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Title: Dr. Arne and Rule, Britannia
Author: Cummings, William Hayman
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: DR. ARNE, BY DUNKARTON.]

                                DR. ARNE
                            RULE, BRITANNIA


                        WILLIAM HAYMAN CUMMINGS,
                     MUS. DOC., F.S.A., HON. R.A.M.
      _Author of "The Origin and History of 'God Save the King.'"_




The glorious National Song, "Rule, Britannia," is familiar to the whole
British race; nevertheless very few men and women are acquainted with
the history of its birth and parentage.

In the following pages I have endeavoured to chronicle all the facts
which are discoverable by diligent research, and to present them in an
attractive and entertaining manner.

The life of Dr. Arne, the composer of "Rule, Britannia," offers to the
reader and to the music student an interesting and instructive story,
showing that natural ability, even when combined with genius, is not
sufficient to ensure a triumphant and successful career. Morality and
conscientious rectitude in the affairs of life are essential, and had
Arne exercised these, his exceptional gifts might have enabled him to
surpass his great contemporary, Handel.

It only remains to be noted that many letters and documents are here
printed for the first time, some of them copied from the original
autographs in my possession. They illuminate much which has hitherto
been obscure and uncertain in the career of a famous composer.

                                                    WILLIAM H. CUMMINGS.



 ARNE, BY DUNKARTON                                    _Frontispiece_

 ARNE, BY GAINSBOROUGH                                              7

 MRS. CIBBER                                                       12

 CERVETTO--"OLD NOSEY"--BY ZOFFANY                                 16

 MUSIC HALL, FISHAMBLE STREET, DUBLIN                              19

 ARNE, BY BARTOLOZZI                                               46


 FACSIMILE OF AUTOGRAPH LETTER BY ARNE                             69

 ARNE, BY ZOFFANY                                                  94

 VIEW OF CLIEFDEN HOUSE                                           111

 FACSIMILE OF "RULE, BRITANNIA"                                   123


Much confusion has arisen concerning the family of Arne; this is not
surprising, seeing that three generations of the same family were named
Thomas, and that all resided in the parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden.
On the 14th of February, 1680, the Bishop of London granted a marriage
licence to "Thomas Arne, of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, Bachelor, 27 and
upwards, and Mary Thursfield, of St. Martin's-in-Fields, Spinster, 20,
with her father's consent at St. Peter's, Cornhill, or elsewhere in
Diocese." A son born to this couple was baptized in St. Paul, Covent
Garden, on the 3rd of December, 1682; the church register records
"Thomas, son of Thomas Arne by Mary his wife." In due time, when
twenty-five years of age, this second Thomas married Anne Wheeler in
the Mercers' Chapel, Cheapside, April, 1707.[1] Three years later a son
was born, who also was named Thomas, and duly baptized in St. Paul,
Covent Garden. The ceremony is recorded in the church register on the
28th of May, 1710, "Thomas, son of Thomas Arne by Ann his wife." This
was the future musician and composer; the date of his birth cannot be
verified by documentary evidence, but tradition has given the 12th
of March, and this has generally been accepted as correct. It is
noteworthy that Arne received only one Christian name in baptism, and
that in after life he added another, Augustine. It has been suggested
that at some period he was received into the Roman Catholic Church, and
then took the additional name; but diligent inquiry at the Sardinian
Chapel, Lincoln's Inn Fields, a place of worship he frequented, has
failed to discover any evidence of the alleged ceremony. A letter
written by Dr. Burney[2] (Arne's pupil) to Sir Joseph Banks in July,
1806, described "Old Mrs. Arne, the mother of Dr. Arne and Mrs. Cibber,
as a bigotted Roman Catholic." Surely natural affection would suffice
to induce a mother to instruct her children in her own religious faith,
and there was no reason why her son should not have been baptized
with both names had the parents wished it. It seems quite clear that
the adoption of the second name became a necessity to distinguish the
composer from his father.

    THOMAS ARNE, _m._ 1680, ----+---- MARY THURSFIELD.
         _d._ 1713.             |
    THOMAS ARNE, _b._ 1682, ----+---- ANNE WHEELER.
     _m._ 1707, _d._ 1736.      |
    THOMAS ARNE, _b._ 1710, --------- CECILIA YOUNG,
     _m._ 1736, _d._ 1778.            _b._ 1711, _d._ 1789.

The last-named was born in his father's house, King Street, Covent
Garden, now No. 34, but in 1710 distinguished by the sign of "The Crown
and Cushion." It was notable as the residence for a time of the North
American chieftains, who created a considerable sensation whilst in
London, and were popularly called the Indian Kings. Bancroft's "United
States" describes them: "Five Sachems from the Iroquois sailed with
Schayler for England. They appeared amidst the gaze of crowds, dressed
in English small-clothes of black, with scarlet ingrain cloth mantles,
edged with gold, for their blankets; they were conducted in coaches to
an audience with Queen Anne, and giving her belts of wampum they avowed
their readiness to take up the hatchet and aid her in the reduction
of Canada." Arne, senior, the father of the composer, carried on the
business of an upholsterer, which included that of an undertaker. He
paid for his house the considerable rental of £75 per annum, and for
a time he filled the responsible office of parish overseer. There is
every indication that he was a prosperous tradesman, so well to do that
he was able to send his son at a suitable age to Eton College to be
educated. Unfortunately the records of that ancient foundation afford
no information as to the date of Arne's admission to the college,
nor of the length of his residence there: he was not admitted as a
foundation scholar, but as an Oppidan, and as such would live as a
boarder in one of the masters' houses.

Many errors have been printed respecting the status and career of
Arne's father. Probably they all originated from the statements made
in a letter of Addison's which appeared in the _Tatler_ in 1710; a
certain Mr. Arne is there described as an Upholder of Covent Garden, a
rabid politician, neglectful of home and family, and in consequence a
bankrupt. It is certain that the man thus described was the composer's
grandfather, who died in the Marshalsea debtors' prison and was buried
in the graveyard of St. Paul, Covent Garden, as is recorded in the
church register, "24 December, 1713, Thomas Arne from the Marchelsea."
Commentators on Addison's letter evolved a story that Arne's father
died in prison under very cruel conditions; but investigation shows
that the Arne who was murdered in the Fleet prison was Edward Arne,
probably an uncle of the composer. The _House of Commons Reports_
published in 1729 states that "it appeared to the Committee that in the
year 1725, one Mr. Arne an Upholder was carried into a stable which
stood where the Strong Room on the Master's side now is, and was there
confined (being a place of cold restraint) till he died, and that he
was in a good state of health before he was confined to that room."
The Prison Committee further inquired into the case, and presented a
detailed statement as follows: "Mr. Arne, mentioned in the said former
reports, whilst he was in the Tap-House of the said Fleet prison,
during the wardership of John Huggins, Esq., and behaving himself
quietly, was suddenly seized by James Barnes (agent for Huggins,) and
without any reason given, was forced into the Strong Room, or Dungeon
on the Master's side; which dungeon being then but lately built, and
so damp that the drops hung upon the walls, was very nauseous and
unwholesome. In this place was the unfortunate man locked up, and never
once permitted to go out; But by an accident on a Sunday, the door
being opened, he ran into the parlour adjoining to the _Chappell_,
during the Time of Divine Service; he had no covering upon his Body,
but the Feathers of a Bed (which Bed was thrown to him by a Prisoner,)
into which he crept, to defend himself from the Cold, and the Feathers
stuck and were clotted upon him, by his own Excrements, and the dirt
which covered his skin. He was immediately seized and carried back into
the said dungeon, where thro' cold and the Restraint, and, for want of
food, he lost his senses, languished and perished. Notwithstanding the
miserable condition of this man, and the applications were made to Mr.
Huggins, the said Huggins had no compassion on him, but caused the door
to be closed upon him."[3]

The unhappy victim of tyrannic cruelty was buried in the precincts of
St. Paul, Covent Garden, as is recorded in the church register, "23 of
October, 1725, Edward Arne, from the Fleet Prison."

The most reliable account of Arne's early years is to be found in
Dr. Burney's "History of Music." Burney, when a youth, was sent to
Chester to be educated in the Free School. In 1744 he was introduced
to Mr. Arne, who was passing through the City on his journey from
Ireland to London, "and this most popular of English vocal composers
since the days of Purcell was so pleased with the talents of this
nearly self-instructed performer, as to make an offer to Mr. Burney,
senior, upon such conditions as are usual to such sort of patronage,
to complete the education of this lively and aspiring young man; and
to bring him forth to the world as his favourite and most promising
pupil. To the proposal Mr. Burney, senior, was induced to consent;
and at the age of seventeen, the eager young candidate for fame
rapturously set off, in company with Dr. Arne, for the metropolis."[4]
Arne was a man of pleasure, and seems to have done little to further
the serious studies of his articled pupil; Burney's daughter said
that the master constantly employed the pupil in copying music. It
is therefore not surprising that the latter eagerly embraced an
opportunity of emancipation from drudgery (which was afforded through
the recommendation of Kirkman, the harpsichord maker), and accepted the
appointment of performer and teacher to the fashionable Fulk Greville.
The apprenticeship articles, however, presented a difficulty, and
Greville called on Arne to inquire on what terms he would cancel the
bond. "Arne at first would listen to no proposition, protesting that a
youth of such promise was beyond all equivalent; But no sooner was a
round sum mentioned, than Arne, who, in common with all the dupes of
extravagance, was evermore needy, could not disguise from himself that
he was dolorously out of cash; and the dazzling glare of three hundred
pounds could not but play most temptingly in his sight. The articles,
therefore, were cancelled."

[Illustration: ARNE, BY GAINSBOROUGH.]

We now return to the early days of Arne. Burney writes, "Arne had
a good school education, having been sent to Eton by his father,
who intended him for the law. But I have been assured by several of
his school-fellows, that his love for music operated upon him
too powerfully, even while he was at Eton, for his own peace, or
that of his companions; for with a miserable, cracked common-flute
he used to torment them night and day when not obliged to attend
the school." Burney's description of the flute must be regarded as
somewhat exaggerated if we may judge from the instrument depicted in
the portrait of Arne painted by Gainsborough, and here reproduced.
Burney's narrative continues, "He told me himself that when he left
Eton, such was his passion for Music, that he used to avail himself of
the privilege of a servant, by borrowing a livery and going into the
upper gallery of the Opera, which was then appropriated to domestics."
Arne's father, having decided that the young man should be brought up
to the profession of the law, articled him to an attorney for three
years, but this compulsory legal study did not prevent him secretly
and assiduously practising on a spinet, which he had smuggled into
his bedroom; using a silk handkerchief, he contrived to muffle the
sounds of the instrument, and could indulge in play when the other
members of the household were asleep. This he did with fear and
trembling, well-knowing that if discovered by his father, both he and
the musical instrument ran the risk of violent expulsion through the
window. He further managed to acquire some proficiency on the violin,
and soon contrived to get some lessons from the accomplished and
eminent violinist, Michael Festing. His natural talent enabled him to
make rapid progress, and shortly after the expiry of his articles, an
incident occurred which happily determined his future career. His
father, one day calling at a gentleman's house in the neighbourhood
upon business, found that he was engaged, but sending in his name,
Arne's father was invited upstairs, where there was a large company
and a concert in progress, and, to his astonishment, his son in the
very act of leading as first fiddle. This convincing proof that his
son was more successful with music than law, caused him to relent, and
he offered no further opposition to his adopting the former as a means
of livelihood. Arne was now able to pursue his musical studies without
restraint, and he soon bewitched all the family by his enthusiasm and
ability. He discovered that his sister, Susanna, possessed a beautiful
and sympathetic voice, which by his instruction rapidly developed.
Festing still continued to give him lessons on the violin, and calling
in King Street one day for this purpose, he found Arne diligently
practising with his music supported on the lid of a coffin. Horrified
with the sight, he declared he could not play under such circumstances,
as he would be constantly imagining there might be a corpse in the
coffin beneath. "So there is," said Arne, and gave proof by removing
the lid.

In 1732, Arne's father dabbled in music as a business speculation;
induced to do so, perhaps, by the remarkable talent of his children.
He and others, without permission, and without consulting Handel,
announced performances of that composer's works at the theatre in the
Haymarket. An advertisement of May the 10th reads: "At the theatre in
the Haymarket on Thursday the 12th inst. Acis and Galatea, a pastoral
drama set by Mr. Handel will be performed, with all the choruses,
songs, machines and other decorations: being the first time it ever
was performed in a theatrical way. The part of Acis by Mr. Mountier,
being the first time of his appearing in character on any stage.
Galatea by Miss Arne. Pit and boxes at five shillings. Subscriptions
are only taken in by Mr. Arne at the Crown and Cushion, King Street,
Covent Garden."

For some reason the performance did not take place on the 12th, but on
the 17th. Dr. Burney says that the adventurers, or partners, in the
speculation included Arne and his son, and the performers, Miss Arne
and Miss Cecilia Young, afterward young Arne's wife. Arne now resolved
to essay his powers in composition, by setting to music the libretto
of Rosamond, written by Addison. The music of the chief character he
designed for his sister, and the part of the Page for his young brother
Michael. The work when completed was presented to the public at the
theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields on the 7th of March, 1733. In addition
to his sister and brother, the performers were Mrs. Barbier; Leveridge,
the veteran bass, Mr. Corfe, Mrs. Jones and Miss Chambers. The first
performance proved a great success and was followed by ten others; the
last was announced for the benefit of "_Mr. Arne, junior,_" evidently
to distinguish the composer from the father. Thus encouraged Arne now
determined to try his hand on a humorous composition, and selected for
the purpose Fielding's Burletta "Tom Thumb"; this had been played as a
comedy, with great success, in 1731, under the title "The Tragedy of
Tragedies!" In its new musical dress the composer called it "The Opera
of Operas," and it was submitted to the judgment of the public at the
new theatre in the Haymarket on the 31st of May, 1733. The principal
character, Tom Thumb, was personated by the composer's brother Michael.
The verdict of the audience was highly favourable; the piece attained
great popularity, and a very long run. The Princess Amelia and the
Duke of Cumberland attended the second performance; the Prince of
Wales, the sixth, and the younger Princesses the eighth. Arne's next
composition was an experiment in another branch of stage work; a Masque
with Harlequinade entitled, "Dido and Æneas." He was now regularly
employed at Drury Lane Theatre as composer. His sister, Susannah Maria,
had acquired considerable fame both as singer and actress, and in
April, 1734, she married Theophilus Cibber, who became notorious as an
evil-doer. He was the son of Colley Cibber, and for about three years
husband and wife lived together; they had two children, who died in
infancy. The profligate husband had a friend, a Mr. Sloper, who with
ample means frequently relieved Cibber of pecuniary embarrassments,
but in 1738 the latter absconded to France, and his wife placed
herself under the protection of Mr. Sloper, who resided at Burnham in
Buckinghamshire. On returning to England, Cibber brought an action
for adultery, laying the damages at £5,000; the verdict in his favour
gave him £10. He then brought a fresh action, claiming £10,000 for the
loss of his wife's professional services, and obtained a verdict for
£500. It appeared that Cibber[5] had forcibly broken into his wife's
residence, abstracted her jewellery, and carried her off to the Bull's
Head tavern, Clare Market, where he had locked her in an apartment from
which she was rescued by her brother, Thomas Arne.

In 1736, Arne, in the twenty-sixth year of his age, married Cecilia
Young, the charming singer who had appeared with his sister at the
performances in the new theatre in the Haymarket, in 1732. She was the
daughter of Charles Young, a performer of good repute and organist of
All Hallows' Church, Barking. Of three accomplished sisters she was
the most gifted; her natural soprano voice had been well trained by
Geminiani, and was of unusual compass and flexibility, ranging up to
E in alt. She was also greatly admired on account of the accuracy and
perfection with which she executed trills and shakes. Dr. Burney said,
"her style of singing was infinitely superior to that of any other
English woman of her time."

Charles Young refused to sanction his daughter's marriage with Arne
on account of the latter's religious principles. It is said he never
forgave her.[6] In the year of his marriage, Arne wrote the incidental
music for "Zara," a tragedy produced at Drury Lane Theatre, in which
his sister Mrs. Cibber first gave proof of her extraordinary ability
as a tragic actress as well as singer. She captivated everyone by her
native sweetness of voice and powers of expression; "It was difficult
to say which of the two received the greater applause, the actress for
her interesting person, pathetic voice and manner, or the musician (the
composer Arne) for his natural and pleasing strains, particularly
the March which was encored every night." Mrs. Cibber's fame became
pronounced. Handel thought so highly of her that he engaged her to
sing the contralto part in "The Messiah" at its first performance, in
Dublin. How well she merited his selection was proved at the conclusion
of the Air "He was despised"; her singing was so natural and touching
that the Dean of St. Patrick's, Dr. Delaney, arose from his seat and
audibly exclaimed, "Woman, for this thy sins be forgiven thee!"

Mrs. Cibber was not only a great artist, but also a very accomplished
and amiable woman, as is proved by her correspondence with David
Garrick. When she died, in 1766, Garrick declared that "tragedy expired
with her."

She was buried in the North Cloister of Westminster Abbey.

[Illustration: MRS. CIBBER.]

The only other composition of Arne's which can be traced to the year
of his marriage, 1736, is a Serenata, the words by Thomas Phillips,
written to commemorate the marriage of the Prince of Wales with the
beautiful Princess Augusta of Saxe Gotha, which took place in April.
The Serenata was performed at Drury Lane Theatre. Arne's connection
with the theatre provided him with a splendid opening for his talent
as composer. Dr. John Dalton, a Prebendary of Worcester Cathedral
and Rector of St. Mary-at-hill, London, prepared a stage version of
Milton's "Comus." He interpolated verses taken from other works of the
poet, and added some songs of his own, all requiring music; and, as
the sequel proved, no composer could have carried out the task more
efficiently than Arne, who entered upon his welcome labours with
real enthusiasm, and easily earned the reputation of being the best
English composer of the day. His music combined graceful melody and
expressive accent, needing no extraneous ornamentation to enhance its
beauty. The songs "Now Phoebus sinketh in the West," "By dimpled
brook," "How gentle was my Damon's Airs," and "Sweet Echo," are
amongst the gems. The various characters were well represented on the
stage. Comus by Mr. Quin; the Lady, Mrs. Cibber; the Brothers, Mr.
Milward and Mr. Cibber; First Spirit, Mr. Mills; Second Spirit, Mr.
Hill; Euphrosyne, Mrs. Clive; Sabrina, Mrs. Arne; Attendant Spirit,
Mr. Beard. The Masque is preceded by a sprightly Overture scored
for strings, two flutes, two oboes, two trumpets, and bassoons. The
instruments are never employed simultaneously, an orchestral feature
peculiar to Arne. The song "Sweet Echo" was sung "behind the scenes"
by Mrs. Arne, with an echo played on the flute, and proved very
effective. Either from want of time, or some other cause, Arne did
not compose chorus music, but adapted several pieces from Handel; the
manuscript of these adaptations is in the British Museum. Produced at
Drury Lane Theatre in 1738 under the composer's direction, the piece
had a long run and was frequently revived. A notable occasion was
the performance at Drury Lane on the 5th of April, 1750, when it was
given for the benefit of the grand-daughter of Milton, Mrs. Elizabeth
Foster, who was living in extreme old age and poverty; for this notable
event Dr. Johnson wrote a prologue which was spoken by Garrick. It is
satisfactory to know that the substantial sum of one hundred and thirty
pounds was handed over to the aged lady as a result of the united
efforts of the artists who gave their services.

The popularity of "Comus" induced Arne to publish a score of the music
in 1740. The title-page of the volume reads: "The Music in the Masque
of Comus. Written by Milton. As it was Perform'd at the Theatre-Royal
in Drury-Lane. Composed by Thomas Augustine Arne. Opera Prima. London.
Printed by William Smith, at the musick shop in Middle Row, near
Holborn Bars, and sold by the Author." The copies were signed by
the composer; we may therefore presume that the publication was his
own venture, which may account for his calling it Opera Prima. It
certainly was not the first work of his, either composed or printed.
He afterwards sold the plates, and the score was published with a new
title-page bearing the imprint "London. Printed for and sold by J.
Simpson in Sweetings Alley Royal Exchange." "Comus" became so popular
that the songs were sung all over the Kingdom, and gave rise to
numerous convivial and musical associations which were convened under
the title _Comus's Court_.

In 1739, a number of eminent musicians residing in London united in
establishing a charitable society for the relief of indigent musicians
and their families. The first steps were taken by Festing, Handel,
Green, Weideman, and nine others; it was then called "The Society of
Musicians," and since has become by Charter "The Royal Society of
Musicians." Among the first to join the Association and to sign the
"Declaration of Trust" were Thomas Arne and Handel. The former, after
some years, neglected to pay his subscription, and ceased to be a
member; but the latter retained his membership to the end of his life,
and by his Will bequeathed one thousand pounds to its funds.

1740 was a very busy and prosperous year for Arne. His composition of
the "Masque of Alfred" for the Prince of Wales will be found fully
discussed in connection with "Rule, Britannia"; the other Masque,
which was performed at the same celebration, was "The Judgment of
Paris," written by William Congreve. This author died in 1728, and
it is not known who arranged the book as set by Arne; it contained
much more music than "Alfred," and, with the exception of "Rule,
Britannia," of greater importance. The Overture, composed on the
conventional pattern of the day, beginning with a Largo, followed
by a spirited fugue, concludes with a Minuet Andante and a Giga con
spirito; the only instruments employed are strings and oboes. The
Recitative, "O ravishing delight," sung by Mr. Beard in the character
of Paris, it would be difficult to surpass. Accompanied by the string
quartett, it is full of variety and charm, and leads into an Allegro,
with bravura passages well written for the voice. If revived to-day
by a good tenor singer it would prove a great success. There is a
remarkable Air for Venus, "Gentle Swain," which was sung by Mrs. Arne.
In the printed score the composer appends the note, "This Air is
composed for a _Violoncello_ solo, and a double Bass to play with the
Harpsichord."[7] The violoncello had quite recently been introduced
into England by Cervetto (Giacobbe Bassevi), who joined the Drury Lane
Theatre orchestra in 1738; by his skill he soon made the instrument
popular. Both Arne and Handel wrote special obbligato parts for him.
His personality and manners were very marked, and he became a pet
of the gods in the gallery of the theatre, who, when he appeared in
the orchestra, would call out "play up, Nosey." He became manager of
Drury Lane Theatre, and died on the 14th of January, 1783, over one
hundred years of age, leaving his son a fortune of £20,000. He signed
the admission book of the "Society of Musicians" on the 14th of April,
1742. An amusing story is told of an encounter Cervetto had with
Garrick; the latter had been absent from Drury Lane Theatre for two
years, and on his return he prepared an address to speak previous to
the play. When the applause which greeted him had subsided, the house
became silent in expectation of the speech. At this crucial moment,
Cervetto anticipated the first word by a tremendous yawn, which caused
the audience to burst into convulsive laughter, and several minutes
elapsed before quiet was restored. When the curtain dropped, Garrick
rushed to the music-room and seized Cervetto by the shoulders, calling
him a scoundrel, and a base-viol, and demanded what he meant by his
conduct. The poor man could only reply that "when he had a great
rapture" he always did "yawn that way."

[Illustration: CERVETTO, BY ZOFFANY.]

The Air "Gentle swain," sung by Mrs. Arne, in which Cervetto
accompanied, is very melodious vocally and instrumentally: it was
followed by a Trio for three soprano voices, sung by Mrs. Arne, Mrs.
Clive, and Miss Edwards, representing Venus, Pallas, and Juno. The
music is admirable, in spite of the words, which cannot be described as
poetry. After an invitation from each of the three divinities:

    Hither turn thee gentle swain,
      Hither turn to me again:
    She will deceive thee,
      I'll never leave thee--

Paris, represented by Mr. Beard, replied:

    Apart let me view then each heav'nly fair,
    For three at a time no mortal can bear;
    And since a gay robe an ill shape may disguise,
    When each is undrest
    I'll judge of the best,
    For 'tis not a face that must carry the prize.

We have no record how they managed the stage business at Clieveden,
but it must have presented some difficulty. A Recitative for Pallas
is remarkable for the vigour of the instrumental accompaniment, and
the Air "The glorious voice it was" is very spiritedly supported by
strings, oboes, trumpets and drums. A fine Recitative, "Stay, lovely
youth," sung by Mrs. Arne is also worthy of mention. At the close
of the year 1740, on the 20th of December, Shakespeare's "As you
like it" was played at Drury Lane Theatre, the first time for forty
years. Great interest was excited by the revival, more especially on
account of the fact that Arne had prepared new music for the songs.
These included "When daisies pied," sung by Kitty Clive, "Under the
greenwood tree" and "Blow, thou winter wind," sung by Mr. Thomas Lowe.
They all captivated the public taste, who found Shakespeare's poetry
admirably framed in Arne's melodies. The immediate popularity of the
music attracted the attention of several unscrupulous publishers of
the day. To protect himself against their nefarious depredations,
Arne obtained a Royal license, dated 29th of January, 1741. "George,
the Second, by the Grace of God, King of _Great Britain_, France, and
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To all to whom these Presents
shall come, Greeting. Whereas _Thomas Augustine Arne_, of _Craven
Buildings_, near Drury Lane, in our County of _Middlesex_, Gent. Hath
humbly represented unto US, That he hath with great Study, Labour and
Expence, composed several works, consisting of Vocal and Instrumental
Musick, in order to be printed and published; and hath Therefore
humbly besought US to grant him Our Royal Privilege and License, for
the sole printing and publishing thereof, for the term of Fourteen
Years. We being willing to give all due Encouragement to works of this
Nature, are graciously pleased to condescend to his Request: and We do
therefore, by these Presents, so far as may be agreeable to the Statute
in that behalf made and provided, grant unto the said _Thomas Augustine
Arne_, his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, Our License for the
sole Printing and Publishing the said Works, for the Term of Fourteen
Years, to be computed from the Date hereof; strictly forbidding all our
Subjects within our Kingdom and Dominions, to Reprint or Abridge the
same, either in the like, or any other Volume or Volumes whatsoever; or
import, buy, vend, utter, or distribute any Copies thereof reprinted
beyond the Seas, during the aforesaid Term of Fourteen years, without
the Consent or Approbation of the said _Thomas Augustine Arne_, his
Heirs, Executors, and Assigns, as they will answer the contrary at
their Peril. Whereof the Commissioners and other Officers of our
Customs, the Master, Wardens and Company of Stationers, are to take
Notice, that due Obedience may be rendered to our Pleasure herein
declared. Given at our Court St. James's, the Twenty-Ninth Day of
January, 1740-1, in the Fourteenth Year of Our Reign. By His Majesty's

                                                     "HOLLIS NEWCASTLE."


