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Title: Pittsburgh in 1816 - Compiled by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh on the One - Hundredth Anniversary of the Granting of the City Charter
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pittsburgh in 1816 - Compiled by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh on the One - Hundredth Anniversary of the Granting of the City Charter" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive/American Libraries.)



[Illustration: Crest]

[Illustration: PITTSBURGH IN 1817

From a sketch made by Mrs. E. C. Gibson, wife of James Gibson of
the Philadelphia bar, while on their wedding tour.]


PITTSBURGH IN 1816


COMPILED BY THE CARNEGIE LIBRARY OF PITTSBURGH ON THE ONE
HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GRANTING OF THE CITY CHARTER

[Illustration: 181]

PITTSBURGH
CARNEGIE LIBRARY
1916



Transcriber's Note: Minor typographical errors have been
corrected without note. Irregularities and inconsistencies
in the text have been retained as printed. Words printed
in italics are noted with underscores: _italics_.



Preface


This little book will interest the Pittsburgher of 1916 chiefly
because the parts and pieces of which it is made were written by men
who were living here or who passed this way in 1816.

The three newspapers of the day--the Gazette, the Mercury, and the
Commonwealth--have furnished, though somewhat sparingly, the items of
local news. They have also furnished advertisements--these in greater
abundance and variety.

The men who were the tourists of the day in America, traveling by
stage, wagon, boat, or on horseback, often made Pittsburgh a stopping
place in their journey. Many of them wrote books, in which may be
found two or three pages, or a chapter, on the city as it appeared at
that time. It is from these books that the section "Impressions of
early travelers" has been gathered. The date given with these extracts
is the date of publication, but the period referred to in every case
is between 1815 and 1817.

In addition to these gleanings from contemporaries, a number of
paragraphs from various histories of the city have been included.

The sketches that have thus been bought together do not form a
systematic or well proportioned description of the city; yet they may
help, through their vivid pictures and first-hand impressions, to give
some idea of life in Pittsburgh a century ago.



Table of Contents


                                                       Page

THE NEW CITY                                              7

IMPRESSIONS OF EARLY TRAVELERS                           13

UNITED STATES CENSUS                                     20

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIES                                  21

TRAVELING EASTWARD                                       26

TAVERNS                                                  30

STEAMBOATS AND RIVER TRAFFIC                             31

FERRIES AND BRIDGES                                      40

THE NEWSPAPERS                                           42

CHURCHES                                                 44

SCHOOLS                                                  48

LIBRARIES                                                50

THE NEW BOOKS OF 1816                                    51

THE THEATRE                                              52

THE MORALS EFFICIENCY SOCIETY OF 1816                    55

FOURTH OF JULY, 1816                                     55

POLICE                                                   55

EAGLE FIRE COMPANY                                       56

WATER-SUPPLY                                             56

BANKS                                                    57

POST-OFFICE                                              59

THE SUBURBS                                              60

COURTS                                                   61

COUNTY ELECTIONS                                         61

THE STATE LEGISLATURE                                    62

SLAVERY                                                  63

ADVERTISEMENTS FROM THE NEWSPAPERS OF 1816               64

1816                                                     75



The New City


    A MEETING
    OF THE
    DEMOCRATICK REPUBLICANS
    OF THE
    CITY OF PITTSBURGH,

will be held at the house of Captain Jacob Carmack, (sign of the
_Turk's Head_, Wood-street,) this _evening_ (Tuesday June 25,) at 7
o'clock for the purpose of forming a _ticket_ for the select and
common Councils of the City of Pittsburgh.

    _Commonwealth, June 25, 1816._


City Election

A number of respectable citizens, desirous of preserving that harmony
which has for several years past, so happily prevailed in the borough
councils, and which is so essential to the prosperity of our infant
city, have formed the following Ticket. They recommend it to the cool,
dispassionate considerations of their fellow citizens; and they
flatter themselves, that it will, on the day of the election, meet
with a firm and honorable support. It is formed, as tickets of the
kind ought to be, without respect to party. There can exist no
possible ground for the absurdity, that party feuds and animosity
should be called up on occasions like the present. Every consideration
of public interest, and of the peace and good order of the city,
forbids it.--Our city is as yet in its infancy.--Its government is to
be organized, its ordinances framed, its police established, and its
general policy devised.

In accomplishing these important objects, great prudence,
deliberation, forbearance, and the _undivided support of all classes
of the citizens_, are essentially necessary. Hence arises the
necessity of checking, in the bud, any and every attempt, coming from
whatever quarter it may, which would have a tendency to sow disunion
and distrust among the people. Actuated by these reasons, the
following ticket is recommended to the free and independent voters.
Their aid and co-operation is solicited in checking the evils which
may arise out of party feuds. The gentlemen composing the ticket here
recommended, have been chosen with due regard to their local
situations; they are respectable in private life; they are well
qualified for discharging the duties which will devolve upon them as
members of the councils, and are all deeply interested in the growth,
prosperity, and good order of the infant city.

    SELECT COUNCIL

    John Wrenshall,
    Benj. Bakewell,
    James Ross,
    Thomas Cromwell,
    John Hannen,
    E. Pentland,
    Dr. Geo. Stevenson,
    George Shiras,
    Robert Patterson.

    COMMON COUNCIL

    James Lea,
    Walter Forward,
    John Lyttle,
    Alex: Johnston, jr.,
    Geo. Miltenberger,
    James Irwin,
    Richard Bowen,
    Mark Stackhouse,
    John W. Johnston,
    Paul Anderson,
    John P. Skelton,
    George Boggs,
    James R. Butler,
    John Caldwell,
    George Evans.

    _Mercury, June 29, 1816._

"Voters supported or opposed a candidate entirely according to their
personal preferences. There were few newspapers and no political
oratory to sway public sentiment. The United States was then passing
through the 'era of good feeling,' which was renowned mainly for the
absence of all political asperities. Had any question arisen which was
fraught with political significance to the voters of this section the
expression in and around Pittsburg would undoubtedly have been
Democratic or in opposition to the Federalist doctrine. It took
Pittsburg people a long time to forget that the excise tax, which
brought about the Whiskey Insurrection, was a Federalist measure. The
first question which arose to divide the people in bitter dispute came
with the election of Andrew Jackson to the presidency in 1828."
_Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


City Election

The first Election under the Act Incorporating the City of Pittsburgh,
was held on Tuesday last, when the following gentlemen were elected:

    SELECT COUNCIL

    James Ross,
    Dr. Geo. Stevenson,
    William Hays,
    John Roseburgh,
    Samuel Douglas,
    James Irwin,
    Mark Stackhouse,
    William Leckey,
    Richard Geary.

    COMMON COUNCIL

    William Wilkins,
    James R. Butler,
    John P. Shelton,
    A. Johnston, Jr.,
    James S. Stevenson,
    James Brown, (B.)
    Paul Anderson,
    John W. Johnston,
    George Evans,
    John Caldwell,
    Richard Robinson,
    Thomas M'Kee,
    Daniel Hunter,
    John Carson,
    John W. Trembly.

    _Commonwealth, July 9, 1816._


The New Mayor

    Ebenezer Denny, esq. has been elected mayor of the city of
    Pittsburgh, _Ohio_.--This gentleman we believe is from
    Massachusetts and is highly respected for his integrity and
    patriotism. _Boston Yankee._

We congratulate the editor of the Yankee upon the knowledge of men and
places, exhibited in the foregoing article. It has been a custom at
the Eastward to censure and burlesque the people of Western
Pennsylvania on account of their ignorance. Let the editor of the
Yankee now blush at his own. Could it be believed that any man of
common geographical knowledge--or who could have referred to Dr. Morse
for information, (for on this subject _even Dr. Morse_ is correct)
would have located Pittsburgh--a city containing ten thousand
inhabitants--possessing a manufacturing capital of many
millions--having three banking institutions, and a commerce extending
to every part of the union--a place which has long been considered the
emporium of the West, and which makes a more conspicuous figure in
books of travels than even the Town of Notions itself;--could it, we
ask, be believed, that such a place should be so little known or
thought of in the town of Boston, as to be located in the state of
Ohio? Mayor Denny possesses all the virtues that are attributed to him
by the Yankee, and many more, that render him an ornament to the
station to which he has been elected;--but he does not boast an
ancestry in the land of _steady habits_, the seat of _Hartford
Convention politics_. He is a native of Carlisle, in this state.
_Commonwealth, Aug. 6, 1816._


From the Ordinances of 1816


Traffic Rules

"From and after the publication of this ordinance, all and every
driver or drivers of all coaches, chariots, caravans, waggons,
phaetons, chaises, chairs, solos, sleighs, carts, drays, and other
carriages of burthen and pleasure, driving and passing in and through
the streets, lanes and alleys of the City of Pittsburgh, where there
is room sufficient for two to pass, shall keep on that side of street,
lane or alley, on his or their right hand respectively, in the passing
direction."

"No person whatsoever shall sit or stand in or upon any such carriage
or on any horse or beast harnessed thereto, in order to drive the
same, unless he shall have strong lines or reins fastened to the
bridles of his beasts, and held in his hands, sufficient to guide them
in the manner aforesaid, and restrain them from running, galloping, or
going at immoderate rates through the said streets, lanes or alleys;
and ... no person whatsoever, driving any such carriage or riding upon
any horse, mare or gelding, in or through the said city, shall permit
or suffer the beast or beasts he shall so drive or ride, to go in a
gallop or other immoderate gait, so as to endanger persons standing or
walking in the streets, lanes or alleys thereof; and ... all porters
... having the care of any such carriages ... who shall not hold the
reins in their hands ... shall walk by the head of the shaft or wheel
horse, holding or within reach of the bridle or halter of said horse."


Shade Trees

"It shall be lawful to plant on the bank of the Monongahela river,
ornamental shade trees, provided the same do not incommode the
passage; that they be set on the side of the street next to the water,
and so as not to stop or obstruct the passage of water along the
gutters; and so that the roots will not injure or raise the
pavement:--when any of these injurious effects are produced, such
trees then become a nusance, and the street commissioners shall
forthwith remove the same."


Fire Protection

"A premium of ten dollars, to be paid on a warrant to be drawn by the
Mayor on the city treasurer, shall be given to the fire company whose
engine shall be first on the ground in fair operation, and in good
order, in cases of fire; and the Mayor shall have power to determine
all questions as to this premium."


New Streets

An ordinance respecting sundry new streets in the eastern addition to
Pittsburgh.

"That Third-street extending from Grant-street to Try-street, and
Fourth, extended in a direct line from Grant-street to Try-street; and
Diamond-street extending from Ross-street to the lane leading
eastwardly from the end of Fourth-street, and Ross-street extended
from Third-street to Diamond-street, and Try-street extended from
Third-street to the lane leading eastwardly from the end of
Fourth-street, be and they are hereby accepted and declared to be
public streets and highways of the city ... and all those streets
shall be kept, repaired and maintained for public use, at public
expense forever hereafter."


For the Public Good

"If the chimney of any person or persons within the ... city shall
take fire and blaze out at the top, the same not having been swept
within the space of one calendar month, next before the time of taking
such fire, every such person or persons, shall forfeit and pay the sum
of three dollars."

"No stove pipe within the ... city shall project through the front
door, front windows, front wall, or past the front corners of any
house, shop or building, over or out upon any street, square or alley,
or public ground of the ... city; and if any stove pipe shall so
project as aforesaid, the same is hereby declared to be a public
nusance, and as such shall be removed, and a fine of five dollars also
imposed on the person or persons who shall so offend."

"If any person or persons, shall wilfully suffer his, her or their
horse or horses, mare, gelding, mule, ox, hog or hogs, to run at large
in the ... city, he, she or they so offending, shall for each offence,
on conviction thereof, forfeit and pay for each of the said animals so
running at large, the sum of one dollar."

"If any person or persons shall, within the said city, beat a drum, or
without lawful authority, ring any public bell, after sunset, or at
any time except in lawful defence of person or property, discharge any
gun or fire arms, or play at or throw any metal or stone bullet, or
make a bon-fire, or raise or create any false alarm of fire, he, she,
or they so offending, shall for every such offence, on conviction
thereof, forfeit and pay the sum of four dollars."

"City appropriation for filling up a part of the pond on Sixth street,
between Cherry alley and Grant street--thirty dollars." _Commonwealth,
Nov. 19, 1816._



Impressions of Early Travelers


"_Fort du Quesne_, built by the French, formerly stood here; its site
has almost disappeared in the Ohio. The remains of Fort Pitt (from
whence the town has its name) are very faint; we can yet perceive part
of the ditch, its salient angles and bastions, &c., but several
houses, stores, and a brewhouse, are built on the ground." _Palmer's
Journal of travels in the United States and Canada, 1817._


"Although Pittsburg, a few years since, was surrounded by Indians, it
is now a curiosity to see any there; a few traders sometimes come down
the Alleghany, with seneca oil, &c." _Palmer's Journal of travels in
the United States, 1818._


"_Pittsburgh_ was hidden from our view, until we descended through the
hills within half a mile of the _Allegany river_. Dark dense smoke was
rising from many parts, and a hovering cloud of this vapour, obscuring
the prospect, rendered it singularly gloomy. Indeed, it reminded me of
the smoking logs of a new field." _Thomas's Travels through the
western country in 1816._


"A mixture of all nations, though principally Americans; there are
Irish, Scotch, English, French, Dutch, Swiss, etc.... The character of
the people is that of enterprising and persevering industry; every man
to his business is the prevailing maxim, there is therefore little
time devoted to amusements or to the cultivation of refined social
pleasures. Strangers are not much pleased with the place in point of
hospitality merely, but those who have business to transact, will meet
with as many facilities as elsewhere. They are of all denominations of
the Christian religion; many of them attentive on the duties of their
worship, and but few addicted to gross vices and dissipation. Luxury,
pomp and parade are scarcely seen; there are perhaps, not more than
one or two carriages in the place. There is a public academy, but not
in a flourishing state, where the Latin and Greek classics are taught.
There are besides, a number of English schools where children are
taught to read, write, arithmetic, grammar, etc. There is a seminary
for young ladies, which is said to be well conducted. The amusements
of these industrious people are not numerous, a few balls during the
winter season; there is also a small theatre where a company from the
eastern cities sometimes performs. A society has been formed for the
purpose of natural improvement in the different departments of natural
history, and is flourishing; it has attached to it a circulating
library, a cabinet of curiosities and chemical laboratory." _Cramer's
Navigator, 1817._


