some were
discharged. A great many were discharged, as one of the officers came
down with the report that the jailor said that he could not hold them
or keep them.

Q. What persons were they who were arrested?

A. I cannot say. Most of those names are fictitious.

Q. Did you get their residences?

A. No; the residences were not taken.

Q. How many did you hold for court?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. Did you keep a record of it?

A. Yes; there is a record of it.

Q. Have you the record now in your office?

A. I do not know whether it is there now. I passed the record out of my
hands to the comptroller of the city.

Q. How many were fined?

A. Quite a number.

Q. Did they pay their fines?

A. Some of them did and some went to jail.

Q. How many went to jail?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. Can't you make an estimate?

A. I really could not, because you can imagine that morning I had not
much stomach for anything to keep facts and figures. It is just a
general idea. Everything was in such terrible confusion.

Q. How large were the fines?

A. From three to five dollars.

Q. You say you cannot tell who those men were, or where they resided?

A. No; they were people I never saw before.

Q. Those who were committed to jail. Did you ever ascertain afterward
who they were and where they came from?

A. I did not.

Q. Did you ever make any effort?

A. I never did. The police made efforts afterwards to try to ascertain,
I believe, who they were, but I do not know what they did, or whether
they did anything or not.

Q. Can't you tell something about what class of people they were from
their dress?

A. They all looked to be of the poorer class of people, but what they
were or who they were I cannot say.

Q. Can't you tell whether they were tramps or railroad men or people of
the poorer class?

A. Some were tramps--I know that. I have a recollection of that. I
don't think there were any railroad men. There may have been a few, but
a very few, though. They were generally of the poorer class of people,
picking up plunder.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were they Pittsburghers?

A. That I cannot say. I never saw them before, and have never seen them
since.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. When those policemen were sent out there, was there any arrangement
made by Mr. Watt, or any other person, to keep the time of the men
while in service?

A. I had nothing to do with that. That was a matter for the clerk of
the chief of police to attend to. I know that Mr. Watt, or somebody,
sent down a check to pay them.

Q. Have you any recollection of a party of eighty sent to the
work-house?

A. I remember a party of forty-six sent there. They came here from
Cumberland, and were arrested on the arrival of the train here.

Q. What train?

A. On the Connellsville railroad.

Q. Those were all sent up in a body?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. When was that?

A. On the 23d or 24th of July.

                     *      *      *      *      *

R. H. Fife, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you sheriff of Allegheny county last July?

A. Yes.

Q. How long have you been sheriff?

A. Two years the first Monday of last January.

Q. State what knowledge you have of the disturbance of the peace that
commenced on the 19th of July last?

A. On the 19th of July last I had been out of the city during a part of
that day, and came home late in the evening. I went to my house, and
remained there until sometime in the night. I had been sleeping, I
think. About eleven o'clock, between that and twelve o'clock----

Q. Thursday night?

A. Yes. Mr. Scott--that is Mr. John Scott--Mr. Watt, and another
gentleman--I do not recollect his name--came to the house. I came down
and admitted them into the parlor. They told me of the trouble they
had--that Mr. Watt had been assaulted, and that a large crowd was out
there. They wished me to go out and see what I could do. I told them I
would go, and I put my coat on, and called one of my deputies--Mr.
Haymaker--and we started down to Union depot. There we met General
Pearson, and he went with us out to one of the offices--I do not know
just what office--and then General Pearson and Mr. Watt--I think Mr.
Watt went along, or some other gentleman connected with the
railroad--and I went up to Twenty-eighth street.

Q. What time did you arrive at Twenty-eighth street?

A. It was after the middle of the night--between twelve and one
o'clock. There was a large crowd of rough people there. But probably I
am a little ahead of my story when I speak of Twenty-eighth street. On
my road up from the depot to Twenty-eighth street, the cars on the
siding there, and on the tracks that were not filled with merchandise,
appeared to be all filled with people. A number of them were in there
sleeping, and others were in there carousing. All the cars appeared to
be full. At Twenty-eighth street, I asked why that assemblage of people
were there, and they said they were on a strike, and that they proposed
to stop the freight trains from going out, and that they had stopped
them. I told them they were acting contrary to the law, and that they
must disperse. The reply was, "go to hell you gray-headed old son of a
bitch," that and other pet names of similar character. I then repeated
the order that they must disperse, and that if I had not the power to
do it, that I would have to try to get power sufficient to do it. They
then replied, that General Pearson and I both might go to hell, that
they had the mayor and his force on their side, and that Mr. T. C.
Jenkins had agreed to give them one thousand barrels of flour to stand
out, and that Mr. Alexander King had agreed to give them a thousand
dollars. I told them they did not know those gentlemen as well as I
did, or they would not talk that way. They said they knew them, and
that we had better take a walk. About this time there was a diversion
in the crowd. A courier came with a piece of paper--I did not have it
in my hand, I did not get to see it--but a large number of them ran
across, and they read the communication aloud. It read something in
this way: "Hold your position until to-morrow morning, and we will send
five hundred coal miners to assist you." It purported to come from the
Monongahela Valley. They then assembled back. I was up on a pile of
lumber talking to them, and I commenced to talk again, but, after this,
they were far more abusive than before. The language would not do to
repeat. In a short time another courier came with another
communication, representing to come from Wilkes-Barre, that parties
there would be here to assist them as soon as they could.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were these people you spoke of, railroad men?

A. Not many of them. A portion of them were, but not many. They were
the bad elements of society from all parts of the city, and from some
parts of the county, in connection with thieves and blackguards from
other parts of the country. A great many strangers were there. I made
that remark to one of the railroad officials, that the crowd was not
composed entirely of our people, and he differed with me, and I gave
this answer at the time--I said "These are not our people, for I claim
to know as many men in Allegheny county as any other man in it, and
they are strangers here that I never saw." Some females were there, or
ladies, the worst I ever saw.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You speak now of Thursday night?

A. Yes; my first introduction to the crowd. I remained some time,
trying to get them to disperse. They did not offer me any violence, but
refused to go, and said they would die there sooner than they would be
driven off. One man there, who appeared to be a leader, had served two
terms in the penitentiary. I knew him by sight. He appeared to be a
leader. He was not a railroad man, and I do not think ever had been.

Q. What was his name?

A. He was killed on Saturday morning, by the Philadelphia soldiers,
and, probably, I had better not name him. He amused himself up to
Saturday morning annoying everybody, and was shot on Saturday morning.
I became satisfied, that no force I had or could convene could hold
that crowd there then, or the crowd that would likely be there in the
morning. So I telegraphed to the Governor.

Q. What time was that?

A. It was after midnight. I suppose, about two o'clock.

Q. Friday morning?

A. Yes; I suppose so. I cannot give the exact time.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. It was during that night?

A. Yes; about two o'clock. I telegraphed to the Secretary of the
Commonwealth and to the Adjutant General.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Have you copies of those telegrams?

A. I think I have in my safe.

Q. I wish you would give us copies of them?

A. I will do so. I received an answer sometime after that that he had
ordered General Pearson to call out one regiment of volunteers to
assist in putting down the riot.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Who was this from?

A. I think from Secretary Quay or the Adjutant General. General Pearson
then was ordered to call out the regiment here--the Duquesne Greys.
They were called out to be in readiness at a certain hour in the
morning. Afterwards I walked down to the city hall, and found about
thirty men there, and a number of them were trying to get home as fast
as they could. About thirty of them I saw in uniform at the city hall.
During the forenoon of Friday, I went with General Pearson and some
others, out through the mob or crowd at Twenty-eighth street, and along
the line up to Twenty-eighth street, and up to Torrens station. There
was a large crowd also, and very boisterous, and apparently very
determined. I talked to them, and urged them to disperse, but they
hooted and jeered. They did not use quite so bad language, but there
was plenty of it, as they had done the night before. They told me they
would wade in blood to their knees before they would disperse, and that
it was blood or bread with them. I also read a proclamation to them,
purporting to come from the Governor, and they hooted and jeered at
that, and said they did not care, that they were going to stop those
trains and had stopped them. It was then about eleven o'clock, and they
said at that hour the railroads over the whole country are stopped.
General Pearson attempted to address them, but they hooted and jeered
at him. I believe he offered to buy a car load of bread and bring it
out to them if they would disperse, but they said it was blood or bread
with them, and they would not disperse. One young man that appeared to
act as spokesman of the crowd while General Pearson was talking to
them--I went to him, and asked him why he was acting in the way he was,
and why this crowd was here. I am going to give you his answer: He said
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company has two ends, one in Philadelphia and
one in Pittsburgh. We have determined on a strike, and in Philadelphia
they have a strong police force, and they are with the railroad, but in
Pittsburgh they have a weak force, and it is a mining and manufacturing
district, and we can get all the help we want from the laboring
elements, and we have determined to make the strike here. I said to
him: "Are you a railroader?" he said "No. I am a laboring man and not a
railroader." I then asked him his name. He said: "It might be John
Smith and might be John Jones, but I am not here to tell you what it
is." I said: "Where do you live?" He said "In the eastern part of the
State." I advised him to go home, and not engage in this bad business,
but he said he intended to see it through or leave his corpse here. I
might say, at East Liberty I warned them to disperse, the crowd, and
when they refused to disperse, I warned the women and children to
disperse--that the military would be there in a short time, and
probably somebody would be hurt. I warned all having no part in the
riot to get out of the road. The women answered me that they were there
to urge the men on to do what they wanted. Who the women were I do not
know, but they answered me in that way. That was in the forenoon of
Friday. About noon there was a request sent to me to send some of my
deputies with the railroad officials. I understood they were going to
try to move the trains on Friday afternoon. I detached Major Boyce, and
told him to take as many of my deputies as were necessary, and go down
to Union depot. He started after a while, and came back, and it was
reported to me that they had decided not to move any trains that
afternoon. Consequently, he was not needed, he said. On Saturday--the
forenoon of Saturday--I was called on by James Richardson, a
constable--I do not know in what ward he is constable--I generally see
him here in the Second ward--he is an old constable for many years in
the city--he called on me and said that he had some warrants to arrest
some parties who were leaders of the riot, issued by Judge Ewing,
president judge of our court of common pleas No. 2, and that he wished
me to go with him and take what assistance I could, to assist him in
arresting some of the leaders of the mob. I immediately detailed ten of
my deputies to go out and try to raise a _posse_. They started out
and reported to me about one o'clock, and they had some eight or ten
men with them.

Q. On Saturday?

A. Yes; some of them appeared willing to go provided they were paid in
advance, and others were willing to go--that is, appeared willing to
go--under any consideration. We started and went down as far as Union
depot, and I think by the time I got there with this _posse_ my
deputies had got up; they had all forsaken me and escaped except about
six. We met Mr. Pitcairn there, and some of the other railroad
officers. They told me they wished me to assist Mr. Richardson in
arresting those parties, and that a division or a regiment, I do not
know which they called it, of soldiers from Philadelphia would protect
me. I went up with Mr. Richardson and Mr. Pitcairn, and another
gentleman whom I saw giving his testimony here the other day; I do not
know his name. We went up to Twenty-eighth street, and Mr. Pitcairn
told me when we got to Twenty-eighth street, that he could not see the
parties for whom the warrants were issued. I replied to him, that then
my duty in that respect was ended. If he could not point them out that
I could not arrest them; that I did not know them. I had seen the list
of names, and I did not know any of them. I passed through the crowd,
and they hooted and jeered at me for a mile, I suppose, but they
offered me no violence. I went clear through the crowd and came and
turned back through a portion of it. The military were bringing up a
Gatling gun and placing it in position. I came back to the side of the
Gatling gun. The military were formed into what I would call three
sides of a hollow square. Shortly after that, or previous to that I
might say, as we passed up, General Pearson was at my side, and a man
who appeared to be a kind of leader of the crowd was on our right. He
was very noisy and very boisterous, and God damning Pearson for
bringing out his double-headers, and General Pearson just pointed at
him and said, "That man will cause trouble after a little, I am
afraid." The man saw him pointing. In some little time he came me--he
forced himself through the lines of the military and came to me--and
said, what had I against him? I said I had nothing against him, so long
as he behaved himself. He asked what General Pearson had against him. I
said I did not know. I did not hear him say anything against him. He
said he was a friend of Pearson's, and had nothing against him, but
that he was God damned if he was going to be pointed out that way in
the crowd, that he had friends enough there to wipe us both out. I told
him to get out. He said he would not go. I put my hands on his
shoulders, and he was then thrown through to the crowd by one of the
officers, He there became very noisy.

The military came up through the crowd in front with arms apart, and
the crowd stood still, refusing to get back. The soldiers were then
ordered to charge bayonets. Then somebody cried out in the crowd to
hold their position. They came up at a charge bayonets; but a number of
their guns were seized by the mob, as you might call it, and at this
time, any number of stones were thrown. I saw one soldier get struck
with a piece of coal on the forehead, just peeling his forehead, and he
fell to his knees. About the same time there were three or four pistol
shots fired from the crowd into the ranks of the soldiers, and, as I
said before, any quantity of stones and clubs were thrown. Then the
firing commenced by the soldiers, and it ran along around two sides of
the square. It was a kind of running fire without an order to fire. It
put me in mind of a pack of shooting crackers, when you set one end on
fire one report would follow another. Some parties were killed and a
great many ran away. I waited some half hour or more there. The
soldiers then retired towards the round-house, and I returned to my
home.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What time did this firing occur?

A. In the afternoon about I should judge between four and five o'clock.
I think it was near five o'clock.

Q. Did you remain home during the night?

A. I did not. I came down to my office, and remained there.

Q. Go on and relate your movements during the balance of the night, and
Sunday and Sunday night.

A. All that night, and Sunday and Sunday night, I remained in the
court-house here. I was useless and powerless, and they were hunting me
to murder me. On Monday morning, I went to my office door, and a
drunken creature was leaning there, with a revolver in his right hand,
hunting for the sheriff. I asked him what he wanted with him. He said,
I want to see him. I said you can take a good look at him now, and,
with that, I took him by the collar, and kicked him down the steps. I
have not seen him since. I might have stated, that on Thursday night,
(the first night I went out into the crowd,) there were shots fired
when General Pearson and I went out there first. I do not know whether
they were fired at any person in particular. I think that they were
intended to alarm more than anything else.

Q. When Mr. Scott came to your house, on Thursday night, to inform you
of the riotous proceedings, did he advise you to consult with your
counsel before going out?

A. No; he said it probably would be necessary, before I got through, to
see my counsel. I told him that I could not see him then, that he had
returned to his home, in the Nineteenth ward, Pittsburgh, and it would
be impossible for me to see him at that hour of the night. I told him I
would see him at an early hour in the morning.

Q. Did he tell you why it would be necessary?

A. No; I do not think he did, particularly--not to my recollection. He
said if I became satisfied, in my own mind, that I had not sufficient
force to remove the crowd, that it would be my duty to call on the
Governor for aid, and he wished me to be satisfied in my own mind.

Q. How many of your deputies did you take with you that night?

A. Only one--Mr. Haymaker.

Q. Did you call for any posse that night?

A. Not that night.

Q. You did not call for any posse before telegraphing to the Governor?

A. No; I did not. I will say this here, that although I was called on
that night, I was aware pretty generally what was going on in regard to
the strike previous to that. It could be heard on the street--parties
were saying--the strike before this had occurred in other parts of the
United States--and they would say it will be here--it will be here in a
day or two. I could hear the remarks passed. Not only that, but every
avenue of the city, for a week before, had been crowded. There was a
very considerable travel by strangers coming to the city. The city was
full of strangers at the time. There was no railroad or wagon road but
what you could find on it a class of people traveling that you had
never seen or heard of at all before, and they were coming into the
city. The city was full of them. This I have not heard any other person
remark but myself, but it is the fact of the case. On all the railroad
trains you could see men coming in, riding on the tenders, or on the
cow-catchers, or any way at all--on the steps, or any way.

Q. What days?

A. Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. I will give another little fact.
This morning a lady came to my office, asking me to solicit
transportation for her over the Pennsylvania railroad to Philadelphia.
She wished to get a pass. I asked her why, and she said that she had a
son living in Chester county who had come here and mixed himself in
with the riots, and had laid out and slept out until he had got a cold,
and that he now was dying with consumption, and she was poor, and
wished me to solicit the Pennsylvania railroad company to give her a
pass to go and see him before he died. She lives here, and her son is
married and lives in Chester county. She lives nearly across the street
from where I do. But I didn't know she had this son, though.

Q. As soon as you returned on Thursday night from Twenty-eighth street,
you telegraphed to the Governor?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Had you become satisfied, then, that it was necessary to call out
the troops?

A. Yes, sir; I had. The riot had assumed--although there had been no
actual outbreak, except the striking of Mr. Watt--had assumed such
proportions then, that it would have been folly for me to attempt in
this city to have got a posse to remove the crowd. I might, if I had
had time, have got the rural districts of this county to assist me--I
might have got a force there, but then it would have been a worse
slaughter than what it was. But in this city it would have been folly
for me to try it. I knew the feeling of the people.

Q. Did you make any effort on Friday forenoon to raise a posse?

A. I did not. I viewed it in this way. That, when I had called on the
State authorities, and the State authorities had responded, that that
relieved me of that responsibility of calling a posse. In fact, I
considered the idea of a sheriff of any county calling out a posse
almost as an obsolete piece of law to-day. The time was, when the
military were under the control of the sheriff, but it is not so now.

Q. Do you know what the law is in regard to calling out the militia to
suppress a riot?

A. I have read the acts of assembly.

Q. You knew what they were?

A. Yes.

Q. You knew what was necessary for you, as sheriff, to do before
calling the militia?

A. Well, any citizen can call on the Governor for aid--any responsible
party.

Q. But you knew what was necessary for you to do as sheriff?

A. I think I did. I might have been mistaken.

Q. You thought that you laid sufficient ground for calling on the
Governor, did you?

A. Yes; this riot had assumed such proportions at that time--it had
gone so far, and such a crowd was there, of all the rough elements of
society, that no posse, raised inside of three or four days--and then
it would have had to be collected from all parts of the county--could
have removed it.

Q. How large was the crowd that night?

A. Well, I cannot tell you that, because the cars not loaded with
freight, as I said before, were all occupied. Some had four or five in,
and some ten or twelve in. I cannot tell how many cars were full. At
Twenty-eighth street, I judge that a thousand persons were there at
that time, and all along, from Union depot to Twenty-eighth street,
they were scattered.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Those cars you saw the men in, were they regular freight cars or
caboose cars?

A. I saw them in both. One thing other I wish to impress on the
committee, and that is this: I see that other evidence--by reading it
in the papers--places those warrants for the arrest of those parties on
Saturday, in my hands. It is not the case. They were in the hands of
James Richardson, the constable, and I was only acting as a guard to
assist him.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was he not appointed as one of your deputies?

A. No; I told him I would go myself, and give him some of my men to
assist him. I took thirteen of my regular deputies and myself to assist
him, and some other men not regularly connected with the office. The
names of some of them I cannot recollect.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Would it then have been possible to have arrested those men?

A. No, sir; not unless the military had done it. Probably, General
Brinton might have been able, but I do not know. There was about a mile
of a solid packed mob.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. On Saturday?

A. Yes; the day we had the warrants.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Friday?

A. On Friday there was a large crowd. It was continually increasing. It
increased from Thursday, and kept on increasing all the time, on Friday
and Saturday.

Q. Were they all taking a part?

A. No; a portion were lookers on, but the sympathy appeared to be all
with the strikers. But I must say, that I did not see many of those
strikers. After we had gone out to Torrens station, I asked Mr.
Pitcairn how many men he knew in those two crowds, at Twenty-eighth
street and Torrens station, as belonging to the road. After studying
awhile, he said: "Well, really, I think I only know four."


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You say the sympathy of all those gathered around was with the
strikers?

A. It appeared to be.

Q. How extensive was that sympathy--to what extent was it carried among
the people?

A. It was very extensive. In fact, I do hardly know any person whose
sympathy was not with them. It went so far that on Saturday night,
after the firing, parties were coming to my house and telling my family
that they would be murdered or burned out before morning. My wife
became alarmed, and in the street where I lived she could not get
protection in any house. They would not let her in.

Q. Why?

A. Because they blamed me for being at the head of the soldiers, and
for causing the killing of innocent parties. That was the reason they
gave her--that they did not think they would be safe in letting her in.

Q. What street is that?

A. Washington street, Pittsburgh.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. On Thursday or Friday was this crowd boisterous or destroying
things?

A. They were not destroying things. On Friday they were stopping all
the trains coming in--stopping trains, and then hooking on locomotives
and running the cattle cars, for instance, to Torrens station, and
letting the cattle out in the field. In fact, Mr. Pitcairn will
remember that we were ordered out of the locomotive that we were on, to
let them run cattle out.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Not on Thursday and Friday, but after the firing occurred, how was
the sympathy?

A. I think the sympathy was with the strikers from the first. I feel
satisfied it was. But I am only giving you my own opinion.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. But you give that opinion, having formed it after intercourse with
the people, and after being in the crowd?

A. Yes; I talked with a great many of them, and they appeared to think
it was a hardship to reduce the wages and the numbers of the men, and
also, once in a while, they would bring in this freight discrimination
question.

Q. If you had had the warrants on Thursday night, could you have
arrested those parties?

A. If I had had a posse of two hundred or two hundred and fifty I
probably could have arrested them, but probably there would have been
somebody killed. I believe on Thursday morning if I had had the number
of police that Mayor McCarthy had, I could have arrested the leaders,
and put in prison the disorderly parties, and that then the trouble
would not have assumed the proportions it did. That is only my own idea
of it.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Could it have been done on Thursday?

A. As I said before, I was out of Pittsburgh part of Thursday. I was
called away on business.

Q. But from the time you became acquainted with the difficulty first?

A. On Thursday morning I saw the crowd gathering around, and I think
then if I had had a force and had been called on to anything with the
force that Mayor McCarthy had, I think I could have done some good, but
on Thursday night at one o'clock, I do not think it could have been
done.

Q. When those messages were brought in and read to the crowd as coming
from other parties, were there any messages sent out to them in reply?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. No responses were made to them?

A. There was considerable cheering.

Q. But were any answers sent?

A. No.

Q. Did those messages come in answer to messages that had been sent
out?

A. I cannot answer that. I have given you about the purport of the
messages. Probably if General Pearson shall be called he might
recollect the purport a little distincter than I have.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were those telegrams?

A. I think not. I didn't so understand it.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. There appeared to be an organization?

A. It looked to me in that light very much.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You stated one was from Wilkes-Barre?

A. Yes, and one from the Monongahela valley, and there was also one
from Mansfield--that the coal miners there would be in in the morning.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Had you knowledge of any organization prior to this time?

A. Nothing that I could assert with any distinctness--nothing only
rumor--while I firmly believe there was. Now I will give you another
fact or instance to corroborate my theory: Some five weeks after the
riot I was in St. Paul, and the mayor of St. Paul had gathered up
thirteen tramps in a cave on the bank of the Mississippi river. I was
at the hearing, and each one had a traveling sack or satchel, and they
examined these satchels and there were goods like silk handkerchiefs,
and so forth, in them. The mayor asked them where they got them, and
they said, at Pittsburgh at the time of the riot, "How did you know
there was going to be a riot there." "Oh! we knew it, and we were
there." If you will telegraph to the mayor at St. Paul he will
substantiate the fact.

Q. In regard to the extent of this sympathy with the strikers that you
spoke of, I would like you to explain a little more upon that subject
as to the extent of it, and as to what classes of people sympathized
with the strikers?

A. The whole laboring class, so far as I know, were with the strikers
in their sympathy.

Q. The entire laboring class?

A. Yes; I think so. Do not understand me to say that they were in
sympathy with the riot. They were in sympathy with the men on account
of their wages being reduced.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. With the railroad strikers?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. But they were not opposed to the railroad company?

A. I do not know that, but it was just this way that the railroad men
had their sympathy. Then there was another sympathy of the merchants to
a certain extent with these men. They believed they were not paid
right, and that the railroad company were not doing----

Q. Among what class of merchants?

A. Our better class.

Q. The entire classes?

A. No; but a portion of them.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was it sympathy with the strikers, or only prejudice against the
railroad company?

A. I think they had sympathy and prejudice both.

Q. Do you think that any responsible portion of the people of
Pittsburgh, whether laboring men or others, sympathized with the
rioters after the difficulty had become a riot?

A. No; I think not. I would say here, that the responsible portion of
the people of Pittsburgh were not in sympathy with the riot, but I
would say, further, that it took a certain amount of riot to bring them
to their senses. Something has been said in regard to seeing my
solicitor. On Friday morning, I did see him at an early hour, and
stated to him all I had done, and what I had done, and he advised me
that I had done just exactly what he would have advised me to do. He
stayed with me nearly all day Friday and Saturday. Before going up to
Union depot in company with him, I walked down the street, looking for
a posse to go along, and among other places we dropped in, was Air.
Hampton's office. They two consulted, and both decided that I had acted
in the right way. I am only satisfying you in regard to that. Those
gentlemen, both, can be had at any time.

The following are the telegrams referred to in the foregoing testimony
of Sheriff Fife:

    PITTSBURGH, _July 19, '77_.

    To Hon. JOHN LATTA,
    _Lieutenant Governor of Penn'a._:

    I have forwarded the following dispatch to his Excellency Governor
    Hartranft, at Harrisburg. Learning that he is absent from the
    State, I forward it also to you for such action as you may deem
    your duty and powers render proper.

    Signed

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff of Allegheny county_.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Following is the dispatch above alluded to:

    PITTSBURGH, _July 19, 1878_.

    HON. JOHN F. HARTRANFT,
    _Governor of Pennsylvania,
    Harrisburg_:

    A tumult, riot, and mob exist on the Pennsylvania railroad at East
    Liberty and in the Twelfth ward of Pittsburgh. Large assemblages of
    people are upon the railroad, and the movement of freight trains,
    either east or west, is prevented by intimidation and violence,
    molesting and obstructing the engineers and other employés of the
    railroad company in the discharge of their duties. As the sheriff
    of the county, I have endeavored to suppress the riot, and have not
    adequate means at my command to do so, and I, therefore, request
    you to exercise your authority in calling out the military to
    suppress the same.

    R. H. FIFE, (Copy.)
    _Sheriff of Allegheny county_.

                     *      *      *      *      *

    BEAVER, PA., _July 20, 3:35, A.M._

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff_:

    Your telegram received. I have telegraphed the Adjutant General.

    M. S. QUAY,
    _Secretary Commonwealth_.

                     *      *      *      *      *

    HARRISBURG, _July 20, 2:11, A.M._

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff Allegheny county Pa._:

    Gen. Latta will be here in an hour, and means taken to assist you
    if necessary.

    C. N. FARR, JR.,
    _Private Secretary_.

                     *      *      *      *      *

    HARRISBURG, _July 20, 2:30, A.M._

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff Allegheny county, Pa._:

    The Constitution gives me no power to act in the matter. The
    Governor alone has the power. His law officer, Attorney General
    Lear, can be reached either at Harrisburg or Doylestown.

    JOHN LATTA,
    _Lieut. Gov._

                     *      *      *      *      *

    LANCASTER, PA., _3:17, A.M._

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff Allegheny county, Pa._:

    Have ordered General Pearson to place a regiment on duty to aid you
    in suppressing disorder.

    JAMES W. LATTA, (Copy.)
    _Adjutant General_.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Hugh Y. Boyce, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were a deputy sheriff in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. You reside where?

A. No. 551 Fifth avenue.

Q. State to us what knowledge you have of the disturbance, and when it
commenced--give us a statement of the facts?

A. Coming in on Friday morning, from attending a sale, I met the
sheriff and General Pearson, on Grant street or on Liberty street. I
told the sheriff I was going to the office, and I asked where he was
going, and he said he was going out the Pennsylvania railroad a short
distance. I asked him if he wished me to go along, and he said he did.
Then the sheriff and Mr. Pitcairn and General Pearson and myself went
to Torrens station. The sheriff there addressed the crowd, as also did
General Pearson. They gave some good advice, but they took no notice of
it.

Q. How did you go out?

A. On a locomotive.

Q. How large a crowd was there?

A. Five or six hundred--I couldn't tell.

Q. What class of people were there?

A. A pretty hard class.

Q. Railroad men?

A. Some were railroad men, but they were not all railroad men.

Q. What were they doing?

A. Standing in groups talking, on the railroad track, and by the side
of the railroad track.

Q. Were you interfered with in going out?

A. No; except the crowd hallooed at us as we went along.

Q. How large a crowd was at Twenty-eighth street?

A. I cannot say that--perhaps four or five hundred.

Q. What response did those men make to the sheriff's admonitions?

A. They said they would have bread or blood.

Q. Anything else?

A. Nothing; but they used very bad language.

Q. They refused to disperse, did they?

A. Yes; General Pearson made a neat, handsome little speech to them,
but they paid no attention to it, nor to the sheriff either.

Q. Did you return without any interference?

A. Yes.

Q. What occurred next?

A. The next was on Saturday. In the morning, sometime, the sheriff
called me into the office, and told me to get up some men to report at
the Pennsylvania railroad depot.

Q. Did you go?

A. Yes.

Q. How many were with you?

A. I think about fifteen or sixteen; I am not certain about that.

Q. Tell us what took place?

A. This was on Friday afternoon. We went out that afternoon to the
depot. They wanted some assistance in moving some trains. After I went
there, they concluded not to move any, and I returned to the office;
and on Saturday I went again, with Constable James Richardson, probably
about one o'clock.

Q. With how many men?

A. Seventeen or eighteen men?

Q. Who collected the men?

A. The most of them belonged to the sheriff's office.

Q. Did you try to collect a posse?

A. Yes; but I found it very hard work.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You say it was hard work. Why?

A. Because the men didn't seem to be willing to give us their
assistance.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What did they say when they were asked to go?

A. They said they would sooner go out and help the rioters.

Q. Did you get that response from any considerable number?

A. A few would answer in that way; others said that they had enough to
do to attend to their own business.

Q. What class of men did you call on?

A. I called on citizens and on constables.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did any constables refuse to go?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What excuse did they make?

A. They didn't wish to go out to get shot.

Q. What class of men said that they would sooner go out and help the
rioters?

A. Well, laboring men.

Q. You say you called on constables and citizens. Citizens is a very
broad term. Did you call on any professional men?

A. No.

Q. On business men?

A. Yes.

Q. What response did they make?

A. That they had to attend to their own business, and couldn't leave on
account of it--it being a busy day on Saturday.

Q. You got to the depot about one o'clock?

A. I think so.

Q. Was any crowd about Union depot there?

A. Yes; and soldiers, too.

Q. Were there any riotous proceedings around the depot at that time?

A. Not at that time, but a crowd was there, but they didn't appear to
be specially riotous at that time.

Q. Did you move down to Twenty-eighth street with the sheriff, ahead of
the militia?

A. We did.

Q. You formed one of the sheriff's posse?

A. Yes.

Q. There were about sixteen of you?

A. About eighteen. There may have been more.

Q. Were you armed?

A. No; some of them had revolvers. I had one.

Q. You had no weapons in view?

A. No.

Q. What took place at Twenty-eighth street?

A. There was quite a large crowd of people there--rioters.

Q. What were they doing?

A. Talking, and hallooing, and making a great noise.

Q. Had they begun to destroy property in any way?

A. Not when we went there--at least not when I was there.

Q. What did the sheriff do?

A. The sheriff advised them to disperse and go home.

Q. Advised them or commanded them?

A. Commanded them.

Q. What response was made?

A. Nothing but vile language, and throwing stones, and brickbats, &c.

Q. Were those stones thrown at the sheriff's posse or at the militia?

A. Promiscuously--all around in that neighborhood.

Q. Did they hit any of the sheriffs posse?

A. Yes.

Q. Were any of them injured?

A. Not materially.

Q. Were any pistols fired?

A. Yes.

Q. How many shots were fired before the militia fired?

A. There may have been five or six.

Q. To what extent were the missiles thrown?

A. There was quite a shower of stones and brickbats.

Q. Was any command given to the militia to fire?

A. Not that I heard. I heard the command to charge bayonets, but no
command to fire.

Q. Was the command to charge bayonets obeyed?

A. Yes.

Q. Did they drive back the crowd?

A. A very short distance.

Q. Did they drive them as long as they continued to charge?

A. Yes; they cleared the tracks.

Q. And drove them as far as they desired to?

A. I presume so, just at that time. Quite a number of the
crowd--several of them--tried to take the muskets out of the hands of
the soldiers.

Q. How did the firing by the militia commence--was it one shot--one
shot or a volley?

A. One shot, and then another shot, and then two or three shots every
second.

Q. A rattling volley?

A. Yes.

Q. Was it regular?

A. Yes.

Q. What effect did that have on the crowd?

A. It drove them away for the time being.

Q. Where did they assemble afterwards?

A. In different places down below Penn street and up on the hill.

Q. Did the crowd assemble between the depot and where the militia were
then stationed?

A. I don't know.

Q. What became of you?

A. After the firing was over, probably three quarters of an hour, I
came in Penn avenue.

Q. Did the posse remain together?

A. When the firing commenced we were standing immediately in front. It
was too warm to stand there very long.

Q. Did the firing disperse the sheriff's posse, too?

A. Yes; it was a rather peculiar place to stand there.

Q. Do you know how many were killed there that evening?

A. I don't know the exact number now.

Q. Had you any knowledge of any pre-arranged purpose among those men to
strike on that day?

A. I had not--only what you might judge from the crowds gathering there
occasionally, at the corners, and on the railroad tracks, and different
places.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was there any talk of striking among those men that gathered in
crowds before the strike?

A. Yes; you could hear a great deal of talk about a strike, but nothing
was said as to the time when it was going to take place.

Q. How long before this strike?

A. On Tuesday and Wednesday.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who was the talk among?

A. Among the laboring classes--among the men that worked in the mills,
and the glass houses, &c., and railroad men.

Q. Did you hear it before the news of the strike on the Baltimore and
Ohio railroad?

A. No.

Q. It was not until after that that you heard talk of striking?

A. No.

Q. Prior to that you had heard nothing that would lead you to believe
there was an organization for the purpose?

A. No.

Q. That was the subject of conversation, I suppose, among all
classes--to some extent?

A. Yes; it was.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Conrad Upperman, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In Penn avenue, between Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth streets.

Q. What was your occupation?

A. I was night foreman in the round-house.

Q. Were you on duty on Thursday night?

A. I was.

Q. State whether there was any disturbance about the round-house on
that night.

A. There was none about the round-house at all. The only disturbances
there were, took place out on the track, about Twenty-eighth street.

Q. What kind of a disturbance was it?

A. The railroad men and the others were combined--but they were not
doing anything, except standing there in groups.

Q. During the night was the crowd noisy and boisterous?

A. Somewhat.

Q. You were in sight of them?

A. I was among them nearly all the time. On Thursday night, between
eight and nine o'clock, I attempted to get out an engine to haul some
stock, and I thought it was useless to attempt it without first seeing
whether they would allow us to haul it. Mr. Watt told me in the office
that they would allow us to haul the stock; but when I got among them
they didn't seem very favorable to allowing it. So we talked to them
some time, and at last they agreed that we could haul the stock. I
brought the engine out myself; but before I could get her across
Twenty-eighth street four or five hundred called out to me and
hallowed--called out to me to take her back; but I got her across
Twenty-eighth street, and, after talking to them, they got quiet, and
agreed that I could haul the stock, provided a committee could go on
the engine to see that we would not haul anything else. I then got two
engineers, one to fire the engine, and one to run it, and they took the
stock up that night; but a little later in the night a Pan Handle train
came along, and that raised a terrible howl there about the stock, and
they cut the engine loose; but at last they let the stock go as far as
Lawrenceville, and then we got an engine to haul it away. In fact, they
went along on the train.

Q. What complaints did the men make in your conversations with them?

A. They complained about the double-headers; that they would take a
great many of them off; that it would take their work away at any rate,
and they thought they might as well fight it.

Q. Were you in the round-house on Saturday night?

A. I was.

Q. Were you present when the firing occurred on Saturday afternoon?

A. No; I went home at six o'clock in the morning to take some sleep. I
then went to the round-house between seven and eight o'clock. When I
got there the soldiers were just entering. After they had got
themselves stationed there, it was not long until the outside parties
commenced firing into the round-house.

Q. With what?

A. With musketry.

Q. The rioters?

A. Yes; between eleven and twelve o'clock that night. There was a board
pile between Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh streets, and a good many
of them got in behind that, and they just rattled volley after volley
into the round-house. I was standing there; but I thought it was too
hot, and went to the other side. I then remained in the round-house
until about twelve o'clock, and then told an officer that I would go
out. He said I had better see General Brinton first, that I might do
him some good. I saw General Brinton; but he had nothing to say, and I
said nothing to him. I started to go out the back way of the carpenter
shop; but there was a lot of rioters there, and we thought that it
would not be safe, so we came on back to where the superintendent's
office stood, and he proposed that I might go out the gate at
Twenty-sixth street, and that he would tell his soldiers not to fire on
me. The firing was going on at Twenty-sixth street. I got out then and
went on home.

Q. Were you molested by the rioters?

A. Not then; but on Friday night or Saturday morning, between twelve
and one o'clock, we were getting out two passenger engines to go east.
It was not my business to know what the engines were going to haul. I
got orders to get them out, and I went out in the street then and got
two engineers and firemen, but a man came in and gave us to understand
that the engines couldn't go, and I knew it was no use to argue the
point with them, because there were four or five hundred of them there
on Twenty-eighth street.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was that man a railroader?

A. Not at that time. I believe he had been suspended. He is in the
work-house now. Then we had two engines coming west on the fast line
that same night, and we cut one engine off and took the accommodation
engine at Wall's, and let the accommodation engine bring the train in,
and let the other engine go back to Altoona; but we found they had her
blocked. I went to Twenty-eighth street, and they were pretty noisy at
that time. Some of them came to me, and asked what kind of a hand I was
taking in the matter. I told them I was not taking any more hand in it
than I ought to, and they told me if I didn't get out right quick they
would shoot me so full of holes that I couldn't get away. I found it
was pretty hot, and I got away. On Friday morning, when the troops came
there, there was not over twenty or thirty men at Twenty-eighth street.
They seemed to go away, but after that, of course, they commenced
gathering in groups, and I noticed the troops were not there very long
until they were among them themselves. I noticed that morning, before I
went home, that they were walking together in the street, our own men
and the soldiers. I thought there was no use for those soldiers there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What morning was that?

A. Saturday morning.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What troops were those?

A. The Pittsburgh troops. I was there Thursday night and Friday night
and Saturday night until one o'clock.

Q. At Twenty-eighth street, were the same men there all the time from
Thursday until Saturday--until the firing of the troops?

A. Yes; they were nearly about the same crowd. Of course, the crowd
increased. On Friday night four or five thousand of them were there,
but the crowd was orderly, and I never saw them molest anybody unless
you wanted to do something--then they would drive you back.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Would it have been possible for the police to have made any arrests
at that time?

A. I went out and looked at the crowd. I looked over the crowd and I
thought if there were any police there they could have arrested the
whole of them.

Q. Could a force of fifty good police have dispersed the mob?

A. They could on Thursday afternoon, when the first double-header was
stopped. I think only about from twenty to twenty-five men were
interfering with that train at all. It was just this way: I stood and
looked on, but I had nothing to do with it. It was daylight, and I was
on at night. There were four police on each engine, and a road foreman
was on an engine, and the engineers and firemen, but they didn't seem
to pull her out. I didn't see anybody with anything in their hands, but
was informed that there were parties with links and pins in their
hands, ready to throw in case they did start.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you know of any engineers or firemen being driven off their
engines when there were policemen with them on the train?

A. I cannot say that I do. They got off, though.

Q. Did the police get off too?

A. They did, yes.

Q. You didn't see them driven off?

A. No, they hooted and hallooed a good bit.

Q. They got off--no links were thrown and no assaults were made?

A. Not when I was looking.

Q. How many police were on the engines?

A. Four on the first, and I think four on the second.

Q. They got off on account of the threats?

A. That is the only reason I would know for their getting off.

                     *      *      *      *      *

C. A. Fife, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You are the son of Sheriff Fife?

A. Yes.

Q. Were you in the sheriff's office on Thursday, the 19th of July?

A. Yes.

Q. Was there any call upon the sheriff during that day for assistance
in putting down the disturbance at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Not during that day, I do not think.

Q. During the evening?

A. I believe so, but I was not home.

Q. You were not out with him?

A. No.

Q. Were you out with him on Friday?

A. I was at Union depot on Friday.

Q. Was there any disturbance there?

A. No, sir.

Q. Were you out on Saturday?

A. Yes.

Q. At what time?

A. I was there when the militia went out, in the afternoon.

Q. Were you a member of the sheriff's posse?

A. Yes.

Q. Tell us what occurred there?

A. We walked into the crowd. The crowd would open for us to walk in,
and then close around us.

Q. At what point was that?

A. Twenty-eighth street.

Q. The militia were immediately in your rear.

A. Yes.

Q. What did the sheriff say to the crowd?

A. He asked them to disperse.

Q. What response did they make?

A. I cannot say that. They hooted, and hallooed, and used vile
language, and threw stones.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They did not disperse?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who were the stones thrown at?

A. Both at the militia and us, but I cannot say exactly.

Q. Were any guns or pistols fired at you?

A. I heard pistol shots, but cannot say who they were fired at.

Q. Before the firing from the soldiers?

A. Yes.

Q. Was there any command given to fire?

A. Not that I heard.

Q. Where were you during Saturday night, after the shooting?

A. I was around through town here--no place in particular.

Q. Were you at your home?

A. Yes; then I was out on the hill above Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Was there anybody that offered violence to you?

A. No.

Q. Was any attempt made to burn the house of the sheriff?

A. I did not see anybody there, but I heard that there had been parties
at the house.

Q. You saw nobody there?

A. I did not get home until near morning. I was out on the hill at
Twenty-eighth street.

Q. Were any threats made that you heard?

A. I did not hear any, but I heard of them.

Q. Did you assist on Saturday in raising that posse?

A. I tried to get some parties.

Q. What efforts did you make?

A. I asked several parties to go out with us.

Q. What replies did you get?

A. I was refused wherever I asked anybody.

Q. What class of men did you call on?

A. I do not exactly remember now who I did ask--parties I would see
around the court-house.

Q. You did not succeed in getting anybody?

A. No.

At this point the committee adjourned until to-morrow morning, at ten
o'clock.


    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _Tuesday, February 12, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee re-assembled at ten o'clock,
A.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was:

                     *      *      *      *      *

Alexander E. McCandless, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. On Centre avenue, in this city.

Q. What is your profession?

A. I am a physician.

Q. State whether you were connected with the fire department last July?

A. I was a fire commissioner.

Q. What are the duties of the fire commissioners?

A. They are elected by city councils to take care of the fire
department, and to elect the force, and to run it, and they have
general supervision over the expenditure of the money.

Q. Do they control the movements of the fire department in case of a
fire?

A. We have a chief engineer for that purpose.

Q. What was done by the fire department during the riot for the purpose
of protecting the city or railroad companies' property from fire?

A. The first alarm of fire was struck about eleven o'clock on Saturday
night, after the cars were set fire to. The fire department responded
as soon as the alarm was struck, and started out to the fire, No. 7
engine, I believe, being the first on the way. At that time, I was on
top of the hill overlooking the outer depot. I heard the alarm struck,
and I heard the engine start, and then I heard the shouts of the mob,
and could hear the gong of the engine as it was running. I then heard
the engine stop, and could hear the oaths of the men all distinctly.
Afterwards I went down into the crowd, and as the other engines came
up, I saw them stopped by the mob there, who swore that if we did lay
any hose, they would cut the hose, and shoot the drivers, and all that
kind of a thing. The mob would not allow the fire department to put a
drop of water on the company's property, and all that night we did not
get to throw any. The following night when private property caught fire
they allowed us to throw water on it, and did not interfere.

Q. Was private property protected pretty generally?

A. As well as it could be done, but it was so extensive that we could
not protect it altogether; we had the force of the fire department cut
down on account of the appropriations not being sufficient to run it a
short time before that, and the result was that we were short of men.

Q. Was the private property fired by the mob, or did it catch from the
railroad company's fire?

A. I cannot state that of my own knowledge.

Q. What seemed to be the disposition of the mob?

A. They were wild--perfectly mad, and appeared to want to burn
everything or anything, especially the railroad property.

Q. This is Saturday night you speak of?

A. That evening--Saturday evening--we did not get to throw any water.
But the chief engineer can give fuller details than I can about that.