In 1741, Arne and his wife made their first united visit to Ireland;
from _Faulkner's Dublin Journal_ of June 29-July 3, we learn that:
"Last Wednesday (June 30th) the ingenious Mr. Arne, brother to Mrs.
Cibber, and Composer of the Musick of Comus, together with his Wife,
(the celebrated Singer,) arrived here from London." This notice is
interesting as evidence that "Comus" had already been performed in
Dublin; Mrs. Cibber and James Quin, the original exponents of the Lady,
and Comus, were two of the actors engaged in the Dublin production;
we may therefore reasonably suppose that they had introduced some of
Arne's music. Mrs. Cibber had also won a high place in the estimation
of the public by her exquisite singing in the first performance of
the "Messiah" Oratorio when conducted by Handel on the 13th of April
preceding. No time was lost by Arne and his wife in making a venture
for public favour. _Faulkner's Journal_, July 13-17, exhibited the
following advertisement: "At the particular Desire of several Persons
of Quality, for the Benefit of Mrs. Arne, at the Great Room in
Fishamble-street, on Wednesday, the 21st Inst., will be performed a
grand Entertainment of Musick, to be divided into three Interludes;
wherein several favourite Songs and Duetto will be performed by Mrs.
Arne and Mrs. Cibber. In the first Interlude (after an Overture of Mr.
Handel's) a Scene from Mr. Arne's Opera of Rosamund, by Mrs. Arne; O
beauteous Queen, from Mr. Handel's Oratorio Esther, by Mrs. Cibber; Non
chiamarmi, from an Opera of Signor Hasse's by Mrs. Arne; and O fairest
of ten thousand Fair, a Duetto, from Mr. Handel's Oratorio of Saul, by
Mrs. Arne and Mrs. Cibber. In the second Interlude (after an Overture
of Mr. Arne's) Lascia cadermi in Volto, a Song of Farinelli's Singing,
by Mrs. Arne; Chi scherza colle Rose, from Mr. Handel's Opera of Hymen,
by Mrs. Cibber; Vo solcando, a song of Signor Vinci's by Mrs. Arne; and
Vado e vido, a Duetto of Mr. Handel's in Faramond by Mrs. Arne and Mrs.
Cibber. In the third Interlude (after an Overture of Mr. Arne's), O
peace, thou fairest Child of Heaven, from Mr. Arne's Masque of Alfred,
by Mrs. Arne; Un Guardo Solo from Mr. Handel's Opera of Hymen, by Mrs.
Cibber; (by particular Desire) Sweet Bird, from Mr. Handel's Allegro,
by Mrs. Arne; and Per le Porte del Tormento, a favourite Duetto of Mr.
Handel's in Sosarmes, by Mrs. Arne and Mrs. Cibber.--Mrs. Arne, being
a Stranger in this Kingdom, humbly hopes the Nobility and Gentry will
excuse her personal Application, and to prevent Their being detained
at the Doors of the Hall, while Tickets are delivered them, that they
will send for their Tickets to Mrs. Cibber's House in Aungier-street,
where Places may be taken.--And, to prevent mistakes, they are desired
to send their Servants to Keep Places before five o'clock, To begin
exactly at 7 o'clock. N.B. This Performance (intended for the Theatre)
is at the Request of several Gentlemen and Ladies altered to the Great
Room above mentioned."

It will be noticed that the programme contains eight pieces composed
by Handel, and only four by Arne. Handel was residing in Dublin,
and it is quite likely that he extended his friendly patronage to
Mrs. Arne and attended the concert. In any case Handel's music was
undoubtedly an attraction for the fashionable world of Dublin; and it
is satisfactory to read that the concert was so great a success that
"At the particular Desire of several Persons of Quality" a repeat was
granted on the following Wednesday, the 28th of July. Very soon after
the latter performance, the Dublin musical season came to an end and
the many artists who had been making hay in that city transferred
their personalities to England. "The celebrated Mr. Handel" left
Dublin on the 13th of August, and on Monday, the 23rd of the same
month, was followed by Mrs. Cibber, Mr. Arne and David Garrick. Mrs.
Arne remained in Dublin; probably her husband only went to London to
make preparations for an extended campaign in Dublin. In a month's
time he returned, and resided with his wife at a house "over against
the Ram in Aungier-street" near the Theatre. We obtain intelligence
of their doings from an advertisement in _Faulkner's Journal_ of
September 25-28,--"The Charitable and Musical Society" announced the
commencement of the season by a concert to be given on the 8th of
October. Special attention is directed to the fact that "they have
provided a fine Organ, and have engaged the celebrated Mrs. Arne to
sing"; the day after the performance the _Journal_ reported, "Last
Night the Charitable and Musical Society opened their first Concert to
a very numerous and polite Assembly of Ladies and Gentlemen, when Mrs.
Arne (tho' extremely ill of a Cold) sang with universal applause." She
speedily recovered and with her husband gave a concert in the following
December. The _Journal_ of November 27-30 contained the following
announcement: "We hear that on Friday next [Dec. 3] being particularly
desir'd, at the Great Room in Fishamble Street, Mrs. Arne will sing the
Song Sweet Bird, accompanied on the Violin by Mr. Arne. And that he
intends between the Acts of his Serenatas, Operas, and other Musical
Performances, to intermix Comic Interludes (after the Italian Manner),
amongst which will be perform'd Tom Thumb, the Original Burlesque
Opera compos'd by him, the Dragon of Wantley, Miss Lucy in Town, etc.
Intended to give Relief to that grave Attention, necessary to be kept
up in Serious Performances. Which he intends shall begin in January
next." We learn from this the evident intention of Arne to make a
lengthened stay in the city which had received him and his wife with
so much favour. It is likewise interesting to note that hitherto he
had acted as harpsichord accompanist, and now proposed exhibiting his
excellent skill as a solo violinist. The obbligato to the song "Sweet
Bird," from Handel's "Allegro," was composed for a flute, by no means
an easy task for a violin player at that time. The "Charitable Musical
Society," evidently satisfied with Mrs. Arne's performance, on the 17th
of December engaged her for another concert given "for the Benefit and
Enlargement of Prisoners confined for Debt, in the several Marshalseas
in this City." An advertisement announced "On Tuesday next, being the
14th of December, at 12 o'clock at Noon will be the Rehearsal of Acis
and Galatea, with the celebrated Coronation Anthem called Zadok the
Priest, composed by Mr. Handel. Mr. Dubourg will perform a new Solo.
The Performance will be on Friday the 17th, at 6 in the Evening. The
Gentlemen of the Choir of each Cathedral will assist,[8] with Mrs.
Arne, Mrs. Storer, Mr. Colgan, and others. Tickets to be had at half a
Guinea each, from Mr. Neal, at the said Musick Hall. A Rehearsal Ticket
will be delivered with the Ticket for the Performance, as it was for
the Messiah." "There are great Numbers of Tickets already disposed
of for the Musical Entertainment of Acis and Galatea; and it is not
doubted but the Ladies of this Kingdom who so eminently distinguish
themselves for their great Virtue and Charity, will, upon this
Occasion, exert themselves by promoting this Charity, many of them, of
great Quality and Distinction, having come to a Resolution not to wear
any Hoops next Friday, as it will be a Means of admitting more People
into the Hall than usual."

In this month, December 11-14, the _Journal_ made an announcement of
considerable importance: "Mr. Swan being desirous to entertain the Town
in the best manner possible, has contracted with Mr. Arne, for Mrs.
Arne, Mrs. Baildon, Mrs. Sybilla, and other singers belonging to him,
to perform in the Masque of Comus, written by Milton, and set to Musick
by Mr. Arne. The Choruses will be properly performed, and Mr. Arne will
accompany the Performance, which will be exhibited on Monday next,
being the 10th inst. Jan. N.B. The Orchestra will be doubled, and there
will be a Row at the Pit enclosed for the Musick." The same _Journal_
of the 4-8th January, 1743, gave more details: "By His Majesty's
Company of Comedians, at the Theatre Royal in Aungier-street, on Monday
next, being the 10th inst. Jan. will be performed a Dramatick Masque
called Comus, written by Milton. The Musick, vocal and instrumental,
composed by Mr. Arne. The Part of Comus, by Mr. Swan; a pastoral Nymph,
and the Part of Sabrina, by Mrs. Arne; the principal Bacchanal, by
Mrs. Baildon, from London; the Lady's Song (Sweet Echo) by Mrs. Arne,
accompany'd by Mr. Neal, from England, who performed it originally;
the second pastoral Nymph by Mrs. Sybilla, a Scholar of Mr. Arne's;
the Part of Euphrosyne to be performed by Miss Davis. With all the
Choruses performed in Parts, as originally in England, and never done
here before. The original Prologue to be spoke by Mr. Swan, and the
Epilogue by Mrs. Furnival. A Row of the Pit will be taken into the
Orchestra, there being an extraordinary Band of Musick provided on
this occasion. The whole conducted by Mr. Arne, who accompanies the
Performance on the Harpsichord. With new Habits, Scenes, Machines,
Risings, Sinkings, Flyings, and other Decorations. It is hoped it
will not be taken ill, that none can be admitted behind the Scenes.
N.B. This Performance being exhibited at a much greater Expense than
any Theatrical Entertainment in this Kingdom, we are obliged to lay
the Pit and Boxes together at 5s. 5d. Lattaces, 5s. 5d. Gallery, 2s.
8d. halfp." The foregoing advertisement is brim full of interesting
matter; we see that Mr. Arne was a tower of strength; that Mr. Neal was
the solo flautist at the first performance of "Comus," in Drury Lane
Theatre; the choruses, performed in parts, were taken from Handel, as
in London; also that Mr. Arne conducted and accompanied, according to
the fashion of the day, at the harpsichord. The artistic venture of
Mr. Swan met with due reward; "Comus" was successfully repeated on the
13th, 20th, and 24th of January, and again on the 8th of February for
the benefit of Mr. Swan; finally, on the 21st of April, Mr. Neal took
a benefit at the Smock Alley Theatre on the 1st of February, when he
exhibited his versatility; the _Journal_ announced "Between the Acts,
Mr. Neale will perform a Solo and Concerte on the Hautboy, with a
Piece on the German Flute. Mr. Charles and his Second will perform a
Concerto on the French Horn, and Mr. Storer will sing a favourite Song.
Master Neale, a child of ten Years old, will perform a Concerto on the
Violin, and Elin a Roon, with all its Variations." This advertisement
is of importance, showing that Arne had excellent orchestral players.
Mr. Charles[9] was a very skilful performer; possibly he had been
one of the Drury Lane orchestra. On the following 10th of February,
Mrs. Arne had a benefit at the Theatre Royal, Aungier Street, when
the programme consisted of "A Grand Serenata, call'd Love and Glory;
composed by Mr. Arne, in Honour of the Nuptials of His Royal Highness
Frederick Prince of Wales, with the Princess Augusta. After the
Serenata, a new Farce call'd Miss Lucy in Town,[10] with all the songs
composed by Mr. Arne, and performed at the Theatre-Royal in Drury Lane."

A concert was given at the Music Hall in Fishamble Street, on the 4th
of May, for the benefit of the Charitable Infirmary, when Handel's
"Alexander's Feast" was performed. Mr. Arne conducted and Mrs. Arne
sang; "the Gentlemen of the Choirs of both Cathedrals and several other
voices" assisted. On Saturday, the 7th, three days afterwards, Mr. Arne
had a benefit at the Theatre Royal in Aungier Street, when the bill
consisted of "an Opera called Rosamond, Written by the celebrated Mr.
Addison, and set to Musick by Mr. Arne: King Henry, Mr. Baildon; Sir
Trusty, Mr. Layfield; Page, Master Pilkington; being the first Time
of his Appearance on any Stage; Rosamond, Mrs. Sybilla; Grideline,
Miss Davis; and the part of Queen Eleanor to be performed by Mrs.
Arne, After which will be performed the original comic burlesque Opera
called Tom Thumb. The Part of Tom Thumb by Master Pilkington; King, Mr.
Baildon; Lord Grizzel, Mr. Layfield; Queen Dollallolla, Miss Davis;
Princess, Huncamunca, Mrs. Sybilla; all the other characters, as
Noodle, Doodle, Foodle, Giantess, Conjurer, etc., by a select Company
of burlesque Opera Singers. To prevent Mistakes, Ladies are desired to
take their Places in Time, and on the Day of Performance to send their
Servants to keep Places before five o'clock."

The above programme was announced for repetition on the 27th of May,
for the benefit of Mr. Baildon and Mrs. Sybilla, but Mrs. Arne was
attacked by one of her frequent illnesses, which on this occasion
proved so serious, that her physician forbade her attempting to perform
"at the Hazard of her Life." In June she had so far recovered that the
deferred benefit was announced for the 11th of June, "being positively
the last time of Mr. Arne's exhibiting any Performance this Season."

_Faulkner's Journal_, Oct. 22-25, announced that "Mr. Dubourg[11] and
Mr. Arne are to have six Oratorios of Mr. Handel's performed this
Season by Subscription, in which Mr. Lowe, Mrs. Arne, Mr. Colgan,
and Mrs. Storer will perform the vocal Parts"; on the following Nov.
29-Dec. 3, an elaborate advertisement detailed Mr. Arne's plans:--"Mr.
Arne proposes to exhibit, at the Theatre-royal in Aungier-street,
Four Performances in the manner of the Oratorios in London, viz.: Two
Performances of the Distresses and Conquest of King Alfred, composed by
Command of His Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales, and performed
at his Palace at Cliefden, but never yet exhibited in Publick, and two
Performances of a New Oratorio called The Death of Abel: Both composed
by Mr. Arne. Subscription Three Guineas, Every Subscriber to have three
Tickets on each Night of Performance. No Person (not subscribing)
will be admitted into Pit, Boxes, or Lattices, under half-a-Guinea a
single Ticket. The first Performance to begin as soon as one hundred
Subscribers shall be obtained, of which fifty have already subscribed.
Subscriptions are taken in by Mr. Arne, at his House in Aungier-street,
near the Theatre. Mr. Arne has a few Books of the Works he has
published, which he will dispose of at the following Prices, viz.:
The complete Score of the Overture, Songs and Duettos in the Masque
of Comus, 7s. The Songs in As you like it, and Twelfth Night, with
the favourite Duetto in the Rival Queens, and other select Airs, 4s.
4d. And the Songs in the Beggar of Bethnel Green, with several new
favourite Ballads annexed, 6s. 6d. Likewise, a curious Harpsichord from
London, made by Kirkman, Tabell's Foreman, which he will sell very
reasonably." A writer in the _Dublin Journal_ at this time (November,
1743), said, "Mr. and Mrs. Arne are beyond comparison, in their way the
most extraordinary Persons this Kingdom has seen. The Aungier Street
Stage has now the very best Company of Players that ever was in this
Kingdom, they are now better than any Company in London, and the Prices
(except on very extraordinary Occasions) are at the lowest Rate."

The Duke and Duchess of Devonshire commanded a performance of "The
Beggar's Opera" on December the 8th, at the Theatre Royal in Aungier
Street, when Arne presided at the harpsichord, and also at seven
representations which followed. At a benefit given for Mr. Lowe on
the 17th, "Comus" was performed, with Mrs. Arne in the parts of the
Pastoral Nymph and Sabrina, singing also, as usual, the Lady's song,
"Sweet Echo." She again appeared with Mr. Arne at a benefit concert
given for Signor Barbatielli, who had broken his leg. The advertisement
announced, "Mr. Dubourg, is so kind as to perform, and will conduct
the whole, assisted by Mr. Arne and Mr. Pasqualino, the Vocal Parts by
Mrs. Arne, Mrs. Storer, Mr. Lowe, and Mr. Colgan. Tickets to be had at
Mr. Barbatielli's Lodgings in George's Lane, opposite to Fade-street,
and at the Musick hall, at 5s. 5d.--N.B. It is hoped that the Gentlemen
and Ladies will be so good as to excuse Mr. Barbatielli's personal
Attendance, he lying under the Misfortune of a broken Leg. Ladies are
requested to order their Coaches down Fishamble-street, for the more
easy going in, as at Mr. Handell's."

Arne's "Comus" was again performed on the 22nd of December. In 1744,
on the 2nd of January, at the Theatre Royal after "Amphitryon," with
singing and dancing between the acts, the farce "Miss Lucy in Town"
with Arne's music was performed. Special attention was directed to
Mr. Lowe's singing of "the Part of Cantileno" [a Burlesque upon the
Italian Singers]. On the 12th of January Mrs. Arne made her first
appearance in Lampe's burlesque Opera "The Dragon of Wantley." The
advertisement runs, "The Part of Moor-Hall to be performed by Mr. Lowe.
The Part of Margery to be performed by Mrs. Arne, being her first
Appearance in any comic Character; and the Part of Mauxalinda to be
performed by Madam Chateauneuf; Gubbins by Mr. Worsdale; the Dragon by
Mr. Layfield." Mr. Arne presided at the harpsichord.

We have become familiar with Arne's skill as composer, violinist,
conductor, and harpsichord player; we now find an interesting notice of
his first essay, and probably his last, as an actor. The _Journal_ of
Jan. 24-28 announced, "By the real and absolute Command of their Graces
the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, for the benefit of Mrs. Arne, at
the Theatre-royal in Aungier-street, on Saturday, the 28th Instant,
will be performed the Second Part of Henry IV. With the Humours of Sir
John Falstaff. The Part of Henry Prince of Wales by Mr. Arne, being his
First attempt of that Kind." The Shakespeare play was followed by some
vocal music by Mrs. Arne and Mr. Lowe, and the whole concluded with
Lampe's "Dragon of Wantley."

We now come to an important event, the performance of the Oratorio,
"The Death of Abel," which was first produced in Dublin, and not in
London, as is generally stated. The following curious advertisement
appeared in the _Journal,_ Feb. 11-14, 1744: "By subscription. At the
Theatre-royal in Smock Alley, on Saturday next, being the 18th of
this Inst. Feb. will be performed A new Oratorio, called _The Death
of Abel_. Set to music by Mr. Arne. The Principal Characters to be
performed by Mr. Lowe, Mrs. Arne, and Mademoiselle Chateauneuf. The
stage will be disposed in the same manner as at Mr. Handel's Oratorios
in London. As but 12 more subscribers can be admitted, such gentlemen
and ladies as intend to honour Mr. Arne by subscribing, are greatly
desired immediately to send their names to his house in Aungier-street.
where tickets are ready to deliver to the subscribers. N.B. Attendance
will be given at the Theatre on each Day of Performance, when
Subscribers, on sending their Subscription Tickets, will have three
delivered on each of the four Nights of Performance. Pit, Boxes, and
Lattices, Half a Guinea. First Gallery, 2s. 8d. halfp. Upper Gallery,
2s. 2d. Ladies are requested to sit in the Pit, as well as Boxes, as
is the Custom at the Operas and Oratorios in London, for which purpose
the Pit seats will be made thoroughly clean. To begin exactly half
an Hour after Six. The Printer made a mistake in the last bills; but
the Subscribers may depend that (according to Mr. Arne's proposal)
no Person (except Subscribers) will be admitted into Pit, Boxes, or
Lattices under Half a Guinea. Mr. Arne begs Leave to acquaint the
Public, that he has been credibly inform'd by several worthy Families
that the Gentlewomen who keep the Saturday Nights Assembly, or some one
concern'd with, or commission'd by them, have made it their business
to complain of his performing the Subscription Oratorios on that
Night, alledging that it was done on purpose to prejudice them. Now,
so far was that from being thought of, much less intended, that the
Gentlemen Proprietors of the Theatre, as well as Mr. Arne, endeavoured
their utmost to fix another Night, but could not, for the following
Reasons; The Mondays and Thursdays are taken up with Benefits for six
Weeks. On Tuesdays are Vicars-street Consort, and the Bear on College
green, which take up all the best Hands. On Wednesday are the Phil
Harmonic Society, and Crow-street, where they are likewise engaged. And
on Friday is Fishamble Consort, where they are obliged to perform."
"The Death of Abel" was repeated on the 25th of February. This early
oratorio of Arne's was never published, and no manuscript copy of it
is known to exist. One song, however, became very popular, and was in
great request--"The Hymn of Eve":

        How cheerful along the gay mead,
    The daisy and cowslip appear,
    The Flocks as they carelessly feed,
    Rejoice in the Spring of the year.
    The Myrtles that shade the gay bow'rs,
    The Herbage that springs from the Sod;
    Trees, plants, cooling fruits, and sweet flow'rs
    All rise to the praise of my God.

The music, very simple and melodious, but without striking evidence of
genius, has been frequently reprinted, and arranged in various forms.

A comedy, "The Rehearsal," with Arne's music, was played on the 1st
of March, at the Theatre in Aungier Street, for the benefit of Mr.
Basdin; the singing parts were performed by Mr. Lowe and Mr. Worsdale.
The _Journal_, Feb. 28-March 3, 1744, contained the advertisement
announcing the first public performance of "Alfred," and the "Judgment
of Paris," which took place on the 10th of March; and on the 29th
of the same month "Comus" was again performed, for the last time in
the season, Mrs. Arne, as a matter of course, representing Sabrina
and the Pastoral Nymph, and singing the song "Sweet Echo." Lowe was
the Bacchanal and Attendant Spirit; and Miss Davis, Euphrosyne. This
performance was given at the Theatre in Aungier Street, and shortly
afterwards "Rosamond" was revived at the Theatre Royal in Smock Alley.
It must have been well received, as there were five performances, on
the 2nd, 5th, 9th, 10th, and 19th of April. Mrs. Arne represented Queen
Eleanor; Lowe, King Henry; Layfield, Sir Trusty; Miss Davis, Grideline;
Madame Chateauneuf, Rosamond. On the 2nd "The Merchant of Venice" was
also performed "with the songs proper to the Character," sung by Mr.
Lowe. _Faulkner's Journal_, 7-10 April, contained a Song, "The Scene a
Bower," addressed to Mrs. Arne, which may be taken as evidence of her
popularity. There are nine verses, commencing:

    From yonder Bow'r, where blowing sweets
      Perfume the vernal Air,
    I hear the music of a voice
      Peculiar to the tuneful Fair.

On the 26th of April a performance was given of the tragedy "Theodosius,
or the Force of Love." This play, written by Lee, was printed in
1680 with five songs and two choruses composed by Henry Purcell. The
libretto was revised for the Dublin performance. The announcement ran,
"At the particular Desire of several Persons of Quality, for the
Benefit of Mr. Barry, at the Theatre-royal in Smock-alley on Thursday
the 26th Inst. will be acted a Tragedy called Theodosius or the Force
of Love. The Part of Varanes to be performed by Mr. Barry, being the
first Time of his appearing in that Character. Tickets to be had at
Mr. Barry's in Skinner-Row.--As the original Songs, and Chorus's of
the Play were never performed in this Kingdom, for want of Musick and
Performances equal to such an Undertaking; Mr. Arne has been prevailed
upon to set the same to new Musick." Purcell's music was published in
1680; copies of it are now very rare. It consisted of five songs and
two choruses. Arne's music was never printed, and only one manuscript
score of it is known.[12] An examination of that copy shows that Arne
wrote music for nine pieces--four airs and five choruses, very short
movements. The words are not those set by Purcell, excepting one air
and one chorus. The solos are written for soprano and contralto voices;
the orchestration for strings, two oboes, and two horns.

The last appearance of Mr. and Mrs. Arne in Dublin, during the year
1744, was at the Great Room in Fishamble Street on Wednesday, the
30th of May, when "The Judgment of Paris" and "Alfred" were performed
for their joint benefits. Particulars respecting this event will be
found on page 124. The season being ended, Arne and his wife returned
to England, by way of Parkgate and Chester. During their stay in the
last named city the youth Charles Burney was introduced to Arne, and
having exhibited his skill as a performer on the harpsichord became
an articled pupil of the popular composer, with whom he journeyed to
London. Upon his arrival in the Metropolis, Arne resumed his connection
with Drury Lane Theatre as composer, and obtained an engagement there
for his wife as "Serious Singer." The year 1745 was a prosperous one
for both Arne and his wife--they were in constant employ at the Theatre
and in concerts.

On the 20th of March, Mrs. Arne had a benefit at Drury Lane Theatre,
when "Alfred" was performed for the first time in London. The details
of this interesting and memorable occasion will be given in connection
with "Rule, Britannia."

On the death of Gordon, the leader of the orchestra at Drury Lane, Arne
accepted the appointment which was virtually that of conductor. This
was a welcome addition to his importance and income.

A letter written by Mrs. Cibber to Garrick, dated the 1st of May, 1745,
gives interesting evidence of the amicable relations between Arne and
Garrick at that time: "I am very glad to hear you are better, and if
you dare venture out, shall be glad of your company at dinner. As you
are an invalid, pray send me word what you can eat, and at what hour
you will dine. I shall send _Tom_ [Arne] to meet you, and am Sir David,
Your most faithful friend and servant, to command till death."

