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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 17, Slice 2 - "Luray Cavern" to "Mackinac Island"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 17, Slice 2 - "Luray Cavern" to "Mackinac Island"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE LUTHER, MARTIN: "... den Gegenschriften von Wimpina-Tetzel,
      Eck und Prierias, und den Antworten Luthers darauf ..." 'und'
      amended from 'and'.

    ARTICLE LYLY, JOHN: "What the further relations between them were
      we have no means of knowing ..." 'between' amended from 'beween'.

    ARTICLE LYRE: "Examination of the construction of the instruments
      thus identified reveals the fact that both possessed
      characteristics which have persisted throughout the middle ages to
      the present day in various instruments evolved from these two
      archetypes." 'identified' amended from 'indentified'.

    ARTICLE M: "... which survives in its earliest representations in
      Greek. The greater length of the first limb of m is characteristic
      of the earliest forms." 'survives' amended from 'survivies'.

    ARTICLE M: "The sound m can in unaccented syllables form a syllable
      by itself without an audible vowel, e.g. the English word fathom
      comes from an Anglo-Saxon fathm, where the m was so used."
      'English' amended from 'Enghlish'.

    ARTICLE MABUSE, JAN: "At Scawby he illustrates the legend of the
      count of Toulouse, who parted with his worldly goods to assume the
      frock of a hermit. " 'worldly' amended from 'wordly'.

    ARTICLE MACAQUE: "Mention of some of the more important species,
      typifying distinct sub-generic groups, is made in the article
      Primates." 'is' added.

    ARTICLE MACEDONIA: "... it contains a number of Greek word which
      are often replaced in the northern speech by Slavonic or Latin
      synonyms." 'words' amended from 'works'.

    ARTICLE MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ: "Machiavelli returned from Germany in
      June 1508." 'Machiavelli' amended from 'Michiavelli'.

    ARTICLE MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ: "He was exiled from Florence and
      confined to the dominion for one year, and on the 17th of November
      was further prohibited from setting foot in the Palazzo Pubblico."
      'further' amended from 'futher'.

    ARTICLE MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ: "It seems written to expose the
      corruption of domestic life in Florence, and especially to satirize
      the friars in their familiar part of go-betweens, tame cats,
      confessors and adulterers." 'familiar' amended from 'familar'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XVII, SLICE II

       Luray Cavern to Mackinac Island



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  LURAY CAVERN                      MACABRE
  LURCH                             McADAM, JOHN LOUDON
  LURGAN                            MACAIRE
  LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON          McALESTER
  LURISTAN                          MACALPINE, JOHN
  LUSATIA                           MACAO
  LUSHAI HILLS                      MACAQUE
  LUSIGNAN                          MACARONI
  LUSSIN                            MACARONICS
  LUSTRATION                        MACARSCA
  LUTE                              MACARTNEY, GEORGE MACARTNEY
  LUTHARDT, CHRISTOPH ERNST         MACASSAR
  LUTHER, MARTIN                    MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY
  LUTHERANS                         MACAW
  LUTHER LEAGUE                     MACBETH
  LUTON                             MACCABEES
  LUTSK                             MACCABEES, BOOKS OF
  LUTTERWORTH                       MacCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE
  LUTTRELL, HENRY                   M'CARTHY, JUSTIN
  LÜTTRINGHAUSEN                    McCHEYNE, ROBERT MURRAY
  LÜTZEN                            McCLELLAN, GEORGE BRINTON
  LÜTZOW, ADOLF                     McCLERNAND, JOHN ALEXANDER
  LUXEMBURG, DE MONTMORENCY-B.      MACCLESFIELD, CHARLES GERARD
  LUXEMBURG (district)              MACCLESFIELD
  LUXEMBURG (town)                  M'CLINTOCK, SIR FRANCIS LEOPOLD
  LUXEUIL-LES-BAINS                 McCLINTOCK, JOHN
  LUXOR                             McCLOSKEY, JOHN
  LUXORIUS                          M'CLURE, SIR ROBERT JOHN LE MESURIER
  LUYNES                            MacCOLL, MALCOLM
  LUZÁN DE SUELVES, IGNACIO         McCOMBIE, WILLIAM
  LUZ-SAINT-SAUVEUR                 McCOOK, ALEXANDER McDOWELL
  LUZZATTI, LUIGI                   MacCORMAC, SIR WILLIAM
  LUZZATTO, MOSES HAYIM             McCORMICK, CYRUS HALL
  LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID            McCOSH, JAMES
  LYALL, SIR ALFRED COMYN           McCOY, SIR FREDERICK
  LYALL, EDNA                       M'CRIE, THOMAS
  LYALLPUR                          MACCULLAGH, JAMES
  LYCAEUS                           MACCULLOCH, HORATIO
  LYCANTHROPY                       McCULLOCH, HUGH
  LYCAON                            M'CULLOCH, SIR JAMES
  LYCAONIA                          MACCULLOCH, JOHN
  LYCEUM                            M'CULLOCH, JOHN RAMSAY
  LYCIA                             McCULLOUGH, JOHN EDWARD
  LYCK                              MACCUNN, HAMISH
  LYCOPHRON                         MACDONALD, FLORA
  LYCOPODIUM                        MACDONALD, GEORGE
  LYCOSURA                          MACDONALD, SIR HECTOR ARCHIBALD
  LYCURGUS (Spartan)                MACDONALD, JACQUES ÉTIENNE ALEXANDRE
  LYCURGUS (Attic orator)           MACDONALD, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER
  LYCURGUS (Greek leader)           MACDONALD, JOHN SANDFIELD
  LYDD                              MACDONALD, LAWRENCE
  LYDENBURG                         MACDONELL, JAMES
  LYDFORD                           MACDONNELL, ALESTAIR RUADH
  LYDGATE, JOHN                     MACDONNELL, SORLEY BOY
  LYDIA                             MACDONOUGH, THOMAS
  LYDUS, JOANNES LAURENTIUS         MacDOWELL, EDWARD ALEXANDER
  LYE                               McDOWELL, IRVIN
  LYELL, SIR CHARLES                MACDUFF
  LYLY, JOHN                        McDUFFIE, GEORGE
  LYME REGIS                        MACE
  LYMINGTON                         MACEDO, JOSÉ AGOSTINHO DE
  LYMPH and LYMPH FORMATION         MACEDONIA
  LYMPHATIC SYSTEM                  MACEDONIAN EMPIRE
  LYNCH, PATRICIO                   MACEDONIUS
  LYNCHBURG                         MACEIÓ
  LYNCH LAW                         McENTEE, JERVIS
  LYNDHURST, JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY  MACER, AEMILIUS
  LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID                MACERATA
  LYNEDOCH, THOMAS GRAHAM           MACFARREN, SIR GEORGE ALEXANDER
  LYNN                              McGEE, THOMAS D'ARCY
  LYNTON and LYNMOUTH               McGIFFERT, ARTHUR CUSHMAN
  LYNX                              McGILLIVRAY, ALEXANDER
  LYON, MARY MASON                  MACGILLIVRAY, WILLIAM
  LYON, NATHANIEL                   MacGREGOR, JOHN
  LYONNESSE                         MACH, ERNST
  LYONS, EDMUND LYONS               MACHAERODUS
  LYONS, RICHARD BICKERTON LYONS    MACHALE, JOHN
  LYONS (city of France)            MACHAULT D'ARNOUVILLE, BAPTISTE DE
  LYONS, COUNCILS OF                MACHAUT, GUILLAUME DE
  LYRA                              MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ
  LYRE                              MACHICOLATION
  LYRE-BIRD                         MACHINE
  LYRICAL POETRY                    MACHINE-GUN
  LYSANDER                          MACÍAS
  LYSANIAS                          MACINTOSH, CHARLES
  LYSIAS                            MACKAY, CHARLES
  LYSIMACHUS                        MACKAY, HUGH
  LYSIPPUS                          MACKAY, JOHN WILLIAM
  LYSIS OF TARENTUM                 MACKAY
  LYSISTRATUS                       McKEESPORT
  LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS               McKEES ROCKS
  LYTHAM                            MACKENNAL, ALEXANDER
  LYTTELTON, GEORGE LYTTELTON       MACKENZIE, SIR ALEXANDER
  LYTTELTON                         MACKENZIE, ALEXANDER
  LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE BULWER-LYTTON  MACKENZIE, SIR ALEXANDER CAMPBELL
  LYTTON, EDWARD ROBERT BULWER-LYTTON  MACKENZIE, SIR GEORGE
  M                                 MACKENZIE, HENRY
  MAAS, JOSEPH                      McKENZIE, SIR JOHN
  MAASIN                            MACKENZIE, SIR MORELL
  MAASSLUIS                         MACKENZIE, WILLIAM LYON
  MAASTRICHT                        MACKENZIE (river of Canada)
  MABILLON, JOHN                    MACKEREL
  MABINOGION                        McKIM, CHARLES FOLLEN
  MABUSE, JAN                       MACKINAC ISLAND
  MACABEBE



LURAY CAVERN, a large cave in Page county, Virginia, U.S.A., 39° 35´ N.
and 78° 17´ W., near the village of Luray, on the Norfork & Western
railway. The valley, here 10 m. wide, extends from the Blue Ridge to the
Massanutton Mountain. The ridges lie in vast folds and wrinkles; and
elevations in the valley are often found to be pierced by erosion. Cave
Hill, 300 ft. above the water-level, had long been an object of local
interest on account of its pits and oval hollows or sink-holes, through
one of which, on the 13th of August 1878, Andrew J. Campbell and others
entered, thus discovering the cavern now described.

The Luray cavern does not date beyond the Tertiary period, though carved
from the Silurian limestone. At some period, long subsequent to its
original excavation, and after many large stalactites had grown, it was
completely filled with glacial mud charged with acid, whereby the
dripstone was eroded into singularly grotesque shapes. After the mud had
been mostly removed by flowing water, these eroded forms remained amid
the new growths. To this contrast may be ascribed some of the most
striking scenes in the cave. The many and extraordinary monuments of
aqueous energy include massive columns wrenched from their place in the
ceiling and prostrate on the floor; the Hollow Column, 40 ft. high and
30 ft. in diameter, standing erect, but pierced by a tubular passage
from top to bottom; the Leaning Column nearly as large, undermined and
tilting like the campanile of Pisa; the Organ, a cluster of stalactites
in the chamber known as the Cathedral; besides a vast bed of
disintegrated carbonates left by the whirling flood in its retreat
through the great space called the Elfin Ramble.

The stalactitic display exceeds that of any other cavern known. The old
material is yellow, brown or red; and its wavy surface often shows
layers like the gnarled grain of costly woods. The new stalactites
growing from the old, and made of hard carbonates that had already once
been used, are usually white as snow, though often pink, blue or
amber-coloured. The Empress Column is a stalagmite 35 ft. high,
rose-coloured, and elaborately draped. The double column, named from
Professors Henry and Baird, is made of two fluted pillars side by side,
the one 25 and the other 60 ft. high, a mass of snowy alabaster.
Several stalactites in the Giant Hall exceed 50 ft. in length. The
smaller pendants are innumerable; in the canopy above the Imperial
Spring it is estimated that 40,000 are visible at once.

The "cascades" are wonderful formations like foaming cataracts caught in
mid-air and transformed into milk-white or amber alabaster. The
Chalcedony Cascade displays a variety of colours. Brand's Cascade, the
finest of all, is 40 ft. high and 30 ft. wide, and is unsullied and
wax-like white, each ripple and braided rill seeming to have been
polished.

The Swords of the Titans are monstrous blades, eight in number, 50 ft.
long, 3 to 8 ft. wide, hollow, 1 to 2 ft. thick, but drawn down to an
extremely thin edge, and filling the cavern with tones like tolling
bells when struck heavily by the hand. Their origin and also that of
certain so-called scarfs and blankets is from carbonates deposited by
water trickling down a sloping and corrugated surface. Sixteen of these
alabaster scarfs hang side by side in Hovey's Balcony, three white and
fine as crape shawls, thirteen striated like agate with every shade of
brown, and all perfectly translucent. Down the edge of each a tiny rill
glistens like silver, and this is the ever-plying shuttle that weaves
the fairy fabric.

[Illustration: Luray Cavern. Scale 500 ft. to the inch.

   1. The Vestibule.        19. Chalcedony Cascade.
   2. Washington's Pillar.  20. Coral Spring.
   3. Flower Garden.        21. The Dragon.
   4. Amphitheatre.         22. Bootjack Alley.
   5. Natural Bridge.       23. Scaly Column.
   6. Fish Market.          24. Lost Blanket.
   7. Crystal Spring.       25. Helen's Scarf.
   8. Proserpine's Pillar.  26. Chapman's Lake.
   9. The Spectral Column.  27. Broaddus Lake.
  10. Hovey's Balcony.      28. Castles on the Rhine.
  11. Oberon's Grot.        29. Imperial Spring.
  12. Titania's Veil.       30. The Skeleton.
  13. Saracen's Tent.       31. The Twin Lakes.
  14. The Organ.            32. The Engine Room.
  15. Tower of Babel.       33. Miller's Room.
  16. Empress Column.       34. Hawes Cabinet.
  17. Hollow Column.        35. Specimen Avenue.
  18. Henry-Baird Column.   36. Proposed Exit.]

Streams and true springs are absent, but there are hundreds of basins,
varying from 1 to 50 ft. in diameter, and from 6 in. to 15 ft. in depth.
The water in them is exquisitely pure, except as it is impregnated by
the carbonate of lime, which often forms concretions, called according
to their size, pearls, eggs and snowballs. A large one is known as the
cannon ball. On fracture these spherical growths are found to be
radiated in structure.

  Calcite crystals, drusy, feathery or fern-like, line the sides and
  bottom of every water-filled cavity, and indeed constitute the
  substance of which they are made. Variations of level at different
  periods are marked by rings, ridges and ruffled margins. These are
  strongly marked about Broaddus Lake and the curved ramparts of the
  Castles on the Rhine. Here also are polished stalagmites, a rich buff
  slashed with white, and others, like huge mushrooms, with a velvety
  coat of red, purple or olive-tinted crystals. In some of the smaller
  basins it sometimes happens that, when the excess of carbonate acid
  escapes rapidly, there is formed, besides the crystal bed below, a
  film above, shot like a sheet of ice across the surface. One pool 12
  ft. wide is thus covered so as to show but a third of its surface. The
  quantity of water in the cavern varies greatly at different seasons.
  Hence some stalactites have their tips under water long enough to
  allow tassels of crystals to grow on them, which, in a drier season,
  are again coated over with stalactitic matter; and thus singular
  distortions are occasioned. Contiguous stalactites are often inwrapped
  thus till they assume an almost globular form, through which by making
  a section the primary tubes appear. Twig-like projections, to which
  the term _helictite_ has been applied by the present writer, are met
  with in certain portions of the cave, and are interesting by their
  strange and uncouth contortions. Their presence is due to lateral
  outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite,
  or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a
  diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its
  habitat _Mucor stalactitis_. The Toy-Shop is an amusing collection of
  these freaks of nature.

The dimensions of the various chambers included in Luray Cavern cannot
easily be stated, on account of the great irregularity of their
outlines. Their size may be seen from the diagram. But it should be
understood that there are several tiers of galleries, and the vertical
depth from the highest to the lowest is 260 ft. The large tract of land
owned by the Luray Caverns Corporations covers all possible modes of
entrance.

The waters of this cavern appear to be entirely destitute of life; and
the existing fauna comprises only a few bats, rats, mice, spiders, flies
and small centipedes. When the cave was first entered, the floor was
covered with thousands of tracks of raccoons, wolves and bears--most of
them probably made long ago, as impressions made in the tenacious clay
that composes most of the cavern floor would remain unchanged for
centuries. Layers of excrementitious matter appear, and also many small
bones, along with a few large ones, all of existing species. The traces
of human occupation are pieces of charcoal, flints, moccasin tracks and
a single skeleton embedded in stalagmite in one of the chasms,
estimated, from the present rate of stalagmitic growth, to have lain
where found for not more than five hundred years.

The temperature is uniformly 54° Fahr., coinciding with that of Mammoth
Cave, Kentucky. The air is very pure, and the avenues are not
uncomfortably damp. The portions open to the public are now lighted by
electric lamps. The registered number of visitors in 1906 was 18,000. A
unique and highly successful experiment merits mention, by which the
cool pure air of Luray Cavern is forced through all the rooms of the
Limair sanatorium erected in 1901, by Mr T. C. Northcott, president of
the Luray Caverns Corporation, on the summit of Cave Hill. Tests made
for several successive years by means of culture media and sterile
plates, demonstrated the perfect bacteriologic purity of the air, first
drawn into the caverns through myriads of rocky crevices that served as
natural filters, then further cleansed by floating over the transparent
springs and pools, and finally supplied to the inmates of the
sanatorium.

  For a full description see an article by Dr G. L. Hunner, of Johns
  Hopkins University, in the _Popular Science Monthly_ for April 1904.
       (H. C. H.)



LURCH, a word with several meanings, the etymological relationships of
which are obscure. The chief uses which survive are--(1) in the phrase
"to leave in the lurch," to abandon some one, to leave him in a position
of great difficulty; (2) a stagger, sudden leaning over, originally a
nautical expression of a sudden "list" made by a ship; (3) the name of a
dog, the "lurcher" used by poachers, properly a cross between a sheepdog
or collie and a greyhound. In (1) "lurch" is the name of a game, of
which nothing is known (it is supposed to have resembled backgammon),
and also of a state of the score in various games, in which the loser
either scores nothing or is beaten by very heavy points. In this sense
the term is practically obsolete. It was taken from Fr. _lourche_,
connected with many German forms, now only dialectical such as
_Lortsch_, _Lurtsch_, _Lorz_, _Lurz_, all for some kind of game, but
also meaning left-hand, wrong, which the _New English Dictionary_ thinks
is the origin of the word, it being first used as a term in gambling. In
(2) "lurch" occurs first in the form "lee-lurches," sudden rolls a ship
takes to leeward in a heavy sea, which may be a corruption of
"lee-latch," defined in Smyth's _Sailor's Word Book_ as dropping to
leeward of the course. In (3) "lurch" is probably another form of
"lurk," to lie in wait for, watch stealthily, hence to pilfer, steal.



LURGAN, a market-town of Co. Armagh, Ireland, well situated on high
ground overlooking Lough Neagh a few miles to the north; 20 m. S.W. of
Belfast by the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 11,782. The parish
church of Shankill (this parish including Lurgan) has a finely
proportioned tower. Contiguous to the town is Lurgan Castle, a fine
modern Elizabethan structure, the seat of Lord Lurgan. Lurgan is famed
for its diapers, and the linen trade is of the first importance, but
there are also tobacco factories and coach factories. It is governed by
an urban district council. Lurgan was founded by William Brownlow, to
whom a grant of the town was made by James I. In 1619 it consisted of
forty-two houses, all inhabited by English settlers. It was burned by
the insurgents in 1641, and again by the troops of James II. After its
restoration in 1690 a patent for a market and fair was obtained.



LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON (1534-1572), Jewish mystic, was born in
Jerusalem. From his German descent he was surnamed _Ashkenazi_ (the
German), and we find that epithet applied to him in a recently
discovered document of date 1559. In that year Isaac Luria was living in
Cairo and trading as a spice merchant with his headquarters in
Alexandria. He had come to Egypt as a boy after his father's death, and
was brought up by his wealthy maternal uncle Mordecai Francis. The boy,
according to the legends which soon grew round his life, was a
"wonder-child," and early displayed marvellous capacity. He married as a
lad of fifteen, his bride being his cousin. For some time he continued
his studies; later on when engaged in business there was no break in
this respect. Two years after his marriage he became possessed of a copy
of the Kabbalistic "Bible"--the _Zohar_ of Moses de Léon (q.v.). In
order to meditate on the mystic lore he withdrew to a hut by the Nile,
returning home for the Sabbath. Luria afterwards gave to the Sabbath a
mystic beauty such as it had never before possessed. Thus passed several
years; he was still young, but his new mode of life produced its effects
on a man of his imagination and saintly piety. He became a visionary.
Elijah, who had been his godfather in his babyhood, now paid him
frequent visits, initiating him into sublime truths. By night Luria's
soul ascended to heaven and conversed with celestial teachers who had
once been men of renown on earth.

In 1566 at earliest Luria removed to Safed. This Palestinian town was in
the 16th century the headquarters of the Kabbala. A large circle of
Talmudists lived there; at their head Joseph Qaro, then over eighty
years of age. Qaro's son married Luria's daughter, and Qaro rejoiced at
the connexion, for he had a high opinion of Luria's learning. Mysticism
is often the expression of a revolt against authority, but in Luria's
case mysticism was not divorced from respect for tradition. After his
arrival at Safed Luria lived at most six years, and died in 1572. But
these years were momentous for Judaism. He established an extraordinary
reputation; his personality had a winning attractiveness; and he founded
a school of mystics who powerfully affected Judaism after the master's
death. The Holy Spirit, we are told, rested on him, drawn to him by the
usual means of the mystics--self-flogging, ablutions and penance. He had
wonderful gifts of insight, and spoke to the birds. Miracles abounded.
More soberly true is the statement that he went on long walks with
enthusiastic disciples, whom he taught without books. Luria himself
wrote no mystical works; what we know of his doctrines and habits comes
chiefly from his Boswell, Hayim Vital.

  There was little of originality in Luria's doctrines; the theory of
  emanations, the double belief in the process of the Divine Essence as
  it were self-concentrating (_Zimzum_) and on the other hand as
  expanding throughout creation; the philosophical "sceptism" which
  regards God as unknowable but capable of direct intuition by
  feeling--these were all common elements of mystical thought. Luria was
  an inspirer of saintly conduct rather than an innovator in theories.
  Not beliefs, he said, but believers need rebirth. As he rose in the
  morning he prayed: "O God, grant that throughout this coming day I may
  be able to love my neighbour as myself." Never would he retire to rest
  until he had fulfilled his definite engagements to those who had
  served him. Luria and his school altered the very look of the Jewish
  Prayer Book. Prayer was his main prop. By it men became controllers of
  the earthly world and reached God. He or his school introduced
  innumerable ritual customs, some of them beautiful enough. On Sabbath
  he dressed in white, wearing a four-fold garment to typify the four
  letters of the Divine Name. The Sabbath was to him an actual cult. It
  was a day of the most holy joy. Resuming the Talmudic idea of an
  Over-soul present in every Israelite on the Sabbath, Luria and his
  school made play with this Over-soul, fed it with spiritual and
  material dainties and evolved an intricate maze of mystic ceremonial,
  still observed by countless masses. Another strong point with Luria
  was penance. The confessions of sin which he introduced descend to
  minute ritual details and rise to the most exalted aspects of social
  and spiritual life. He deprecated general confessions and demanded
  that the individual must lay bare the recesses of his heart. Hayim
  Vital reports that on his death-bed Luria said to his disciples: "Be
  at peace with one another: bear with one another: and so be worthy of
  my coming again to reveal to you what no mortal ear has heard before."
  His mystic ceremonial became a guide to religious practice, and though
  with this there came in much meaningless and even bewildering
  formalism, yet the example of his life and character was a lasting
  inspiration to saintliness.

  See S. Schecher, _Studies in Judaism_, second series, pp. 251 seq.;
  _Jewish Encyclopedia_, viii. 210; E. Worman in _Revue des Études
  Juives_, lvii. 281.     (I. A.)



LURISTAN, in the wider sense (as its name implies) the "Land of the
Lurs," namely that part of western Persia which is bounded by Turkish
territory on the west and extends for about 400 m. N.W.-S.E. from
Kermanshah to Fars with a breadth of 100 to 140 m. It is chiefly
mountainous, being intersected by numerous ranges running N.W.-S.E. The
central range has many summits which are almost within the line of
perpetual snow, rising to 13,000 ft. and more, and in it are the sources
of Persia's most important rivers, as the Zayendeh-rud, Jarahi, Karun,
Diz, Abi, Kerkheh. Between the higher ranges are many fertile plains and
low hilly districts, well watered but comparatively little cultivated in
consequence of intertribal feuds. The Lurs are thought to be aboriginal
Persians with a mixture of Semitic blood. Their language is a dialect of
Persian and does not differ materially from Kurdish. Outwardly they are
Mussulmans of the Shiah branch, but most of them show little veneration
for either Prophet or Koran, and the religion of some of them seems to
be a mixture of Ali-Illahism involving a belief in successive
incarnations combined with mysterious, ancient, heathen rites. The
northern part of Luristan, which was formerly known as Lurikuchik
(little Luristan), is inhabited by the Feili Lurs and these are divided
into the Pishkuh (cis-montane) Lurs in the east and Pushtkuh
(ultra-montane) Lurs in the west adjoining Turkish territory. They
number about 350,000. Little Luristan was governed by a race of
independent princes of the Khurshidi dynasty, and called atabegs, from
1155 to the beginning of the 17th century when the last atabeg, Shah
Verdi Khan, was removed by Shah Abbas I. and the government of the
province given to Husain Khan, the chief of a rival tribe, with the
title of vali in exchange for that of atabeg. The descendants of Husain
Khan have retained the title but now govern only the Pushtkuh Lurs, to
whom only the denomination of Feili is at present applied. The southern
part of Luristan was formerly known as Lur i Buzurg (great Luristan) and
is composed of the Bakhtiari division of the Arabistan province and the
districts of the Mamasennis and Kuhgilus which belong to Fars. The
Bakhtiaris number about 200,000, the others 40,000. Great Luristan was
an independent state under the Fazlevieh atabegs from 1160 until 1424,
and its capital was Idaj, now represented by mounds and ruins at Malamir
60 m. S.E. of Shushter.



LUSATIA (Ger. _Lausitz_), a name applied to two neighbouring districts
in Germany, Upper and Lower Lusatia, belonging now mainly to Prussia,
but partly to Saxony. The name is taken from the Lusitzi, a Slav tribe,
who inhabited Lower Lusatia in the 9th and 10th centuries.

In the earliest times Lower Lusatia reached from the Black Elster to the
Spree; its inhabitants, the Lusitzi, were conquered by the German king,
Henry the Fowler, and by the margrave Gero in the 10th century. Their
land was formed into a separate march, which for about three centuries
was sometimes attached to, and sometimes independent of, the margraviate
of Meissen, its rulers being occasionally called margraves of Lusatia.
In 1303 it was purchased by the margrave of Brandenburg, and after other
changes it fell in 1368 into the hands of the king of Bohemia, the
emperor Charles IV., who already possessed Upper Lusatia. During the
Hussite wars its people remained loyal to the Roman Catholic Church. In
1469 they recognized Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, as their
sovereign, but in 1490 they came again under the rule of the Bohemian
king.

The district now known as Upper Lusatia was occupied by a Slav tribe, the
Milzeni, who like the Lusitzi, were subdued by Henry the Fowler early in
the 10th century. For about three centuries it was called Baudissin
(Bautzen), from the name of its principal fortress. In the 11th and 12th
centuries it was connected at different periods with Meissen, Poland and
Bohemia. Towards 1160 the emperor Frederick I. granted it to Ladislas,
king of Bohemia, and under this ruler and his immediate successors it was
largely colonized by German immigrants. In 1253 it passed to the margrave
of Brandenburg, and about the same time it was divided into an eastern
and a western part, Baudissin proper and Görlitz. In 1319 the former was
restored to Bohemia, which also recovered Görlitz in 1329. During the
14th century the nobles and the townsmen began to take part in the
government, and about this time Upper Lusatia was known as the district
of the six towns (_Sechsstädtelandes_), these being Bautzen, Görlitz,
Zittau, Löbau, Lauban and Kamenz. From 1377 to 1396 Görlitz was a
separate duchy ruled by John, a son of the emperor Charles IV., and, like
Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia owned the authority of Matthias Corvinus
from 1469 to 1490, both districts passing a little later with the
kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the German king, Ferdinand I. The "six
towns" were severely punished for their share in the war of the league of
Schmalkalden, and about this time the reformed teaching made very rapid
progress in Lusatia, the majority of the inhabitants becoming
Protestants. The name of Lusatia hitherto confined to Lower Lusatia, was
soon applied to both districts, the adjectives Upper and Lower being used
to distinguish them. In 1620, early in the Thirty Years' War, the two
Lusatias were conquered by the elector of Saxony, John George I., who was
allowed to keep them as the price of his assistance to the emperor
Ferdinand I. In 1635 by the treaty of Prague they were definitely
transferred from Bohemia to Saxony, although the emperor as king of
Bohemia retained a certain supremacy for the purpose of guarding the
rights and privileges of the Roman Catholics. They suffered much during
the wars of the 18th century. By the peace of Vienna (1815) the whole of
Lower Lusatia and part of Upper Lusatia were transferred from Saxony to
Prussia.

The area of the part of Upper Lusatia retained by Saxony was slightly
increased in 1845; it is now about 960 sq. m. In 1900 Lower Lusatia
contained 461,973 inhabitants, of whom 34,837 were Wends; the portion of
Upper Lusatia belonging to Prussia had 305,080 inhabitants, of whom
24,361 were Wends. There were 405,173 inhabitants, including 28,234
Wends, in Saxon Upper Lusatia. Laws relating to this district, after
passing through the Saxon parliament must be submitted to the Lusatian
diet at Bautzen. The chief towns of Upper Lusatia are Bautzen, Zittau,
Löbau, Kamenz, Görlitz, Rothenburg, Hoyerswerda and Lauban; in Lower
Lusatia they are Guben, Kottbus, Forst, Lübben and Spremberg. The
principal rivers are the Spree with its tributaries, the Black Elster
and the Neisse. Upper Lusatia is generally mountainous and picturesque,
Lower Lusatia is flat and sandy. The chief industries are linen weaving,
cloth making and coal mining.

  For the history of Lusatia see the collections, _Scriptores rerum
  Lusaticarum antiqui et recentiores_, edited by C. G. Hoffmann (4
  vols., Leipzig and Bautzen, 1719); and _Scriptores rerum Lusaticarum_
  (4 vols., Görlitz, 1839-1870). See also W. Lippert, _Wettiner und
  Wittelsbacher sowie die Niederlausitz im 14 Jahrhundert_ (Dresden,
  1894); T. Scheltz, _Gesamtgeschichte der Ober- und Niederlausitz_,
  Band i. (Halle, 1847), Band ii. (Görlitz, 1882); J. G. Worbs,
  _Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte des Markgraftums Niederlausitz_ (Lübben
  1897); and J. A. E. Köhler, _Die Geschichte der Oberlausitz_ (Görlitz,
  1867).



LUSHAI HILLS, a mountainous district of Eastern Bengal and Assam, south
of Cachar, on the border between Assam and Burma. Area, 7227 sq. m.;
pop. (1901) 82,434. The hills are for the most part covered with dense
bamboo jungle and rank undergrowth; but in the eastern portion, owing
probably to a smaller rainfall, open grass-covered slopes are found,
with groves of oak and pine interspersed with rhododendrons. These hills
are inhabited by the Lushais and cognate tribes, but the population is
extremely scanty. From the earliest known times the original inhabitants
were Kukis, and the Lushais were not heard of until 1840, when they
invaded the district from the north. Their first attack upon British
territory took place in November 1849, and after that date they proved
one of the most troublesome tribes on the north-east frontier of India;
but operations in 1890 resulted in the complete pacification of the
northern Lushai villages, and in 1892 the eastern Lushais were reduced
to order. The management of the South Lushai hill country was
transferred from Bengal to Assam in 1898. To obtain more efficient
control over the country the district has been divided into eighteen
circles, each in charge of an interpreter, through whom all orders are
transmitted to the chiefs. The Welsh Presbyterian Mission began work at
Aijal in 1897, and the people have shown unexpected readiness to accept
education. According to the census of 1901 the total number of Lushais
in Assam was 63,452.

  See Colonel T. H. Lewin, _Wild Races of N.E. India_ (1870); _Lushai
  Hills Gazetteer_ (Calcutta, 1906).



LUSIGNAN, the name of a family which sprang from Poitou[1] and
distinguished itself by its connexion with the kingdom of Jerusalem, and
still more by its long tenure of the kingdom of Cyprus (1192-1475). A
Hugh de Lusignan appears in the ill-fated crusade of 1100-1101; another
Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was
taken prisoner by Nureddin. In the last quarter of the 12th century the
two brothers Amalric and Guy, sons of Hugh the Brown, played a
considerable part in the history of the Latin East. About 1180 Amalric
was constable of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and he is said to have
brought his handsome brother Guy to the notice of Sibylla, the widowed
heiress of the kingdom. Guy and Sibylla were married in 1180; and Guy
thus became heir presumptive of the kingdom, if the young Baldwin V.,
Sibylla's son by her first marriage to William of Montferrat, should die
without issue. He acted as regent in 1183, but he showed some incapacity
in the struggle with Saladin, and was deprived of all right of
succession. In 1186, however, on the death of Baldwin V., he succeeded
in obtaining the crown, in spite of the opposition of Raymund of
Tripoli. Next year he suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of
Hittin, and was taken prisoner by Saladin. Released on parole in 1188,
he at once broke his parole, and began the siege of Acre. Difficulties,
however, had arisen with Conrad of Montferrat; and when Guy lost his
wife Sibylla in 1190, and Conrad married Isabella, her sister, now
heiress of the kingdom, these difficulties culminated in Conrad's laying
claim to the crown. Guy found his cause espoused in 1191 by the overlord
of his house, Richard I. of England; but Conrad's superior ability, and
the support of the French crusaders, ultimately carried the day, and in
1192 Richard himself abandoned the pretensions of Guy, and recognized
Conrad as king. Though Conrad was almost immediately assassinated, the
crown did not return to Guy, but went to Henry of Champagne, who
married the widowed Isabella. Guy found some satisfaction for his loss
in buying from the Templars the island of Cyprus, and there he reigned
for the last two years of his life (1192-1194). He is judged harshly by
contemporary writers, as _simplex_ and _insufficiens_; but Dodu (in his
_Histoire des institutions du royaume de Jerusalem_) suggests that Guy
was depreciated because the kingdom had been lost in his reign, in much
the same way as Godfrey of Bouillon was exalted because Jerusalem had
just been won at his accession. Guy was a brave if not a particularly
able knight; and his instant attack on Acre after his release by Saladin
shows that he had the _sentiment de ses devoirs_.

He was succeeded in Cyprus by his brother Amalric, who acquired the
title of king of Cyprus from the emperor Henry VI., and became king of
Jerusalem in 1197 by his marriage to Isabella, after the death of Henry
of Champagne (see AMALRIC II.). Amalric was the founder of a dynasty of
kings of Cyprus, which lasted till 1475, while after 1269 his
descendants regularly enjoyed the title of kings of Jerusalem. The
scions of the house of Lusignan proved themselves the most sincere of
crusaders. They possessed in Cyprus a kingdom, in which they had
vindicated for themselves a stronger hold over their feudatories than
the kings of Jerusalem had ever enjoyed, and in which trading centres
like Famagusta flourished vigorously; and they used the resources of
their kingdom, in conjunction with the Hospitallers of Rhodes, to check
the progress of the Mahommedans.

Among the most famous members of the house who ruled in Cyprus three may
be mentioned. The first is Hugh III. (the Great), who was king from 1267
to 1285: to him, apparently, St Thomas dedicated his _De Regimine
Principum_; and it is in his reign that the kingdom of Jerusalem becomes
permanently connected with that of Cyprus. The second is Hugh IV.
(1324-1359), to whom Boccaccio dedicated one of his works, and who set
on foot an alliance with the pope, Venice and the Hospitallers, which
resulted in the capture of Smyrna (1344). The last is Peter I., Hugh's
second son and successor, who reigned from 1359 to 1369, when he was
assassinated as the result of a conspiracy of the barons. Peter and his
chancellor de Mezières represent the last flicker of the crusading
spirit (see CRUSADES).

Before the extinction of the line in 1475, it had succeeded in putting a
branch on the throne of Armenia. Five short-lived kings of the house
ruled in Armenia after 1342, "Latin exiles," as Stubbs says, "in the
midst of several strange populations all alike hostile." The kingdom of
Armenia fell before the sultan of Egypt, who took prisoner its last king
Leo V. in 1375, though the kings of Cyprus afterwards continued to bear
the title; the kingdom of Cyprus itself continued to exist under the
house of Lusignan for 100 years longer. The mother of the last king,
James III. (who died when he was two years old), was a Venetian lady,
Catarina Cornaro. She had been made a daughter of the republic at the
time of her marriage to the king of Cyprus; and on the death of her
child the republic first acted as guardian for its daughter, and then,
in 1489, obtained from her the cession of the island.

  See J. M. J. L. de Mas-Latrie, _Histoire de l'île de Chypre sous les
  princes de la maison de Lusignan_ (Paris, 1852-1853); W. Stubbs,
  _Lectures on Medieval and Modern History_ (3rd ed., Oxford, 1900).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A branch of the line continued in Poitou during the 13th century,
    and ruled in LaMarche till 1303. Hugh de la Marche, whose betrothed
    wife, Isabella of Angoulême, King John of England seized (thus
    bringing upon himself the loss of the greater part of his French
    possessions), was a nephew of Guy of Lusignan. He ultimately married
    Isabella, after the death of John, and had by her a number of sons,
    half-brothers of Henry III. of England, who came over to England,
    amongst other foreign favourites, during his reign.



LUSSIN, a small island in the Adriatic Sea, in the Gulf of Quarnero,
forming together with the adjacent islands of Veglia and Cherso an
administrative district in the Austrian crownland of Istria. Pop. (1900)
11,615. The island is 24 m. in length, is of an average breadth of 1.64
m., being little more than 300 yds. wide at its narrowest point, and has
an area of 29 sq. m. The chief town and principal harbour is
Lussinpiccolo (pop. 7207), which is the most important trading centre in
the Quarnero group. The town has become a favourite winter resort, its
climate resembling that of Nice. To the south-east of it is Lussingrande
(pop. 2349), with an old Venetian palace and a shipbuilding wharf. The
island was first peopled at the end of the 14th century. Its inhabitants
are renowned seamen.



LUSTRATION, a term that includes all the methods of purification and
expiation among the Greeks and Romans. Among the Greeks there are two
ideas clearly distinguishable--that human nature must purify itself
([Greek: katharsis]) from guilt before it is fit to enter into communion
with God or even to associate with men, and that guilt must be expiated
voluntarily ([Greek: hilasmos]) by certain processes which God has
revealed, in order to avoid the punishment that must otherwise overtake
it. It is not possible to make such a distinction among the Latin terms
_lustratio_, _piacula_, _piamenta_, _caerimoniae_, and even among the
Greeks it is not consistently observed. Guilt and impurity arose in
various ways; among the Greeks, besides the general idea that man is
always in need of purification, the species of guilt most insisted on by
religion are incurred by murder, by touching a dead body, by sexual
intercourse, and by seeing a prodigy or sign of the divine will. The
last three spring from the idea that man had been without preparation
and improperly brought into communication with God, and was therefore
guilty. The first, which involves a really moral idea of guilt, is far
more important than the others in Hellenic religion. Among the Romans we
hear more of the last species of impurity; in general the idea takes the
form that after some great disaster the people become convinced that
guilt has been incurred and must be expiated. The methods of
purification consist in ceremonies performed with water, fire, air or
earth, or with a branch of a sacred tree, especially of the laurel, and
also in sacrifice and other ceremonial. Before entering a temple the
worshipper dipped his hand in the vase of holy water ([Greek:
perirrhanterion], _aqua lustralis_) which stood at the door; before a
sacrifice bathing was common; salt-water was more efficacious than
fresh, and the celebrants of the Eleusinian mysteries bathed in the sea
([Greek: halade, mystai]); the water was more efficacious if a firebrand
from the altar were plunged in it. The torch, fire and sulphur ([Greek:
to theion]) were also powerful purifying agents. Purification by air was
most frequent in the Dionysiac mysteries; puppets suspended and swinging
in the air (_oscilla_) formed one way of using the lustrative power of
the air. Rubbing with sand and salt was another method. The sacrifice
chiefly used for purification by the Greeks was a pig; among the Romans
it was always, except in the Lupercalia, a pig, a sheep and a bull
(_suovetaurilia_). In Athens a purificatory sacrifice and prayer was
held before every meeting of the ecclesia; the Maimacteria,[1] in honour
of Zeus Maimactes (the god of wrath), was an annual festival of
purification, and at the Thargelia two men (or a woman and a man) were
sacrificed on the seashore, their bodies burned and the ashes thrown
into the sea, to avert the wrath of Apollo. On extraordinary occasions
lustrations were performed for a whole city. So Athens was purified by
Epimenides after the Cylonian massacre, and Delos in the Peloponnesian
War (426 B.C.) to stop the plague and appease the wrath of Apollo. In
Rome, besides such annual ceremonies as the _Ambarvalia_, _Lupercalia_,
_Cerialia_, _Paganalia_, &c., there was a lustration of the fleet before
it sailed, and of the army before it marched. Part of the ceremonial
always consisted in leading or carrying the victims round the impure
persons or things. After any disaster the _lustratio classium_ or
_exercitus_ was often again performed, so as to make certain that the
gods got all their due. The _Amburbium_, a solemn procession of the
people round the boundaries of Rome, was a similar ceremonial performed
for the whole city on occasions of great danger or calamity; the
_Ambilustrium_ (so called from the sacrificial victims being carried
round the people assembled on the Campus Martius) was the purificatory
ceremony which took place after the regular quinquennial census
(_lustrum_) of the Roman people.

  See C. F. Hermann, _Griechische Altertümer_, ii.; G. F. Schömann,
  _ib._ ii.; P. Stengel, _Die griechischen Kultusaltertümer_ (1898);
  Marquardt, _Römische Staatsverwaltung_, iii. p. 200 (1885); P. E. von
  Lasaulx, _Die Sühnopfer der Griechen und Römer_ (1841); J. Donaldson,
  "On the Expiatory and Substitutionary Sacrifices of the Greeks," in
  _Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh_, xxvii., 1876; and
  the articles by A. Bouché-Leclercq in Daremberg and Saglio,
  _Dictionnaire des antiquités_, and by W. Warde Fowler in Smith's
  _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_ (3rd ed., 1891).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Maimacteria does not actually occur in ancient authorities as the
    name of a festival.



LUTE (Arabic _al'ud_, "the wood"; Fr. _luth_; Ital. _liuto_; Span.
_laud_; Ger. _Laute_; Dut. _luit_), an ancient stringed musical
instrument, derived in form as well as name from the Arabs. The complete
family consisted of the pandura, tanbur or mandoline as treble, the lute
as alto or tenor, the barbiton or theorbo as bass, and the chitarrone as
double bass. The Arab instrument, with convex sound-body, pointing to
the resonance board or membrane having been originally placed upon a
gourd, was strung with silk and played with a plectrum of shell or
quill. It was adopted by the Arabs from Persia. Instruments with vaulted
backs are all undoubtedly of Eastern origin; the distinct type,
resembling the longitudinal section of a pear, is more specially traced
in ancient India, Persia and the countries influenced by their
civilization. This type of instrument includes many families which
became known during the middle ages of western Europe, being introduced
into southern Europe and Spain by the Moors, into southern Russia by the
Persians of the Sassanian period, into Greece from the confines of the
Byzantine Empire. As long as the strings were plucked by fingers or
plectrum the large pear-shaped instrument may be identified as the
archetype of the lute. When the bow, obtained from Persia, was applied
to the instrument by the Arabs, a fresh family was formed, which was
afterwards known in Europe as rebab and later rebec. The largest member
of the ancient lute family--the bass lute or theorbo--has been
identified with the barbiton.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Post-Mycenaean terra-cotta figure, with ancient
lute (1000 B.C.) from the cemetery at Goshen.]

  Until recently the existence of these ancient stringed instruments was
  presumed on the evidence of the early medieval European instruments
  and of the meagre writings extant, such as those of Farabi.[1] But a
  chain of plastic evidence can now be offered, beginning with the Greek
  post-Mycenaean age (c. 1000 B.C.). A statuette of a female musician
  playing upon a large lute with only an embryonic neck, on which
  nevertheless the left hand is stopping strings, was unearthed in Egypt
  in a tomb of the XXth Dynasty in the cemetery of Goshen by the members
  of the British School of Archaeology in Egypt,[2] under the direction
  of Professor Flinders Petrie, to whose courtesy we owe the photograph
  (fig. 1) here reproduced. It is difficult to form a conclusive opinion
  as to the number of strings the artist intended to represent, owing to
  the decorative figures following the direction of the strings, but,
  judging from the position of the right hand plucking a string, there
  may have been seven. Among a number of terra-cotta figures of
  musicians, brought to light during the excavations in a Tell at Suza
  and dating from the 8th century B.C.,[3] although there is no
  instrument that might be identified with the alto lute, the treble
  lute or tanbur is represented with a long, curved neck and a head bent
  back to increase the tension, and there is also an instrument having a
  smaller and more elongated body than the lute. On one of the friezes
  from Afghanistan presented to the British Museum by Major-General
  Cunningham, which formed the risers of steps leading to the tope at
  Jumal Garhi, dating from the 1st century A.D. are represented scenes
  of music and dancing. Here the archetype of the lute appears several
  times; it had four strings, and the head was bent back at right angles
  to the neck. In the 6th century A.D. illustrations of this early lute
  are no longer rare, more especially on Persian silver-work of the
  Sassanian period[4] and in the paintings of the Buddhist cave-temples
  of Ajanta.[5] Several representations of the barbiton are extant from
  the classical Roman period.

  The modern Egyptian 'ud is the direct descendant of the Arabic lute,
  and, according to Lane, is strung with seven pairs of catgut strings
  played by a plectrum. A specimen in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
  given by the khedive, has four pairs only, which appears to have been
  the old stringing of the instrument. When frets (cross-lines dividing
  the neck or finger-board to show the fingering) are employed they are
  of catgut disposed according to the Arabic scale of seventeen
  intervals in the octave, consisting of twelve limmas, an interval
  rather less than our equal semitone, and five commas, which are very
  small but quite recognizable differences of pitch.

  The lute family is separated from the guitars, also of Eastern origin,
  by the formation of the sound body, which is in all lutes pear-shaped,
  without the sides or ribs necessary to the structure of the
  flat-backed guitar and cither. Observing this distinction, we include
  with the lute the little Neapolitan mandoline of 2 ft. long and the
  large double-necked Roman chitarrone, not infrequently 6 ft. long.
  Mandolines are partly strung with wire, and are played with a
  plectrum, indispensable for metal or short strings. Perhaps the
  earliest lutes were so played, but the large lutes and theorbos strung
  with catgut have been invariably touched by the fingers only, the
  length permitting this more sympathetic means of producing the tone.

  Praetorius,[6] writing when the lute was in universal favour, mentions
  seven varieties distinguished by size and tuning. The smallest would
  be larger than a mandoline, and the melody string, the "chanterelle,"
  often a single string, lower in pitch. Praetorius calls this an octave
  lute, with the chanterelle C or D. The two discant lutes have
  respectively B and A, the alto G, the tenor E, the bass D, and the
  great octave bass G, an octave below the alto lute which may be taken
  as the model lute cultivated by the amateurs of the time. The bass
  lutes were theorbos, that is, double-necked lutes, as described below.
  The accordance of an alto lute was [musical notes] founded upon that
  of the original eight-stringed European lute, to which the highest and
  lowest notes had, in course of time, been added. A later addition was
  the [musical notes] also on the finger-board, and bass strings, double
  or single, known as diapasons, which, descending to the deep C of the
  violoncello, were not stopped with the fingers. The diapasons were
  tuned as the key of the piece of music required. Fig. 2 represents an
  Italian instrument made by one of the most celebrated lute makers,
  Venere of Padua, in 1600; it is 3 ft. 6 in. high, and has six pairs of
  unisons and eight single diapasons. The finger-board, divided into
  approximately equal half tones by the frets, as a rule eight in
  number, was often further divided on the higher notes, for ten,
  eleven, or, as in the woodcut, even twelve, semitones. The head,
  bearing the tuning pegs, was placed at an obtuse or a right angle to
  the neck, to increase the bearing of the strings upon the nut, and be
  convenient for sudden requirements of tuning during performance, the
  trouble of keeping a lute in tune being proverbial.

  The lute was in general use during the 16th and 17th centuries. In the
  18th it declined; still J. S. Bach wrote a "partita" for it. The
  latest date we have met with of an engraved publication for the lute
  is 1760.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Lute, by Venere of Padua.]

  The large double-necked lute, with two sets of tuning pegs, the lower
  for the finger-board, the higher for the diapason strings, was known
  as the theorbo; also, and especially in England, as the arch-lute;
  and, in a special form, the neck being then very long, as the
  chitarrone. Theorbo and chitarrone appear together at the close of the
  16th century, and their introduction was synchronous with the rise of
  accompanied monody in music, that is, of the oratorio and the opera.
  Peri, Caccini and Monteverde used theorbos to accompany their
  newly-devised recitative, the invention of which in Florence, from the
  impulse of the Renaissance, is well known. The height of a theorbo
  varied from 3 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft., the Paduan being always the largest,
  excepting the Roman 6-ft. long chitarrone. These large lutes had very
  deep notes, and doubtless great liberties were allowed in tuning, but
  the strings on the finger-board followed the lute accordance already
  given, or another quoted by Baron (_Untersuchung des Instruments der
  Lauten_, Nuremberg, 1727) as the old theorbo or "violway" (see Mace,
  _Musick's Monument_, London, 1676):--

  [Illustration]

  We find again both these accordances varied and transposed a tone
  higher, perhaps with thinner strings, or to accommodate local
  differences of pitch. Praetorius recommends the chanterelles of
  theorbos being tuned an octave lower on account of the great strain.
  By such a change, another authority, the Englishman Thomas Mace, says,
  the life and spruceness of airy lessons were quite lost. The theorbo
  or arch-lute had at last to give way to the violoncello and double
  bass, which are still used to accompany the "recitativo secco" in
  oratorios and operas. Handel wrote a part for a theorbo in _Esther_
  (1720); after that date it appears no more in orchestral scores, but
  remained in private use until nearly the end of the century.

  The lute and the organ share the distinction of being the first
  instruments for which the oldest instrumental compositions we possess
  were written. For the lute, however, they were not written in our
  present notation, but in tablature, "lyrawise," a system by which as
  many lines were drawn horizontally as there were pairs of strings on
  the finger-board, the frets, distributed at intervals of a semitone,
  being distinguished by the letters of the alphabet, repeated from A,
  representing the open string, for each line. This was the English and
  French manner; the Italian was by numbers instead of letters. The
  signs of time were placed over the stave, and were not repeated unless
  the mensural values changed.     (A. J. H.; K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Latin translation by J. G. L. Kosegarten, _Alii Ispahenensis
    Liber ... Arabice editur adjectaque translatione adnotationibusque
    illustratus_ (Greifswald, 1840).

  [2] See _Hyksos and Israelite Cities_, by W. M. Flinders Petrie and
    J. Garrow Duncan, 1906 (double volume), Brit. Sch. of Arch.

  [3] J. de Morgan, _Délégation en Perse_ (Paris, 1900), vol. i. pl.
    viii. Nos. 8, 7 and 9.

  [4] See "The Treasures of the Oxus," catalogue of the Franks Bequest
    to the British Museum by Ormonde M. Dalton (London, 1905), pl; xxvi.
    No. 190; see also J. R. Aspelin, "Les antiquités du nord," No. 608;
    also for further references, Kathleen Schlesinger, "Precursors of the
    Violin Family," pt. ii. of _The Instruments of the Orchestra_, pp.
    407-408, and appendix B, pp. 492-493; and _Gazette archéologique_
    (Paris, 1886), vol. xi. pl. x. and p. 70.

  [5] By John Griffiths (London, 1896), vol. ii. pl. 105, cave I. 10,
    e.

  [6] _Syntagm. Music._ pt. ii., "Organographie" (Wolfenbüttel, 1618),
    pp. 30 and 58-61.



LUTHARDT, CHRISTOPH ERNST (1823-1902), German Lutheran theologian, was
born at Maroldsweisach, Bavaria, on the 22nd of March 1823. He studied
theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius
of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig. In 1865 he
was made a counsellor to the consistory, in 1871 canon of Meissen
cathedral, and in 1887 a privy councillor to the church. He died at
Leipzig on the 21st of September 1902. A strictly orthodox theologian,
and a clear writer, though not a very profound scholar, Luthardt became
widely appreciated as the author of apologetic lectures. These were
collected under the title _Apologie des Christentums_ (vol. i., 1864,
14th ed. 1896; vol. ii. 7th ed., 1901; vol. iii. 7th ed., 1898; vol. iv.
2nd ed., 1880), a work of which the first three volumes have been
translated into English. In 1868 he founded and edited the _Allgemeine
evang.-lutherische Kirchenzeitung_, with its supplement the
_Theologisches Litteraturblatt_, and in 1880 became editor of the
_Zeitschrift für kirchl. Wissenschaft und kirchl. Leben._

  His other works include _Das Johanneische Evangelium ... erklärt_
  (1852-1853; 2nd ed. in 2 vols., 1875-1876), _Offenbarung Johannis
  erklärt_ (1861), _Lehre von den letzten Dingen_ (1861; 3rd ed. 1885);
  _Kompendium der Dogmatik_ (1865; 9th ed., 1893), _Geschichte der
  christlichen Ethik_ (2 vols., 1888-1893), _Gnade und Wahrheit_ (1874),
  _Das Wort des Lebens_ (1877) and _Gnade und Frieden_ (1880). His
  autobiography was published with the title _Erinnerungen aus
  vergangenen Tagen_ (1889; 2nd ed., 1891).



LUTHER, MARTIN (1483-1546), the great German religious reformer, was
born at Eisleben on the 10th of November 1483. His father, Hans Luther
(Lyder, Luder, Ludher), a peasant from the township of Möhra in
Thuringia, after his marriage with Margarethe Ziegler, had settled in
Mansfeld, attracted by the prospects of work in the mines there. The
counts of Mansfeld, who, many years before, had started the mining
industry, made a practice of building and letting out for hire small
furnaces for smelting the ore. Hans Luther soon leased one, then three.
In 1491 he became one of the four elected members of the village council
(_vier Herren von der Gemeinde_); and we are told that the counts of
Mansfeld held him in esteem. The boy grew up amid the poor, coarse
surroundings of the German peasant life, imbibing its simple beliefs. He
was taught that the Emperor protected the poor people against the Turk,
that the Church was the "Pope's House," wherein the Bishop of Rome had
all the rights of the house-father. He shared the common superstitions
of the time and some of them never left him.

Young Martin went to the village school at Mansfeld; to a school at
Magdeburg kept by the Brethren of the Common Lot; then to the well-known
St George's school at Eisenach. At Magdeburg and Eisenach Luther was "a
poor student," i.e. a boy who was received into a hospice where he lived
rent-free, attended school without paying fees, and had the privilege of
begging for his bread at the house-doors of the town; in return for
which he sang as a chorister in the church to which the school was
attached. Luther was never a "wandering student"; his parents were too
careful of their child to permit him to lead the life of wandering
licence which marked these pests of medieval German scholastic life. At
Eisenach he attracted the notice of the wife of a wealthy merchant of
Eisenach, whom his biographers usually identify as Frau Cotta.

After three happy years at Eisenach, Luther entered the university of
Erfurt (1501), then the most famous in Germany. Hans Luther had been
prospering, and was more than ever resolved to make his son a lawyer.
Young Luther entered his name on the matriculation book in letters which
can still be read "Martinus Ludher ex Mansfelt," a free student, no
longer embarrassed by great poverty. In Luther's time Erfurt was the
intellectual centre of Germany and its students were exposed to a
variety of influences which could not fail to stimulate young men of
mental ability.

Its theology was, of course, scholastic, but of what was then called the
modern type, the Scotist; its philosophy was the nominalist system of
William of Occam, whose great disciple, Gabriel Biel (d. 1495), had been
one of its most famous professors; Nicholas de Lyra's (d. 1340) system
of biblical interpretation had been long taught there by a succession of
able teachers; Humanism had won an early entrance to the university; the
anti-clerical teaching of John of Wessel, who had himself taught at
Erfurt for fifteen years (1445-1460), had left its mark on the place and
was not forgotten. Hussite propagandists, even in Luther's time,
secretly visited the town and whispered among the students their
anti-clerical Christian socialism. Papal legates to Germany seldom
failed to visit the university and by their magnificence bore witness to
the majesty of the Roman church.

A study of the scholastic philosophy was then the preliminary training
for a course of law, and Luther worked so hard at the prescribed studies
that he had little leisure, he said, for classical learning. He attended
none of the Humanist lectures, but he read a good many of the Latin
authors and also learned a little Greek. He never was a member of the
Humanist circle; he was too much in earnest about religious questions
and of too practical a turn of mind. The young Humanists would have
gladly welcomed him into their select band. They dubbed him the
"philosopher," the "musician," recalled in after days his fine social
disposition, his skill in playing the lute, and his ready power in
debate. He took the various degrees in an unusually brief time. He was
bachelor in 1502 and master in 1505. His father, proud of his son's
steady application and success, sent him the costly present of a _Corpus
Juris_. He may have begun to study law. Suddenly he plunged into the
Erfurt Convent of the Augustinian Eremites and after due noviciate
became a monk.

The action was so unexpected that his contemporaries felt bound to give
all manner of explanations which have been woven into accounts which are
legendary. Nothing is known about the cause of the sudden plunge but
what Luther has himself revealed. He has told us that he entered the
monastery because he doubted of himself, and that his action was sudden
because he knew that his father would have disapproved of his intention.

The word "doubt" has made historians think of intellectual
difficulties--of the "theological scepticism" taught by Occam and Biel,
of the disintegrating criticism of Humanism. But there is no trace of
any theological difficulties in Luther's mind in the struggles which
sent him into the convent and distracted him there. He was driven to do
what he did by the pressure of a practical religious need, the desire to
save his soul. The fires of hell and the shades of purgatory, which are
the constant background of Dante's "Paradiso," were present to Luther
from childhood.

Luther was the greatest religious genius which the 16th century
produced, and the roots of the movement in which he was the central
figure must be sought for in the popular religious life of the last
decades of the 15th and opening decades of the 16th centuries--a field
which has been neglected by almost all his biographers. When it is
explored traces of at least five different types of religious sentiment
can be discovered. Pious parents, whether among the burghers or
peasants, seem to have taught their children a simple evangelical faith.
Martin Luther and thousands of children like him were trained at home to
know the creed, the ten commandments, the Lord's prayer, and such simple
hymns as _Ein Kindelein so lobelich_, _Nun bitten wir den Heiligen
Geist_ and _Crist ist erstanden_; and they were taught to believe that
God for Christ's sake freely pardons sin. They learned that simple faith
which Luther afterwards expounded in his _Small Catechism_ and called
the _Kinderlehre_. When lads trained like himself entered school and
college they came in contact with that religious revival which
characterized the last half of the 15th century. Fear seemed to brood
over the peoples of Western Europe. The plague devastated the badly
drained towns, new diseases spread death, the fear of the Turks was
permanent. All this went to feed revival, which, founded on fear,
refused to see in Jesus Christ anything but a stern judge, and made the
Virgin Mother and Anna the "grandmother" the intercessors; which found
consolation in pilgrimages from shrine to shrine; which believed in
crude miracles, and in the thought that God could be best served within
convent walls. Luther's mind was caught in this current of feeling. He
records how it was burnt into him by pictures which filled his boyish
imagination. Jesus in the painted window of Mansfeld church, stern of
face, sword in hand, sitting on a rainbow, coming to judge; an
altar-piece at Magdeburg, in which a ship with its crew was sailing on
to heaven, carrying no layman on board; the deeds of St Elizabeth
emblazoned on the window of St George's parish church at Eisenach; the
living pictures of a young nobleman who had turned monk to save his
soul, of a monk, the holiest man Luther had ever known, who was aged far
beyond his years by his maceration; and many others of the same kind.

Alongside this we can trace the growth of another religious movement of
a different kind. We can see a sturdy common-sense religion taking
possession of multitudes in Germany, which insisted that laymen might
rule in many departments supposed to belong exclusively to the clergy.
The _jus episcopale_ which Luther afterwards claimed for the secular
authorities had been practically exercised in Saxony and Brandenburg;
cities and districts had framed police regulations which set aside
ecclesiastical decrees about holidays and begging; the supervision of
charity was passing from the hands of the church into those of laymen;
and religious confraternities which did not take their guidance from the
clergy were increasing. Lastly, the medieval Brethren were engaged in
printing and distributing tracts, mystical, anti-clerical, sometimes
socialist. All these influences abounded as Luther was growing to
manhood and laid their marks upon him. It was the momentary power of the
second which drove him into the convent, and he selected the monastic
order which represented all that was best in the revival of the latter
half of the 15th century--the Augustinian Eremites.

In the convent Luther set himself to find salvation. The last word of
that Scotist theology which ruled at the close of the middle ages was
that man must work out his own salvation, and Luther tried to do so in
the most approved later medieval fashion by the strictest asceticism. He
fasted and scourged himself; he practised all the ordinary forms of
maceration and invented new ones, all to no purpose. His theological
studies, part of the convent education, told him that pardon could be
had through the Sacrament of Penance, and that the first part of the
sacrament was sorrow for sin. The older theology declared that such
sorrow must be based on love to God. Had he this love? God always
appeared to him as an implacable judge, threatening punishment for
breaking a law which it was impossible to keep. He confessed to himself
that he often hated this arbitrary Will which Scotist theology called
God. The later theology, taught in the convent by John of Palz and John
Nathin, said that sorrow might be based on a meaner motive provided the
Sacrament of Penance was continually resorted to. Luther wearied his
superiors with his attendance at the confessional. He was looked upon as
a young saint, and his reputation extended throughout the convents of
his order. The young saint felt himself to be no nearer the pardon of
God; he thought that he was "gallows-ripe." At last his superiors seemed
to discover his real difficulties. Partly by their help, partly by study
of the scriptures, he came to understand that God's pardon was to be won
by trusting to His promises. Thus after two years of indescribable
mental conflicts Luther found peace. The struggle marked him for life.
His victory gave him a sense of freedom, and the feeling that life was
given by God to be enjoyed. In all external things he remained
unchanged. He was a faithful son of the medieval church, with its
doctrines, ceremonies and usages.

Soon after he had attained inward peace, Luther was ordained. He
continued his studies in theology, devoting himself to the more
"experimental" portions of Augustine, Bernard and Gerson. He showed
himself a good man of business and was advanced in his order. In 1508 he
was sent with some other monks to Wittenberg to assist the small
university which had been opened there in 1502 by Frederick the Wise,
elector of Saxony. It was there that Luther began to preach, first in a
small chapel to the monks of his order; later taking the place of one of
the town's clergy who was in ill-health. From Wittenberg he was sent by
the chiefs of the German Augustinian Eremites to Rome on a mission
concerning the organization of the order. He went up with the feelings
of the medieval pilgrim rather than with the intoxication of the ardent
Humanist. On his return (1512) he was sent by Staupitz, his
vicar-general, to Erfurt to take the necessary steps for higher
graduation in theology, in order to succeed Staupitz himself as
professor of theology in Wittenberg. He graduated as Doctor of the Holy
Scripture, took the Wittenberg doctor's oath to defend the evangelical
truth vigorously (_viriliter_), became a member of the Wittenberg
Senate, and three weeks later succeeded Staupitz as professor of
theology.

From the first Luther's lectures in theology differed from those
ordinarily given at the time. He had no opinions on theological subjects
at variance with the theology taught at Erfurt and elsewhere. No one
attributed any heretical views to the young Wittenberg professor. He
differed from others because he looked at theology in a more practical
way. He thought it ought to be made useful to guide men to the grace of
God and to tell them how to persevere in a life of joyous obedience to
God and His commandments. His teaching was "experimental" from the
beginning. Besides he believed that he had been specially set apart to
lecture on the Holy Scriptures, and he began by commenting on the Psalms
and on the Epistles of St Paul. He never knew much Hebrew and was not
specially strong in Greek; so he used the Vulgate in his prelections. He
had a huge widely printed volume on his desk, and wrote the notes for
his lectures on the margins and between the lines. Some of the pages
survive. They contain in the germ the leading thoughts of what became
Lutheran theology. At first he expressed himself in the phrases common
to scholastic theology, when these were found to be inadequate in words
borrowed from the mystical writers of the 14th and 15th centuries, and
then in new phrases more appropriate to the circle of fresh thoughts.
Those new thoughts at first simply pushed aside the ordinary theology
taught in the schools without staying to criticize it. Gradually,
however, Luther began to find that there was some real opposition
between what he was teaching and the theology he had been taught in the
Erfurt convent. It appeared characteristically enough on the practical
and not on the speculative side of theology in a sermon on _Indulgences_
preached in July 1516. Once begun the breach widened, until Luther
could contrast "our theology" with what was taught at Erfurt, and by
September he began to write against the scholastic theology, to declare
that it was Pelagian at heart, that it repudiated the Augustinian
doctrines of grace, and neglected to teach the supreme value of that
faith "which throws itself upon God."

These lectures and the teaching they contained soon made a great
impression. Students began to flock to the small obscure university of
Wittenberg, and the elector grew proud of the teacher who was making his
university famous. It was at this interesting stage of his own religious
career that he felt himself compelled to stand forth in opposition to
what he believed to be a great religious scandal, and almost
unconsciously to become a Reformer.

Luther began his work as a Reformer by proposing to discuss the true
meaning of Indulgences. The occasion was an Indulgence proclaimed by
Pope Leo X., farmed by the archbishop of Mainz, and preached by John
Tetzel, a Dominican monk and a famed seller of Indulgences. Many of the
German princes had no great love for Indulgence sellers, and Frederick
of Saxony had prohibited Tetzel from entering his territories. But it
was easy to reach most parts of Electoral Saxony without actually
crossing the frontiers. The Red Cross of the Indulgence seller had been
set up at Zerbst and at Jüterbogk, and people had gone from Wittenberg
to buy the _Papal Tickets_. Luther believed that the sales were
injurious to the morals of the townsmen; he had heard reports of
Tetzel's sermons; he had become wrathful on reading the letter of
recommendation of the archbishop; and friends had urged him to
interfere. He protested with a characteristic combination of caution and
courage. The church of All Saints (the castle church) was closely
connected with the university of Wittenberg. Its doors were commonly
used for university proclamations. The Elector Frederick was a great
collector of relics and had stored them in his church. He had procured
an Indulgence for all who attended its services on All Saints' Day, and
crowds commonly gathered. Luther nailed ninety-five _theses_ on the
church door on that day, the 1st of November 1517, when the crowd could
see and read them.

The proceeding was strictly academic. The matter discussed, to judge by
the writings of theologians, was somewhat obscure; and Luther offered
his _theses_ as an attempt to make it clearer. No one was supposed to be
committed to every opinion he advanced in such a way. But the _theses_
posted somehow touched heart and conscience in a way unusual in the
common subjects of academic disputation. Every one wanted to read them.
The University Press could not supply copies fast enough. They were
translated into German, and were known throughout Germany in less than a
fortnight. Within a month they had been heard of all over western and
southern Europe. Luther himself was staggered at the way they were
received. He said he had never meant to determine, but to debate.

The _theses_ were singularly unlike what might have been expected from a
professor of theology. They made no attempt at theological definition,
no pretence at logical arrangement; they were anything but a brief
programme of reformation. They were simply ninety-five sledge-hammer
blows directed against the most flagrant ecclesiastical abuse of the
age. They were addressed to the "common" man and appealed to his common
sense of spiritual things.

The practice of offering, selling and buying Indulgences (see
INDULGENCE) was everywhere common in the beginning of the 16th century.
The beginnings go back more than a thousand years before the time of
Luther. In the earliest church life, when Christians fell into sin, they
were required to make public confession before the congregation, to
declare their sorrow, and to vow to perform certain acts which were
regarded as evidence of the sincerity of their repentance. When the
custom of public confession before the congregation had changed to
private confession to the clergy, it became the confessor's duty to
impose these satisfactions. It was thought only right that there should
be some uniformity in dealing with repentant sinners, and books
appeared giving lists of sins and what were supposed to be suitable
satisfactions. When the sins confessed were very heinous the
satisfactions were correspondingly severe and sometimes lasted over many
years. About the 7th century arose a custom of commuting or relaxing
these imposed satisfactions. A penance of several years fasting might be
commuted into saying so many prayers, or giving an arranged amount in
alms, or even into a money-fine. In the last case the analogy of the
Wergeld of the German tribal codes was commonly followed. The usage
generally took the form that any one who visited a church, to which the
Indulgence had been attached, on a day named, and gave a contribution to
its funds, had his penance shortened by one-seventh, one-third or
one-half, as might be arranged. This was the origin of Indulgences
properly so-called. They were always mitigations of satisfactions or
penances which had been imposed by the church as outward signs of inward
sorrow, tests of fitness for pardon, and the needful precedents of
absolution. Luther uttered no protest against Indulgences of this kind.
He held that what the church had imposed the church could remit.

This old and simple conception of Indulgences had been greatly altered
since the beginning of the 13th century. The institution of penance had
been raised to the dignity of a sacrament, and this had changed both the
place and the character of satisfactions. Under the older conception the
order had been Sorrow (_Contritio_), Confession, Satisfaction (or due
manifestation of sorrow in ways prescribed) and Absolution. Under the
newer theory the order was Sorrow, Confession, Absolution, Satisfaction,
and both satisfaction and sorrow took new meanings. It was held that
Absolution removed guilt and freed from eternal punishment, but that
something had to be done to free the penitent from temporal punishment
whether in this life or in purgatory. Satisfactions took the new meaning
of the temporal punishments due in this life and the substitute for the
pains of purgatory. The new thought of a treasury of merits (_thesaurus
meritorum_) introduced further changes. It was held that the good deeds
over and above what were needed for their own salvation by the living or
by the saints in heaven, together with the inexhaustible merits of
Christ, were all deposited in a treasury out of which they could be
taken by the pope and given by him to the faithful. They could be added
to the satisfactions actually done by penitents. Thus Satisfactions
became not merely signs of sorrow but actual merits, which freed men
from the need to undergo the temporal pains here and in purgatory which
their sins had rendered them liable to. By an Indulgence merits could be
transferred from the storehouse to those who required them. The change
made in the character of Sorrow made Indulgences all the more necessary
for the indifferent penitent. On the older theory Sorrow (_Contritio_)
had for its one basis love to God; but on the newer theory the
starting-point might be a less worthy king of sorrow (_Attritio_) which
it was held would be changed into the more worthy kind in the Sacrament
of Penance. The conclusion was naturally drawn that a process of
penitence which began with sorrow of the more unworthy kind needed a
larger amount of Satisfactions or penance than what began with
Contrition. Hence for the indifferent Christian, _Attrition_,
_Confession_ and _Indulgence_ became the three heads in the scheme of
the church of the later middle ages for his salvation. The one thing
which satisfied his conscience was the burdensome thing he had to do,
and that was to procure an Indulgence--a matter made increasingly easy
for him as time went on.

  This doctrine of _Attrition_ had not the undivided support of the
  theologians of the later medieval church; but it was taught by the
  Scotists and was naturally a favourite theme with the sellers of
  Indulgences. Nor were all theologians at one upon the whole theory of
  Indulgences. The majority of the best theologians held that
  Indulgences had nothing to do with the pardoning of guilt, but only
  with freeing from temporal penalties in this life or in purgatory. But
  the common people did not discriminate, and believed that when they
  bought an Indulgence they were purchasing pardon from sin; and Luther
  placed himself in the position of the ordinary Christian uninstructed
  in the niceties of theological distinctions.

  His _Ninety-five Theses_ made six different assertions about
  Indulgences and their efficacy:--

  i. An Indulgence is and can only be the remission of a merely
  ecclesiastical penalty; the church can remit what the church has
  imposed; it cannot remit what God has imposed.

  ii. An Indulgence can never remit guilt; the pope himself cannot do
  such a thing; God has kept that in His own hand.

  iii. It cannot remit the divine punishment for sin; that also is in
  the hands of God alone.

  iv. It can have no efficacy for souls in Purgatory; penalties imposed
  by the church can only refer to the living; death dissolves them; what
  the pope can do for souls in Purgatory is by prayer, not by
  jurisdiction or the power of the keys.

  v. The Christian who has true repentance has already received pardon
  from God altogether apart from an Indulgence, and does not need one;
  Christ demands this true repentance from every one.

  vi. The Treasury of Merits has never been properly defined; it is hard
  to say what it is, and it is not properly understood by the people; it
  cannot be the merits of Christ and of His saints, because these act of
  themselves and quite apart from the intervention of the pope; it can
  mean nothing more than that the pope, having the power of the keys,
  can remit ecclesiastical penalties imposed by the church; the true
  Treasure-house of merits is the Holy Ghost of the grace and glory of
  God.

The unexpected effect of the _Theses_ was that the sale of Indulgences
began to decline rapidly, and the archbishop of Mainz, disappointed in
his hopes of revenue, sent a copy to Rome. The pope thinking that the
whole dispute was a monkish quarrel, contented himself with asking the
general of the Augustinian Eremites to keep his monks quiet. This was
not easy. Tetzel, in conjunction with a friend, Conrad Wimpina, had
published a set of counter-theses. John Mayr of Eck, a noted
controversialist and professor of theology in the university of
Ingolstadt, scented the Hussite heresy in the _Theses_, and denounced
them in a tract entitled _Obelisks_. Luther at once answered in his
_Asterisks_. A controversy raged in Germany. Meanwhile, at Rome,
Silvester Mazzolini of Prierio, a Dominican monk and Inquisitor, had
been studying the _Theses_, was profoundly dissatisfied with them, and
wrote a _Dialogue about the Power of the Pope, against the presumptuous
conclusions of Martin Luther_. This book reached Germany about the
middle of January 1518, and increased the tumult.

Luther's friends had been provokingly silent about the _Theses_; but in
April 1518, at the annual chapter of the Augustinian Eremites held at
Heidelberg, Luther heard his positions temperately discussed, and found
somewhat to his astonishment that his views were not acceptable to all
his fellow monks. On his return to Wittenberg he began an answer to his
opponents. He carefully considered his positions, found them
unassailable, and published his _Resolutions_, the most carefully
written of all his works. The book practically discarded all the ideas
and practices concerning Indulgences which had come into the medieval
church since the beginning of the 13th century, and all the ingenious
explanations of the scholastic theologians from Bonaventura and Thomas
Aquinas downwards. The effect of the controversy was a great decrease in
the sale of Indulgences in Germany, and the Papal Curia saw with alarm a
prolific source of revenue decaying. It was felt that Luther must be
silenced. He was accordingly summoned to Rome. To obey would have meant
death; to refuse in his own name would have been contumacy. But the
peremptory summons could be construed as an attack on the university of
Wittenberg, and both the elector of Saxony and the emperor Maximilian so
regarded it. The result was that Pope Leo cancelled the summons, and it
was arranged that Luther should appear before the papal Legate to the
German Diet, Thomas de Vio, Cardinal Cajedtan, at Augsburg. The
interview was not very successful. At its conclusion Luther wrote two
appeals--one from the pope ill-informed to the pope well-informed, and
the other to a General Council. True to his habit of taking the German
people into his confidence, he wrote an account of his interview with
the Legate, and published it under the title of the _Acta Augustana_.

The publication greatly increased the sympathy of almost all classes in
Germany for Luther. They saw in him a pious man, an esteemed professor,
who had done nothing but propose a discussion on the notoriously
intricate subject of Indulgences, peremptorily ordered to recant and to
remain silent. The elector Frederick shared the common feelings and
resolved to defend the man who had made his university so famous. His
action compelled the Roman Curia to pause. Germany was on the eve, it
was believed, of an election of a king of the Romans; it was possible
that an imperial election was not far distant; Frederick was too
important a personage to offend. So the condemnation by the
Cardinal-Legate was withdrawn for the time, and the pope resolved to
deal with the matter otherwise. He selected one of his chamberlains,
Charles von Miltitz, the elector's private agent at Rome, and
commissioned him to deal with the matter as he best could. Miltitz
received the "golden rose" to give to Frederick, and was furnished with
several letters in all of which the pope spoke of Luther as a "child of
the devil." His holiness had probably forgotten the fact when he
addressed Luther some months later as "his dear son."

When Miltitz arrived in Germany he discovered that the movement was much
more important than the Roman Curia had imagined. He had not to deal
with the opposition of a recalcitrant monk, but with the awakening of a
nation. He resolved to meet with Tetzel and with Luther privately before
he produced his credentials. Tetzel he could not see; the man was afraid
to leave his convent; but he had lengthy interviews with Luther in the
house of Spalatin the chaplain and private secretary of the elector
Frederick. There he disowned the sermons of the pardon-sellers, let it
be seen that he did not approve of the action of the Legate, and so
prevailed with Luther that the latter promised to write a submissive
letter to the pope, to exhort people to reverence the Roman See, to say
that Indulgences were useful to remit canonical penances, and to promise
to write no more on the matter unless he happened to be attacked. Luther
did all this. A reconciliation might have taken place had the Roman
Curia supported Miltitz. But the Curia did not support Miltitz, and
placed more faith in Eck, who was eager to extinguish Luther in a public
discussion.

Luther had been spending the time between his interview with the Legate
at Augsburg (Oct. 1518) and the Leipzig Disputation (June 1519) in
severe and disquieting studies. He had found that all his opponents had
pursued one line of argument: the power to issue an Indulgence is simply
one case of the universal papal jurisdiction; Indulgences are what the
pope proclaims them to be, and to attack them is to attack the power of
the pope; the pope represents the Roman church, which is actually the
universal church, and to oppose the pope is to defy the whole church of
Christ; whoever attacks such a long-established system as that of
Indulgences is a heretic. Such was the argument. Luther felt himself
confronted with the pope's absolute supremacy in all ecclesiastical
matters. It was a plea whose full force he felt. The papal supremacy was
one of his oldest inherited beliefs. He re-examined his convictions
about justifying faith and whether they did lead to his declarations
about Indulgences. He could come to no other conclusion. It then became
necessary to examine the papal claims. He set himself to study the
Decretals, and to his amazement and indignation he found that they were
full of frauds. It is hard to say whether the discovery brought him more
joy or more grief. His letters show him half-exultant and
half-terrified. While he was in this state of mind he received Eck's
challenge to dispute with him at Leipzig on the papal supremacy.

This Leipzig Disputation was perhaps the most important point in
Luther's career. He met Eck in June 1519. It soon appeared that the
intention of that practised debater was to force Luther into some
admission which would justify opponents in accusing him of holding the
opinions of Huss, who had been condemned by the great German Council of
Constance. In this he was eminently successful. Eck left Leipzig
triumphant, and Luther returned to Wittenberg much depressed. As usual
he wrote out and published an account of the Disputation, which was an
appeal to his fellow Germans. The result surpassed his expectations. The
Disputation made him see that his protest against the abuses of
Indulgences was no criticism of an excrescence on the medieval
ecclesiastical system, but an attack on its centre of existence. He saw
that he stood for the spiritual priesthood of all believers and that
medievalism in religion meant that man cannot approach God without a
priestly mediator. The people also saw his position and rallied round
him; and the Humanists discerned in him a champion against the old
intolerance against which they had been revolting in vain. Luther's
depression fled. Sermons, pamphlets, letters from his tireless pen
flooded the land, and Luther began to be the leader of a German revolt
against Rome.

The year 1520 saw the publication of his three most important works, all
written at a time when he was fully convinced that he had broken for
ever with Rome. They were, _On the Liberty of a Christian Man_, _An
Address to the Nobility of the German Nation_, and _On the Babylonian
Captivity of the Church of God_--the three primary treatises, as they
have been called.

Meanwhile at Rome the pope had entrusted Eck and Prierias with the
preparation of a bull (_Exurge Domine_) against Luther--a bull which
followed the line of Eck's charges at Leipzig. The reformer had been
expecting it ever since the Disputation at Leipzig, and had resolved to
answer it by one striking act which would impress the imagination of
every man. He posted up a notice inviting the Wittenberg students to
witness the burning of the bull (10th of December 1520). Rome had shot
its last ecclesiastical bolt. Nothing remained but an appeal to the
secular power, and this was at once prepared.

The emperor Maximilian had died suddenly (12th January 1519), and for
long Germany was disturbed with intrigues about the succession--the
papal policy being specially tortuous. The widely expressed desire for a
German emperor secured the unanimous election of Charles, the grandson
of Maximilian and the king of Spain. Never were a people more mistaken
and disappointed. The veins of Charles were full of German blood, but he
was his mother's son. It was the Spaniard, not the German, who faced
Luther at Worms.

Charles was crowned at Aachen, 23rd of October 1520, and opened his
first German diet at Worms, 22nd of January 1521. The pope had selected
two envoys to wait on the young emperor, one of them, Jerome Aleander,
being specially appointed to secure the outlawry of Luther. The agenda
of the diet contained many things seriously affecting all Germany, but
the one problem which every one was thinking about was how Luther would
be dealt with. The Electoral College was divided. The archbishop of
Cologne, the elector of Brandenburg and his brother the archbishop of
Mainz were for instant outlawry, while the elector of Saxony, who was
resolved to protect Luther, had great influence with the archbishop of
Trier and the Count Palatine of the Rhine.

Aleander had no difficulty in persuading Charles, while both were still
in the Netherlands, to put Luther under the ban within his hereditary
dominions, and the papal nuncio expected that the decree would be
extended to the whole German empire. But Charles at first refused to
deal summarily with Luther so far as Germany was concerned. The emperor
even wrote to the elector of Saxony, asking him to bring Luther with him
to the diet for examination. Gradually he came to think that Luther
might be condemned without appearing. The members of the diet were slow
to come to any conclusion. At last they made up their minds, and
presented a memorial to the emperor (19th of February 1521) in which
they reminded him that no imperial edict could be published against
Luther without their sanction, and proposed that he should be invited to
Worms under a safe-conduct and be there examined. They also suggested
that Luther should be heard upon the papal claims, and ended by asking
the emperor to deliver Germany from the papal tyranny. The emperor
agreed to summon Luther under a safe-conduct, and that he should be
heard; but he refused to mix his case with that of grievances against
Rome. He had no sooner made the promise than he seems to have repented
it. He saw no need for Luther's appearance. He tried to get him
condemned unheard. An edict against Luther had been drafted (15th of
February) which the diet refused to sanction. A few days later a second
edict was drafted which ordered the burning of Luther's books. The diet
again objected. Finally four days after the safe-conduct had been
despatched the emperor revised this second edict, limited it to the
seizure of Luther's books, and published it on his own authority without
consulting the diet (10th March). After Luther had begun his journey,
this edict was posted up along his route in order to intimidate him;
other means were taken to make him turn aside from Worms; but he was
resolved to go there and nothing daunted him. He reached the town (16th
April) and was met by encouraging crowds. He was summoned to appear
before the diet on the 17th and measures were taken to prevent him doing
more than answering definite questions put to him. He was asked whether
certain books had been written by him and whether he was prepared to
maintain or to abjure what he had written. He asked time to prepare an
answer to the second question. The diet was anxious to hear Luther, if
the emperor was not, and his request was granted. He thus defeated the
plot to keep him silent. On the 18th he made his second appearance and
delivered the speech, which electrified his audience. At the close he
was threatened by Spaniards in the diet. The Germans ringed him round,
and, with their hands raised high in the fashion of a landsknecht who
had struck a successful blow, passed out into the street and escorted
him to his lodgings. Next day (April 19th) the emperor proposed to place
Luther under the ban of the empire and read to the assembly a brief
statement of his own views. The diet objected, and asked for a
conference between Luther and some selected members. Conferences were
held, but came to nothing. No compromise was possible between the
declaration that man's conscience could only be bound by the Word of God
and the emperor's belief in the infallibility of a general council. The
commission had to report that its efforts had failed. Luther was ordered
to leave Worms and to return to Wittenberg. His safe-conduct was to
expire twenty-one days after the 16th of April. Then he was liable to be
seized and put to death as a pestilent heretic. There only remained to
draft and publish the edict containing the ban. Days passed and it did
not appear. Suddenly the startling news reached Worms that Luther had
disappeared, no one knew where. It was reported that his body had been
found in a silver-mine pierced with a dagger. The news flew over Germany
and beyond it that he had been slain by papal emissaries. At Worms the
indignation of the populace was intense. The public buildings were
placarded during the night with an intimation that four hundred knights
had sworn not to leave Luther unavenged, and the ominous words
_Bundschuh, Bundschuh, Bundschuh_ (the watchword of peasant revolts)
were written at the foot. The combination suggested an alliance between
the lesser knights and the peasants, dreaded by all the ruling classes.
The true story of Luther's disappearance was not known until long
afterwards. After the failure of the conference the elector of Saxony
had commissioned two of the councillors to convey Luther to a place of
safety without telling him where it was. Many weeks elapsed before
Frederick himself learned that Luther was safe in his own castle of the
Wartburg. The disappearance did not mean that Luther had ceased to be a
leader of men; but it marked the beginning of an organized national
opposition to Rome.

It was not till the 25th of May that the edict against Luther was
presented to a small number of members of the diet, after the elector of
Saxony and many important members had left Worms. It threatened all
Luther's sympathisers with extermination, and practically proclaimed an
Albigensian war in Germany. But few public documents prepared with so
much care have proved so futile. The latter half of 1521 saw the silent
spread of Lutheran opinions all over Germany. This was not unaccompanied
with dangers. Every movement for reform carries within it the seeds of
revolution, and Luther's was no exception to the rule.