Q. Did you call on the mayor for protection in any way for your fire
department?

A. Not personally, but the chief of the department, I think, did.

Q. Was the fire department protected by the police?

A. No.

Q. During Saturday night or the day of Sunday?

A. Not that I know of. We were the only department that kept up any
organization in this city at that time.

Q. You say you did keep up your organization?

A. Yes, perfectly, and we followed the line of the fire all the way
down Liberty street clear to Union depot.

Q. During the entire riot you preserved your organization?

A. Yes. I was attacked once near the grain elevator. I was directing a
stream of water on the hotel opposite, and they thought I wanted to put
water on the elevator, and they attacked me; but I got away, as I was
on horseback.

Q. If your fire department had been protected by the police, could you
have controlled the fire?

A. We could at the inception of it--when they started burning the cars.
Only one car was lit at that time.

Q. The fire department, you say, is under the control of a chief
engineer?

A. Yes; he has supreme control of the fire department, and in case of a
large fire he is assisted by the commissioners.

Q. Is he subject to the order of the mayor?

A. No; he is not. He has nothing to do with the mayor.

Q. He is subject to the orders of the commissioners?

A. Yes; he is directed by them, but he has supreme control of the fire
department. If he wants the assistance of the commissioners he sends an
alarm for them.

Q. In case the fire department needs protection, to whom ought you to
look for that protection?

A. I suppose to the head of the police department of the city.

Q. Do you know, of your own knowledge, whether any demand was made upon
the chief of police for protection?

A. Not of my own knowledge.

Q. Is the fire department a paid department?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you see the fire when it first started?

A. I saw the first of it--the first torch applied to the first car.

Q. Where was that car standing?

A. Beyond the round-house. And I thought they had an engine up there.
They would fire one car and start it, and fire another car and start
it, and fire another car and start it.

Q. Can you give us the street where it was?

A. I think they were all above Twenty-eighth street--the cars that were
started.

Q. You thought they had an engine to start the cars?

A. I thought so--either that or a large gang of men. They started so
rapidly.

Q. When those cars came down, where did they stop after they were
started?

A. They came down--the whole yard was packed with cars down below the
round-house, and they had the switches so arranged that they ran down
to the round-house. They were trying to burn out the soldiers. It was
very plain what their motive was.

Q. The motive, at first, was not to destroy the railroad company's
property, but to burn out the soldiers?

A. That was the motive, to my mind, as I viewed it from the hill.

Q. What were those first cars loaded with?

A. I cannot tell that.

Q. With oil?

A. No; they were freight cars first that were fired. Afterwards they
started the oil cars down.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. As the fire progressed on Sunday morning, what seemed to be the
motive?

A. It was general destruction then. They started the oil cars early
Sunday morning.

Q. What time did the troops get out of the round-house?

A. I did not see them come out. I only know from newspaper reports.

Q. Did you see the mob as it approached the depot with torches, and the
burning of Union depot?

A. No; I was at work on another part of the fire.

Q. How large was the mob during Sunday?

A. It would be hard to form an estimate. It was an immense crowd, for
squares on Liberty street, breaking cars open and stealing--ten
thousand or fifteen thousand anyway--just streaming back over the hill,
taking the things away. Thousands of them were carrying away everything
imaginable, and going to the south side with them. They passed my
house--crowds of them.

Q. Who were ahead--the men with the torches or the plundering posse?

A. The torches were first.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. In what manner did the mob interfere with your men?

A. They would not let them get to the fire.

Q. They stopped your men?

A. Yes; they just got ahead in front of the horses and caught the
horses by the head, and swore they would shoot the drivers if they
would go any further.

Q. But they did not assault your men?

A. They interfered in every way they could. One of our men caught a man
going along with a sword-cane punching holes in the hose, and he
knocked him down, and took it away from him. They have that cane now.

Q. Did you not have one of your fire engines in position to play on the
fire when the police offered to protect you from the mob, but your men
did not then play on the fire?

A. The chief engineer can tell you that. I was not present when that
occurred.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Samuel M. Evans, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At 190 Fourth avenue.

Q. What was your official connection with the fire department in July
last?

A. I was the chief engineer.

Q. How long have you occupied that position?

A. Since last May. I was the assistant chief for two years, and the
engineer of a company before that, and the foreman of a company before
that. I then resigned for sometime, and was then elected engineer
afterwards, and was then elected assistant chief engineer, and then
elected chief.

Q. State when the first alarm of fire was given?

A. On Saturday night, about eleven o'clock.

Q. From whence did the fire proceed--what part of the city?

A. The corner of Twenty-sixth and Penn streets--it was there the box
struck.

Q. What did you do?

A. When the alarm came I was in bed. They fetched my wagon to me, and I
went out there, and when I got to Eleventh street--driving there--they
got in my way--certain parties--and called out: "You son of a bitch,
don't lay any hose--you son of a bitch." But I said to them, "you can
go to hell;" and I started on. It was on the street, and I went at a
pretty rapid gait. When I got out as far as the "Independent" house,
Mr. Coates, one of the fire commissioners, said to me: "Sam, drive in
here, quick." I drove then into the engine house, and then went to
Twenty-eighth and Liberty streets where the mob was. I looked up and
saw the fire. It was a car--it appeared to be an oil tank car. At
first, No. 7 was between Twenty-second and Twenty-third streets on the
right side of Penn, in the gutter. They had no fire in the engine, and
I said: "Where's your fire?" And they told me they had put a pistol to
the head of the fireman, and made him draw the fire. I told the
engineer then to turn her around and take her down to the house and to
fire up again. They went to the house, and I told them to stand there
so as to be ready to go into service if we could get into service. Then
they came up with a big gun on wheels--a cannon--pulling it along on
the street. After they got up to where a few hose carriages were, they
came to Twenty-third street--and I said, "what is the matter?" And all
they said was to point the gun at us and said: "If you don't get out of
that we'll blow you to hell." I said we had better come down here than
go there. While I was standing there, an alarm came from East Liberty.
I went out there, and when I went out there I thought probably it was
the stock-yards, but I found it was a solitary house away down on
Negley's run, a mile or a mile and a half from the railroad. Then I
told the engine company at East Liberty to stay there in case they
would burn Mr. Pitcairn's house, or set the stock-yards on fire, and
that we would manage to get along without them. So they did not come
in. Then I came in, and I think at eight minutes after three it was,
when they sent a signal in that the fire was out. There was a big crowd
on Liberty street, and somebody asked me to let them lay a line of hose
to save Mr. Hardie's stable, and some property belonging to Mr. Denny.
I told the foreman then of hose company No. 1, to lay a line of hose up
Liberty street from Thirty-first street, and that if any stables got on
fire, or any private property, to throw water on it. Then four men
stopped me with guns, and asked me what I was going to do, and I said I
was going to lay a line of hose; and they said, not a God damned line
of hose. But I said to them that I was going to save private property,
and then they said, that I could throw water on that, "but that if you
throw any water on the company's fire we will shoot you and cut your
hose," and everything else. While coming in they were carrying goods
away from the cars. Everybody you would see, had a bundle on their
shoulders or their heads.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What time of night was this?

A. Between three and four o'clock in the morning. I came down to
Twenty-third street, but we could not go into service at all. They were
shooting at that time out of the machine shop and the round-house.

Q. Who were shooting?

A. The soldiers, and the others were shooting out of the board pile.

Q. Firing at the round-house?

A. Yes; they took this gun and planted it in the street to shoot into
the round-house, and these men in the round-house, when they would go
to sight this gun, would shoot them. They had this gun loaded with
links and pins belonging to the railroad company. After the fire
started, I think it could have been stopped before it set the
round-house on fire. I think at that time it could have been stopped,
because in the morning, about six or seven o'clock, they commenced
running down the wall--a crowd of them--and then pushed the cars up
along the Allegheny Valley track, and when they would come to a car
afire--one man I noticed particularly jump up on a car, and stop it
alongside of another car afire. Then when it would catch fire they
would open the brakes, and let it go down to the round-house. Then they
threw something out of the round-house, and stopped the cars there, and
then they got to throwing water out of the round-house on the cars. I
was down on the corner of Twenty-third street when two rough looking
customers came down, and asked me where the place to stop the water off
was. They said they are throwing water out of the round-house. I told
them to go to the head of Twenty-sixth street on Liberty, and that they
would see a big iron plate in the middle of the street, and that they
should lift that up, and put their hands down and stop it off. They
said they will pick us off, and they wanted to know if there was no
place in Penn street to stop the water off. I said no.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You knew they could not stop it off?

A. Yes; I knew they were rioters, and if they went where I told them
they would shoot them, perhaps.

Q. You did not give the information for the purpose of getting the
water stopped off.

A. No; I knew that they could not stop it off.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were these two men strangers?

A. Yes.

Q. You are very well acquainted about Pittsburgh?

A. Yes.

Q. Did this crowd--all of them--seem to be citizens?

A. Some of them did, and some did not.

Q. What were the citizens doing?

A. Standing there--a great many of them--but they were afraid to speak
or to do anything for fear of getting hurt--those that felt like
stopping it. A good many were arrested. I saw the "black maria" very
busy taking men down to the station-house, and I asked the policemen
how many were arrested, and they said one hundred and thirty or one
hundred and forty, for stealing, and in the morning I asked a man what
they did with them, and he said that the mayor had fined them three
dollars and costs, and let them go. I said they were all thieves, and
he said that nobody was there to identify the property. I said it was
not necessary to identify stolen property.

Q. Did he get the three dollars out of them?

A. That is what the policeman said--three dollars and costs.

Q. He did not let them go until he got that?

A. That is what he told me.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What time was the round-house set on fire?

A. About seven o'clock in the morning.

Q. How was it fired?

A. From cars on the Allegheny Valley railroad.

Q. Is that on Liberty street?

A. Yes; the track is on top of the wall until you come to a little
piece on this side of Twenty-sixth street, and then it comes down and
gets level with the payment--between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth
streets it begins to get on a level with the payment. These cars were
stopped between Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh streets. One fireman
told me--a fireman of Engine Company 8, in Philadelphia--that he got
the water ready to throw, or was handling the line, when he said there
was a car loaded with liquor in it burning, and it ran down into the
cellar of the round-house, or the shop on the other side, and that that
was what drove them out so that they could not do anything. When that
liquor, burning, ran down into the cellar, it set the buildings on
fire.

Q. Did any of your engines play on the fire on the railroad?

A. No; they would not let us. And we had as much as we could do after
the fire started. As fast as the fire would come along we would move
the engines down.

Q. How many engines had you?

A. Eleven of my own, and the chief engineer of Allegheny came over and
fetched me three.

Q. They would not allow you to play on the railroad property.

A. No.

Q. Did you ask protection from the mayor?

A. I do not know that I saw him but once. He and Roger O'Mara came up
Penn street in a buggy, and turned out Liberty, and then O'Mara came
back some way without the mayor.

Q. Did you ask for protection?

A. No; I did not see anybody to ask.

Q. Do you know of any protection given to you by the police?

A. No protection at all, sir. If I could have got protection when I
first went out to the fire, we could have kept the other cars from
burning. We could have pulled them away sufficiently far to stop the
oil tanks from setting any of the rest afire, and kept them cooled off.

Q. Do you think that the police force of the city could have protected
you so that you could have played on the fire?

A. If they had not been demoralized, they could. If they had had a
police like the New York police, they could have kept the crowd back.

Q. How many men would it have taken to protect you sufficiently?

A. After the fire got started, it would have taken right smart, but
before that I think that one hundred and fifty or two hundred men could
have stopped the whole thing, because police can do more than soldiers.

Q. We have testimony that the police offered to give protection to one
engine?

A. Let the police come up and name the engine. I saw that in the
papers.

Q. Do you know the parties referred to?

A. Motts and Goldsmith. They came out in the papers and said they went
to one man named Kennedy, and told them that they would give
protection, but I went and asked them, and they said that they never
came to them at all.

Q. These gentlemen will testify to that?

A. Yes; I can have them at any time at all. I will fetch them to you.
None of them came to me; and I am the proper person to come to for a
purpose of that kind.


    By Senator Reyburn.

Q. Were you about on Thursday or Friday?

A. No.

Q. You say that a couple of hundred or one hundred and fifty policemen
could have driven the crowd back?

A. On Saturday, one hundred and fifty policemen, well armed, and
staying together, could have moved the crowd away so that they could
have moved the trains.

Q. But you were not there?

A. Not until Saturday night, when the alarm was given.

Q. On Saturday and Sunday morning, when you were there, were the police
doing anything to prevent the pillaging?

A. After I came back from East Liberty, I saw the police arresting
people for stealing. The "black maria" was busy taking them down to the
station--the Twelfth ward station--and then running them down to the
Central station.

Q. From what you saw, do you think it would have been possible for the
police to have stopped it?

A. It would have been impossible for what was there to have stopped the
mob. They could catch the people when carrying things off.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were you a witness before the grand jury?

A. No; this is the first time I have been called upon.


    By Mr. Englebert:

Q. Did you see any of the soldiers?

A. Yes; about the round-house. As soon as the soldiers went out of the
round-house we went into service, and kept right on then. We could not
go into service before, because they were firing both from the
round-house and from the board-pile--the rioters.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. When the soldiers came out of the round-house, did they come out in
ranks?

A. Yes. As soon as they came down on to Penn street, I noticed a squad
on each side watching the houses and buildings and alleys, and the men
with the Gatling gun were watching behind.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were they well handled and marching orderly, or were they
demoralized?

A. No. They marched out orderly. You could not have told from the way
they looked that anything was the matter. I expected to see them come
out and run every way, and I was astonished. When they began coming out
everybody ran from them, but when they saw them come out in good order,
and keep in a good line, then they began to stand still again--the
people did.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Samuel A. Muckle, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the Twenty-third ward, Pittsburgh, at the present time.

Q. Where were you residing in July last?

A. In the Fourth ward, Allegheny city.

Q. What business were you engaged in all that time?

A. No business at all at that time. I was employed by the railroad
before that.

Q. What position did you hold on the railroad before that?

A. Conductor.

Q. Of what road?

A. The Pan Handle.

Q. Passenger or freight?

A. Freight, at that time.

Q. Was there any pre-arranged plan among the railroad men for a strike?

A. None that I know of--if you speak of the strike that occurred in
July.

Q. Yes?

A. None that I know of.

Q. Was there any arrangement being made among the men for a strike to
take place then or any other time?

A. We had an organization here at that time, called the Trainmen's
Union. Of course, if I have to answer all these questions, I am willing
to answer them, if they do not conflict with this organization. Of
course, I went into that organization, and I am under an obligation.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Oath bound?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. It is a secret organization?

A. So far as our own business is concerned.

Q. As far as you can, you will give us what information you have upon
the causes of this riot, and whether it was pre-arranged among the men?

A. The organization is not in existence to-day, but I still feel myself
duty bound to the organization. I will answer this. There was a union
called the Trainmen's Union--an organization--and there was a talk of a
strike in June. It was to have taken place on the 27th day of June.
That fell through, and with the strike in July, we had no business of
that kind.

Q. What induced the men to arrange for a strike on the 27th of June?

A. This organization was gotten up for the benefit of the railroad
men--for their own protection--for to protect them in anything that
might be brought up.

Q. What class of railroad men?

A. The transportation department entirely.

Q. Including conductors and brakemen?

A. Yes; and engineers and firemen.

Q. Did it include any passenger conductors and brakemen?

A. Yes.

Q. The whole?

A. Yes; when I speak of transportation, I include the whole
transportation department.

Q. Was it the ten per cent. reduction made on the 1st of June that
induced the men to arrange for that strike?

A. I do not know that it was positively that, more than some other
grievances that might be brought up. It was organized more for the
protection of ourselves in any grievances that might be brought up. Of
course, the ten per cent. would be included.

Q. Were there any other grievances except that ten per cent. reduction?

A. Not at that time.

Q. Had the men any grievances or complaints to make outside of that,
when it was talked of that a strike should take place on the 27th of
June?

A. I believe there were.

Q. What were they?

A. In regard to the classification of engineers and the amount of pay
they received, &c.; that was something I did not particularly
understand at that time.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The object of the brotherhood was to abolish this classification?

A. The object was to protect themselves.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They considered this grading unjust?

A. Yes; they considered it unjust, which it certainly was.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You did not organize a strike for the 27th of June in regard to any
future grievance.

A. No.

Q. It was the ten per cent. reduction and the classification of engines
that induced you to arrange that strike for the 27th of June?

A. Yes.

Q. In arranging for a strike, what did the railroad men propose to
do--stop all trains--just simply quit work?

A. In case of their striking, they simply proposed quitting work
themselves--standing still or going to their homes, or wherever they
wished to go. I never heard of any arrangement made as to what they
would do.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Were any resolutions passed in your body to stop trains?

A. No.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were there any resolutions to interfere with the men who desired to
work?

A. No.

Q. You said it fell through. What broke off that arrangement to strike
on the 27th of June?

A. It was because it was generally thought it was not solid enough; it
was not worked in the right way.

Q. How extensive was the arrangement--how wide did it extend?

A. I did not think it was very extensive; at least, I did not think it
was very solid.

Q. Do you know how many organizations this Trainmen's Union had in
existence--how many lodges?

A. I am not prepared to say; I do not know.

Q. Did it include all the trunk lines?

A. I think it did.

Q. Did it include all the employés of the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company?

A. It included all those who joined the order.

Q. What other roads?

A. Most all the roads out of Pittsburgh; in fact, I guess all the other
main roads.

Q. Where did that union originate?

A. I believe in Pittsburgh.

Q. When was it abandoned?

A. Previous to the strike.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Then there was no organization at the time of the strike.

A. No; we had no meeting for some time previous to the strike.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. For how long previous?

A. Not within a week, and that was very small. The meeting called last
was called without the approval of the right party in this union. His
attention was called to a poster struck up on a telegraph pole by a
certain party, and I rather think it was put up just as a burlesque in
the first place. There had not been a regular meeting for some time
previous to the strike.

Q. Can you tell what induced them to abandon the union?

A. I have my own idea, but I don't know whether I am right. My
impression always was that the railroad men, in connection with the
Trainmen's Union, were afraid to attempt it for fear of being
discharged from the road. I claim it was lack of nerve on the part of
the men. I was discharged myself after the first trainmen's meeting I
ever attended, and I am satisfied I would still be a union man if there
had been any men with me.

Q. When did you first learn of the strike on Thursday, July 19?

A. In the neighborhood of eleven o'clock, in the forenoon.

Q. Had you any intimation of it before that?

A. Not in the least. In fact I was surprised, and I didn't believe such
a thing was going on until I walked to Twenty-eighth street, and saw it
to be a fact.

Q. When you got there who did you find there?

A. A few railroad men, and I believe a few policemen were there, and
some citizens.

Q. How many railroad men were there?

A. I cannot tell you that--I suppose twenty or thirty or forty or
fifty. A great many of those men I didn't know.

Q. What road were those men working on at that time?

A. I think the majority of them belonged to the Pennsylvania railroad.

Q. What were they doing?

A. They didn't appear to be doing anything. They just appeared to be
standing around talking.

Q. Was there any effort made to move any trains while you were there?

A. Not at that time.

Q. Were any made in your presence?

A. Not just in my presence. I believe they undertook--that is only
hearsay--but I could see from Twenty-eighth street down towards where
they started the trains west of Twenty-eighth street, and I think on
Friday I saw a few engines apparently coupled to trains. Whether they
intended to go out is more than I can tell of my own knowledge. I know
they didn't go out.

Q. Did you see anybody try to start a train on Thursday?

A. No, sir; I didn't see anybody try to start a train during the
trouble.

Q. Were you there during Thursday night?

A. I was not there during any night.

Q. What was the object of the men assembling at that point?

A. From the understanding I had from the men, after talking with a few
of the men, it was that they had struck against the double-headers.

Q. Were those men members of the Trainmen's union?

A. Some of them.

Q. Why were they assembled in force on the track?

A. That is more than I can tell what their motive was.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What did they say about it?

A. Nothing particularly--nothing more than that they had struck.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you talk with them?

A. I talked with some few of the men I knew.

Q. Did you admonish them that it was wrong to be assembled in such
large numbers there?

A. No.

Q. Was anything said about that?

A. Not that I know of. I was not in a very good humor just as I got up
there. I had been insulted just before I reached Twenty-eighth street.

Q. By whom?

A. By Mr. Watt. When I reached there there were only a few of those
parties that I knew.

Q. The Trainmen's Union, at that time, was not in existence?

A. They had not had a meeting for some time previous.

Q. Did they have any meetings after that?

A. Not that I know of.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was the organization formally disbanded?

A. It just died out. They had no meetings called of the order.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. When did this union start, to your knowledge?

A. It was about the latter part of May, I think, or the 1st of June.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. As a member of the organization, what action would your organization
have taken in reference to that unlawful assemblage there?

A. My idea is that they would have discountenanced anything of the
kind--any burning, or pillaging, or anything of that kind.

Q. Or any interference with trains?

A. That is more than I can tell. I cannot tell anything about what men
will do after getting started.

Q. Would your organization have any means of disciplining the members
of it who interfered with the movements of the trains?

A. Most certainly. Our order had a head.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You mean to say, in your organization, according to the rules and
regulations of it, if they struck, they passed resolutions that no
trains should go out?

A. I didn't say anything of the kind.

Q. Was it the intention of the men to interfere with the movement of
the trains?

A. Not to the best of my knowledge. I never heard any such resolution,
and I never heard any person speak of it that way.

Q. Do you know any of the men that did interfere with the movement of
the trains who belonged to the union?

[Witness did not answer.]


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. In that arrangement to strike on the 27th of June--how extensive was
that strike to be--how far was it to extend--what roads was it to
include?

A. It included the roads running out of Pittsburgh, so far as I know.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. What roads are they?

A. The Pennsylvania railroad, the Pan-Handle, the Fort Wayne and
Chicago, the Allegheny Valley, and the Cleveland and Pittsburgh.

Q. Was the Baltimore and Ohio not included?

A. I cannot say particularly.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was your organization notified of this strike that took place on
Thursday, the 19th?

A. No, sir; no more than what I told you, that I was met on the corner
of Eleventh street, near the Rush house, and told of it, in the
neighborhood of eleven o'clock.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You said you were discharged on account of being a union man?

A. I am positive of it--at least the message I received bore nearly
about the same words, but not just in that way.

Q. That, of course, was a grievance?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did your Trainmen's Union include the employés of the Baltimore and
Ohio road?

A. Yes.

Q. Was that strike in pursuance of an arrangement made in your union?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. Was that formally communicated to your union here--the strike that
occurred there?

A. No; nothing more than hearsay on the street.

Q. Did the members of your union make any effort to have those parties
disperse and go to their homes during Friday, Saturday, and Sunday?

A. Not that I know of--no more than I did myself.

Q. What did you do in relation to it?

A. I did take some men out of the crowd at Twenty-eighth street, men
that belonged to the Pan-Handle road. At Twenty-eighth street, that
day, I was met by this Watt. He says to me, I want you to leave this
property. Watt was the man; but I didn't know him only by sight. I
thought, of course, he was an employé of the company. He said, I want
you to leave the company's ground, and I asked him who he was. He
replied that it didn't make any difference who he was, that he knew who
I was, and my motive for being there. I said if he knew my motive he
knew my business better than I did, for I hardly knew myself what I was
there for. And after trying to give me a bluff, as I call it, that he
was Mr. Watt, and employed by the road, I went up towards Twenty-eighth
street, and there understood that they were going to send for what they
called the Pan Handle roughs to head this trouble. I knew the great
majority of those men--between eighty and a hundred of them were
discharged off the Pan Handle road, and had been discharged prior to
this strike. The majority of them were in town; some had left town; but
a great many of them were here, and they were pretty lucky if they
could get one meal a day. I didn't want to see any of them get into
further trouble, and when I heard this I was afraid that some of those
men would enter into this thing through persuasion. I went to them
singly, and took some half a dozen out of the crowd, one at a time, and
told them not to have anything to do with the affair. I said, I have
been discharged from the Pan Handle, and you, and there will be nothing
in this of any benefit at all. I took out six or eight men from
different parties that had belonged to the Pan Handle railroad.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What did they mean by sending for the Pan Handle roughs?

A. They thought that a few men of that road were rougher than anybody
else, or had more pluck. I don't know--it was a rumor I heard.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Those men you spoke to went with you willingly out of the crowd?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Were you on the ground of the Pennsylvania railroad, or on public
ground?

A. It was on their ground. I was walking right up the track. After this
man was going to bounce me, I walked up to Twenty-eighth street, and I
told him I thought I would have the privilege of standing there on the
street.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What do you mean by bouncing you?

A. Why, if I had weakened a little, I suppose he would have thrown me
off.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you there during the day, Sunday?

A. I was not. I was not on the ground at all after Saturday
evening--after one of our engineers was wounded very badly. I helped to
carry him up Liberty street on a shutter. I was not on the ground
afterwards.

Q. Did you see any considerable number of the Pan-Handle men or
employés in the crowd?

A. Not a great many.

Q. Who seemed to be the leaders of the crowd?

A. That is more than I can tell you.

Q. What business are you engaged in now?

A. Not any.

Q. Do you reside in the city?

A. Yes.

Q. You are still out of employment?

A. Yes; and likely to remain out so long as some of these men hold
their positions on the roads.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What position did you hold in this organization?

A. I was the president.

Q. You know nothing of this organization being in existence at that
time on any roads except those that ran out of Pittsburgh?

A. At which time?

Q. At the time the strike was contemplated, in June?

A. They might have been contemplating such a thing, but the
organization at that time, in June, was not so extensive as it got to
be afterwards.

Q. Then it did increase afterwards and extend?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you know whether it did exist on other roads in June?

A. I don't know.

Q. You think it started here and spread?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You say it started here?

A. Yes; I believe so. It was first organized here.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Were you here at its birth?

A. Yes; and I have no objection either as to being at the first
meeting.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was it beneficial?

A. It had not got that far along, but it would have been, probably.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was it the object of this organization to control the railroad
companies, as to wages and running regulations?

A. The object, no doubt, of the organization was to protect themselves,
no matter what grievances might be brought up, if based on good
authority. The union would attend to them in its own way, whatever it
might be.

Q. In what way did they propose to protect themselves?

A. That would have to be brought up before the order before they could
tell that.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Then there was no definite plan by which the railroad companies were
to be controlled or coerced into coming to terms with the union?

A. No.

Q. That was left to be determined as circumstances might arise?

A. That is it exactly.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You said, a while ago, that this last meeting you spoke of was not
regularly called?

A. No.

Q. You would have been the proper person to call it?

A. Yes.

Q. It was not done at your instance?

A. If it had been called it would have been through me. I had nothing
to do with this poster on the telegraph pole; but after being on the
pole for a half day, I concluded, rather than dupe the men, to let them
meet, but nothing was done.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Do you know how many members of this organization there were in
Pittsburgh at the time of the contemplated strike in June?

A. I don't know.

Q. Do you know how many divisions there were in this city?

A. No.

Q. Have you any idea?

A. In Pittsburgh?

Q. Yes?

A. Three or four in Pittsburgh--three, I think.

Q. How many members belonged to the division you were connected with?

A. That is a question I cannot answer--I cannot tell.

Q. Can you give an approximate estimate of the number in Pittsburgh, at
that time?

A. Four or five hundred.

Q. Was there not an understanding in the union, that whenever there
were differences between the train men and the railroad companies, that
the railroad companies were to be brought to terms by the members of
the union, by striking on some particular day, without any notice to
the companies, so that all traffic would be stopped?

A. I don't know of anything of that kind.

Q. Was there not some such talk, that that would be the most effectual
way of bringing the companies to terms?

A. There was a great deal of wild talk among the men.

Q. There was no such proposal made in the union?

A. No.

Q. And no definite plan was adopted by the union to act upon the
railroad companies in any way?

A. No.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. When any men wanted to become members of the organization, did they
have to pay any initiation fees or dues?

A. They would have had to in course of time, but, up to that time, it
was more a charitable institution than anything else. Anybody that had
five cents or a quarter, and wanted to give it, could give it.

Q. There was no specific sum at that time?

A. No.

Q. Nor since?

A. The union is not in existence.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What do you mean by a strike--a railroad strike--what is the usual
custom--what do you mean by it?

A. What I have always understood by a strike, is the men quitting work.

Q. You understand that they are all to quit?

A. Most undoubtedly.

Q. For the purpose of stopping traffic--the running of trains?

A. If that would stop it--most undoubtedly.

Q. Is it customary, in railroad strikes, for the men who quit work, to
stop others from working, by violence or otherwise?

A. I have never seen it--by violence.

Q. Only by persuasion?

A. Only by persuasion. I have heard about a great many men being
stopped, but, if our railroad men would get up and testify--I have
heard railroad men claim that they wanted to work, but there was not
one of them, that was not in the mire just as deep, while the thing was
going on.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You mean the trainmen?

A. Certainly.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What class of men did you take into your organization?

A. Men belonging to the transportation department.

Q. No outsiders--no mill men?

A. I believe not.

Q. Had you a constitution and by-laws?

A. Yes.

Q. Have you got them in your possession?

A. I have not.

Q. Who has?

A. That is more than I can say.

Q. You don't know.

A. No.

Q. Have you a copy of them?

A. I have not.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Can you give us the names of any men that would be willing to appear
before our committee, and give information about the strike or their
grievances?

A. Yes; an engineer by the name of John Hassler, residing on Wood
street, the second or third door to the left of Bidwell. I think he
would be an important witness; also, an engineer by the name of William
Robb. He lives in the lower part of Allegheny somewhere, but I cannot
tell his residence exactly.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. You say that the union does not exist now. Do you know of any other
organization that is organized to produce the same effect.

A. No; no more than what has always been in existence. The locomotive
engineers, of course, have their union.

                     *      *      *      *      *

G. Gilbert Follensbee, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In Pittsburgh.

Q. Where is your place of business?

A. On Fifth avenue--No. 42.

Q. What is it?

A. I am in the clothing business.

Q. In company with some other gentlemen, did you call on the mayor
during the disturbance in July last; and, if so, give us the
circumstances?

A. On the evening of the 21st of July, (Saturday,) between seven and
eight o'clock, I heard that parties had got into some gun stores, and I
went to my friend Mr. Bown, and then found Mr. Edward Myers; and after
talking a while, we thought it would be prudent to see the mayor, and
tell him that we thought it would be prudent to get a posse, and come
down and protect Mr. Bown's gunshop. We saw the mayor, and said: "You
are probably aware that some gun stores have been broken into;" and we
implored him to send a posse to protect the gun stores.

Q. What reply did he make?

A. I do not remember his reply, but he seemed to be very indifferent,
and I implored him, for God's sake, to do something, and that we three
would volunteer, and that probably with fifty men or less we could
protect Mr. Bown's store.

Q. Did you offer to be sworn in?

A. I volunteered to be one of the posse.

Q. What reply did he make to that?

A. I do not remember.

Q. Did he say in response to your application--did he say whether he
had the policemen or not, or did he make any excuse that he could not
raise them?

A. No; I do not think he made any reply in regard to his police. I was
aware that his police were small and scattered around the city, and my
idea was to have him swear in some of us as special police.

Q. Did he refuse to swear you in as special police?

A. He did not take any action in the matter.

Q. Did he send anybody to the store?

A. Not that I am aware of.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did the mob come there?

A. Yes; Mr. Bown left his store and came to my store, and while there,
we heard the mob.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How long before the mob came down had you made this call upon the
mayor?

A. Two hours, at least--two hours--an hour and a half or two hours.
Before the mob got there, I went back to Mr. Bown's store, and asked
him if there was no place to secrete the arms, and they took them down
into the cellar and vault and secreted a good many of them.

Q. Did you see the mob?

A. Yes; I saw the mob in the store, but not in front of the store,
because we had gone in the rear private way. We could see the store
full of people--probably one hundred to one hundred and fifty were in
the store.

Q. What class of men were they?

A. They did not seem to me to be any particularly riot element, so far
as appearances were concerned. They did not look like tramps or roughs.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Do you suppose they were citizens of Pittsburgh?

A. I suppose so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did they take away any more arms than they wanted themselves?

A. I do not think they left any.

Q. Was there any ammunition in the store?

A. I was so informed.

Q. What was done with that?

A. They took the ammunition too.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was the mayor aware of those arms and that ammunition in the store?

A. It was the most prominent gun store in the city.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Could any force of determined men have stopped the riot?

A. I am only speaking about that gun shop, and I think that from thirty
to fifty determined men could have prevented the riot at that place.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were willing to be one of them?

A. I said so.

Q. Did you tell him you wanted a force to guard that gun store?

A. Yes; I said for God's sake do something to protect that gun store. I
looked at it this way: That it would be terribly fatal if the mob were
to get in and get guns and ammunition.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did the major know who you were?

A. Intimately.

Q. You are intimately acquainted with him?

A. Yes.

                     *      *      *      *      *

William H. Bown, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your business?

A. I belong to the firm of James Bown & Son. Our place of business is
located on Wood street, and our business is cutlery and guns and
revolvers, and all kinds of sportsmen's articles.

Q. Do you keep ammunition, also?

A. Yes; powder and shot and caps and wads.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. Fixed ammunition, also?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What efforts did you make to secure protection during the riot?

A. My father went to see the mayor, with Mr. Follensbee. He went early
in the day to Mt. Washington, to see a shooting match. We were not
aware of any excitement in the city, but word came to me. In the
afternoon I saw a telegraphic dispatch from some one about the mayor.
It was the mayor's clerk that brought it down--setting forth that there
was a mob organized to break into the different gun stores that
evening. I judge between five and six o'clock that came down. He wanted
me to remove all our arms. I said that it was so late in the day that I
did not know where to place them--that we had a large number, but that,
nevertheless, we would try to remove all we possibly could. I then got
both the porters and took the arms out of the windows, and a lot of
ammunition, cartridges, and cans of powder, and I got some paper and
covered over it, to convey the impression to those passing along that
we were about cleaning the window, and I left the paper there to
disguise it. I had not commenced to take out the arms in the cases. We
had two cases that run about sixty feet long. I went to supper, and
about six o'clock, when I came back, I found six policemen at the
store, but the mayor's clerk came down about seven o'clock, and said
they were required at the Central station. Shortly after that father
came. He could not get into the front, from the fact that we had the
wire across and the screens put up, and I had also gone out and got a
couple of scantlings, and put them against the doors, and braced them
against the counters. I did not anticipate that they would break in the
large glass windows. We had commenced to take down the arms and put
them in the magazine, which we have in the cellar, where we keep the
powder, and we got down, I should judge about forty, and were kept
pretty busy in getting them down, when the large alarm bell struck and
I heard the glass go. I came up the stairs, and when I got to the top I
found they had knocked the lock off, and I immediately went down, but I
could not find the key. I was in my shirt sleeves at the time, but I
closed the bolt and put out the gas and came up stairs, and just as I
came up I met two parties right at my desk--I had a desk where I do my
correspondence--and one of them says, "why in the hell don't you turn
up the gas?" I suppose he took me for one of the party who came in. I
passed him and went on up stairs, and stayed there until after the
racket was over.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Where was the mob?

A. On the lower floor; of course they came up stairs, and then I went
up to the third floor.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What was their manner as to being boisterous or demonstrative?

A. When they came in there, I thought bedlam had broken loose.

Q. What class of men were they?

A. What we term from the south side--I judge workingmen. They would
just come to the cases and break them in. A few of them had old
muskets.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. That they brought with them?

A. Yes; and one party was very kind, and left his and took a new gun.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. After these policemen were taken up to the central station, did any
of them return?

A. That I cannot say, but I understood from those that came in after
the mob went away, that they were out there, but the mob was too large
for them to handle.


    By Mr. Reyburn:

Q. Did the mayor's clerk come down and order those policemen to report?

A. Yes.

Q. Did he take them away from your store?

A. Yes; at that time everything was quiet about the city.

Q. He had notified you that there would be an attempt made?

A. It was reported that there would be an attempt made on the different
gun stores.

Q. Yet he took these policemen away?

A. Yes; because at that time there was no excitement at the lower end
of the city.

Q. Did they return before you were driven out of the store by the mob?

A. I did not see them; but I cannot say.

Q. But were they ordered back for duty before this mob came?

A. I understood that, but I did not see them. I was in the store at the
time, and did not come down, because I thought discretion was the
better part of valor.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You saw that dispatch?

A. Yes.

Q. Who was it signed by?

A. I did not notice. I think a fictitious name was to it. I did not
notice any name to it, particularly. It was the mayor's clerk. It was
late, and all our help had gone off, and the boys had gone to supper,
and I was alone, with the two porters.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. How many guns and pistols were taken out of your store?

A. Something over four hundred. They took everything--carving knives,
butcher knives, and forks, and ammunition, and cutlery--everything they
could take.

                     *      *      *      *      *

E. A. Myers, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At No. 60 Liberty street.

Q. Where is your place of business?

A. No. 145 Wood street.

Q. You are connected with the office of----

A. I am connected with the of the _Post_.

Q. Relate what occurred when you went to the mayor?

A. I may say that Mr. Bown, senior, came over to my place, and he and
Mr. Folensbee went with me up to the mayor, to notify him to send
policemen down. After we went there, the mayor at first said he was
unable to send any assistance, as the police were scattered through the
city, but he would do the best he could. We went to Mr. Johnston's gun
shop, a short distance above the mayor's office, and staid there
awhile, and came down to the mayor's office, and then walked down to
Mr. Bown's establishment, and remained there sometime, without the
police coming. Then Mr. Bown and myself went back again, but on the way
we met them coming up--we met them coming up--some six or eight of the
police--coming; and there were at least six or eight policemen there
during the disturbance. The crowd that came up, I don't think, at first
numbered over seventy-five or eighty--half grown boys. There seemed to
be half a dozen armed with muskets, but a large crowd was collected
around the streets.

Q. What effort did the policemen make to drive them back?

A. Nothing, whatever; but they staid there. I spoke to the mayor's
clerk; I said there were not enough of them to do anything, but they
staid there.

Q. Was the crowd armed when they came there?

A. They apparently had a few muskets and guns with them, as far as I
could tell.

Q. Did you offer your services, as a policeman, to the mayor?

A. Not as policeman specially, but I offered to do anything that I
could to defend the place--not to the mayor, but to Mr. Bown. Mr.
Follensbee, I believe, did.

Q. Mr. Follensbee did?

A. Yes; my impression at that time was, that fifteen or twenty
determined persons could have stopped the whole rumpus in front of Mr.
Bown's place.

Q. Did the mayor make any demand on the citizens for help?

A. Not that I know of. The mayor told me that his police force was
scattered around so that he was unable to get together enough to be of
any special service. But they did, however, gather up six or eight of
them, and they came down here.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Joseph S. Haymaker, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. At Laurel station, on the Fort Wayne railroad.

Q. State what you know of the riot that began on the 19th of July?

A. I believe it was on Saturday--I think that was the 20th of
July--that I came up to the city. I had been home sick for almost two
months before that time. I went out to Twenty-eighth street, and at the
time I went there I found a very considerable crowd of men there. I
knew a very few of them. The great majority of them seemed to be
strangers. I say this from the fact that owing to my political
knowledge in the city, having made many political speeches here, I had
gotten to know a great many men. When I came to Twenty-eighth street
that afternoon, about two o'clock, I found a large number of
men--probably from twelve hundred to fifteen hundred--right across the
railroad track at Twenty-eighth street. I met some men I knew, and we
were talking over the probability of a difficulty between the troops
and the strikers; and these men, or one of them, said there was no
danger of the soldiers firing on them--that the people of the State of
Pennsylvania were with the strikers in this matter. Whilst we were
talking in that way, the Philadelphia soldiers came up the railroad. I
was asked the question two or three time, whether or not I thought the
soldiers would fire on the citizens, and I said I would not trust them,
and, so far as I am concerned, I am going to get out of the road. They
are strangers here, and if ordered to fire will fire. If they don't,
they are not good soldiers. I was standing then right in front of what
they called the sand-house. Three or four gentlemen were there at the
time with me, and John Cluley, the painter. I said to them: now, I have
had a little military experience during the last war, and I said we
will get out of this and go down the hill-side. I got them to go with
me. The Philadelphia men came up, and formed on both sides of the
track, clearing the track by forming a square, open at the lower end.
At this time I was on the hill-side, about eighty or ninety feet,
probably one hundred feet, above where they had formed. In that
formation of the square there was a portion of a company--I suppose
about twenty or twenty-five men--that had yellow plumes in their
hats--Philadelphia men--who were swung off from the left of the square,
and tried to force back the mob from Twenty-eighth street. Failing in
that, then a company was brought up from the lower end of the
square--brought right up between the two lines in this way,
[illustrating,] right past where the Gatling guns were stationed, and
brought face to face with the mob. They marched up until they were
within probably twenty-five or thirty feet of the mob, and then halted
for about a second. At that time I noticed the sheriff's posse standing
in front of where they were standing, trying to get the mob to move
back. Then these men moved at a charge bayonet, and went right up to
the mob, and I saw several of the mob catch the bayonets and push them
down. Then I saw three or four stones thrown from the little
watch-house. These stones were thrown right through into this company
coming up. Then I heard a pistol shot fired, and probably two or three
seconds after that three or four other pistols shots were fired just
like that, [illustrating,] and then I saw two or three of the soldiers
go down. Then the stones began to fly down along the line, in among the
soldiers, and the firing first began right across the railroad track. I
don't know what company or regiment it was, but they had black
feathers. They were right in front of this square, and the first musket
firing began there. I noticed that. Then I heard, probably a dozen of
boys hallo shoot! shoot! down along the line, then the pistol shots
began, and the musket shots began, and I got down in a ditch behind
where I was, and staid there until it was all over.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. This call of shoot, shoot, where did it come from?

A. I won't be sure about that. I saw some of the officers strike up the
guns with their swords, and I saw some pulling of the men backwards
inside the square. Then, just right after that, there was a general
volley right along the line.

Q. A volley or a scattering fire?

A. File firing--each man for himself.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you hear any order given by any officer to fire?

A. No; nor do I believe any order was given. I say that, for the reason
that, had there been an order or command given, there would have been
simultaneous firing, but it seemed to me, when the fighting commenced,
that everybody was taking care of himself.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. That is, they were protecting themselves from something that was
going to injure them?

A. No; but as fast as a man got his gun loaded he would fire, and as
fast as the others could get a brick they would throw it.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What effect did the firing of the soldiers produce on the crowd?

A. Right by me, on my right hand an old man, and a little girl on my
left hand, were shot dead. I got into the ditch, and I know it was
full--the ditch.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. It was not a regular volley of musketry?

A. No; it was every fellow for himself.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you know how many persons were killed there?

A. No; but when I came up from the ditch--it is not a regular ditch,
but a wash down the hillside--when I raised up, somebody else was shot,
and I got down again. When I raised up the second time everything was
quiet. I looked down over the bank, and several men were lying there
dead.

Q. You say that an old gentleman was killed?

A. Yes.

Q. And that a little girl was killed?

A. No; she was shot right through the knee, and I pulled her down into
the ditch and tied a handkerchief around her leg. There was a physician
there--I think Dr. Schnatterly, of Bellevue, and he took charge of her,
and I heard she died that night.


    By Mr. Reyburn:

Q. This crowd standing there--what business did they have there?

A. They had no business there.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. Had you any business there?

A. None at all; but I had never seen a strike before, and I went up to
see what it looked like. Right down along the railroad there was
probably ten feet of ground, or twelve feet--right along the railroad,
in front of the troops, occupied by a class of men that I had never
seen in the city of Pittsburgh before--ragged looking and dirty
looking. There is one thing about Pittsburgh people, that you can tell
them on the street--at least, I think, I can. I walking along the
street, if a man comes from Philadelphia or any other place, I think I
can tell him. In other words, I know he don't belong here. I don't know
the reason why, but we get to notice our own people, and I say that
that crowd of people along there I never saw before. They looked here
[illustrating] like people that I never saw before. I believe them to
be strangers not only to Pittsburgh and Allegheny county, but to
Western Pennsylvania, and, in fact, to the State of Pennsylvania.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How large was that crowd?

A. There were five hundred or more of them fronting the railroad.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. There is a kind of a platform there?