On Saturday, the 28th of September, 1745, occurred a memorable scene
in the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The _Daily Advertiser_ published on
the Monday following describes it thus: "On Saturday night last, the
audience of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, were agreeably surprised by
the Gentlemen belonging to that House performing the Anthem of God
save our noble King. The universal Applause it met with, being encored
with repeated Huzzas, sufficiently denoted in how just an Abhorrence
they hold the arbitrary Schemes of our insidious Enemies, and detest
the despotick Attempts of Papal power." The Anthem was repeated nightly
till nearly the end of November, and the managers of Covent Garden
Theatre followed suit. The arrangement of the Anthem for Drury Lane was
made by Arne, who had for principal singers Mrs. Cibber, Mr. Beard, and
Mr. Reinhold. Mrs. Cibber being a contralto, the music had to be sung
in a low key. Arne's autograph manuscript written for the occasion is
in the British Museum: it will be interesting to see the melody of "God
save the King" as then sung:


Arne's pupil Burney made the arrangement of "God save the King" for
Covent Garden Theatre; the enthusiasm excited at that theatre fully
equalled that of Drury Lane. Benjamin Victor, in a letter he wrote
to Garrick on the 10th of October, 1745, said "the stage, at both
houses, is the most _pious_, as well as the most _loyal_ place in the
three kingdoms. Twenty men appear at the end of every play; and one,
stepping forward from the rest, with uplifted hands and eyes, begins
singing, to an old anthem tune, the following words--God save the King."

In this year, 1745, Arne was appointed composer to Vauxhall Gardens,
for which fashionable place of amusement he wrote a considerable number
of songs, ballads, and a dialogue "Colin and Phoebe," which was
sung every evening throughout the season by Mrs. Arne and Mr. Lowe.
Engagements of a similar character at Marylebone Gardens and Ranelagh
gave great scope for his talents, and must have kept him fully occupied.

In 1746, on the 17th of January, a farce, "Miss in her Teens," written
by Garrick, with music by Arne, was produced at Covent Garden Theatre.
On the 31st of January Shakespeare's "Tempest" was revived at Drury
Lane Theatre. The _General Advertiser_ announced the performances,
"Drury Lane. Never Acted there before. By His Majesty's Company of
Comedians. At the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, this Day will be presented
a Play call'd The Tempest, as written by Shakespeare: with the original
Decorations, particularly the Grand Masque, new set to music by Mr.
Arne. The Part of Ariel (with the proper songs) by Mrs. Clive." This
was the birthday of the beautiful melody, "Where the bee sucks," a
song whose freshness and charm never tire, and a tuneful combination
of poetry and music destined to endure so long as the concord of sweet
sounds has the power of touching human hearts.

Another interesting letter from Mrs. Cibber to Garrick, dated 8th of
April, 1746, contains several references to her brother:--"My brother
is to thank you for my playing for him.... Tom Arne sends his service:
he is forced to put his pit and boxes together, which I reckon will
be no advantage to him, ladies' hoops taking up more room than the
difference of price."

In 1748, Mrs. Arne left Drury Lane Theatre, and went to Dublin with her
sister, Mrs. Lampe, a singer of repute and wife of the composer of "The
Dragon of Wantley." Previous reference has been made to Mrs. Arne's
frequent attacks of illness; one of these prevented her undertaking
work in the early part of the Dublin season; and it was not before
the 11th of November that she was able to sing in public. On that day
she took part in Handel's "Esther," "being recovered from her late
illness." She next sang the part of Galatea in Handel's "Acis" on the
18th, and at a repetition performance on the 25th. _Faulkner's Journal_
of Nov. 19-22, reported that "Mrs. Arne (tho' but just recovered
out of a violent Fever) gave entire satisfaction." In the following
December (on the 16th) she sang in Handel's "Solomon"; and on the 7th
of February, 1749, had a benefit concert at the Fishamble Street Music
Hall, when she took the part of Galatea in Handel's "Acis," and she
with her sister, Mrs. Lampe, "introduced several favourite Songs and

Arne had a son, born in 1740 or 1741 (Dr. Burney says, he was a
"natural son"), who inherited some of his father's gifts for music.
These were encouraged and developed, and we find, amongst Arne's
compositions, songs composed for the youth, who was introduced to
the public by his father at Marylebone Gardens. Two excellent printed
examples are "Ianthe and Iphis, sung by Master Arne, at Marybon
Gardens"--and "An thou wert mine own Thing, sung by Master Arne at
Marybon Gardens." The youth became well known as a composer and
performer in London and Dublin. One of his songs, popular to-day, "The
lass with a delicate air," is sometimes ascribed in error to his father.

In 1752 Arne composed music for "Harlequin Sorcerer," an old
pantomime in which Rich had many years before made a great success.
The performance took place at Covent Garden Theatre on the 11th of
February, and there was an overwhelming demand for seats; the doors
were therefore opened at three o'clock in the afternoon. The performers
included Mrs. Arne, Mrs. Lampe, Mr. Lowe, Mr. Legge, and a Chorus.
The music was published by Walsh, who appears to have had a business
contract with the composer. The following letter, by Arne, addressed to
William Shenstone, the poet, throws light on the subject: "Nov. ye 30,
1754. SIR--By the hands of Mr. Dodsley, I receiv'd your very obliging
letter, and wou'd for my own Pleasure comply with your Request; but
Mr. Dodsley's interest in this Particular interferes with mine; for if
he prints my Music in his Publication, I shall lose the sale of it to
Mr. Walsh [the King's Music-Printer] who gives me 20 guineas for every
Collection I compose--consisting of eight or nine Songs, and who wou'd
not give a shilling for any Thing that another had first publish'd.
Of this I acquainted Mr. Dodsley, who did not seem inclin'd to make
any Gratuity for the Loss. Any Song, Cantata, or Dramatic Piece from
so delicate a Pen, whereby I should not considerably lose to promote
another's Gain, wou'd be the most welcome present I cou'd receive,
stamp an additional Reputation on my Music, and highly oblige. Sr. your
most obedt. servt. Thos. Augne. Arne, Charles Street, Covent Garden."

That Arne's music had obtained repute in Edinburgh, is shown by an
advertisement in the _Caledonian Mercury_ of the 6th of March, 1752:
"New Musick. Now in the press and will be ready by the beginning of
April next, and delivered to subscribers. All the Songs, Duettos, and
Trios in the Masque of Comus composed by Thomas Augustine Arne, as
adapted to the Harpsichord and Voice, and all the Songs, Duettos and
Trios in the Burlesque Opera, called the Dragon of Wantley composed by
the great John Frederick Lampe, likewise adapted to the Harpsichord and
Voice. The above words may occasionally be accompanied with Violin or
German Flute and Violoncello. This manner of reducting them to avoid
the Perplexity of the different parts in a score which confound young
practitioners was finished by Mr. Lampe in his lifetime,[13] and the
proofs of the Plates have been revised and corrected by Mr. Arne."

In May, 1754, Arne went to Edinburgh, possibly on business in
connection with the publications announced in the above advertisement.
Be that as it may, the _Caledonian Mercury_ of the 23rd of May
contained the following notice:--"For the benefit of Mr. Arne. At
the Assembly Hall on Monday, 27th May, A Concert of Vocal and
Instrumental Musick. The Vocal part to be performed by Miss Rodburn,
and the Instrumental by Mr. Pasquali, Mr. Arne and others. To begin
Precisely at 6. Tickets, 2/6. To be had at Mr. Arne's Lodgings, at
Mr. Johnston's, Wigmaker, head of Chalmer's Close, and at the Old and
John's Coffee houses."

In the autumn of 1755, Arne and his wife again visited Dublin. They
were accompanied by a number of capable vocalists, Miss Young, Mrs.
Arne's sister, her six-year-old niece Miss Polly Young,[14] and Miss
Charlotte Brent; they resided together in Fishamble Street, at the
Passage Door next the Golden Scales. Arne advertised in _Faulkner's
Journal_, Oct. 4-7: "To the Public. Mr. Arne, who is arrived in this
Kingdom, with several Vocal Performers, having agreed with Managers of
the Theatre Royal, Proposes, by Subscription, to entertain the Town Ten
Nights, with Three Operas in the English Language, (viz.): A new Opera
call'd Eliza, An Opera call'd Alfred, and, an Opera call'd the Fairies.
The Subscription is, this Day, opened at the Office of the Theatre in
Smock Alley, where Attendance will be given every Day from Twelve to
Three. Ten Box Tickets for the ten Performances will be delivered to
each Subscriber for two Guineas.--The first Performance will be in
the Beginning of November. N.B. The Orchestra will be considerably
enlarged, an Additional Number of the best Instrumental Performers
engag'd, and Mr. Arne will accompany the Operas on the Harpsichord."

This advertisement was repeated several times, with the additional
information that there would be "A fine Organ put up" and that "Places
for the Boxes for the said Nights of Performance, to be taken at the
Office of the Theatre from 12 to 3, or of Mr. Neil, at his House
in Abbey-street." In consequence of the illness of Mrs. Arne, the
_Journal_ of 8-11 Nov. stated:--"The Opera of Eliza is obliged to be
deferred to the 27th, on Account of the Indisposition of a principal
Performer." The opera was again postponed to the 29th, when it was
given "By Command of his Excellency the Marquis of Hartington," and
the "whole House was illuminated with Wax Lights." Printed books of
the opera were "published and sold by Mr. Hoey, at the _Mercury_ in
Skinner-Row, and at the Theatre, at a British Sixpence each." The
_Journal_ gave a report of the performance: "On Saturday last, at
the Theatre-Royal in Smock-Alley, was perform'd Mr. Arne's new Opera
call'd Eliza: The noble and splendid Appearance, and the great and just
Applause throughout the whole Performance, were strong Indications
of the good Taste reigning in this Kingdom, and a generous, though
proper Compliment to that great Master of his Science, Mr. Arne,--Mrs.
Arne, whose Excellence is well known, had the Misfortune of a violent
Hoarseness, and rose from her Bed in a Fever to perform; Mr. Sadler
and Miss Brent, were greatly approv'd; but Miss Polly Young, a Child
of six Years of Age, pleased and astonished the whole Company, having
a sweet melodious voice, accenting her Words with great Propriety,
and Singing perfectly in Time and Tune. The Poem is, by all judges
of good Writing, thought excellent; the Orchestra was full, and
perform'd without a Fault; but the Judgement, Taste, Expression, and
Variety of the Music would be injur'd in an Attempt to commend it." The
performance was repeated on Thursday the 4th, and Saturday the 20th of
December. Arne's opera "Rosamond" was played on the 31st, with Mrs.
Arne as Queen Eleanor; Miss Brent, Rosamond; Grideline, Miss Young;
Page, Miss Polly Young; King Henry, Mr. Sadler. Mr. Arne conducted. The
opera was repeated with the same cast on the 9th of January, 1756; and
on the 21st and 26th of the same month "Comus" was performed under the
composer's conductorship by Mrs. Arne, Miss Brent, Miss Spencer, Mr.
Sadler and Mr. Corry. _Faulkner's Journal_, 20-24 Jan., 1756, contained
an "Ode to Apollo," without author's name. The following verses, if
written by one of the public, show that Arne and his wife were held in
the highest estimation by music-lovers:

    Hark! hark! what notes enchant my Ears,
    Sweet as the musick of the Spheres?
    'Tis ARNE--the Gods' Vicegerent comes,
    Now vanish Rackets, Routs, and Drums;
    And with him come the Muses Hand in Hand,
    To see fulfilled Apollo's great command.

    See Taste with Joy its Head uprears,
    Rais'd by Arne's heav'nly Airs;
    Skill'd with equal Pow'r t'inspire
    Irene's youth with martial Fire,
    And lull to Rest, with Soul-delighting Sounds,
    The Pains of Grief, and heal Love's bleeding Wounds.

    Not he that charm'd the Thracians' Plains,
    E'er tun'd his Lyre to softer strains;
    Nor does the warbling Bird of Night
    More than his sweet-song'd Spouse delight.
    O say! what Price or Gifts can both engage
    Here to remain, to save a sinking age?

In the following February (24-28) the _Journal_ announced: "The Play
called the Tempest, or the Inchanted Island (with all the original
Musick) is now in Rehearsal at the Theatre Royal, and will be performed
next Week. The Part of Ariel by Miss Brent, being her first Appearance
in that Character, Neptune by Mr. Sadler, Amphitrite by Miss Spencer,
and Mr. Arne will accompany the Musick on the Harpischord." Mrs. Arne,
Miss Brent and Miss Spencer sang at a concert given on the 17th March,
in aid of the Meath Hospital, and three days later, the 20th, were
engaged in a performance of "Comus" for the benefit of Mr. Arne; the
"Masque of Comus" was followed by "a Farce (never acted before) called,
The Pincushion: Being a Manuscript of the celebrated Mr. Gay's, Author
of the Beggar's Opera. The Songs adapted to favourite Ballad Airs of
Mr. Arne's. The Characters by Mr. Sadler, Mrs. Pye, Miss E. Young,
and Miss Brent." The _Journal_ informed the public "that the Masque
of Comus will be performed in a most elegant Manner on Mr. Arne's
Benefit night next Saturday, that two Rows of the Pit will be taken
in to inlarge the Orchestra, and Mr. Arne will accompany the musical
Part. We are further assured that the new pastoral ballad Farce called
The Pincushion, which will likewise then be performed, is a real
Manuscript of that celebrated Poet Mr. Gay, Author of the Beggar's
Opera, and that Songs are adapted by Mr. Arne. several of which are

A benefit for Mrs. Knowles, on the 2nd of April, was given for which
Arne composed music. The advertisement announced: "Act the 2nd. A
Duetto between Mr. Sadler and Mr. Butler, accompanied with French
Horns, etc., called The Death of the Stag. The Music composed by
Mr. Arne!" At the end of the play "by particular desire" Miss Brent
sang, "Where the bee sucks." The duet with French horns was doubtless
composed to exhibit the skill of "Mr. Charles and his Second." On
the 5th of May, Miss Spencer had a benefit at the Theatre, when she
introduced "A new Ballad call'd Kitty, or the Female Phaeton; the
words by Prior, set by Mr. Arne." This song became a favourite at
Ranelagh Gardens. Mrs. Arne contemplated giving a benefit concert
and ball in May; the programme was to include music from Arne's
"Alfred," but after several advertisements and postponements, it was
announced that "Mrs. Arne is obliged to acquaint the Public that Mr.
Arne (by Desire) intending one capital Performance of Alfred before
his Departure from this Kingdom, she will make no other Benefit on
her own Account, and those Tickets which are disposed of among her
Friends will be then taken, on paying the additional Price." Subsequent
advertisement announced: "By Special Command of their Excellencies
the Lords Justices.--For the Benefit of Mr. and Mrs. Arne. At the
Great Music-hall in Fishamble-street, on Tuesday, the 25th of this
Inst., May, will be performed, in the Manner of an Oratorio, Alfred
the Great, composed by Mr. Arne, at the special command of His late
Royal Highness, Frederic, Prince of Wales, and originally performed in
his Palace at Cliefdon. Mr. Arne will accompany the Performance on the
Harpsichord, and Mr. Walsh will perform a Concerto on the Organ. The
Vocal Parts to be performed by Mrs. Arne, Mr. Sadler, Miss Brent, Miss
Spencer, Miss Young and Miss Polly Young. Ticket, a British Crown. All
outstanding Tickets, for the Opera of Eliza and the Tickets delivered
by Mrs. Arne, will be taken. After the Performance (by Desire) will be
a Ball, conducted in the most elegant Manner, on Account of which the
Performance will begin at Seven. Tickets to be had only of Mr. Arne, at
the Passage Door next the Golden Scales, in Fishamble-street."

[Illustration: ARNE, BY BARTOLOZZI.]

After this performance in 1756, Arne appears to have left Dublin,
and probably never revisited that city. Mrs. Arne remained in Dublin
with her niece, Miss Polly Young, who had a benefit at the Smock
Alley Theatre on the 8th of July, and was assisted by Miss Young
and Miss Brent. The Youngs sang also at a benefit concert given for
Miss Polly Young, at Marborough Green, on the 7th of September. It
seems pretty clear that Arne deserted his wife at this time, and
that the fact soon became known to many in Dublin. An "Assembly" was
announced for her benefit early in December, but was postponed from
time to time; finally, the _Journal_, March 5-8, 1767, announced:
"Mrs. Arne, having opened the Music-Hall in Fishamble-Street for
her Benefit on Saturday the 12th of Feb., under great Disadvantages,
is advised by her Friends (who had Notice of that Night, _and are
sensible of her Losses_) to fix on Thursday, the 10th of March, for
her Benefit and Miss Young's, when the Ladies and Gentlemen who will
honour them with their Company, may depend they shall on no Account
be disappointed.--N.B. The Tickets given out for the different Nights
she has advertised will be taken, and others had of Mrs. Arne, at her
Lodgings in Aungier-street and at the Music-Hall. Price 5s. 6d." Later
in the year (April 24th) Mrs. Arne and Miss Young gave a concert.
Allusion has already been made to Mrs. Arne's frequent attacks of
indisposition, and it is reasonable to think that her husband's
conduct would have a grave effect on her health and spirits. She seems
to have relinquished public performance for a time and retired into
private life. A very interesting glimpse of her is to be found in "The
Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany."
Writing to her sister, Mrs. Dewes, from Mount Panther, County Down,
on the 8th of August, 1758, she said: "On Saturday we dined at Mr.
Bayly's; Miss Bayly had gone on a party of pleasure. I was surprised
there at meeting Mrs. Arne (Miss Young that was); they have her in the
house to teach Miss Bayly to sing; she was recommended to Mr. Bayly
by Mrs. Berkeley as an object of compassion. She looks, indeed, much
humbled, and I hope is as deserving as they think her to be; great
allowances are to be made for the temptations those poor people fall
under. She has been severely used by a bad husband, and suffered to
starve, if she had not met with charitable people. She behaves herself
very well, and though her voice has lost its bloom as well as her
face, she sings well, and was well taught by Geminiani and Handel, and
had she not been idle would have been a charming singer. Mr. Bayly
plays on the violin, his curate on the German flute; Mrs. Arne and
Miss Bayly sing, and a girl of nine years old[15] accompanies them
on the harpsichord most surprisingly; she is a niece of Mrs. Arne's;
the race of the Youngs are _born_ songsters and musicians. It is very
agreeable to have such an entertainment in our power to go to whenever
we please." Poor Mrs. Arne! humbled, half-starved, deserted by her
husband, losing her good looks, and the bloom of her voice, sings well,
and if she had not been idle would have been a charming singer! Mrs.
Delany, a gifted and kind-hearted woman, was evidently ignorant of the
fact that the lady she criticised was forty-seven years of age, and had
been constantly before the public, as a vocalist, for twenty-six years.

In the following January, 1759, Mrs. Arne and Miss Young were residing
together in Dublin, at Mrs. Rowe's, in Drogheda Street. A Grand concert
of Vocal and Instrumental Musick, followed by a Ball, was given for
Mrs. Arne's Benefit at the Fishamble Street Music Hall on the 6th
of March, when both appeared and sang; another benefit performance
for Mrs. Arne was given on the 17th of April, when "Much ado about
Nothing" was performed. Miss Young, Mrs. Storer and Mr. Wilder
were the vocalists. A benefit concert and ball, for Mrs. Arne, was
given on the 10th of December; she had then removed to "Mrs. Lee's,
in William-street." It is significant that she did not sing on this
occasion, nor is there any evidence of her appearing again before the
Dublin public; a Grand Ball was announced for the Benefit of Mrs.
Arne and Miss Young at the Fishamble Street Music Hall on the 25th of
November, when it was stated: "Before the Minuets Miss Young will sing
some capital Songs, accompanied by herself on the Harpsichord."

Mr. Arne had been fully engaged in the various gardens and theatres
in London. At Covent Garden "Cymbeline" was produced, with songs by
him. His pupil, Miss Brent, had appeared at Drury Lane Theatre, in his
opera "Eliza," on March the 3rd, 1758, and at Covent Garden on the
10th of October, 1759, as Polly, in the "Beggar's Opera." On the 6th
of July, 1759, the University of Oxford conferred upon Arne the degree
of "Doctor in Music."[16] It is said that he composed an Ode which he
submitted to the authorities; but no copy of it is known to exist.

In 1760, on the 28th of November, Dr. Arne's musical entertainment
"Thomas and Sally," written by Bickerstaff, was produced at Covent
Garden Theatre. Miss Brent made a great success both as singer and
actress; the other vocalists included Mr. Beard, Mrs. Vernon, and Mr.
Mattocks. The piece obtained immediate and lasting popularity. The
music was published with the following title: "Thomas and Sally, or
the Sailor's Return, a Dramatic Pastoral, with the Overture in score,
songs, dialogues, duettos and dance tunes, as performed at the Theatre
Royal in Covent Garden by Mr. Beard and Miss Brent, Mr. Mattocks,
Mrs. Vernon, and chorus. The music compos'd by Doctr. Arne. London
Printed for J. Walsh, in Catherine Street, in the Strand. Enter'd at
Stationers' Hall."

In 1761, on the 27th of February, at Drury Lane Theatre, Arne brought
out his oratorio "Judith," one of his most important compositions.
The _Public Advertiser_ of the above date, announced: "At the Theatre
Royal in Drury-Lane, This Day, will be performed a new Sacred Oratorio
call'd JUDITH. The Music composed by Dr. Arne, with a Concerto on the
Organ. Pit and Boxes will be laid together at Half a Guinea. First
Gallery 5s. Upper Gallery 3s. 6d. Tickets for the Pit and Boxes may
be had of Mr. Varney, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre. To begin at
half an hour after Six o'clock." The following day a brief notice
appeared in the same journal, which said: "Last Night the new sacred
Oratorio call'd _Judith_, was performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury
Lane, to a most polite Audience, who gave it the greatest Approbation
and Applause ever known, on the Occasion." Evidence of the success
of the oratorio is the repetition of it on the 4th and 6th of March.
It was also again performed in Lenten season of 1762 at the theatre.
In 1764, on February 29th, it was performed at the Chapel of the
Lock Hospital, Grosvenor Place, Pimlico, on behalf of the funds of
the charity. A more notable repetition took place at Covent Garden
Theatre on the 26th of February 1773, when for the first time ladies
formed a part of the chorus; before this time the treble chorus was
confined to boys' voices. This happy innovation of Dr. Arne's was
well received; the _Public Advertiser_ said: "The Oratorio of Judith,
composed by Dr. Arne, which was performed at the Theatre Royal in
Covent Garden, yesterday evening, was received with uncommon Applause.
The principal singers acquitted themselves to the utmost Satisfaction
of the Audience. Mr. Barthelemon was greatly admired in his Solo on
the Violin, and too much cannot be said of Signor Spandau's Concerto
on the French Horn, as it surpassed any Performance on that Instrument
hitherto heard in this Country. The striking Appearance of the Band
and Chorus, which were much more numerous than they usually have been,
received a most pleasing Addition from the Female Singers, then first
introduced." It is somewhat remarkable that the Pianoforte was first
used in public as an accompaniment for the voice when a song from
"Judith" was sung at Covent Garden Theatre by Miss Brickler on the
16th of May, 1767. The playbill announced that after the first Act of
the "Beggar's Opera," "Miss Brickler will sing a favourite song from
Judith, accompanied by Mr. Dibdin, on a new instrument called Piano
Forte." The published score of the music of "Judith" has for title,
"Judith an Oratorio as it is Perform'd at the Theatre-Royal in Drury
Lane, Compos'd by Dr. Arne, London. Printed for J. Walsh in Catherine
Street in the Strand." This volume unfortunately does not contain a
single chorus. The Overture is scored for Strings, Hautboys, Bassoon
and Horns. It opens with a spirited Allegro, followed by a short
Andante movement for strings only; the other instruments resume in
the final Allegro Moderato. A solo, "Wake, my harp," which was sung
by Mrs. Cornelys, is accompanied by strings, violins pizzicato, harp
and harpsichord in a very effective manner. In an air, "Haste to the
gardens of delight," sung by Mr. Tenducci, two flutes are added to the
orchestration; and in another air, "With heroes and sages," also sung
by Tenducci, we find the bassoons have parts independent of the basses,
a somewhat novel departure at the period when Arne wrote. An air,
"No more the Heathen shall blaspheme," sung by Mr. Fawcett, has the
novel accompaniment of two violoncellos and bass; no other instruments
until the last four bars of symphony, when the violins are introduced.
Fortunately the composer's autograph score exists in the British
Museum, and in that we find much of interest. It exemplifies in some
degree the well-known haste and carelessness of the composer; there
are sundry memoranda, such as "take care of the Instrumental parts
where I have mistaken the lines," "Bassoons in semibriefs," &c. The
choruses are in this case his own; there was no borrowing from Handel.
The first, "Father of mercies," is short--only thirty-seven bars. The
next, "When Israel wept," is also short and good. "Hear, angels, hear"
extends to one hundred and twenty-six bars; "Hail, immortal Bacchus,"
eighty-five bars; "Prepare the genial bower," eighty-seven bars; and
the next, a very fine chorus, "Who can Jehovah's wrath abide," one
hundred and eight bars; "Breathe the pipe," sixty-two bars; and the
last chorus, "Here, sons of Jacob," written in five vocal parts for
soprano, alto, tenor and bass, sixty-four bars. Dr. Arne was remarkable
for his deficient memory respecting things trifling in themselves, yet
sometimes of considerable consequence as connected with other matters.
If he made an appointment to meet a friend, whether for the purpose
of business or amusement, he would probably mistake the day; if he
wrote an order for the theatre, it was equally probable that the play
would be misnamed, or that the frank would bear a wrong date. On one
occasion, when he had prepared an elaborate Ode, he had it rehearsed,
and announced the day for its public performance. The great room at
the Crown and Anchor[17] was crowded with company impatiently waiting
for their expected gratification. Arne arrived at the tavern-door
in a fiacre, leaped out with the score under his arm, and left the
parts behind him. When the doctor discovered his neglect, he was in
the condition of a madman. Persons were dispatched in all directions
in search of the coach, but it could not be found; and the band and
company were subjected to the mortification of being dismissed--the
first without performing, and the latter without hearing, a note of
the prepared Ode. Could this have been the Ode which, it is said,
he composed as an exercise for his degree? Arne, by his connection
with the theatres, had constant opportunities for cultivating the
acquaintance of Italian singers, and of keeping up his knowledge of the
Italian language; he was evidently influenced in his later compositions
by this familiarity. The simplicity of his melodies became disfigured
by excessive ornamentation, and was the subject of adverse criticism.
The scurrilous poet, Churchill, in 1761, published the "Rosciad," a
satire on actors, in which he violently attacked Arne:

    Let Tommy Arne, with usual pomp of style,
    Whose chief, whose only merit's to compile,
    Who, meanly pilfering here and there a bit,
    Deals music out, as Murphy deals out wit;
    Publish proposals, laws for taste prescribe,
    And chaunt the praise of an Italian tribe;
    Let him reverse Kind Nature's first decrees,
    And teach e'en Brent a method not to please:
    But never shall a truly British age
    Bear a vile race of eunuchs on the stage:
    The boasted work's called national in vain,
    If one Italian voice pollute the strain.
    Where tyrants rule, and slaves with joy obey,
    Let slavish minstrels pour th' enervate lay;
    To Britons far more noble pleasures spring
    In native note, while Beard and Vincent sing.