The revolution began in Wittenberg during Luther's seclusion in the
Wartburg. Andrew Boden of Carlstadt, a colleague of Luther's in the
university of Wittenberg, was strongly impressed with the contradiction
which he believed to exist between evangelical teaching and the usages
of medieval ecclesiastical life. He denounced monastic vows, a
distinctive dress for the clergy, the thought of a propitiatory mass,
and the presence of images and pictures in the churches. Zwilling, a
young Augustinian Eremite, added his fiery denunciations. His preaching
stirred the commonalty. Turbulent crowds invaded two of the churches and
rioted inside. The excitement of the people was increased by the arrival
of three men known in history as the _Zwickau prophets_. Melanchthon
felt himself powerless to restrain the tumult. The magistrates of the
town were won over and issued an ordinance which attempted to express in
legislation the new evangelical ideas. Duke George of Saxony, a resolute
opponent of the Reformation, threatened to make the diet interfere.
Luther became alarmed, and, not without a private hint from the elector
of Saxony,[1] left his retreat and appeared among his townsmen. His
presence and exertions restored order, and the conservative reformation
resumed its quiet course. From this time onwards to the outbreak of the
Peasants' War (1525) Luther was the real leader of the German nation,
and everything seemed to promise a gradual reformation without tumult.

The Peasants' War ended this anticipation. From one point of view this
insurrection was simply the last, the most wide-spreading and the most
disastrous of these revolts, which had been almost chronic in Germany
during the later decades of the 15th and earlier years of the 16th
century and which had been almost continuous between 1503 and 1517. All
the social and economic causes which produced them were increasingly
active in 1524 and 1525. But it is undoubted that the religious revolt
intensified the rebellion of the lower classes. Luther's voice awoke
echoes he never dreamt of. The times were ripe for revolution, and the
message which spoke of a religious democracy could not fail to suggest
the social democracy also. In his appeal to the _Nobility of the German
Nation_ he had stated with severe precision the causes of social
discontent. Himself a peasant's son and acquainted with the grievances
under which the peasant lived, he had at various times formulated most
of the demands which afterwards figured conspicuously in the Twelve
Articles. The insurgents had good cause to regard him as a sympathiser.
But Luther, rightly or wrongly, believed that of the two ways in which
wrongs can be set right--the way of war and the path of peace--the
latter is the only sure road in the long run. He did his best therefore
to prevent the rising and risked his life among the infuriated peasants
as readily as when he stood before the emperor and the diet. When the
rebellion was at its height and Thomas Münzer had sent forth fiery
proclamations urging the peasantry "not to let the blood cool on their
swords," Luther issued the pamphlet, which casts a stain on his whole
life, in which he hounds on the ruling classes to suppress the
insurgents with all violence. In the end the rebellion, formidable as it
seemed for a few months, was crushed, and a heavier yoke was laid on the
shoulders of the unfortunate peasants.

This year, 1525, saw the parting of the ways in the movement for reform.
It ceased to be national and became ecclesiastical. It divided into
three separate parts. One, guided by Luther himself, ended, after a long
struggle with pope and emperor, in the establishment of evangelical
churches under the rule of the secular authorities of the territories
which adopted the Lutheran Reformation. Another, remaining true to the
principles, doctrines, usages and hierarchy of the medieval church,
dreamt only of a purification of moral life, and saw its end realised in
the reforms of the council of Trent. The third, gathering together the
more revolutionary impulses, expanded into that complex movement called
Anabaptism--which spread over western Europe from England to Poland and
from Scandinavia to northern Italy, and endured a long and sanguinary
persecution at the hands of the civil authorities in most European
countries. Its strength and popularity, especially among the artizan
classes, have been very much underrated by most historians.

During the storm of the Peasants' War (13th of June 1525) Luther married
Catherine von Bora, the daughter of a noble but impoverished family
belonging to Meissen. She had been a Cistercian nun in the convent of
Nimtzch near Grimma--a convent reserved for ladies of noble birth.
Luther's writings, circulating through Saxony, had penetrated the
convent walls and had convinced most of the inmates of the unlawfulness
of monastic vows. Catherine and eight companions resolved to escape.
Their relatives refused to aid them, and they applied to Luther. He
entrusted the business to Leonhard Koppe of Torgau, and the rescue was
safely carried out (4th of April 1523). The rescued nuns found places of
refuge in the families of Wittenberg burghers. The elector John of
Saxony (who had succeeded his brother Frederick) gave Luther the house
which had served as the Augustinian Convent. The family gathered in this
three-storeyed building, with its back windows looking over the Elbe and
its front door opening on a great garden, was latterly Luther and his
wife, their three sons and two daughters, Magdelena von Bora,
Catherine's aunt, two orphan nieces and a grandniece. At the beginning
of his married life Luther must have been in straitened circumstances.
He married a portionless nun. On to 1532 his salary was two hundred
gulden annually (about £160 in present money); after 1532 the stipend
was increased to £240 with various payments in kind--corn, wood, malt,
wine, &c.--which meant a great deal more. The town added occasional
gifts to enable Luther to entertain the great personages who came to
consult him frequently. Princes made him presents in money. This enabled
Luther to purchase from his wife's brother the small estate of Zulsdorf.
Catherine, too, was an excellent house-wife. She made the long-neglected
garden profitable; kept pigs and poultry; rented other gardens; stocked
a fishpond; farmed in a small way; and had her house full of boarders.
Luther had a high opinion of her intelligence; she took rank among those
consulted on all important occasions; in one letter to her, seldom
quoted, he gives the fairest statement he ever made about the views of
Zwingli on the Sacrament of the Supper.

The diet of Speyer (1526) saw Germany divided into a Protestant and a
Romanist party. After much debate a compromise was arrived at, which
foreshadowed the religious peace of Augsburg of 1555. It was resolved
that the Word of God should be preached without disturbance, that
indemnity should be given for past offences against the edict of Worms,
and that meanwhile each state should live religiously as it hoped to
answer for its conduct to God and the emperor. The Lutherans interpreted
this to mean the right to frame ecclesiastical regulations for various
principalities and to make changes in public worship. Luther busied
himself in simplifying the service, in giving advice, anxiously sought
for, about the best modes of organising ecclesiastical affairs. In the
diet held at Speyer in 1529 a compact Roman Catholic majority faced a
weak Lutheran minority. The emperor declared through his commissioners
that he abolished "by his imperial and absolute authority" the clause in
the ordinance of 1526 on which the Lutherans had relied when they began
to organize their territorial churches. The majority of the diet
supported the emperor in this, and further proceeded to decree that no
ecclesiastical body was to be deprived of its revenues or authority.
This meant that throughout all Germany medieval ecclesiastical rule was
to be upheld, and that none of the revenues of the medieval church could
be appropriated for Protestant uses. On this a portion of the Protestant
minority drafted a legal protest, in which the signers declared that
they meant to abide by the decision of the diet of 1526 and refused to
be bound by that of 1529. From this protest came the name _Protestant_.

A minority in such a case could only maintain their protest if they were
prepared to defend each other by force in case of an attack. Three days
after the protest had been read, many of the protesting cities and
states concluded "a secret and particular treaty," and Philip of Hesse,
the ablest statesman among the Protesters, saw the need for a general
union of all evangelical Christians in the empire. The difficulties in
the way were great. The Saxons and the Swiss, Luther and Zwingli, were
in fierce controversy about the true doctrine of the sacrament of the
Supper. Luther was a patriotic German who was for ever bewailing the
disintegration of the Fatherland; Zwingli was full of plans for
confederations of Swiss cantons with South German cities, which could
not fail to weaken the empire. Luther had but little trust in the
"common man"; Zwingli was a thorough democrat. When Luther thought of
the Swiss reformer he muttered as Archbishop Parker did of John
Knox--"God keep us from such visitations as Knox hath attempted in
Scotland; the people to be orderers of things." Above all Luther had
good grounds for believing that at the conference at Memmingen friends
of Zwingli had helped to organize a Peasants' War and to link the social
revolution to the religious awakening. All these suspicions were in
Luther's mind when he consented very half-heartedly to meet Zwingli at a
conference to be held in Philip of Hesse's castle at Marburg. The debate
proceeded as such debates usually do. Zwingli attacked the weakest part
of Luther's theory--the _ubiquity_ of the body of Christ; and Luther
attacked Zwingli's exegesis of the words of the institution. Neither
sought to bring out their points of agreement. Yet the conference did
good; it showed that the Protestants were agreed on all doctrinal points
but one. If union was for the present impossible, there were hopes for
it in the future.

In 1530 the emperor Charles, resolved to crush the Reformation, himself
presided at the diet. The Protestant divisions were manifest. Three
separate confessions were presented to the emperor--one from Zwingli,
one by the theologians of the four cities of Strassbourg, Constance,
Lindau and Memmingen (_Confessio Tetrapolitana_), and the _Augsburg
Confession_, the future symbol of the Lutheran church. The third was the
most important, and the emperor seriously set himself to see whether it
might not be made the basis of a compromise. He found that
reconciliation was hopeless. Thereupon the diet resolved that the edict
of Worms was to be enforced against Luther and his partizans; that the
ecclesiastical jurisdictions were to be preserved; and that all the
church property taken possession of by the Lutheran princes was to be
restored; and that in all cases of dispute the last court of appeal was
to be the Imperial Court of Appeals. The last provision meant that the
growing Protestantism was to be fought by harrassing litigation--_nicht
fechten sondern rechten_ was the phrase.

Luther was not present at the diet nor at the negotiations. He was still
an outlaw according to imperial ideas. Melanchthon took his place as
leader.

The decision of the diet compelled the Protestant princes to face the
new and alarming situation. They met in conference in mid-winter at the
little town of Schmalkald, and laid the foundations of what became the
powerful Schmalkald League, which effectually protected the Protestants
of Germany until it was broken up by the intrigues of the imperial
party. From the time of the formation of this league, Luther retired
gradually from the forefront of a reformation movement which had become
largely political, and busied himself with reforms in public worship and
suggestions for an organization of the polity of the Evangelical church.
In this work his natural conservatism is apparent, and he contented
himself with such changes as would make room for the action of
evangelical principles. He disclaimed the right of suggesting a common
order of worship or a uniform ecclesiastical polity; and Lutheran ritual
and polity, while presenting common features, did not follow one common
use. It may be said generally that while Luther insisted on a service in
the vernacular, including the singing of German hymns, he considered it
best to retain most of the ceremonies, the vestments and the uses of
lights on the altar, which had existed in the unreformed church, while
he was careful to explain that their retention might be dispensed with
if thought necessary. To the popular mind the great distinction between
the Lutheran and the medieval church service, besides the use of the
vernacular and the supreme place assigned to preaching, was that the
people partook of the cup in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; and the
Lutheran service became popularly distinguished from the Reformed
because it retained, while the Reformed did away with, most of the
medieval ceremonies and vestments (see LUTHERANS). The variations in the
details of the polity of the Lutheran churches were very numerous, but
they all preserved the same distinctive principles. Two conceptions lay
at the basis--the thought of the spiritual priesthood of all believers
and the belief that the state was a divine ordinance, that the
magistracy might represent the whole body of believers and that
discipline and administration might be exercised through courts
constituted somewhat like the consistorial courts of the medieval
bishops, their members being appointed by the magistracy.

The last years of Luther's life were spent in incessant labour disturbed
by almost continuous ill-health. He was occupied in trying to unite
firmly together the whole evangelical movement; he laboured to give his
countrymen a good system of schools; he was on the watch to defeat any
attempt of the Roman Curia to regain its hold over Germany; and he was
the confidential adviser of a large number of the evangelical princes.
Luther's intimacy with his own elector, first John, then John Frederick,
helped to give him the place accorded to him by the princes. The chiefs
of the Houses of Anhalt and Lüneburg, Duke Henry of Saxony, Joachim II.
of Brandenburg, Albert of Brandenburg and the counts of Mansfeld, were
among Luther's most devoted supporters and most frequently sought his
advice. Princely correspondence was not always pleasant. It took its
most disagreeable form when Philip of Hesse besieged Luther with
requests to give his sanction to taking a second wife while his first
was still alive. Luther's weakness brought the second great blot on his
career. The document sanctioning the bigamy of the landgrave was signed
by Martin Bucer, Luther and Melanchthon, and is a humiliating paper. It
may be thus summarized. According to the original commandment of God,
marriage is between one man and one woman, and this original precept has
been confirmed by our Lord; but sin brought it about that first Lamech,
then the heathen, and then Abraham, took more than one wife, and this
was permitted under the law. We are now living under the Gospel, which
does not give prescribed rules for the external life and has not
expressly prohibited bigamy. The law of the land expresses the original
commandment of God, and the plain duty of the pastorate is to denounce
bigamy. Nevertheless, the pastorate, in single cases of the direst need
and to prevent worse, may sanction bigamy in a purely exceptional way.
Such a bigamous marriage is a true marriage in the sight of God (the
necessity being proved), but it is not a true marriage in the eye of
public law and custom. Such a marriage and the dispensation for it ought
to be kept secret; if it is made known, the dispensation becomes _eo
ipso_ invalid and the marriage is mere concubinage. The principle which
underlies this extraordinary paper is probably the conception that the
Protestant church has the same dispensing power which the medieval
church claimed, but that it was to be exercised altogether apart from
fees of any kind.

In his later years Luther became more tolerant on the sacramental
question which divided him from the South German cities, although he
never departed from his strong opposition to the supposed views of
Zwingli himself. He consented to a conference, which, as he was too ill
to leave home, met at Wittenberg (May-June 1536). After prolonged
discussion the differences were narrowed to one point--the presence of
the body of Christ _extended in space_ in the sacrament of the Supper.
It was agreed in the _Wittenberg Concord_ to leave this an open
question. Thus North and South Germany were united. It is possible that
had Luther lived longer his followers might have been united with the
Swiss. He repeatedly expressed an admiration for Calvin's writings on
the subject of the sacrament; and Melanchthon believed that if the Swiss
accepted Calvin's theory of the Supper, the Wittenberg Concord could be
extended to include them. But the _Consensus Tigurinus_, which dates the
adhesion of the Swiss to the views of Calvin, was not signed until 1549,
when Luther was already dead.

Year by year Luther had been growing weaker, his attacks of illness more
frequent and his bodily pains more continuous. Despite the entreaties
of wife and elector he resolved to do what he could to end some trifling
dispute about inheritance which threatened the peace of the House of
Mansfeld. He left Wittenberg in bitterly cold weather on the 23rd of
January 1546, and the journey was tedious and hazardous. He was accepted
as arbiter and his decision brought an end to the strife. He preached in
Eisleben (February 14) with all his old fervour; but suddenly said
quietly: "This and much more is to be said about the Gospel; but I am
too weak and we will close here." These were his last words in the
pulpit. On the 16th and 17th the deeds of reconciliation were signed and
Luther's work was done. The end came swiftly. He was very ill on the
evening of the 17th; he died on the early morning of the 18th of
February 1546 in his sixty-third year.

The elector of Saxony and Luther's family resolved that he must be
buried at Wittenberg, and on the 20th the funeral procession began its
long march. The counts of Mansfeld, the magistrates of the city and all
the burghers of Eisleben accompanied the coffin to the gates of their
town. A company of fifty light-armed troops commanded by the young
counts of Mansfeld headed the procession and went with it all the way to
Wittenberg. The following was temporarily swelled as it passed through
villages and towns. Delegates from the elector of Saxony met it as it
crossed the boundaries of the principality. Luther was laid to rest in
the Castle church on whose door he had nailed the _theses_ which had
kindled the great conflagration.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(a) For Luther's life as a whole: Melanchthon,
  "Historia de vita et actis Lutheri" (Wittenberg, 1545), in the _Corpus
  Reformatorum_, vi.; Mathesius, _Historien von ... Martini Lutheri,
  Anfang, Lehre, Leben und Sterben_ (Prague, 1896); Myconius, _Historia
  Reformationis 1517-1542_ (Leipzig, 1718); Ratzeberger, _Geschichte
  über Luther und seine Zeit_ (Jena, 1850); Wrampelmeyer, _Tagebuch über
  Dr Martin Luther geführt von Dr Conrad Cordatus, 1537_ (Halle, 1885);
  Förstemann, _Neues Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der evangelischen
  Kirchenreformation_ (Hamburg, 1842); Kolde, _Analecta Lutherana_
  (Gotha, 1883); G. Lösche, _Analecta Lutherana et Melanchthoniana_
  (Gotha, 1892); G. Lösche, _Vollständige Reformations-Acta und
  Documenta_ (Leipzig, 1720-1729); Enders, _Dr Martin Luther's
  Briefwechsel_ (5 vols., Frankfurt, 1884-1893); J. Cochlaeus (Rom.
  Cath.), _Commentarius de actis et scriptis M. Lutheri, &c_. (St Victor
  prope Moguntium). See also J. Köstlin, _Martin Luther, sein Leben und
  seine Schriften_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1889); Th. Kolde, _Martin Luther,
  Eine Biographie_ (2 vols., Gotha, 1884-1893); A. Hausrath, _Luther's
  Leben_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1904); Lindsay, _Luther and the German
  Reformation_ (Edinburgh, 1900); _Cambridge Modern History_, ii.
  (Cambridge, 1903); _History of the Reformation_, i. (Edinburgh, 1906).

  (b) For special incidents: The _Theses_ and their publication: W.
  Köhler, _Luthers 95 Theses sammt seinen Resolutionen, den
  Gegenschriften von Wimpina-Tetzel, Eck und Prierias, und den Antworten
  Luthers darauf_ (Leipzig, 1903); Emil Reich, _Select Documents
  illustrating Medieval and Modern History_ (London, 1905); The Leipzig
  Disputation: Seidemann, _Die Leipziger Disputation im Jahre 1519_
  (Dresden, 1843); Luther before the Diet of Worms: _Deutsche
  Reichstagsakten unter Kaiser Karl V_. (Gotha, 1893-1901), ii.; The
  Marburg Colloquy; Schirrmacher, _Briefe und Acten zu der Geschichte
  des Religionsgespräches zu Marburg, 1529, und des Reichstages zu
  Augsburg 1530_ (Gotha, 1876); Hospinian, _Historia Sacramentaria_, ii.
  123b-126b; Ehrard, _Das Dogma vom heiligen Abendmahl und seine
  Geschichte_, ii. (Frankfurt a M., 1846); The Augsburg Confession:
  Schaff, _The Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches_ (London,
  1877), _History of the Creeds of Christendom_ (London, 1877).
       (T. M. L.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Enders, _Dr Martin Luther's Briefwechsel_, iii. 292-295; von
    Bezold, _Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_ xx. 186 sqq.; Barge,
    _Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt_, i. 432 sqq.



LUTHERANS, the general title given to those Christians who have adopted
the principles of Martin Luther in his opposition to the Roman Church,
to the followers of Calvin, and to the sectaries of the times of the
Reformation. Their distinctive name is the _Evangelical_, as opposed to
the _Reformed_ church. Their dogmatic symbols are usually said to
include nine separate creeds which together form the _Book of Concord_
(_Liber Concordiae_). Three belong to the Early Christian church--the
_Apostles' Creed_, the _Nicene Creed_ (in its Western form, i.e. with
the _filioque_), and the so-called _Athanasian Creed_; six come from the
16th century--the _Augsburg Confession_, the _Apology for the Augsburg
Confession_, the _Schmalkald Articles_, Luther's two _Catechisms_, and
the _Form of Concord_. But only the three early creeds and the Augsburg
Confession are recognized by all Lutherans. Luther's Catechisms,
especially the shorter of the two, have been almost universally
accepted, but the Form of Concord was and is expressly rejected by many
Lutheran churches. The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism
may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all
Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of
the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg
Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all
that is distinctively Lutheran. Its universal acceptance is perhaps due
to the fact that it exists in two forms (the _variata_ and the
_invariata_) which vary slightly in the way in which they state the
doctrine of the sacrament of the Supper. The _variata_ edition was
signed by Calvin, in the meaning, he said, of its author Melanchthon.

After Luther's death the more rigid Lutherans declared it to be their
duty to preserve the _status religionis in Germania per Lutherum
instauratus_, and to watch over the _depositum Jesu Christi_ which he
had committed to their charge. As Luther was a much greater preacher
than a systematic thinker, it was not easy to say exactly what this
deposit was, and controversies resulted among the Lutheran theologians
of the 16th century. The Antinomian controversy was the earliest
(1537-1560). It arose from differences about the precise meaning of the
word "law" in Luther's distinction between law and gospel. Luther
limited the meaning of the word to mean a definite command accompanied
by threats, which counts on terror to produce obedience. He declared
that Christ was not under the dominion of the law in this sense of the
word, and that believers enter the Christian life only when they
transcend a rule of life which counts on selfish motives for obedience.
But law may mean ethical rule, and the Antinomians so understood it, and
interpreted Luther's declaration to mean that believers are not under
the dominion of the moral law. The controversy disturbed the Lutheran
church for more than twenty years.

The Arminian controversy in the Reformed church, the Jansenist
controversy in the Roman Catholic church, had their parallel in three
separate disputes among the Lutherans lasting from 1550 to 1580. (1)
George Major, discussing the relation of good works to conversion,
declared that such works were both useful and necessary to holiness. He
was attacked by Flacius and Amsdorf, and after a long controversy, full
of ambiguities and lacking in the exhibition of guiding principles, he
was condemned because his statement savoured of Pelagianism. (2) The
same problem took a new form in the Synergist controversy, which
discussed the first impulse in conversion. One party taught that while
the first impulse must come from the Holy Spirit the work might be
compared to reviving a man _apparently_ dead. It was answered that the
sinner was _really_ dead, and that the work of the Spirit was to give an
actually new life. The latter assertion was generally approved of. (3)
Then a fresh controversy was started by the assertion that sin was part
of the substance of man in his fallen condition. It was answered that
sin had not totally destroyed man's ethical nature, and that grace
changed what was morally insensitive into what was morally sensitive, so
that there could be a co-operation between God's grace and man's will.

The controversy raised by Andrew Osiander was more important. He felt
that Luther had omitted to make adequate answer to an important
practical question, how Christ's death on the cross could be brought
into such actual connexion with every individual believer as to be the
ground of his actual justification. The medieval church had spanned the
centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through
the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing
equivalent. He proposed to supply the lack by the theory that
justification is a real work done in the individual by the same Christ
who died so many centuries ago. Redemption, he said, was the result of
the historical work of Christ; but justification was the work of the
living risen Christ, dwelling within the believer and daily influencing
him. Osiander's theory did not win much support, but it was the
starting-point of two separate doctrines. In the Lutheran church,
Striegel taught that the principal effect of Christ's work on the cross
was to change the attitude of God towards the whole human race, and
that, in consequence, when men come into being and have faith, they can
take advantage of the change of attitude effected by the past historical
work of Christ. The Reformed church, on the other hand, constructed
their special doctrine of the limited reference in the atonement.

The other controversies concerned mainly the doctrine of the sacrament
of the Supper, and Luther's theory of Consubstantiation. This required a
doctrine of _Ubiquity_, or the omnipresence of the body of Christ
extended in space, and therefore of its presence in the communion
elements. Calvin had taught that the true way to regard substance was to
think of its power (_vis_), and that the presence of a substance was the
immediate application of its power. The presence of the body of Christ
in the sacramental elements did not need a presence extended in space.
Melanchthon and many Lutherans accepted the theory of Calvin, and
alleged that Luther before his death had approved of it. Whereupon the
more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and
began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of
the idea of ubiquity.

The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of
the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of
the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon. Conferences only increased
the differences. The Lutheran church seemed in danger of falling to
pieces. This alarmed both parties. New conferences were held and various
articles of agreement were proposed, the most notable being the _Torgau
Book_ (1576). In the end, the greater proportion adopted the _Book of
Concord_ (1577), drafted chiefly by Jacob Andreae of Tübingen, Martin
Chemnitz of Brunswick and Nicolas Selnecker of Leipzig. Its recognition
was mainly due to the efforts of Augustus, elector of Saxony. This _Book
of Concord_ was accepted by the Lutheran churches of Sweden and of
Hungary in 1593 and 1597; but it was rejected by the Lutheran churches
of Denmark, of Hesse, of Anhalt, of Pomerania and of several of the
imperial cities. It was at first adopted and then rejected by Brunswick,
the Palatinate and Brandenburg. The churches within Germany which
refused the _Book of Concord_ became for the most part Calvinistic or
Reformed. They published, as was the fashion among the Reformed
churches, separate creeds for themselves, but almost all accepted the
_Heidelberg Catechism_. These differences in the German Protestant
churches of the second half of the 16th century are reflected in the
great American Lutheran church. The church exists in three separate
organizations. The General Synod of the Evangelical Church of the United
States, organized in 1820, has no other creed than the _Augsburg
Confession_, so liberally interpreted as not to exclude Calvinists. The
Synodical Conference of North America, organized in 1872, compels its
pastors to subscribe to the whole of the nine creeds contained in the
Book of Concord. The General Council, a secession from the General
Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (_invariata_)
_Augsburg Confession_ in its original sense, and the other Lutheran
symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.

The divided state of German Protestantism, resulting from these
theological differences, contributed in no small degree to the disasters
of the Thirty Years' War, and various attempts were made to unite the
two confessions. Conferences were held at Leipzig (1631), Thorn (1645),
Cassel (1661); but without success. At length the union of the two
churches was effected by the force of the civil authorities in Prussia
(1817), in Nassau (1817), in Hesse (1823), in Anhalt-Dessau (1827) and
elsewhere. These unions for the most part aimed, not at incorporating
the two churches in doctrine and in worship, but at bringing churches or
congregations professing different confessions under one government and
discipline. They permitted each congregation to use at pleasure the
_Augsburg Confession_ or the _Heidelberg Catechism_. The enforced union
in Prussia was combined with the publication of a new liturgy intended
for common use. This led to secessions from the state church. These
seceders were at first treated with great harshness, but have won their
way to toleration, and form the Lutheran Free churches of Germany.

The most important of these latter is the Evangelical Lutheran church of
Prussia, sometimes called the Old Lutherans. It came into being in 1817
and gradually gained the position of a tolerated nonconformist church
(1845 being the date of its complete recognition by the state). At the
1905 census it numbered 51,600 members under 75 pastors. Its affairs are
managed by an _Oberkirchencollegium_, with four ordained and two lay
members. The Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Synod came into being in
1864, and has a membership of 5300 with 13 ordained pastors. Its
headquarters is Liegnitz. The Independent Evangelical Lutheran church in
the lands of Hesse arose partly on account of the slumbering opposition
to the union of 1823 and more particularly in consequence of an attempt
made at a stricter union in 1874. It has a membership of about 1800. The
_renitente_ church of Lower Hesse has a membership of 2400. The
Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Hanover has a membership of 3050
under 10 ordained pastors. The Hermannsburg Free Church has a membership
of about 2000 under 2 pastors. The Evangelical Lutheran Community in
Baden has a membership of about 1100 with 2 ordained pastors. The
Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Saxony has a membership of about
3780 with 15 ordained pastors. These free churches exist separate from
the State Evangelical United Church (_Evangelische unirte Landskirche_).

The general system of ecclesiastical government which prevails among all
Lutheran churches is called the _consistorial_. It admits of great
variety of detail under certain common features of organization. It
arose partly from the makeshift policy of the times of the Reformation,
and partly from Luther's strong belief that the _jus episcopale_
belonged in the last resort to the civil authorities. It may be most
generally described by saying that the idea was taken from the
consistorial courts through which the medieval bishops managed the
affairs of their dioceses. Instead of the appointments to the membership
of the consistories being made by the bishops, they were made by the
supreme civil authority, whatever that might be. Richter, in his
_Evangelische Kirchenordnungen des 16ten Jahrhunderts_ (2 vols., 1846),
has collected more than one hundred and eight separate ecclesiastical
constitutions, and his collection is confessedly imperfect. The
publication of a complete collection by Emil Sehling was begun in 1902.

The liturgies of the Lutheran churches exhibit the same diversities in
details as appear in their constitutions. It may be said in general that
while Luther insisted that public worship ought to be conducted in a
language understood by the people, and that all ideas and actions which
were superstitious and obscured the primary truth of the priesthood of
all believers should be expurged, he wished to retain as much as
possible of the public service of the medieval church. The external
features of the medieval churches were retained; but the minor altars,
the _tabernacula_ to contain the Host, and the light permanently burning
before the altar, were done away with. The ecclesiastical year with its
fasts and festivals was retained in large measure. In 1526 Luther
published the _German Mass and order of Divine Service_, which, without
being slavishly copied, served as a model for Lutheran communities. It
retained the altar, vestments and lights, but explained that they were
not essential and might be dispensed with. The peril attending the
misuse of pictures in churches was recognized, but it was believed to be
more than counterbalanced by the instruction given through them when
their presence was not abused. In short Luther contented himself with
setting forth general principles of divine service, leaving them to be
applied as his followers thought best. The consequence was that there is
no uniform Lutheran liturgy. In his celebrated _Codex Liturgicus
Ecclesiae Lutheranae in epitomen redactus_ (Leipzig, 1848), Daniel has
used 98 different liturgies and given specimens to show the differences
which they exhibit.

The divergences in ritual and organization, the principle underlying all
the various ecclesiastical unions, viz. to combine two different
confessions under one common government, and, resulting from it, the
possibility of changing from one confession to another, have all
combined to free the state churches from any rigid interpretation of
their theological formulas. A liberal and a conservative theology
(rationalist and orthodox) exist side by side within the churches, and
while the latter clings to the theology of the 16th century, the former
ventures to raise doubts about the truth of such a common and simple
standard as the Apostles' Creed. The extreme divergence in doctrinal
position is fostered by the fact that the theology taught in the
universities is in a great measure divorced from the practical religious
life of the people, and the theological opinions uttered in the
theological literature of the country cannot be held to express the
thoughts of the members of the churches. In each state the sovereign is
still held to be the _summus episcopus_. He appoints a minister of
public worship, and through him nominates the members of the governing
body, the _Oberkirchenrath_ or _Consistorium_ or _Directorium_. This
council deals with the property, patronage and all other ecclesiastical
matters. But each parish elects its own council for parochial affairs,
which has a legal status and deals with such matters as the
ecclesiastical assessments. Delegates from these parish councils form
the _Landessynode_. In cases that call for consultation together, the
_Consistorium_ and the Synod appoint committees to confer. In
Alsace-Lorraine about half of those entitled to vote appear at the
polls; but in other districts of Germany very little interest is shown
in the elections to the parish councils.

The income of the state churches is derived from four sources. The state
makes an annual provision for the stipends of the clergy, for the
maintenance of fabrics and for other ecclesiastical needs. The
endowments for church purposes, of which there are many, and which are
destined to the support of foreign missions, clerical pensions, supply
of books to the clergy, &c. are administered by the supreme council. The
voluntary contributions of the people are all absorbed in the common
income of the national churches and are administered by the supreme
council. Each parish is legally entitled to levy ecclesiastical
assessments for defined purposes.

Appointments to benefices are in the hands of the state (sometimes with
consent of parishes), of private patrons and of local parish councils.
The number of these benefices is always increasing; and in 1897 they
amounted to 16,400, or 300 more than in 1890. The state appoints to 56%,
private and municipal patrons to 34%, and congregations to 10% of the
whole. Customs vary in different states; thus in Schleswig-Holstein the
state nominates but the parish elects; in Alsace-Lorraine the
directorium or supreme consistory appoints, but the appointment must be
confirmed by the viceroy; in Baden the state offers the parish a
selection from six names and then appoints the one chosen.

The Lutheran state churches of Denmark, Sweden and Norway have retained
the episcopate. In all of them the king is recognized to be the _summus
episcopus_ or supreme authority in all ecclesiastical matters, but in
Norway and Sweden his power is somewhat limited by that of parliament.
The king exercises his ecclesiastical authority through a minister who
superintends religion and education. The position and functions of the
bishops vary in the different countries. In all the rite of ordination
is in their hands. In Denmark they are the inspectors of the clergy and
of the schools. In Sweden they preside over local consistories composed
of clerical and lay members. The episcopate in all three countries
accommodates itself to something like the Lutheran consistorial system
of ecclesiastical government.

The two leading religions within Germany are the Evangelical (Lutheran)
and the Roman Catholic, including respectively 58 and 39% of the
population. The proportions are continually varying, owing to the new
migratory habits of almost every class of the population. Generally
speaking, the Roman Catholics are on the increase in Prussia, Bavaria,
Saxony and Württemburg; and the Evangelicals in the other districts of
Germany, especially in the large cities. There is a growing tendency to
mixed marriages, which are an important factor in religious changes.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Richter, _Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des
  sechzehnten Jahrhunderts_ (Weimar, 1846); Sehling, _Die evangelischen
  Kirchenordnungen des 16ten Jahrhunderts_ (Leipzig, 1902, &c.);
  Richter, _Lehrbuch des katholischen und evangelischen Kirchenrechts_
  (8th ed., Leipzig, 1886); Hundeshagen, _Beiträge zur
  Kirchenverfassungsgeschichte und Kirchenpolitik inbesondere des
  Protestantismus_, i. (Wiesbaden, 1864), or in _Ausgewählte kl.
  Schriften_, ii. (Gotha, 1875); Höfling, _Grundsätze der
  evangelischen-Lutherischen Kirchenverfassung_ (Erlangen, 1850, 3rd
  ed., 1853); Drews, _Das kirchl. Leben d. deutschen evangelischen
  Landeskirchen_ (Tübingen, 1902); Erich Forster, _Die Enstehung der
  preussischen Landeskirchen unter der Regierung König Friedrich
  Wilhelms III._, i. (Tübingen, 1905); Emil Sehling, _Geschichte der
  protestantischen Kirchenverfassung_ (Leipzig, 1907); articles in
  Herzog's _Realencyklopädie für protest. Theologie_ (3rd ed.), on
  Kirchenregiment, Kirchenrecht, Kirchenordnung, Konsistorien,
  Episcopalsystem, Gemeinde, Kollegialsystem, Territorialsystem; Schaff,
  _History of the Creeds of Christendom_ (London, 1877).     (T. M. L.)



LUTHER LEAGUE, a religious association for young people in the United
States of America. It began with a local society founded by delegates of
six Lutheran church societies in New York City in 1888. The first
national convention was held at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on the 30th and
31st of October 1895. The basis of the league is the Augsburg
Confession. Its membership is open to "any society of whatever name
connected with a Lutheran congregation or a Lutheran institution of
learning." According to the constitution its objects are "to encourage
the formation of the young people's societies in all Lutheran
congregations in America, to urge their affiliation with their
respective state or territorial leagues, and with this league to
stimulate the various young people's societies to greater Christian
activity and to foster the spirit of loyalty to the church." The league
publishes a monthly paper, _The Luther League Review_, in Washington.
According to its official report it had 70,000 members in 1906, which
had increased to more than 100,000 in 1910.



LUTON, a market town and municipal borough in the southern or Luton
parliamentary division of Bedfordshire, England, 30 m. N.W. by N. of
London by the Midland railway, served also by a branch of the Great
Northern. Pop. (1901) 36,404. It lies in a narrow valley on the south
flank of the Chiltern Hills, on the upper part of the river Lea. The
church of St Mary is mainly Decorated, but has portions of Early English
and Perpendicular work. It has brasses and monuments of interest and a
late Decorated baptistery of stone, an ornate roofed structure,
octagonal in form. The font within it is Early English. Luton is the
principal seat in England of the straw-plait manufacture, and large
quantities of hats and other straw goods have been exported, though in
recent years the industry has suffered from increased foreign
competition. The industry originated with the colony of straw-plaiters
transplanted by James I. from Scotland, whither they had been brought
from Lorraine by Queen Mary. The town has also foundries, motor car
works and other manufactures. The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen
and 18 councillors. Area, 3133 acres.



LUTSK (Polish, _Luck_), a town of southern Russia, in the government of
Volhynia, on the Styr, 51 m. by rail N.W. of Kovel. Pop. (1900) 17,701.
It is supposed to have been founded in the 7th century; in the 11th
century it was known as Luchesk, and was the chief town of an
independent principality. In the 15th century it was the seat of a
bishop and became wealthy, but during the wars between Russia and Poland
in the second half of the 16th century, and especially after the
extermination of its 40,000 inhabitants, it lost its importance. In 1791
it was taken by Russia. Its inhabitants, many of them Jews, live mainly
by shipping goods on the Styr. Among its buildings is a 16th-century
castle. Lutsk is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop.



LUTTERWORTH, a market town in the Harborough parliamentary division of
Leicestershire, England; 90 m. N.N.W. from London by the Great Central
railway. Pop. (1901) 1734. It lies in a pleasant undulating country on
the small river Swift, an affluent of the Avon. The church of St Mary is
a fine building, mainly Decorated and Perpendicular, wherein are
preserved relics of John Wycliffe, who was rector here from 1374 until
his death in 1384. The exhumation and burning of his body in 1428, when
the ashes were cast into the Swift, gave rise to the saying that their
distribution by the river to the ocean resembled that of Wycliffe's
doctrines over the world. Wycliffe is further commemorated by a modern
obelisk in the town. Trade is principally agricultural.



LUTTRELL, HENRY (c. 1765-1851), English wit and writer of society verse,
was the illegitimate son of Henry Lawes Luttrell, 2nd earl of Carhampton
(1743-1821), a grandson of Colonel Henry Luttrell (c. 1655-1717), who
served James II. in Ireland in 1689 and 1690, and afterwards deserted
him, being murdered in Dublin in November 1717. Colonel Luttrell's son
Simon (1713-1787) was created earl of Carhampton in 1785, and the
latter's son was Henry Lawes Luttrell. Before succeeding to the peerage,
the 2nd earl, then Colonel Luttrell, had won notoriety by opposing John
Wilkes at the Middlesex election of 1769. He was beaten at the poll, but
the House of Commons declared that he and not Wilkes had been elected.
In 1796 he was made commander of the forces in Ireland and in 1798 he
became a general. Being an Irish peer, Carhampton was able to sit in the
English parliament until his death in April 1821. The earldom became
extinct on the death of his brother John, the 3rd earl, in 1829.

Henry Luttrell secured a seat in the Irish parliament in 1798 and a post
in the Irish government, which he commuted for a pension. Introduced
into London society by the duchess of Devonshire, his wit made him
popular. Soon he began to write verse, in which the foibles of
fashionable people were outlined. In 1820 he published his _Advice to
Julia_, of which a second edition, altered and amplified, appeared in
1823 as _Letters to Julia in Rhyme_. This poem, suggested by the ode to
Lydia in the first book of Horace's Odes, was his most important work.
His more serious literary contemporaries nicknamed it "Letters of a
Dandy to a Dolly." In 1827 in _Crockford House_ he wrote a satire on the
high play then in vogue. Byron characterized him as "the best sayer of
good things, and the most epigrammatic conversationist I ever met"; Sir
Walter Scott wrote of him as "the great London wit," and Lady
Blessington described him as the one talker "who always makes me think."
Luttrell died in London on the 19th of December 1851.



LÜTTRINGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, 6 m.
S.E. of Elberfeld by rail. Pop. (1905) 11,829. It is the seat of various
iron and other metal industries, and has cloth and calico mills.



LÜTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in
1905, 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the
6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus
Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein. On the 5/15th
November, Gustavus, with some 20,000 men, advanced from Naumburg on the
Saale to meet a contingent of his German allies at Grimma, S.E. of
Leipzig, but becoming aware of the presence of Wallenstein's army near
Lützen, and that it had been weakened by a large detachment sent away
under Pappenheim towards Halle, he turned towards Lützen. Wallenstein's
posts at Weissenfels and Rippach prevented him from fighting his main
battle the same evening, and the Swedes went into camp near Rippach, a
little more than an hour's march from Lützen.

Wallenstein made ready to give battle on the following day and recalled
Pappenheim. The latter had taken a small castle, the reduction of which
was one of the objects of his expedition, but his men had dispersed to
plunder and could not be rallied before the following morning. Gustavus
had now to choose between proceeding to Grimma and fighting Wallenstein
on the chance that Pappenheim had not rejoined. He chose the latter. In
the mist of the early morning Wallenstein's army was formed in line of
battle along the Leipzig road with its right on Lützen. Its left was not
carried out as far as the Flossgraben in order to leave room on that
flank for Pappenheim. His infantry was arranged in five huge oblongs,
four of which (in lozenge formation) formed the centre and one the
right wing at Lützen. These "battalias" had their angles strengthened in
the old-fashioned way that had prevailed since Marignan, with small
outstanding bodies of musketeers, so that they resembled rectangular
forts with bastions. On either side of this centre was the cavalry in
two long lines, while in front of the centre and close to the right at
Lützen were the two batteries of heavy artillery. Lützen was set on fire
as a precaution. Skirmishers lined the bank and the ditch of the Leipzig
road. The total strength of the Imperial army was about 12,000 foot and
8000 horse.

[Illustration: BATTLE OF LÜTZEN November 16th., 1632.]

Gustavus's hopes of an early decision were frustrated by the fog, which
delayed the approach and deployment of the Swedes. It was 8 A.M. before
all was ready. The royal army was in two lines. The infantry in the
centre was arrayed in the small and handy battalions then peculiar to
Gustavus's army, the horse on either wing extended from opposite Lützen
to some distance beyond Wallenstein's left, which Pappenheim was to
extend on his arrival. By the accident of the terrain, or perhaps,
following the experience of Breitenfeld (q.v.), by design, the right of
the Swedes was somewhat nearer to the enemy than the left. In front,
near the centre, were the heavy guns and each infantry battalion had its
own light artillery. The force of infantry and cavalry on either side
was about equal, the Swedes had perhaps rather less cavalry and rather
more infantry, but their artillery was superior to Wallenstein's. Not
until 11 was it possible to open fire, for want of a visible target, but
about noon, after a preliminary cannonade, Gustavus gave the word to
advance.

The king himself commanded the right wing, which had to wait until small
bodies of infantry detached for the purpose had driven in the
Imperialist skirmish line, and had then to cross a ditch leading the
horses. They were not charged by the Imperialists at this moment, for
Pappenheim had not yet arrived, and the usual cavalry tactics of the day
were founded on the pistol and not on the sword and the charging horse.
Gaining at last room to form, the Swedes charged and routed the first
line of the Imperial cavalry but were stopped by the heavy squadrons of
cuirassiers in second line, and at that moment Gustavus galloped away to
the centre where events had taken a serious turn. The Swedish centre
(infantry) had forced their way across the Leipzig road and engaged
Wallenstein's living forts at close quarters. The "Blue"
brigade--Gustavus's infantry wore distinctive colours--overran the
battery of heavy guns, and the "Swedish"[1] and "Yellow" brigades
engaged the left face of the Imperialist lozenge with success. But a gap
opened between the right of the infantry and the left of the cavalry and
Wallenstein's second line squadrons pressed into it. It was this which
brought Gustavus from the extreme right, and he was killed here in
leading a counter charge.

On the extreme left, meanwhile, the "Green" brigade had come to close
quarters with Wallenstein's infantry and guns about Lützen, and the
heavy artillery had gone forward to close range between the "Green" and
the "Yellow" infantry. But the news of Gustavus's death spread and the
fire of the assault died out. Wallenstein advanced in his turn,
recaptured his guns and drove the Swedes over the road.

But the fiery Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar took up the command and
ordered a fresh advance. He was too good a soldier to waste his reserves
and only brought up a few units of the second line to help the
disordered brigades of the first. Again the Imperialists were driven in
and their guns recaptured, this time all along the line. About three in
the afternoon the Swedes were slowly bearing back Wallenstein's stubborn
infantry when Pappenheim appeared. The famous cavalry leader had brought
on his mounted men ahead of the infantry and asking, "Where is the king
of Sweden?" charged at once in the direction of the enemy's right.
Wallenstein thus gained time to reestablish his order, and once more the
now exhausted brigades of the Swedish first line were driven over the
road. But Pappenheim fell in the moment of victory and his death
disheartened the Imperialists almost as much as the fall of Gustavus had
disheartened the Swedes. For the last time Bernhard, wounded as he was,
forced the Swedish army to the attack. The three infantry brigades of
his second line had not been engaged,[2] and as usual the last closed
reserve, resolutely handled, carried the day. Wallenstein's army gave
way at all points and the Swedes slept on the battlefield. The infantry
of Pappenheim's corps did not appear on the field until the battle was
over. Of the losses on either side no accurate statement can be given,
but the Swedish "Green" and "Yellow" brigades are said to have lost
five-sixths of their numbers. Near the spot where Gustavus fell a
granite boulder was placed in position on the day after the battle. A
canopy of cast-iron was erected over this "Schwedenstein" in 1832, and
close by, a chapel, built by Oskar Ekman. a citizen of Gothenburg (d.
1907), was dedicated on the 6th of November 1907.

  Lützen is famous also as the scene of a victory of Napoleon over the
  Russians and Prussians on the 2nd of May 1813 (see NAPOLEONIC
  CAMPAIGNS). This battle is often called Gross Görschen.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The foregoing account of Gustavus's last victory is
  founded chiefly upon Lieut.-Colonel Hon. E. Noel's _Gustaf Adolf_
  (London, 1904) and a paper by the same officer in the _Journal of the
  United States Institution of India_ (Oct. 1908), which should be
  consulted for further details.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] So called as being the only brigade containing no foreign
    elements in the army.

  [2] They had, however, found detachments to reinforce the first line.



LÜTZOW, ADOLF, FREIHERR VON (1782-1834), Prussian lieutenant-general,
entered the army in 1795, and eleven years later as a lieutenant took
part in the disastrous battle of Auerstädt. He achieved distinction in
the siege of Colberg, as the leader of a squadron of Schill's
volunteers. In 1808, as a major, he retired from the Prussian army,
indignant at the humiliating treaty of Tilsit. He took part in the
heroic venture of his old chief Schill in 1809; wounded at Dodendorf and
left behind, he thereby escaped the fate of his comrades. In 1811 he was
restored to the Prussian army as major, and at the outbreak of the "war
of liberation" received permission from Scharnhorst to organize a "free
corps" consisting of infantry, cavalry and Tirolese marksmen, for
operating in the French rear and rallying the smaller governments into
the ranks of the allies. This corps played a marked part in the campaign
of 1813. But Lützow was unable to coerce the minor states, and the
wanderings of the corps had little military influence. At Kitzen (near
Leipzig) the whole corps, warned too late of the armistice of
Poischwitz, was caught on the French side of the line of demarcation
and, as a fighting force, annihilated. Lützow himself, wounded, cut his
way out with the survivors, and immediately began reorganizing and
recruiting. In the second part of the campaign the corps served in more
regular warfare under Wallmoden. Lützow and his men distinguished
themselves at Gadebusch (where Körner fell) and Göhrde (where Lützow
himself, for the second time, received a severe wound at the head of the
cavalry). Sent next against Denmark, and later employed at the siege of
Jülich, Lützow in 1814 fell into the hands of the French. After the
peace of 1814 the corps was dissolved, the infantry becoming the 25th
Regiment, the cavalry the 6th Ulans. At Ligny he led the 6th Ulans to
the charge, but they were broken by the French cavalry, and he finally
remained in the hands of the enemy, escaping, however, on the day of
Waterloo. Made colonel in this year, his subsequent promotions were:
major-general 1822, and lieutenant-general (on retirement) 1830. He died
in 1834. One of the last acts of his life for which Lützow is remembered
is his challenge (which was ignored) to Blücher, who had been ridden
down in the rout of the 6th Ulans at Ligny, and had made, in his
official report, comments thereon, which their colonel considered
disparaging.

  See Koberstein in _Preussisches Jahrbuch_, vol. xxiii (Berlin, 1868),
  and _Preussisches Bilderbuch_ (Leipzig, 1889); K. von Lützow, _Adolf
  Lützows Freikorps_ (Berlin, 1884); Fr. von Jagwitz, _Geschichte des
  Lutzowschen Freikorps_ (Berlin, 1892); and the histories of the
  campaigns of 1813 and 1815.



LUXEMBURG, FRANÇOIS HENRI DE MONTMORENCY-BOUTEVILLE, DUKE OF
(1628-1695), marshal of France, the comrade and successor of the great
Condé, was born at Paris on the 8th of January 1628. His father, the
comte de Montmorency-Bouteville, had been executed six months before his
birth for killing the marquis de Beuvron in a duel, but his aunt,
Charlotte de Montmorency, princess of Condé, took charge of him and
educated him with her son, the duc d'Enghien. The young Montmorency (or
Bouteville as he was then called) attached himself to his cousin, and
shared his successes and reverses throughout the troubles of the Fronde.
He returned to France in 1659 and was pardoned, and Condé, then much
attached to the duchesse de Châtillon, Montmorency's sister, contrived
the marriage of his adherent and cousin to the greatest heiress in
France, Madeleine de Luxemburg-Piney, princesse de Tingry and heiress of
the Luxemburg dukedom (1661), after which he was created duc de
Luxembourg and peer of France. At the opening of the War of Devolution
(1667-68), Condé, and consequently Luxemburg, had no command, but during
the second campaign he served as Condé's lieutenant-general in the
conquest of Franche Comté. During the four years of peace which followed
Luxemburg cultivated the favour of Louvois, and in 1672 held a high
command against the Dutch. He defeated the prince of Orange at Woerden
and ravaged Holland, and in 1673 made his famous retreat from Utrecht to
Maestricht with only 20,000 men in face of 70,000, an exploit which
placed him in the first rank of generals. In 1674 he was made captain of
the gardes du corps, and in 1675 marshal of France. In 1676 he was
placed at the head of the army of the Rhine, but failed to keep the duke
of Lorraine out of Philipsburg; in 1677 he stormed Valenciennes; and in
1678 he defeated the prince of Orange, who attacked him at St Denis
after the signature of the peace of Nijmwegen. His reputation was now
high, and it is reputed that he quarrelled with Louvois, who managed to
involve him in the "affair of the poisons" (see LA VOISIN, CATHERINE)
and get him sent to the Bastille. Rousset in his _Histoire de Louvois_
has shown that this quarrel is probably apocryphal. There is no doubt
that Luxemburg spent some months of 1680 in the Bastille, but on his
release took up his post at court as _capitaine des gardes_. When the
war of 1690 broke out, the king and Louvois recognized that Luxemburg
was the only general fit to cope with the prince of Orange, and he was
put in command of the army of Flanders. On the 1st of July 1690 he won a
great victory over the prince of Waldeck at Fleurus. In the following
year he commanded the army which covered the king's siege of Mons and
defeated William III. of England at Leuze on September 18, 1691. Again
in the next campaign he covered the king's siege of Namur, and defeated
William at Steenkirk (q.v.) on June 5, 1692; and on July 29, 1693, he
won his greatest victory over his old adversary at Neerwinden, after
which he was called _le tapissier de Nôtre Dame_ from the number of
captured colours that he sent to the cathedral. He was received with
enthusiasm at Paris by all but the king, who looked coldly on a relative
and adherent of the Condes. St Simon describes in the first volume of
his _Memoirs_ how, instead of ranking as eighteenth peer of France
according to his patent of 1661, he claimed through his wife to be duc
de Piney of an old creation of 1571, which would place him second on the
roll. The affair is described with St Simon's usual interest in the
peerage, and was chiefly checked through his assiduity. In the campaign
of 1694, Luxemburg did little in Flanders, except that he conducted a
famous march from Vignamont to Tournay in face of the enemy. On his
return to Versailles for the winter he fell ill, and died on January 4,
1695. In his last moments he was attended by the famous Jesuit priest
Bourdaloue, who said on his death, "I have not lived his life, but I
would wish to die his death." Luxemburg's morals were bad even in those
times, and he had shown little sign of religious conviction. But as a
general he was Condé's grandest pupil. Though slothful like Condé in the
management of a campaign, at the moment of battle he seemed seized with
happy inspirations, against which no ardour of William's and no
steadiness of Dutch or English soldiers could stand. His death and
Catinat's disgrace close the second period of the military history of
the reign of Louis XIV., and Catinat and Luxemburg, though inferior to
Condé and Turenne, were far superior to Tallard and Villeroi. He was
distinguished for a pungent wit. One of his retorts referred to his
deformity. "I never can beat that cursed humpback," William was reputed
to have said of him. "How does he know I have a hump?" retorted
Luxemburg, "he has never seen my back." He left four sons, the youngest
of whom was a marshal of France as Maréchal de Montmorency.

  See, besides the various memoirs and histories of the time, Beaurain's
  _Histoire militaire du duc de Luxembourg_ (Hague and Paris, 1756);
  _Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire du marechal duc de Luxembourg_
  (Hague and Paris, 1758); Courcelles, _Dictionnaire des généraux
  français_ (Paris, 1823), vol. viii. There are some interesting facts
  in Desormeaux's _Histoire de la maison de Montmorency_ (1764), vols.
  iv. and v. Camille Rousset's _Louvois_ and the recent biography of
  Luxemburg by Count de Ségur (1907) should also be studied.



LUXEMBURG, a district in the European low countries, of which the
eastern part forms the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the western is the
Belgian province of that name (for map, see BELGIUM). The name is
derived from the chief town.

Under the Romans the district was included in the province of _Belgica
prima_, afterwards forming part of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia and
of the empire of Charlemagne. About 1060 it came under the rule of
Conrad (d. 1086), who took the title of count of Luxemburg. His
descendants ruled the county, first in the male and then in the female
line, until the death of the emperor Sigismund in 1437. Through the
marriage of Sigismund's daughter, Elizabeth, with the German king,
Albert II., Luxemburg, which had been made a duchy in 1354, passed to
the house of Habsburg, but was seized in 1443 by Philip III. the Good,
duke of Burgundy, who based his claim upon a bargain concluded with
Sigismund's niece Elizabeth (d. 1451). Regained by the Habsburgs in 1477
when Mary, daughter and heiress of duke Charles the Bold, married the
German king Maximilian I., the duchy passed to Philip II. of Spain in
1555, though subject to the laws of the empire, of which it still formed
part. After a section had been ceded to France in 1659, the remainder
was given to the emperor Charles VI. by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
It was conquered by France in 1795, and retained by that power until the
end of the Napoleonic wars. The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected
Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it,
and assigned it to William I., king of the Netherlands, in return for
the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had
confiscated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king
of Prussia. In 1830 when the Belgian provinces separated from Holland,
an effort was made to include Luxemburg in the new kingdom of the
Belgians; but in November 1831 the powers decided that part of the
grand-duchy should be retained by the king of Holland, who refused to
accept this arrangement. Consequently the whole of Luxemburg remained in
the possession of the Belgians until 1838, when the treaty of the 19th
of April, concluded at the conference of London, enforced the partition
of 1831.

The grand-duchy of Luxemburg, the portion under the rule of William I.
retaining the name, was ruled by the kings of Holland until the death of
William III. in 1890. William's daughter, Wilhelmina, succeeded to the
throne of Holland, but under the Salic law[1] the grand-duchy passed to
his kinsman, Adolphus, duke of Nassau, who died in 1905, and was
succeeded by his son William (b. 1852).

By modifications of the treaty of Vienna the garrisoning of the fortress
of Luxemburg had passed into Prussian hands, an arrangement which lasted
until 1867. In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the
grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved;
but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not
included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.
proposed to sell his rights over the grand-duchy to France. The
Prussians were irritated by this proposal, but war was averted, and the
question was referred to a conference of the powers in London. The
treaty of London, signed on the 11th of May 1867, decided that the
Prussian garrison must be withdrawn and the fortress dismantled, which
was done in 1872. At the same time the great powers guaranteed the
neutrality of the grand-duchy, and although a member of the German
_Zollverein_, Luxemburg now forms a sovereign and independent state.

The GRAND-DUCHY lies S.E. of Belgium. Its area is 999 sq. m., with a
population (1905) of 246,455. The people are nearly all Catholics. The
country is rich in iron ore. The hills in the south of the duchy are a
continuation of the Lorraine plateau, and the northern districts are
crossed in all directions by outrunners from the Ardennes. The streams
mostly join the Moselle, which forms the boundary between Luxemburg and
the Rhine province for about 20 m. The Sure or Sauer, the most important
stream in the duchy, rises at Vaux-les-Rosières in Belgian Luxemburg,
crosses the duchy, and forms the eastern boundary from the confluence of
the Our till it joins the Moselle after a course of 50 m., during which
it receives the Wiltz, Attert, Alzette, White and Black Ernz, &c. The
soil of Luxemburg is generally good; the southern districts are on the
whole the most fertile as well as the most populous. Building materials
of all sorts are obtained throughout the duchy. Besides the iron
furnaces, situated in the south near the Lorraine plateau, there are
tanneries, weaving and glove-making factories, paper-mills for all sorts
of paper, breweries and distilleries, and sugar refineries. A German
patois mixed with French words is spoken throughout the country; but
French, which is employed by the commercial community, is also the
common speech on the French and Belgian frontiers. Though liberty of
worship prevails, Roman Catholicism is almost the sole form. The
government is in the hands of the grand-duke, who sanctions and
promulgates the laws. There is a council (_staatsrat_) of 15 members.
There is a chamber of deputies with 48 members elected by the cantons
(12 in number) for six years, half the body being elected every three
years. No law can be passed without the consent of the chamber. Bills
are introduced by the grand-duke, but the house has also the right of
initiative. A single battalion (150) of volunteers composes the
grand-ducal army. The gendarmerie consists of about 150 men. There are
cantonal courts and two district courts, one at Luxemburg, the other at
Diekirch, and a high court at Luxemburg. The bishopric of Luxemburg
holds its authority directly from the Holy See. From 13,000,000 to
17,000,000 francs is the annual amount of the state budget, and the
debt, consisting of loans contracted principally for the construction of
railways, of which there are about 350 m., is 12,000,000 francs.

Among towns next to the capital, Luxemburg, are Echternach and Diekirch,
both worthy of note for their blast furnaces. Grevenmacher is the centre
of a great wine district.

The PROVINCE OF LUXEMBURG is the largest and least populous of the nine
provinces of Belgium. Its capital is Arlon, which lies near the borders
of the grand-duchy. A considerable part of the province is forested and
the state requires systematic replanting. Marble, granite and slate
quarries are worked in different districts. Successful attempts have
been made to introduce fruit cultivation. The province is well watered
by the Ourthe, the Semois and the Sûre. The general elevation of the
country is about 500 ft., but the hills and plateaus which form the
prominent feature in the scenery of Luxemburg range from 1200 to 1500
ft. The highest point of the province is the Baraque de Fraiture (1980
ft.), N.E. of La Roche. The woods are well stocked with red and roe
deer, wild boar, hares, rabbits, pheasants, woodcock and snipe. The area
of the province is 1725 sq. m. The population was 225,963 in 1904.

  The HOUSE OF LUXEMBURG was descended from Count Conrad (d. 1086), and
  its fortunes were advanced through the election of Count Henry IV. as
  German king in 1308 and his coronation as emperor under the title of
  Henry VII. Henry's son was John, king of Bohemia, who fell on the
  field of Crécy, and John's eldest son was the emperor Charles IV.,
  while another famous member of the family was Baldwin, archbishop of
  Treves (1285-1354), who took an active part in imperial affairs. Two
  of the sons of Charles IV., Wenceslaus and Sigismund, succeeded in
  turn to the imperial throne, and one of his nephews, Jobst, margrave
  of Moravia, was chosen German king in opposition to Sigismund in 1410.
  The French branch of the Luxemburg family was descended from Waleran
  (d. 1288), lord of Ligny and Roussy, a younger son of Count Henry II.
  Waleran's great-grandson was Guy (d. 1371), who married Matilda,
  sister and heiress of Guy V., count of Saint-Pol (d. 1360), and was
  created count of Ligny in 1367. Guy's son, Waleran (d. 1417), who
  became constable of France in 1412, had been carried as a prisoner to
  England, and had married Matilda, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of
  Kent (d. 1360) and half-sister of King Richard II. To avenge Richard's
  death he made a raid on the Isle of Wight, and then took part in the
  civil wars in France. He left no sons, and was succeeded by his
  nephew, Peter, count of Brienne (d. 1433), who, like his brother Louis
  (d. 1443), cardinal archbishop of Rouen and chancellor of France, was
  found on the side of the English in their struggle against France.
  Another of Peter's brothers, John (d. 1440), a stout supporter of
  England, was made governor of Paris by Henry V. He sold Joan of Arc to
  the English. Peter's son and successor, Louis, fought at first for
  England, but about 1440 he entered the service of France and obtained
  the office of constable. King Louis XI. accused him of treachery, and
  he took refuge with Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy; but the duke
  handed him over to the king and he was beheaded in 1475. The elder
  branch of his descendants became extinct in the male line in 1482, and
  was merged through the female line in the house of Bourbon-Vendôme.
  Louis's third son, Anthony (d. 1510), founded the family of
  Luxemburg-Brienne, the senior branch of which became extinct in 1608.
  A junior branch, however, was the family of the duke of
  Luxemburg-Piney, whose last representative, Margaret-Charlotte (d.
  1680), married firstly Léon d'Albert de Luynes (d. 1630) and secondly
  Charles Henry de Clermont-Tonnerre (d. 1674). Her daughter by her
  second husband, Madeleine Charlotte, married Francis Henry de
  Montmorenci (d. 1695) and de Luynes, and, subsequently, members of the
  family of Montmorenci claimed the title of duke of Luxemburg. The
  Luxembourg palace in Paris owes its name to the fact that it was built
  on a site belonging to the duke of Luxemburg-Piney.

  See N. van Werveke, _Beiträge zur Geschichte des Luxemburger Landes_
  (Luxemburg, 1886-1887); J. Schötter, _Geschichte des Luxemburger
  Landes_ (Luxemburg, 1882); and N. Vigner, _Histoire de la maison de
  Luxembourg_ (Paris, 1619).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] It should be noticed, however, that the Salic law is subordinate
    to the Nassau family law, which provides for the succession in the
    case of the _complete extinction_ of males. Thus Article xlii. of the
    Nassau Pact of the 30th of June 1783 provides "that in the event of
    the extinction of males, the rights of succession pass to the
    daughter or nearest heiress of the last male."



LUXEMBURG, or LUTZELBURG (i.e. the little fortress or town), the capital
of the grand-duchy of the same name (see above), situated on the
Alzette, a tributary of the Sûre. Pop. (1905) 20,984. The situation is
romantic, steep cliffs overhanging the winding river, and the principal
portion of the town with the palace and public buildings covering a
central plateau. The more densely populated parishes of Clausen,
Pfaffenthal and Grund lie in the valley. As a fortress Luxemburg was
considered the strongest in Europe after Gibraltar, which it was
supposed to resemble because many of its casemates were cut into the
rock. It was dismantled in 1867. Two colossal viaducts carry the railway
and the approach from the railway station to the town. Since the place
ceased to be a fortress the population has more than doubled, and the
Alzette is lined with tanneries, breweries and distilleries. The Hôtel
de Ville dates from 1844 and contains a collection of antiquities. The
church of Nôtre Dame was built in 1613, and that of St Michael, with
parts dating from 1320, contains the tomb of blind John of Luxemburg,
king of Bohemia, slain at Crécy. There are two annual fête days, one in
honour of Our Lady of Luxemburg, patroness of the city, held on the
Sunday before Ascension Day, and the other the annual fair or
_Schobermesse_ (tent fair), instituted in 1340 and held each year on the
24th of August.



LUXEUIL-LES-BAINS, a town of eastern France, in the department of
Haute-Saône, 18 m. N.E. of Vesoul. Pop. (1906) 5195. It is situated in a
region of forests on the right bank of the Breuchin. It has an
abbey-church dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, containing a
curious 17th-century organ loft in the form of an immense bracket
supported by a colossal figure of Hercules. The abbot's palace (16th and
18th centuries) serves as presbytery and town hall. A cloister of the
15th century and other buildings of the 17th century also remain. There
are several mansions and houses dating from various periods from the
14th to the 16th century. The Maison Carrée, once the town hall, an
interesting specimen of 15th-century architecture, was built by Perrin
Jouffroy, father of Cardinal Jouffroy. The cardinal, who was born at
Luxeuil in 1412, built the house with a graceful balcony and turret
which faces the Maison Carrée. The Maison de la Baille and the Maison
François I. are of the Renaissance period. The fine modern Grammont
Hospital is in the style of Louis XIII. Luxeuil is renowned for its
mineral springs, of which there are seventeen, two being ferruginous,
and the rest charged with chloride of sodium; their temperatures range
from 70° to 158° F. The water is employed for drinking and for baths.
The bathing establishment contains a museum of Gallo-Roman antiquities
and there are also remains of Roman baths and aqueducts to be seen in or
near it. Luxeuil has a communal college. Copper-founding, the spinning
and weaving of cotton, lace-making, dyeing and the distilling of kirsch
are carried on.

Luxeuil was the Roman _Lixovium_ and contained many fine buildings at
the time of its destruction by the Huns under Attila in 451. In 590 St
Columban here founded a monastery, afterwards one of the most famous in
Franche Comté. In the 8th century it was destroyed by the Saracens;
afterwards rebuilt, monastery and town were devastated by the Normans in
the 9th century and plllaged on several occasions afterwards. The abbey
schools were celebrated in the middle ages and the abbots had great
influence; but their power was curtailed by the emperor Charles V. and
the abbey was suppressed at the Revolution.

  See H. Beaumont, _Etude hist. sur l'abbaye de Luxeuil, 590-1790_ (Lux.
  1895); Grandmongin and A. Garnier, _Hist. de la ville et des thermes
  de Luxeuil_ (Paris, 1866), with 16 plates.



LUXOR, more properly El-Aksur, "The Castles" (plur. of kasr), a town of
Upper Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile 450 m. above Cairo by river
and 418 by rail. Pop. (1907 census) 12,644. It is the centre for
visitors to the ruins of and about Thebes, and is frequented by
travellers and invalids in the winter season, several fine hotels having
been built for their accommodation. There are Anglican and Roman
Catholic churches, and a hospital for natives, opened in 1891. The
district is the seat of an extensive manufacture of forged antiques.

The temple of Luxor is one of the greatest of the monuments of Thebes
(q.v.). It stands near the river bank on the S.W. side of the town and
measures nearly 300 yds. from back to front. There may have been an
earlier temple here, but the present structure, dedicated to the Theban
triad of Ammon, Mut and Khons, was erected by Amenophis III. The great
colonnade, which is its most striking feature, was apparently intended
for the nave of a hypostyle hall like that of Karnak, but had to be
hastily finished without the aisles. After the heresy of Amenophis IV.
(Akhenaton), the decoration of this incomplete work was taken in hand by
Tutenkhamun and Haremhib. The axis of the temple ran from S.W. to N.E.;
a long paved road bordered by recumbent rams led from the façade to the
temples of Karnak (q.v.) in a somewhat more easterly direction, and
Rameses II. adopted the line of this avenue in adding an extensive court
to the work of Amenophis, producing a curious change of axis. He
embellished the walls and pylons of his court with scenes from his
victories over Hittites and Syrians, and placed a number of colossal
statues within it. In front of the pylon Rameses set up colossi and a
pair of obelisks (one of which was taken to Paris in 1831 and re-erected
in the Place de la Concorde). A few scenes and inscriptions were added
by later kings, but the above is practically the history of the temple
until Alexander the Great rebuilt the sanctuary itself. The chief
religious festival of Thebes was that of "Southern Opi," the ancient
name of Luxor. The sacred barks of the divinities preserved in the
sanctuary of Karnak were then conveyed in procession by water to Luxor
and back again; a representation of the festal scenes is given on the
walls of the great colonnade. The Christians built churches within the
temple. The greater part of the old village of Luxor lay inside the
courts: it was known also as Abu 'l Haggag from a Moslem saint of the
7th century, whose tomb-mosque, mentioned by Ibn Batuta, stands on a
high heap of débris in the court of Rameses. This is the last of the
buildings and rubbish which encumbered the temple before the
expropriation and clearances by the Service des Antiquités began in
1885. The principal street of Luxor follows the line of the ancient
avenue.

  See G. Daressy, _Notice explicative des ruines du temple de Louxor_
  (Cairo, 1803); Baedeker's _Egypt_.     (F. Ll. G.)



LUXORIUS, Roman writer of epigrams, lived in Africa during the reigns of
the Vandal kings Thrasamund, Hilderic and Gelimer (A.D. 496-534). He
speaks of his poor circumstances, but from the superscription
_clarissimus_ and _spectabilis_ in one MS., he seems to have held a high
official position. About a hundred epigrams by him in various metres
(the elegiac predominating) have been preserved. They are after the
manner of Martial, and many of them are coarse. They deal chiefly with
the games of the circus and works of art, and the language shows the
author to have been well acquainted with the legends and antiquities of
the classical period of Rome.

  Luxorius also wrote on grammatical subjects (see R. Ellis in _Journal
  of Philology_, viii., 1879). The epigrams are contained in the
  _Anthologia Latina_, edited by F. Bücheler and A. Riese (1894).



LUYNES, a territorial name belonging to a noble French house. The family
of Albert, which sprang from Thomas Alberti (d. 1455), seigneur de
Boussargues, _bailli_ of Viviers and Valence, and _viguier_ of Bagnols
and Pont St Esprit in Languedoc, acquired the estate of Luynes (dep. of
Indre-et-Loire) in the 16th century. Honoré d'Albert (d. 1592), seigneur
de Luynes, was in the service of the three last Valois kings and of
Henry IV., and became colonel of the French bands, commissary of
artillery in Languedoc and governor of Beaucaire. He had three sons:
Charles (1578-1621), first duke of Luynes, and favourite of Louis XIII.;
Honoré (1581-1649), seigneur de Cadenet, who married Charlotte Eugénie
d'Ailly, countess of Chaulnes, in 1619, and was created duke of Chaulnes
in 1621; and Léon, seigneur de Brantes, who became duke of
Luxemburg-Piney by his marriage in 1620 with Margaret Charlotte of
Luxemburg.

By her marriage with Claude of Lorraine, duke of Chevreuse, Marie de
Rohan, the widow of the first duke of Luynes, acquired in 1655 the duchy
of Chevreuse, which she gave in 1663 to Louis Charles d'Albert, her son
by her first husband; and from that time the title of duke of Chevreuse
and duke of Luynes was borne by the eldest sons of the family of Luynes,
which also inherited the title of duke of Chaulnes on the extinction of
the descendants of Honoré d'Albert in 1698. The branch of the dukes of
Luxemburg-Piney became extinct in 1697.

Charles (1578-1621), the first duke of Luynes, was brought up at court
and attended the dauphin, who later became Louis XIII. The king shared
his fondness for hunting and rapidly advanced him in favour. In 1615 he
was appointed commander of the Louvre and counsellor, and the following
year grand falconer of France. He used his influence over the king in
the court intrigues against the queen-mother Marie de Medici and her
favourite Concini. It was Luynes who, with Vitry, captain of the guard,
arranged the plot that ended in Concini's assassination (1617) and
secured all the latter's possessions in Italy and France. In the same
year he was appointed captain of the Bastille and lieutenant-general of
Normandy, and married Marie de Rohan, daughter of the duke of Montbazon.
He employed extreme measures against the pamphleteers of the time, but
sought peace in Italy and with the Protestants. In 1619 he negotiated
the treaty of Angoulême by which Marie de Medici was accorded complete
liberty. He was made governor of Picardy in 1619; suppressed an uprising
of nobles in 1620; and in 1621, with slight military ability or
achievement, was appointed constable of France. His rapid rise to power
made him a host of enemies, who looked upon him as but a second Concini.
In order to justify his newly-won laurels, Luynes undertook an
expedition against the Protestants, but died of a fever in the midst of
the campaign, at Longueville in Guienne, on the 15th of December 1621.

His brother Honoré (1581-1649), first duke of Chaulnes, was governor of
Picardy and marshal of France (1619), and defended his province
successfully in 1625 and 1635. Louis Auguste d'Albert d'Ailly
(1676-1744), duke of Chaulnes, also became marshal of France (1741).
Louis Joseph d'Albert de Luynes (1670-1750), prince of Grimberghen, was
in the service of the emperor Charles VII., and became field-marshal and
ambassador in France.

Several members of the family of Albert were distinguished in letters
and science. Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of
the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul
d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an
astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of
Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph
Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honoré Théodore Paul Joseph
(1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.

  For the first duke see _Recueil des pièces les plus curieuses qui ont
  esté faites pendant le règne du connestable M. de Luynes_ (2nd ed.,
  1624); Le Vassor, _Histoire de Louis XIII._ (Paris, 1757); Griffet,
  _Histoire du règne de Louis XIII., roi de France et de Navarre_
  (Paris, 1758); V. Cousin, "Le Duc et connétable de Luynes," in
  _Journal des savants_ (1861-1863); B. Zeller, _Études critiques sur le
  règne de Louis XIII.: le connétable de Luynes, Montauban et la
  Valteline_ (Paris, 1879); E. Pavie, _La Guerre entre Louis XIII. et
  Marie de Medicis_ (Paris, 1899); Lavisse, _Histoire de France_, vi.^2,
  141-216 (Paris, 1905).



LUZÁN CLARAMUNT DE SUELVES Y GURREA, IGNACIO (1702-1754), Spanish critic
and poet, was born at Saragossa on the 28th of March 1702. His youth was
passed under the care of his uncle, and, after studying at Milan, he
graduated in philosophy at the university of Catania. In 1723 he took
minor orders, but abandoned his intention of entering the church and
took up his residence at Naples, where he read assiduously. Business
took him to Spain in 1733, and he became known in Madrid as a scholar
with a tendency towards innovations in literature. _La Poética, ó Reglas
de la poesía en general y de sus principales especies_ (1737) proved
that this impression was correct. He at once took rank as the leader of
the literary reformers, and his courteous determination earned him the
respect of his opponents. In 1747 he was appointed secretary to the
Spanish embassy in Paris and, on returning to Madrid in 1750, was
elected to the "Academia Poética del Buen Gusto," where, on account of
his travels, he was known by the sobriquet of _El Peregrino_. He became
master of the mint and treasurer of the royal library. He died at
Madrid, after a short illness, on the 19th of May 1754. Luzán was not
the pioneer of Franco-Italian theories in Spain, but he was their most
powerful exponent, and his _Poética_ is an admirable example of
destructive criticism. The defects of Lope de Vega and Calderon are
indicated with vigilant severity, but on the constructive side Luzán is
notably weak, for he merely proposes to substitute one exhausted
convention for another. The doctrine of the dramatic unities had not the
saving virtues which he ascribed to it, and, though he succeeded in
banishing the older dramatists from the boards, he and his school failed
to produce a single piece of more than mediocre merit. His theories,
derived chiefly from Muratori, were ineffective in practice; but their
ingenuity cannot be denied, and they acted as a stimulus to the
partisans of the national tradition.



LUZ-SAINT-SAUVEUR, a town of south-western France in the department of
Hautes-Pyrénées, 21 m. S. of Lourdes by rail. Pop. (1906) 1069. Luz is
beautifully situated at a height of 2240 ft. on the Bastan. It has a
remarkable church, built by the Templars in the 12th and 13th centuries
and fortified later. The crenelated ramparts with which it is
surrounded, and the tower to the north of the apse resembling a keep,
give it the aspect of a fortress; other interesting features are the
Romanesque north door and a chapel of the 16th century. The village of
St Sauveur lies a little above Luz on the left bank of the gorge of the
Gave de Pau, which is crossed higher up by the imposing Pont Napoleon
(1860). It is a pleasant summer resort, and is visited for its warm
sulphurous springs. Discovered in the 16th century, the waters came into
vogue after 1820, in which year they were visited by the duchesses of
Angoulême and Berry. There is much picturesque mountain scenery in the
vicinity; 12 m. to the south is the village of Gavarnie, above which is
the magnificent rock amphitheatre or _cirque_ of Gavarnie, with its
cascade, one of the highest in Europe.



LUZZATTI, LUIGI (1841- ), Italian economist and financier, was born of
Jewish parents at Venice on the 11th of March 1841. After completing his
studies in law at the university of Padua, he attracted the attention of
the Austrian police by his lectures on political economy, and was
obliged to emigrate. In 1863 he obtained a professorship at the Milan
Technical Institute; in 1867 he was appointed professor of
constitutional law at Padua, whence he was transferred to the university
of Rome. Gifted with eloquence and energy, he popularized in Italy the
economic ideas of Schultze-Delitzsch, worked for the establishment of a
commercial college at Venice, and contributed to the spread of people's
banks on a basis of limited liability throughout the country. In 1869 he
was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of
agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government
control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the
conditions of industry. Though theoretically a free trader, he was
largely instrumental in creating the Italian protective system. In 1877
he participated in the commercial negotiations with France, in 1878
compiled the Italian customs tariff, and subsequently took a leading
part in the negotiations of all the commercial treaties between Italy
and other countries. Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di
Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent
clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which
facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened
the bank crisis of 1893. In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet
as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save
the bank of Naples from failure. After his fall from office in June
1898, his principal achievement was the negotiation of the
Franco-Italian commercial treaty, though, as deputy, journalist and
professor, he continued to take an active part in all political and
economic manifestations. He was again minister of the treasury from
November 1903 to March 1905 in Giolitti's second administration, and for
the third time from February to May 1906, under Sonnino's premiership.
During the latter term of office he achieved the conversion of the
Italian 5% debt (reduced to 4% by the tax) to 3¾% to be eventually
lowered to 3½%, an operation which other ministers had attempted without
success; although the actual conversion was not completed until after
the fall of the cabinet of which he formed part the merit is entirely
his. In 1907 he was president of the co-operative congress at Cremona.

  See L. Carpi's _Risorgimento Italiano_, vol. ii. (Milan, 1886), which
  contains a biographical sketch of Luzzatti.



LUZZATTO, MOSES HAYIM (1707-1747), Hebrew dramatist and mystic, was born
in Padua 1707, and died at Acre 1747. He was influenced by Isaac Luria
(q.v.) on the mystical side, and on the poetical side by Italian drama
of the school of Guarini (q.v.). He attacked Léon of Modena's
anti-Kabbalistic treatises, and as a result of his conflict with the
Venetian Rabbinate left Italy for Amsterdam, where, like Spinoza, he
maintained himself by grinding lenses. Here, in 1740, he wrote his
popular religious manual the _Path of the Upright_ (_Messilath
Yesharim_) and other ethical works. He visited London, but finally
settled in Palestine, where he died. Luzzatto's most lasting work is in
the realm of Hebrew drama. His best-known compositions are: the _Tower
of Victory_ (_Migdal 'Oz_) and _Glory to the Upright_ (_Layesharim
Tehillah_). Both of these dramas, which were not printed at the time but
were widely circulated in manuscript, are of the type which preceded the
Shakespearean age--they are allegorical and all the characters are
types. The beautiful Hebrew style created a new school of Hebrew poetry,
and the Hebrew renaissance which resulted from the career of Moses
Mendelssohn owed much to Luzzatto.

  See Grätz, _History of the Jews_, v. ch. vii.; I. Abrahams, _Jewish
  Life in the Middle Ages_, pp. 190, 268; N. Slouschz, _The Renascence
  of Hebrew Literature_, ch. i.     (I. A.)



LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID (1800-1865), Jewish scholar, was born at Trieste
in 1800, and died at Padua in 1865. He was the most distinguished of the
Italian Jewish scholars of the 19th century. The first Jew to suggest
emendations to the text of the Hebrew Bible, he edited Isaiah
(1856-1867), and wrote a commentary on the Pentateuch (1871). His
grammatical works were mostly written in Italian. He also contributed to
the history of the Synagogue liturgy, and enjoys with Geiger (q.v.) and
Zunz (q.v.) the honour of reviving interest in the medieval Hebrew
hymnology and secular verse.

  See Grätz, _History of the Jews_ (Eng. trans.), v. 622 seq.; N.
  Slouschz, _The Renascence of Hebrew Literature_, pp. 84-92; the
  _Jewish Encyclopedia_, viii. 225-226, with list of works.     (I. A.)



LYALL, SIR ALFRED COMYN (1835-   ), Anglo-Indian civil servant and man of
letters, son of the Rev. Alfred Lyall, was born in 1835, and educated at
Eton and Haileybury. He entered the Bengal civil service in 1855, saw
service during the Mutiny in the Bulandshahr district, at Meerut, and
with the Khaki Risala of volunteers. He was commissioner in Berar
(1867), secretary to the government of India in the Home and Foreign
departments, lieutenant-governor of the North-western Provinces
(1882-1887), and member of the Council of India (1888-1903). Among his
writings, his _Verses Written in India_ (1889) attained considerable
popularity, and in his _Asiatic Studies_ (1882 and 1899) he displays a
deep insight into Indian life and character. He wrote the _Life_ of Lord
Dufferin (1905), and made numerous contributions to periodical
literature.



LYALL, EDNA, the pen-name of ADA ELLEN BAYLY (1857-1903), English
novelist. She was born at Brighton in 1857, the daughter of a barrister.
Her parents died while she was a child, and she was brought up at
Caterham, Surrey. At Eastbourne, where most of her life was spent, she
was well known for her philanthropic activity. She died on the 8th of
February 1903. Edna Lyall's vogue as a novelist was the result of a
combination of the story-teller's gift with a sincere ethical and
religious spirit of Christian tolerance, which at the time was new to
many readers. Though her _Won by Waiting_ (1879) had some success, it
was with _Donovan_ (1882) and _We Two_ (1884), in which the persecuted
atheist was inevitably identified with Charles Bradlaugh, that she
became widely popular. Other novels were _In the Golden Days_ (1885), a
story of the Great Rebellion; _Knight Errant_ (1887); _Autobiography of
a Slander_ (1887); _A Hardy Norseman_ (1889); _Derrick Vaughan_, _The
Story of a Novelist_ (1889); _To Right the Wrong_ (1892); _Doreen_
(1894), a statement of the case for Irish Home Rule; _The Autobiography
of a Truth_ (1896), the proceeds of which were devoted to the Armenian
Relief Fund; _In Spite of All_ (1901), which had originally been
produced by Mr Ben Greet as a play; and _The Bruges Letters_ (1902), a
book for children.

  A _Life_ by J. N. Escreet appeared in 1904, and a shorter account of
  her by the Rev. G. A. Payne was printed at Manchester in 1903.



LYALLPUR, a district of India, in the Multan division of the Punjab. It
was constituted in 1904 to comprise the "Chenab Colony," being the waste
portion of the former Jhang district that is now irrigated by the Lower
Chenab canal. Area, 3075 sq. m.; pop. (1906) 654,666. It is traversed by
a section of the North-western railway. The headquarters are at Lyallpur
town (pop. in 1906, 13,483), named after Sir James Lyall, a
lieutenant-governor. It contains several factories for ginning and
pressing cotton.

  See _Chenab Colony Gazetteer_ (Lahore, 1904).



LYCAEUS (Mons Lycaeus, [Greek: Lychaion oros]: mod. _Diaphorti_), a
mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Zeus Lycaeus, who was said to have been
born and brought up on it, and the home of Pelasgus and his son Lycaon,
who is said to have founded the ritual of Zeus practised on its summit.
This seems to have involved a human sacrifice, and a feast in which the
man who received the portion of a human victim was changed to a wolf, as
Lycaon had been after sacrificing a child. The altar of Zeus consists of
a great mound of ashes with a retaining wall. It was said that no
shadows fell within the precincts; and that any who entered it died
within the year.



LYCANTHROPY (Gr. [Greek: lykos], wolf, [Greek: anthropos], man), a name
employed (1) in folk-lore for the liability or power of a human being to
undergo transformation into an animal; (2) in pathology for a form of
insanity in which the patient believes that he is transformed into an
animal and behaves accordingly.

I. Although the term lycanthropy properly speaking refers to
metamorphosis into a wolf (see WERWOLF), it is in practice used of
transformation into any animal. The Greeks also spoke of kynanthropy
([Greek: kyon], dog); in India and the Asiatic islands the tiger is the
commonest form, in North Europe the bear, in Japan the fox, in Africa
the leopard or hyena, sometimes also the lion, in South America the
jaguar; but though there is a tendency for the most important
carnivorous animal of the area to take the first place in stories and
beliefs as to transformation, the less important beasts of prey and even
harmless animals like the deer also figure among the wer-animals.

Lycanthropy is often confused with transmigration; but the essential
feature of the wer-animal is that it is the alternative form or the
double of a living human being, while the soul-animal is the vehicle,
temporary or permanent, of the spirit of a dead human being. The vampire
is sometimes regarded as an example of lycanthropy; but it is in human
form, sometimes only a head, sometimes a whole body, sometimes that of a
living person, at others of a dead man who issues nightly from the grave
to prey upon the living.

Even if the denotation of lycanthropy be limited to the
animal-metamorphosis of living human beings, the beliefs classed
together under this head are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat
capriciously applied. The transformation may be voluntary or
involuntary, temporary or permanent; the wer-animal may be the man
himself metamorphosed, it may be his double whose activity leaves the
real man to all appearance unchanged, it may be his soul, which goes
forth seeking whom it may devour and leaving its body in a state of
trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a
real animal or a familiar spirit, whose intimate connexion with its
owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a
phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the
human being.

The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis, or of
sending out a familiar, real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the
supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are
also attributed to the magician, male and female, all the world over;
and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with,
lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of
lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature. In another
direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself
in connexion with the bush-soul of the West African and the _nagual_ of
Central America; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn
on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate
association of the bush-soul or the _nagual_ with a human being are not
termed lycanthropy. Nevertheless it will be well to touch on both these
beliefs here.