A. The road runs along six feet below the bank, and then the bank runs
back about fifty feet, and then the hill commences for one hundred or
one and fifty feet above that.

Q. Did this crowd throw stones?

A. Yes; and just here I will give another reason why I believe that
crowd to be strangers in the city of Pittsburgh. The most of our men
here--our laboring men--wear dark clothes, but I saw men in that crowd
with light pantaloons, and yellow pantaloons, and two men with
velveteen coats, and those men seemed to me to be making the most noise
down in front of the soldiers. At that time, in my mind, I thought they
were tramps. Of course, I can't say that of the whole crowd, but I say
that the men making the demonstrations were men of that class.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did that fire from the militia disperse the crowd?

A. Yes; in firing, very unfortunately, they fired over the heads of the
people there, and killed the people above. If they had lowered their
guns eight inches they would have killed a class of men that we could
very well get rid of.

Q. Did they disperse?

A. Yes.

Q. In what direction?

A. Some went up the hill-side, and the mob in front of Twenty-eighth
street, ran down Twenty-eighth street to Penn.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did the soldiers attempt to shoot at them as they ran up the bank?

A. Yes; I suppose the firing lasted a minute and a half. The soldiers
began firing right down the line, and probably some of them fired four
or five shots. When the crowd broke, they ran up among the people on
the hill-side, and some of them ran into the ditch where I was. The
rest of them went on up the hill-side. I noticed one thing, that the
old soldiers dropped flat down when the firing commenced, while the
others ran.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You mean the old soldiers in the crowd?

A. I mean that.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you think that force of soldiers, with twenty rounds of
ammunition, could have held their position and kept the crowd off
during the night?

A. Not as strangers, they could not do it. I mean this--had that force
been posted as to the situation here, they could have done that--they
could have kept the mob off with half their number; but not being
acquainted, I think they did about the only thing they could do. The
only thing lacking under the circumstances--I have had my own opinion
since that time as to what I think I would have done, without any more
knowledge of military affairs than I learned in the army, and I would
have taken charge of this ditch that I was in, and have put the men in
there for the purpose of controlling the round-house and the tracks
below. But then there was a danger to be taken into consideration, that
along the hill above this ditch, there were houses on the hill-side
occupied by railroad men and by strikers, and by men in sympathy with
them, so there would have been a danger there, because there would have
been firing from the rear--in other words, if people had gone on the
hill-side, and opened fire down from the hill-side, they would have had
to abandon the ditch--or, on the other hand--my idea of the matter
would have been to have picketed Penn avenue and Liberty street very
heavily, and have kept those streets clear, from Twenty-eighth street
clear down. When you consider that a crowd or a mob is always cowardly,
so that the firing of eight or ten men into it will break it, I really
believe that the best plan would have been to have picketed Penn avenue
and Liberty street--to have kept these streets clear, and then if
necessary, to have picketed the upper side of the railroad track, which
would have formed a square of pickets, whereby to preserve the cars.
Yet, at the same time, I will say that these picket lines would have
been subjected to a fire from both sides--from the hill-side above, and
from the houses below. I went home on the six o'clock train that
evening.

Q. Could General Brinton have taken his troops then, and marched them
down towards the Union depot, and kept the crowd back, or kept the
crowd above?

A. No; but the mistake that General Brinton made was this, that when he
began firing he should have kept it up.

Q. How long?

A. Until every man in the city of Pittsburgh was willing to stop.

Q. Do you think, in your judgment, with the number of men they had,
with twenty rounds of ammunition, and with more ammunition over in the
Union depot, that they could have maintained their ground there and
kept up the firing, and kept the mob back, and kept up communications
with Union depot, in order to replenish their ammunition?

A. If he had continued his firing from the time the firing began at
Twenty-eighth street, most undoubtedly he could. But after that, when
General Brinton got into the round-house, where there are open
windows--the house is perfectly round--at that time he was at the mercy
of every building.

Q. But I am speaking of the time before he went into the round-house,
and after the crowd had dispersed--at that time had he continued
firing, could he have maintained his position and kept the crowd away?

A. Yes; fifty men armed as those men were armed--because I noticed that
every time a gun struck, it tore a hole like that. [Illustrating.]
Following that mob would have dispersed them.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. Would not that have caused great loss of life?

A. Undoubtedly--if they had fired low.

Q. What is your avocation now?

A. I am a lawyer by profession.

Q. You practice at the bar here in this city?

A. Yes.

Q. From your experience in the army, and from what you saw of the
conduct of the troops at Twenty-eighth street, would you say that their
conduct was good as military men?

A. No, sir; not a bit of it. Every man that fired first should have
been taken out and shot. In other words, I mean that there was not a
particle of discipline. I say that for this reason: There was no order
given to fire by any officer. I believe that to be the fact, because I
was on the hill side not more than sixty or eighty feet away from where
the firing began, and I had been there some two hours before the firing
did begin. I was standing there wondering how the men were going to
clear the tracks, and when the fight began I was listening very closely
in order to hear what command would be given by the officer in command.
Then this fuss began with three or four pistol shots, and then the
bricks and stones were thrown, and then more pistol shots, and then it
was every man for himself. So far as those soldiers were concerned, I
have said since, and believe it to be a fact, that it was one mob armed
against another mob not armed.

Q. Was not the conduct of those soldiers as good as could be expected
from militia men?

A. I do not know that. I have seen militia men during the war that
would walk up to the scratch, and stay there. The great trouble with
militia men is that they fire too high.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you think there was any real necessity for calling on the militia
for assistance here?

A. I would not like to give any opinion about that. I know that the
sheriff started out a lot of his deputies to get a lot of lawyers out
here, and the lawyers went out--of the back windows, and every other
way they could get out. I never believed that the sheriff exhausted all
his power.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You believe, then, it was necessary to call out the military--that
the difficulty had got beyond the control of the civil authorities?

A. I believe that. I believe it was necessary to call out the
military--but to use them. In explanation of that, I would say this:
that even after the military were here, that the city of Pittsburgh was
panic struck, and that young men were taken up on the streets and were
furnished with arms, privately by the different banks, to go in and
guard the banks, because, on the Monday night following the burning, it
was rumored on the streets--on Fifth avenue, and on Wood, and on
Smithfield streets--that the banks were to be attacked that night, and
I know of several banks in the city that were guarded by young men
picked up throughout the city. I believe it to be a fact, that, had the
trouble lasted two days longer, there would have been a vacation of the
city by the women and the children in the city of Pittsburgh. I believe
they would have gotten out of town.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. You state you spoke to some people about the probability of the
troops firing on the crowd. Who were those people?

A. I cannot recollect.

Q. Were they part of the crowd--the strikers?

A. No.

At this point the committee adjourned to meet at three o'clock this
afternoon.


    AFTERNOON SESSION.

    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM.
    PITTSBURGH, _Tuesday, February 12, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment the committee re-assembled at three o'clock,
P.M., this day, and continued the taking of testimony.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Joseph S. Haymaker, _recalled_.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What sympathy did the rioters seem to get from the surrounding
crowds of spectators?

A. Do you mean on Saturday?

Q. Yes.

A. I can hardly say; I was one of the party myself. Do you mean after
they were fired into?

Q. From that time until Monday.

A. On Saturday, the 20th of July, the general feeling seemed to be, up
to the time of the firing, that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company had
not done exactly what was right with their employés.

Q. To what extent did that feeling exist in the community?

A. I cannot say about the community, because I was at my home sick for
six weeks before that time. I can only speak of the crowd that was
there at the same time I was. So far as that was concerned, I suppose
they felt about as I did, that as they were getting pretty good pay for
their shipments, and everything of that kind, it seemed to be kind of
rough, to cut down their wages so much. It was a kind of general
feeling, that the railroad company had not done exactly what was right
with their employés, but I found nobody who could give me a definite
explanation of the reason why the people of Pittsburgh should be
against the railroad company--that is, I could not find anybody who
could give me any reason why there should be any strike between the
people of the city and the railroad company, on account of the way the
railroad company had treated their employés; but immediately after the
fire was over, I did not hear any question of that kind raised. The
prevailing question was how we were going to get out of the trouble we
were in.

Q. In your judgment, would it not have been proper for the officer in
command of the military force, at five o'clock on Saturday afternoon,
to have given the command to fire?

A. I most undoubtedly think it would have been.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. There was sufficient provocation to justify the giving of that
command?

A. Yes; my recollection is, I heard an order given by some officer,
commanding either a company or a regiment of the Philadelphia soldiers
up at the front of the line that was formed there--an order given to
those men to disperse and go back, and I think he gave the order in
this way: "Now," he says, "why don't you men go back?" It was half a
minute after that when I heard the first pistol shot fired, and then
from that the firing began. I think, that when the order was given to
go back and clear the tracks, that he would have been justified in
ordering the men to fire, although I heard no order to fire.

Q. And followed up the firing until he dispersed the crowd?

A. I believe that.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What troops were on the ground at that time?

A. I do not know. I simply know this. That certain troops or uniformed
men came up the Pennsylvania railroad from the depot, and formed in
line in front of the upper round-house, at the corner of Twenty-eighth
street, and at that time some of our Pittsburgh soldiers were on the
hill side above--some of our Allegheny county soldiers on the hill side
above.

Q. But those on the railroad were Philadelphia troops?

A. I believed them to be from Philadelphia.

Q. Do you know anything about the conduct of the Pittsburgh troops
called out here during that day, or any time during the riot?

A. No; except this far, that when I came up to Twenty-eighth street,
and before the Philadelphia soldiers came up there, I walked across
Twenty-eighth street, up the hill side, where there was part of a
company--part of one of the western Pennsylvania companies, or a
Pittsburgh company, I do not know which it was, and when I got to the
top of the hill side I was a good deal out of breath----

Q. After the firing?

A. Before the firing--probably an hour before. There was one of the
private soldiers belonging to some company--I do not know any thing
about him. He had a uniform on, and I asked him the question: "How
long have you been here?" and he said, "since last night." I said,
"how long are you going to stay here?" and he says, "I don't know." I
said, "you may likely be called upon to clear the tracks down there;"
and he said, "they may call on me, and they may call pretty damn loud
before they will clear the tracks." At the same time, I looked in the
man's face, and I thought he might be called upon to all eternity
before he would do anything reasonable. The company, at that time,
was scattered--standing all around.

Q. Was this company far from the mob?

A. Probably one hundred feet--probably one hundred and fifty feet.

Q. Were their arms stacked?

A. Yes; I know that after the firing, one dead soldier was carried down
from about the spot where I had been talking to this man, down to the
Twenty-eighth street crossing.

Q. Were the men with their guns where they were stacked?

A. Some of them were down on the railroad track, and some were on the
hill-side, and some were around their guns, and some were back towards
the hospital.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Didn't you say those were Philadelphia troops up at Twenty-eighth
street?

A. Yes; that is, I understood that.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You spoke about those strange men you thought were strangers in
Pittsburgh, that had come from a distance. Have you any knowledge of
people coming to Pittsburgh at any time previous to the 19th of July?

A. I can say this in reference to that, but as a lawyer I would say
that part of it is hearsay evidence, that is, I do not know it to be a
fact myself. I live below Pittsburgh, about seven miles, on the Fort
Wayne road, at Laurel station, and I know from the time I went down
last spring, we had much trouble with tramps. Probably two or three, or
four or five, or six or seven, would be there every day. But about four
days before this trouble--it was on the Friday before this trouble--at
that time I was not at home sick--I recollect my wife saying to me,
that "we have had no tramps down here for the last few days," and I
said, "they will come back again," and until after the rioting and the
burning here, we had but one tramp at our house, until the third day
after--that was on Sunday. Then they began to come back every day. I
have heard others of my neighbors say the same thing. And almost every
night, looking from my library towards the river, I could see along the
river bank that these tramps would have fires, and I have seen, when I
would come down to the train in the morning--I have seen as high as
fifteen or twenty around these fires. But for two or three days before
the riot--that is, before the burning here, and for one or two days
after that time, I noticed very few of those fires, if any, and we were
not troubled with these tramps at our house; and after the trouble was
all over, it made such an impression on me, that I loaded a
double-barreled shot gun, and told my wife how to use it, and told her
if they came around not to do anything for them. I did not consider
them fit subjects for charity.

                     *      *      *      *      *

James Bown, _sworn with the uplifted hand_.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your business, and where is your place of business?

A. Nos. 136 and 138 Wood street, Pittsburgh.

Q. What kind of business do you carry on?

A. It is the cutlery business--guns and sporting goods in
general--manufacturing.

Q. I wish you to state what efforts you made to protect your store on
the night of the 21st--Saturday night. You went to see the mayor. What
efforts did you make?

A. I was absent from the city until about seven and a half o'clock that
evening, and when I came to the store I found it was shut up. I met my
second son there, and I asked him what the trouble was. Well, he said
the mob had broken into some of the pawnbrokers, up in the Fifth ward,
and also into one of our competitor's. I asked him where my other son
was, and he said at the back end of the store. I got into the back yard
and went into the store and found them there making preparations to
take some of the valuable guns into the cellar--into the vault. It
looked as if things were serious. I said, "I will go out and look
around, and see what the trouble is." They commenced to put away the
goods as fast as they could. Of course they had to use great judgment
about taking the fine guns into the cellar. I was away perhaps half an
hour. As soon as I went out into the alley, I met Mr. Follensbee and
Mr. Myers. I said, "Things look serious around here." The mayor's clerk
was there, Mr. Metzgar, and perhaps half a dozen people were
congregated in the alley. He said, "Gentlemen, you had better disperse.
We would rather not have anybody around here, so as not to excite
anybody." I told him it was a good suggestion, and Mr. Myers and Mr.
Follensbee and myself went into our yard. It was then pretty near dark.
I said, "Let us go up to Smithfield street, and see what they are
doing." I understood there was quite a crowd in front of Mr.
Johnston's, another competitor of our's. We went up the alley and then
turned to the left and went down towards Sixth avenue. An immense crowd
was in front of this gun store, but had done no damage. Several
policemen were in front of the store. In going through the crowd
several sang out, "Let's go down to Bown's, and clean him out." I said,
"That sounds pretty loud, and we had better go and see if the mayor
won't send back some police." We came back to the mayor's office, and
there the mayor was, standing outside. I went up to him, and addressed
him as "Mac." I am rather familiar with him. I said, "We require some
extra police down there, as they are going down to our store to clean
us out." He said, "I will do all I can for you," and said that a good
many police were up at Mr. Johnston's. I said, "It is necessary to act
quick and prompt, as the crowd is now moving, and it won't take them
long to come there." Mr. Follensbee spoke up, and said, "I will be one
of fifty special police." I do not think he made any reply to that, but
he said, "I will send some down." With that I left, and came down to
the store again. Some people were in front of the store, and I think
among them, perhaps, were two or three policemen--I think there were. I
was more interested in securing the things just at that time, so I went
into the store again, and the boys were still working, taking down the
guns. They had got the pistols--the greater portion of them--into a
safe we had, and Mr. Follensbee suggested to me to come around to Fifth
avenue to his store. I went back through Mr. Carter's store, and went
with him into his store. I was not in there two minutes until an
immense rush of people came past the store, and they shoved the doors
to. I said, "Open the doors, I want to see what the trouble is." I was
running across the street when a friend of mine said, "There is no use
in your going; they have got in." I knew a road coming through another
gentleman's store and through Mr. Carter's store, and got into the back
yard. The crowd was then in the store and securing all the things as
fast as they could. Then Mr. Follensbee followed after me. Of course,
he remonstrated outside as well he could. Everything was barricaded up
so that we could not get in. I will tell you one thing that occurred
there. A negro had got at my private desk and got open the drawers, and
was pulling out the things, and had got among the postage stamps when
we hallooed at him. The language we used was pretty severe, and he
dropped everything and ran. In a few minutes, as soon as things were
quieted down, we got a policeman--we tapped for him to come and open a
window, and we got in. Of course, then the destruction had taken place.

Q. How long after you made that call on the mayor was it that they
broke into the store?

A. Not over fifteen to twenty minutes.

Q. Did he send any policemen down?

A. Some were there in front, but I cannot say how many. Some came after
the thing was over, but whether they were outside, I do not know.

Q. He made no reply when Mr. Follensbee offered to do special duty?

A. No reply at all.

Q. Nor did he make any demand on the citizens?

A. No.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Those parties took away general plunder, did they?

A. Yes.

Q. They did not come specially for guns?

A. They took everything--knives and pistols and spoons and forks and
carving knives and fishing tackle, and everything they could.

Q. It was simply a party bent on plunder?

A. Yes; it was just a mob. I do not charge it on the strikers.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Did you ever get track of any of those guns.

A. We got four out of the lot--those were left by parties--men that
came out with three or four and just handed them to us. They preserved
them for us.

Q. You never got track where they went?

A. No; we had a good many guns with marks on them--numbers, and some
guns--a special kind of guns--that there are very few of here.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. About four hundred of them?

A. Yes.

Q. And a great variety of other things?

A. Yes.

Q. You recovered none of the guns?

A. No.

                     *      *      *      *      *

B. K. Walton, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were one of the deputy sheriffs in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. State whether you were in the city during Thursday, the 19th, and
during Friday.

A. I cannot say as to Thursday or Friday--I do not think that I was. I
was on Saturday.

Q. State to us just what connection you had with the riotous
proceedings?

A. On Saturday I was one among the deputies instructed by the sheriff
to get up a posse. I went along several of the streets and asked
several parties to come up. Some said they would come and some said
they would not. However, not more than one or two came. We went on up
to Union depot to the railroad and from there went up with the military
to Twenty-eighth street. There appeared to be a crowd on both sides of
the railroad, and along the railroad, as we went up. There was a great
deal of turmoil and noise. We were not up there more than a few minutes
until the firing commenced. Stones and pieces of bricks were thrown
before the firing commenced.

Q. Where did you try to raise a posse?

A. In the streets here.

Q. To what class of men did you go?

A. To most anybody that we could get hold of--citizens of Pittsburgh.

Q. What responses did you get usually?

A. Some said they would not go under any consideration and others
promised to go, but did not come when the time came.

Q. How many did you succeed in getting?

A. Out of ten or fifteen that promised to come, I think only one or two
came.

Q. Did you go outside of the city in trying to raise the posse?

A. No.

Q. How many did you say there were of you that went ahead of the
military?

A. I think there were from twelve to eighteen of us ahead of the
militia from Union depot up to Twenty-eighth street.

Q. When the crowd began to throw stones, was it at you or the militia?

A. It appeared to be at the militia altogether.

Q. Were any of the sheriff's posse hit?

A. Not to my own knowledge.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was not the sheriff struck himself?

A. Not that I saw.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Whereabouts did the sheriff's posse stand when the stones began to
be thrown?

A. Some were on Twenty-eighth street, and part of the party were on
this side a little piece, not more than ten or twelve feet apart.

Q. In front of the militia?

A. Yes.

Q. Where were you when the militia fired?

A. On the crossing at Twenty-eighth street. Part of the crowd had got
in between me and most of the others and the militia. We got mixed up
at that time.

Q. Did the militia fire towards you?

A. The first firing appeared to be up the hill, and the second up the
railroad where we were standing.

Q. Where did you go then?

A. I got behind a car.

Q. Where did the balance of the party go to?

A. I do not know where they all went to. Some were where I was.

Q. Did you call on any of the constables to go out with you?

A. I do not believe I did myself.

Q. Were you out during Sunday?

A. Not in connection with the office; but I was out myself.

Q. Did you see the fire?

A. Yes; I was on the hill pretty much all day above the Union depot.

Q. What time did you get on the ground?

A. I came over in the morning about nine o'clock. I live just above the
top of the hill.

Q. How far had the fire approached towards the city at that time?

A. A considerable distance below the round-house.

Q. How many men were engaged in burning and running down the cars then?

A. A great many of them.

Q. Two or three hundred?

A. Yes; more than that.

Q. How many policemen would it have taken to have driven them away at
that time?

A. I do not think there were enough in the city at that time.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did the sheriff command the mob to disperse before the firing?

A. I believe he did; but I was not up with him the first time he was
up.

Q. What effort was made by the sheriff and his posse, or deputies, to
clear the track before the military came up?

A. They tried to get them off the track--they talked to some of them,
but they appeared to want to get at the military. When we got to the
crossing, part of the party got away, and that is how a part of the mob
got in between us and the military.

Q. Were you close to the military when the firing commenced?

A. Within ten or twelve feet, I think.

Q. Did you hear any command given to fire?

A. None whatever.

Q. If there had been a command given you would have heard it?

A. I think so--I was close enough. There appeared to be a good deal of
noise going on at the time.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You were not with the sheriff on Friday night when he went up to
Twenty-eighth street?

A. No.

Q. Do you know whether he made any effort that night to raise a posse
or not?

A. I do not know of my own knowledge. I was not in the city on Friday
night?

Q. Did you see the crowd on Saturday morning?

A. Yes.

Q. How large was it on Saturday morning?

A. A great many people were there.

Q. Do you think a well organized police force would have been able to
have driven away the crowd on Saturday morning?

A. I do not know about that. It would have depended on circumstances
altogether. It would have taken a pretty good force to have driven them
away.

Q. Do you think it would have been possible to have gathered a posse in
and about the city--if the sheriff had started out on Saturday morning
and made an effort, could he have collected a posse sufficiently large
to have driven away the crowd?

A. The Saturday morning we were out?

Q. By sending out deputies through the county, do you think he could
have collected a posse, or not?

A. If all were of the same opinion as the people in town, I do not
think he could have got a posse. It would have been pretty hard work.

Q. How was the feeling outside the city, so far as you know?

A. Outside I do not know. In the city, the feeling appeared to be with
the strikers altogether.

Q. Here in the city?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you say all the citizens?

A. No; I do not say that; but those I had any conversation with--those
men I tried to get to go up there.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Soloman Coulson, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your occupation?

A. I am doing nothing. At the time of this riot I was a police officer.
My occupation is a brick-maker.

Q. What office did you fill at the time of the trouble?

A. I was what is called a roundsman here in this city--walking pretty
much all over. I wore no uniform. I traveled into different places in
the city.

Q. Where were you on Thursday morning?

A. I was at home in bed.

Q. When did you first learn of the disturbance?

A. About one o'clock in the afternoon.

Q. What took place?

A. I went to Twenty-eighth street where the disturbance was, and found
detective McGovern there in charge of a posse of men. A great many
railroaders were standing around, not doing anything. Along about
three-forty o'clock, they made up a freight train to go out called a
double-header--two engines attached to the train. Orders were given by
somebody, I don't know who, that four policemen should go on each one
of those locomotives. I was, myself, on one locomotive. The engine I
was on, a reporter got on. He asked me if there was any danger, and I
told him I thought there was, and he got off. They pulled out this
train, I guess, about ten or twelve feet, and I didn't see anybody
going to stop it. I thought they could very easily have taken it out at
that time. I saw a man get on the track and throw his hands up, and
with that they stopped, and the engineers and firemen jumped off. The
police then on the engines insisted on going ahead. I did, for myself.
The last man I saw getting off was a fireman. I said what are you
getting off for, and he said he had got to do it.

Q. Did they refuse to go on when you insisted?

A. That man--he was a fireman or an engineer--I cannot tell which--he
was doing both.

Q. It was when that man threw himself in front of the train?

A. One man did it. I think he is in jail now. That evening we had this
man McCall in the Twelfth ward station, and there was a rumor that the
mob was going to attack the Twelfth ward station and rescue him. I went
to that station, and took that man McCall and marched down, putting
twenty policemen behind us. We passed through the crowd, and nothing
was said, and got down a few squares when there happened to be a friend
of mine sitting in a car, and he hallooed at me and said, "For God's
sake get in the car." The street was blocked. The car was stopped at
the corner of Twenty-fourth and Penn, and we got in with our prisoner.
Some of the crowd caught up with us. I had a revolver. One fellow put
up a revolver at my ear when I struck him over the face with mine. We
still kept on going, and we took our prisoner to the Central station. I
didn't get back again that night. I was there again on the 21st,
Saturday, and about eleven o'clock that night--Saturday night--I saw
this burning. I was on Smithfield street at the time, and met a great
many men coming down with goods. The feeling was not good towards me on
account of this man McCall. I met a couple of parties with rolls of
cloth, and we arrested them, and by morning we had more than a hundred
in there for carrying off stuff. On Sunday morning, after the
Philadelphia troops left--and before they did leave--we had that man in
jail that I saw shooting into them with a breech-loading rifle. I went
up to the round-house, and made a search there. I heard Chief Evans
state that he saw whisky running into the cellar of the round-house. I
don't know where there is a cellar to the round-house, but there is a
cellar to the carpenter shop.

Q. Is the carpenter-shop not one part of the round-house?

A. The carpenter-shop is on the right, and there was a space of thirty
or forty feet between them. The Philadelphia troops I saw leave the
round-house. They came out and formed, and went off.

Q. How did they come out?

A. In a body, in regular marching order.

Q. Where was the crowd when they came out?

A. Very scarce.

Q. Where had the crowd gone to?

A. Dispersed and secreted themselves in buildings and every place. I
went as far as Seventeenth street--the crowd had started, too--then the
fire had not got that far. It was about the middle of the day. We
stopped there, and during the time we were there undertook to prevent
parties from breaking open the cars and setting them on fire, which we
did succeed in stopping some. Afterwards I saw men dropping coal down
below the track, and rolling barrels of oil down and setting them on
fire. They were strangers to me. We couldn't get the force apparently
together. If we had got them together at that time, a hundred men would
have subdued the riot at that time, because it was apparently the work
of boys. There were not as many men as boys, but the force had got
scattered.

Q. What time did the troops come out of the round-house?

A. Near seven or eight o'clock.

Q. Not many of the crowd were there at that time?

A. No.

Q. Was any burning going on at that time?

A. I saw the first car fired to drive the Philadelphia troops out. It
was a car on the Valley track. It was set on fire, and a wheel of it
was chocked. They dropped other cars down against it, and they caught
on fire, until it got pretty hot. But this carpenter-shop didn't take
fire for some time. I helped to shove some cars away back from the
entrance leading in between the round-house and the carpenter-shop.
Those cars didn't catch on fire.

Q. They kept dropping those cars down all night?

A. Yes.

Q. Did they remain near the round-house?

A. They kept back towards Twenty-seventh street. They had a gun there.
A man named Stewart I saw carried away from there dead. He was
apparently a railroader. He had a watch with that name on it. I went to
see the gun, and if they had ever fired it, it never would have hurt
anybody in the round-house--if they had ever fired it. The wall is too
high there.

Q. What was it that caused that crowd to be scattered? Was it fear of
fire from the soldiers?

A. I reckon that was it.

Q. After the soldiers got away, did the crowd re-assemble?

A. No; not there.

Q. Were the burning cars below there?

A. Yes.

Q. They were still going on down with the burning and the pillaging?

A. Yes.

Q. They marched in regular order--the troops you saw?

A. In every good order.

Q. Suppose they had formed in line, at that time, and marched on the
crowd what would have been the effect?

A. They would have got the best of the crowd because I didn't see many
around there.

Q. Could they have driven the crowd away from the burning cars?

A. I think they could.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. And restored order?

A. I don't know about that.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who directed you to go out there first?

A. The mayor--to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Q. Did you have anybody with you?

A. No.

Q. Did you see the mayor before going?

A. I saw him that day before going.

Q. Where?

A. At the city hall, in his office.

Q. Were you on regular duty that day?

A. I was on other duty that day--I was on a little special duty that
day, but was detailed and sent to where this trouble was supposed to
be. I was to meet the men where I was going. About this Officer Motts.
On Saturday night the mayor was in the Twelfth ward, and shortly after
I went there I saw him there, and on Sunday morning. On Sunday he was
on the railroad. I was standing alone, and he came to me and said to
me, for God's sake get some men, you can stop them from breaking into
these cars. I went towards the crowd, but there was no use for one
man--but I did. They then commenced to hurl stones.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. What was the crowd--boys?

A. Yes; and some men were among them. They were all getting pretty
drunk then.

Q. You say the mayor was there attending to his duties?

A. Yes; using all the efforts he could to stop the riot; but we could
not get the men together. Our force had been cut down, and it was
impossible to get the men together. I asked men to stand alongside of
me, but as soon as you would turn your head around again they were
gone. In relation to Johnston and Bown's gun shops--I was at both
places. At Johnston's, a demand was made for guns, and they gave them
some muskets. I don't think that Johnston's was broke in.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They gave them?

A. That was what was said. I know I took a musket with a bayonet on
from a fellow, and gave it back to the store. I was sent by the mayor's
clerk to Bown's--some eight of us--but there were no uniformed men
among us; we were in citizen's clothes. It was a hard matter to tell
what they wanted; but eight of us went there at the time. Then this
party came along Wood street, and they had a drum with them, and some
of them had muskets with bayonets on, and others had revolvers, and
others, what I took to be a large rammer, and they commenced ramming
against the door. Officer Downey was one of the first officers to the
store. I got in with him. They were then carrying out the stuff, and we
took several guns from them and handed them back. They were still
carrying out the stuff, and it was impossible to prevent them breaking
in, because the force was not strong enough.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you armed?

A. No; no more than we usually carried--our pocket revolvers.

Q. Had you maces?

A. The men that were there were not in the habit of carrying maces. I
suppose they had billies and revolvers. The proper course to save
Bown's store would have been to let eight or nine men get in there and
arm them, and then keep them out there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did this crowd seem to be bent on plunder?

A. Principally on plunder; I don't think that many of those guns taken
out there ever went into the riot.

Q. Did they carry off pretty much everything?

A. Yes; according to the looks of the shelves and show cases. There
were a couple of men arrested for stealing from that establishment,
that are now doing terms in the western penitentiary.


    By Mr. Englebert:

Q. Did you recognize them as any particular class of men?

A. I did not; their faces to me were apparently strange--they
apparently looked like workingmen. A great many thieves were among
them, and some, I know, have had to leave the city since, or we would
have had them.

Q. You don't know where they were from?

A. Those I speak of?

Q. Yes?

A. I do; yes, from Pittsburgh.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. They have left the city entirely?

A. Yes.

Q. You were about the city a good deal attending to your duties, and
you know a large part of the population?

A. I do.

Q. That crowd of men that went out there on Saturday and Sunday--was
the crowd composed of men about the city?

A. No; they were pretty much all strangers; the biggest portion of them
were strange men.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. In your duties as a roundsman, had you noticed any unusual influx of
strangers into the town?

A. I had--a great many. We had a large crowd of them, I believe from
Cumberland--in the neighborhood of twenty-five or thirty--that is, one
batch, and I took notice of others.

Q. Sufficient to attract the attention of the police authorities?

A. It would have attracted my attention, and I have been following up
that business for my living for eight or nine years.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. When did these men come into the city first?

A. The first I noticed of them was on Saturday night, when I got into
the Twelfth ward. To show you that there were a great many people that
didn't belong in the city, I arrested some nine or ten up there that
night, and among that nine or ten, eight of them belonged to Allegheny,
and their faces were all strange to me.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. This party from Cumberland--when did they come?

A. I can't remember.

Q. After or before the fire?

A. I can't be positive which.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. You said there was no cellar under this round-house?

A. There was no cellar, but I found a turn-table in the middle of it.

Q. How deep is a round-house generally dug out--from the top of the
rails down?

A. It is on a level, but it has got to be so deep for the turn-table.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The carpenter shop was connected with it?

A. Yes.

Q. And the superintendent's office and car shops?

A. Yes.

Q. Didn't they all have cellars under them?

A. The office might have had a cellar--I know the office had.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. When you went out there on Thursday afternoon, what class of men
were there?

A. Principally railroaders.

Q. How many were there?

A. One hundred and fifty, or more than that. I knew a great many of
them.

Q. Could the trains have been run out that afternoon, if the engineers
and firemen had gone?

A. Yes; they could have taken this train out I was on--I don't know how
far, though. They had four policemen on each engine to protect the
engineers and firemen, and from what I understood, there were men to be
put along on the train to protect the brakemen.

Q. You were out again on Friday?

A. No; not until Saturday. I remained there until Sunday morning, about
eight o'clock.

Q. How large a posse could you have raised in the city to go out there
and restore order, if the mayor had made a call, or a demand for a
posse?

A. It would have depended on how much time you would have given me.

Q. In a day?

A. I might have got in the neighborhood of one hundred men. There were
but one hundred and twenty men, and some of them were there.

Q. But from any class of men in the city--if he had just called for a
posse from any source--for extra men?

A. He could not have got many at that time. Wherever I went, to judge
from the talk, the people were all in sympathy with the mob.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Do you mean the tax-payers?

A. I suppose so.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. But the mayor made no call, so far as you know, for a posse?

A. I saw him trying to get men together on different occasions.

Q. But he made no official demand?

A. Not that I know of.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. He made no effort to increase his police force by swearing in extra
men?

A. I believe he did as quick as he could do it.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. When did he do it?

A. In a couple or three days--may be two days.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. After the riot?

A. Shorty after the riot. I think he did it as quickly as he could get
the men together. I think he tried all he could to prevent this riot,
which he don't get the credit for here. He ordered me on Sunday morning
to go to the fire department, about one o'clock, and I went in search
of the chief, in company with another officer, Motts. He did the
talking. I didn't talk to him myself. We went to look for the chief,
and could not find him. We went down to Twenty-first street and Penn
street, and we saw a foreman there--I believe, in fact, several of the
fire department were there, and we requested them to come and play on
the fire, that the mayor had sufficient force, and that he would
protect them, and the answer I don't remember, but I know they didn't
come up and play on the fire. They were not going to run the danger.

Q. What firemen did you see?

A. Motts can tell you. Several were standing there.

Q. What ones were standing there?

A. Different ones. A man named Kennedy was there, and one named Miller.

Q. Do you know where those two men are now?

A. I suppose they are still on the fire department. The mayor at that
time had dispatched from the Twelfth ward station for police, and had
got, I guess, sixty or may be more. I know that many, for I knew the
lieutenant that came up.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. Were the round-house and those shops very hot when you went in?

A. No; No cars were burning there yet.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Was the fire department near there--some of them?

A. Yes; close up.

Q. If they had played on the burning cars could they have prevented
those buildings from getting on fire?

A. I think they could have prevented it.

Q. Were you ready to give protection then?

A. The mayor was there, and his force, and those were the orders.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. When you went inside of the round-house were the doors still intact.

A. They were. I could not see any fire about them.

Q. How many engines were in there at that time?

A. I can't be certain. A number were in there at that time--a great
many. They were shoved in the stalls. There would, apparently, be one
in each.

Q. You think you examined those doors, do you?

A. I was close to the doors, and if there had been any fire--in case of
a fire I would have seen it.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Was the upper round-house burning then?

A. I believe it was pretty much burned at that time.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where did the troops come out of the round-house?

A. I saw a portion of them come out of the entrance on Twenty-sixth
street, and I think a portion of them came out of the rear end of the
carpenter shop. I saw some twenty-five or thirty come out.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Thomas Hastings, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your business?

A. I not doing anything at present.

Q. What were you doing in July last?

A. I was a police officer.

Q. What connection had you with the efforts to suppress the riot?

A. I did everything, so far as I could, at that time. I didn't know
much about it until Saturday evening. Our time for going on duty was
eight o'clock in the evening. I went on at seven o'clock, and had
orders from the lieutenant to go down and notify each tavern-keeper to
close his saloon, at the request of the mayor. I did so, and we were
distributed in the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street. There was a large
crowd at Twenty-eighth street and Twenty-sixth street, and the crowd
increased up to eleven o'clock.

Q. What time did you receive orders to close the saloons?

A. About seven o'clock in the evening.

Q. In the vicinity of Twenty-eighth street?

A. All along Penn street. I went up about eleven o'clock, and stayed
looking around for a while at Twenty-eighth street, and then came down
as far as Twenty-sixth street, and went back again, and just as I got
at the corner of Twenty-eighth and Penn streets I saw the fire, and I
ran up Liberty street and saw a car of oil. I then ran down and pulled
the alarm, and just as I pulled the alarm I was thrown out in the
street. Just then the mayor passed me, and asked me what the car was,
and I told him it was a car of oil. He asked me if I pulled the alarm,
and I said yes. I didn't see any engine coming. I went down then to the
Twelfth ward station-house, and I asked the captain if he had pulled
the alarm, and he said he had tried to, but couldn't. I then went down
a little piece, and saw an engine and the Independence hose carriage
standing at Twenty-fourth or Twenty-fifth street. Somebody made a
remark that they would not let them come up any further--that they had
threatened to shoot them. I stayed around there all that night, and on
Sunday morning, after the Philadelphia troops left----

Q. Did you see the Philadelphia troops come out of the round-house?

A. I saw what they called the Philadelphia troops.

Q. Where did they come out?

A. They were in this round-house and in the carpenter shop. They
appeared to come out of the west end of the carpenter shop.

Q. On to what street?

A. On to Liberty, and then down Twenty-fifth street to Penn. Some were
deployed as skirmishers, at the head of the column. They appeared to be
pretty well frightened.

Q. Were they marching in good order?

A. Yes; but they appeared to be pretty well scared.

Q. They marched regularly, did they?

A. Yes.

Q. Was any attack made on them?

A. Not to my knowledge--so far as I saw. I only stayed a few minutes,
and went over into the round-house and carpenter shop. I went into, I
believe, where D. O. Shater had his office, on the east end of the
round-house. I went in there, and went in through the round-house into
the carpenter shop.

Q. Were you on duty during the week prior to the riot?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you learn of any arrangement among the men for the strike?

A. I knew nothing of it until I got out of bed on Thursday, that was
the first I heard of it.

Q. What time did you get up?

A. I generally got up about four or five o'clock.

Q. What did you learn then?

A. I learned that there was a strike, or that there was going to be a
strike.

Q. Who informed you?

A. I don't remember. Some railroad man.

Q. What did he say about it?

A. That there had been a strike, or was going to be a strike.

Q. You knew of no pre-arranged plan for a strike?

A. No.

Q. Had you noticed any influx of strangers into the city prior to that
time?

A. I had noticed a great many.

Q. What class of men?

A. They appeared to be tramps--fellows hunting for work, but who didn't
want it.

Q. Any more than there had been previously?

A. Yes; that week there had been a great many traveling back and
forward on the streets.

Q. A great many all the time are traveling, are they not?

A. Not as many as that week, I don't think.

Q. Did you have any conversation with those tramps?

A. No.

Q. What do you do with the tramps who come into the city here?

A. We don't do anything at present.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What was the first day you noticed more tramps than usual?

A. It appeared to be the beginning of the week of the riot--for six or
eight days previous.

Q. You noticed it before the strike commenced?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You did not do anything with those tramps who gathered and
collected?

A. We had not for some time.

Q. You allowed them to come in and go away when they choose?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Where had you noticed this extra influx of tramps?

A. I had noticed it on Penn street, particularly. A great many were
going in and out. They would ask me where there was a place to stay
over night, or if they could stay at the station-house, and I always
directed them to the Young Men's Home.

Q. Did they come there in larger numbers than usual--that is, in larger
crowds than six or eight or ten?

A. Sometimes I would see one or two, and then six, and they increased
to as high as eight in a party.

Q. In a party?

A. In a bunch.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. How soon were you up to the round-house after the troops vacated it?

A. In eight or ten minutes.

Q. Did you go through the round-house or the shops?

A. Yes.

Q. Were any of those buildings on fire?

A. The machine shop was on fire--thirty or forty feet on the east
side--that is, sixty feet from the east end of the round-house.

Q. Do you know anything about any oil cars that were dropped down on
the Pennsylvania railroad towards the round-house?

A. I know that oil cars were dropped down there.

Q. At what time?

A. They were afire when I saw them. I don't know how close to the
round-house they went.

Q. How were they stopped?

A. I think they were bumped against other cars.

Q. You don't know of any obstructions placed on the tracks that
prevented them from running clear to the round house?

A. No.

Q. Was there much heat in the round-house when you got there, soon
after the troops left?

A. The machine shop was on fire. How long it had been burning before, I
cannot say. It was burning when I went into D. O. Shafer's office.

Q. Had any of the troops been in this machine shop?

A. I can't say; some had been shooting out of the bell tower that
night.

Q. Of the machine shop?

A. Yes, sir; the round-house was not on fire, nor the carpenter shop.

Q. What has been your avocation for the last eight or ten years?

A. I have been a railroad man up to within three years.

Q. Have you ever been a conductor on passenger trains?

A. No.

Q. On freight trains?

A. I have been a conductor on freight.

Q. Had you any conversation with freight conductors up to the time of
the riot, or before that time in relation to any contemplated strike?

A. No.

Q. Or with any men belonging to the Trainmen's Union?

A. No; I never took any stock in that union.

Q. Did you see the troops retiring from the round-house?

A. Not until they came up on Penn street.

Q. Did you see them fired at?

A. Not on Penn street. I saw a man who is in jail now, firing from the
corner of Twenty-sixth and Penn streets.

Q. At the troops?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you see any whisky running into any of those buildings on fire?

A. I saw two cars of high wines on fire. They had stopped them in front
of the superintendent's office, and they were throwing water out of the
windows to put the fire out. When I went up there I saw it was high
wines.

Q. Could that have run into the cellar of the buildings or the
superintendent's office?

A. It would have taken a good bit, for the stone sill was eight or ten
inches from the ground, and it would take a great deal to run in there,
though a barrel might have rolled in through the window.

Q. Where is the battery room under the superintendent's office?

A. It is in the west corner of the building--in the cellar.

Q. Is it below the grade of the Allegheny Valley track?

A. I am not sure. Yes; it is below, the bottom part of it, but along
the window sill, I think, it is five or six inches, may be more.

Q. It is below the grade of the railroad track?

A. The inside of it is, but the outside is about six or eight inches
above the ground. I would have to send up to be sure about it.

                     *      *      *      *      *

William Coats, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you connected with the fire department of the city of
Pittsburgh last July?

A. I am one of the fire commissioners of the city of Pittsburgh.

Q. State the organization of that department last July?

A. We had eleven steam fire engine companies and two hose companies and
three trucks in the city of Pittsburgh last July, and an average of
about seven men to a company. But we didn't have a full force on. Our
appropriations ran short, and we were compelled to put off some
twenty-two men just previous to the riot.

Q. How many men had you at that time?

A. One hundred and four, telegraph operators and all--a working force
of about ninety-eight men.

Q. They are a paid force, are they?

A. Yes.

Q. State what aid they rendered in putting out the fire?

A. The first alarm, the night of the riot, occurred on the 21st of
July, I think--I am not positive--and was sent in about fifteen minutes
after ten o'clock. I was then at engine house No. 7, on Penn avenue,
near the corner of Twenty-third street. There were three companies that
answered that alarm, and one hose company and one truck. The department
was stopped on the street, between Twenty-third and Twenty-eighth
street. The crowd caught the horses of No. 7 engine, and drew the fire
out of the engine, and made the men pull into the sidewalk. The
department did no service on Saturday night, but they went into service
when the Philadelphia troops vacated the round-house, on Sunday morning
at seven o'clock. Our men went there then; and, if you will allow me, I
will tell you why they did not go into service before.

Q. We want to know it?

A. The people would not allow them to.

Q. That is the mob?

A. Yes; but we considered them in service from the time the alarm
struck, though they didn't throw any water. We couldn't get to the
round-house building, or to where the fire started, because the mob
stopped us. They made the assistant chief engineer get out of his
buggy. I sent off the second signal myself from No. 7 engine house when
they commenced to fire cars down about Twentieth street. In the
meantime, an alarm came in from East Liberty, and we thought it was the
cattle yards there. From the corner of Twenty-second and Liberty
streets, we laid a line of hose, but they commenced to cut it as soon
as we laid it, and they made us take it up again. A fellow put a pistol
to my ear and said, take that up.

Q. Did you know the fellow who did that?

A. No. I have not seen him since. We reeled the hose up. There was no
use in getting it out. We could only get into service when the
Philadelphia troops came out of the round-house on Sunday morning.

Q. What kind of service did you render during the day?

A. We saved this town from burning down. I don't suppose that ever a
body of men worked harder than the Pittsburgh fire department. We did
not have a man who was not at his post from ten o'clock on Saturday
night until eight o'clock on Monday morning. It was the only body of
men in Pittsburgh organized.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They were ready to do their duty?

A. They did their duty.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You say they saved the city? How?

A. In the first place, when we went into service, opposite the
round-house or the machine-shops, there were a lot of frames or
tenement houses that were on fire. Well, we put out this fire, and we
kept on following the fire down Liberty street, and kept the buildings
wetted down. The fire was very intense--very hot, and it was a
continual fight with fire all the way down Liberty street.