Arne's Italian proclivities induced him to translate Metastasio's drama
"Artaserse," and to transform it into an Opera on the accepted Italian
mode, without dialogue. This he did successfully; the recitatives,
however, are long and dreary, and the poetry is by no means of a high
order. For instance, a very favourite air reads:

    Water parted from the sea,
      May increase the river's tide;
    To the bubbling fount may flee
      Or thro' fertile valleys glide:
    Yet in search of lost repose,
      Doom'd, like me, forlorn to roam,
    Still it murmurs as it flows,
      Till it reach its native home.

The music of "Artaxerxes" has much charm, and presents excellent
harmonization in the accompaniments, which are scored for strings,
flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and drums. In
two of the pieces the violetta is employed; there are also two violas
obbligato, but as was usual with Arne there is no instance of a general
ensemble of the instruments employed. In the Air "O too lovely," sung
by Tenducci, the violins and basses are marked "_Sordini e Pizzicati_."
The vocal music is quite overladen with ornament, and the compass
required for the several voice parts is generally excessive. The opera
was produced at Covent Garden Theatre on the 2nd of February, 1762;
the principal performers were Miss Brent, Mr. Beard, Mrs. Vernon, Miss
Thomas, Mr. Mattocks, and Tenducci and Pesetti, both of whom came under
the lash of Churchill's satire. The part of Mandane was composed to
show off the compass and flexibility of the voices of the composer's
celebrated pupil, Miss Brent, who therefore was the first exponent of
the martial song, "The soldier tired of war's alarms," which for many
succeeding years was the prescribed test for every new soprano who
courted public favour on the stage or in the concert room. This bravura
air with its trumpet obbligato still remains a favourite with competent
vocalists and discriminating audiences. Arne sold the copyright of
his music for sixty guineas, and it was published with the following
title: "Artaxerxes An English Opera As it is performed at the Theatre
Royal in Covent Garden Set to Music by Dr. Arne. London. Printed for
John Johnson at the Harp and Crown opposite Bow Church Cheapside."
Another edition of the full score was published from Johnson's plates,
"by Authority," by Mr. William Warrell, No. 35 Tavistock Street, Covent
Garden. Price 12s. It is again worthy of note that Arne did not publish
the music of the recitatives in "Artaxerxes," nor of the concluding
chorus, "Live to us, to Empire live." Arne's libretto was published by
Tonson in 1763, with a preface written by the composer. A short extract
follows: "Metastasio, in his Dialect, seems to affect Simplicity; and
from his great Experience in writing for music, has given the following
Plan for the Poetry of an Opera, viz., That the Fable, or Recitative,
to which fixed Musical Sounds are adapted, should be simple Dialect;
hard and dissonant Epithets (though ever so forcible in other Respects)
being destructive to Music, and, when sung, for the chief Part,
unintelligible. That the similes be confin'd to the Songs; and that the
Words, which are to express them, be as smooth and sonorous as possible
lest the Composer be cramp'd in his Fancy, and the Singers rendered
incapable of shewing their Skill, which chiefly consists in openly
displaying the Tones of their Voices or running executive Passages.

"The Translator of this Opera has no Merit, but from his Endeavour
to follow the Author in all these Particulars. He therefore submits
this first Attempt of the Kind to the Favour and Indulgence of the
Publick, not doubting that (if they consider the Difficulty of writing
under such Restrictions, the Necessity of sometimes departing from the
Author, on Account of the different Idioms of our Language; and of
leaving out many Beauties in the Narrative Part of the Drama, for the
sake of Brevity;) they will rather peruse it with an Eye of Favour than

"Artaxerxes" was played twelve nights at Covent Garden Theatre during
the season 1762-63, and twelve nights in the succeeding season,
1763-64. Seven nights in 1764-65, and nine nights, 1768-69. In this
latter season, Drury Lane Theatre performed it for four nights with
Mrs. Arne as Mandane. In 1791, the rival theatres competed; Covent
Garden with the part of Mandane by Mrs. Billington as a star, and Drury
Lane with Madame Mara in that character. On the 23rd of September,
1813, it was reproduced at Covent Garden, for the début of Miss
Stephens, afterwards Countess of Essex. The famous tenor, Braham,
after a temporary absence from the theatre stage, generally selected
"Artaxerxes" for his reappearance. "Artaxerxes" was performed at the
Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, in 1769, with Mr. Rose as Artaxerxes; Mr.
Phillips, Artabanes; Arbaces, Mr. Tenducci; Rimines, Mrs. Woodman;
Semira, Miss Brown; and Mandane by Madame Tenducci.[18] The curious
part of the performance was "the addition of three favourite Scots
Airs, the words by Mr. R. Fergusson." The first of these was "By
Heav'n's displeasure," to the tune "Braes of Balansene"; the second
"What doubts oppress," to the tune "Roslin Castle"; the third, "O where
shall I wander," to the tune "Lochaber no more." The first and last of
these interpolations were sung by Signor Tenducci.

On the 8th of December, 1762, "Love in a village," by Bickerstaff, with
music by Dr. Arne, and Beard in the principal character, was brought
out at Covent Garden Theatre. Arne was at the time not on friendly
terms with Garrick, the manager of Drury Lane, to whom he addressed the
following letter:

"SIR--The occasion of my troubling you with this arises from a wicked
report made by some busy Argus, who having an hundred eyes, and but
one of them honest, had ninety-nine too many. Mrs. Cibber not a
little amazed me, when she told me I was charged by you with hissing
Master Norris,[19] or, at least, with holding my head down, in an odd
position, whenever he was hissed.--Sir, I cannot remember whether my
head was up or down, or inclining to one side or the other, but take
upon me positively to swear, that I never was so mean a rascal as to
hiss the greatest enemy I ever had in the world, much less a young lad
who never offended me; who, I then thought, as I now think, deserved
the kindest treatment imaginable; being surprised, as well as shocked,
to hear and see the best singer in your company (except Mr. Vernon),
though with some material defects, treated in so base and undeserving
a manner. I was so far from inclining to any such unbecoming behaviour
that I was the only advocate he had, and kept all quiet about me,
except a young boy of an officer, who said he did not care for the
lad's understanding music, that he squalled, and he would hiss him. I
would not have gone to the performance, for fear of some scandal from
these observing Pickthanks, had I not a friendship for Mr. Stevens,
the lawyer, and an intention to serve the lad; and was so unhappy,
when I came home, that I could not eat my supper on his account.
Whoever told you that I showed any signs of disapprobation is a busy
lying scoundrel, which I am ready to assert to his face, and answer
the consequence. Yet, though neither I, nor my small abilities in my
profession, nor those of any person belonging to me, or in my interest,
have ever received the smile of your favour, but, on the contrary,
have been greatly overlooked and discouraged upon my account, I have
never failed in my respect to you, and still continue (in spite of
ill-treatment) an admirer of your extraordinary talents, and, SIR,

                                              "Your real humble servant,
                                                 "THOMAS AUGUSTINE ARNE.

"Nov. 10th, 1762."

Garrick lost no time in replying. On the same day he wrote to Dr. Arne:
"SIR,--There are many mistakes in your letter; and first I did not
charge you with hissing Master Norris; but when Mrs. Cibber spoke to
me about that affair, I told her the truth, that you was charged with
being in the company of hissers, and though you might not hiss, the
persons averred that you were pleased, and laughed at the malcontents
about you. I thought this affair of so little consequence, and so
little willing am I to hear Pickthanks, as you politely call them, that
I never spoke to the person who accused you. Mr. Lacy did, and will
inform you of the whole. When you know and see the person in question,
you may deliver your own messages, for I have too much to do to trouble
myself about these matters. Your assertion, that _neither you nor your
abilities_, &c., have had a smile of favour from me, has no foundation;
for everybody who knows me, knows that I have always given you your
due, as a man of genius, but at the same time I had no great reason to
applaud your behaviour to me. I never ill-treated a man of genius in
my life, and I was so far from returning ill-will towards you, that
I agreed, contrary to my judgment, and against all rules of reason
and policy, that you should make new prices at our theatre for your
Oratorio. Therefore you will be much at a loss to particularise the
_ill-treatment_ you mentioned; nor know I of any transactions between
us, but your indulging us with an engagement with Mr. Fawcett, when you
entered into articles with the other house for Miss Brent.

                                              "I am, SIR,
                                                 "Your obedient servant,
                                                           "D. GARRICK."


In 1759, Arne and Garrick had some negotiations in reference to Miss
Brent. Arne was very anxious that Garrick should engage her, but terms
could not be arranged. Garrick readily acquiesced in her superior
merit alleged by Arne, but he "told the Doctor that all his geese
were swans." "Tommy," said he, in his usual familiar way, "you should
consider that Music is at best but Pickle to my Roast Beef."--"By ...
Davy," replied the Doctor, "your Beef shall be well pickled before I
have done." Accordingly he went to Covent Garden Theatre, and concluded
an engagement with the manager for Miss Brent, whose success as Polly
in the "Beggar's Opera" was so tremendous that Drury Lane Theatre was
nearly deserted on the nights on which she performed. Arne, of course,
transferred his services to Covent Garden, and "Comus" with his music
was played on the 8th of October, 1762, with the celebrated Anne Catley
in the part of the Pastoral Nymph. In 1763, on the 24th of February,
"Artaxerxes" was again brought forward at Covent Garden, and it was
advertised that "nothing under full price would be taken." This was
observed by Fitzpatrick, the leader of the rioters who had compelled
Garrick, at Drury Lane Theatre, to submit to the demand that the
public should be admitted, as heretofore, to the theatre at half-price
after the third act. Accordingly the same malcontents attended the
performance of "Artaxerxes" at Covent Garden, and noisily endeavoured
to browbeat the manager, Mr. Beard. He, however, refused to return to
the half-price custom, on the ground of the enormous expenses incurred
in the splendid manner in which pieces were got up at Covent Garden;
he was reminded that Garrick had submitted after a vain resistance,
and he was called on to say whether he would comply with the demand or
no; the answer must be "Yes" or "No." Beard boldly from the stage said,
"No." "The benches, chandeliers, etc., were immediately demolished, and
as much injury done as took four or five days to repair." Fitzpatrick
and two others were summoned to appear before Lord Mansfield, with
the result that the rioting ceased; but the actors on the stage were
nightly disturbed by cat-calls and other noises, so that at last Beard
was obliged to give way, and resume the long-established custom of

In 1764, on December 12th, the oratorio "Judith" was repeated, and a
new opera with Arne's music, "The Guardian Outwitted," was produced
at Covent Garden Theatre. The libretto was also the work of Arne.
The music of this opera has disappeared, probably in the fire which
consumed the theatre in 1808. His "Arcadian Nuptials"--a Masque
introduced into "Perseus and Andromeda"--was also played, with Mr.
Beard and Miss Hallam in the principal parts. In 1765, on the 30th of
October, Mr. William Mawhood, an intimate friend of Arne's, proposed
him as a member of the Madrigal Society, founded in 1741, a worthy
assembly of musicians and amateurs who met regularly to practise the
best examples of old English and Italian madrigals. The books of
the Society, which still exist, show that Arne paid six shillings
and sixpence subscription, and that his son, Michael, was elected a
member shortly after. In this year Arne composed an Italian opera,
"Olimpiade," to a libretto by Metastasio, with a special part for
the male soprano Manzuoli. This was performed at the King's Theatre,
in the Haymarket, twice only; we may therefore conclude it was not a
success. Arne composed a considerable amount of music for male voices,
unaccompanied, chiefly Glees and Catches. He obtained three prizes for
pieces he sent in competition to the Noblemen and Gentlemen's Catch
Club (founded in 1761). His Glee, "Come, shepherds, we'll follow the
hearse," was for many years sung after the announcement of the death of
a member. The proceedings of the Society were frequently of a highly
convivial nature, and it is to be feared that Arne found them greatly
to his liking; in one instance he outraged good taste and becoming
reverence by composing a burlesque on a most solemn religious rite, to
the words "Poculum elevatum."

He deserves credit for his endeavours to popularise vocal concerted
music in the theatre and at garden entertainments; he took care not to
present his musical programmes without due rehearsal. A letter of his,
without date, probably written about 1766, is evidence of this. "Dr.
Arne's compliments to W. Smith desiring him not to fail meeting the
other gentlemen concern'd in the new Catches and Glees, at the Dr.'s
house, on Thursday evening next, exactly at 7; having reason to hope
for some continuance of them; if perform'd with a requisite spirit
and humour; besides another material employment for him on the Anvil.
(Jan. y^{e} 2d.) West Street, near Litchfield street, Soho. Pray don't
forget to bring the part." It may be necessary to explain that the Mr.
W. Smith to whom the above reminder was sent was not only a singer,
but also the engraver of many of Arne's publications, and therefore
familiar with the use of the anvil; evidently the composer had music
waiting publication.

On the 4th of February, 1767, we learn from a note in a private diary
kept by Mr. Mawhood that he "call'd on Dr. Arne and Mic. Arne, and was
at the Madrigal"; probably the Arnes accompanied him. On the 4th of
April Mr. Mawhood attended "Mrs. Arne's and Mr. Pemberton's Benefit:
took 3 Pit tickets at 3s. each"; on the 9th of May he "was at Dr.
Arne's and heard y^{e} Catches perform^{d}"; on the 29th of December
"Perform^{d} Dr. Arne's mass at Church."

On the 12th of May, 1767, Arne conducted a concert of Catches and Glees
at Ranelagh House, described in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ as the first
of the kind. In the following year, 1768, a second vocal concert was
given by Arne at Drury Lane Theatre; for the occasion a book of the
words was published, with explanatory notes, probably the earliest
example of an annotated programme book. The title is, "The words of
the favourite Catches and Glees which, with the elegant and humorous
music, composed by the most eminent masters of the last and present
age, will be performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, on Tuesday,
the twenty-first of this instant June, by a considerable number of the
best vocal and instrumental performers. The Choral and Instrumental
parts are added, to give the Catches and Glees their proper effect,
being composed, for that purpose, by Dr. Arne. This performance (the
second of the kind ever publicly exhibited in this or any Kingdom)
is introduced at the desire of many persons of quality, lovers and
encouragers of good harmony and inoffensive humour. London, printed in
the year MDCCLXVIII." There is a preface to the book explaining what
is a Catch and what a Glee. Arne wrote, "these kinds of entertainment
(in the time of Mr. Henry Purcell) were so much in fashion, that in
most polite families, after dinner and supper, it was a custom to lay
the choicest collections of Catches and Glees on the table, and thought
a deficiency of education in those, who could not readily perform a
part." The concert commenced with a New Grand Overture by Dr. Arne,
and was succeeded by a Catch of his composition, "The family quarrel,"
which "gained a golden prize-medal in the year 1764." Next came a Glee
composed by Mr. Norris, an "Elegiac on the death of his late Royal
Highness the Duke of Cumberland." The words of this are:

    O'er William's tomb, with love and grief opprest,
    Britannia mourns her hero, now at rest;
    Not tears alone; but praises too she gives,
    Due to the guardian of our laws and lives;
    Nor shall that laurel ever fade with years
    Whose leaves are water'd with a nation's tears.

Those who are acquainted with Braham's popular song, "The death of
Nelson," will recognize the unacknowledged annexation of the above
lines by Mr. S. J. Arnold, who is credited with the authorship of the

The next item in the programme is a Catch by Mr. Henry Purcell, "The
Soldier and his friend"; then a Catch by Mr. Giardini, "Beviamo
tutti tre." The words are printed in Italian and English. A Glee by
Mr. Baildon, "Prithee friend, fill t'other pipe," ends "The first
Interlude." The second part opens with a Catch by Mr. Henry Purcell,
"Jack, thou'rt a toper," to which Arne has appended a note, "The
words of this last Catch are said to be written by Mr. Henry Purcell,
wherein, it is obvious, that he meant no elegance, with regard to
the poetry; but made it entirely subservient to his extream pretty
design, in the music." The catch originally was a number in the
Tragedy "Bonduca," for which Purcell composed the music: it was first
published in _Delicæ Musicæ_, in 1696. Arne was probably correct in
ascribing the words to Purcell. The next piece in the book is called a
Glee, but should have been described as a Madrigal--"The Nightingale,"
by Weelkes. Arne remarked that "The mastership and genius of this
production may serve as a specimen of the state of music at that time,
1608." A Glee by Mr. Baildon, "When gay Bacchus fills my breast," which
"gained a golden prize-medal in 1766," is followed by a Glee by Arne,
"On Chloe sleeping," "the favourite song in Artaxerxes beginning,
'Water parted from the sea'; at the Earl of Eg----t's particular
desire, taken by the doctor for the subject of this Glee, and set for
different voices, the words being now written to the measure of the
music." The "Interlude" concluded with Dean Aldrich's Catch, "Hark, the
bonny Christ-Church bells." The third part commenced with a Catch by
Arne, "The street intrigue," the words of which are neither elegant nor
decent. A note informs us, "This last Catch was written and composed
in the year 1763, soon after the invitation of the Catch-Club, and not
put in for a prize-medal; but with humility, presented to the members."
Next we find a Glee by Arne, "The love rapture"; then his Catch, "Which
is the properest day to drink?" "This gained a golden prize-medal
in the year 1765," and is a clever composition, still occasionally
performed. The last piece in the book is a Glee and Grand Chorus by
Arne, "Punch, the medium of life."

In 1769 Arne composed an Ode for the Shakespeare Jubilee at
Stratford-on-Avon; the words of the Ode were written by Garrick, who
paid the composer sixty guineas for the music, which was published with
the following title: "An Ode upon dedicating a building to Shakespeare,
which was erected by the subscription of the Noblemen and Gentlemen
in the neighbourhood of Stratford upon Avon, the music composed by
Dr. Arne. London, Printed and Sold by John Johnston, at No. 11, York
Street, Covent Garden." There are nine pieces of music; one Air became
popular, "Thou soft flowing Avon," which was sung by Miss Weller; the
other singers were Mrs. Barthelemon, Mr. Vernon, Mr. Champness, Mrs.
Baddeley, and Master Brown. A semi-chorus in the work is entitled
"A strict Fuge for 4 voices. Chapel Time." This was evidently sung
unaccompanied, and although short must have made a good effect.[20]
At the same Jubilee festival, Arne's oratorio "Judith" was performed
at the Church. In 1770, Garrick determined on reviving Dryden's "King
Arthur" at Drury Lane Theatre, and engaged Arne to superintend the
musical part of the performance, who seems to have suffered at the time
from an overdose of self-importance, and addressed the following letter

"DAVID GARRICK, ESQ. SIR,--A due attention to your Commission having
gone hand in hand with what fancy and judgment I may be thought to
possess in my profession, I thought it necessary to lay before you a
true state of the merits and demerits of the Musical Performance, you
are about to exhibit in King Arthur. To attain a certain rectitude,
in judging of this matter, I have not only, with the utmost care and
candor, inspected the Score of Purcell's composition; but attended two
rehearsals of it; the result of which, is, as follows:

"The long Scene of the Sacrifice, in the 1st Act, necessary to be
deliver'd in, as being written for Music, may have a solemn and noble
effect, provided that the last Air and Chorus--'I call you all to
Woden-hall'--be perform'd as I have new compos'd it; the introductory
Air to be sung by Champness, which being highly spirited, will carry
off with an eclat, an, (otherwise) dull, tedious, antiquated suite of
Chorus: Besides which, that Song, as set by Purcell, is intirely out
of Mrs. Baddeley's compass, very indifferent, and no way proper for a
woman, where a troop of warriors are assembled, to bribe their idols
for a success in battle.

"The following Song and Chorus, 'Come, if you dare, our Trumpets
sound,' is in Purcell tolerable; but so very short of that Intrepity
and Spirited defiance pointed at by Dryden's words and sentiments,
that, I think, you have only to hear what I have compos'd on the
occasion, to make you immediately reject the other. The Air 'Let not a
Moon-born Elf mislead you,' is, after the two first bars of Purcell,
very bad, and out of Mr. Champnes' compass of voice.--Hear mine. All
the other Solo Songs of Purcell are infamously bad; so very bad, that
they are privately the objects of sneer and ridicule to the musicians,
but, I have not meddled with any, that are not to come from the mouths
of your principal Performers. I wish you wou'd only give me leave to
_Doctor_ this performance, I would certainly make it pleasing to the
Public, which otherwise, may prove an obstruction to the success of
the Revival. It is not _now_ my intention to new set many things,
mention'd in our original plan; but to put it in the power of your
principal performers to make a proper figure, by opening and adorning
the most entertaining points of view, wherein _they_ are to appear;
consequently, the expence will be much short of the Sume propos'd; all
self-interest subsiding to the earnest desire I shall ever entertain,
of proving my sincerity, when I stile myself SIR Your devoted humble

                                               THO^{S.} AUG^{NE.} ARNE."

[Illustration: Manuscript of last page of letter]

Happily Garrick did not accede to Arne's requests, and much of
Purcell's music was left in the Masque. Arne composed a new Overture
in which he introduced an imitation on the flute of the call of the
"Cuckow." The whole of the first Act, including the famous "Come, if
you dare," was left with Purcell's music untouched. In the second Act
there were several changes; a new recitative, both words and music,
"Alas, the horrors of this bloody field," was sung by Mrs. Baddeley.
This, and a new air, "O peace descend," were composed by Arne; "the
music ill match'd" that of Purcell. Before the chorus, "Come follow
me," Arne introduced a solo "on the subject of Purcell's chorus,
in which he took care to write a goodly number of runs to show off
Mrs. Baddeley's execution." A new song by Arne, "How blest are the
shepherds," was substituted for Purcell's solo and chorus, and Mrs.
Baddeley was provided with a recitative, "We must work, we must haste,"
followed by an air, "To virtue with rapture," and also "Thus I infuse
these sov'reign dews." Mrs. Wrighten had new music composed for her,
a recitative, "Oh sight," and an air, "'Tis sweet the blushing morn
to view." It may be noted that the words of these pieces were written
by Garrick. The third Act, with Purcell's masterly "Frost Scene," was
left intact. In the fourth Act Purcell's lovely duet, "Two daughters
of this aged stream," also the solo and chorus, "How happy the lover,"
were retained. The music of the fifth Act included Purcell's "Fairest
Isle all Isles excelling." The final air and chorus, "Saint George the
Patron of our Isle," had new music by Arne.

There are some entries in the "Mawhood"[21] diary referring to Dr.
Arne in 1770: "13 June, Call^{d}. on Dr. Arne who will compose some
music for Mr. Pemberton's Diurge." "23^{d}. Call^{d}. on D^{r}. Arne
had a small practtice of the Service, for Mr. Pemberton." "28{th}. Was
at Church, perform^{d} Dr. Arne and Webb's Burial for my poor friend
Franc^{s}. Pemberton."

A manuscript copy of the Dirge is to be found in the British Museum.
It was presented in the year 1849 by Vincent Novello to the Musical
Antiquarian Society. His father, Giuseppe Novello, in 1770 resided in
Oxford Road, and probably worshipped in the Sardinian Chapel, where
Vincent, born in 1781, became a chorister boy; this may account for his
possession of the manuscript of the Dirge. It is in the handwriting of
a copyist, not an autograph, and has many errors. It is not complete;
at the commencement there should have been ten bars of instrumental
introduction, which are only indicated in the manuscript by rests. The
pencil marks of figured bass are in the handwriting of Vincent Novello;
there are also pencilled names of solo singers--Swiney, Fitz, Lanza,
Guich^{d}, Novello. The music is admirable, and opens with a chorus for
treble, alto, two tenors, and bass, to the words "Libera me, Domine,
de morte æterna." The pathos of this quintet, admirably expressive
of the text, cannot be praised too highly. The words "Tremens factus
sum ego" are set as a solo for a bass voice, in the style of many
cathedral anthems of the period. The manuscript, evidently intended
for the organist, gives the necessary organ-bass part; this solo, in
the key of A minor, leads into a short chorus in C major to the words
"Quando Coeli morendi sunt." A solo for a tenor voice to the words
"Dies illa, Dies iræ," exhibits Arne's skill in writing vocal music,
and is a very touching and effective piece of work; it is followed
without a break by a chorus, "Dies Magna"; the next movement is a
soprano solo, "Requiem æternam," in E major, a charming melody, with
Italian fiorituri. A short chorus, "Requiescat in pace," concludes a
composition which is a very fine example of Arne's genius, quite worthy
of publication and performance. The British Museum possesses another
manuscript of the composer to Latin words, "O salutaris hostia," which
looks like an exercise in fugue writing, not intended for Church
performance. It may have been sent to the "Catch Club" in competition
for a prize.