In North and Central America, and to some extent in West Africa,
Australia and other parts of the world, every male acquires at puberty a
tutelary spirit (see DEMONOLOGY); in some tribes of Indians the youth
kills the animal of which he dreams in his initiation fast; its claw,
skin or feathers are put into a little bag and become his "medicine" and
must be carefully retained, for a "medicine" once lost can never be
replaced. In West Africa this relation is said to be entered into by
means of the blood bond, and it is so close that the death of the animal
causes the man to die and vice versa. Elsewhere the possession of a
tutelary spirit in animal form is the privilege of the magician. In
Alaska the candidate for magical powers has to leave the abodes of men;
the chief of the gods sends an otter to meet him, which he kills by
saying "O" four times; he then cuts out its tongue and thereby secures
the powers which he seeks. The Malays believe that the office of
_pawang_ (priest) is only hereditary if the soul of the dead priest, in
the form of a tiger, passes into the body of his son. While the familiar
is often regarded as the alternative form of the magician, the _nagual_
or bush-soul is commonly regarded as wholly distinct from the human
being. Transitional beliefs, however, are found, especially in Africa,
in which the power of transformation is attributed to the whole of the
population of certain areas. The people of Banana are said to change
themselves by magical means, composed of human embryos and other
ingredients, but in their leopard form they may do no hurt to mankind
under pain of retaining for ever the beast shape. In other cases the
change is supposed to be made for the purposes of evil magic and human
victims are not prohibited. We can, therefore, draw no line of
demarcation, and this makes it probable that lycanthropy is connected
with nagualism and the belief in familiar spirits, rather than with
metempsychosis, as Dr Tylor argues, or with totemism, as suggested by J.
F. M'Lennan. A further link is supplied by the Zulu belief that the
magician's familiar is really a transformed human being; when he finds a
dead body on which he can work his spells without fear of discovery, the
wizard breathes a sort of life into it, which enables it to move and
speak, it being thought that some dead wizard has taken possession of
it. He then burns a hole in the head and through the aperture extracts
the tongue. Further spells have the effect of changing the revivified
body into the form of some animal, hyena, owl or wild cat, the latter
being most in favour. This creature then becomes the wizard's servant
and obeys him in all things; its chief use is, however, to inflict
sickness and death upon persons who are disliked by its master.

  _Lycanthropy in Europe._--The wolf is the commonest form of the
  wer-animal (see WERWOLF), though in the north the bear disputes its
  pre-eminence. In ancient Greece the dog was also associated with the
  belief. Marcellus of Sida, who wrote under the Antonines, gives an
  account of a disease which befell people in February; but a
  pathological state seems to be meant.

  _Lycanthropy in Africa._--In Abyssinia the power of transformation is
  attributed to the Boudas, and at the same time we have records of
  pathological lycanthropy (see below). Blacksmiths are credited with
  magical powers in many parts of the world, and it is significant that
  the Boudas are workers in iron and clay; in the _Life of N. Pearce_
  (i. 287) a European observer tells a story of a supposed
  transformation which took place in his presence and almost before his
  eyes; but it does not appear how far hallucination rather than
  coincidence must be invoked to explain the experience.

  _The Wer-tiger of the East Indies._--The Poso-Alfures of central
  Celebes believe that man has three souls, the _inosa_, the _angga_ and
  the _tanoana_. The _inosa_ is the vital principle; it can be detected
  in the veins and arteries; it is given to man by one of the great
  natural phenomena, more especially the wind. The _angga_ is the
  intellectual part of man; its seat is unknown; after death it goes to
  the under-world, and, unlike the _inosa_, which is believed to be
  dissolved into its original elements, takes possession of an
  immaterial body. The _tanoana_ is the divine in man and after death
  returns to its lord, Poewempala boeroe. It goes forth during sleep,
  and all that it sees it whispers into the sleeper's ear and then he
  dreams. According to another account, the _tanoana_ is the substance
  by which man lives, thinks and acts; the _tanoana_ of man, plants and
  animals is of the same nature. A man's _tanoana_ can be strengthened
  by those of others; when the _tanoana_ is long away or destroyed the
  man dies. The _tanoana_ seems to be the soul of which lycanthropic
  feats are asserted.

  Among the Toradjas of central Celebes it is believed that a man's
  "inside" can take the form of a cat, wild pig, ape, deer or other
  animal, and afterwards resume human form; it is termed _lamboyo_. The
  exact relation of the _lamboyo_ to the _tanoana_ does not seem to be
  settled; it will be seen below that the view seems to vary. According
  to some the power of transformation is a gift of the gods, but others
  hold that werwolfism is contagious and may be acquired by eating food
  left by a werwolf or even by leaning one's head against the same
  pillar. The Todjoers hold that any one who touches blood becomes a
  werwolf. In accordance with this view is the belief that werwolfism
  can be cured; the breast and stomach of the werman must be rubbed and
  pinched, just as when any other witch object has to be extracted. The
  patient drinks medicine, and the contagion leaves the body in the form
  of snakes and worms. There are certain marks by which a werman can be
  recognized. His eyes are unsteady and sometimes green with dark
  shadows underneath. He does not sleep soundly and fireflies come out
  of his mouth. His lips remain red in spite of betel chewing, and he
  has a long tongue. The Todjoers add that his hair stands on end.

  Some of the forms of the _lamboyo_ are distinguishable from ordinary
  animals by the fact that they run about among the houses; the
  wer-buffalo has only one horn, and the wer-pig transforms itself into
  an ants' nest, such as hangs from trees. Some say that the werman does
  not really take the form of an animal himself, but, like the sorcerer,
  only sends out a messenger. The _lamboyo_ attacks by preference
  solitary individuals, for he does not like to be observed. The victim
  feels sleepy and loses consciousness; the _lamboyo_ then assumes human
  form (his body being, however, still at home) and cuts up his victim,
  scattering the fragments all about. He then takes the liver and eats
  it, puts the body together again, licks it with his long tongue and
  joins it together. When the victim comes to himself again he has no
  idea that anything unusual has happened to him. He goes home, but soon
  begins to feel unwell. In a few days he dies, but before his death he
  is able sometimes to name the werman to whom he has fallen a victim.

  From this account it might be inferred that the _lamboyo_ was
  identical with the _tanoana_; the absence of the _lamboyo_ seems to
  entail a condition of unconsciousness, and it can assume human form.
  In other cases, however, the _lamboyo_ seems to be analogous to the
  familiar of the sorcerer. The Toradjas tell a story of how a man once
  came to a house and asked the woman to give him a rendezvous; it was
  night and she was asleep; the question was put three times before the
  answer was given "in the tobacco plantation." The husband was awake,
  and next day followed his wife, who was irresistibly drawn thither.
  The werman came to meet her in human form, although his body was
  engaged in building a new house, and caused the woman to faint by
  stamping three times on the ground. Thereupon the husband attacked the
  werman with a piece of wood, and the latter to escape transformed
  himself into a leaf; this the husband put into a piece of bamboo and
  fastened the ends so that he could not escape. He then went back to
  the village and put the bamboo in the fire. The werman said "Don't,"
  and as soon as it was burnt he fell dead.

  In another case a woman died, and, as her death was believed to be due
  to the malevolence of a werwolf, her husband watched by her body. For,
  like Indian witches, the werwolf, for some reason, wishes to revive
  his victim and comes in human form to carry off the coffin. As soon as
  the woman was brought to life the husband attacked the werwolf, who
  transformed himself into a piece of wood and was burnt. The woman
  remained alive, but her murderer died the same night.

  According to a third form of the belief, the body of the werman is
  itself transformed. One evening a man left the hut in which a party
  were preparing to pass the night; one of his companions heard a deer
  and fired into the darkness. Soon after the man came back and said he
  had been shot. Although no marks were to be seen he died a few days
  later.

  In Central Java we meet with another kind of wer-tiger. The power of
  transformation is regarded as due to inheritance, to the use of
  spells, to fasting and will-power, to the use of charms, &c. Save when
  it is hungry or has just cause for revenge it is not hostile to man;
  in fact, it is said to take its animal form only at night and to guard
  the plantations from wild pigs, exactly as the _balams_ (magicians) of
  Yucatan were said to guard the corn fields in animal form. Variants of
  this belief assert that the werman does not recognize his friends
  unless they call him by name, or that he goes out as a mendicant and
  transforms himself to take vengeance on those who refuse him alms.
  Somewhat similar is the belief of the Khonds; for them the tiger is
  friendly; he reserves his wrath for their enemies, and a man is said
  to take the form of a tiger in order to wreak a just vengeance.

  _Lycanthropy in South America._--According to K. F. P. v. Martius the
  _kanaima_ is a human being who employs poison to carry out his
  function of blood avenger; other authorities represent the _kanaima_
  as a jaguar, which is either an avenger of blood or the familiar of a
  cannibalistic sorcerer. The Europeans of Brazil hold that the seventh
  child of the same sex in unbroken succession becomes a wer-man or
  woman, and takes the form of a horse, goat, jaguar or pig.

II. As a pathological state lycanthropy may be described as a kind of
hysteria, and may perhaps be brought into connexion with the form of it
known as _latah_. It is characterized by the patient's belief that he
has been metamorphosed into an animal, and is often accompanied by a
craving for strange articles of food, including the flesh of living
beings or of corpses. In the lower stages of culture the state of the
patient is commonly explained as due to possession, but where he leaves
the neighbourhood of man real metamorphosis may be asserted, as in
ordinary lycanthropic beliefs. Marcellus of Sida says that in Greece the
patients frequented the tombs at night; they were recognizable by their
yellow complexion, hollow eyes and dry tongue. The Garrows of India are
said to tear their hair when they are seized with the complaint, which
is put down to the use of a drug applied to the forehead; this recalls
the stories of the witch's salve in Europe. In Abyssinia the patient is
usually a woman; two forms are distinguished, caused by the hyena and
the leopard respectively. A kind of trance ushers in the fit; the
fingers are clenched, the eyes glazed and the nostrils distended; the
patient, when she comes to herself, laughs hideously and runs on all
fours. The exorcist is a blacksmith; as a rule, he applies onion or
garlic to her nose and proceeds to question the evil spirit.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For the anthropological side of the subject see
  bibliography to WERWOLF; also _Tijdskrift voor indische Taal, Land en
  Volkenkunde_, xxviii. 338, xli. 548, 568; _Med.
  Zendelingsgenootschap_, xxxix. 3, 16; O. Stoll, _Suggestion_, p. 418;
  W. H. Brett, _Indians of British Guiana_. For the pathological side,
  see Hack Tuke, _Dict. of Psychological Medicine_, s.v. "Lycanthropy";
  _Dict. des sciences médicales_; Waldmeier, _Autobiography_, p. 64; A.
  J. Hayes, _Source of Blue Nile_, p. 286 seq.; _Abh. phil.-hist. Klasse
  kgl. sächsische Gesellschaft der Wiss._ 17, No. 3.     (N. W. T.)



LYCAON, in Greek mythology, son of Pelasgus, the mythical first king of
Arcadia. He, or his fifty impious sons, entertained Zeus and set before
him a dish of human flesh; the god pushed away the dish in disgust and
either killed the king and his sons by lightning or turned them into
wolves (Apollodorus iii. 8; Ovid, _Metam._ i. 198). Some say that Lycaon
slew and dished up his own son Nyctimus (Clem. Alex. _Protrept._ ii. 36;
Nonnus, _Dionys._ xviii. 20; Arnobius iv. 24). The deluge was said to
have been sent by Zeus in the time of Deucalion in consequence of the
sons' impiety. Pausanias (viii. 2) says that Lycaon sacrificed a child
to Zeus on the altar on mount Lycaeus, and immediately after the
sacrifice was turned into a wolf. This gave rise to the story that a man
was turned into a wolf at each annual sacrifice to Zeus Lycaeus, but
recovered his human form if he abstained from human flesh for ten years.
The oldest city, the oldest cultus (that of Zeus Lycaeus), and the first
civilization of Arcadia are attributed to Lycaon. His story has been
variously interpreted. According to Weizsäcker, he was an old Pelasgian
or pre-Hellenic god, to whom human sacrifice was offered, bearing a
non-Hellenic name similar to [Greek: Lykos], whence the story originated
of his metamorphosis into a wolf. His cult was driven out by that of the
Hellenic Zeus, and Lycaon himself was afterwards represented as an evil
spirit, who had insulted the new deity by setting human flesh before
him. Robertson Smith considers the sacrifices offered to the wolf-Zeus
in Arcadia to have been originally cannibal feasts of a wolf-tribe, who
recognized the wolf as their totem. Usener and others identify Lycaon
with Zeus Lycaeus, the god of light, who slays his son Nyctimus (the
dark) or is succeeded by him, in allusion to the perpetual succession of
night and day. According to Ed. Meyer, the belief that Zeus Lycaeus
accepted human sacrifice in the form of a wolf was the origin of the
myth that Lycaon, the founder of his cult, became a wolf, i.e.
participated in the nature of the god by the act of sacrifice, as did
all who afterwards duly performed it. W. Mannhardt sees in the ceremony
an allusion to certain agricultural rites, the object of which was to
prevent the failure of the crops and to avert pestilence (or to protect
them and the flocks against the ravages of wolves). Others (e.g. V.
Bérard) take Zeus Lycaeus for a Semitic Baal, whose worship was imported
into Arcadia by the Phoenicians; Immerwahr identifies him with Zeus
Phyxios, the god of the exile who flees on account of his having shed
blood. Another explanation is that the place of the sacred wolf once
worshipped in Arcadia was taken in cult by Zeus Lycaeus, and in popular
tradition by Lycaon, the ancestor of the Arcadians, who was supposed to
have been punished for his insulting treatment of Zeus. It is possible
that the whole may be merely a reminiscence of a superstition similar to
the familiar werwolf stories.

  See articles by P. Weizsäcker in Roscher's _Lexikon_ and by G.
  Fougères (s.v. "Lykaia") in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités_; W. Immerwahr, _Die Kulte und Mythen Arkadiens_, 1.
  (1891), p. 14; L. R. Farnell, _Cults of the Greek States_, i. (1896),
  p. 40; A. Lang, _Myth, Ritual and Religion_ (1899); C. Pascal, _Studii
  di antichità e mitologia_ (1896), who sees in Lycaon a god of death
  honoured by human sacrifice; Ed. Meyer, _Forschungen zur alten
  Geschichte_, i. (1892), p. 60; W. Mannhardt, _Wald- und Feldkulte_,
  ii. (1905); G. Fougères, _Mantinée et l'Arcadie orientale_ (1898), p.
  202; V. Bérard, _De l'origine des cultes arcadiens_ (1894); H. D.
  Müller, _Mythologie der griechischen Stämme_, ii. (1861), p. 78; H.
  Usener, _Rheinisches Museum_, liii. (1898), p. 375; G. Görres,
  _Berliner Studien für classische Philologie_, x. 1 (1889), who regards
  the Lycaea as a funeral festival connected with the changes of
  vegetation; Vollgraf, _De Ovidii mythopoeia_; a concise statement of
  the various forms of the legend in O. Gruppe, _Griechische
  Mythologie_, ii. p. 920, n. 4; see also LYCANTHROPY; D. Bassi, "Apollo
  Liceo," in _Rivista di storia antica_, i. (1895); and Frazer's
  _Pausanias_, iv. p. 189.     (J. H. F.)



LYCAONIA, in ancient geography, a large region in the interior of Asia
Minor, north of Mount Taurus. It was bounded on the E. by Cappadocia, on
the N. by Galatia, on the W. by Phrygia and Pisidia, while to the S. it
extended to the chain of Mount Taurus, where it bordered on the country
popularly called in earlier times Cilicia Tracheia and in the Byzantine
period Isauria; but its boundaries varied greatly at different times.
The name is not found in Herodotus, but Lycaonia is mentioned by
Xenophon as traversed by Cyrus the younger on his march through Asia.
That author describes Iconium as the last city of Phrygia; and in Acts
xiv. 5 St Paul, after leaving Iconium, crossed the frontier and came to
Lystra in Lycaonia. Ptolemy, on the other hand, includes Lycaonia as a
part of the province of Cappadocia, with which it was associated by the
Romans for administrative purposes; but the two countries are clearly
distinguished both by Strabo and Xenophon and by authorities generally.

Lycaonia is described by Strabo as a cold region of elevated plains,
affording pasture to wild asses and to sheep; and at the present day
sheep abound, but asses are practically unknown. Amyntas, king of
Galatia, to whom the district was for a time subject, maintained there
not less than three hundred flocks. It forms part of the interior
tableland of Asia Minor, and has an elevation of more than 3000 ft. It
suffers from want of water, aggravated in some parts by abundance of
salt in the soil, so that the northern portion, extending from near
Iconium to the salt lake of Tatta and the frontiers of Galatia, is
almost wholly barren, only small patches being cultivated near Iconium
and the large villages. The soil, where water is supplied, is
productive. In ancient times great attention was paid to storing and
distributing the water, so that much land now barren was formerly
cultivated and supported a large number of cities.

The plain is interrupted by some minor groups of mountains, of volcanic
character, of which the Kara Dagh in the south, a few miles north of
Karaman, rises above 7000 ft., while the Karadja Dagh, north-east of it,
though of inferior elevation, presents a striking range of volcanic
cones. The mountains in the north-west, near Iconium and Laodicea, are
the termination of the Sultan Dagh range, which traverses a large part
of Phrygia.

The Lycaonians appear to have been in early times to a great extent
independent of the Persian empire, and were like their neighbours the
Isaurians a wild and lawless race of freebooters; but their country was
traversed by one of the great natural lines of high road through Asia
Minor, from Sardis and Ephesus to the Cilician gates, and a few
considerable towns grew up along or near this line. The most important
was Iconium, in the most fertile spot in the country, of which it was
always regarded by the Romans as the capital, although ethnologically it
was Phrygian. It is still called Konia, and it was the capital of the
Seljuk Turkish empire for several centuries. A little farther north,
immediately on the frontier of Phrygia, stood Laodicea (Ladik), called
Combusta, to distinguish it from the Phrygian city of that name; and in
the south, near the foot of Mount Taurus, was Laranda, now called
Karaman, which has given name to the province of Karamania. Derbe and
Lystra, which appear from the Acts of the Apostles to have been
considerable towns, were between Iconium and Laranda. There were many
other towns, which became bishoprics in Byzantine times. Lycaonia was
Christianized very early; and its ecclesiastical system was more
completely organized in its final form during the 4th century than that
of any other region of Asia Minor.

After the defeat of Antiochus the Great, Lycaonia was given by the
Romans to Eumenes II., king of Pergamos. About 160 B.C. part of it, the
"Tetrarchy of Lycaonia," was added to Galatia; and in 129 B.C. the
eastern half (usually called during the following 200 years Lycaonia
proper) was given to Cappadocia as an eleventh strategia. In the
readjustment of the Provinciae, 64 B.C., by Pompey after the Mithradatic
wars, he gave the northern part of the tetrarchy to Galatia and the
eastern part of the eleventh strategia to Cappadocia. The remainder was
attached to Cilicia. Its administration and grouping changed often under
the Romans. In A.D. 371 Lycaonia was first formed into a separate
province. It now forms part of the Konia viláyet.

The Lycaonians appear to have retained a distinct nationality in the
time of Strabo, but their ethnical affinities are unknown. The mention
of the Lycaonian language in the Acts of the Apostles (xiv. 11) shows
that the native language was spoken by the common people at Lystra about
A.D. 50; and probably it was only later and under Christian influence
that Greek took its place.

  See Sir W. M. Ramsay, _Historical Geography of Asia Minor_ (1890),
  _Historical Commentary on Galatians_ (1899) and _Cities of St Paul_
  (1907); also an article on the topography in the _Jahreshefte des
  Oesterr. Archaeolog. Instituts_, 194 (Beiblatt) pp. 57-132.
       (W. M. Ra.)



LYCEUM, the latinized form of Gr. [Greek: Lykeion], the name of a
gymnasium and garden with covered walks, near the temple of Apollo
Lyceus ([Greek: Apollon Aykeios]) at Athens. Aristotle taught here, and
hence the name was applied to his school of philosophy. The name had
been used in many languages for places of instruction, &c. In France the
term _lycée_ is given to the secondary schools which are administered by
the state, in contradistinction to the communal _collèges_.



LYCIA, in ancient geography, a district in the S.W. of Asia Minor,
occupying the coast between Caria and Pamphylia, and extending inland as
far as the ridge of Mt Taurus. The region thus designated is a peninsula
projecting southward from the great mountain masses of the interior. It
is for the most part a rugged mountainous country, traversed by
offshoots of the Taurus range, which terminate on the coast in lofty
promontories. The coast, though less irregular than that of Caria, is
indented by a succession of bays--the most marked of which is the Gulf
of Macri (anc. _Glaucus Sinus_) in the extreme west. A number of smaller
bays, and broken rocky headlands, with a few small islets, constitute
the coast-line thence to the S.E. promontory of Lycia, formed by a long
narrow tongue of rocky hill, known in ancient times as the "Sacred
Promontory" (Hiera Acra), with three small adjacent islets, called the
Chelidonian islands, which was regarded by some ancient geographers as
the commencement of Mt. Taurus. Though the mountain ranges of Lycia are
all offshoots of Mt, Taurus, in ancient times several of them were
distinguished by separate names. Such were Daedala in the west,
adjoining the Gulf of Macri, Cragus on the sea-coast, west of the valley
of the Xanthus, Massicytus (10,000 ft.) nearly in the centre of the
region, and Solyma in the extreme east above Phaselis (7800 ft.). The
steep and rugged pass between Solyma and the sea, called the Climax
("Ladder"), was the only direct communication between Lycia and
Pamphylia.

The only two considerable rivers are: (1) the Xanthus, which descends
from the central mass of Mt Taurus, and flows through a narrow valley
till it reaches the city of the same name, below which it forms a plain
of some extent before reaching the sea, and (2) the Limyrus, which
enters the sea near Limyra. The small alluvial plains at the mouths of
these rivers are the only level ground in Lycia, but the hills that rise
thence towards the mountains are covered with a rich arborescent
vegetation. The upper valleys and mountain sides afford good pasture for
sheep, and the main Taurus range encloses several extensive upland
basin-shaped valleys (_vailas_), which are characteristic of that range
throughout its extent (see ASIA MINOR).

  The limits of Lycia towards the interior seem to have varied at
  different times. The high and cold upland tract to the north-east,
  called Milyas, was by some writers included in that province, though
  it is naturally more connected with Pisidia. According to Artemidorus
  (whose authority is followed by Strabo), the towns that formed the
  Lycian league in the days of its integrity were twenty-three in
  number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of
  which only twenty-six remained in his day. Recent researches have
  fully confirmed the fact that the sea-coast and the valleys were
  thickly studded with towns, many of which are proved by existing
  remains to have been places of importance. By the aid of inscriptions
  the position of the greater part of the cities mentioned in ancient
  authors can be fixed. On the gulf of Glaucus, near the frontiers of
  Caria, stood Telmessus, an important place, while a short distance
  inland from it were the small towns of Daedala and Cadyanda. At the
  entrance of the valley of the Xanthus were Patara, Xanthus itself,
  and, a little higher up, Pinara on the west and Tlos on the east side
  of the valley, while Araxa stood at the head of the valley, at the
  foot of the pass leading into the interior. Myra, one of the most
  important cities of Lycia, occupied the entrance of the valley of the
  Andriacus; on the coast between this and the mouth of the Xanthus
  stood Antiphellus, while in the interior at a short distance were
  found Phellus, Cyaneae and Candyba. In the alluvial plain formed by
  the rivers Arycandus and Limyrus stood Limyra, and encircling the same
  bay the three small towns of Rhodiapolis, Corydalla and Gagae.
  Arycanda commanded the upper valley of the river of the same name. On
  the east coast stood Olympus, one of the cities of the league, while
  Phaselis, a little farther north, which was a much more important
  place, never belonged to the Lycian league and appears always to have
  maintained an independent position.

  The cold upland district of the Milyas does not seem to have contained
  any town of importance. Podalia appears to have been its chief place.
  Between the Milyas and the Pamphylian Gulf was the lofty mountain
  range of Solyma, which was supposed to derive its name from the
  Solymi, a people mentioned by Homer in connexion with the Lycians and
  the story of Bellerophon. In the flank of this mountain, near a place
  called Deliktash, was the celebrated fiery source called the Chimaera,
  which gave rise to many fables. It has been visited in modern times by
  Captain F. Beaufort, T. A. B. Spratt and Edward Forbes, and other
  travellers, and is merely a stream of inflammable gas issuing from
  crevices in the rocks, such as are found in several places in the
  Apennines. No traces of recent volcanic action exist in Lycia.

_History._--The name of the Lycians, _Lukki_, is first met with in the
Tel el-Amarna tablets (1400 B.C.) and in the list of the nations from
the eastern Mediterranean who invaded Egypt in the reign of Mineptah,
the successor of Rameses II. At that time they seem to have occupied the
Cilician coast. Their occupation of Lycia was probably later, and since
the Lycian inscriptions are not found far inland, we may conclude that
they entered the country from the sea. On the other hand the name
appears to be preserved in Lycaonia, where some bands of them may have
settled. According to Herodotus they called themselves Termilae, written
Trmmile in the native inscriptions, and he further states that the
original inhabitants of the country were the Milyans and Solymi, the
Lycians being invaders from Crete. In this tradition there is a
reminiscence of the fact that the Lycians had been sea-rovers before
their settlement in Lycia. The Lycian Sarpedon was believed to have
taken part in the Trojan war. The Lydians failed to subdue Lycia, but
after the fall of the Lydian empire it was conquered by Harpagus the
general of Cyrus, Xanthus or Arnna, the capital, being completely
destroyed. While acknowledging the suzerainty of Persia, however, the
Lycians remained practically independent, and for a time joined the
Delian league. "The son of Harpagus" on the obelisk of Xanthus boasts of
having sacked numerous cities in alliance with the Athenian goddess. The
Lycians were incorporated into the empire of Alexander and his
successors, but even after their conquest by the Romans, preserved their
federal institutions as late as the time of Augustus. According to
Strabo the principal towns in the league were Xanthus, Patara, Pinara,
Olympus, Myra and Tlos; each of these had three votes in the general
assembly, while the other towns had only two or one. Taxation and the
appointment of the Lyciarch and other magistrates were vested in the
assembly. Under Claudius Lycia was formally annexed to the Roman empire,
and united with Pamphylia: Theodosius made it a separate province.

_Antiquities._--Few parts of Asia Minor were less known in modern times
than Lycia up to the 19th century. Captain Beaufort was the first to
visit several places on the sea-coast, and the remarkable rock-hewn
tombs of Telmessus had been already described by Dr Clarke, but it was
Sir Charles Fellows who first discovered and drew attention to the
extraordinary richness of the district in ancient remains, especially of
a sepulchral character. His visits to the country in 1838 and 1840 were
followed by an expedition sent by the British government in 1842 to
transport to England the valuable monuments now in the British Museum,
while Admiral Spratt and Edward Forbes explored the interior, and laid
down its physical features on an excellent map. The monuments thus
brought to light are among the most interesting of those discovered in
Asia Minor, and prove the existence of a distinct native architecture,
especially in the rock-cut tombs. But the theatres found in almost every
town, some of them of very large size, are sufficient to attest the
pervading influence of Greek civilization; and this is confirmed by the
sculptures, which are for the most part wholly Greek. None of them,
indeed, can be ascribed to a very early period, and hardly any trace can
be found of the influence of Assyrian or other Oriental art.

One of the most interesting results of these recent researches has been
the discovery of numerous inscriptions in the native language of the
country, and written in an alphabet peculiar to Lycia. A few of these
inscriptions are bilingual, in Greek and Lycian, and the clue thus
afforded to their interpretation has been followed up, first by Daniel
Sharpe and Moritz Schmidt, and in more recent years by J. Imbert, W.
Arkwright, V. Thomsen, A. Torp, S. Bugge and E. Kalinka.

The alphabet was derived from the Doric alphabet of Rhodes, but ten
other characters were added to it to express vocalic and other sounds
not found in Greek. The attempts to connect the language with the
Indo-European family have been unsuccessful; it belongs to a separate
family of speech which we may term "Asianic." Most of the inscriptions
are sepulchral; by far the longest and most important is that on an
obelisk found at Xanthus, which is a historical document, the concluding
part of it being in a peculiar dialect, supposed to be an older and
poetical form of the language. Among the deities mentioned are Trzzube
(Trosobis) and Trqqiz or Trqqas.

Lycian art was modelled on that of the Greeks. The rock-cut tomb usually
represented the house of the living, with an elaborate façade, but in
one or two instances, notably that of the so-called Harpy-tomb, the
façade is surmounted by a tall, square tower, in the upper part of which
is the sepulchral chamber. Lycian sculpture followed closely the
development of Greek sculpture, and many of the sculptures with which
the tombs are adorned are of a high order of merit. The exquisite
bas-reliefs on a Lycian sarcophagus now in the museum of Constantinople
are among the finest surviving examples of classical art. The
bas-reliefs were usually coloured. For the coinage, see NUMISMATICS,
section "Asia Minor."

  AUTHORITIES.--C. Fellows, _Journal in Asia Minor_ (1839) and
  _Discoveries in Lycia_ (1841); T. A. B. Spratt and E. Forbes, _Travels
  in Lycia_ (1847); O. Benndorf and G. Niemann, _Reisen im südwestlichen
  Kleinasien_ (1884); E. Petersen and F. von Luschan, _Reisen in Lykien_
  (1889); O. Treuber, _Geschichte der Lykier_ (1887); G. Perrot and C.
  Chipiez, _Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquite_, v. (1890); P.
  Kretschmer, _Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache_
  (1896); S. Bugge, _Lykische Studien_ (from 1897); A. Torp, _Lykische
  Beiträge_ (from 1898); V. Thomsen, _Études lyciennes_ (1899); E.
  Kalinka and R. Heberdey, _Tituli Asiae Minoris_, i. (1901); see also
  articles XANTHUS, MYRA, PATARA.     (A. H. S.)



LYCK, or LYK, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of East
Prussia, 112 m. by rail S.E. of Königsberg, and close to the frontier of
Poland, on a lake and river of the same name. Pop. (1900) 11,386. It is
the chief town of the region known as Masuria. On an island in the lake
is a castle formerly belonging to the Teutonic order, and dating from
1273, now used as a prison. There are iron-foundries, distilleries,
breweries, tanneries, paper mills and flour mills, and a trade in grain
and cattle.



LYCOPHRON, Greek poet and grammarian, was born at Chalcis in Euboea. He
flourished at Alexandria in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247
B.C.). According to Suïdas, he was the son of Socles, but was adopted by
Lycus of Rhegium. He was entrusted by Ptolemy with the task of arranging
the comedies in the Alexandrian library, and as the result of his
labours composed a treatise _On Comedy_. His own compositions, however,
chiefly consisted of tragedies (Suïdas gives the titles of twenty, of
which very few fragments have been preserved), which secured him a place
in the Pleiad of Alexandrian tragedians. One of his poems, _Alexandra_
or _Cassandra_, containing 1474 iambic lines, has been preserved entire.
It is in the form of a prophecy uttered by Cassandra, and relates the
later fortunes of Troy and of the Greek and Trojan heroes. References to
events of mythical and later times are introduced, and the poem ends
with a reference to Alexander the Great, who was to unite Asia and
Europe in his world-wide empire. The style is so enigmatical as to have
procured for Lycophron, even among the ancients, the title of "obscure"
([Greek: skoteinos]). The poem is evidently intended to display the
writer's knowledge of obscure names and uncommon myths; it is full of
unusual words of doubtful meaning gathered from the older poets, and
many long-winded compounds coined by the author. It has none of the
qualities of poetry, and was probably written as a show-piece for the
Alexandrian school. It was very popular in the Byzantine period, and was
read and commented on very frequently; the collection of scholia by
Isaac and John Tzetzes is very valuable, and the MSS. of the _Cassandra_
are numerous.[1] A few well-turned lines which have been preserved from
Lycophron's tragedies show a much better style; they are said to have
been much admired by Menedemus of Eretria, although the poet had
ridiculed him in a satyric drama. Lycophron is also said to have been a
skilful writer of anagrams.

  Editio princeps (1513); J. Potter (1697, 1702); L. Sebastiani (1803);
  L. Bachmann (1830); G. Kinkel (1880); E. Scheer (1881-1908), vol. ii.
  containing the scholia. The most complete edition is by C. von
  Holzinger (with translation, introduction and notes, 1895). There are
  translations by F. Deheque (1853) and Viscount Royston (1806; a work
  of great merit). See also Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, _De Lycophronis
  Alexandra_ (1884); J. Konze, _De Dictione Lycophronis_ (1870). The
  commentaries of the brothers Tzetzes have been edited by C. O. Müller
  (1811).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Two passages of the _Cassandra_, 1446-1450 and 1226-1282, in
    which the career of the Roman people and their universal empire are
    spoken of, could not possibly have been written by an Alexandrian
    poet of 250 B.C. Hence it has been maintained by Niebuhr and others
    that the poem was written, by a later poet mentioned by Tzetzes, but
    the opinion of Welcker that these paragraphs are a later
    interpolation is generally considered more probable.



LYCOPODIUM, the principal genus of the Lycopodiaceae, a natural order of
the Fern-allies (see PTERIDOPHYTA). They are flowerless herbs, with an
erect, prostrate or creeping widely-branched stem, with small simple
leaves which thickly cover the stem and branches. The "fertile" leaves
are arranged in cones, and bear spore-cases (sporangia) in their axils,
containing spores of one kind only. The prothallium developed from the
spore is a subterranean mass of tissue of considerable size, and bears
the male and female organs (_antheridia_ and _archegonia_). There are
about a hundred species widely distributed in temperate and tropical
climates; five occur in Britain on heaths and moors, chiefly in
mountainous districts, and are known as club-mosses The commonest
species, _L. clavatum_, is also known as stag-horn moss.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 1.--Lycopodium clavatum.

  A, Old prothallus.
  B, Prothallus bearing a young sporophyte.
  G, Polian of a mature plant, showing the creeping habit, the
    adventitious roots and the specialized erect branches bearing the
    strobile or cones.
  H, Sporophyte bearing the single sporangium on its upper surface.
  J, Spore.]

  Gerard, in 1597, described two kinds of lycopodium (_Herball_, p.
  1373) under the names _Muscus denticulatus_ and _Muscus clavatus_ (_L.
  clavatum_) as "Club Mosse or Woolfes Clawe Mosse," the names being in
  Low Dutch, "Wolfs Clauwen," from the resemblance of the club-like or
  claw-shaped shoots to the toes of a wolf, "whereupon we first named it
  _Lycopodion_." Gerard also speaks of its emetic and many other
  supposed virtues. _L. Selago_ and _L. catharticum_ (a native of the
  Andes) have been said to be, at least when fresh, cathartic; but, with
  the exception of the spores of _L. clavatum_ ("lycopodium powder"),
  lycopodium as a drug has fallen into disuse. The powder is used for
  rolling pills in, as a dusting powder for infants' sores, &c. A
  _tinctura lycopodii_, containing one part of the powder to ten of
  alcohol (90%), has been given, in doses of 15 to 60 minims, in cases
  of irritation and spasm of the bladder. The powder is highly
  inflammable, and is used in pyrotechny and for artificial lightning on
  the stage. If the hand be covered with the powder it cannot be wetted
  on being plunged into water. Another use of lycopodium is for dyeing;
  woollen cloth boiled with species of lycopodium, as _L. clavatum_,
  becomes blue when dipped in a bath of Brazil wood.



LYCOSURA (mod. _Palaeokastro_ or _Siderokastro_), a city of Arcadia,
reputed to be the most ancient city in Greece, and to have been founded
by Lycaon the son of Pelasgus. Its fame in later times was chiefly
associated with the temple of Despoena, containing the colossal group
made by Damophon of Messene, of Despoena and Demeter seated, with
Artemis and the Titan Anytus standing beside them. The temple and
considerable remains of the group of sculpture were found in 1889. The
date of both has been a matter of dispute, Damophon being placed at
dates varying from the 4th century B.C. to the age of Hadrian. But it
has now been shown that he lived in the 2nd century B.C. Remains of a
portico, altars and other structures have also been found.

  See [Greek: Praktika tes Arch. Hetairias] (1896); G. Dickens, _Annual
  of British School_ at Athens, xii. and xiii.



LYCURGUS (Gr. [Greek: Lykourgos]), in Greek history, the reputed founder
of the Spartan constitution. Plutarch opens his biography of Lycurgus
with these words: "About Lycurgus the lawgiver it is not possible to
make a single statement that is not called in question. His genealogy,
his travels, his death, above all, his legislative and constitutional
activity have been variously recorded, and there is the greatest
difference of opinion as to his date." Nor has modern historical
criticism arrived at any certain results. Many scholars, indeed, suppose
him to be in reality a god or hero, appealing to the existence of a
temple and cult of Lycurgus at Sparta as early as the time of Herodotus,
(i. 66), and to the words of the Delphic oracle (Herod. i. 65)--

  [Greek: dixo e se theon manteusomai e anthropon.
          all' eti kai mallon theon elpomai, o Lykoorge.]

If this be so, he is probably to be connected with the cult of Apollo
Lycius or with that of Zeus Lycaeus. But the majority of modern
historians agree in accepting Lycurgus as an historical person, however
widely they may differ about his work.

According to the Spartan tradition preserved by Herodotus, Lycurgus was
a member of the Agiad house, son of Agis I. and brother of Echestratus.
On the death of the latter he became regent and guardian of his nephew
Labotas (Leobotes), who was still a minor. Simonides, on the other hand,
spoke of him as a Eurypontid, son of Prytanis and brother of Eunomus,
and later the tradition prevailed which made him the son of Eunomus and
Dionassa, and half-brother of the king Polydectes, on whose death he
became guardian of the young king Charillus. According to Herodotus he
introduced his reforms immediately on becoming regent, but the story
which afterwards became generally accepted and is elaborated by Plutarch
represented him as occupying for some time the position of regent, then
spending several years in travels, and on his return to Sparta carrying
through his legislation when Charillus was king. This latter version
helped to emphasize the disinterestedness of the lawgiver, and also
supplied a motive for his travels--the jealousy of those who accused him
of trying to supplant his nephew on the throne. He is said to have
visited Crete, Egypt and Ionia, and some versions even took him to
Spain, Libya and India.

Various beliefs were held as to the source from which Lycurgus derived
his ideas of reform. Herodotus found the tradition current among the
Spartans that they were suggested to Lycurgus by the similar Cretan
institutions, but even in the 5th century there was a rival theory that
he derived them from the Delphic oracle. These two versions are united
by Ephorus, who argued that, though Lycurgus had really derived his
system from Crete, yet to give it a religious sanction he had persuaded
the Delphic priestess to express his views in oracular form.

_The Reforms._--Herodotus says that Lycurgus changed "all the customs,"
that he created the military organization of [Greek: enomotiai]
(_enomoties_), [Greek: triekades] (_triecades_) and [Greek: syssitia]
(_syssitia_), and that he instituted the ephorate and the council of
elders. To him, further, are attributed the foundation of the apella
(the citizen assembly), the prohibition of gold and silver currency, the
partition of the land ([Greek: ges anadasmos]) into equal lots, and, in
general, the characteristic Spartan training ([Greek: agoge]). Some of
these statements are certainly false. The council of elders and the
assembly are not in any sense peculiar to Sparta, but are present in the
heroic government of Greece as depicted in the Homeric poems. The
ephors, again, are almost universally held to be either an immemorial
heritage of the Dorian stock or--and this seems more probable--an
addition to the Spartan constitution made at a later date than can be
assigned to Lycurgus. Further, the tradition of the Lycurgan partition
of the land is open to grave objections. Grote pointed out (_History of
Greece_, pt. ii. ch. 6) that even from the earliest historical times we
find glaring inequalities of property at Sparta, and that the tradition
was apparently unknown to all the earlier Greek historians and
philosophers down to Plato and Aristotle: Isocrates (xii. 259) expressly
denied that a partition of land had ever taken place in the Spartan
state. Again, the tradition presupposes the conquest by the Spartans of
the whole, or at least the greater part, of Laconia, yet Lycurgus must
fall in the period when the Spartans had not yet subjugated even the
middle Eurotas plain, in which their city lay. Finally, we can point to
an adequate explanation of the genesis of the tradition in the ideals
of the reformers of the latter part of the 3rd century, led by the kings
Agis IV. and Cleomenes III. (q.v.). To them the cause of Sparta's
decline lay in the marked inequalities of wealth, and they looked upon a
redistribution of the land as the reform most urgently needed. But it
was characteristic of the Greeks to represent the ideals of the present
as the facts of the past, and so such a story as that of the Lycurgan
[Greek: ges anadasmos] may well have arisen at this time. It is at least
noteworthy that the plan of Agis to give 4500 lots to Spartans and
15,000 to perioeci suspiciously resembles that of Lycurgus, in whose
case the numbers are said to have been 9000 and 30,000 respectively.
Lastly, the prohibition of gold and silver money cannot be attributed to
Lycurgus, for at so early a period coinage was yet unknown in Greece.

Lycurgus, then, did not create any of the main elements of the Spartan
constitution, though he may have regulated their powers and defined
their position. But tradition represented him as finding Sparta the prey
of disunion, weakness and lawlessness, and leaving her united, strong
and subject to the most stable government which the Greek world had ever
seen. Probably Grote comes near to the truth when he says that Lycurgus
"is the founder of a warlike brotherhood rather than the lawgiver of a
political community." To him we may attribute the unification of the
several component parts of the state, the strict military organization
and training which soon made the Spartan hoplite the best soldier in
Greece, and above all the elaborate and rigid system of education which
rested upon, and in turn proved the strongest support of, that
subordination of the individual to the state which perhaps has had no
parallel in the history of the world.

Lycurgus's legislation is very variously dated, and it is not possible
either to harmonize the traditions or to decide with confidence between
them. B. Niese (_Hermes_, xlii. 440 sqq.) assigns him to the first half
of the 7th century B.C. Aristotle read Lycurgus's name, together with
that of Iphitus, on the discus at Olympia which bore the terms of the
sacred truce, but even if the genuineness of the document and the
identity of this Lycurgus with the Spartan reformer be granted, it is
uncertain whether the discus belongs to the so-called first Olympiad,
776 B.C., or to an earlier date. Most traditions place Lycurgus in the
9th century: Thucydides, whom Grote follows, dates his reforms shortly
before 804, Isocrates and Ephorus go back to 869, and the chronographers
are divided between 821, 828 and 834 B.C. Finally, according to a
tradition recorded by Xenophon (_Resp. Laced_. x. 8), he was
contemporary with the Heraclidae, in which case he would belong to the
10th century B.C.

  AUTHORITIES.--Our chief ancient authorities, besides Plutarch's
  biography, are:--Herodotus i. 65; Xenophon, _Respublica
  Lacedaemoniorum_; Ephorus _ap_. Strabo x. 481, 482; Aristotle,
  _Politics_, ii.; Pausanias iii. and v. 4; and scattered passages in
  Plato, Isocrates, Polybius, Diodorus, Polyaenus, &c. Of modern works
  the most important are: E. Meyer, "Lykurgos von Sparta," in
  _Forschungen zur alten Geschichte_ (Halle, 1892), i. 211 sqq.; A.
  Kopstadt, _De rerum Laconicarum constitutionis Lycurgeae origine et
  indole_ (Greifswald, 1849); H. K. Stein, _Kritik der Überlieferung
  über den spartanischen Gesetzgeber Lykurg_ (Glatz, 1882); S. Wide,
  "Bemerkungen zur spartanischen Lykurglegende," in _Skand_. _Archiv_.
  i. (1891), 90 sqq.; E. Nusselt, _Das Lykurgproblem_ (Erlangen, 1898);
  H. Bazin, _De Lycurgo_ (Paris, 1885); C. Reuss, _De Lycurgea quae
  fertur agrorum divisione_ (Pforzheim, 1878); A. Busson, _Lykurgos und
  die grosse Rhetra_ (Innsbruck, 1887); H. Gelzer, "Lykurg und die
  delphische Priesterschaft" in _Rhein_. _Mus_. xxviii. 1 sqq.; F.
  Winicker, _Stand der Lykurgischen Frage_ (Graudenz, 1884); G.
  Attinger, _Essai sur Lycurgue et ses institutions_ (Neuchâtel, 1892);
  the general Greek histories, and the works on the Spartan constitution
  cited under SPARTA.     (M. N. T.)



LYCURGUS (c. 396-325 B.C.), one of the "ten" Attic orators. Through
his father, Lycophron, he belonged to the old Attic priestly family of
the Eteobutadae. He is said to have been a pupil both of Plato and of
Isocrates. His early career is unknown, but after the real character of
the struggle with Philip of Macedon became manifest he was recognized,
with Demosthenes and Hypereides, as one of the chiefs of the national
party. He left the care of external relations to his colleagues, and
devoted himself to internal organization and finance. He managed the
finances of Athens for twelve successive years (338-326), at first
directly as treasurer of the revenues ([Greek: ho hepi te dioikesei])
for four years, and in two succeeding terms, when the actual office was
forbidden him by law, through his son and a nominal official chosen from
his party. Part of one of the deeds in which he rendered account of his
term of office is still preserved in an inscription. During this time he
raised the public income from 600 to 1200 talents yearly. He increased
the navy, repaired the dockyards, and completed an arsenal, the [Greek:
skeuotheke] designed by the architect Philo. He was also appointed to
various other offices connected with the preservation and improvement of
the city. He was very strict in his superintendence of the public
morals, and passed a sumptuary law to restrain extravagance. He did much
to beautify the city; he reconstructed the great Dionysiac theatre and
the gymnasium in the Lyceum, and erected the Panathenaic stadium on the
Ilissus. He is mentioned as the proposer of five laws, of which the most
famous was that statues of the three great tragedians should be erected
in the theatre, and that their works should be carefully edited and
preserved among the state archives. For his services he was honoured
with crowns, statues and a seat in the town hall; and after his death
his friend Stratocles drew up a decree (still extant in pseudo-Plutarch,
_Vit. dec. orat._ p. 851; see also E. L. Hicks, _Greek Historical
Inscriptions_, 1st ed., No. 145), ordering the erection of a statue of
bronze to Lycurgus, and granting the honours of the Prytaneum to his
eldest son. He was one of the orators whose surrender was demanded by
Alexander the Great, but the people refused to give him up. He died
while president of the theatre of Dionysus, and was buried on the road
leading to the Academy at the expense of the state.

Lycurgus was a man of action; his orations, of which fifteen were
published, are criticized by the ancients for their awkward arrangement,
harshness of style, and the tendency to digressions about mythology and
history, although their noble spirit and lofty morality are highly
praised. The one extant example, _Against Leocrates_, fully bears out
this criticism. After the battle of Chaeroneia (338), in spite of the
decree which forbade emigration under pain of death, Leocrates had fled
from Athens. On his return (probably about 332) he was impeached by
Lycurgus, but acquitted, the votes of the judges being equally divided.

  The speech has been frequently edited. Editio princeps (Aldine, 1513);
  F. G. Kiessling (1847) with M. H. E. Meier's commentary on
  pseudo-Plutarch's _Life of Lycurgus_ and the fragments of his
  speeches; C. Rehdantz (1876); T. Thalheim (1880); C. Scheibe (1885);
  F. Blass (ed. major, 1889), with bibliography of editions and articles
  (ed. minor, 1902); E. Sofer (Leipzig, 1905), with notes and introd.
  There is an index to Andocides, Lycurgus and Dinarchus by L. L. Forman
  (Oxford, 1897). The exhaustive treatise of F. Dürrbach, _L'Orateur
  Lycurgue_ (1890), contains a list of the most important review
  articles on the financial and naval administration of Lycurgus and on
  his public works; see also C. Droege, _De Lycurgo publicarum
  pecuniarum administratore_ (Minden, 1880). Several fragments of his
  various laws have been preserved in inscriptions (_Corpus
  inscriptionum atticarum_, ii. 162, 163, 173, 176, 180). On the history
  of the period see authorities under DEMOSTHENES.



LYCURGUS, "THE LOGOTHETE" (1772-1851), Greek leader in the War of
Independence, was born in the island of Samos. He was educated at
Constantinople, received the usual training, and followed the customary
career of a Phanariot Greek. He accompanied Constantine Ypsilanti when
he was appointed hospodar of Walachia, as secretary, and served
Ypsilanti's successor, Alexander Soutzos, as treasurer and chancellor
(Logothete). In 1802 he returned to Samos, and having become suspected
by the Turkish government was imprisoned. He fled to Smyrna, when he was
pardoned and released by the Turks. When the War of Independence began
he induced his countrymen to declare Samos independent, and was chosen
ruler. His share in the War of Independence is chiefly memorable because
he provoked the massacre of Chios in 1822. Lycurgus conducted an
expedition of 2500 to that island, which was held by a Turkish garrison
under Velna Pasha. His force was insufficient, the time was ill-chosen,
for a strong Turkish fleet was at sea, and Lycurgus displayed utter
incapacity as a military leader. After these events, he was deposed by
the Samians, but recovered some influence and had a share in the defence
of Samos against the Turks in 1824. When the island was left under the
authority of Turkey by the protocol of the 3rd of February 1830, he
helped to obtain autonomy for the Samians. He retired to Greece and died
on the 22nd of May 1851.

  See G. Finlay, _History of the Greek Revolution_ (London, 1861).



LYDD, a market town and municipal borough in the southern parliamentary
division of Kent, England, 71½ m. S.E. by E. of London by a branch of
the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 2675. It lies in the
open lowland of Dunge Marsh. To the south-east are the bare shingle
banks of the promontory of Dungeness. Its church of All Saints has a
beautiful Perpendicular tower with rich vaulting within. The
neighbourhood affords pasture for large flocks of sheep. On the land
known as the Rypes, in the neighbourhood, there is a military camp, with
artillery and rifle ranges; hence the name given to the explosive
"lyddite." The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 12,043 acres.

The first settlement at Lydd (Hlide, Lide, Lyde) was probably due to its
convenience as a fishing-station. After the Conquest it became a seaport
of some consequence and although now, owing to the alteration of the
coast, it stands nearly 3 m. inland a number of its inhabitants are
still fishermen. In 774 land in Lydd was granted by Offa to the monks of
Christ Church, Canterbury, and the archbishop of Canterbury evidently
held the lordship of the town from an early date. At some time before
the reign of Edward I. Lydd was made a member of the Cinque Port of
Romney, and in 1290 was granted the same liberties and free customs as
the Cinque Ports on condition of aiding the service of its head-port to
the crown with one ship. This charter was confirmed by Edward III. in
1365. The corporation also possesses documents of 1154, 1399 and 1413,
granting to the archbishop's men of Lydd the privileges enjoyed by the
Cinque Ports and confirming all former privileges. Lydd is called a
borough in the Hundred Rolls. Its incorporation under a bailiff, of
which there is evidence in the 15th century, may have been due to the
archbishop or to the court of Shepway, but it was not incorporated by
the crown until 1885, when, by a charter under the Municipal Acts, the
last bailiff was elected the first mayor. In 1494 a grant was made to
the bailiff, jurats and commonalty of a yearly fair on the 12th of July
and two days following. A fair was held under this grant until 1874.



LYDENBURG, a town and district of the Transvaal, South Africa. The town
is 60 m. by rail N.N.E. of Belfast on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway.
Pop. (1904) 1523. It is picturesquely situated on the Spekboom tributary
of the Olifants river at an altitude of 4900 ft. Some 15 m. E. is the
Mauchberg (8725 ft.), the highest point in the Transvaal. The town is
the chief centre for the Lydenburg goldfields. Next to Lydenburg the
most important settlement in these goldfields is Pilgrim's Rest, pop.
(1904) 1188, 23 m. N.E. of Lydenburg. Lydenburg (the town of suffering)
was founded in 1846 by Boers who two years previously had established
themselves farther north at Ohrigstad, which they abandoned on account
of the fever endemic there. Lydenburg at once became the capital of a
district (of the same name) which then embraced all the eastern part of
the Transvaal. In 1856 the Boers of Lydenburg separated from their
brethren and proclaimed an independent republic, which was, however,
incorporated with the South African Republic in 1860. The discovery of
gold near the town was made in 1869, and in 1873 the first successful
goldfield in the Transvaal was opened here. It was not until 1910,
however, that Lydenburg was placed in railway communication with the
rest of the country. The present district of Lydenburg consists of the
north-east and central parts of the original district. In the Lulu
Mountains, a spur of the Drakensberg, and some 40 m. N.W. of Lydenburg,
was the stronghold of the Kaffir chief Sikukuni, whose conflict with the
Boers in 1876 was one of the causes which led to the annexation of the
Transvaal by Great Britain in 1877. (See TRANSVAAL: _History_.)



LYDFORD, or LIDFORD, a village, once an important town, in the western
parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, near the western confines
of Dartmoor, 27 m. N. of Plymouth by the London & South-Western railway.
From its Perpendicular church of St Petrock fine views of the Dartmoor
tors are seen. The village stands on the small river Lyd, which
traverses a deep narrow chasm, crossed by a bridge of single span; and
at a little distance a tributary stream forms a cascade in an exquisite
glen. Close to the church are slight remains of the castle of Lydford.

Lydford (_Lideford_) was one of the four Saxon boroughs of Devon, and
possessed a mint in the days of Aethelred the Unready. It first appears
in recorded history in 997, when the Danes made a plundering expedition
up the Tamar and Tavy as far as "Hlidaforda." In the reign of Edward the
Confessor it was the most populous centre in Devonshire after Exeter,
but the Domesday Survey relates that forty houses had been laid waste
since the Conquest, and the town never recovered its former prosperity;
the history from the 13th century centres round the castle, which is
first mentioned in 1216, when it was granted to William Briwere, and was
shortly afterwards fixed as the prison of the stannaries and the
meeting-place of the Forest Courts of Dartmoor. A gild at Lideford is
mentioned in 1180, and the pipe roll of 1195 records a grant for the
reestablishment of the market. In 1238 the borough, which had hitherto
been crown demesne, was bestowed by Henry III. on Richard, earl of
Cornwall, who in 1268 obtained a grant of a Wednesday market and a three
days' fair at the feast of St Petrock. The borough had a separate
coroner and bailiff in 1275, but it was never incorporated by charter,
and only once, in 1300, returned members to parliament. Lydford prison
is described in 1512 as "one of the most hainous, contagious and
detestable places in the realm," and "Lydford Law" was a by-word for
injustice. At the time of the Commonwealth the castle was entirely in
ruins, but in the 18th century it was restored and again used as a
prison and as the meeting-place of the manor and borough courts.



LYDGATE, JOHN (c. 1370-c. 1451), English poet, was born at the village
of Lydgate, some 6 or 7 m. from Newmarket. It is, however, with the
Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds that he is chiefly associated.
Probably he was educated at the school attached to the monastery, and in
his _Testament_ he has drawn a lively picture of himself as a typical
orchard-robbing boy, who had scant relish for matins, fought, and threw
creed and paternoster at the cock. He was ordained sub-deacon in 1389,
deacon in 1393, and priest in 1397. These dates are valuable as enabling
us to fix approximately the date of his birth, which must have occurred
somewhere about 1370. Lydgate passed as a portent of learning, and,
according to Bale, he pursued his studies not only at both the English
universities but in France and Italy. Koeppel (see _Laurents de
Premierfait und John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus_,
Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy,
but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in
1426. Bale is also the authority for another assertion that figures in
what has been aptly termed the poet's "traditional biography," viz. that
Lydgate, on completing his own education, kept school for the sons of
noblemen and gentlemen. This "traditional biography" prolongs his life
to the year 1461, but it is quite improbable that he lived many years
after 1446, when Abbot Curteys died and John Baret, treasurer of Bury,
signed an extant receipt for a pension which he shared with Lydgate, and
which continued to be paid till 1449. If it be true, as Bishop Alcock of
Ely affirms, that Lydgate wrote a poem on the loss of France and
Gascony, it seems necessary to suppose that he lived two years longer,
and thus indications point to the year 1451, or thereabouts, as the date
of his death.

Lydgate had a consuming passion for literature, and it was probably that
he might indulge this taste more fully that in 1434 he retired from the
priorate of Hatfield Broadoak (or Hatfield Regis), to which he had been
appointed in June 1423. After 1390--but whilst he was still a young
man--he made the acquaintance of Geoffrey Chaucer, with whose son
Thomas he was on terms of considerable intimacy. This friendship appears
to have decided Lydgate's career, and in his _Troy-book_ and elsewhere
are reverent and touching tributes to his "master." The passages in
question do not exaggerate his obligations to the "well of English." The
themes of all his more ambitious poems can be traced to Chaucerian
sources. _The Story of Thebes_, for instance, was doubtless suggested by
the "romance" which Cressida and her companions are represented as
reading when interrupted by Pandarus (_Troilus and Cressida_, II.
xii.-xvi.). The _Falls of Princes_, again, is merely the _Monk's Tale_
"writ large."

Lydgate is a most voluminous writer. The _Falls of Princes_ alone
comprises 7000 stanzas; and his authentic compositions reach the
enormous total of 150,000 lines. Cursed with such immoderate fluency
Lydgate could not sustain himself at the highest level of artistic
excellence; and, though imbued with a sense of the essentials of poetry,
and eager to prove himself in its various manifestations, he stinted
himself of the self-discipline necessary to perfection of form. As the
result the bulk of his composition is wholly or comparatively
rough-hewn. That he was capable of better work than is suggested by his
average accomplishment is shown by two allegorical poems--the _Complaint
of the Black Knight_ and the _Temple of Glass_ (once attributed to
Hawes). In these he reveals himself as a not unworthy successor of
Chaucer, and the pity of it is that he should have squandered his powers
in a futile attempt to create an entire literature. For a couple of
centuries Lydgate's reputation equalled, if it did not surpass, that of
his master. This was in a sense only natural, since he was the real
founder of the school of which Stephen Hawes was a distinguished
ornament, and which "held the field" in English letters during the long
and dreary interval between Chaucer and Spenser. One of the most obvious
defects of this school is excessive attachment to polysyllabic terms.
Lydgate is not quite so great a sinner in this respect as are some of
his successors, but his tendency cannot be mistaken, and John Metham is
amply justified in his censure--

  Eke John Lydgate, sometime monk of Bury,
  His books indited with terms of rhetoric
  And half-changed Latin, with conceits of poetry.

Pedantry was an inevitable effect of the early Renaissance. French
literature passed through the same phase, from which indeed it was later
in emerging; and the ultimate consequence was the enrichment of both
languages. It must be conceded as no small merit in Lydgate that, in an
age of experiment he should have succeeded so often in hitting the right
word. Thomas Warton remarks on his lucidity. Since his writings are read
more easily than Chaucer's, the inference is plain--that he was more
effectual as a maker of our present English. In spite of that, Lydgate
is characteristically medieval--medieval in his prolixity, his
platitude, his want of judgment and his want of taste; medieval also in
his pessimism, his Mariolatry and his horror of death. These attributes
jarred on the sensitive Ritson, who racked his brains for contumelious
epithets such as "stupid and disgusting," "cart-loads of rubbish," &c.;
and during the greater part of the 18th and 19th centuries Lydgate's
reputation was at its lowest ebb. Recent criticism has been far more
impartial, and almost too much respect has been paid to his attainments,
especially in the matter of metre, though Lydgate himself, with
offensive lightheartedness, admits his poor craftsmanship.

  Lydgate's most doughty and learned apologist is Dr Schick, whose
  preface to the _Temple of Glass_ embodies practically all that is known
  or conjectured concerning this author, including the chronological
  order of his works. With the exception of the _Damage and Destruction
  in Realms_--an account of Julius Caesar, his wars and his death--they
  are all in verse and extremely multifarious--narrative, devotional
  hagiological, philosophical and scientific, allegorical and moral,
  historical, satirical and occasional. The _Troy-book_, undertaken at
  the command of Henry V., then prince of Wales, dates from 1412-1420;
  the _Story of Thebes_ from 1420-1422; and the _Falls of Princes_
  towards 1430. His latest work was _Secreta Secretorum_ or _Secrets of
  Old Philosophers_, rhymed extracts from a pseudo-Aristotelian treatise.
  Lydgate certainly possessed extraordinary versatility, which enabled
  him to turn from elaborate epics to quite popular poems like the
  _Mumming at Hertford_, _A Ditty of Women's Horns_ and _London
  Lickpenny_. The humour of this last is especially bright and effective,
  but, unluckily for the author, the piece is believed to have been
  retouched by some other hand. The longer efforts partake of the nature
  of translations from sundry medieval compilations like those of Guido
  di Colonna and Boccaccio, which are in Latin.

  See publications of the Early English Text Society, especially the
  _Temple of Glass_, edited by Dr Schick; Koeppel's _Lydgate's Story of
  Thebes, eine Quellenuntersuchung_ (Munich, 1884), and the same
  scholar's _Laurents de Premierfait und John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von
  Boccaccios De Casibus Illustrium Virorum_ (Munich, 1885); Warton's
  _History of English Poetry_; Ritson's _Bibliotheca Anglo-Poética_;
  Furnivall's _Political Poems_ (E. E. T. S.); and Sidney Lee's article
  in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._     (F. J. S.)



LYDIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, the boundaries of
which it is difficult to fix, partly because they varied at different
epochs. The name is first found under the form of _Luddi_ in the
inscriptions of the Assyrian king Assur-bani-pal, who received tribute
from Gyges about 660 B.C. In Homer we read only of Maeonians (_Il_. ii.
865, v. 43, x. 431), and the place of the Lydian capital Sardis is taken
by Hyde (_Il_. xx. 385), unless this was the name of the district in
which Sardis stood (see Strabo xiii. p. 626).[1] The earliest Greek
writer who mentions the name is Mimnermus of Colophon, in the 37th
Olympiad. According to Herodotus (i. 7), the Meiones (called Maeones by
other writers) were named Lydians after Lydus, the son of Attis, in the
mythical epoch which preceded the rise of the Heraclid dynasty. In
historical times the Maeones were a tribe inhabiting the district of the
upper Hermus, where a town called Maeonia existed (Pliny, _N.H._ v. 30;
Hierocles, p. 670). The Lydians must originally have been an allied
tribe which bordered upon them to the north-west, and occupied the plain
of Sardis or Magnesia at the foot of Tmolus and Sipylus. They were cut
off from the sea by the Greeks, who were in possession, not only of the
Bay of Smyrna, but also of the country north of Sipylus as far as Temnus
in the pass (_boghaz_), through which the Hermus forces its way from the
plain of Magnesia into its lower valley.[2] In a Homeric epigram the
ridge north of the Hermus, on which the ruins of Temnus lie, is called
Sardene. Northward the Lydians extended at least as far as the Gygaean
Lake (Lake Coloe, mod. Mermereh), and the Sardene range (mod. Dumanli
Dagh). The plateau of the Bin Bir Tepe, on the southern shore of the
Gygaean Lake, was the chief burial-place of the inhabitants of Sardis,
and is still thickly studded with tumuli, among which is the "tomb of
Alyattes" (260 ft. high). Next to Sardis the chief city was Magnesia ad
Sipylum (q.v.), in the neighbourhood of which is the famous seated
figure of "Niobe" (_Il_. xxiv. 614-617), cut out of the rock, and
probably intended to represent the goddess Cybele, to which the Greeks
attached their legend of Niobe. According to Pliny (v. 31), Tantalis,
afterwards swallowed up by earthquake in the pool Sale or Saloe, was the
ancient name of Sipylus and "the capital of Maeonia" (Paus. vii. 24;
Strabo xii. 579). Under the Heraclid dynasty the limits of Lydia must
have been already extended, since according to Strabo (xiii. 590), the
authority of Gyges reached as far as the Troad. Under the Mermnads Lydia
became a maritime as well as an inland power. The Greek cities were
conquered, and the coast of Ionia included within the Lydian kingdom.
The successes of Alyattes and of Croesus finally changed the Lydian
kingdom into a Lydian empire, and all Asia Minor westward of the Halys,
except Lycia, owned the supremacy of Sardis. Lydia never again shrank
back into its original dimensions. After the Persian conquest the
Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, and in the Roman period
it comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and
Phrygia and the Aegean on the other.

Lydia proper was exceedingly fertile. The hill-sides were clothed with
vine and fir, and the rich broad plain of Hermus produced large
quantities of corn and saffron. The climate of the plain was soft but
healthy, though the country was subject to frequent earthquakes. The
Pactolus, which flowed from the fountain of Tarne in the Tmolus
mountains, through the centre of Sardis, into the Hermus, was believed
to be full of golden sand; and gold mines were worked in Tmolus itself,
though by the time of Strabo the proceeds had become so small as hardly
to pay for the expense of working them (Strabo xiii. 591). Maeonia on
the east contained the curious barren plateau known to the Greeks as the
Katakekaumene ("Burnt country"), once a centre of volcanic disturbance.
The Gygaean lake (where remains of pile dwellings have been found) still
abounds with carp.

Herodotus (i. 171) tells us that Lydus was a brother of Mysus and Car.
The statement is on the whole borne out by the few Lydian, Mysian and
Carian words that have been preserved, as well as by the general
character of the civilization prevailing among the three nations. The
race was probably a mixed one, consisting of aborigines and Aryan
immigrants. It was characterized by industry and a commercial spirit,
and, before the Persian conquest, by bravery. The religion of the
Lydians resembled that of the other civilized nations of Asia Minor. It
was a nature worship, which at times became wild and sensuous. By the
side of the supreme god Medeus stood the sun-god Attis, as in Phrygia
the chief object of the popular cult. He was at once the son and
bridegroom of Cybele (q.v.) or Cybebe, the mother of the gods, whose
image carved by Broteas, son of Tantalus, was adored on the cliffs of
Sipylus (Paus. iii. 22). The cult may have been brought westward by the
Hittites who have left memorials of themselves in the pseudo-Sesostris
figures of Kara-bel (between Sardis and Ephesus) as well as in the
figure of the Mother-goddess, the so-called Niobe. At Ephesus, where she
was adored under the form of a meteoric stone, she was identified with
the Greek Artemis (see also GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS). Her mural crown
is first seen in the Hittite sculptures of Boghaz Keui (see PTERIA and
HITTITES) on the Halys. The priestesses by whom she was served are
depicted in early art as armed with the double-headed axe, and the
dances they performed in her honour with shield and bow gave rise to the
myths which saw in them the Amazons, a nation of woman-warriors. The
pre-Hellenic cities of the coast--Smyrna, Samorna (Ephesus), Myrina,
Cyme, Priene and Pitane--were all of Amazonian origin, and the first
three of them have the same name as the Amazon Myrina, whose tomb was
pointed out in the Troad. The prostitution whereby the Lydian girls
gained their dowries (Herod, i. 93) was a religious exercise, as among
the Semites, which marked their devotion to the goddess Cybele. In the
legend of Heracles, Omphale takes the place of Cybele, and was perhaps
her Lydian title. Heracles is here the sun-god Attis in a new form; his
Lydian name is unknown, since E. Meyer has shown (_Zeitschr. d. Morg.
Gesell._ xxxi. 4) that Sandon belongs not to Lydia but to Cilicia. By
the side of Attis stood Manes or Men, identified later with the
Moon-god.

According to the native historian Xanthus (460 B.C.) three dynasties
ruled in succession over Lydia. The first, that of the Attiads, is
mythical. It was headed by a god, and included geographical personages
like Lydus, Asies and Meies, or such heroes of folk-lore as Cambletes,
who devoured his wife. To this mythical age belongs the colony which,
according to Herodotus (i. 94), Tyrsenus, the son of Attis, led to
Etruria. Xanthus, however, puts Torrhebus in the place of Tyrsenus, and
makes him the eponym of a district in Lydia. It is doubtful whether
Xanthus recognized the Greek legends which brought Pelops from Lydia, or
rather Maeonia, and made him the son of Tantalus. The second dynasty was
also of divine origin, but the names which head it prove its connexion
with the distant East. Its founder, a descendant of Heracles and
Omphale, was, Herodotus tells us (i. 7), a son of Ninus and grandson of
Belus. The Assyrian inscriptions have shown that the Assyrians had never
crossed the Halys, much less known the name of Lydia, before the age of
Assur-bani-pal, and consequently the theory which brought the Heraclids
from Nineveh must be given up. But the Hittites, another Oriental
people, deeply imbued with the elements of Babylonian culture, had
overrun Asia Minor and established themselves on the shores of the
Aegean before the reign of the Egyptian king Rameses II.

The subject allies who then fight under their banners include the Masu
or Mysians and the Dardani of the Troad, while the Hittites have left
memorials in Lydia. G. Dennis discovered an inscription in Hittite
hieroglyphics attached to the figure of "Niobe" on Sipylus, and a
similar inscription accompanies the figure (in which Herodotus, ii. 106,
wished to see Sesostris or Rameses II.) in the pass of Karabel. We learn
from Eusebius that Sardis was first captured by the Cimmerii 1078 B.C.;
and since it was four centuries later before the real Cimmerii (q.v.)
appeared on the horizon of history, we may perhaps find in the statement
a tradition of the Hittite conquest. As the authority of the Hittite
satraps at Sardis began to decay the Heraclid dynasty arose. According
to Xanthus, Sadyattes and Lixus were the successors of Tylon the son of
Omphale. After lasting five hundred and five years, the dynasty came to
an end in the person of Sadyattes, as he is called by Nicolas of
Damascus, whose account is doubtless derived from Xanthus. The name
Candaules, given him by Herodotus, meant "dog strangler" and was a title
of the Lydian Hermes. Gyges (q.v.) put him to death and established the
dynasty of the Mermnads, 687 B.C. Gyges initiated a new policy, that of
making Lydia a maritime power; but towards the middle of his reign the
kingdom was overrun by the Cimmerii. The lower town of Sardis was taken,
and Gyges sent tribute to Assur-bani-pal, as well as two Cimmerian
chieftains he had himself captured in battle. A few years later Gyges
joined in the revolt against Assyria, and the Ionic and Carian
mercenaries he despatched to Egypt enabled Psammetichus to make himself
independent. Assyria, however, was soon avenged. The Cimmerian hordes
returned, Gyges was slain in battle (652 B.C.), and Ardys his son and
successor returned to his allegiance to Nineveh. The second capture of
Sardis on this occasion was alluded to by Callisthenes (Strabo xiii.
627). Alyattes, the grandson of Ardys, finally succeeded in extirpating
the Cimmerii, as well as in taking Smyrna, and thus providing his
kingdom with a port. The trade and wealth of Lydia rapidly increased,
and the Greek towns fell one after the other before the attacks of the
Lydian kings. Alyattes's long reign of fifty-seven years saw the
foundation of the Lydian empire. All Asia Minor west of the Halys
acknowledged his sway, and the six years' contest he carried on with the
Medes was closed by the marriage of his daughter Aryenis to Astyages.
The Greek cities were allowed to retain their own institutions and
government on condition of paying taxes and dues to the Lydian monarch,
and the proceeds of their commerce thus flowed into the imperial
exchequer. The result was that the king of Lydia became the richest
prince of his age. Alyattes was succeeded by Croesus (q.v.), who had
probably already for some years shared the royal power with his father,
or perhaps grandfather, as V. Floigl thinks (_Geschichte des semitischen
Alterthums_, p. 20). He reigned alone only fifteen years, Cyrus the
Persian, after an indecisive battle on the Halys, marching upon Sardis,
and capturing both acropolis and monarch (546 B.C.). The place where the
acropolis was entered was believed to have been overlooked by the
mythical Meles when he carried the lion round his fortress to make it
invulnerable; it was really a path opened by one of the landslips, which
have reduced the sandstone cliff of the acropolis to a mere shell, and
threaten to carry it altogether into the plain below. The revolt of the
Lydians under Pactyas, whom Cyrus had appointed to collect the taxes,
caused the Persian king to disarm them, though we can hardly credit the
statement that by this measure their warlike spirit was crushed. Sardis
now became the western capital of the Persian empire, and its burning by
the Athenians was the indirect cause of the Persian War. After Alexander
the Great's death, Lydia passed to Antigonus; then Achaeus made himself
king at Sardis, but was defeated and put to death by Antiochus. The
country was presented by the Romans to Eumenes, and subsequently formed
part of the proconsular province of Asia. By the time of Strabo (xiii.
631) its old language was entirely supplanted by Greek.

  The Lydian empire may be described as the industrial power of the
  ancient world. The Lydians were credited with being the inventors, not
  only of games such as dice, huckle-bones and ball (Herod, i. 94), but
  also of coined money. The oldest known coins are the electrum coins of
  the earlier Mermnads (Madden, _Coins of the Jews_, pp. 19-21), stamped
  on one side with a lion's head or the figure of a king with bow and
  quiver; these were replaced by Croesus with a coinage of pure gold and
  silver. To the latter monarch were probably due the earliest gold
  coins of Ephesus (Head, _Coinage of Ephesus_, p. 16). The electrum
  coins of Lydia were of two kinds, one weighing 168.4 grains for the
  inland trade, and another of 224 grains for the trade with Ionia. The
  standard was the silver mina of Carchemish (as the Assyrians called
  it) which contained 8656 grains. Originally derived by the Hittites
  from Babylonia, but modified by themselves, this standard was passed
  on to the nations of Asia Minor during the period of Hittite conquest,
  but was eventually superseded by the Phoenician mina of 11,225 grains,
  and continued to survive only in Cyprus and Cilicia (see also
  NUMISMATICS). The inns, which the Lydians were said to have been the
  first to establish (Herod. i. 94), were connected with their attention
  to commercial pursuits. Their literature has wholly perished. They
  were celebrated for their music and gymnastic exercises, and their art
  formed a link between that of Asia Minor and that of Greece. R.
  Heberdey's excavations at Ephesus since 1896, like those of D. G.
  Hogarth in 1905, belong to the history of Greek and not native art.
  The ivory figures, however, found by Hogarth on the level of the
  earliest temple of Artemis show Asiatic influence, and resemble the
  so-called "Phoenician" ivories from the palace of Sargon at Calah
  (Nimrud). For a description of a pectoral of white gold, ornamented
  with the heads of animals, human faces and the figure of a goddess,
  discovered in a tomb on Tmolus, see _Academy_, January 15, 1881, p.
  45. Lydian sculpture was probably similar to that of the Phrygians.
  Phallic emblems, for averting evil, were plentiful; the summit of the
  tomb of Alyattes is crowned with an enormous one of stone, about 9 ft.
  in diameter. The tumulus itself is 281 yds. in diameter and about half
  a mile in circumference. It has been partially excavated by G.
  Spiegelthal and G. Dennis, and a sepulchral chamber discovered in the
  middle, composed of large well-cut and highly polished blocks of
  marble, the chamber being 11 ft. long, nearly 8 ft. broad and 7 ft.
  high. Nothing was found in it except a few ashes and a broken vase of
  Egyptian alabaster. The stone basement which, according to Herodotus,
  formerly surrounded the mound has disappeared.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A. von Ölfers, _Über die lydischen Königsgräber bei
  Sardes_ (1858); H. Gelzer in the _Rheinisches Museum_ (1874); R.
  Schubert, _Geschichte der Könige von Lydien_ (1884); G. Perrot and C.
  Chipiez, _Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquite_, v. (1890); O. Radet,
  _La Lydie et le monde grec au temps des Mermnades_ (1893); G. Maspero,
  _Dawn of Civilization_, pp. 232-301 (1892) and _Passing of the
  Empires_, pp. 339, 388, 603-621 (1900); J. Keil and A. von
  Premerstein, _Bericht über eine Reise in Lydien_ (1908).     (A. H. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Pliny (v. 30) makes it the Maeonian name.

  [2] See Sir W. M. Ramsay in the _Journal of Hellenic Studies_, ii. 2.



LYDUS ("THE LYDIAN"), JOANNES LAURENTIUS, Byzantine writer on
antiquarian subjects, was born at Philadelphia in Lydia about A.D. 490.
At an early age he set out to seek his fortune in Constantinople, and
held high court and state offices under Anastasius and Justinian. In 552
he lost favour, and was dismissed. The date of his death is not known,
but he was probably alive during the early years of Justin II. (reigned
565-578). During his retirement he occupied himself in the compilation
of works on the antiquities of Rome, three of which have been preserved:
(1) _De Ostentis_ ([Greek: Peri diosemeion]), on the origin and progress
of the art of divination; (2) _De Magistratibus reipublicae Romanae_
([Greek: Peri archon tes Rhomaion politeias]), especially valuable for
the administrative details of the time of Justinian; (3) _De Mensibus_
([Greek: Peri menon]), a history of the different festivals of the year.
The chief value of these books consists in the fact that the author made
use of the works (now lost) of old Roman writers on similar subjects.
Lydus was also commissioned by Justinian to compose a panegyric on the
emperor, and a history of his successful campaign against Persia; but
these, as well as some poetical compositions, are lost.

  Editions of (1) by C. Wachsmuth (1897), with full account of the
  authorities in the prolegomena; of (2) and (3) by R. Wünsch
  (1898-1903); see also the essay by C. B. Hase (the first editor of the
  _De Ostentis_) prefixed to I. Bekker's edition of Lydus (1837) in the
  Bonn _Corpus scriptorum hist. Byzantinae_.



LYE (O. Eng. _leag_, cf. Dutch _loog_, Ger. _Lauge_, from the root
meaning to wash, see in Lat. _lavare_, and Eng. "lather," froth of soap
and water, and "laundry"), the name given to the solution of alkaline
salts obtained by leaching or lixiviating wood ashes with water, and
sometimes to a solution of a caustic alkali. Lixiviation (Lat.
_lixivium_, lye, _lix_, ashes) is the action of separating, by the
percolation of water, a soluble from an insoluble substance. "Leaching,"
the native English term for this process, is from "leach," to water, the
root probably being the same as in "lake."



LYELL, SIR CHARLES (1797-1875), British geologist, was the eldest son of
Charles Lyell of Kinnordy, Forfarshire, and was born on the 14th of
November 1797, on the family estate in Scotland. His father (1767-1849)
was known both as a botanist and as the translator of the _Vita Nuova_
and the _Convito_ of Dante: the plant _Lyellia_ was named after him.
From his boyhood Lyell had a strong inclination for natural history,
especially entomology, a taste which he cultivated at Bartley Lodge in
the New Forest, to which his family had removed soon after his birth. In
1816 he entered Exeter College, Oxford, where the lectures of Dr
Buckland first drew his attention to geological study. After taking his
degree of B.A. in 1819 (M.A. in 1821) he entered Lincoln's Inn, and in
1825, after a delay caused by chronic weakness of the eyes, he was
called to the bar, and went on the western circuit for two years. During
this time he was slowly gravitating towards the life of a student of
science. In 1819 he had been elected a fellow of the Linnean and
Geological Societies, communicating his first paper, "On a Recent
Formation of Freshwater Limestone in Forfarshire," to the latter society
in 1822, and acting as one of the honorary secretaries in 1823. In that
year he went to France, with introductions to Cuvier, Humboldt and other
men of science, and in 1824 made a geological tour in Scotland in
company with Dr Buckland. In 1826 he was elected a fellow of the Royal
Society, from which in later years he received both the Copley and Royal
medals; and in 1827 he finally abandoned the legal profession, and
devoted himself to geology.

At this time he had already begun to plan his chief work, _The
Principles of Geology_. The subsidiary title, "An Attempt to Explain the
Former Changes of the Earth's Surface by Reference to Causes now in
Operation," gives the keynote of the task to which Lyell devoted his
life. A journey with Murchison in 1828 gave rise to joint papers on the
volcanic district of Auvergne and the Tertiary formations of
Aix-en-Provence. After parting with Murchison he studied the marine
remains of the Italian Tertiary Strata and then conceived the idea of
dividing this geological system into three or four groups, characterized
by the proportion of recent to extinct species of shells. To these
groups, after consulting Dr Whewell as to the best nomenclature, he gave
the names now universally adopted--Eocene (_dawn of recent_), Miocene
(_less of recent_), and Pliocene (_more of recent_); and with the
assistance of G. P. Deshayes he drew up a table of shells in
illustration of this classification. The first volume of the _Principles
of Geology_ appeared in 1830, and the second in January 1832. Received
at first with some opposition, so far as its leading theory was
concerned, the work had ultimately a great success, and the two volumes
had already reached a second edition in 1833 when the third, dealing
with the successive formations of the earth's crust, was added. Between
1830 and 1872 eleven editions of this work were published, each so much
enriched with new material and the results of riper thought as to form a
complete history of the progress of geology during that interval. Only a
few days before his death Sir Charles finished revising the first volume
of the 12th edition; the revision of the second volume was completed by
his nephew Mr (afterwards Sir) Leonard Lyell; and the work appeared in
1876.

In August 1838 Lyell published the _Elements of Geology_, which, from
being originally an expansion of one section of the _Principles_, became
a standard work on stratigraphical and palaeontological geology. This
book went through six editions in Lyell's lifetime (some intermediate
editions being styled _Manual of Elementary Geology_), and in 1871 a
smaller work, the _Student's Elements of Geology_, was based upon it.
His third great work, _The Antiquity of Man_, appeared in 1863, and ran
through three editions in one year. In this he gave a general survey of
the arguments for man's early appearance on the earth, derived from the
discoveries of flint implements in post-Pliocene strata in the Somme
valley and elsewhere; he discussed also the deposits of the Glacial
epoch, and in the same volume he first gave in his adhesion to Darwin's
theory of the origin of species. A fourth edition appeared in 1873.

In 1831-1833 Lyell was professor of geology at King's College, London,
and delivered while there a course of lectures, which became the
foundation of the _Elements of Geology_. In 1832 he married Mary
(1809-1873) eldest daughter of Leonard Horner (q.v.), and she became
thenceforward associated with him in all his work, and by her social
qualities making his home a centre of attraction. In 1834 he made an
excursion to Denmark and Sweden, the result of which was his Bakerian
lecture to the Royal Society "On the Proofs of the gradual Rising of
Land in certain Parts of Sweden." He also brought before the Geological
Society a paper "On the Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata of Seeland and
Möen." In 1835 he became president of the Geological Society. In 1837 he
was again in Norway and Denmark, and in 1841 he spent a year in
travelling through the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia. This last
journey, together with a second one to America in 1845, resulted not
only in papers, but also in two works not exclusively geological,
_Travels in North America_ (1845) and _A Second Visit to the United
States_ (1849). During these journeys he estimated the rate of recession
of the falls of Niagara, the annual average accumulation of alluvial
matter in the delta of the Mississippi, and studied those vegetable
accumulations in the "Great Dismal Swamp" of Virginia, which he
afterwards used in illustrating the formation of beds of coal. He also
studied the coal-formations in Nova Scotia, and discovered in company
with Dr (afterwards Sir J. W.) Dawson (q.v.) of Montreal, the earliest
known landshell, _Pupa vetusta_, in the hollow stem of a Sigillaria. In
bringing a knowledge of European geology to bear upon the extended
formations of North America Lyell rendered immense service. Having
visited Madeira and Teneriffe in company with G. Hartung, he accumulated
much valuable evidence on the age and deposition of lava-beds and the
formation of volcanic cones. He also revisited Sicily in 1858, when he
made such observations upon the structure of Etna as refuted the theory
of "craters of elevation" upheld by Von Buch and Élie de Beaumont (see
_Phil. Trans._, 1859).

Lyell was knighted in 1848, and was created a baronet in 1864, in which
year he was president of the British Association at Bath. He was elected
corresponding member of the French Institute and of the Royal Academy of
Sciences at Berlin, and was created a knight of the Prussian Order of
Merit.

During the later years of his life his sight, always weak, failed him
altogether. He died on the 22nd of February 1875, and was buried in
Westminster Abbey. Among his characteristics were his great thirst for
knowledge, his perfect fairness and sound judgment; while the extreme
freshness of his mind enabled him to accept and appreciate the work of
younger men.

  The LYELL MEDAL, established in 1875 under the will of Sir Charles
  Lyell, is cast in bronze and is to be awarded annually (or from time
  to time) by the Council of the Geological Society. The medallist may
  be of any country or either sex. Not less than one-third of the annual
  interest of a sum of £2000 is to be awarded with the medal; the
  remaining interest, known as the LYELL GEOLOGICAL FUND, is to be given
  in one or more portions at the discretion of the Council for the
  encouragement of geological science.

  See _Life, Letters and Journals of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart._, edited
  by his sister-in-law, Mrs Lyell (2 vols., 1881); _Charles Lyell and
  Modern Geology_, by T. G. Bonney (1895).     (H. B. Wo.)