"The first buildings of Pittsburg were of logs, some of which were
unhewn; then came rude stone structures made from material quarried
nearby, and these in turn were followed by brick buildings, for with
an abundance of clay and fuel, it was an easy matter to burn brick. In
none of them was there any attempt at architectural beauty. Most of
them consisted of four square walls, with small windows and doors,
thus displaying every evidence of economy. The interior finish of the
early houses displayed more taste and beauty than the exterior, for it
was easier to carve and fashion in wood than in stone.... Nevertheless
there was a beauty in the simplicity of the walls that gradually
developed a style which in modern days is called Colonial
architecture, and which even yet predominates in Pittsburg."
_Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"In 1815 the buildings of a public character were 'a handsome octagon
Episcopal church, a handsome and spacious Presbyterian church, also a
Covenanters, German Lutheran and Roman Catholic church, and an
Academy, all of brick;' a court house, jail, three incorporated banks,
a dramatic theatre, a Masonic hall, three market houses, one in the
Diamond and two in Second street. Both the court house and market
house in the public square, called the Diamond, were built of brick,
and some of the mercantile and financial buildings were of a
substantial character." _Killikelly's History of Pittsburgh._


"When this city and vicinity was surveyed by the author of this
treatise, in October, 1815, there were in Pittsburg 960 dwelling
houses, and in the suburbs, villages, and immediate outskirts, about
300 more, making in all 1260, and including inhabitants, workmen in
the manufactories, and labourers, upwards of 12,000 inhabitants."
_Darby's Emigrant's guide, 1818._


"Grant's-hill, an abrupt eminence which projects into the rear of the
city, affords one of the most delightful prospects with which I am
acquainted; presenting a singular combination of the bustle of the
town, with the solitude and sweetness of the country. How many hours
have I spent here, in the enjoyment of those exquisite sensations
which are awakened by pleasing associations and picturesque scenes!
The city lay beneath me, enveloped in smoke--the clang of hammers
resounded from its numerous manufactories--the rattling of carriages
and the hum of men were heard from its streets--churches, courts,
hotels, and markets, and all the 'pomp and circumstance' of busy life,
were presented in one panoramic view. Behind me were all the silent
soft attractions of rural sweetness--the ground rising gradually for a
considerable distance, and exhibiting country seats, surrounded with
cultivated fields, gardens, and orchards." _Hall's Letters from the
West, 1828._


"Pittsburg is a considerable town, generally built of brick.... The
site is romantic and delightful. It is well known as a manufacturing
place, and once almost supplied the lower country with a variety of
the most necessary and important manufactures. But the wealth,
business, and glory of this place are fast passing away, transferred
to Cincinnati, to Louisville, and other places on the Ohio. Various
causes have concurred to this result; but especially the
multiplication of steam-boats, and the consequent facility of
communication with the Atlantic ports by the Mississippi. There is
little prospect of the reverse of this order of things. The national
road, terminating at Wheeling, contributes to this decay of
Pittsburg." _Flint's Recollections of the last ten years, 1826._


"It is laid out in strait streets, forty and fifty feet wide, having
foot-walks on each side. Watch-boxes are placed at convenient
distances, and the police of the city (except in lighting) is well
regulated. From the number of manufactures, and the inhabitants
burning coal, the buildings have not that clean appearance so
conspicuous in most American towns. The houses are frame and brick, in
the principal street three story high.

"Outside of the town, some log houses yet remain. The number of
inhabitants in 1810, was 4768; they are supposed to be now near 8000.
The manufactures, carried on in the neighbourhood, out of the borough,
employ many hundred people. The inhabitants, are Americans, Irish, and
English. The Americans are most of them of German and Irish descent.
The public buildings are a jail, fort Fayette barracks, a court house,
market house, bank, and several churches." _Palmer's Journal of
travels in the United States, 1818._


"The adjoining hills contain inexhaustible quarries of sand rock,
suitable for grindstones; and several establishments, for the
manufacture of these useful articles, are extensively conducted. As no
marble is brought hither, except from the neighbourhood of
_Philadelphia_, those quarries also supply the citizens with
gravestones. Near _Breakneck_, I noted that _mica_ was contained in
the sand rock and this singular addition is also found here, in all
the strata of that stone which I have seen." _Thomas's Travels through
the western country in 1816._


"_6 mo. 14._--Having been detained, day after day longer than we
expected, this morning about sunrise, we left Pittsburgh with all the
joy of a bird which escapes from its cage.

    'From the tumult, and smoke of the city set free,'

we were ferried over the Monongahela, with elated spirits; and I
repeated that line in Montgomery, with an emphasis, which it never
before seemed to require." _Thomas's Travels through the western
country in 1816._


"There are a considerable number of free negroes in the city. Whilst
here, we saw a funeral attended by these people; sixty or seventy
couple, two and two in the manner of the Philadelphians." _Palmer's
Journal of travels in the United States, 1818._


"The inhabitants of Pittsburg are fond of music; in our evening walks,
we were sure to hear performers on the violin, clarionet, flute, and
occasionally the piano-forte. Concerts are not unusual. The houses of
the principal streets have benches in front, on which the family and
neighbours sit and enjoy the placidity of their summer evenings."
_Palmer's Journal of travels in the United States and Canada, 1817._


"If the inhabitants of Pittsburgh are determined to call that place
after some English town, I should propose that, instead of the
'American Birmingham,' it be denominated, with relation of the
humidity of its climate, 'the American Manchester;' for I remained at
this place several days, during which time the rain never ceased. The
smoke is also extreme, giving to the town and its inhabitants a very
sombre aspect; but an English medical gentleman who has resided here
some years, informs me that there is not a more healthy place in the
United States." _Fearon's Sketches of America, 1818._


"The streets of Pittsburgh are lighted, and consequently the useful
order of watchmen is established. My ears, however, have not become
reconciled to their music. It is true, I have been more conversant in
forests than in cities, and may not comprehend the advantages of these
deep-mouthed tones; but breaking the slumbers of the invalid, and
giving timely notice to the thief, form two items of much weight in my
view as a set off against them.

Pittsburgh is laid out to front both rivers; but as these do not
approach at right angles, the streets intersect each other obliquely.

It is not a well built city. The south-west part is the most compact,
but many years must elapse before it will resemble Philadelphia.
Wooden buildings, interspersed with those of brick, mar the beauty of
its best streets; and as few of these are paved, mud, in showery
weather, becomes abundant. A short period, however, will probably
terminate this inconvenience." _Thomas's Travels through the western
country in 1816._


"In October, 1816, a resolution was passed permitting a Mr. Gray to
exhibit a panoramic view of the naval engagement on Lake Champlain and
the battle of Plattsburg without a license or other tax, owing to 'the
patriotic nature and worthy object of the exhibit.' In November, 1816,
a committee was appointed to inquire whether it was expedient for the
city to possess for public purposes more ground than it then did, and
whether it would be expedient at that time to purchase ground upon
which to erect buildings. In December a resolution introduced by Mr.
Wilkins provided for the appointment of a special committee to make a
detailed report upon the condition of the manufactures of Pittsburg,
which resolution was adopted; whereupon the following committee was
appointed: Benjamin Bakewell, Aquila M. Bolton and James Arthurs....
The city councils at this time also sent agents to Harrisburg and
Washington to labor specially in the interests of public roads in the
Western country. In 1816 Northern Liberties was laid out by George A.
Bayard and James Adams." _Wilson's History of Pittsburg._


"The price of property has increased in the most surprising manner
within the last ten years; it is now at least ten times as high as it
was at that period. There are but few sales of lots in fee simple, the
custom is to let on perpetual lease; the price in Market and Wood
streets, varies from ten to twenty dollars per foot, and in the other
streets from four to eight, and in particular situations still higher.
The rents are equally high. In Market, Wood and Water streets, the
principal places of business, it is difficult to procure a common room
in an upper story, under one hundred dollars per annum; the rent of
stores, vary from three to five hundred dollars; there is one
warehouse which rents for twelve hundred; the rent of tavern stands,
is from five to twelve hundred dollars. The rent of dwelling houses
varies much, according to the locality and kind of the tenement; a
genteel private family can scarcely obtain a good dwelling under three
or four hundred dollars." _Cramer's Navigator, 1817._


"Provisions of all kinds bring a high price in this city though the
_market_ is fluctuating. Hay, at present is twenty dollars a ton, and
oats one dollar per bushel. Butter varies from twenty-five to
seventy-five cents per pound. The farmers of this neighbourhood,
however, produce neither cheese or pork, that merits a notice. The
former of these articles is chiefly obtained from the state of Ohio,
and bacon, procured from Kentucky, is now retailed at sixteen or
seventeen cents per pound.

Before the late war, this market was distinguished for its cheapness;
but with an influx of strangers, induced by the movements of that
period, '_war prices_' commenced; and though peace has returned--and
though many of those new comers have sought their former places of
residence,--the encouragements held out to the farmer, suffers no
diminution. Indeed, there are great inducements for the _industrious_
to migrate hither. Though the soil is uneven, it is far from being
sterile; and exclusive of salubrity of situation, and of durable
timber for fences, the coal mines, which pervade almost every hill,
constitute treasures of great value.

Farms round this city, at the distance of two or three miles have been
lately sold from fifty to one hundred dollars an acre, according to
situation." _Thomas's Travels through the western country in 1816._


"We remark much difference between the manners of the inhabitants of
this country and those of Cayuga. In that place, profane language is
rarely heard from any person, who pretends to decency, except in a
paroxysm of vexation. Here it is an every day amusement. Crossing the
Monongahela, in the ferry-boat, with an intelligent gentleman of
polished manners, I was shocked and surprised to hear almost every
sentence from his lips interlarded with an oath or an imprecation; yet
he was in gay good humour, and, I believe, unconscious of this breach
of decorum.

It would be unjust not to express my belief, that honourable
exceptions to these censures are numerous; but impiety certainly
constitutes a strong characteristic of no inconsiderable part of this
people....

I have remarked with regret the impiety of some of these citizens; but
we think, that generally, they are entitled to much praise for
obliging and courteous behaviour. Civility to strangers, in a high
degree, even pervades their factories; and in all those which I have
visited, the mean practice of permitting children to ask the
spectators for money, appears to be unknown." _Thomas's Travels
through the western country in 1816._


"Except the gratifying reflection arising from the review of so much
plastic industry, Pittsburg is by no means a pleasant city to a
stranger. The constant volumes of smoke preserve the atmosphere in a
continued cloud of coal dust. In October, 1815, by a reduced
calculation, at least 2000 bushels of that fuel was consumed daily, on
a space of about two and a quarter square miles. To this is added a
scene of activity, that reminds the spectator that he is within a
commercial port, though 300 miles from the sea.

Several good inns, and many good taverns, are scattered over the city;
but often, from the influx of strangers, ready accommodation is found
difficult to procure. Provisions of every kind abound; two markets are
held weekly." _Darby's Emigrant's guide, 1818._


"The published accounts of this city are so exaggerated and out of all
reason, that strangers are usually disappointed on visiting it. This,
however, was not my case. I have been in some measure tutored in
American gasconade. When I am told that at a particular hotel there is
_handsome_ accommodation, I expect that they are one remove from very
bad; if '_elegant_ entertainment,' I anticipate tolerable; if a person
is 'a _clever_ man,' that he is not absolutely a fool; and if a
manufactory is the '_first in the world_,' I expect, and have
generally found, about six men and three boys employed." _Fearon's
Sketches of America, 1818._


"As every blessing has its attendant evil, the stone coal is
productive of considerable inconvenience from the smoke which
overhangs the town, and descends in fine dust which blackens every
object; even snow can scarcely be called white in Pittsburgh. The
persons and dress of the inhabitants, in the interior of the houses as
well as the exterior, experience its effect. The tall steeple of the
court house, was once painted white, but alas! how changed. Yet all
this might be prevented by some additional expense on the construction
of the chimnies. In the English manufacturing towns, a fine is imposed
upon those who do not consume their smoke. Incalculable would be the
advantage to this place, could such a regulation be adopted."
_Cramer's Navigator, 1817._


"Upon the whole, I consider Pittsburgh, in every point of view, to be
a very important town; and have no doubt, although its prosperity is
now at a stand, and property if not declining, is not increasing in
value, that it will _gradually advance_; and that the time must come
when it will be an extensive and very populous city. The present
population is 10,000, made up from all nations, and, of course, not
free from the vices of each: this indeed is but too apparent upon a
very short residence." _Fearon's Sketches of America, 1818._



United States Census


                             1810             1820

    United States         7,239,903        9,637,999
    Pennsylvania            810,091        1,049,449
    Allegheny county         25,317           34,921
    Pittsburgh                4,768            7,248



Business and Industries


"In 1813 there were five glass factories, three foundries, a new edge
tool factory, Cowan's New Rolling Mill, a new lock factory built by
Patterson, two steam engine and boiler works, one steel factory and a
goodly number of small concerns manufacturing various articles. In
1817 the city councils appointed a committee to collect and publish a
list of all the large factories in the city. This was done perhaps to
let the world know of the industry and thrift of Pittsburg, and is
valuable because it is an official list and is to be relied upon. It
must also be remembered that these figures represented the industries
of Pittsburg when barely emerging from the panic of 1815-17, a
financial depression that has scarcely been equalled in Western
Pennsylvania in all its history." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._


"There are many good stores in Pittsburg, and a great trade is carried
on with Philadelphia, Baltimore, and the States of Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Kentucky, &c.; exclusive of the carrying trade, and the number of
boats that are always proceeding down the Ohio, with vast quantities
of foreign merchandize, destined to Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee,
Indiana, &c. The inhabitants send up the Alleghany, Monongahela, and
their forks, whisky, cyder, bacon, apples, iron, and castings, glass
and foreign merchandize; in return they receive many thousand bushels
of salt from Onondago, and immense rafts from Alleghany and French
creeks. The quantity of rafts imported into Pittsburg annually, is
computed at 4,000,000 feet; average nine dollars per 1000 feet."
_Palmer's Journal of travels in the United States and Canada, 1817._


"The state of trade is at present dull; but that there is a great deal
of business done must be evident from the quantity of 'dry goods' and
'grocery stores,' many of the proprietors of which have stocks as
heavy as the majority of London retail dealers. They are literally
stuffed with goods of English manufacture, consisting of articles of
the most varied kind, from a man's coat or lady's gown, down to a whip
or an oyster knife." _Fearon's Sketches of America, 1818._

"It is difficult to form a judgment whether there is an opening in any
of the present established businesses. One fact strongly in favour of
the stability of this town is, _that there has not been a bankruptcy
in it for three years!!!_ a singular contrast this with New York, in
which the last published list of insolvents contained upwards of 400
names." _Fearon's Sketches of America, 1818._


"The principal manufacturing establishments are, a steam grist-mill,
steam engine factory, slitting-mill, to which is attached a nail
factory, the first of the kind in America; a cannon foundery, air
furnace, cotton and woollen factories, two potteries, three breweries,
&c.--There are four printing-offices, and two bookstores. A complete
description of this interesting town would fill a volume." _Brown's
Western gazetteer, 1817._


"Two cotton factories, one woollen factory, one paper mill, two saw
mills, and one flour mill, are all moved by steam, in this city and in
its suburbs across the Monongahela. Four glass factories, two for
flint, and two for green, are very extensive; and the productions of
the former for elegance of workmanship, are scarcely surpassed by
European manufacture. It is sent in many directions from this place;
one of the proprietors assured us that Philadelphia receives a part,
but the great outlet is down the Ohio." _Thomas's Travels through the
western country in 1816._


"Some of the ... manufactories may be denominated first-rate. This
remark applies particularly to the nail, steam-engine (high pressure)
and glass establishments. I was astonished to witness such perfection
on this side of the Atlantic, and especially in that part of America
which a New Yorker supposes to be at the farther end of the world.