It has already been stated that Arne deserted his wife in 1756; what
their relations were in the succeeding years can only be surmised. She
was regarded by her contemporaries as a good and injured woman, and her
husband was notoriously a profligate. Some few years ago a number of
autograph manuscript documents came into the possession of the present
writer, which throw a light on the unhappy condition of things as they
existed in 1770. On the 22nd of November in that year, Mrs. Arne's
Attorney sent the following letter to Dr. Arne:

"SIR,--I am employed to institute a Suit in the Commons on the
Complaint of your wife against you.

"The small pittance you gave her for Maintenance falls greatly Short
of Supplying her with Common Necessaries, and not only so but this
Small allowance which is but £40 a year is now £10 in arrear. You must
be sensible Mrs. Arne could not Subsist without Running you in Debt,
those Debts must be paid very soon by you. Mrs. Arne has a right and
expects to be maintained by you Suitable to your Circumstances. I must
request an explicit and immediate answer; Or I shall take the necessary
Steps to procure Mrs. Arne that justice which she has an Undoubted
Right to."

This called forth the following reply from Dr. Arne. It will be noted
that Arne did not address the Attorney, but wrote direct to his wife:

                                                             "A.D. 1770.

    "MRS. ARNE,--After the affectionate note I sent you yesterday, with
    5 Guineas, which was from the first money I reciev'd, how great was
    my surprize, when I reciev'd in return a threatening letter from
    one Rennett an Attorney, on your account!

    "Cou'd I possibly have suppos'd that after my being so long in no
    way of earning a Guinea, which (till this Job of Mr. Colman's)
    was ever since the end of last March, and being involv'd in debts
    on that account that you--my Wife, shou'd be the only person who
    sought to distress me? If other people had been as inhuman, what
    must have become of a Man, who is a laborious Slave to support his
    necessary Dependants; insomuch that he does not enjoy three days'
    ease and pleasure the whole year round?

    "As peace and quiet are all the enjoyments which a man of my age
    can hope for, if he is in his senses, which, in spite of base and
    wicked minded people, I thank God I have not yet lost, I shall not
    fly in a passion at your very ungenerous treatment; but with the
    temper of a Philosopher explain to you the consequences of your
    following the ill advice, which may have been given you, and I know
    from whom.

    "When Mr. Tyers refus'd to engage Polly Young, unless you cou'd
    produce a Bond sign'd by me, whereby we were both impower'd to
    live and act seperately, did not I directly on your express
    solicitation, enter into such Bond, impowering you to recieve her
    whole income? Did I ever desire a shilling of all she got before
    and after or wish otherwise than that it had been ten times as much
    for your sake?

    "Well, after this, you having married your Niece to Mr. Bartelmon,
    which threw you out of a good income, having besides impoverish'd
    yourself, by lending your Money in large Sums to an extravagant,
    unprincipled Whore, and to others, who only meant to defraud you
    of that and other valuables, you applied to me by Mr. Forest, to
    pay you an annual allowance for your support: I, who was ever
    desirous and ready to do all within my power, ent'red immediately
    into an Agreement to pay you £40 a year, though I had no certain
    income of my own to do it with, and through years of distress,
    for want of something weekly coming in, made up my payments to
    you, in one week, fortnight, or month, whenever I cou'd scrape
    your money together, till lately, meeting with no employment for a
    considerable time,--encumber'd with an expensive house at Chelsea,
    which I have prudently quitted, and being robb'd by an abandon'd
    infamous Whore and Thief of a Servant, my Necessities oblig'd me to
    be behindhand in my payments; yet you very well know that whenever
    I had two, three, or five Guineas, I never fail'd to give them to
    you, in part of payment, and that but a trifle now remains due.

    "Is this a Man to recieve the treatment you now give me? Fie, fie,
    Mrs. Arne! don't drive me to resentment, when I am willing to act
    conformable to the laws of religion, peace and love; if you do,
    by Heaven you'll have terribly the worst of it; for I can prove
    that having no regular income, whenever I recieve any money, it is
    always consum'd in debts, and that I am actualy not in a capacity
    to allow you £20 a year.

    "If, on the contrary, you chuse to continue in love and friendship,
    send a line immediately to Mr. Rennett, that the affair is amicably
    accommodated, and though I may be never so distress'd, I will
    cheerfuly pay your allowance, and remain,

                                               Your affect^{te} Husband,
                                       "THO^{S.} AUG^{NE.} ARNE. (Seal.)

 "Saturday Morn^{g}.
 "One o'clock

Evidently Mrs. Arne left the matter in the Attorney's hands;
accordingly he wrote a reply as follows:--"Mrs. Arne is Extremely sorry
to hear of any Distresses of Dr. Arne's and wishes 'twas in her power
to Avoid calling on him, for a subsistence. Her loss of Doctor Arne's
affections has been a misfortune she has labour'd under too many years
and that without doing him ye least injury but on the Contrary behaved
with that affection and Justice that will give her Satisfaction in
her last Moments. She hopes Doctor Arne has not so little humanity as
to add to her Misery by refusing her a Necessary Subsistance if not
Equal to Dr. Arne's wife yet Sufficient to provide her with Common
Necessaries which 'tis impossible for her to do for less than a Guinea
a week. If that is paid into Mr. Rennett's hands Weekly who will have
the Receipts ready Mrs. Arne must Content herself with wearing out an
Unhappy Life depriv'd of that Comfort which She had a right to expect
from her Husband. Doctor Arne threatens to proceed to Extremities with
his wife she is sorry to hear it But must be Contented with her fate
and rely upon the justice of her case."

No further correspondence is available, nor is there any record of
proceedings at common law; it is therefore reasonable to suppose that
an arrangement was concluded. (_See_ page 108.)

In 1772, on the 26th of February, the oratorio "Judith" was performed
at Covent Garden Theatre, with women in the chorus, for the first time,
as has already been narrated. Shortly afterwards Arne had a performance
at the Theatre in the Haymarket; the bill of announcement said, "By
desire, for one night only, under the Direction of Dr. Arne. At the
Theatre Royal in the Hay-Market, this present Monday, March 16, 1772,
will be performed the celebrated Catches and Glees. With a Concerto
on the Violin by Mr. Fisher. After which (by permission) will be
performed a New Burletta, called 'Squire Badger. Altered and planned
for Music, from a favourite Piece. Written by Henry Fielding Esq.; the
Music entirely New Composed by Dr. Arne & With a New Irish and Scotch
Medley Overture. Fairlove by Mr. Phillips, Sir Thomas Loveland by Mr.
Fox, 'Squire Badger by Mr. Smith, Landlord by Mr. Hamilton, Clarinda
by Mrs. Jewell, Pert by Mrs. Thompson. Boxes 5s. Pit 3s. First Gallery
2s. Upper Gallery 1s. To begin exactly at Six o'clock. Books of both
Performances may be had together at the Theatre at 1s. 6d."

In 1775 Arne wrote the following letter to Garrick: "Aug. 21st, 1775.
Dr. Arne presents his best compliments to Mr. Garrick, heartily
returning thanks for his permission to several of his company to
perform in the intended new comedy at the Opera-House, for the Doctor's
advantage. He is unluckily, and indeed ungenteelly cut out of, at
least, a clear £100, by Mrs. Greville's accepting and promising to
perform the principal comic character, and, after keeping it near three
weeks when it was too late to substitute another, returning the part
with frivolous excuses. The Doctor knows not whether he is rightly
informed; but he has heard that Mr. Garrick discharged Mr. Dibdin. If
(as he has likewise been told, Mr. Garrick has engaged Mr. Arne[22]
in the other's place, the Doctor can better reconcile _his_ being
neglected; otherwise should have thought himself at least as capable
of the business as any other person, and that his name and credit in
the profession would have brought no disgrace on his friendly employer.
Cannot help regretting likewise that, though he has ever maintained
the most cordial respect and regard to Mr. Garrick for many signal
good qualities, as well as for his being incontestably the first genius
of this age in all that he professes,) any young person's belonging
to _him_, though ever so conspicuous for his abilities, is sufficient
cause for his rejection. These unkind prejudices the Doctor can no
otherwise account for, than as arising from an irresistible apathy, to
which (though painfully) he submits; but will never (notwithstanding)
deviate a tittle from that respect, with which he has ever been Mr.
Garrick's most obedient servant."

To this letter Garrick replied: "Drury Lane Theatre, Aug. 24, 1775.
DEAR SIR,--I am very sorry that Mrs. Greville (to whom I gave free
leave to assist you) should behave so ill to you, and more so, that
your loss will be so great by her ill-behaviour. The managers of
Drury-lane have no intention to employ a constant composer, but to
engage with different gentlemen, as business may arise in the theatre.
How can you imagine that I have an irresistible _apathy_ to you? I
suppose you mean _antipathy_, my dear Doctor, by the general turn
of your letter. Be assured, as my nature is very little inclined to
apathy, so it is as far from conceiving an antipathy to you or any
genius in this or any other country. You ask me why I will not make
use of your pupils?--Shall I tell you fairly? because I have not the
opinion of them which you have. I tried Mrs. Bradford, Miss Weller,
and I have now Mr. Fawcet: the two first (as I in a most friendly
manner foretold) did no credit to you or myself by appearing in a piece
which you obstinately insisted on bringing out, though you knew it
would be the means of making a coolness between us. In short, dear
sir, your heart and your genius seem more inclined to the theatre
of Covent-Garden than that of Drury-Lane; and when I consider the
additional music to 'King Arthur,' and the music to 'Elfrida,' I trust
that I am justified in my opinion. Whether I am mistaken or not, I have
not the least antipathy, I give you my honour I have not, to Doctor
Arne; but on the contrary, if I had a work of consequence, I should
wish to employ him, notwithstanding that our theatrical connections
have not yet been serviceable to either of us. I am, dear Sir, your
very sincere well wisher, and humble Servant. DAVID GARRICK."

To this conciliatory epistle Dr. Arne replied in the following month:
"Sept. 3rd 1775. DEAR SIR.--I received the favour of your reply to
my letter, which I could not doubt of, you never being deficient in
politeness. You are certainly in the right to suppose that, if I wrote
the word apathy, I meant antipathy. Did I make the blunder or is it a
joke, like Mrs. Cibber's asking you how you could possibly spell King
with a Q? I must beg your permission to assure you that you are greatly
mistaken in two points. First, when you imagine that I have the least
partiality either in favour of the other theatre or its patentees: next
in saying that the music in 'Elfrida' is much superior to the music I
composed for you in 'King Arthur.' The principal songs, which for air
and mastership I have never excelled, have _not_ been performed. They
were written for the late Mrs. Arne,[23] and fashioned to her sweet
voice, and glaring abilities. Mr. Arne expected, from the music and
her performances of it, that they would be productive of the highest
pleasure, that a judicious audience ever received from either of our
endeavours, and several eminent masters thought as he did: but when
those _coups de maître_ came out of the mouths of persons who could
neither sing in time nor tune, nor turn out one _jeu de la voix_ in
them, the result was much the same as if an approved author had written
a fine part for ----. I was near hurting your delicacy, in nominating
a gentleman, with whose acquaintance I am honoured, and this part,
through an unfortunate event, should be acted by Jemmy Raftor, or
Dagger Marr. Champness's songs, the chorus in the first scene of Mr.
Vernon's 'Come, if you dare,' and several other things that employed my
utmost efforts, were laid aside, in favour of Purcell's music, which
(though excellent in its kind) was Cathedral, and not to the taste of
a modern theatrical audience. But never was my surprise greater than
when I perceived that a drama so fertile of invention and elegant in
poetry, which brought so much to Harry Gifford, and lately in Dublin
should (though strongly performed at a vast expense at Drury-lane) fail
in making that impression on the public, which the managers had an
undoubted right to expect. You frankly say that you have not engaged
any of my pupils, because you have not the same opinion of them that
I have. Be pleased to remember that I did not recommend Miss Weller
as an accomplished singer; but as a young girl, with a good person,
who would be useful in musical pieces; but whose talents in speaking
and acting, might, with your friendly encouragement, in a little time
bring so pretty a figure to be a shining object. Had you seen her
play Mrs. Cadwallader in Foote's farce at Covent Garden, your candour
would induce you to think with that company, who all declared that
no young actress ever did better. When I offered you this girl, you
wanted an accomplished singer. When I recommended Miss Jameson as such,
I was to whistle an angel from Heaven, or you were full; though you
brought out a raw nothing last year, and have taken Mrs. Jewell and
a Jewess[24] this season. I hope you will, as you have kindly done,
excuse this frankness in me, and give me leave to add that I will
positively bet a hundred pounds upon Miss Jameson, against any singer
you can name in either theatre--I might safely a hundred to one. I
wish you would ponder on the contents--not now, because your cast is
rather overloaded--but hereafter, when it may not be so. And now, Sir,
to the last matter I shall at present trouble you with. Bickerstaff
added songs to the Oracle, and brought it out by the title of 'Daphne
and Amintor,' at Drury Lane, which succeeded very well. I remember a
piece of Mr. Lloyd's, called the 'Capricious Lovers,' when performed in
Clive's time. Every body liked the Burletta, but none were pleased with
the music--which has induced me to reset it. Now, Sir, if you think
it will (with the addition of my new music) fill up a vacancy, till
the town fills, the vocal, instrumental, and speaking parts, are ready
drawn out: the title may, and should be altered to 'The Country Girl
at Court,' being the original one, viz.: 'La Contadina in Cort,' and
(for a sixth night) I will attend the getting up of the musical part,
and deliver up the composition to your use. If you don't want it, make
no ceremony in saying so; for it will be of use to me, with my catches
and glees. Have I been studying the longitude? Perhaps so; but if I
have tired you, it is more than _you_ could do by _me_, were you to
fill a ream of paper.

"This requires no other answer, than just whether you can, with
advantage to your undertaking, make use of my new composition or not. I
am, Sir, with due respects, ever your friend and humble servant,

                                                "THOMAS AUGUSTINE ARNE."

There is another letter from Arne to Garrick, without date; it reads as

"DEAR SIR,--Mr. Johnston informing me of your desire to receive my
demand for the composition of the music in 'The Little Gipsy,' I
beg leave to expatiate a little thereon. I think a musician, with
regard to theatrical employment, under an unfortunate predicament,
if comparatively considered with the author of any little piece, for
the following reason. They should both have learning, invention, and
a perfect knowledge of effects; but an author of a _petite pièce_ can
instantaneously write down his thoughts as they arise, whereas, the
poor musician, when he has conceived an air, in every respect suitable
to the sense, and emphatically expressed in every part, has done but
half his business; for he has all the instrumental accompaniments to
study and write down; insomuch as, that in a composition of ten,
twelve, or more different parts, when he has written a whole side of
music paper, he has the mortification to have composed but one line;
all, except the voice part, being requisite to that one line. And yet
an author of a farce will frequently make upwards of £100 by his sixth
night, besides £50 by the sale of his copy to the printer; while the
poor devil of a crotchet monger is thought well paid with £50 for six
times the study and labour. This last observation, though strictly
just, is not, in me, productive of a single complaint or grumble; but
convictive that I have taken infinite pains to be master of a scurvy
profession. As to my bill, it amounts, at my constant and reasonable
rule of charging, but to £45 13 6: If you should think I have employed
extraordinary time and care to make the composition proper and perfect
in its kind, you will not overpay me with £50. But do as you please;
I shall be satisfied, and am, with true respects, Dear Sir, your most
obedient servant,

                                                "THOMAS AUGUSTINE ARNE."

This letter is endorsed by Garrick, "Dr. Arne, about bill for 'May
Day.' I gave him the £50 desired."

"May Day, or the Little Gipsy," a musical farce in one act, by David
Garrick, was produced at Drury Lane Theatre on the 28th of August, 1775.

There is much to be learned from the correspondence which passed
between Arne and Garrick; the following letter, undated, is full of

"DEAR SIR,--I was never so conceited of any abilities, as _non cedere
majoribus_; but then I ever was above servility, and could not pay a
compliment to the opinion of Socrates or Seneca, at the expense of my
reason. _Humanum est errare_, therefore the main study of every wise
man is to arrive at rectitude, which cannot possibly be accomplished by
giving an implicit concession to our first determinations. But shall
Arne, a _musician_, have the _hardiesse_ to dispute with Garrick, in
his _own_ way?--Yes, if Garrick, not giving himself time to debate
on the natural effects arising from their causes, peremptorily gives
his _ego dixi_ to what does not (to Arne) appear natural. But where
Garrick is pleased to exercise his judgment, as in his own parts, by a
fair trial of his opinion pro and con? No, Arne would as soon dispute
with Sir Isaac Newton (if living) on his doctrine of colours, _sed ad

"When Miss Weller rehearsed part of Polly's character in the
green-room, I knew it would be in vain to attempt a justification of
her manner, at that juncture, and therefore reserved my sentiments
for this occasion. I shall only particularize the soliloquy, 'Now
I'm a wretch indeed,' which, in all the Polly's I ever saw, had no
effect on the audience, except when Mrs. Cibber played the character,
who spoke and acted in the same manner as Miss Weller does; and Mr.
Barry had the same idea of it. In _you_ this position is glaringly
illustrated. Now, in regard to Polly's situation, it is this. She has
been soliciting her husband's life with her parents, which, instead
of moving their obdurate hearts, has had no other effect, than her
father's leaving her mother with a determination to prepare matters at
the Old Bailey for his death. Polly, overhearing this, comes on in an
agony of grief, says, 'Now I'm a wretch indeed!'--thinks she sees him
already in the cast--that she hears vollies of sighs from the windows
in Holborn--then abruptly breaks out--'I see him at the tree--the
whole circle are in tears--even butchers weep.' Can it be natural that
the sight of a beloved husband at the gallows should excite fainter
emotions in a doting wife, than arise in butchers exercised in offices
of cruelty? Would not an apple-woman, who should see so fine a youth,
merely in the cast, naturally clap her hands together, through depth
of concern, and exclaim 'Ah, poor soul! God bless him and take him to
his mercy!'--perhaps shed tears? Certainly; then Polly's emotion on
figuring him at the fatal tree, where the whole circle, through mere
humanity, are in tears, can be nothing short of distraction, and any
action, short of the force she gave it, must appear trifling, faint,
and unfeeling. You are far from having seen the best of her in that
character, which appears in her scenes of love, fondness, fears, and
strokes of tenderness with Mackheath. But I was not willing to give
you too much trouble, and besides, I plainly saw that you could not
divest yourself of prepossession; else, how was it possible that a fine
voice both for speaking and singing; action open, easy, and graceful;
an unexceptionable person and figure, with a countenance free from
the least distortion, could be productive of such faint approbation?
You have often said you regarded me--but, as in the case of Miss
Brent, were I to produce an angel, her being ushered by _me_ would
create coolness and indifference. This observation, which I could more
forcibly illustrate, I plainly see has put you out of humour. Give
me leave to say, so it has _me_, who am not without my feeling on so
mortifying an occasion. You are possessed both of fortune and merit;
the one considerable, the other supreme. I pay you no particular
respect, on account of the former; but the highest imaginable on
account of the latter. Providence, by placing you in this beneficial
situation, meant you as the sun and rain, to cheer and water plants
of _genius_. Your own talents, and the just encouragement they have
met with, demand, as a debt, those beneficent offices from you. The
pay given to three _nothings_ would be a suitable reward to a rising,
promising genius, whose industry and advancement could never fail of
repaying you ten fold in return. Having faithfully kept my promise to
take no material step, without first acquainting you with my design,
and therefore given you a fair offer of Miss Weller, I will trouble you
with no more letters, or applications on her account; so shall only
add, that if you are inclined to encourage and cherish _her_, as you
have done by _many_ others, with much lesser talents and requisites, I
am desirous, and immediately ready to give you the preference; but if
otherwise, as I have only my _small merit and hard labour to subsist
on_, let it never be a matter of the least difference between us, that
I have acted like a man of honour, and you----overlooked a jewel. I am,
Sir, as I ever was, your sincere friend, and most obedient servant,

                                              "THO^{S.} AUG^{NE.} ARNE."

No reply to the above can be found. The following letter from Arne
to Garrick must have been written soon after the above: "Sept. 3rd.
DEAR SIR,--Having just received a letter from the ingenious author of
the two operas, and 'Pennyworth of Wit,' under your kind inspection,
wherein he begs concealment of his name, till the fate of one or other
of his pieces is determined."

Arne enclosed a copy of his unnamed friend's letter, which need not
be produced here. He then finished his own as follows: "Now give me
leave to wish you would consult your assured friend in the musical
productions of your theatre, which (waving your own consequence,
undeniably the first with the public) might produce the best second
dish at the feast. Though half a ghost myself, I have more honour than
the whole ghost in 'Hamlet.' He was forbid to tell the secrets of his
prison house----I tell them not, through principle; but this I _may_
say, _in confidence_, you actually want strength for the exhibition
of musical performances--and why should you?--Mr. Garrick, though
I wish him immortal, to the grief of the discerning world, is not
so--sickness, pain, mortality may intervene. Let it not be said, that
so great a master of his art is deaf or blind to rising merit. I tell
you _bona fide_, that the young woman and young girl [Miss Weller's
sister] whom I recommended, are real objects of your notice, as
handsome women, complete figures, and promising actresses, abstracted
from their utility as singers. Pray be so obliging as to let me hear
from you as soon as you come to town, and be assured that if my skill
or connexions are of any value, they shall be exerted to the utmost,
in testimony of the respect with which I am, Dear Sir, your faithful
friend, and humble servant,

                                               "THO^{S} AUG^{NE.} ARNE."

There is yet another letter from Arne to Garrick, and a characteristic
reply, both undated, but which probably were written in 1775:

"Nov. 17. SIR,--As you have causelessly dropped the friend, I have
sense enough to write at a becoming distance. You will undoubtedly
hear, by the freshest advice, the _tête-à-tête_ alteration between
your brother and me. How could it happen otherwise, when the first
salutation I received was 'Dr. Arne, we have considered of the farce,
and PROTEST AGAINST IT'; which nearly led me into a mistake; for how
could I suppose he meant the farce you had first promised to do, and
after the last rehearsal concluded on? But on his warm repititions, I
found that I should have protested against the farce that has been so
long acting ex-parte managers, and tragedy on the composer's part. I
answered, 'I am not surprised, it tallies exactly with the treatment I
have all along received,' (meaning not only on account of the farce,
but the discharge of two young women,[25] handsome, perfect figures,
and possessed of better talents than most on either stage have set out
with:) I scorn to retract my words, and think Mr. G. Garrick[26] will
equally scorn to aggravate them. The young women brought three very
good houses for the opening of a season, and met with more public
applause than I have ever heard; and though inexperience, mixed with
sensibility, might intimidate Miss Weller so as sometimes to exceed the
exact sound, it was so little that the audience were not susceptible
of it. If you had no intention to retain them, one night's performance
had surely been sufficient for their condemnation; but they had not
then been supplanted by my son's application;--permit me to give you
joy of the acquisition. As to singing in tune, by my salvation! not
above three in both theatres can do it, though several have had nearly
twenty years' experience. I did not, _as has been done to you more than
once_, impose my young pupils on you as finished singers; why then
should they be discharged for what you knew before their appearance,
especially after three warm receptions? Your public declaration this
morning appeared as meant to complete the many shocks which I and mine
have received--it was ineffectual: I shall think myself happy to be
mistaken. If you are willing to show a friendship which I shall deem
an honour to receive, it will not be sufficient that you perform the
piece; I shall have the presumption to hope that you will further
its success; though I fear that the cold breath of the manager, like
a wintry blast, has chilled the hearts of his dependents; it is a
distemper as catching as the itch. There has been but one decent
rehearsal which was in your presence; though, even then, two principals
were absent; nor can I expect any better, till the manager will either
graciously appear, or at least send his general mandate: and, but
for the respect due to the author, I had long since withdrawn the
prettiest music, in the light style, that I ever wrote; but I will not,
uncompelled, incur the resentment of a gentleman, a man of fortune
and a scholar, respected by the first personages of the University of
Oxford, by assuring him, from your promise, that his piece will be
performed with all possible expedition; then, that it is in rehearsal,
and now, by writing him word that you 'protest against it'? I once had
a sparring of this kind with Mr. Rich; he generously acknowledged that
he had not treated me kindly, and misunderstanding was the cement of
our friendship ever after. May this candid explanation prove equally
successful! It shall not be my fault if it does not, being ever
desirous of proving myself, your real humble servant,

                                              "THO^{S.} AUG^{NE.} ARNE."

Garrick's reply is very short and sharp:

"DEAR SIR.--I have read your play and rode your horse, and do not
approve of either. They both want particular spirit which alone can
give pleasure to the reader and the rider. When the one wants wits,
and the other the spur, they both jog on very heavily. I must keep
the horse, but I have returned you the play. I pretend to some little
knowledge of the last; but as I am no jockey, they cannot say that the
knowing one is taken in. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant. D. G."

Endorsed "Designed for Dr. Arne, who sold me a horse, a very dull one;
and sent me a comic opera, ditto."

In 1776, early in the year, Miss Abrams, referred to in a letter from
Dr. Arne to Garrick, made her first appearance on the Drury Lane stage
in Garrick and Arne's "May-day, or the Little Gipsy." She possessed a
sweet voice and good taste, which had been excellently cultivated under
Arne's tuition. At the last rehearsal of the piece, which took place
on the morning of the day of performance, Garrick suddenly conceived
that a dance of rustics would improve the play, and told Dr. Arne of
his idea, adding, "I suppose it would be impossible for you to compose
a tune for it in time?" The Doctor, smiling and rubbing his elbow,
according to his usual practice, replied, "We'll see what can be done,"
and calling for pen, ink, and music paper, sat down at the prompter's
table, and in less than five minutes produced one of the prettiest
dancing tunes ever heard, which, when played by the band, astonished
and delighted Garrick so much that, forgetting his age, he ran up to
the Doctor, and embracing, took him by the hands and danced with him
round the stage with much grace and animation, to the admiration of all
who witnessed it.