LYLY (LILLY, or LYLIE), JOHN (1553-1606), English writer, the famous
author of _Euphues_, was born in Kent in 1553 or 1554. At the age of
sixteen, according to Wood, he became a student of Magdalen College,
Oxford, where in due time he proceeded to his bachelor's and master's
degrees (1573 and 1575), and from whence we find him in 1574 applying to
Lord Burghley "for the queen's letters to Magdalen College to admit him
fellow." The fellowship, however, was not granted, and Lyly shortly
after left the university. He complains of what seems to have been a
sentence of rustication passed upon him at some period in his academical
career, in his address to the gentlemen scholars of Oxford affixed to
the second edition of the first part of _Euphues_, but in the absence of
any further evidence it is impossible to fix either its date or its
cause. If we are to believe Wood, he never took kindly to the proper
studies of the university. "For so it was that his genius being
naturally bent to the pleasant paths of poetry (as if Apollo had given
to him a wreath of his own bays without snatching or struggling) did in
a manner neglect academical studies, yet not so much but that he took
the degrees in arts, that of master being compleated 1575." After he
left Oxford, where he had already the reputation of "a noted wit," Lyly
seems to have attached himself to Lord Burghley. "This noble man," he
writes in the "Glasse for Europe," in the second part of _Euphues_
(1580), "I found so ready being but a straunger to do me good, that
neyther I ought to forget him, neyther cease to pray for him, that as he
hath the wisdom of Nestor, so he may have the age, that having the
policies of Ulysses he may have his honor, worthy to lyve long, by whom
so many lyve in quiet, and not unworthy to be advaunced by whose care so
many have been preferred." Two years later we possess a letter of Lyly
to the treasurer, dated July 1582, in which the writer protests against
some accusation of dishonesty which had brought him into trouble with
his patron, and demands a personal interview for the purpose of clearing
his character. What the further relations between them were we have no
means of knowing, but it is clear that neither from Burghley nor from
the queen did Lyly ever receive any substantial patronage. In 1578 he
began his literary career by the composition of _Euphues, or the Anatomy
of Wit_, which was licensed to Gabriel Cawood on the 2nd of December,
1578, and published in the spring of 1579. In the same year the author
was incorporated M.A. at Cambridge, and possibly saw his hopes of court
advancement dashed by the appointment in July of Edmund Tylney to the
office of master of the revels, a post at which, as he reminds the queen
some years later, he had all along been encouraged to "aim his courses."
_Euphues and his England_ appeared in 1580, and, like the first part of
the book, won immediate popularity. For a time Lyly was the most
successful and fashionable of English writers. He was hailed as the
author of "a new English," as a "raffineur de l'Anglois"; and, as Edmund
Blount, the editor of his plays, tells us in 1632, "that beautie in
court which could not parley Euphuism was as little regarded as she
which nowe there speakes not French." After the publication of
_Euphues_, however, Lyly seems to have entirely deserted the novel form
himself, which passed into the hands of his imitators, and to have
thrown himself almost exclusively into play-writing, probably with a
view to the mastership of revels whenever a vacancy should occur. Eight
plays by him were probably acted before the queen by the children of the
Chapel Royal and the children of St Paul's between the years 1584 and
1589, one or two of them being repeated before a popular audience at the
Blackfriars Theatre. Their brisk lively dialogue, classical colour and
frequent allusions to persons and events of the day maintained that
popularity with the court which _Euphues_ had won. Lyly sat in
parliament as member for Hindon in 1589, for Aylesbury in 1593, for
Appleby in 1597 and for Aylesbury a second time in 1601. In 1589 Lyly
published a tract in the Martin Marprelate controversy, called _Pappe
with an hatchet, alias a figge for my Godsonne; Or Crack me this nut; Or
a Countrie Cuffe, &c._[1] About the same time we may probably date his
first petition to Queen Elizabeth. The two petitions, transcripts of
which are extant among the Harleian MSS., are undated, but in the first
of them he speaks of having been ten years hanging about the court in
hope of preferment, and in the second he extends the period to thirteen
years. It may be conjectured with great probability that the ten years
date from 1579, when Edmund Tylney was appointed master of the revels
with a tacit understanding that Lyly was to have the next reversion of
the post. "I was entertained your Majestie's servaunt by your own
gratious favor," he says, "strengthened with condicions that I should
ayme all my courses at the Revells (I dare not say with a promise, but
with a hopeful Item to the Revercion) for which these ten yeres I have
attended with an unwearyed patience." But in 1589 or 1590 the mastership
of the revels was as far off as ever--Tylney in fact held the post for
thirty-one years--and that Lyly's petition brought him no compensation
in other directions may be inferred from the second petition of 1593.
"Thirteen yeres your highnes servant but yet nothing. Twenty freinds
that though they saye they will be sure, I finde them sure to be slowe.
A thousand hopes, but all nothing; a hundred promises but yet nothing.
Thus casting up the inventory of my friends, hopes, promises and tymes,
the _summa totalis_ amounteth to just nothing." What may have been
Lyly's subsequent fortunes at court we do not know. Edmund Blount says
vaguely that Elizabeth "graced and rewarded" him, but of this there is
no other evidence. After 1590 his works steadily declined in influence
and reputation; other stars were in possession of the horizon; and so
far as we know he died poor and neglected in the early part of James
I.'s reign. He was buried in London at St Bartholomew the Less on the
20th of November, 1606. He was married, and we hear of two sons and a
daughter.

_Comedies._--In 1632 Edmund Blount published "Six Court Comedies,"
including _Endymion_ (1591), _Sappho and Phao_ (1584), _Alexander and
Campaspe_ (1584), _Midas_ (1592), _Mother Bombie_ (1594) and _Gallathea_
(1592). To these should be added the _Woman in the Moone_ (Lyly's
earliest play, to judge from a passage in the prologue and therefore
earlier than 1584, the date of _Alexander and Campaspe_), and _Love's
Metamorphosis_, first printed in 1601. Of these, all but the last are in
prose. A _Warning for Faire Women_ (1599) and _The Maid's Metamorphosis_
(1600) have been attributed to Lyly, but on altogether insufficient
grounds. The first editions of all these plays were issued between 1584
and 1601, and the majority of them between 1584 and 1592, in what were
Lyly's most successful and popular years. His importance as a dramatist
has been very differently estimated. Lyly's dialogue is still a long way
removed from the dialogue of Shakespeare. But at the same time it is a
great advance in rapidity and resource upon anything which had gone
before it; it represents an important step in English dramatic art. His
nimbleness, and the wit which struggles with his pedantry, found their
full development in the dialogue of _Twelfth Night_ and _Much Ado about
Nothing_, just as "Marlowe's mighty line" led up to and was eclipsed by
the majesty and music of Shakespearian passion. One or two of the songs
introduced into his plays are justly famous and show a real lyrical
gift. Nor in estimating his dramatic position and his effect upon his
time must it be forgotten that his classical and mythological plots,
flavourless and dull as they would be to a modern audience, were charged
with interest to those courtly hearers who saw in Midas Philip II.,
Elizabeth in Cynthia and perhaps Leicester's unwelcome marriage with
Lady Sheffield in the love affair between Endymion and Tellus which
brings the former under Cynthia's displeasure. As a matter of fact his
reputation and popularity as a play-writer were considerable. Gabriel
Harvey dreaded lest Lyly should make a play upon their quarrel; Meres,
as is well known, places him among "the best for comedy"; and Ben Jonson
names him among those foremost rivals who were "outshone" and outsung by
Shakespeare.

_Euphues._--It was not, however, as a dramatist, but as the author of
_Euphues_, that Lyly made most mark upon the Elizabethan world. His
plays amused the court circle, but the "new English" of his novel
threatened to permanently change the course of English style. The plot
of _Euphues_ is extremely simple. The hero, whose name may very possibly
have been suggested by a passage in Ascham's _Schoolmaster_, is
introduced to us as still in bondage to the follies of youth,
"preferring fancy before friends, and this present humour before honour
to come." His travels bring him to Naples, where he falls in love with
Lucilla, the governor's light-minded daughter. Lucilla is already
pledged to Euphues's friend Philautus, but Euphues's passion betrays his
friendship, and the old lover finds himself thrown over by both friend
and mistress. Euphues himself, however, is very soon forsaken for a more
attractive suitor. He and Philautus make up their quarrel, and Euphues
writes his friend "a cooling card," to be "applied to all lovers," which
is so severe upon the fair sex that Lyly feels it necessary to balance
it by a sort of apology addressed "to the grave matrons and honest
maidens of Italy." Euphues then leaves Naples for his native Athens,
where he gives himself up to study, of which the first fruits are two
long treatises--the first, "Euphues and his Ephoebus," a disquisition on
the art of education addressed to parents, and the second, "Euphues and
Atheos," a discussion of the first principles of religion. The remainder
of the book is filled up with correspondence between Euphues and his
friends. We have letters from Euphues to Philautus on the death of
Lucilla, to another friend on the death of his daughter, to one Botonio
"to take his exile patiently," and to the youth Alcius, remonstrating
with him on his bad behaviour at the university. Finally a pair of
letters, the first from Livia "at the emperour's court to Euphues at
Athens," answered by "Euphues to Livia," wind up the first part, and
announce to us Euphues's intention of visiting England. An address from
Lyly to Lord Delawarr is affixed, to which was added in the second
edition "An Address to the Gentlemen Scholars of England."

_Euphues and his England_ is rather longer than the first part. Euphues
and Philautus travel from Naples to England. They arrive at Dover, halt
for the night at Fidus's house at Canterbury, and then proceed to
London, where they make acquaintance with Surius, a young English
gentleman of great birth and noble blood; Psellus, an Italian nobleman
reputed "great in magick"; Martius, an elderly Englishman; Camilla, a
beautiful English girl of insignificant family; Lady Flavia and her
niece Fraunces. After endless correspondence and conversation on all
kinds of topics, Euphues is recalled to Athens, and from there
corresponds with his friends. "Euphues' Glasse for Europe" is a
flattering description of England sent to Livia at Naples. It is the
most interesting portion of the book, and throws light upon one or two
points of Lyly's own biography. The author naturally seized the
opportunity for paying his inevitable tribute to the queen, and pays it
in his most exalted style. "O fortunate England that hath such a queene,
ungratefull if thou praye not for hir, wicked if thou do not love hir,
miserable if thou lose hir!"--and so on. The book ends with Philautus's
announcement of his marriage to Fraunces, upon which Euphues sends
characteristic congratulations and retires, "tormented in body and
grieved in mind," to the Mount of Silexedra, "where I leave him to his
musing or Muses."

Such is a brief outline of the book which for a time set the fashion for
English prose. Two editions of each part appeared within the first year
after publication, and thirteen editions of both are enumerated up to
1636, after which, with the exception of a modernized version in 1718,
_Euphues_ was never reprinted until 1868, when Dr Arber took it in hand.
The reasons for its popularity are not far to seek. As far as matter was
concerned it fell in with all the prevailing literary fashions. Its long
disquisitions on love, religion, exile, women or education, on court
life and country pleasures, handled all the most favourite topics in the
secularized speculation of the time; its foreign background and travel
talk pleased a society of which Lyly himself said "trafic and travel
hath woven the nature of all nations into ours and made this land like
arras full of device which was broadcloth full of workmanship"; and,
although Lyly steered clear in it of the worst classical pedantries of
the day, the book was more than sufficiently steeped in classical
learning, and based upon classical material, to attract a literary
circle which was nothing if not humanist. A large proportion of its
matter indeed was drawn from classical sources. The general tone of
sententious moralizing may be traced to Plutarch, from whom the treatise
on education, "Euphues and his Ephoebus," and that on exile, "Letter to
Botonio to take his exile patiently," are literally translated, as well
as a number of other shorter passages either taken direct from the Latin
versions or from some of the numerous English translations of Plutarch
then current. The innumerable illustrations based upon a kind of pseudo
natural history are largely taken from Pliny, while the mythology is
that of Virgil and Ovid.

It was not the matter of _Euphues_, however, so much as the style which
made it famous (see EUPHUISM). The source of Lyly's peculiar style has
been traced by Dr Landmann (_Der Euphuismus_, _sein Wesen_, _seine
Quelle_, _seine Geschichte_, &c. Giessen, 1881) to the influence of Don
Antonio de Guevara, whose _Libro Aureo de Marco Aurelio_ (1529)--a sort
of historical romance based upon Plutarch and upon Marcus Aurelius's
_Meditations_, the object of which was to produce a "mirror for
princes," of the kind so popular throughout the Renaissance--became
almost immediately popular in England. The first edition, or rather a
French version of it, was translated into English by Lord Berners in
1531, and published in 1534. Before 1560 twelve editions of Lord
Berners's translation had been printed, and before 1578 six different
translators of this and later works of Guevara had appeared. The
translation, however, which had most influence upon English literature
was that by North, the well-known translator of Plutarch, in 1557,
called _The Dial for Princes, Compiled by the Reverend Father in God Don
Antony of Guevara, Byshop of Guadix, &c., Englished out of the Frenche
by Th. North_. The sententious and antithetical style of the _Dial for
Princes_ is substantially that of _Euphues_, though Guevara on the whole
handles it better than his imitator, and has many passages of real force
and dignity. The general plan of the two books is also much the same. In
both the biography is merely a peg on which to hang moral disquisitions
and treatises. The use made of letters is the same in both. Even the
names of some of the characters are similar. Thus Guevara's Lucilla is
the flighty daughter of Marcus Aurelius. Lyly's Lucilla is the flighty
daughter of Ferardo, governor of Naples; Guevara's Livia is a lady at
the court of Marcus Aurelius, Lyly's Livia is a lady at the court "of
the emperor," of whom no further description is given. The 9th, 10th,
11th and 12th chapters of the _Dial for Princes_ suggested the
discussion between Euphues and Atheos. The letter from Euphues to Alcius
is substantially the same in subject and treatment as that from Marcus
Aurelius to his nephew Epesipo. Both Guevara and Lyly translated
Plutarch's work _De educatione liberorum_, Lyly, however, keeping closer
than the Spanish author to the original. The use made by Lyly of the
university of Athens was an anachronism in a novel intended to describe
his own time. He borrowed it, however, from Guevara, in whose book a
university of Athens was of course entirely in place. The "cooling card
for all fond lovers" and the address to the ladies and gentlemen of
Italy have their counterparts among the miscellaneous letters by Guevara
affixed by North to the _Dial for Princes_; and other instances of
Lyly's use of these letters, and of two other treatises by Guevara on
court and country life, could be pointed out.

Lyly was not the first to appropriate and develop the Guevaristic style.
The earliest book in which it was fully adopted was _A petite Pallace of
Pettie his Pleasure_, by George Pettie, which appeared in 1576, a
production so closely akin to _Euphues_ in tone and style that it is
difficult to believe it was not by Lyly. Lyly, however, carried the
style to its highest point, and made it the dominant literary fashion.
His principal followers in it were Greene, Lodge and Nash, his principal
opponent Sir Philip Sidney; the _Arcadia_ in fact supplanted _Euphues_,
and the Euphuistic taste proper may be said to have died out about 1590
after a reign of some twelve years. According to Landmann, Shakespeare's
_Love's Labour Lost_ is a caricature of the Italianate and pedantic
fashions of the day, not of the peculiar style of _Euphues_. The only
certain allusion in Shakespeare to the characteristics of Lyly's famous
book is to be found in _Henry IV._, where Falstaff, playing the part of
the king, says to Prince Hal, "Harry, I do not only marvel where thou
spendest thy time, but also how thou art accompanied; for, though the
camomile the more it is trodden on the faster it grows, yet youth the
more it is wasted the sooner it wears." Here the pompous antithesis is
evidently meant to caricature the peculiar Euphuistic sentence of court
parlance.     (M. A. W.)

  See Lyly's _Complete Works_, ed. R. W. Bond (3 vols., 1902);
  _Euphues_, from early editions, by Edward Arber (1868); A. W. Ward,
  _English Dramatic Literature_, i. 151; J. P. Collier, _History of
  Dramatis Poetry_, iii. 172; "John Lilly and Shakespeare," by C. C.
  Hense in the _Jahrbuch der deutschen Shakesp. Gesellschaft_, vols.
  vii. and viii. (1872, 1873); F. W. Fairholt, _Dramatic Works of John
  Lilly_ (2 vols., 1858); _Shakespeare's Euphuism_, by W. L. Rushton;
  H. Morley, "Euphuism" in the _Quarterly Review_ (1861); R. W. Bond,
  "John Lyly, Novelist and Dramatist," in the _Quarterly Review_ (Jan.
  1896); J. A. Symonds, _Shakespeare's Predecessors_ (1883); J. D.
  Wilson, _John Lyly_ (Cambridge, 1905); A. Ainger, "Euphuism," in
  _Lectures and Essays_ (1905); and Albert Feuillerat, _John Lyly.
  Contribution à l'histoire de la Renaissance en Angleterre_ (1910).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The evidence for his authorship may be found in Gabriel Harvey's
    _Pierce's Supererogation_ (written November 1589, published 1593), in
    Nash's _Have with you to Saffron Walden_ (1596), and in various
    allusions in Lyly's own plays. See Fairholt's _Dramatic Works of John
    Lilly_, i. 20.



LYME REGIS, a market town and municipal borough and watering-place in
the western parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 151 m.
W.S.W. of London by the London & South Western railway, the terminus of
a light railway from Axminster. Pop. (1901) 2095. It is situated at the
mouth of a narrow combe or valley opening upon a fine precipitous
coast-line; there is a sandy shore affording excellent bathing, and the
country inland is beautiful. The church of St Michael and All Angels is
mainly Perpendicular, but the tower (formerly central) and the portion
west of it are Norman. A guildhall and assembly rooms are the chief
public buildings. The principal industries are stone-quarrying and the
manufacture of cement. There is a curved pier of ancient foundation
known as the Cobb. The harbour, with a small coasting trade, is under
the authority of the corporation. The borough is under a mayor, 4
aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1237 acres.

No evidence of settlement on the site of Lyme Regis exists before that
afforded by a grant, dated 774, purporting to be by Cynewulf, king of
the West-Saxons, of land here to the church of Sherborne, and a similar
grant by King Aethelstan to the church of Glastonbury. In 1086 three
manors of Lyme are mentioned: that belonging to Sherborne abbey, which
was granted at the dissolution to Thomas Goodwin, who alienated it in
the following year; that belonging to Glastonbury, which seems to have
passed into lay lands during the middle ages, and that belonging to
William Belet. The last was acquired by the family of Bayeux, from whom
it passed by marriage to Elias de Rabayne, whose nephew, Peter Baudrat,
surrendered it to the crown in 1315-1316 when the king became lord of
one moiety of the borough, henceforth known as Lyme Regis. Lyme ranked
as a port in 1234, and Edward I. in 1284 granted to the town a charter
making it a free borough, with a merchant gild, and in the same year the
mayor and bailiffs are mentioned. In the following January the bailiffs
were given freedom from pleading without the borough, freedom from toll
and privileges implying considerable foreign trade; the importance of
the port is also evident from the demand of two ships for the king's
service in 1311. In 1332-1333 Edward III. granted Lyme to the burgesses
at a fee-farm of 32 marks; on the petition of the inhabitants, who were
impoverished by tempests and high tides, this was reduced to 100
shillings in 1410 and to 5 marks in 1481. In 1591 Elizabeth incorporated
Lyme, and further charters were obtained from James I., Charles II. and
William III. Lyme returned two members to parliament from 1295 to 1832
when the representation was reduced to one. The borough was
disfranchised in 1867. The fairs granted in 1553 for the 1st of February
and the 20th of September are now held on altered dates. Trade with
France in wine and cloth was carried on as early as 1284, but was
probably much increased on the erection of the Cobb, first mentioned in
1328 as built of timber and rock. Its medieval importance as the only
shelter between Portland Roads and the river Exe caused the burgesses to
receive grants of quayage for its maintenance in 1335 and many
subsequent years, while its convenience probably did much to bring upon
Lyme the unsuccessful siege by Prince Maurice in 1644. In 1685 Lyme was
the scene of the landing of James, duke of Monmouth, in his attempt upon
the throne.



LYMINGTON, a municipal borough and seaport in the New Forest
parliamentary division of Hampshire, England, 98 m. S.W. from London by
the London & South Western railway. Pop. (1901) 4165. It lies on the
estuary of the Lymington, which opens into the Solent. The church of St
Thomas à Becket is an irregular structure, dating from the reign of
Henry VI., but frequently restored. There is some coasting trade, and
yacht-building is carried on. Regular passenger steamers serve Yarmouth
in the Isle of Wight. In summer the town is frequented for sea-bathing.
It is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1515
acres.

There was a Roman camp near Lymington (_Lentune_, _Lementon_), and Roman
relics have been found, but there is no evidence that a town existed
here until after the Conquest. Lymington dates its importance from the
grant of the town to Richard de Redvers, earl of Devon, in the reign of
Henry I. No charter has been found, but a judgment given under a writ of
_quo warranto_ in 1578 confirms to the burgesses freedom from toll,
passage and pontage, the tolls and stallage of the quay and the right to
hold two fairs--privileges which they claimed under charters of Baldwin
de Redvers and Isabel de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, in the 13th
century, and Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, in 1405. The town was
governed by the mayor and burgesses until the corporation was reformed
in 1835. A writ for the election of a member to parliament was issued in
the reign of Edward III., but no return was made. From 1585 two members
were regularly returned; the number was reduced to one in 1867, and in
1885 the representation was merged in that of the county. Fairs on the
13th and 14th of May and the 2nd and 3rd of October, dating from the
13th century, are still held. The Saturday market probably dates from
the same century. Lymington was made a port in the reign of Henry I.,
and its large shipping trade led to frequent disputes with Southampton
as to the levying of duties. The case was tried in 1329 and decided
against Lymington, but in 1750 the judgment was reversed, and since then
the petty customs have been regularly paid. From an early date and for
many centuries salt was the staple manufacture of Lymington. The rise of
the mineral saltworks of Cheshire led to its decline in the 18th
century, and later the renewed importance of Southampton completed its
decay.

  See E. King, _Borough and Parish of Lymington_ (London, 1879).



LYMPH and LYMPH FORMATION. Lying close to the blood-vessels of a limb or
organ a further set of vessels may be observed. They are very pale in
colour, often almost transparent and very thin-walled. Hence they are
frequently difficult to find and dissect. These are the lymphatic
vessels, and they are found to be returning a fluid from the tissues to
the bloodstream. When traced back to the tissues they are seen to divide
and ultimately to form minute anastomosing tubules, the _lymph
capillaries_. The capillaries finally terminate in the spaces between
the structures of the tissue, but whether their free ends are closed or
are in open communication with the tissue spaces is still undecided. The
study of their development shows that they grow into the tissue as a
closed system of minute tubes, which indicates that in all probability
they remain permanently closed. If we trace the lymphatic vessels
towards the thorax we find that in some part of their course they
terminate in structures known as lymphatic glands. From these again
fresh lymphatic vessels arise which carry the fluid towards the main
lymph-vessel, the _thoracic duct_. This runs up the posterior wall of
the thorax close to the aorta, and finally opens into the junction of
the internal jugular and left subclavian veins. The lymph-vessels from
the right side of the head and neck and from the right arm open,
however, into the right subclavian vein (see LYMPHATIC SYSTEM below).

_Chemical Constitution of Lymph._--The lymph collected from the thoracic
duct during hunger is almost water clear and yellowish in colour. Its
specific gravity varies from 1015 to 1025. It tastes salt and has a
faint odour. It is alkaline in reaction, but is much less alkaline than
blood-serum. Like blood it clots, but clots badly, only forming a soft
clot which quickly contracts. The lymph collected from a lymphatic
before it has passed through a lymph gland contains a few leucocytes,
and though the number of lymphocytes is greater in the lymph after it
has flowed through a gland it is never very great. In normal states
there are no red blood corpuscles.

The total solids amount to 3.6 to 5.7%, the variations depending upon
the amount of protein present. The lymph during hunger contains only a
minute quantity of fat. Sugar (dextrose) is present in the same
concentration as in the blood. The inorganic constituents are the same
as in blood, but apparently the amounts of Ca, Mg and P2O5 are rather
less than in serum. Urea is present to the same amount as in blood. If
the lymph be collected after a meal, one important alteration is to be
found. It now contains an abundance of fat in a very fine state of
subdivision, if fat be present in the food. The concentrations of
protein and dextrose are not altered during the absorption of these
substances.

_The Significance of Lymph._--In considering the significance and use of
lymph we must note in the first place that it forms an alternative
medium for the removal of water, dissolved materials, formed elements or
particles away from the tissues. All materials supplied to a tissue are
brought to it by the blood, and are discharged from the blood through
the capillary wall. They thus come to lie in the tissue spaces between
the cells, and from this supply of material in a dissolved state the
cells take up the food they require. In the opposite direction the cell
discharges its waste products into this same tissue fluid. The removal
of material from the tissue fluid may be effected either by its being
absorbed through the capillary wall into the bloodstream, or by sending
it into the lymphatic vessels and thus away from the tissue. From this
point of view the lymphatics may be looked upon in a sense as a drainage
system of the tissues. Again, besides discharging fluid and dissolved
material into the tissue spaces, the blood may also discharge
leucocytes, and under many conditions this emigration of leucocytes may
be very extensive. These also may leave the tissue space by the path of
the lymph channels. Moreover, the tissues are at any time liable to be
injured, and the injury as well as damaging many cells may cause rupture
of capillaries (as in bruising) with escape of red blood-cells into the
tissue spaces. If this occurs we know that the damaged cells are
destroyed and their débris removed either by digestion by leucocytes or
by disintegration and solution. The damage of a tissue also commonly
involves an infection of the damaged area with living micro-organisms,
and these are at once admitted to the tissue spaces. Hence we see that
the lymphatics may be provided as channels by which a variety of
substances can be removed from the tissue spaces. The question at once
arises, is the lymph channel at all times open to receive the materials
present in the tissue space? If such be the case, lymph is simply tissue
fluid, and anything that modifies the constitution or amount of the
tissue fluid should in like proportion lead to a variation in the amount
and constitution of the lymph. But if the lymph capillary is a closed
tubule at its commencement this does not follow.

From these considerations we see that in the first instance the whole
problem of lymph formation is intimately bound up with the study of the
interchanges of material between the blood and the various tissue cells.
The exchange of material between blood and tissue cell may possibly be
determined in one or both of two ways. Either it may result from changes
taking place within the tissue cell, or the tissue cell remaining
passive material may be sent to or withdrawn from it owing to a change
occurring either in the composition of the blood or to a change in the
circulation through the tissue. Let us take first the results following
increased activity of a tissue. We know that increased activity of a
tissue means increased chemical change within the tissue and the
production of new chemical bodies of small molecular size (e.g. water,
carbonic acid, &c.). The production of these metabolites means the
destruction of some of the tissue substance, and to make good this loss
the tissue must take a further amount of material from the blood. We
know that this takes place, and moreover that the waste products
resulting from activity are ultimately removed. The question then
becomes: When does this restoration take place, and what is the
intermediate state of the tissue? We know that increased activity is
always accompanied by an increase in the blood-supply, indicating a
greater supply of nutritive material, though it may be that, the
increased supply required at the actual time of activity is oxygen only.
Simultaneously the opportunity for a more rapid removal of the waste
products is provided. We have to inquire then: Does this increased
vascularity necessarily mean an increased outpouring of water and
dissolved material into the tissues, for this might follow directly
from the greater filling of the capillaries, or from the increased
attracting power of the tissues to water (osmotic effect) due to the
sudden production of substances of small molecular size within the
tissue? The other possibility is that the increased volume of blood sent
to the tissue is for the sole purpose of giving it a more rapid supply
of oxygen, and that the ordinary normal blood-supply would amply suffice
for renewing the chemical material used up during activity. Tissues
undoubtedly vary among themselves in the amount of water and other
materials they take from the blood when thrown into activity, and their
behaviour in this respect depends upon the work they are called upon to
perform. We must discriminate between the substance required by and
consumed by the tissue, the chemical food which on combustion yields the
energy by which the tissue performs work, and, on the other hand, the
substance taken from the blood and either with or without further
elaboration discharged from the tissue (as, for instance, in the process
of secretion). The tissue contains in itself a store of food amply
sufficient to enable it to continue working for a long time after its
blood-supply has been stopped, and everything indicates that the supply
of chemical energy to the tissue may be slow or even withheld for a
considerable time. Hence we are led to conclude that the increased flow
of blood sent to a tissue when it is thrown into activity is first and
foremost to give that tissue an increased oxygen supply; secondly, to
remove waste carbonic acid; thirdly, and only in the case of some
tissues, to provide water salts and other materials for the outpouring
of a secretion, as an instance of which we may take the kidney as a
type. Hence there is no need to suppose that an extensive accumulation
of fluid and dissolved substances takes place within a tissue when it
becomes active. This must be an accumulation which would lead to an
engorgement of the tissue spaces and then to a discharge of fluid along
the lymph channels. To enable us to determine the various points just
raised we must know whether an increased blood-supply to a tissue
necessarily means an increased exudation of fluid into the tissue
spaces, and moreover we must study the exchange of fluid between a
tissue and the blood under as varied a series of conditions as possible,
subsequently examining whether exchange of fluid and other substances
between the tissue and the blood necessarily determines quantitatively
the amount of lymph flowing from the tissue. Hence we will first study
the exchanges between the blood and a tissue, and then turn our
attention to the lymph-flow from the tissues.

_The Exchanges of Fluids and dissolved Substances between the Blood and
the Tissues._--Numerous experiments have been performed in studying the
conditions under which fluid passes into the tissues and tissue
spaces--or in the reverse direction into the blood. We may group them
into (1) conditions during which the total volume of circulating fluid
is increased or decreased; (2) conditions in which the character of the
blood is altered, e.g. it is made more watery or its saline
concentration is altered; (3) conditions in which the blood-supply to
the part is altered; (4) conditions in which the physical character of
the capillary wall is altered.

1. The total volume of blood in an animal has been increased among other
ways by the transfusion of the blood of one animal directly into the
veins of a second of the same species. It is found that within a very
short time a large percentage of the plasma has been discharged from the
blood-vessels. It has been sent into the tissues, notably the muscles,
and it may be noted in passing without producing any increase in the
lymph-flow from these vessels. An analogous experiment, but one which
avoids the fallacy introduced by injecting a second animal's blood, has
been performed by driving all the blood out of one hind limb by applying
a rubber bandage tightly round it from the foot upwards. This increases
the volume of blood circulating in the rest of the body, and again a
rapid disappearance of the fluid part of the blood from the vessels was
observed--the fluid being mainly sent into the muscles, as was indicated
by showing that the specific gravity of the muscles fell during the
experiment. The experiments converse to these have also been studied.
Bleeding is very rapidly followed by a large inflow of fluid into the
circulating blood--this fluid being derived from all the tissues, and
especially again from the muscles. Or again, when the bandage from the
limb in the above-cited experiment was removed, the total capacity of
the circulatory system was thereby suddenly increased, and it was found
that the total volume of blood increased correspondingly, the increased
volume of fluid being drawn from the tissues and especially again from
the muscles. The rapidity with which this movement of fluid into or out
of the blood takes place is very striking. The explanation usually
offered is that the movement is effected by changes in the capillary
pressure due to the alteration in the volume of blood circulating. While
this seems feasible when the volume of blood is increased, it does not
offer a satisfactory explanation of the rapid movement of fluid from the
tissues when the volume of the blood is decreased. One must therefore
look for yet further factors in this instance.

2. Let us next turn attention to the second of our three main
variations, viz. that in which the composition of the blood is altered.
It has long been known that the injection of water, or of solutions of
soluble bodies such as salts, urea, sugar, &c., leads to a very rapid
exchange of water and salts between the blood and the tissues. Thus if a
solution less concentrated than the blood be injected, the blood is
thereby diluted, but with very great rapidity water leaves the blood and
is taken up by the tissues. Again, if a strong sugar or salt solution be
injected, the first effect is a big discharge of water from the tissues
into the blood and the movement of fluid is effected with great
rapidity. In these instances a new physical factor is brought into play,
viz. that of osmosis. When a solution of lower osmotic pressure than the
blood is injected the osmotic pressure of the blood falls temporarily
below that of the tissues, and water is therefore attracted to the
tissues. The converse is the case when a solution of osmotic pressure
higher than the blood is injected. This at first sight seems to be an
all-sufficient explanation of the results recorded, but difficulties
arise when we find that the tissues are not equally active in producing
the effects. Thus it is found that the muscles and skin act as the chief
water dépôt, while such tissues as the liver, intestines or pancreas
take a relatively small share in the exchange. Again, when a strong
sodium chloride solution is injected a considerable part of the sodium
chloride is soon found to have left the blood, and it has been shown
that the chloride dépôt is not identical with the water dépôt. The lung,
for instance, is found to take up relatively far more of the salt than
other tissues. Simultaneously with the passage of the salt into the
tissue an exchange of water from the tissue into the blood can be
observed, both processes being carried out very rapidly. The result is
that the blood very quickly returns to a state in which its osmotic
pressure is only slightly raised; the tissue, on the other hand, loses
water and gains salt, and its osmotic pressure and specific gravity
therefore rises. Again, the tissues do not participate equally in
producing the final result, nor is the tissue which gives up the largest
amount of water necessarily that which gains the largest amount of salt.
The results following the injection of solutions of other bodies of
small molecular size, e.g. urea or sugar, are quite analogous to those
above described in the case of the non-toxic salt solutions. Hence we
see that the rate of exchange of fluid and dissolved substance between a
tissue and the blood can be extremely rapid and that the exchange can
take place in either direction. We may also conclude that the main cause
of the exchange, and possibly the only one, is the osmotic action set up
by the solution injected, and that muscle tissue is particularly active
in the process.

Seeing that a very considerable amount of water or of dissolved
substance can be taken up from the blood into a tissue, the question
next arises: Where is this material held, in the tissue cell or in the
tissue space? Immediately the water or salt leaves the blood it reaches
the tissue space, but unless the process be extreme in amount it
probably passes at once into the tissue cell itself and is stored there.
If the process is excessive oedema is set up and fluid accumulates in
the tissue space.

These, taken quite briefly, are some of the more important conditions
under which fluid exchanges, take place. They are selected here because
of the extent and rapidity of the changes effected.

3. The third factor which may bring about a change in the amount of
fluid sent to a tissue is a variation in the capillary pressure. A rise
in capillary pressure will, if filtration can occur through the
capillary wall, cause an increased exudation of fluid from the blood.
Thus the rise in general blood-pressure following the injection of a
salt solution could cause an increased filtration into the tissues. Or
again, the hydraemia following a salt injection would favour an
increased exudation because the blood would be more readily filtrable.
We, however, know very little of the effect of changes in capillary
pressure upon movement of fluid into the tissue spaces and tissues, most
of such observations being confined to a study of their effect upon
lymph-flow. We will therefore return to them in this connexion.

4. The remaining factor to be mentioned is a change in the character of
the capillary wall. It is well known that many poisons can excite an
increased exudation from the blood and the tissue may become oedematous.
Of such bodies we may mention cantharidin and the lymphogogues of Class
I (see later). A like change is also probably the cause of the oedema of
nephritis and of heart disease. It has also been suggested that the
capillaries of different organs show varying degrees of permeability, a
suggestion to which we will return later.

_Lymph Formation._--There are two theories current at the present day
offering explanations of the manner in which lymph is formed. The first,
which owes its inception to Ludwig, explains lymph formation upon
physical grounds. Thus according to this theory the lymphatics are open
capillary vessels at their origin in the tissues along which the tissue
fluid is driven. The tissue fluid is discharged from the blood by
filtration, and therefore its amount varies directly with the capillary
pressure. The amount of fluid movement also is further determined by
osmotic actions and by the permeability of the capillary wall.

The second theory first actively enunciated by Heidenhain regards lymph
formation as a secretory process of the capillary wall, i.e. one in the
discharge of which these cells perform work and are not merely passive
as in the former theory. As we shall see, it is now probable that
neither theory is completely correct.

In considering lymph formation we have to examine both the total amount
of lymph formed in the body and the variations in amount leaving each
separate organ under different conditions. In most investigations the
lymph was collected from the thoracic duct, i.e. it was the lymph
returned from all parts of the body with the exception of the right arm
and right side of the head and neck. The collection of the lymph from
organs is much more difficult to effect, and hence has not, to the
present, been so extensively studied. We will consider first variations
in the amount of the thoracic duct lymph. Lymph is always flowing along
the thoracic duct, and if the body is at rest, it has been shown that
this lymph is coming practically entirely from the intestines and liver,
chiefly, moreover, from the liver. The variations in the amount flowing
under various conditions has been extensively studied. We will discuss
them under the following headings: Changes brought about (a) by altered
circulatory conditions, (b) by the injection of various substances, and
(c) as a result of throwing an organ into activity.

Ligature of the portal vein leads to an increased flow of duct lymph.
Ligature of the inferior vena cava above the diaphragm also leads to a
large increase in the flow of duct lymph. Ligature of the aorta may
result in either an increased or decreased flow of direct lymph. One
explanation of these results has been offered from a study of the
changes in capillary pressure set up in the main organs involved. Thus,
after ligature of the portal vein the capillary pressure in the
intestines rises, and it was proved that the increase in thoracic duct
lymph came from the intestines. Ligaturing the inferior vena cava causes
a big rise in the pressure in the liver capillaries, the intestinal
capillary pressure remaining practically unaltered. Here it was proved
that the increase in lymph-flow came from the liver and was more
copious in amount than in the former instance. A further difference is
that this lymph is more concentrated, a feature which always
characterizes liver lymph. Ligature of the aorta may or may not cause a
rise in the liver capillary pressure, and it has been shown that if the
pressure rises there is an increased lymph-flow from the liver and
conversely. The increase of lymph comes entirely in this instance also
from the liver. It is in fact but a special instance of the former
experiment. From these results it has been argued that lymph formation
is simply a filtration fundamentally, and the lymph-flow is determined
mainly by the capillary pressure. Variations in the quantity of lymph
issuing from different organs have been on this theory ascribed to
differences in the permeability of the capillaries of the organs. Thus
as liver lymph is richest in protein content and is produced in greatest
amount, it has been concluded that the liver capillaries possess the
highest permeability. The intestines stand next in producing a
concentrated lymph, and their capillaries are therefore assumed to stand
second as regards permeability. Lastly, the lymph coming from limbs and
other organs is much poorer in solids and much less copious in amount.
Hence it is argued that their capillaries show the least permeability.
It is, however, very unsafe to compare the liver capillaries with those
of other organs, since they are not in reality capillaries but rather
venous sinuses, and their relation to the liver cells is
characteristically different from that of ordinary capillaries. If an
animal is at rest, no lymph flows from the hind limbs. To obtain a
sample of limb lymph it is necessary to massage the limb. If, however,
the veins to the limb be ligatured, we obtain a flow of lymph. The
ligature of course causes a rise of the capillary pressure, and it has
been argued that this rise of pressure starts a filtration through the
capillary wall and hence a flow of lymph. But the stoppage of the
blood-flow also damages the capillary wall and tissue cells by
asphyxiation, and the resulting lymph-flow is in all probability the
resultant of many complex processes. This case is analogous to the
production of oedema in cases of heart disease where the circulation is
feeble and the oxygen supply to the parts deficient. The results of
these experiments form the main evidence in support of the filtration
theory of lymph formation. They were first systematically studied by
Heidenhain, to whom we owe so much of our knowledge of lymph formation.
He did not, however, conclude that they established the filtration
theory.

In continuing his observations Heidenhain next studied the results
following the injection of a number of substances into the blood. He
found many which on injection gave rise to an increased lymph-flow from
the thoracic duct, and arranged them in two classes. As instances of
lymphogogues of the first class we may mention extract of mussels, leech
extract, peptone, extract of crayfish muscle, extract of strawberries,
of raspberries and many other like substances. Lymphogogues of the
second class comprise neutral salt solutions, urea, sugar, &c.
Considering the latter class first we may take as a type a solution of
sodium chloride. Injection of such a solution causes a large increase in
the lymph-flow, and it has been proved that the lymph comes from the
liver and intestines only--chiefly from the former. It is especially to
be noted that there is no lymph-flow from the limbs, and the same is
true for all lymphogogues of this class. As indicated above, the
injection of a saline solution leads to a large and rapidly effected
transport of fluid from the blood into muscle tissue, but though there
is this large increase in tissue fluid, no lymph flows from the tissue.
This result very powerfully disfavours the filtration theory of lymph
formation. It practically refutes the idea that lymph formation is
solely dependent upon such processes as filtration, osmosis and
capillary permeability only. It brings out quite clearly that the
exchange of fluid and dissolved salts, &c., between the blood and a
tissue, and the flow of lymph from that tissue, are two separate and
distinct processes, and especially that the first does not determine the
second. Also it is to be noted that the injection of a strong salt
solution also excites a flow of duct lymph, again arising from the liver
and intestines, but none from the limbs. In this instance, as previously
stated, the muscles of the limbs are losing water, and so presumably
are the liver and intestinal cells. This independence of tissue-blood
exchange and lymph-flow is distinctly in favour of the view, which is
rapidly gaining ground from histological observations, that in all
instances the lymphatics commence in a tissue as closed capillary
vessels.

Turning, in the next place, to the lymphogogues of the first class, it
has been proved that the origin of this increase of flow is again from
the liver. Very many of the substances of this class are bodies which
may when taken cause urticarial (nettle-rash) eruptions, a state which
is generally regarded as being due to an action upon the capillary
endothelium. Their action as lymphogogues is also generally ascribed to
an effect upon the capillary wall rendering it according to some more
permeable, according to others leading to a direct secretory action on
the part of the endothelium. We also know that many of the bodies of
this class act upon the liver in other directions than in exciting an
increased lymph production. Thus they may cause an increase in bile
secretion, or, as in the case of peptone, the liver cells may be excited
to produce a new chemical material, in this instance an antithrombin.

We have now to consider the effect of throwing an organ into activity
upon the lymph-flow from the organ. In all cases in which it has been
examined it is found that increased activity is accompanied by increased
lymph-flow. Thus, to take the instance of the submaxillary gland, which
at rest does not discharge any lymph, stimulation of the chorda tympani
is followed by a flow of lymph accompanying the flow of saliva
simultaneously excited. The stimulation of the nerve also produces
dilatation of the blood-vessels and therefore a rise in capillary
pressure. But that this vascular change is not the factor determining
the lymph-flow is proved by the administration of a small dose of
atropine, which arrests the secretion without influencing the vascular
reaction following chorda stimulation. After the atropine no lymph-flow
occurs on stimulating the nerve. Many other instances of a similar kind
might be adduced. Thus, we have seen that peptone specifically excites
the liver cells and also causes an increased lymph-flow from the liver;
or, as a last instance, the injection of bile salt excites a flow of
bile and also excites a flow of lymph from the liver. The supporters of
the filtration theory have argued that as activity of a tissue is
necessarily accompanied by the discharge of metabolites from the active
tissue cells, and as these are of small molecular size, they must set up
an osmotic effect. Water is therefore drawn into the tissue spaces, and
this rise in fluid content results mechanically in a flow of lymph from
the organ. The lymph simply drains away along the open lymphatics. This
argument, however, loses all its force when we recall the fact that we
may set up an enormous flow of fluid and salt into a tissue and its
tissue spaces without causing the least flow of lymph. Further, there is
no reason to suppose that the metabolites discharged from a tissue
during activity are produced in large quantities. The chief metabolite
is undoubtedly carbonic acid, and this diffuses very rapidly and is
quickly carried away by the blood. If, moreover, as is probably the
case, the lymphatics commence as closed capillaries, we have a further
difficulty in explaining how the fluid is driven through the lymphatic
wall. Either we must imagine the wall to be porous or there must be a
greater pressure outside than inside, and it is very difficult to
conceive how this is possible. As a general conclusion, then, it seems
much more probable that we are here dealing with a secretory process,
and that the active tissue produces some substance or substances--it may
be carbonic acid--which throws the lymphatic capillary cells into
activity.

To sum up in a few words the present state of our knowledge as to lymph
formation we may say that the exchange of water and salts between the
blood and the tissues is probably entirely determined by processes of
filtration and osmosis. Further, that the physical condition of the
capillary cells is frequently altered by many chemical substances, and
that in consequence it may permit exudation into the tissue spaces much
more freely. In the next place, the flow of lymph from a tissue is not
solely determined by the amount of the tissue fluids. The lymph
capillaries start as closed tubules, and the endothelial walls of these
tubules play an active part (secretory) in determining when water and
other substances shall be admitted into the capillary and further
determine the quantity of such discharge. Apparently, too, these cells
are specifically excited when the tissue is thrown into activity, the
exciting substance being a metabolite from the active tissue. Leucocytes
also are capable of passing through or between the endothelial cells of
the lymph capillary.     (T. G. Br.)



LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. In anatomy, the lymphatic system (Lat. _lympha_, clear
water) comprises the _lymphoid_ or _adenoid_ tissue so plentifully
distributed about the body, especially in the course of the alimentary
canal (see CONNECTIVE TISSUES), _lymph spaces_, _lymphatic vessels_ of
which the lacteals are modifications, _lymphatic glands_, _haemolymph
glands_, and the _thoracic_ and _right lymphatic ducts_ by which the
lymph (q.v.) finally reaches the veins.

_Lymph spaces_ are mere spaces in the connective tissue, which usually
have no special lining, though sometimes there is a layer of endothelial
cells like those of the lymphatic and blood vessels. Most of these
spaces are very small, but sometimes, as in the case of the
_sub-epicranial space_ of the scalp, the _capsule of Tenon_ in the
orbit, and the _retropharyngeal space_ in the neck, they are large and
are adaptations to allow free movement. Opening from these spaces, and
also communicating with the serous membranes by small openings called
stomata,[1] are the _lymph capillaries_ (see VASCULAR SYSTEM), which
converge to the _lymphatic vessels_. These resemble veins in having an
internal layer of endothelium, a middle unstriped muscular coat, and an
external coat of fibrous tissue, though in the smaller vessels the
middle coat is wanting. They have numerous endothelial valves, formed of
two crescentic segments allowing the lymph to pass toward the root of
the neck. When the vessels are engorged these valves are marked by a
constriction, and so the lymphatics have a beaded appearance. The
vessels divide and anastomose very freely, and for this reason they do
not, like the veins, increase in calibre as they approach their
destination. It is usual to divide the lymphatic vessels into a
superficial and a deep set; speaking generally, the superficial ones are
found near the course of the superficial veins, while the deeper ones
accompany the arteries. Probably any single drop of lymph passes sooner
or later through one or more lymphatic glands, and so those vessels
which are approaching a gland are called _afferent_, while those leaving
are spoken of as _efferent lymphatics_. The _lacteals_ are special
lymphatic vessels which carry the chyle from the intestine; they begin
in lymphatic spaces in the villi and round the solitary and agminated
glands, and pass into the mesentery, where they come in contact with a
large number of _mesenteric glands_ before reaching the _receptaculum
chyli_.

The _lymphatic glands_ are pink bodies situated in the course of the
lymphatic vessels, to which they act as filters. They are generally oval
in shape and about the size of a bean, but sometimes, especially in the
groin, they form irregular flattened masses 2 in. long, while, at other
times, they are so small as almost to escape notice. They are usually
found in groups.

  Each gland has a fibrous capsule from which trabeculae pass toward the
  centre, where they break up and interlace, forming a network, and in
  this way a cortical and medullary region for each gland is
  distinguished; the intervals are nearly filled by lymphoid tissue, but
  close to the trabeculae is a lymph path or sinus, which is only
  crossed by the reticular stroma of the lymphoid tissue, and this
  probably acts as a mechanical sieve, entangling foreign particles; as
  an example of this the bronchial glands are black from carbon strained
  off in its passage from the lungs, while the axillary glands in a
  tattooed arm are blue. The blood-vessels enter at one spot, the
  _hilum_, and are distributed along the trabeculae. In addition to
  their function as filters the lymphatic glands are probably one of the
  sources from which the leucocytes are derived.

  The exact position of the various groups of glands is very important
  from a medical point of view, but here it is only possible to give a
  brief sketch which will be helped by reference to the accompanying
  diagram. In the head are found _occipital_ and _mastoid glands_ (fig.
  1, [beta]), which drain the back of the scalp; _internal maxillary_
  _glands_, in the zygomatic fossa, draining the orbit, palate, nose
  and membranes of the brain; _preauricular glands_ (fig. 1, [alpha]),
  embedded in the parotid, draining the side of the scalp, pinna,
  tympanum and lower eyelid; and _buccal glands_, draining the cheek
  region. In the neck are the _superficial cervical glands_ (fig. 1,
  [gamma]), along the course of the external jugular vein, draining the
  surface of the neck; the _submaxillary glands_ (fig. 1, [delta]),
  lying just above the salivary gland of the same name and draining the
  front of the face and scalp; the _submental glands_ (fig. 1,
  [epsilon]), beneath the chin, draining the lower lip, as well as
  sometimes the upper, and the front of the tongue; the _retropharyngeal
  glands_, draining the naso-pharynx and tympanum; the _pretracheal
  glands_, draining the trachea and lower part of the thyroid body; and
  the _deep cervical glands_, which are by far the most important and
  form a great mass close to the internal jugular vein; they receive
  afferent vessels from most of the glands already mentioned and so are
  liable to be affected in any trouble of the head or neck, especially
  of the deeper parts. Into them the lymphatics of the brain pass
  directly. The lower part of this mass is sometimes distinguished as a
  separate group called the _supra-clavicular glands_, which drain the
  back of the neck and receive afferents from the occipital and axillary
  glands. The efferents from the deep cervical glands join to form a
  common vessel known as the _jugular lymphatic trunk_, and this usually
  opens into the thoracic duct on the left side and the right lymphatic
  duct on the right.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Superficial Lymphatic Vessels and Glands.

    [alpha], Preauricular.
    [beta], Mastoid.
    [gamma], Superficial cervical.
    [delta], Submaxillary.
    [epsilon], Submental.
    [zeta], Infraclavicular.
    [eta], Anterior axillary.
    [theta], Supratrochlear.
    [iota], Antecubital.
    [kappa], Inguinal.
    [lambda], Superficial femoral.]

  In the thorax are found _intercostal glands_ (fig. 2, I.), near the
  vertebral column draining the back of the thoracic walls and pleura;
  _internal mammary glands_, draining the front of the same parts as
  well as the inner part of the breast and the upper part of the
  abdominal wall; _diaphragmatic glands_, draining that structure and
  the convex surface of the liver; _anterior, middle, posterior and
  superior mediastinal glands_, draining the contents of those cavities.
  The _bronchial glands_, draining the lungs, have already been referred
  to.

  In the abdomen and pelvis the glands are usually grouped round the
  large arteries and are divided into visceral and parietal. Among the
  visceral are the _gastric glands_, draining the stomach (these are
  divided into _coronary_, _subpyloric_ and _retropyloric_ groups); the
  _splenic glands_ at the hilum of the spleen, draining that organ, the
  tail of the pancreas and the fundus of the stomach; the _hepatic
  glands_ in the small omentum, draining the lower surface and deep
  parts of the liver; the _pancreatic glands_, behind the lesser sac of
  the peritoneum, draining the head and body of the pancreas, the
  _superior mesenteric glands_; from one to two hundred in number, lying
  in the mesentery and receiving the lacteals; the _ileo-caecal glands_,
  draining the caecum, one of which is known as the _appendicular_ gland
  and drains the vermiform appendix and right ovary; the _colic glands_
  along the right and middle colic arteries, draining the ascending and
  transverse colon; the _inferior mesenteric glands_ in the course of
  that artery, draining the descending iliac and pelvic colons; the
  _rectal_ glands, behind the rectum, draining its upper part.

  Among the parietal glands are the _external iliac glands_, divided
  into a lateral and mesial set (see fig. 2, E.I.), and receiving the
  inguinal efferent vessels and lymphatics from the bladder, prostate,
  cervix uteri, upper part of the vagina, glans penis vel clitoridis and
  urethra. The _supra_ and _infra-umbilical glands_ receive the deep
  lymphatics of the abdominal wall, the former communicating with the
  liver, the latter with the bladder. From the latter, vessels pass to
  the epigastric gland lying in front of the termination of the external
  iliac artery. The _internal iliac glands_ (fig. 2, I. I.) are situated
  close to the branches of this artery and drain the rectum, vagina,
  prostate, urethra, buttock and perinaeum. _Common iliac glands_ (fig.
  2, C.I.) lie around that artery and receive afferents from the
  external and internal iliac glands as well as a few from the pelvic
  viscera.[2] The _aortic glands_ are grouped all round the length of
  the aorta, and are divided into _pre_-, _retro_- and _lateral aortic_
  groups (fig. 2 P.A. and L), all of which communicate freely. The upper
  preaortic glands are massed round the coeliac axis, and receive
  afferents from the gastric, hepatic, splenic and pancreatic glands;
  they are known as _coeliac glands_. The _lateral aortic glands_ drain
  the kidney, adrenal, testis, ovary, fundus of uterus and lateral
  abdominal walls. In the upper extremity a few small glands are
  sometimes found near the deep arteries of the forearm. At the bend of
  the elbow are the _ante-cubital_ glands (fig. 1 [lambda]) and just
  above the internal condyle, one or two _supra-trochlear glands_ (fig.
  1, [theta]). The _axillary glands_ (fig. 1, [eta]) are perhaps the
  most practically important in the body. They are divided into four
  sets: (1) _external_, along the axillary vessels, draining the greater
  part of the arm; (2) _anterior_, behind the lower border of the
  pectoralis major muscle, draining the surface of the thorax including
  the breast and upper part of the abdomen; (3) _posterior_ along the
  subscapular artery, draining the back and side of the trunk as low as
  the umbilical zone; (4) superior or _infra-clavicular glands_ (fig. 1,
  [zeta]), receiving the efferents of the former groups as well as
  lymphatics accompanying the cephalic vein. In the lower limb all the
  superficial lymphatics pass up to the groin, where there are two sets
  of glands arranged like a T. The _superficial femoral_ glands (fig. 1,
  [lambda]) are the vertical ones, and are grouped round the internal
  saphenous vein; they are very large, drain the surface of the leg, and
  are usually in two parallel rows. The _inguinal glands_ form the
  cross bar of the T (fig. 1, [kappa]), and drain part of the buttock,
  the surface of the abdomen below the umbilicus and the surface of the
  genital organs. The deep lymphatics of the leg drain into the
  _anterior tibial gland_ on that artery, the _popliteal glands_ in that
  space, and the _deep femoral glands_ surrounding the common femoral
  vein.

[Illustration: From A. M. Paterson, Cunningham's _Text-book of Anatomy_.

FIG. 2.--Deep Lymphatic Glands and Vessels of the Thorax and Abdomen
(diagrammatic). Afferent vessels are represented by continuous lines and
efferent and interglandular vessels by dotted lines.

  C.     Common iliac glands.
  C.I.   Common intestinal trunk.
  D.C.   Deep cervical glands.
  E.I.   External iliac glands.
  I.     Intercostal glands and vessels.
  I.I.   Internal iliac glands.
  L.     Lateral aortic glands.
  M.     Mediastinal glands and vessels.
  P.A.   Pre-aortic glands and vessels.
  R.C.   Receptaculum chylii.
  R.L.D. Right lymphatic duct.
  S.     Sacral glands.
  S.A.   Scalenus anticus muscle.
  T.D.   Thoracic duct.]

The _thoracic duct_ begins as an irregular dilatation known as the
_receptaculum chyli_, opposite the first and second lumbar vertebrae,
which receives all the abdominal lymphatics as well as those of the
lower intercostal spaces. The duct runs up on the right of the aorta
through the posterior mediastinum and then traverses the superior
mediastinum to the left of the oesophagus. At the root of the neck it
receives the lymphatics of the left arm and left side of the neck and
opens into the beginning of the left innominate vein, usually by more
than one opening.

The _right lymphatic duct_ collects the lymphatics from the right side
of the neck and thorax, the right arm, right lung, right side of the
heart and upper surface of the liver; it is often represented by several
ducts which open separately into the right innominate vein.

_Haemolymph glands_ are structures which have only been noticed since
1884. They differ from lymphatic glands in their much greater
vascularity. They assist the spleen in the destruction of red blood
corpuscles, and probably explain or help to explain the fact that the
spleen can be removed without ill effects. In man they extend along the
vertebral column from the coeliac axis to the pelvis, but are specially
numerous close to the renal arteries.

  T. Lewis suggests that lymphatic and haemolymph glands should be
  classified in the following way:--

              / Haemal glands.    / Simple.
              |                   \ Specialized (Spleen)
              |
  Haemolymph  |                   / 1. Blood and lymph sinuses
  Glands.    <  Haemal lymphatic <       separate.
              |   glands.         | 2. Blood lymph sinuses.
              |                   \ 3. Other combined forms.
              |
              \ Lymphatic glands.

  Details and references will be found in papers by T. Lewis, _J. Anat.
  & Phys._ vol. xxxviii. p. 312; W. B. Drummond, _Journ. Anat. and
  Phys._ vol. xxxiv. p. 198; A. S. Warthin, _Journ. Med. Research_,
  1901, p. 3, and H. Dayton, _Am. Journ. of Med. Sciences_, 1904, p.
  448. For further details of man's lymphatic system see _The
  Lymphatics_ by Delamere, Poirier and Cuneo, translated by C. H. Leaf
  (London, 1903).

  _Embryology._--The lymphatic vessels are possibly developed by the
  hollowing out of mesenchyme cells in the same way that the arteries
  are; these cells subsequently coalesce and form tubes (see VASCULAR
  SYSTEM). There is, however, a good deal of evidence to show that they
  are originally offshoots of the venous system, and that their
  permanent openings into the veins are either their primary points of
  communication or are secondarily acquired. The lymphatic and
  haemolymph glands are probably formed by the proliferation of
  lymphocytes around networks of lymphatic vessels; the dividing
  lymphocytes form the lymphoid tissue, and eventually the network
  breaks up to form distinct glands into which blood vessels penetrate.
  If the blood vessels enlarge more than the lymphatic, haemolymph
  glands result, but if the lymphatic vessels become predominant
  ordinary lymphatic glands are formed. At an early stage in the embryo
  pig two thoracic ducts are formed, one on either side of the aorta,
  and the incomplete fusion of these may account for the division often
  found in man's duct. In the embryo pig too there have been found two
  pairs of lymph hearts for a short period.

  See A. S. Warthin, _Journ. Med. Research_, vol. vii. p. 435; F. R.
  Sabin, _Am. Journ. of Anat._ i., 1902; and, for literature,
  _Development of the Human Body_, by J. P. McMurrich (London, 1906),
  and Quain's _Anatomy_ (vol. i., London, 1908).

  _Comparative Anatomy._--A lymphatic system is recognized in all the
  Craniata, and in the lower forms (fishes and Amphibia) it consists
  chiefly of lymph spaces and sinuses in communication with the coelom.
  In fishes, for instance, there is a large _subvertebral lymph sinus_
  surrounding the aorta and another within the spinal canal. In Amphibia
  the subvertebral sinus is also found, and in the Anura (frogs and
  toads) there is a great _subcutaneous lymph sinus_. _Lymph hearts_ are
  muscular dilatations of vessels and are found in fishes, amphibians,
  reptiles and bird embryos, and drive the lymph into the veins; they
  are not known in adult mammals.

  In birds the thoracic duct is first recognized, and opens into both
  right and left precaval veins, as it always does in some mammals. In
  birds, however, some of the lymphatics open into the sacral veins, and
  it is doubtful whether true lymphatic glands ever occur. In birds and
  mammals lymphatic vessels become more definite and numerous and are
  provided with valves.

  Haemolymph glands are present in mammals and birds, but have not been
  seen lower in the scale, though S. Vincent and S. Harrison point out
  the resemblance of the structure of the head kidney of certain
  Teleostean fishes to them (_Journ. Anat. and Phys._ vol. xxxi. p.
  176).

  For further details see _Comparative Anat. of Vertebrates_, by R.
  Wiedersheim (London, 1907).     (F. G. P.)


  _Diseases of the Lymphatic System and Ductless Glands._

  _Lymphadenitis_ or inflammatory infection of the lymphatic glands, is
  a condition characterized by hyperaemia of and exudation into the
  gland, which becomes reader, firmer and larger than usual. Three
  varieties may be distinguished: simple, suppurative and tuberculous.
  The cause is always the absorption of some toxic or infective material
  from the periphery. This may take place in several of the acute
  infectious diseases, notably in scarlet fever, mumps, diphtheria and
  German measles, or may be the result of poisoned wounds. The lymphatic
  glands are also affected in constitutional diseases such as syphilis.
  Simple lymphadenitis usually subsides of its own accord, but if toxins
  are produced in the inflamed area the enlargement is obvious and
  painful, while if pyogenic organisms are absorbed the inflammation
  progresses to suppuration.

  _Tuberculous lymphadenitis_ (scrofula) is due to the infection of the
  lymph glands by Koch's tubercle bacillus. This was formerly known as
  "King's Evil," as it was believed that the touch of the royal hand had
  power to cure it. It occurs most commonly in children and young adults
  whose surroundings are unhealthy, and who are liable to develop
  tuberculous disease from want of sufficient food and fresh air. Some
  local focus of irritation is usually present. The ways in which the
  tubercle bacillus enters the body are much disputed, but catarrh of
  the mucous membranes is regarded as a predisposing factor, and the
  tonsils as a probable channel of infection. Any lymphoid tissue in the
  body may be the seat of tuberculous disease, but the glands of the
  neck are the most commonly involved. The course of the disease is slow
  and may extend over a period of years. The earliest manifestation is
  an enlargement of the gland. It is possible in this stage for
  spontaneous healing to take place, but usually the disease progresses
  to caseation, in which tuberculous nodules are found diffused
  throughout the gland. Occasionally this stage may end in calcification
  of the caseous matter, the gland shrinking and becoming hard; but
  frequently suppuration follows from liquefaction of the caseating
  material. Foci of pus occur throughout the gland, causing destruction
  of the tissue, so that the gland may become a single abscess cavity.
  If left to itself the abscess sooner or later bursts at one or several
  points, leaving ulcerated openings through which a variable amount of
  pus escapes. Temporary healing may take place, to be again followed by
  further breaking down of the gland. This condition, if untreated, may
  persist for years and may finally give rise to a general tuberculosis.
  The treatment consists mainly in improving the general health with
  good diet, fresh air (particularly sea air), cod-liver oil and iron,
  and the removal of all sources of local irritation such as enlarged
  tonsils, adenoids, &c. Vaccination with tuberculin (TR) may be useful.
  Suppuration and extension of the disease require operative measures,
  and removal of the glands _en masse_ can now be done through so small
  an opening as to leave only a very slight scar.

  In _Tabes mesenterica_ (tuberculosis of the mesenteric glands),
  usually occurring in children, the glands of the mesentery and
  retroperitonaeum become enlarged, and either caseate or occasionally
  suppurate. The disease may be primary or may be secondary to
  tuberculous disease of the intestines or to pulmonary phthisis. The
  patients are pale, wasted and anaemic, and the abdomen may be
  enormously enlarged. There is usually moderate fever, and thin watery
  diarrhoea. The caseating glands may liquefy and give rise to an
  inflammatory attack which may simulate appendicitis. Limited masses
  are amenable to surgical treatment and may be removed, while in the
  earlier stages constitutional treatment gives good results.
  Tuberculous peritonitis frequently supervenes on this condition.

  _Lymphadenoma_ (Hodgkin's Disease), a disease which was first fully
  described by Hodgkin in 1832, is characterized by a progressive
  enlargement of the lymphatic glands all over the body, and generally
  starts in the glands of the neck. The majority of cases occur in young
  adults, and preponderate in the male sex. The first symptom is usually
  enlargement of a gland in the neck, with generally progressive growth
  of the glands in the submaxillary region and axilla. The inguinal
  glands are early involved, and after a time the internal lymph glands
  follow. The enlargements are at first painless, but in the later
  stages symptoms are caused by pressure on the surrounding organs, and
  when the disease starts in the deeper structures the first symptoms
  may be pain in the chest and cough, pain in the abdomen, pain and
  oedema in the legs. The glands may increase until they are as large as
  eggs, and later may become firmly adherent one to another, forming
  large lobulated tumours. Increase of growth in this manner in the neck
  may cause obstructive dyspnoea and even death. In the majority of
  cases the spleen enlarges, and in rare instances lymphoid tumours may
  be found on its surface. Anaemia is common and is secondary in
  character; slight irregular fever is present, and soon a great and
  progressive emaciation takes place. The cases are of two types, the
  acute cases in which the enlargements take place rapidly and death may
  occur in two to three months, and the chronic cases in which the
  disease may remain apparently stationary. In acute lymphadenoma the
  prognosis is very unfavourable. Recovery sometimes takes place in the
  chronic type of the disease. Early surgical intervention has in some
  cases been followed by success. The application of X-rays is a
  valuable method of treatment, superficial glands undergoing a rapid
  diminution in size. Of drugs arsenic is of the most service, and
  mercurial inunction has been recommended by Dreschfeld. Organic
  extracts have of late been used in the treatment of lymphadenoma.

  _Glandular Fever_ is an acute infectious fever, generally occurring in
  epidemics, and was first described by E. Pfeiffer in 1889. It usually
  affects children and has a tendency to run through all the children of
  a family. The incubation period is said to be about 7 days. The onset
  is sudden, with pain in the neck and limbs, headache, vomiting,
  difficulty in swallowing and high temperature. On the second day, or
  sometimes on the first, swelling of the cervical glands is noticed,
  and later the posterior cervical, axillary and inguinal glands become
  enlarged and tender. In about half the cases the spleen and liver are
  enlarged and there is abdominal tenderness. West found the mesenteric
  nodes enlarged in 37 cases. Nephritis is an occasional complication,
  and constipation is very usual. The disease tends to subside of
  itself, and the fever usually disappears after a few days; the
  glandular swellings may, however, persist from one to three weeks.
  Considerable anaemia has been noticed to follow the illness. Rest in
  bed while the glands are enlarged, and cod-liver oil and iron to meet
  the anaemia, are the usual treatment.

  _Status lymphaticus_ (lymphatism) is a condition found in children and
  some adults, characterized by an enlargement of the lymphoid tissues
  throughout the body and more particularly by enlargement of the thymus
  gland. There is a special lowering of the patient's powers of
  resistance, and it has been said to account for a number of cases of
  sudden death. In all cases of status lymphaticus the thymus has been
  found enlarged. At birth the gland (according to Bovaird and Nicoll)
  weighs about 6 grammes, and does not increase after birth. In
  lymphatism it may weigh from 10 to 50 grammes. The clinical features
  are indefinite, and the condition frequently passes unrecognized
  during life. In most cases there is no hint of danger until the fatal
  syncope sets in, which may be after any slight exertion or shock, the
  patient becoming suddenly faint, gasping and cyanosed, and the heart
  stopping altogether before the respirations have ceased. The most
  trifling causes have brought on fatal issues, such as a wet pack
  (Escherich) or a hypodermic injection, or even a sudden plunge into
  water though the head is not immersed. The greater number of deaths
  occur during the administration of anaesthetics, which seem peculiarly
  dangerous to these subjects. When an attack of syncope takes place no
  treatment is of any avail.

  Virchow, West and Goodhardt have described a form of asthma in adults
  which they ascribe to a hypertrophied thymus gland and term "thymic
  asthma."

  _Diseases of the Spleen._--Physiological variations and abnormalities
  and absence of the spleen are so rare as to require no comment. The
  most usual pathological condition which gives rise to symptoms is that
  of _wandering spleen_, which may or may not be secondary to a
  wandering left kidney. It may produce symptoms of dragging and
  discomfort, dyspepsia, vomiting and abdominal pain, and sometimes
  jaundice (Treves), or the pedicle may become twisted, producing
  extremely severe symptoms. The treatment is entirely surgical. Abscess
  in the spleen occasionally occurs, usually in association with
  infective endocarditis or with general pyaemia. The spleen may be the
  seat of primary _new growths_, but these are rare, and only in a small
  portion of cases does it share in the metastatic reproduction of
  carcinoma. Infection of the spleen plays a prominent part in many
  diseases, such as malaria, typhoid fever, lymphadenoma and leucaemia.

  Diseases of the thyroid gland (see GOITRE) and _Addison's disease_ (of
  the suprarenal glands) are treated separately.     (H. L. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] It has recently been stated that stomata do not exist in the
    peritoneum.

  [2] For further details of the pelvic glands see "Seventh Report of
    the Committee of Collective Investigation," _Journ. Anat. and Phys._
    xxxii. 164.



LYNCH, PATRICIO (1825-1886) Chilean naval officer, was born in
Valparaiso on the 18th of December 1825, his father being a wealthy
Irish merchant resident in Chile, and his mother, Carmen Solo de
Saldiva, a descendant of one of the best-known families in the country.
Entering the navy in 1837, he took part in the operations which led to
the fall of the dictator, Santa Cruz. Next, he sought a wider field, and
saw active service in the China War on board the British frigate
"Calliope." He was mentioned in despatches for bravery, and received the
grade of midshipman in the British service. Returning to Chile in 1847
he became lieutenant, and seven years later he received the command of a
frigate, but was deprived of his command for refusing to receive on
board his ship political suspects under arrest. The Spanish War saw him
again employed, and he was successively maritime prefect of Valparaiso,
colonel of National Guards, and, finally, captain and minister of marine
in 1872. In the Chile-Peruvian War a brilliant and destructive naval
raid, led by him, was followed by the final campaign of Chorrillos and
Miraflores (1880), in which he led at first a brigade (as colonel) and
afterwards a division under Baquedano. His services at the battle of
Chorrillos led to his appointment to command the Army of Occupation in
Peru. This difficult post he filled with success, but his action in
putting the Peruvian president, Garcia Calderon, under arrest excited
considerable comment. His last act was to invest Iglesias with supreme
power in Peru, and he returned to his own country in 1883. Promoted
rear-admiral, he served as Chilean Minister at Madrid for two years, and
died at sea in 1886. Lynch is remembered as one of the foremost of
Chile's naval heroes.



LYNCHBURG, a city of Campbell county, Virginia, U.S.A., on the James
river, about 125 m. W. by S. of Richmond. Pop. (1900) 18,891, of whom
8254 were negroes; (1910) 29,494. It is served by the Southern, the
Chesapeake & Ohio and the Norfolk & Western railways. Its terraced hills
command fine views of mountain, valley and river scenery, extending
westward to the noble Peaks of Otter and lesser spurs of the Blue Ridge
about 20 m. distant. On an elevation between Rivermont Avenue and the
James river are the buildings of Randolph-Macon Woman's college (opened
in 1893), which is conducted by a self-perpetuating board under the
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and is one of the
Randolph-Macon system of collèges and academies (see ASHLAND, VA.). In
Lynchburg, too, are the Virginia Christian college (co-educational,
1903), and the Virginia collegiate and industrial school for negroes.
The city has a public library, well-equipped hospitals, public parks and
the Rivermont Viaduct, 1100 ft. long and 140 ft. high. Lynchburg is the
see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Tobacco of a superior quality and
large quantities of coal, iron ore and granite are produced in the
neighbourhood. Good water power is furnished by the James river, and
Lynchburg is one of the principal manufacturing cities of the state. The
boot and shoe industry was established in 1900, and is much the most
important. In 1905 the city was the largest southern manufacturer of
these articles and one of the largest distributors in the country. The
factory products increased in value from $2,993,551 in 1900 to
$4,905,435 in 1905, or 65.9%.

Lynchburg, named in honour of John Lynch, who inherited a large tract of
land here and in 1757 established a ferry across the James, was
established as a village by Act of Assembly in 1786, was incorporated as
a town in 1805, and became a city in 1852. During the Civil War it was
an important base of supplies for the Confederates; on the 16th of June
1864 it was invested by Major-General David Hunter (1802-1886), but
three days later he was driven away by General Jubal A. Early. In 1908
the city's corporate limits were extended.



LYNCH LAW, a term loosely applied to various forms of executing rough
popular justice, or what is thought to be justice, for the punishment of
offenders by a summary procedure, ignoring, or even contrary to, the
strict forms of law. The word _lynching_ "originally signified a
whipping for reformatory purposes with more or less disregard for its
legality" (Cutler), or the infliction of minor punishments without
recourse to law; but during and after the Reconstruction Period in the
United States, it came to mean, generally, the summary infliction of
capital punishment. Lynch law is frequently prevalent in sparsely
settled or frontier districts where government is weak and officers of
the law too few and too powerless to enforce law and preserve order. The
practice has been common in all countries when unsettled frontier
conditions existed, or in periods of threatened anarchy. In what are
considered civilized countries it is now found mainly in Russia,
south-eastern Europe and in America, but it is essentially and almost
peculiarly an American institution. The origin of the name is obscure;
different writers have attempted to trace it to Ireland, to England, to
South Carolina, to Pennsylvania and to Virginia. It is certain that the
name was first used in America, but it is not certain whether it came
from Lynch's Creek, South Carolina, where summary justice was
administered to outlaws, or from Virginia and Pennsylvania, where men
named Lynch were noted for dealing out summary punishment to
offenders.[1] In Europe early examples of a similar phenomenon are found
in the proceedings of the Vehmgerichte in medieval Germany, and of
Lydford law, gibbet law or Halifax law, Cowper justice and Jeddart
justice in the thinly settled and border districts of Great Britain; and
since the term "lynch law" came into colloquial use, it is loosely
employed to cover any case in which a portion of the community takes the
execution of its ideas of justice into its own hands, irrespective of
the legal authorities.

In America during the 18th and 19th centuries the population expanded
westward faster than well-developed civil institutions could follow, and
on the western frontier were always desperadoes who lived by preying on
the better classes. To suppress these desperadoes, in the absence of
strong legal institutions, resort was continually made to lynch law.
There was little necessity for it until the settlement crossed the
Alleghany Mountains, but the following instances of lynching in the East
may be mentioned: (1) the mistreatment of Indians in New England and the
Middle Colonies in disregard of laws protecting them; (2) the custom
found in various colonies of administering summary justice to
wife-beaters, idlers and other obnoxious persons; (3) the acts of the
Regulators of North Carolina, 1767-1771; (4) the popular tribunals of
the Revolutionary period, when the disaffection toward Great Britain
weakened the authority of the civil governments and the war replaced
them by popular governments, at a time when the hostilities between
"Patriots" and "Tories" were an incentive to extra-legal violence. In
the South, lynching methods were long employed in dealing with
agitators, white and black, who were charged with endeavouring to excite
the slaves to insurrection or to crime against their masters, and in
dealing with anti-slavery agitators generally.

In the West, from the Alleghanies to the Golden Gate, the pioneer
settlers resorted to popular justice to get rid of bands of outlaws, and
to regulate society during that period when laws were weak or confused,
when the laws made in the East did not suit western conditions, and when
courts and officials were scarce and distant. The Watauga settlements
and the "State" of Franklin furnished examples of lynch law procedure
almost reduced to organization. Men trained in the rough school of the
wilderness came to have more regard for quick, ready-made, personal
justice than for abstract justice and statutes; they were educated to
defend themselves, to look to no law for protection or regulation;
consequently they became impatient of legal forms and lawyers'
technicalities; an appeal to statute law was looked upon with suspicion,
and, if some personal matter was involved, was likely to result in
deadly private feuds. Thus were formed the habits of thought and action
of the western pioneers. Lynch law, not civil law, cleared the western
forests, valleys and mountain passes of horse and cattle thieves, and
other robbers and outlaws, gamblers and murderers. This was especially
true of California and the states of the far West. H. H. Bancroft, the
historian of _Popular Tribunals_, wrote in 1887 that "thus far in the
history of these Pacific States far more has been done toward righting
wrongs and administering justice outside the pale of law than within
it." However, the lack of regard for law fostered by the conditions
described led to a survival of the lynching habit after the necessity
for it passed away. In parts of the Southern states, where the whites
are few and greatly outnumbered by the blacks, certain of the conditions
of the West have prevailed, and since emancipation released the blacks
from restraint many of the latter have been lawless and turbulent. The
Reconstruction, by giving to the blacks temporary political supremacy,
increased the friction between the races, and greatly deepened
prejudice. The numerous protective societies of whites, 1865-1876,
culminating in the Ku Klux movement, may be described as an application
of lynch law. With the increase of negro crimes came an increase of
lynchings, due to prejudice, to the fact that for some time after
Reconstruction the governments were relatively weak, especially in the
districts where the blacks outnumber the whites, to the fact that
negroes nearly always shield criminals of their own race against the
whites, and to the frequent occurrence of the crime of rape by negro men
upon white women.

Since 1882 the Chicago _Tribune_ has collected statistics of lynching,
and some interesting facts may be deduced from these tables.[2] During
the twenty-two years from 1882 to 1903 inclusive, the total number of
persons lynched in the United States was 3337, the number decreasing
during the last decade; of these 2385 were in the South and 752 in the
North; of those lynched in the East and West 602 were white and 75
black, and of those in the South 567 were white and 1985 black.[3]
Lynchings occur mostly during periods of idleness of the lower classes;
in the summer more are lynched for crimes against the person and in the
winter (in the West) for crimes against property; the principal causes
of lynching in the South are murder and rape, in the North and West,
murder and offences against property; more blacks than whites were
lynched between 1882 and 1903, the numbers being 2060 negroes, of whom
40 were women, and 1169 whites, of whom 23 were women; of the 707 blacks
lynched for rape 675 were in the South; 783 blacks were lynched for
murder, and 753 of these were in the South; most of the lynchings of
whites were in the West; the lynching of negroes increased somewhat
outside of the South and decreased somewhat in the South. Lynching
decreases and disappears in a community as the population grows denser
and civil institutions grow stronger; as better communications and good
police make it harder to commit crime; and as public sentiment is
educated to demand legal rather than illegal and irregular infliction of
punishment for even the most horrible of crimes.

  See James E. Cutler, _Lynch Law_ (New York, 1905), an admirable and
  unbiased discussion of the subject; H. H. Bancroft, _Popular
  Tribunals_ (2 vols., San Francisco, 1887); C. H. Shinn, _Mining Camps:
  A Study in American Frontier Government_ (New York, 1885); and J. C.
  Lester and D. L. Wilson, _Ku Klux Klan_ (New York, 1905).
       (W. L. F.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The usual explanation is that the name was derived from Charles
    Lynch (1736-1796), a justice of the peace in Virginia after 1774, who
    in 1780, toward the close of the War of Independence, greatly
    exceeded his powers in the punishment of Tories or Loyalists detected
    in a conspiracy in the neighbourhood of his home in Bedford county,
    Va. Lynch was a man of influence in his community, was for many years
    a member of the Virginia legislature, was a member of the famous
    Virginia Convention of 1776 and was later (in 1781) an officer in the
    American army. See an article, "The Real Judge Lynch," in the
    _Atlantic Monthly_, vol. lxxxviii. (Boston, 1901).

  [2] They have been corrected and somewhat modified by Dr. J. E.
    Cutler, from whose book the figures above have been taken. Lynching
    as used in this connexion applies exclusively to the illegal
    infliction of capital punishment.

  [3] For present purposes the former slave states (of 1860) constitute
    the South; the West is composed of the territory west of the
    Mississippi river, excluding Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas and
    Oklahoma; the East includes those states east of the Mississippi
    river not included in the Southern group; the East and the West make
    up the North as here used--that is, the former free states of 1860.



LYNDHURST, JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, BARON (1772-1863), lord chancellor of
England, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1772. He was the son of
John Singleton Copley, the painter. He was educated at a private school
and Cambridge university, where he was second wrangler and fellow of
Trinity. Called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1804, he gained a
considerable practice. In 1817 he was one of the counsel for Dr J.
Watson, tried for his share in the Spa Fields riot. On this occasion
Copley so distinguished himself as to attract the attention of
Castlereagh and other Tory leaders, under whose patronage he entered
parliament as member for Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight. He afterwards
sat for Ashburton, 1818-1826, and for Cambridge university 1826-1827. He
was solicitor-general in 1819, attorney-general in 1824, master of the
rolls in 1826 and lord chancellor in 1827, with the title of Lord
Lyndhurst. Before being taken up by the Tories, Copley was a man of the
most advanced views, a republican and Jacobin; and his accession to the
Tories excited a good deal of comment, which he bore with the greatest
good humour. He gave a brilliant and eloquent but by no means rancorous
support to all the reactionary measures of his chief. The same year that
he became solicitor-general he married the beautiful and clever widow
of Lieut.-Colonel Charles Thomas of the Coldstream Guards, and began to
take a conspicuous place in society, in which his noble figure, his
ready wit and his never-failing _bonhomie_ made him a distinguished
favourite.

As solicitor-general he took a prominent part in the trial of Queen
Caroline. To the great Liberal measures which marked the end of the
reign of George IV. and the beginning of that of William IV. he gave a
vigorous opposition. He was lord chief baron of the exchequer from 1831
to 1834. During the Melbourne administration from 1835 to 1841 he
figured conspicuously as an obstructionist in the House of Lords. In
these years it was a frequent practice with him, before each prorogation
of parliament, to entertain the House with a "review of the session," in
which he mercilessly attacked the Whig government. His former adversary
Lord Brougham, disgusted at his treatment by the Whig leaders, soon
became his most powerful ally in opposition; and the two dominated the
House of Lords. Throughout all the Tory governments from 1827 Lyndhurst
held the chancellorship (1827-1830 and 1834-1835); and in the Peel
administration (1841-1846) he resumed that office for the last time. As
Peel never had much confidence in Lyndhurst, the latter did not exert so
great an influence in the cabinet as his position and experience
entitled him to do. But he continued a loyal member of the party. As in
regard to Catholic emancipation, so in the agitation against the corn
laws, he opposed reform till his chief gave the signal for concession,
and then he cheerfully obeyed. After 1846 and the disintegration of the
Tory party consequent on Peel's adoption of free trade, Lord Lyndhurst
was not so assiduous in his attendance in parliament. Yet he continued
to an extreme old age to take a lively interest in public affairs, and
occasionally to astonish the country by the power and brilliancy of his
speeches. That which he made in the House of Lords on the 19th of June
1854, on the war with Russia, made a sensation in Europe; and throughout
the Crimean War he was a strong advocate of the energetic prosecution of
hostilities. In 1859 he denounced with his old energy the restless
ambition of Napoleon III. When released from office he came forward
somewhat as the advocate of liberal measures. His first wife had died in
1834, and in August 1837 he had married Georgina, daughter of Lewis
Goldsmith. She was a Jewess; and it was therefore natural that he
strenuously supported the admission of Jews into parliament. He also
advocated women's rights in questions of divorce. At the age of
eighty-four he passed the autumn at Dieppe, "helping to fly paper kites,
and amusing himself by turns with the writings of the Greek and Latin
fathers on divorce and the amorous novels of Eugene Sue." His last
speech, marked by "his wonted brilliancy and vigour," was delivered in
the House of Lords at the age of eighty-nine. He died in London on the
12th of October 1863. He left no male issue and the title became
extinct.

  See _Lives of the Lord Chancellors of England_, vol. viii. (Lords
  Lyndhurst and Brougham), by Lord Campbell (1869). Campbell was a
  personal friend, but a political opponent. Brougham's _Memoirs_;
  _Greville Memoirs_; _Life of Lord Lyndhurst_ (1883) by Sir Theodore
  Martin; J. B. Atlay, _The Victorian Chancellors_ (1906).



LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID (c. 1490-c. 1555), Scottish poet, was the son of
David Lyndsay of the Mount, near Cupar-Fife, and of Garmylton, near
Haddington. His place of birth and his school are undetermined. It is
probable that his college life was spent at St Andrews university, on
the books of which appears an entry "Da Lindesay" for the session
1508-1509. He was engaged at court, first as an equerry, then as an
"usher" to the young Prince James, afterwards James V. In 1522 he
married Janet Douglas, a court seamstress, and seven years later was
appointed Lyon King of Arms, and knighted. He was several times engaged
in diplomatic business (twice on embassies abroad--to the Netherlands
and France), and he was, in virtue of his heraldic office, a general
master of ceremonies. After the death of James V., in 1542, he continued
to sit in parliament as commissioner for Cupar-Fife; and in 1548 he was
member of a mission to Denmark which obtained certain privileges for
Scottish merchants. There is reason to believe that he died in or about
1555.

Most of Lyndsay's literary work, by which he secured great reputation in
his own day and by which he still lives, was written during the period
of prosperity at court. In this respect he is unlike his predecessor
Gavin Douglas (q.v.), who forsook literature when he became a
politician. The explanation of the difference is partly to be found in
the fact that Lyndsay's muse was more occasional and satirical, and that
the time was suitable to the exercise of his special gifts. It is more
difficult to explain how he enjoyed a freedom of speech which is without
parallel even in more secure times. He chastised all classes, from his
royal master to the most simple. There is no evidence that he abjured
Catholicism; yet his leading purpose was the exposure of its errors and
abuses. His aid was readily accepted by the reforming party, and by
their use of his work he shared with their leaders throughout many
generations a reputation which is almost exclusively political and
ecclesiastical.

Lyndsay's longer poems are _The Dreme_ (1134 lines), _The Testament and
Complaynt of the Papynago_ (1190 lines), _The Testament of Squyer
Meldrum_ (1859 lines), _Ane Dialog betwix Experience and ane Courteour
of the Miserabyll Estait of the World_ (6333 lines), and _Ane Pleasant
Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis_ (over 4000 lines). These represent, with
reasonable completeness, the range of Lyndsay's literary talent. No
single poem can give him a chief place, though here and there,
especially in the last, he gives hints of the highest competence. Yet
the corporate effect of these pieces is to secure for him the allowance
of more than mere intellectual vigour and common sense. There is in his
craftsmanship, in his readiness to apply the traditional methods to
contemporary requirements, something of that accomplishment which makes
even the second-rate man of letters interesting.