At Messrs. Page and Bakewell's glass warehouse I saw chandeliers and
numerous articles in cut glass of a very splendid description; among
the latter was a pair of decanters, cut from a London pattern, the
price of which will be eight guineas. It is well to bear in mind that
the demand for these articles of elegant luxury lies in _the Western
States!_ the inhabitants of Eastern America being still importers from
the 'Old Country.'" _Fearon's Sketches of America, 1818._


"The glass establishment of Bakewell, Page & Bakewell was founded in
1808 and the building erected in 1811, on Water Street, above Grant,
and, from the start, was devoted exclusively to the manufacture of
white or flint glass. So excellent was the article produced that the
manufacturers attained a fame, not only in all parts of the United
States, but in Mexico and in many parts of Europe. No finer product
could be found anywhere. If a stranger of prominence visited
Pittsburgh he was taken with certainty to Bakewell's glasshouse."
_Wilson's History of Pittsburg._


"Perhaps of all the wonders of Pittsburg, the greatest is the glass
factories. About twenty years have elapsed since the first glass-house
was erected in that town, and at this moment every kind of glass, from
a porter bottle or window pane, to the most elegant cut crystal glass,
are now manufactured. There are four large glass-houses, in which are
now manufactured, at least, to the amount of 200,000 dollars
annually." _Darby's Emigrant's guide, 1818._


"Walter Forward, the great lawyer of Pittsburg in his day, had
addressed a large audience in the court house on December 28, 1816. In
speaking of the rapidly growing iron business of Pittsburg, he said,
that the iron interests were then consuming about 1800 tons of pig
iron; that the business employed about 150 hands, and the product was
valued at $250,000. Of wrought iron there was annually worked up about
2000 tons, the products from which were, according to the best
estimates, worth about $1,300,000." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._


"The first furnace or foundry in the town which had a permanent
existence was established in 1803 by Joseph McClurg. This was the
celebrated Fort Pitt foundry.... Here were cast cannon that boomed
over Lake Erie in the war of 1812 and thundered before Mexico in 1847.
A large part of Commodore Perry's equipment came from here." _Magazine
of western history, 1885._


"The first rolling mill of Pittsburg was built by a Scotch-Irishman in
1811 and 1812. It was called the Pittsburg Rolling Mill.... This
extensive mill stood on the corner of Penn street and Cecil alley, and
is referred to by early writers as the Stackpole and Whiting mill.
They were two Boston iron workers named respectively William Stackpole
and Ruggles Whiting. They introduced nail cutting machines which both
cut and headed the nails. They operated the mill during the hard times
which followed the War of 1812, and strange to say, failed financially
in 1819, when business of all kinds had somewhat revived." _Boucher's
Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"The slitting and rolling mill, together with the nail factory of
_Stackpole & Whiting_, is moved by a steam engine of seventy-horse
power. These we visited with much satisfaction. On entering the
south-west door, the eye catches the majestic swing of the beam; and
at the same instant, nine nailing-machines, all in rapid motion, burst
on the view. Bewildered by the varying velocity of so many new
objects, we stand astonished at this sublime effort of human
ingenuity." _Thomas's Travels through the western country in 1816._


"At the close of the first quarter of the nineteenth century Pittsburg
had surpassed all other parts of the West in the production of nails.
A patent nail machine had been introduced extensively, and it had
revolutionized the manufacture. Some of the factories were built in
connection with the rolling mills." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._


"The first rope-walk erected west of the Allegheny Mountains, was
established in Pittsburgh in 1794, and was located on the ground now
occupied by the Monongahela House. The business was carried on by Col.
John Irwin and wife....

Immediately following the death of Col. Irwin, Mrs. Irwin gave her son
an interest in the business; and it was carried on under the name and
style of Mary and John Irwin.

In the year 1795 the works were removed to the square bounded by
Liberty, Third, and Fourth Streets and Redoubt Alley. In view of the
increasing demand for their products, and confined limits of this
locality, the walk was removed in 1812 to the bank of the Allegheny
River between Marbury Street and the point, where the entire rigging
for Perry's fleet was manufactured....

Mrs. Irwin, on account of her age, and loss of health, resolved to
quit business, in view of which she disposed of her interest to her
son, who, in accordance with his preconceived notions on the subject,
commenced the erection, in Allegheny, in 1813, of one of the most
extensive works in the West, on the ten-acre out-lot bounded by the
West Commons, Water Lane (now Western Avenue), out-lots Nos. 275, 29,
and 30. It was known and designated as out-lot No. 276 in the 'Reserve
Tract opposite Pittsburg.' Mr. Irwin successfully carried on the
business until Jan. 1, 1835, when he associated with him his son
Henry, under the name of John Irwin & Son." _Parke's Recollections of
seventy years._


"Mr. Charles Rosenbaum has established a shop for making Piano Fortes,
which are of superior quality. They are equal in elegance of
workmanship, and in tone, to any imported. We are happy to hear that
his success meets his most flattering expectation." _Cramer's
Almanack, 1816._


"Knitting needle making has been commenced by Messrs. Frethy and
Pratt. In New-York pin making is going on lively. It is hoped our
females will be well supplied with these articles especially with the
first." _Cramer's Navigator, 1817._


"Trunks are made smartly by J. M. Sloan, who wants for this purpose
deer skins with the hair on.

Stocking weaving, for want of encouragement, perhaps goes on but
slowly. We see no reason why a stocking cannot be wove as cheap and as
good here as in any other part of the world.

Brush-making. Mr. Blair conducts this business to great advantage and
manufactures vast quantities of brushes. Much more could be done were
the farmers more careful of their hogs' bristles." _Cramer's
Navigator, 1817._



Traveling Eastward


QUICK TRANSPORTATION.

"In the course of the present week, waggons have arrived at
Pittsburgh, in _thirteen days from Philadelphia_, with loads of 3500
lbs. and upwards." _Mercury, May 11, 1816._


"Two good safe and easy Stages Will leave Pittsburgh for Philadelphia
on the 27th or 28th inst. and will offer a pleasant conveyance for
four persons on very accommodating terms. Apply at the Branch Bank on
Second street or at the office of the Pittsburgh Gazette." _Gazette,
1816._


"Near Philadelphia, the single team of eight or nine horses is seen;
in the lower parts of Maryland and Virginia, the light three-horse
team is common; while in this country, the heavy Lancaster waggon,
drawn by five or six horses, which vie in stature with the elephant,
is continually before us. The extreme slowness of these overland
sloops, often attracted our notice." _Thomas's Travels through the
western country in 1816._


"Before the time of railroads between the east and west of the
Allegheny mountains, the freight business to the Monongahela was
carried on by means of the Conestoga road wagons drawn by six horses.
By this way the freight to Pittsburgh was carried exclusively, but
after the completion of the Pennsylvania canal, transportation was
divided between the canal-boat and the wagon. As early as 1817 12,000
wagons, in twelve months, passed over the Allegheny mountains from
Philadelphia and Baltimore, each with from four to six horses,
carrying from thirty-five to forty hundred weight. The cost was about
$7 per 100 weight, in some cases $10. To transport one ton of freight
between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, therefore, would cost about $140,
and in so doing two weeks, at least, of time would be consumed." _Van
Voorhis's Old and new Monongahela._


"The standard wagon for heavy work was the 'Conestoga.' The bed was
low in the center and high at each end. The lower part of the bed was
painted blue. Above this was a red part about a foot wide which could
be taken off when necessary, and these with the white canvas covering,
made the patriotic tri-color of the American flag, though this was
probably unintentional. Bells were often used in all seasons of the
year though not strings of bells such as were afterwards used in
sleighing. The wagoner's bells were fastened to an iron bow above the
hames on the horses and were pear shaped and very sweet toned. Perhaps
they relieved the monotony of the long journey over the lonely pike."
_Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"With the Conestoga wagons originated our modern 'stogie' cigars which
have become so common in Pittsburg and which have been in recent
years, sent from Pittsburg to every section of the Union. They were
made in that day of pure home grown tobacco and being used very
largely at first by the Conestoga wagoners, took the name 'stogies'
which clings to them yet." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._


"There was almost a continuous stream of four or six horse wagons
laden with merchandise, going west and returning with the product of
the Ohio Valley to supply the eastern cities. These wagons journeyed
mostly between Pittsburg and Philadelphia and Baltimore. The wagoners
generally stopped at a wayside inn which was less expensive than at
the inns in the villages. Wagoners cared little for style but demanded
an abundance while the stage-coach passengers demanded both. The
wagoner invariably slept on a bunk which he carried with him and which
he laid on the floor of the big bar-room and office of the country
hotel. Stage drivers and their passengers stopped at the best hotels
and paid higher prices. For the purpose of feeding his horses in the
public square, the wagoner carried a long trough which at night he
fastened with special irons to the tongue of the wagon.... An old
gentleman told the writer that he had once seen 52 wagons in an
unbroken line going towards Pittsburg on this pike. They were
Conestoga wagons with great bowed beds covered with canvas, and none
of them were drawn by less than four, while many of them had six
horses. The old fashioned public square which kept them over night
must have been a good sized one. The public squares on this turnpike
were usually from three to four hundred feet long and from two to
three hundred feet wide. Some of the older villages had two squares
separated a short distance from each other, but this was generally
brought about by a rivalry among two factions when the town was first
laid out." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"When a village was laid out along the pike there was usually a public
square in its center, and at least two corners of this public square
were set apart for taverns. This square generally called a diamond,
was not intended as a place of ornament as it usually is now, but was
for special purposes. There the wagons laden with freight stood over
night, and as a general rule in all kinds of weather, the horses were
blanketed, fed and bedded in the public square. Upon these wagons were
transported nearly all the goods between Philadelphia and Pittsburg."
_Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"An account has been furnished us by Mr. Alexander Thompson, who
resides on the Turnpike road four miles and a half from Pittsburgh,
from which it appears, that from the 1st of January, 1815 to the 31st
of December 1815, inclusive, 5,800 road waggons, laden with
merchandize &c. passed his farm for Pittsburgh. The greater part of
these waggons returned loaded with cordage, salt petre, &c. to the
east of the mountains.

The waggons with iron from the Juniata and other iron works, are not
included in the above." _Gazette, Jan. 27, 1816._


"Recurring to my old plan of estimation, I passed on my road from
Chambersburgh to Pittsburgh, being 153 miles, one hundred and three
stage-waggons, drawn by four and six horses, proceeding from
Philadelphia and Baltimore to Pittsburgh,--seventy-nine from
Pittsburgh to Baltimore and Philadelphia,--sixty-three waggons, with
families, from the several places following:--twenty from
Massachusetts,--ten from the district of Maine,--fourteen from
Jersey,--thirteen from Connecticut,--two from Maryland,--one from
Pennsylvania,--one from England,--one from Holland,--and one from
Ireland; about two hundred persons on horseback,--twenty on foot,--one
beggar, one family, with their waggon, returning from Cincinnati,
entirely disappointed--a circumstance which, though rare, is by no
means, as some might suppose, miraculous." _Fearon's Sketches of
America, 1818._


"Pittsburg is a cheap market for horses ... travellers from the east,
often quit their horses here, and take the river for New Orleans, &c.;
and on the contrary, those from the west proceed eastward from this
place, in stages. Thus, there are constantly a number of useful
hackneys on sale. The mode of selling is by auction. The auctioneer
rides the animal through the streets, proclaiming with a loud voice,
the biddings that are made as he passes along, and when they reach the
desired point, or when nobody bids more, he closes the bargain.

A complete equipment is, in the first place, a pacing horse, a blanket
under the saddle, another upon it, and a pair of saddle-bags, with
great-coat and umbrella strapped behind.

Women of advanced age, often take long journeys in this manner,
without inconvenience. Yesterday I heard a lady mentioned familiarly
(with no mark of admiration) who is coming from Tennessee, twelve
hundred miles, to Pittsburg with an infant; preferring horseback to
boating up the river." _Birkbeck's Notes on a journey in America,
1818._


"The _horses_, in this place, are a much larger breed than those
commonly raised in New-York; and as the utmost regularity in feeding
and currying prevails, their appearance is well calculated to excite
the admiration of strangers, from the eastward." _Thomas's Travels
through the western country in 1816._


"A common mode of selling horses is for the owner to gallop through
the street, announcing the amount of his last bidding. I have
witnessed several crying out, 'twenty-five _dallars_,' 'twenty-five
_dallars_,' twenty-five _dallars_;' and after half an hour's exercise,
they have been transferred, saddle, bridle, and all, to a new bidder,
for twenty-five _dallars_, fifty _sants_." _Fearon's Sketches of
America, 1818._



Taverns


"A requisite of the old-fashioned wagon or stage town hotel or of the
wayside inn was a large room used as an office and bar-room and as a
sleeping place for the wagoners. In it was a large open fireplace
which was abundantly supplied with wood in the early days, and later
with coal. Around this, when the horses were cared for and the
evening's diversion was over, the wagoners spread their bunks in a
sort of semi-circle with their feet to the fire, for they were said to
be much subjected to rheumatism, and this position was taken as a
preventative.... Wagoners drove in all kinds of weather and the
descent of a mountain or large hill was often attended with great
danger, especially when it was covered with ice. The day's journey of
a regular wagoner when heavily laden, was rather less than over 20
miles, and 100 miles in a week was a fair average.... The average load
hauled was about 6,000 pounds for a six horse team. Sometimes four
tons were put on, and even five tons which the wagoner boastfully
called 'a hundred hundred,' were hauled, but these were rare
exceptions." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._



Steamboats and River Traffic


"Many travellers and emigrants to this region, view the first samples
of the mode of travelling in the western world, on the Allegany at
Oleanne point, or the Monongahela at Brownsville. These are but the
retail specimens. At Pittsburg, where these rivers unite, you have the
thing in gross, and by wholesale. The first thing that strikes a
stranger from the Atlantic, arrived at the boat-landing, is the
singular, whimsical, and amusing spectacle, of the varieties of
water-craft, of all shapes and structures. There is the stately barge,
of the size of a large Atlantic schooner, with its raised and
outlandish looking deck.... Next there is the keel-boat, of a long,
slender, and elegant form, and generally carrying from fifteen to
thirty tons.... Next in order are the Kentucky flats, or in the
vernacular phrase, 'broad-horns,' a species of ark, very nearly
resembling a New England pig-stye. They are fifteen feet wide, and
from forty to one hundred feet in length, and carry from twenty to
seventy tons. Some of them, that are called family-boats, and used by
families in descending the river, are very large and roomy, and have
comfortable and separate apartments, fitted up with chairs, beds,
tables and stoves. It is no uncommon spectacle to see a large family,
old and young, servants, cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, fowls, and
animals of all kinds, bringing to recollection the cargo of the
ancient ark, all embarked, and floating down on the same bottom. Then
there are what the people call 'covered sleds,' or ferry-flats, and
Allegany-skiffs, carrying from eight to twelve tons. In another place
are pirogues of from two to four tons burthen, hollowed sometimes from
one prodigious tree, or from the trunks of two trees united, and a
plank rim fitted to the upper part. There are common skiffs, and other
small craft, named, from the manner of making them, 'dug-outs,' and
canoes hollowed from smaller trees.... You can scarcely imagine an
abstract form in which a boat can be built, that in some part of the
Ohio or Mississippi you will not see, actually in motion....