In 1776, Arne was engaged to compose music for the Rev. William Mason's
drama, "Caractacus." The original libretto was written in 1759; but
considerably revised, altered, and adapted for stage purposes in 1776
by the author, and this amended version, with Arne's incidental music,
was produced at Covent Garden Theatre on the 6th of December. That it
was a complete success is evident; the _New Morning Post, or General
Advertiser_, on the day following the performance, congratulated the
town "on the acquisition of so fine an entertainment as 'Caractacus'
where poetry and music unite their fascinating powers." Dr. Samuel
Arnold, the composer, who was attached to Covent Garden Theatre when
"Caractacus" was produced, spoke in the highest terms of Arne's
music. Unfortunately every vestige of this has disappeared; according
to the testimony of Dr. Arnold and of Dr. Thomas Busby, "One of the
latest and finest of Dr. Arne's theatrical compositions, was an
Opera called 'Caractacus,' founded on a piece of that name written
by Mason. Every portion of the music, as the late Dr. Arnold, who
had seen it, informed the compilor of this work, evinced a vigour
and warmth of imagination worthy of the flower of early manhood. At
Dr. Arne's decease, this production came into the possession of his
son, Mr. Michael Arne, who unfortunately sold the manuscript to one
Harrison, a bookseller in Paternoster-row, who becoming a bankrupt
before the piece was published, it was publicly sold together with his
other effects, to whom it is not now known, and never has been heard
of since." Six years after Dr. Arne's death, in 1784, _The Universal
Magazine_ announced that Mr. Michael Arne was intending to publish
his father's "Death of Abel, Caractacus, and a Set of Concertos for
the Harpsichord or Pianoforte with the Choruses in Judith." Michael
Arne died in 1786, without having accomplished his desire; in 1793 the
Concertos appeared, having been edited by Mr. Groombridge, and from the
interesting preface to the volume we learn that this was the only piece
which had been published. Quite recently an anonymous publication of
music for Mason's "Caractacus" has been attributed to Dr. Arne, but
the composition is so faulty and puerile that, even if other evidence
were wanting, it would be impossible to suppose it the work of an
experienced and accomplished musician like Arne. The book in question
has a water-mark in the paper, 1794, which was sixteen years after Dr.
Arne's death. The author's preface to the publication was evidently
written by some one alive at that date; it is therefore not necessary
to waste more space in discussing it.

Dr. Arne had a very high opinion of his own talent as a poet, and
some of his theatrical pieces are said to have suffered comparative
failure in consequence of the poor quality of the words. But there was
one piece of his, never performed nor ever published, which, while
exhibiting his skill as a composer of music, shows also that he was at
times wholly wanting in good taste and discretion. There are two copies
of the libretto in existence, printed by Arne for publication, but
never issued: the title-page is: "Whittington's Feast, a new Parody on
Alexander's Feast written by a College Wag. The Overture, Songs, &c.,
with all the grand chorusses, new composed by Thomas Augustine Arne.
Doctor of Music.

              Risum teneatis amici?
    O what is Music to the ear that's deaf;
    Or a goose pye to him that has no taste?

London: Printed for the Author."

In the preface, Arne says: "The fairest apologies I can offer in excuse
for this Parody on Alexander's Feast, which, by its ludicrous turn,
may be thought an attempt to depreciate one of the noblest poems
in the English, or perhaps any other language, are, First, that the
impossibility, in any degree, to lessen the value of so perfect an ode
was a capital motive. The second was an irresistible propensity (which
perhaps I may have mistaken for genius) to the comic muse." The preface
ends with an intimation that the author hopes the "oddity of the
attempt, with the intense application bestowed on the music, and the
great expence at which it is performed, will compensate for any defects
in the parody, and invite a good-humoured audience to support it."
"April the 10th, 1776. From my Garret, in Cat and Harp Alley."--"The

The libretto is printed in double columns, the left giving Dryden's
text, the right the College Wag's parody. It may suffice to say that
there are seventeen pages of vulgarity and sometimes indecency. The
music, which extends to two hundred and fifty pages in the manuscript
score, is superior to the poetry. There is no Overture; the various
songs and choruses are palpably meant to be in imitation of Handel, but
like the words they fail to detract from the value of the originals
they vainly burlesque. There is evidence that Arne intended to have
a public performance of "Whittington's Feast"; but circumstances,
probably indifferent health, prevented it.

[Illustration: ARNE, BY ZOFFANY.]

In October, 1777, Arne and his wife met and became again a united
and affectionate pair. This happy reconciliation was brought about
by the intervention of their grand-niece, Cecilia Maria Barthelemon.
A memorandum written by her, still preserved by one of her descendants,
is worth quoting verbatim: "In former days the Doctor [Arne] had taken
great pleasure in hearing my mother[27] sing the songs for _Mandane_
in his Opera of _Artaxerxes_, and latterly she used to visit him for
the purpose of receiving her Aunt's seperate maintenance money, and the
last time she called for this purpose, she took her little daughter
with her, then about ten years old. The Doctor who was always kind to
the child, had her seated on his knee all the time: and when her mother
was about to leave, she ventured to say, that she began to be tired of
calling for this purpose, and thought it would be far better for him to
be reconciled to his good wife, who had always been so irreproachable
herself. He, however, answered her in a manner so violent and angry,
that the child who both loved and revered her great-aunt, burst into
tears and cried aloud; and her mother at once rose to take leave,
observing also that she would _never take the trouble to call upon
him again_. A few days after, however, she received a letter from the
Doctor, apologizing for his conduct, adding that the tears of the dear
child had affected him more than could a host of men, and that if his
dear old wife would be reconciled, he would be happy to see her and her
niece and nephew Barthelemon, and the dear child also, to dine with him
on the following Sunday. The good Mrs. Arne shed tears of joy, gave
her ready consent, and lovingly embraced her little grand niece." The
narrative continues: "The Doctor and his wife lived happily together
(alas) only for six months after this long wished for reconciliation
(after a separation of thirty years)--often expressing the wish that it
had taken place years, instead of only months before."

We learn from an entry made by Mawhood in his diary, dated the 6th of
December, 1777, that he saw Dr. Arne, "who has conformed and is now
very ill; he has made his will betwixt Mrs. Arne and Michael." Another
entry in the diary, dated the 10th, stated: "Mr. Paxton called, says
Dr. Arne is now on the recovery." The improvement in his health,
however, proved only temporary, and on the 5th of the following March,
1778, the diarist wrote, "Dr. Arne died this evening at eight o'clock."

The grand-niece previously quoted says: "Dr. Arne died a sincere
penitent, and a firm Catholic. His confessor buried him according to
the ceremony of his Church. A cross was put on his coffin, and he was
interred in the burial ground of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, on the
right hand side going in." There are two contemporary printed accounts
of the last moments of the distinguished composer; one from his
intimate friend, the popular tenor singer, Vernon, who, at that time
engaged in the neighbouring Drury Lane Theatre, was in the habit of
visiting Arne daily at his residence in Bow Street. The morning after
Arne's decease he told the company assembled in the music-room at the
theatre that he "was talking on the subject of music with the Doctor,
who suffered much from exhaustion, when, in attempting to illustrate
what he had advanced, he in a very feeble and tremulous voice sung part
of an air, during which he became progressively more faint, until he
breathed his last, making as our immortal Shakespeare expresses it, a
swan-like end fading in music."

The other account says Arne "died of a spasm on his lungs, retaining
his faculties to the last moment of his existence. He had originally
been instructed in the principles of the Romish Church: these however
he had for many years wholly neglected, as inconsistent with a life
of ease and gallantry, in which he indulged to the fullest extent of
his purse and constitution. In his last stage, the dormant seeds of
early maxims and prejudices, as is usually the case, revived in his
bosom, too strong to be checked, or perhaps discriminated by sound
reason. The complicated train of doubts, hopes, and fears, operated so
forcibly on the Doctor's feelings at this awful period, that a priest
was sent for, by whom he was awed into a state of most submissive
repentance. In thus renewing the duties of a Christian, those of his
professional line were not forgotten; for about an hour before his
death he sung an harmonious Halleluja, a flight of fancy, calculated
as it were to usher him into the other world." These narratives,
though not precisely similar in detail, leave no doubt in the mind
of the reader that Arne died repentant, doubtless the happier for
having been reconciled to his wife. "Notwithstanding the number and
excellence of his publications, Dr. Arne left little or no property
behind him; a circumstance which will not appear extraordinary to those
who consider his real character and life. He was naturally fond of
vicious pleasure, to which he sacrificed every other consideration."
The Will he made is at Somerset House, and recites as follows:--"In the
Name of God Amen--I Thomas Augustine Arne of Bow Street Covent Garden
in the County of Middlesex doctor in Music being of sound mind memory
and understanding hereby make and pronounce this to be my last Will
and Testament revoking all former Wills made or pretended to be made
whatever Whereas I am possessed of a small Personal Estate consisting
of goods Chattels and Effects most of them now standing lying or being
in the House I rent of Mrs. Woodeville in Bow Street aforesaid and
particularized in the Schedule hereto annexed I leave give and bequeath
them in manner and form following First to my beloved wife Cecilia
and only son Michael I give and bequeath the sad remains of my once
excellent Organ mangled trod to pieces and ruined by and through the
Villainy of wicked Servants that they may dispose of the same to the
best advantage and share the profits equally between them Secondly I
give and bequeath to the said Cecilia and Michael all my Worldly Goods
Chattels Estate Personal whatever and wherever to be found (except
as hereafter excepted) Books musical and for reading Plate and every
other thing now situate standing or lying in my house in Bow Street
aforesaid or in any other place to be found As to all books Musical
or Literary and all Manuscripts in either branch written or composed
by me or other Persons My Will is that such as may by performance at
any time or in any place produce any profit or Benefit to the said
Cecilia and Michael The expenses attending such Performances being
first paid and defrayed equally between them The Profits or Benefits
arising from the Sale or Public Performance thereof shall be equally
divided between them share and share alike And the said Property being
liable to an exception before limited I shall make it here viz. That
the share and proportion of the said Michael is only circumscribed or
limited in this particular viz. that when by sale of the Goods or part
of them or by Public Performance or Performances of any of my Works,
have received to his share the sum of seventy Pounds that he shall pay
or cause to be paid to his Daughter Jemima the sum of ten Guineas as a
present from me to his said Daughter for her Love and Kindness to me
It is therefore my last will that all my works in particular Shall be
and remain in the Possession of my said wife Cecilia subject to their
being called forth used and employed for the mutual benefit profit and
emolument of my said son as well as my wife, for Security of which to
the said Cecilia she has and shall have by virtue hereof (before the
delivery of any work) an unquestionable right to be satisfied As to the
Probability of Success in the undertaking and an equal right to elect a
Trustee or Treasurer to sit in the Treasurers Office on all and every
Night whereon any of my works are performed And after all the charges
attending such performance or performances shall be duly deducted to
take and receive for and to the use of the said Cecilia one clear half
or Moiety of the Monies or Profits arising therefrom and then take
the Score and Parts of such Work or Works and reconvey it or them in
Safety to the said Cecilia And this same just method of Proceeding
shall duly be observed for the said Cecilia's equal Security in Case
that either of the said dramatic Productions shall by their mutual
consent be disposed of for their mutual Profits or Advantage to either
of the Patent Theatres And in case that the said Cecilia shall depart
this Life before the Death of the said Michael in such case the whole
Personal Estate and Property above mentioned shall devolve or come down
in right to the said Michael as sole Successor by this my last Will and
Testament And lastly I hereby nominate and appoint the said Cecilia and
Michael my joint and sole Executors of this my last will and Testament
hereby impowering them to sue for and recover all debts and Demands
whatever due to me on any account whatever whether in Law or Equity As
Witness my hand and Seal this sixth of December in the seventeenth year
of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the third and in the year of
our Lord One thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven.

                                                THO^{S.} AUG^{NE.} ARNE.

Sealed and delivered being first duly stamp'd in the presence of
Stephen Paxton Maria Barthelemon.[28]

On the 6th of March, 1778, the _Morning Chronicle_ had a short
paragraph: "yesterday, died Dr. Arne, at his house in Bow-Street, whose
musical talents were an honour to himself and this country."

Arne was interred in the burial ground on the north side of St. Paul's
Church, Covent Garden, on the 15th of March, and the fact was noted
in the Parish Register, he being described simply as "Thomas Arne."
No memorial of him was erected, but his son suggested a scheme for
placing a monument in Westminster Abbey. This, like most of Michael
Arne's projects, ended in talk; indeed, he only survived his father
eight years, and died in South Lambeth on the 14th of January, 1786,
leaving a widow, his second wife, in destitute circumstances. His
career had been a varied one. His aunt, Mrs. Cibber, taught him as a
child how to act on the stage, and he appeared as the Page in Otway's
tragedy "The Orphan." His father gave him singing lessons, and procured
him engagements at the Marylebone Gardens in 1751. He became a skilled
harpsichord player, and made a good reputation as a composer of songs
and ballads. His music to Garrick's romance, "Cymon," produced at Drury
Lane in 1767, was very popular. He married one of his father's pupils,
Elizabeth Wright, in 1766, who became a successful stage-vocalist;
she died in 1774-5. He inherited much of his father's talent, but,
infatuated with the determination to discover the mystery of the
philosopher's stone, he built a laboratory at Chelsea, and ruined
himself. Removing to Ireland, he resumed his profession of music, and
revived his fortune; but the old mania returned, and he retired to
Clontarf to make experiments which he believed would enable him to
manufacture gold, with the result that he again beggared himself, and
was arrested and confined in a sponging-house in Dublin. From this, by
the exertions of friends, he was released. He returned to London, and
again took up work as a teacher and composer, but with only moderate

Dr. Arne, as we have seen, died on the 5th of March, and on the 28th
of the succeeding month (April) a performance was given at the Theatre
Royal in the Haymarket for the benefit of Mrs. Arne, which was attended
by the old family friend Mr. Mawhood, and duly recorded in his diary.
The programme included Dr. Arne's Elegy Glee, "Come, shepherds, we'll
follow the hearse," specially instrumented for the occasion by Dr.
Samuel Arnold.

Previous to the reconciliation with her husband, Mrs. Arne had resided
with Barthelemon and his wife; after Dr. Arne's death she again went
to live with them at their house in Vauxhall. Here she enjoyed a few
years of peaceful happiness, loving and beloved. An extract from a
letter addressed to Mrs. Barthelemon in 1788 by a near relative will be
read with interest: "We rest in hope Mrs. Arne continues on the mending
hand, she has been a good woman, and has long attended to the future
rest of her soul, which becomes the most important of all charges,
though many of us decline it to a late moment. Mrs. Scott desires to
be kindly remembered to Mr. Barthelemon, Mrs. Lampe, Miss Lampe, and
_dear_ Mrs. Arne, Yours affectionately, John Scott."[29]

"At the advanced age of seventy-nine Mrs. Arne continued to observe the
hours of prayer, and the usual fast-days of her Church, with a rigour
suitable to the austerity of primitive times, although that Church's
discipline excused such habits of severe self-denial in its members
at her time of life. Her manners, her habits, and her person at that
great age, were not only inoffensive and untroublesome, but edifying,
affecting, and affection-moving to those around her."

"When she was ill and supposed to be dying, notwithstanding their
different Communions they [the Barthelemon family] read the Psalms and
Lessons together in Mrs. Arne's bedroom, where, at her bed's head,
was a Crucifix, at the foot of which was a little vase full of holy
water." "One day, she was supposed to be dead, and the Doctor, whose
name was Carson, being present assured Mrs. Barthelemon that she was
gone. She, however, could not resign herself to that belief, although
he said he wished he could be as certain of going to heaven as he
was that she was already there. Mrs. Barthelemon, however, tried to
delay his departure, and accompanied him to the house door, when she
implored him to look at her aunt once more, and to this he impatiently
consented, and almost angrily applied a flame to her mouth and nose to
show that breathing had ceased, when he suddenly called out for the
strongest cordial at hand, the result of which was the revival of the
supposed deceased, who soon exclaimed--'Oh! my dears, you have called
me back from the glories described in the Te Deum.'" This restoration
took place nine months before she eventually expired, on the 6th of
October, 1789. Her mortal remains were placed in the vaults of the
church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. Ten years later her loved niece,
Mrs. Barthelemon, was buried in the same vault, "the two coffins being
linked together by a chain."

The following interesting letter addressed to Mr. and Mrs. Barthelemon,
written by Dr. Burney on the 21st of October, 1789, throws a flood of
light on the life and character of Mrs. Arne:

"DEAR SIR AND MADAM.--Having been in Norfolk a considerable time,
the melancholy news of my old and worthy friend did not arrive at my
knowledge till a few days ago, otherwise we should certainly have been
more early in communicating our condolence. Except yourselves, whose
anxious care and benevolence have been so uninterruptedly manifested
for such a series of years, no one of the friends or acquaintances of
_the good Mrs. Arne_ could wish to be of some use to her more heartily
than I have constantly done, ever since I first saw her at Chester, on
her way from Ireland, in the Autumn of 1744; and it has of late years
been a matter of real affliction to me that it has not been in my
power to give more proofs of my zeal. I never had forgotten the good
soul's kindness to me during my residence with Dr. Arne; when, it is
not too much to say, I profited more in my studies by the advantage
of accompanying her in her vocal exercises than by any instructions
which the Doctor had leisure to give me. She was indeed, not only
desirous of my professional improvement, but had a parental attention
to my morals and conduct. As long as I remained under the same roof, I
tried everything in my power, and not unsuccessfully, to contribute
to domestic harmony, so necessary to the welfare of the whole family,
as well as the comfort of individuals; and I did flatter myself, if I
had continued longer with them, the union would have been of longer

"The Doctor, rest his soul! with all his genius and abilities, was too
_volage_ at every period of his life, to merit the title of a good
family man; and soon after I quitted him, I heard with grief that our
late _dear worthy friend_ was no longer under the same roof. During
a residence of nine years in Norfolk, I lost sight of her, but never
forgot the goodness of her heart, or the talents and professional
merits of her younger years. There was a time when her voice, shake and
manner of singing, were superior to those of any female performer in
the country.

"I always respected that benevolence of heart which inclined you both
to afford the poor soul an asylum after age and infirmity had deprived
her of those talents, and however inconvenient it may have sometimes
been, I am certain you will always think of it with the pleasure which
reflecting upon good actions constantly affords to minds capable of
performing them.

"It gave me great satisfaction to hear that our well disposed and
virtuous friend had the comfort of religion in her last moments. _She
was always attentive to the duties of a sincere and worthy member of
her church_; a disposition to be honoured and had in reverence among
Christians of every denomination. Mrs. Burney sincerely joins in
condolence and best compliments, and I beg you will believe me to be
with unfeigned regard, dear Sir and Madam,

"Your affectionate friend and faithful Servant,

                                                          "CHAS. BURNEY.

"(P.S.) I cannot help regarding the loss of Mrs. Arne with a kind of
filial sorrow; she was the last survivor among those to whom I attached
the idea of a parent. I lost my poor mother about 12 years ago, at the
great age of 86. This letter must not be sealed before I have added my
compliments and good wishes for the health of Miss Cecilia, sincerely
hoping she will continue a constant source of comfort to you to your
lives' end!"

The following is a chronological list of music composed by Dr. Arne.

 1733 Rosamond. Tom Thumb. Dido and Æneas.

 1736 Zara. Serenata, Love and Glory. The fall of Phæton.

 1738 Comus.

 1739 An Hospital for fools.

 1740 Alfred. Rule, Britannia. Judgment of Paris. As you like it.

 1741 Twelfth Night. The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green.

 1742 Miss Lucy in town. Merchant of Venice.

 1743 Britannia. Eliza.

 1744 The death of Abel. Theodosius. The Rehearsal.

 1745 The Temple of Dulness. King Pepin's Campaign. Colin and Phoebe.

 1746 The Tempest. Neptune and Amphitrite. Capochio and Dorinna. Miss in
        her Teens.

 1747 The Tender Husband. Love's Labour's Lost.[30]

 1749 Don Saverio. Much Ado about Nothing[30]. The Provok'd Wife.[30]

 1750 Dirge in "Romeo and Juliet." Ode on Cheerfulness.

 1752 Harlequin Sorcerer. The Oracle.

 1756 The Pincushion. The Sacrifice of Iphigenia.

 1759 The Prophetess. The Sultan. Exercise Mus.Doc. Cymbeline. The She

 1760 Thomas and Sally. The Desert Island.

 1761 Judith.

 1762 Artaxerxes. Love in a Village.

 1763 The Birth of Hercules.

 1764 The Guardian Outwitted. Olimpiade. Perseus and Andromeda. Arcadian

 1769 Shakespeare Ode. The Jovial Crew.

 1770 Dirge. King Arthur. The Ladies' Frolic.

 1771 The Fairy Prince.

 1772 The Cooper. Trip to Portsmouth. Squire Badger. Reffley Spring. The
        Rose. Elfrida.

 1773 Pasticcio. The Contest of Beauty and Virtue. Achilles in

 1774 The Rival Queens.

 1775 Caractacus.

 1776 Little Gipsy. Whittington's Feast. Phoebe at Court. Phillis.

Arne composed many pieces for the "Nobleman's Catch Club"; thirty-seven
of these are printed in "Warren's Collection" and in "Vocal Harmony."
Fifteen are English and Italian Catches, fourteen are Glees, and eight
are Canons. There are published numerous songs, concertos, sonatas
for harpsichord, and for violins and harpsichord. These are not dated
in the foregoing list. In his orchestral compositions Arne employed
piccolo, flutes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets and drums in
addition to the usual strings, violins, violas, violetta, violoncelli,
double-basses and harp. He used the device of pizzicato and of sordino;
he also occasionally labelled imitative passages, for example, "The
Owl," in "Where the bee sucks." He used the abbreviation [Music] for
[Music]; possibly he introduced it.

Arne was the acknowledged author of the libretti of many stage-pieces
and wrote the poetry of numerous songs. His known libretti included
"Don Saverio," 1750; "Artaxerxes," 1762; "The Guardian Outwitted,"
1764; "The Rose," 1772; "The Cooper," 1772; "The Contest of Beauty and
Virtue," 1773; a "Pasticcio," 1773; "Phoebe at Court," 1776; and
"Whittington's Feast," 1776.

NOTE TO PAGE 76. [31] Dr. Arne presents his love to Mrs. Arne, desiring
to be inform'd of her health, which he sincerely hopes she enjoys. He
cou'd not possibly call upon her in the hurry of this new Piece; but
will take a speedy opportunity. Begs the favour of her signing the
inclos'd receipt for the money he has paid, which he thinks was sixteen
Guineas, and five more, sent herewith, make one and twenty.

Reciev'd Nov. ye 21st, of Dr. Arne, the sume of twenty-one Guineas, in
part of the money due to me, at the rate of forty pounds a year, agreed
to be paid for my board, lodging and maintenance.

Dr. Arne' Accot. of Arrears due to Mrs. Arne from the Allowance made
to her of 16s. 8d. p. week, which from April 16th, 1771, to Novr. 26th
following is Eight Months and two Days and which amounts to

                             26 18 10½
    Recd. at Sundry times    16 16  0
    Remaining due            10  2 10½
                              5  5  0
                              4 17 10½

[Illustration: CLIEFDEN IN 1740.]


His Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales, son of King George the
Second, was opposed to his father not only in politics, but also in
his tastes and amusements. The King had no liking for, or appreciation
of, British men and things; the Prince, on the contrary, assiduously
cultivated a knowledge of the English laws and constitution, and
strove to assimilate his tastes and feelings to those of the people
he expected one day to rule and govern. He zealously promoted such
measures as he thought desirable for the public welfare, and patronized
men of eminence connected with arts, science, and literature. His
beautiful residence, Cliefden,[32] on the banks of the Thames, was
the recognized resort of the most distinguished men of letters and
art. The under-secretary of the Prince was David Mallet, to whom he
paid a stipend of two hundred pounds per annum; Thomson the poet was
also one of his protégés. A change of government deprived Thomson of
a lucrative appointment, and being introduced to the Prince of Wales
the latter gaily interrogated him about the state of his affairs; the
poet replied, "they were in a more poetical posture than formerly,"
whereupon the Prince granted him a pension of one hundred pounds a year.

In 1740 the Prince of Wales resolved to celebrate in a special manner
two important events--the Accession of the House of Hanover to the
throne of England, and the anniversary of the birth of his little
daughter, the Princess Augusta, born on the 31st of July, 1737.
For the occasion the services of Mallet and Thomson were called
into requisition. John Rich, the successful actor-manager, was also
commissioned to prepare various stage performances. Rich had become
popular from his connection with Gay's "Beggar's Opera," which he had
the good fortune to produce at the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields
in 1728, and thereby netted four thousand pounds. The author received
six hundred and ninety-three pounds three shillings and sixpence. This
remarkable success called forth the witty saying that "the 'Beggar's
Opera' made Gay rich, and Rich gay." Rich was the founder of Covent
Garden Theatre, in 1731, and was doubtless on excellent terms with the
aristocratic patrons of the stage, including the Prince of Wales. On
the 5th of September, 1740, he piloted the Prince through the mazes of
Bartholomew Fair, Smithfield. A witness of the scene has described it
thus: "The multitude behind was impelled violently forwards, a broad
blaze of red light, issuing from a score of flambeaux, streamed into
the air; several voices were loudly shouting 'Room there for Prince
George! make way for the Prince!' Presently the pressure became much
greater, the voices louder, the light stronger, and as the train came
onward it might be seen that it consisted of a party of yeomen of the
guard clearing the way; then several more of them bearing flambeaux and
flanking the procession, while in the midst of all appeared a tall,
fair and handsome young man, having something of a plump, foreign
visage, seemingly about four-and-thirty years of age, dressed in a
ruby-coloured frock coat, very richly guarded with gold lace, and
having his long flowing hair curiously curled over his forehead and
at the sides, and finished with a very large bag and courtly queue
behind. The air of dignity with which he walked, the blue ribbon and
star and garter with which he was decorated, the small three-cornered
silk hat which he wore, whilst all around him were uncovered, the
numerous suite, as well of gentlemen as of guards, which marshalled
him along, the obsequious attention of a short, stout person, who by
his flourishing manner seemed to be a player,--all these particulars
indicated that the amiable Frederick Prince of Wales was visiting
Bartholomew Fair by torchlight, and that Manager Rich was introducing
his royal guest to all the entertainments of the place."