Lyndsay, the last of the Makars, is not behind his fellow-poets in
acknowledgment to Chaucer. As piously as they, he reproduces the
master's forms; but in him the sentiment and outlook have suffered
change. His nearest approach to Chaucer is in _The Testament of Squyer
Meldrum_, which recalls the sketch of the "young squire"; but the
reminiscence is verbal rather than spiritual. Elsewhere his memory
serves him less happily, as when he describes the array of the lamented
Queen Magdalene in the words which Chaucer had applied to the eyes of
his wanton Friar. So too, in the _Dreme_, the allegorical tradition
survives only in the form. "Remembrance" conducts the poet over the
old-world itinerary, but only to lead him to speculation on Scotland's
woes and to an "Exhortatioun to the Kingis Grace" to bring relief. The
tenor is well expressed in the motto from the Vulgate--"_Prophetias
nolite spernere. Omnia autem probate: quod bonum est tenete._" This
didactic habit is freely exercised in the long _Dialog_ (sometimes
called the _Monarche_), a universal history of the medieval type, in
which the falls of princes by corruption supply an object lesson to the
unreformed church of his day. The _Satyre_ is more direct in its attack
on ecclesiastical abuse; and its dramatic form permits more lively
treatment. This piece is of great historical interest, being the only
extant example of a complete Scottish morality. It is in respect of
literary quality Lyndsay's best work, and in dramatic construction and
delineation of character it holds a high place in this _genre_. The
farcical interludes (in places too coarse for modern taste) supply many
touches of genuine comedy; and throughout the play there are passages,
as in the speeches of Veritie in the First Part and of Dame Chastitie in
the "Interlude of the Sowtar and the Taylor," in which word and line are
happily conceived. The _Testament of the Papyngo_ (popinjay), drawn in
the familiar medieval manner, is another tract for the time, full of
admonition to court and clergy. Of his shorter pieces, _The Complaynt
and Publict Confessions of the Kingis Auld Hound, callit Bagsche,
directit to Bawtie, the Kingis best belovit Dog, and his companyeonis_,
and the _Answer to the Kingis Flyting_ have a like pulpit resonance. The
former is interesting as a forerunner of Burns's device in the "Twa
Dogs." The _Deploratioun of the_ _Deith of Queen Magdalene_ is in the
extravagant style of commemoration illustrated in Dunbar's Elegy on the
Lord Aubigny. The _Justing betwix James Watsoun and Jhone Barbour_ is a
contribution to the popular taste for boisterous fun, in spirit, if not
in form, akin to the _Christis Kirk on the Grene_ series; and
indirectly, with Dunbar's _Turnament_ and _Of ane Blak-Moir_, a
burlesque of the courtly tourney. Lyndsay approaches Dunbar in his
satire _The Supplicatioun in contemptioun of syde taillis_ ("wide"
trains of the ladies), which recalls the older poet's realistic lines on
the filthy condition of the city streets. In Lyndsay's _Descriptioun of
Pedder Coffeis_ (pedlars) we have an early example of the studies in
vulgar life which are so plentiful in later Scottish literature. In
_Kitteis Confessioun_ he returns, but in more sprightly mood, to his
attack on the church.

In Lyndsay we have the first literary expression in Scotland of the
Renaissance. His interest lies on the theological side of the revival;
he is in no sense a humanist, and he is indifferent to the artistic
claims of the movement. Still he appeals to the principle which is
fundamental to all. He demands first-hand impression. He feels that men
must get their lesson direct, not from intermediaries who understand the
originals no more "than they do the ravyng of the rukis." Hence his
persistent plea for the vernacular, nowhere more directly put than in
the _Dialog_, in the "Exclamatioun to the Redar, toucheyng the wrytting
of the vulgare and maternall language." Though he is concerned only in
the theological and ecclesiastical application of this, he undoubtedly
stimulated the use of the vernacular in a Scotland which in all literary
matters beyond the concern of the irresponsible poet still used the
_lingua franca_ of Europe.

  A complete edition of Lyndsay's poetical works was published by David
  Laing in 3 vols. in 1879. This was anticipated during the process of
  preparation by a cheaper edition (slightly expurgated) by the same
  editor in 1871 (2 vols.). The E.E.T.S. issued the first part of a
  complete edition in 1865 (ed. F. Hall). Five parts have appeared, four
  edited by F. Hall, the fifth by J. A. H. Murray. For the bibliography
  see Laing's 3 vol. edition, _u.s._ iii. pp. 222 et seq., and the
  E.E.T.S. edition _passim_. See also the editions by Pinkerton (1792),
  Sibbald (1803), and Chalmers (1806); and the critical accounts in
  Henderson's _Scottish Vernacular Literature_ (1898), Gregory Smith's
  _Transition Period_ (1900), and J. H. Millar's _Literary History of
  Scotland_ (1903). A professional work prepared by Lyndsay in the Lyon
  Office, entitled the _Register of Scottish Arms_ (now preserved in MS.
  in the Advocates' Library), was printed in 1821 and reprinted in 1878.
  It remains the most authoritative document on Scottish heraldry.
       (G. G. S.)



LYNEDOCH, THOMAS GRAHAM, 1ST BARON (1748-1843), British general, was the
son of Thomas Graeme, laird of Balgowan, and was born on the 19th of
October 1748. He was educated by private tutors, among whom was James
Macpherson (q.v.), and was a gentleman commoner of Christ Church,
Oxford, between 1766 and 1768. He then travelled on the continent of
Europe, and in 1772 unsuccessfully contested a parliamentary seat in
Perthshire. In 1774 he married a daughter of the ninth Lord Cathcart,
and took a house in the Leicestershire hunting country. After a few
years, owing to the state of his wife's health, Graham was compelled to
live mainly in the south of Europe, though while at home he was a
prominent sportsman and agriculturist. In 1787 he bought the small
estate of Lynedoch or Lednock, a few miles from Perth. In 1791 his wife
died in the Mediterranean, off Hyères. Graham tried to find distraction
in renewed travels, and during his wanderings fell in with Lord Hood's
fleet on its way to Toulon. He joined it as a volunteer, served on Lord
Mulgrave's staff during the British occupation of Toulon, and returned,
after the failure of the expedition, to Scotland, where he organized a
regiment of infantry, the 90th Foot, Perthshire Volunteers (now 2nd
Battalion Scottish Rifles). Graham's men were the first regiment in the
army to be equipped and trained wholly as light infantry, though they
were not officially recognized as such for many years. In the same year
(1794) Graham became member of parliament, in the Whig interest, for the
county of Perth. He saw some active service in 1795 in "conjunct
expeditions" of the army and navy, and in 1796, being then a brevet
colonel, he was appointed British commissioner at the headquarters of
the Austrian army in Italy. He took part in the operations against
Napoleon Bonaparte, was shut up in Mantua with Würmser's army, escaped
in disguise, and after many adventures reached the relieving army of
Alvinzi just before the battle of Rivoli. On returning to his regiment
he served in more "conjunct" expeditions, in one of which, at Messina,
he co-operated with Nelson, and in 1799 he was sent as brigadier-general
to invest the fortress of Valetta, Malta. He blockaded the place for two
years, and though Major-General Pigot arrived shortly before the close
of the blockade and assumed command, the conquest of Malta stands almost
wholly to the credit of Graham and his naval colleague Sir Alexander
Ball. In 1801 Graham proceeded to Egypt, where his regiment was engaged
in Abercromby's expedition, but arrived too late to take part in any
fighting. He took the opportunity afforded by the peace of Amiens to
visit Turkey, Austria, Germany and France, and only resumed command of
his regiment in 1804. When the latter was ordered to the West Indies he
devoted himself to his duties as a member of parliament. He sat for
Perthshire until 1807, when he was defeated, as he was again in 1812.
Graham was with Moore in Sweden in 1808 and in Spain 1808-1809, and was
present at his death at the battle of Corunna. In 1809 he became a
major-general, and after taking part in the disastrous Walcheren
expedition he was promoted lieutenant-general and sent to Cadiz (1810).

In 1811, acting in conjunction with the Spanish army under General la
Peña (see PENINSULAR WAR), he took the offensive, and won the brilliant
action of Barossa (5th of March). The victory was made barren of result
by the timidity of the Spanish generals. The latter nevertheless claimed
more than their share of the credit, and Graham answered them with
spirit. One of the Spanish officers he called out, fought and disarmed,
and after refusing with contempt the offer of a Spanish dukedom, he
resigned his command in the south and joined Wellington in Portugal. His
seniority as lieutenant-general made him second in command of
Wellington's army. He took part in the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, and
commanded a wing of the army in the siege of Badajoz and the advance to
Salamanca. In July 1812, his eyesight becoming seriously impaired, he
went home, but rejoined in time to lead the detached wing of the army in
the wide-ranging manoeuvre which culminated in the battle of Vittoria.
Graham was next entrusted with the investment and siege of San
Sebastian, which after a desperate defence fell on the 9th of September
1813. He then went home, but in 1814 accepted the command of a corps to
be despatched against Antwerp. His assault on Bergen op Zoom was,
however, disastrously repulsed (3rd of February 1814).

At the peace Graham retired from active military employment. He was
created Baron Lynedoch of Balgowan in the peerage of the United Kingdom,
but refused the offered pension of £2000 a year. In 1813 he proposed the
formation of a military club in London, and though Lord St Vincent
considered such an assemblage of officers to be unconstitutional,
Wellington supported it and the officers of the army and navy at large
received the idea with enthusiasm. Lynedoch's portrait, by Sir T.
Lawrence, is in possession of this club, the (Senior) United Service. In
his latter years he resumed the habits of his youth, travelling all over
Europe, hunting with the Pytchley so long as he was able to sit his
horse, actively concerned in politics and voting consistently for
liberal measures. At the age of ninety-two he hastened from Switzerland
to Edinburgh to receive Queen Victoria when she visited Scotland after
her marriage. He died in London on the 18th of December 1843. He had
been made a full general in 1821, and at the time of his death was a
G.C.B., Colonel of the 1st (Royal Scots) regiment, and governor of
Dumbarton Castle.

  See biographies by John Murray Graham (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1877) and
  Captain A. M. Delavoye (London, 1880); also the latter's _History of
  the 90th_ (_Perthshire Volunteers_) (London, 1880), _Philipparts'
  Royal Military Calendar_ (1820), ii. 147, and _Gentleman's Magazine_,
  new series, xxi. 197.



LYNN, a city and seaport of Essex county, Massachusetts, 9 m. N.E. of
Boston, on the N. shore of Massachusetts Bay. Pop. (1900) 68,513, of
whom 17,742 were foreign-born (6609 being English Canadians, 5306
Irish, 1527 English and 1280 French Canadians), and 784 were negroes;
(1910 census) 89,336. It is served by the Boston & Maine and the Boston,
Revere Beach & Lynn railways, and by an interurban electric railway, and
has an area of 10.85 sq. m. The business part is built near the shore on
low, level ground, and the residential sections are on the higher
levels. Lynn Woods, a beautiful park, covers more than 2000 acres. On
the shore, which has a fine boulevard, is a state bath house. The city
has a handsome city hall, a free public library, founded in 1862, a
soldiers' monument and two hospitals. Lynn is primarily a manufacturing
city. The first smelting works in New England were established here in
1643. More important and earlier was the manufacture of boots and shoes,
an industry introduced in 1636 by Philip Kertland, a Buckingham man; a
corporation of shoemakers existed here in 1651, whose papers were lost
in 1765. There were many court orders in the seventeenth century to
butchers, tanners, bootmakers and cordwainers; and the business was made
more important by John Adam Dagyr (d. 1808), a Welshman who came here in
1750 and whose work was equal to the best in England. In 1767 the output
was 80,000 pairs; in 1795 about 300,000 pairs of women's shoes were made
by 600 journeymen and 200 master workmen. The product of women's shoes
had become famous in 1764, and about 1783 the use of morocco had been
introduced by Ebenezer Breed. In 1900 and 1905 Lynn was second only to
Brockton among the cities of the United States in the value of boots and
shoes manufactured, and outranked Brockton in the three allied
industries, the manufacture of boots and shoes, of cut stock and of
findings. In the value of its total manufactured product Lynn ranked
second to Boston in the state in 1905, having been fifth in 1900; the
total number of factories in 1905 was 431; their capital was
$23,139,185; their employees numbered 21,540; and their product was
valued at $55,003,023 (as compared with $39,347,493 in 1900). Patent
medicines and compounds and the manufacture of electrical machinery are
prominent industries. The Lynn factories of the General Electric Company
had in 1906 an annual product worth between $15,000,000 and $20,000,000.
The foreign export of manufactured products is estimated at $5,000,000 a
year.

Lynn was founded in 1629 and was called Saugus until 1637, when the
present name was adopted, from Lynn Regis, Norfolk, the home of the Rev.
Samuel Whiting (1597-1679), pastor at Lynn from 1636 until his death.
From Lynn Reading was separated in 1644, Lynnfield in 1782, Saugus in
1815, and, after the incorporation of the city of Lynn in 1850,
Swampscott in 1852, and in 1853 Nahant, S. of Lynn, on a picturesque
peninsula and now a fashionable summer resort.

  See James R, Newhall, _History of Lynn_ (Lynn, 1883), and H. K.
  Sanderson, _Lynn in the Revolution_ (1910).



LYNTON and LYNMOUTH, two seaside villages in the Barnstaple
parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the Bristol Channel;
17 m. E. of Ilfracombe, served by the Lynton light railway, which joins
the South Western and Great Western lines at Barnstaple. Both are
favoured as summer resorts. Lynmouth stands where two small streams, the
East Lyn and West Lyn, flow down deep and well-wooded valleys to the
sea. Lynton is on the cliff-edge, 430 ft. above. A lift connects the
villages. The industries are fishing and a small coasting trade. Not far
off are the Doone Valley, part of the vale of the East Lyn, here called
Badgeworthy water, once the stronghold of a notorious band of robbers
and famous through R. D. Blackmore's novel _Lorna Doone_; Watersmeet,
where two streams, the Tavy and Walkham, join amid wild and beautiful
scenery; and the Valley of Rocks, a narrow glen strewn with immense
boulders. Lynton is an urban district, with a population (1901) of 1641.



LYNX (Lat. _Lynx_, Gr. [Greek: lynx], probably connected with [Greek:
leuosein], to see), a genus of mammals of the family _Felidae_, by some
naturalists regarded only as a subgenus or section of the typical genus
_Felis_ (see CARNIVORA). As an English word (lynx) the name is used of
any animal of this group. It is not certain to which of these, if to any
of them, the Greek name [Greek: lynx] was especially applied, though it
was more probably the caracal (q.v.) than any of the northern species.
The so-called lynxes of Bacchus were generally represented as resembling
leopards rather than any of the species now known by the name. Various
fabulous properties were attributed to the animal, whatever it was, by
the ancients, that of extraordinary powers of vision, including ability
to see through opaque substances, being one; whence the epithet
"lynx-eyed," which has survived to the present day.

Lynxes are found in the northern and temperate regions of both the Old
and New World; they are smaller than leopards, and larger than true wild
cats, with long limbs, short stumpy tail, ears tufted at the tip, and
pupil of the eye linear when contracted. Their fur is generally long and
soft, and always longish upon the cheeks. Their colour is light brown or
grey, and generally spotted with a darker shade. The naked pads of the
feet are more or less covered by the hair that grows between them. The
skull and skeleton do not differ markedly from those of the other cats.
Their habits are exactly those of the other wild cats. Their food
consists of any mammals or birds which they can overpower. They commit
extensive ravages upon sheep and poultry. They generally frequent rocky
places and forests, being active climbers, and passing much of their
time among the branches of the trees. Their skins are of considerable
value in the fur trade. The northern lynx (_L. lynx_ or _L. borealis_)
of Scandinavia, Russia, northern Asia, and till lately the forest
regions of central Europe, has not inhabited Britain during the historic
period, but its remains have been found in cave deposits of Pleistocene
age. Dr W. T. Blanford says that the characters on which E. Blyth relied
in separating the Tibetan lynx (_L. isabellinus_) from the European
species are probably due to the nature of its habitat among rocks, and
that he himself could find no constant character justifying separation.
The pardine lynx (_L. pardinus_) from southern Europe is a very handsome
species; its fur is rufous above and white beneath.

[Illustration: From a drawing by Wolf in Elliot's _Monograph of the
Felidae_.

European Lynx.]

Several lynxes are found in North America; the most northerly has been
described as the Canadian lynx (_L. canadensis_); the bay lynx (_L.
rufus_), with a rufous coat in summer, ranges south to Mexico, with
spotted and streaked varieties--_L. maculatus_ in Texas and southern
California, and _L. fasciatus_ in Washington and Oregon. The first three
were regarded by St George Mivart as local races of the northern lynx. A
fifth form, the plateau lynx (_L. baileyi_), was described by Dr C. H.
Merriam in 1890, but the differences between it and the bay lynx are
slight and unimportant.



LYON, MARY MASON (1797-1849), American educationalist, was born on the
28th of February 1797 on a farm near Buckland, Franklin county,
Massachusetts. She began to teach when she was seventeen, and in 1817,
with the earnings from her spinning and weaving, she went to Sanderson
Academy, Ashfield. She supported herself there, at Amherst Academy,
where she spent one term, and at the girls' school in Byfield,
established in 1819 by Joseph Emerson (1777-1833), where she went in
1821, by teaching in district schools and by conducting informal normal
schools. In 1822-1824 she was assistant principal of Sanderson Academy,
and then taught in Miss Zilpah P. Grant's Adams Female Academy, in
Londonderry (now Derry), N.H. This school had only summer sessions, and
Miss Lyon spent her winters in teaching, especially at Buckland and at
Ashfield, and in studying chemistry and natural science with Edward
Hitchcock, the geologist. In 1828-1834 she taught in Miss Grant's
school, which in 1828 had been removed to Ipswich, and for two years
managed the school in Miss Grant's absence. In 1828-1830 she had kept up
her winter "normal" school at Buckland, and this was the beginning of
her greater plan, "a permanent institution consecrated to the training
of young women for usefulness ... designed to furnish every advantage
which the state of education in this country will allow ... to put
within reach of students of moderate means such opportunities that none
can find better." She was assisted by Dr Hitchcock, and her own mystical
enthusiasm and practical common sense secured for her plan ready
financial support. In 1835 a site was selected near the village of South
Hadley and Mount Holyoke; in 1836 the school was incorporated as Mount
Holyoke Female Seminary; and on the 8th of November 1837 it opened with
Mary Lyon as principal, and, as assistant, Miss Eunice Caldwell,
afterwards well known as Mrs J. P. Cowles of Ipswich Academy. Miss Lyon
died at Mount Holyoke on the 5th of March 1849, having served nearly
twelve years as principal of the seminary, on a salary of $200 a year.
From her work at Holyoke sprang modern higher education for women in
America.

  See Edward Hitchcock, _Life and Labors of Mary Lyon_ (1851); B. B.
  Gilchrist, _Life of Mary Lyon_ (Boston, 1910).



LYON, NATHANIEL (1818-1861), American soldier, was born in Ashford,
Connecticut, on the 14th of July 1818, and graduated at West Point in
1841. He was engaged in the Seminole War and the war with Mexico, won
the brevet of captain for his gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, and
was wounded in the assault on the city of Mexico. In 1850, while serving
in California, he conducted a successful expedition against the Indians.
He was promoted captain in 1851, and two years later was ordered to the
East, when he became an ardent opponent of "States' Rights" and slavery.
He was stationed in Kansas and in Missouri on the eve of the Civil War.
In Missouri not only was sentiment divided, but the two factions were
eager to resort to force long before they were in the other border
states. Lyon took an active part in organizing the Union party in
Missouri, though greatly hampered, at first by the Federal government
which feared to provoke hostilities, and afterwards by the military
commander of the department, General W. S. Harney. On Harney's removal
in April 1861, Lyon promptly assumed the command, called upon Illinois
to send him troops, and mustered the Missouri contingent into the United
States' service. He broke up the militia camp at St Louis established by
the secessionist governor of Missouri, Claiborne F. Jackson, and but for
the express prohibition of Harney, who had resumed the command, would
have proceeded at once to active hostilities. In all this Lyon had
co-operated closely with Francis P. Blair, Jr., who now obtained from
President Lincoln the definitive removal of Harney and the assignment of
Lyon to command the Department of the West, with the rank of
brigadier-general. On Lyon's refusal to accede to the Secessionists'
proposal that the state should be neutral, hostilities opened in
earnest, and Lyon, having cleared Missouri of small hostile bands in the
central part of the state, turned to the southern districts, where a
Confederate army was advancing from the Arkansas border. The two forces
came to action at Wilson's Creek on the 10th of August 1861. The Union
forces, heavily outnumbered, were defeated, and Lyon himself was killed
while striving to rally his troops. He bequeathed almost all he
possessed, some $30,000, to the war funds of the national government.

  See A. Woodward, _Memoir of General Nathaniel Lyon_ (Hartford, 1862);
  James Peckham, _Life of Lyon_ (New York, 1866); and T. L. Snead, _The
  Fight for Missouri_ (New York, 1886). Also _Last Political Writings of
  General Nathaniel Lyon_ (New York, 1862).



LYONNESSE, LYONESSE, LEONNOYS or LEONAIS, a legendary country off the
south coast of Cornwall, England. Lyonnesse is the scene of many
incidents in the Arthurian romances, and especially in the romances of
Tristram and Iseult. It also plays an important part in purely Cornish
tradition and folk-lore. Early English chronicles, such as the
_Chronicon e chronicis_ of Florence of Worcester, who died in 1118,
described minutely and without a suggestion of disbelief the flourishing
state of Lyonnesse, and its sudden disappearance beneath the sea. The
legend may be a greatly exaggerated version of some actual subsidence of
inhabited land. There is also a very ancient local tradition, apparently
independent of the story of Lyonnesse, that the Scilly Islands formed
part of the Cornish mainland within historical times.

  See _Florentii Wigorniensis monachi Chronicon ex chronicis_, &c., ed.
  B. Thorpe (London, 1848-1849).



LYONS, EDMUND LYONS, BARON (1790-1858), British admiral, was born at
Burton, near Christchurch, Hampshire, on the 21st of November 1790. He
entered the navy, and served in the Mediterranean, and afterwards in the
East Indies, where in 1810 he won promotion by distinguished bravery. He
became post-captain in 1814, and in 1826 commanded the "Blonde" frigate
at the blockade of Navarino, and took part with the French in the
capture of Kasteo Morea. Shortly before his ship was paid off in 1835 he
was knighted. From 1840 till 1853 Lyons was employed on the diplomatic
service, being successively minister to Greece, Switzerland and Sweden.
On the outbreak of the war with Russia he was appointed second in
command of the British fleet in the Black Sea under Admiral Dundas, whom
he succeeded in the chief command in 1854. As admiral of the inshore
squadron he had the direction of the landing of the troops in the
Crimea, which he conducted with marvellous energy and despatch.
According to Kinglake, Lyons shared the "intimate counsels" of Lord
Raglan in regard to the most momentous questions of the war, and toiled,
with a "painful consuming passion," to achieve the object of the
campaign. His principal actual achievements in battle were two--the
support he rendered with his guns to the French at the Alma in attacking
the left flank of the Russians, and the bold and brilliant part he took
with his ship the "Agamemnon" in the first bombardment of the forts of
Sebastopol; but his constant vigilance, his multifarious activity, and
his suggestions and counsels were much more advantageous to the allied
cause than his specific exploits. In 1855 he was created vice-admiral;
in June 1856 he was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Lyons
of Christchurch. He died on the 23rd of November 1858.

  See Adam S. Eardley-Wilmot, R.N., _Life of Lord Lyons_ (1898).



LYONS, RICHARD BICKERTON PEMELL LYONS, 1ST EARL (1817-1887), British
diplomatist, son of the preceding, was born at Lymington on the 26th of
April 1817. He entered the diplomatic service, and in 1859-1864 was
British minister at Washington, where, after the outbreak of the Civil
War, the extremely important negotiations connected with the arrest of
the Confederate envoys on board the British mail-steamer "Trent"
devolved upon him. After a brief service at Constantinople, he succeeded
Lord Cowley at the Paris embassy in 1867. In the war of 1870 he used his
best efforts as a mediator, and accompanied the provisional government
to Tours. He continued to hold his post with universal acceptance until
November 1887. He died on the 5th of December 1887, when the title
became extinct.



LYONS (Fr. _Lyon_), a city of eastern France, capital of the department
of Rhône, 315 m. S.S.E. of Paris and 218 m. N. by W. of Marseilles on
the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) town, 430,186; commune, 472,114.
Lyons, which in France is second only to Paris in commercial and
military importance, is situated at the confluence of the Rhône and the
Saône at an altitude of 540 to 1000 ft. above sea-level. The rivers,
both flowing south, are separated on the north by the hill on which lies
the populous working quarter of Croix-Rousse, then by the narrow tongue
of land ending in the Perrache Quarter. The peninsula thus formed is
over 3 m. long and from 650 to 1000 yds. broad. It is traversed
lengthwise by the finest streets of the city, the rue de la République,
the rue de l'Hôtel de Ville, and the rue Victor Hugo. Where it enters
Lyons the Saône has on its right the faubourg of Vaise and on its left
that of Serin, whence the ascent is made to the top of the hill of
Croix-Rousse. Farther on, its right bank is bordered by the scarped
heights of Fourvière, St Irénée, Ste Foy, and St Just, leaving room only
for the quays and one or two narrow streets; this is the oldest part of
the city. The river sweeps in a semicircle around this eminence (410 ft.
above it), which is occupied by convents, hospitals and seminaries, and
has at its summit the famous church of Nôtre-Dame de Fourvière, the
resort of many thousands of pilgrims annually.

On the peninsula between the rivers, at the foot of the hill of
Croix-Rousse, are the principal quarters of the town: the Terreaux,
containing the hotel de ville, and the chief commercial establishments;
the wealthy residential quarter, centring round the Place Bellecour, one
of the finest squares in France; and the Perrache. The Rhône and Saône
formerly met on the site of this quarter, till, in the 18th century, the
sculptor Perrache reclaimed it; on the peninsula thus formed stands the
principal railway station, the Gare de Perrache with the Cours du Midi,
the most extensive promenade in Lyons, stretching in front of it. Here,
too, are the docks of the Saône, factories, the arsenal, gas-works and
prisons. The Rhône, less confined than the Saône, flows swiftly in a
wide channel, broken when the water is low in spring by pebbly islets.
On the right hand it skirts first St Clair, sloping upwards to
Croix-Rousse, and then the districts of Terreaux, Bellecour and
Perrache; on the left it has a low-lying plain, occupied by the Parc de
la Tête d'Or and the quarters of Brotteaux and Guillotière. The park,
together with its lake, comprises some 285 acres, and contains a
zoological collection, botanical and pharmaceutical gardens, and the
finest greenhouses in France, with unique collections of orchids,
palm-trees and _Cycadaceae_. It is defended from the Rhône by the Quai
de la Tête d'Or, while on the east the railway line to Geneva separates
it from the race-course. Brotteaux is a modern residential quarter.
Guillotière to the south consists largely of workmen's dwellings,
bordering wide, airy thoroughfares. To the east extend the manufacturing
suburbs of Villeurbanne and Montchat. The population, displaced by the
demolition of the lofty old houses and the widening of the streets on
the peninsula, migrates to the left bank of the Rhône, the extension of
the city into the plain of Dauphiné being unhindered.

The Rhône and the Saône are bordered by fine quays and crossed by 24
bridges--11 over the Rhône, 12 over the Saône, and 1 at the confluence.
Of these the Pont du Change over the Saône and the Pont de la
Guillotière over the Rhône have replaced medieval bridges, the latter of
the two preserving a portion of the old structure.


  Public Buildings.

Of the ancient buildings Nôtre-Dame de Fourvière is the most celebrated.
The name originally applied to a small chapel built in the 9th century
on the site of the old forum (_forum vetus_) from which it takes its
name. It has been often rebuilt, the chief feature being a modern
Romanesque tower surmounted by a cupola and statue of the Virgin. In
1872 a basilica was begun at its side in token of the gratitude of the
city for having escaped occupation by the German troops. The building,
finished in 1894, consists of a nave without aisles flanked at each
exterior corner by a turret and terminating in an apse. The façade, the
lower half of which is a lofty portico supported on four granite
columns, is richly decorated on its upper half with statuary and
sculpture. Marble and mosaic have been lavishly used in the
ornamentation of the interior and of the crypt. Round the apse runs a
gallery from which, according to an old custom, a benediction is
pronounced upon the town annually on the 8th of September. From this
gallery a magnificent view of the city and the surrounding country can
be obtained. At the foot of the hill of Fourvière rises the cathedral of
St Jean, one of the finest examples of early Gothic architecture in
France. Begun in the 12th century, to the end of which the transept and
choir belong, it was not finished till the 15th century, the gable and
flanking towers of the west front being completed in 1480. A triple
portal surmounted by a line of arcades and a rose window gives entrance
to the church. Two additional towers, that to the north containing one
of the largest bells in France, rise at the extremities of the transept.
The nave and choir contain fine stained glass of the 13th and 14th
centuries as well as good modern glass. The chapel of St Louis or of
Bourbon, to the right of the nave, is a masterpiece of Flamboyant
Gothic. To the right and left of the altar stand two crosses preserved
since the council of 1274 as a symbol of the union then agreed upon
between the Greek and Latin churches. Adjoining St Jean is the ancient
Manecanterie or singers' house, much mutilated and frequently restored,
but still preserving graceful Romanesque arcades along its front. St
Martin d'Ainay, on the peninsula, is the oldest church in Lyons, dating
from the beginning of the 6th century and subsequently attached to a
Benedictine abbey. It was rebuilt in the 10th and 11th centuries and
restored in modern times, and is composed of a nave with four aisles, a
transept and choir terminating in three semicircular apses ornamented
with paintings by Hippolyte Flandrin, a native of Lyons. The church is
surmounted by two towers, one in the middle of the west front, the other
at the crossing; the four columns supporting the latter are said to have
come from an altar to Augustus. A mosaic of the 12th century, a high
altar decorated with mosaic work and a beautifully carved confessional
are among the works of art in the interior. St Nizier, in the heart of
the city, was the first cathedral of Lyons; and the crypt in which St
Pothinus officiated still exists. The present church is a Gothic edifice
of the 15th century, with the exception of the porch, constructed by
Philibert Delorme, a native of Lyons, in the 16th century. The Church of
St Paul (12th and 15th centuries), situated on the right bank of the
Saône, preserves an octagonal central tower and other portions of
Romanesque architecture; that of St Bonaventure, originally a chapel of
the Cordeliers, was rebuilt in the 15th and 19th centuries. With the
exception of the imposing prefecture, the vast buildings of the
faculties, which are in the Guillotière quarter, and the law court, the
colonnade of which overlooks the Saône from its right bank, the chief
civil buildings are in the vicinity of the Place des Terreaux. The east
side of this square (so called from the _terreaux_ or earth with which
the canal formerly connecting the Rhône and the Saône hereabouts was
filled) is formed by the hotel de ville (17th century), the east façade
of which, towards the Grand Theatre, is the more pleasing. The south
side of the square is occupied by the Palais des Arts, built in the 17th
century as a Benedictine convent and now accommodating the school of
fine arts, the museums of painting and sculpture, archaeology and
natural history, and the library of science, arts and industry. The
museums are second in importance only to those of Paris. The collection
of antiquities, rich in Gallo-Roman inscriptions, contains the bronze
tablets discovered in 1528, on which is engraved a portion of a speech
delivered in A.D. 48, by the emperor Claudius, advocating the admission
of citizens of Gallia Comata to the Roman senate. The "Ascension," a
masterpiece of Perugino, is the chief treasure of the art collection, in
which are works by nearly all the great masters. A special gallery
contains the works of artists of Lyons, among whom are numbered Antoine
Berjon, Meissonier, Paul Chenavard, Puvis de Chavannes. In the Rue de la
République, between the Place de la Bourse and the Place des Cordeliers,
each of which contains one of its highly ornamented fronts, stands the
Palais du Commerce et de la Bourse, the finest of the modern buildings
of Lyons. The Bourse (exchange) has its offices on the ground floor
round the central glass-roofed hall; the upper storeys accommodate the
commercial tribunal, the council of trade arbitration, the chamber of
commerce and the _Musée historique des Tissus_, in which the history of
the weaving industry is illustrated by nearly 400,000 examples. In the
buildings of the lycée on the right bank of the Rhône are the municipal
library and a collection of globes, among them the great terrestrial
globe made at Lyons in 1701, indicating the great African lakes.

The Hôtel Dieu, instituted according to tradition in the beginning of
the 6th century by King Childebert, is still one of the chief charitable
establishments in the city. The present building dates from the 18th
century; its façade, fronting the west quay of the Rhône for over 1000
ft., was begun according to the designs of Soufflot, architect of the
Pantheon at Paris. The Hospice de la Charité and the military hospital
are on the same bank slightly farther down stream. The Hospice de
l'Antiquaille, at Fourvière, occupies the site of the palace of the
praetorian prefects, in which Germanicus, Claudius and Caracalla were
born. Each of these hospitals contains more than 1000 beds. Lyons has
many other benevolent institutions, and is also the centre of the
operations of the Société de la Propagation de la Foi. The chief
monuments are the equestrian statue of Louis XIV. in the Place
Bellecour, the monuments of President Carnot, Marshal Suchet, the
physicist André-Marie Ampère, and those in honour of the Republic and in
memory of the citizens of the department who fell in the war of 1870-71.
The most noteworthy fountain is that in the Place des Terreaux with the
leaden group by Bartholdi representing the rivers on their way to the
ocean.

There are Roman remains--baths, tombs and the relics of a theatre--in
the St Just quarter on the right bank of the Saône. Three ancient
aqueducts on the Fourvière level, from Montromant, Mont d'Or and Mont
Pilat, can still be traced. Magnificent remains of the latter work may
be seen at St Irénée and Chaponost. Traces also exist along the Rhône of
a subterranean canal conveying the water of the river to a _naumachia_
(lake for mimic sea-fights). Agrippa made Lyons the starting-point of
the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul; and it remains an important
centre in the general system of communication owing to its position on
the natural highway from north to south-eastern France. The Saône above
the town and the Rhône below have large barge and steamboat traffic. The
main line of the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée railway runs first through the
station at Vaise, on the right bank of the Saône, and thence to that of
Perrache, the chief station in the city. The line next in importance,
that to Geneva, has its station in the Brotteaux quarter, and the line
of the eastern Lyonnais to St Genix d'Aoste has a terminus at
Guillotière; both these lines link up with the Paris-Lyon main line. The
railway to Montbrison starts from the terminus of St Paul in Fourvière
and that to Bourg, Trevoux and the Dombes region from the station of
Croix-Rousse. A less important line to Vaugneray and Mornant has a
terminus at St Just. Besides the extensive system of street tramways,
cable tramways (_ficelles_) run to the summits of the eminences cf
Croix-Rousse, Fourvière and St Just.


    Defence.

  Lyons is, next to Paris, the principal fortress of the interior of
  France, and, like the capital, possesses a military governor. The
  immediate protection of the city is provided for on the east side by a
  modern enceinte, of simple trace, in the plain (subsidiary to this is
  a group of fairly modern detached forts forming an advanced position
  at the village of Bron), and on the west by a line of detached forts,
  not of recent design, along the high ground on the right bank of the
  Saône. Some older forts and a portion of the old enceinte are still
  kept up in the city itself, and two of these forts, Montessuy and
  Caluire, situated on the peninsula, serve with their annexes to
  connect the northern extremities of the two lines above mentioned. The
  main line of defence is as usual the outer fort-ring, the perimeter of
  which is more than 40 m., and the mean distance from the centre of the
  city 6½ m. This naturally divides into four sections. In the eastern
  plain, well in advance of the enceinte, eight principal sites have
  been fortified, Feyzin, Corbas, St Priest, Genas, Azieu, Meyzieux,
  Decines and Chaurant. These form a semicircle from the lower to the
  upper reaches of the Rhône. The northern (or north eastern) section,
  between the Rhône and the Saône, has forts Neyron and Vancia as its
  principal defences; these and their subsidiary batteries derive some
  additional support from the forts Montessuy and Caluire mentioned
  above. On the north-west side there is a strong group of works
  disposed like a redan, of which the salient, fort Verdun and annexes,
  is on the high plateau of Mont d'Or pointing northward, and the faces,
  represented by forts Freta and Paillet, are lower down on the spurs of
  the ridge, facing north-east and north-west respectively. The
  south-western section comprises three principal groups, Bruisson,
  Côte-Lorette and Montcorin-Champvillard, the last-named crossing its
  fire over the Lower Rhône with Fort Feyzin. Lastly a connecting
  battery was built near Chapoly in 1895 to close the gap between the
  north-western and south-western sections and to command the westward
  approaches by the valley of Charbonnieres.

  Lyons is the headquarters of the XIV. army-corps, the seat of an
  archbishop who holds the title of primate of the Gauls and also that
  of archbishop of Vienne, and of a prefect, a court of appeal, a court
  of assizes, tribunals of commerce and of first instance, and of two
  boards of trade arbitration (_conseils de prud'hommes_). It is the
  centre of an _academie_ (educational division) and has a university
  with faculties of law, letters, science and medicine and pharmacy.
  There are also Catholic faculties (_facultés libres_) of law,
  theology, science and letters, three _lycées_, training collèges for
  teachers and numerous minor educational establishments. There are
  besides many special schools at Lyons, the more important being the
  school of fine arts which was founded in the 18th century to train
  competent designers for the textile manufactures, but has also done
  much for painting and sculpture; an army medical school, schools of
  drawing, agriculture, music, commerce (_école supérieure de
  commerce_), weaving, tanning, watch-making and applied chemistry, and
  the écoles La Martiniere for free instruction in science and art as
  applied to industry. The veterinary school, instituted in 1761, was
  the first of its kind in Europe; its laboratory for the study of
  comparative physiology is admirably equipped. Besides the _Académie
  des Sciences, Belles Lettres et Arts_ (founded in 1700), Lyons
  possesses societies of agriculture, natural history, geography,
  horticulture, &c.


    Industry and trade.

  Its trade in silk and silk goods has formed the basis of the
  prosperity of Lyons for several centuries. Derived from Italy, this
  industry rapidly developed, thanks to the monopoly granted to the city
  in 1450 by Charles VII. and to the patronage of Francis I., Henry II.
  and Henry IV. From time to time new kinds of fabrics were
  invented--silk stuffs woofed with wool or with gold and silver
  threads, shawls, watered silks, poplins, velvets, satinades, moires,
  &c. In the beginning of the 19th century J. M. Jacquard introduced his
  famous loom by which a single workman was enabled to produce elaborate
  fabrics as easily as the plainest web, and by changing the "cartoons"
  to make the most different textures on the same looms. In the 17th
  century the silk manufacture employed at Lyons, 9000 to 12,000 looms.
  After the revocation of the edict of Nantes the number sank to 3000 or
  4000; but after the Reign of Terror was past it rose again about 1801
  to 12,000. Towards the middle of the 19th century the weaving branch
  of the industry began to desert Lyons for the surrounding districts.
  The city remains the business centre for the trade and carries on
  dyeing, printing and other accessory processes. Lyons disputes with
  Milan the position of the leading silk market of Europe. In 1905 the
  special office (_la Condition des soies_) which determines the weight
  of the silk examined over 4700 tons of silk. France furnished barely
  one-tenth of this quantity, two-thirds came from China and Japan, the
  rest from Italy and the Levant. The traders of Lyons re-export
  seven-twelfths of these silks, the industries of the town employing
  the remainder. An almost equal quantity of cotton, wool and waste-silk
  threads is mixed with the silk. A few thousand hand-looms are still
  worked in the town, more especially producing the richest materials,
  50,000 or 55,000 in the surrounding districts, and some 33,000 machine
  looms in the suburbs and neighbouring departments. Allied industries
  such as dyeing, finishing and printing, employ 12,000 workers.
  Altogether 300,000 workpeople depend upon the silk industry. In 1905
  the total value of the manufacture was £15,710,000, the chief items
  being pure silk textures (plain) £3,336,000; textures of silk mixed
  with other materials £3,180,000; silk and foulards £1,152,000; muslins
  £3,800,000, this product having increased from £100,000 in 1894.
  Speaking roughly the raw material represents half the value, and the
  value of the labour the remaining half. About 30% of the silk goods of
  Lyons finds a market in France. Great Britain imported them to the
  value of over £6,000,000, and the United States to the value of over
  £1,600,000, notwithstanding the heavy duty. The dyeing industry and
  the manufacture of chemicals have both developed considerably to meet
  the requirements of the silk trade. Large quantities of mineral and
  vegetable colouring matters are produced and there is besides a large
  output of glue, gelatine, superphosphates and phosphorus, all made
  from bones and hides, of picric, tartaric, sulphuric and hydrochloric
  acids, sulphates of iron and copper, and pharmaceutical and other
  chemical products.

  Lyons does a large trade in metals, iron, steel and copper, and
  utilizes them in the manufacture of iron buildings, framework,
  bridges, machinery, railway material, scales, metal cables, pins and
  needles, copper-founding and the making of clocks and bronzes. Gold
  and silver-working is of importance, especially for embroidery and
  articles used in religious ceremonies. Other industries are those of
  printing, the manufacture of glass goods, of tobacco (by the state),
  the preparation of hides and skins (occupying 20,000 workmen), those
  connected with the miller's trade, the manufacture of various forms of
  dried flour-paste (macaroni, vermicelli, &c.), brewing, hat-making,
  the manufacture of chocolate, and the pork-butcher's industry. Apart
  from the dealings in silk and silk goods, trade is in cloth, coal and
  charcoal, metals and metal goods, wine and spirits, cheese and
  chestnuts. Four miles south-west of Lyons is Oullins (pop. 9859) which
  has the important works of the Paris-Lyon railway.

  Lyons is the seat of important financial companies; of the Credit
  Lyonnais, which does business to the amount of £200,000,000 annually
  in Lyons alone; also of coal and metallurgical companies and gas
  companies, the former extending their operations as far as Russia, the
  latter lighting numerous towns in France and foreign countries.

_History._--The earliest Gallic occupants of the territory at the
confluence of the Rhône and the Saône were the Segusians. In 59 B.C.
some Greek refugees from the banks of the Hérault, having obtained
permission of the natives to establish themselves beside the
Croix-Rousse, called their new town by the Gallic name Lugudunum (q.v.)
or Lugdunum; and in 43 B.C. Lucius Munatius Plancus brought a Roman
colony to Fourvières from Vienne. This settlement soon acquired
importance, and was made by Agrippa the starting-point of four great
roads. Augustus, besides building aqueducts, temples and a theatre, gave
it a senate and made it the seat of an annual assembly of deputies from
the sixty cities of Gallia Comata. At the same time the place became the
Gallic centre for the worship of Rome and the emperor. Under the
emperors the colony of Forum Vetus and the municipium of Lugdunum were
united, receiving the _jus senatus_. The town was burnt in A.D. 59 and
afterwards rebuilt in a much finer style with money given by Nero; it
was also adorned by Trajan, Adrian and Antoninus. The martyrdom of
Pothinus and Blandina occurred under Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 177), and
some years later a still more savage persecution of the Christians took
place under Septimius Severus, in which Irenaeus, according to some
authors, perished.

After having been ravaged by the barbarians and abandoned by the empire,
Lyons in 478 became capital of the kingdom of the Burgundians. It
afterwards fell into the hands of the Franks, and suffered severely from
the Saracens, but revived under Charlemagne, and after the death of
Charles the Bald became part of the kingdom of Provence. From 1032 it
was a fief of the emperor of Germany. Subsequently the authority over
the town was a subject of dispute between the archbishops of Lyons and
the counts of Forez; but the supremacy of the French kings was
established under Philip the Fair in 1312. The citizens were constituted
into a commune ruled by freely elected consuls (1320). In the 13th
century two ecclesiastical councils were held at Lyons--one in 1245,
presided over by Innocent IV., at which the emperor Frederick II. was
deposed; the second, the oecumenical, under the presidency of Gregory
X., in 1274, at which five hundred bishops met. Pope Clement V. was
crowned here in 1305, and his successor, John XXII., elected in 1316.
The Protestants obtained possession of the place in 1562; their acts of
violence were fiercely avenged in 1572 after the St Bartholomew
massacre. Under Henry III. Lyons sided with the League; but it
pronounced in favour of Henry IV. The executions of Henri d'Effiat,
marquis of Cinq-Mars, and of François de Thou, who had plotted to
overthrow Richelieu, took place on the Place des Terreaux in 1642. In
1793 the Royalists and Girondists, powerful in the city, rose against
the Convention, but were compelled to yield to the army of the republic
under General Kellermann after enduring a siege of seven weeks (October
10). Terrible chastisement ensued: the name of Lyons was changed to that
of Ville-affranchie; the demolition of its buildings was set about on a
wholesale scale; and vast numbers of the proscribed, whom the scaffold
had spared, were butchered with grape shot. The town resumed its old
name after the fall of Robespierre, and the terrorists in their turn
were drowned in large numbers in the Rhône. Napoleon rebuilt the Place
Bellecour, reopened the churches, and made the bridge of Tilsit over the
Saône between Bellecour and the cathedral. In 1814 and 1815 Lyons was
occupied by the Austrians. In 1831, 1834, 1849, 1870 and 1871 it was the
scene of violent industrial or political disturbances. In 1840 and 1856
disastrous floods laid waste portions of the city. International
exhibitions were held here in 1872 and 1894, the latter occasion being
marked by the assassination of President Carnot.

  See S. Charléty, _Histoire de Lyon_ (Lyon, 1903); J. Godart,
  _L'Ouvrier en soie. Monographie du tisseur lyonnais_ (Lyon, 1899); A.
  Vachet, _A travers les rues de Lyon_ (Lyon, 1902); A. Steyert,
  _Nouvelle Histoire de Lyon et des provinces de Lyonnais Forez,
  Beaujolais_ (3 vols., Lyon, 1895-1899).



LYONS, COUNCILS OF. The first Council of Lyons (the thirteenth general
council) met at the summons of Pope Innocent IV. in June and July of
1245, to deliberate on the conflict between Church and emperor, on the
assistance to be granted to the Holy Land and the Eastern empire, on
measures of protection against the Tatars, and on the suppression of
heresy. Among the tasks of the council mentioned in the writs of
convocation, the most important, in the eyes of the pope, was that it
should lend him effectual aid in his labours to overthrow the emperor
Frederick II.; and, with this object in view, he had described the synod
as a general council. Since its numbers were not far in excess of 150
bishops and archbishops, and the great majority of these came from
France, Italy and Spain; while the schismatic Greeks and the other
countries--especially Germany, whose interests were so deeply
involved--were but weakly represented; the ambassador of Frederick,
Thaddaeus of Suessa, contested its oecumenicity in the assembly itself.
The condemnation of the emperor was a foregone conclusion. The articles
of indictment described him as the "prince of tyranny, the destroyer of
ecclesiastical dogma, the annihilator of the faith, the master of
cruelty," and so forth; while the grossest calumnies were treated as
approved facts. The objections of the ambassador, that the accused had
not been regularly cited, that the pope was plaintiff and judge in one,
and that therefore the whole process was anomalous, achieved as little
success as his appeal to the future pontiff and to a truly oecumenical
council. The representatives of the kings of England and France were
equally unfortunate in their claim for a prorogation of the decision. On
the 17th of July the verdict was pronounced by Innocent IV.,
excommunicating Frederick and dethroning him on the grounds of perjury,
sacrilege, heresy and felony. All oaths of fealty sworn to him were
pronounced null and void, and the German princes were commanded to
proceed with the election of a new sovereign. In addition the council
enacted decrees against the growing irregularities in the Church, and
passed resolutions designed to support the Crusaders and revive the
struggle for the Holy Land.

  See Mansi, _Collectio conciliorum_, tom, xxiii.; Huillard-Breholles,
  _Historia diplomatica Frederici II_., 6 tom. (Paris, 1852-1861);
  Hefele, _Conciliengeschichte_, ed. 2, vol. v. (1886), pp. 1105-1126;
  Fr. W. Schirrmacher, _Kaiser Friederich der Zweite_ (4 vols.,
  Göttingen, 1859-1865); H. Schulz, in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_,
  ed. 3, vol. ix. (1901), p. 122 sqq., s.v. "Innocenz IV."; A. Folz,
  _Kaiser Friedrich II. u. Papst Innocenz IV_. (Strassburg, 1905).

The second Council of Lyons (the fourteenth general council) met from
the 7th of May to the 17th of July 1274, under the presidency of Pope
Gregory X., and was designed to resolve three problems: to terminate the
Greek schism, to decree a new Crusade, and to counteract the moral
corruption among clerics and laity. The council entered on its third
task at a very late period, with the result that the requisite time for
an adequate deliberation was not available. Nevertheless, on the 1st of
November, Gregory was enabled to publish thirty-one constitutions, which
may be taken to represent the fruits of the synod and its labours. The
most important of the enactments passed is that regulating the papal
election. It prescribed that the new election conducted by the college
of cardinals should be held in conclave (q.v.), and its duration
abridged by progressive simplification of the cardinal's diet. The
motive for this decision, which has maintained its ground in
ecclesiastical law, was given by the circumstances which followed the
death of Clement IV. (1268). The pope felt a peculiar interest in the
Holy Land, from which he was recalled by his elevation to the pontifical
throne. He succeeded in bringing influential interests to work in the
cause; but his scheme of a great enterprise backed by the whole force of
the West came to nothing, for the day of the Crusades was past. His
projected Crusade was interwoven with his endeavours to end the schism;
and the political straits of the emperor Michael Palaeologus in
Constantinople came to the aid of these aspirations. To ensure his
safety against the attacks of King Charles of Sicily, who had pledged
himself to assist the ex-emperor Baldwin in his reconquest of the Latin
empire, Michael was required to own the supremacy of the pope in the
spiritual domain; while Gregory, in return, would restrain the Sicilian
monarch from his bellicose policy with regard to the Eastern empire.
The ambassadors of the emperor appeared at the council with letters
acknowledging the Roman pontiff and the confession of faith previously
dispatched from the eternal city, and submitted similarly-worded
declarations from the heads of the Byzantine Church. One member of the
embassy, the Logothete Georgius Acropolites, was authorized by the
emperor to take an oath in his name, renouncing the schism. In short,
the subjection of the East to the Roman see was completed in the most
binding forms, and the long-desired union seemed at last assured.
Gregory himself did not live to discover its illusory character. The
Council of Lyons was, moreover, of importance for the German dynastic
struggle: for Gregory took the first public step in favour of Count
Rudolph of Habsburg, the king-elect, by receiving his deputy and denying
an audience to the delegate of the rival claimant, King Alphonso of
Castile.

  See Mansi, _Collectio conciliorum_, tom. xxiv.; Hefele,
  _Conciliengeschichte_, vol. vi. ed. 2 (1890), p. 119 sqq. Also C.
  Mirbt, in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklop. f. protestantische Theologie_,
  vol. vii. (1899), p. 122, s.v. "Gregor X."     (C. M.)



LYRA ("The Harp"), in astronomy, a constellation in the northern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.). Ptolemy catalogued 10 stars in this constellation; Tycho
Brahe 11 and Hevelius 17. [alpha] _Lyrae_ or Vega, is the second
brightest star in the northern hemisphere, and notable for the whiteness
of its light, which is about 100 times that of the sun. The name "vega"
is a remnant of an Arabic phrase meaning "falling eagle," "Altair," or
[alpha] _Aquilae_, is the similar remnant of "flying eagle." [epsilon]
_Lyrae_ is a multiple star, separated by the naked eye or by a small
telescope into two stars; these are each resolved into two stars by a
3" telescope, while a more powerful instrument (4") reveals three
smaller stars between the two pairs, [beta] _Lyrae_ and _R. Lyrae_ are
short period variables. There is the famous ring or annular nebula, _M.
57 Lyrae_, in the middle of which is a very faint star, which is readily
revealed by photography; and also the meteoric swarm named the _Lyrids_,
which appear in April and have their radiant in this constellation (see
METEOR).



LYRE (Gr. [Greek: lyra]), an ancient stringed musical instrument. The
recitations of the Greeks were accompanied by it. Yet the lyre was not
of Greek origin; no root in the language has been discovered for [Greek:
lyra], although the special names bestowed upon varieties of the
instrument are Hellenic. We have to seek in Asia the birthplace of the
genus, and to infer its introduction into Greece through Thrace or
Lydia. The historic heroes and improvers of the lyre were of the Aeolian
or Ionian colonies, or the adjacent coast bordering on the Lydian
empire, while the mythic masters, Orpheus, Musaeus and Thamyris, were
Thracians. Notwithstanding the Hermes tradition of the invention of the
lyre in Egypt, the Egyptians seem to have adopted it from Assyria or
Babylonia.

To define the lyre, it is necessary clearly to separate it from the
allied harp and guitar. In its primal form the lyre differs from the
harp, of which the earliest, simplest notion is found in the bow and
bowstring. While the guitar (and lute) can be traced back to the typical
"nefer" of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, the fretted finger-board of
which, permitting the production of different notes by the shortening of
the string, is as different in conception from the lyre and harp as the
flute with holes to shorten the column of air is from the syrinx or
Pandean pipes. The frame of a lyre consists of a hollow body or
sound-chest ([Greek: echeion]). From this sound-chest are raised two
arms ([Greek: pecheis]), which are sometimes hollow, and are bent both
outward and forward. They are connected near the top by a crossbar or
yoke ([Greek: zygon, zygoma], or, from its having once been a reed,
[Greek: kalamos]). Another crossbar ([Greek: malas, hypolyrion]), fixed
on the sound-chest, forms the bridge which transmits the vibrations of
the strings. The deepest note was the farthest from the player; but, as
the strings did not differ much in length, more weight may have been
gained for the deeper notes by thicker strings, as in the violin and
similar modern instruments, or they were turned with slacker tension.
The strings were of gut ([Greek: chorde], whence chord). They were
stretched between the yoke and bridge, or to a tailpiece below the
bridge. There were two ways of tuning: one was to fasten the strings to
pegs which might be turned ([Greek: kollaboi, kollopes]); the other was
to change the place of the string upon the crossbar; probably both
expedients were simultaneously employed. It is doubtful whether [Greek:
he chordotonos] meant the tuning key or the part of the instrument where
the pegs were inserted. The extensions of the arms above the yoke were
known as [Greek: kerata], horns.

The number of strings varied at different epochs, and possibly in
different localities--four, seven and ten having been favourite numbers.
They were used without a finger-board, no Greek description or
representation having ever been met with that can be construed as
referring to one. Nor was a bow possible, the flat sound-board being an
insuperable impediment. The plectrum, however ([Greek: plektron]), was
in constant use. It was held in the right hand to set the upper strings
in vibration ([Greek: krekein, krouein to plektro]); at other times it
hung from the lyre by a ribbon. The fingers of the left hand touched the
lower strings ([Greek: psallein]).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Chelys or Lyre from a vase in the British
Museum, where also are fragments of such an instrument, the back of
which is of shell.]

[Illustration: Gerhard, _Auserl. griech. Vasenbilder._

FIG. 2.--Tortoise-shell Lyre from a Greek vase in Munich.]

With Greek authors the lyre has several distinct names; but we are
unable to connect these with anything like certainty to the varieties of
the instrument. Chelys ([Greek: chelys], "tortoise") may mean the
smallest lyre, which, borne by one arm or supported by the knees,
offered in the sound-chest a decided resemblance to that familiar
animal. That there was a difference between lyre and cithara ([Greek:
kithara]) is certain, Plato and other writers separating them. Hermes
and Apollo had an altar at Olympia in common because the former had
invented the lyre and the latter the cithara. The lyre and chelys on the
one hand, and the cithara and phorminx on the other, were similar or
nearly identical. Apollo is said to have carried a golden phorminx.
     (A. J. H.)

There are three lines of evidence that establish the difference between
the lyre and cithara: (1) There are certain vase paintings in which the
name [Greek: lyra] accompanies the drawing of the instrument, as, for
instance, in fig. 2 where the tortoise-shell lyre is obviously
represented.[1] (2) In all legends accounting for the invention of the
lyre, the shell or body of the tortoise is invariably mentioned as
forming the back of the instrument, whereas the tortoise has never been
connected with the cithara. (3) The lyre is emphatically distinguished
as the most suitable instrument for the musical training of young men
and maidens and as the instrument of the amateur, whereas the cithara
was the instrument of _citharoedus_ or _citharista_, professional
performers at the Pythian Games, at ceremonies and festivals, the former
using his instrument to accompany epic recitations and odes, the latter
for purely instrumental music. The costume worn by citharoedus and
citharista was exceedingly rich and quite distinct from any other.[2]

We find the lyre represented among scenes of domestic life, in lessons,
receptions, at banquets and in mythological scenes; it is found in the
hands of women no less than men, and the costume of the performer is
invariably that of an ordinary citizen. Lyres were of many sizes and
varied in outline according to period and nationality.

We therefore possess irrefutable evidence of identification in both
cases, all of which tallies exactly. Examination of the construction of
the instruments thus identified reveals the fact that both possessed
characteristics which have persisted throughout the middle ages to the
present day in various instruments evolved from these two archetypes.
The principal feature of both lyre and cithara was the peculiar method
of construction adopted in the sound-chest, which may be said to have
been almost independent of the outline. In the lyre the sound-chest
consisted of a vaulted back, in imitation of the tortoise, over which
was directly glued a flat sound-board of wood or parchment. In the
cithara (q.v.) the sound-chest was shallower, and the back and front
were invariably connected by sides or ribs. These two methods of
constructing the sound-chests of stringed instruments were typical, and
to one or the other may be referred every stringed instrument with a
neck which can be traced during the middle ages in miniatures, early
printed books, on monuments and other works of art.     (K. S.)

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Egyptian Cithara now at Berlin.]

  Passing by the story of the discovery of the lyre from a vibrating
  tortoise-shell by Hermes, we will glance at the real lyres of Egypt
  and Semitic Asia. The Egyptian lyre is unmistakably Semitic. The
  oldest representation that has been discovered is in one of the tombs
  of Beni Hassan, the date of the painting being in the XIIth Dynasty,
  that is, shortly before the invasion of "the shepherd kings" (the
  Hyksos). In this painting, which both Rosellini and Lepsius have
  reproduced, an undoubted Semite carries a seven or eight-stringed
  lyre, or rather cithara in transition, similar to the _rotta_ of the
  middle ages. The instrument has a four-cornered body and an irregular
  four-cornered frame above it, and the player carries it horizontally
  from his breast, just as a modern Nubian would his kissar. He plays as
  he walks, using both hands, a plectrum being in the right. Practical
  knowledge of these ancient instruments may be gained through two
  remarkable specimens preserved in the museums of Berlin (fig. 3) and
  Leiden (see CITHARA). During the rule of the Hyksos the lyre became
  naturalized in Egypt, and in the 18th dynasty it is frequently
  depicted, and with finer grace of form. In the 19th and 20th dynasties
  the lyre is sometimes still more slender, or is quite unsymmetrical
  and very strong, the horns surmounted by heads of animals as in the
  Berlin one, which has horses' heads at those extremities. Prokesch
  copied one in the ruins of Wadi Halfa, splendid in blue and gold, with
  a serpent wound round it. The Egyptians always strung their lyres
  fan-shaped, like the modern Nubian kissar. Their paintings show three
  to eight or nine strings, but the painters' accuracy may not be
  unimpeachable; the Berlin instrument had fifteen. The three-stringed
  lyre typified the three seasons of the Egyptian year--the water, the
  green and the harvest; the seven, the planetary system from the moon
  to Saturn. The Greeks had the same notion of the harmony of the
  spheres.

  There is no evidence as to what the stringing of the Greek lyre was in
  the heroic age. Plutarch says that Olympus and Terpander used but
  three strings to accompany their recitation. As the four strings led
  to seven and eight by doubling the tetrachord, so the trichord is
  connected with the hexachord or six-stringed lyre depicted on so many
  archaic Greek vases. We cannot insist on the accuracy of this
  representation, the vase painters being little mindful of the complete
  expression of details; yet we may suppose their tendency would be
  rather to imitate than to invent a number. It was their constant
  practice to represent the strings as being damped by the fingers of
  the left hand of the player, after having been struck by the plectrum
  which he held in the right hand. Before the Greek civilization had
  assumed its historic form, there was likely to be great freedom and
  independence of different localities in the matter of lyre stringing,
  which is corroborated by the antique use of the chromatic (half-tone)
  and enharmonic (quarter-tone) tunings, pointing to an early
  exuberance, and perhaps also to an Asiatic bias towards refinements of
  intonation, from which came the [Greek: chroai], the hues of tuning,
  old Greek modifications of tetrachords entirely disused in the classic
  period. The common scale of Olympus remained, a double trichord which
  had served as the scaffolding for the enharmonic varieties.

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  We may regard the Olympus scale, however, as consisting of two
  tetrachords, eliding one interval in each, for the tetrachord, or
  series of four notes, was very early adopted as the fundamental
  principle of Greek music, and its origin in the lyre itself appears
  sure. The basis of the tetrachord is the employment of the thumb and
  first three fingers of the left hand to twang as many strings, the
  little finger not being used on account of natural weakness. As a
  succession of three whole tones would form the disagreeable and
  untunable interval of a tritonus, two whole tones and a half-tone were
  tuned, fixing the tetrachord in the consonant interval of the perfect
  fourth. This succession of four notes being in the grasp of the hand
  was called [Greek: syllabe], just as in language a group of letters
  incapable of further reduction is called syllable. In the combination
  of two syllables or tetrachords the modern diatonic scales resemble
  the Greek so-called disjunct scale, but the Greeks knew nothing of our
  categorical distinctions of major and minor. We might call the octave
  Greek scale minor, according to our descending minor form, were not
  the keynote in the middle the thumb note of the deeper tetrachord. The
  upper tetrachord, whether starting from the keynote (conjunct) or from
  the note above (disjunct), was of exactly the same form as the lower,
  the position of the semitones being identical. The semitone was a
  limma ([Greek: leimma]), rather less than the semitone of our modern
  equal temperament, the Greeks tuning both the whole tones in the
  tetrachord by the same ratio of 8:9, which made the major third a
  dissonance, or rather would have done so had they combined them in
  what we call harmony. In melodious sequence the Greek tetrachord is
  decidedly more agreeable to the ear than the corresponding series of
  our equal temperament. And although our scales are derived from
  combined tetrachords, in any system of tuning that we employ, be it
  just, mean-tone, or equal, they are less logical than the conjunct or
  disjunct systems accepted by the Greeks. But modern harmony is not
  compatible with them, and could not have arisen on the Greek melodic
  lines.

  The conjunct scale of seven notes

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  attributed to Terpander, was long the norm for stringing and tuning
  the lyre. When the disjunct scale

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  the octave scale attributed to Pythagoras, was admitted, to preserve
  the time-honoured seven strings one note had to be omitted; it was
  therefore customary to omit the C, which in Greek practice was a
  dissonance. The Greek names for the strings of seven and eight
  stringed lyres, the first note being highest in pitch and nearest the
  player, were as follows: _Nete_, _Paranete_, _Paramese_; _Mese_,
  _Lichanos_, _Parhypate_, _Hypate_; or _Nete_, _Paranete_, _Trite_,
  _Paramese_; _Mese_, _Lichanos_, _Parhypate_, _Hypate_--the last four
  from Mese to Hypate being the finger tetrachord, the others touched
  with the plectrum. The highest string in pitch was called the last,
  [Greek: neate]; the lowest in pitch was called the highest, [Greek:
  hypate], because it was, in theory at least, the longest string. The
  keynote and thumb string was [Greek: mese], middle; the next lower was
  [Greek: lichanos], the first finger or lick-finger string; [Greek:
  trite], the third, being in the plectrum division, was also known as
  [Greek: oxeia], sharp, perhaps from the dissonant quality to which we
  have referred as the cause of its omission. The plectrum and finger
  tetrachords together were [Greek: diapason], through all; in the
  disjunct scale, an octave.

  In transcribing the Greek notes into our notation, the absolute pitch
  cannot be represented; the relative positions of the semitones are
  alone determined. We have already quoted the scale of Pythagoras, the
  Dorian or true Greek succession:--

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  Shifting the semitone one degree upwards in each tetrachord, we have
  the Phrygian

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  Another degree gives the Lydian

  [Illustration: musical notes.]

  which would be our major scale of E were not the keynote A. The names
  imply an Asiatic origin. We need not here pursue further the
  much-debated question of Greek scales and their derivation; it will
  suffice to remark that the outside notes of the tetrachords were fixed
  in their tuning as perfect fourths--the inner strings being, as
  stated, in diatonic sequence, or when chromatic two half-tones were
  tuned, when enharmonic two quarter-tones, leaving respectively the
  wide intervals of a minor and major third, and both impure, to
  complete the tetrachord.     (A. J. H.)

  See the article by Theodore Reinach in Daremberg and Saglio,
  _Antiguites grecques et romaines_; Wilhelm Johnsen, _Die Lyra, ein
  Beitrag zur griechischen Kunstgeschichte_ (Berlin, 1876); Hortense
  Panum, "Harfe und Lyra in Nord Europa," _Intern. Mus. Ges._, Sbd. vii.
  1, pp. 1-40 (Leipzig, 1905); A. J. Hipkins, "Dorian and Phrygian,
  reconsidered from a non-harmonic point of view," in _Intern. Mus.
  Ges._ (Leipzig, 1903), iv. 3.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Ed. Gerhard, _Auserlesene griech. Vasenbilder_, part iii.
    (Berlin, 1847), pl. 236 and p. 157.

  [2] See Aristotle, _Polit_. v. 6. 5.



LYRE-BIRD, the name by which one of the most remarkable birds Of
Australia is commonly known, the _Menura superba_ or _M.
novae-hollandiae_ of ornithologists. It was first observed in 1798 in
New South Wales, and though called by its finders a "pheasant"--from its
long tail--the more learned of the colony seem to have regarded it as a
bird-of-Paradise.[1] A specimen having reached England in 1799, it was
described by General Davies as forming a new genus of birds, in the
Linnean Society's _Transactions_ (vi. p. 207, pl. xxii.), no attempt,
however, being made to fix its systematic place. In 1802 L. P. Vieillot
figured and described it in a supplement to his _Oiseaux Dorés_ as a
bird-of-Paradise (ii. pp. 30 seq., pls. 14-16), from drawings by
Sydenham Edwards, sent him by Parkinson, the manager of the Leverian
Museum. The first to describe any portion of its anatomy was T. C.
Eyton, who in 1841 (_Ann. Nat. History_, vii. pp. 49-53) perceived that
it was a Passerine bird and that it presented some points of affinity to
the South American genus _Pteroptochus_. In 1867 Huxley stated that he
was disposed to divide his very natural assemblage the _Coracomorphae_
(essentially identical with Eyton's _Insessores_) into two groups, "one
containing _Menura_, and the other all the other genera which have yet
been examined" (_Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1867, p. 472)--a still further step
in advance.[2] In 1875 A. Newton put forth the opinion in his article on
birds, in the 9th edition of this _Encyclopaedia_, that _Menura_ had an
ally in another Australian form, _Atrichia_ (see SCRUB-BIRD), which he
had found to present peculiarities hitherto unsuspected, and he regarded
them as standing by themselves, though each constituting a distinct
family. This opinion was partially adopted in the following year by A.
H. Garrod, who (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1876, p. 518) formally placed
these two genera together in his group of Abnormal Acromyodian _Oscines_
under the name of _Menurinae_; ornithologists now generally recognize at
once the alliance and distinctness of the families Menuridae and
Atrichiidae, and place them together to form the group _Suboscines_ of
the Diacromyodian _Passeres_.

Since the appearance in 1865 of J. Gould's _Handbook to the Birds of
Australia_, little important information has been published concerning
the habits of this form, and the account therein given must be drawn
upon for what here follows. Of all birds, says that author, the _Menura_
is the most shy and hard to procure. He has been among the rocky and
thick "brushes"--its usual haunts--hearing its loud and liquid
call-notes for days together without getting sight of one. Those who
wish to see it must advance only while it is singing or scratching up
the earth and leaves; and to watch its actions they must keep perfectly
still. The best way of procuring an example seems to be by hunting it
with dogs, when it will spring upon a branch to the height of 10 ft. and
afford an easy shot ere it has time to ascend farther or escape as it
does by leaps. Natives are said to hunt it by fixing on their heads the
erected tail of a cock-bird, which alone is allowed to be seen above the
brushwood. The greater part of its time is said to be passed upon the
ground, and seldom are more than a pair to be found in company. One of
the habits of the cock is to form small round hillocks, which he
constantly visits during the day, mounting upon them and displaying his
tail by erecting it over his head, drooping his wings, scratching and
pecking at the soil, and uttering various cries--some his own natural
notes, others an imitation of those of other animals. The tail, his most
characteristic feature, only attains perfection in the bird's third or
fourth year, and then not until the month of June, remaining until
October, when the feathers are shed to be renewed the following season.
The food consists of insects, especially beetles and myriapods, as well
as snails. The nest is placed near to or on the ground, at the base of
a rock or foot of a tree, and is closely woven of fine but strong roots
or other fibres, and lined with feathers, around all which is heaped a
mass, in shape of an oven, of sticks, grass, moss and leaves, so as to
project over and shelter the interior structure, while an opening in the
side affords entrance and exit. Only one egg is laid, and this of rather
large size in proportion to the bird, of a purplish-grey colour,
suffused and blotched with dark purplish-brown.

Incubation is believed to begin in July or August, and the young is
hatched about a month later. It is at first covered with dark down, and
appears to remain for some weeks in the nest. It is greatly to be hoped
that so remarkable a form as the lyre-bird, the nearly sole survivor
apparently of a very ancient race of beings, will not be allowed to
become extinct--its almost certain fate so far as can be judged--without
many more observations of its manners being made. Several examples of
_Menura_ have been brought alive to Europe, and some have long survived
in captivity.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

Three species of _Menura_ have been indicated--the old _M. superba_, the
lyre-bird proper, which inhabits New South Wales, the southern part of
Queensland, and perhaps some parts of Victoria; _M. victoriae_,
separated from the former by Gould (_Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1862, p. 23),
and said to take its place near Melbourne; and _M. alberti_, first
described by C. L. Bonaparte (_Consp. Avium_, i. 215) on Gould's
authority, and, though discovered on the Richmond river in New South
Wales, having apparently a more northern range than the other two. All
those have the apparent bulk of a hen pheasant, but are really much
smaller, and their general plumage is of a sooty brown, relieved by
rufous on the chin, throat, some of the wing-feathers and the
tail-coverts. The wings, consisting of twenty-one remiges, are rather
short and rounded; the legs[3] and feet very strong, with long, nearly
straight claws. In the immature and female the tail is somewhat long,
though affording no very remarkable character, except the possession of
sixteen rectrices; but in the fully-plumaged male of _M. superba_ and
_M. victoriae_ it is developed in the extraordinary fashion that gives
the bird its common English name. The two exterior feathers (fig. 1, a,
b) have the outer web very narrow, the inner very broad, and they curve
at first outwards, then somewhat inwards, and near the tip outwards
again, bending round forwards so as to present a lyre-like form. But
this is not all; their broad inner web, which is of a lively chestnut
colour, is apparently notched at regular intervals by spaces that,
according to the angle at which they are viewed, seem either black or
transparent; and this effect is, on examination, found to be due to the
barbs at those spaces being destitute of barbules. The middle pair of
feathers (fig. 2, a, b) is nearly as abnormal. These have no outer web,
and the inner web very narrow; near their base they cross each other,
and then diverge, bending round forwards near their tip. The remaining
twelve feathers (fig. 3) except near the base are very thinly furnished
with barbs, about ¼ in. apart, and those they possess, on their greater
part, though long and flowing, bear no barbules, and hence have a
hair-like appearance. The shafts of all are exceedingly strong. In the
male of _M. alberti_ the tail is not only not lyriform, but the exterior
rectrices are shorter than the rest.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Collins, _Account of New South Wales_, ii. 87-92 (London, 1802).

  [2] Owing to the imperfection of the specimen at his disposal,
    Huxley's brief description of the bones of the head in _Menura_ is
    not absolutely correct. A full description of them, with elaborate
    figures, is given by Parker in the same Society's _Transactions_ (ix.
    306-309, pl. lvi. figs. 1-5).

  [3] The metatarsals are very remarkable in form, as already noticed
    by Eyton (_loc. cit._), and their tendons strongly ossified.



LYRICAL POETRY, a general term for all poetry which is, or can be
supposed to be, susceptible of being sung to the accompaniment of a
musical instrument. In the earliest times it may be said that all poetry
was of its essence lyrical. The primeval oracles were chanted in verse,
and the Orphic and Bacchic Mysteries, which were celebrated at Eleusis
and elsewhere, combined, it is certain, metre with music. Homer and
Hesiod are each of them represented with a lyre, yet if any poetry can
be described as non-lyrical, it is surely the archaic hexameter of the
_Iliad_ and the _Erga_. These poems were styled epic, in direct
contradistinction to the lyric of Pindar and Bacchylides. But inexactly,
since it is plain that they were recited, with a plain accompaniment on
a stringed instrument. However, the distinction between epical and
lyrical, between [Greek: ta epe], what was said, and [Greek: ta mele],
what was sung, is accepted, and neither Homer nor Hesiod is among the
lyrists. This distinction, however, is often without a difference, as
for example, in the case of the so-called _Hymns_ of Homer, epical in
form but wholly lyrical in character. Hegel, who has gone minutely into
this question in his _Esthetik_, contends that when poetry is objective
it is epical, and when it is subjective it is lyrical. This is to ignore
the metrical form of the poem, and to deal with its character only. It
would constrain us to regard Wordsworth's _Excursion_ as a lyric, and
Tennyson's _Revenge_ (where the subject is treated exactly as one of the
Homeridae would have treated an Ionian myth) as an epic. This is
impossible, and recalls us to the importance of taking the form into
consideration. But, with this warning, the definition of Hegel is
valuable. It is, as he insists, the personal thought, or passion, or
inspiration, which gives its character to lyrical poetry.

The lyric has the function of revealing, in terms of pure art, the
secrets of the inner life, its hopes, its fantastic joys, its sorrows,
its delirium. It is easier to exclude the dramatic species from lyric
than to banish the epic. There are large sections of drama which it is
inconceivable should be set to music, or sung, or even given in
recitative. The tragedies of Racine, for example, are composed of the
purest poetry, but they are essentially non-lyrical, although lyrical
portions are here and there attached to them. The intensity of feeling
and the melody of verse in _Othello_ does not make that work an example
of lyrical poetry, and this is even more acutely true of _Le
Misanthrope_, which is, nevertheless, a poem. The tendency of modern
drama is to divide itself further and further from lyric, but in early
ages the two kinds were indissoluble. Tragedy was goat-song, and the
earliest specimens of it were mainly composed of choruses. As Prof. G.
G. Murray says, in the _Suppliants_ of Aeschylus, the characters "are
singing for two-thirds of the play," accompanied by tumultuous music.
This primitive feature has gradually been worn away; the chorus grew
less and less prominent, and disappeared; the very verse-ornament of
drama tends to vanish, and we have plays essentially so poetical as
those of Ibsen and Maeterlinck written from end to end in bare prose.

To return again to Greece, there was an early distinction, soon
accentuated, between the poetry chanted by a choir of singers, and the
song which expressed the sentiments of a single poet. The latter, the
[Greek: melos] or song proper, had reached a height of technical
perfection in "the Isles of Greece, where burning Sappho loved and
sung," as early as the 7th century B.C. That poetess, and her
contemporary Alcaeus, divide the laurels of the pure Greek song of
Dorian inspiration. By their side, and later, flourished the great poets
who set words to music for choirs, Alcman, Arion, Stesichorus, Simonides
and Ibycus, who lead us at the close of the 5th century to Bacchylides
and Pindar, in whom the magnificent tradition of the dithyrambic odes
reached its highest splendour of development. The practice of Pindar and
Sappho, we may say, has directed the course of lyrical poetry ever
since, and will, unquestionably, continue to do so. They discovered how,
with the maximum of art, to pour forth strains of personal magic and
music, whether in a public or a private way. The ecstasy, the uplifted
magnificence, of lyrical poetry could go no higher than it did in the
unmatched harmonies of these old Greek poets, but it could fill a much
wider field and be expressed with vastly greater variety. It did so in
their own age. The gnomic verses of Theognis were certainly sung; so
were the satires of Archilochus and the romantic reveries of Mimnermus.

At the Renaissance, when the traditions of ancient life were taken up
eagerly, and hastily comprehended, it was thought proper to divide
poetry into a diversity of classes. The earliest English critic who
enters into a discussion of the laws of prosody, William Webbe, lays it
down, in 1586, that in verse "the most usual kinds are four, the heroic,
elegiac, iambic and lyric." Similar confusion of terms was common among
the critics of the 15th and 16th centuries, and led to considerable
error. It is plain that a border ballad is heroic, and may yet be
lyrical; here the word "heroic" stands for "epic." It is plain that
whether a poem is lyrical or not had nothing to do with the question
whether it is composed in an iambic measure. Finally, it is undoubted
that the early Greek "elegies" were sung to an accompaniment on the
flute, whether they were warlike, like those of Tyrtaeus, or
philosophical and amatory like those of Theognis. But (see ELEGY) the
present significance of "elegy," and this has been the case ever since
late classical times, is funereal; in modern parlance an elegy is a
dirge. Whether the great Alexandrian dirges, like those of Bion and of
Moschus, on which our elegiacal tradition is founded, were actually sung
to an accompaniment or not may be doubted; they seem too long, too
elaborate, and too ornate for that. But, at any rate, they were composed
on the convention that they would be sung, and it is conceivable that
music might have been wedded to the most complex of these Alexandrian
elegies. Accordingly, although _Lycidas_ and _Adonais_ are not
habitually "set to music," there is no reason why they should not be so
set, and their rounded and limited although extensive form links them
with the song, not with the epic. There are many odes of Swinburne's for
which it would be more difficult to write music than for his _Ave atque
Vale_. In fact, in spite of its solemn and lugubrious regularity, the
formal elegy or dirge is no more nor less than an ode, and is therefore
entirely lyrical.

More difficulty is met with in the case of the sonnet, for although no
piece of verse, when it is inspired by subjective passion, fits more
closely with Hegel's definition of what lyrical poetry should be, yet
the rhythmical complication of the sonnet, and its rigorous uniformity,
seem particularly ill-fitted to interpretation on a lyre. When F. M.
degli Azzi put the book of Genesis (1700) into sonnets, and Isaac de
Benserade the _Metamorphoses_ of Ovid (1676) into rondeaux, these
eccentric and laborious versifiers produced what was epical rather than
lyrical poetry, if poetry it was at all. But the sonnet as Shakespeare,
Wordsworth and even Petrarch used it was a cry from the heart, a
subjective confession, and although there is perhaps no evidence that a
sonnet was ever set to music with success, yet there is no reason why
that might not be done without destroying its sonnet-character.

Jouffroy was perhaps the first aesthetician to see quite clearly that
lyrical poetry is, really, nothing more than another name for poetry
itself, that it includes all the personal and enthusiastic part of what
lives and breathes in the art of verse, so that the divisions of
pedantic criticism are of no real avail to us in its consideration. We
recognize a narrative or epical poetry; we recognize drama; in both of
these, when the individual inspiration is strong, there is much that
trembles on the verge of the lyrical. But outside what is pure epic and
pure drama, all, or almost all, is lyrical. We say almost all, because
the difficulty arises of knowing where to place descriptive and
didactic poetry. The _Seasons_ of Thomson, for instance, a poem of high
merit and lasting importance in the history of literature--where is that
to be placed? What is to be said of the _Essay on Man_? In primitive
times, the former would have been classed under epic, the second would
have been composed in the supple iambic trimeter which so closely
resembled daily speech, and would not have been sharply distinguished
from prose. Perhaps this classification would still serve, were it not
for the element of versification, which makes a sharp line of
demarcation between poetic art and prose. This complexity of form,
rhythmical and stanzaic, takes much of the place which was taken in
antiquity by such music as Terpander is supposed to have supplied. In a
perfect lyric by a modern writer the instrument is the metrical form, to
which the words have to adapt themselves. There is perhaps no writer who
has ever lived in whose work this phenomenon may be more fruitfully
studied than it may be in the songs and lyrics of Shelley. The temper of
such pieces as "Arethusa" and "The Cloud" is indicated by a form hardly
more ambitious than a guitar; Hellas is full of passages which suggest
the harp; in his songs Shelley touches the lute or viol de gamba, while
in the great odes to the "West Wind" and to "Liberty" we listen to a
verse-form which reminds us by its volume of the organ itself. On the
whole subject of the nature of lyric poetry no commentary can be more
useful to the student than an examination of the lyrics of Shelley in
relation to those of the songwriters of ancient Greece.

  See Hegel, _Die Phänomenologie des Geistes_ (1807); T. S. Jouffroy,
  _Cours d'esthétique_ (1843); W. Christ, _Metrik der Griechen und
  Römer_, 2te. Aufl. (1879).     (E. G.)



LYSANDER (Gr. [Greek: Lysandros]), son of Aristocritus, Spartan admiral
and diplomatist. Aelian (_Var. Hist._ xii. 43) and Phylarchus (_ap._
Athen. vi. 271 e) say that he was a _mothax_, i.e. the son of a helot
mother (see HELOTS), but this tradition is at least doubtful; according
to Plutarch he was a Heraclid, though not of either royal family. We do
not know how he rose to eminence: he first appears as admiral of the
Spartan navy in 407 B.C. The story of his influence with Cyrus the
Younger, his naval victory off Notium, his quarrel with his successor
Callicratidas in 406, his appointment as [Greek: epistoleus] in 405, his
decisive victory at Aegospotami, and his share in the siege and
capitulation of Athens belong to the history of the Peloponnesian War
(q.v.). By 404 he was the most powerful man in the Greek world and set
about completing the task of building up a Spartan empire in which he
should be supreme in fact if not in name. Everywhere democracies were
replaced by oligarchies directed by bodies of ten men (decarchies,
[Greek: dekarchiai]) under the control of Spartan governors (harmosts,
[Greek: harmostai]). But Lysander's boundless influence and ambition,
and the superhuman honours paid him, roused the jealousy of the kings
and the ephors, and, on being accused by the Persian satrap Pharnabazus,
he was recalled to Sparta. Soon afterwards he was sent to Athens with an
army to aid the oligarchs, but Pausanias, one of the kings, followed him
and brought about a restoration of democracy. On the death of Agis II.,
Lysander secured the succession of Agesilaus (q.v.), whom he hoped to
find amenable to his influence. But in this he was disappointed. Though
chosen to accompany the king to Asia as one of his thirty advisers
([Greek: symbouloi]), he was kept inactive and his influence was broken
by studied affronts, and finally he was sent at his own request as envoy
to the Hellespont. He soon returned to Sparta to mature plans for
overthrowing the hereditary kingship and substituting an elective
monarchy open to all Heraclids, or even, according to another version,
to all Spartiates. But his alleged attempts to bribe the oracles were
fruitless, and his schemes were cut short by the outbreak of war with
Thebes in 395. Lysander invaded Boeotia from the west, receiving the
submission of Orchomenus and sacking Lebadea, but the enemy intercepted
his despatch to Pausanias, who had meanwhile entered Boeotia from the
south, containing plans for a joint attack upon Haliartus. The town was
at once strongly garrisoned, and when Lysander marched against it he was
defeated and slain. He was buried in the territory of Panopeus, the
nearest Phocian city. An able commander and an adroit diplomatist,
Lysander was fired by the ambition to make Sparta supreme in Greece and
himself in Sparta. To this end he shrank from no treachery or cruelty;
yet, like Agesilaus, he was totally free from the characteristic Spartan
vice of avarice, and died, as he had lived, a poor man.

  See the biographies by Plutarch and Nepos; Xen. _Hellenica_, i. 5-iii.
  5; Diod. Sic. xiii. 70 sqq., 104 sqq., xiv. 3, 10, 13, 81; Lysias xii.
  60 sqq.; Justin v. 5-7; Polyaenus i. 45, vii. 19; Pausanias iii., ix.
  32, 5-10, x. 9, 7-11; C. A. Gehlert, _Vita Lysandri_ (Bautzen, 1874);
  W. Vischer, _Alkibiades und Lysandros_ (Basel, 1845); O. H. J.
  Nitzsch, _De Lysandro_ (Bonn, 1847); and the Greek histories in
  general.     (M. N. T.)