This variety of boats, so singular in form, and most of them
apparently so frail, is destined in many instances to voyages of from
twelve hundred to three thousand miles." _Flint's Recollections of the
last ten years, 1826._


"I reached Olean, on the source of the Alleghany River, early in 1818,
while the snow was yet upon the ground, and had to wait several weeks
for the opening of that stream. I was surprised to see the crowd of
persons, from various quarters, who had pressed to this point, waiting
for the opening of the navigation.

It was a period of general migration from the East to the West.
Commerce had been checked for several years by the war with Great
Britain. Agriculture had been hindered by the raising of armies, and a
harassing warfare both on the sea-board and the frontiers; and
manufactures had been stimulated to an unnatural growth, only to be
crushed by the peace. Speculation had also been rife in some places,
and hurried many gentlemen of property into ruin. Banks exploded, and
paper money flooded the country.

The fiscal crisis was indeed very striking. The very elements seemed
leagued against the interests of agriculture in the Atlantic States,
where a series of early and late frosts, in 1816 and 1817, had created
quite a panic, which helped to settle the West.

I mingled in this crowd, and, while listening to the anticipations
indulged in, it seemed to me that the war had not, in reality, been
fought for 'free trade and sailors' rights' where it commenced, but to
gain a knowledge of the world beyond the Alleghanies.

Many came with their household stuff, which was to be embarked in arks
and flat boats. The children of Israel could scarcely have presented a
more motley array of men and women, with their 'kneading troughs' on
their backs, and their 'little ones,' than were there assembled, on
their way to the new land of promise.

To judge by the tone of general conversation, they meant, in their
generation, to plough the Mississippi Valley from its head to its
foot. There was not an idea short of it. What a world of golden dreams
was there!

I took passage on the first ark that attempted the descent for the
season. This ark was built of stout planks, with the lower seams
caulked, forming a perfectly flat basis on the water. It was about
thirty feet wide and sixty long, with gunwales of some eighteen
inches. Upon this was raised a structure of posts and boards about
eight feet high, divided into rooms for cooking and sleeping, leaving
a few feet space in front and rear, to row and steer. The whole was
covered by a flat roof, which formed a promenade, and near the front
part of this deck were two long 'sweeps,' a species of gigantic oars,
which were occasionally resorted to in order to keep the unwieldy
vessel from running against islands or dangerous shores.

We went on swimmingly, passing through the Seneca reservation, where
the picturesque costume of the Indians seen on shore served to give
additional interest to scenes of the deepest and wildest character.
Every night we tied our ark to a tree, and built a fire on shore.
Sometimes we narrowly escaped going over falls, and once encountered a
world of labor and trouble by getting into a wrong channel. I made
myself as useful and agreeable as possible to all. I had learned to
row a skiff with dexterity during my residence on Lake Dunmore, and
turned this art to account by taking the ladies ashore, as we floated
on with our ark, and picked up specimens while they culled shrubs and
flowers. In this way, and by lending a ready hand at the 'sweeps' and
at the oars whenever there was a pinch, I made myself agreeable. The
worst thing we encountered was rain, against which our rude carpentry
was but a poor defence. We landed at everything like a town, and
bought milk, and eggs, and butter. Sometimes the Seneca Indians were
passed, coming up stream in their immensely long pine canoes. There
was perpetual novelty and freshness in this mode of wayfaring. The
scenery was most enchanting. The river ran high, with a strong spring
current, and the hills frequently rose in most picturesque cliffs.

1818. I do not recollect the time consumed in this descent. We had
gone about three hundred miles, when we reached Pittsburgh. It was the
28th of March when we landed at this place, which I remember because
it was my birthday. And I here bid adieu to the kind and excellent
proprietor of the ark, L. Pettiborne, Esq., who refused to receive any
compensation for my passage, saying, prettily, that he did not know
how they could have got along without me.

I stopped at one of the best hotels, kept by a Mrs. McCullough, and,
after visiting the manufactories and coal mines, hired a horse, and
went up the Monongahela Valley, to explore its geology as high as
Williamsport. The rich coal and iron beds of this part of the country
interested me greatly; I was impressed with their extent, and value,
and the importance which they must eventually give to Pittsburgh.
After returning from this trip, I completed my visits to the various
work-shops and foundries, and to the large glass-works of Bakewell and
of O'Hara.

I was now at the head of the Ohio River, which is formed by the
junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela. My next step was to descend
this stream; and, while in search of an ark on the borders of the
Monongahela, I fell in with a Mr. Brigham, a worthy person from
Massachusetts, who had sallied out with the same view. We took passage
together on one of these floating houses, with the arrangements of
which I had now become familiar. I was charmed with the Ohio; with its
scenery, which was every moment shifting to the eye; and with the
incidents of such a novel voyage." _Schoolcraft's Thirty years with
the Indian tribes._


"I have seen a pleasant anecdote of one of these (vessels, recorded in
the Picture of Cincinnati, published at Cincinnati,) she had entered a
port in the Mediterranean, and when the captain presented his papers,
the examining officer read in his clearance, Pittsburg, state of
Pennsylvania, 'Pittsburg, Pennsylvania,' said he, 'there is no such
port; your papers must be forged; here is some deception or piracy; we
shall detain your papers and ship till we see farther into this.' The
American captain tried for some time, in vain, to convince him; till
by the aid of the American consul and a map, he reluctantly admitted
the possibility of there being such a place, from which a ship could
be navigated, although two thousand miles from the ocean." _Palmer's
Journal of travels in the United States, 1818._


"A company, stiled the 'Ohio steam boat company,' has lately been
formed, who intend building steam boats to run between this place and
the Falls of Ohio. The dimensions of the boats will be 100 feet keel
and 20 feet beam. They contemplate having two running this fall or
winter, 1815-6....

This line of Steam Boats, though not attached to those belonging to
the Mississippi Steam Boat Company, will form a chain of conveyance
from New Orleans to this place, which must result very much to the
advantage and prosperity of Pittsburgh and intermediate towns."
_Cramer's almanack, 1816._


"Steam-boat, ark, Kentucky, barge, and keel-boat building, is carried
on to a considerable extent. Sea vessels have been built here, but the
navigation is too far from the sea, and attended with too much hazard
for it to answer. The following vessels, besides steam-boats, have
been built at Pittsburg and on its rivers: _ships_, Pittsburg,
Louisiana, General Butler, and Western Trader; _brigs_, Dean, Black
Walnut, Monongahela Farmer, and Ann Jean; _schooners_, Amity,
Alleghany, and Conquest, (_navigator_)." _Palmer's Journal of travels
in the United States and Canada, 1817._


"The _steam-boat navigation_, we are assured, is a losing concern. The
newspapers have announced the hopes of our western citizens, and the
editors now appear to be careful to conceal their disappointments. Two
large vessels of this description are lying near the _Point_, which
have not justified public expectations. Captain FRENCH, of
_Brownsville_, (fifty miles by water up the Monongahela and
thirty-five by land) has built two vessels of this kind, which it is
said have succeeded best." _Thomas's Travels through the western
country in 1816._


"The best mode perhaps in descending the Ohio, in time of low water,
is in keel boats.... Merchants are beginning to prefer this method for
safety and expedition; and instead of purchasing boats and taking
charge of them themselves, they get their goods freighted down from
Pittsburgh in keel boats by the persons who make them, and who make it
their business to be prepared, with good boats and experienced hands
for such engagements." _Cramer's Navigator, 1817._


"The manners of the boatmen are as strange as their language. Their
peculiar way of life has given origin not only to an appropriate
dialect, but to new modes of enjoyment, riot, and fighting. Almost
every boat, while it lies in the harbour has one or more fiddles
scraping continually aboard, to which you often see the boatmen
dancing. There is no wonder that the way of life which the boatmen
lead, in turn extremely indolent, and extremely laborious; for days
together requiring little or no effort, and attended with no danger,
and then on a sudden, laborious and hazardous, beyond Atlantic
navigation; generally plentiful as it respects food, and always so as
it regards whiskey, should always have seductions that prove
irresistible to the young people that live near the banks of the
river.... And yet with all these seductions for the eye and the
imagination, no life is so slavish, none so precarious and dangerous.
In no employment do the hands so wear out. After the lapse of so very
short a period since these waters have been navigated in this way, at
every bend, and every high point of the river, you are almost sure to
see, as you stop for a moment, indications of the 'narrow house;' the
rude monument, the coarse memorial, carved on an adjoining tree by a
brother boatman, which marks that an exhausted boatman there yielded
his breath, and was buried." _Flint's Recollections of the last ten
years, 1826._


"Three steamers were built at Pittsburgh in 1816, the 'Franklin,' one
hundred and twenty-five tons, by Messrs. Shiras and Cromwell; the
'Oliver Evans,' seventy-five tons, by George Evans; and the 'Harriet,'
forty tons, by a Mr. Armstrong of Williamsport, Pennsylvania.... Up to
1816 grave doubts existed as to the practicability of navigating the
Ohio by steamboats. A gentleman who in that year, with others, long
watched the futile efforts of a stern wheeler to ascend the Horsetail
ripple, five miles below Pittsburgh, afterwards wrote that the
unanimous conclusion of the company was that 'such a contrivance might
do for the Mississippi ... but that we of Ohio must wait for some more
happy century of invention.'" _Magazine of western history, 1885._


THE STEAMBOAT FRANKLIN

"The elegant steam-boat Franklin, was launched from the shipyard at
the Point, in this city, on Wednesday last." _Mercury, April 20,
1816._


"The Steam Boat Franklin, burden 140 tons, was launched from the Point
Ship Yard, on Wednesday morning last. The Franklin is owned by a
company of gentlemen in this city, and is intended as a regular trader
between here and New Orleans. The engine for this boat is constructed
on Bolton and Watt's plan, improved by Mr. Arthurs of this place."
_Gazette, April 20, 1816._


    Maysville, Dec. 24, 1816.

"The undersigned passengers in the Steam Boat Franklin, from
Pittsburgh, feel it a just tribute due to the proprietors and captain,
to express publicly their approbation of the very handsome manner in
which they have been entertained. Her accommodations, speed and
safety, as well as the polite attention of Captain Cromwell, are such
as will always insure a decided preference.

    Chas. Savage, _Massachusetts_.
    J. P. Cambridge, M.D., _Philadelphia_.
    Tho. Sloo, _Cincinnati_.
    John Trimble, _Kentucky_.
    Geo. P. Turrence, _Cincinnati_.
    Robert J. Baron, _London_.
    W. R. Ord, _London_.
    Louis Caenon, _France_.
    J. W. Simonton, _Philadelphia_.
    Daniel Lewis, _New York_.

The beautiful Steam Boat above named passed by this place on Tuesday
last." _Commonwealth, Jan. 6, 1817._


INTERESTING TO THE WESTERN PUBLIC

"On the 30th December, the steamboat Oliver Evans, departed from this
city for New-Orleans, laden with about forty tons freight and forty
passengers, and drew but thirty inches water, which is without doubt
less than ever known.... Her length is one hundred and twenty feet and
beam fourteen feet nine inches. She ascended the Allegheny when it was
high and rapid, at the rate of five miles per hour, and passed over
the ripple at Wainright's island, at such a rate as to cause people on
the shore to walk, briskly, to keep pace with her, and there remains
no doubt but that she is much the fastest vessel ever exhibited here."
_Mercury, Jan. 4, 1817._


THE STEAMBOAT HARRIET

"We had, on Tuesday last, the pleasure of a sail in the new steam boat
Harriett of _Pittsburgh_, owned by Mr. Joshua Armitage. She is
designed as a regular trader between this place and New-Orleans. She
is supposed to carry forty to sixty tons. Her engine and machinery
were built by Mr. J. Arthurs. They are simple in their construction,
and proved very complete in their operation. She ascended the
Allegheny, which was high and rapid, at about the rate of three miles
an hour; and ascended the rapid ripple at Wainright's island, with
perfect ease.--We feel happy in being able to announce this effort of
individual enterprize. It is the harbinger of the general introduction
of steam boat navigation on the western waters--and the day is not far
distant when _individuals_ as well as _companies_ will embark in such
useful improvements." _Mercury, Dec. 14, 1816._


THE STEAMBOAT DISPATCH

    Stubenville, May 31, 1816.