Great preparations were made at Cliefden, and on the 1st of August,
the Prince of Wales received his guests. An interesting account of
the proceedings was printed in the _London Daily Post and General
Advertiser_ of Saturday, the 2nd, in the following words: "Last
night was performed at the gardens of Cliefden, (in commemoration
of the Accession of his late Majesty King George, and in Honour of
the Birth of the Princess Augusta; their Royal Highnesses the Prince
and Princess of Wales, with all their Court being present,) a new
Masque of Two Acts, taken from the various Fortunes of Alfred the
Great by Mr. Thomson; and performed by Mr. Quin, Mr. Milward, Mrs.
Horton, and others from both Theatres;--also a Masque of Music, call'd
'The Judgement of Paris' writ by Mr. Dryden;[33] and concluded with
several Scenes out of Mr. Rich's Pantomime Entertainment, perform'd
by himself, and others of his appointing particularly the Skeleton
Scene in Merlin's Cave, and the Dwarf Scene in Orpheus and Euridice.
Also the famous Le Barbarini (newly arriv'd with Mr. Rich from
Paris,) performed several Dances, and so much to the satisfaction
of their Royal Highnesses, that his Royal Highness was pleas'd to
make her a very handsome Present, and the work was conducted with
the utmost Magnificence and Decorum." The Fête was repeated on the
following evening, but unfortunately a violent rain-storm interrupted
the proceedings, and the Masque of Alfred had to be performed in the
house. The _Daily Post_, of August the 5th, reported that "the whole
was exhibited upon a Theatre in the Garden, composed of Vegetables and
decorated with Festoons of Flowers, at the End of which was erected a
Pavilion for Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales, Prince George,
and Princess Augusta."

It is remarkable that the newspaper report makes no mention of Thomas
Arne, who composed the music for both Masques, whose work alone has
rescued from oblivion the memory of the proceedings. One of the songs
in "Alfred" was "Rule, Britannia." The Masque is forgotten; poet and
composer, and they who first heard its thrilling burst from chorus and
orchestra are mouldering in their tombs; the halls through which the
strain resounded have long since perished; but the enthusiasm then
awakened still vibrates in the British heart to the sound of the words,

    Rule, Britannia, Britannia rule the waves.

Thomas Arne resided at Cliefden before and during the Fête; his wife,
who was one of the principal vocalists in both Masques, many years
afterwards told her grand-niece, Cecilia Maria Barthelemon, that she
witnessed a curious scene on one of the lawns: "Two men were mowing,
when the hinder man severely cut the calf of the leg of the other,
and the Prince of Wales immediately dipped a cambric handkerchief in
some Arquebusade[34] and himself wrapped it round the man's leg, which
needed no other cure."

Very shortly after the performance, on the 19th of August, Millar, the
bookseller and publisher, issued the libretto of "Alfred": the title
of the book reads: "Alfred, a Masque Represented before Their Royal
Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, At Clifden, (_sic_) on the
First of August, 1740. London Printed for A. Millar, over against St.
Clement's Church in the Strand MDCCXL." A perusal of the publication
shows that Mr. Milward represented King Alfred; Mrs. Horton, the King's
wife, Eltruda; Mr. Quin, a Hermit; Mr. Mills, the Earl of Devon; Mr.
Salway, Corin, a Shepherd; Mrs. Clive, Emma, the Shepherd's wife. Two
other characters, a Bard and a Spirit, have no names attached, but we
know that the part of the Spirit was sung by Mrs. Arne. The Masque
consists almost entirely of speaking parts; the first introduction of
music is a song for Emma, the Shepherd's wife, who has a delightful
little ditty to the words:

    O peace! the fairest child of heaven,
    To whom the sylvan reign was given,
    The vale, the fountain and the grove,
    With every softer scene of love.
    Return, sweet peace, and cheer the weeping swain;
    Return with ease and pleasure in thy train.

This charming song was doubtless well sung by Kitty Clive, who, a few
years later, was the first to warble Arne's exquisite melody, "Where
the bee sucks."

The third scene opens with a stage direction--"Solemn music is heard
at a distance. It comes nearer in full symphony: after which a single
trumpet sounds a high and awakening air. Then the following stanzas are
sung by two aerial spirits unseen:

    "Hear, _Alfred_, father of the state
    Thy genius heaven's high will declare!
    What proves the hero truly great,
    Is never, never to despair:
    Thy hope awake, thy heart expand
    With all its vigour, all its fires.
    Arise! and save a sinking land--
    Thy country calls, and heaven inspires."

If Arne composed music for the above, it was never published.

The next air is sung by Eltruda, the Queen, represented by Mrs.
Horton. It was sung off the stage, and according to Arne's score was
accompanied by harpsichord and flute, the latter instrument echoing the
voice-part. The libretto has two verses, but only the following was

    Sweet valley, say, where, pensive lying,
    For me, our children, _England_, sighing,
        The best of mortals leans his head.
    Ye fountains, dimpled by my sorrow,
    Ye brooks that my complainings borrow,
        O lead me to his lonely bed:
            Or if my lover,
            Deep woods, you cover,
    Ah, whisper where your shadows o'er him spread!

In the third scene, second Act, after a dialogue between Alfred,
Eltruda and the Hermit, the latter summons the "Genius of England."
Then the stage direction is "Music grand and awful. The Genius
descending sings the following song":

    From these eternal regions bright,
    Where suns, that never set in night,
      Diffuse the golden day:
    Where spring unfading pours around,
    O'er all the dew-impearled ground,
      Her thousand colors gay:
    O whether on the fountain's flowery side,
    Whence living waters glide,
      Or in the fragrant grove
      Whose shade embosoms peace and love,
    New pleasures all your hours employ,
    And rapture every sense with every joy!
    Great heirs of empire! yet unborn,
    Who shall this island late adorn;
    A monarch's drooping thought to chear,
    Appear! Appear! Appear!

Possibly this song may have been omitted at the performance. Music
for it cannot be found. The spirits of Edward the Third, Philipa his
Queen, and their son the Black Prince, arise together; afterwards
Queen Elizabeth, succeeded by William the Third--all are described by
the Hermit. The next scene opens with a "Symphony of Martial music."
The last scene affords an opportunity for Emma, the Shepherd's wife,
represented by Kitty Clive, to sing a bright and sprightly melody,
accompanied by the string orchestra in gavotte time to the following

    If those, who live in Shepherd's bower,
    Press not the rich and stately bed:
    The new-mown hay and breathing flower
    A softer couch beneath them spread.
    If those, who sit at Shepherd's board,
    Soothe not their taste by wanton art:
    They take what Nature's gifts afford,
    And take it with a chearful heart.
    If those, who drain the Shepherd's bowl,
    No high and sparkling wines can boast,
    With wholesome cups they chear the soul,
    And crown them with the village toast.
    If those who join in Shepherd's sport,
    Gay-dancing on the daizy'd ground.
    Have not the splendor of a court;
    Yet Love adorns the merry round.

A short dialogue between Alfred and Eltruda follows, and then the
Hermit speaks, "Behold, my Lord, our venerable Bard,

    "Aged and blind, him whom the Muses favour.
    You ere you go, in our lov'd country's praise,
    That noblest theme, hear what his rapture breathes."

This is immediately succeeded by


    When _Britain_ first at heaven's command,
    Arose from out the azure main:
    _This_ was the charter of the land,
    And guardian Angels sung _this_ strain:
    "Rule, _Britannia_, rule the waves:
    Britons never will be slaves."

    The nations, not so blest as thee,
    Must in their turns, to tyrants fall:
    While thou shalt flourish great and free,
    The dread and envy of them all.
                                "Rule," etc.

    Still more majestic shalt thou rise,
    More dreadful, from each foreign stroke:
    As the loud blast that tears the skies,
    Serves but to root thy native oak.
                                "Rule," etc.

    Thee haughty tyrants ne'er shall tame:
    All their attempts to bend thee down,
    Will but arouse thy generous flame;
    But work their woe, and thy renown.
                                "Rule," etc.

    To thee belongs the rural reign;
    Thy cities shall with commerce shine;
    All thine shall be the subject main,
    And every shore it circles thine.
                                "Rule," etc.

    The Muses, still with freedom found,
    Shall to thy happy coast repair:
    Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd,
    And manly hearts to guard the fair.
    "Rule, _Britannia_, rule the waves,
    Britons never will be slaves."

Each of the foregoing verses was sung as a solo with the choral refrain
"Rule, Britannia." The venerable bard was represented by Mr. Thomas
Lowe,[35] a favourite singer who was engaged at Cliefden, and sang
the tenor solos on that occasion in the "Judgement of Paris." We know
from the report in the _Daily Post_ that there were "other performers
from both theatres,"[36] doubtless a good and efficient chorus. The
Ode would have made a splendid climax to the Masque,[37] but the
libretto shows that the Hermit followed with a speech which is worthy
of reproduction; the last four lines are particularly deserving of

    Alfred, go forth! lead on the radiant years,
      To thee reveal'd in vision.----Lo! they rise!
    Lo! patriots, heroes, sages, crowd to birth:
      And bards to sing them in immortal verse!
    I see thy commerce, _Britain_, grasp the world:
      All nations serve thee; every foreign flood,
    Subjected, pays its tribute to the _Thames_.
      Thither the golden South obedient pours
    His sunny treasures: thither the soft East
      Her spices, delicacies, gentle gifts;
    And thither his rough trade the stormy North.
      See, where beyond the vast Atlantic surge,
    By boldest keels untouch'd, a dreadful space!
      Shores, yet unfound, arise! in youthful prime,
    With towering forests, mighty rivers crown'd!
      These stoop to _Britain's_ thunder. This new world,
    Shook to the centre, trembles at her name:
      And there, her sons with aim exalted, sow
    The seeds of rising empire, arts, and arms.

    _Britons_ proceed, the subject _Deep_ command,
    Awe with your navies every hostile land.
    In vain their threats; their armies all in vain:
    They rule the balanc'd world, who rule the main.

Although the libretto of "Alfred" was published a few days after the
performance at Cliefden, the music remained in manuscript; possibly
Arne did not consider the number of pieces, only five, sufficient to
warrant the expense of publication; it is certain however that the
"Rule, Britannia" Ode caught the public ear, and became celebrated.
When therefore the "Judgement of Paris" Masque was published, about
1741, the opportunity was taken of printing the score of "Rule,
Britannia." The volume consists of sixty-one pages, and the title-page
reads: "The music in the Judgement of Paris, consisting of All the
Songs, Duettos and Trio, with the Overture in Score, as perform'd by
Mr. Beard, Mr. Lowe, Mrs. Arne, Mrs. Clive, Miss Edwards and others
at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. To which (by particular Desire of
Several Encouragers of the Work) are added the _Celebrated Ode, in
Honour of Great-Britain call'd Rule, Britannia_, and Sawney and Jenney,
a favourite Dialogue, in the Scotch Stile. The whole compos'd by Thomas
Augustine Arne. Opera Sesta. London. Printed for Henry Waylett, at the
Black Lyon in Exeter Change in the Strand, and sold by him, and at all
the music shops in London and Westminster, where may be had five other
volumes of the Author's Works."

It was not before 1751 that the other music of "Alfred" was published.
The title-page reads: "The Masque of Alfred compos'd by Mr. Arne.
London. Printed for I. Walsh in Catherine Street in the Strand." The
volume consists of eighty-three pages; but the "celebrated Ode" is
conspicuous by its absence. No doubt Waylett, the publisher of the
"Judgement of Paris," was unwilling to permit its insertion without
some adequate recompense. In what way the matter was adjusted we do not
know; but an arrangement was made, and a second edition of "Alfred"
issued which included the "Celebrated Ode." The plates used were those
from which the music was printed in the "Judgement of Paris"; this is
evident from the double-paging visible on the pages of "Alfred": 62-84,
63-85, 64-86. The first set of numbers belong to the "Judgement of
Paris," and the second set to "Alfred."

[Music: The Score of The celebrated ODE in Honour of Great BRITAIN
call'd Rule Britannia.]

The first published score of "Rule, Britannia" enables us to note that
both words and music have undergone considerable changes, some of them
undoubtedly improvements and others the reverse. The elimination of
the short ritornelles, or symphonies, which Arne wrote between the
several lines of the verses, brings the subject-matter closer together
and makes it more adaptable for a national song. On the other hand,
the alteration of the melody in the last bar of the solo cannot be
commended, neither can the change of melody and harmony at the end of
the first bar of the chorus. As originally composed it was very strong,
virile, and characteristic of Arne. It would, however, be injudicious
now to attempt to restore the original; custom and the popular ear have
stereotyped the prevailing version. It is noteworthy that Chappell's
"Popular Music of the Olden Time," and also the reprint of that work,
give the erroneous version without comment. The _Gentleman's Magazine_
of 1755, with the exception of some typographical errors, faithfully
follows the composer. It would be interesting to ascertain who first
tampered with the Ode. William Horsley published an edition about
1840, which is correct. The words have also been badly treated. The
original says "guardian angels _sung_ this strain," and the command
"Rule, Britannia, _rule_ the waves" has been changed to an assertion
that "Britannia rules the waves." This error may without difficulty be
avoided in future.

After the performance of "Alfred" at Cliefden, we can trace no public
representation of any of the music before the 21st July, 1742, when
Mrs. Arne sang the air, "O Peace, thou fairest child of Heaven," at a
concert in Dublin.

The work was advertised for performance in Dublin in 1743, but was
not actually produced until the following year. On the 28th of
February and 3rd of March an advertisement appeared in _Faulkner's
Journal_--"The Third Night of the Subscription, at the Theatre-royal
in Smock Alley, on Saturday next, being the 10th of this Inst., March,
will be performed the Judgement of Paris, written by Mr. Congreve
and set to music by Mr. Arne, with all the Chorusses as performed at
the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane; after which will be performed a new
Serenata, called Alfred, composed by Mr. Arne, at the special Command
of his Royal Highness, Frederick Prince of Wales, and never performed
but at his Palace at Cliefden, which concludes with a favourite Ode
in Honour of Great Britain, beginning, When Britain first at Heav'n's
command. N.B. Attendance will be given at the Theatre on each Day
of Performance." In May and June, 1744, for the benefit of the
composer and his wife, two performances were given of "Alfred" and the
"Judgement of Paris." The _Dublin Journal_ announced by advertisement
as follows: "Being particularly desired. For the benefit of Mr. and
Mrs. Arne. At Mr. Neale's great Room in Fishamble street, on Wednesday
the 30th of this Inst. May 1, will be performed the Judgement of
Paris, written by Mr. Congreve, and now set to music by Mr. Arne,
after which will be performed a Serenata, call'd Alfred, composed by
Mr. Arne at the special Command of his Royal Highness Frederick Prince
of Wales, and performed at his Palace at Cliefden, on the Birthday of
the young Princess Augusta. To conclude with the celebrated Ode in
Honour of Great Britain, beginning (When Britain first at Heaven's
Command). The principal Parts to be sung by Mr. Lowe, Mr. Cologan, and
Mrs. Arne, being the last Time but one that Mr. Arne, Mrs. Arne or
Mr. Lowe will perform in Publick this Season. Mr. Arne will accompany
the Performance on the Violin, Mr. Welch on the Organ, and Signior
Pasqualino on the Violoncello. N.B. This Performance will be done to
great Advantage, on account of the Organ, and the assistance of Mr.
Cologan, and several Gentlemen in the Chorusses, who could not perform
at the Theatre. Ticket a British Crown. To begin precisely at half an
Hour after 6 o'Clock. Vivat Rex. Tickets to be had at Mr. Arne's in
Aungier street." The repeat performance took place on the 6th of June.
It may be noted that Mr. Cologan (James Colgan) was a vicar-choral of
St. Patrick's Cathedral; probably the several gentlemen in the chorus
were also attached to St. Patrick's or Christ Church Cathedrals, and
thus precluded from assisting in performances on the theatre stage.
Mr. Welch was Mr. George Walsh, the organist of St. Ann's Church,
Dublin. The next performance of "Alfred" took place in London. The
_General Advertiser_ of 20th March, 1745, printed the following: "for
the benefit of Mrs. Arne, an Historical Musical Drama, call'd Alfred
the Great, King of England. The Musick was composed by Command of His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and never performed in England, but
at His Royal Highness's Palace at Cliefden. The music by Mr. Arne. To
conclude with a celebrated Ode in Honour of Great Britain, in imitation
of those formerly sung at the Banquets of Kings and Heroes: Boxes, 6s.;
Pit, 4s.; First Gallery, 2s. 6d.; and Upper Gallery, 1s. 6d. Mr. Arne
humbly hopes the Town will not be offended at the small advance of
the Price, this Performance being exhibited at an Extra Expence, with
regard to the Number of Hands, Chorus Singers, building the stage, and
erecting an Organ; besides all other incidents as usual. The Ladies are
desir'd to send their Servants[38] by Four o'clock. The above day is
fix'd on to avoid interfering with Mr. Handel."[39]

For this performance the libretto had been considerably altered,
re-written in fact, and Arne had composed the additional music
required; the title-page of the revised book reads: "Alfred, an Opera.
Alter'd from the Play, written by Mr. Thomson and Mr. Mallet, in Honour
of the Birth-Day of Her Royal Highness, The Young Princess Augusta.
The Musick was composed by Mr. Arne, and perform'd with the Play
at Cliffden in Buckinghamshire at the Special Command of His Royal
Highness, Frederic, Prince of Wales. London. Printed for A. Millar at
Buchanan's Head, Opposite Catherine Street in the Strand. M.DCC.XLX."

The dramatis personæ were all singers, Mr. Lowe, the tenor, represented
Alfred, King of England; Master Connel, Prince Edward, son of Alfred;
Mr. Baildon, Earl of Devon; Mr. Baker, Corin, a shepherd; Mrs. Arne,
Eltruda, Queen of England; Miss Young, the First Spirit; Miss Sybilla,
the Second Spirit; Miss Young, a Shepherdess, wife of Corin.

The first libretto (1740) of "Alfred" was certainly written by Thomson.
It contained many fine lines which are not to be found in the 1745
book. Two examples will suffice. The Hermit, addressing Alfred, says:

    A vision to my phantasy appear'd--
    I liv'd thro' future ages; felt the virtue,
    The great the glorious passions that will fire
    Distant posterity: when guardian laws
    Are by the patriot, in the glowing senate,
    Won from corruption; when th' impatient arm
    Of liberty, invincible, shall scourge
    The tyrants of mankind,--and when the Deep,
    Through all her swelling waves, shall proudly joy
    Beneath the boundless empire of thy sons.

Alfred the King speaks:

    In thoughtless, gay prosperity, when all
    Attends our wish; when nought is seen around us
    But kneeling flattery, and obedient fortune;
    Then are blind mortals apt, within themselves
    To fix their stay, forgetful of the giver,
    But when thus humbled, ALFRED, as thou art,
    When to their feeble natural powers reduc'd,
    'Tis then they feel this universal truth--
    That heaven is all--and man is nothing.

The 1745 book doubtless owed its rearrangement and some of its lyrics
to Mallet; it provides twenty sets of words which require music, but
if these were set by Arne, eight can no longer be traced. In 1754 a
new version of the libretto was published with the title: "Alfred the
Great, an Oratorio, As it was Represented at the Theatre-Royal in
Drury-Lane. The Musick was composed by Mr. Arne. London: Printed for
A. Miller, in the Strand. MDCCLIV." The advertisement, or preface, to
the book reads: "This Oratorio is altered from _Alfred_, a Masque,
represented before their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of
Wales, at Clifeden, August 1, 1740; being the Birth-Day of the Princess
Augusta, written by the late Mr. Thomson and Mr. Mallet, and afterwards
new written by Mr. Mallet, and acted at the Theatre Royal in Drury
Lane,[40] in 1751." Thomson died in 1748; Mallet had therefore a free
hand, a liberty of which he availed himself very fully; lines were
altered, new ones introduced, and several verses added for songs and
for chorus. The music for all the songs and solo music is contained in
the volume published by Arne, but the music for the choruses is not
given; probably it no longer exists. Amongst the additions made by
Mallet is a Pastoral Invocation, or song, commencing:

    Nymphs and shepherds, come away,

and he makes the second Act end with a _Grand Chorus_:

    How sleep the Brave, who sink to Rest,
    By all their Country's Wishes blest!
    When Spring, with dewy Fingers cold,
    Returns to deck their hallow'd Mould,
    She then shall dress a sweeter Sod
    Than Fancy's Feet have ever trod.
    There Honour comes, a Pilgrim grey,
    To bless the Turf that wraps their clay;
    And Freedom shall a while repair,
    To dwell a weeping Hermit there.
    By Hands unseen the Knell is rung;
    By Fairy Forms their Dirge is sung.

These exquisite lines were written by William Collins in 1746; but
when Mallet annexed and printed them, without acknowledgment, the
unfortunate author was in a lunatic asylum, and therefore quite
incapable of protecting himself. When Mallet produced his version of
"Alfred" for Garrick in 1751, he endeavoured to make folk believe that
he wrote the words of the Ode, "Rule, Britannia." They had been printed
in Edinburgh in a popular song-book, "The Charmer," with Thomson's
initials, J. T., and by the friends of the poet were generally known
to be his. Mallet's literary honesty or dishonesty is now generally
appreciated, but it must not be forgotten that for years he posed as
the author of the ballad "William and Margaret," and unflinchingly
accepted all the encomiums passed upon him in connection with it. In
1880 William Chappell called attention to a folio black-letter sheet in
the British Museum, which, with the exception of the first two lines,
was identical with Mallet's print. The date of the publication of the
Museum copy was 1711, Mallet's 1724, and the ballad is believed to have
been popular when quoted by Fletcher in the "Knight of the Burning
Pestle," in 1611.

The celebrity of "Rule, Britannia" appears to have been immediate and
general. Hanoverians and Jacobites adopted it as a popular ditty; the
latter party produced several parodies, amongst them the chorus:

    Rule, Britannia, Britannia rise and fight,
    Restore your injured Monarch's right.

The following words in a collection of songs called "The True Royalist"
are directed to be sung to the tune, "When Britain first, at heav'n's

    Britannia, rouse at heav'n's command!
    And crown thy native Prince again;
    Then Peace shall bless thy happy land,
    And Plenty pour in from the main:
    Then shalt thou be--Britannia, thou shalt be
    From home and foreign tyrants free.

    Behold great Charles! thy godlike son,
    With majesty and sweetness crown'd;
    His worth th' admiring world doth own,
    And fame's loud trump proclaims the sound.
    Thy captain him, Britannia, him declare,
    Of kings and heroes he's the heir.

    The second hope young Hero claims,
    Th' extended empire of the main;
    His breast with fire and courage flames,
    With Nature's bounds to fix thy reign.
    He (Neptune-like), Britannia will defy
    All but the thunder of the sky.

    The happiest states must yield to thee,
    When free from dire corruption's thrall,
    Of land and sea, thou'lt Emp'ror be.
    Britannia, unite! Britannia must prevail,
    Her powerful hand must guide the scale.

    Then Britons, rouse! with trumpets' sound
    Proclaim this solemn, happy day!
    Let mirth, with cheerful music crown'd,
    Drive sullen thoughts and cares away!
    Come, Britons, sing! Britannia, draw thy sword,
    And use it for thy rightful lord.

Another example will suffice:

    When our great Prince, with his choice band
    Arriv'd from o'er the azure main,
    Heav'n smil'd with pleasure on the land,
    And guardian angels sing this strain:
    Go, brave hero; brave hero, boldly go,
    And wrest thy sceptre from thy foe.

A striking proof of the general popularity of the music of the Ode is
the quotation made from it by Handel in 1745-6, when he composed the
"Occasional Oratorio" to commemorate the suppression of the Rebellion.
The words "war shall cease, welcome peace" are set to music, evidently
intentionally taken from the song of the day, "Rule, Britannia":

[Music: war shall cease, ... wel-come peace]

We may note here that the music of the beautiful recitative, "Ah me,
what fears oppress my throbbing heart?" followed by the air, "Guardian
angels now descend," first printed in the 1754 "Alfred" libretto, is
modelled on Handel's recitative, "O worse than death," and air, "Angels
ever bright and fair," composed in 1749 and performed in March, 1750.

No doubt "Rule, Britannia" was heard in Germany very soon after its
first performance at Cliefden. A copy of the Ode in vocal score,
with harpsichord accompaniment, was published in Hanover with the
brief-title "Rule Britannia Frey Uebersetzt, Hanover, Gedruckt bey J.
L. Lamminger Hofbuchdrucker." The German words, freely translated from
the English, are as follow:

    Britannia, aus des Meeres Schoos,
    stieg auf des Schöpfers Wink hervor.
    Dir zog hochahndend dein Genius das Loos,
    und jubelnd sang ein Engelchor:
    Herrsch' Britannia! der weite Ocean
    sey deinem Scepter untherthan.

There are five more verses which need not be reproduced. The
publication is undated, and gives no name of poet or composer.
Subsequently the same publisher issued a more complete edition with
the original English words and a German translation. The title-page
is "Rule, Britannia am Höchsterfreulichen Geburtsfeste Ihro Majestat
der Königinn Charlotte den 18. Januar 1799 auf dem Grossen Königlichen
Schlosstheater vom Herrn Schauspiel-Director Ignaz Walter nach der von
I. G. F. Brauer versuchten Uebersetzung gesungen."