LYSANIAS, tetrarch of Abilene (see ABILA), according to Luke iii. 1, in
the time of John the Baptist. The only Lysanias mentioned in profane
history as exercising authority in this district was executed in 36 B.C.
by M. Antonius (Mark Antony). This Lysanias was the son of Ptolemy
Mennaeus, the ruler of an independent state, of which Abilene formed
only a small portion. According to Josephus (_Ant._ xix. 5, 1) the
emperor Claudius in A.D. 42 confirmed Agrippa I. in the possession of
"Abila of Lysanias" already bestowed upon him by Caligula, elsewhere
described as "Abila, which had formed the tetrarchy of Lysanias." It is
argued that this cannot refer to the Lysanias executed by M. Antonius,
since his paternal inheritance, even allowing for some curtailment by
Pompey, must have been of far greater extent. It is therefore assumed by
some authorities that the Lysanias in Luke (A.D. 28-29) is a younger
Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene only, one of the districts into which the
original kingdom was split up after the death of Lysanias I. This
younger Lysanias may have been a son of the latter, and identical with,
or the father of, the Claudian Lysanias. On the other hand, Josephus
knows nothing of a younger Lysanias, and it is suggested by others that
he really does refer to Lysanias I. The explanation given by M. Krenkel
(_Josephus und Lucas_, Leipzig, 1894, p. 97) is that Josephus does not
mean to imply that Abila was the only possession of Lysanias, and that
he calls it the tetrarchy or kingdom of Lysanias because it was the last
remnant of the domain of Lysanias which remained under direct Roman
administration until the time of Agrippa. The expression was borrowed
from Josephus by Luke, who wrongly imagined that Lysanias I. had ruled
almost up to the time of the bestowal of his tetrarchy upon Agrippa, and
therefore to the days of John the Baptist. Two inscriptions are adduced
as evidence for the existence of a younger Lysanias--Bockh, _C.I.G._
4521 and 4523. The former is inconclusive, and in the latter the reading
[Greek: Ans[aniou]] is entirely conjectural; the name might equally well
be Lysimachus or Lysias.

  See E. Schürer, _Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes_ (3rd ed., 1901), i.
  p. 712; and (especially on the inscriptional evidence) E. Renan,
  "Mémoire sur la dynastie des Lysanias d'Abilene" in _Mémoires de
  l'institut imperial de France_ (xxvi., 1870); also P. W. Schmiedel in
  the _Encyclopaedia Biblica_, s.v.



LYSIAS, Attic orator, was born, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus
and the author of the life ascribed to Plutarch, in 459 B.C. This date
was evidently obtained by reckoning back from the foundation of Thurii
(444 B.C.), since there was a tradition that Lysias had gone thither at
the age of fifteen. Modern critics would place his birth later,--between
444 and 436 B.C.,--because, in Plato's _Republic_, of which the scene is
laid about 430 B.C., Cephalus, the father of Lysias, is among the
_dramatis personae_, and the emigration of Lysias to Thurii was said to
have followed his father's death. The latter statement, however, rests
only on the Plutarchic life; nor can Plato's dialogue be safely urged as
a minutely accurate authority. The higher date assigned by the ancient
writers agrees better with the tradition that Lysias reached, or passed,
the age of eighty.[1] Cephalus, his father, was a native of Syracuse,
and on the invitation of Pericles had settled at Athens. The opening
scene of Plato's _Republic_ is laid at the house of his eldest son,
Polemarchus, in Peiraeus. The tone of the picture warrants the inference
that the Sicilian family were well known to Plato, and that their
houses must often have been hospitable to such gatherings.

At Thurii, the colony newly planted on the Tarentine Gulf (see
PERICLES), the boy may have seen Herodotus, now a man in middle life,
and a friendship may have grown up between them. There, too, Lysias is
said to have commenced his studies in rhetoric--doubtless under a master
of the Sicilian school--possibly, as tradition said, under Tisias, the
pupil of Corax, whose name is associated with the first attempt to
formulate rhetoric as an art. In 413 B.C. the Athenian armament in
Sicily was annihilated. The desire to link famous names is illustrated
by the ancient ascription to Lysias of a rhetorical exercise purporting
to be a speech in which the captive general Nicias appealed for mercy to
the Sicilians. The terrible blow to Athens quickened the energies of an
anti-Athenian faction at Thurii. Lysias and his elder brother
Polemarchus, with three hundred other persons, were "accused of
Atticizing." They were driven from Thurii and settled at Athens (412
B.C.).

Lysias and Polemarchus were rich men, having inherited property from
their father; and Lysias claims that, though merely resident aliens,
they discharged public services with a liberality which shamed many of
those who enjoyed the franchise (_In Eratosth._ 20). The fact that they
owned house property shows that they were classed as [Greek: isoteleis],
i.e. foreigners who paid only the same tax as citizens, being exempt
from the special tax ([Greek: metoikion]) on resident aliens.
Polemarchus occupied a house in Athens itself, Lysias another in the
Peiraeus, near which was their shield manufactory, employing a hundred
and twenty skilled slaves. In 404 the Thirty Tyrants were established at
Athens under the protection of a Spartan garrison. One of their earliest
measures was an attack upon the resident aliens, who were represented as
disaffected to the new government. Lysias and Polemarchus were on a list
of ten singled out to be the first victims. Polemarchus was arrested,
and compelled to drink hemlock. Lysias had a narrow escape, with the
help of a large bribe. He slipped by a back-door out of the house in
which he was a prisoner, and took boat to Megara. It appears that he had
rendered valuable services to the exiles during the reign of the
tyrants, and in 403 Thrasybulus proposed that these services should be
recognized by the bestowal of the citizenship. The Boule, however, had
not yet been reconstituted, and hence the measure could not be
introduced to the ecclesia by the requisite "preliminary resolution"
([Greek: probouleuma]). On this ground it was successfully opposed.

During his later years Lysias--now probably a comparatively poor man
owing to the rapacity of the tyrants and his own generosity to the
Athenian exiles--appears as a hardworking member of a new
profession--that of writing speeches to be delivered in the law-courts.
The thirty-four extant are but a small fraction. From 403 to about 380
B.C. his industry must have been incessant. The notices of his personal
life in these years are scanty. In 403 he came forward as the accuser of
Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty Tyrants. This was his only direct
contact with Athenian politics. The story that he wrote a defence for
Socrates, which the latter declined to use, probably arose from a
confusion. Several years after the death of Socrates the sophist
Polycrates composed a declamation against him, to which Lysias replied.
A more authentic tradition represents Lysias as having spoken his own
_Olympiacus_ at the Olympic festival of 388 B.C., to which Dionysius I.
of Syracuse had sent a magnificent embassy. Tents embroidered with gold
were pitched within the sacred enclosure; and the wealth of Dionysius
was vividly shown by the number of chariots which he had entered. Lysias
lifted up his voice to denounce Dionysius as, next to Artaxerxes, the
worst enemy of Hellas, and to impress upon the assembled Greeks that one
of their foremost duties was to deliver Sicily from a hateful
oppression. The latest work of Lysias which we can date (a fragment of a
speech _For Pherenicus_) belongs to 381 or 380 B.C. He probably died in
or soon after 380 B.C.

Lysias was a man of kindly and genial nature, warm in friendship, loyal
to country, with a keen perception of character. and a fine though
strictly controlled sense of humour. The literary tact which is so
remarkable in the extant speeches is that of a singularly flexible
intelligence, always obedient to an instinct of gracefulness. He owes
his distinctive place to the power of concealing his art. It was
obviously desirable that a speech written for delivery by a client
should be suitable to his age, station and circumstances. Lysias was the
first to make this adaptation really artistic. His skill can be best
appreciated if we turn from the easy flow of his graceful language to
the majestic emphasis of Antiphon, or to the self-revealing art of
Isaeus. Translated into terms of ancient criticism, he became the model
of the "plain style" ([Greek: iochnos charakter, iochne, lite, apheles
lexis]: _genus tenue_ or _subtile_). Greek and then Roman critics
distinguished three styles of rhetorical composition--the "grand" (or
"elaborate"), the "plain" and the "middle," the "plain" being nearest to
the language of daily life. Greek rhetoric began in the "grand" style;
then Lysias set an exquisite pattern of the "plain"; and Demosthenes
might be considered as having effected an almost ideal compromise.

The vocabulary of Lysias is pure and simple. Most of the rhetorical
"figures" are sparingly used--except such as consist in the parallelism
or opposition of clauses. The taste of the day--not yet emancipated from
the influence of the Sicilian rhetoric--probably demanded a large use of
antithesis. Lysias excels in vivid description; he has also a happy
knack of marking the speaker's character by light touches. The structure
of his sentences varies a good deal according to the dignity of the
subject. He has equal command over the "periodic" style ([Greek:
katestrammene lexis]) and the non-periodic or "continuous" ([Greek:
eiromene, dialelumene]). His disposition of his subject-matter is always
simple. The speech has usually four parts--introduction ([Greek:
prooimion]), narrative of facts ([Greek: diegesis]), proofs ([Greek:
pisteis]), which may be either external, as from witnesses, or internal,
derived from argument on the facts, and, lastly, conclusion ([Greek:
epilogos]). It is in the introduction and the narrative that Lysias is
seen at his best. In his greatest extant speech--that _Against
Eratosthenes_--and also in the fragmentary _Olympiacus_, he has pathos
and fire; but these were not characteristic qualities of his work. In
Cicero's judgment (_De Orat._ iii. 7, 28) Demosthenes was peculiarly
distinguished by force (_vis_), Aeschines by resonance (_sonitus_),
Hypereides by acuteness (_acumen_), Isocrates by sweetness (_suavitas_);
the distinction which he assigns to Lysias is _subtilitas_, an Attic
refinement--which, as he elsewhere says (_Brutus_, 16, 64) is often
joined to an admirable vigour (_lacerti_). Nor was it oratory alone to
which Lysias rendered service; his work had an important effect on all
subsequent Greek prose, by showing how perfect elegance could be joined
to plainness. Here, in his artistic use of familiar idiom, he might
fairly be called the Euripides of Attic prose. And his style has an
additional charm for modern readers, because it is employed in
describing scenes from the everyday life of Athens.[2]

  Thirty-four speeches (three fragmentary) have come down under the name
  of Lysias; one hundred and twenty-seven more, now lost, are known from
  smaller fragments or from titles. In the Augustan age four hundred and
  twenty-five works bore his name, of which more than two hundred were
  allowed as genuine by the critics. Our thirty-four works may be
  classified as follows:--

  A. EPIDEICTIC.--1. _Olympiacus_, xxxiii. 388 B.C.; 2. _Epitaphius_,
  ii. (purporting to have been spoken during the Corinthian War;
  certainly spurious), perhaps composed about 380-340 B.C. ("soon after
  387," Blass).

  B. DELIBERATIVE.--Plea for the Constitution, xxxiv., 403 B.C.

  C. FORENSIC, IN PUBLIC CAUSES.--I. _Relating to Offences directly
  against the State ([Greek: graphai demosion adikematon]); such as
  treason, malversation in office, embezzlement of public moneys._ 1.
  For Polystratus, xx., 407 B.C.; 2. Defence on a Charge of Taking
  Bribes, xxi., 402 B.C.; 3. Against Ergocles, xxviii., 389 B.C.; 4.
  Against Epicrates, xxvii., 389 B.C.; 5. Against Nicomachus, xxx., 399
  B.C.; 6. Against the Corndealers, xxii., 386 B.C. (?) II. _Cause
  relating to Unconstitutional Procedure_ ([Greek: graphe paranomon]).
  On the Property of the Brother of Nicias, xviii., 395 B.C. III.
  _Causes relating to Claims for Money withheld from the State ([Greek:
  apographai])_. 1. For the Soldier, ix. (probably not by Lysias, but by
  an imitator, writing for a real cause), 394 B.C. (?); 2. On the
  Property of Aristophanes, xix., 387 B.C.; 3. Against Philocrates,
  xxix., 389 B.C. IV. _Causes relating to a Scrutiny ([Greek:
  dokimasia]); especially the Scrutiny, by the Senate, of Officials
  Designate._ 1. Against Evandrus, xxvi., 382 B.C.; 2. For Mantitheus,
  xvi., 392 B.C.; 3. Against Philon, xxxi., between 404 and 395 B.C.; 4.
  Defence on a Charge of Seeking to Abolish the Democracy, xxv., 401
  B.C.; 5. For the Invalid, xxiv., 402 B.C. (?) V. _Causes relating to
  Military Offences ([Greek: graphai lipotaxiou, astrateias])._ 1.
  Against Alcibiades, I. and II. (xiv., xv.), 395 B.C. VI. _Causes
  relating to Murder or Intent to Murder_ ([Greek: graphai phonou,
  traumatos ek pronoias]). 1. Against Eratosthenes, xii., 403 B.C.; 2.
  Against Agoratus, xiii., 399 B.C.; 3. On the Murder of Eratosthenes,
  i. (date uncertain); 4. Against Simon, iii., 393 B.C.; 5. On Wounding
  with Intent, iv. (date uncertain). VII. _Causes relating to Impiety_
  ([Greek: graphai asebeias]). 1. Against Andocides, vi. (certainly
  spurious, but perhaps contemporary); 2. For Callias, v. (date
  uncertain); 3. On the Sacred Olive, vii., not before 395 B.C.

  D. FORENSIC, IN PRIVATE CAUSES.--I. _Action for Libel_ ([Greek: dike
  kakegorias]). Against Theomnestus, x., 384-383 B.C. (the so-called
  second speech, xi., is merely an epitome of the first). II. _Action by
  a Ward against a Guardian_ ([Greek: dike epitropes]). Against
  Diogeiton, xxxii., 400 B.C. III. _Trial of a Claim to Property_
  ([Greek: diadikasia]). On the property of Eraton, xvii., 397 B.C. IV.
  _Answer to a Special Plea ([Greek: pros paragraphen])._ Against
  Pancleon, xxiii. (date uncertain).

  E. MISCELLANEOUS.--1. To his Companions, a Complaint of Slanders,
  viii. (certainly spurious); 2. The [Greek: erotikos] in Plato's
  _Phaedrus_, pp. 230 E-234. This has generally been regarded as Plato's
  own work; but the certainty of this conclusion will be doubted by
  those who observe (1) the elaborate preparations made in the dialogue
  for a recital of the [Greek: erotikos] which shall be _verbally
  exact_, and (2) the closeness of the criticism made upon it. If the
  satirist were merely analysing his own composition, such criticism
  would have little point. Lysias is the earliest writer who is known to
  have composed [Greek: erotikoi]; it is as representing both rhetoric
  and a false [Greek: eros] that he is the object of attack in the
  _Phaedrus_.

  F. FRAGMENTS.--Three hundred and fifty-five of these are collected by
  Sauppe, _Oratores Attici_, ii. 170-216. Two hundred and fifty-two of
  them represent one hundred and twenty-seven speeches of known title;
  and of six the fragments are comparatively large. Of these, the
  fragmentary speech _For Pherenicus_ belongs to 381 or 380 B.C., and is
  thus the latest known work of Lysias.[3]

  In literary and historical interest, the first place among the extant
  speeches of Lysias belongs to that _Against Eratosthenes_ (403 B.C.),
  one of the Thirty Tyrants, whom Lysias arraigns as the murderer of his
  brother Polemarchus. The speech is an eloquent and vivid picture of
  the reign of terror which the Thirty established at Athens; the
  concluding appeal, to both parties among the citizens, is specially
  powerful. Next in importance is the speech _Against Agoratus_ (399
  B.C.), one of our chief authorities for the internal history of Athens
  during the months which immediately followed the defeat at
  Aegospotami. The _Olympiacus_ (388 B.C.) is a brilliant fragment,
  expressing the spirit of the festival at Olympia, and exhorting Greeks
  to unite against their common foes. The _Plea for the Constitution_
  (403 B.C.) is interesting for the manner in which it argues that the
  wellbeing of Athens--now stripped of empire--is bound up with the
  maintenance of democratic principles. The speech _For Mantitheus_ (392
  B.C.) is a graceful and animated portrait of a young Athenian [Greek:
  hippeus], making a spirited defence of his honour against the charge
  of disloyalty. The defence _For the Invalid_ is a humorous
  character-sketch. The speech _Against Pancleon_ illustrates the
  intimate relations between Athens and Plataea, while it gives us some
  picturesque glimpses of Athenian town life. The defence of the person
  who had been charged with destroying a _moria_, or sacred olive,
  places us amidst the country life of Attica. And the speech _Against
  Theomnestus_ deserves attention for its curious evidence of the way in
  which the ordinary vocabulary of Athens had changed between 600 and
  400 B.C.

  All MSS. of Lysias yet collated have been derived, as H. Sauppe first
  showed, from the Codex Palatinus X. (Heidelberg). The next most
  valuable MS. is the Laurentianus C (15th century), which I. Bekker
  chiefly followed. Speaking generally, we may say that these two MSS.
  are the only two which carry much weight where the text is seriously
  corrupt. In _Oratt._ i.-ix. Bekker occasionally consulted eleven other
  MSS., most of which contain only the above nine speeches: viz.,
  Marciani F, G, I, K (Venice); Laurentiani D, E (Florence); Vaticani M,
  N; Parisini U, V; Urbinas O.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Editio princeps, Aldus (Venice, 1513); by I. Bekker
  (1823) and W. S. Dobson (1828) in _Oratores Attici_; C. Scheibe (1852)
  and T. Thalheim (1901, Teubner series, with bibliography); C. G. Cobet
  (4th ed., by J. J. Hartman, 1905); with variorum notes, by J. J.
  Reiske (1772). Editions of select speeches by J. H. Bremi (1845); R.
  Rauchenstein (1848, revised by C. Fuhr, 1880-1881); H. Frohberger
  (1866-1871); H. van Herwerden (1863); A. Weidner (1888); E. S.
  Shuckburgh (1882); A. Westermann and W. Binder (1887-1890); G. P.
  Bristol (1892), M. H. Morgan (1895), C. D. Adams (1905), all three
  published in America. There is a special lexicon to Lysias by D. H.
  Holmes (Bonn, 1895). See also Jebb's _Attic Orators_ (1893) and
  _Selections from the Attic Orators_ (2nd ed., 1888) and F. Blass,
  _Die Attische Beredsamkeit_ (2nd ed., 1887-1898); W. L. Devries,
  _Ethopoiia. A rhetorical study of the types of character in the
  orations of Lysias_ (Baltimore, 1892).     (R. C. J.; X.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] [W. Christ, _Gesch. der griech. Litt._, gives the date of birth
    as about 450.]

  [2] See further Jebb, _The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeus_, i.
    142-316.

  [3] [Some remains of the speech against Theozotides have been found
    in the Hibeh papyri; see W. H. D. Rouse's _The Year's Work in
    Classical Studies_ (1907)].



LYSIMACHUS (c. 355-281 B.C.), Macedonian general, son of Agathocles, was
a citizen of Pella in Macedonia. During Alexander's Persian campaigns he
was one of his immediate bodyguard and distinguished himself in India.
After Alexander's death he was appointed to the government of Thrace and
the Chersonese. For a long time he was chiefly occupied with fighting
against the Odrysian king Seuthes. In 315 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy
and Seleucus against Antigonus, who, however, diverted his attention by
stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. In 309, he founded
Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the
Chersonese with the mainland. He followed the example of Antigonus in
taking the title of king. In 302 when the second alliance between
Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by
troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little
resistance. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters
near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess.
Seleucus joined him in 301, and at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus was
slain. His dominions were divided among the victors, Lysimachus
receiving the greater part of Asia Minor. Feeling that Seleucus was
becoming dangerously great, he now allied himself with Ptolemy, marrying
his daughter Arsinoë. Amastris, who had divorced herself from him,
returned to Heraclea. When Antigonus's son Demetrius renewed hostilities
(297), during his absence in Greece, Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia
Minor, but in 294 concluded a peace whereby Demetrius was recognized as
ruler of Macedonia. He tried to carry his power beyond the Danube, but
was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae, who, however, set him free
on amicable terms. Demetrius subsequently threatened Thrace, but had to
retire in consequence of a rising in Boeotia, and an attack from Pyrrhus
of Epirus. In 288 Lysimachus and Pyrrhus in turn invaded Macedonia, and
drove Demetrius out of the country. Pyrrhus was at first allowed to
remain in possession of Macedonia with the title of king, but in 285 he
was expelled by Lysimachus. Domestic troubles embittered the last years
of Lysimachus's life. Amastris had been murdered by her two sons;
Lysimachus treacherously put them to death. On his return Arsinoë asked
the gift of Heraclea, and he granted her request, though he had promised
to free the city. In 284 Arsinoë, desirous of gaining the succession for
her sons in preference to Agathocles (the eldest son of Lysimachus),
intrigued against him with the help of her brother Ptolemy Ceraunus;
they accused him of conspiring with Seleucus to seize the throne, and he
was put to death. This atrocious deed of Lysimachus aroused great
indignation. Many of the cities of Asia revolted, and his most trusted
friends deserted him. The widow of Agathocles fled to Seleucus, who at
once invaded the territory of Lysimachus in Asia. Lysimachus crossed the
Hellespont, and in 281 a decisive battle took place at the plain of
Corus (Corupedion) in Lydia. Lysimachus was killed; after some days his
body, watched by a faithful dog, was found on the field, and given up to
his son Alexander, by whom it was interred at Lysimachia.

  See Arrian, _Anab._ v. 13, vi. 28; Justin xv. 3, 4, xvii. 1; Quintus
  Curtius v. 3, x. 30; Diod. Sic. xviii. 3; Polybius v. 67; Plutarch,
  _Demetrius_, 31. 52, _Pyrrhus_, 12; Appian, _Syriaca_, 62; Thirlwall,
  _History of Greece_, vol. viii. (1847); J. P. Mahaffy, _Story of
  Alexander's Empire_; Droysen, _Hellenismus_ (2nd ed., 1877); A. Holm,
  _Griechische Geschichte_, vol. iv. (1894); B. Niese, _Gesch. d.
  griech. u. maked. Staaten_, vols. i. and ii. (1893, 1899); J. Beloch,
  _Griech. Gesch._ vol. iii. (1904); Hünerwadel, _Forschungen zur Gesch.
  des Konigs Lysimachus_ (1900); Possenti, _Il Re Lisimaco di Tracia_
  (1901); Ghione, _Note sul regno di Lisimaco (Atti d. real. Accad. di
  Torino_, xxxix.); and MACEDONIAN EMPIRE.     (E. R. B.)



LYSIPPUS, Greek sculptor, was head of the school of Argos and Sicyon in
the time of Philip and Alexander of Macedon. His works are said to have
numbered 1500, some of them colossal. Some accounts make him the
continuer of the school of Polyclitus; some represent him as
self-taught. The matter in which he especially innovated was the
proportions of the male human body; he made the head smaller than his
predecessors, the body more slender and hard, so as to give the
impression of greater height. He also took great pains with hair and
other details. Pliny (_N.H._ 34, 61) and other writers mention many of
his statues. Among the gods he seems to have produced new and striking
types of Zeus (probably of the Otricoli class), of Poseidon (compare the
Poseidon of the Lateran, standing with raised foot), of the Sun-god and
others; many of these were colossal figures in bronze. Among heroes he
was specially attracted by the mighty physique of Hercules. The Hercules
Farnese of Naples, though signed by Glycon of Athens, and a later and
exaggerated transcript, owes something, including the motive of rest
after labour, to Lysippus. Lysippus made many statues of Alexander the
Great, and so satisfied his patron, no doubt by idealizing him, that he
became the court sculptor of the king, from whom and from whose generals
he received many commissions. The extant portraits of Alexander vary
greatly, and it is impossible to determine which among them go back to
Lysippus. The remarkable head from Alexandria (Plate II. fig. 56, in
GREEK ART) has as good a claim as any.

As head of the great athletic school of Peloponnese Lysippus naturally
sculptured many athletes; a figure by him of a man scraping himself with
a strigil was a great favourite of the Romans in the time of Tiberius
(Pliny, _N.H._ 34, 61); and this has been usually regarded as the
original copied in the Apoxyomenus of the Vatican (GREEK ART, Plate VI.
fig. 79). If so, the copyist has modernized his copy, for some features
of the Apoxyomenus belong to the Hellenistic age. With more certainty we
may see a copy of an athlete by Lysippus in the statue of Agias found at
Delphi (GREEK ART, Plate V. fig. 74), which is proved by inscriptions to
be a replica in marble of a bronze statue set up by Lysippus in
Thessaly. And when the Agias and the Apoxyomenus are set side by side
their differences are so striking that it is difficult to attribute them
to the same author, though they may belong to the same school.     (P. G.)



LYSIS OF TARENTUM (d. c. 390 B.C.), Greek philosopher. His life is
obscure, but it is generally accepted, that in the persecution of the
Pythagoreans at Crotona and Metapontum he escaped and went to Thebes,
where he came under the influence of Philolaus. The friend and companion
of Pythagoras, he has been credited with many of the works usually
attributed to Pythagoras himself. Diogenes Laertius viii. 6 gives him
three, and Mullach even assigns to him the _Golden Verses_. But it is
generally held that these verses are a collection of lines by many
authors rather than the work of one man.



LYSISTRATUS, a Greek sculptor of the 4th century B.C., brother of
Lysippus of Sicyon. We are told by Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ 35, 153) that he
followed a strongly realistic line, being the first sculptor to take
impressions of human faces in plaster.



LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS (1793-1847), Anglican divine and hymn-writer, was
born near Kelso on the 1st of June 1793, and was educated at Enniskillen
school and at Trinity College, Dublin. He took orders in 1815, and for
some time held a curacy near Wexford. Owing to infirm health he came to
England, and after several changes settled, in 1823, in the parish of
Brixham. In 1844 his health finally gave way; and he died at Nice on the
20th of November 1847.

  Lyte's first work was _Tales in Verse illustrative of Several of the
  Petitions in the Lord's Prayer_ (1826), which was written at Lymington
  and was commended by Wilson in the _Noctes Ambrosianae_. He next
  published (1833) a volume of _Poems, chiefly Religious_, and in 1834 a
  little collection of psalms and hymns entitled _The Spirit of the
  Psalms_. After his death, a volume of _Remains_ with a memoir was
  published, and the poems contained in this, with those in _Poems,
  chiefly Religious_, were afterwards issued in one volume (1868). His
  best known hymns are "Abide with me! fast falls the eventide"; "Jesus,
  I my cross have taken"; "Praise, my soul, the King of Heaven"; and
  "Pleasant are Thy courts above."



LYTHAM, an urban district and watering-place in the Blackpool
parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the north shore of the
estuary of the Ribble, 13½ m. W. of Preston by a joint line of the
London & North Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways. Pop. (1901)
7185. It has a pier, a pleasant promenade and drive along the shore,
and other appointments of a seaside resort, but it is less wholly
devoted to holiday visitors than Blackpool, which lies 8 m. N.W. A
Benedictine cell was founded here at the close of the 12th century by
the lord of the manor, Richard Fitz-Roger.



LYTTELTON, GEORGE LYTTELTON, 1ST BARON (1709-1773), English statesman
and man of letters, born at Hagley, Worcestershire, was a descendant of
the great jurist Sir Thomas Littleton (q.v.). He was the eldest son of
Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th bart. (d. 1751), who at the revolution of 1688
and during the following reign was one of the ablest Whig debaters of
the House of Commons.[1] Lyttelton was educated at Eton and Oxford, and
in 1728 set out on the grand tour, spending considerable periods at
Paris and Rome. On his return to England he sat in parliament for
Okehampton, Devonshire, beginning public life in the same year with
Pitt. From 1744 to 1754 he held the office of a lord commissioner of the
treasury. In 1755 he succeeded Legge as chancellor of the exchequer, but
in 1756 he quitted office, being raised to the peerage as Baron
Lyttelton, of Frankley, in the county of Worcester. In the political
crisis of 1765, before the formation of the Rockingham administration,
it was suggested that he might be placed at the head of the treasury,
but he declined to take part in any such scheme. The closing years of
his life were devoted chiefly to literary pursuits. He died on the 22nd
of August 1773.

  Lyttelton's earliest publication (1735), _Letters from a Persian in
  England to his Friend at Ispahan_, appeared anonymously. Much greater
  celebrity was achieved by his _Observations on the Conversion and
  Apostleship of St Paul_, also anonymous, published in 1747. It takes
  the form of a letter to Gilbert West, and is designed to show that St
  Paul's conversion is of itself a sufficient demonstration of the
  divine character of Christianity. Dr Johnson regarded the work as one
  "to which infidelity has never been able to fabricate a specious
  answer." Lord Lyttelton's _Dialogues of the Dead_, a creditable
  performance, though hardly rivalling either Lucian or Landor, appeared
  in 1760. His _History of Henry II._ (1767-1771), the fruit of twenty
  years' labour, is not now cited as an authority, but is painstaking
  and fair. Lyttelton was also a writer of verse; his _Monody_ on his
  wife's death has been praised by Gray for its elegiac tenderness, and
  his _Prologue_ to the _Coriolanus_ of his friend Thomson shows genuine
  feeling. He was also the author of the well-known stanza in the
  _Castle of Indolence_, in which the poet himself is described. A
  complete collection of the _Works_ of Lord Lyttelton was published by
  his nephew, G. E. Ayscough in 1774.

His son THOMAS (1744-1779), who succeeded as 2nd baron, played some part
in the political life of his time, but his loose and prodigal habits
were notorious, and he is known, in distinction to his father "the good
lord," as the wicked Lord Lyttelton. He left no lawful issue, and the
barony became extinct; but it was revived in 1794 in the person of his
uncle WILLIAM HENRY, 1st baron of the new creation (1724-1808), who was
governor of S. Carolina and later of Jamaica, and ambassador to
Portugal. The new barony went after him to his two sons. The 3rd baron
(1782-1837) was succeeded by his son GEORGE WILLIAM LYTTELTON, 4th baron
(1817-1876), who was a fine scholar, and brother-in-law of W. E.
Gladstone, having married Miss Mary Glynne. He did important work in
educational and poor law reform. He had eight sons, of whom the eldest,
CHARLES GEORGE (b. 1842), became 5th baron, and in 1889 succeeded, by
the death of the 3rd duke of Buckingham and Chandos, to the viscounty of
Cobham, in which title the barony of Lyttelton is now merged. Other
distinguished sons were Arthur Temple Lyttelton (d. 1903), warden of
Selwyn College, Cambridge, and bishop-suffragan of Southampton; Edward
Lyttelton (b. 1855), headmaster of Haileybury (1890-1905) and then of
Eton; and Alfred Lyttelton (b. 1857), secretary of state for the
colonies (1903-1906). It was a family of well-known cricketers, Alfred
being in his day the best wicket-keeper in England as well as a fine
tennis player.

  For the 1st baron see Sir R. Phillimore's _Memoirs and Correspondence
  of Lord Lyttelton_, 1734-1773 (2 vols., 1845).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Sir Thomas (or Thomas de) Littleton, the jurist, had three sons,
    William, Richard and Thomas. From the first, William, was descended
    Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 1st bart. of Frankley (1596-1650), whose sons
    were Sir Henry, 2nd bart. (d. 1693), and Sir Charles, 3rd bart.
    (1629-1716), governor of Jamaica. The latter's son was Sir Thomas,
    4th bart., above mentioned, who was also the father of Charles
    Lyttelton (1714-1768), bishop of Carlisle, and president of the
    Society of Antiquaries. The male descendants of the second, Richard,
    died out with Sir Edward Littleton, bart., of Pillaton,
    Staffordshire, in 1812, but the latter's grandnephew, Edward John
    Walhouse (1791-1863) of Hatherton, took the estates by will and also
    the name of Littleton, and was created 1st Baron Hatherton in 1835;
    he was chief secretary for Ireland (1833-1834). From Thomas, the
    third son, was descended, in one line, Edward, Lord Littleton, of
    Munslow (1589-1645), recorder of London, chief justice of the common
    pleas, and eventually lord keeper; and in another line, the baronets
    of Stoke St Milborough, Shropshire, of whom the best known and last
    was Sir Thomas Littleton, 3rd bart. (1647-1710), speaker of the House
    of Commons (1698-1700), and treasurer of the navy.



LYTTELTON, a borough of New Zealand, the port of Christchurch (q.v.) on
the E. coast of South Island, on an inlet on the north-western side of
Banks Peninsula. Pop. (1906) 3941. It is surrounded by abrupt hills
rising to 1600 ft., through which a railway communicates with
Christchurch (7 m. N.W.) by a tunnel 1¾ m. long. Great breakwaters
protect the harbour, which has an area of 110 acres, with a low-tide
depth of 20 to 27 ft. There is a graving dock accessible for vessels of
6000 tons. The produce of the rich agricultural district of Canterbury
is exported, frozen or preserved. Lyttelton, formerly called Port Cooper
and Port Victoria, was the original settlement in this district (1850).



LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE EARLE LYTTON, BULWER-LYTTON, 1ST BARON
(1803-1873), English novelist and politician, the youngest son of
General William Earle Bulwer of Heydon Hall and Wood Dalling, Norfolk,
was born in London on the 25th of May 1803. He had two brothers, William
(1790-1877) and Henry (1801-1872), afterwards Lord Dalling (q.v.).
Bulwer's father died when the boy was four years old. His mother,
Elizabeth Barbara, daughter of Richard Warburton Lytton of Knebworth,
Hertfordshire, after her husband's death settled in London. Bulwer, who
was delicate and neurotic, gave evidence of precocious talent and was
sent to various boarding schools, where he was always discontented,
until in the establishment of a Mr Wallington at Ealing he found in his
master a sympathetic and admiring listener. Mr Wallington induced him to
publish, at the age of fifteen, an immature volume entitled _Ishmael and
other Poems_. About this time Bulwer fell in love, and became extremely
morbid under enforced separation from the young lady, who was induced by
her father to marry another man. She died about the time that Bulwer
went to Cambridge, and he declared that her loss affected all his
after-life. In 1822 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, but removed
shortly afterwards to Trinity Hall, and in 1825 won the Chancellor's
medal for English verse with a poem on "Sculpture." In the following
year he took his B.A. degree and printed for private circulation a small
volume of poems, _Weeds and Wild Flowers_, in which the influence of
Byron was easily traceable. In 1827 he published _O'Neill, or the
Rebel_, a romance, in heroic couplets, of patriotic struggle in Ireland,
and in 1831 a metrical satire, _The Siamese Twins_. These juvenilia he
afterwards ignored.

Meanwhile he had begun to take his place in society, being already known
as a dandy of considerable pretensions, who had acted as second in a
duel and experienced the fashionable round of flirtation and intrigue.
He purchased a commission in the army, only to sell it again without
undergoing any service, and in August 1827 married, in opposition to his
mother's wishes, Rosina Doyle Wheeler (1802-1882), an Irish beauty,
niece and adopted daughter of General Sir John Doyle. She was a
brilliant but passionate girl, and upon his marriage with her, Bulwer's
mother withdrew the allowance she had hitherto made him. He had £200 a
year from his father, and less than £100 a year with his wife, and found
it necessary to set to work in earnest. In the year of his marriage he
published _Falkland_, a novel which was only a moderate success, but in
1828 he attracted general attention with _Pelham_, a novel for which he
had gathered material during a visit to Paris in 1825. This story, with
its intimate study of the dandyism of the age, was immediately popular,
and gossip was busy in identifying the characters of the romance with
the leading men of the time. In the same year he published _The
Disowned_, following it up with _Devereux_ (1829), _Paul Clifford_
(1830), _Eugène Aram_ (1832) and _Godolphin_ (1833). All these novels
were designed with a didactic purpose, somewhat upon the German model.
To embody the leading features of a period, to show how a criminal may
be reformed by the development of his own character, to explain the
secrets of failure and success in life, these were the avowed objects of
his art, and there were not wanting critics ready to call in question
his sincerity and his morality. Magazine controversy followed, in which
Bulwer was induced to take a part, and about the same time he began to
make a mark in politics. He became a follower of Bentham, and in 1831
was elected member for St Ives in Huntingdon. During this period of
feverish activity his relations with his wife grew less and less
satisfactory. At first she had cause to complain that he neglected her
in the pursuit of literary reputation; later on his disregard became
rather active than passive. After a series of distressing differences
they decided to live apart, and were legally separated in 1836. Three
years later his wife published a novel called _Cheveley, or the Man of
Honour_, in which Bulwer was bitterly caricatured, and in June 1858,
when her husband was standing as parliamentary candidate for
Hertfordshire, she appeared at the hustings and indignantly denounced
him. She was consequently placed under restraint as insane, but
liberated a few weeks later. For years she continued her attacks upon
her husband's character, and outlived him by nine years, dying at Upper
Sydenham in March 1882. There is little doubt that her passionate
imagination gravely exaggerated the tale of her wrongs, though Bulwer
was certainly no model for husbands. It was a case of two undisciplined
natures in domestic bondage, and the consequences of their union were as
inevitable as they were unfortunate.

Bulwer, meanwhile, was full of activity, both literary and political.
After representing St Ives, he was returned for Lincoln in 1832, and sat
in parliament for that city for nine years. He spoke in favour of the
Reform Bill, and took the leading part in securing the reduction, after
vainly essaying the repeal, of the newspaper stamp duties. His pamphlet,
issued when the Whigs were dismissed from office in 1834, and entitled
"A Letter to a Late Cabinet Minister on the Crisis," was immensely
influential, and Lord Melbourne offered him a lordship of the admiralty,
which he declined as likely to interfere with his activity as an author.
At this time, indeed, his pen was indefatigable. _Godolphin_ was
followed by _The Pilgrims of the Rhine_ (1834), a graceful fantasy, too
German in sentiment to be quite successful in England, and then in _The
Last Days of Pompeii_ (1834) and Rienzi (1835) he reached the height of
his popularity. He took great pains with these stories, and despite
their lurid colouring and mannered over-emphasis, they undoubtedly
indicate the highwater mark of his talent. Their reception was
enthusiastic, and _Ernest Maltravers_ (1837) and _Alice, or the
Mysteries_ (1838) were hardly less successful. At the same time he had
been plunging into journalism. In 1831 he undertook the editorship of
the _New Monthly_, which, however, he resigned in the following year,
but in 1841, the year in which he published _Night and Morning_, he
started the _Monthly Chronicle_, a semi-scientific magazine, for which
he wrote _Zicci_, an unfinished first draft afterwards expanded into
_Zanoni_ (1842). As though this multifarious fecundity were not
sufficient, he had also been busy in the field of dramatic literature.
In 1838 he produced _The Lady of Lyons_, a play which Macready made a
great success at Covent Garden: in 1839 _Richelieu_ and _The Sea
Captain_, and in 1840 _Money_. All, except _The Sea Captain_, were
successful, and this solitary failure he revived in 1869 under the title
of _The Rightful Heir_. Of the others it may be said that, though they
abound in examples of strained sentiment and false taste, they have
nevertheless a certain theatrical _flair_, which has enabled them to
survive a whole library of stage literature of greater sincerity and
truer feeling. _The Lady of Lyons_ and _Money_ have long held the stage,
and to the last-named, at least, some of the most talented of modern
comedians have given new life and probability.

In 1838 Bulwer, then at the height of his popularity, was created a
baronet, and on succeeding to the Knebworth estate in 1843 added Lytton
to his surname, under the terms of his mother's will. From 1841 to 1852
he had no seat in parliament, and spent much of his time in continental
travel. His literary activity waned somewhat, but was still remarkably
alert for a man who had already done so much. In 1843 he issued _The
Last of the Barons_, which many critics have considered the most
historically sound and generally effective of all his romances; in 1847
_Lucretia, or the Children of the Night_, and in 1848 _Harold, the last
of the Saxon Kings_. In the intervals between these heavier productions
he had thrown off a volume of poems in 1842, another of translations
from Schiller in 1844, and a satire called _The New Timon_ in 1846, in
which Tennyson, who had just received a Civil List pension, was bitterly
lampooned as "school miss Alfred," with other unedifying amenities;
Tennyson retorted with some verses in which he addressed Bulwer-Lytton
as "you band-box." These poetic excursions were followed by his most
ambitious work in metre, a romantic epic entitled _King Arthur_, of
which he expected much, and he was greatly disappointed by its apathetic
reception. Having experienced some rather acid criticism, questioning
the morality of his novels, he next essayed a form of fiction which he
was determined should leave no loophole to suspicion, and in _The
Caxtons_ (1849), published at first anonymously, gave further proof of
his versatility and resource. _My Novel_ (1853) and _What will he do
with it?_ were designed to prolong the same strain.

In 1852 he entered the political field anew, and in the conservative
interest. He had differed from the policy of Lord John Russell over the
corn laws, and now separated finally from the liberals. He stood for
Hertfordshire and was elected, holding the seat till 1866, when he was
raised to the peerage as Baron Lytton of Knebworth. His eloquence gave
him the ear of the House of Commons, and he often spoke with influence
and authority. In 1858 he was appointed secretary for the colonies. In
the House of Lords he was comparatively inactive. His last novels were
_A Strange Story_ (1862), a mystical romance with spiritualistic
tendencies; _The Coming Race_ (1871), _The Parisians_ (1873)--both
unacknowledged at the time of his death; and _Kenelm Chillingly_, which
was in course of publication in _Blackwood's Magazine_ when Lytton died
at Torquay on the 18th of January 1873. The last three of his stories
were classed by his son, the 2nd Lord Lytton, as a trilogy, animated by
a common purpose, to exhibit the influence of modern ideas upon
character and conduct.

Bulwer-Lytton's attitude towards life was theatrical, the language of
his sentiments was artificial and over-decorated, and the tone of his
work was often so flamboyant as to give an impression of false taste and
judgment. Nevertheless, he built up each of his stories upon a
deliberate and careful framework: he was assiduous according to his
lights in historical research; and conscientious in the details of
workmanship. As the fashion of his day has become obsolete the immediate
appeal of his work has diminished. It will always, however, retain its
interest, not only for the merits of certain individual novels, but as a
mirror of the prevailing intellectual movement of the first half of the
19th century.

  See T. H. S. Escott, _Edward Bulwer, 1st Baron Lytton of Knebworth_
  (1910).     (A. Wa.)



LYTTON, EDWARD ROBERT BULWER-LYTTON, 1ST EARL OF (1831-1891), English
diplomatist and poet, was the only son of the 1st Baron Lytton. He was
born in Hertford Street, Mayfair, on the 8th of November 1831. Robert
Lytton and his sister were brought up as children principally by a Miss
Green. In 1840 the boy was sent to a school at Twickenham, in 1842 to
another at Brighton, and in 1845 to Harrow. From his earliest childhood
Lytton read voraciously and wrote copiously, quickly developing a
genuine and intense love of literature and a remarkable facility of
expression. In 1849 he left Harrow and studied for a year at Bonn with
an English tutor, and on his return with another tutor in England. In
1850 he entered the diplomatic service as unpaid _attaché_ to his uncle,
Sir Henry Bulwer, who was then minister at Washington. His advance in
the diplomatic service was continuous, his successive appointments
being: as second secretary--1852, Florence; 1854, Paris; 1857, The
Hague; 1859, Vienna; as first secretary or secretary of legation--1863,
Copenhagen; 1864, Athens; 1865, Lisbon; 1868, Madrid; 1868, Vienna;
1873, Paris; as minister--1875, Lisbon. In 1887 he was appointed to
succeed Lord Lyons as ambassador at Paris, and held that office until
his death in 1891. This rapid promotion from one European court to
another indicates the esteem in which Lytton was held by successive
foreign secretaries. In 1864, immediately before taking up his
appointment at Athens, he married Edith, daughter of Edward Villiers,
brother of the earl of Clarendon, and in 1873, upon the death of his
father, he succeeded to the peerage and the estate of Knebworth in
Hertfordshire.

Early in 1875 Lord Lytton declined an offer of appointment as governor
of Madras, and in November of that year he was nominated
governor-general of India by Disraeli. The moment was critical in the
history of India. In Central Asia the advance of Russia had continued so
steadily and so rapidly that Shere Ali, the amir of Afghanistan, had
determined to seek safety as the vassal of the tsar. Lytton went out to
India with express instructions from the British government to recover
the friendship of the amir if possible, and if not so to arrange matters
on the north-west frontier as to be able to be indifferent to his
hostility. For eighteen months Lytton and his council made every effort
to conciliate the friendship of the amir, but when a Russian agent was
established at Kabul, while the mission of Sir Neville Chamberlain was
forcibly denied entrance into the amir's dominions, no choice was left
between acknowledging the right of a subsidized ally of Great Britain to
place himself within Russian control and depriving him of the office
which he owed to British patronage and assistance. The inevitable war
began in November 1878, and by the close of that year the forces
prepared by Lytton for that purpose had achieved their task with
extraordinary accuracy and economy. Shere Ali fled from Kabul, and
shortly afterwards died, and once more it fell to the Indian government
to make provision for the future of Afghanistan. By the treaty of
Gandamak in May 1879 Yakub Khan, a son of Shere Ali, was recognized as
amir, the main conditions agreed upon being that the districts of Kuram,
Pishin and Sibi should be "assigned" to British administration, and the
Khyber and other passes be under British control; that there should be a
permanent British Resident at Kabul, and that the amir should be
subsidized in an amount to be afterwards determined upon. The endeavour
of the Indian government was to leave the internal administration of
Afghanistan as little affected as possible, but considerable risk was
run in trusting so much, and especially the safety of a British envoy,
to the power and the goodwill of Yakub Khan. Sir Louis Cavagnari, the
British envoy entered Kabul at the end of July, and was, with his staff,
massacred in the rising which took place on the 3rd of September. The
war of 1879-80 immediately began, with the occupation of Kandahar by
Stewart and the advance upon Kabul by Roberts, and the military
operations which followed were not concluded when Lytton resigned his
office in April 1880.

A complete account of Lytton's viceroyalty, and a lucid exposition of
the principles of his government and the main outlines of his policy,
may be found in _Lord Lytton's Indian Administration_, by his daughter,
Lady Betty Balfour (London, 1899). The frontier policy which he adopted,
after the method of a friendly and united Afghanistan under Yakub Khan
had been tried and had failed, was that the Afghan kingdom should be
destroyed. The province of Kandahar was to be occupied by Great Britain,
and administered by a vassal chief, Shere Ali Khan, who was appointed
"Wali" with a solemn guarantee of British support (unconditionally
withdrawn by the government succeeding Lytton's). The other points of
the Indian frontier were to be made as secure as possible, and the
provinces of Kabul and Herat were to be left absolutely to their own
devices. In consequence of what had been said of Lytton by the leaders
of the parliamentary opposition in England, it was impossible for him to
retain his office under a government formed by them, and he accordingly
resigned at the same time as the Beaconsfield ministry. This part of his
policy was thereupon revoked. Abdur Rahman, proving himself the
strongest of the claimants to the throne left vacant by Yakub Khan's
deposition, became amir as the subsidized ally of the Indian government.

The two most considerable events of Lytton's viceroyalty, besides the
Afghan wars, were the assumption by Queen Victoria of the title of
empress of India on the 1st of January 1877, and the famine which
prevailed in various parts of India in 1876-78. He satisfied himself
that periodical famines must be expected in Indian history, and that
constant preparation during years of comparative prosperity was the only
condition whereby their destructiveness could be modified. Accordingly
he obtained the appointment of the famine commission of 1878, to
inquire, upon lines laid down by him, into available means of
mitigation. Their report, made in 1880, is the foundation of the later
system of irrigation, development of communications, and "famine
insurance." The equalization and reduction of the salt duty were
effected, and the abolition of the cotton duty commenced, during
Lytton's term of office, and the system of Indian finance profoundly
modified by decentralization and the regulation of provincial
responsibility, in all which matters Lytton enthusiastically supported
Sir John Strachey, the financial member of his council.

Upon Lytton's resignation in 1880 an earldom was conferred upon him in
recognition of his services as viceroy. He lived at Knebworth until
1887, in which year he was appointed to succeed Lord Lyons as ambassador
at Paris. He died at Paris on the 24th of November 1891, of a clot of
blood in the heart, when apparently recovering from a serious illness.
He was succeeded by his son (b. 1876) as 2nd earl.

Lytton is probably better known as a poet--under the pen-name of "Owen
Meredith"--than as a statesman. The list of his published works is as
follows: _Clytemnestra, and other Poems_, 1855; _The Wanderer_, 1858;
_Lucile_, 1860; _Serbski Pesme, or National Songs of Servia_, 1861,
_Tannhäuser_ (in collaboration with Mr Julian Fane), 1861; _Chronicles
and Characters_, 1867; _Orval, or The Fool of Time_, 1868; _Fables in
Song_ (2 vols.), 1874; _Glenaveril, or The Metamorphoses_, 1885; _After
Paradise, or the Legends of Exile, and other Poems_, 1887; _Marah_,
1892; _King Poppy_, 1892. The two last-mentioned volumes were published
posthumously. A few previously unpublished pieces are included in a
volume of _Selections_ published, with an introduction by Lady Betty
Balfour, in 1894. His metrical style was easy and copious, but not
precise. It often gives the impression of having been produced with
facility, because the flow of his thought carried him along, and of not
having undergone prolonged or minute polish. It was frequently
suggestive of the work of other poets, especially in his earlier
productions. The friend who wrote the inscription for the monument to be
erected to him at St Paul's described him as "a poet of many styles,
each the expression of his habitual thoughts." _Lucile_, a novel in
verse, presents a romantic style and considerable wit; and _Glenaveril_,
which also contains many passages of great beauty and much poetic
thought, has much of the same narrative character. Besides his volumes
of poetry, Lytton published in 1883 two volumes of a biography of his
father. The second of these contains the beginning of the elder Lytton's
unfinished novel, _Greville_, and his life is brought down only to the
year 1832, when he was twenty-six years of age, so that the completion
of the book upon the same scale would have required at least four more
volumes. The executrix of Lytton's mother chose to consider that the
publication was injurious to that lady's memory, and issued a volume
purporting to contain Bulwer-Lytton's letters to his wife. This Lytton
suppressed by injunction, thereby procuring a fresh exposition of the
law that the copyright in letters remains in the writer or his
representatives, though the property in them belongs to the recipient.
Lytton's appointment to the Parisian embassy caused the biography of his
father to be finally laid aside.

  The _Personal and Literary Letters of Robert, 1st Earl of Lytton_,
  have been edited by Lady Betty Balfour (1906).     (H. S*.)



M The thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Greek alphabets, the
twelfth of the Latin, and the thirteenth of the languages of western
Europe. Written originally from right to left, it took the form [symbol]
which survives in its earliest representations in Greek. The greater
length of the first limb of _m_ is characteristic of the earliest forms.
From this form, written from left to right, the Latin abbreviation M'
for the praenomen Manius is supposed to have developed, the apostrophe
representing the fifth stroke of the original letter. In the early Greek
alphabets the four-stroke M with legs of equal length represents not _m_
but _s_; _m_ when written with four strokes is [symbol]. The five-stroke
forms, however, are confined practically to Crete, Melos and Cumae; from
the last named the Romans received it along with the rest of their
alphabet. The Phoenician name of the symbol was _mem_, the Greek name
[Greek: mu] is formed on the analogy of the name for _n_. M represents
the bilabial nasal sound, which was generally voiced. It is commonly a
stable sound, but many languages, e.g. Greek, Germanic and Celtic,
change it when final into -_n_, its dental correlative. It appears more
frequently as an initial sound in Greek and Latin than in the other
languages of the same stock, because in these _s_ before _m_ (as also
before _l_ and _n_) disappeared at the beginning of words. The sounds
_m_ and _b_ are closely related, the only difference being that, in
pronouncing _m_, the nasal passage is not closed, thus allowing the
sound to be prolonged, while _b_ is an instantaneous or explosive sound.
In various languages _b_ is inserted between m and a following
consonant, as in the Gr. [Greek: mesembria] "mid-day," or the English
"number," Fr. _nombre_ from Lat. _numerus_. The sound _m_ can in
unaccented syllables form a syllable by itself without an audible vowel,
e.g. the English word _fathom_ comes from an Anglo-Saxon _fathm_, where
the _m_ was so used. (For more details as to this phonetic principle,
which has important results in the history of language, see under N.)
     (P. Gi.)



MAAS, JOSEPH (1847-1886), English tenor singer, was born at Dartford,
and became a chorister in Rochester Cathedral. He went to study singing
in Milan in 1869; in February 1871 he made his first success by taking
Sims Reeves's place at a concert in London. In 1878 he became principal
tenor in Carl Rosa's company, his beautiful voice and finished style
more than compensating for his poor acting. He died in London on the
16th of January 1886.



MAASIN, a town on the S.W. coast of the island of Leyte, Philippine
Islands, at the mouth of the Maasin River. Pop. (1903), 21,638. Maasin
is an important port for hemp and copra. The well-built town occupies a
narrow coastal plain. The river valleys in the vicinity produce cotton,
pepper, tobacco, rice, Indian corn and fruit. Native cloths and pottery
are manufactured. Maasin is the only place on the west coast of Leyte
where a court of justice is held. The language is Visayan.



MAASSLUIS, a river port of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on
the New Waterway, 10 m. by rail W. of Rotterdam. Pop. (1903), 8011. It
rose into importance as a fishing harbour towards the end of the 16th
century, and its prosperity rapidly increased after the opening of the
New Waterway (the Maas ship canal) from Rotterdam to the sea. The fort
erected here in 1572 by Philip of Marnix, lord of St Aldegonde, was
captured by the Spanish in 1573.



MAASTRICHT, or MAESTRICHT, a frontier town and the capital of the
province of Limburg, Holland, on the left bank of the Maas at the influx
of the river Geer, 19 m. by rail N.N.E. of Liége in Belgium. Pop.
(1904), 36,146. A small portion of the town, known as Wyk, lies on the
right bank. A stone bridge connecting the two replaced a wooden
structure as early as 1280, and was rebuilt in 1683. Formerly a strong
fortress, Maastricht is still a considerable garrison town, but its
ramparts were dismantled in 1871-1878. The town-hall, built by Pieter
Post and completed in 1683, contains some interesting pictures and
tapestry. The old town-hall (Oud Stadhuis), a Gothic building of the
15th century, is now used as a museum of antiquities. The church of St
Servatius is said to have been founded by Bishop Monulphus in the 6th
century, thus being the oldest church in Holland; according to one
account it was rebuilt and enlarged as early as the time of Charlemagne.
The crypt with the tomb of the patron saint dates from the original
building. The varied character of its late Romanesque and later Gothic
architecture bears evidence of the frequency with which the church has
been restored and altered. Over the porch is the fine emperor's hall,
and the church has a marble statue of Charlemagne. The church of Our
Lady, a late Romanesque building, has two ancient crypts and a
13th-century choir of exceptional beauty, but the nave suffered severely
from a restoration in 1764. The present Gothic building of St Martin (in
Wyk) was erected in 1859; the original church is said by tradition to
have occupied the site of an old heathen temple. The Protestant St
Janskerk, a Gothic building of the 13th and 15th centuries, with a fine
tower, was formerly the baptistery of the cathedral. The various
hospitals, the poor-house, the orphanage and most of the other
charitable foundations are Roman Catholic institutions. Maastricht
contains the provincial archives, a library and geological collections.
Though mainly indebted for its commercial prosperity to its position on
the river, the town did not begin to reap the full advantages of its
situation till the opening of the railways between 1853 and 1865. At
first a trade was carried on in wine, colonial wares, alcoholic liquors
and salt; there are now manufactures of earthenware, glass and crystal,
arms, paper, woollens, tools, lead, copper and zinc work, as well as
breweries, and tobacco and cigar factories, and a trade in corn and
butter.

A short distance south of Maastricht are the great sandstone quarries of
Pietersberg, which were worked from the time of the Romans to near the
end of the 19th century; the result is one of the most extraordinary
subterranean labyrinths in the world, estimated to cover an area 15 m.
by 9 m. In the time of the Spanish wars these underground passages
served to hide the peasants and their cattle.

Maastricht was originally the _trajectus superior_ (upper ford) of the
Romans, and was the seat of a bishop from 382 to 721. Having formed part
of the Frankish realm, it was ruled after 1204 jointly by the dukes of
Brabant and the prince-bishops of Liége. In 1579 it was besieged by the
Spaniards under the duke of Parma, being captured and plundered after a
heroic resistance. It was taken by the French in 1673, 1748 and 1794.



MABILLON, JOHN (1632-1707), Benedictine monk of the Congregation of St
Maur (see MAURISTS), was the son of a peasant near Reims. In 1653 he
became a monk in the abbey of St Remi at Reims. In 1664 he was placed at
St Germain-des-Prés in Paris, the great literary workshop of the
Maurists, where he lived and worked for twenty years, at first under
d'Achery, with whom he edited the nine folio volumes of Acta of the
Benedictine Saints. In Mabillon's Prefaces (reprinted separately) these
lives were for the first time made to illustrate the ecclesiastical and
civil history of the early middle ages. Mabillon's masterpiece was the
_De re diplomatica_ (1681; and a supplement, 1704) in which were first
laid down the principles for determining the authenticity and date of
medieval charters and manuscripts. It practically created the science of
Latin palaeography, and is still the standard work on the subject. In
1685-1686 Mabillon visited the libraries of Italy, to purchase MSS. and
books for the King's Library. On his return to Paris he was called upon
to defend against de Rancé, the abbot of La Trappe, the legitimacy for
monks of the kind of studies to which the Maurists devoted themselves:
this called forth Mabillon's _Traité des études monastiques_ and his
_Réflexions sur la réponse de M. l'abbé de la_ _Trappe_ (1691-1692),
works embodying the ideas and programme of the Maurists for
ecclesiastical studies. Mabillon produced in all some twenty folio
volumes and as many of lesser size, nearly all works of monumental
erudition (the chief are named in the article MAURISTS). A very
competent judge declared that, "he knew well the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and
11th centuries, but nothing earlier or later." Mabillon never allowed
his studies to interfere with his life as a monk; he was noted for his
regular attendance at the choral recitation of the office and the other
duties of the monastic life, and for his deep personal religion, as well
as for a special charm of character. He died on the 26th of December
1707, in the midst of the production of the colossal Benedictine Annals.

  The chief authority for his life is the _Abrégé de la vie de D. J. M._
  (also in Latin), by his disciple and friend Ruinart (1709). See also,
  for a full summary of his works, Tassin, _Hist. littéraire de la
  congr. de St Maur_ (1770), pp. 205-269. Of modern biographies the best
  are those of de Broglie (2 vols., 1888) and Bäumer (1892)--the former
  to be especially recommended. A brief sketch by E. C. Butler may be
  found in the _Downside Review_ (1893).     (E. C. B.)



MABINOGION (plural of Welsh _mabinogi_, from _mabinog_, a bard's
apprentice), the title given to the collection of eleven Welsh prose
tales (from the Red Book of Hergest) published (1838) by Lady Charlotte
Guest, but applied in the Red Book to four only. (See CELT: _Welsh
Literature_.)



MABUSE, JAN (d. 1532), the name adopted (from his birthplace, Maubeuge)
by the Flemish painter JENNI GOSART, or JENNYN VAN HENNEGOUWE
(Hainault), as he called himself when he matriculated in the gild of St
Luke, at Antwerp, in 1503. We know nothing of his early life, but his
works tell us that he stood in his first period under the influence of
artists to whom plastic models were familiar; and this leads to the
belief that he spent his youth on the French border rather than on the
banks of the Scheldt. Without the subtlety or power of Van der Weyden,
he had this much in common with the great master of Tournai and
Brussels, that his compositions were usually framed in architectural
backgrounds. But whilst Mabuse thus early betrays his dependence on the
masters of the French frontier, he also confesses admiration for the
great painters who first gave lustre to Antwerp; and in the large
altar-pieces of Castle Howard and Scawby he combines in a quaint and not
unskilful medley the sentiment of Memling, the bright and decided
contrasts of pigment peculiar to coloured reliefs, the cornered and
packed drapery familiar to Van der Weyden, and the bold but Socratic
cast of face remarkable in the works of Quentin Matsys. At Scawby he
illustrates the legend of the count of Toulouse, who parted with his
worldly goods to assume the frock of a hermit. At Castle Howard he
represents the Adoration of the Kings, and throws together some thirty
figures on an architectural background, varied in detail, massive in
shape and fanciful in ornament. He surprises us by pompous costume and
flaring contrasts of tone. His figures, like pieces on a chess-board,
are often rigid and conventional. The landscape which shows through the
colonnades is adorned with towers and steeples in the minute fashion of
Van der Weyden. After a residence of a few years at Antwerp, Mabuse took
service with Philip, bastard of Philip the Good, at that time lord of
Somerdyk and admiral of Zeeland. One of his pictures had already become
celebrated--a Descent from the Cross (50 figures), on the high altar of
the monastery of St Michael of Tongerloo. Philip of Burgundy ordered
Mabuse to execute a replica for the church of Middelburg; and the value
which was then set on the picture is apparent from the fact that Dürer
came expressly to Middelburg (1521) to see it. In 1568 the altar-piece
perished by fire. In 1508 Mabuse accompanied Philip of Burgundy on his
Italian mission; and by this accident an important revolution was
effected in the art of the Netherlands. Mabuse appears to have chiefly
studied in Italy the cold and polished works of the Leonardesques. He
not only brought home a new style, but he also introduced the fashion of
travelling to Italy; and from that time till the age of Rubens and Van
Dyck it was considered proper that all Flemish painters should visit the
peninsula. The Flemings grafted Italian mannerisms on their own stock;
and the cross turned out so unfortunately that for a century Flemish
art lost all trace of originality.

In the summer of 1509 Philip returned to the Netherlands, and, retiring
to his seat of Suytburg in Zeeland, surrendered himself to the pleasures
of planning decorations for his castle and ordering pictures of Mabuse
and Jacob of Barbari. Being in constant communication with the court of
Margaret of Austria at Malines, he gave the artists in his employ fair
chances of promotion. Barbari was made court painter to the regent,
whilst Mabuse received less important commissions. Records prove that
Mabuse painted a portrait of Leonora of Portugal, and other small
pieces, for Charles V. in 1516. But his only signed pictures of this
period are the Neptune and Amphitrite of 1516 at Berlin, and the
Madonna, with a portrait of Jean Carondelet of 1517, at the Louvre, in
both of which we clearly discern that Vasari only spoke by hearsay of
the progress made by Mabuse in "the true method of producing pictures
full of nude figures and poesies." It is difficult to find anything more
coarse or misshapen than the Amphitrite, unless we except the grotesque
and ungainly drayman who figures for Neptune. In later forms of the same
subject--the Adam and Eve at Hampton Court, or its feebler replica at
Berlin--we observe more nudity, combined with realism of the commonest
type. Happily, Mabuse was capable of higher efforts. His St Luke
painting the portrait of the Virgin in Sanct Veit at Prague, a variety
of the same subject in the Belvedere at Vienna, the Madonna of the
Baring collection in London, or the numerous repetitions of Christ and
the scoffers (Ghent and Antwerp), all prove that travel had left many of
Mabuse's fundamental peculiarities unaltered. His figures still retain
the character of stone; his architecture is as rich and varied, his
tones are as strong as ever. But bright contrasts of gaudy tints are
replaced by soberer greys; and a cold haze, the _sfumato_ of the
Milanese, pervades the surfaces. It is but seldom that these features
fail to obtrude. When they least show, the master displays a brilliant
palette combined with smooth surface and incisive outlines. In this form
the Madonnas of Munich and Vienna (1527), the likeness of a girl
weighing gold pieces (Berlin), and the portraits of the children of the
king of Denmark at Hampton Court, are fair specimens of his skill. As
early as 1523, when Christian II. of Denmark came to Belgium, he asked
Mabuse to paint the likenesses of his dwarfs. In 1528 he requested the
artist to furnish to Jean de Hare the design for his queen Isabella's
tomb in the abbey of St Pierre near Ghent. It was no doubt at this time
that Mabuse completed the portraits of John, Dorothy and Christine,
children of Christian II., which came into the collection of Henry VIII.
No doubt, also, these portraits are identical with those of three
children at Hampton Court, which were long known and often copied as
likenesses of Prince Arthur, Prince Henry and Princess Margaret of
England. One of the copies at Wilton, inscribed with the forged name of
"Hans Holbein, ye father," and the false date of 1495, has often been
cited as a proof that Mabuse came to England in the reign of Henry VII.;
but the statement rests on no foundation whatever. At the period when
these portraits were executed Mabuse lived at Middelburg. But he dwelt
at intervals elsewhere. When Philip of Burgundy became bishop of
Utrecht, and settled at Duerstede, near Wyck, in 1517, he was
accompanied by Mabuse, who helped to decorate the new palace of his
master. At Philip's death, in 1524, Mabuse designed and erected his tomb
in the church of Wyck. He finally retired to Middelburg, where he took
service with Philip's brother, Adolph, lord of Veeren. Van Mander's
biography accuses Mabuse of habitual drunkenness; yet it describes the
splendid appearance of the artist as, dressed in gold brocade, he
accompanied Lucas of Leyden on a pleasure trip to Ghent, Malines and
Antwerp in 1527. The works of Mabuse are those of a hardworking and
patient artist; the number of his still extant pictures practically
demonstrates that he was not a debauchee. The marriage of his daughter
with the painter Henry Van der Heyden of Louvain proves that he had a
home, and did not live habitually in taverns, as Van Mander suggests.
His death at Antwerp, on the 1st of October 1532, is recorded in the
portrait engraved by Jerome Cock.     (J. A. C.)



MACABEBE, a town of the province of Pampanga, island of Luzon,
Philippine Islands, on the Pampanga Grande river, about 10 m. above its
mouth and about 25 m. N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903), after the annexation
of San Miguel, 21,481. The language is Pampango. Many of the male
inhabitants serve in the U.S. Army as scouts. Macabebe's principal
industries are the cultivation of rice and sugar cane, the distilling of
nipa alcohol, and the weaving of hemp and cotton fabrics.



MACABRE, a term applied to a certain type of artistic or literary
composition, characterized by a grim and ghastly humour, with an
insistence on the details and trappings of death. Such a quality,
deliberately adopted, is hardly to be found in ancient Greek and Latin
writers, though there are traces of it in Apuleius and the author of the
_Satyricon_. The outstanding instances in English literature are John
Webster and Cyril Tourneur, with E. A. Poe and R. L. Stevenson. The word
has gained its significance from its use in French, _la danse macabre_,
for that allegorical representation, in painting, sculpture and
tapestry, of the ever-present and universal power of death, known in
English as the "Dance of Death," and in German as _Totentanz_. The
typical form which the allegory takes is that of a series of pictures,
sculptured or painted, in which Death appears, either as a dancing
skeleton or as a shrunken corpse wrapped in grave-clothes to persons
representing every age and condition of life, and leads them all in a
dance to the grave. Of the numerous examples painted or sculptured on
the walls of cloisters or churchyards through medieval Europe few remain
except in woodcuts and engravings. Thus the famous series at Basel,
originally at the Klingenthal, a nunnery in Little Basel, dated from the
beginning of the 14th century. In the middle of the 15th century this
was moved to the churchyard of the Predigerkloster at Basel, and was
restored, probably by Hans Kluber, in 1568; the fall of the wall in 1805
reduced it to fragments, and only drawings of it remain. A Dance of
Death in its simplest form still survives in the Marienkirche at Lubeck
in a 15th-century painting on the walls of a chapel. Here there are
twenty-four figures in couples, between each is a dancing Death linking
the groups by outstretched hands, the whole ring being led by a Death
playing on a pipe. At Dresden there is a sculptured life-size series in
the old Neustädter Kirchhoff, removed here from the palace of Duke
George in 1701 after a fire. At Rouen in the _aitre_ (atrium) or
cloister of St Maclou there also remains a sculptured _danse macabre_.
There was a celebrated fresco of the subject in the cloister of Old St
Paul's in London, and another in the now destroyed Hungerford Chapel at
Salisbury, of which a single woodcut, "Death and the Gallant," alone
remains. Of the many engraved reproductions, the most celebrated is the
series drawn by Holbein. Here the long ring of connected dancing couples
is necessarily abandoned, and the Dance of Death becomes rather a series
of _imagines mortis_.

Concerning the origin of this allegory in painting and sculpture there
has been much dispute. It certainly seems to be as early as the 14th
century, and has often been attributed to the overpowering consciousness
of the presence of death due to the Black Death and the miseries of the
Hundred Years' War. It has also been attributed to a form of the
Morality, a dramatic dialogue between Death and his victims in every
station of life, ending in a dance off the stage (see Du Cange,
_Gloss._, s.v. "Machabaeorum chora"). The origin of the peculiar form
the allegory has taken has also been found, somewhat needlessly and
remotely, in the dancing skeletons on late Roman sarcophagi and mural
paintings at Cumae or Pompeii, and a false connexion has been traced
with the "Triumph of Death," attributed to Orcagna, in the Campo Santo
at Pisa.

The etymology of the word _macabre_ is itself most obscure. According to
Gaston Paris (_Romania_, xxiv., 131; 1895) it first occurs in the form
_macabre_ in Jean le Févre's _Respit de la mort_ (1376), "Je lis de
Macabré la danse," and he takes this accented form to be the true one,
and traces it in the name of the first painter of the subject. The more
usual explanation is based on the Latin name, _Machabaeorum chora_. The
seven tortured brothers, with their mother and Eleazar (2 Macc. vi.,
vii.) were prominent figures on this hypothesis in the supposed
dramatic dialogues. Other connexions have been suggested, as for example
with St Macarius, or Macaire, the hermit, who, according to Vasari, is
to be identified with the figure pointing to the decaying corpses in the
Pisan "Triumph of Death," or with an Arabic word _magbarah_, "cemetery."

  See Peignot, _Recherches sur les danses des morts_ (1826); Douce,
  _Dissertation on the Dance of Death_ (1833); Massmann, _Litteratur der
  Totentänze_ (1840); J. Charlier de Gerson, _La Danse macabre des Stes
  Innocents de Paris_ (1874); Seelmann, _Die Totentänze des
  Mittelalters_ (1893).



McADAM, JOHN LOUDON (1756-1836), Scottish inventor, who gave his name to
the system of road-making known as "macadamizing," was born at Ayr,
Scotland, on the 21st of September 1756, being descended on his father's
side from the clan of the McGregors. While at school he constructed a
model road-section. In 1770 he went to New York, entering the
counting-house of a merchant uncle. He returned to Scotland with a
considerable fortune in 1783, and purchased an estate at Sauhrie,
Ayrshire. Among other public offices he held that of road trustee. The
highways of Great Britain were at this time in a very bad condition, and
McAdam at once began to consider how to effect reforms. At his own
expense he began at Sauhrie, despite much opposition, a series of
experiments in road-making. In 1798 he removed to Falmouth, where he had
received a government appointment, and continued his experiments there.
His general conclusion was that roads should be constructed of broken
stone (see ROADS). In 1815, having been appointed surveyor-general of
the Bristol roads, he was able to put his theories into practice. In
1819 he published a _Practical Essay on the Scientific Repair and
Preservation of Roads_, followed, in 1820, by the _Present State of
Road-making_. As the result of a parliamentary inquiry in 1823 into the
whole question of road-making, his views were adopted by the public
authorities, and in 1827 he was appointed general surveyor of roads. In
pursuing his investigations he had travelled over thirty thousand miles
of road and expended over £5000. Parliament recouped him for his
expenses and gave him a handsome gratuity, but he declined a proffered
knighthood. He died at Moffat, Dumfriesshire, on the 26th of November
1836.



MACAIRE, a French _chanson de geste_. _Macaire_ (12th century) and _La
reine Sibille_ (14th century) are two versions of the story of the false
accusation brought against the queen of Charlemagne, called Blanchefleur
in _Macaire_ and Sibille in the later poem. _Macaire_ is only preserved
in the Franco-Venetian _geste_ of Charlemagne (Bibl. St Mark MS. fr.
xiii.). _La Reine Sibille_ only exists in fragments, but the tale is
given in the chronicle of Alberic Trium Fontium and in a prose version.
_Macaire_ is the product of the fusion of two legends: that of the
unjustly repudiated wife and that of the dog who detects the murderer of
his master. For the former motive see GENEVIEVE OF BRABANT. The second
is found in Plutarch, _Script. moral._, ed. Didot ii. (1186), where a
dog, like Aubri's hound, stayed three days without food by the body of
its master, and subsequently attacked the murderers, thus leading to
their discovery. The duel between Macaire and the dog is paralleled by
an interpolation by Giraldus Cambrensis in a MS. of the _Hexameron_ of
Saint Ambrose. Aubri's hound received the name of the "dog of
Montargis," because a representation of the story was painted on a
chimney-piece in the château of Montargis in the 15th century. The tale
was early divorced from Carolingian tradition, and Jean de la Taille, in
his _Discours notable des duels_ (Paris, 1607), places the incident
under Charles V.

  See _Macaire_ (Paris, 1866), ed. Guessard in the series of _Anc.
  poètes de la France_; P. Paris in _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol.
  xxiii. (1873); L. Gautier, _Épopées françaises_, vol. iii. (2nd ed.,
  1880); G. Paris, _Hist. poet. de Charlemagne_ (1865); M. J. G. Isola,
  _Storie nerbonesi_, vol. i. (Bologna, 1877); F. Wolf, _Über die beiden
  ... Volksbücher von der K. Sibille u. Huon de Bordeaux_ (Vienna, 1857)
  and _Über die neuesten Leistungen der Franzosen_ (Vienna, 1833). _The
  Dog of Montargis_; or, _The Forest of Bondy_, imitated from the play
  of G. de Pixerecourt, was played at Covent Garden (Sept. 30, 1814).

  "Robert Macaire" was the name given to the modern villain in the
  _Auberge des Adrets_ (1823), a melodrama in which Frédérick Lemaître
  made his reputation. The type was sensibly modified in _Robert
  Macaire_ (1834), a sequel written by Lemaître in collaboration with
  Benjamin Antier, and well-known on the English stage as _Macaire_. R.
  L. Stevenson and W. E. Henley used the same type in their play
  _Macaire_.



McALESTER, a city and the county-seat of Pittsburg county, Oklahoma,
about 110 m. E.S.E. of Guthrie. Pop. (1900), 3479; (1907) 8144 (1681
negroes and 105 Indians); (1910) 12,954. McAlester is served by the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways
and is an important railway junction; it is connected with the
neighbouring mining district by an electric line. There are undeveloped
iron deposits and rich coal-mines in the surrounding country, and
coke-making is the principal manufacturing industry of the city. There
is a fine Scottish Rite Masons' consistory and temple in McAlester. The
city owns its waterworks. The vicinity was first settled in 1885. The
city of South McAlester was incorporated in 1899, and in 1906 it annexed
the town of McAlester and adopted its name.



MACALPINE (or MACCABEUS), JOHN (d. 1557), Protestant theologian, was
born in Scotland about the beginning of the 16th century, and graduated
at some Scottish university. From 1532 to 1534 he was prior of the
Dominican convent of Perth; but having in the latter year been summoned
with Alexander Ales (q.v.) and others to answer for heresy before the
bishop of Ross, he fled to England, where he was granted letters of
denization on the 7th of April 1537, and married Agnes Macheson, a
fellow-exile for religion; her sister Elizabeth became the wife of Miles
Coverdale. The reaction of 1539 made England a doubtful refuge, and on
the 25th of November 1540 Macalpine matriculated at the university of
Wittenberg. He had already graduated B.A. at Cologne, and in 1542
proceeded to his doctorate at Wittenberg. In that year, being now known
as Maccabeus, he accepted Christian III.'s offer of the chair of
theology at the university of Copenhagen, which had been endowed out of
the spoils of the Church. Melanchthon spoke well of Macalpine, and with
Peter Plade (Palladius), who had also studied at Wittenberg, Macalpine
took a prominent part in building up the Lutheran Church of Denmark. A
joint exposure by Plade and Macalpine of Osiander's errors was published
in 1552 and reprinted at Leipzig and Copenhagen in 1768; and Macalpine
was one of the four translators of Luther's German Bible into Danish. He
also encouraged Sir David Lindsay, who visited him in 1548, to publish
his _Monarchie_, and persuaded Christian III. to intercede with Queen
Mary Tudor on behalf of Coverdale and invite him to Denmark. Macalpine
died at Copenhagen on the 6th of December 1557.

  See _Dict. Nat. Biog._ and authorities there cited; _Corpus
  reformatorum_, iii. (1066), iv. 771, 793; Foerstemann, _Album
  academiae vitebergensis_ (1841), p. 186, and _Liber decanorum_ (1838),
  p. 32; Rockwell, _Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp_ (1904), pp.
  114-116; _Letters and Papers of Henry VIII._ (1537), i. 1103 (12);
  (1542), pp. 46,218.     (A. F. P.)



MACAO (A-Ma-ngao, "Harbour of the goddess A-Ma"; Port. _Macau_), a
Portuguese settlement on the coast of China, in 22° N., 132° E. Pop.
(1896), Chinese, 74,568; Portuguese, 3898; other nationalities,
161--total, 78,627. It consists of a tongue of land 2½ m. in length and
less than 1 m. in breadth, running S.S.W. from the island of Hiang Shang
(Port. _Ançam_) on the western side of the estuary of the Canton River.
Bold and rocky hills about 300 ft. high occupy both extremities of the
peninsula, the picturesque city, with its flat-roofed houses painted
blue, green and red, lying in the undulating ground between. The forts
are effective additions to the general view, but do not add much to the
strength of the place. Along the east side of the peninsula runs the
Praya Grande, or Great Quay, the chief promenade in Macao, on which
stand the governor's palace, the administrative offices, the consulates
and the leading commercial establishments. The church of St Paul
(1594-1602), the seat of the Jesuit college in the 17th century, was
destroyed by fire in 1835. The Hospital da Misericordia (1569) was
rebuilt in 1640. The Camoens grotto, where the exiled poet found leisure
to celebrate the achievements of his ungrateful country, lies in a
secluded spot to the north of the town, which has been partly left in
its native wildness strewn with huge granite boulders and partly
transformed into a fine botanical garden. During the south-west (summer)
monsoon great quantities (67 in.) of rain fall, especially in July and
August. The mean temperature is 74.3° F.; in July, the hottest month,
the temperature is 84.2°; in February, the coldest, it is 59 deg. On the
whole the climate is moist. Hurricanes are frequent. Of the Portuguese
inhabitants more than three-fourths are natives of Macao--a race very
inferior in point of physique to their European ancestors. Macao is
connected with Hong-Kong by a daily steamer. Being open to the
south-west sea breezes, it is a favourite place of resort from the
oppressive heat of Hong-Kong. It is ruled by a governor, and, along with
Timor (East Indies), constitutes a bishopric, to which belong also the
Portuguese Christians in Malacca and Singapore. Though most of the land
is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or
less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy
both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free
port till 1845-1846 allowed what was once the great emporium of European
commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more
liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is
still of very considerable extent. Since the middle of the 19th century,
indeed, much of it has run in the most questionable channels; the
nefarious coolie traffic gradually increased in extent and in cruelty
from about 1848 till it was prohibited in 1874, and much of the actual
trade is more or less of the nature of smuggling. The commodities
otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish
and silk. The total value of exports and imports was in 1876-1877
upwards of £1,536,000. In 1880 it had increased to £2,259,250, and in
1898 to £3,771,615. Commercial intercourse is most intimate with
Hong-Kong, Canton, Batavia and Goa. The preparation and packing of tea
is the principal industry in the town. In fishing a large number of
boats and men are employed.

In 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to erect factories on the
peninsula, and in 1573 the Chinese built across the isthmus the wall
which still cuts off the barbarian from the rest of the island. Jesuit
missionaries established themselves on the spot; and in 1580 Gregory
XIII. constituted a bishopric of Macao. A senate was organized in 1583,
and in 1628 Jeronimo de Silveira became first royal governor of Macao.
Still the Portuguese remained largely under the control of the Chinese,
who had never surrendered their territorial rights and maintained their
authority by means of mandarins--these insisting that even European
criminals should be placed in their hands. Ferreira do Amaral, the
Portuguese governor, put an end to this state of things in 1849, and
left the Chinese officials no more authority in the peninsula than the
representatives of other foreign nations; and, though his antagonists
procured his assassination (Aug. 22), his successors succeeded in
carrying out his policy.

Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the
Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the
Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees
or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an
annual rent of £71 per annum. This diplomatic difficulty prevented the
conclusion of a commercial treaty between China and Portugal for a long
time, but an arrangement for a treaty was come to in 1887 on the
following basis: (1) China confirmed perpetual occupation and government
of Macao and its dependencies by Portugal; (2) Portugal engaged never to
alienate Macao and its dependencies without the consent of China; (3)
Portugal engaged to co-operate in opium revenue work at Macao in the
same way as Great Britain at Hong-Kong. The formal treaty was signed in
the same year, and arrangements were made whereby the Chinese imperial
customs were able to collect duties on vessels trading with Macao in the
same way as they had already arranged for their collection at the
British colony of Hong-Kong. For a short time in 1802, and again in
1808, Macao was occupied by the English as a precaution against seizure
by the French.



MACAQUE, a name of French origin denoting the monkeys of the mainly
Asiatic genus _Macacus_, of which one species, the Barbary ape, inhabits
North Africa and the rock of Gibraltar. Displaying great variability in
the length of the tail, which is reduced to a mere tubercle in the
Barbary ape, alone representing the subgenus _Inuus_, macaques are
heavily-built monkeys, with longer muzzles than their compatriots the
langurs (see PRIMATES), and large naked callosities on the buttocks.
They range all over India and Ceylon, thence northward to Tibet, and
eastwards to China, Japan, Formosa, Borneo, Sumatra and Java; while by
some naturalists the black ape of Celebes (_Cynopithecus niger_) is
included in the same genus. Mention of some of the more important
species, typifying distinct sub-generic groups, is made in the article
PRIMATES. Like most other monkeys, macaques go about in large troops,
each headed by an old male. They feed on seeds, fruits, insects,
lizards, &c.; and while some of the species are largely terrestrial, the
Barbary ape is wholly so. Docile and easily tamed when young, old males
of many of the species become exceedingly morose and savage in
captivity.     (R. L.*)



MACARONI (from dialectic Ital. _maccare_, to bruise or crush), a
preparation of a glutinous wheat originally peculiar to Italy, where it
is an article of food of national importance. The same substance in
different forms is also known as _vermicelli_, _pasta_ or Italian
pastes, _spaghetti_, _taglioni_, _fanti_, &c. These substances are
prepared from the hard, semi-translucent varieties of wheat which are
largely cultivated in the south of Europe, Algeria and other warm
regions, and distinguished by the Italians as _grano duro_ or _grano da
semolino_. These wheats are much richer in gluten and other nitrogenous
compounds than the soft or tender wheats of more northern regions, and
their preparations are more easily preserved. The various preparations
are met with as fine thin threads (vermicelli), thin sticks and pipes
(spaghetti, macaroni), small lozenges, stars, disks, ellipses, &c.
(pastes). These various forms are prepared in a uniform manner from a
granular product of hard wheat, which, under the name of semolina or
middlings, is a commercial article. The semolina is thoroughly mixed
with boiling water and incorporated in a kneading machine, such as is
used in bakeries, into a stiff paste or dough. It is then further
kneaded by passing frequently between rollers or under edge runners,
till a homogeneous mass has been produced which is placed in a strong
steam-jacketed cylinder, the lower end of which is closed with a thick
disk pierced with openings corresponding with the diameter or section of
the article to be made. Into this cylinder an accurately fitting plunger
or piston is introduced and subjected to very great pressure, which
causes the stiff dough to squeeze out through the openings in the disk
in continuous threads, sticks or pipes, as the case may be. Vermicelli
is cut off in short bundles and laid on trays to dry, while macaroni is
dried by hanging it in longer lengths over wooden rods in stoves or
heated apartments through which currents of air are driven. It is only
genuine macaroni, rich in gluten, which can be dried in this manner;
spurious fabrications will not bear their own weight, and must,
therefore, be laid out flat to be dried. In making pastes the cylinder
is closed with a disk pierced with holes having the sectional form of
the pastes, and a set of knives revolving close against the external
surface of the disk cut off the paste in thin sections as it exudes from
each opening. True macaroni can be distinguished by observing the
flattened mark of the rod over which it has been dried within the bend
of the tubes; it has a soft yellowish colour, is rough in texture,
elastic and hard, and breaks with a smooth glassy fracture. In boiling
it swells up to double its original size without becoming pasty or
adhesive. It can be kept any length of time without alteration or
deterioration; and it is on that account, in many circumstances, a most
convenient as well as a highly nutritious and healthful article of food.



MACARONICS, a species of burlesque poetry, in which words from a modern
vernacular, with Latin endings, are introduced into Latin verse, so as
to produce a ridiculous effect. Sometimes Greek is used instead of
Latin. Tisi degli Odassi issued a _Carmen macaronicum de Patavinis_ in
1490. The real founder of the practice, however, was Teofilo Folengo
(1491-1544), whose mock-heroic _Liber Macaronices_ appeared in 1517.
Folengo (q.v.) was a Benedictine monk, who escaped from his monastery
and wandered through Italy, living a dissolute life, and supporting
himself by his absurd verses, which he described as an attempt to
produce in literature something like macaroni, a gross, rude and rustic
mixture of flour, cheese and butter. He wrote under the pseudonym of
Merlinus Coccaius, and his poem is an elaborate burlesque epic, in
twenty-five books, or _macaronea_; it is an extraordinary medley of
chivalrous feats, ridiculous and squalid adventures, and satirical
allegory. Its effect upon the mind of Rabelais was so extraordinary that
no examination of _Pantagruel_ can be complete without a reference to it
(cf. _Gargantua_, i. 19). It was immediately imitated in Italy by a
number of minor poets; and in France a writer whose real name was
Antoine de la Sable, but who called himself Antonius de Arena (d. 1544),
published at Avignon in 1573 a _Meygra entrepriza_, which was a
burlesque account of Charles V.'s disastrous campaign in Provence.
Folengo in Italy and Arena in France are considered as the macaronic
classics. In the 17th century, Joannes Caecilius Frey (1580-1631)
published a _Recitus veritabilis_, on a skirmish between the
vine-growers of Rueil and the bowmen of Paris. Great popularity was
achieved later still by an anonymous macaronic, entitled _Funestissimus
trepassus Micheli Morini_, who died by falling off the branch of an
elm-tree:--

  De branche in brancham degringolat, et faciens pouf
  Ex ormo cadit, et clunes obvertit Olympo.