"The steam boat Dispatch, Capt. Bruce, arrived at this place on
Tuesday evening last about 6 o'clock, from Cincinnati, and departed
next morning for Pittsburgh.--This is the same boat that the Kentucky
papers made so much noise about as having been stopped and ordered
off from New-Orleans without a cargo, by the agents of Fulton and
Livingston. The Dispatch is a remarkable sailor, having beat the Aetna
seven days in the run from Natchez to the Falls. She made her passage
in 24 days, while the Aetna was 31 days.--The Dispatch has 24
passengers on board from Cincinnati, and has been 10 days on her
passage from Cincinnati to Stubenville. Capt. Bruce reports that in
his passage from Natchez to the Falls he counted over 2000 boats
floating down the river, and this in the day time only; others might
have passed him in the night which he did not observe." _Mercury, May
11, 1816._


THE STEAMBOAT VESUVIUS

"We are sorry to state that the beautiful Steam Boat Vesuvius,
launched about two years ago at this place, has been burned to the
water's edge, at New-Orleans. The Vesuvius was freighted with a
valuable cargo of dry goods and other commodities. The fire broke
out about 12 o'clock the night previous to her intended departure.
As she lay in the middle of the stream, no assistance could be
afforded her, and all the property on board fell a prey to the
flames." _Commonwealth, Aug. 6, 1816._


THE TRANS-ATLANTIC STEAMER

"We are on the eve of one of the greatest experiments, which has been
undertaken during the present age. A Steam boat is about to brave the
Atlantic, and cross from N.Y. to Russia. The consequences of this
enterprize who will predict? It may open a new era in the art of
navigation. It may dispense with the lagging and variable agency of
winds and waves. It may bring the two worlds nearer together--it may
shorten the passage from 25 to 15 days. A first experiment is
everything, who does not wish it success?" _Gazette, Aug. 23, 1816._

"We have heard it doubted (says the Virginia Patriot) whether the
steam-boat soon to leave New York for Russia, will have sails; or
those who go in it will venture to trust themselves to the efficacy of
steam alone. If without sails (though Columbus deserves more credit,)
those who first cross the Atlantic in a steam-boat will be entitled to
a great portion of applause. In a few years we expect such trips will
be common....

    Bold was the man, the first who dared to brave,
    In fragile bark, the wild, perfidious wave:

and bold will they be who first make a passage to Europe in a steam
boat. Jason crept along by the shore: Not so these adventurers: they
will have

    No port to cheer them on the restless wave."

    _Gazette, Sept. 3, 1816._



Ferries and Bridges


"Between 1764 and 1819 the only means of crossing these streams, at
Pittsburg, was by way of ferries. The first of these, it is believed,
was operated from the foot of Ferry street, Pittsburg to the opposite
shore, and this was the origin of the name 'Ferry street'.... Early in
the nineteenth century a ferry was established from the mouth of
Liberty street, called 'Jones Ferry.' Foot passengers desiring to
cross the river employed skiffs, while stock was taken over on
flat-boats. Such boats were pushed by means of poles, at low stages of
water, and by oars in high water periods." _Boucher's Century and a
half of Pittsburg._


"The Subscriber respectfully informs his friends and the public in
general, that he intends opening a new Ferry on the Monongahela River,
where he now lives, a few steps East of the mouth of Wood-street,
which will co-operate with Mr. Beltzhoover's new house on the opposite
side of the river, kept by Mr. Robert Wilson. He has been careful to
provide himself with good new crafts, and also good trusty ferrymen.
He expects to be able to give general satisfaction to those who may
please to favor him with their custom. As he is determined there shall
be no detention at the ferry, those wishing to cross the river on the
evening before the Market-day can be accommodated with storage for
their marketing free of charge. He intends keeping a supply of the
best Liquors. He flatters himself that his strict attention to
business will insure him a sufficient supply of the public patronage.

    WM. RALSTON,

    Pittsburgh, March 20.

N.B. Those wishing to take their Ferrage by the year, can have an
opportunity of engaging with him at any time.

    W. R."

    _Commonwealth, March 20, 1816._


STEAM BOAT FERRY

"A meeting will be held at E. Carr's Tavern, in Water Street, on
Wednesday evening, 3d April, at 7 o'clock, on organizing a Company to
establish a Steam Ferry,--Those persons interested in preserving the
present advantages of the western section of the City from being
wrested out of their hands, by the injudicious site chosen by the
Legislature for the Monongahela Bridge, are particularly requested to
attend." _Gazette, March 30, 1816._


"The first steps taken towards the erection of bridges at Pittsburgh
were as early as 1810. A charter was granted by the Legislature on the
20th of March of that year for two bridges, one over the Monongahela
and the other over the Allegheny; but circumstances interfered to
prevent their erection for several years. The bridge charter was
allowed to lapse, but a new one was granted by the Legislature
February 17, 1816, which was signed by the governor May 31, 1816. A
company organized under this charter July 8, 1816. The bridges were
constructed and opened to the public for traffic, the Monongahela in
1818 and the Allegheny in 1820." _Warner's History of Allegheny
county._


At an election held on the 10th instant for officers for the
Monongahela Bridge Company, the following persons were unanimously
elected:

    _President_--Wm. Wilkins.

    _Managers._

    James Ross, Oliver Ormsby, David Pride, Christian Latshaw, George
    Anshutz, Thomas Baird, Wm. M'Candless, Philip Gilland, James S.
    Stevenson, Benj. Page, Jacob Beltzhoover, Fred'k Wendt.

    _Treasurer_--John Thaw
    _Clerk_--John Thaw

    _Commonwealth, June 25, 1816._



The Newspapers


THE PITTSBURGH GAZETTE

Printed by John Scull, corner of Market and Front Streets. The Gazette
was published every Saturday morning at three dollars per annum. Later
in the year the Gazette was published on Tuesdays and Fridays.


"On the 1st of August, 1816, John Scull, the veteran editor,
relinquished the publication of the Pittsburg Gazette. He was
succeeded by Morgan Neville in the editorship of that journal, and his
son, John I. Scull, became associated with Mr. Neville." _Wilson's
History of Pittsburg._


"'The Pittsburgh Gazette' under the original proprietor, Mr. John
Scull, was the first establishment of the kind, west of the mountains.
On its first appearance, it was viewed as a meteor of the moment,
whose existence would terminate with the second or third number; and
the idea of deriving a subsistence from its publication, was classed
among the chimeras of a too sanguine temper. Our country was then a
'howling wilderness,' and the Ohio, whose fair bosom is now covered
with the 'white sails of commerce,' was then disturbed only by the
yell of the savage, who lay ambushed on its bank, or glided over its
surface, in his solitary canoe. But these obstacles, though
disheartening, were not sufficient to destroy the enterprize of the
Editor. He had turned his back on civilization and comforts of his
native place; he had deliberately subjected himself to the
inconveniences of emigration, and his was not the ardour to be damped
at the outset.... He became a citizen of Pittsburgh, when it was
little more than an Indian village; his interests grew with its
growth; he saw it rise into a manufacturing town; he has heard it
emphatically called the 'Birmingham of America;' and finally, he has
the triumphant satisfaction, of beholding in his own days, the village
of the desert, changed into the city of the west. He has succeeded
even beyond his expectations; he has run his moderate, unostentatious
course. The patronage he has received, was sufficient for his desires;
his editorial life here ends; with feelings acutely sensible of the
favors he has received, he now relinquishes to his son and successor
the 'Pittsburgh Gazette,' unstained by corruption, and free from
venality, but ever firm, he trusts, in supporting our palladium, the
freedom of the Press." _Gazette, Aug. 9, 1816._


THE COMMONWEALTH

Printed every Tuesday morning by C. Colerick for S. Douglas & Co. in
Diamond Alley, between Market and Wood Streets.


THE PITTSBURGH MERCURY

"'The Pittsburgh Mercury,' is published every Saturday, at the new
brick building, in Liberty-street, at the head of Wood-street,
opposite the Octagon Church; where the subscribers, advertising
customers, and other friends of the establishment, are respectfully
invited to call." _Mercury, Oct. 19, 1816._


"The kind of news material found in the columns of papers of those
days is entirely different from the style of material found today.
Local news is rarely ever given in the papers of an early day. As a
rule the subscriber read but one paper and local news could be handed
around by gossip from one neighbor to another, and what the subscriber
demanded in his paper was foreign news that he could gain in no other
way. The founding of new enterprises, marriages, or deaths of
prominent citizens, etc. found no place in the pioneer newspaper.
European news necessarily nearly two months old, long articles on the
management of public affairs, controversies carried on from week to
week between rival exponents on different theories, essays on morality
and amateur poetry, fill up the columns of nearly all the early
newspapers of Western Pennsylvania.... Their value to those who would
learn of early local history is found chiefly in the advertisements
and from these ... one may gather some important information
concerning Pittsburg's early days." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._



Churches


First Presbyterian Church

"In [1785] a bill was introduced into the Legislative Assembly, at
Philadelphia, to incorporate a 'Presbyterian Congregation in
Pittsburgh, at this time under the care of the Rev. Samuel Barr,'
which, after much delay, was finally passed on the twenty-ninth of
September, 1787. The Penns gave the site for this church....

In the Spring of 1811 Reverend Francis Herron became the pastor of
the First Church, which the year before had had a membership of
sixty-five. Dr. Herron's salary was six hundred dollars per annum. For
thirty-nine years he labored ceaselessly and wisely for the church and
congregation. In 1817 the church was enlarged, and the membership
steadily increased." _Killikelly's History of Pittsburgh._


Second Presbyterian Church

"The Second Presbyterian Church was organized ... in 1804, by those
members of the First Church to whom the methods used, regarding the
services in the First Church, were unsatisfactory. The next year Dr.
Nathaniel Snowden took charge of the congregation which worshiped ...
in the Court House and other places, public and private. Dr. John
Boggs came, but remained only a short time. He was replaced by the
Rev. Mr. Hunt, in 1809. The first edifice, on Diamond alley, near
Smithfield street, was built in 1814." _Killikelly's History of
Pittsburgh._


East Liberty Presbyterian Church

"Mr. Jacob Negley, whose wife had been a Miss Winebiddle, and
consequently, inherited much real estate, controlled practically what
is now known as East Liberty Valley, in the early days, called
Negleystown. He was largely instrumental ... in erecting a small frame
school building at what subsequently became the corner of Penn and
South Highland avenues. This was for the accommodation of the children
of the district, as well as his own. It was ... a long distance to the
then established churches, and Mr. Negley very often, for the benefit
of the neighborhood, invited some minister passing through, or one
from one of the other churches, to preach in his own house and later
in the school house. In 1819 the little school house was torn down to
make way for a church building." _Killikelly's History of Pittsburgh._


Reformed Presbyterian Church

"The First Reformed Presbyterian Church of Pittsburg, long afterwards
known as the 'Oak Alley Church,' was organized in 1799. Rev. John
Black, an Irishman of considerable intellectual force, who had been
graduated from the University of Glasgow, was its first pastor.... He
included, in his ministry, all societies of the same persuasion in
Western Pennsylvania. He preached here until his death on October 25,
1849." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


Roman Catholic Church

"The number of Catholics prior to 1800, in what is now Allegheny
county, must have been very small. They were visited occasionally by
missionaries traveling westward.... [These] priests, ministering to a
few scattered families, celebrating Mass in private houses, fill up
the long interval between the chapel of the 'Assumption of the Blessed
Virgin of the Beautiful River' in Fort Duquesne, and 'Old St.
Patrick's Church,' which was begun in 1808.

Rev. Wm. F. X. O'Brien, the first pastor, was ordained in Baltimore,
1808, and came to Pittsburg in November of the same year, and at once
devoted himself to the erection of ... 'Old St. Patrick's.' It stood
at the corner of Liberty and Washington streets, at the head of
Eleventh street, in front of the new Union Station.... The structure
was of brick, plain in design and modest in size, about fifty feet in
length and thirty in width. Rt. Rev. Michael Egan dedicated the Church
in August 1811, and the dedication was the occasion of the first visit
of a Bishop to this part of the State." _St. Paul's Cathedral record._


Protestant Episcopal Church

"The building of the first Trinity Church was begun about the time it
was organized and chartered, 1805. It occupied a triangular lot at the
corner of Sixth, Wood and Liberty streets. It was built in an oval
form that it might more nearly conform to the shape of the three
cornered lot and for this reason was generally known as the 'round
church.' Rev. Taylor in his latter years became known as 'Father'
Taylor. He remained with the church as its rector until 1817, when he
resigned." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


First German United Evangelical Protestant Church

"When John Penn, jr., and John Penn presented land to the Presbyterian
and Episcopal churches of Pittsburgh they, at the same time, deeded
the same amount to the already organized German Evangelical
congregation; the land given to them was bounded by Smithfield street,
Sixth avenue, Miltenberger and Strawberry alleys. No church was built
on this grant, however, until some time between 1791-94, and it was of
logs. This was ... replaced in 1833 by a large brick building, which
had the distinction of a cupola, in which the first church bell in
Pittsburgh was hung." _Killikelly's History of Pittsburgh._


Methodist Episcopal Church

"In June, 1810, a lot was purchased for the first [Methodist] church
built in the city. It was situated on Front street, now First street,
nearly opposite ... the present Monongahela House. The erection of a
church was commenced at once, for on August 26th of that year Bishop
Asbury preached on the foundation of it. His journal says: 'Preached
on the foundation of the new chapel to about five hundred souls. I
spoke again at 5 o'clock to about twice as many. The society here is
lively and increasing in numbers.' The building was a plain brick
structure, 30 × 40 feet. We do not know certainly when it was
completed, but probably in the autumn of 1810.