Q. The crowd of rioters and pillagers were ahead of you?

A. Sometimes they were ahead, and sometimes along with us; sometimes
the rioters kept ahead of the fire, and sometimes they were among us.

Q. They didn't break open the cars and pillage them until the fire
started along?

A. There were places on Liberty street where no man could have stood,
even to wet the houses down, and where they couldn't have pillaged,
because it was too hot, and occasionally along Liberty street there
were a lot of coal dumps and some oil bins, and where that occurred the
heat was very intense. We had to keep things wetted all the time. Along
there the pillagers would sometimes be very plenty.

Q. I suppose all the private property burned caught from the heat of
the railroad cars?

A. Yes; the only private property that was burned was on Washington
street.

Q. Did those houses catch fire, or were they set on fire?

A. They caught from the Union depot.

Q. You saved the private property here by wetting down the buildings?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you receive any protection from the police force?

A. No; we did not.

Q. At any time?

A. No; not to my knowledge.

Q. You were with the department?

A. I was.

Q. At any time did you receive any protection from the police?

A. No.

Q. If you had been protected by the police, could you have cut the fire
and stopped it?

A. We could, at any place.

Q. How many men would it have taken to protect you?

A. I think twenty-five or fifty men, at the outside, could have stopped
that burning on Sunday morning. I say that, because there could have
been no mistakes. Because, if they had shot some of them down, they
could not have made any mistakes. They had no business there.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did you see the mayor there during the day?

A. I saw the mayor there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Was the mayor making any effort to keep back the crowd?

A. I did not see any force of policemen that day, but the mayor
appeared to be moving up and down Liberty street. I saw him talking to
the rioters.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. After the Philadelphia troops left the round-house, how long was it
before it was on fire?

A. It was, I think, on fire when they left, because we went up there
right away.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You say that the round-house was on fire, but we have evidence that
it was not?

A. The offices that stood between were certainly on fire, because I
worked that stream myself, and the heat got so intense at one time,
that we had to move the engine away. The round-house could not help
being on fire, for that oil sent down would have put anything on fire.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you see the troops come out?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Were the burning cars around there?

A. They had been sending down the burning cars sometime before.

Q. Then it was afire when they came out?

A. As soon as the troops came out, the chief engineer ordered some
apparatus there, and we went there at once. There was almost an entire
square on Liberty street, all lumber yards and frame shanties, on fire.
And this machine shop was on fire. I am not positive about the two
round-houses at that time. I was working there myself.

Q. How many men, do you judge, were engaged in this burning?

A. I cannot tell you that--a great many.

Q. Actively engaged--that is, I want to distinguish between the persons
standing around in crowds on the pavements looking on, and the parties
actively engaged in the burning?

A. When I was down on Liberty street, there appeared to be a great many
people on the railroad track. Of course, they were pillaging then--it
was plain--any person could see it. Every now and then you could see
the flames bursting out from the cars.

Q. Did you see this crowd--was it an organized effort to follow up the
burning--did it seem to be followed systematically?

A. Yes; I think it was organized.

Q. Can you form any idea as to how many were actively engaged?

A. I cannot. I was not on the railroad track that day. Men and women
and everything else were on the railroad track.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Behind the fire?

A. Yes; but they kept in front, too.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They were pillaging and carrying the things away?

A. Yes; I got down to Eleventh street, and went to the Pan-Handle
railroad yard, and they were breaking the cars open and setting the
things on fire. I said to them, don't do it, or you will set the city
on fire, and they said they did not care a damn if they did.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Did you know those men?

A. No; I never saw them before or since. On Saturday evening I was
sitting in front of the engine house, and some men came up in front and
said, "If there is a fire to-night, I suppose you will turn out." I
said, "Certainly," when he said, "If you turn out there will be
trouble. We will cut your hose and smash your apparatus."


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did he talk as if he came to warn you for that purpose?

A. Yes; he talked as if he came for the purpose of letting us know
that. There was a great deal of feeling that night.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you have none of your engines in service before the troops left?

A. No.

Q. You played on neither private property nor railroad property?

A. No.

Q. Were the crowd generally disorderly?

A. Yes.

Q. Making threats?

A. O, yes; that they would kill the firemen, and one thing and another?


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. Did you see a proclamation or any official document of the mayor of
the city of Pittsburgh ordering the rum shops and drinking saloons to
be closed on Saturday or Sunday?

A. I do not know of seeing it. If a proclamation was issued on
Saturday, I was not in the city on Saturday afternoon.

Q. Or any proclamation ordering the crowd to disperse?

A. I did not.

Q. No proclamation calling for a police force?

A. No.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you see the shooting on Saturday night?

A. No; what occurred in the evening I didn't see. I was up there in the
morning, but out of the city in the afternoon.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. If a determined effort had been made on Thursday by the mayor with
the police force that he had at hand, could he have dispersed the
crowd?

A. I do not know of any reason why he should not.

Q. On Friday, do you think so?

A. Yes.

Q. Could he on Saturday, up until the time of the arrival of the
militia?

A. It could not have been done on Saturday morning, because the mill
men had all commenced to gather.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you think he could have quelled the trouble without calling on
the militia--that the police force could have suppressed the riot?

A. That is something I do not pretend to answer. The militia were
called out a day or two previous to that. But I think this, that it was
unfortunate for this shooting to have occurred in Pittsburgh. My
sympathies were with the strikers, but not up to the point of rioting.

Q. You say you thought on Saturday morning the crowd could not have
been dispersed without the militia?

A. No.

Q. By the police force?

A. No.

Q. Could the mayor or the sheriff have raised a posse, either in the
city or in the county, including both, sufficient to have dispersed the
crowd?

A. I think that the mayor of any city of the size of the city of
Pittsburgh ought to be able, with his police force, to break up any
assemblage of men.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. After the sheriff called upon the Governor for troops, didn't that
intensify the feeling in Pittsburgh?

A. It did. I do not think that there was any necessity for that, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. State what efforts were made to start trains that day?

A. On Friday afternoon no effort was made. The passenger trains came in
on Saturday morning. The troops were mixed with the crowd, and no
effort was made to start trains, I went to Allegheny City, and learned
of the shooting while coming across the river. I happened to be away
when the fun commenced.

At this point the committee adjourned to meet to-morrow morning, at ten
o'clock.


    MORNING SESSION.

    ORPHANS' COURT ROOM,
    PITTSBURGH, _Wednesday, February 13, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee assembled at ten o'clock
A.M., this day, and continued taking of testimony.

The first witness examined was:

                     *      *      *      *      *

Henry Coates, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you a member of the fire department last July?

A. No; I was a member of the police force.

Q. What position did you hold?

A. I was a lieutenant.

Q. How many men did you have control of?

A. I had forty men that night of Saturday.

Q. Where were you on Thursday?

A. Sleeping. We had no day force in the city at that time.

Q. Were you not around during the day, Thursday?

A. No.

Q. Where were you on Friday?

A. In bed.

Q. During the night of Thursday, where were you?

A. On duty from Eleventh street to Thirty-third street.

Q. Taking in Twenty-eighth street?

A. Yes.

Q. Was there any disturbance--any overt act?

A. No; but there was a collection of people. Sometimes there would not
be over thirty or forty.

Q. What class of people?

A. Railroaders, particularly.

Q. What was the conduct of the people?

A. They were quiet. There was no trouble at all.

Q. Did they remain there?

A. They would pass up and down, talking among themselves.

Q. Hid you have any conversation with them?

A. No.

Q. Did you ask them why they were there?

A. No; it was not an infrequent occurrence to see men there. It is a
principal street to go up to go to work.

Q. On Friday night how large was the crowd?

A. One hundred or so.

Q. Were they railroad men on Friday night?

A. Yes; principally. They appeared to be very quiet talking among
themselves.

Q. What were they saying?

A. That they did not let me hear.

Q. Did you report to the chief of police or the mayor?

A. I made a report every morning.

Q. You reported that crowd to him?

A. Yes.

Q. But received no orders?

A. No; no orders to disperse them or anything else.

Q. Were the saloons open in that part of the city during Thursday,
Friday, and Saturday. Were they closed at all?

A. I ordered them to close on Saturday evening.

Q. At what time?

A. About eight o'clock.

Q. During Saturday night, describe what took place?

A. I do not know that I can.

Q. You were not on duty during the firing?

A. No; that took place before we went on duty.

Q. How large was the crowd?

A. They began to come--three or four hundred--or two hundred--squads
coming from different places all during Saturday night and Sunday
morning. Nearly everybody in the city was in that neighborhood--or the
biggest part of them.

Q. What time did the burning commence?

A. In the neighborhood of ten and half or a quarter to eleven o'clock.
A crowd had congregated around the fire-alarm box, and would not let
the men pull it.

Q. Where did the fire break out first?

A. I was about Twenty-eighth street when it broke out. I should judge
between Thirty-first and Thirty-second street on the railroad.

Q. What was set on fire?

A. Oil, from the appearance of the smoke.

Q. What did they do with the cars after they set them on fire?

A. They cut them loose and ran them.

Q. How many men were engaged in that?

A. I cannot say that at all.

Q. Were you near the round-house during the night?

A. Yes; with the mayor of the city. I went to Twenty-seventh street,
and passed the round-house, and tried to get in a place where it was
reported a lady was shot--opposite the round-house. That was after the
firing had taken place--about eleven o'clock.

Q. Did you succeed in getting in?

A. No; it was in a small saloon, and I had notified them in the early
part of the evening to close, and for that reason they would not let us
in.

Q. Were you there on Sunday morning?

A. Yes; until after the troops left.

Q. Did you see them march out?

A. Yes.

Q. Where did they come out?

A. On Twenty-sixth street--out of the gate.

Q. Did they march in good order?

A. Yes.

Q. Were they fired upon?

A. Not in our neighborhood.

Q. By the crowd?

A. No.

Q. How large a crowd was there or around there when they marched out?

A. I saw one citizen.

Q. Did you know him?

A. Yes.

Q. Who was he?

A. Captain ---- McMunn. There had been quite a crowd before they filed
on to Penn street, but they all broke.

Q. They broke when they saw the troops?

A. Yes; the cry was raised when they came out that they were going down
to the Union depot, and the mob undertook to get down and cut them off.

Q. The mob broke and ran towards the river?

A. Any place where they could run away.

Q. You mean to say that the mob ran from the military, when they came
out?

A. They did.

Q. How long was it before the mob re-assembled?

A. I did not see them re-assemble.

Q. Were you there during the day?

A. Shortly after that I had to come to the central station and take
charge of the prisoners we had arrested.

Q. How many prisoners did you have arrested up there?

A. I cannot say the number.

Q. Can you give us an estimate?

A. About seventy-five, I suppose.

Q. What were they arrested for?

A. For having goods in their possession--cloth, and everything they
could get hold of.

Q. Did you take them before the mayor?

A. Before Acting-Mayor Butler.

Q. What did he do with them?

A. Some of them were dismissed, and some were sent to jail, and some
were fined.

Q. Some were dismissed?

A. Yes.

Q. Why?

A. That I cannot tell you.

Q. Was there no evidence against them?

A. Evidence of having goods in their possession, certainly. We arrested
some of them with guns.

Q. Muskets?

A. Yes, and shot guns.

Q. Were any of those dismissed?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. About how many of those were dismissed?

A. That I cannot tell you.

Q. What time did you return to the scene of the riot?

A. After getting through with the prisoners, I was then ordered by the
mayor to report to the chief engineer of the fire department for duty.

Q. What did you do?

A. I did all I could. Being an engineer by trade, I took spells at
running an engine and worked with them after the neighborhood of seven
o'clock that evening.

Q. Were you interfered with by the mob?

A. I was not.

Q. Whereabouts did you work?

A. Generally at the engine.

Q. At what points?

A. Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth, and Seventeenth and Sixteenth streets.
And from there I went with the fuel wagon.

Q. Did you receive any assistance from the police?

A. They were there, and doing all they could, but the police was small
at that time.

Q. Were you at the Union depot when it was set on fire?

A. No.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. Those goods--what became of them?

A. They were turned over to the commissioners, I understood.

Q. They were goods taken out the cars?

A. Yes.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Why were those prisoners taken before Deputy Mayor Butler?

A. I cannot answer that question.

Q. Where did he sit?

A. In the central station, where we usually held the mayor's court.

Q. The mayor's office?

A. It is the central station-house.

Q. Where the mayor holds his court?

A. Yes.

Q. Where was Mayor McCarthy at that time?

A. I cannot tell you that.

Q. You say the police gave the fire department assistance and
protection?

A. I say they assisted, so far as I saw.

                     *      *      *      *      *

William J. Kennedy, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is your occupation?

A. Foreman of engine company No. 3.

Q. Did you occupy that position last July?

A. Yes.

Q. State what part you took in putting out the fire that occurred on
the night of the 21st--Saturday night?

A. It was eleven o'clock and twenty minutes when the alarm came first.
We started out the house, but we were stopped at the grain elevator.
But we got through that crowd, and got on to Penn street, when they
began firing at us or at our horses.

Q. How many shots were fired?

A. I cannot tell that. It was just firing here and there along the
street.

Q. With pistols and guns?

A. With all kinds of arms.

Q. How long was that kept up?

A. All night until daylight.

Q. Go on and tell us what occurred?

A. We turned on to Liberty street, and at Twenty-first and Liberty they
hit me with something, and surrounded the horses. Then we turned on to
Penn again, but they wouldn't let us move, so we went towards the river
and tried to go down to get up further, but they were waiting there.
They had some old muskets and carbines and other things, and if we just
moved the horses they would come. We changed to different places from
one block to another, but they wouldn't let us lay a line, and wouldn't
let us throw any water except private property was in danger. We didn't
throw any water until after the troops went out of the round-house in
the morning.

Q. Were you present when they went out of the round-house?

A. Yes.

Q. Were you at the round-house after they left?

A. Yes.

Q. Was it on fire?

A. Yes. They had to come out. The fire got under them.

Q. Under what part of the round-house?

A. I don't know what part of it, but they set it on fire from Liberty
street. They had a hose there, and were throwing water all night. They
ran the cars down and tried to set it on fire, but it was all right
until the fire got under them.

Q. You say the troops had hose, and kept the fire out until it got
under them and drove them out?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you know of any oil that was run under them?

A. I don't know that. All I know is, that some liquor was there
burning.

Q. How soon did you get to the round-house, after the troops left?

A. As soon as we could.

Q. How extensive was the fire then in the round-house?

A. It was big, and there were lumber yards across the street all afire.

Q. Was the carpenter shop on fire?

A. I don't know whether the carpenter shop was or not.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were any buildings attached to the round-house on fire, or buildings
near it?

A. Yes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How large was the crowd when the troops came out?

A. I don't know how large.

Q. What did the crowd do when the troops marched out?

A. They were taking a walk--nobody interfered with the troops.
Everybody tried to get out of their road.

Q. And get away?

A. Yes.

Q. In what direction did the crowd go?

A. I don't know.

Q. The crowd didn't attempt to attack the troops?

A. No.

Q. During the day--Sunday and Sunday night--were you interfered with by
the crowd in throwing water?

A. Yes--frequently.

Q. To what extent?

A. Different parties kept coming constantly, so that we couldn't do
anything. They said: "Don't you throw any water on the railroad
property, or we will blow the heads off of you." It was not just one
man, but they kept reminding you of it all the time.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. They allowed you to play on private property?

A. Yes; I turned a stream on the cars at Union depot, when I suppose
twenty revolvers were shot at me.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you call on the police force for protection?

A. I would have had to call a good while before I would have got any. I
didn't see many of them.

Q. Did they offer any protection to you?

A. Not to me, they didn't.

Q. Did Officer Daniel Motts speak to you at any time, offering to
protect you?

A. He spoke to me several times during the night, but never offered me
any protection. There was no occasion to offer me any, as both the
chiefs were there.

Q. And he didn't offer you any protection?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did he give you any protection?

A. Not that I know of.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did he tell you, if you would commence playing on a certain point,
that the police would protect you?

A. He didn't.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did any police officer?

A. No.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. In your examination, you have stated that you went to the
round-house as soon as you could, after the troops left?

A. Yes; and went into service.

Q. How long was it after the troops left until you got playing upon the
fire at the round-house?

A. I cannot tell you exactly, but it was very quick?

Q. Half an hour?

A. No; it was not ten minutes until we were throwing water.

Q. Then the fire had made considerable progress in the round-house?

A. Yes; and across the street in the lumber yards.

Q. Do you know, of your own personal knowledge, that the fire
department did call upon the mayor for protection?

A. I cannot say. I saw the mayor there in a buggy.

Q. He didn't offer you any protection?

A. Not that I know of.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Do you think, with the fire department, you could have cut the fire
and stopped it during Sunday, if you had had protection?

A. I don't know whether we could have stopped it, it was on fire in too
many different places; but I think we could have picked out twenty-five
men and saved Union depot from burning.

Q. Do you mean you could have prevented the mob from firing it?

A. Yes.

Q. With twenty-five policemen?

A. With twenty-five good men of any kind.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Do you mean that it could have been stopped at that time and place?

A. Yes.

Q. And that you could have prevented the spreading of the fire?

A. Yes; if I had had that number of determined men.

Q. Did you see those parties who set Union depot on fire?

A. No.

Q. Was there no effort made when they set the sheds on fire to tear the
sheds down and stop the fire?

A. Not that I saw--not by the police, that I saw. We did all we could.
We kept following up the fire.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was there no effort made during the day, Sunday, to stop the
progress of those men in setting fire to the cars and the depot?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. You were not present when the mayor made a speech to the crowd?

A. No.

                     *      *      *      *      *

John M. Miller, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. On Second avenue.

Q. What was your connection with the fire department in July last?

A. I was an engineer.

Q. What time did you go to the scene of the fire?

A. About twenty minutes after eleven o'clock.

Q. Saturday night?

A. Yes.

Q. Were you interfered with by the crowd?

A. We were fired at and told to go slow, you sons of bitches, all the
way, but nobody struck us. I don't know whether they fired at us or
not, but our foreman, I believe, was struck in the back.

Q. Did they strike any of your horses?

A. That I cannot tell. I was behind the engine.

Q. Where did you commence work?

A. We were off with the engine about a square from the fire, and
commenced work first at Twenty-sixth street. I don't know where they
had the hose placed. They told us not to throw on the railroad
property, or they would cut our hose, and they tried to prevent me
putting on my suction hose. We had to talk to them, and tell them we
were not going to play on the railroad property before they would allow
us to make any attachment at all.

Q. How long did you remain at work playing on the fire?

A. We returned home at ten o'clock Monday morning, I think it was.

Q. During the day, Sunday, were you interfered with by the mob?

A. They spoke to us, and a drunken fellow told us, if we played on the
railroad property, that they would blow our heads off.

Q. Were you protected by the police?

A. The police was a disorganized body--no two of them were together, I
don't believe. I never saw over two together the whole day.

Q. Did you call on the police for protection?

A. I didn't.

Q. Did the police offer you any protection?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Did Officer Daniel Motts say anything to you at any time?

A. Daniel Motts and a man named Coulston came to us before the
round-house caught on fire, about one o'clock that night, and asked us
what we were standing there for, and not throwing any water. I said
that the mob wouldn't allow us, and they said, I believe, they would
protect us. I said, I am not the proper person, as the chief is here,
and as we have orders to stand here and wait further orders. But the
way they spoke to me, I thought it was in a joking way, because the
only protection they could offer wouldn't have amounted to anything. I
told them I was not the proper person, that the chief was there.

Q. Did they ask you to play upon any particular point of the fire, and
say they would protect you?

A. No; they didn't. The cars were burning above the round-house at the
time, but the round-house was not burning at the time.

Q. Did you see the troops come out?

A. No; but I saw them after they came out.

Q. How soon did you get up there after the troops went out?

A. In about twenty minutes or twenty-five minutes.

Q. Was the round-house on fire when you got there?

A. It was burning bad.

Q. Was it burning before they came out?

A. Yes; that is what chased them out. I understood afterwards that they
came out of the carpenter shop.

Q. Was the carpenter shop burned afterwards?

A. That I cannot say. We were ordered away below that again.

Q. What became of the crowd when the troops came out?

A. They ran pell mell, and fell over each other. The troops could have
marched down Liberty street and drove them. The mob were cowards when
daylight shown on them. They had plenty of guns, but not much
ammunition for them. They were drunk, and that was what gave courage to
the most of them.

Q. Those drunken men, when daylight came, what became of them?

A. They staggered off, and went to sleep or something. They had plenty
of liquor.

Q. How many were engaged in firing the cars during the day--Sunday?

A. Not over ten or twelve men. Some of them were boys fourteen or
fifteen years of age. The most conspicuous man was a man with one arm.

Q. Were you close?

A. I was; at Twenty-first and Liberty street.

Q. Did you follow down with your department?

A. When the fire broke out down below amongst the cars we were ordered
further down. We went then to Twelfth and Liberty streets, that is from
Twenty-first to Twelfth.

Q. Was any effort made by either the police or the militia or any
person to stop this gang who were firing the cars?

A. None at all. There were plenty of people outside in sympathy with
those who were setting fire, and who were handing drinks up to them,
and some women were carrying coffee, and handing it to them?

Q. What class of women?

A. They looked like Irish women.

Q. What classes of men were about that day who appeared to be in
sympathy with them?

A. It generally was the Irish. Most every person that spoke to us about
not playing on the fire was Irish, that is, had the brogue on the
tongue.

Q. Were they railroad men, or did they belong to any particular class
in the city. Mill men, or any particular class of people?

A. I didn't recognize any of them that I knew personally.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You say they were handing coffee up to those people. It must have
been made in the vicinity of the fire?

A. Yes; or else carried some distance. It appeared to be hot coffee.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where was the mayor during the day Sunday?

A. I cannot say; I didn't see him at all.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. After the soldiers marched out the round-house, if they had torn up
the track, would it have prevented any further firing west?

A. Previous to the round-house being set on fire?

Q. Afterwards?

A. It would; but they would have followed on down.

Q. But couldn't the soldiers have checked them there?

A. Yes; I think the soldiers could have cleared the whole track after
daylight on Sunday, cleared the whole track.

Q. The soldiers or the mayor's posse?

A. I don't know about the mayor's posse. They didn't appear to be so
much afraid of the posse as of the guns.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. I understand you to say that no attempt was made by either the civil
authorities or the military authorities to stop the fire on Sunday, or
to clear the track?

A. There was no attempt at all.

Q. Of course, you cannot tell what would have been the result, if an
attempt had been made--it is a mere matter of opinion as to what would
have been the result?

A. I believe so; but that is my opinion. I feel certain that they
could.

Q. You spoke of the police force not being organized. What was the
organization of the fire department?

A. The organization of the fire department was perfect. All the men
were at their posts all the time, ready to do what they were ordered to
do.

Q. How many were at their posts?

A. All the men that were on the force. The force had been reduced, but
some of the men that had been put off were helping.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You say those members of the department that had been put off didn't
refuse to assist you?

A. Not at all!


    By Mr. Lindsey?

Q. How many men were discharged from the fire department?

A. Some twenty-two.

Q. How many of those men came back to your assistance?

A. Through the whole department I cannot say, but of our company I saw
a couple of them. Of course, they had their favorite companies. And
then there were plenty of volunteers of the old members of the
volunteer department.

Q. Who appoints the fire commissioners?

A. They are elected by city councils.

Q. They have control of the fire department?

A. Yes.

Q. State whether the fire commissioners are subject to the control of
any higher body?

A. I don't think they are. I think they are given full power.

Q. Do you know what the law is in regard to that?

A. I don't. I have never examined it.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What appeared to be the disposition of the crowd surrounding that
fire--did they appear to be in sympathy with the rioters?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. Some of the crowd were gathered there out of curiosity?

A. I would have them all around the engine. It was a regular hum, just
like bees--everybody seemed to be talking.

Q. Was there any general expression against the soldiery?

A. I believe there was, after they fired on the mob. I believe some
classes of men had a feeling against the soldiers, but I believe the
better class of citizens had not.

Q. You say the soldiers could have cleared the tracks and dispersed the
mob, when they came out of the round-house?

A. They could--if they had opened with the Gatling guns, there would
not have been a soul in sight for fifteen squares.

Q. Do you know whether the officers of the soldiery in the round-house
had any communication with anybody outside, during the night?

A. I don't think they had, to my knowledge.

Q. None of them were passing back and forth, between the round-house
and outside?

A. That I cannot say. I was not close enough to it.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. The soldiers had no means of knowing that the crowd had become
dispersed, or weakened, or drunken?

A. I don't think they had. I think the soldiers thought the whole
community was against them. If they had known that they could have come
out, and drove the mob down, I think they would have done it.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Officer Coulston has testified, that the round-house was not on fire
where the troops came out--that he went through the building. Could he
have gone through those buildings soon after the troops evacuated them?

A. He couldn't. He might have gone into the carpenter shop, or the
paint shop, but the flames were coming out of all the windows of the
round-house. Nobody could have lived there.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Could a man have got on to the engines as they stood in the stalls?

A. He might, in one part by the carpenter shop, but I don't think he
could have lived in any part of it, on account of the heat.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Daniel J. Eckels, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. 135 Second avenue.

Q. Were you connected with the fire department in July last?

A. Yes.

Q. What position did you hold?

A. I was engineer of company No. 2.

Q. State when you arrived at the fire, and how long you remained there?

A. Probably between twelve and one o'clock on Sunday morning. We could
not go into service. We waited there on the street by the Independence
engine-house. We stayed at the fire until after the troops came out of
the round-house.

Q. During the day--Sunday?

A. Yes.

Q. And Sunday night?

A. Yes.

Q. Until Monday morning?

A. Yes.

Q. Were you assisted by the police force at any time?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Did you see any policemen about there?

A. I cannot say that I did; but I did hear that at one place where we
were working the mayor was around, but I did not see him.

Q. Did you see Mayor McCarthy at any time?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Was any attempt made during the entire day of Sunday to stop the men
who were engaged in the burning?

A. Not that I know of.

                     *      *      *      *      *

J. F. Rivers, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. On Mulberry street, above Twenty-fifth.

Q. What is your business?

A. I had been a detective in the employ of the city of Pittsburgh
previous to July 12.

Q. What position did you hold at the time of the riot?

A. I held no position; but I lived within three squares of the scene,
and consequently had considerable interest in the riot. I was away from
the city; but I came back on Friday evening. I heard that there was a
strike among the railroad men, and, as I knew a great many of them, I
was very much interested in their behalf. I went up to the upper
round-house on Saturday morning, and there I saw a great many railroad
men, and a good many outsiders, that I knew were attracted there for,
probably, the same reason I was. They were very orderly, and I saw no
trouble there. It did not look as though there was going to be any
trouble. I came down to the city and saw the troops at Union depot
towards noon, and went up to my home, and saw the troops up on the
hill. I paid no more attention to it until towards evening, when I
heard the troops had fired upon the crowd. Then I went up there. I was
trying to find my two boys. The crowd was then gathering to the number
of thousands, and the people were very much excited, and expressed
themselves that the troops ought to be cleaned out, and all such
language as that. I went away from there, and towards dark I went out
towards Twenty-fifth street, and saw the troops had been moved from the
Twenty-eighth street position to the round-house, or square-house. The
carpenter shop is on one side of Twenty-sixth street, and the
round-house and office of the assistant superintendent is on the left
hand side opposite. The round-house is a little back of the office, and
the outer circle of the round-house comes on the line of Liberty
street, and there is a railroad track in front of it belonging to the
Valley Railroad Company. The crowd was in front of there; the soldiers
were in the round-house and in the carpenter shop. The crowd was there,
and probably thirty men were jeering at the soldiers. I did not know
any of them; but I went in among the men and I said, "boys, if those
men come out you will have to go away, as you do not have any business
here." I said, "these men are strangers, and you ought to treat them
differently." They said, "we will have them out if we have got to roast
them out." I felt some interest in the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
and in the interest of good behavior I come down the street, and tried
to find some railroad officers to communicate my belief that there
would be a fire and trouble. I tried to find some of the railroad
officers, but could not do it. It was then after dark--after night. I
went towards my home, and I met the crowd on Liberty street going to
Union depot. I went up to one man I knew, who was tried in court last
week, and I said "the railroad company has conceded to the demands of
their employés." I had understood something of that sort. He said "it
was too damned thin," and went into the depot, and a short time after
there was an alarm of fire. At the corner of Twenty-fifth and Penn
avenue the Independence apparatus was stopped by men pointing pistols,
and saying if they proceeded any further they would kill their horses.
I spoke to the parties that did that loud talking, and they said it did
not make any difference--that they had no right to go up and throw
water on the railroad property. I said: "These men are responding to a
call, and they must obey, and you should not interfere with them." I
then went away to see the extent of the fire. I went to Twenty-eighth
street, and between there and Twenty-ninth, on Liberty, I saw the
burning cars running down the grade towards the Twenty-eighth street
crossing. But a switch was turned wrong or something, and the cars ran
off the track. They set fire to what is known as the sand-house, and
that is the first building that caught fire, and from that the fire
communicated to the upper round-house, I think. The fire burned very
slow. It appeared to me to be started by people that wanted to plunder,
which they did, for they carried out great quantities of goods that day
and the next day. The fire burned very slow--I never saw a fire burn so
slow in my life. I did not see whether the fire department went into
service that night or not. Next morning I saw the troops as they came
up Liberty street on to Twenty-fifth, and marched out Penn avenue. I
did not see much of any mob at that time. Then the fire department went
into service. I saw no person particularly setting things on fire, but
I saw two men coming from under a car off the track, in front of the
round-house, just at Twenty-sixth street. The car was loaded with
liquor, and just shortly after they came out and went away the car
caught fire, and then the round-house and the shop and the offices and
all caught fire.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Before or after the troops came out?

A. A portion of it--the square shop that they came out of was set on
fire afterwards. The building was L shaped, and there was a fire in the
rear of it, and there might have been a fire--but I won't be
positive--but there might have been a fire in the L that ran towards
the road, but none in the L on Liberty street when they came out; and
they had made some efforts to protect themselves against fire, because
I discovered some leather hose, that the railroad company had in the
premises, after the troops came out. The fire then kept burning down
gradually on Liberty street down the railroad, and the people kept
carrying off the goods all day Sunday. Down at the Union
depot--previous to that catching fire--I was in there, and saw that the
parties had moved as many of the goods as they could, and I saw no
person trying to stop them. They set the depot master's office on fire,
and then a burning car was run down into the depot, and that fired it.
I saw the troops marching down Twenty-fifth street towards Penn, and
saw them march up Penn.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Can you tell us what portion of the round-house, or the buildings
attached to it, were on fire when they left?

A. I do not know, but there might have been a fire in the rear of the
round-house--the portion of it that is next to the main line might have
been afire--and as I said before, this L of the carpenter shop might
have been afire previous to the vacation, but I do not know it; but,
from my recollection of it, the fire burned so slow that there must
have been a fire in there before they got out, because when it caught
from the burning car on Liberty street, the whole building appeared to
be enveloped at once.

Q. Did you see the troops fired on as they went out?

A. I saw one man fire, I think, twice. He attempted to run into my
yard, and I kicked him out, and I said "if you want to fire on those
men go out and do it, but you cannot do it here." He ran out and shot
at them with a pistol. Somebody returned the fire, and he quit
following them any further.

Q. Did you know him?

A. No; I never saw him before. I know a great many men here; but I knew
very few men that took part in the riot.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. You were around through the crowd?

A. Yes.

Q. And could judge of the crowd?

A. The men I saw jeering the soldiers penned in there, I did not know
any of them, nor I do not think they knew me, because I think if they
had known I was an officer, or had been one, I think they would have
made it lively for me, because I have the idea that they would have
thought I was there in the line of my business. I did not know any of
them. But this man, Richardson, that was tried last week, I saw him and
spoke to him about half past nine o'clock on Saturday night, and told
him that the railroad company had conceded to the wishes of the men,
and he said that was too damned thin, and went on.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. In your experience as a detective in this city, you have gained an
extensive knowledge of the people?

A. Yes.

Q. And from the general appearance of that mob you think they were
strangers, and did not belong in the city.

A. Yes; that is, the ringleaders. I was at one time on the Pennsylvania
railroad, a number of years ago, and in consequence of that, I know a
great many railroad men, employés of the road, and I saw none of them
engaged in this riot. When I first went up there, in the morning, I saw
a great many I knew, railroad men, but they were all quiet and orderly.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Did you have any conversation with them as to the reasons or causes
that led to the strike?

A. Yes; their grievances were, as far as they told me, that they had
been required to put on double-headers, and the reduction in the number
of their men that they would lose so many men, as they called it, in a
crew.

Q. Did they express any intention of using violence?

A. Not that I heard. I did not hear a man say a word that would tend to
show he was going to use any violence. I remarked to four or five of
them standing together: "If the mayor sends his police here and orders
you fellows away from here, you have no business here on this property,
and you must go."


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What day was that?

A. On Saturday morning, about ten o'clock.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you hear any of those railroad men speak of a preconcerted
arrangement for a general strike through the country?

A. I never did.

Q. At that time?

A. No.

Q. Nor since?

A. No.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Michael Hannigan, _sworn with uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. No. 45, Grant street.

Q. What was your business in July last.

A. I was acting foreman of engine company No. 2.

Q. What time did you visit the scene of the riot?

A. Between one and two o'clock on Sunday morning.

Q. At what point did you stop first?

A. We answered box No. 62, and then the chief gave us orders to stop at
Twenty-third and Penn, and not make any attachment until we got further
orders.

Q. How large was the crowd at that time?

A. A great many men were scattered along the street as we were going to
the box. The fire was down as far as Twenty-third street by that time.
By daylight it got warm at Twenty-third and Liberty, and the chief got
permission from the mob to lay a line of hose so that a foundry there
might not take fire. We afterwards went to Twenty-sixth street, but
could not get across there as the soldiers were firing across
Twenty-sixth street.

Q. What time was that?

A. An hour after we were at Twenty-third street.

Q. After daylight?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you visit the round-house after the troops left?

A. It was impossible for anybody to go there. The upper building was
completely burned when we went into service. It is a square building.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Attached to or in close proximity to the round-house?

A. Yes. The roof had fallen in when we laid the line of hose. That was
in ten minutes after the soldiers had left the round-house.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How long before the round-house was consumed by fire?

A. I cannot tell you that.

Q. Did the soldiers march out in good order?

A. I did not see the soldiers except at a distance.

Q. Did you remain on duty during the day Sunday?

A. Yes; and up until Monday morning at ten o'clock.

Q. Had the fire stopped when you left?

A. Yes, We were on Washington street.

Q. What stopped the crowd from plundering and burning?

A. I do not know that.

Q. After they fired Union depot, did they fire any other property?

A. There was a depot fired on the west side.

Q. How far down towards the city did the crowd come?

A. It was down there on Seventh avenue.

Q. How large a crowd was on Seventh avenue?

A. From the Rush House down to Seventh avenue--ten thousand men--you
could hardly get through.

Q. Were there any police there to arrest the crowd?

A. I did not see any.

Q. Did you see the crowd when they dispersed from that point?

A. No.

Q. Were you assisted at any time during the fire by the police?

A. No.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were you protected?

A. No.

Q. Did you ask for protection?

A. No; the mob had a cannon planted at Twenty-seventh street, pointed
right at the engine, and they said if you play on the railroad property
we will raise you. We did not want to be raised.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Who made those threats?

A. That I can not tell you.

Q. Was any effort made by the mob to set fire to private property, that
you saw?

A. I did not see any of that.

Q. On Sunday night they had finished all the railroad property?

A. I think the last they set afire was that depot on Grant street.

Q. What became of the mob after that time?

A. I do not know, but I heard several citizens express themselves that
they were getting tired of this work. We were then on Bedford avenue.
They said they were going too far with it.

Q. Citizens said that?

A. Yes.

Q. What citizens made those remarks?

A. I do not recollect.

Q. Where were the mob during Sunday night?

A. I did not see any of the mob at the time we went out. I saw a great
many people on the street. We had to go very slow. They were using all
kinds of threats.

Q. When you left, on Monday morning, was everything quiet?

A. Everything was quiet then.

Q. Where had these people gone?

A. I do not know.

Q. Did you see the mayor about at any time?

A. Once, at the corner of Twentieth and Liberty streets, standing
against a gas post.

Q. What time was that?

A. In the afternoon--I do not recollect the hour.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you know whether the round-house was on fire when the military
left it?

A. Yes; at least that building was.

Q. How long after the military left did you go to the round-house?

A. While I walked from the corner of Twenty-fourth up to Twenty-sixth
street.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Colonel D. L. Smith, _sworn with the uplifted hand_:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the city of Allegheny.

Q. Do you hold any official position?

A. I am one of the aldermen of that city.

Q. Where were you at the time of the riots in July last?

A. I was at my home in Allegheny city.

Q. What occurred there in regard to the riots, that you have any
knowledge of?

A. About half past five o'clock in the evening, on the day that the
soldiers fired in the crowd, my office boy came to my office and
reported to me in great excitement, that the soldiers had fired on and
killed a number of the citizens. I then went to the scene of the
trouble, and remained there until about eight o'clock in the evening.

Q. What time did you get there?

A. At six o'clock. The troops had just gone into the round-house as I
got there. I returned to my office after eight o'clock, and when the
cars were fired at eleven o'clock, I saw the light and heard the alarm,
and immediately went to the scene, and remained there until four
o'clock in the morning. I then returned home, and remained at home
until one o'clock, and then came to Pittsburgh again and remained until
nine o'clock.

Q. What did you observe?

A. One or two wounded men being carried from the ground. I observed a
disorganized mass of people standing in groups, numbering perhaps six
or eight hundred, discussing the fire and passing their comments on it.

Q. This crowd of people you saw there--of what class was it composed?

A. There were some few railroad employés, but the most of them I
recognized as mill hands from the different rolling-mills. I knew many
of them personally.

Q. A portion of them from your city?

A. Yes; attracted by excitement to the fire. Some remained there.

Q. What were those mill hands doing when you went there?

A. Discussing the question involved in the railroad strikes, and some
of them were using threats. One man remarked, if the firing went on,
that there wouldn't be a dollar's worth of railroad property left in
the county of Allegheny at nine o'clock the next morning. Quite a
number of persons I recognized as persons I knew to be workingmen from
other sections. I know a great many of the Pittsburgh workingmen.

Q. You say from other sections?

A. I judged them to be miners and mill hands, attracted here from
outlying counties--attracted by news of the riot; in fact, in
conversation with some, they informed me they had come from different
places.

Q. From communities within a short distance of the city?

A. Yes.

Q. Were that class of men taking part in the disturbance?

A. At that time there was no disturbance. It was very peaceful, except
the grumbling. But at eleven o'clock, I was on the railroad track, and
I noticed three men breaking into and taking the contents of a car.

Q. Did you know who those men were?

A. No; they appeared to be workingmen, and some of them appeared to be
familiar with handling cars from the manner in which they proceeded to
open the cars. I went down and remonstrated with them, and they treated
me very civilly--didn't seem to take as an insult my interference. I
remarked that the railroad company would not be the sufferer. They paid
no particular attention, and I told them, you men will certainly be
punished for this. I told them I was a magistrate, and had come in my
official capacity to try and quell the disturbance; but they paid no
attention. There was no riot at that time. They went peaceably about
it.

Q. Did they get the goods out?

A. Yes; they threw them out promiscuously. The greater number of goods
were carried away by girls about sixteen years of age and by boys up to
twenty years of age. The goods were carried away by residents of the
immediate neighborhood. I then went up to where they were setting fire
to the oil cars, and there were probably not more than eight or ten men
engaged in that.

Q. Who were they?

A. I do not know. They seemed to be workingmen from their garb. I knew
them to be workingmen, and several of them I knew were familiar with
operating railroads, from the fact that they knew how to open the
switches, and run the cars into position, and they handled the cars
with the experience of practical mechanics.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Do you mean they were railroad men?

A. Certainly; some of them. At this time probably twenty cars were on
fire, and there were not over one hundred and fifty persons altogether
on the railroad tracks.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What hour was this?

A. Twelve o'clock on Saturday night. Just then a man came from the
crowd of rioters--there was a crowd collected in front of the
round-house for the purpose of fighting the militia--and he jumped on
to a flat car and drew a sword--he had a belt around him, but had no
uniform--and he immediately ordered them to stop burning the cars and
pillaging the trains, saying that they had come not to burn and
pillage, but to fight the military.

Q. Who was he?

A. He was evidently a leader, but I did not know him. He was from the
party that came from Birmingham. Immediately when he jumped on that
car, somebody hallooed "police," and in five minutes there was not a
man left on the railroad track. The cry of "police" cleared the whole
thing out, and any two police officers could have preserved the peace.

Q. You think that a small force of police there could have straightened
things up?

A. At no time more than twenty men were engaged in the burning.

Q. How long did you stay?

A. Until four o'clock in the morning.

Q. You say those carrying off the goods were mostly children?

A. They were mostly young--girls and boys. At one o'clock in the
morning I passed the police station on Penn street, in the immediate
vicinity, and the police officers were arresting every person passing
with goods and there was no resistance. They had perfect control. A mob
amounting to not more than five hundred persons was standing near, and
they had a cannon commanding the round-house, but the soldiers had
covered it with their arms, and had killed one or two of the rioters.
The mob engaged in fighting the soldiers were not engaged in the
burning and pillaging. I went among them. One of them called me by
name. I knew his face. He said, "Alderman, don't go down that way; they
will shoot you." But I said, "No," and passed on through them. I said
to him, "You had better go home," when he said that they had come for
the purpose of fighting the militia, and were going to fight them.

Q. What time was that?

A. About four o'clock. It was just breaking day.

Q. Now, this mob gathered around in the vicinity of the
round-house--what was that mob composed of?

A. I recognized that mob as composed nearly all of people who were
working men from the south side of the river.

Q. That is, Birmingham?

A. Yes; some few of them were citizens that I knew. And I would state
that some few were armed, but showed no disposition to violence except
that they had an antipathy to the soldiers that had fired on their
relatives. I mention this fact to show that there should be a
distinction between the rioters proper and the plunderers. They didn't
seem to be acting in concert. A posse of police of twenty men could
have protected all the property that night.

Q. Did you hear any body state that the rioters or the mob had
prevented the fire department from throwing water on the railroad
property?

A. I did not. But I have no doubt they would have prevented it, from
the disposition of the mob. I didn't see any person setting fire to the
Union depot. I took my stand at the elevator. I met one of the clerks
belonging to the company, and he told me that they had refused to let
them take their books out. I said, come back with me, and I will take
them out. So I went back and stationed myself at the elevator, to save
it, if I could, by my presence there, and by calling a _posse
comitatus_. But I could not get any person to serve. The sheds below
Union depot were then taking fire, and two or three men came, and
wanted to go into the elevator. I told them not to go in. At this time
not less than twenty thousand people were there--men, women, and
children--but there was no rioting, and there were not more than eight
or ten or a score of men engaged in spreading the fire at that time.
They seemed to be peaceable.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You mean the men who were setting things on fire?

A. Yes; they went to it deliberately'.

Q. You spoke about raising a _posse comitatus_?

A. I tried to raise it. I called on a gentleman from Allegheny, named
Gray. I summoned him to my assistance, but he refused to act, but said
if I could get ten more he would do so. I afterwards saw some other
parties, but while they deprecated the burning, they said it was worth
their lives to interfere. I then went with Mr. Gray down to where the
men were running the burning cars, and tried to reason with them. At
that time probably twenty men were engaged in that, besides the persons
engaged in carrying the things off. And by that time they had gotten
into liquor, and were pretty well intoxicated. On Sunday afternoon I
also tried to raise a _posse comitatus_. I called on some citizens
that I knew, but they were afraid to do anything, alleging that the
military and police should do it.

Q. What reasons did they give?

A. That they did not want to jeopardize their lives.

Q. Was the elevator set on fire while you were there?

A. No; I left, and supposed the elevator was safe, and went down to
Seventh avenue, where the depot of the Pan Handle road was just being
set on fire. I remained there some time, and then went to Allegheny to
get my supper, and came back. While crossing the bridge, I noticed the
fire coming from the elevator. I remained in the vicinity of the fire
until between nine and ten o'clock that night, and at that time there
was no further spreading of the destruction. The citizens, in the
meantime, had organized a police, and there had, apparently, been a
number of arrests made.