Molière employed macaronic verse in the ceremonial scene with the
doctors in _Le Malade imaginaire_. Works in macaronic prose are rarer.
An _Anti-Clopinus_ by Antony Hotman may be mentioned and the amusing
_Epistolae obscurorum virorum_ (1515). Macaronic prose was not unknown
as an artifice of serious oratory, and abounds (e.g.) in the sermons of
Michel Menot (1440-1518), who says of the prodigal son, _Emit sibi
pulcheras caligas d'écarlate, bien tirées_.

The use of true macaronics has never been frequent in Great Britain,
where the only prominent example of it is the _Polemo-Middinia_ ascribed
to William Drummond of Hawthornden. This short epic was probably
composed early in the 17th century, but was not published until 1684.
The _Polemo-Middinia_ follows the example set by Arena, and describes
with burlesque solemnity a quarrel between two villages on the Firth of
Forth. Drummond shows great ingenuity in the tacking on of Latin
terminations to his Lowland Scots vernacular:--

  Lifeguardamque sibi saevas vocat improba lassas,
  Maggaeam, magis doctam milkare cowaeas,
  Et doctam sweepare flooras, et sternere beddas,
  Quaeque novit spinnare, et longas ducere threedas.

There is a certain macaronic character about many poems of Skelton and
Dunbar, as well as the famous _Barnabae itinerarium_ (1638) of Richard
Brathwait (1588-1673), but these cannot be considered legitimate
specimens of the type as laid down by Folengo.

  See Ch. Nodier, _Du Langage factice appelé macaronique_ (1834);
  Genthe, _Histoire de la poesie macaronique_ (1831).     (E. G.)



MACARSCA (Serbo-Croatian, _Makarska_), the chief town of an
administrative district in Dalmatia, Austria; situated opposite to the
island of Brazza, about 32 m. S.E. of Spalato. Pop. (1900), of town
1805; of commune, 11,016, chiefly Serbo-Croatian. Macarsca is a port of
call for the Austrian Lloyd steamers, and has a brisk trade in wine,
grain and fruit. Under the name of _Mocrum_, Macarsca was a thriving
Roman city, and a bishopric until 639, when it was destroyed by the
Avars. In the 10th century it is mentioned by Constantine
Porphyrogenitus as a city of the pagan Narentines. Its bishopric was
revived in 1320, but the bishops resided at Almissa. In 1481 the city
was purchased from the duke of Herzegovina by Venice; in 1499 it was
conquered by the Turks; and in 1646, after a successful revolt, it again
welcomed the sovereignty of Venice. The see of Macarsca was merged in
that of Spalato in 1830.



MACARTNEY, GEORGE MACARTNEY, EARL (1737-1806), was descended from an old
Scottish family, the Macartneys of Auchinleck, who had settled in 1649
at Lissanoure, Antrim, Ireland, where he was born on the 14th of May
1737. After graduating at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1759, he became a
student of the Temple, London. Through Stephen Fox, elder brother of C.
J. Fox, he was taken up by Lord Holland. Appointed envoy extraordinary
to Russia in 1764, he succeeded in negotiating an alliance between
England and that country. After occupying a seat in the English
parliament, he was in 1769 returned for Antrim in the Irish parliament,
in order to discharge the duties of chief secretary for Ireland. On
resigning this office he was knighted. In 1775 he became governor of the
Caribbee Islands (being created an Irish baron in 1776), and in 1780
governor of Madras, but he declined the governor-generalship of India,
and returned to England in 1786. After being created Earl Macartney in
the Irish peerage (1792), he was appointed the first envoy of Britain to
China. On his return from a confidential mission to Italy (1795) he was
raised to the English peerage as a baron in 1796, and in the end of the
same year was appointed governor of the newly acquired territory of the
Cape of Good Hope, where he remained till ill health compelled him to
resign in November 1798. He died at Chiswick, Middlesex, on the 31st of
May 1806, the title becoming extinct, and his property, after the death
of his widow (daughter of the 3rd earl of Bute), going to his niece,
whose son took the name.

  An account of Macartney's embassy to China, by Sir George Staunton,
  was published in 1797, and has been frequently reprinted. The _Life
  and Writings of Lord Macartney_, by Sir John Barrow, appeared in 1807.
  See Mrs Helen Macartney Robbins's biography, _The First English
  Ambassador to China_ (1908), based on previously unpublished materials
  in possession of the family.



MACASSAR (MAKASSAR, MANGKASAR), the capital of a district of the same
name in the island of Celebes, Dutch East Indies, and the chief town of
the Dutch government of Celebes. Pop. 17,925 (940 Europeans, 2618
Chinese, 168 Arabs). It stands on the west coast of the southern
peninsula of the island, near the southern extremity of the Macassar
Strait, which separates Celebes from Borneo. Macassar consists of the
Dutch town and port, known as Vlaardingen, and the Malay town which lies
inland. Macassar's trade amounts to about £1,250,000 annually, and
consists mainly of coffee, trepang, copra, gums, spices and valuable
timber.

  For the Macassar people and for the Strait, see CELEBES. "Macassar
  oil" is a trade name, not geographical: see ANTIMACASSAR.



MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY, BARON (1800-1859), English
historian, essayist and politician, was born at Rothley Temple,
Leicestershire, on the 25th of October 1800. His father, Zachary
Macaulay (1768-1838), had been governor of Sierra Leone, and was in 1800
secretary to the chartered company which had founded that colony; an
ardent philanthropist, he did much to secure the abolition of the slave
trade, and he edited the abolitionist organ, the _Christian Observer_,
for many years. Happy in his home, the son at a very early age gave
proof of a determined bent towards literature. Before he was eight years
of age he had written a _Compendium of Universal History_, which gave a
tolerably connected view of the leading events from the creation to
1800, and a romance in the style of Scott, in three cantos, called _The
Battle of Cheviot_. A little later he composed a long poem on the
history of Olaus Magnus, and a vast pile of blank verse entitled
_Fingal, a Poem in Twelve Books_. After being at a private school, in
October 1818 young Macaulay went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he
afterwards became a fellow. He gained in 1824 a college prize for an
essay on the character of William III. He also won a prize for Latin
declamation and a Craven scholarship, and wrote the prize poems of 1819
and 1821.

In 1826 Macaulay was called to the bar and joined the northern circuit.
But he soon gave up even the pretence of reading law, and spent many
more hours under the gallery of the house of commons than in the court.
His first attempt at a public speech, made at an anti-slavery meeting in
1824, was described by the _Edinburgh Review_ as "a display of eloquence
of rare and matured excellence." His first considerable appearance in
print was in No. 1 of Knight's _Quarterly Magazine_, a periodical which
enjoyed a short but brilliant existence, and which was largely supported
by Eton and Cambridge. In August 1825 began Macaulay's connexion with
the periodical which was to prove the field of his literary reputation.
The _Edinburgh Review_ was at this time at the height of its power, not
only as an organ of the growing opinion which, leant towards reform, but
as a literary tribunal from which there was no appeal. His essay on
Milton (Aug. 1825), so crude that the author afterwards said that "it
contained scarcely a paragraph such as his matured judgment approved,"
created for him at once a literary reputation which suffered no
diminution to the last, a reputation which he established and confirmed,
but which it would have been hardly possible to make more conspicuous.
The publisher John Murray declared that it would be worth the copyright
of _Childe Harold_ to have Macaulay on the staff of the _Quarterly
Review_, and Robert Hall, the orator, writhing with pain, and well-nigh
worn out with disease, was discovered lying on the floor employed in
learning by aid of grammar and dictionary enough Italian to enable him
to verify the parallel between Milton and Dante.

This sudden blaze of popularity, kindled by a single essay, is partly to
be explained by the dearth of literary criticism in England at that
epoch. For, though a higher note had already been sounded by Hazlitt and
Coleridge, it had not yet taken hold of the public mind, which was still
satisfied with the feeble appreciations of the _Retrospective Review_,
or the dashing and damnatory improvisation of Wilson in _Blackwood_ or
Jeffrey in the _Edinburgh_. Still, allowance being made for the
barbarous partisanship of the established critical tribunals of the
period, it seems surprising that a social success so signal should have
been the consequence of a single article. The explanation is that the
writer of the article on Milton was, unlike most authors, also a
brilliant conversationalist. There has never been a period when an
amusing talker has not been in great demand at London tables; but when
Macaulay made his debut witty conversation was studied and cultivated as
it has ceased to be in the more busy age which has succeeded. At the
university Macaulay had been recognized as pre-eminent for inexhaustible
talk and genial companionship among a circle of such brilliant young men
as Charles Austin, Romilly, Praed and Villiers. He now displayed these
gifts on a wider theatre. Launched on the best that London had to give
in the way of society, Macaulay accepted and enjoyed with all the zest
of youth and a vigorous nature the opportunities opened for him. He was
courted and admired by the most distinguished personages of the day. He
was admitted at Holland House, where Lady Holland listened to him with
deference, and scolded him with a circumspection which was in itself a
compliment. Samuel Rogers spoke of him with friendliness and to him with
affection. He was treated with almost fatherly kindness by
"Conversation" Sharp.

Thus distinguished, and justifiably conscious of his great powers,
Macaulay began to aspire to a political career. But the shadow of
pecuniary trouble early began to fall upon his path. When he went to
college his father believed himself to be worth £100,000. But commercial
disaster overtook the house of Babington & Macaulay, and the son now saw
himself compelled to work for his livelihood. His Trinity fellowship of
£300 a year became of great consequence to him, but it expired in 1831;
he could make at most £200 a year by writing; and a commissionership of
bankruptcy, which was given him by Lord Lyndhurst in 1828, and which
brought him in about £400 a year, was swept away, without compensation,
by the ministry which came into power in 1830. Macaulay was reduced to
such straits that he had to sell his Cambridge gold medal.

In February 1830 the doors of the House of Commons were opened to him
through what was then called a "pocket borough." Lord Lansdowne, who had
been struck by two articles on James Mill and the Utilitarians, which
appeared in the _Edinburgh Review_ in 1829, offered the author the seat
at Calne. The offer was accompanied by the express assurance that the
patron had no wish to interfere with Macaulay's freedom of voting. He
thus entered parliament at one of the most exciting moments of English
domestic history, when the compact phalanx of reactionary administration
which for nearly fifty years had commanded a crushing majority in the
Commons was on the point of being broken by the growing strength of the
party of reform. Macaulay made his maiden speech on the 5th of April
1830, on the second reading of the Bill for the Removal of Jewish
Disabilities. In July the king died and parliament was dissolved; the
revolution took place in Paris. Macaulay, who was again returned for
Calne, visited Paris, eagerly enjoying a first taste of foreign travel.
On the 1st of March 1831 the Reform Bill was introduced, and on the
second night of the debate Macaulay made the first of his reform
speeches. It was, like all his speeches, a success. Sir Robert Peel said
of it that "portions were as beautiful as anything I have ever heard or
read."

Encouraged by this first success, Macaulay now threw himself with ardour
into the life of the House of Commons, while at the same time he
continued to enjoy to the full the social opportunities which his
literary and political celebrity had placed within his reach. He dined
out almost nightly, and spent many of his Sundays at the suburban villas
of the Whig leaders, while he continued to supply the _Edinburgh Review_
with articles. On the triumph of Earl Grey's cabinet, and the passing of
the Reform Act in June 1832, Macaulay, whose eloquence had signalized
every stage of the conflict, became one of the commissioners of the
board of control, and applied himself to the study of Indian affairs.
Giving his days to India and his nights to the House of Commons, he
could only devote a few hours to literary composition by rising at five
when the business of the house had allowed of his getting to bed in time
on the previous evening. Between September 1831 and December 1833 he
furnished the _Review_ with eight important articles, besides writing
his ballad on the Armada.

In the first Reform Parliament, January 1833, Macaulay took his seat as
one of the two members for Leeds, which up to that date had been
unrepresented in the House of Commons. He replied to O'Connell in the
debate on the address, meeting the great agitator face to face, with
high, but not intemperate, defiance. In July he defended the Government
of India Bill in a speech of great power, and he was instrumental in
getting the bill through committee without unnecessary friction. When
the abolition of slavery came before the house as a practical question,
Macaulay had the prospect of having to surrender office or to vote for a
modified abolition, viz. twelve years' apprenticeship, which was
proposed by the ministry, but condemned by the abolitionists. He was
prepared to make the sacrifice of place rather than be unfaithful to the
cause to which his father had devoted his life. He placed his
resignation in Lord Althorp's hands, and spoke against the ministerial
proposal. But the sense of the house was so strongly expressed as
unfavourable that, finding they would be beaten if they persisted, the
ministry gave way, and reduced apprenticeship to seven years, a
compromise which the abolition party accepted; and Macaulay remained at
the board of control.

While he was thus growing in reputation, and advancing his public
credit, the fortunes of the family were sinking, and it became evident
that his sisters would have no provision except such as their brother
might be enabled to make for them. Macaulay had but two sources of
income, both of them precarious--office and his pen. As to office, the
Whigs could not have expected at that time to retain power for a whole
generation; and, even while they did so, Macaulay's resolution that he
would always give an independent vote made it possible that he might at
any moment find himself in disagreement with his colleagues, and have to
quit his place. As to literature, he wrote to Lord Lansdowne (1833), "it
has been hitherto merely my relaxation; I have never considered it as
the means of support. I have chosen my own topics, taken my own time,
and dictated my own terms. The thought of becoming a bookseller's hack,
of spurring a jaded fancy to reluctant exertion, of filling sheets with
trash merely that sheets may be filled, of bearing from publishers and
editors what Dryden bore from Tonson and what Mackintosh bore from
Lardner, is horrible to me." Macaulay was thus prepared to accept the
offer of a seat in the supreme council of India, created by the new
India Act. The salary of the office was fixed at £10,000, out of which
he calculated to be able to save £30,000 in five years. His sister
Hannah accepted his proposal to accompany him, and in February 1834 the
brother and sister sailed for Calcutta.

Macaulay's appointment to India occurred at the critical moment when the
government of the company was being superseded by government by the
Crown. His knowledge of India was, when he landed, but superficial. But
at this juncture there was more need of statesmanship directed by
general liberal principles than of a practical knowledge of the details
of Indian administration. Macaulay's presence in the council was of
great value; his minutes are models of good judgment and practical
sagacity. The part he took in India has been described as "the
application of sound liberal principles to a government which had till
then been jealous, close and repressive." He vindicated the liberty of
the press; he maintained the equality of Europeans and natives before
the law; and as president of the committee of public instruction he
inaugurated the system of national education.

A clause in the India Act 1833 occasioned the appointment of a
commission to inquire into the jurisprudence of the Eastern dependency.
Macaulay was appointed president of that commission. The draft of a
penal code which he submitted became, after a revision of many years,
and by the labour of many experienced lawyers, the Indian criminal code.
Of this code Sir James Stephen said that "it reproduces in a concise and
even beautiful form the spirit of the law of England, in a compass which
by comparison with the original may be regarded as almost absurdly
small. The Indian penal code is to the English criminal law what a
manufactured article ready for use is to the materials out of which it
is made. It is to the French code pénal, and to the German code of 1871,
what a finished picture is to a sketch. It is simpler and better
expressed than Livingston's code for Louisiana; and its practical
success has been complete."

Macaulay's enlightened views and measures drew down on him, however, the
abuse and ill-will of Anglo-Indian society. Fortunately for himself he
was enabled to maintain a tranquil indifference to political detraction
by withdrawing his thoughts into a sphere remote from the opposition and
enmity by which he was surrounded. Even amid the excitement of his early
parliamentary successes literature had balanced politics in his thoughts
and interests. Now in his exile he began to feel more strongly each year
the attraction of European letters and European history. He wrote to his
friend Ellis: "I have gone back to Greek literature with a passion
astonishing to myself. I have never felt anything like it. I was
enraptured with Italian during the six months which I gave up to it; and
I was little less pleased with Spanish. But when I went back to the
Greek I felt as if I had never known before what intellectual enjoyment
was." In thirteen months he read through, some of them twice, a large
part of the Greek and Latin classics. The fascination of these studies
produced their inevitable effect upon his view of political life. He
began to wonder what strange infatuation leads men who can do something
better to squander their intellect, their health and energy, on such
subjects as those which most statesmen are engaged in pursuing. He was
already, he says, "more than half determined to abandon politics and
give myself wholly to letters, to undertake some great historical work,
which may be at once the business and the amusement of my life, and to
leave the pleasures of pestiferous rooms, sleepless nights, and diseased
stomachs to Roebuck and to Praed."

In 1838 Macaulay and his sister Hannah, who had married Charles
Trevelyan in 1834, returned to England. He at once entered parliament as
member for Edinburgh. In 1839 he became secretary at war, with a seat in
the cabinet in Lord Melbourne's ministry. His acceptance of office
diverted him for a time from prosecuting the plan he had already formed
of a great historical work. But in less than two years the Melbourne
ministry fell. In 1842 appeared his _Lays of Ancient Rome_, and in the
next year he collected and published his _Essays_. He returned to office
in 1846, in Lord John Russell's administration, as paymaster-general.
His duties were very light, and the contact with official life and the
obligations of parliamentary attendance were even of benefit to him
while he was engaged upon his _History_. In the sessions of 1846-1847 he
spoke only five times, and at the general election of July 1847 he lost
his seat for Edinburgh. The balance of Macaulay's faculties had now
passed to the side of literature. At an earlier date he had relished
crowds and the excitement of ever new faces; as years went forward, and
absorption in the work of composition took off the edge of his spirits,
he recoiled from publicity. He began to regard the prospect of business
as worry, and had no longer the nerve to brace himself to the social
efforts required of one who represents a large constituency.

Macaulay retired into private life, not only without regret, but with a
sense of relief. He gradually withdrew from general society, feeling the
bore of big dinners and country-house visits, but he still enjoyed close
and constant intercourse with a circle of the most eminent men that
London then contained. At that time social breakfasts were in vogue.
Macaulay himself preferred this to any other form of entertainment. Of
these brilliant reunions nothing has been preserved beyond the names of
the men who formed them--Rogers, Hallam, Sydney Smith, Lord Carlisle,
Lord Stanhope, Nassau Senior, Charles Greville, Milman, Panizzi, G. C.
Lewis, Van de Weyer. His biographer thus describes Macaulay's appearance
and bearing in conversation: "Sitting bolt upright, his hands resting on
the arms of his chair, or folded over the handle of his walking-stick,
knitting his eyebrows if the subject was one which had to be thought out
as he went along, or brightening from the forehead downwards when a
burst of humour was coming, his massive features and honest glance
suited well with the manly sagacious sentiments which he set forth in
his sonorous voice and in his racy and intelligible language. To get at
his meaning people had never the need to think twice, and they certainly
had seldom the time."

But, great as was his enjoyment of literary society and books, they only
formed his recreation. In these years he was working with unflagging
industry at the composition of his _History_. His composition was slow,
his corrections both of matter and style endless; he spared no pains to
ascertain the facts. He sacrificed to the prosecution of his task a
political career, House of Commons fame, the allurements of society. The
first two volumes of the _History of England_ appeared in December 1848.
The success was in every way complete beyond expectation. The sale of
edition after edition, both in England and the United States, was
enormous.

In 1852, when his party returned to office, he refused a seat in the
cabinet, but he could not bring himself to decline the compliment of a
voluntary amende which the city of Edinburgh paid him in returning him
at the head of the poll at the general election in July of that year. He
had hardly accepted the summons to return to parliamentary life before
fatal weakness betrayed itself in deranged action of the heart; from
this time forward till his death his strength continued steadily to
sink. The process carried with it dejection of spirits as its inevitable
attendant. The thought oppressed him that the great work to which he had
devoted himself would remain a fragment. Once again, in June 1853, he
spoke in parliament, and with effect, against the exclusion of the
master of the rolls from the House of Commons, and at a later date in
defence of competition for the Indian civil service. But he was aware
that it was a grievous waste of his small stock of force, and that he
made these efforts at the cost of more valuable work.

In November 1855 vols. iii. and iv. of the _History_ appeared and
obtained a vast circulation. Within a generation of its first appearance
upwards of 140,000 copies of the _History_ were printed and sold in the
United Kingdom alone; and in the United States the sales were on a
correspondingly large scale. The _History_ was translated into German,
Polish, Danish, Swedish, Hungarian, Russian, Bohemian, Italian, French,
Dutch and Spanish. Flattering marks of respect were heaped upon the
author by foreign academies. His pecuniary profits were (for that time)
on a scale commensurate with the reputation of the book: the cheque he
received for £20,000 has become a landmark in literary history.

In May 1856 he quitted the Albany, in which he had passed fifteen happy
years, and went to live at Holly Lodge, Campden Hill, then, before it
was enlarged, a tiny bachelor's dwelling, but with a lawn whose unbroken
slope of verdure gave it the air of a considerable country house. In the
following year (1857) he was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron
Macaulay of Rothley. "It was," says Lady Trevelyan, "one of the few
things that everybody approved; he enjoyed it himself, as he did
everything, simply and cordially." It was a novelty in English life to
see eminence which was neither that of territorial opulence nor of
political or military services recognized and rewarded by elevation to
the peerage.

But Macaulay's health, which had begun to give way in 1852, was every
year visibly failing. In May 1858 he went to Cambridge for the purpose
of being sworn in as high steward of the borough, to which office he had
been elected on the death of Earl Fitzwilliam. When his health was given
at a public breakfast in the town-hall he was obliged to excuse himself
from speaking. In the upper house he never spoke. Absorbed in the
prosecution of his historical work, he had grown indifferent to the
party politics of his own day. Gradually he had to acquiesce in the
conviction that, though his intellectual powers remained unimpaired, his
physical energies would not carry him through the reign of Anne; and,
though he brought down the narrative to the death of William III., the
last half-volume wants the finish and completeness of the earlier
portions. The winter of 1859 told on him, and he died on the 28th of
December. On the 9th of January 1860 he was buried in Westminster Abbey,
in Poets' Corner, near the statue of Addison.

Lord Macaulay never married. A man of warm domestic affections, he found
their satisfaction in the attachment and close sympathy of his sister
Hannah, the wife of Sir Charles Trevelyan. Her children were to him as
his own. Macaulay was a steadfast friend, and no act inconsistent with
the strictest honour and integrity was ever imputed to him. When a poor
man, and when salary was of consequence to him, he twice resigned office
rather than make compliances for which he would not have been severely
blamed. In 1847, when his seat in parliament was at stake, he would not
be persuaded to humour, to temporize, even to conciliate. He had a keen
relish for the good things of life, and desired fortune as the means of
obtaining them; but there was nothing mercenary or selfish in his
nature. When he had raised himself to opulence, he gave away with an
open hand, not seldom rashly. His very last act was to write a letter to
a poor curate enclosing a cheque for £25. The purity of his morals was
not associated with any tendency to cant.

The lives of men of letters are often records of sorrow or suffering.
The life of Macaulay was eminently happy. Till the closing years
(1857-1859), he enjoyed life with the full zest of healthy faculty,
happy in social intercourse, happy in the solitude of his study, and
equally divided between the two. For the last fifteen years of his life
he lived for literature. His writings were remunerative to him far
beyond the ordinary measure, yet he never wrote for money. He lived in
his historical researches; his whole heart and interest were
unreservedly given to the men and the times of whom he read and wrote.
His command of literature was imperial. Beginning with a good classical
foundation, be made himself familiar with the imaginative, and then with
the historical, remains of Greece and Rome. He went on to add the
literature of his own country, of France, of Italy, of Spain. He learnt
Dutch enough for the purposes of his history. He read German, but for
the literature of the northern nations he had no taste, and of the
erudite labours of the Germans he had little knowledge and formed an
inadequate estimate. The range of his survey of human things had other
limitations more considerable still. All philosophical speculation was
alien to his mind; nor did he seem aware of the degree in which such
speculation had influenced the progress of humanity. A large--the
largest--part of ecclesiastical history lay outside his historical view.
Of art he confessed himself ignorant, and even refused a request to
furnish a critique on Swift's poetry to the _Edinburgh Review_.
Lessing's _Laocoon_, or Goethe's criticism on Hamlet, "filled" him "with
wonder and despair."

Of the marvellous discoveries of science which were succeeding each
other day by day he took no note; his pages contain no reference to
them. It has been told already how he recoiled from the mathematical
studies of his university. These deductions made, the circuit of his
knowledge still remains very wide--as extensive perhaps as any human
brain is competent to embrace. His literary outfit was as complete as
has ever been possessed by any English writer; and, if it wants the
illumination of philosophy, it has an equivalent resource in a practical
acquaintance with affairs, with administration, with the interior of
cabinets, and the humour of popular assemblies. Nor was the knowledge
merely stored in his memory; it was always at his command. Whatever his
subject, he pours over it his stream of illustration, drawn from the
records of all ages and countries. His _Essays_ are not merely
instructive as history; they are, like Milton's blank verse, freighted
with the spoils of all the ages. As an historian Macaulay has not
escaped the charge of partisanship. He was a Whig; and in writing the
history of the rise and triumph of Whig principles in the latter half of
the 17th century he identified himself with the cause. But the charge of
partiality, as urged against Macaulay, means more than that he wrote the
history of the Whig revolution from the point of view of those who made
it. When he is describing the merits of friends and the faults of
enemies his pen knows no moderation. He has a constant tendency to
glaring colours, to strong effects, and will always be striking violent
blows. He is not merely exuberant but excessive. There is an overweening
confidence about his tone; he expresses himself in trenchant phrases,
which are like challenges to an opponent to stand up and deny them. His
propositions have no qualifications. Uninstructed readers like this
assurance, as they like a physician who has no doubt about their case.
But a sense of distrust grows upon the more circumspect reader as he
follows page after page of Macaulay's categorical affirmations about
matters which our own experience of life teaches us to be of a
contingent nature. We inevitably think of a saying attributed to Lord
Melbourne: "I wish I were as cocksure of any one thing as Macaulay is of
everything." Macaulay's was the mind of the advocate, not of the
philosopher; it was the mind of Bossuet, which admits no doubts or
reserves itself and tolerates none in others, and as such was
disqualified from that equitable balancing of evidence which is the
primary function of the historian.

Macaulay, the historian no less than the politician, is, however, always
on the side of justice, fairness for the weak against the strong, the
oppressed against the oppressor. But though a Liberal in practical
politics, he had not the reformer's temperament. The world as it is was
good enough for him. The glories of wealth, rank, honours, literary
fame, the elements of vulgar happiness, made up his ideal of life. A
successful man himself, every personage and every cause is judged by its
success. "The brilliant Macaulay," says Emerson, "who expresses the tone
of the English governing classes of the day, explicitly teaches that
'good' means good to eat, good to wear, material commodity." Macaulay is
in accord with the average sentiment of orthodox and stereotyped
humanity on the relative values of the objects and motives of human
endeavour. And this commonplace materialism is one of the secrets of his
popularity, and one of the qualities which guarantee that that
popularity will be enduring.     (M. P.)

  Macaulay's whole works were collected in 1866 by his sister, Lady
  Trevelyan, in 8 vols. The first four volumes are occupied by the
  _History_; the next three contain the _Essays_, and the _Lives_ which
  he contributed to the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_. In vol. viii. are
  collected his _Speeches_, the _Lays of Ancient Rome_, and some
  miscellaneous pieces. The "life" by Dean Milman, printed in vol. viii.
  of the edition of 1858-1862, is prefixed to the "People's Edition" (4
  vols., 1863-1864). Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co. published a complete
  edition, the "Albany," in 12 vols., in 1898. There are numerous
  editions of the _Critical and Historical Essays_, separately and
  collectively; they were edited in 1903 by F. C. Montagu.

  The _Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay_ (2 vols., 1876), by his
  nephew, Sir George Otto Trevelyan, is one of the best biographies in
  the English language. The life (1882) in the "English Men of Letters"
  series was written by J. Cotter Morison. Far further criticism, see
  Hepworth Dixon, in his _Life of Penn_ (1841); John Paget, _The New
  Examen: Inquiry into Macaulay's History_ (1861) and _Paradoxes and
  Puzzles_ (1874); Walter Bagehot, in the _National Review_ (Jan. 1856),
  reprinted in his _Literary Studies_ (1879); James Spedding, _Evenings
  with a Reviewer_ (1881), discussing his essay on Bacon; Sir L.
  Stephen, _Hours in a Library_, vol. ii. (1892); Lord Morley, _Critical
  Miscellanies_ (1877), vol. ii.; Lord Avebury, _Essays and Addresses_
  (1903); Thum, _Anmerkungen zu Macaulay's History of England_
  (Heilbronn, 1882). A bibliography of German criticism of Macaulay is
  given in G. Körting's _Grd. der engl. Literatur_ (4th ed., Munster,
  1905).



MACAW, or, as formerly spelt, MACCAW, the name given to some fifteen or
more species of large, long-tailed birds of the parrot-family, natives
of the neotropical region, and forming a very well-known and easily
recognized genus _Ara_, and to the four species of Brazilian Hyacinthine
macaws of the genera _Anodorhynchus_ and _Cyanopsittacus_. Most of the
macaws are remarkable for their gaudy plumage, which exhibits the
brightest scarlet, yellow, blue and green in varying proportion and
often in violent contrast, while a white visage often adds a very
peculiar and expressive character.[1] With one exception the known
species of _Ara_ inhabit the mainland of America from Paraguay to
Mexico, being especially abundant in Bolivia, where no fewer than seven
of them (or nearly one half) have been found (_Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1879,
p. 634). The single extra-continental species, _A. tricolor,_ is one of
the most brilliantly coloured, and is peculiar to Cuba, where, according
to Gundlach (_Ornitologia Cubana_, p. 126), its numbers are rapidly
decreasing so that there is every chance of its becoming extinct.[2]

Of the best known species of the group, the blue-and-yellow macaw, _A.
ararauna_, has an extensive range in South America from Guiana in the
east to Colombia in the west, and southwards to Paraguay. Of large size,
it is to be seen in almost every zoological garden, and it is very
frequently kept alive in private houses, for its temper is pretty good,
and it will become strongly attached to those who tend it. Its richly
coloured plumage, sufficiently indicated by its common English name,
supplies feathers eagerly sought by salmon-fishers for the making of
artificial flies. The red-and-blue macaw, _A. macao_, is even larger and
more gorgeously clothed, for, besides the colours expressed in its
ordinary appellation, yellow and green enter into its adornment. It
inhabits Central as well as South America as far as Bolivia, and is also
a common bird in captivity, though perhaps less often seen than the
foregoing. The red-and-yellow species, _A. chloroptera_, ranging from
Panama to Brazil, is smaller, or at least has a shorter tail, and is not
quite so usually met with in menageries. The red-and-green, _A.
militaris_, smaller again than the last, is not unfrequent in
confinement, and presents the colours of the name it bears. This has the
most northerly extension of habitat, occurring in Mexico and thence
southwards to Bolivia. In _A. manilata_ and _A. nobilis_ the prevailing
colour is green and blue. The Hyacinthine macaws _A. hyacinthinus_, _A.
leari_, _A. glaucus_ and _Cyanopsittacus spixi_ are almost entirely
blue.

The macaws live well in captivity, either chained to a perch or kept in
large aviaries in which their strong flight is noticeable. The note of
these birds is harsh and screaming. The sexes are alike; the lustreless
white eggs are laid in hollow trees, usually two at a time. The birds
are gregarious but apparently monogamous.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This serves to separate the macaws from the long-tailed parakeets
    of the New World (_Conurus_), to which they are very nearly allied.

  [2] There is some reason to think that Jamaica may have formerly
    possessed a macaw (though no example is known to exist), and if so it
    was most likely a peculiar species. Sloane (_Voyage_, ii. 297), after
    describing what he calls the "great maccaw" (_A. ararauna_), which he
    had seen in captivity in that island, mentions the "small maccaw" as
    being very common in the woods there, and P. H. Gosse (_Birds of
    Jamaica_, p. 260) gives, on the authority of Robinson, a local
    naturalist of the last century, the description of a bird which
    cannot be reconciled with any species now known, though it must have
    evidently been allied to the Cuban _A. tricolor_.



MACBETH, king of Scotland (d. 1058), was the son of Findlaech, _mormaer_
or hereditary ruler of Moreb (Moray and Ross), who had been murdered by
his nephews in 1020. He probably became mormaer on the death of Malcolm,
one of the murderers, in 1029, and he may have been one of the chiefs
(the Maclbaethe of the _Saxon Chronicle_) who submitted to Canute in
1031. Marianus records that in 1040 Duncan, the grandson and successor
of Malcolm king of Scotland, was slain by Macbeth. Duncan had shortly
before suffered a severe defeat at the hands of Thorfinn, the Norwegian
earl of Orkney and Caithness, and it was perhaps this event which
tempted Macbeth to seize the throne. As far as is known he had no claim
to the crown except through his wife Gruach, who appears to have been a
member of the royal family. Macbeth was apparently a generous benefactor
to the Church, and is said to have made a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050.
According to S. Berchan his reign was a time of prosperity for Scotland.
The records of the period, however, are extremely meagre, and much
obscurity prevails, especially as to his relations with the powerful
earl Thorfinn. More than one attempt was made by members of the Scottish
royal family to recover the throne; in 1045 by Crinan, the lay abbot of
Dunkeld, son-in-law of Malcolm II., and in 1054 by Duncan's son Malcolm
with the assistance of Siward the powerful earl of Northumbria, himself
a connexion of the ousted dynasty. Three years later in 1057 Malcolm and
Siward again invaded Scotland and the campaign ended with the defeat and
death of Macbeth, who was slain at Lumphanan. Macbeth is, of course,
chiefly famous as the central figure of Shakespeare's great tragedy.

  See W. F. Skene, _Chronicles of the Picts and Scots_ (1867) and
  _Celtic Scotland_ (1876); Sir John Rhys, _Celtic Britain_ (1904).



MACCABEES, the name (in the plural) of a distinguished Jewish family
dominant in Jerusalem in the 2nd century B.C. According to 1 Macc. ii.
4, the name Maccabaeus (Gr. [Greek: Makkabaios]-? Heb. [Hebrew: makabi])
was originally the distinctive surname of Judas, third son of the Jewish
priest Mattathias, who struck the first blow for religious liberty
during the persecution under Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes). Subsequently,
however, it obtained a wider significance, having been applied first to
the kinsmen of Judas, then to his adherents, and ultimately to all
champions of religion in the Greek period. Thus the mother of the seven
brethren, whose martyrdom is related in 2 Macc. vi., vii., is called by
early Christian writers "the mother of the Maccabees." The name is used
still more loosely in the titles of the so-called Third, Fourth and
Fifth Books of Maccabees. It is now customary to apply it only to the
sons and descendants of Mattathias. As, however, according to Josephus
(_Ant._ xii. 6. 1), this brave priest's great-great-grandfather was
called _Hasmon_ (i.e. "rich" = magnate; cf. Ps. lxviii. 31 [32]), the
family is more correctly designated by the name of Hasmonaeans or
Asmoneans (q.v.). This name Jewish authors naturally prefer to that of
Maccabees; they also style 1 and 2 Macc. "Books of the Hasmonaeans."

If Maccabee (_maqqabi_) is the original form of the name, the most
probable derivation is from the Aramaic _maqqaba_ (Heb. [Hebrew:
makevet], Judg. iv. 21, &c.) = "hammer." The surname "hammerer" might
have been applied to Judas either as a distinctive title pure and simple
or symbolically as in the parallel case of Edward I., "Scotorum
_malleus_." Even if _maqqaba_ does denote the ordinary workman's hammer,
and not the great smith's hammer which would more fitly symbolize the
impetuosity of Judas, this is not a fatal objection. The doubled _k_ of
the Greek form is decisive against (1) the theory that the name Maccabee
was made up of the initials of the opening words of Exod. xv. ii; (2)
the derivation from [Hebrew: machvi] = "extinguisher" (cf. Isa. xliii.
17), based by Curtiss (_The Name Machabee_, Leipzig, 1876) on the Latin
spelling Machabaeus = [Greek: Makkabaios], which Jerome probably adopted
in accordance with the usage of the times.

The Maccabaean revolt was caused by the attempt of Antiochus IV.
(Epiphanes), king of Syria (175-164 B. C.), to force Hellenism upon
Judaea (see SELEUCID DYNASTY; HELLENISM). Ever since the campaigns of
Alexander the Great, Greek habits and ideas had been widely adopted in
Palestine. Over the higher classes especially Hellenism had cast its
spell. This called forth the organized opposition of the Hasidim (= "the
pious"), who constituted themselves champions of the Law. Joshua, who
headed the Hellenistic faction, graecized his name into Jason, contrived
to have the high-priesthood taken from his brother Onias III., and
conferred upon himself, and set up a gymnasium hard by the Temple. After
three years' tenure of office Jason was supplanted by the Benjamite
Menelaus, who disowned Judaism entirely. Antiochus punished an outburst
of strife between the rivals by plundering the Temple and slaying many
of the inhabitants (170 B. C.). Two years later Jerusalem was devastated
by his general Apollonius, and a Syrian garrison occupied the citadel
(Akra). The Jews were ordered under pain of death to substitute for
their own observances the Pagan rites prescribed for the empire
generally. In December 168 sacrifice was offered to Zeus upon an idol
altar ("the abomination of desolation," Dan. x. 27) erected over the
great altar of burnt-offering. But Antiochus had miscalculated, and by
his extreme measures unwittingly saved Judaism from its internal foes.
Many hellenizers rallied round those who were minded to die rather than
abjure their religion. The issue of an important edict ordaining the
erection of heathen altars in every township of Palestine, and the
appointment of officers to deal with recusants, brought matters to a
crisis. At Modin, Mattathias, an aged priest, not only refused to offer
the first sacrifice, but slew an apostate Jew who was about to step into
the breach. He also killed the king's commissioner and pulled down the
altar. Having thus given the signal for rebellion, he then with his five
sons took to the mountains. In view of the ruthless slaughter of a
thousand sabbatarians in the wilderness, Mattathias and his friends
decided to resist attack even on the sabbath. Many, including the
Hasidim, thereupon flocked to his standard, and set themselves to revive
Jewish rites and to uproot Paganism from the land. In 166 Mattathias
died, after charging his sons to give their lives for their ancestral
faith, and nominating Judas Maccabaeus as their leader in the holy
campaign.

The military genius of Judas made this the most stirring chapter in
Israelitish history. In quick succession he overthrew the Syrian
generals Apollonius, Seron and Gorgias, and after the regent Lysias had
shared the same fate at his hands he restored the Temple worship (165).
These exploits dismayed his opponents and kindled the enthusiasm of his
friends. When, however, Lysias returned in force to renew the contest,
Judas had to fall back upon the Temple mount, and escaped defeat only
because the Syrian leader was obliged to hasten back to Antioch in order
to prevent a rival from seizing the regency. Under these circumstances
Lysias unexpectedly guaranteed to the Jews their religious freedom
(162). But though they had thus gained their end, the struggle did not
cease; it merely assumed a new phase. The Hasidim indeed were satisfied,
and declined to fight longer, but the Maccabees determined not to desist
until their nation was politically as well as religiously free. In 161
Judas defeated Nicanor at Adasa, but within a few weeks thereafter, in a
heroic struggle against superior numbers under Bacchides at Elasa, he
was himself cut off. Even this, however, did not prove fatal to the
cause which Judas had espoused. If in his brother Jonathan it did not
possess so brilliant a soldier, it had in him an astute diplomatist who
knew how to exploit the internal troubles of Syria. In the contest
between Demetrius I. and Alexander Balas for the throne, Jonathan
supported the latter, who in 153 nominated him high priest, and
conferred on him the order of "King's Friend," besides other honours.
After the accession of Demetrius II. (145) Jonathan contrived to win his
favour, and helped him to crush a rebellion in Antioch on condition that
the Syrian garrisons should be withdrawn from Judaea. When, however,
Demetrius failed to keep his word, Jonathan transferred his allegiance
to Antiochus VI., whom Tryphon had crowned as king. After subjugating
the territory between Jerusalem and Damascus, he routed the generals of
Demetrius on the plain of Hazor. But as the Maccabees had now in the
name of the Syrians cleared the Syrians out of Palestine, Tryphon's
jealousy was aroused, and he resolved to be rid of Jonathan, who, with
all his cunning, walked into a trap at Ptolemais, was made prisoner and
ultimately slain (143). The leadership now devolved upon Simon, the last
survivor of the sons of Mattathias. He soon got the better of Tryphon,
who vainly tried to reach Jerusalem. Allying himself to Demetrius, Simon
succeeded in negotiating a treaty whereby the political independence of
Judaea was at length secured. The garrison in the Akra having been
starved into submission, Simon triumphantly entered that fortress in May
142. In the following year he was by popular decree invested with
absolute powers, being appointed leader, high priest and ethnarch. As
these offices were declared hereditary in his family, he became the
founder of the Hasmonaean dynasty. The first year of his reign (Seleucid
year 170 = 143-142 B.C.) was made the beginning of a new era, and the
issue of a Jewish coinage betokened the independence of his sovereignty.
Under Simon's administration the country enjoyed signal prosperity. Its
internal resources were assiduously developed; trade, agriculture, civic
justice and religion were fostered; while at no epoch in its post-exilic
history did Israel enjoy an equal measure of social happiness (I Macc.
xiv. 4 seq.). Simon's beneficent activities came, however, to a sudden
and tragic end. In 135 he and two of his sons were murdered by Ptolemy,
his son-in-law, who had an eye to the supreme power. But Simon's third
son, John Hyrcanus, warned in time, succeeded in asserting his rights as
hereditary head of the state. All the sons of Mattathias had now died
for the sake of "The Law"; and the result of their work, so valorously
prosecuted for over thirty years, was a new-born enthusiasm in Israel
for the ancestral faith. The Maccabaean struggle thus gave fresh life to
the Jewish nation.

After the death of Antiochus VII. Sidetes in 128 left him a free hand,
Hyrcanus (135-105) soon carved out for himself a large and prosperous
kingdom, which, however, was rent by internal discord owing to the
antagonism developed between the rival parties of the Pharisees and
Sadducees. Hyrcanus was succeeded by his son Aristobulus, whose reign of
but one year was followed by that of his brother, the warlike Alexander
Jannaeus (104-78). The new king's Sadducean proclivities rendered him
odious to the populace, which rose in revolt, but only to bring upon
itself a savage revenge. The accession of his widow Salome Alexandra
(78-69) witnessed a complete reversal of the policy pursued by Jannaeus,
for she chose to rule in accordance with the ideals of the Pharisees.
Her elder son, Hyrcanus II., a pliable weakling, was appointed high
priest; her younger son, the energetic Aristobulus, who chafed at his
exclusion from office, seized some twenty strongholds and with an army
bore down upon Jerusalem. At this crisis Alexandra died, and Hyrcanus
agreed to retire in favour of his masterful brother. A new and
disturbing element now entered into Jewish politics in the person of the
Idumaean Antipater, who for selfish ends deliberately made mischief
between the brothers. An appeal to M. Aemilius Scaurus, who in 65 came
into Syria as the legate of Pompey, led to the interference of the
Romans, the siege of Jerusalem by Pompey, and the vassalage of the Jews
(q.v.). Hyrcanus II. was appointed high priest and ethnarch, without the
title of king (63). Repeated but fruitless attempts were made by the
Hasmonaeans and their patriotic supporters to throw off the Roman yoke.
In 47 Antipater, who curried favour with Rome, was made procurator of
Judaea, and his sons Phasael and Herod governors of Jerusalem and
Galilee respectively. Six years later the Idumaean brothers were
appointed tetrarchs of Judaea. At length, in 40, the Parthians set up as
king Antigonus, sole surviving son of Aristobulus. Thereupon Phasael
committed suicide in prison, but Herod effected his escape and with the
help of the Romans seated himself on the throne of Judaea (37 B.C.).
Through the execution of Antigonus by M. Antonius (Mark Antony) the same
year the Hasmonaean dynasty became extinct.

  LITERATURE.--1 and 2 Macc. and Josephus are the main sources for the
  Maccabaean history. For references in classical authors see E.
  Schürer, _Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes_ (1901, p 106 seq.). Besides
  the numerous modern histories of Israel (e.g. those by Dérenbourg,
  Ewald, Stanley, Stade, Renan, Schürer, Kent, Wellhausen, Guthe), see
  also Madden, _Coins of the Jews_ (1881), H. Weiss's _Judas Makkabaeus_
  (1897), and the articles in the _Ency. Bib._, Hastings's _Dict.
  Bible_, the _Jewish Encyclopedia_. Among more popular sketches are
  Moss's _From Malachi to Matthew_ (1893); Streanes' _The Age of the
  Maccabees_ (1898); Morrison's _The Jews under Roman Rule_ ("Story of
  the Nations" series); W. Fairweather's _From the Exile to the Advent_
  (1901); E. R. Bevan's _Jerusalem under the High Priests_ (1904); F.
  Henderson's _The Age of the Maccabees_ (1907); also, articles JEWS;
  SELEUCID DYNASTY.     (W. F.*)



MACCABEES, BOOKS OF, the name given to several Apocryphal books of the
Old Testament. The Vulgate contains two books of Maccabees which were
declared canonical by the council of Trent (1546) and found a place
among the Apocrypha of the English Bible. Three other books of this name
are extant. Book iii. is included in the Septuagint but not in the
Vulgate. Book iv. is embraced in the Alexandrian, Sinaitic, and other
MSS. of the Septuagint, as well as in some MSS. of Josephus. A "Fifth"
book is contained in the Ambrosian Peshitta, but it seems to be merely a
Syriac reproduction of the sixth book of Josephus's history of the
_Jewish War_. None of the books of Maccabees are contained in the
Vatican (B); all of them are found in a Syriac recension.

_1 Maccabees_ was originally written in Hebrew, but is preserved only in
a Greek translation. Origen gives a transliteration of "its Semitic
title,"[1] and Jerome says distinctly: "The First Book of Maccabees I
found in Hebrew." The frequent Hebraisms which mark the Greek
translation, as well as the fact that some obscure passages in the Greek
text are best accounted for as mistranslations from the Hebrew, afford
internal evidence of the truth of this testimony. There are good reasons
for regarding the book as a unity, although some scholars (Destinon,
followed by Wellhausen) consider the concluding chapters (xiii.-xvi.) a
later addition unknown to Josephus, who, however, seems to have already
used the Greek. It probably dates from about the beginning of the first
century B.C.[2]

As it supplies a detailed and accurate record of the forty years from
the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon (175-135
B.C.), without doubt the most stirring chapter in Jewish history, the
book is one of the most precious historical sources we possess. In its
careful chronology, based upon the Seleucid era, in the minuteness of
its geographical knowledge, in the frankness with which it records
defeat as well as victory, on the restraint with which it speaks of the
enemies of the Jews, in its command of details, it bears on its face the
stamp of genuineness. Not that it is wholly free from error or
exaggeration, but its mistakes are due merely to defective knowledge of
the outside world, and its overstatements, virtually confined to the
matter of numbers, proceed from a patriotic desire to magnify Jewish
victories. While the author presumably had some written sources at his
disposal,[3] his narrative is probably for the most part founded upon
personal knowledge and recollection of the events recorded, and upon
such first-hand information as, living in the second generation after,
he would still be in a position to obtain. His sole aim is honestly to
relate what he knew of the glorious struggles of his nation.

Although written in the style of the historical books of the old
Testament, the work is characterized by a religious reticence which
avoids even the use of the divine name, and by the virtual absence of
the Messianic hope. The observance of the law is strongly urged, and the
cessation of prophecy deplored (iv. 46; xiv. 41). There is no allusion
either to the immortality of the soul or to the resurrection of the
dead. The rewards to which the dying Mattathias points his sons are all
for this life. Many scholars are of opinion that the unknown author was
a Sadducee,[4] but all that can be said with certainty is that he was a
Palestinian Jew devotedly attached to the national cause.

  Until the council of Trent 1 Maccabees had only "ecclesiastical" rank,
  and although not accepted as canonical by the Protestant churches, it
  has always been held in high estimation. Luther says "it closely
  resembles the rest of the books of Holy Scripture, and would not be
  unworthy to be enumerated with them."

_2 Maccabees_, the epitome of a larger work in five books by one Jason
of Cyrene, deals with the same history as its predecessor, except that
it begins at a point one year earlier (176 B.C.), and stops short at the
death of Nicanor (161 B.C.), thus covering a period of only fifteen
years. First of all[5] the writer describes the futile attempt of
Heliodorus to rob the Temple, and the malicious intrigues of the
Benjamite Simon against the worthy high priest Onias III. (iii. i-iv.
6). As throwing light upon the situation prior to the Maccabaean revolt
this section of the book is of especial value. Chapters iv. 7-vii. 42
contain a more detailed narrative of the events recorded in 1 Macc. i.
10-64. The remainder of the book runs parallel to 1 Macc, iii.-vii.

Originally written in excellent Greek, from a pronouncedly Pharisaic
standpoint, it was possibly directed against the Hasmonaean dynasty. It
shows no sympathy with the priestly class. Both in trustworthiness and
in style it is inferior to 1 Macc. Besides being highly coloured, the
narrative does not observe strict chronological sequence. Instead of the
sober annalistic style of the earlier historian we have a work marked by
hyperbole, inflated rhetoric and homiletic reflection. Bitter invective
is heaped upon the national enemies, and strong predilection is shown
for the marvellous. The fullness and inaccuracy of detail which are a
feature of the book suggest that Jason's information was derived from
the recollections of eye-witnesses orally communicated. In spite of its
obvious defects, however, it forms a useful supplement to the first
book.

The writer's interests are religious rather than historical. In 1 Macc,
there is a keen sense of the part to be played by the Jews themselves,
of the necessity of employing their own skill and valour; here they are
made to rely rather upon divine intervention. Fantastic apparitions of
angelic and supernatural beings, gorgeously arrayed and mostly upon
horseback, are frequently introduced. In general, the views reflected in
the book are those of the Pharisees. The ungodly will be punished
mercilessly, and in exact correspondence to their sins.[6] The
chastisements of erring Jews are of short duration, and intended to
recall them to duty. If the faithful suffer martyrdom, it is in order to
serve as an example to others, and they shall be compensated by being
raised up "unto an eternal renewal of life." The eschatology of 2 Macc.
is singularly advanced, for it combines the doctrine of a resurrection
with that of immortality. It is worthy of note that the Roman Church
finds support in this book for its teaching with reference to prayers
for the dead and purgatory (xii. 43 seq.). An allusion to Jeremiah as
"he who prayeth much for the people and the holy city" (xv. 14) it
likewise appeals to as favouring its views respecting the intercession
of the saints.

Neither of Jason's work, nor of the epitomizer's, can the precise date
be determined. The changed relations with Rome (viii. 10, 36) prove,
however, that the latter was written later than 1 Macc.; and it is
equally clear that it was composed before the destruction of Jerusalem,
A.D. 70.

  The account given of the martyrs in chs. vi. and vii. led to frequent
  allusions to this book in early patristic literature. Only Augustine,
  however, was minded to give it the canonical rank to which it has been
  raised by the Roman Church. Luther judged of it as unfavourably as he
  judged of 1 Macc, favourably, and even "wished it had never existed."

_3 Maccabees_, although purporting to be an historical narrative, is
really an animated, if somewhat vapid, piece of fiction written in Greek
somewhere between 100 B.C. and A.D. 70,[7] and apparently preserved only
in part.[8] It has no connexion with the Hasmonaeans, but is a story of
the deliverance experienced by the Egyptian Jews from impending
martyrdom at the hand of Ptolemy IV. Philopator, who reigned in the
century previous to the Maccabaean rising (222-205 B.C.). The title is
of later origin, and rendered possible only by the generalization of the
name Maccabee so as to embrace all who suffered for the ancestral faith.
Josephus refers the legend on which it is based to the time of Ptolemy
VII. Physcon (146-117 B.C.). Some scholars (Ewald, Reuss, Hausrath)
think that what the story really points to is the persecution under
Caligula, but in that case Ptolemy would naturally have been represented
as claiming divine honours. No other source informs us of a visit to
Jerusalem, or of a persecution of the Jews, on the part of Philopator.
Possibly, however, the story may be founded on some historical situation
regarding which we have no definite knowledge. The purpose of the writer
was evidently to cheer his Egyptian brethren during some persecution at
Alexandria. Although the book was favourably regarded in the Syrian, it
was apparently unknown to the Latin Church. Among the Jews it was
virtually ignored.

  Briefly, the tale is as follows:--After the battle of Raphia[9] (217
  B.C.), Ptolemy IV. Philopator insisted on entering the sanctuary at
  Jerusalem, but was struck down by the Almighty in answer to the
  prayers of the horrified Jews. On his return to Egypt he revenged
  himself by curtailing the religious liberty of the Alexandrian Jews,
  and by depriving of their civic rights all who refused to worship
  Bacchus. Exasperated by their loyalty to their religion, the king
  ordered all the Jews in Egypt to be imprisoned in the hippodrome of
  Alexandria. Clerks were told off to prepare a list of the prisoners'
  names, but after forty days constant toil they had exhausted their
  writing materials without finishing their task. Ptolemy further
  commanded that 500 elephants should be intoxicated and let loose upon
  the occupants of the race-course. Only an accident prevented the
  carrying out of this design; the king had slept until it was past the
  time for his principal meal. On the following day, in virtue of a
  divinely induced forgetfulness, Ptolemy recollected nothing but the
  loyalty of the Jews to his throne. The same evening, nevertheless, he
  repeated his order for their destruction. Accordingly, on the morning
  of the third day, when the king attended to see his commands
  executed, things had reached a crisis. The Jews prayed to the Lord for
  mercy, and two angels appeared from heaven, to the confusion of the
  royal troops, who were trampled down by the elephants. Ptolemy now
  vented his wrath upon his counsellors, liberated the Jews, and feasted
  them for seven days. They determined that these should be kept as
  festal days henceforth in commemoration of their deliverance. The
  provincial governors were enjoined to take the Jews under their
  protection, and leave was given to the latter to slay those of their
  kinsmen who had deserted the faith. They further celebrated their
  deliverance at Ptolemais, where they built a synagogue, and they
  reached their various abodes to find themselves not only reinstated in
  their possessions, but raised in the esteem of the Egyptians.

_4 Maccabees_ differs essentially from the other books of this name.
While it does not itself aim at being a history, it makes striking use
of Jewish history for purposes of edification. It bears, moreover, a
distinctly philosophical character, and takes the form of a "tractate"
or discourse, addressed to Jews only,[10] upon "the supremacy of pious
reason over the passions." [11] The material is well arranged and
systematically handled. In the prologue (i. 1-12) the writer explains
the aim and scope of his work. Then follows the first main division (i.
13-iii. 18), in which he treats philosophically the proposition that
reason is the mistress of the passions, inquiring what is meant by
"reason" and what by "passion," as well as how many kinds of passion
there are, and whether reason rules them all. The conclusion reached is
that with the exception of forgetfulness and ignorance all the
affections are under the lordship of reason, or at all events of _pious_
reason. To follow the dictates of pious reason in opposition to natural
inclination is to have learned the secret of victory over the passions.
In the second part of the book (iii. 19-xviii. 5) the writer goes on to
prove his thesis from Jewish history, dwelling in particular upon the
noble stand made against the tyranny of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes by the
priest Eleazar, the seven brothers and their mother--all of whom chose
torture and death rather than apostatize from the faith. Finally he
appeals to his readers to emulate these acts of piety (xvii. 7-xviii.
24). In his gruesome descriptions of physical sufferings the author
offends against good taste even more than the writer of 2 Macc., while
both contrast very unfavourably in this respect with the sober reserve
of the gospel narratives.

The book is written in a cultured, if somewhat rhetorical, Greek style,
and is unmistakably coloured by the Stoic philosophy. The four cardinal
virtues are represented as forms of wisdom, which again is inseparable
from the Mosaic law. That the writer owes no slavish adherence to any
philosophical system is plain from his independent treatment of the
affections. Although influenced by Hellenism, he is a loyal Jew,
earnestly desirous that all who profess the same faith should adhere to
it in spite of either Greek allurements or barbaric persecution. It is
not to reason as such, but only to pious reason (i.e. to reason
enlightened and controlled by the divine law), that he attributes
lordship over the passions. While in his zeal for legalism he virtually
adopts the standpoint of Pharisaism, he is at one with Jewish Hellenism
in substituting belief in the soul's immortality for the doctrine of a
bodily resurrection.

The name of the author is unknown. He was, however, clearly a
Hellenistic Jew, probably resident in Alexandria or Asia Minor. In the
early Church the work was commonly ascribed to Josephus and incorporated
with his writings. But apart from the fact that it is found also in
several MSS. of the Septuagint, the language and style of the book are
incompatible with his authorship. So also is the circumstance that 2
Macc., which forms the basis of 4 Macc., was unknown to Josephus.
Moreover, several unhistorical statements (such as, e.g. that Seleucus
was succeeded by his _son_ Antiochus Epiphanes, iv. 15) militate
against the view that Josephus was the author. The date of composition
cannot be definitely fixed. It is, however, safe to say that the book
must have been written later than 2 Macc., and (in view of the
acceptance it met with in the Christian Church) prior to the destruction
of Jerusalem. Most likely it is a product of the Herodian period.

_5 Maccabees._ Writing in 1566 Sixtus Senensis mentions having seen at
Lyons a manuscript of a so-called "Fifth Book of Maccabees" in the
library of Santas Pagninus, which was soon afterwards destroyed by fire.
It began with the words: "After the murder of Simon, John his son became
high priest in his stead." Sixtus conjectures that it may have been a
Greek translation of the "chronicles" of John Hyrcanus, alluded to in 1
Macc., xvi. 24. He acknowledges that it is a history of Hyrcanus
practically on the lines of Josephus, but concludes from its Hebraistic
style that it was not from that writer's pen. The probability, however,
is that it was "simply a reproduction of Josephus, the style being
changed perhaps for a purpose" (Schürer).

The Arabic "Book of Maccabees" contained in the Paris and London
Polyglotts, and purporting to be a history of the Jews from the affair
of Heliodorus (186 B.C.) to the close of Herod's reign, is historically
worthless, being nothing but a compilation from 1 and 2 Macc. and
Josephus. In the one chapter (xii.) where the writer ventures to detach
himself from these works he commits glaring historical blunders. The
book was written in somewhat Hebraistic Greek subsequent to A.D. 70. In
Cotton's English translation of _The Five Books of Maccabees_ it is this
book that is reckoned the "Fifth."

  The best modern editions of the Greek text of the four books of
  Maccabees are those of O. F. Fritzsche (1871) and H. B. Swete
  (Cambridge Septuagint, vol. iii., 1894). C. J. Ball's _The Variorum
  Apocrypha_ will be found specially useful by those who cannot
  conveniently consult the Greek. The best modern commentary is that of
  C. L. W. Grimm (1853-1857). C. F. Keil's commentary on 1 and 2 Macc.
  is very largely indebted to Grimm. More recently there have appeared
  commentaries by E. C. Bissell on 1, 2 and 3 Macc. in Lange-Schaff's
  commentary, 1880--the whole Apocrypha being embraced in one volume,
  and much of the material being transferred from Grimm; G. Rawlinson on
  1 and 2 Macc. in the _Speaker's Commentary_ 1888 (containing much
  useful matter, but marred by too frequent inaccuracy); O. Zöckler, on
  1, 2 and 3 Macc., 1891 (slight and unsatisfactory); W. Fairweather and
  J. S. Black on 1 Macc. in the _Cambridge Bible for Schools_ (1897); E.
  Kautzsch on 1 and 3 Macc., A. Kamphausen on 2 Macc. and A. Deissmann
  on 4 Macc. in _Die Apok. u. Pseudepigr. des Alt. Test._, 1898 (a most
  serviceable work for the student of apocryphal literature). Brief but
  useful introductions to all the four books of Maccabees are given in
  E. Schürer's _Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu
  Christi_ (3rd ed., 1898-1901; Eng. tr. of earlier edition, 1886-1890).
       (W. F.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] [Greek: Sarbeth Sabanaiel] (Sarbeth Sabanaiel). No satisfactory
    explanation of this title has yet been given from the Hebrew (see the
    commentaries). The book may, however, have been known to Origen only
    in an Aramaic translation, in which case, according to the happy
    conjecture of Dalman (_Gramm._ 6) the two words may have represented
    the Aramaic [Hebrew: sefer beit Hashmonai] ("book of the Hasmonaean
    house").

  [2] If the book is a unity, ch. xvi. 23 implies that it was written
    after the death of Hyrcanus which occurred in 105 B.C. On the other
    hand the friendly references to Rome in ch. viii. show that it must
    have been written before the siege of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 B.C.

  [3] Cf. ix. 22, xi. 37, xiv. 18, 27.

  [4] See especially Geiger, _Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel_,
    206 seq.

  [5] Prefixed to the book are two spurious letters from Palestinian
    Jews (i., ii. 18), having no real connexion with it, or even with one
    another, further than that they both urge Egyptian Jews to observe
    the Feast of the Dedication. Between these and the main narrative is
    inserted the writer's own preface, in which he explains the source
    and aim of his work (ii. 19-32).

  [6] iv. 38. 42; v. 9 seq.; ix. 5-18.

  [7] The date of composition can be only approximately determined. As
    the writer is acquainted with the Greek additions to Daniel (vi. 6),
    the first century B.C. forms the superior limit; and as the book
    found favour in the Eastern Church, the first century A.D. forms the
    inferior limit.

  [8] Apart from its abrupt commencement, the references in i. 2 to
    "the plot" as something already specified, and in ii. 25 to the
    king's "before-mentioned" companions, of whom, however, nothing is
    said in the previous section of the book, point to the loss of at
    least an introductory chapter.

  [9] The statements with reference to the war between Antiochus the
    Great and Ptolemy Philopator are in general agreement with those of
    the classical historians, and to this extent the tale may be said to
    have an historical setting. By Grimm (_Einl._ § 3), the observance of
    the two yearly festivals (vi. 26; vii. 19), and the existence of the
    synagogue at Ptolemais when the book was written, are viewed as the
    witness of tradition to the fact of some great deliverance. Fritzsche
    has well pointed out, however (art. "Makkabäer" in Schenkel's
    _Bibel-Lexicon_) that in the hands of Jewish writers of the period
    nearly every event of consequence has a festival attached to it.

  [10] Even if with Freudenthal we regard the work as a homily actually
    delivered to a Jewish congregation--and there are difficulties in the
    way of this theory, particularly the absence of a Biblical text--it
    was clearly intended for publication. It is essentially a book in the
    form of a discourse, whether it was ever orally delivered or not. So
    Deissmann in Kautzsch, _Die Apok. u. Pseudepigr. des A. T._ ii. 151.

  [11] Hence the title sometimes given to it: [Greek: autokratoros
    logismou] ("On the supremacy of reason"). It is also styled [Greek:
    Makkabaion d', Makkabaikon, eis tous Makkabaious].



MacCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE (1817-1882), Irish poet, was born in Dublin on
the 26th of May 1817, and educated there and at Maynooth. His earlier
verses appeared in _The Dublin Satirist_, and in 1843 he became a
regular contributor of political verse to the recently founded _Nation_.
He also took an active part in the Irish political associations. In 1846
he edited _The Poets and Dramatists of Ireland_ and the _Book of Irish
Ballads_. His collected _Ballads, Poems and Lyrics_ (1850), including
translations from nearly all the modern languages, took immensely with
his countrymen on account of their patriotic ring. This was followed by
_The Bellfounder_ (1857), _Under-glimpses_ and other poems (1857) and
_The Early Life of Shelley_ (1871). In 1853 he began a number of
translations from the Spanish of Calderon's dramas, which won for him a
medal from the Royal Spanish Academy. He had already been granted a
civil list pension for his literary services. He died in Ireland on the
7th of April 1882.



M'CARTHY, JUSTIN (1830-   ), Irish politician, historian and novelist,
was born in Cork on the 22nd of November 1830, and was educated at a
school in that town. He began his career as a journalist, at the age of
eighteen, in Cork. From 1853 to 1859 he was in Liverpool, on the staff
of the _Northern Daily Times_, during which period he married (in March
1855) Miss Charlotte Allman. In 1860 he removed to London, as
parliamentary reporter to the _Morning Star_, of which he became editor
in 1864. He gave up his post in 1868, and, after a lecturing tour in the
United States, joined the staff of the _Daily News_ as leader-writer in
1870. In this capacity he became one of the most useful and respected
upholders of the Liberal politics of the time. He lectured again in
America in 1870-1871, and again in 1886-1887. He represented Co.
Longford in Parliament as a Liberal and Home Ruler from 1879 to 1885;
North Longford, 1885-1886; Londonderry, 1886-1892; and North Longford
from 1892 to 1900. He was chairman of the Anti-Parnellites from the fall
of C. S. Parnell in 1890 until January 1896; but his Nationalism was of
a temperate and orderly kind, and though his personal distinction
singled him out for the chairmanship during the party dissensions of
this period, he was in no active sense the political leader. His real
bent was towards literature. His earliest publications were novels, some
of which, such as _A Fair Saxon_ (1873), _Dear Lady Disdain_ (1875),
_Miss Misanthrope_ (1878), _Donna Quixote_ (1879), attained considerable
popularity. His most important work is his _History of Our Own Times_
(vols. i.-iv., 1879-1880; vol. v., 1897), which treats of the period
between Queen Victoria's accession and her diamond jubilee. Easily and
delightfully written, and on the whole eminently sane and moderate,
these volumes form a brilliant piece of narrative from a Liberal
standpoint. He also began a _History of the Four Georges_ (1884-1901),
of which the latter half was written by his son, Justin Huntly M'Carthy
(b. 1860), himself the author of various clever novels, plays, poetical
pieces and short histories. Justin M'Carthy, amongst other works, wrote
biographies of Sir Robert Peel (1891), Pope Leo XIII. (1896) and W. E.
Gladstone (1898); _Modern England_ (1898); _The Reign of Queen Anne_
(1902) and _Reminiscences_ (2 vols., 1899).



McCHEYNE, ROBERT MURRAY (1813-1843), Scottish divine, was born at
Edinburgh on the 21st of May 1813, was educated at the University and at
the Divinity Hall of his native city, and held pastorates at Larbert,
near Falkirk, and Dundee. A mission of inquiry among the Jews throughout
Europe and in Palestine, and a religious revival at his church in
Dundee, made him feel that he was being called to evangelistic rather
than to pastoral work, but before he could carry out his plans he died,
on the 25th of March 1843. McCheyne, though wielding remarkable
influence in his lifetime, was still more powerful afterwards, through
his _Memoirs and Remains_, edited by Andrew Bonar, which ran into far
over a hundred English editions. Some of his hymns, e.g. "When this
passing world is done," are well known.

  See his _Life_, by J. C. Smith (1910).



McCLELLAN, GEORGE BRINTON (1826-1885), American soldier, was born in
Philadelphia on the 3rd of December 1826. After passing two years
(1840-1842) in the university of Pennsylvania, he entered the United
States military academy, from which he graduated with high honours in
July 1846. Sent as a lieutenant of engineers to the Mexican War, he took
part in the battles under General Scott, and by his gallantry won the
brevets of first-lieutenant at Contreras-Churubusco and captain at
Chapultepec; he was afterwards detailed as assistant-instructor at West
Point, and employed in explorations in the South-West and in Oregon.
Promoted in 1855 captain of cavalry, he served on a military commission
sent to Europe to study European armies and especially the war in the
Crimea. On his return he furnished an able and interesting report,
republished (1861) under the title of _Armies of Europe_. In 1856 he
designed a saddle, which was afterwards well known as the McClellan.
Resigning his commission in 1857, McClellan became successively chief
engineer and vice-president of the Illinois Central railroad
(1857-1860), general superintendent of the Mississippi & Ohio railroad,
and, a little later, president of the eastern branch of the same, with
his residence in Cincinnati. When the Civil War broke out he was, in
April 1861, made major-general of three months' militia by the governor
of Ohio; but General Scott's favour at Washington promoted him rapidly
(May 14) to the rank of major-general, U.S.A., in command of the
department of the Ohio. Pursuant to orders, on the 26th of May,
McClellan sent a small force across the Ohio river to Philippi,
dispersed the Confederates there early in June, and immensely aided the
Union cause in that region by rapid and brilliant military successes,
gained in the short space of eight days. These operations, though
comparatively trivial as the Civil War developed, brought great results,
in permanently dividing old Virginia by the creation of the state of
West Virginia, and in presenting the first sharp, short and wholly
successful campaign of the war.

Soon after the first Bull Run disaster he was summoned to Washington,
and the Union hailed him as chieftain and preserver. Only thirty-four
years old, and with military fame and promotion premature and quite in
excess of positive experience, he reached the capital late in July and
assumed command there. At first all was deference and compliance with
his wishes. In November Scott retired that the young general might
control the operations of the whole Union army. McClellan proved himself
extraordinarily able as an organizer and trainer of soldiers. During the
autumn, winter and spring he created the famous Army of the Potomac,
which in victory and defeat retained to the end the impress of
McClellan's work. But he soon showed petulance towards the civil
authorities, from whom he came to differ concerning the political ends
in view; and he now found severe critics, who doubted his capacity for
directing an offensive war; but the government yielded to his plans for
an oblique, instead of a direct, movement upon Richmond and the opposing
army. At the moment of starting he was relieved as general-in-chief. By
the 5th of April a great army was safely transported to Fortress Monroe,
and other troops were sent later, though a large force was (much against
his will) retained to cover Washington. McClellan laid slow siege to
Yorktown, not breaking the thin line first opposed to him, but giving
Johnston full time to reinforce and then evacuate the position.
McClellan followed up the Confederate rearguard and approached Richmond,
using White House on the Pamunkey as a base of supplies; this entailed a
division of his forces on either bank of the Chickahominy. At Fair Oaks
(Seven Pines) was fought on the 31st of May a bloody battle, ending the
following day in a Confederate repulse. Johnston being severely wounded,
Lee came to command on the Southern side. After a pause in the
operations McClellan felt himself ready to attack at the moment when
Lee, leaving a bare handful of men in the Richmond lines, despatched
two-thirds of his entire force to the north of the Chickahominy to
strike McClellan's isolated right wing. McClellan himself made little
progress, and the troops beyond the Chickahominy were defeated after a
strenuous defence; whereupon McClellan planned, and during the
celebrated Seven Days' Battle triumphantly executed, a change of base to
the James river. But the result was strategically a failure, and General
Halleck, who was now general-in-chief, ordered the army to reinforce
General Pope in central Virginia. The order was obeyed reluctantly.

Pope's disastrous defeats brought McClellan a new opportunity to
retrieve his fame. Again in command of the Army of the Potomac, he was
sent with all available forces to oppose Lee, who had crossed the
Potomac into Maryland early in September. McClellan advanced slowly and
carefully, reorganizing his army as he went. The battle of South
Mountain placed him in a position to attack Lee, and a few days later
was fought the great battle of Antietam, in which Lee was worsted. But
the Confederates safely recrossed the Potomac, and McClellan showed his
former faults in a tardy pursuit. On the eve of an aggressive movement,
which he was at last about to make, he was superseded by Burnside (Nov.
7). McClellan was never again ordered to active command, and the
political elements opposed to the general policy of Lincoln's
administration chose him as presidential candidate in 1864, on a
platform which denounced the war as a failure and proposed negotiating
with the South for peace. McClellan, while accepting his candidacy,
repudiated the platform, like a soldier and patriot. At the polls on the
8th of November Lincoln was triumphantly re-elected president. McClellan
had previously resigned his commission in the army, and soon afterwards
went to Europe, where he remained until 1868. Upon his return he took up
his residence in New York City, where (1868-1869) he was engaged in
superintending the construction of an experimental floating battery. In
1870-1872 he was engineer-in-chief of the city's department of docks.
With Orange, N.J., as his next principal residence, he became governor
of New Jersey (1878-1881). During his term he effected great reforms in
the administration of the state and in the militia. He was offered, but
declined, a second nomination. During his last years he made several
tours of Europe, visited the East, and wrote much for the magazines. He
also prepared monographs upon the Civil War, defending his own action.
He died suddenly of heart-disease on the 29th of October 1885 at Orange.

McClellan was a clear and able writer and effective speaker; and his
_Own Story_, edited by a friend and published soon after his death,
discloses an honourable character, sensitive to reproach, and
conscientious, even morbidly so, in his patriotism. He carried himself
well in civil life and was of irreproachable private conduct. During the
Civil War, however, he was promoted too early and rapidly for his own
good, and the strong personal magnetism he inspired while so young
developed qualities injurious to a full measure of success and
usefulness, despite his great opportunities. The reasons for his final
displacement in 1862 were both civil and military, and the president had
been forbearing with him. As a soldier he possessed to an extraordinary
degree the enthusiastic affection of his men. With the army that he had
created the mere rumour of his presence was often a spur to the greatest
exertions. That he was slow, and perhaps too tender-hearted, in handling
armed masses for action may be admitted, and though admirable for
defensive war and a safe strategist, he showed himself unfitted to take
the highly essential initiative, both because of temperament and his
habitual exaggeration of obstacles and opposing numbers. But he met and
checked the armies of the Confederacy when they were at their best and
strongest, and his work laid the foundations of ultimate success.

His son, GEORGE BRINTON MCCLELLAN (b. 1865), graduated in 1886 at
Princeton (from which he received the degree of LL.D. in 1905), and
became a newspaper reporter and editor in New York City. He identified
himself with the Tammany Hall organization, and in 1889-1892 was
treasurer of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge under the city government.
In 1892 he was admitted to the bar, and was elected to the board of
aldermen, of which he was president in 1893 and 1894. In 1895-1903 he
was a Democratic representative in Congress; in 1903 he was elected
mayor of New York City on the Tammany ticket, defeating mayor Seth Low,
the "Fusion" candidate; and in 1905 he was re-elected for a four-year
term, defeating William M. Ivins (Republican) and William R. Hearst
(Independence League). He published _The Oligarchy of Venice_ (1904).

  Besides the report mentioned above, General McClellan wrote a _Bayonet
  Exercise_ (1852); _Report on Pacific Railroad Surveys_ (1854); _Report
  on the Organization, &c., of the Army of the Potomac_ (1864), a
  government publication which he himself republished with the addition
  of a memoir of the West Virginian campaign. He also wrote a series of
  articles on the Russo-Turkish War for _The North American Review_. See
  memoir prefaced to _McClellan's Own Story_, and Michie, _General
  McClellan_ ("Great Commanders" series).



McCLERNAND, JOHN ALEXANDER (1812-1900), American soldier and lawyer, was
born in Breckinridge county, Kentucky, on the 30th of May 1812. He was
admitted to the bar in Shawneetown, Illinois, in 1832; in the same year
served as a volunteer in the Black Hawk War, and in 1835 founded the
_Shawneetown Democrat_, which he thereafter edited. As a Democrat he
served in 1836 and in 1840-1843 in the Illinois House of
Representatives, and in 1843-1851 and in 1859-1861 was a representative
in Congress, where in his first term he vigorously opposed the Wilmot
proviso, but in his second term was a strong Unionist and introduced the
resolution of the 15th of July 1861, pledging money and men to the
national government. He resigned from congress, raised in Illinois the
"McClernand Brigade," and was commissioned (May 17, 1861)
brigadier-general of volunteers. He was second in command at the battle
of Belmont (Missouri) in November 1861, and commanded the right wing at
Fort Donelson. On the 21st of March he became a major-general of
volunteers. At Shiloh he commanded a division, which was practically a
reserve to Sherman's. In October 1861 Stanton, secretary of war,
ordered him north to raise troops for the expedition against Vicksburg;
and early in January 1864, at Milliken's Bend, McClernand, who had been
placed in command of one of the four corps of Grant's army, superseded
Sherman as the leader of the force that was to move down the
Mississippi. On the 11th of January he took Arkansas Post. On the 17th,
Grant, after receiving the opinion of Admiral Foote and General Sherman
that McClernand was unfit, united a part of his own troops with those of
McClernand and assumed command in person, and three days later ordered
McClernand back to Milliken's Bend. During the rest of this Vicksburg
campaign there was much friction between McClernand and his colleagues;
he undoubtedly intrigued for the removal of Grant; it was Grant's
opinion that at Champion's Hill (May 16) he was dilatory; and because a
congratulatory order to his corps was published in the press (contrary
to an order of the department and another of Grant) he was relieved of
his command on the 18th of June, and was replaced by General E. O. C.
Ord. President Lincoln, who saw the importance of conciliating a leader
of the Illinois War-Democrats, restored him to his command in 1864, but
McClernand resigned in November of that year. He was district judge of
the Sangamon (Illinois) District in 1870-1873, and was president of the
National Democratic Convention in 1876. He died in Springfield,
Illinois, on the 20th of September 1900.

His son, EDWARD JOHN MCCLERNAND (b. 1848), graduated at the U.S.
Military Academy in 1870. He served on the frontier against the Indians,
notably in the capture of Chief Joseph in October 1877, became
lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general of volunteers in 1898,
and served in Cuba in 1898-99. He was then ordered to the Philippines,
where he commanded various districts, and from April 1900 to May 1901,
when he was mustered out of the volunteer service, was acting military
governor.



MACCLESFIELD, CHARLES GERARD, 1ST EARL OF (c. 1618-1694), eldest son
of Sir Charles Gerard, was a member of an old Lancashire family, his
great-grandfather having been Sir Gilbert Gerard (d. 1593) of Ince, in
that county, one of the most distinguished judges in the reign of
Elizabeth. His mother was Penelope Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire.
Charles Gerard was educated abroad, and in the Low Countries learnt
soldiering, in which he showed himself proficient when on the outbreak
of the Civil War in England he raised a troop of horse for the king's
service. Gerard commanded a brigade with distinction at Edgehill, and
gained further honours at the first battle of Newbury and at Newark in
1644, for which service he was appointed to the chief command in South
Wales. Here his operations in 1644 and 1645 were completely successful
in reducing the Parliamentarians to subjection; but the severity with
which he ravaged the country made him personally so unpopular that when,
after the defeat at Naseby in June 1645, the king endeavoured to raise
fresh forces in Wales, he was compelled to remove Gerard from the local
command. Gerard was, however, retained in command of the king's guard
during Charles's march from Wales to Oxford, and thence to Hereford and
Chester in August 1645; and having been severely wounded at Rowton Heath
on the 23rd of September, he reached Newark with Charles on the 4th of
October. On the 8th of November 1645 he was created Baron Gerard of
Brandon in the county of Suffolk; but about the same time he appears to
have forfeited Charles's favour by having attached himself to the party
of Prince Rupert, with whom after the surrender of Oxford Gerard
probably went abroad. He remained on the Continent throughout the whole
period of the Commonwealth, sometimes in personal attendance on Charles
II., at others serving in the wars under Turenne, and constantly engaged
in plots and intrigues. For one of these, an alleged design on the life
of Cromwell, his cousin Colonel John Gerard was executed in the Tower in
July 1654. At the Restoration Gerard rode at the head of the king's
life-guards in his triumphal entry into London; his forfeited estates
were restored, and he received lucrative offices and pensions. In 1668
he retired from the command of the king's guard to make room for the
duke of Monmouth, receiving, according to Pepys, the sum of £12,000 as
solatium. On the 23rd of July 1679 Gerard was created earl of
Macclesfield and Viscount Brandon. A few months later he entered into
relations with Monmouth, and co-operated with Shaftesbury in protesting
against the rejection of the Exclusion Bill. In September 1685, a
proclamation having been issued for his arrest, Macclesfield escaped
abroad, and was outlawed. He returned with William of Orange in 1688,
and commanded his body-guard in the march from Devonshire to London. By
William he was made a privy councillor, and lord lieutenant of Wales and
three western counties. Macclesfield died on the 7th of January 1694. By
his French wife he left two sons and two daughters.

His eldest son CHARLES, 2nd earl of Macclesfield (c. 1659-1701), was
born in France and was naturalized in England by act of parliament in
1677. Like his father he was concerned in the intrigues of the duke of
Monmouth; in 1685 he was sentenced to death for being a party to the Rye
House plot, but was pardoned by the king. In 1689 he was elected member
of parliament for Lancashire, which he represented till 1694, when he
succeeded to his father's peerage. Having become a major-general in the
same year, Macclesfield saw some service abroad; and in 1701 he was
selected first commissioner for the investiture of the elector of
Hanover (afterwards King George I.) with the order of the Garter, on
which occasion he also was charged to present a copy of the Act of
Settlement to the dowager electress Sophia. He died on the 5th of
November 1701, leaving no legitimate children.

In March 1698 Macclesfield was divorced from his wife Anna, daughter of
Sir Richard Mason of Sutton, by act of parliament, the first occasion on
which a divorce was so granted without a previous decree of an
ecclesiastical court. The countess was the mother of two children, who
were known by the name of Savage, and whose reputed father was Richard
Savage, 4th Earl Rivers (d. 1712). The poet Richard Savage (q.v.)
claimed that he was the younger of these children. The divorced countess
married Colonel Henry Brett about the year 1700, and died at the age of
eighty-five in 1753. Her daughter Anna Margaretta Brett was a mistress
of George I. The 2nd earl of Macclesfield was succeeded by his brother
Fitton Gerard, 3rd earl (c. 1665-1702), on whose death without heirs
the title became extinct in December 1702.

In 1721 the title of earl of Macclesfield was revived in favour of
THOMAS PARKER (c. 1666-1732). The son of Thomas Parker, an attorney at
Leek, young Parker was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, and
became a barrister in 1691. In 1705 he was elected member of parliament
for Derby, and having gained some reputation in his profession, he took
a leading part in the proceedings against Sacheverell in 1710. In the
same year he was appointed lord chief justice of the queen's bench, but
he refused to become lord chancellor in the following year; however he
accepted this office in 1718, two years after he had been made Baron
Parker of Macclesfield by George I., who held him in high esteem. In
1721 he was created Viscount Parker and earl of Macclesfield, but when
serious charges of corruption were brought against him he resigned his
position as lord chancellor in 1725. In the same year Macclesfield was
impeached, and although he made a very able defence he was found guilty
by the House of Lords. His sentence was a fine of £30,000 and
imprisonment until this was paid. He was confined in the Tower of London
for six weeks, and after his release he took no further part in public
affairs. The earl, who built a grammar school at Leek, died in London on
the 28th of April 1732.

Macclesfield's only son, GEORGE, (c. 1697-1764) 2nd earl of Macclesfield
of this line, was celebrated as an astronomer. As Viscount Parker he was
member of parliament for Wallingford from 1722 to 1727, but his
interests were not in politics. In 1722 he became a fellow of the Royal
Society, and he spent most of his time in astronomical observations at
his Oxfordshire seat, Shirburn Castle, which had been bought by his
father in 1716; here he built an observatory and a chemical laboratory.
The earl was very prominent in effecting the change from the old to the
new style of dates, which came into operation in 1752. His action in
this matter, however, was somewhat unpopular, as the opinion was fairly
general that he had robbed the people of eleven days. From 1752 until
his death on the 17th of March 1764 Macclesfield was president of the
Royal Society, and he made some observations on the great earthquake of
1755. His successor was his son Thomas (1723-1795), from whom the
present earl is descended.

  For the earls of the Gerard family see Lord Clarendon, _History of the
  Rebellion_, ed. by W. D. Macray; E. B. G. Warburton, _Memoirs of
  Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers_ (3 vols., 1849); _State Papers of
  John Thurloe_ (7 vols., 1742); J. R. Phillips, _Memoirs of the Civil
  War in Wales and the Marches, 1642-49_ (2 vols., 1874); and the duke
  of Manchester, _Court and Society from Elizabeth to Anne_ (2 vols.,
  1864). For Lord Chancellor Macclesfield, see Lord Campbell, _Lives of
  the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal_ (1845-1869).



MACCLESFIELD, a market town and municipal borough in the Macclesfield
parliamentary division of Cheshire, England, 166 m. N.W. by N. of
London, on the London & North-Western, North Staffordshire and Great
Central railways. Pop. (1901), 34,624. It lies on and above the small
river Bollin, the valley of which is flanked by high ground to east and
west, the eastern hills rising sharply to heights above 1000 ft. The
bleak upland country retains its ancient name of Macclesfield Forest.
The church of St Michael, standing high, was founded by Eleanor, queen
of Edward I., in 1278, and in 1740 was partly rebuilt and greatly
enlarged. The lofty steeple by which its massive tower was formerly
surmounted was battered down by the Parliamentary forces during the
Civil War. Connected with the Church there are two chapels, one of
which, Rivers Chapel, belonged to a college of secular priests founded
in 1501 by Thomas Savage, afterwards archbishop of York. Both the church
and chapels contain several ancient monuments. The free grammar school,
originally founded in 1502 by Sir John Percival, was refounded in 1552
by Edward VI., and a commercial school was erected in 1840 out of its
funds. The county lunatic asylum is situated here. The town-hall is a
handsome modern building with a Grecian frontage on two sides.
Originally the trade of Macclesfield was principally in twist and silk
buttons, but this has developed into the manufacture of all kinds of
silk. Besides this staple trade, there are various textile manufactures
and extensive breweries; while stone and slate quarries, as well as
coal-mines, are worked in the neighbourhood. Recreation grounds include
Victoria Park and Peel Park, in which are preserved the old market cross
and stocks. Water communication is provided by the Macclesfield canal.
The borough is under a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36 councillors. Area, 3214
acres. The populous suburb of SUTTON, extending S.S.E. of the town, is
partly included in the borough.