In this church the society continued to worship in peace and
prosperity for eight years. But near the close of this period it had
become too small, and a new and larger one became a necessity.
Consequently, in May, 1817, three lots were purchased on the corner of
Smithfield and Seventh streets, and the erection of a larger church
commenced. It was completed the following year." _Warner's History of
Allegheny county._


Baptist Church

"The first church of this denomination in Pittsburg was organized in
April, 1812, when the city had about five thousand people. It was an
independent organization and included about six families with perhaps
not more than twelve people in all who had come from New England. The
chief organizer and pastor was Rev. Edward Jones, also from New
England. The society was too poor then to build a church, but
worshiped in private houses and in rented halls." _Boucher's Century
and a half of Pittsburg._



Schools


"Robert Steele, who afterward became a Presbyterian preacher, opened a
school in Pittsburg in January, 1803, at his house on Second
street.... His rates were four dollars per quarter. In 1803, a teacher
named Carr opened a school for both boys and girls. The next year he
advertised that his school was moved to larger quarters over Dubac's
store, where he probably taught till 1808, when he opened a boarding
school for boys. In 1818 he removed his school to Third street where
Mrs. Carr 'instructed young ladies in a separate room in the usual
branches, and in all kinds of needle work.' William Jones began a
school in 1804, and charged but two dollars per quarter for tuition.
In February, 1808, Samuel Kingston opened a school in a stone house on
Second street.... A teacher named Graham opened a school on Second
street, using the room formerly occupied by Mr. Kingston, in which he
proposed to give his pupils an English and classical education on
moderate terms. The advertisement stated that Mrs. Graham would at the
same time open a school for 'young ladies' in an adjoining room, and
that she would instruct them in all branches of an English education
and in needle work. In 1811 Thomas Hunt opened a school 'for the
instruction of females exclusively.' The hours he advertised were from
8 to 12 a.m., and from 2 to 5 p.m.... In the same year this
advertisement appears: 'Messrs. Chute and Noyes' evening school
commences the first of October next. They also propose on Sabbath
morning, the 22 instant, to open a Sunday morning school to commence
at the hour of eight a.m., and continue until ten. They propose to
divide the males and females into separate departments. The design of
the school is to instruct those who wish to attend, the Catechism and
hear them read the Holy Scriptures. No pecuniary compensation is
desired, a consciousness of doing good will be an ample reward.' In
1812 John Brevost opened a French school, and with his wife and
daughter opened a boarding school in connection with it in 1814. Their
terms were, 'for reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar,
history and geography, with the use of maps, globes, etc., $8.00
quarterly. Playing on the piano, $10.00 quarterly; vocal music, $5.00
quarterly. Drawing and painting of flowers, $6.00 quarterly. French
language, $5.00 quarterly. Boarding $37.00, payable in advance.
Dancing, books, materials, drawing, sewing, bed and bedding to be paid
for separately or furnished by parents.' Mrs. Gazzam had opened a
seminary for young ladies by this time, and advertised its removal to
Fifth street. Her pupils were instructed in the elementary studies of
an English education, and in needle work at four dollars per quarter.
She taught them to cut, make and repair their clothes. The pupils were
permitted to visit their homes once each week, but no young men were
allowed to visit them unless attended by a servant. She boarded them
for $125 per year. The two sisters, Miss Anna and Arabella Watts,
instructed young ladies solely in needle work. In almost all schools
needle work was a requisite part of the education of young women. In
fact it was considered the all important part of a woman's training
and not infrequently other branches were taught if required, or if
thought necessary." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


CITY ACADEMY

"The subscriber, respectfully informs his fellow citizens, and others,
that he has happily secured the co-operation of Mr. Edward
Jones--hopes their most sanguine expectations, relative to his
seminary, will be fully justified.

All the most important branches of education, taught as in the best
academies, on either side the Atlantick.--Mathematics in general, as
in the city of _Edinburgh_.--During four years, the subscriber taught
the only Mathematical school in the capital of New-Hampshire.

A class of young gentlemen will shortly commence the study of
Navigation, Gunnery, Bookkeeping, Geography and English grammar.
George Forrester." _Mercury, May 18, 1816._


THE LANCASTER SCHOOL.

"Will continue at the room where it is now kept in Market street. In
addition to the common branches of reading, orthography, etc., the
teacher gives lessons in English grammar, geography and Book-keeping.
Penmanship is taught on a most approved system at all hours.

To those who are acquainted with this mode of instructing children,
its superior excellence need not be pointed out, and such as have
never seen a school on this plan in actual operation, and are not
intimately conversant with its theory, are invited (if they have the
curiosity) to visit the institution in Market street; where, although
the number of pupils is small, yet the school will afford a sufficient
illustration of the Lancaster system to convince the most incredulous
that 500 or even 1000 pupils by the aid of this wonderful invention,
may be taught with prodigious facility by a single teacher."
_Commonwealth, April 3, 1816._


UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

"The first charter to an institution of learning west of the mountains
granted by the legislature of Pennsylvania, February 28, 1787, created
the Pittsburg Academy. The school was in existence earlier than
this....

The principals of the academy from the very beginning were men of high
attainments, some of them attaining great distinction. George Welch,
the first principal, took office April 13, 1789. Rev. Robert Steele,
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Rev. John Taylor, Mr. Hopkins
and James Mountain successively were at the head of the academy. From
1807 to 1810, Rev. Robert Patterson, of excellent fame, successfully
carried on the work. He was succeeded in the latter year by Rev.
Joseph Stockton, author of the 'Western Calculator' and 'Western
Spelling Book,' who continued in office until the re-incorporation of
the academy as the Western University of Pennsylvania, in 1819."
_Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._



Libraries


"It was not ... until the fall of 1813, that the question of a
community Library took definite shape, when in response to the efforts
'of many leading and progressive citizens,' there was organized 'The
Pittsburgh Library Company.' On the evening of November 27, 1813,
about 40 representative people assembled in the spacious 'bar room' of
the 'Green Tree Inn,' at the northwest corner of Fifth and Wood
streets, where the First National Bank now stands, and took the
initiative in the formation of Pittsburgh's first real public
library.... Its first president was the Rev. Francis Herron, for 40
years pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. The secretary was
Aquila M. Bolton, 'land broker and conveyancer.' The treasurer was
Col. John Spear.... Quite a sum of money was subscribed by citizens
generally for the purchase of books, while many valuable volumes were
either contributed or loaned by members. Messrs. Baldwin, O'Hara,
Wilkins and Forward being especially mentioned for their generosity in
this connection. The first head-quarters of the library were in rooms
'on Second street, opposite Squire Robert Graham's office,' who at
that time dispensed even handed justice at the northeast corner of
Market and Second streets. Here the library remained until the county
commissioners set aside a commodious room in the Court House for its
use." _A. L. Hardy, in Gazette-Times, 1913._


"The triennial meeting of the shareholders [of the Pittsburgh Library
Company] was convened at their new library room, in Second street,
opposite Squire Graham's office, at six o'clock, Monday evening,
December thirtieth, 1816. The following gentlemen were then elected by
ballot to serve as a Board of Directors for the ensuing three years,
viz: George Poe, president; Aquila M. Bolton, secretary; Lewis
Bollman, treasurer; James Lea, Benjamin Bakewell, Robert Patterson,
Walter Forward, Alexander Johnson, jr., William Eichbaum, jr.,
Benjamin Page, Alexander McClurg, J. P. Skelton, Ephraim Pentland,
Charles Avery, J. R. Lambdin, directors." _Killikelly's History of
Pittsburgh._


"It has been published, that the Library of this city contains two
thousand volumes. Through the politeness of J. Armstrong, the
librarian, I gained admittance, and having examined the catalogue, am
enabled to state that the whole collection is only about five hundred
volumes. The books, however, are well chosen, and of the best
editions. How the error originated is of no consequence except to him
who made it." _Thomas's Travels through the western country in 1816._



The New Books of 1816


    Austen. Emma.
    Byron. Childe Harold (Canto III).
      The dream.
      Hebrew melodies.
      Parisina.
      Prisoner of Chillon.
      Siege of Corinth.
    Coleridge. Christabel.
    Crabbe. Dictionary of English synonymes.
    D'Israeli. Character of James I.
    Goethe. Italianische reise.
    Hunt. A story of Rimini.
    Moore. Elegy on Sheridan.
      Irish melodies.
    Peacock. Headlong Hall.
    Scott. Antiquary.
      Black dwarf.
      Guy Mannering.
      Lord of the Isles.
      Old Mortality.
    Shelley. Alastor.
    Southey. Carmen triumphale.
    Wordsworth. Poems.
      White doe of Rylstone.



The Theatre


"There were in 1808 two dramatic societies in Pittsburg that were
important enough to receive notice in the newspapers. The one was
composed of law students and young lawyers and the other was composed
of mechanics. The object of these societies was to study the poets and
dramatic literature and to give public performances in the court
house. William Wilkins ... was a member and took a leading part in
the entertainments given by these societies. There was no way for
theatrical companies from the East to reach Pittsburg prior to 1817,
save by the state road, which was scarcely passable for a train of
pack horses, yet they came even as early as 1808 and performed in
a small room, which was secured for them when the court room was
occupied. In 1812 a third dramatic society called the Thespian Society
was organized among the young men and young women of Pittsburg.

The society numbered among its members the brightest and best bred
young people of the city, most of whom took part in each performance.
They were given in a room on Wood street, in a building known as
Masonic Hall." _Boucher's Century and a half of Pittsburg._


"The Theatre of this City has been now opened nearly a fortnight, and
the managers although they have used every exertion to please, in the
selection of their pieces, have not been enabled to pay the contingent
expenses of the House. This is a severe satire on the taste of the
place.

Tomorrow [Wednesday] evening we understand that the 'Stranger' is to
be produced--we hope under auspices more favorable to the managers
than heretofore. The part of the Stranger is to be performed by a
Young Gentleman of the City, who has never before graced the
Boards.--If report speaks correctly of his talents, he bids fair to
excel any person who has yet appeared upon the stage on this side the
Mountains. It is hoped that this novelty, together with the correct
and manly acting of Mr. Savage, a stranger here, and the chastened
elegance which Mrs. Savage is said to exhibit, will attract to the
Theatre, for this one evening at least, the friends to this rational
amusement." _Commonwealth, Nov. 12, 1816._


On Friday evening, June 7, will be presented, Shakespear's celebrated
comedy, in 3 acts called

    Catharine & Petruchio
    after which, a much admired comic opera called
    The Highland Reel.
    For particulars, see bills.

And, that every person should have the opportunity of seeing the most
splendid spectacle ever exhibited in Pittsburgh, on Saturday evening,
June 8, will be presented, the grand romantic drama, called

    Timour the Tartar;
    or, the
    Princess of Mingrelia.

Which will positively be the last time, of its being performed, as the
scenery will be appropriated to other purposes.

With other Entertainments.

    For particulars, see box bills.


"A few days after the performance of Hamlet, Mr. Entwistle, the
manager, had for his benefit, that irresistibly amusing burlesque,
'Hamlet Travestie.' His line of acting is a broad-farce caricature of
that of Liston. He personated the modern Danish prince. The audience
were solemn, serious, and dull. The affecting entrance of the deranged
Ophelia, who, instead of rosemary, rue, &c. had an ample supply of
turnips and carrots, did not move a muscle of their _intelligent
faces_--the ladies, indeed, excepted, who evinced by the frequent use
of their pocket handkerchiefs, that their sympathies were engaged on
the side of the love-sick maiden. Some who had seen the original
Hamlet for the first time a few evenings before, gave vent to their
criticisms when the curtain fell. They thought Mr. Entwistle did not
look sufficiently grave; and that, as it was his benefit, he acted
very dishonourably in shaving (cheating) them out of two acts; for
that they guessed when Mr. Hutton played _that'ere_ king's mad son, he
gave them five acts for their _dallar_. Mr. ---- assured me that on
the following morning, a respectable lawyer of Pittsburgh met him, and
said, 'I was at the play last night, Sir, and do not think that Mr.
Entwistle acted Hamlet quite so well as Mr. Hutton.'" _Fearon's
Sketches of America, 1818._


_Thespian Society_

The Public are respectfully informed that on this evening, Jan. 14th,
will be presented the much admired Drama, called

    the
    Man of Fortitude.

The proceeds to be appropriated to the benefit of the Sunday Male
Charitable School.

Recitation, Alonzo the brave or the fair Imogen.

Song, I have loved thee, dearly loved thee.--Mrs. Menier.

----, America, Commerce and Freedom.

    _After which the much admired Farce, called_,
    The Review,
    _Or, the_
    Wag of Windsor.

Doors to be opened at half past 5 o'clock, and the curtain to rise at
half past six. Box, one dollar; Pit, _Fifty cents_.


"A citizen of Pittsburgh, and a lover of the useful and rational
amusement of the Theatre, begs leave to observe to his fellow
citizens, that on Monday evening next Mr. Alexander will stand forward
for public recompense, for his exertions in his profession.... It must
be readily acknowledged that no young gentleman of more transcendent
talent ever graced the dramatic floor of Pittsburgh; it is, therefore,
but just that he who has so often made _us_ smile, should from _us_
receive a something to make _him_ smile in turn." _Commonwealth, Nov.
4, 1815._


"The Theatre in this city is now opened by the Thespian Society, for
the double purpose of gratifying the public taste by a moral and
rational amusement and adding to the funds of the Male Charitable
Sunday School. The _Man of Fortitude_ and the Farce of the _Review_
have been selected for representation this evening. Since society has
been released from the chains of superstition, the propriety of
Theatrick amusements has not been doubted by any man of liberal
feelings and enlightened understanding.... The stage conveys a moral
in colours more vivid than the awful and elevated station of the
preacher permits him to use--it is his coadjutor in good, and goes
with him hand in hand exposing vice to ridicule and honouring virtue."
_Gazette, Jan. 14, 1817._



The Morals Efficiency Society of 1816


"The Moral Society of Pittsburgh announce to the public their
formation. The object of their association is the suppression of vice
and immorality, as far as their influence shall extend, and they shall
be authorized by the laws of the commonwealth, and the ordinances of
this city....

We hereby give this public information of our intention to aid the
civil officers in the execution of the laws of this commonwealth, and
the ordinances of the city, against all vice and crime cognizable by
said laws and ordinances. Such as profane swearing, gambling, horse
racing, irregular tippling houses and drunkenness, profanation of the
Lord's day by unnecessary work of any kind, such as driving of
waggons, carts, carriages of pleasure and amusement, or other
conveyances not included under the exception of the laws of the
commonwealth in case of necessity and mercy." _Commonwealth, Nov. 26,
1816._



Fourth of July, 1816


"A numerous and respectable concourse of citizens met at Hog Island,
nearly opposite the village of Middletown, on the Ohio river, to
celebrate the birth day of American independence. Colonel James
Martin, was nominated president, and Captain Robert Vance,
vice-president.--The utmost harmony and unanimity prevailed; and it
was a pleasing sight to see citizens of opposite political sentiments,
bury their former animosity, and with great cordiality join in
celebrating the American anniversary. After performing the manual
exercise, the company partook of an elegant dinner, prepared for the
occasion, and the cloth being removed ... patriotic toasts were drank
with great hilarity, accompanied by the discharge of musketry, and
appropriate music....

The citizens retired at a late hour in the utmost harmony." _Mercury,
July 20, 1816._



Police


"When the borough was incorporated into a city [March 1816], the act
incorporating it authorized the authorities to establish a police
force, but there was none established for some years afterwards. The
act limited the city taxation to five mills on a dollar, and the
corporation could scarcely have paid a police force, even if one had
been required. The city authorities did, however, pass an ordinance on
August 24, 1816, establishing a night watchman, but soon found they
had no money with which to pay him. They accordingly repealed the
ordinance and for some years the city slept in darkness without the
benefit of police protection." _Boucher's Century and a half of
Pittsburg._



Eagle Fire Company


"In 1811 the second epoch in the company's history may be said to have
started, the younger element having gradually crept in and assumed
control of affairs, and the older men had to some extent lost interest
and perhaps gained rheumatism in the fire service. The company was now
re-organized on a more active and vigorous basis. The first engineer
to take charge under the new regime was William Eichbaum, who
continued to act in that capacity until 1832, when he was elected
First Chief Engineer of the Fire Department on its organization....