Beethoven showed his appreciation of the Air of "Rule, Britannia" by
using it not only for a pianoforte piece with variations in 1804,
but also by incorporating it in the Battle Symphony, "Wellingtons
Sieg, oder Schlacht bei Vittoria," which was performed at a concert
in Vienna, in 1813, given for the benefit of the soldiers wounded at
Hanau, and again in 1814 during the Vienna Congress, conducted by the

Wagner declared that the first eight notes of "Rule, Britannia"
embodied the whole character of the British people, and as a
tribute to the English nation he set himself the task of composing
an Overture with Arne's music as the motif. The history of this
interesting composition of Wagner's has never been accurately stated.
The preliminary sketch of the music was made by Wagner in 1836, and
is still preserved at Bayreuth. The composition was completed and
performed in March, 1837, at Königsberg, and was again played at
Riga, on each occasion under the direction of Wagner. He sent the
score to the Philharmonic Society in London; but its receipt was
not acknowledged. Therefore, when in 1839 he made his first visit
to London, he wrote to the secretary of the Society with the result
recorded in the Philharmonic Society's minute-book, under date "April
19, 1840. Present, Mr. Neate, in the Chair, Messrs. Potter, F.
Cramer, Dance, Anderson, Calkin. Letter from Wagner. Resolved that
the score of the Overture be returned, with an apology for having
kept it so long, and explaining that written upon a theme which
is here very commonplace, precludes the performance of it at the
Philharmonic Concerts." Wagner resided in London at the "King's Arms"
boarding-house, Great Compton Street, Soho, only eight days, and then
went to Paris. Presumably his removal was not known to the Philharmonic
secretary, who sent the letter and score to Wagner's London address;
the proprietor of the hotel then forwarded it to Paris, but without
defraying the carriage. Wagner in his autobiography wrote: "One
morning, when we had been anxiously consulting as to the possibility
of raising our first quarter's rent, a carrier appeared with a parcel
addressed to me from London. I thought it was an intervention of
Providence, and broke open the seal. At the same moment a receipt-book
was thrust into my face for signature, in which I at once saw that I
had to pay seven francs for carriage. I recognised, moreover, that
the parcel contained my overture, 'Rule, Britannia,' returned to me
from the London Philharmonic Society. In my fury I told the bearer
that I would not take in the parcel, whereupon he remonstrated in the
liveliest fashion, as I had already opened it. It was no use; I did
not possess seven francs, and told him he should have presented the
bill for the carriage before I had opened the parcel. So I made him
return the only copy of my overture to Messrs. Lafitte & Galliard's
firm, to do what they liked with it, and I never cared to inquire what
became of that manuscript." Its recovery is a mystery; the conductor of
the band of the Leicester Opera House, Mr. E. W. Thomas, a few years
since disposed of his belongings, including a pile of manuscript music
which was purchased by Mr. Cyrus Gamble, who, in May, 1904, looking
through the collection, discovered the long-lost Wagner autograph,
signed and dated "Richard Wagner 15 March 1837 Königsberg in Prussia."
Arne's orchestral score is limited to strings, two oboes, two trumpets,
one bassoon, and kettle-drums; Wagner's score requires strings, two
piccolos, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, serpent,
double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, ophicleide,
side-drum, triangle, grosse caisse, cymbals and kettle-drums.

Passing notice is all that is necessary of the gross want of reverence
and good taste exhibited by the Rev. Rowland Hill, of Surrey Chapel,
who wrote a hymn for the music of "Rule, Britannia," which was sung on
the 4th of December, 1803, by a crowded congregation of Volunteers, and
printed in a collection of hymns sung at Surrey Chapel.

At the Coronation of William IV., the Sailor King, at Westminster
Abbey, September 8th, 1831, an anthem, "O Lord, grant the King a
long life," was sung, having been composed by Thomas Attwood. The
introductory symphony and the concluding chorus have quotations from
the melody of "Rule, Britannia," introduced in a very ingenious and
admirable manner.

Sir Alexander Mackenzie has also made masterly use of the tune in his
brilliant "Britannia" Overture.


[1] The register does not specify the day of the month.

[2] The autograph in my possession.--W. H. C.

[3] On the Report of this Committee, John Huggins, the Warden of the
Fleet was tried for murder, but acquitted. James Barnes, his agent, by
whom this outrage was committed, fled, and was never tried. However,
Lord Chief Justice Raymond was of opinion, that had he been on his
trial, and the fact proved against him, he would undoubtedly have been
found guilty of murder.

[4] Mrs. Arne rode on a pillion, behind Burney, on horse-back, from
Chester to London.

[5] In October, 1758, Cibber was crossing the sea to fulfil an
engagement with Sheridan in Dublin, when the vessel was shipwrecked,
and he with nearly all the passengers drowned.

[6] Mrs. Arne soon became a convert to the Roman Church.

[7] These are published by Novello & Co., Ltd.

[8] The Choir of Christ Church Cathedral, in 1742, consisted of six
Vicars Choral, Messrs. John Warrall, Charles Taylor, William Jones,
John Eusebius Smith, John Mason and Mr. John Church; there were also
six Stipendiaries, Messrs. John Phipps, James Baily, William Lamb,
Joseph Ward, Timothy Carter, John Hill; with six chorister boys. The
Choir of St. Patrick's Cathedral at the same date included nine Vicars
Choral, Messrs. James Baily, William Tavernor, Robert Hall, Robert
Woffington, William Lambe, John Eusebius Smith, Joseph Ward, John Hill,
James Colgan. There were also six chorister boys, five of these being
the same in both Cathedrals. The organist of both Cathedrals was Ralph

[9] "Twelve Duettos for Two French Horns, or Two German Flutes,
composed by Mr. Charles." A rare publication.

[10] Written by Fielding, produced in 1742.

[11] Dubourg a fine violinist and pupil of Geminiani, was noted for his
brilliant technique; on one occasion he indulged in a Cadenza of such
length and diffuseness, that at its close Handel, who was conducting,
called out "Welcome home, Mr. Dubourg."

[12] In the King's Library, Buckingham Palace.

[13] Lampe died at Edinburgh in 1751. His wife was sister to Mrs. Arne.

[14] Miss Polly Young was the daughter of Charles Young, Mrs. Arne's

[15] Polly Young.

[16] He had been studying the science of music under the learned Dr.

[17] The Crown and Anchor, in the Strand, was a favourite resort for
concert-givers. In my youthful days the "Abbey Glee Club" and other
Musical Societies met there.--W. H. C.

[18] The name of Madame Tenducci was not publicly announced.

[19] Master Norris had been a chorister in Salisbury Cathedral; he
was born in 1741, and seems to have continued singing soprano up to
1762. His voice must have been in a transition state. He sang at the
Gloucester Festival of 1766 as a tenor. He became organist of Christ
Church Cathedral, Oxford; a Mus. Bac., and a singer of good repute.

[20] The audience was much incommoded by the wet; incessant September
rain poured through the roof, and converted the floor into a swamp.
Eventually the four hundred people who were present, wet through, took
refuge on the benches and orchestra.

[21] Mr. William Mawhood, born in 1723, died in 1797, was a merchant,
residing in West Smithfield, and an accomplished musical amateur. An
account of him will be found in the _Musical Times_ of January, 1910,
written by Mr. Barclay Squire.

[22] Michael Arne, his son.

[23] Mrs. Michael Arne, the popular vocalist, Elizabeth Wright.

[24] Miss Abrams.

[25] Miss Weller and her sister.

[26] David Garrick's brother.

[27] Mary Barthelemon, _née_ Young.

[28] Proved. 16 March, 1778, by Cecilia Arne, widow, relict of the
deceased, one of the executors with power reserved, 21 March, 1778, by
Michael Arne, son of the deceased, the other executor named in the will.

[29] nephew by marriage of Mrs. Arne.

[30] The date of production is uncertain.

[31] The autograph in my possession.--W. H. C.

[32] Cliefden House, originally erected for George Villiers, second
Duke of Buckingham, was built of red brick with stone dressings,
having at each end a square wing connected with the main building by
a colonnade, and fronted by a magnificent terrace four hundred and
forty feet long. The Duke expended large sums on the house and grounds;
for the latter, consisting of about one hundred and thirty-six acres,
he procured, regardless of cost, the choicest specimens of trees,
shrubs and flowers, native and foreign, and so enhanced the natural
beauties of the site that it was reputed to surpass all other estates
in England. At the death of the Duke, Cliefden was purchased by Lord
George Hamilton, afterwards Earl of Orkney; he died without male issue,
and the property and title passed to his daughter. She leased the
estate to the Prince of Wales, who regularly resided there until his
death in 1751. The splendid mansion was destroyed by fire on the 20th
of May, 1795, owing to the carelessness of a maidservant, who, whilst
reading in bed, was startled by the curtains bursting into flame. With
the exception of the wings, the building was entirely burnt, together
with valuable furniture, tapestry and paintings. Sir George Warrender
bought the estate and rebuilt the house in 1830. At his death it was
sold to the Duke of Sutherland, and on the 15th of March, 1849, fire
again destroyed the building, which was afterwards rebuilt from designs
by Barry.

[33] A mistake; the "Judgement of Paris" was written by Congreve.

[34] Arquebusade water was a concoction of spirits and herbs commonly
applied to gunshot wounds.

[35] Dr. Burney observes, "Lowe had the finest tenor voice I ever heard
in my life."

[36] "This day was rehears'd at Drury-Lane Theatre a Masque entitled
'Alfred,' in order to be represented before the Prince and Princess,
at Cliefden House on the first of August."--(_Gent. Mag._, July 28th,

[37] When "Alfred" was performed at Drury Lane Theatre, in 1751, the
part for the Hermit was deleted and the drama concluded with the Ode,
which was cut down to four verses. The solos were sung alternately by
Alfred and Eltruda (Mr. Beard and Signora Frasi).

[38] Commentary on the practice of securing seats at Drury Lane
Theatre is to be found in the "Private correspondence" addressed to
David Garrick: "SIR.--The many proofs you have given the town of your
desire to oblige them, encourage me to propose to you a scheme no less
advantageous than useful to the public, especially the polite part of
it. The alterations lately made in your theatre for the convenience of
the spectators, naturally suggested to me an inconvenience arising from
the servants who are sent to keep places. I have, with concern, seen a
lady finely dressed forced to sit down by a servant whose clothes and
feet have been very dirty, and behaviour extremely offensive; it has
happened, to my knowledge, that some servants, in order to follow their
own pleasures, have hired common porters of the street to keep their
places, whose company better suited a prison than a place of polite

                                             Signed T. B. Nov. 25, 1762.

[39] Handel gave a performance of his Oratorio "Joseph" at the King's
Theatre, Haymarket, on the 21st of March, 1745.

[40] The singers in 1751 were Mrs. Arne, Signora Galli' Signora Frasi,
Miss Young, Mr. Beard, Mr. Baker, Signor Guadagni.


 Abbey Glee Club, 53

 Abrams, 81, 91

 Acis and Galatea, 8, 23, 28

 Addison, 3, 4, 9

 Ah me, what fears, 132

 Alas, the horrors, 70

 Aldrich, 66

 Alexander's Feast, 93

 Alfred, 15, 20, 33, 41, 46, 114, 116, 122, 124

 Alfred, go forth, 121

 Allegro, 20

 Amelia, Princess, 10

 Amphitryon, 29

 Anderson, 134

 Angels ever bright, 132

 Arcadian nuptials, 62

   Actor, 30
   At Cliefden, 114
   At Eton, 3, 6
   At Stratford-on-Avon, 67
   Birth of composer, 1
   Burial, 101
   Conductor, 35
   Death, 96
   Employs ladies in Choir, 51
   Father of composer, 1
   First composition, 9
   Flautist, 7
   Grandfather of composer, 1, 4
   Harpsichordist, 22
   His will, 98
   In Dublin, 19
   In Edinburgh, 40
   Introduces P.F. accomp., 51
   Leaves wife in Dublin, 46
   Marriage, 21
   Member Soc. of Mus., 14
   Mother of composer, 2, 11, 13, 15
   Mus. Doc. Oxon, 49
   Reunited to wife, 94
   Son Michael born, 38
   Violinist, 8, 22, 125
   Wife of composer, 2, 11, 13, 15, 20, 22, 24, 46, 57, 72, 94, 102,
     115, 125, 127

 Arne, Edward, 4

 Arne, Michael, bro. of composer, 9

 Arne, Michael, Mrs., 79

 Arne, Michael, son of composer, 38, 62, 77, 92, 97, 101

 Arne, Susanna, sis. of composer, 9

 Arnold, 92, 102

 Artaxerxes, 54, 61

 As you like it, 17, 28

 Attwood, 136

 Augusta, Princess, 12, 112

 Baddely, 67, 70

 Baildon, 24, 27, 66, 127

 Baker, 127, 129

 Banks, 2

 Barbarini, 114

 Barbatielli, 29

 Barbier, 9

 Barnes, 4

 Barry, 34, 84

 Barthelemon, 50, 74

 Barthelemon, Mrs., 67, 95, 102

 Barthelemon, Cecelia M., 94, 115

 Bartholomew fair, 113

 Battle Symphony, 133

 Bayly, 47

 Beard, 13, 15, 17, 49, 55, 58, 61, 121, 129

 Beethoven, 133

 Beggar's Opera, 29, 49, 61

 Beviamo tutti tre, 66

 Bickerstaff, 49, 58, 81

 Billington, 57

 Blow, thou winter wind, 17

 Bradford, 73

 Braham, 57

 Breathe the pipe, 52

 Brent, 41, 43, 45, 49, 55, 60, 85

 Brickler, 51

 Britannia, rouse, at heaven's command, 131

 Brown, 57, 67

 Busby, 92

 Butler, 45

 By dimpled brook, 13

 Calkin, 134

 Capricious lovers, 81

 Caractacus, 91

 Catches and Glees, 64, 76

 Cathedrals, Dublin, 23

 Catley, 61

 Cervetto, 15

 Chambers, 9

 Champness, 67, 80

 Chappell, 130

 Charles, 25

 Chateauneuf, 30

 Chi scherza colle rose, 20

 Churchill, 54

 Cibber, 10, 13, 19, 35, 58, 79, 84

 Cliefden, 111

 Clive, 13, 16, 37, 81, 116, 118

 Colgan, 23, 27, 125

 Colin and Phoebe, 37

 Collins, 129

 Colman, 73

 Come, follow me, 70

 Come, if you dare, 68, 80

 Come, shepherds, we'll follow, 63, 102

 Comus, 12, 19, 24, 28, 33, 40, 44, 61

 Comus's Court, 14

 Concerto, 92

 Congreve, 15, 114, 124

 Connel, 127

 Corfe, 9

 Cornelys, 52

 Coronation Anthem, 23

 Corry, 43

 Country girl at court, 82

 Covent Garden Theatre riot, 61

 Cramer, 134

 Crown and Anchor, 53

 Cumberland, Duke of, 10

 Cymbeline, 49

 Dalton, 12

 Dance, 134

 Daphne and Amintor, 81

 Davis, 24, 27

 Death of Abel, 28, 31, 92

 Death of Nelson, 65

 Delany, 12, 47

 Delicæ Musicæ, 66

 Dibdin, 51, 77

 Dido and Æneas, 10

 Dirge, 71

 Dodsley, 39

 Dragon of Wantley, 22, 30, 40

 Drury Lane Theatre, 10, 35, 61

 Dryden, 68

 Dubourg, 23, 27

 Edwards, 16

 Elfrida, 79

 Eliza, 41, 49

 Esther, 20, 38

 Eton College, 3, 6

 Fairest Isle, 70

 Fairies, 40

 Faramond, 20

 Farinelli, 20

 Father of Mercies, 52

 Fawcett, 52, 60, 73

 Fergusson, 51

 Festing, 7, 14

 Fielding, 9, 76

 Fishamble Street room, 69

 Fisher, 76

 Fitzpatrick, 62

 Fleet prison, 4

 Foote, 81

 Forest, 74

 Foster, 13

 Fox, 77

 Frasi, 121, 129

 Frederick, Prince of Wales, 111, 116

 From the eternal regions, 118

 From yonder bower, 33

 Frost scene, 70

 Gainsborough, 7

 Galli, 129

 Gamble, 135

 Garrick, 12, 15, 21, 35, 58, 61, 67, 77, 82, 126

 Garrick, G., 88

 Gay, 44, 112

 Geminiani, 27

 Gentle swain, 15

 Gentleman's Mag., 123

 Giardini, 66

 Gifford, 80

 Glorious voice, 17

 God save the King, 36

 Gordon, 35

 Green, 14

 Grenville, 6, 77

 Groombridge, 92

 Guadagni, 129

 Guardian angels, 132

 Guardian outwitted, 62

 Hail, immortal Bacchus, 52

 Hallam, 62

 Hamilton, 77

 Handel, 8, 12, 19, 23, 27, 31, 38, 127, 132

 Hark! the bonny, 66

 Hark! what notes enchant, 43

 Harlequin sorcerer, 39

 Hasse, 20

 Haste to the gardens, 52

 Haymarket Theatre, 8, 11

 He was despised, 12

 Hear, Alfred, 117

 Hear, angels, 52

 Henry IV., 30

 Here, sons of Jacob, 53

 Hill, 13, 135

 Hither turn thee, 17

 Horsley, 124

 Horton, 114-116

 How blest are the shepherds, 70

 How cheerful along the gay mead, 32

 How gentle was my Damon's air, 13

 How happy the lover, 70

 How sleep the brave, 129

 Huggins, 4

 Hymen, 20

 Hymn of Eve, 32

 I call you all to Woden-hall, 68

 If those, who live in Shepherd's, 119

 In thoughtless gay prosperity, 128

 Ianthe and Iphis, 39

 Indian Kings, 3

 Jack, thou'rt a toper, 66

 Jameson, 81

 Jewell, 77, 81

 Johnson, 13, 56, 82

 Jones, 9

 Joseph, 127

 Judgment of Paris, 15, 114, 122, 124

 Judith, 50, 62, 68, 76

 King Arthur, 68, 79

 Kirkman, 5

 Kitty, 45

 Knight of the Burning Pestle, 130

 Knowles, 45

 Lacy, 60

 Ladies' hoops, 24

 Lafitte and Galliard, 135

 Lampe, 40

 Lampe, Mrs., 38

 Lascia cadermi, 20

 Lass with the delicate air, 39

 Layfield, 27, 30

 Legge, 39

 Let not a moonbeam, 69

 Leveridge, 9

 Lincoln's Inn Fields theatre, 9

 Little gipsy, 82-91

 Live to us, to empire, 56

 Lock hospital, 50

 Love in a village, 58

 Love rapture, 67

 Lowe, 17, 27, 30, 33, 39, 120, 125, 127

 Mackenzie, 136

 Madrigal Society, 62

 Mallet, 111, 128

 Mansfield, 62

 Manzuoli, 63

 Mara, 57

 Mason, 91

 Mattocks, 49, 55

 Mawhood, 62, 64, 70, 96, 102

 May-day, 83

 Merchant of Venice, 33

 Metastasio, 54, 63

 Millar, 116, 127

 Mills, 13, 116

 Milton, 12

 Milward, 13, 114, 116

 Miss in her 'teens, 37

 Miss Lucy in town, 22-29

 Mountain, 9

 Much Ado about Nothing, 48

 Neal, 23, 24

 Neal, Master, 25

 Neate, 134

 Neil, 42

 Nightingale, 66

 No more the heathen, 52

 Noblemen's Catch Club, 63

 Non chiamarmi, 20

 Norris, 58-65

 Novello, 71

 Now Phoebus sinketh, 13

 O beauteous Queen, 20

 O fairest, 20

 O Lord, grant the King, 136

 O peace, 20, 116

 O peace, descend, 70

 O ravishing delight, 15

 O sight, 70

 O too lovely, 55

 O'er William's tomb, 65

 Olimpiade, 63

 On Chloe sleeping, 66

 Orphan, The, 101

 Orpheus and Euridice, 114, 124

 Otway, 101

 Pasquali, 41

 Pasqualino, 125

 Paxton, 96, 100

 Pemberton, 64-71

 Pennyworth of wit, 87

 Pepusch, 49

 Per le porte, 20

 Perseus and Andromeda, 62

 Pesetti, 56

 Philharmonic Society, 134

 Philharmonic Society, Dublin, 32

 Phillips, 12, 57, 77

 Pianoforte, 51

 Pilkington, 27

 Pincushion, 44

 Poculum elevatum, 63

 Potter, 134

 Prepare the genial bowers, 52

 Prince of Wales, 12

 Prior, 45

 Prithee, friend, 66

 Punch, the medium, 67

 Purcell, 33, 65, 68

 Pye, 44

 Quin, 13, 19, 114

 Rafter, 80

 Ranelagh, 64

 Redburn, 41

 Rehearsal, 32

 Rennett, 73

 Requiem, 72

 Rich, 39, 90, 112

 Rival Queens, 28

 Rosamond, 9, 20, 43

 Rose, 57

 Rosengrave, 23

 Royal license, 18

 Royal Society of Musicians, 14

 Rule, Britannia, 15, 115, 119

 Rule, Britannia, in Germany, 132

 Rule, Britannia, rise and fight, 130

 Sadler, 42

 Saint George the patron, 70

 Salway, 116

 Sardinian Chapel, 2

 Saul, 20

 Scott, 102

 Serenata, 12

 Shakespeare jubilee, 67

 Shenstone, 39

 Sloper, 10

 Smith, 63, 77

 Soldier and his friend, 65

 Soldier tired, 55

 Solomon, 38

 Sosarmes, 20

 Spandau, 50

 Spencer, 43

 Squire Badger, 76

 Stephens, 57

 Stevens, 59

 Storer, 23, 25, 27, 48

 Street intrigue, 66

 Swan, 24

 Sweet bird, 20

 Sweet echo, 13, 24

 Sweet valley, 117

 Sybilla, 24, 27, 127

 Tempest, 37, 44

 Tenducci, 52, 55, 57

 Theodosius, 33

 Thomas, 55, 135

 Thomas and Sally, 49

 Thompson, 77, 130

 Thomson, 112

 Thou soft flowing Avon, 67

 Thursfield, 1

 Thus I infuse, 70

 'Tis sweet the blushing, 70

 To virtue with rapture, 70

 Tom Thumb, 9, 22, 26

 Tonson, 56

 Tragedy of tragedies, 9

 Twelfth night, 28

 Two daughters, 70

 Tyers, 74

 Un guardo solo, 20

 Under the greenwood tree, 17

 Vado e vido, 20

 Vauxhall gardens, 37

 Vernon, 59-67

 Vernon, Mrs, 49-55

 Wagner, 133

 Wake, my harp, 52

 Walsh, 39, 51, 121

 Warrell, 56

 Water parted from the sea, 66

 Waylett, 12

 We must work, 70

 Weelkes, 66

 Weideman, 14

 Welch (Walsh), 46, 125

 Weller, 67, 73, 80, 84, 87, 89

 Westminster Abbey, 12

 Wheeler, 1

 When Britain first, 119, 124

 When daisies pied, 17

 When gay Bacchus, 66

 When Israel wept, 52

 When our great Prince, 132

 Where the bee sucks, 37, 117

 Which is the properest day to drink?, 67

 Whittington's feast, 93

 William (King), 136

 William and Margaret, 130

 Who can Jehovah's wrath, 52

 With heroes and sages, 52

 Woodman, 57

 Worsdale, 30

 Wright, 79, 101

 Wrighten, Mrs, 70

 Young, Cecilia, 2, 9, 11

 Young, Charles, 11, 41

 Young, Miss, 41, 43

 Young, E, 44

 Young, Polly, 41, 43, 46, 48, 74, 127



                                                    s. d.

 Twenty Songs                                       1  6
 Gentle Swain                                       2  0
 Guardian Angels                                    1  6
 O ravishing delight                                1  6
 When icicles                                       1  6


 Blow, blow thou wintry wind (Unison Song)          0  1½
 Come away, death (S.A.T.B.)                        0  2
 Rule, Britannia (S.A.T.B.)                         0  1½
   Do.   (T.T.B.B.)                                 0  1
   Do.   (Solo with _ad lib._ Chorus)               0  1½
 Where the bee sucks (S.A.T.B.)                     0  1½
   Do.   (S.S.T.B.)                                 0  3
   Do.   (Two-part)                                 0  1½
 Which is the properest day to sing (S.A.T.B.)      0  2
   Do.   (S.S.A.)                                   0  1½
 If o'er the cruel tyrant, love               folio 0  9
 The Curfew (Round for four voices)                 0  1½
 Under the greenwood tree (Unison Song)             0  1½


 Trio--Sonata in E minor                            3  0


 By the rushy-fringed bank--Air from "Comus"        1  0
 March, "Judith"                                    1  0
 Largo--Overture to "Artaxerxes"                    1  0


                     NOVELLO AND COMPANY, LIMITED,

    Transcriber's notes:

    The following is a list of changes made to the original.
    The first line is the original line, the second the corrected one.

    at a British Sixpence each. The _Journal_ gave a
    at a British Sixpence each." The _Journal_ gave a

    which otherwise, may have an obstruction to the
    which otherwise, may prove an obstruction to the

    to the words Quando Coeli morendi sunt." A solo
    to the words "Quando Coeli morendi sunt." A solo

    spoke in th highest terms of Arne's music.
    spoke in the highest terms of Arne's music.

    Risum tencatis amici?
    Risum teneatis amici?

    1771 The Fairy Princess.
    1771 The Fairy Prince.

    Herrsch "Britannia! der weite Ocean
    Herrsch' Britannia! der weite Ocean

    Charlotte den 18. Januar 1799 auf dem Grosser
    Charlotte den 18. Januar 1799 auf dem Grossen

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