Q. As soon as the police began making arrests, the citizens took the
matter into their own hands, and the destruction ceased?

A. Yes; and that is what convinced me that a posse of twenty policemen
could have prevented the destruction. But at any time during Saturday
night, if a police officer had gone into the crowd to arrest a man, the
mob would have interfered with him--I am satisfied of that.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. When you told those persons to stop setting fire, did they obey your
orders?

A. On Saturday night they paid no attention, but they didn't interfere
with me.

Q. You asserted your authority as far you could?

A. As far as I could, and they respected my authority when I asserted
it resolutely. Then they gave way. I went to Allegheny to try to summon
a _posse comitatus_, but I found it collected, and I then repaired
to the mayor's office, in Allegheny, and took part with them for the
protection of our city. In our city, I may say, that no destruction
occurred. The railroad men took possession of the railroad property
there. I think they took possession first on Thursday evening. Nothing
was destroyed. The railroad men--those I conversed with--said that they
had determined to protect the railroad property against any mob.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. What did they say was their object in taking possession of the
railroad property?

A. Well--my office seems to be a general receptacle for persons of
diverse opinions. Some of these railroad men came to me with their
complaints. I was told their grievances, and that their purpose was
merely the restoration of the ten per cent. reduction.

Q. Those were employés of what railroad?

A. The Pittsburgh, Port Wayne and Chicago road. They admitted their
actions were contrary to law, and that they might be amenable, but
still they asserted their assumed right to stop the running of trains
until their demands were complied with.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. You say they asserted their right to stop the trains?

A. An assumed right. They supposed they had such a right. Some of them
supposed, ignorantly, that they had such a right--a great many of them
honestly believed that.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Did they claim that they had any right to set themselves up against
the authorities?

A. No; at no time; as they construed the laws of the Commonwealth, they
did not want to set themselves up against them.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. Do you know what the feeling was in this city when the strike broke
out?

A. I know that the people of the city of Pittsburgh almost universally
condemned the reduction of the salaries of the railroad men at that
time. The strikers knew that they had the sympathies of the people of
Allegheny county--of all classes--in their efforts to have a living
rate of wages restored to them, and thousands of people not engaged in
the strike, on that Saturday afternoon, in July last, were gathered in
the vicinity of the Pennsylvania railroad workshops, not for the
purpose of violating any law, but either from motives of sympathy with
the strikers or prompted by curiosity to witness the military. It may
be inferred, that at least one half of those people were women and
children, and these, without warning, were fired into and many of them
killed or wounded. Of course, this caused universal indignation and
condemnation, and was the occasion of all the subsequent troubles and
destruction. A pacific course pursued towards these men would have
avoided the catastrophe that followed. The first great blunder in
dealing with the strikers in Pittsburgh, was in the attempt to operate
the road by the use of a military force, instead of using the troops to
preserve order and to keep the peace.

Q. You say that the sympathies of the people of Pittsburgh were with
the strikers or with the railroad employés and against the reduction of
their wages. Do you mean as long as no overt act was committed? Or what
did they regard as an overt act?

A. They would have regarded as an overt act the destruction of
property.

Q. Did they regard the stopping of trains as an overt act?

A. I think that certain classes of people did not regard the stopping
of the trains an overt act, but they would have regarded the forcible
taking of men from the trains--men who were willing to work--or the
preventing them from working, as an overt act.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Will you tell us what you did in your own city--tell us how you
managed the trouble there?

A. The authorities of Allegheny managed the strikers differently--in a
different way from that pursued in Pittsburgh. Several days prior to
the burning in Pittsburgh, the strikers took possession of the railroad
tracks, and the workshops of the Pennsylvania company operating the
Pittsburgh, Port Wayne and Chicago railroad. They threw up
breast-works, and held armed possession of the railroad property, and
even took possession of, and regulated the running of passenger trains
and the United States mail trains. At all interviews, they insisted
that it was not their intention to destroy property, but to protect the
railroad property, and that they wouldn't commit any overt act in
violation of law, as they understood it. Many of them believed they
were not violating any law, and assumed that they had a right to
accomplish the object they had in view, by the method they then were
pursuing. The authorities and the citizens of Allegheny City knew that
they were dealing with a powerful, intelligent, and well organized body
of men, who were determined and resolute in their purposes. To have
attempted to force those men from their position, would have
precipitated the same troubles that culminated in Pittsburgh a few days
subsequently. So the citizens appealed to the better judgment of those
strikers, they reasoned with them, and instead of irritating them, or
attempting to force them, they permitted them to have their own way,
believing that the railroad officials and their employés, would, in a
few days, adjust all differences. This policy, under the circumstances,
proved to be a wise one, as when danger came, and when the mob were
burning and destroying in Pittsburgh, the strikers in Allegheny
actually removed all the rolling stock out of the way of danger, and
volunteered to assist the organized citizens in protecting the depots
and workshops, and all other railroad property in the city of
Allegheny. Had the same policy been pursued in Pittsburgh, there would
have been no destruction of property.

Q. You were in the army. What position in the army did you hold during
the late war?

A. In 1861--in May, 1861--1 enlisted as a soldier, and was elected
lieutenant of my company, and went out as a member of the Second
Virginia regiment, as lieutenant, and afterwards became captain of my
company.

Q. Was it a Union regiment?

A. Yes. We went to Wheeling to protect the people, and our services
were accepted by the people of West Virginia. On the 19th of February,
1862, I was appointed commissary assistant by the Secretary of War, and
that position I held until about the 1st day of September, 1862, when I
was assigned to duty as chief commissary of the Twelfth army corps.
About the 15th of March, 1863, I was assigned to duty as chief
commissary of the Fifth army corps, with the rank of lieutenant
colonel, on General Meade's staff.

Q. How long did you occupy that position?

A. Until I was mustered out of the service, or until the corps was
disbanded, in September, 1865. I remained in service until March, 1866.

Q. What business have you been engaged in since the war?

A. For the last eight years I have been an alderman of the city of
Allegheny. The year before that, 1 was a member of the Legislature.

Q. From the time you left the army until you were elected a member of
the Legislature what business were you engaged in?

A. 1 was following my occupation as a scrivener.

Q. Where did you reside before going into the army?

A. From the year 1836, until I went into the army, in this county.

Q. What business were you engaged in?

A. When I went into the army I was chief clerk in the county
commissioners' office of Allegheny county. Prior to that I was a clerk
in a store.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Something has been said about picketing the railroad track where the
riot occurred. Now, taking into consideration the number of cars around
there, how many troops would it have taken to reasonably picket the
track and the ground there in possession of the mob?

A. The ground in possession of the mob, from the round-house out to
Lawrenceville, I think could have been sufficiently picketed by one
hundred men on both sides. At no time were more than one hundred
persons on the ground from twelve o'clock that night until four o'clock
in the morning, from the round-house out to Two Mile run. I consider
that the movement of the military into the round-house, at the time,
was a good one, but they should have picketed the railroad, and all the
approaches to the round-house. To have retired on the bluff, above the
railroad tracks, would have been a military blunder, for if they were
not strong enough to protect themselves where the cars and buildings
afforded them shelter, they certainly could not have held a position on
the hill face, where they could have been attacked from the open fields
above them, and been within easy range of masked or rifle shots from
the houses fronting on Liberty street. No officer of any military
experience would have selected that hill face to bivouac his troops,
under the circumstances then existing, but the retreat of two regiments
of well armed and equipped soldiers, commanded by officers of undoubted
courage, and large military experience in the face of a disorganized
mob, was certainly a inexplicable blunder.

Q. You did not see the crowd before it was fired into and dispersed by
the military?

A. I did not. I only arrived there afterward.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Now in your judgment, as a military man, do you think that there was
any necessity for calling on the military to quell this riot?

A. I do not. I honestly believe that if the authorities of the county
or Allegheny, or the city of Pittsburgh, had summoned a sufficient
_posse comitatus_, they could have preserved the peace. They might
not have been able to run the railroad cars, but the peace could have
been preserved without calling the military.


    By Senator Reyburn:

Q. From your observations during this disturbance, what opinion have
you of the conduct of the officers and those in charge of the military?

A. I was not brought in contact with them, except with Colonel Gray, of
one of our regiments, after the firing. I went to where he had
bivouacked on the railroad track, and he had one hundred and twenty men
with him at the time. He said he was there for the purpose of obeying
orders, and that his men would stay by him. He had no orders at that
time. I asked him particularly whether he had any orders, and he said
he had none. I asked him whether he thought he could preserve the
peace, and he said he could. I think he said that the firing on the
people was a mistake, and was done without orders, but if I had been
there I would have ordered the mob to disperse, and then fired on them
with blank cartridges.

Q. From your knowledge of these men as soldiers during the war, do you
think they were competent or incompetent men?

A. I know General Pearson well. I knew him in the army, and I know what
his military record was in the army, and there is no young officer in
the United States service who has a prouder record as a brave, a
careful, and discreet soldier. He served in our own corps, and I had
daily opportunity of knowing what his military services and military
abilities were, and his record in the army was certainty vary
creditable to him. I also knew General Brinton in our corps, and I know
that his record is equally good.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. They were good soldiers, ready to obey orders at all times?

A. Yes; and had those two officers had the management of this affair,
without being amenable to superiors, much of the destruction would have
been avoided.

Q. You mean Generals Pearson and Brinton?

A. Yes; they had, to my certain knowledge, years of experience in the
army--active experience as soldiers.

Adjourned.


    MORNING SESSION.

    PITTSBURGH, _Wednesday, February 20, 1878_.

The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at ten o'clock, A.M. Mr.
Lindsey in the chair. All the members present except Messrs. Reyburn
and Torbert.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Daniel Corbus, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    Examined by Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. New Brighton, Beaver county.

Q. How long have you resided there?

A. I was born there in 1839.

Q. What is your business?

A. Wire drawer by trade.

Q. State whether you were in Pittsburgh when the disturbances of last
July first broke out?

A. I was not there at the breaking out of it. I arrived here the same
day, about a quarter past one, I suppose--Liberty street.

Q. State what you saw and heard?

A. Saturday night the news was very exciting out home, and Sunday
morning at eleven o'clock I took the express and arrive I here at the
city--Federal street--about twelve o'clock I should judge it was. Came
over to Fifth street and got my dinner. Went to the market-house and
saw a crowd of people there. Went down to see what was going on, and
found it was a peace convention.

Q. A what?

A. A peace convention.

Q. At what point was that?

A. It was some place near the old City Hall--I should judge it was. It
was in the street. I went from there up Liberty street until I met the
fire. I couldn't state how far it was from the Union depot--how many
squares it was; but I stopped at the first crossing below the last car
that was on fire. I staid there until a car load of spirits exploded,
and the flames ran down from there about a hundred feet.

Q. Where was this explosion--at what point?

A. It was on the railroad in a railroad car.

Q. What street?

A. It was on Liberty street--I should judge that was the street that
the cars go out of. I am not well enough acquainted to state
positively--it was on the Pennsylvania railroad.

Q. Was that on the Allegheny Valley track?

A. No, sir; on the Pennsylvania tracks.

Q. Near what cross street?

A. That I am not well enough informed to know, but I should judge it
was four squares above the Union depot, right up the track.

Q. Four squares?

A. Yes; four squares.

Q. Go on now?

A. While standing there looking at the flames going on, I made a remark
to some person: "Ain't they going to try to stop it?" and he said, "no,
we don't care anything whether it is stopped or not." I hadn't staid
there long until I heard the gong of a hose carriage. The crowd didn't
seem disposed to give way or do anything--just standing in the road. I
asked the crowd if they would stand back and let the hose carriage come
in. I was a perfect stranger to every person around. There was a
movement made in the crowd, and the hose carriage came up. Says I, "do
you want any assistance?" says he, "yes." Says I, "give me the end of
the hose and I will make the attachment." He was taking it off the reel
and one man jumped from the reel and went to the plug, and him and I
made the attachment. The reel started on--there was barrels being
rolled down this street, and everything was in confusion, and no person
seemed to make any effort to check anything. I seen that the hose were
in danger of being blocked, and I told some parties who were rolling
some barrels down, "stop that! put that barrel in here." They stopped.
I took the barrel out of their hands, and rolled it into the gutter. I
staid there for ten minutes afterwards, when one of my companions came
along, and says he, "let us get out of here." We walked on down do the
Union depot, passed the Union depot and went up to, I should judge it
would be Washington street, from the description given--not being well
acquainted with the streets--and stepped into a segar store, got some
segars, and told the proprietor of the store, says I, "I think you had
better move." And says he, "no, I don't think there is any danger."
Says I, "in a couple of hours you will be burned out--they ain't making
any effort up there to stop it." I went out, passed around on to the
side of the hill above the Union depot, where I had a view of the whole
transaction that was going on; just seen the burners going along and
doing just as they pleased, having everything in their own hands. I was
on the side of the hill when the office beyond the shed attached to the
Union depot building was set on fire.

Q. Did you see it set on fire?

A. I seen a man go into the building, and in a few minutes I seen the
flames coming out.

Q. Do you know the man?

A. No, sir; I was too far away. The smoke coming up over the hill, I
moved around and came back, then down to the Union depot by the same
route I had went up, and there stopped by the elevator. As I came by
the Union depot, I saw, I suppose, twenty armed men leaving it, some
with parts of uniform on, some with caps, and some with pants, and
others with citizens overcoats. They were going through the gangway to
the hill, passing out of the side entrance to the gangway that runs
across the Pan-Handle road on to the hill. I stood down by the
elevator, and saw the parties making their escape from the upper
stories of the Union depot, and then I got in conversation with a
gentleman about it. Says I, "I suppose they will be satisfied when that
is burned." "No;" says he, "we won't be satisfied until this elevator
is down." Says I, "do you intend to burn this?" Says he, "everything in
these monopolies has got to burn"--he made use of that expression. Says
he, "I am a citizen here, and I own property, and I expect to help pay
for it." Says I, "this is not railroad property." Says he, "it don't
make a damned bit of difference, it has got to come down; it is a
monopoly, and we are tired of it."

Q. Did you know that man?

A. I am personally acquainted with him, but I would rather not give his
name publicly.

Q. I think we ought to have his name?

A. I would give it to you privately. He is a friend of mine from
boyhood up. I can give you his name, and you can have him before you. I
would like to be excused from giving his name publicly.

Q. What kind of a citizen is he--what is his business standing?

A. He is a machinist, and of good character, so far as I know.

Q. How long has he resided in the city of Pittsburgh?

A. I suppose he must have resided in this neighborhood for twenty
years.

Q. Does he work in the railroad shops as a machinist?

A. No, sir; one of the city shops.

Q. How old a man is he?

A. I suppose he would be between thirty-five and forty years. About
near my age. We were boys together when we were in Brighton, and he
came to the city.

Q. A man of family?

A. Yes; he is a man of family.

Q. He said he expected to help pay for it?

A. He says, "I expect to help pay for it."

Q. Did he set fire then to the elevator?

A. Oh! no, sir.

Q. Who did fire that?

A. I do not know.

Q. Did he take any part?

A. No; he didn't seem to take any part. He seemed to know and
understand what was going to be done, though.

Q. Was he leading or giving directions in any way to the crowd?

A. No, sir. He stood with me in the crowd back. He seemed to know
certain parties that were in it, although he mentioned no names.

Q. Did he say where the parties were from that were in it?

A. Yes; he made that remark--said he, "Our shop boys came home this
morning tired out with the night's work."

Q. With Saturday night's work, did he allude to?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Our shop boys?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. What shop was that he alluded to?

A. Jones & Laughus, I believe--the American iron works.

Q. How many men do the American iron works employ, do you know?

A. I can only give an estimate of the reports--from one thousand five
hundred to two thousand. They are very large works. I have been through
them.

Q. When he said, "our boys came home tired out from last night's work,"
what work did he allude to?

A. The conversation was on this burning altogether--on the destruction
of the property. My inference was that it was the work we had
witnessed.

Q. Were you talking about any other subject at the time?

A. No, sir; nothing but the disturbance then in progress.

Q. Did you see any attempt while you were there to destroy or set fire
to individual property?

A. No; I did not.

Q. When you arrived at the scene of the riot, how large a crowd was
there?

A. On the streets--it would be impossible to judge the number.

Q. Engaged in actual burning and rioting?

A. I think twenty-five good men would have cleaned the crowd out.

Q. I asked you how large the crowd was?

A. Averaging from three to five hundred, not over that--boys--young
fellows.

Q. Did you see any efforts made by anybody to stop the burning?

A. No, sir; not an effort.

Q. See any policemen around there?

A. I saw two or three policemen about two squares below, but none in
the immediate neighborhood of the burning.

Q. Did you see the sheriff or any posse about?

A. I did not--no person in authority, or any person using any
authority.

Q. When you attempted to make the connection, were you interfered with
in any way?

A. No, sir; not in the least.

Q. When you undertook to stop the rolling down of barrels, what seemed
to be the feeling in the crowd?

A. They just stopped and let me have my own way.

Q. Obeyed orders?

A. Obeyed orders.

Q. Did you make any effort to stop those that were setting fire to
property and burning?

A. No, sir; I did not; I held back from them on account of not being a
citizen of the town.

Q. The crowd that was standing around, of whom were they composed?

A. They seemed to be composed of the better class of citizens of the
two cities, you could see--quiet, orderly.

Q. Were there any women and children among them in the crowd?

A. Yes; there were a great number.

Q. Did you see any business men of the city standing about?

A. No, sir; I can't say that I did. I am not well enough acquainted
with the business men of the city to know whether there was any in the
crowd or not.

Q. Did you see the mayor?

A. I haven't seen the mayor to know him since 1860; I probably would not
know him on the street.

Q. Did you find any difficulty in getting into the city that day, from
New Brighton, Beaver county?

A. No, sir; I found no difficulty at all. Trains came in on time. At
the Allegheny depot the strikers boarded the train and run it to
Federal street station, and said they would not run it over to
Pittsburgh.

Q. Did the trains go out on the roads leading west?

A. Yes; they went out whenever Boss Amnion, as he was called, said that
train should go.

Q. He allowed the passenger trains to run?

A. No interference, so far as I know, in regard to passenger trains. I
had no trouble at all in getting home.

Q. Did you see anything of General Latta that day?

A. I did not; I am not personally acquainted with him: probably might
have seen him, and not known him.

Q. Were you at the city hall that day or any other day?

A. I was at the city hall at seven o'clock, Monday morning.

Q. Who was there?

A. I can say that the mayor was not there, as I heard him inquired for
half a dozen times. The rest were strangers to me.

Q. Did you see the chief of police or any of the officials there?

A. Not to my knowledge--there was not. I made inquiry for the chief of
police--if the chief of police was in, and I was told he was not.

Q. What class of people were there?

A. They seemed to be employés around there, or some persons that seem
to be well acquainted with the office; they were sitting there.

Q. Tell us what you heard said there?

A. I went into the chief of police's office--the left hand entrance
going into the city hall--and seen one gentlemen that I was slightly
acquainted with, Mr. Carrigan, and spoke to him. He got up and went
out. There were two or three gentlemen--strangers--I got into
conversation with them about it, and one of them, a large, tall man,
with heavy black whiskers, says he, "We won't be satisfied here until
this track is torn up to the point." He brought his fist down; says he,
"We have been imposed on long enough."

Q. Until the track was torn up to the point--what track did he refer
to?

A. He mentioned the Liberty street track?

Q. What was referred to by the word "point?"

A. I suppose it is the old Duquesne depot on the point.

Q. At the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. He referred to the Liberty street track?

A. Referred to the Liberty street track to be torn up to satisfy the
citizens.

Q. Who was the man?

A. I can't name him. He was a stranger to me.

Q. Do you know where he belonged?

A. I do not know, but judged from his conversation that he belonged to
the city of Pittsburgh, from the manner in which he used that
expression.

Q. What else did you hear said there?

A. People were commenting about it in general terms. I came down Sunday
night, after the fire had got cooled down somewhat. I went to the Saint
James hotel, opposite the Union depot, to take a look. I went out of
curiosity, and got in over the hot coals, so as to have it said that I
ate a meal in the Saint James while it was hot. I walked all around the
burned district; that is, the elevator, Union depot, and Pan Handle
yard, watched the firemen, went down to where the firemen were playing
on the ruins, and came down then through what is known as the metal
yard, and there I heard a conversation amongst the men. I couldn't tell
you the exact number, but I should think there was a hundred and fifty
congregated around there, some of them dead drunk, and some half drunk,
and some of them drunk enough to go any place. I heard them say: "We
must go to this place. There is no police, and they won't interfere
with us any way."

Q. What place did he refer to?

A. I don't know what place they referred to. I thought it was a rather
dangerous place for me, being without any arms, any more than natural
fists, and I didn't stay any longer.

Q. Did you hear any conversation, while at the city hall, from the
mayor's clerks in reference to the riot and burning?

A. No; I don't know as I did. There was a gentleman came in there, and
inquired for the mayor. Says he: "There is a big lot of miners coming
down here," and, says he, "we don't know what to do." He inquired where
he was, and wanted something done to stop them. No person seemed to
know what to do.

Q. How long did you remain at the city hall?

A. I remained there until Monday evening--at the city hall?

Q. Yes?

A. Probably I was there an hour.

Q. Was the mayor away all the time that you were there?

A. I didn't hear of the mayor coming in while I was there at all. He
might have went to his office while I was in there.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. What time were you at the city hall?

A. I should judge about seven o'clock in the morning--Monday morning.

Q. When you went into the tobacco store, and told this man he had
better be moving, what reply did he make?

A. Says he: "I think not. They won't let it come down this far will
they?"


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. How did you happen to be here?

A. I came up on purpose to see it. Heard of it at home, and came up.

Q. On purpose to see the riot?

A. On purpose to see what was going on, like hundreds of others.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. This man that was in the city hall that said they would not be
satisfied until the track was torn up down to the point--was he dressed
in citizen's clothes?

A. Yes; I judged by his dress and conversation that he was a resident
of the place.

Q. Did the other men make any reply when he made that remark?

A. No; no reply was made.

Q. You would take him then to be a citizen of Pittsburgh?

A. Yes.

Q. How many men from Beaver county came up?

A. Indeed, I could hardly state--I should judge a hundred or one
hundred and fifty.

Q. At the same time?

A. Yes; and some of them were railroad men down there, and were
interested here.

Q. Were they with you at the time you had the conversation with that
man?

A. No, sir; at that time I was by myself.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You spoke about some armed men you saw going up the hill--did you
ascertain who they were?

A. No, sir; I did not. I was told they were some Philadelphia men that
had been left in there.

Q. Left in the depot?

A. Left in the depot as a guard.

Q. How were they uniformed?

A. Some had caps on, some pants--I would judge they belonged to the
soldiers, on account of the weapons they had in their hands--they were
breech-loaders.

Q. Did they make any effort to prevent any destruction of property?

A. In what way.

Q. You spoke about marching along the hill, or up the hill?

A. When I spoke about them they were escaping from the Union depot. At
that time the flames were coming in from the shed. They were going over
the hill towards the reservoir.

Q. This man you had the conversation with down at the municipal hall,
at the office of the chief of police, did he appear to be connected
with the office there in any way?

A. Well, indeed I can't say. He was in this office, and I struck up a
conversation with him. I don't know how we got to talking about it. I
spoke to Mr. Carrigan, the only one I knew. He went out, and there was
no other person I had conversation with but him, and he seemed to be at
home.

Q. Do you know where Mr. Carrigan lives?

A. No, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What is Carrigan's name?

A. I can't tell you that.

Q. Does he live here in Pittsburgh?

A. I believe he does.

Q. Can you give his place of business or residence?

A. No, sir; I can't do that. I met him on special duty at one time--he
appeared to be connected with the detective force at one time here.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Can you name any gentlemen that came up from Beaver with you?

A. Mr. Robinson.

Q. What is his first name?

A. Hugh Robinson.

Q. Any other?

A. Mr. Edgar.

Q. Mr. Edgar--what is his first name?

A. John P.

Q. Who else?

A. Mr. Jagger.

Q. What is his first name?

A. Fred.

Q. All these men were with you on the ground?

A. They were scattered through the crowd. I was separated from them
pretty much all the time. Only just occasionally we would meet.

Q. Are they from the town of Beaver?

A. New Brighton.

Q. Any others?

A. There was Major Henry, from Beaver, and Mr. Macomber, of Beaver
Falls file works.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Doctor Edward Donnelly, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    Examined of Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Reside at 62 Stevenson street. My office is 133 Grand street.

Q. You are a practicing physician in city?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Just go on and make a brief statement of what you saw in relation to
the riots?

A. My first knowledge of the riots was on Saturday, the 21st of July,
about an hour or so previous to the arrival of the troops from the
east. I was induced to go to Twenty-eighth street, hearing that there
was a large concourse of people assemble there, and they were there for
the purpose of preventing any trains leaving the city--any freight
trains, and having the dread of riots before my eyes--I had seen other
riots in Philadelphia, in 1844--I apprehended that there might be some
little difficulty, and as I have some influence with the Irish portion
of the people of the city, I thought it my duty to go there, and try to
induce them to leave the place, and not enter into any measures that
would tend to criminate themselves or break the laws of the country.
That was the reason I went there. When I arrived at the ground--I drove
out in my buggy--when I arrived there, I found about fifteen hundred
people. I presume, assembled--fifteen hundred to two thousand, and
several companies of soldiers--the Fourteenth regiment, Greys, I
believe, some of them, and the Nineteenth. I am not sure that there was
any Greys there--I think it was the Fourteenth and the Nineteenth
regiments. I saw Colonel Grey's command on the side of the hill, and I
inquired of him who had charge of the troops here, as they were in
rather a disorderly condition, I consider, in a military point of view.
They were mingling freely with the crowd in groups here and there, and
seemed to have no order or discipline amongst them. They told me
General Brown had command; and I then went down amongst the crowd on
the railroad track, where Twenty-eighth street intersects the road, and
I met General Brown, and inquired of him if he was in command of the
troops. He said he was. Said I, "you are not in military uniform--you
have no uniform on." He was dressed as a citizen. I thought it was a
very remarkable thing. He then asked me if I would make a speech to the
crowd, so as to disperse them, or induce them to disperse, and leave
the track free for the cars to go out--engines and so on. I told him
that I did not think it was my place, but if it would be of any benefit
I would certainly do so; and he said "yes," he thought it would be
necessary, because there was troops coming from Philadelphia and
Easton; that the railroad company had sent for troops to disperse any
mob that would attempt to interfere with the running of trains; and,
perhaps, it would be best, in order to prevent any disturbance, for me
to address the crowd to that effect. I hesitated somewhat, and inquired
then before I consented. Said I, "who is the leader of the strikers?"
Said he "there he is," pointing to a tall man that was very busy in the
crowd, making motions with his fingers to his companions--that is,
trainmen, firemen, and engineers. Said I "call him here and see what he
says about my addressing this crowd." This man was called, and he also
thought it advisable for me to do so--they did not want any
disturbance, and they would like the crowd to disperse--they could
manage this business themselves without any outsiders; and at this
solicitation of Brown, and this chief man amongst the strikers, I got
up on the steps of a small oil house, that is fronting the
round-house--standing there yet--and I addressed the crowd present, and
what I said on that day to them was published in the afternoon
paper--in the _Leader_--I have a copy of it here. I told them that
it was necessary for them to disperse--if you would like to here the
exact words I would read them for you.

Q. Is it lengthy?

A. No, sir; it is very short. It was so to the point at the time that I
thought it best to preserve it, and this is copied from the _Leader_ of
the 21st, the afternoon of the-day of the occurrence, and this address
was delivered about one hour before the arrival of the troops. The
reporter says he addressed--that is. Doctor Donnelly--addressed the
strikers as his fellow-countrymen. I did so because I have been in the
habit of addressing Irishmen in public meetings, and it was more of a
habit than anything else. Instead of saying "fellow-citizens," I said
countrymen; not because they were all Irish, but because it is a habit
I had in using that term, and exhorted them not to resort to violence.
"No striker," he said, "had ever yet succeeded where violence was
resorted to. Violence was invariably met with violence, and ended in
the discomfiture of the strikers. It was opposed and contrary to the
fundamental laws of the land. He entreated them to maintain law and
order. To reflect before taking any rash step, and to remember that
law-breakers must, in the natural course of things, suffer. He urged
them to be prudent upon the arrival of the troops from the east. The
troops from Philadelphia, said he, and the troops from Easton and
elsewhere are not to you like the Duquesne Greys or the Fourteenth
regiment or the Nineteenth regiment. They are not, I might say, your
brothers. You cannot go to them and take their hands and say to them,
'how are you, Jim?' or 'how are you, Tom' or 'how is it with you,
Patrick?' These men will come here strangers to you, and they will come
here regarding you as we regarded the rebels during the rebellion, and
there will be no friendly feeling between you and them. For this
reason, I implore you, for God's sake, to stand back when they arrive.
To stand off and allow your leaders, who hold the throttle of this
movement, to deal with them. For this reason I implore those of you who
have no business here to go home to your families. It is your duty to
do so. It is your duty to them, to your country, and to the laws of
your country. Leave the matter in the hands of your leaders, who know
what is for the best, better than you do, and you will leave it in good
hands. I have been assured of this. I have been informed by the men who
are leading this strike that they will exercise the greatest caution
and forbearance when the soldiers arrive, and I entreat you to stand
back, and let them manage the thing in their own way." That was the
import of it.

Q. Were you near Twenty-eighth street when you made that?

A. I was right amongst them, sir.

Q. At Twenty-eighth street?

A. At Twenty-eighth street and the round-house. The crowd was between
the round-house and myself--some fifteen hundred or two thousand,
including; soldiers and all.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. It was on the steps of the watch-box?

A. I was on the steps of a small building where oil is kept. The steps
are high up, and I had a good location and a good view of the
surroundings. They listened very patiently, and as there was a great
number of women and children among them, I deemed it my duty to warn
them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Before you go on, state to us what effect this address had upon
them?

A. It seemed to have a good effect upon them as far as the women and
children, and a great number of men retired and went away; and there
was a kindly feeling apparent amongst the people and amongst the
soldiers that were there. There was no evidence of violence, nor none
apprehended, except when the troops would arrive from the cast. The
only fear that appeared to exist amongst the bystanders and those I
conversed with, was a conflict between the eastern troops and the
people.

Q. Were the troops--the soldiers of the Fourteenth and Nineteenth
regiments--mixed up with the crowd at that time?

A. Yes; there was neither order nor discipline amongst them.

Q. Did they have their arms with them?

A. They had some arms on the ground. Some had them with them and some
were stacked in different places along the side of the hill and at the
bottom of the hill.

Q. Were they dressed in uniform?

A. Yes; with the exception of General Brown, who was in citizen's
dress, and he was the commander-in-chief. I inquired for General
Pearson. I understood he was with the Philadelphia troops.

Q. Go on, now, Doctor.

A. My address seemed to have considerable influence with the strikers
and trainmen and others; and they had their meeting-place on Penn
street, near Twenty-eighth. I think it was over a segar store; and I
was requested to meet them that afternoon. I did so, and they delegated
me to wait on the officials of the road to make terms, to put an end to
any further disturbances. They requested me to see Mr. Thaw. I think he
is an official of the road, one of the vice presidents, if I am not
mistaken--William Thaw, I think his name is, and Mr. McCullough and Mr.
Layng. I went to Mr. Thaw's house two or three times, but was unable to
find him. I then went to Allegheny, and met Mr. Layng and Colonel
McCullough, and told them what the strikers wanted, and endeavored to
persuade them to meet the strikers or to make some promise that would
put an end to further difficulty and trouble, or the shooting of people
or destruction of property. They were both together, and I conversed
with them, and I gave them the terms the strikers had authorized me to
make. I took it from the strikers and wrote it down in pencil at the
time, and it is here--the terms they wished me to propose to the
officers of the road, to Mr. Thaw and Colonel Scott, if he was in town.
After informing these gentlemen what the strikers demanded, they told
me they could do nothing in the matter whatever--it was above their
power to do anything.

Q. You may read what the strikers demanded.

A. This is what they demanded: "Authorized by strikers to visit Colonel
McCullough and Mr. Layng to effect a compromise on the basis of taking
off double-headers; same wages as prior to June 1, 1877; each man to
receive his position prior to strike."

Q. Retain his position prior to strike--receive or retain?

A. They said receive at that time--"classification of engines done away
with; each engineer to receive first-class wages, same as prior to June
1, 1877; each engine, road or shifting, to have own fireman"--that was
the conditions on which they wished to make a compromise with the
officials of the road, and by all means to endeavor to have them meet
them, so as to make some kind of a compromise. Their great object
seemed to be to have a conference with the officials.

Q. What time did you get that proposition?

A. It was in the afternoon of Saturday.

Q. Before the collision with the troops?

A. It was after the collision. I had not heard of the collision at that
time. I had been hunting Mr. Thaw in the afternoon, and then had gone
to Allegheny, and I had to procure the aid of a gentleman to go with me
to learn where Mr. McCullough and Mr. Layng lived.

Q. Did you get the proposition before the collision from the strikers?

A. The strikers gave me the proposition previous to the collision, I
think.

Q. What time did you present it?

A. I presented it--it must have been, perhaps, four o'clock or five--it
was in the afternoon.

Q. What response did you get--reply?

A. They told me they could do nothing at all in the matter, nor did
they seemed disposed to do anything. They conversed about the matter as
indifferently as if it was a thing on the other side of the
Atlantic--took no interest in it, but referred me to President Scott.

Q. Did you return to Twenty-eighth street that night again--Saturday
night?

A. I did, sir; went there several times. I reported the interview, and
they said they would try to meet the officers--they would meet the
officers at East Liberty, and that they had sent out word to some of
the officers--I think Mr. Pitcairn and some other officers--to meet
them at East Liberty, and they had gone out there. This was late in the
evening. They had gone out to East Liberty, but they could get no
satisfaction out of the officers there; and they had also telegraphed
to Mr. Scott, president of the road, and had received no answer, and
that they had used every means in their power to make some compromise
with the officers of the road, but had failed.

Q. Were you present when the fire occurred and the first car was fired?

A. No, sir; I was not present at any firing. I was pretty late that
evening out at Twenty-eighth street, and there was an immense concourse
of people all along Liberty street for several squares, but, as I had
my horse with me I did not go amongst them at all on the tracks. I
merely reported my interview between myself and Colonel McCullough and
Mr. Layng, and I then went home.

Q. Your effort was particularly confined to adjusting the compromise
and difficulty between the strikers and the railroad?

A. Railroad officials at that time.

Q. Did you have any negotiations with the mayor about additional
policemen?

A. That Saturday I had not. On Saturday I had not, but on the next
morning, Sunday morning, I was very active, indeed, to endeavor to
raise and organize a vigilance committee for the purpose of suppressing
the riot and saving the property of the railroad company, and other
property; dreading that the city would be set on fire and plundered by
mobs.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. These railroad officials you called to see in Allegheny--General
McCullough and Thaw and Layng--what railroad company are they connected
with? Pennsylvania Central?

A. They are all connected with the same company. I presume they
represent the Cleveland and Cincinnati--that western part of the
Pennsylvania Central.

Q. Pennsylvania Company--not the Pennsylvania Central?

A. I didn't know that there was any difference. Mr. Thaw is certainly
connected with the Pennsylvania Central. I think he is one of the vice
presidents.

Q. The Pennsylvania Company managed the road west of Pittsburgh?

A. I don't really know what their positions were. I was solicited by
these men to interview them, supposing that they were the proper
authorities in the matter. Mr. Thaw was proper authority in the absence
of Colonel Scott or other officials that could not be found.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What success did you meet with in trying to organize a force on
Sunday morning?

A. On Sunday morning the citizens met near the old city hall and formed
a kind of organization there, and finally adjourned to the new city
hall, and there we organized a committee of safety, composed of
citizens, to take measures to assist the mayor--employ a force of
policemen, as he was very deficient in a police force at the time, and
had but a few men on duty; and the object was to organize a strong
police force to aid and assist the mayor in suppressing the riot, which
then had become very alarming. We were all day nearly in doing a very
little. The citizens seemed to be panic stricken, and there seemed to
be no head at all in the city amongst the officials or amongst the
people. The mayor seemed to be powerless. The sheriff, I believe, had
ran away, and, in fact, we seemed to have no city government for the
protection of the city or the people.

Q. What did the mayor do in the way of assisting in this organization?

A. The mayor--he didn't do a great deal, he seemed to be running around
at one thing and another, and he seemed to be so confused and incapable
of organizing anything, that he really did do nothing. I understood
there was two companies of troops come down from up the Monongahela in
charge of an old army companion of mine. I suggested that he had better
try to get those two companies, and take them down where the riot was
going on, and do something. We found that these troops had returned
again, and they were not there, and we came back again, and, finding
that the riot was still going on and nothing being done, he authorized
me to collect as many citizens as I possibly could, and go down there
and see if we could suppress the disturbance, and I organized about
sixty men, composed partly of lawyers, a few physicians, and other
gentlemen, who were determined to use every effort to suppress the
disturbance; and we first armed ourselves with axe handles, which a
gentleman on Wood street procured for us out of his store. I considered
that didn't look very military, and somebody suggested that there were
rifles at the Western University, up on Diamond street, and we
concluded to make a raid on the university. We did so, with the
sanction of the mayor, and we got the rifles, and then there was no
ammunition, and we put the bayonets on them, and with a company of
sixty men, and myself as the colonel--I had been commissioned by the
mayor to act as such--we marched down to the scene of the riot and
arson, each gentleman had a white handkerchief tied on his arm to
distinguish them from the rest of the crowd that was there
assembled--it may look very ludicrous just now, but it was a very
serious matter then. We marched down amongst them, and the crowd sort
of stood to one side and let us pass through. I arranged the men on
each side of Liberty street, where I supposed they were going to set
lire to the large stores. At that time the grain elevator had been
destroyed, and the property adjoining the metal yard, adjoining this
large ware-house, was also on fire. There was a fence running from the
middle yard up to one of the stores, I proposed to some of the rioters
present to tear that fence down and save that property, two or three of
them said, well, what do you want, I said we didn't want private
property destroyed, so a gang of them went over and tore the fence
down, and the flames didn't extend any further in that direction. After
staying there some time, and seeing that there was no evidence of
breaking into stores or setting fire to private property, we retired;
that is, we retreated to the city hall, and stacked our arms in the
building, and dispersed for the night. The next morning we were not
organized again, the city seemed pretty quiet, and the crowd had
understood that the citizens were taking an active part in protecting
the city.

Q. Let me ask you a question there. Supposing you had arrived with your
regiment--you say you were a commissioned colonel--suppose you had
arrived on the ground before the fire reached the Union depot, do you
think that you could have kept the mob back and prevented the firing of
the Union depot with that body?

A. I do think that if I had been authorized and given me fifty or sixty
good men, that understood their duty, and were obedient to orders and
had loaded rifles before that depot burned, it could have been saved. I
went there and tried to save that depot, and took Bishop Tuigg with me
to go out there, thinking that there might be a number of our
countrymen there engaged in that, and that he would have some influence
with them, to save the property of the company, and save the building.
I stood on the platform of a car with the bishop, and he first
addressed them, and in looking over the crowd, I found that the crowd
were not Irishmen. As we soon discovered, they began throwing iron ore
and other missiles at the bishop's head, which no good Catholic would
do, unless he was an Orangeman. I also addressed them, and a burly
fellow came up and said, get down from here, Doctor, we are going to
set fire to this, and I considered it most prudent to get down. With
fifty good men, I would have cleared that place in a very few minutes.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Do you know that man that came up to you?

A. I would know him if I ever saw him. I felt very vindictive towards
him at that moment. I did try to save an engine by pulling a fellow off
who would not allow the engineer to try to run it off. I pulled him off
and said let that man take the engine off. He was drunk at the time,
and he said something to me, but anyhow they kept the engine there
until it was burned. If the officials even of the depot--if the
officials of the road, or the employés of the road, had any courage at
all on Monday, they could have saved that building. There was no
trouble about it, because the outside people were perfectly
indifferent, looking on and affording no resistance.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Supposing the officials connected with the road there had made an
effort to have driven them back, what effect would that have had upon
the crowd?

A. The crowd that was there at that time could have been easily driven
away.

Q. Would it have excited them worse?

A. I think not. I think the citizens were all disposed at that time to
aid to enforce law and order. It was the feeling. That was on Sunday,
mind you. On Sunday afternoon at that time I believe every citizen was
disposed to enforce law and order, and that the rioting element would
not have had any chance whatever, and they would not have been
supported.

Q. How many were actually engaged in the arson and rioting at that
time?

A. From my looking at them and looking amongst them, and as they were
assembled together to listen to what we had to say, I don't think there
was fifty men really.

Q. Engaged in the riot?

A. I don't think there was that many, because they were dispersed
amongst the crowd of people, and you could only tell the bad element
amongst them by their appearance, and by their dress, and by their half
drunken condition.

Q. Had you any talk with the mayor during the day, Sunday, about
sending out a posse of policemen there?

A. I had talked with the mayor on several occasions. I urged him to try
to organize a force, and I asked him several times very plainly why he
had not arrested these rioters, I mean the strikers, the head of them,
that were inciting riot, and he said that he had done his duty in that
respect, but that he had been superseded Ivy Mr. Hampton and Dalzell,
and other persons connected with the railroad, in taking it out of his
hands, and placing the authority in the hands of the sheriff, and that
he would let them manage the matter--something to that effect--and that
seemed to be his principal reason for not having acted more
energetically--that the officers of the road had taken the matter out
of his hands.

Q. He was out there during the day Sunday looking over the crowd?

A. I didn't see him out there, I think, unless he was there, and I
didn't see him. I was going to say that these are some of the strikers
who sent the communication [indicating a paper] to the mayor and
myself. This is addressed to the Honorable Mr. McCarthy and Doctor
Donnelly. Metzgar was chief clerk of the mayor at that time, and this
communication was sent. I had been soliciting these strikers to aid us
in suppressing the riot, to enter in with us, and make their appearance
amongst us, to show that they were not in favor of pillaging, burning,
&c. This is addressed to the Honorable M. J. McCarthy: "Have gone to
the Twenty-sixth street, with Cunningham, of the strikers, with McKeon.
Say they will try to go down at once to new city hall to join you, and
will do my best." That is underlined: "Will do my very best. Tell
Donnelly, if they come, see that they get instructions." That is, I was
to go down with the force, at that time, with proper instructions. That
is the name of the gentleman, I can hardly make it out, it is very
peculiar writing, "W. N. Riddle," I should think it was. He was to aid
and assist us, with his strikers, to suppress these disturbances.

Q. Riddle--was this the man that requested you----

A. That was not the man. That man I could never find afterwards. He was
a tall man, a thin spare-faced man, a very active man, he seemed to
have some influence over them. One of the strikers gave me that,
[indicating paper.] I understood it was from a principal one of them,
at the time.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. How long did it take you to raise that force of yours?

A. It took me all day. 1 never saw such apathy or cowardice among the
citizens.

Q. They did not appear to be anxious?

A. Men that should have done their duty, as citizens, were promenading
Fifth avenue, and it was very difficult to get citizens. I must say to
the credit of the bar, that they did their duty.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Will you give us the names of some of the lawyers that were members
of that company?

A. Colonel Haymaker was one of them, Mr. Harper was another--there was
quite a number, Dr. Sutton was one, he was second in command. I have
the names of most of them.

Q. I believe you find lawyers and doctors among the best citizens, as a
general thing?

A. We do our duty, if we can.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Could you have got fifty or sixty good men, with rifles and
ammunition, at the time that you and Bishop Tuigg went up to
remonstrate with the mob?

A. We could not--not at that time. We had been ineffectual all day to
organize a company, and there was no arms to be had yet; there was
troops at the old city hall, but there seemed to be nobody in command
to do anything, to take the responsibility, there seemed to be really
no person at the head of anything.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. This whole machine appeared to have no head?

A. Yes; it appeared, as I said before, it appeared that the mayor was
indifferent. He said that it was the railroad company that was running
this thing, and he would let them run it.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You say there was troops at the city hall. How many, and who were
they--what organization?

A. There was part of a company of the Nineteenth regiment--a company
there of the Nineteenth regiment. I forget who had charge of them. I
know the gentleman very well, but I cannot think of his name. He went
out afterwards in command of one of the regiments to the east from
here. A tall, nice-looking young man. He had charge of the regiment.
Howard, I think it was--Hartley Howard, I think, was the gentleman.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. Had the mayor intimated to you that the railroad officials had taken
this matter into their own hands?