In the company organization the most important duty devolved upon the
Bucket Committee. Every citizen was required to keep two or three
heavy leather buckets with his name painted on them, and in case of
fire these were all brought on the ground. Two lines of men and women
were formed to the water supply, to pass the full buckets to and the
empty ones from the engine.... When the fire was extinguished all the
buckets were left on the ground till next day. Then, as many of the
inscriptions were obliterated, there was some stealing of buckets and
consequent fights. Certain folks ... picked out the best buckets, just
as in modern times some people get the best hats, or umbrellas, at the
conclusion of a party. The Bucket Committee, to put a stop to this,
decided to deliver all buckets to their respective owners." _Dawson's
Our firemen._



Water-Supply


"The water supply was gained, up to 1802, from wells and springs which
flowed from out the hillsides, these being sufficient for a small
town. An ordinance passed August 9, of that year, called for the
making of four wells, not less than forty-seven feet in depth. Three
of these were to be located on Market street, and were to be walled
with stone.... Wells, with the springs at Grant's Hill, furnished the
supply of water for public use until 1826." _Boucher's Century and a
half of Pittsburg._



Banks


"As early as the year 1815, there were only three banks in Pittsburgh;
viz., the Bank of Pennsylvania, located on the north side of Second
Avenue, between Chancery Lane and Ferry Street; Bank of Pittsburg,
south-west corner of Market and Third Streets; Farmers and Mechanics'
Bank, north side of Third, between Wood and Market Streets,--the
aggregate capital amounting to less than two million dollars, which
was considered abundantly adequate to the business of that period."
_Parke's Recollections of seventy years._


The Bank of Pittsburgh is situated on the s.w. corner of Market and
Third streets.

    President,

    William Wilkins,

    Directors,

    George Anchutz, Jun.
    Nicholas Cunningham
    William Hays
    James Morrison
    Craig Ritchie (Cannonsbr'g)
    James Brown (baker)
    Thos. Cromwell
    John Darragh
    Wm. McCandless
    John M. Snowden
    George Allison
    T. P. Skelton

    Cashier

    Alexander Johnston, Jun.

Open daily from 9 o'clock a.m. till 3 p.m., except Sunday, Fourth of
July, Christmas and Fast days. Discount day, Wednesday. Capital
$600,000. Shares $50 each. Dividends, first Mondays in May and
November. _Pittsburgh directory, 1815._


The Office of Discount and Deposit of the Bank of Pennsylvania is
situated on the north side of Second between Market and Ferry streets.

    President,

    James O'Hara.

    Directors,

    Joseph Barker
    Anthony Beelen
    Thomas Baird
    Ebenezer Denny
    Boyle Irwin
    George Wallace
    David Evans

    _Pittsburgh directory, 1815._


THE FARMERS' AND MECHANICS' BANK OF PITTSBURGH.

    Cashier
    George Poe, Jun.

Open daily from 9 o'clock a.m. till 3 p.m., except Sunday, Fourth of
July, Christmas and Fast days. Discount day, Thursday.

Is situated on the north side of Third, between Market and Wood
streets.

    President,

    John Scull

    Directors,

    William Eichbaum, Jun.
    John Ligget
    William Leckey
    Jacob Negley

    _Pittsburgh directory, 1815._



Post-Office

POST-OFFICE ESTABLISHMENT.


    Arrival and Departure
    of the
    MAILS,
    At the Post-Office--Pittsburgh

The Eastern Mail arrives on Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings,
and closes on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at 8 o'clock A.M.


The Western Mail arrives on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and
closes on Sunday at sunset, and Wednesday and Friday at 1 o'clock P.M.

The Beaver Mail arrives on Monday evening, and closes the same day at
sun-set.

The Erie Mail arrives on Monday evening and closes the same day at
sun-set.

The Steubenville Mail arrives on Sunday and Wednesday evenings, and
closes same days at sun-set.

The Huntingdon Mail, via Ebensburgh and Indiana, arrives on Tuesday,
and closes same day at half past twelve P.M....

As there are several places of the same name in the United States, it
is necessary that the directions should be particular, the states
should be distinguished, and, where it might otherwise be doubtful,
the counties....

Those who send letters may either pay the postage in advance, or leave
it to be paid by their correspondents.


RATES OF POSTAGE

For Single Letters

                                                 Cents

    For any distance not exceeding  40 miles    12
        Over  40 and not exceeding  90  do      15
        Over  90 and not exceeding 150  do      18-3/4
        Over 150 and not exceeding 300  do      25-1/2
        Over 500                                37-1/2

    _Pittsburgh directory, 1815._



The Suburbs


"_Birmingham_ is a small village across the Monongahela, about one
mile south of Pittsburgh. It has works for green glass, furnaces for
casting hollow ware, &c. from pigs, and a saw mill, which is moved by
a steam engine. The coal for all these, is used fresh from the mine,
without mixture, coaking or desulphuration.

Many of the balls for Perry's fleet, were cast in this foundery. But
instead of forming such ministers of havoc, the metal is now moulded
for softer hands, and _flat_ or _smoothing_ irons are produced in
abundance. These are ground on a stone which revolves by a band from
the steam engine." _Thomas's Travels through the western country in
1816._


"At a respectable meeting of the inhabitants of Birmingham and its
vicinity, convened at the school-house, on Friday evening the 28th of
March, 1816, in order to take into consideration the expediency of
erecting a Market-House, in said town; Nathaniel Bedford, was called
to the Chair, and George Patterson, appointed secretary.

The chairman having stated the object of the meeting, the following
resolutions were proposed and unanimously adopted, viz.--

RESOLVED, That a Market-House be built on the plan exhibited by Mr.
Benjamin Yoe.

RESOLVED, That the site of the structure be the centre of the square.

Thus, another thriving and Manufacturing Town, is added to the many
which have been established in the western section of Pennsylvania;
and social order, with its concomitants, the arts and sciences,
illuminate those wild and dreary shades, where lately none but the
prowling wolf, or the restless and cruel savage held their haunts."
_Mercury, April 20, 1816._


"At the beginning of the century the site of Allegheny City was a
wilderness. In 1812 a few settlers had made inroads upon the forest,
and had builded their cabins. Notice is called to the fact in the
minutes of the Presbytery of Erie, in April of that year, in the
following words: 'An indigent and needy neighborhood, situated on the
Allegheny, opposite Pittsburgh, having applied for supplies,' the
matter was laid before the Presbytery.

Joseph Stockton seems to have been the first stated minister,
preaching a part of his time there until 1819." _Centenary memorial of
Presbyterianism in western Pennsylvania._


"The facility for getting to and from Pittsburg [from Allegheny] was
quite a different matter from what it is to-day. The only highway (if
it may be called such) leading west from Federal Street to the Bottoms
at that early day, was the erratic Bank Lane, which owing to the
natural unevenness of the ground upon which it was located, and total
neglect of the authorities of Ross township to put it in a condition
for travel, ... was for many years only accessible for
foot-passengers." _Parke's Recollections of seventy years._


Lawrenceville was laid out in 1815 by Wm. B. Foster, and had begun
with the building of the United States arsenal.



Courts


"The Supreme Court holds a term in Pittsburgh, on the 1st Monday in
September annually, to continue two weeks if necessary, for the
Western District, composed of the counties of Somerset, Westmoreland,
Fayette, Greene, Washington, Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Mercer,
Crawford, Erie, Warren, Venango, Armstrong, Cambria, Indiana and
Jefferson." _Pittsburgh directory, 1815._


"Mr. Lacock submitted an important resolution for instructing the
committee on the Judiciary to enquire into the expediency of dividing
the state of Pennsylvania into _two Judicial Districts_, and
establishing a _district court_ of the U. States at the city of
Pittsburgh, which was agreed to." _Commonwealth, Jan. 6, 1817._



County Elections


"Henry Baldwin is elected to congress for the district composed of the
counties of Allegheny and Butler, by a majority of about 800 votes.

John Gilmore, William Woods, Samuel Douglass and Andrew Christy are
elected to the assembly.

Lazarus Stewart is elected Sheriff of Allegheny county, by a majority
of 181 votes.

Joseph Davis is elected commissioner by a majority of 249 votes, and
Charles Johnson, Auditor by a majority of 28 votes." _Gazette, Oct.
15, 1816._



The State Legislature


"The bill for erecting the two Bridges at Pittsburgh has passed both
houses. The sites are fixed at St. Clair-street for the Allegheny and
Smithfield-street for the Monongahela. The state subscribes $40,000 of
stock for each bridge.

A bill is about being reported for establishing a horse and cattle
market in the vicinity of Pittsburgh.

The bill for erecting Pittsburgh into a city has passed the senate and
is before the house, where it is expected to pass through without
opposition.

The bill for erecting a new county out of parts of Allegheny,
Westmoreland, Washington, and Fayette, is reported. This bill will
throw off the greater part of Elizabeth township from Allegheny
county. There have been no remonstrances against it received from this
county; but we understand that some have been received from the other
counties concerned.

The bill for erecting a Poorhouse for Allegheny county, it is expected
will pass." _Mercury, Feb. 24, 1816._


"We regret to say that neither from our correspondent at Harrisburg
nor from the papers printed there, have we been enabled to procure an
account of the legislative proceedings. We take two papers published
at the seat of government, but from some unaccountable reason they do
not contain the intelligence our readers require. We are reduced to
the necessity of picking up here and there from letters to
editors--from information derived from travellers--or from some other
like inconclusive sources of information, that intelligence with which
Journals published at the seat of government should supply us. They
ought to be the fountains of information to the mass of the community:
Instead of dabbling in politics and abusing or eulogizing party
leaders, they should deal in facts. The National Intelligencer we look
upon as the best model with which we are acquainted of a national
journal." _Commonwealth, Dec. 24, 1816._



Slavery


"Nearly all of the first residents of Pittsburg and vicinity who were
wealthy enough to afford the luxury were owners of slaves. The
Nevilles, John Gibson, James O'Hara, Alexander Fowler, Adamson
Tannehill, the Kirkpatricks and many others owned them, and several
continued to do so as late as the war of 1812. The old newspapers
contained advertisements for runaway slaves even as late as 1820."
_Wilson's History of Pittsburg._


"The year 1780 is memorable in the annals of Pennsylvania for the
passage of the act for the gradual abolition of slavery in this
State.... It provided for the registration of every negro or mulatto
slave or servant for life, or till the age of thirty-one years, before
the first of November following, and also provided, 'that no man or
woman of any nation or color, except the negroes or mulattoes who
shall be registered as aforesaid, shall at any time hereafter be
deemed, adjudged, or holden within the territory of this Commonwealth,
as slaves or servants for life, but as free men and free women.'"
_Egle's History of Pennsylvania._



Advertisements from the Newspapers of 1816


SHOT, POWDER, &c.

The Subscriber Has Just Received a quantity of first quality

    Patent Shot, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6.
    Good Rifle Gun Powder
    By the keg
    Country Segars, Scotch and Rappe Snuff
    Domestic Cloth, and Cotton Shawls.
    -- On Hand --

A General assortment of Merchandize, suited to the present and
approaching season.

    -- Also --
    Prime Pickling Vinegar
    Very strong and fit for immediate use

All of which will be sold Wholesale or Retail at the lowest market
prices, for Cash or approved Trade.

    ISAAC HARRIS,
    Diamond, Pittsburgh.

Will be received in Exchange Butter, Beeswax, Deer Skins, Clover and
Flaxseed, Flax and Tow Linen, Bags, Flax, Rags, and country produce
generally.


CANDLE MANUFACTORY

The subscriber, respectfully informs his friends and the public, that
he has erected a dip and candle manufactory in the Diamond,
Pittsburgh; where he will keep constantly on hand and offers,
Wholesale and Retail, dipt and mould candles of the best quality and
on the most reasonable terms.

    THOMAS COLMAN.

N.B. Economical Lanthern Candles, at 12 cents per bunch.


D. & J. CHUTE

Have on hand, a handsome assortment of Shoes, adapted to the season; a
few pairs Boots, suitable for laborers; also, Currant Wine, by the
barrel or smaller quantity. The above are offered for sale low for
cash or negotiable paper.

N.B. When servants call for shoes, it is necessary that an order be
sent.


PITTSBURGH PIPE MANUFACTORY,

ROUND HOUSE.

WILLIAM PRICE

Informs the merchants of the Western country that they may be supplied
with any quantity of long or short

    Smoking Pipes

as handsome and good as those imported--and hopes the merchants of
this place will give the preference to the Manufactures of our own
country.


OYSTERS

Gentlemen can be genteely accommodated at the City Hotel, with Oysters.

    EDWARD CARR.


STOP THE THIEF!

Taken from the subscriber on the 19th of November last, a Black Great
Coat, with a large Cape, the Cape buttoned on the collar, on the front
of the Cape is black glass buttons, and on the front and hips of the
coat is cloth buttons, taken by James Dunlap from his boarding house.
This Dunlap is a large man with a red face, and on the fingers of his
right hand two of the knuckles are out of joint.

Said Dunlap is by occupation a sort of a saddler, but if you wish to
see him you may go to the grog shop or brandy house, for there is his
place of abode in general. Any person that will take up and return
said Dunlap and Coat, shall receive the reward of Five Dollars.

    BENJAMIN CRANDALL.


THE BANKS

WEST OF THE MOUNTAINS,

Are most respectfully informed, that the Bank Bill Engraving and
Printing Office at Pittsburgh, shall in the future be kept constantly
open in such a style of elegance and punctuality as to merit the honor
of their patronage.

The Bank Paper manufactured for the office, by Messrs. Drum & Markle
of Greensburgh, is allowed by competent judges to be equal to any in
the United States.

    CHARLES P. HARRISON.


PRACTISING BALL.

Mr. Boudet's first Practising Ball will be on Saturday Evening the
26th instant, at his School Room.

N.B. No gentlemen can be admitted without being introduced by a lady
with whom Mr. B. is acquainted; nor can any gentleman be permitted to
dance in boots. Admission tickets for gentlemen to be had at any time
of Mr. B. Price One Dollar, pupils half price.


GERMAN REDEMPTIONERS.

Just arrived from Amsterdam, Tradesmen and Farmers, single and
married, who are willing to bind themselves for the payment of their
passage money, amounting to about ninety dollars, for a term of three
years, and their children being upwards of four years old until they
are of age on paying half passage money. The steady habits of these
people and their general character for honesty and industry it is
supposed would render them particularly desirable in a country, where
the procuring of assistance is difficult and uncertain. For further
particulars apply to

    BOSLER & CO. or to
    GLAZER & SMITH
    of Philadelphia.


READER ASK YOURSELF THE

FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

Do I, or do I not, owe the Printer? Shall I pay him his small
pittance?--Shall he stop his business for want of what I honestly owe
him? All just men will answer No! Then gentlemen, if such is your
answer, it certainly is a pleasing one to the Printer, who will, at
all times, be happy to attend the calls of those who have it in their
power to pay our just demand--for without money we must discontinue
our useful business.

    H. D. & Co.


BALL

Mr. Boudet, respectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen of
Pittsburgh and its vicinity, that he will give a Ball this evening,
(Friday the 24th inst.) at the court-house, at half past seven
o'clock, and will be conducted as they are in our populous cities
viz--the ladies to be invited, and gentlemen to pay one dollar on
their admission--understood, that such gentlemen as are strangers to
the professor, must come introduced by some person with whom he is
acquainted, without which they cannot be admitted.

N.B. No gentlemen allowed to dance in boots. Tickets to be had at the
door--price one dollar.


CHARLES S. FIMETON

Carpenter--Late of Chambersburgh, Respectfully informs his friends and
the public in general, that he has commenced the Carpenter Business,
in Front-street, in the same house occupied by William Sands, barber
and hair dresser; where all orders in his line will be thankfully
received and promptly attended to.


LITERARY NOTICES.

John Binns of Philadelphia proposes to publish a splendid edition of
the Declaration of Independence, which shall be in all respects
American: The _paper_, the _types_, the _ink_, the _designs_, the
_engravings_,--the publication throughout shall afford evidence of
what our citizens have done in politics, and can do in art.


TO BUILDERS.

The public are respectfully informed that they can be accommodated
with any quantity of Iron Cannon Borings. In cities where these
Borings can be procured, they are much used as cement for any kind of
mason work, exposed to the weather, or the action of water, such as
chimney tops, parapat or fire walls, piers of bridges, etc.

    M'CLURGS & M'KNIGHT.


OYSTERS

JOHN BYRNE

    At his Umbrella Manufactory, Fourth, Between Market and Ferry
    Streets.

Just received and for sale at his Oyster House, a few Kegs most
excellent Spiced Oysters.

He continues to make and repair Umbrellas and Parasols in the newest
manner, the smallest favour will be gratefully attended to.


GRAND NATIONAL LOTTERY

SECOND CLASS

Authorised by Act of Congress, for opening a Canal in the City of
Washington.

Begins drawing on the 30th September next.

    35,000 Dollars }
    25,000 Dollars } Highest prizes
    10,000 Dollars }

    Six Dollars the lowest Prize.

    Tickets for Sale

At the Store of William Hill for cash only, who will receive the
drawings regularly.


NOTICE

My wife Fanny having thought proper to withdraw herself from my
protection, without the least cause given on my part for her doing so,
I am compelled, though very reluctantly, to forbid all persons from
trusting her on my account, as I will pay no debts which she may
contract hereafter.

    J. TIBBETTE.

N.B. I also inform those who wish to be shaved in Imperial Style, that
I am always to be found at my Shop in Market Street, between Front and
Water Streets.


MECHANICS RETREAT,

At the Green Cottage, facing Mr. Jelly's Factory, Turnpike Road,

    Is Opened,

Where an assortment of Liquors of the very best quality are kept.
Turtle and other Soups every Wednesday and Sunday.--Share of public
patronage is solicited.


WANTED

At the United States' Arsenal, now erecting near Pittsburgh.

    Forty good Stone Masons, and Twenty Labourers,

to whom constant employment and good wages will be given for one or
two seasons.


Apply to the subscriber on the ground.

    CHRISTOPHER ARMSTRONG.


WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TIN MANUFACTURY.

THOMAS W. EAGLES,

Wood street, between Water and Front Sts.,

Has just imported an elegant assortment of the best English planished
Tin Ware,

    consisting of

    Dish covers in setts,
    Tea pots,
    Coffee Biggons,
    Hash dishes of all sizes, &c. &c. &c.
    Sheet Brass,
    Do. Copper,
    Mill saws,
    Iron and tinned rivetts,
    Brass kettles of all sizes, &c. &c.

The above are the first assortment that has been offered for sale west
of the mountains, and will be sold at the importers prices.

    Also, on hand an elegant assortment of Looking Glasses,

on better terms than at any other house in this city.

A small invoice of first rate Sadlery.

An assortment of Patent Iron Ware tinned inside.


BANK OF PITTSBURGH,

2d JANUARY, 1817

The Directors of this institution being desirous to procure an
eligible situation on which to erect a Banking House, hereby give
notice to persons holding such that they will receive at the Bank
sealed proposals for the sale of the same until the first day of
February next.

By order of the board,

    ALEX. JOHNSTON, JR. _Cashier_.


SIX OUT-LOTS FOR SALE

These Lots are situated on Grant's Hill, adjoining Adamson Tannehill,
Esq. The intrinsic beauty of these Lots, their contiguity to
Pittsburgh, the elegant and commanding view which they afford of the
town, the surrounding country, and the Monongahela, Allegheny and Ohio
rivers, sufficiently recommend them. For terms apply to

    JOHN M'DONALD,
    Smithfield Street.


WANTED

10,000 merchantable deer-skins, for which a generous price will be
given--if delivered within a month from this day.

    CHARLES L. VOLZ & CO.


REMOVAL

John Cowan, has removed his Bow String Manufactory, from Liberty
street, to the house lately occupied by Wm. Davis, in Diamond alley,
sign of the Bird in Hand; where he continues to manufacture
Bow-strings. He also keeps a convenient yard for Market people, to
leave their horses in, Liquors, etc. He returns the public thanks for
their liberal encouragement, and hopes to merit its continuance.


J. BYRNE,

JEWELLER, MARKET STREET,

Has just received a fresh supply of those justly esteemed and highly
approved "Medicines," prepared by W. T. Conway, No. 1, Hamilton Place,
Common Street, Boston.

Read! Try! Judge!

Then speak as ye Find.


TO BE LET

_And possession given on or before the first of April next._

A Three story brick dwelling House with Kitchen, Well, Smoke-house,
Smith shop, Stable, etc. in the yard. Situate in Virgin alley, between
Wood and Smithfield streets. For terms apply at the store of the
subscriber, in Market Street, nearly opposite the Black Bear.

    JOHN WILLS.


LOTS FOR SALE

IN THE CITY OF PITTSBURGH.

The Subscribers being appointed by the President of the United States
Joint Commissioners for the purpose of selling certain Lots in the
City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the property of the United States,
in pursuance of an Act of Congress, passed 2d August, A.D. 1815: In
virtue of the said appointment, they will expose for sale at Public
Vendue,

    Lots No. 55, 56, 57, & 58,

Being part of the site of Fort Fayette, bounded by the Allegheny
River, Hand and Penn Streets and an alley....

These Lots are as eligible as any vacant Lots in the City.


THE SUBSCRIBER OFFERS FOR SALE,

A HOUSE AND LOT,

Situate on the corner of Smithfield-street and Strawberry alley. The
lot is 20 feet front and 60 deep. The house stands on the back end of
the lot and rents for eighty-four dollars per year. There is room on
front for building 20 feet by 32. The property is subject to a ground
rent of seventy dollars per annum. For further particulars, apply to
the subscriber, in Virgin alley, between Wood and Liberty-streets.

    THOMAS COLLINGWOOD.


FIVE CENTS REWARD.

Ran away from the subscriber, on Sunday the 1st inst.

    Andrew Jeffery

An apprentice to the tin plate business. The above reward will be paid
if brought home, but no expences.

    GEORGE MILTENBERGER.


TO LET,

    and possession given immediately,

That well known tavern sign of Capt. Lawrence on the Turnpike road two
miles from Pittsburgh.--To a person qualified to keep a public house
the terms will be made very reasonable. Apply to

    WM. B. FOSTER.


FOR SALE

A Black Woman, who has six years and a half to serve, with two female
children, from 4 to 6 years of age, to serve till 28. The woman is
healthy, honest, industrious, and an excellent Cook. The owner having
no further occasion for their services will dispose of them on
moderate terms. Enquire at the Gazette Office.


FOR SALE,

A Black Girl, who has eleven years and eight months to serve. She is
young, active and healthy: a good house maid and equally qualified for
farm or tavern work. As the owner has no further use for her, she will
be disposed of on moderate terms and at an accommodating credit. Apply
at the Auction Store, Market street to

    D. S. SCULLY.


TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD

Ran away about the middle of September last, from the subscriber
living in Connelsville, Fayette county, Pa. a negro man named Pompey,
a slave for life, about fifty years of age, five feet six inches high,
very dark, small featured, bald head, active, much addicted to
drunkenness and impudent when in that state--has formerly resided in
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and affects to speak French. Took with
him a black cloth coat, a lindsey coatee, one pair blue cloth
pantaloons, one pair dimitty do and sundry other wearing apparel.
Whoever apprehends and secures the said negro so that the subscriber
may get him again, shall receive the above reward and reasonable
charges if returned.

    JOHN CAMPBELL.


TAKE WARNING.

FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD.

Ran away from the subscriber, on Saturday the 2nd day of March last, a
Negro Man named Jim, about 23 years of age, about 5 feet 10 inches
high, somewhat slender and not very black, about a chestnut colour,
has a small scar on one of his cheeks, I believe the right, the scar
appears to have been made with a knife when small, and is about one
inch long, just above the cheek bone. Whoever will apprehend said
Negro and confine him in any jail in the state of Pennsylvania or
Ohio, so that I may get him, shall have the above reward--and this is
to forewarn all persons from hiring or harbouring said Negro, under
the penalty of their lives, for after this notice, I am determined to
kill any man that I find him in the possession of, without he first
ascertains that he is legally free, and I hope all persons will be
cautious how they hire slaves.

    HEZEKIAH CONN.

N.B. If the above described Negro is apprehended and put in jail, a
letter to me at Frontroyal, Fredrick county, Virginia, will be
immediately attended to.


SIX CENTS REWARD.

Ran away from the subscriber on the 4th inst. a servant girl named
Nancy M'Carthy about 14 years of age had on when she went away a
cotton frock, green silk bunnot, fair complexion, light hair cut off
short. She is supposed to be gone to the new garrison, as she was
taken up there once before. I forewarn all persons from harbouring
her. The reward will be given, but no charges.

    WM. GRAHAM.


A FLAT-BOTTOMED BOAT

Was taken up the subscriber, living at the mouth of the Four Mile Run,
on the Ohio river, on the 21st inst. She is 50 feet long, 12 feet
wide--the gunnels and gunnel plank are oak, and the rest of her
poplar. She had on board two oars lying on deck, and no stearing oar.
The owner is desired to come and prove property, pay charges, and take
her away.

    WILLIAM BURGER.


$30 REWARD

Ranaway from the Subscriber on the 1st inst. an Apprentice to the
carpenter business, named

    Joseph Reever,

about 20 years of age, dark complexion about 5 feet 7 or 8 inches
high, long sandy hair, had on when he went away a black roram hat,
black velvet round about and pantaloons of the same, he took with
him sundry articles of his own clothing and stole one pair of gray
casimere and a pair of blue striped gingham pantaloons, also a green
striped waistcoat with silver buttons and rings, also one fine cambric
muslin shirt and an old linen one marked G. F. He has a cross on his
left arm and a representation of a buffalo on the calf of his right
leg below his knee and a figure 4 on his thigh made with Indian ink,
whoever takes up said apprentice and returns him to the subscriber
shall have the above reward all reasonable charges.

    GEO. FOULK.


THREE CENTS AND A POUND OF

OLD HORSE-SHOE NAILS

REWARD!

Strayed away from the subscriber on the 11th instant.

    John Donaldson,

an apprentice to the blacksmith business--aged 18 years--five feet 7
or 8 inches high--stout built--very slow in the motion--very fond of
playing ball and being idle--more proud of dress than of his work;--He
took with him no more clothes than what was on his back, which
consisted of one common shirt, a dark marsailles waistcoat, a dark
gray coattee and pantaloons, one pair stockings, one pair shoes half
worn, a neck-handkerchief, and one new black fur hat, made by Wm.
Church. No other marks are recollected. The above reward, no charges
and no thanks, will be given to any person who will return said stray.

    JAMES YOURD.


VALUABLE PROPERTY ON PERPETUAL LEASE

The subscriber will Let on a Perpetual Lease the Houses, Stabling, and
Lot of ground, situate on the corner of Wood and Fifth Streets, in the
City of Pittsburg, Containing 120 feet front on Wood Street and fifty
seven on Fifth Street. The Houses, Stabling and Lot is well known: the
sign of the Turk's Head. Any Person wishing to view the property, will
apply to the subscriber next door to the sign of the Turk's Head,
Fifth Street.

    G. STEWART.


WILLIAM MASSON

SAILMAKER--PITTSBURGH

Begs leave to inform the public, that he has received from
Philadelphia, a quantity of Russia Sail Duck--also, a quantity of
Blocks, of various sizes; and that he is ready to receive orders from
any place to make sails for boats or vessels of any size--likewise
sacking bottoms, either of country cloth or Russia duck.

From an experience of twenty years following the sea, he flatters
himself he will be enabled to give satisfaction to those who may want
any thing in his line.


BOAT LOST.

    _Lost at the time of the last Fresh of the River_,

    A handsome Boat,

Twenty feet keel, painted green outside, and red inside, a heart
painted on the stern, the moulding and stern painted yellow and a keel
from stem to stern. Whoever has taken up said boat, or will give
information where she may be found, shall be handsomely rewarded, on
application to

    CHARLES IMSEN, O'Hara's Glassworks.


TAKEN UP A DRIFT

In the time of the flood, in February last, a Broken Raft of Scantling
and Boards, & landed them near the foot of Sandy Creek Island, in the
Allegheny river. The subscriber supposing the owner would soon come,
and take care of his property, which he did not, and they lying in a
bad way, and a spoiling, he has drawn the raft, and secured it, and
requests the owner to come, and prove his property, pay charges, and
take it away.

    MICHAEL BRIGHT.



1816


"There is always a peculiar solemnity which impresses every thoughtful
mind on the birthday of another Year. The year one thousand eight
hundred and sixteen, with all its cares, with all its bustle, its
pleasures and its pains, has gone, and now mingles with the departed
dreams of our midnight slumbers. How many of us imagined while engaged
in the din and bustle and uproar of the world, that this era would
form an important epoch in the history of man? and yet all these
thoughts have now vanished, and scarce left a record on the pages of
memory behind!" _Gazette, Jan. 14, 1817._





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