A. They had interfered with him in executing an order. They had
interfered in arresting some man. He had not acted as promptly as they
thought. It appears that Mr. Hampton and Dalzell--I think he used the
names jointly--had taken these writs from him and given them into the
hands of the sheriff.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. And that he would not interfere?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. You said a while ago that the sheriff had run away. How did you know
he had run away?

A. He was not to be found anywhere. I had not seen him that day. I
heard he had left. They had threatened to burn his house, and he had
left the city. As the sheriff is a man subject to heart disease, I
presume it was his duty not to risk his life amongst them. I heard
there was a strong feeling against him, and he had left. I had not seen
the sheriff after that day.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What day was this you were speaking of?

A. That was on Sunday.

Q. Did you see him there on Saturday with the troops?

A. No, sir; I did see the sheriff on Saturday.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. You stated in your speech to the people that you had been informed
by those who led the strike that they would manage the matter
prudently, so as to have no trouble. Who were those parties that
informed you they were leading the strike? Can you give us the names?

A. I can ascertain the names of some of them, but I don't know the
names now. I don't remember them. There was one little man very active.
His brother keeps a drug store at the corner of Twenty-eighth and Penn
streets. He seemed to be very active amongst them.

Q. Do you know his name?

A. No, sir; I can find out his name. I can find out the names of
several of them. I think I have them written down. This gent--I thought
his name was attached to that paper--was a city man, very active. He
seemed to be the leading spirit amongst them, but I found he was the
man that brought that document there.

Q. He is not the one that signed it?

A. No, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How do you account for the apathy or cowardice that existed in the
city about going out to take steps to stop this?

A. The only way I can account for it is that there was a feeling
amongst the people that these men had been treated very unjustly by the
railroad company; that it had reduced their wages down to a starvation
point, and that they had been treated unjustly. There has been a
feeling here more or less ever since I have been in Pittsburgh--twelve
years--since the war, against the railroad company, on account of its
unjust actions against the mercantile interests of Pittsburgh. There
has always been more or less of that kind of feeling against the
company, as I told the Governor in my interview with him on the Sunday
night that he was here. That feeling has existed against Tom Scott and
the railroad company. The overbearing manner of their officials, and
their want of making any compromise whatever, or showing any
disposition whatever to compromise with their employés; that has been
the feeling engendered in this city for years.

Q. How extensive is that disposition?

A. It is amongst almost the whole class of people, intelligent as well
as ignorant, that feeling has existed.

Q. The business men and professional men?

A. The business men--many of the business men--have been bitter enemies
of the road on account of the discrimination in freights that has
existed. That feeling has permeated the whole community--it permeated
the whole community, and I had that same feeling and that same
antagonism to the road myself. As I told the Governor, Tom Scott should
come down from his empyrean and mingle amongst the people, and he
should assert his right of being Governor of the State, and not Tom
Scott.

Q. What reply did the Governor make?

A. The Governor made one of his bland smiles.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. He is a good listener?

A. Yes; that was up in the hotel where he stopped the Sunday night.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. In your negotiations, mingling with the strikers and endeavoring to
adjust matters, did you ascertain the reason or the cause of the
strike?

A. This was the cause that I stated, just what is set forth in this
paper, [indicating paper,] that was the cause, and that was what they
wanted, an adjustment on that basis.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Did any one sign that paper setting forth their grievances?

A. Only I had a meeting with them. I wrote down what they wanted.

Q. You wrote that down yourself?

A. They would not permit anybody, they had confidence in me or they
wouldn't have entrusted me. They saw I was disposed to do what was
right. I acted prudently with them.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were any of the strikers, that is the railroad employés, who first
struck, engaged in this arson, burning, and pillaging?

A. The persons whom I saw engaged in this arson business, and the crowd
that I addressed on Sunday were rioters. They appeared to me to be all
strangers. They were not really citizens of Pittsburgh. They appeared
to me to be all strangers. There was no strikers. I saw none of the
strikers that I knew, whose countenances I would remember amongst the
rioters. They appeared to keep aloof. They appeared to keep away, and
when we wanted to find them or have any conversation with them, we had
our meeting down at their place. The bishop and the delegation of
citizens from this committee of public safety, went down to meet them
away down at their head-quarters, at Twenty-eighth street, where we had
a conference with them. They were perfectly powerless, yet disposed to
do all they could to save the property and suppress the riot.

Q. Who were the men engaged in this arson and burning?

A. That is more than I can tell you who they were. They appeared to be
a class of men I had never seen before.

Q. Were they mill men?

A. Many of them looked like laboring men. Most of them were young men,
reckless young fellows, half drunk, and of a class you would call
roughs, which you will find always around cities and places where there
is anything going on, you don't know who they are--they appeared to be
all young men.

Q. From the works about the city?

A. They might have been; I don't know. I couldn't recognize them.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Didn't one recognize and call to you "Doctor, get down from that?"

A. They knew me well enough--these men knew me well enough.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Told you to get down from there, and said they were going to burn
that car?

A. Yes; they had made up their minds to burn the depot.

Q. Did he say that?

A. No, sir; I judged that. That was our effort to save the depot. I
induced the bishop to go down myself.

Q. In the practice of your profession, have you become acquainted, more
or less, with the laboring men about the city?

A. Yes; I have. I am a great deal amongst them--factories, mills, and
all around the neighborhood. I have a great deal of intercourse with
that class of people as a surgeon amongst them.

Q. Did you recognize any of that class in this crowd?

A. I didn't recognize--yes, I recognized two men, that I have since
endeavored to find, who were amongst the rioters--that was the only
two.

Q. On Sunday?

A. Yes; they were there present, and one of them, when I was addressing
the crowd, made the remark to me that they wouldn't put confidence in
any man, no matter what he said, and that man I would know again. He
was one of them, and he was an aider and abettor. I have gone
frequently around the depot since; and I think he was employed by the
company. I would know him if I was to see him. The other man, that
threw the piece of iron ore at my head, I would know him. I have never
met him.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Do you know whether any of your command--of your company had been
called upon by the sheriff to join his posse to suppress the riot the
day before, or at any time.

A. I don't know whether they ever had or not. I don't think the sheriff
was about on Sunday.

Q. The day before?

A. I don't know whether he was Saturday night or not. I don't know,
sir, anything about the sheriff and his posse. There was no sheriff or
posse that I saw at all.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Captain P. Grallisath, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you at the Union depot at any time during the riots of July
last--first you may state where you reside?

A. No. 660 Diamond street.

Q. What is your business?

A. Tavern.

Q. Keep hotel?

A. No; tavern--restaurant.

Q. State whether you were at the Union hotel or not, and what time it
was?

A. I was at the Union depot about half past two in the afternoon.

Q. Of what day?

A. On Saturday. I think it was.

Q. When the Philadelphia troops arrived?

A. I got notice from my colonel, who is captain of the Black Hussars,
who sent a man to me with a note that one of his men lost a cap on the
road, and for me to bring him one. I went out myself and met them at
the depot there--the Black Hussars, and I saw--I suppose it was the
First regiment or Second Philadelphia--the infantry getting ready to
march out the track; and I was talking to my colonel, and asking him
how things goes, and what he came on here for. Says he: "I don't know."
He says: "I suppose we came on here to keep peace here in Pittsburgh."
I staid there with him for about an hour and a half. I told him, says
I: "Colonel, you better come down to my house. There is nothing going
on here. It is all nonsense to remain here. Leave your men here and
come down with me;" and so he did.

Q. What was the Colonel's name?

A. Captain Chues, of the Black Hussars. He was my colonel in the army.
We went down home and got something to eat and a few glasses of beer,
and all at once an orderly sent word to say: "Captain hurry up, they
are firing on front." I went out with him to the depot, and staid there
until dark with him. They had charge of the ammunition from General
Brinton, at the Union depot. I staid there until dark, and the infantry
was out, and a great many people passing along Liberty street, and
hollering and cheering over to the boys, but they didn't take any
notice. I told the colonel, says I, "never mind, just leave them talk
and mind their own business." So they did, I says, "colonel, I am going
home. I will be back again in a short time." I had to see how business
was at home. Everything was upside down in the city. I came back about
eight o'clock, and went to the depot again, and I found there was
nobody there. I asked where they were, and they said they were in the
round-house. I could not go out there, because I was alone myself, and
I understood they were at the same time in the Union depot, up
stairs--all of them--hid up.

Q. Who did you understand that from?

A. I had it from Major Howard, of the Fourteenth regiment, whose
company was there stationed in the Union depot. This was after this.

Q. Did he say that all the Black Hussars----

A. He says "they are not there." Then I went back home again in the
street cars, and I see a great mob making raids on the bonds for
whisky--anything they could find--nearly opposite the street car where
I was in. I went home. About twelve o'clock I went to the depot again.
I thought it was the best thing for me to see where these boys are.

Q. The Hussars?

A. Yes. I went out with one of my men to find out where they were. I
saw General Howard, of the Fourteenth regiment, right at the gate where
the train comes in. I went to him. Says I, "Do you know anything about
the Black Hussars." Says he, "Captain, I don't." Says I, "Are they in
the round-house." Says he, "I don't know anything about it." I went out
over where the ammunition was, and didn't see anybody except two or
three watchmen around with lanterns. I ask them where they were, and
they said they didn't know, that they must be in the round-house. I
couldn't believe it, because I know Colonel Clines ain't going to block
himself up in a cage. Says I, "If I can't find them, there is no use
for me to go out in the round-house." I went home again, and couldn't
get any satisfaction. All at once, Sergeant Wilder, from Philadelphia,
orderly sergeant of the company of Black Hussars, about half-past two
o'clock in the morning, I was sitting on the bed, and he asked some
policeman where my house was, and he told him he didn't know. Everybody
knows me, where my house is, especially policemen, and he says he
didn't know where Captain Gallisath lived. He passed my house two or
three times before he could find it. All at once, he asked somebody,
and they told him, and he rang the bell, and I was sitting on the bed.
I was not going to undress until I heard some news. A darkey, he showed
him the road. He came up and told me the whole thing as it stands. Says
he, "We are in the Union depot, and I don't know how to get out." I got
all my boys up, and said they should throw out every stitch of clothes
they had in their possession. I went out and took them all out in two
squads over the hill. They couldn't get through Liberty street.

Q. You gave them citizens' clothes?

A. All my own and all my men's.

Q. For the Hussars to go out in disguise?

A. Yes; I kept them there for three days at my house.

Q. How many of them?

A. There was sixteen or seventeen. I think there was seventeen. I kept
them there until I got word from General Brinton, and I took them over
to the West Penn road, and sent them home. General Pearson, I suppose,
gave them a pass. The Black Hussars were on the road to Philadelphia,
and were telegraphed to come back to the junction again.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. There were sixteen or seventeen?

A. Yes.

Q. Did they have arms?

A. Nothing but sabers.

Q. Where were their guns?

A. They had none.

Q. Did they have guns when they came in from Philadelphia?

A. Nothing at all but sabers.

Q. They were placed in the Union depot to guard the ammunition, Captain
Clines at the head?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was that all that came there Saturday--Saturday afternoon--sixteen
in number?

A. That is all they had, seventeen--I suppose it was seventeen--I had
them in my house. They had nothing but sabers. They had no carbines nor
pistols nor anything.

Q. Where did they leave the ammunition when they came out?

A. The ammunition was at the same place still--and burned up too.

Q. In the Union depot?

A. That is the report that I heard afterwards, that it was set afire on
Sunday.

Q. They didn't bring the ammunition out with them?

A. General Brinton gave Captain Clines orders to take charge of the
ammunition, so they could ship it to the front, but they never came
back again, the Philadelphia troops.

Q. General Brinton didn't come back again?

A. No; they were up in the round-house, and Sunday morning went away to
the other side of the river.

Q. Captain Clines left the ammunition in the depot?

A. The understanding was, that they were cut off from General Brinton,
and nobody knew the ammunition was in there, except himself and his
boys.

Q. Do you know whether he left it there in the depot or not?

A. I am very well satisfied he couldn't take it away. I heard the
cartridges cracking around there on Sunday when they burned up. General
Brinton had no ammunition, whatever, when he was cut off, and he
couldn't get none--not what he brought from Philadelphia.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did Captain Clines and his command carry anything away from there?

A. They left their sabers there when I took them up the hill, but they
got them back afterwards, and I shipped them to Philadelphia my own
self.

Q. How far do you live from Union depot?

A. Three squares and a half.

Q. What street?

A. Diamond.

Q. How many people were there along Diamond street when you took these
clothes out?

A. Nobody--everything quiet.

Q. Couldn't these Black Hussars have marched out and down to your
house?

A. They couldn't march from Union depot on Liberty street, they had to
go around the hill and over the Pan-Handle road by the tunnel and back
here--that is where the nigger took them around.

Q. In citizens dress?

A. I sent the clothes out. They went in two squads. We hadn't so many
clothes to dress them all at once, the mob was waiting for them to come
out.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You are a military man, and have had a great deal of experience in
the army. In your opinion, could these sixteen men have cut their way
out with their sabers?

A. No, sir; they couldn't.

Q. Why not?

A. I couldn't see how. They didn't know the road, nor anything. They
were strangers.

Q. If they had had a guide?

A. I don't see how they could do it with sabers, when the mob was
standing outside with stones and pistols. What did them sixteen men
want to do with sabers.

Q. Was there a large crowd?

A. There was a big crowd there. They couldn't, I am satisfied. I
wouldn't have risked it, and I wouldn't be afraid if I were acquainted
in the city, and know my road.

Q. If you had had sixteen men well armed----

A. Yes; well armed, that is all right; but they were not.

Q. Were there no arms there. Were there not some stacks of muskets?

A. They had nothing but their sabers, that is all. I saw them all. They
had nothing but their pocket knives. Some of them had no knives,
because they went away so quick, they didn't know where they were
going, and they thought they were going a few miles outside of
Philadelphia.

Q. Do you know whether there was any effort made to take any provisions
or ammunition to the troops in the round-house on Saturday night?

A. Not as I know of.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. These Black Hussars are generally intended as cavalry, are they not?

A. Yes; they are all mounted.

Q. The general cry was against the Philadelphia soldiers. That
intimidated these men, did it?

A. I heard them hollering in the street for to kill them--in Liberty
street.

Q. That is a good way to intimidate a person, isn't it?

A. Oh! yes; I was right with them. I suppose they would if they could.
A man says to me, what I got business to do with the Philadelphia
troops, keeping conversation with them. I told him that is my business.

Q. What business you had with them?

A. Yes. I said that is my business.

Q. They didn't pretend to interfere with you--did they?

A. I suppose they would, if they could. I don't know, I wasn't afraid.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was it known to the crowd that these Black Hussars were quartered in
your house? Did the crowd know that the Black Hussars were in your
house?

A. No; not that Sunday. They found it out on Monday, though. The people
came in the house keeping very nice, quiet conversation with them. I
never heard a wrong word on Wednesday. The house was crowded, and they
were sitting around with them, drinking beer. It was all right; very
nice, quiet conversation.

Q. The Black Hussars did?

A. Our Pittsburgh friends treated them very kind.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Robert B. Carnahan, being duly _sworn_, was examined as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside, Mr. Carnahan?

A. I reside in Pittsburgh, Nineteenth ward. We call it the east end
here.

Q. Practicing attorney?

A. Practicing attorney.

Q. Solicitor for the sheriff, I believe?

A. Yes; I am at this time, and have been for two years past.

Q. Just state what you know of the movements of the sheriff during the
riots of July last?

A. At the time of the first disturbance, which occurred on Thursday
evening, it was preceding the Saturday on which----

Q. That was the 19th--Thursday evening, the 19th?

A. Yes; the 19th. I knew nothing whatever of anything the sheriff had
done, or had been called on to do. I was informed the next morning that
during the night of Thursday the sheriff had been called on by the
solicitor of one of the railroads--Mr. Scott--by some of the railroad
officials, during the night, and that he had been at Twenty-eighth
street during that night, but I knew nothing of it personally. My
residence is five miles--nearly six miles--from here, though in the
city of Pittsburgh, and I was not sent for that night. The next day I
became acquainted with what had been done, but I think I did not see
the sheriff at all. He was out at Torrens station during a considerable
portion of the day, with the railroad officers, and I don't remember to
have seen him that day. I think he had been up pretty much all the
night before, and was out, away from his office, the greater part of
Friday, and I don't think I saw him at all on Friday. On Saturday
morning I saw the sheriff, and had a full conference with him in his
office. The sheriff submitted to me what he had done. Gave me an
account of his meeting the rioters on Thursday night, and of his being
out at Torrens station on Friday, where I think he was a considerable
part of the day--at one place or the other--at least, I did not find
him during business hours; and of his notification of the Governor that
he was not able to deal, in his opinion, with the rioters or mob that
had obstructed the running of the trains. Of course, I made inquiry as
to the magnitude of the gatherings, to learn something about their
threatening, hostile character. In fact, had known myself, personally,
coming in on the road, that the trains were detained. I said to him
that I entirely approved, as a matter of law, of what he had done in
notifying the Governor to send on troops. The view I had of the act of
1864, I think it is, was that the Governor, on reliable information
from any quarter where there was insurrection that the legal
authorities were not able to deal with, might call out the troops, and
I approved of that; but on Saturday morning the attorneys of the
Pennsylvania railroad went into the court of common pleas No. 2, and
obtained warrants for the arrest of a number of persons--my
recollection is, fifteen in number--who were charged as leaders of this
riotous movement. I think the warrants were addressed to a constable of
the name of Richardson, and the solicitors of the road made a demand on
the sheriff that morning for a _posse comitatus_ to attend the
arresting officers, and support him in the discharge of that duty. This
took place sometime in the morning, at or after eleven o'clock in the
morning--it was after eleven o'clock, I think--and I advised the
sheriff to assemble a _posse comitatus_--as large a number of men
as he could obtain--that three or four hundred would not be too large,
and it was understood, at that time, that troops would arrive that
evening. They would arrive here at twelve o'clock, or about twelve
o'clock, perhaps earlier than twelve, on a train that arrived here
between eleven and twelve o'clock, and it was understood the
arrangement was, that the civil authorities were to make these arrests,
the constable supported by the sheriff and his _posse comitatus_,
and that the military were to be on the ground. There was, indeed, very
little time for obtaining a _posse comitatus_ at that time, but
the sheriff sent out his deputies, some fifteen or sixteen of them,
with instructions to bring in a _posse comitatus_. There was not
time to write out summonses and serve them in any way, but I said to
him that it would be a sufficient demand upon a person to attend if
given verbally, that it was better to have a written notice, if there
was time, which there was not then--less than an hour to do it all in.
These deputies went out, some fourteen or fifteen of them, but they
severally came in and reported at an interval of an hour, or an hour
and a half--it was nearly one o'clock--and the result was, I think, but
two men were obtained. I remember of one man being brought into the
office who was very much alarmed. The sheriff asked him if he was
willing to go. He said he was not willing to go; he was afraid to go.
The sheriff reproached him with cowardice, and said he did not want
that kind of a fellow to attend him. I think not more than two men were
obtained. Sometime between twelve and one--I think nearer one than
twelve--the sheriff, with his own deputies, went up to the Union depot.
I think all his deputies, with the exception of one or two, perhaps,
who were not then in the city. Every deputy he had in the city attended
him, including his two sons and his brother, and they went up to the
Union depot, and I think the constable was with him. I am not entirely
sure about that. I attended them myself up as far as the Union depot. I
know we went there, and some of the military had arrived there from
Philadelphia at that time, but I think not all of them. I know nothing
more as to what occurred on that afternoon, for I was not at
Twenty-eighth street when the firing took place, and my personal
knowledge ends with this, that the sheriff himself personally went. I
cannot relate about anything that took place on Saturday night, or
after that time, for I was not in that part of the city, but was at
home.

Q. Do you know when it was that she sheriff made the call on the
Governor for troops to support him?

A. I only know from what he told me himself, and what I have heard
others say, and what I have seen printed--it must have been on Thursday
night, the 19th.

Q. In your opinion, had the sheriff then exhausted his powers and
resources to cope with the mob?

A. I, of course, cannot judge that; that is a question of fact. I can
only judge of it from what other people have told me. I can judge from
what I personally have seen of this mob myself, coming in on the train
every day, for these trains had been delayed for two or three days. The
freight trains were accumulating, and had been detained for some days
before that or some time before that--at least one day--one whole day,
if not another. I should judge from the crowds I saw assembled about
the trains myself, and from descriptions of them by others, that it was
not possible for the sheriff with any _posse comitatus_ that he
could obtain to deal with them, and I will tell you on what I found my
opinion. This was a combination, I may say, of what we call here in
Pittsburgh, the striking element. I don't think any man will say that
he found a preponderance of the railroad men in their assemblages about
Twenty-eighth street, or the Union depot, or other places on the road.
Everybody out of work who belonged to what we call the striking
population, were directed by sympathy or opinion towards these people.
It was not a body of railroad men alone, and I don't think that the
larger part of them were railroad men--the iron workers, the people who
work in rolling mills, and the people who work in the various branches
of industry, were all in sympathy with them, so far as I observed, and
so far as my knowledge, derived from others, extends, and it was a sort
of massing of the striking element here. The strike of the Pennsylvania
railroad men being simply the occasion that brought them together.

Q. Let me ask you another question: In your judgment, had the sheriff
at that time, under the act of 1864, laid the grounds for calling on
the Governor for aid?

A. I don't remember--I have not the act of 1864 before me, and I don't
remember whether it defines any ground. My recollection is, that the
act itself does not define more than in general terms, at least, the
ground upon which the executive aid maybe invoked. I was satisfied of
this, and I think Senator Scott was. I know from his conversations with
me that it was such a gathering, with such a purpose, and with such a
determination that, at least, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company did not
expect to deal with them without military forces to aid them, and I
think that that was the prevalent impression. One of the sheriffs
deputies told me that, though he had served in the army three years, he
never had encountered any danger that alarmed him like the danger he
expected to encounter here. He was a man willing to do his duty. It was
a mob that inspired some terror, even at that time. Before any blood
was shed, there was a general apprehension of trouble. I have seen many
strikes here of coal diggers, of men engaged in iron mills and glass
houses, and the various departments of industry. In fact, we have been
a good deal accustomed to them, but there had never before been very
much actual, positive mischief coming from them, and I never before saw
a mob the people were afraid of, before that one in this city. However,
I must say I saw but little of it until Saturday, and then the soldiers
had been called out under the command of General Pearson, and some
Philadelphia soldiers had arrived. On Saturday, the feeling was angry,
it was threatening and severe.

Q. What preparations is it necessary for the sheriff to make, or what
are his duties under the laws of the State of Pennsylvania before
calling on the Governor for aid?

A. Well, gentlemen, I think the law on that subject has been very much
changed by the act of 1864. That is here. I would like to refer you to
it. I think very radical changes were made in the law relative to
calling out the militia, by the act of 1864, that has been much
adverted to lately. I think it establishes a very different system.

Q. From that heretofore in practice?

A. I think so. I think it is altogether different. As I understand that
law, it is not necessary at all that the sheriff should notify the
Governor. It might be done by the mayor, or alderman, or even by any
citizen. The Governor himself judges of the sufficiency.

Q. As you understand the law, is it necessary for the sheriff to make
an effort to obtain a _posse comitatus_ before calling on the Governor?

A. I certainly would think the sheriff, the principal peace officer of
the county, ought to make some effort to get a _posse comitatus_
to control that riot; but there are cases where the riot has taken such
proportions, as I think this one had--I do not regard it as local at
all, for it extended from the Mississippi to the Atlantic--there are
such cases where no _posse comitatus_ could deal with them at all.

Q. At the time the sheriff made the call on the Governor, was it not
principally local?

A. As to that I cannot speak from personal knowledge. What has been
told to me was, in substance, this: That when the sheriff first met the
gathering at Twenty-eighth street, there was a large collection of
people, numbering, I don't know how many, but one or two thousand
people, and this was in the middle of the night--towards eleven o'clock
at night. They were gathered there. They insulted the sheriff, threw
all sorts of reproaches upon him, blasphemy and obscenity of the very
worst character were employed--this I don't know personally, but it has
been told to me--and threats were made. Now, it is a question upon
which you can judge as well as I, whether, when a crowd can be brought
together at that hour of the night--a crowd greatly in excess of all
the railroad men in this part of the country--whether any collection of
citizens you might obtain, would be able to successfully disperse them,
and it is a question very hard to determine.

Q. Would it, in your judgment, be the duty of the sheriff to make an
effort to obtain a posse before calling on the Governor?

A. Unless the effort was plainly fruitless, I would not understand the
law to require him to do a thing that is plainly unnecessary. If an
armed force would come into the county which the sheriff evidently
could not deal with citizens, especially without arms, I would not
think it necessary to expose himself to any sacrifice of life. If the
disturbance were local, I think he ought to make a serious effort to
disperse it, before calling on the Governor. The law, as I understand
it, and the only law in force on this subject, is the act of 1864,
which was passed during the war--during the time of the rebellion, and
when there were disturbances in different parts of this State. I
understand it authorizes the Governor to call out the militia, on any
information that satisfies his mind, whether it is of an official
character or not. It is in these terms:

"When an invasion of, or insurrection in, the State is made
or threatened, or a tumult, riot, or mob shall exist, the
commander-in-chief shall call upon the militia to repel or suppress the
same, and may order our divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions, or
companies, or may order to be detached parts or companies thereof, or
any number of men to be drafted therefrom, and may cause officers to be
detailed, sufficient with those attached to the troops to organize the
forces."

That was not the law until 1864. At one period in Pennsylvania, when
the military were called out, they were to be under the command of the
sheriffs. That was changed by the act of 1857--I am not entirely sure
about that--it was about that time, and in case of an insurrection,
application was to be made to a judge, and so forth. But it will be
observed that that law seems to supply all existing legislation on the
subject, and applies to cases of insurrection, invasion, mobs, tumults,
and riots, and also authorized the Governor when these exist, to call
them out, though it don't prescribe on what terms or conditions he
shall call them out. I take it that if you, Mr. Chairman, or any
gentleman in whom the Governor had confidence, were to communicate with
him information that a mob or tumult existed, and it was necessary to
call out forces to deal with them, he would be perfectly authorized in
calling out the militia, whether his information is of official
character or not.

Q. Did you communicate your views, as you have given them to us, to
Sheriff Fife?

A. Yes; I said I approved of what he had done. He had sent these
telegrams on Thursday night, and as I stated to you, I didn't see him
until afternoon.

Q. You approved of what he had done?

A. I approved of what he had done, and I think that view was the view
of Mr. Scott, the solicitor of the railroad, and I think of everybody
that were cognizant of the fact. At a later period, during the week
succeeding the destruction of the property, the various railroads
here--the Fort Wayne and Chicago, the Pittsburgh and Cleveland, and the
Allegheny Valley, the Baltimore and Ohio, and the Charleston and
Virginia road sent written demands to the sheriff, setting forth that a
tumultuous body of men were holding their property, and threatening to
destroy it, and calling upon him to protect the property. The sheriff
made a demand for aid upon General Brown, who was in command of the
Sixth division, having succeeded General Pearson, who had been
relieved, to enable him to protect this property. I cannot give you the
views the military had of their duty here----

Q. We will take the evidence of the military men?

A. There is a communication, and a copy of the communication, written
by myself, and sent to General Brown, in fact, it is the original
letter, which I have here, to General Brown, making a demand, and I
have a copy of his reply. The sheriff, at the same time, or before that
time, had constituted General James S. Negley his deputy, for the
purpose of preserving the public peace and dispersing the rioters.
General Negley was recruiting a body of men to act in preserving the
peace. It was said he had several hundred men, and the sheriff, after
consultation, clothed him with all the civil character which the
sheriff himself had in dealing with these disturbances.

Q. What time was that done?

A. That was done somewhere about the 25th of July. It is about the date
of this letter. [Indicating.] This letter will, perhaps, explain about
what the sheriff's views of duty were, if you will permit me to read
it.

Q. I don't see hardly how that would be necessary, because he called
upon the Governor as commander-in-chief to send troops?

A. But the Governor was not here with his troops.

Q. Well, he ordered his troops out?

A. There were no troops here at that time, except the Sixth regiment.
General Brinton had been here on Saturday, but he had left with his
troops. There were no troops here, except the Sixth division, commanded
then by General Brown, and composed of the Fourteenth, Eighteenth, and
Nineteenth regiments.

Q. Is this of a character to give directions to General Brown or asking
him for aid?

A. Asking him for aid.

Q. I think it would be proper to have it read.

The witness then read the following communication:

    SHERIFF'S OFFICE, PITTSBURGH, _July 26, 1877_.

    _To GENERAL JOSEPH BROWN, in command of the Sixth Division National
    Guard of Pennsylvania_:

    SIR: I have the honor to enclose to you copies of the
    following communications, addressed to me under date of the 25th
    and 26th days of July, inst., by Messrs. Hampton and Dalzell,
    solicitors for the Pennsylvania company, operating the Pittsburgh,
    Fort Wayne and Chicago railway, and the Cleveland and Pittsburgh
    railroad; also by the same parties, solicitors of the Pittsburgh,
    Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Company; also by the same parties,
    solicitors of the Pittsburgh, Virginia and Charleston Railroad
    Company, and by Welty McCullough, solicitor of the Baltimore and
    Ohio Railroad Company and the Pittsburgh and Connellsville Railroad
    Company, representing, in substance, that the property of the
    respective railway companies is in immediate and constant danger of
    destruction at the hands of a body of rioters and disaffected
    workmen, which may at any time become a mob, and which said
    companies believe has an intention of destroying said property.

    I beg leave to inform you that since the present disturbances began
    I have made efforts to summon a _posse comitatus_ to suppress
    the unlawful and riotous proceedings of the persons referred to in
    the enclosed communications, but have been hereto unsuccessful in
    procuring the services of any considerable number of men willing to
    come to my aid as a _posse comitatus_. My consequent inability
    to disperse the unlawful assemblages referred to (or some of them)
    has been communicated to the Governor, who has ordered out the
    military power of the State for that purpose. I cannot protect the
    property referred to without your aid. Can you give it? I am well
    persuaded that no mere civil force that I can raise can protect
    this property. If you can give me the aid of your military force
    please inform in writing immediately.

    Yours respectfully,

    R. H. FIFE,
    _Sheriff_.

Signed by the sheriff. It was dated the 26th, and the answer of General
Brown came two days afterwards, July 28th, and is as follows:

    [Official Business.]

    HEADQUARTERS SIXTH DIVISION, NATIONAL GUARD, PENNSYLVANIA.

    (Copy.)

    PITTSBURGH, _July 28, 1877_.

    Hon. R. H. FIFE, _Sheriff Allegheny county, Pennsylvania_:

    SIR: Yours of date 25th instant came to hand July 26, at 7.20,
    P.M., in which you request the aid of the National Guard of
    Pennsylvania to protect the property of the several railroad
    companies centering in the city of Pittsburgh, now threatened by
    mobs. You will, wherever there may be any riotous proceedings,
    bring all the powers with which you are clothed to disperse the
    rioters. After you have made such effort and are overpowered, your
    _posse comitatus_ completely driven from the ground, then I am
    ready and fully able to assist you, and am now ready to assist you,
    when assured your power is exhausted.

    Very respectfully,

    _Joseph Brown_,
    _Brigadier General commanding Sixth Division N.G.P._

    Received July 28, 1877, at 9.30, A.M.

I sent a verbal message to ask General Brown whether he thought it was
his duty to wait until the _posse comitatus_ was completely driven
from the ground. If his duty was merely to bury the dead, we could get
somebody to do that as well as him.

Q. This is dated the 28th?

A. It was after any actual destruction of property, and this railroad
property was still held by the rioters, and they wouldn't allow trains
to move.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. It was a week after the Saturday?

A. It was just a week. The Governor hadn't arrived with his troops, and
didn't arrive until some days afterwards--the next week.

Q. What troops did General Brown have under his control?

A. General Brown had under his control the Fourteenth regiment and the
Eighteenth regiment and the Nineteenth regiment, Pennsylvania National
Guards, all raised in and about this place.

Q. Do you know how many of them were on duty at that time?

A. I cannot say how many were on duty, except from what I have heard,
but I have heard the number estimated, and I think I have heard
military men say some three or four hundred altogether. General Brown's
head-quarters was less than one square from the court-house, and we
could get no answer from him at all until two days afterwards. He says
in his reply he received the communication, twenty minutes past seven,
P.M., on the 26th. After waiting two days he replied, and replied in
the manner set forth.

Q. I wish you to state where Sheriff Fife was on Sunday, during the
riot, so far as you know?

A. Sheriff Fife was in the city, at home, as I have learned.

Q. During the day, Sunday?

A. The whole day Sunday. I have never heard he was out of the city at
all.

Q. Did you see him any time during Sunday in the city?

A. I didn't see him any time during the day, but I saw him on Monday,
the next day. It was reported that the sheriff had been killed--it was
telegraphed all over the country. I saw the sheriff on Monday, was in
his company, and in his office. As to the sheriff himself, I may say
this about it, that I personally advised the sheriff, when he went up
on Saturday, to constitute a deputy to take charge of this force. The
sheriff had, three times during the year preceding, been at the point
of death with heart disease, and I don't think he was in a fit
condition to go at all, but he insisted on going, and did go, both on
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. I know nothing more, gentlemen, that I
can tell you about this.

At this point the committee adjourned until three o'clock, this
afternoon.


    AFTERNOON SESSION.

    PITTSBURGH, _Wednesday, February 20, 1878_.

Pursuant to adjournment, the committee met at three o'clock. All
present except Messrs. Means, Reyburn, and Torbert.

                     *      *      *      *      *

William N. Riddle, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. In the city of Pittsburgh.

Q. What is your business?

A. Cashier of the Penn Rank.

Q. State whether you had any negotiations or any conference with the
strikers during the riots of July last, and if so, what it was?

A. I had conversations with the strikers on, I think, Friday before the
riot, and Sunday of the riot.

Q. State what the conference was on Friday--that is, you mean Friday,
the 21st of July?

A. Friday before the riot. The conversation was at East Liberty, with
the strikers. I went there to see about some stock that had been
consigned to us. While there, I got in conversation with them. They
seemed to demand their rights of the railroad, but they didn't want to
inconvenience any stock dealers there, nor anybody else--didn't seem to
want to interfere with the business--wanted their rights--seemed
peaceable enough to me on Sunday. I suppose the paper that is
here--that is what I am to testify--in regard to that, (the paper
referred to by the witness is the paper written to W. C. McCarthy, and
will be found in the testimony of Doctor Donnelly,) I was requested, I
think, by Major McCarthy, after the citizens meeting on Sunday, at the
city hall, to go to Twenty-eighth street and see if I could make any
arrangements, or see what the feeling was out among the strikers. I
went there, and found this man Cunningham--I don't say it was him, it
was a man that was pointed out to me as Cunningham. He said he was
willing to go down and join Captain McMunn, and help us citizens
suppress the mob. Then this paper was to go to the mayor. I met some
one on the corner who said he was going there, and he, this man
Cunningham said, would deliver the note properly, and he sent this note
to the mayor. This man Cunningham said, that he also thought the
Pennsylvania railroad had treated them wrong, but that he was very much
opposed to the destruction of property, and that he was willing to join
with the citizens, and go down and help suppress the mob then going
on--I suppose they were at that time. I couldn't state what hour this
was. They must have been in and about the Union depot and elevator.

Q. Who is the man Cunningham. Do you know about his history?

A. I know nothing at all. Never saw him before or since this day.
Wouldn't know him now.

Q. Was he a railroad man?

Q. He was a brakeman or engineer on the railroad--one of the strikers
said to be at the meeting at the city hall. I cannot testify that that
was the man.

Q. This is the note you sent to the mayor after the conversation with
Cunningham?

A. Yes.

Q. Will you read this, so the reporter can take it down?

"HONORABLE W. C. MCCARTHY: I have gone to Twenty-sixth street.
Cunningham, of the strikers, with Captain McMunn, say they will try to
go down at once to new city hall to join you. I will do my best. Tell
Doctor Donnelly; and if they come, see that they get instructions."
"Instructions" meant--I suppose that means get instruction where to go.

Q. Do you know whether this was delivered to the mayor or not?

A. That I cannot say.

Q. What time did you send this to him?

A. That I wouldn't like to say. I suppose it was about four o'clock in
the afternoon--Sunday afternoon.

Q. Who is Captain McMunn?

A. He was also a prominent man among the strikers. He made a speech at
the city hall that is recorded. A very good hearted man. I knew him
before.

Q. What was his situation on the railroad; do you know?

A. I don't.

Q. Was he in the employ of the railroad company at the time the strike
broke out?

A. I cannot say that he was then. I was always led to believe he was
before. I used to live at the Union depot, and I know most of these
people by sight. I have seen him several times, and talked to him on
the street since the riot.

Q. Do you know whether he is in the employ of the company now or not?

A. I don't, sir.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you understand from the conference you had with Cunningham that
the strikers would unite with good citizens to suppress the riot and
disperse the mob?

A. Yes; that some of the strikers would--the ones inclined peaceably?

Q. What did Mayor McCarthy say in reply to this note? Did you ever
learn?

A. I never got an answer. In fact, I don't think I ever asked, because
when I came down the people had all gone up to the depot--all that
seemed to want to join. In fact I am positive I never said anything
about it afterwards. I suppose if they had gone there they would have
been assigned to proper places.

Q. Were they to act in conjunction with Doctor Donnelly and his armed
force?

A. Yes; that was the understanding. I think Captain McMunn told me to
go to this man Cunningham, and that he would help us.

Q. They were to join Doctor Donnelly?

A. Yes.

Q. Did they ever join Doctor Donnelly?

A. That I can't say. I don't know. They might have joined without my
knowing it.

Q. State, if you know, what efforts were made by the city authorities
to get a force to suppress the riot and disperse the mob?

A. At what particular time, or do you mean in general?

Q. At any time during the riots--during the violence?

A. I can tell you very briefly--it would have to be----

Q. Only what you know of your own personal knowledge what effort was
made by the mayor and his subordinates to suppress the riots and
disperse the mob?

A. I only know that in the morning I went to the mayor and asked--early
in the morning----

Q. The day it commenced?

A. On Saturday. I was in Allegheny that night. I went to the mayor
early in the morning, and asked him if there was anything that could be
done--asked him if he couldn't get a few extra police by issuing a call
for extra police.

Q. That is the mayor of Pittsburgh?

A. Mayor McCarthy; yes, sir. He said the police committee were then in
session up stairs. I asked him if he would allow me to go up, and
request them to issue a call and guarantee their payment. He said, I
might. I went up and stated the case, and they said to me, that they
had authorized the mayor to employ a certain number, which I don't know
now, of police. I went to the mayor and asked him if he would--after
that there was a meeting at the city hall, pretty shortly after that--I
asked the mayor if he could get any extra police. He said, he couldn't
get them, he had tried, and couldn't get them. I joined the mayor after
that, and went to the city hall meeting. Going down Fifth avenue, I
asked the mayor if he was going to make an attempt to get additional
police, as he had been authorized by the police committee. He said he
was, but who was going to guarantee the payment of this money. I told
him we would fix that part of it, if that was all the hang there was to
it. We got to the city hall meeting, went on and got partly through. If
I remember right, I said I would be one of so many that would pay the
police, if he felt backward about employing them. Then I know after
that, he made an attempt to get men, and succeeded, I don't how far,
but he got a few, at least, later in the day. I asked him if he was
going to send out police, and he said he had not been asked to do so.

Q. Send them to the scene of the riots?

A. Yes; I am a friend of Mayor McCarthy, and I am simply testifying as
a citizen. I think there is very much of a mix somewheres--who it
belongs to or where it rests--it ought to be placed somewhere. There is
a very decided mix.

Q. I wish to ask you another question. Do you know what efforts were
made by the sheriff and his subordinates or the county authorities to
suppress the riot?

A. I don't know anything about that, nothing at all except hearsay.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Had you had any talk with Mayor McCarthy before Sunday?

A. No, sir; not on this subject.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Reverend Sylvester F. Scoville, being duly _sworn_, testified as
follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Were you at the citizen's meeting on Sunday?

A. I arrived just at the close of it.

Q. What occurred then?

A. I had been appointed a member of the citizens' committee. I went
with them to city hall, and from that went in carriages to the mob.

Q. Who accompanied you?

A. Bishop Tuigg, a father of the catholic church, whose name I have
forgotten--Mr. Bennett, I think his name is J. I. Bennett--Mr. J.
Parker, junior, and others, whose names I forget at the moment. There
were two carriages. Doctor Donnelly, I remember him distinctly, he was
there. Our contact with the mob was very brief. Railings were torn from
the fence on Liberty street; but we made our way to the end of the
platform of the car--the rear platform of the car. One of the gentlemen
sought to call the people to order, and introduced Bishop Tuigg, who
endeavoured to address them. They listened for a few moments, and then
interrupted with questions. After a few moments further they began to
throw clinkers or pieces of iron, and we were warned by apparent
friends to withdraw, with the words, "It is growing very hot here."
Other ineffectual attempts were made to address the meeting. After
withdrawing we proceeded to Twenty-sixth street, with a view of meeting
the strikers, and attempting to dissociate them from the rioters, with
the hope that they would assist in suppressing the riot. It was
impossible to find the leaders. One or two, who seemed to have some
influence, were finally seen. Then the citizens' committee went to
visit the railroad authorities at a private house in Allegheny.

Q. What was said to the strikers that you found, and what did the
strikers say?

A. Those who were found disclaimed any sympathy with the riot, and they
were appealed to do what they could to suppress it.

Q. Did they seem willing to help in suppressing the arson and riot that
was then going on?

A. They made no motion in that direction, but there were very few--they
were so scattered here and there. So far as I could see, all that was
accomplished by that committee was to direct the attention of the few
to the efforts that were going on in the city to organize a force. The
character of the rioters appeared to me to be such as belonged to
people habitually in Pittsburgh. I saw no evidence of their being
strangers.

Q. What class of people were they?

A. By their dress and language, they were laborers.

Q. Laborers from the factories, and rolling-mills, &c.?

A. I should think so. Yes, sir.

Q. Were there no railroad employés that were actually engaged in the
arson and burning and riot?

A. I recognized none whom I knew as railroad employés, but it was
evident that somebody that understood the management of engines were
there, and the crowd was not wholly confined to those whose dress
looked like laboring men. They seemed to have no wish to injure
anything but the railroad, and clamored to know whether any proposition
came directly from the chief of the road, Mr. Scott, and when they
found no such proposition was to be given to them, they would not
listen to any other.

Q. What time was it that you visited the scene of the riot?

A. From half past two to three. Do you wish to know anything in regard
to the interview with the authorities?

Q. Yes; I would like to have you relate the interview with the city
authorities?

A. I mean with the railroad authorities.

Q. Relate the interview with the railroad authorities?

A. By the time we had arrived at the private house, in Allegheny, the
depot was in flames, and I think also the elevator. So that they
answered in a word, that all the mischief had been done which they
could sustain, and they had no proposition for a compromise to make,
and it is just to say, that they would have said the same if they had
other interests. They plead also the general interest of the community
as a reason for not treating with those in rebellion against the
authorities. I know nothing whatever in regard to the conduct of the
city authorities, except what could be observed from the outside of the
building--the city hall--the new city hall--from five to seven
o'clock--the formation of the companies--they went up to the scene of
the riot, and their return, which I witnessed, that was all.

Q. Companies of citizens?

A. Citizens--young men mainly. Mr. McCune, and myself, and some others
were with the mayor at the time of the issuance of the first
proclamation, reading, I think, in this way: "Veterans, to the rescue.
Meet at city hall at ten o'clock," I think, "the citizens will follow
you."


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Whose proclamation was that?

A. Written, I think, by myself, at the instance of the mayor. That was
on Monday. There was no citizens' meeting then, that I knew of. This
proclamation was designed to meet the necessity which came upon us,
through the information of other persons coming from a distance--a boat
load down the Monongahela, and the cars full from McKeesport. That was
very soon afterward superceded by another notice, and General Negley
took the whole charge from that. I was engaged in visiting the wounded.
That is all I know in regard to it, except these expressions of opinion
I heard here and there.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many were actually engaged in the burning and riot, when you
were out at the scene of the riot?

A. At the time we were there, before the firing of the depot, the
multitude was in an elongated form, stretching up the railway, so that
all were not visible at any one point. But those that were visible to
us, would number anywhere from two to three hundred who seemed actually
participating, while towards the city there was a large crowd.

Q. Bystanders and lookers on?

A. Yes; many of whom I recognized as our citizens, and persons of
standing in the community. Many statements have been made with regard
to the ease of checking the multitude at that point, which are
certainly hard to prove. No small force could have stopped them at that
time--that is, of course, in my judgment. I know very little about such
things. Some boys were in the multitude, and several of them evidently
under the influence of drink, and fainting from exhaustion and
excitement. But the most of them were stalwart men, under most powerful
excitement.

Q. Under the influence of spirits?

A. We could see that only in a few cases, of course, where it come to
such evidence that they were overcome by it. It is evident, there were
a number of boys who were on the point of falling, from exposure to the
sun.

Q. Were these two or three hundred that you speak of armed, so far as
you could see?

A. We saw no arms. The engine that was near us--there seemed to be an
effort of some to move it; but, if I understood rightly, those who
wished to remove the engine were pulled down from it, and not suffered
to move it.

Q. Who had called the meeting that appointed you a committee?

A. The notice I received and read from the pulpit was signed J. I.
Burnett, but his name was crossed out, as though he desired it to be
impersonal--written hurriedly on a piece of paper with a pencil. I
announced, at the time, that "this notice comes to me without
signature, and I am unable to say in whose name it is."

Q. Was that read in the pulpit of the churches pretty generally?

A. I am not advised as to that.

Q. At what hour?

A. At the close of the service.

Q. Morning service--that would be about twelve o'clock?

A. Yes; about twelve o'clock.

Q. How large was the gathering of the citizens at the meeting?

A. I came just at its close, but I suppose, from the area they occupied
in the street, that it was from one hundred and fifty to two hundred.

Q. This appointment of this committee was with a view of trying to stop
the arson and riot by peaceable measures?

A. Conciliation--yes. Our effort with the railroad authorities was
based upon previous efforts to dissociate the rioters from the
strikers, and remove that cause of complaint, and the only proposition
that was made was whether they could make any proposition.

Q. Did you report back to the citizens' meeting?

A. We started for the citizens' meeting. We arrived shortly before its
close, but for what reason, I could not understand, our chairman made
no report. Probably because there was nothing to report--nothing that
had been done, or could be done.

Q. How soon after you came back was it before the citizens began to
organize into companies for the purpose of protection?

A. Almost within half an hour. While we were standing on the verge of
the assembled crowd, they began to form in line, and march to the city
hall. I remember the person who headed the column.

Q. Were these companies armed that night?

A. They were armed when they reached the city hall.

Q. With what?

A. With muskets, as I understood, taken from the armory of the
university, as I was afterwards told, without ammunition.

Q. How many citizens were there in arms that night do you think?

A. Do you mean at night or at that time?

Q. At that time?

A. At that time, I saw probably a hundred.

Q. Did it increase in number?

A. No; it seemed to diminish. Going down to the Duquesne depot, at nine
o'clock, I was told that quite a large number had come originally to
guard the depot, but all had dispersed, except six.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Frank Haymaker, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    Examined by Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Part of the time in the city and part of the time at Laurel station,
four miles below the city.

Q. A deputy of Sheriff Fife's?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. State whether you accompanied Sheriff Fife to Twenty-eighth street,
on the night of Thursday, the 19th of July last, and what took place
there?

A. On the 18th of the month, I went to the country. On the 19th I got
back. I heard they were striking in town here, and there were a good
many men got on the cars coming in along, and they were talking
considerably about it on the road coming in--talking that they were
coming in to take part in the strike. That was on Thursday, the 19th of
the month. I noticed men along the road, on the road coming in, and
some of them yelled at those parties who got on the train to send them
out grub--they had been out for some time, and hadn't had anything to
eat. They were out at East Liberty. I came in town. Didn't notice much
of a crowd in the city. That was late in the evening, and I went to bed
that evening about nine o'clock. I think it was about two o'clock I was
wakened by Sheriff Fife himself. He said they wished us to go to
Twenty-eighth street. We got in a carriage and went to Mr. Pitcairn's
office, and from there we went out to where there was a considerable of
a crowd gathered.

Q. What occurred there--what was said by the sheriff and done.

A. The sheriff talked to them, and he told them what the result of it
would be, and they would have to go away. If they did not, he would
have to send for the military. He said he would use all the power that
he could, but, he said, if they would not disperse he would have to
send for the military. They hooted him and hissed him and gave him a
great deal of bad language while I was there. I turned around and came
back to Pitcairn's office, and he told me he would not need me any
longer, I might go home. I went home and went to bed.

Q. Did he make any attempt to arrest anybody that night?

A. No, sir; not that I know. They were not doing anything at the time
we went out there, any more than standing there.

Q. Were they interfering with the trains that were passing?

A. No, sir. I believe they said, though, that they would not--they were
not going to let any more trains go out, or something to that effect.

Q. The sheriff made no attempt to disperse the crowd that night, did
he?

A. No, sir; the two of us--I don't think there was much use of us
making any attempt.

Q. Did he make any attempt to raise a posse?

A. He told me he could not find any other of his deputies--he had sent
for several of them, but they were not at home, or something of that
kind. He said I was all the one he could find.

Q. Did he call upon citizens to go out?

A. That night?

Q. Yes?

A. No, sir; not to my knowledge--he did not.

Q. Do you know when he sent to the Governor for troops?

A. These men that came for him, told him all they wanted of him, was to
go out and make a demand of the crowd to disperse.

Q. Who told him that?

A. I believe it was Mr. Scott told him that.

Q. Did you hear him tell him that?

A. Yes, sir; I am not certain it was Mr. Scott, but I think it was.

Q. Was it one of the railroad officials?

A. It was one of the railroad officials and one of the men that came
for the sheriff.

Q. When did the sheriff call on the Governor to furnish him with
troops?

A. That night, sir.

Q. After he returned?

A. After he returned.

Q. And before morning?

A. And before morning; yes, sir.

Q. State whether you were with him at any other time?

A. On Friday I was out--Friday morning--to serve some writs, and didn't
get back until pretty late in the morning. When I got in, he told me he
wanted me to go along out to Twenty-eighth street.

Q. That was the next day?

A. Yes; that was on Friday. We two went down to the depot. The militia
was gathered there. We stood there several hours. I think he came to
the conclusion not to go out on that day. He told us we could go home
again--would not go out before the next day. The next day I was out
some place attending to some business in my district, and came back. He
told me that the rest of the deputies were all out and they wanted men
to go to Twenty-eighth street. That was the day before--that was on
Friday, I think it was Friday--he attempted to raise a posse, I would
not be certain. He said the rest of the deputies were all through town
trying to get a posse to go and assist in making arrests, and told me
he wanted me to go out and raise all the men I could--if I could find
any, to bring them in. I went out and met a good many men that I knew,
and some that I was not acquainted with, anymore than I knew their
faces, and spoke to them about going out, and none of them would go.

Q. Where did you go to raise a posse?

A. I went around through the city.

Q. On what streets?

A. I believe all the time I was on Fifth street.

Q. What class of men did you ask to go?

A. Just any man at all that I thought there was any show of getting.

Q. Did you ask any of the business men?

A. I don't remember that I did.

Q. Who did you ask--anybody you met in the street?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. You didn't ask strangers, did you?

A. There are a great many men in the city that their faces are
familiar, but I don't know their names.

Q. Any citizens?

A. Yes, sir; any citizens I met.

Q. What replies did you get.

A. Some of them stated they didn't want to have anything to do with
fighting against the workingmen, other men said, damned if they wanted
to go out there to get killed, and such replies as that.

Q. Did you demand--make a demand on them to go?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. And they absolutely refused?

A. They absolutely refused.

Q. What was done with those men that refused?

A. I never knew of anything being done to them.

Q. Was any report of it made to the court?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. Nor no arrests made?

A. No.

Q. State in what way the demand was made?

A. Well, sir, I just made a verbal demand.

Q. In what words?

A. I asked if they would go out, and assist in making arrests at
Twenty-eighth street.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Did you say to any of them that you commanded them as a peace
officer--you demanded their assistance as a posse to assist in
suppressing the riot?

A. No, sir; I believe I didn't.

Q. It was a mere request, then, and not a command?

A. I suppose it was.

Q. And they declined?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Did you go outside of the city in search of men?

A. No, sir.

Q. Did you call upon professional men?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. What class of professional men?

A. Attorneys.

Q. Did you succeed in getting any?

A. They just laughed at me.

Q. Did you call on any physicians?

A. I believe not.

Q. Any dentists?

A. Not that I know of. We don't go to that class of men.

Q. I believe you cannot state anything but what has already been
stated?

A. I believe not, sir. I have not heard----

Q. We have had a great many witnesses on that subject?

A. I don't think I can enlighten you any on that subject.


    By Mr. Engelbert:

Q. The sheriff issued no proclamation?

A. Not that I know of.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did the sheriff go out himself, and command men to join him in
putting down the riot?

A. I couldn't state that, whether he did or didn't. I was not in the
office much. I was away in the morning, and when I came back, he
requested me to go out.

Q. What were his directions to you?

A. His directions were to go out in town, and get all the men I could
to assist in making arrests in Twenty-eighth street. He said there was
three or four men there they had warrants for, and they expected
trouble, and wanted a posse.

Q. Didn't tell you to make your demands, or what language to use, nor
gave you no written summons.

A. Nothing more than what I have told you.

                     *      *      *      *      *

James H. Fife, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Allegheny City.

Q. Brother of Sheriff Fife, of Allegheny county?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Were you with your brother at any time during the riots of July
last?

A. I was with him on Saturday.

Q. With him on Saturday?

A. Yes, sir; went with him from the Union depot up to Twenty-eighth
street.

Q. What time did you meet him at the Union depot?

A. I think about two o'clock, as near as I can recollect.

Q. Go on and state what took place from that time on.

A. There was considerable delay, at least I thought so, before we made
a start to go from the depot to Twenty-eighth street. There appeared to
be a delay with the military. They had not all arrived at the one time,
and those that had, had to have something to eat, before they were
ready to go on. There appeared to be considerable delay. I think it was
near four o'clock before a start was made from the depot--somewheres
between three and four o'clock. The sheriff and I think seventeen
assistants were in advance of the military, and marched up the railroad
street in that way. I understood the object that we were taken for was
to assist Constable Richardson in making some arrests. I understood
that there was an order issued from court to arrest some ten or eleven
of the ring-leaders of the strikers, and we were to assist Richardson
in making the rescue, and the military, as I understood it at the time,
was to protect us. I walked with my brother the greater part of the
way. We went two by two, in advance of the military. We reached the
neighborhood of Twenty-eighth street, and the crowd was so dense it was
with difficulty that we could get through it. We worked our way on up
to Twenty-eighth street. I stood about the center of the street for a
considerable length of time, at Twenty-eighth street, where the
railroad crosses. You have heard the statements made in regard to the
disposition that was made of the military there, and my own views are
just the same. They were put into what is termed a hollow square, and
then what followed after that----

Q. Did you find any of the men you went to arrest?

A. No, sir; my understanding before we started, and on the way there,
and afterwards, was, that Mr. Pitcairn was to point out the men to this
Constable Richardson, but I have never seen Mr. Pitcairn but once
since, and that was before your honorable body, and I saw no men
pointed out. There was no attempt made to arrest that I know of, and I
think it was very well that it was so.

Q. When you got to a certain point, the crowd resisted your further
progress?

A. It was an impossibility to get through, that was just about it. They
were there in large numbers. In front of us appeared to be one dense
mass of people, for a square or more, and on either side. Of course
they gave away to the military, to a certain extent, up to
Twenty-eighth street, and there the military halted, and appeared not
able to go any further.

Q. When the hollow square was formed, where was the sheriff's posse?

A. The sheriff was just--the last place I saw him was just at what we
would call the corner of this hollow square, on the left hand side as
you go up. His posse was--the principal part of them--right in front
among the crowd--immediately in front. I know that was my position, and
there was several others, I noticed, that went with us, that were
within a few feet of me at the time the order to charge bayonets was
made. I was, perhaps, no further than to that wall, [indicating about
fifteen feet,] from where I am sitting to where the charge was made.

Q. Was any attack made upon the sheriff's posse?

A. None that I know of. I was looking for it; but there was nothing of
the kind made. We were distinguished by a badge, so that we could have
been known by any person.

Q. Did the sheriff say anything to the crowd?

A. He tried to; but the noise was so great I don't think he was heard,
only by a very few in the immediate neighborhood.

Q. What did he say?

A. I don't know really what he did say. I could see that he was
talking; but I don't know what he did say. He was perhaps twenty (20)
feet from me.

Q. Was any attack made on the military by the crowd?

A. Yes; I presume you gentlemen were up there and can understand me.
Just where Twenty-eighth street crosses the railroad there is a road
which leads diagonally up the hill to the hospital. Just where that
road connects with Twenty-eighth street there was a gate that was hung
to close up that road. That gate was swung back, about two parts that
way, and here was a pile of stones behind it--between it and this
fence. There were two men standing behind that gate, and from the time
that these men attempted to make a charge, these men commenced throwing
stones at the military.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The stones came from the right and front of the military?

A. Yes; and there was quite a number of pieces of coal and other
missiles thrown from the front or from this side here. These two men
that throwed them were behind this gate.

Q. This gate is east of the street, isn't it--Twenty-eighth street?

A. East of the street; it is to close that road that runs up the hill
to the hospital.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. They commenced throwing when the military got in reach?

A. No, sir; not until the time the charge of bayonets was made.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Where was it on Twenty-eighth street?

A. Just at the edge of it.

Q. Just reaching the street?

A. Yes, sir. I saw the two soldiers that were struck with missiles. One
of them was knocked down. He got up in a minute. When he dropped his
cap had dropped off, and when he got up he held his gun in his left
hand this way, butt on the street, and he was wiping his face so,
[indicating] it was bleeding very profusely. The other one didn't fall;
he was struck some place about the shoulder. These are the only two
that I saw that I knew to be struck, and it was over in that
neighborhood where these two were struck that the firing commenced, the
firing was in that direction, over towards the hill. I didn't see any
stone thrown immediately in front, but there was coal and other
missiles--pieces of sticks and things of that kind.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Have you any new facts to communicate to us that have not been gone
through?

A. I don't know that I have, unless there will be some question
occurring to you.

Q. Do you know what efforts were made by the mayor to suppress the
riots?

A. I know nothing about that, only from hearsay.

Q. You live in Allegheny City?

A. Yes; I live in Allegheny City. I live on Anderson street--that is,
at the far end of the bridge.

Q. Was there any riot over there?

A. We didn't permit it over there.

Q. Was there any strike?

A. Yes; there was a strike, and the railroad, as I understood it, and
to all appearance, was in the possession of the strikers. There was no
destruction of property.

Q. How large a crowd of strikers was together at any one time?

A. At one time, I suppose, I saw two or three or four hundred together
at the outer depot.

Q. What day was that?

A. That was on Sunday. They didn't appear to destroy any property,
everything appeared to be just at a stand-still. There was men standing
talking, and didn't appear to molest anybody.

Q. What preparations were made by the city authorities of Allegheny
City, to protect themselves and to keep down the riot?

A. Meetings of the citizens were called at the public square--the
mayor's office--and of course there was a great deal of talk like there
is at all these kind of meetings, and a good many propositions made,
but the one that was adopted, was, that they should organize the
citizens into a military force, and did it, so that General
Lesieur--General Lesieur was the colonel of the round-head regiment
during the late trouble. He is now a practicing physician in Allegheny
City.

Q. What time was it organized?

A. Sunday afternoon or Monday afternoon, the time of the troublest
times, anyhow.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Go on?

A. To let you know a part of what was done, I live adjacent to the
bridge. There was a piece of artillery planted there, and sixteen men,
armed with muskets, stood there as a guard for a week, every night, and
I was informed it was so down at the other bridges, and the street cars
that run over that line, many of them, were stopped just at the end of
the bridge, and one of these military would look in to see who was in.
There was persons coming, as I understood, from a distance here, roughs
and rowdies, &c., and the object was that they shouldn't come in
Allegheny City--they had to go back on this side.

Q. How long did that crowd continue there at the outer depot--of
strikers?

A. I don't know the length of time it continued; there was more or less
of them there for several days, until the thing got settled.

Q. What was done by the mayor and his subordinates prior to the
citizens' meeting in Allegheny City--Mayor Philips?

A. Well, I don't know precisely what was done, it is only from hearsay,
and that, of course, is not evidence.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was this meeting called by the mayor?

A. Called by the mayor, as I understood.

Q. Organized a force?

A. Yes, sir. I don't know the number, but the number is quite small,
compared with this city. I saw myself, on Sabbath day, a policeman stop
two persons that were carrying stuff away, that afternoon, they had got
from some of the cars here. It was plunder. They stopped them and took
them with them, I presume to the lock-up. I don't know, but I suppose
so.

Q. Plunder and all?

A. Plunder and all. A question has been raised here frequently about
who gave orders to fire up there. I think I was in a position that I
would have known.

Q. That is, at Twenty-eighth street?

A. Yes; I heard no order given by any one, and during the time the
firing was in progress, I saw a man that was represented, that I
understood to be General Brinton, trying, apparently, to stop it. He
was using his sword this way, [indicating,] under their guns, to get
them to shoot up or quit. That was the idea conveyed to my mind.

Q. I would like to ask you another question or two in relation to this
citizens' meeting in Allegheny City. Were the people generally in
Allegheny City unwilling to respond, or did they willingly respond to
the call of the mayor, and organize themselves into a military
organization.

A. I think so--all that was needed. I think there was no difficulty
there.

Q. How large was the response--was the meeting in response to the
mayor's call?

A. This thing of fixing numbers is kind of guess work. I don't know.
There was two or three hundred, perhaps, when I saw them. I think, if
you would call Mayor Philips, he could give you that perhaps better
than I could.

Q. Was there anybody who refused, to your knowledge?

A. I don't know of a single one that refused in Allegheny City--I don't
know of any.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did Mayor Philips take active measures to raise a force for the
purpose of preventing or suppressing violence and riot?

A. I so understood that he did.

Q. He did his duty well?

A. I think so; and the evidence of it is, that he had his men at these
bridges, guarding them, and keeping them there for a week, a piece of
artillery and twelve or sixteen men at every bridge.

                     *      *      *      *      *

George Olnhausen, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Over on the south side, on Carson street.

Q. What is your business?

A. Window glass business.

Q. Were you a member of any of the military companies?

A. Yes; pay-master of the Fourteenth regiment.

Q. On the ground or scene of the riots?

A. Yes; I was there.

Q. What day first?

A. It was on Saturday. We started on Friday afternoon, or rather
Saturday morning, to go up there, about four or five o'clock.

Q. Were you there before the arrival of the Philadelphia troops?

A. Yes; we arrived about three or four o'clock.

Q. Colonel Gray and the entire Fourteenth regiment?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was he there on Saturday?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. In command of his regiment?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. How many men did he have on arrival?

A. On arrival we had twenty-seven officers and one hundred and
seventy-eight men on Twenty-eighth street.

Q. How long were you on duty there before the arrival of General
Brinton and his troops.

A. I think when we got there it was between four and five o'clock, and
stayed there until Brinton came. It was, I think, perhaps two or three
o'clock; I think somewheres near that time.

Q. Was anything said or done by Colonel Gray about clearing the track
before the arrival of General Brinton?

A. Yes. In the morning when we first got there there was a little
excitement--it didn't amount to really very much, but by ten or eleven
or twelve o'clock, one, &c., it got on worse all the time; that is,
there was a great many more men got there, and Colonel Gray sent me
down--I think it was between two and three o'clock--to give Colonel
Hartley Howard his compliments, and said, if they would cooperate with
them he would clean that track. Colonel Howard acknowledged the
compliments, and said he didn't think it was proper to do that.

Q. What regiment did Colonel Gray command?

A. The Nineteenth.

Q. Where was he stationed then?

A. He was laying just about this gate Mr. Fife spoke about here a
little while ago.

Q. Where abouts was the Fourteenth regiment then?

A. Right up on the hill.

Q. Commanding the hill?

A. Commanding the hill--that is, we were laying there. I went and
reported the matter to the colonel, that Colonel Howard didn't think it
was justifiable in doing that, and that ended the matter.

Q. Which officer was senior in command then, Colonel Gray or Colonel
Howard?

A. Colonel Gray is senior in command. Colonel Gray sent down that word.
I don't suppose that he meant or wanted to shoot or use any extra
force, just simply wanted to get them to go away from the track; at
least that is my impression.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Was the message in the form of an order to Colonel Howard from
Colonel Gray?

A. No, sir; I don't think it was in the form of an order. Just simply
stating, that, if he would cooperate, they would clear the track
together. At that time we had four or five companies, and just as soon
as one company would march by they would rush in again, and kept on
that way all the time, from ten o'clock until the afternoon. It was
very annoying, because the men were very nearly played out.

Q. You may state what condition Colonel Gray's regiment was in, as to
obeying orders, and whether it was disposed to obey orders.

A. The majority of the men were. Of course, there were some few that
were in sympathy with the strikers. In fact, almost everybody in
Pittsburgh was in sympathy with the strikers.

Q. How many of Colonel Gray's regiment was in sympathy with the
strikers?

A. I should judge there would be about thirty-two.

Q. That couldn't be depended upon in case of an attack on the mob?

A. I suppose there might not have been that many, not quite thirty-two
you couldn't depend on, but there was thirty-two missing that night,
and I didn't hear of any of them being shot, and I suppose they must
have gone away.

Q. They skulked, in military parlance?

A. Yes; that was generally the case. I would also state, that when we
were disbanded at the Union depot we had twenty-eight officers and one
hundred and forty-six men. We had one officer more.

Q. When were you disbanded?

A. It was about eleven o'clock Saturday afternoon.

Q. For what purpose--why did you disband?

A. So far as I can learn, as General Brinton gave the orders to Colonel
Gray, Colonel Gray gave it to the officers and his men, and he
disbanded--staff officers.

Q. I would like the general to explain what he means by disband.

A. He meant that we should go to our homes.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Broke ranks for the evening?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Were you re-assembled the next morning?

A. No, sir; we didn't re-assemble the next morning. I was over, and a
great many of the other officers were over, to see what we could do,
but we didn't re-assemble.

Q. To whom did you communicate these facts?

A. I communicated them to a number of persons.


    By Senator Clark:

Q. Will you give the names of those persons?

A. I want to state this fact right here, that I understand this
committee to be appointed for the purpose of investigating this
transaction. Now, with all due respect to the committee, my idea is,
that the committee is appointed for the purpose of investigating the
facts.

Q. As a regiment you were not re-organized until Monday morning?

A. Yes, sir; a great many of the officers were there, and I suppose a
great many of the men. Everything was so exciting we could not get them
together.

Q. While you were on the hill, during Saturday, did your soldiers
mingle among the rioters, or did they preserve order?

A. They preserved order. There was a few that would get leave of
absence to go down street for something or other--very few.

Q. Did they remain in ranks.

A. Remained in ranks.

Q. You staid there until what hour?

A. We all remained there until the Philadelphia regiments were coming
up there, and I got instructions from Colonel Grey to have the troops
got ready to move.

Q. At what time did you abandon the hill?

A. I think we received orders to move down there about six o'clock. I
guess, perhaps, a little later than that--perhaps a little earlier--I
am not positive. We marched down there.

Q. Down where?

A. Down the hill, on to the railroad track at Twenty-eighth street, and
then down to the transfer depot, and stayed there until eleven o'clock,
or near eleven--half past ten, anyway.

Q. Did you hold your position on the hill until six o'clock----

Senator Yutzy: On Saturday, at the time of the firing?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did the Nineteenth regiment remain on the hill?

A. They were laying below us at the gate.

Q. Did they hold their position until six o'clock?

A. There was some of them did, and some of them did not.

Q. How far is the transfer depot from the round-house.

A. I think the transfer depot is on Sixteenth street--six or eight
blocks.

Q. Where were the mob when you marched down to the transfer depot?

A. They were mostly all down along the railroad, at Twenty-eighth
street.

Q. Did you meet with any resistance in marching down?

A. No, sir.

Q. Where were they when you disbanded, at eleven o'clock?

A. They were most everywhere then, because, it seemed to me, that all
the workmen from the south side, Allegheny City, Sharpsburg, and all
from the country had come in here, and so far as I could learn, they
were going to clean out the Philadelphia troops.

Q. Had the burning commenced when you disbanded?

A. No, sir; not that I know of. When I got home, I could see over that
they were burning--that was about twelve o'clock.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Your regiment was resting on the hill, in good order. What position
did they have during the day. Were they at rest--stacked arms?

A. Yes, sir; stacked arms, and we had a guard there.

Q. Your men laid close by the arms?

A. Close by the arms.

0. When you broke ranks down by the Union depot, did you have orders to
re-assemble at any time?

A. No, sir; we did not.

Q. Who gave the order to break ranks?

A. Colonel Grey gave orders to his regiment. So far as I could learn,
General Brown gave him the orders.

Q. Did they take their arms to the armory, or did they go away, each
one taking his own gun home with him?

A. Yes, sir; we were not marched to the armory.

Q. Broke ranks right there at the depot?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Was there any mob there at the depot?

A. Yes, sir; they were running all up and down the street, yelling and
shouting.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. Was there any effort made by your regiment on the 19th to clear the
crossing, or keep it clear that day?

A. We were there from three or four o'clock in the morning and until
the Philadelphians came in that day, and kept it clear.

Q. How happened there to be such a large----

A. That is to say, suppose this was the track. We would go and clear
this off, and then they would get in behind us, shouting and howling
and cursing. It kept three or four companies going there all day.

Q. Did you undertake to hold possession of the crossing of the track
any distance there at the crossing, or merely clear it off and fall
back?

A. Then they would rush in behind us, and we would have to send another
company.

Q. How happened there to be such a large crowd on the crossing at the
time the Philadelphia troops marched up?

A. I think our regiment had orders--that is the companies--had orders
to fall back and let the Philadelphians in. Our orders were, so far as
I can remember, that we were to go on a train, and go out.

Q. How long previous to the Philadelphia troops coming up there had you
fallen back?

A. I suppose it was about a minute.

Q. Some testify that the mob was mixed up with the troops there near
the crossing, and on the side of the hill?

A. They were only mixed up in that way, just as I told you.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The troops were mixed in the crowd?

A. Yes; mixing in the crowd.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. How; were they on good terms--the crowd and the troops?

A. They didn't say anything. Some of them said they were going to clean
out the militia, we didn't take any notice of that at all.

Q. No particular hard feeling by the crowd against your troops?

A. No, sir.

Q. They showed considerable feeling against the Philadelphia troops--it
was supposed that they would clear the crossing there.

A. They were, of course, from Philadelphia, and they didn't like
them--that was about it.

Q. Could not the force you had there--these two regiments--could not
that crossing there, and the immediate neighborhood, been kept clear
entirely by the force you had there?

A. I think they could. That is very hard to tell. We didn't know what
might have happened.

Q. Were the efforts of the officers directed in that way--to keep it
clear?

A. Yes; of course some of our men were in sympathy with the strikers,
but if we were to take away two or three regiments, away to different
cities or somewhere out away from Pittsburgh, 1 think they could pretty
nearly clean out a city of this size.

Q. You don't think they were as firm in their duty as they would have
been in some other city?

A. Yes.

Q. They were a little more tender of the people they were dealing with?

A. Yes; they were friends and relatives.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Fraternize with the people--with the crowd?

A. I think if you would take the Fourteenth regiment out, in fact, even
in another riot, they would do their duty. All of our officers were men
in the army during the war except one or two. It is like all these
other things that are unexpected, and like in the war at first; they
were all demoralized, and didn't stand up as well as they did in the
last part of the war.

Q. Was the military at any time deployed on the railroad track, and any
attempt made to drive them off the track in both directions?

A. That was done all the time--they were kept off most of the time.

Q. Were the military deployed along the track of the railroad?

A. Yes; marched back and forward.

Q. Were they stationed with a skirmish line?

A. Not that I know of.

Q. In your opinion, as a military man, couldn't that mob or crowd have
been kept off the track by deploying the men along the track as a
skirmish line, or, say two skirmish lines, one on each side of the
track?

A. No, sir; I don't think it could, unless you did some shooting.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Could it have been done by doing some shooting?

A. If they had shot everybody that came they couldn't have got on.

Q. Could a skirmish line have maintained its position and kept the
crowd back?

A. I don't think they could by shooting, for the reason men, women, and
children would come in, and they couldn't have kept it clear--not kept
the whole track clear.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The reason I asked him that, was that he said the companies marched
over on the railroad and they would fall in behind. I want to know if
the military had been deployed with two skirmish lines, why they
couldn't have kept the crowd away?

A. There was too many people.

Q. Were the people armed?

A. No, sir; not that I saw. They all might have had revolvers and such
things as that, but they had no guns.

Q. Did all that crowd appear to be violent and riotous, or were there a
great many there that were simply there out of curiosity?

A. Yes; there was a great many out of curiosity--three or four that
were working for me.

Q. How many hundred men do you think there were there that were riotous
or disposed to be lawless?

A. I should judge--of course it is a pretty hard thing to tell--there
was a great many, indeed--two thousand, anyhow.

Q. What proportion of that crowd were disposed to be riotous or
lawless?

A. There might have been five hundred in the first place, but after the
shooting commenced all were or pretty nearly all.


    By Mr. Dewees:

Q. At any time before the Philadelphia troops came, could you have or
could the military have dispersed the mob at any time?

A. I think they could, yes.

                     *      *      *      *      *

James I. Bennett, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. State where you reside, Mr. Bennett?

A. Allegheny city is my residence.

Q. Where is your business?

A. In Pittsburgh.

Q. And what is it?

A. Manufacturing of iron nails, &c.

Q. Been engaged in the business a long time?

A. Twenty years or more. About twenty years.

Q. What is your firm name?

A. Graff, Bennett & Co.

Q. Were you in the city during the riots of July last?

A. I was.

Q. Just give us a statement of what you saw, the hour and date
commencing----

A. I was not in the riots. I was in the city, but I was not up to the
depot until Sunday--until Sunday afternoon. I didn't feel very much
concerned. Saturday is generally a busy day with us, but Saturday
afternoon I became anxious about the matter. I had been accustomed to
be in a good many of these quarrels with laboring men, and supposed the
thing would be adjusted; but on coming home on Saturday evening, from
what I heard, learned of the condition of affairs, I became
considerably alarmed and very much concerned. I live down that side of
the river at my residence, about three miles. After going home, I
hitched up my buggy, and came back to the city. When I came into the
city, the crowd was just coming, I think, out of Bowers' store. They
had cleaned out a gun store--hardware store, on Third street. The first
intimation I had of that was seeing a man with a gun, and I asked him
what was going on. I was satisfied that he had no business with the
gun. He told me there was a large crowd of men had been into Bowers'
store and broken it open and taken all the arms that they could get
there, and that they were marching then to the railroad. At one point I
turned around my horse and buggy and drove back to Mr. Thaw's house,
which is on Fifth street. I went to Mr. Thaw's house and I called him
out, and we talked about the matter. Thaw didn't appear to be alarmed;
he said he was going to his business. He thought there was no danger. I
went up again to Third street and Fifth street, and was satisfied in my
mind that there was a great deal of trouble, or was likely to be a
great deal, and I went back to Mr. Thaw. He spoke of the military
coming in, and he thought there was enough to protect. I advised him
not to go up to the offices of the Fort Wayne road at all. I think I
went back to Mr. Thaw's house the third time, and he then appeared to
be very much more concerned and alarmed this time. I think one of his
neighbors came down that had been up there. I left him then, and on my
way home, in Allegheny city, I went to Mr. McCullough's house. We sat
until perhaps eleven o'clock, talking together. Mr. McCullough at first
felt entirely satisfied that the military would be sufficient to
prevent any serious damage. I felt very much concerned, and advised him
to be very careful and not put himself in the way of danger or any
trouble.

Q. Who is Mr. McCullough?

A. Mr. McCullough is vice president of the Pennsylvania Company. He is
managing man of the Pennsylvania Company's lines.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. I would like you to state what the Pennsylvania lines were?

A. The leased lines west of this.

Q. Pennsylvania Central?

A. Their offices are altogether; but they are connecting lines. I live
in Allegheny city, and I felt concerned----

Q. What is Mr. McCollough's first name?

A. J. M. He told me there was a regiment coming up on the line of the
road that night, and that there was a sufficient number of troops
coming in that would prevent any trouble. He felt secure; but, as I
said before, I did not. I told him that there was trouble certain
ahead, and I felt very much concerned from what I could learn all
around, that there was gathering into our city a very bad set of men,
and it was hard to tell what the consequences might be. I left him, and
started home about eleven o'clock, or perhaps a little after eleven. I
got down to Strawberry lane, which is below the shops of the Fort Wayne
road. I drove right into a crowd, I presume, of several thousand
persons. I had come up that way that night, and there was no person
there.

Q. The evening before?

A. That same evening. There were no parties there when I came up, and I
drove in and called some of them to know what it meant. I was
considerably taken aback, coming unexpected into it, and they told me
they were waiting for a train of soldiers that were coming up. Three or
four came out that knew me, and said, "Don't you go away;" says I,
"Why?" Says he, "they have rifle pits just above there, and if the train
comes in you will be in the line of their fire," and I was in sight of
my house and my family was there, and I could see the situation, and
drove rapidly past them, after inquiring what was going on there. When
I came to the bridge crossing, perhaps, a quarter of a mile below
there, as I drove up there, there appeared to be sentinels stationed
along the line of the railroad across this bridge.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. At what point was this?

A. A quarter of a mile below this place where they were waiting.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. On the line of the Fort Wayne and Chicago?

A. They were there patrolling the streets with their guns, as orderly
as any soldiers. They were all very sober and polite men, nothing like
rioters, and ladies from the adjoining neighborhood had come down to
the bridge to see--that was the only place they could see anything--and
about the time they expected the train in, these men had gone up to
them and asked them to retire back behind the hill, lest a stray shot
would reach them. There appeared to be a perfect organization.

Q. What bridge?

A. This was a bridge in Allegheny City, below the outer depot of the
Fort Wayne.

Q. Bridge across the railroad?

A. Bridge across the railroad. There appeared to be an entirely perfect
organization on that side of the river. They were armed, and were sober
men. Some of them knew me--they all knew me--I could not name a great
many of them, but most of them knew me.

Q. Were they railroad men--employés?

A. There were a great many of them employés. I was told by other
persons they were employés. I could not tell certain, but I made an
inquiry, and was told that a great many of those men were employés of
the railroad company, and this organization appeared to me to be very
perfect, and they were very orderly, and appeared to be very
systematic. There was no fighting in this tremendous crowd above. The
crowd was there, but they were orderly--no quarreling nor fighting
going on.

Q. Were they all men that were in that crowd?

A. No; there was a great many boys, but the most of them were men. I
think the great majority of them were men. I stayed there until about
twelve o'clock at night, about half past twelve or one, and the report
came down about the firing on this side, and the burning of the
round-house, and the soldiers having been burned up. We were all very
much alarmed. I could do nothing but stay at home, seeing the crowd
there, and not knowing what was coming, but in the morning I came to
town--on Sunday morning. I stopped in Allegheny, and saw one or two
gentlemen, and got them to go over with me. I went to Mr. Barr's office
at the _Post_, but he was not there. He had been there, but had gone
out to the outer depot of the Pennsylvania railroad. I went around and
saw some other parties, and went down to the _Chronicle_ office. Mr.
Sieblich was there, and, I think, the _Dispatch_ people. At the office
there were posters out, one for a public meeting of the citizens at
twelve o'clock--at half past twelve, at the old city hall, notices of
which were then sent to the different churches, that there would be a
citizens' meeting--to be read from the pulpits in that neighborhood.
There was a large number of churches in the neighborhood There were no
citizens but what were extremely anxious to do anything and everything
they could do, but they appeared to be paralyzed, and did not know what
to do. The reports came in that the military had gone, and that the mob
had everything in their own hands, and no one appeared to know just how
things stood. That meeting came together, and they adjourned to the
mayor's office. I understood that there was a reason for that: that the
city hall then was used as an armory, and they had adjourned, as they
did not think it was prudent to open that. Some gentlemen I was talking
to had made a suggestion that we should go and see Bishop Tuigg, and
some other parties who would go out, and see what persuasion would do,
and there was no man that was more extensively known than Bishop Tuigg.
He said he would do so, and they proposed to get another minister that
he would nominate himself to go along with him. At our meeting in the
mayor's office, the minister of the First church, Mr. Scoville, was at
the meeting, and Mr. Scoville accompanied Bishop Tuigg. Mr. Parke and
some other gentlemen went up. At this time the fire had got down--it
had burned all the way down to the old market-house--that is a few
squares above the depot. We went up, and he addressed these people.


    By Senator Yutzy.

Q. Who addressed them?

A. Bishop Tuigg. He did everything he could to get these people to
desist. I saw a few there that I knew of our own people, and these I do
say were not engaged in burning. After that, we went up to try and find
the engineers of the railroad--locomotive engineers. We went up to see
them. We got some of the citizens to go to their houses and tell them
that we would meet them. We went up there, and were not able to meet
any, but two or three of them at a time came in, and Mr. Slagle
remained there. Bishop Tuigg and the Reverend Scoville and I went over
there to Allegheny City to see the officials of the Pennsylvania
Company and Pennsylvania railroad. Mr. Cassatt was there, Mr. Thaw, Mr.
McCullough, and their solicitor, Senator Scott. We talked with them
upon the subject, but previous to that I had gone down to the
Monongahela house, and had met Mr. Cassatt there, and I think Mr. Quay,
and a number of gentlemen that were there. I took him in my buggy and
took him across to Allegheny City.

Q. Mr. Cassatt?

A. And left him there with the other gentlemen connected with the
railroad.

Q. What is Mr. Thaw's first name?

A. William Thaw.

Q. What is his official position?

A. He is also connected with the Pennsylvania Company, in charge of the
leased lines of the Pennsylvania railroad.

Q. In what capacity?

A. I think he is vice president.

Q. Mr. Cassatt is connected with what road?

A. Connected with the Pennsylvania Central.

Q. And Mr. Thaw with the Pennsylvania?

A. Mr. Thaw with the Pennsylvania. Mr. Cassatt was at the Monongahela
house, and these gentlemen had connection with the two roads running
together. He said he would like to go over. I said I would take him
over, and took him in my open buggy, which he did not appear to relish
very well just at that moment, but really there was no danger. I went
down and crossed the lower bridge, and over into the street where Mr.
Layng is living. I do not think we saw fifty people. The people had
gone up to the fire. Allegheny City was at that time as quiet as it is
on any Sabbath day, outside of the immediate neighborhood of the depot.
I met no person on Sunday who was not just as anxious as they could be
to do anything and everything they could to put down the rebellion, as
I called it, for as I have said, I never could recognize it as a riot
or anything else than an uprising of the people. On our own side of the
river it was comparative quietness, but these men were settled on
having their own way. If they had not commenced it before, it was not
likely that they could organize as quickly and as thoroughly as they
had done.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. What was the result of the interview with Cassatt and McCullough and
Thaw?

A. I think Bishop Tuigg asked them to make some concessions to those
parties, which they declined to make. I think the bishop's idea was to
have some little concession made, and the difficulty might be adjusted
as between the men and them. That was declined on their part.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. What reason did they give?

A. The reason, so far as I understood it at the time it was given, was
this: That they would not make any arrangement with men that were in
open rebellion against law, and everything of that kind--could not
recognize anything of that kind.

Q. What did your committee do then?

A. We came back to the city again, and there was a meeting in the
afternoon, and I was at the mayor's office again in the afternoon. The
mayor appeared to be entirely powerless. He had no police to do
anything with, that amounted to anything. After that we then went to
work and organized a citizens' meeting, which was perfected on the next
Monday morning, and everything was done by those men that could be
done. I do not think I ever saw men work more earnestly in trying to
protect the city, and railroad, and everything else.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. At whose instance was the citizens' meeting organized--who were the
movers in it?

A. The first I recollect of it was the bulletin boards that were put
out on Sunday--that was as soon as the citizens could be got together.

Q. What bulletin boards?

A. The bulletin boards of the _Post_, and, I think, the _Dispatch_, the
_Commercial_ and _Gazette_, and I think the _Chronicle_ and _Leader_.
They are nearly all in that neighborhood. I think Mr. Barr was at the
organization of the meeting. He was at the meeting they had on Sunday
and Monday morning. The citizens were called together again and
adjourned until Monday morning. There were a good many of our leading
manufacturers that were out of the city, their families were out in the
country, and they had gone out on Saturday.

Q. How long did that crowd you speak of in Allegheny City, that you ran
into on Saturday nights--how long had that crowd remained in force
there?

A. They were there I think nearly all that night. They were away the
next morning. When I came up the next morning they were not there, that
is, there was no crowd in comparison to what had been there--perhaps
not more than usual there.

Q. There were some there?

A. There were some few that were there. They had possession then of the
trains.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. The strikers had?

A. The strikers had possession of the trains on Sunday morning. They
were in possession there at that time.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. How many were engaged in actual riot and arson out at Twenty-eighth
street, when you were there with the bishop?

A. I do not think it was so far as Twenty-eighth street--it was within
a few squares of the depot. It would be impossible for any one to say
how many were actually engaged in it, but the whole railway connection,
so far as you could see, was filled with people on both sides of
it--the street on both sides of the railway track. The number that was
engaged in it appeared to be but few compared with the great crowd that
was there--very few.

Q. What class was the crowd that was there composed of?

A. The citizens you speak of along the street?

Q. Yes?

A. There appeared to be a general outpouring from the entire
city--every person. They were attracted there from every place.

Q. By curiosity?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. They were lookers-on?

A. They were lookers-on.

Q. Was there a crowd of sympathizers around, immediately around these
parties that were engaged in actual riot and arson?

A. There were some that were sympathizers, but so far as my own
knowledge went, men of any standing expressed no sympathy with them. A
great many of the workingmen felt that the railroad was oppressing
these men, and they were in sympathy with them--that is not taking any
part in it. There were a great many of our laboring men that were there
in their Sunday clothes that were taking no part, but walking around,
and a great many of them absolutely appeared to me to be alarmed and
frightened. That paralyzed them--not doing anything. I begged of the
men, for their own sakes, to try and stop that, and they felt as though
their lives were at stake in doing it. They were afraid to say a word;
did not know who was their friend or enemy. The men appeared to be
going on in a quiet way without saying much to anybody, except this
crowd that was before us--we were right in the immediate neighborhood
of the burning--as rough a looking set of characters as I ever saw. I
have no desire to get amongst such a crowd again very soon.

Q. Were these men laborers or men that you had ever seen in and about
Pittsburgh?

A. I could not say that any I saw in the burning were men I ever saw
before--could not say that they were men I ever saw before.

Q. Could you tell from their dress what class of people they were?

A. It would be very hard to tell that. I saw a great many of our own
men walking around looking on that were employed with us at our mills.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Have you an extensive acquaintance with the laboring men?

A. I know a great many of them by sight, and where they work. At the
two mills were employed six or seven hundred men, one way or another;
and back and forwards I have become quite familiar with them, without
knowing their names. Indeed, all the laboring men about the mills, as a
general rule they know me by sight, and I know a great many that have
worked with us, that are not working with us now, among the better
class of mill men and laboring men about the mills. I do not think they
were engaged. We have some men engaged with us that are very bad men.

Q. What was it that alarmed you on Saturday and made you apprehensive
of the future on Saturday afternoon?

A. What alarmed me first was this, when I began to make an
inquiry--that our mills all stopped on Saturday from eleven to twelve
o'clock, and the men about the mills had from one to two o'clock. They
usually dressed, and generally we see them about in the city, and they
are free from any employment. You can imagine the number of laboring
men there are about the city; and that, as a rule, would apply to
nearly all branches of manufacture.

Q. From your knowledge of the city and manufacturing establishments,
give us an estimate of the number of laborers that would be out of
employment and at leisure on Saturday afternoon.

A. I could not give you an estimate. I should say you could count it at
thousands, though--thousands of men that would be unemployed at that
time.

Q. Have you any idea of the number of thousands of laborers employed in
and about Pittsburgh?

A. I could not give any correct estimate of that.

Q. Have you had experience before with strikers? Has there been
strikes?

A. I have had a great deal to do with them at one time and another in
our own business--men that we had employed ourselves.

Q. Is it a thing of very frequent occurrence--strikes among laboring
men?

A. It is a common thing, but not so very frequent, these large
strikes--what we would call large strikes, where the mill hands in all
the mills strike. We frequently have difficulties of that kind in our
own mill when it does not occur in any others--upon a particular branch
of the business; something of that kind. We have had a number of very
large strikes here in the city where all the rolling mills were stopped
at one time.

Q. And it was your experience with the strikes, and knowing the number
of men that would be idle Saturday afternoon, that made you
apprehensive of the result?

A. That made me apprehensive; because these men were idle. They were
all idle, and a great many of them are men. For instance, to explain
more fully to you: A man comes along and he wants labor. We have our
labor bosses. We do not inquire into his character, or anything else.
If we need a man badly we put him in. He may be one of the worst men
possible, and we may have quite a number of these men about our mills
without knowing it. Tramps may come into our town, and if it is a time
that labor is a little scarce, we might have fifty of them about us
without knowing it--if they behave themselves just whilst they are
employed. Bad men may come in and settle down upon us in that way.

Q. Had you been up at the scene of the riot before Sunday?

A. No, sir; I had not been there before that.

Q. Did you at any time during the riot have any talk with the rioters
themselves, or the railroad employés, to ascertain their grievances, or
the causes of the strike?

A. Not on the Pennsylvania railroad; but I did on the other side of the
river, with them over there.

Q. Go on and give us the facts.

A. I had on the Fort Wayne and Chicago. I was among these men at the
shops. I went over there one night or two in the shops with those men,
talking to them, and they claimed that the railroad company had ground
them down; that their wages were such that they could not live. That
was their real grievance, and they wanted their wages restored. And
they complained of a large portion of the men unnecessarily being
thrown out of employment by doubling up the trains. That was the
complaint. They had their unions--there are unions existing among the
laboring men in our mills. Puddlers have their unions, and we have what
is called "The Amalgamated Iron Works Union," which embraces nearly
all. The railroad employés had their unions. These unions are all in
sympathy with each other, and as a rule, will aid each other. There
would be a sympathy existing among these men of all classes, for they
felt that they were oppressed by the railroad company; and, as I say,
they had the sympathy of the other workingmen of nearly every
class--there can be no question of that.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Are these unions secret organizations?

A. Yes, sir; I think they are all secret organizations. I have never
known any that were not secret organizations. I was there with them,
and after some time Mr. McCullough--I don't recollect what day it
was--I was with Mr. McCullough, at his office, to get information.
Telegraphs were coming there, and I went there to get the news--to see
what was going on along the road. Mr. McCullough had not seen any of
the men of his own road. I got a gentleman to go and see them and tell
them that I thought there should be an interview between them and Mr.
McCullough, and I arranged that interview. I think there was one
engineer, a fireman, a brakeman, and a conductor--there were four, and
they agreed to meet Mr. McCullough, and I went with them and made the
arrangement to meet at B. F. Jones' house in Allegheny City. Mr.
McCullough came there and met them, and Mr. Layng also. They had a
conversation there.

Q. Give us the summary of that conversation?

A. They stated to Mr. McCullough what the grievances were with regard
to what the hands wanted. A portion of them denied that they had
anything to do with the strike.

Q. That was after the Sunday?

A. This was after the Sunday of the burning. Mr. McCullough talked with
them, and the interview was a very pleasant one. Mr. McCullough said he
would do all that he could to have everything made right and
satisfactory to them whenever the property was once placed in their
hands, but whilst they stood out and kept them from their property he
could not do anything at all. I told these men--I said to them
afterwards that Mr. McCullough was right in his position; that they
were in violation of law, and they claimed they were there, and they
were not interfering with anybody nor anything, nor had they purposed
to interfere with anybody. I told them that their simple presence was
enough to show that they were in sympathy with these people. They might
almost as well be guilty as to be doing what they were doing. I went
down and talked to a number of the engineers with regard to the matter.
As a rule, they were vary reticent and very careful about giving any
expression at all.

Q. Did they claim a right to stop trains--interfere with trains?

A. Of course, they didn't to me. They were men of too good sense. They
denied having anything to do with it. It was always somebody else. As I
said, they were there giving countenance.

Q. How did these people define a strike?

A. They said this was not a strike of the engineers. This was a strike
of the firemen--the firemen and brakemen, I believe. They threw it on
them. I thought things were settled, and they were going to work. I
came up and said, "Boys, how is it, I thought you were going to work"
They said they were going to have a meeting, and asked me to go with
them. I said I would go. They said they were going to have it then. I
went down to the meeting in the Odd Fellows' Hall, and went in with
them, and was there, and they denied that it was them solely. They said
the engineers had as much to do with it as they had--just the same--and
that they were encouraging them. I stated to them, then, that I would
do all I could to have their pay made right, but there was only one way
to do it, that I could see, and that was to report themselves ready for
work, and take their positions, and after the road was once running,
and in order, then the citizens would see to it that their case was
properly represented, and that they would be more likely to get their
rights in that way than in any other.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. At this time they had possession of the railroad property?

A. They disclaimed having possession of the property. They would not
admit that fact. They appeared to understand that that was in violation
of the law.

Q. Was that the fact?

A. This was the fact--there was no doubt of that. You could not get any
of them to admit it, though.

Q. Did they understand that they had no right to interfere with the
running of trains, or with any other employé who desired to work?

A. They denied interfering with any employé. There never was a man yet
that said he interfered with any one--never got an admission of that
kind from any one. They said if a man wanted to go to work, there was
his engine. At the same time, Mr. Layng, superintendent of the road,
whilst he was but a few squares from the depot, I think he didn't care
about going over to the railroad at that time, I met them the same day,
and they went and reported themselves to the officers at the outer
depot, and went to work.

Q. From the interviews that you had with the railroad employés, what
did you gather as being the cause--the real cause of the strike?

A. From all I could gather from the employés in one way or another, my
impression is that it was an organization. That perhaps the strike was
a little sooner than was intended. It was a regular organization,
intending to make a general strike throughout the whole country at the
same time, and it was not the intention to be commenced at Pittsburgh.
I think it was all over our country. We might call it an insurrection
of these people to take possession and enforce their demands on the
people. They then knew that the other labor organizations were in
sympathy with them.

Q. What led you to that conclusion?

A. From the fact that these uprisings at Fort Wayne and Chicago and St.
Louis, and on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio and Altoona and
Harrisburg and Philadelphia. If it had been of an ordinary character,
it would have had no influence, except where it originated.

Q. Did you ascertain from the men that there was any communication
between the rioters here and the rioters at the other places you have
mentioned?

A. I think one told me that they were in possession of the telegraph
lines, and knew all that was going on, and one stated to me at one time
something like this: He says, "We knew what was going on, because one
of the men with us is an operator, who stood outside of the window, and
he could hear the instrument and could tell us what was going over the
line." I think they had possession of the telegraph line, and a good
many were operators.

Q. He told you they knew what was going on--that was between the
authorities, &c., in reference to the matter; but did he say that they
had any communication through the rioters themselves by telegraph?

A. No; I do not know that any one admitted anything of the kind. They
were very careful in making any admissions. These men you will find, so
far as the law was concerned, they really understood that as well as
any other class of men, where they are liable and where they are not.

Q. The strikes at Fort Wayne and Chicago and Altoona and Philadelphia
that you have mentioned, were not until after the strike here--were
they?

A. I think it was almost simultaneous--it was very nearly the same
time--on the Sunday following right along--immediately on the heels of
it, and I should think it was all during two or three days.

Q. Do you know what days the strike was at its height in Chicago?

A. No.

Q. Nor Fort Wayne?

A. I have no recollection now of just when this was, for I took no note
of that.

Q. Nor in Philadelphia?

A. Nor in Philadelphia. I think it was unfortunate that they attempted
to start these trains out--these double-headers here on Saturday.


    By Mr. Yutzy:

Q. Why?

A. Because there were so many men loose--the laboring men of our
town--you may say that certainly four fifths of the laboring men were
unemployed after twelve or one o'clock, and that is the best reason I
could give you for it. If I was going to do anything to a crowd, I
should have postponed it until these men were at work. I think it was
unfortunate, because, as I stated before, we all knew of the existence
of these organizations, and we knew that these men that were in these
organizations were all in sympathy, the one with the other.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Was the fact that there would be so large a number of unemployed men
on Saturday afternoon, known to the railroad officers?

A. I do not know that of my own knowledge. Mr. James Park, I think,
told me that he had remonstrated with some of the railroad officials--I
think he had spoken to Mr. Cassatt on the subject.

Q. Did you have any conversation?

A. I had no conversation on the subject, because I was engaged and busy
on Saturday, and was not alarmed in regard to this. Mr. Park's
manufacturing establishment was in the immediate vicinity of the
trouble, and you might say he was in it. He was located right in it,
and he was there, and I think what I say in regard to that, will be the
testimony of every manufacturer in the city. I believe if the thing had
been left until Monday or Tuesday, that the probabilities are that men
would be generally about their employment at one thing or another, that
there might have been no burning here at all. We might have had trouble
and loss of life, and things of that kind. Why I say I think there was
an organization, when I went home on Saturday night, coming up after
dark, they were expecting this train in. These men certainly knew that
train was coming with soldiers, and they were prepared to meet them.
They were orderly--a quarter of a mile below, at the bridge--there
appeared to be entirely too much order for a riot. When there is a
riot, they generally do things up very quickly, without regard to who
is in the way. These men were orderly and systematic.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. This train you speak of--was that train from Erie?

A. I think that was the Erie train. Mr. McCullough told me he expected
that train in. I was informed that they had no ammunition or anything
of that kind.

Q. These men you conversed with gave as a reason for their strike that
the wages were so low they could not live?

A. That was the general complaint.

Q. Do you know what they were actually getting?

A. I did know, and I had it from the railroad officials--I had it from
them, but I have forgotten what it was.

Q. Were any of them getting less than a dollar a day--trainmen?

A. I think they were paid by the trip, but I do not recollect that any
of them were getting less than that. I would not speak positively in
regard to that. It may be possible. I have a memorandum of that in my
pocket-book. I never expected to be called before a committee, or I
would have saved some of these things that I had. It may be I have
something here that will enable me to answer that question.

Q. If you find it hereafter you can send it to us, and we can attach it
to your testimony.

A. It was a copy of a telegraph--you asked me a question; it would have
answered it. It was a copy of a telegraph I had sent to Mr. McCullough
on the subject, and his reply to it, but I think that, supposing that
the thing was ended, my impression is that I have destroyed it.

Q. Have you anything else to communicate, Mr. Bennett?

A. Nothing; but I would bear testimony to the fact that the citizens of
Pittsburgh appeared to be anxious to do everything they could to put
down this riot, and there was no sympathy with the rioters--none
whatever.

Q. You had a good deal to do in raising the force of citizens to put
down the riot?

A. I had, perhaps. The first move, I told you, was on Sunday. A good
many of my most intimate acquaintances were among the rolling mills,
and quite a large number of them were out of the city. I sent for Mr.
Park.

Q. Did you meet with any opposition in your efforts to raise the men?

A. Not a single instance. Upon the contrary, every man I saw was
anxious to do anything, and were willing and did go up there at the
risk of their lives, to do everything they could do, and no man I met
anywhere at all, among my own acquaintances, but what were ready to do
anything they would deem in reason, to try to stop it; and I think it
was stopped by the citizens at last. I was not present, but from what I
heard afterwards, the citizens prevented the burning of the Fort Wayne
depot.

Q. Was there any move by the citizens prior to Sunday morning?

A. Not that I know of. I have no knowledge of any--no recollection of
any now. It was early Sunday morning that they set fire to things in
the first place, and the citizens appeared to be completely paralyzed.
I saw men coming along, carrying provisions, bacon, hams, and articles
that they had taken from the cars they had broken open--carrying them
away back two or three miles into the country, and I saw them walking
along the streets, and it appeared to me that people were afraid to say
a word to them. They were alarmed--they did not know what to make of
it. It appeared to come upon them like a clap of thunder--they were
unprepared for it in any way. I never saw men labor more earnestly, and
labor harder to try to do their whole duty than that citizens'
committee did. It was through their individual efforts that there was
an additional police, and it was by private subscription to pay these
men, that they were put upon the force. Our city was in a helpless
condition, and these bad men, of which we have a large number around
the city--they knew exactly what the police force was, better than we
did.

Q. Did you know the police force had been reduced in the city, and, if
so, when were you informed of that fact?

A. I had no knowledge that our city was in so helpless a condition. I
was amazed when I heard it.

Q. Was it known to the business men--I mean generally--that your city
was in such a condition, in regard to the police force?

A. I do not think they generally understood the matter. They might have
been under the impression that there was a reduction of police, but so
few----

Q. Was it the subject of conversation when it became known?

A. Of course it was, and the very moment it was discovered, they sought
to apply the remedy by making contributions of money themselves, to
have the force put on, and agreeing to pay for it.

Q. Did you have any talk with the mayor yourself in relation to that
subject?

A. 1 did, at his office. He told me then that he had no power to do
anything, but expressed a willingness and a desire to do anything he
could, and I do not think that any suggestion I made to him, he ever
refused to do anything it was in his power to do.

Q. What day was that?

A. I had a conversation with him on Sunday, and again on Monday, and as
I met him at different times, I would have a talk with the mayor.

Q. Was it known to you that the mayor had full authority and control
over the police, to increase the number of police, or to call out--was
it known to you that he had the same authority that the sheriff had in
calling out the police?

A. No, sir; it was not.

Q. Did he make any proclamation calling for police?

A. He made some proclamation. I cannot tell you what it was--do not
recollect what it was.

Q. Did you ever examine to see what powers are given to the mayor by
your city charter?

A. I did not in regard to Allegheny City. After Sunday, I was more with
Mayor Phillips, and more on that side than I was on this. I believe
Colonel Scott telegraphed to me himself, and said that they would
commence laying the tracks, if their men would be protected, and I went
to Mr. Shinn and got him to send an answer to him that they would be,
and I would lay the matter before the committee the next morning.
Immediately on the committee convening, I brought the matter before
them, and the committee answered Colonel Scott that they would be
protected. I went out of the committee myself, and started up to meet
Mr. Pitcairn at the office of Mr. Layng, and stated to Mr. Layng in
regard to that telegram, and my own impression that they should put the
men on to work to feel their way, and if they were interfered with to
withdraw them, that I believed that before night would come that they
would have more men than they would know what to do with, and that was
the result. I spoke of being out on Sunday and not seeing any of the
officials of the railroad at all. I think they did right. I do not
think it would have been prudent for them to be there. I advised those
I knew to keep away. You could not tell to what extent this excitement
would lead a man, nor you could not tell how bad men were. They might
have been seriously injured, if not killed, if any one of them had gone
into a crowd of that kind.

Q. Would the presence of the railroad officials have tended to
exasperate the crowd, do you think?

A. Yes, sir. I don't think it would have been safe for them to have
been there. I think it would have exasperated them.

Q. Where was Adjutant Latta during the day--Sunday?

A. I think he was at the Monongahela house, with Cassatt--I think he
was there.

Q. Until what hour?

A. I was introduced to him when I took Mr. Cassatt across to Allegheny
City. It must have been between eleven and twelve o'clock. I left him
there, and I was not back to the Monongahela house after that. I
learned they had gone down the river to Beaver. I think General Latta
was along. There was a number of gentlemen there. Mr. Cassatt was
anxious in regard to the soldiers that they had. I did not know the
condition of them, nor did he--how these men that had come from
Philadelphia were. He appeared to be under the impression that they had
got out, and had neither provision nor ammunition, and I said that I
could fix a way that they could have the supplies--that there were
parties in Allegheny who would attend to that. I went down on Monday to
Mr. Ray, and he sent them out provisions, and told me afterwards that
they had removed their head-quarters, and he had followed them up to
Blairsville, and had delivered them cooked provisions.

Q. Who is Mr. Ray?

A. He is a grocer on Liberty street.

Q. In Allegheny City?

A. No, sir; Pittsburgh.

Q. Would it have been prudent for the Adjutant General to have remained
in the city during the day, Sunday?

A. To have gone into the crowd?

Q. Yes; or remained in the city?

A. I do not think there would have been a hair of his head harmed.

Q. Would it have been prudent for the other State officials?

A. If they had remained at the Monongahela house they would not have
been disturbed.

Q. If the Adjutant General had gone to the scene of the riot, would he
have been disturbed?

A. I think there would have been danger. Any man went in at the peril
of his life--any officer went in single-handed, alone.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You have a very extensive knowledge of what transpired here during
the riots. I want to know whether, in your opinion, there was a
disposition on the part of the city and county authorities to protect
property and to suppress the riot. If so, could they have done so?

A. I have not any doubt in my own mind, but the----

Q. Not the citizens. I am speaking of the city and county officials?

A. In regard to the county officials, I was not with them. So far as my
knowledge goes, I was acquainted, at the time, from talking as I would
with Mr. Barr, or Slagle, or any of the gentlemen, and I believe they
were all anxious to try to prevent any loss of life or property, and do
all that was in their power.

Q. And could they have done so, if they had made a vigorous effort to
do so--protect the property and prevent the lawlessness?

A. After the riot got started they could not have done it. If we had
the full force we would have only had about two hundred policemen, and
they would not have been able to have done very much, and the sheriff
could not have done very much by calling upon the people and telling
them that he wanted them to stop. Nothing but imperiling their lives.
They would keep away from him. I do not think he had much chance of
doing anything.

Q. It is only a matter of opinion?

A. You could readily understand that those men, with the force that
they could command, would be small in comparison. After the firing I
have no doubt the report that there was ten or twenty killed, where
there was one, did create a fearful excitement, and I do not think any
sheriff of any county could have done anything at all that would have
stopped it, after it had once got started as it had on Sunday morning.


    By Mr. Englebert:

Q. Did you take any active steps prior to Saturday evening?

A. No, sir; I did not really feel very uneasy about the matter until
Saturday afternoon, when I learned--I was not taking much interest in
the matter, and I got very much this way--the railroad people, this was
a matter they were tending to, but that there was going to be any
riot--there might be some quarreling, fighting, or something of that
kind, but I didn't expect there was going to be anything of the
magnitude it was. On Saturday, I felt concerned about the matter, and
the reason for being concerned was, that I knew that the manufacturing
establishments were idle, and the men were off work, and that they were
there, and if you have had anything to do with iron men, you know they
are a class of men who are easily excited.

Q. You, as a business man, would have closed up all business at that
time, under this state of excitement?

A. As a business man, when I found it was necessary to get the military
in there, I would not have undertaken to have done that on Saturday
afternoon. I would have waited until the men were employed on Monday,
or Tuesday, and then there would not be the danger that there was in
doing it on Saturday.

Q. The majority of men being off, of course there was great travel on
the streets?

A. Yes, sir.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You felt satisfied and easy that there would not be any disturbance
up to Saturday--why did you feel easy and satisfied that there would be
no trouble up to Saturday?

A. I understood that the military were here, and that would intimidate
them. I was tending to my own business, and really. I had not gone out
at all to see what was going on on the railroad, although we have a
mill opposite, within a mile, perhaps, of the outer depot, across the
river, and I came back and forward and everything was quiet; but when I
heard of the loss of life and of the firing, which, I think took place
on Saturday, and the men coming across and going into the gun shops in
the town, breaking them open and destroying them, then I felt that
there was danger, because there is this fact: there is a large number
of men that were through the war that are not afraid as those who have
never smelled powder--they are not very much afraid of it, and they are
brave men, and if you understood that there is danger, they say "we
know," and you cannot do anything with them. The idea was this: The
first I heard of it that they had shot into a crowd, killing men,
women, and children indiscriminately. These men are men who are ready
to believe anything of the kind, and they will believe what is said
among themselves quicker than they would from you or me or anybody else
on the outside. They were excited and exasperated, and then you cannot
control them, but the men about our mills are not bad men, all of them.
We have bad men there and they will get into the mills, but I do not
think there is a better class of men anywhere than in Pittsburgh. My
own theory is, that these tramps along the line of the railroad had a
knowledge of this strike, and might have been congregating in here for
two weeks, and these men are always ready to apply the torch at any
moment. They came in here and got into it. I think a great many of the
railroad men had nothing to do, and had no idea whatever of getting
anything but their wages--no idea of any loss of life or destruction of
property; but when they got in there they had no control of this thing,
and they did not know themselves whether the men that had been in the
lodge room, perhaps, were with them or against them. The people were
paralyzed at the magnitude of this thing.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. You have a general acquaintance and knowledge of the manufacturing
interests of this State. Is there a larger proportion of employés in
the manufactories and mining in this vicinity than there is elsewhere
in this State?

A. I think there is; I am not familiar with any place where the
proportion is so large as it is just here in our city.

                     *      *      *      *      *

J. Howard Logan being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you live?

A. Lincoln avenue, Allegheny.

Q. What is your occupation?

A. 1 have a foundry in New Brighton. Doing business in Pittsburgh.

Q. State whether you were with Doctor Donnelly on Sunday, the 22d of
July?

A. I went to the meeting at the old city hall, in Market street, four
o'clock, Sunday afternoon, and joined the citizens' organization to go
up and stop the riot and firing. We had great trouble getting arms. At
first we went to the university, and failed to get them there. Then
went down and got pick-handles from a hardware store on Wood street.
After that we were marched up to the university again, but failed to
get them, and from there we went to one of the armories of the
Fourteenth regiment or Nineteenth, and failed to get any arms there. We
marched back again to the university, and we got some old rusty
muskets, with bayonets. There were plenty of men willing to go; but
being marched around from one place to another they dropped off. We got
these old muskets, and had about a hundred. We marched down to the
mayor's office, and from there we went up Liberty street to Wood, right
into the midst of the crowd, and attempted to form a line right across
Liberty street, at the edge of the crowd; but we were surrounded,
individually, and failed to do that. Doctor Donnelly, who was leading,
seemed to have lost control of the men, and seemed to be very much
excited. We stayed there about ten minutes without accomplishing
anything, except having pistols at our heads all around, and nothing to
defend ourselves with but these rusty muskets.

Q. Without any ammunition?

A. Without any ammunition or anything else. Probably one or two of the
party, or a few of them, had revolvers, but the majority of us had not.

Q. What did you do then?

A. We got started, and about half of the company went out, and the
balance of us turned around and came out then, feeling that we were
whipped.

Q. Then you had not the means to cope--arms or weapons to cope with the
crowd?

A. No, sir. There were a number lost their muskets in wrestling with
the crowd, but they were willing to fight or do anything to hold on to
them, but we were powerless because we had nothing to defend ourselves
with.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Were the muskets wrenched from their hands?

A. In some cases they were.

Q. Did your men fight them, or use the bayonet?

A. Didn't use the bayonets. We held on to them, and pulled them away.
It was very fortunate for us that there were no pistol shots fired, or
we would all have been cut to pieces, because all the crowd were armed,
and we were not.

Q. If you had had a bold, deliberate leader, and been well armed, could
you have accomplished anything in the way of driving away the crowd?

A. We might have done something just at that place, but we did not have
more than enough to protect that one spot which we were at.

Q. Where was that?

A. That was on Liberty street, just in front of the elevator.

Q. In front of the elevator?

A. Yes; down from the elevator.

Q. What time was it?

A. About six o'clock.

Q. Sunday evening?

A. Between five and six.

Q. Was there any trouble in raising a company of citizens at that time?

A. No, sir; there were more than we had arms for--more ready to go than
we could get muskets for, and some, when we could get these imperfect
muskets, were afraid to go into the crowd with them. When we came down
from there we deposited what arms we had in the mayor's office, in
charge of a policeman there, and some of them scattered and went to the
depot--the Duquesne depot--and others to the depots or upon the street,
individually.

Q. What did you do Sunday night yourself?

A. I went over to Allegheny; found the citizens were organizing there
and about starting out to guard the bridges. I went with a party to the
railroad bridge and was there that night. I had a revolver with me
then.

Q. The railroad bridge?

A. The railroad bridge across the Allegheny river at the Fort Wayne
road.

Q. Was that well guarded by citizens?

A. There was about fifteen or twenty, armed with muskets and revolvers.

Q. What class of citizens?

A. There were several policemen and some officers and men from
Allegheny.

Q. Were you molested during the night?

A. No, sir; the orders were from the mayor to stop every person coming
over that bridge, and let no one pass. We turned a great many men
coming over there--we turned them back, and made them go around to the
other bridges.

Q. Allowed nobody to pass?

A. Allowed no person except a few whom the policemen recognized as
living right near there, and were respectable people. Any person we
didn't know we made them go back.

                     *      *      *      *      *

James I. Bennett, being recalled, testified as follows:

The Witness. Our city is surrounded by large mining interests, in which
thousands of men are engaged, and they come in on the trains Saturday
to do their marketing and other trading. When we learned of all this
thing--of what was going on Sunday--they came in a distance of four or
five or six miles, and perhaps there might have been thousands of these
men that came in on Sunday and on Monday. The works were nearly all
stopped, and these men were flowing in here in any number, and I think
only for the organization that the citizens had themselves perfected on
Monday, that I do not know what the consequences might have been later
in the week, but they saw that there was a preparation to meet them,
and the thing was stopped.

At this point the committee adjourned until to-morrow morning, at ten
o'clock.


    PITTSBURGH, _Thursday, February 21, 1878_.

The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at ten o'clock, A.M., Mr.
Lindsey in the chair, and continued the taking of testimony.

All members present except Senator Reyburn.

                     *      *      *      *      *

John H. Webster, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Twenty-fourth ward, south side.

Q. What is your business?

A. Machinist.

Q. What firm are you at work for--Jones & Laughlin?

A. American Iron Works.

Q. Were you at work for them last July?

A. I have worked for them for over twelve years.

Q. Were you at the scene of the riots, near the Union depot, on
Saturday?

A. No, sir.

Q. Were you on Saturday night?

A. No, sir.

Q. Were you on Sunday?

A. I was on a hill immediately above.

Q. On Sunday?

A. Yes; got there about ten o'clock. I suppose it was somewhere in the
neighborhood of ten o'clock.

Q. That was your first appearance in the vicinity of the riots?

A. First appearance.

Q. How large a crowd was there, when you got there Sunday?

A. There was an immense crowd.

Q. Of what class of people was the crowd composed principally?

A. All classes.

Q. Were there railroad employés there?

A. I couldn't say whether there was or not.

Q. Were there mill men and factory men and employés in the shops about
Pittsburgh there?

A. Not that I seen of upon the hill where I was. I don't know what was
done on the track, I was away up top of the hill.

Q. How long did you remain up at the top of the hill?

A. I followed the firing down until the Union depot got fired, then it
got too warm for me, and I came away.

Q. Were you down near the track when you followed the firing along?

A. I was up on the hill.

Q. Were you near the elevator?

A. Coming down I passed the elevator, and got on Liberty street, and
the crowd made a rush, and came near knocking me down. I got down near
the corner of Penn street and stayed there, and watched the Union depot
burn.

Q. Did you have any conversation with those that were engaged in
burning?

A. When I first made my way on the upper part of the hill, there was a
number of young men lying on the ground under a fence, a tree, or
something, and I asked one of them--he appeared to be lively, he was
lying, kicking, and looked as though he was hard at work. Says I, "When
is this thing going to stop?" Says he, "At the elevator." Says I, "You
ain't gone that far." Says he, "Yes, that has got to come down, too;"
and I left him, after talking a few minutes about that.

Q. Who was he?

A. I don't know who he was.

Q. Strangers?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Where did you go?

A. I went on from there down to look at the firing, and see all that
could be seen.

Q. When you arrived at the elevator, did you have any conversation with
anybody there?

A. Oh, yes; had a conversation with almost everybody--talking to each
other.

Q. Did you say that the elevator was going to be burned?

A. I told several parties what this party had told me on the hill, that
he allowed it would come to the elevator, and I began to think there
was a good deal of truth in it, because the Union depot was on fire.

Q. Did you see Daniel Corbus near the elevator?

A. I met him at the corner of Fifth and Fulton streets, and we walked
down together. I told him what these parties had told me--they were
going to burn down the elevator, that was a damn monopoly, too.

Q. Did you say to Daniel Corbus that the elevator had got to be
burned--that it was a monopoly, and had got to be burned?

A. I didn't tell him that, because I was taking no active part in it.

Q. Did you tell him that the other party said it was a damn monopoly,
and had got to come down.

A. Yes, sir. The railroad officials had stock in it, and they were
death on railroads.

Q. You had no participation at all in what was going on?

A. No, sir; just went over to see the fire, and to see what was going
on.

Q. How many were with this fellow that made this remark to you?

A. There was some four or five of them laying there, I think.

Q. Was this fellow intoxicated, did you think?

A. He appeared to be perfectly sober.

Q. What for a dressed man was he? How was he dressed?

A. From the appearance of him--he was not dressed any better than I am
just at the present time--dirty.

Q. Did his dress indicate a railroad employé or a factory man?

A. I couldn't judge that from his dress. Couldn't say what he was by
that--by his dress.

Q. He was dressed like a laboring man?

A. Yes; he was dressed like a workingman.

Q. What time did you leave the depot or elevator?

A. I left when I was standing on Liberty street. I left the time the
Union depot fell.

Q. About what time in the afternoon was that?

A. Somewhere very near six o'clock.

Q. Did you go back again?

A. No, sir; stayed home all night. I overheard a couple of gentlemen
saying that a committee had been talking to the crowd, and gotten the
promise not to burn the elevator. I thought the firing had stopped
there.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Irvin K. Campbell, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. Ninth ward, Allegheny City.

Q. What is your occupation?

A. I am a foreman of the hinge factory of Lewis, Oliver & Philips.

Q. How long have you occupied that position?

A. About three years--possibly four. Between three and four.

Q. Were you near the scene of the riots any time during July last, in
any of the days and nights?

A. I heard of the firing on the citizens about six o'clock, and I came
up on what we call the Cleveland train, and got to Twenty-eighth
street, probably at eight o'clock.

Q. What was?

A. That was on Saturday evening--the evening after the firing.

Q. Twenty-eighth street? What time?

A. It was probably half past eight o'clock.

Q. When you got there how much of a crowd did you find there?

A. There was not much of a crowd when I was there. The troops had gone
into the round-house, and I inquired why they went in, and received no
satisfactory answer. I supposed I was acquainted with some of the
troops that went in, and inquired for Colonel Howard, of the
Nineteenth. I was acquainted with Mr. Howard, and served in the same
regiment in the army, and talked of going in and advising Colonel
Howard to get out of the round-house, and was advised not to go in;
that the men were scared enough to shoot any man.

Q. Who advised you this?

A. Alderman Conlan, of the Ninth ward, said they were scared bad enough
to shoot any man. I came out--I just stepped--probably had one foot
inside of the fence where you go into the round-house track--going into
the round-house at Twenty-eighth street. I went down Liberty street,
and there was two shots fired. I was with a gentleman named Joseph
Steen, son-in-law of Mr. Bown's, on Third street. I spoke then and said
something about firing out there when there was no occasion for it. I
don't mind what my conversation was, but kept on down the street, and
heard no more firing until I got down a little ways, and I heard
several rambling shots fired. At this time there was no organization,
or any crowd to amount to anything. I had been up to the hospital in
the meantime to see if there was anybody hurt that I knew. I formerly
worked for the railroad company there, and was a little interested to
see if there was anybody killed or wounded that I was acquainted with.

Q. Where were those shots fired from?

A. They were fired from one of the windows of what we call the
round-house for passenger engines--the round-house this way. You might
call it the Twenty-eighth street round-house.

Q. Were there any soldiers there?

A. I presume there was. I couldn't see from the outside.

Q. You didn't know whether they were soldiers or part of the mob?

A. I knew there were none of the mob in there at that time. They were
soldiers I knew, but I did not see them.

Q. Was there any burning going on at that time?

A. No burning at that time. 1 think after I came from there down the
street I heard burning talked of; and, if I recollect right, I heard it
intimated before I left Twenty-eighth street. I think that was my
reason for wishing to see Colonel Howard, to advise these men to come
out.

Q. By whom did you hear it talked of?

A. I couldn't tell. Although I formerly worked on the railroad, I
didn't see a man there that I was acquainted with.

Q. Was it the rioters that were talking about the burning?

A. At that time you couldn't tell who was rioters. They stood around in
crowds of four, or five, or a dozen. The only active rioters I noticed
was when the way passenger came in I seen probably five or six men that
looked liked brakesmen on the road run up to uncouple the engines, and
the engineer, Tom Wilson, told them that the car behind him had one
horse in, and asked them to let him take it on through--there was no
ammunition, or provision, or anything of that kind. I listened to some
of the arguments whether they would side-track the freight car or allow
it to go through, and they finally told Wilson to back and they took
the train into the Union depot.

Q. Mow long did you remain there?

A. I was in the vicinity of the crossing probably ten minutes--not
long. The train moved down, and I started to go towards my home.

Q. What time did you get home?

A. I came down Penn street with this Mr. Steen, son-in-law of Mr.
Bown's, and we heard of the trouble at Mr. Bown's hardware store, and
we stopped there for a few minutes--we stopped there probably three
quarters of an hour. I don't recollect, positively, how long, but when
I left there I got over in Allegheny, and in time to make the late
train, and got down to the Ninth ward. The train, at that time, left
Allegheny sometime after eleven o'clock.

Q. When you got to Bown's store, had the rabble been in and ransacked
things?

A. They had been in and ransacked things and had gone off. They had
apparently taken things that were of no account at all, so far as the
riot was concerned.

Q. Were there any rioters still around the store?

A. No rioters at all. The police were standing in front of the store
and refused to let us in, and I explained that Mr. Steen was son-in-law
of Mr. Bown's and wanted to see if the family was hurt.

Q. Did you see any police up at the crossing near the scene of the
riots?

A. Not on Saturday afternoon.

Q. How many came up on the train from the Ninth ward of Allegheny City
with you?

A. There was quite a number. The word came down that there had been
firing up there, and parties killed and wounded--I could not tell
positively how many I came up with--two parties with me.

Q. Did any of the men from your works come up?

A. Not that I know of--there was none came up with me.

Q. Were there any of the men at these works that came up and remained
and participated, to your knowledge?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. Are you well acquainted with the laboring men about the city?

A. I am in the neighborhood in which I reside.

Q. Did you see any that you knew in that vicinity?

A. Not one--didn't see a man taking an active part in the riot that I
knew. I was pretty well acquainted with both sides, and I thought that
there was something strange about that--men that were supposed to be
easy led by excitement of the kind--and I rather wondered at it. The
only man I noticed making any resistance, was one man who said he was a
son of a bitch from Brownstone.

Q. That is in the vicinity of the iron works?

A. On the south side. That was on Sunday, near the elevator.

Q. He was near the elevator?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. He was engaged in the riot?

A. He said he had been at it all night and all day, and was nearly done
out, and at the time I seen him he had a keg--I forget whether it was
wine or beer, but he was very liberal with it, giving it to any parties
that wanted it, urging them to turn in and help, that he was tired.

Q. What time did you return on Sunday to the scene of the riot?

A. It might have been half past eight or nine. We could see the smoke
from down where I lived. That was the first I knew of the burning, when
I got up next morning, and came up to see what was burning. I got to
Twentieth street about the time, or just before the police made their
appearance there to stop the burning of cars.

Q. How far had the fire progressed towards the depot when you got
there?

A. I am not positive the street, exactly, but it was in the
neighborhood of Twentieth street.

Q. Was there any effort made by the police or any other parties to stop
it there?

A. In the vicinity of Twentieth street, the police came along the wall
that holds the embankment the tracks are laid on, and drove parties
away from the cars. Just as the fire would catch a car, the rabble,
composed of all parties, not rioters, but thieves or whatever you
choose to call them, they would break into a car and commence carrying
the things off--men, women, and children. The police drove the parties
off the wall. Some of them fell down, and one, I noticed, got hurt,
and, apparently, the police at that time had possession, and I thought
it was going to stop, but in a short time I noticed smoke starting up
below, further down, and the police went down that way.

Q. How many policemen were there?

A. I am not positive of the number, but there must have been twenty or
thirty, the mayor at the head of the police.

Q. The mayor at the head of them?

A. That is my recollection. I am almost positive of that, because I
know the mayor by sight when I see him.

Q. Did they succeed in clearing the track and driving them away from
that point?

A. There was five or six tracks in that vicinity. They entirely cleared
them on the side next to Liberty street, but there was at least six
tracks there, and most of the tracks had trains laying on them. Smoke
started over a little further amongst some of the other cars.

Q. Did the rioters make any resistance to the police?

A. Not any that I noticed. Some, according to their creed or
nationality, held on longer to their goods.

Q. What nationality seemed to hold on the longest?

A. I must say that the Germans carried the heaviest loads. I noticed
that, and commented on it coming up in a street car, that the Germans
had the heaviest loads. I mean no disrespect to anybody.


    By Mr. Larrabee:

Q. About what time was it that the police cleared the crowd off the
wall?

A. It might have been half-past ten or eleven.

Q. On Sunday?

A. On Sunday, but I could not be positive; during the excitement there
I was paying more attention to what I could see, and wondering what
would turn up next.


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Did you remain there during the entire day?

A. I remained on the Pittsburgh side until probably six o'clock in the
afternoon. I then heard they were organizing in Allegheny, and that is
the side I lived on, and that there was likely to be trouble over
there, and I went over to the other side. The elevator was partially
burned down when I left the ground.

Q. Did you see any further efforts of the policemen after eleven
o'clock to stop the riot and stop the fire?

A. After that time the police appeared to be scattered in squads. I did
not see them in one body after that. I believe they were distributed
around after that. I seen a few policemen after that, but not in a
body. At the time I lost sight of the policemen I started to go up to
see the condition of the round-house. From there I went up to
Thirty-third street--I had formerly lived up in that neighborhood--and
then down to what they call Lawrenceville, and back down to the Union
depot in that direction. I will just say that I met Captain McMunn on
Twenty-sixth street coming down, and inquired of him if there was any
effort being made to stop it, and my recollection is that he said they
had made a proposition to try and organize the employés and try to stop
it, but it had not been entertained. I would not say that on oath, but
I think so.

Q. Captain McMunn?

A. Yes; he was one of the strikers. Another employé standing looking at
the engine in the morning was Robert Aitchison, known on the road as
old Bobby Aitchison. He was lamenting about the destruction, and
finding fault, and said it was wrong, and he told me he was sure the
railroad men had nothing to do with it.

Q. What is Mr. Aitchison's first name?

A. Robert.

Q. That is the old man?

A. That is the old man. At the time I speak of seeing Aitchison, he was
standing where he could see the engine he had formerly run--engine 281.
I was acquainted with him, and had fired the engine myself at one time.
This act was rather impressed upon my memory more than any other things
that occurred.

Q. Did you go close to the men that were engaged in the arson and riot
during the day, Sunday, so as to ascertain who they were--that is, the
leaders in the burning, I mean?

A. I could not recognize any man, but they were what I would call
roughs--hard cases, desperate men, most of them. I was told that some,
I think, were men that had been--I do not know what the best word
is--proscribed, or whatever you choose to call it, been discharged from
one railroad, and got a situation on another, and been discharged from
there, by this last company receiving a letter. There are a great many
men in this country now, that, if they are discharged on the Fort Wayne
road, they come to the Pennsylvania railroad, and that company will
discharge them, and give no reason for it. There are a great many of
this kind in the country to-day, that are desperate men, ready to do
anything at all. I have no doubt that some of the leaders in this
movement were men of that kind, because the men that were engaged in
the riot, were used to railroading, because they could not have run
these cars in and burned the round-house as they did. If they had been
men belonging to the Pennsylvania railroad, I would have recognized
them. I was standing by the elevator when the firemen attempted to
throw water on there. I was close by the hose when somebody cut the
hose, and the water went over the crowd. I received some of it myself.

Q. When you got back to Allegheny City, you said they were organized
there--how large was the crowd there?

A. It was probably six or half past, when I got back there. There was
no complete organization--they were just gathering.

Q. At what point?

A. The center appeared to be, that I noticed, near the round-houses of
the Fort Wayne road. I noticed parties there that were employés in the
shops, and probably there might have been some on the road, but some
that I knew belonged to the shops.

Q. Did the crowd increase there?

A. The crowd increased there, but I did not stay there. I kept on down
to my own home.

Q. Remained at home during the night--Sunday night?

A. I remained at home all night--was not outside.

Q. Monday morning did you return?

A. Monday morning I reported at the works, and we organized there, and
I was placed in charge of a patrol or guard we had round the company's
works.

Q. For protecting the works?

A. For protecting the works and do what we could for the whole
neighborhood.

Q. Did your men all join in that organization?

A. Just what was asked. They did not make an indiscriminate thing of
it. We just selected men and placed them on guard, and kept them on all
night, and let them off in the morning, but were ready for a call at
any time.

Q. Were the men all willing to unite in such a scheme of protection?

A. All that I seen--I heard no objection.

Q. If there is anything else you can enlighten us on state it? I do not
think of any further question to ask.

A. I will just say that the first night we were on we arrested two
different parties down there. The first one was on Pike street,
Pittsburgh. We found him skulking around the works. I inquired what his
business was, and he said he heard there was going to be fun down
there, and he came down to see it, and gave no excuse--said he didn't
intend to do anything, but he heard there was going to be fun; and
there was a lot of freight cars laying full of freight. We put the fear
in him a little, and let him go--didn't keep him.


    By Mr. Means:

Q. There were two arrested?

A. I arrested another--that was a boy about sixteen or eighteen. I
found him laying in a metal pile. He gave the same excuse. He heard
there was going to be fun down there, and he came down to see it. We
found out that he lived a mile or two back in the country from our
neighborhood.

Q. The first man lived in Pike street?

A. He said so. He gave his name there, and the young man, too.

Q. How far is that from the destruction of the property?

A. It is right in the vicinity--down a little. Pike street and
Sixteenth street, I think that is in the vicinity of Zug's mill, out
along Penn, between Penn and the river. The city was full of men at
that time, that, while the excitement was up, they wanted to see what
was going on. There was a great many outsiders that were tramps, I
suppose. They appeared to be strangers. It appears this strike had been
talked of for sometime, and the tramps appeared to understand it, and
they appeared to be gathered in for the spoil.


    By Senator Yutzy:

Q. Did you observe, during the time of this destruction, whether there
were two separate classes of individuals, one destroying the property
and breaking up cars, and the others carrying away?

A. I noticed that there were men destroying that appeared not to do it
for personal gain. Just appeared fonder of destruction than anything
else.

Q. Did you think that either of these two parties--the parties carrying
away, and the parties breaking up the cars, were citizens?

A. The parties carrying away were citizens, but just appeared to be
carrying away because it was there to be had, and wanted to get it.

Q. Those who broke up cars, did they appear to be citizens, too?

A. I could not say about that. The reason that I suppose these parties
that carried away were citizens was because they were all making for
different localities, and I have every reason to believe they were
citizens from some of the things they were carrying away, such as
rolling away barrels of flour, and rolling away barrels of lard.

Q. Looked as if they had a place to put it?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Would these goods have been consumed by the fire, had they not been
carried off?

A. That was the excuse which some of them gave for it. There were some
that would be ashamed to steal that were carrying the things off.

Q. Because they were being destroyed by the fire?

A. Because they would be destroyed any way.

Q. You said you had no difficulty in getting citizens to volunteer and
organize into bodies to assist in suppressing the riot or keeping the
peace?

A. There was no riot in Allegheny.

Q. You said they were willing to organize?

A. They were very ready.

Q. Did the citizens generally express a willingness to go elsewhere,
where there was riot or lawlessness besides in their own locality?

A. That question I do not think was brought up at all. I heard nothing
of the kind mentioned. I know citizens of Allegheny, that they were in
Pittsburgh, and took an active part in organizing to put down this
riot.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Captain W. J. Glenn, being duly _sworn_, testified as follows:


    By Mr. Lindsey:

Q. Where do you reside?

A. I reside at Mansfield, about five miles out of the city--west of the
city.

Q. You belong to the National Guard?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. Captain of a company?

A. I command company K, of the Fourteenth regiment.

Q. When were you called upon--called out?

A. I received an order to report my company at head-quarters from
Pittsburgh on the 20th day of July. I think was t