Previous to the Conquest, Macclesfield (Makesfeld, Mackerfeld,
Macclesfeld, Meulefeld, Maxfield) was held by Edwin, earl of Mercia, and
at the time of the Domesday Survey it formed a part of the lands of the
earl of Chester. The entry speaks of seven hedged enclosures, and there
is evidence of fortification in the 13th century, to which the names
Jordangate, Chestergate and Wallgate still bear witness. In the 15th
century Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, had a fortified manor-house
here, traces of which remain. There is a tradition, supported by a
reference on a plea roll, that Randle, earl of Chester (1181-1232) made
Macclesfield a free borough, but the earliest charter extant is that
granted by Edward, prince of Wales and earl of Chester, in 1261,
constituting Macclesfield a free borough with a merchant gild, and
according certain privileges in the royal forest of Macclesfield to the
burgesses. This charter was confirmed by Edward III. in 1334, by Richard
II. in 1389, by Edward IV. in 1466 and by Elizabeth in 1564. In 1595
Elizabeth issued a new charter to the town, confirmed by James I. in
1605 and Charles II. in 1666, laying down a formal borough constitution
under a mayor, 2 aldermen, 24 capital burgesses and a high steward. In
1684 Charles II. issued a new charter, under which the borough was
governed until the Municipal Reform Act 1835. The earliest mention of a
market is in a grant by James I. to Charles, prince of Wales and earl of
Chester, in 1617. In the charter of 1666 a market is included among the
privileges confirmed to the borough as those which had been granted in
1605, or by any previous kings and queens of England. The charter of
Elizabeth in 1595 granted an annual fair in June, and this was
supplemented by Charles II. in 1684 by a grant of fairs in April and
September. Except during the three winter months fairs are now held
monthly, the chief being "Barnaby" in June, when the town keeps a week's
holiday. Macclesfield borough sent two members to parliament in 1832 for
the first time. In 1880 it was disfranchised for bribery, and in 1885
the borough was merged in the county division of Macclesfield. The
manufacture of silk-covered buttons began in the 16th century, and
flourished until the early 18th. The first silk mill was erected about
1755, and silk manufacture on a large scale was introduced about 1790.
The manufacture of cotton began in Macclesfield about 1785.

  See J. Corry, _History of Macclesfield_ (1817).



M'CLINTOCK, SIR FRANCIS LEOPOLD (1819-1907), British naval officer and
Arctic explorer, was born at Dundalk, Ireland, on the 8th of July 1819,
of a family of Scottish origin. In 1831 he entered the royal navy,
joining the "Samarang" frigate, Captain Charles Paget. In 1843 he passed
his examination for lieutenancy and joined the "Gorgon" steamship,
Captain Charles Hotham, which was driven ashore at Montevideo and
salved, a feat of seamanship on the part of her captain and officers
which attracted much attention. Hitherto, and until 1847, M'Clintock's
service was almost wholly on the American coasts, but in 1848 he joined
the Arctic expedition under Sir James Ross in search of Sir John
Franklin's ships, as second lieutenant of the "Enterprise." In the
second search expedition (1850) he was first lieutenant of the
"Assistance," and in the third (1854) he commanded the "Intrepid." On
all these expeditions M'Clintock carried out brilliant sleigh journeys,
and gained recognition as one of the highest authorities on Arctic
travel. The direction which the search should follow had at last been
learnt from the Eskimo, and M'Clintock accepted the command of the
expedition on board the "Fox," fitted out by Lady Franklin in 1857,
which succeeded in its object in 1859 (see FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN). For this
expedition M'Clintock had obtained leave of absence, but the time
occupied was afterwards counted in his service. He was knighted and
received many other honours on his return. Active service now occupied
him in various tasks, including the important one of sounding in the
north Atlantic, in connexion with a scheme for a north Atlantic cable
route, until 1868. In that year he became naval aide-de-camp to Queen
Victoria. In 1865 he had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He
unsuccessfully contested a seat in parliament for the borough of
Drogheda, where he made the acquaintance of Annette Elizabeth, daughter
of R. F. Dunlop of Monasterboice; he married her in 1870. He became
vice-admiral in 1877, and commander-in-chief on the West Indian and
North American station in 1879. In 1882 he was elected an Elder Brother
of Trinity House, and served actively in that capacity. In 1891 he was
created K.C.B. He was one of the principal advisers in the preparations
for the Antarctic voyage of the "Discovery" under Captain Scott. His
book, _The Voyage of the "Fox" in the Arctic Seas_, was first published
in 1859, and passed through several editions. He died on the 17th of
November 1907.

  See Sir C. R. Markham, _Life of Admiral Sir Leopold M'Clintock_
  (1909).



McCLINTOCK, JOHN (1814-1870), American Methodist Episcopal theologian
and educationalist, was born in Philadelphia on the 27th of October
1814. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 1835, and was
assistant professor of mathematics (1836-1837), professor of mathematics
(1837-1840), and professor of Latin and Greek (1840-1848) in Dickinson
College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He opposed the Mexican War and slavery,
and in 1847 was arrested on the charge of instigating a riot, which
resulted in the rescue of several fugitive slaves; his trial, in which
he was acquitted, attracted wide attention. In 1848-1856 he edited _The
Methodist Quarterly Review_ (after 1885 _The Methodist Review_); from
1857 to 1860 he was pastor of St Paul's (Methodist Episcopal) Church,
New York City; and in 1860-1864 he had charge of the American chapel in
Paris, and there and in London did much to turn public opinion in favour
of the Northern States. In 1865-1866 he was chairman of the central
committee for the celebration of the centenary of American Methodism. He
retired from the regular ministry in 1865, but preached in New
Brunswick, New Jersey, until the spring of 1867, and in that year, at
the wish of its founder, Daniel Drew, became president of the newly
established Drew theological seminary at Madison, New Jersey, where he
died on the 4th of March 1870. A great preacher, orator and teacher, and
a remarkably versatile scholar, McClintock by his editorial and
educational work probably did more than any other man to raise the
intellectual tone of American Methodism, and, particularly, of the
American Methodist clergy. He introduced to his denomination the
scholarly methods of the new German theology of the day--not alone by
his translation with Charles E. Blumenthal of Neander's _Life of Christ_
(1847), and of Bungener's _History of the Council of Trent_ (1855), but
by his great project, McClintock and Strong's _Cyclopaedia of Biblical,
Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature_ (10 vols., 1867-1881;
Supplement, 2 vols., 1885-1887), in the editing of which he was
associated with Dr James Strong (1822-1894), professor of exegetical
theology in the Drew Theological Seminary from 1868 to 1893, and the
sole editor of the last six volumes of the _Cyclopaedia_ and of the
supplement. With George Richard Crooks (1822-1897), his colleague at
Dickinson College and in 1880-1897 professor of historical theology at
Drew Seminary, McClintock edited several elementary textbooks in Latin
and Greek (of which some were republished in Spanish), based on the
pedagogical principle of "imitation and constant repetition." Among
McClintock's other publications are: _Sketches of Eminent Methodist
Ministers_ (1863); an edition of Richard Watson's _Theological
Institutes_ (1851); and _The Life and Letters of Rev. Stephen Olin_
(1854).

  See G. R. Crooks, _Life and Letters of the Rev. Dr John McClintock_
  (New York, 1876).



McCLOSKEY, JOHN (1810-1885), American cardinal, was born in Brooklyn,
New York, on the 20th of March 1810. He graduated at Mt St Mary's
College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, in 1827, studied theology there, was
ordained a priest in 1834, and in 1837, after two years in the college
of the Propaganda at Rome, became rector of St Joseph's, New York City,
a charge to which he returned in 1842 after one year's presidency of St
John's College (afterwards Fordham University), Fordham, New York, then
just opened. In 1844 he was consecrated bishop of Axieren _in partibus_,
and was made coadjutor to Bishop Hughes of New York with the right of
succession; in 1847 he became bishop of the newly created see of Albany;
and in 1864 he succeeded to the archdiocese of New York, then including
New York, New Jersey, and New England. In April 1875 he was invested as
a cardinal, with the title of Sancta Maria supra Minervam, being the
first American citizen to receive this dignity. He attended the conclave
of 1878, but was too late to vote for the new pope. In May 1879 he
dedicated St Patrick's Cathedral in New York City, whose corner-stone
had been laid by Archbishop Hughes in 1858. Archbishop Corrigan became
his coadjutor in 1880 because of the failure of McCloskey's always
delicate health. The fiftieth anniversary of his ordination to the
priesthood was celebrated in 1884. He died in New York City on the 10th
of October 1885. He was a scholar, a preacher, and a man of affairs,
temperamentally quiet and dignified; and his administration differed
radically from that of Archbishop Hughes; he was conciliatory rather
than polemic and controversial, and not only built up the Roman Catholic
Church materially, but greatly changed the tone of public opinion in his
diocese toward the Church.



M'CLURE, SIR ROBERT JOHN LE MESURIER (1807-1873), English Arctic
explorer, born at Wexford, in Ireland, on the 28th of January 1807, was
the posthumous son of one of Abercrombie's captains and spent his
childhood under the care of his godfather, General Le Mesurier, governor
of Alderney, by whom he was educated for the army. He entered the navy,
however, in 1824, and twelve years later gained his first experience of
Arctic exploration as mate of the "Terror" in the expedition (1836-1837)
commanded by Captain (afterwards Sir) George Back. On his return he
obtained his commission as lieutenant, and from 1838 to 1839 served on
the Canadian lakes, being subsequently attached to the North American
and West Indian naval stations, where he remained till 1846. Two years
later he joined the Franklin search expedition (1848-1849) under Sir J.
C. Ross as first lieutenant of the "Enterprise," and on the return of
this expedition was given the command of the "Investigator" in the new
search expedition (1850-1854) which was sent out by way of Bering Strait
to co-operate with another from the north-west. In the course of this
voyage he achieved the distinction of completing (1830) the work
connected with the discovery of a North-West Passage (see Polar
Regions). On his return to England, M'Clure was awarded gold medals by
the English and French geographical societies, was knighted and promoted
to post-rank, his commission being dated back four years in recognition
of his special services. From 1856 to 1861 he served in Eastern waters,
commanding the division of the naval brigade before Canton in 1858, for
which he received a C.B. in the following year. His latter years were
spent in a quiet country life; he attained the rank of rear-admiral in
1867, and of vice-admiral in 1873.

  See Admiral Sherard Osborn, _The Discovery of a North-West Passage_
  (1856).



MacCOLL, MALCOLM (c. 1838-1907), British clergyman and publicist, was
the son of a Scottish farmer. He was educated at Trinity College,
Glenalmond, for the Scotch Episcopal ministry, and after further study
at the university of Naples was ordained in 1859, and entered on a
succession of curacies in the Church of England, in London and at
Addington, Bucks. He quickly became known as a political and
ecclesiastical controversialist, wielding an active pen in support of W.
E. Gladstone, who rewarded him with the living of St George's, Botolph
Lane, in 1871, and with a canonry of Ripon in 1884. The living was
practically a sinecure, and he devoted himself to political
pamphleteering and newspaper correspondence, the result of extensive
European travel, a wide acquaintance with the leading personages of the
day, strong views on ecclesiastical subjects from a high-church
standpoint, and particularly on the politics of the Eastern Question and
Mahommedanism. He took a leading part in ventilating the Bulgarian and
Armenian "atrocities," and his combative personality was constantly to
the fore in support of the campaigns of Gladstonian Liberalism. He died
in London on the 5th of April 1907.



McCOMBIE, WILLIAM (1805-1880), Scottish agriculturist, was born at
Tillyfour, Aberdeenshire, where he founded the herd of black-polled
cattle with which his name is associated. He was the first tenant farmer
to represent a Scottish constituency, and was returned to parliament,
unopposed, as Liberal member for the western division of Aberdeen in
1868. He died unmarried in February 1880. His work _Cattle and
Cattle-breeders_ (1867) passed into a fourth edition in 1886.



McCOOK, ALEXANDER McDOWELL (1831-1903), American soldier, was born in
Columbiana county, Ohio, on the 22nd of April 1831. He graduated at the
U. S. military academy in 1852, served against the Apaches and Utes in
New Mexico in 1853-57, was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at
the military academy in 1858-1861, and in April 1861 became colonel of
the 1st Ohio Volunteers. He served in the first battle of Bull Run;
commanded a brigade in Kentucky in the winter of 1861, a division in
Tennessee and Mississippi early in 1862, and the 1st Corps in Kentucky
in October of the same year; was in command of Nashville in November and
December of that year; and was then engaged in Tennessee until after the
battle of Chickamauga, after which he saw no active service at the front
during the Civil War. He was promoted to be brigadier-general of
volunteers in September 1861, and to be major-general of volunteers in
July 1862, earned the brevet of lieutenant-colonel in the regular army
at the capture of Nashville, Tennessee, that of colonel at Shiloh, and
that of brigadier-general at Perryville, and in March 1865 was breveted
major-general for his services during the war. In February-May 1865 he
commanded the district of Eastern Arkansas. He resigned from the
volunteer service in October 1865, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel
of the 26th Infantry in March 1867, served in Texas, mostly in garrison
duty, until 1874, and in 1886-1890 (except for brief terms of absence)
commanded Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the infantry and cavalry school
there. He became a brigadier-general in 1890, and a major-general in
1894; retired in 1895; and in 1898-1899 served on a commission to
investigate the United States department of war as administered during
the war with Spain.

His father, DANIEL MCCOOK (1798-1863), killed at Buffington's Island
during General John H. Morgan's raid in Ohio, and seven of his eight
brothers (three of whom were killed in battle) all served in the Civil
War; this family and that of John McCook (1806-1865), Daniel's brother,
a physician, who served as a volunteer surgeon in the Civil War, are
known as the "fighting McCooks"--four of John's sons served in the Union
army and one in the Union navy.

JOHN JAMES MCCOOK (b. 1845), the youngest brother of Alexander McDowell
McCook, served in the West and afterwards in the army of the Potomac,
was wounded at Shady Grove, Virginia, in 1864, and in 1865 was breveted
lieutenant-colonel of volunteers; he graduated at Kenyon College in
1866, subsequently practised law in New York City, where he became head
of the firm Alexander & Green; was a prominent member of the
Presbyterian Church, and was a member of the prosecuting committee in
the Briggs heresy trial in 1892-1893.

His cousin, ANSON GEORGE MCCOOK (b. 1835), a son of John, was admitted
to the Ohio bar in 1861, served throughout the Civil War in the Union
Army, and was breveted brigadier-general of volunteers; he was a
Republican representative in Congress from New York in 1877-1883; and in
1884-1893 was secretary of the United States Senate.

Another son of John McCook, EDWARD MOODY MCCOOK (1833-1909), was an
efficient cavalry officer in the Union army, was breveted
brigadier-general in the regular army and major-general of volunteers in
1865, was United States minister to Hawaii in 1866-1869, and was
governor of Colorado Territory in 1869-1873, and in 1874-1875.

His brother, HENRY CHRISTOPHER MCCOOK (b. 1837), was first lieutenant
and afterwards chaplain of the 41st Illinois, was long pastor of the
Tabernacle Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, and was president of the
American Presbyterian Historical Society, but is best known for his
popular and excellent works on entomology, which include: _The
Mound-making Ants of the Alleghanies_ (1877); _The Natural History of
the Agricultural Ants of Texas_ (1879); _Tenants of an Old Farm_ (1884);
_American Spiders and their Spinning-work_ (3 vols., 1889-1893),
_Nature's Craftsmen_ (1907) and _Ant Communities_ (1909).

Another brother, JOHN JAMES MCCOOK (b. 1843), a cousin of the lawyer of
the same name, was a 2nd lieutenant of volunteers in the Union army in
1861; graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, in 1863, and
at the Berkeley divinity school in 1866; entered the Protestant
Episcopal ministry in 1867, and in 1869 became rector of St John's, East
Hartford, Connecticut; became professor of modern languages in Trinity
College, Hartford, in 1883; in 1895-1897 was president of the board of
directors of the Connecticut reformatory; and wrote on prison reform and
kindred topics.



MacCORMAC, SIR WILLIAM, BART. (1836-1901), Irish surgeon, was born at
Belfast on the 17th of January 1836, being the son of Dr Henry
MacCormac. He studied medicine and surgery at Belfast, Dublin and Paris,
and graduated in arts, medicine and surgery at the Queen's University of
Ireland, in which he afterwards became an examiner in surgery. He began
practice in Belfast, where he became surgeon to the General Hospital,
but left it for London on his marriage in 1861 to Miss Katherine M.
Charters. In the Franco-German War of 1870 he was surgeon-in-chief to
the Anglo-American Ambulance, and was present at Sedan; and he also
went through the Turco-Servian War of 1876. He became in this way an
authority on gun-shot wounds, and besides being highly successful as a
surgeon was very popular in society, his magnificent physique and Irish
temperament making him a notable and attractive personality. In 1881 he
was appointed assistant-surgeon at St Thomas's Hospital, London, and for
twenty years continued his work there as surgeon, lecturer and
consulting surgeon. In 1881 he acted as honorary secretary-general of
the International Medical Congress in London, and was knighted for his
services. In 1883 he was elected member of the council of the College of
Surgeons, and in 1887 a member of the court of examiners; in 1893 he
delivered the Bradshaw lecture, and in 1896 was elected president, being
re-elected to this office in 1897, 1898, 1899, and 1900 (the centenary
year of the college), an unprecedented record. In 1897 he was created a
baronet, and appointed surgeon-in-ordinary to the prince of Wales. In
1899 he was Hunterian Orator. In the same year he volunteered to go out
to South Africa as consulting surgeon to the forces, and from November
1899 to April 1900 he saw much active service both in Cape Colony and
Natal, his assistance being cordially acknowledged on his return. In
1901 he was appointed honorary serjeant-surgeon to the king. But during
1898 he had suffered from a prolonged illness, and he had perhaps put
too much strain on his strength, for on the 4th of December 1901 he died
somewhat suddenly at Bath. Besides treatises on _Surgical Operations_
and _Antiseptic Surgery_, and numerous contributions to the medical
journals, MacCormac was the author of _Work under the Red Cross_ and of
an interesting volume commemorating the centenary of the Royal College
of Surgeons in 1900. The latter contains biographical notices of all the
masters and presidents up to that date.



McCORMICK, CYRUS HALL (1809-1884), American inventor of grain-harvesting
machinery, was born at Walnut Grove, in what is now Roane county, W.
Va., U.S.A., on the 15th of February 1809. His father was a farmer who
had invented numerous labour-saving devices for farmwork, but after
repeated efforts had failed in his attempts to construct a successful
grain-cutting machine. In 1831, Cyrus, then twenty-two years old, took
up the problem, and after careful study constructed a machine which was
successfully employed in the late harvest of 1831 and patented in 1834.
The McCormick reaper after further improvements proved a complete
success; and in 1847 the inventor removed to Chicago, where he
established large works for manufacturing his agricultural machines.
William H. Seward has said of McCormick's invention, that owing to it
"the line of civilization moves westward thirty miles each year."
Numerous prizes and medals were awarded for his reaper, and he was
elected a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, "as
having done more for the cause of agriculture than any other living
man." He died in Chicago on the 13th of May 1884.

  See Herbert N. Casson, _Cyrus Hall McCormick: his Life and Work_
  (Chicago, 1909).



McCOSH, JAMES (1811-1894), Scottish philosophical writer, was born of a
Covenanting family in Ayrshire, on the 1st of April 1811. He studied at
Glasgow and Edinburgh, receiving at the latter university his M.A., at
the suggestion of Sir William Hamilton, for an essay on the Stoic
philosophy. He became a minister of the Established Church of Scotland,
first at Arbroath and then at Brechin, and took part in the Free Church
movement of 1843. In 1852 he was appointed professor of logic and
metaphysics in Queen's College, Belfast; and in 1868 was chosen
president and professor of philosophy of the college of New Jersey, at
Princeton. He resigned the presidency in 1888, but continued as lecturer
on philosophy till his death on the 16th of November 1894. He was most
successful in college administration, a good lecturer and an effective
preacher. His general philosophical attitude and method were
Hamiltonian; he insisted on severing religious and philosophical data
from merely physical, and though he added little to original thought, he
clearly restated and vigorously used the conclusions of others. In his
controversial writings he often failed to understand the real
significance of the views which he attacked, and much of his criticism
is superficial.

  His chief works are: _Method of Divine Government, Physical and Moral_
  (Edinburgh, 1850, 5th ed., 1856, and frequently republished in New
  York); _The Typical Forms and Special Ends in Creation_ (Edinburgh,
  1855; new editions, New York, 1867-1880); _Intuitions of the Mind
  inductively investigated_ (London and New York, 1860; 3rd rev. ed.,
  1872); _An Examination of Mr J. S. Mill's Philosophy_ (London and New
  York, 1866; enlarged 1871, several eds.); _Philosophical Papers_
  containing (1) "Examination of Sir W. Hamilton's Logic," (2) "Reply to
  Mr Mill's third edition," and (3) "Present State of Moral Philosophy
  in Britain;" _Religious Aspects of Evolution_ (New York, 1888, 2nd
  ed., 1890). For a complete list of his writings see J. H. Dulles,
  _McCosh Bibliography_ (Princeton, 1895).



McCOY, SIR FREDERICK (1823-1899), British palaeontologist, the son of Dr
Simon McCoy, was born in Dublin in 1823, and was educated in that city
for the medical profession. His interests, however, became early centred
in natural history, and especially in geology, and at the age of
eighteen he published a _Catalogue of Organic Remains_ compiled from
specimens exhibited in the Rotunda at Dublin (1841). He assisted Sir R.
J. Griffith (q.v.) by studying the fossils of the carboniferous and
silurian rocks of Ireland, and they prepared a joint _Synopsis of the
Silurian Fossils of Ireland_ (1846). In 1846 Sedgwick secured his
services, and for at least four years he devoted himself to the
determination and arrangement of the fossils in the Woodwardian Museum
at Cambridge. Sedgwick wrote of him as "an excellent naturalist, an
incomparable and most philosophical palaeontologist, and one of the
steadiest and quickest workmen that ever undertook the arrangement of a
museum" (_Life and Letters of Sedgwick_, ii. 194). Together they
prepared the important and now classic work entitled _A Synopsis of the
Classification of the British Palaeozoic Rocks, with a Systematic
Description of the British Palaeozoic Fossils in the Geological Museum
of the University of Cambridge_ (1855). Meanwhile McCoy in 1850 had been
appointed professor of geology in Queen's College, Belfast, and in 1854
he accepted the newly founded professorship of natural science in the
university of Melbourne. There he lectured for upwards of thirty years;
he established the National Museum of Natural History and Geology in
Melbourne, of which he was director; and becoming associated with the
geological survey of Victoria as palaeontologist, he issued a series of
decades entitled _Prodromus of the Palaeontology of Victoria_. He also
issued the _Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria_. To local societies he
contributed many papers, and he continued his active scientific work for
fifty-eight years--his last contribution, "Note on a new Australian
Pterygotus," being printed in the _Geological Magazine_ for May 1899. He
was elected F.R.S. in 1880, and was one of the first to receive the Hon.
D.Sc. from the university of Cambridge. In 1886 he was made C.M.G., and
in 1891 K.C.M.G. He died in Melbourne on the 16th of May 1899.

  Obituary (with bibliography) in _Geol. Mag._ 1899, p. 283.



M'CRIE, THOMAS (1772-1835), Scottish historian and divine, was born at
Duns in Berwickshire in November 1772. He studied in Edinburgh
University, and in 1796 he was ordained minister of the Second Associate
Congregation, Edinburgh. In 1806, however, with some others M'Crie
seceded from the "general associate synod," and formed the
"constitutional associate presbytery," afterwards merged in the
"original seceders." He was consequently deposed by the associate synod,
and his congregation withdrew with him and built another place of
worship in which he officiated until his death. M'Crie devoted himself
to investigations into the history, constitution and polity of the
churches of the Reformation; and the first-fruits of his study were
given to the public in November 1811 as _The Life of John Knox,
containing Illustrations of the History of the Reformation in Scotland_,
which procured for the author the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh
University, an honour conferred then for the first time upon a Scottish
dissenting minister. This work, of great learning and value, exercised
an important influence on public opinion at the time. At the
solicitation of his friend Andrew Thomson, M'Crie became a contributor
to _The Edinburgh Christian Instructor_, and in 1817 he subjected some
of Sir W. Scott's works to a criticism which took the form of a
vindication of the Covenanters. Preserving the continuity of his
historical studies, he followed up his first work with _The Life of
Andrew Melville_ (1819). In 1827 he published a _History of the Progress
and Suppression of the Reformation in Italy_, and in 1829 a _History of
the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation in Spain_.

His latest literary undertaking was a life of John Calvin. Only three
chapters were completed when the writer died on the 5th of August 1835,
leaving four sons and one daughter.

  See Thomas M'Crie (1797-1875), _Life of T. M'Crie_ (1840), and Hugh
  Miller, _My Schools and Schoolmasters_ (1869).



MACCULLAGH, JAMES (1809-1847), Irish mathematician and physicist, was
born in 1809, near Strabane, Ireland. After a brilliant career at
Trinity College, Dublin, he was elected fellow in 1832. From 1832 to
1843 he held the chair of mathematics; and during his tenure of this
post he improved in a most marked manner the position of his university
as a mathematical centre. In 1843 he was transferred to the chair of
natural philosophy. Overwork, mainly on subjects beyond the natural
range of his powers, induced mental disease; and he died by his own hand
in October 1847.

  His _Works_ were published in 1880. Their distinguishing feature is
  the geometry--which has rarely been applied either to pure space
  problems or to known physical questions such as the rotation of a
  rigid solid or the properties of Fresnel's wave-surface with such
  singular elegance; in this respect his work takes rank with that of
  Louis Poinsot. One specially remarkable geometrical discovery of
  MacCullagh's is that of the "modular generation of surfaces of the
  second degree"; and a noteworthy contribution to physical optics is
  his "theorem of the polar plane." But his methods, which, in less
  known subjects, were almost entirely tentative, were altogether
  inadequate to the solution of the more profound physical problems to
  which his attention was mainly devoted, such as the theory of double
  refraction, &c. See G. G. Stokes's "Report on Double Refraction" (_B.
  A. Report_, 1862).



MACCULLOCH, HORATIO (1805-1867), Scottish landscape painter, was born in
Glasgow. He studied for a year under John Knox, a Glasgow landscapist of
some repute, was then engaged at Cumnock, painting the ornamental lids
of snuff-boxes, and afterwards employed in Edinburgh by Lizars, the
engraver, to colour the illustrations in Selby's _British Birds_ and
similar works. Meanwhile he was working unweariedly from nature, greatly
influenced in his early practice by the watercolours of H. W. Williams.
Returning to Glasgow in some four or five years, he was employed on
several large pictures for the decoration of a public hall in St
George's Place, and he did a little as a theatrical scene-painter. About
this time he was greatly impressed with a picture by Thomson of
Duddingston. Gradually MacCulloch asserted his individuality, and formed
his own style on a close study of nature; his works form an interesting
link between the old world of Scottish landscape and the new. In 1829
MacCulloch first figured in the Royal Scottish Academy's exhibition, and
year by year, till his death on the 24th of June 1867, he was a regular
exhibitor. In 1838 he was elected a member of the Scottish Academy. The
subjects of his numerous landscapes were taken almost exclusively from
Scottish scenery.

  Several works by MacCulloch were engraved by William Miller and
  William Forrest, and a volume of photographs from his landscapes, with
  an excellent biographical notice of the artist by Alexander Fraser,
  R.S.A., was published in Edinburgh in 1872.



McCULLOCH, HUGH (1808-1895), American financier, was born at Kennebunk,
Maine, on the 7th of December 1808. He was educated at Bowdoin College,
studied law in Boston, and in 1833 began practice at Fort Wayne,
Indiana. He was cashier and manager of the Fort Wayne branch of the old
state bank of Indiana from 1835 to 1857, and president of the new state
bank from 1857 to 1863. Notwithstanding his opposition to the National
Banking Act of 1862, he was selected by Secretary Chase as comptroller
of the currency in 1863 to put the new system into operation. His work
was so successful that he was appointed secretary of the treasury by
President Lincoln in 1865, and was continued in office by President
Johnson until the close of his administration in 1869. In his first
annual report, issued on the 4th of December 1865, he strongly urged the
retirement of the legal tenders or greenbacks as a preliminary to the
resumption of specie payments. In accordance with this suggestion an act
was passed, on the 12th of March 1866, authorizing the retirement of not
more than $10,000,000 in six months and not more than $4,000,000 per
month thereafter, but it met with strong opposition and was repealed on
the 4th of February 1868, after only $48,000,000 had been retired. He
was much disappointed by the decision of the United States Supreme Court
upholding the constitutionality of the legal tenders (12 Wallace 457).
Soon after the close of his term of office McCulloch went to England,
and spent six years (1870-1876) as a member of the banking firm of Jay
Cooke, McCulloch & Co. From October 1884 until the close of President
Arthur's term of office in March 1885 he was again secretary of the
treasury. He died at his home near Washington, D.C., on the 24th of May
1895.

  The chief authority for the life of McCulloch is his own book, _Men
  and Measures of Half a Century_ (New York, 1888).



M'CULLOCH, SIR JAMES (1819-1893), Australian statesman, was born in
Glasgow. He entered the house of Dennistoun Brothers, became a partner,
and went to Melbourne to open a branch. In 1854, shortly after his
arrival in Victoria, he was appointed a nominee member of the
Legislative Council, and in the first Legislative Assembly under the new
constitution was returned for the electorate of the Wimmera. In 1857 he
was appointed minister of trade and customs in the second ministry of
Haines, which lasted till 1858, and subsequently he became treasurer in
the Nicholson administration, which held office from October 1859 to
November 1860. In June 1862 the third O'Shanassy ministry was defeated
by a combination between a section of its supporters led by M'Culloch
and the opposition proper under Heales, and M'Culloch became premier and
chief secretary. Hitherto he had been regarded as a supporter of the
landed, squatting and importing interests, but the coalition ministry
introduced a number of measures which at the time were regarded by the
propertied classes in the colony as revolutionary. In addition to
passing a Land Bill, which extended the principle of free selection and
deferred payments, the ministry announced their intention of reducing
the duties on the export of gold and the import duties upon tea and
sugar, and of supplying the deficiency by the imposition of duties
ranging from 5 to 10% upon a number of articles which entered into
competition with the local industries, thus introducing protection. The
mercantile community took alarm at the proposal, and at the general
election of 1864 the ministerial policy was warmly opposed. But a
majority was returned in its favour, and a new tariff was carried
through the popular branch of the legislature. There was no probability
of its being assented to by the Council, which, under the constitution,
had the power of rejecting, although it could not amend, any money Bill.
The government therefore decided upon tacking the tariff to the
Appropriation Bill, and compelling the Council either to agree to the
new fiscal proposals or to refuse to pay the public creditors and the
civil servants. The Council accepted the challenge, and rejected the
Appropriation Bill. But M'Culloch and his colleagues would not give way.
They continued to collect the new duties under the authority of the
Assembly, and took advantage of a clause in the Audit Act which directed
the governor to sign the necessary warrants for the payment of any sum
awarded by verdicts in the supreme court in favour of persons who had
sued the government. M'Culloch borrowed £40,000 from the London
Chartered Bank, of which he was a director, to meet pressing payments,
and the bank at his instigation sued the government for the amount of
the advance. The attorney-general at once accepted judgment, and the
governor, who had placed himself unreservedly in the hands of his
ministers, signed the necessary warrant, and the Treasury repaid to the
bank the amount of its advance, plus interest and costs. In the next
session the tariff was again sent up to the Council, which promptly
rejected it, whereupon the ministry dissolved the assembly and appealed
to the country. The result of the general election was to increase
M'Culloch's majority, and the tariff was again sent to the Council, only
to be again rejected. M'Culloch resigned, but no member of the
opposition was willing to form a ministry, and he resumed office.
Eventually a conference between the two houses was held, and the Council
passed the tariff, after a few modifications in it had been agreed to by
the Assembly. Just at the moment that peace was restored, the governor,
Sir Charles Darling, was recalled by the home government, on the ground
that he had displayed partisanship by assisting M'Culloch's government
and their majority in the Assembly to coerce the Council. In order to
show their gratitude to the dismissed governor, the Assembly decided to
grant a sum of £20,000 to Lady Darling. The home government intimated
that Sir Charles Darling must retire from the Colonial service if this
gift were accepted by his wife, but M'Culloch included the money in the
annual Appropriation Bill, with the result that it was rejected by the
Council. The new governor, Viscount Canterbury, was less complaisant
than his predecessor, but after an unsuccessful attempt to obtain other
advisers, he agreed to recommend the Council to pass the Appropriation
Bill with the £20,000 grant included. The Upper House declined to adopt
this course, and again rejected the Bill. A long and bitter struggle
between the two Chambers ended in another general election in 1868,
which still further increased the ministerial majority; but Lord
Canterbury, in obedience to instructions from the colonial office,
declined to do anything to facilitate the passage of the Darling grant.
M'Culloch resigned, and after protracted negotiations Sir Charles Sladen
formed from the minority in the Assembly a ministry which only lasted
two months. The deadlock seemed likely to become more stringent than
ever, when a communication was received from Sir Charles Darling, that
neither he nor his wife could receive anything like a donation from the
people of Victoria. The attempt to pass the grant was therefore
abandoned, and in July 1868 M'Culloch resumed office with different
colleagues, but resigned in the following year, when he was knighted. He
formed a third ministry in 1870. During this third administration he
passed a measure through both Houses which secured a life annuity of
£1000 per annum to Lady Darling. Additional taxation being necessary,
Sir James M'Culloch was urged by his protectionist supporters to
increase the import duties, but he refused, and proposed to provide for
the deficit by levying a tax upon town, suburban and country property.
This proposal was defeated in the Assembly; Sir James resigned in June
1871, and was appointed agent-general for Victoria in London. He held
that appointment till 1873, was created K.C.M.G. in 1874, returned to
the colony the same year, and in 1875 formed his fourth and last
ministry, which kept power till May 1877, when his party was defeated at
the general election. During his eighteen months of office he had to
encounter a persistent opposition from Berry and his followers, who
systematically obstructed the business of the Assembly, on the ground
that the acting-governor, Sir William Stawell, had improperly refused a
dissolution. Sir James M'Culloch, to counteract this obstruction,
invented the closure, which was afterwards introduced with some
modifications into the house of commons. After his defeat in 1877 Sir
James retired from public life and returned to England, where he died on
the 30th of January 1893 at Ewell, Surrey. He was twice married--first,
in 1841, to Susan, daughter of the Rev. James Renwick, of Muirton,
Scotland; secondly, in 1867, to Margaret, daughter of William Inglis, of
Walflat, Dumbartonshire. He left the house of Dennistoun Brothers in
1862, and founded a new firm at Melbourne in conjunction with Leishman,
Inglis & Co. of London, under the title of M'Culloch, Sellars & Co. He
held several important commercial positions, and was president of the
Melbourne Chamber of Commerce.     (G. C. L.)



MACCULLOCH, JOHN (1773-1835), Scottish geologist, descended from the
Maccullochs of Nether Ardwell in Galloway, was born in Guernsey, on the
6th of October 1773, his mother being a native of that island. Having
displayed remarkable powers as a boy, he was sent to study medicine in
the university of Edinburgh, where he qualified as M.D. in 1793, and
then entered the army as assistant surgeon. Attaching himself to the
artillery, he became chemist to the board of ordnance (1803). He still
continued, however, to practise for a time as a physician, and during
the years 1807-1811 he resided at Blackheath. In 1811 he communicated
his first papers to the Geological Society. They were devoted to an
elucidation of the geological structure of Guernsey, of the Channel
Islands, and of Heligoland. The evidence they afforded of his capacity,
and the fact that he already had received a scientific appointment,
probably led to his being selected in the same year to make some
geological and mineralogical investigations in Scotland. He was asked to
report upon stones adapted for use in powder-mills, upon the suitability
of the chief Scottish mountains for a repetition of the pendulum
experiments previously conducted by Maskelyne and Playfair at
Schiehallion, and on the deviations of the plumb-line along the meridian
of the Trigonometrical Survey. In the course of the explorations
necessary for the purposes of these reports he made extensive
observations on the geology and mineralogy of Scotland. He formed also a
collection of the mineral productions and rocks of that country, which
he presented to the Geological Society in 1814. In that year he was
appointed geologist to the Trigonometrical Survey; and in 1816-1817 he
was president of the Geological Society. Comparatively little had been
done in the investigation of Scottish geology, and finding the field so
full of promise, he devoted himself to its cultivation with great
ardour. One of his most important labours was the examination of the
whole range of islands along the west of Scotland, at that time not
easily visited, and presenting many obstacles to a scientific explorer.
The results of this survey appeared (1819) in the form of his
_Description of the Western Islands of Scotland, including the Isle of
Man_ (2 vols. 8vo, with an atlas of plates in 4to), which forms one of
the classical treatises on British geology. He was elected F.R.S. in
1820. He continued to write papers, chiefly on the rocks and minerals of
Scotland, and had at last gathered so large an amount of information
that the government was prevailed upon in the year 1826 to employ him in
the preparation of a geological map of Scotland. From that date up to
the time of his death he returned each summer to Scotland and traversed
every district of the kingdom, inserting the geological features upon
Arrowsmith's map, the only one then available for his purpose. He
completed the field-work in 1832, and in 1834 his map and memoir were
ready for publication, but these were not issued until 1836, the year
after he died. Among his other works the following may be mentioned: _A
Geological Classification of Rocks with Descriptive Synopses of the
Species and Varieties, comprising the Elements of Practical Geology_
(1821); _The Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland_, in a series of
letters to Sir Walter Scott (4 vols. 1824); _A System of Geology, with a
Theory of the Earth and an Examination of its Connexion with the Sacred
Records_ (2 vols. 1831). During a visit to Cornwall he was killed by
being dragged along in the wheel of his carriage, on the 21st of August
1835.

  In penning an obituary notice, C. Lyell in 1836 (_Proc. Geol. Soc._
  ii. 357) acknowledged "with gratitude" that he had "received more
  instruction from Macculloch's labours in geology than from those of
  any living writer."



M'CULLOCH, JOHN RAMSAY (1789-1864), British economist and statistician,
was born on the 1st of March 1789 at Whithorn in Wigtownshire. His
family belonged to the class of "statesmen," or small landed
proprietors. He was for some time employed at Edinburgh as a clerk in
the office of a writer to the signet. But, the _Scotsman_ newspaper
having been established at the beginning of 1817, M'Culloch sent a
contribution to the fourth number, the merit of which was at once
recognized; he soon became connected with the management of the paper,
and during 1818 and 1819 acted as editor. Most of his articles related
to questions of political economy, and he delivered lectures in
Edinburgh on that science. He now also began to write on subjects of the
same class in the _Edinburgh Review_, his first contribution being an
article on Ricardo's _Principles of Political Economy_ in 1818. Within
the next few years he gave both public lectures and private instruction
in London on political economy. In 1823 he was chosen to fill the
lectureship established by subscription in honour of the memory of
Ricardo. A movement was set on foot in 1825 by Jeffrey and others to
induce the government to found in the university of Edinburgh a chair of
political economy, separate from that of moral philosophy, the intention
being to obtain the appointment for M'Culloch. This project fell to the
ground; but in 1828 he was made professor of political economy in London
University. He then fixed his residence permanently in London, where he
continued his literary work, being now one of the regular writers in the
_Edinburgh Review_. In 1838 he was appointed comptroller of the
stationery office; the duties of this position, which he held till his
death, he discharged with conscientious fidelity, and introduced
important reforms in the management of the department. Sir Robert Peel,
in recognition of the services he had rendered to political science,
conferred on him a literary pension of £200 per annum. He was elected a
foreign associate of the Institute of France (_Académie des sciences
morales et politiques_). He died in London, after a short illness, on
the 11th of November 1864, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. To his
personal character and social qualities very favourable testimony was
borne by those who knew him best. In general politics he always remained
a Whig pure and simple; though he was in intimate relations with James
Mill and his circle, he never shared the Radical opinions of that group.

  M'Culloch cannot be regarded as an original thinker on political
  economy. He did not contribute any new ideas to that science, or
  introduce any noteworthy correction of the views, either as to method
  or doctrine, generally accepted by the dominant school of his day. But
  the work he did must be pronounced, in relation to the wants of his
  time, a very valuable one. His name will probably be less permanently
  associated with anything he has written on economic science, strictly
  so called, than with his great statistical and other compilations. His
  _Dictionary of Commerce and Commercial Navigation_ (1832) and his
  _Statistical Account of the British Empire_ (1837) remain imposing
  monuments of his extensive and varied knowledge and his indefatigable
  industry. Another useful work of reference, also the fruit of wide
  erudition and much labour, is his _Literature of Political Economy_
  (1845). Though weak on the side of the foreign literature of the
  science, it is very valuable as a critical and biographical guide to
  British writers.



McCULLOUGH, JOHN EDWARD (1837-1885), American actor, was born in
Coleraine, Ireland, on the 2nd of November 1837. He went to America at
the age of sixteen, and made his first appearance on the stage at the
Arch Street Theatre, Philadelphia, in 1857. In support of Edwin Forrest
and Edwin Booth he played second roles in Shakespearian and other
tragedies, and Forrest left him by will all his prompt books. Virginius
was his greatest success, although even in this part and as Othello he
was coldly received in England (1881). In 1884 he broke down physically
and mentally, and he died in an asylum at Philadelphia on the 8th of
November 1885.



MACCUNN, HAMISH (1868-   ), Scottish musical composer, was born at
Greenock, the son of a shipowner, and was educated at the Royal College
of Music. His first success was with the overture _Land of the Mountain
and Flood_ in 1887 at the Crystal Palace, and this was followed by other
compositions, with a characteristic Scottish colouring. From 1888 to
1894 he was a professor at the Royal College of Music, and this latter
year saw both his marriage to a daughter of John Pettie, R.A., and the
production of his opera _Jeanie Deans_ at Edinburgh. He was for some
years conductor to the Carl Rosa Opera company, and subsequently to
other companies. His opera _Diarmid_ was produced at Covent Garden in
1897, and his other music includes cantatas, overtures, part-songs,
instrumental pieces, and songs, all markedly Scottish in type.



MACDONALD, FLORA (1722-1790), Jacobite heroine, was the daughter of
Ranald Macdonald of Milton in the island of South Uist in the Hebrides,
and his wife Marion the daughter of Angus Macdonald, minister of South
Uist. Her father died when she was a child, and her mother was abducted
and married by Hugh Macdonald of Armadale. She was brought up under the
care of the chief of her clan, Macdonald of Clanranald, and was partly
educated in Edinburgh. In June 1746 she was living in Benbecula in the
Hebrides when Prince Charles Edward (q.v.) took refuge there after the
battle of Culloden. The prince's companion, Captain O'Neill, sought her
help. The island was held for the government by the local militia, but
the secret sympathies of the Macdonalds were with the Jacobite cause.
After some hesitation Flora promised to help. At a later period she told
the duke of Cumberland, son of George III. and commander-in-chief in
Scotland, that she acted from charity and would have helped him also if
he had been defeated and in distress, a statement which need not be
accepted as quite literally true. The commander of the militia in the
island, a Macdonald, who was probably admitted into the secret, gave her
a pass to the mainland for herself, a manservant, an Irish spinning
maid, Betty Burke, and a boat's crew of six men. The prince was
disguised as Betty Burke. After a first repulse at Waternish, the party
landed at Portree. The prince was hidden in a cave while Flora Macdonald
found help for him in the neighbourhood, and was finally able to escape.
He had left Benbecula on the 27th of June. The talk of the boatmen
brought suspicion on Flora Macdonald, and she was arrested and brought
to London. After a short imprisonment in the Tower, she was allowed to
live outside of it, under the guard of a "messenger" or gaoler. When the
Act of Indemnity was passed in 1747 she was left at liberty. Her courage
and loyalty had gained her general sympathy, which was increased by her
good manners and gentle character. Dr Johnson, who saw her in 1773,
describes her as "a woman of soft features, gentle manners and elegant
presence." In 1750 she married Allen Macdonald of Kingsburgh, and in
1773 they emigrated to America. In the War of Independence he served the
British government and was taken prisoner. In 1779 his wife returned
home in a merchant ship which was attacked by a privateer. She refused
to leave the deck during the action, and was wounded in the arm. She
died on the 5th of March 1790. There is a statue to her memory in
Inverness. Flora Macdonald had a large family of sons, who mostly
entered the army or navy, and two daughters.

  See A. C. Ewald, _Life and Times of Prince Charles Edward_ (1886). The
  so-called _Autobiography_ of Flora Macdonald, published by her
  grand-daughter F. F. Walde (1870) is of small value.



MACDONALD, GEORGE (1824-1905), Scottish novelist and poet, was born at
Huntly, Aberdeenshire. His father, a farmer, was one of the Macdonalds
of Glencoe, and a direct descendant of one of the families that suffered
in the massacre. Macdonald's youth was passed in his native town, under
the immediate influence of the Congregational Church, and in an
atmosphere strongly impregnated with Calvinism. He took his degree at
Aberdeen University, and migrated thence to London, studying at Highbury
College for the Congregational ministry. In 1850 he was appointed pastor
of Trinity Congregational Church, Arundel, and, after resigning his cure
there, was engaged in ministerial work in Manchester. His health,
however, was unequal to the strain, and after a short sojourn in Algiers
he settled in London and adopted the profession of literature. In 1856
he published his first book, _Within and Without_, a dramatic poem;
following it in 1857 with a volume of _Poems_, and in 1858 by the
delightful "faerie romance" _Phantastes_. His first conspicuous success
was achieved in 1862 with _David Elginbrod_, the forerunner of a number
of popular novels, which include _Alec Forbes of Howglen_ (1865),
_Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood_ (1866), _Robert Falconer_ (1868),
_Malcolm_ (1875), _The Marquis of Lossie_ (1877), and _Donal Grant_
(1883). He was for a time editor of _Good Words for the Young_, and
lectured successfully in America in 1872-1873. He wrote admirable
stories for the young, and published some volumes of sermons. In 1877 he
was given a civil list pension. He died on the 18th of September 1905.

Both as preacher and as lecturer on literary topics George Macdonald's
sincerity and moral enthusiasm exercised great influence upon
thoughtful minds. His verse is homely and direct, and marked by
religious fervour and simplicity. As a portrayer of Scottish
peasant-life in fiction he was the precursor of a large school, which
has benefited by his example and surpassed its original leader in
popularity. The religious tone of his novels is relieved by tolerance
and a broad spirit of humour, and the simpler emotions of humble life
are sympathetically treated.



MACDONALD, SIR HECTOR ARCHIBALD (1852-1903), British soldier, was born
of humble parentage at Muir of Allan-Grange, Ross-shire, Scotland, in
1852. As a boy he was employed in a draper's shop at Dingwall, but in
1870 he enlisted in the 92nd (Gordon) Highlanders. He rose rapidly
through the non-commissioned ranks, and had already been a
colour-sergeant for some years when, in the Afghan War of 1879, he
distinguished himself in the presence of the enemy so much as to be
promoted to commissioned rank, his advancement being equally acceptable
to his brother officers and popular with the rank and file. As a
subaltern he served in the first Boer War of 1880-81, and at Majuba,
where he was made prisoner, his bravery was so conspicuous that General
Joubert gave him back his sword. In 1885 he served under Sir Evelyn Wood
in the reorganization of the Egyptian army, and he took part in the Nile
Expedition of that year. In 1888 he became a regimental captain in the
British service, but continued to serve in the Egyptian army, being
particularly occupied with the training of the Sudanese battalions. In
1889 he received the D.S.O. for his conduct at Toski and in 1891, after
the action at Tokar, he was promoted substantive major. In 1896 he
commanded a brigade of the Egyptian army in the Dongola Expedition, and
during the following campaigns he distinguished himself in every
engagement, above all in the final battle of Omdurman (1898) at the
crisis of which Macdonald's Sudanese brigade, manoeuvring as a unit with
the coolness and precision of the parade ground, repulsed the most
determined attack of the Mahdists. After this great service Macdonald's
name became famous in England and Scotland, the popular sobriquet of
"Fighting Mac" testifying the interest aroused in the public mind by his
career and his soldierly personality. He was promoted colonel in the
army and appointed an aide-de-camp to the queen, and in 1899 he was
promoted major-general and appointed to a command in India. In December
1899 he was called to South Africa to command the Highland Brigade,
which had just suffered very heavily and had lost its commander,
Major-General A. G. Wauchope, in the battle of Magersfontein. He
commanded the brigade throughout Lord Roberts's Paardeberg, Bloemfontein
and Pretoria operations, and in 1901 he was made a K.C.B. In 1902 he was
appointed to command the troops in Ceylon, but early in the following
year (March 25, 1903) he committed suicide in Paris. A memorial to this
brilliant soldier, in the form of a tower 100 ft. high, was erected at
Dingwall and completed in 1907.



MACDONALD, JACQUES ÉTIENNE JOSEPH ALEXANDRE (1765-1840), duke of Taranto
and marshal of France, was born at Sedan on the 17th of November 1765.
His father came of an old Jacobite family, which had followed James II.
to France, and was a near relative of the celebrated Flora Macdonald. In
1785 Macdonald joined the legion raised to support the revolutionary
party in Holland against the Prussians, and after it was disbanded he
received a commission in the regiment of Dillon. On the breaking out of
the Revolution, the regiment of Dillon remained eminently loyal, with
the exception of Macdonald, who was in love with Mlle Jacob, whose
father was enthusiastic for the doctrines of the Revolution. Directly
after his marriage he was appointed aide-de-camp to General Dumouriez.
He distinguished himself at Jemmapes, and was promoted colonel in 1793.
He refused to desert to the Austrians with Dumouriez, and as a reward
was made general of brigade, and appointed to command the leading
brigade in Pichegru's invasion of Holland. His knowledge of the country
proved most useful, and he was instrumental in the capture of the Dutch
fleet by French hussars. In 1797, having been made general of division,
he served first in the army of the Rhine and then in that of Italy. When
he reached Italy, the peace of Campo Formio had been signed, and
Bonaparte had returned to France; but, under the direction of Berthier,
Macdonald first occupied Rome, of which he was made governor, and then
in conjunction with Championnet he defeated General Mack, and
revolutionized the kingdom of Naples under the title of the
Parthenopaean Republic. When Suvarov invaded northern Italy, and was
winning back the conquests of Bonaparte, Macdonald collected all the
troops in the peninsula and moved northwards. With but 30,000 men he
attacked, at the Trebbia, Suvarov with 50,000, and after three days'
fighting, during which he held the Russians at bay, and gave time for
Moreau to come up, he retired in good order to Genoa. After this gallant
behaviour he was made governor of Versailles, and acquiesced, if he did
not co-operate, in the events of the 18th Brumaire. In 1800 he received
the command of the army in Switzerland which was to maintain the
communications between the armies of Germany and of Italy. He carried
out his orders to the letter, and at last, in the winter of 1800-1, he
was ordered to march over the Splügen Pass. This achievement is fully
described by Mathieu Dumas, who was chief of his staff, and is at least
as noteworthy as Bonaparte's famous passage of the St Bernard before
Marengo, though followed by no such successful battle. On his return to
Paris Macdonald married the widow of General Joubert, and was appointed
French plenipotentiary in Denmark. Returning in 1805 he associated
himself with Moreau and incurred the dislike of Napoleon, who did not
include him in his first creation of marshals. Till 1809 he remained
without employment, but in that year Napoleon gave him the command of a
corps and the duties of military adviser to the young prince Eugène
Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy. He led the army from Italy till its
junction with Napoleon, and at Wagram commanded the celebrated column of
attack which broke the Austrian centre and won the victory. Napoleon
made him marshal of France on the field of battle, and presently created
him duke of Taranto. In 1810 he served in Spain, and in 1812 he
commanded the left wing of the grand army for the invasion of Russia. In
1813, after sharing in the battles of Lützen and Bautzen, he was ordered
to invade Silesia, where Blücher defeated him with great loss at the
Katzbach (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). After the terrible battle of
Leipzig he was ordered with Prince Poniatowski to cover the evacuation
of Leipzig; after the blowing up of the bridge, he managed to swim the
Elster, while Poniatowski was drowned. During the defensive campaign of
1814 Macdonald again distinguished himself; he was one of the marshals
sent by Napoleon to take his abdication in favour of his son to Paris.
When all were deserting their old master, Macdonald remained faithful to
him. He was directed by Napoleon to give in his adherence to the new
regime, and was presented by him with the sabre of Murad Bey for his
fidelity. At the Restoration he was made a peer of France and knight
grand cross of the order of St Louis; he remained faithful to the new
order of things during the Hundred Days. In 1815 he became chancellor of
the Legion of Honour (a post he held till 1831), in 1816 major-general
of the royal bodyguard, and he took a great part in the discussions in
the House of Peers, voting consistently as a moderate Liberal. In 1823
he married Mlle de Bourgony, by whom he had a son, Alexander, who
succeeded on his death in 1840 as duke of Taranto. From 1830 his life
was spent in retirement at his country place Courcelles-le-Roi (Seine et
Oise), where he died on the 7th of September 1840.

Macdonald had none of that military genius which distinguished Davout,
Masséna and Lannes, nor of that military science conspicuous in Marmont
and St Cyr, but nevertheless his campaign in Switzerland gives him a
rank far superior to such mere generals of division as Oudinot and
Dupont. This capacity for independent command made Napoleon, in spite of
his defeats at the Trebbia and the Katzbach, trust him with large
commands till the end of his career. As a man, his character cannot be
spoken of too highly; no stain of cruelty or faithlessness rests on him.

  Macdonald was especially fortunate in the accounts of his military
  exploits, Mathieu Dumas and Ségur having been on his staff in
  Switzerland. See Dumas, _Événements militaires_; and Ségur's rare
  tract, _Lettre sur la campagne du Général Macdonald dans les Grisons
  en 1800 et 1801_ (1802), and _Éloge_ (1842). His memoirs were
  published in 1892 (Eng. trans., _Recollections of Marshal Macdonald_),
  but are brief and wanting in balance.



MACDONALD, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER (1815-1891), first premier of the dominion
of Canada, was born in Glasgow on the 11th of January 1815, the third
child of Hugh Macdonald (d. 1841), a native of Sutherlandshire. The
family emigrated to Canada in 1820, settling first at Kingston, Ontario.
At the age of fifteen Macdonald entered a law office; he was called to
the bar in 1836, and began practice in Kingston, with immediate success.
Macdonald entered upon his active career at a critical period in the
history of Canada, and the circumstances of the time were calculated to
stimulate political thought. It was the year before the rebellion of
1837; the condition of the whole country was very unsettled; and it
seemed well-nigh impossible to reconcile differences arising from racial
and political antagonisms. During the rebellion young Macdonald
volunteered for active service, but his military career never went
farther than drilling and marching. The mission of Lord Durham; the
publication of his famous report; the union of the two Canadas; the
administrations of Lord Sydenham, Sir Charles Bagot, and Sir Charles
Metcalfe, filled the years immediately succeeding 1837 with intense
political interest, and in their results have profoundly influenced the
constitution of the British Empire.

Macdonald made his first acquaintance with public business as an
alderman of Kingston. In 1844 Sir Charles Metcalfe, in his contest with
the Reform party led by Baldwin and Lafontaine, appealed to the
electors, and Macdonald was elected to the provincial assembly as
Conservative member for Kingston. A sentence in his first address to the
electors strikes the dominant note of his public career: "I therefore
need scarcely state my firm belief that the prosperity of Canada depends
upon its permanent connexion with the mother country, and that I shall
resist to the utmost any attempt (from whatever quarter it may come)
which may tend to weaken that union." He took his seat on the 28th of
November as a supporter of the Draper government. During the first three
or four years he spoke little, but devoted himself with assiduity to
mastering parliamentary forms and the business of the house. His
capacity soon attracted attention, and in 1847 he was made
receiver-general with a seat in the executive council, an office soon
exchanged for the more important one of commissioner of Crown-lands.
Although the government of which he thus became a member held office for
only ten months, being placed in a hopeless minority on making an appeal
to the country, Macdonald from this time forward took a position of
constantly increasing weight in his party.

One of the first acts of the Reform government which succeeded that of
which Macdonald was a member was to pass the Rebellion Losses Bill, made
famous in colonial history by the fact that it brought to a crucial test
the principle of responsible government. The assent of Lord Elgin to the
bill provoked in Montreal a riot which ended in the burning of the
houses of parliament, and so great was the indignation of the hitherto
ultra-loyal Conservative party that many of its most prominent members
signed a document favouring annexation to the United States; Macdonald
on the other hand took steps, in conjunction with others, to form a
British-American league, having for its object the confederation of all
the provinces, the strengthening of the connexion with the mother
country, and the adoption of a national commercial policy. He remained
in opposition from 1848 till 1854, holding together under difficult
circumstances an unpopular party with which he was not entirely in
sympathy. The two great political issues of the time were the
secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of
seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long
opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were
supported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of
Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.

Out of this coalition was gradually developed the Liberal-conservative
party, of which until his death Macdonald continued to be the most
considerable figure, and which for more than forty years largely moulded
the history of Canada. From 1854 to 1857 he was attorney-general of
Upper Canada, and then, on the retirement of Colonel Taché, he became
prime minister. This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary
purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the
defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid
succession.

The experiment of applying responsible government on party lines to the
two Canadian provinces at last seemed to have come to a deadlock. Two
general elections and the defeat of four ministries within three years
had done nothing to solve the difficulties of the situation. At this
critical period a proposal was made for a coalition of parties in order
to carry out a broad scheme of British-American confederation. The
immediate proposal is said to have come from George Brown; the large
political idea had long been advocated by Macdonald and Alexander Galt
in Upper Canada--by Joseph Howe and others in the maritime provinces.
The close of the American Civil War, the Fenian raids across the
American border, and the dangers incident to the international
situation, gave a decisive impulse to the movement. Macdonald, at the
head of a representative delegation from Ontario and Quebec, met the
public men of the maritime provinces in conference at Charlottetown in
1864, and the outline of confederation then agreed upon was filled out
in detail at a conference held at Quebec soon afterwards. The actual
framing of the British North America Act, into which the resolutions of
these two conferences were consolidated, was carried out at the
Westminster Palace Hôtel in London, during December 1866 and January
1867, by delegates from all the provinces working in co-operation with
the law officers of the Crown, under the presidency of Lord Carnarvon,
then secretary of state for the colonies. Macdonald took the leading
part in all these discussions, and he thus naturally became the first
premier of the Dominion. He was made a K.C.B. in recognition of his
services to the empire.

The difficulties of organizing the new Dominion, the questions arising
from diverse claims and the various conditions of the country, called
for infinite tact and resource on the part of the premier. Federal
rights were to be safeguarded against the provincial governments, always
jealous of their privileges. The people of Nova Scotia in particular,
dissatisfied with the way in which their province had been drawn into
the Union, maintained a fierce opposition to the Ottawa government,
until their leader, Joseph Howe, fearing an armed rising, came to an
agreement with Macdonald and accepted a seat in his cabinet. The
establishment of a supreme court also occupied the attention of Sir
John, who had a strong sense of the necessity of maintaining the purity
and dignity of the judicial office. The act creating this court was
finally passed during the administration of Alexander Mackenzie. The
pledge made at confederation with regard to the building of the
Intercolonial railway to connect the maritime provinces with those of
the St Lawrence was fulfilled. The North-West Territories were secured
as a part of confederated Canada by the purchase of the rights of the
Hudson's Bay Company, and the establishment of Manitoba as a province in
1870. Canada's interests were protected during the negotiations which
ended in the treaty of Washington in 1871, and in which Sir John took a
leading part as one of the British delegates. In this year British
Columbia entered the confederation, one of the provisions of union being
that a transcontinental railroad should be built within ten years. This
was declared by the opposition to be impossible. It was possible only to
a leader of indomitable will. Charges of bribery against the government
in connexion with the contract for the building of this line led to the
resignation of the cabinet in 1874, and for four years Sir John was in
opposition. But he was by no means inactive. During the summer of 1876
he travelled through Ontario addressing the people on the subject of a
commercial system looking to the protection of native industries. This
was the celebrated "National Policy," which had been in his thoughts as
long ago as the formation of the British-American League in 1850. The
government of Alexander Mackenzie refused to consider a protection
policy, and determined to adhere to Free Trade, with a tariff for
revenue only. On these strongly defined issues the two parties appealed
to the people in 1878. The Liberal party was almost swept away, and Sir
John, on his return to power, put his policy into effect with a
thoroughness that commanded the admiration even of his opponents, who,
after long resistance, adopted it on their accession to office in 1896.
He also undertook the immediate construction of the Canadian Pacific
railway, which had been postponed by the former government. The line was
begun late in 1880, and finished in November 1885--an achievement which
Sir John ranked among his greatest triumphs. "The faith of Sir John,"
says one of his biographers, "did more to build the road than the money
of Mount-Stephen."

During the remaining years of his life his efforts at administration
were directed mainly towards the organization and development of the
great North-West. From 1878 until his death in 1891 Sir John retained
his position as premier of Canada, and his history is practically that
of Canada (q.v.). For forty-six years of a stormy political life he
remained true to the cardinal policy that he had announced to the
electors of Kingston in 1844. "A British subject I was born; a British
subject I will die," says his last political manifesto to the people of
the Dominion. At his advanced age the anxiety and excitement of the
contested election of 1891 proved too great. On the 29th of May he
suffered a stroke of paralysis, which caused his death eight days later
(June 6).

The career of Sir John Macdonald must be considered in connexion with
the political history of Canada and the conditions of its government
during the latter half of the 19th century. Trained in a school where
the principles of responsible government were still in an embryonic
state, where the adroit management of coalitions and cabals was
essential to the life of a political party, and where plots and
counterplots were looked upon as a regular part of the political game,
he acquired a dexterity and skill in managing men that finally gave him
an almost autocratic power among his political followers. But great
personal qualities supplemented his political dexterity and sagacity. A
strong will enabled him to overcome the passionate temper which marked
his youth, and later in his career a habit of intemperance, which he at
first shared with many public men of his time. He was a man of strong
ambitions, but these were curbed by a shrewd foresight, which led him
for a long time to submit to the nominal leadership of other and smaller
men. Politics he made his business, and to this he devoted all his
energies. He had the gift of living for the work in hand without feeling
the distraction of other interests. He had a singular faculty for
reading the minds and the motives of men, and to this insight he perhaps
owed the power of adaptability (called by his opponents shiftiness)
which characterized his whole career. To this power the successful
guidance of the Dominion through its critical formative period must be
ascribed. Few political leaders have ever had such a number of
antagonistic elements to reconcile as presented themselves in the first
Canadian parliament after confederation. The man who could manage to
rule a congeries of jealous factions, including Irish Catholics and
Orangemen, French and English anti-federationists and agitators for
independence, Conservatives and Reformers, careful economists and
prodigal expansionists, was manifestly a man of unusual power, superior
to small prejudices, and without strong bias towards any creed or
section. Such a man Macdonald proved himself to be. His personality
stands out at this period as the central power in which each faction
chiefly reposed trust, and under which it could join hands with the
others in the service of the state. His singleness of purpose, personal
independence and indomitable energy enabled him to achieve triumphs
that to others seemed impossible. His methods cannot always be defended,
and were explained by himself only on grounds of necessity and the
character of the electorate with which he had to deal. After the
"Pacific scandal" of 1874 the leader of the opposite party declared that
"John A." (as he was generally called) "has fallen, never to rise
again." Yet he not only cleared his own character from the charges laid
against him, but succeeded four years later in achieving his most signal
party triumph. His natural urbanity allowed him to rule without seeming
to rule. When baffled in minor objects he gave way with a good-natured
flexibility which brought upon him at times charges of inconsistency.
Yet Canada has seen statesmen of more contracted view insist on such
small points, fall, and drag down their party with them. He lived at a
time when the exigencies of state seemed to require the peculiar talents
which he possessed. Entering politics at the dreariest and least
profitable stage in Canadian history, he took the foremost part in the
movement which made of Canada a nation; he guided that nation through
the nebulous stages of its existence, and left it united, strong and
vigorous, a monument to his patriotic and far-sighted statesmanship. His
statue adorns the squares of the principal Canadian towns. In the crypt
of St Paul's Cathedral a memorial has rightly been placed to him as a
statesman, not merely of Canada, but of the empire. In unveiling that
memorial Lord Rosebery fitly epitomized the meaning of his life and work
when he said: "We recognize only this, that Sir John Macdonald had
grasped the central idea that the British Empire is the greatest secular
agency for good now known to mankind; that that was the secret of his
success; and that he determined to die under it, and strove that Canada
should live under it." Macdonald became a member of the Imperial Privy
Council in 1879, and in 1884 he received the Grand Cross of the Bath.
His first wife was his cousin, Miss Isabella Clark, who died in 1858,
leaving one surviving son, the Hon. Hugh John Macdonald, at one time
premier of the province of Manitoba. By his second marriage, to Miss
Bernard in 1867, Macdonald left an only daughter. On his death in 1891
his widow was created Baroness Macdonald of Earnscliffe.

  The authorized and fullest biography of Sir John A. Macdonald is one
  written by his private secretary, Joseph Pope. Others have been
  written by his nephew, Colonel J. Pennington Macpherson, and by J. E.
  Collins. A bright and amusing anecdotal life has been compiled by E.
  D. Biggar. A condensed biography by G. R. Parkin forms one of the
  "Makers of Canada" series (Toronto, 1907; new ed., 1909).
       (G. R. P.)



MACDONALD, JOHN SANDFIELD (1812-1872), Canadian statesman, was born at
St Raphael, Glengarry county, Ontario, on the 12th of December 1812. He
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and settled in Cornwall. In the same
year he married Miss Waggaman, the daughter of an American senator from
Louisiana. In 1841 he was elected to the Canadian parliament for
Glengarry, which seat he held for sixteen years. In 1842 he joined the
Reformers in the cry for constitutional government, and from 1852 to
1854 was Speaker of the house. He was always uncertain in his party
allegiance, and often attacked George Brown, the Liberal leader. Indeed,
he well described himself as "the Ishmael of parliament." In 1862 he was
called on by Lord Monck, the governor-general, to form a ministry, which
by manifold shifts held office till February 1864. In the debates on
federation he opposed the measure, but on its passage was in 1867
entrusted by the Conservatives with the task of organizing the
provincial government of Ontario. He ruled the province with economy and
efficiency, but was defeated in December 1871 by the Liberals, resigned
the premiership, and died on the 1st of June 1872.



MACDONALD, LAWRENCE (1799-1878), British sculptor, was born at
Findo-Gask, Perthshire, Scotland. In early life he served as a mason's
apprentice. Having shown an aptitude for stone carving, he became an art
student at the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh. By the help of friends he
was enabled to visit Rome, where together with other artists he helped
to found the British Academy of Arts. He returned to Edinburgh in 1826.
In 1829 he was elected a member of the Scottish Academy. From 1832 until
his death his home was in Rome. Among his ideal works may be mentioned
"Ulysses and his Dog Argos," "Andromeda chained to the Rock,"
"Eurydice," "Hyacinth," a "Siren," and a "Bacchante."



MACDONELL, JAMES (1841-1879), British journalist, was born at Dyce,
Aberdeenshire. In 1858, after his father's death, he became clerk in a
merchant's office. He began writing in the _Aberdeen Free Press_; in
1862 he was appointed to the staff of the _Daily Review_ at Edinburgh,
and at twenty-two he became editor of the _Northern Daily Express_. In
1865 he went to London to accept a position on the staff of the _Daily
Telegraph_, which he retained until 1875, being special correspondent in
France in 1870 and 1871. In 1873 he became a leader-writer on _The
Times_. He died in London on the 2nd of March 1879. His posthumous
_France since the First Empire_, though incomplete, gave a clever and
accurate account of the French politics of his time.



MACDONNELL (or MACDONELL), ALESTAIR (i.e. Alexander) RUADH (c.
1725-1761), chief of Glengarry, a Scottish Jacobite who has been
identified by Andrew Lang as the secret agent "Pickle," who acted as a
spy on Prince Charles Edward after 1750. The family were a branch of the
clan Macdonald, but spelt their name Macdonnell or Macdonell. His father
was John, 12th chief of Glengarry, a violent and brutal man, who is said
to have starved his first wife, Alestair's mother, to death on an island
in the Hebrides. Alestair ran away to France while a mere boy in 1738,
and there entered the Royal Scots, a regiment in the French service. In
1743 he commanded a company in it, and in 1744 was sent to Scotland as a
Jacobite agent. In January 1745 he was sent back with messages, and was
in France when Prince Charles Edward landed in Scotland. Late in 1745 he
was captured at sea while bringing a picquet of the Royal Scots to help
the prince. He remained a prisoner in the Tower for twenty-two months,
and when released went abroad. In 1744 his father had made a transfer to
him of the family estates, which were ruined. Alestair, who still
affected to be a Jacobite, lived for a time in great poverty. In 1749 he
was in London, and there is good reason to believe that he then offered
his services as a spy to the British government, with which he
communicated under the name of Pickle. His information enabled British
ministers to keep a close watch on the prince and on the Jacobite
conspiracies. Though he was denounced by a Mrs Cameron, whose husband he
betrayed to death in 1752, he never lost the confidence of the Jacobite
leaders. On the death of his father, in 1754, he succeeded to the
estates, and proved himself a greedy landlord. He died on the 23rd of
December 1761.

  See Andrew Lang, _Pickle the Spy_ (1897) and _The Companions of
  Pickle_ (1898).



MACDONNELL, SORLEY BOY (c. 1505-1590), Scoto-Irish chieftain, son of
Alexander Macdonnell, lord of Islay and Kintyre (Cantire), was born at
Ballycastle, Co. Antrim. From an ancestor who about a hundred years
earlier had married Margaret Bisset, heiress of the district on the
Antrim coast known as the Glynns (or Glens), he inherited a claim to the
lordship of that territory; and he was one of the most powerful of the
Scottish settlers in Ulster whom the English government in the 16th
century found difficulty in bringing into subjection. Many attempts were
made to drive them out of Ireland, in one of which, about 1550, Sorley
Boy Macdonnell was taken prisoner and conveyed to Dublin Castle, where,
however, his confinement was brief. The chief rivals of the Macdonnells
were the Mac Quillins who dominated the northern portion of Antrim,
known as the Route, and whose stronghold was Dunluce Castle, near the
mouth of the Bush. Sorley Boy Macdonnell took an active part in the
tribal warfare between his own clan and the Mac Quillins; and in 1558,
when the latter had been to a great extent overcome, his elder brother
James committed to him the lordship of the Route, his hold on which he
made good by decisively defeating the Mac Quillins in Glenshesk. Sorley
Boy was now too powerful and turbulent to be neglected by Queen
Elizabeth and her ministers, who were also being troubled by his great
contemporary, Shane O'Neill; and the history of Ulster for the next
twenty years consists for the most part of alternating conflict and
alliance between Macdonnells and O'Neills, and attempts on the part of
the English government to subdue them both. With this object Elizabeth
aimed at fomenting the rivalry between the two clans; and she came to
terms sometimes with the one and sometimes with the other. Sorley Boy's
wife was an illegitimate half-sister of Shane O'Neill; but this did not
deter him from leaguing himself with the government against the
O'Neills, if by so doing he could obtain a formal recognition of his
title to the lands of which he was in actual possession. In 1562 Shane
O'Neill paid his celebrated visit to London, where he obtained
recognition by Elizabeth of his claims as head of the O'Neills; and on
his return to Ireland he attacked the Macdonnells, ostensibly in the
English interest. He defeated Sorley Boy near Coleraine in the summer of
1564; in 1565 he invaded the Glynns, and at Ballycastle won a decisive
victory, in which James Macdonnell and Sorley Boy were taken prisoners.
James soon afterwards died, but Sorley Boy remained O'Neill's captive
till 1567, when Shane was murdered by the Macdonnells at Cushendun (see
O'NEILL). Sorley Boy then went to Scotland to enlist support, and he
spent the next few years in striving to frustrate the schemes of Sir
Thomas Smith, and later of the earl of Essex, for colonizing Ulster with
English settlers. Sorley Boy was willing to come to terms with the
government provided his claims to his lands were allowed, but Essex
determined to reduce him to unconditional submission. John Norris was
ordered to proceed by sea from Carrickfergus to Rathlin Island, where
Sorley Boy's children and valuables, together with the families of his
principal retainers, had been lodged for safety; and while the chieftain
was himself at Ballycastle, within sight of the island, the women and
children were massacred by the English. Sorley Boy retaliated by a
successful raid on Carrickfergus and by re-establishing his power in the
Glynns and the Route, which the Mac Quillins made ineffectual attempts
to recover. Macdonnell's position was still further strengthened by an
alliance with Turlough Luineach O'Neill, and by a formidable immigration
of followers from the Scottish islands. In 1584 Sir John Perrot
determined to make a further effort to subdue the turbulent chieftain.
After another expedition to Scotland seeking help, Sorley Boy landed at
Cushendun in January 1585, and his followers regained possession of
Dunluce Castle. In these circumstances Sir John Perrot opened
negotiations with Sorley Boy, who in the summer of 1586 repaired to
Dublin and made submission to Elizabeth's representative. He obtained a
grant to himself and his heirs of all the Route country between the
rivers Bann and Bush, with certain other lands to the east, and was made
constable of Dunluce Castle, For the rest of his life Sorley Boy gave no
trouble to the English government. He died in 1590, and was buried in
Bonamairgy Abbey, at Ballycastle. He is said to have married when over
eighty years of age, as his second wife, a daughter of Turlough Luineach
O'Neill, a kinswoman of his first wife; and two of his five daughters
married members of the O'Neill family. Sorley Boy had several sons by
his first marriage, one of whom, Randal, was created earl of Antrim
(q.v.), and was ancestor of the present holder of that title.

  See G. Hill, _An Historical Account of the Macdonnells of Antrim_
  (London, 1873); Richard Bagwell, _Ireland under the Tudors_ (3 vols.,
  London, 1885-1890); _Calendar of State Papers: Carew MSS._ i., ii., (6
  vols., 1867-1873); Donald Gregory, _History of the Western Highlands
  and Isles of Scotland_ 1493-1625 (London, 1881); Sir J. T. Gilbert,
  _History of the Viceroys of Ireland_ (Dublin, 1865).     (R. J. M.)



MACDONOUGH, THOMAS (1786-1825), American sailor, was born in the state
of Delaware, his father being an officer of the Continental Army, and
entered the United States navy in 1800. During his long service as a
lieutenant he took part in the bombardment of Tripoli, and on a
subsequent occasion showed great firmness in resisting the seizure of a
seaman as an alleged deserter from the British navy, his ship at the
time lying under the guns of Gibraltar. When war with England broke out,
in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the
United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain. He was
instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his
brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the 11th of September
1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain
George Downie's 16 vessels and 92 guns. For this important achievement
New York and Vermont granted him estates, whilst Congress gave him a
gold medal.



MacDOWELL, EDWARD ALEXANDER (1861-1908), American musical composer, was
born in New York City on the 18th of December 1861. His father, an
Irishman of Belfast, had emigrated to America shortly before the boy's
birth. He had a varied education in music, first under Spanish-American
teachers, and then in Europe, at Paris (Debussy being a fellow pupil),
Stuttgart, Wiesbaden and Weimar, where he was chiefly influenced by
Joachim, Raff and Liszt. From 1879 to 1887 he lived in Germany, teaching
and studying, and also appearing as solo pianist at important concerts.
In 1884 he married Marian Nevins, of New York. In 1888 he returned to
America, and settled in Boston till in 1896 he was made professor of
music at Columbia University, New York. He resigned this post in 1904,
and in 1905 overwork and insomnia resulted in a complete cerebral
collapse. He died on the 24th of January 1908. MacDowell's work gives
him perhaps the highest place among American composers. Deeply
influenced by modern French models and by German romanticism, full of
poetry and "atmosphere," and founded on the "programme," idea of
composition, it is essentially creative in the spirit of a searcher
after delicate truths of artistic expression. His employment of touches
of American folk-song, suggested by Indian themes, is characteristic.
This is notably the case with his orchestral _Indian Suite_ (1896) and
_Woodland Sketches_ for the piano. His first concerto, in A minor, for
piano and orchestra, and first pianoforte suite, were performed at
Weimar in 1882. His works include orchestral suites and "poems," songs,
choruses, and various pieces for pianoforte, his own instrument; they
are numbered from _op._ 9 to _op._ 62, his first eight numbered works
being destroyed by him.

  See Lawrence Gilman, _Edward MacDowell_ (1906).



McDOWELL, IRVIN (1818-1885), American soldier, was born in Columbus,
Ohio, on the 15th of October 1818. He was educated in France, and
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1838. From 1841 to 1845 he
was instructor, and later adjutant, at West Point. He won the brevet of
captain in the Mexican War, at the battle of Buena Vista, and served as
adjutant-general, chiefly at Washington, until 1861, being promoted
major in 1856. In 1858-1859 he visited Europe. Whilst occupied in
mustering volunteers at the capital, he was made brigadier-general in
May 1861, and placed in command during the premature Virginian campaign
of July, which ended in the defeat at Bull Run. Under McClellan he
became a corps commander and major-general of volunteers (March 1862).
When the Peninsular campaign began McDowell's corps was detained against
McClellan's wishes, sent away to join in the fruitless chase of
"Stonewall" Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, and eventually came under
the command of General Pope, taking part in the disastrous campaign of
Second Bull Run. Involved in Pope's disgrace, McDowell was relieved of
duty in the field (Sept. 1862), and served on the Pacific coast 1864-68.
He became, on Meade's death in November 1872, major-general of regulars
(a rank which he already held by brevet), and commanded successively the
department of the east, the division of the south, and the division of
the Pacific until his retirement in 1882. The latter years of his life
were spent in California, and he died at San Francisco on the 4th of May
1885. As a commander he was uniformly unfortunate. Undoubtedly he was a
faithful, unselfish and energetic soldier, in patriotic sympathy with
the administration, and capable of great achievements. It was his
misfortune to be associated with the first great disaster to the Union
cause, to play the part of D'Erlon at Quatre-Bras between the armies of
Banks and McClellan, and finally to be involved in the catastrophe of
Pope's campaign. That he was perhaps too ready to accept great risks at
the instance of his superiors is the only just criticism to which his
military character was open.



MACDUFF, a police burgh and seaport of Banffshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1001), 3431. It lies on the right bank of the mouth of the Deveron, 1
m. E. of Banff and 50¼ m. N.W. of Aberdeen by the Great North of
Scotland railway. The site was originally occupied by the fishing
village of Doune, but after its purchase by the 1st earl of Fife, about
1732, the name was altered to Macduff by the 2nd earl, who also procured
for it in 1783 a royal charter constituting it a burgh. In honour of the
occasion he rebuilt the market cross, in front of the parish church. The
harbour, safer and more accessible than that of Banff, was constructed
by the duke of Fife, and transferred to the burgh in 1808. The
inhabitants are chiefly employed in the herring fishery, but there is
some boat-building, besides rope-and-sail making, manure works,
saw-mills and oilcake mills. A stone bridge across the Deveron
communicates with Banff. Good bathing facilities, a bracing climate and
a mineral well attract numerous visitors to Macduff every summer. The
burgh unites with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Inverurie, Kintore and Peterhead
(the Elgin burghs) in returning one member to parliament.



McDUFFIE, GEORGE (1788-1851), American political leader, was born in
Columbia county, Georgia. He Was admitted to the bar in 1814, and served
in the South Carolina General Assembly in 1818-1821, and in the national
House of Representatives in 1821-1834. In 1821 he published a pamphlet
in which strict construction and states' rights were strongly denounced;
yet in 1832 there were few more uncompromising nullificationists. The
change seems to have been gradual, and to have been determined in part
by the influence of John C. Calhoun. When, after 1824, the old
Democratic-Republican party split into factions, he followed Andrew
Jackson and Martin Van Buren in opposing the Panama Congress and the
policy of making Federal appropriations for internal improvements. He
did not hesitate, however, to differ from Jackson on the two chief
issues of his administration: the Bank and nullification. In 1832 he was
a prominent member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention, and
drafted its address to the people of the United States. He served as
governor in 1834-1836, during which time he helped to reorganize South
Carolina College. From January 1843 until January 1846 he was a member
of the United States Senate. The leading Democratic measures of those
years all received his hearty support. McDuffie, like Calhoun, became an
eloquent champion of state sovereignty; but while Calhoun emphasized
state action as the only means of redressing a grievance, McDuffie paid
more attention to the grievance itself. Influenced in large measure by
Thomas Cooper, he made it his special work to convince the people of the
South that the downfall of protection was essential to their material
progress. His argument that it is the producer who really pays the duty
of imports has been called the economic basis of nullification. He died
at Cherry Hill, Sumter district, South Carolina, on the 11th of March
1851.



MACE (Fr. _masse_, O. Fr. _mace_, connected with Lat. _mateola_, a
mallet), originally a weapon of offence, made of iron, steel or latten,
capable of breaking through the strongest armour.[1] The earliest
_ceremonial_ maces, as they afterwards became, though at first intended
to protect the king's person, were those borne by the serjeants-at-arms,
a royal body-guard established in France by Philip II., and in England
probably by Richard I. By the 14th century a tendency towards a more
decorative serjeant's mace, encased with precious metals, is noticeable.
The history of the civic mace (carried by the serjeants-at-mace) begins
about the middle of the 13th century, though no examples of that period
are in existence to-day. Ornamented civic maces were considered an
infringement of one of the privileges of the king's serjeants, who,
according to the Commons' petition in 1344, were alone deemed worthy of
having maces enriched with costly metals. This privilege was, however,
granted to the serjeants of London, and later to those of York (in
1396), Norwich (in 1403/4) and Chester (in 1506). Maces covered with
silver are known to have been used at Exeter in 1387/8; two were bought
at Norwich in 1435, and others for Launceston in 1467/8. Several other
cities and towns had silver maces in the next century, and in the 16th
they were almost universally used. Early in the 15th century the flanged
end of the mace, i.e. the head of the war mace, was borne uppermost, and
the small button with the royal arms in the base. By the beginning of
the Tudor period, however, these blade-like flanges, originally made for
offence, degenerated into mere ornaments, while the greater importance
of the end with the royal arms (afterwards enriched with a cresting)
resulted in the reversal of the position. The custom of carrying the
flanged end upward did not die out at once: a few maces were made to
carry both ways, such as the beautiful pair of Winchcombe silver maces,
dating from the end of the 15th century. The Guildford mace is one of
the finest of the fifteen specimens of the 15th century. The flanged
ends of the maces of this period were often beautifully pierced and
decorated. These flanges gradually became smaller, and later (in the
16th and early 17th centuries) developed into pretty projecting
scroll-brackets and other ornaments, which remained in vogue till about
1640. The next development in the embellishment of the shaft was the
reappearance of these small scroll-brackets on the top, immediately
under the head of the mace. They disappear altogether from the foot in
the last half of the 17th century, and are found only under the heads,
or, in rarer instances, on a knob on the shaft. The silver mace-heads
were mostly plain, with a cresting of leaves or flowers in the 15th and
16th centuries. In the reign of James I. they began to be engraved and
decorated with heraldic devices, &c. As the custom of having serjeants'
maces ceased (about 1650), the large maces, borne before the mayor or
bailiffs, came into general use. Thomas Maundy was the chief maker of
maces during the Commonwealth. He made the mace for the House of Commons
in 1649, which is the one at present in use there, though without the
original head with the non-regal symbols, the latter having been
replaced by one with regal symbols at the Restoration. There are two
maces in the House of Lords, the earliest dating from the reign of
William III. The dates of the eight large and massive silver-gilt maces
of the serjeants-at-arms, kept in the jewel-house at the Tower of
London, are as follows: two of Charles II., two of James II., three of
William and Mary, and one of Queen Anne (the cypher of George I. was
subsequently added to the latter). All the foregoing are of the type
which was almost universally adopted, with slight differences, at the
Restoration. The civic maces of the 18th century follow this type, with
some modifications in shape and ornamentation. The historic English
silver maces of the 18th century include the one of 1753 at Norfolk,
Virginia, and that of 1756 of the state of South Carolina, both in the
United States of America; two, made in 1753 and 1787, at Jamaica; that
of 1791 belonging to the colony of Grenada, and the Speaker's mace at
Barbados, dating from 1812; and the silver mace of the old Irish House
of Commons, 1765-1766, now in the possession of Lord Massereene and
Ferrard.

[Illustration: From Jewitt and Hope's _Corporation Plate and Insignia_
(1895), by permission of Bemrose & Co.

FIG. 1.--Group of War Maces of the 15th and 16th centuries.]

[Illustration: From Jewitt and Hope's _Corporation Plate and Insignia_
(1895), by permission of Bemrose & Co.

FIG. 2.--Mace of the House of Commons.]

Among other maces, more correctly described as staves, in use at the
present time, are those carried before ecclesiastical dignitaries and
clergy in cathedrals and parish churches and the maces of the
universities. At Oxford there are three of the second half of the 16th
century and six of 1723-1724, while at Cambridge there are three of 1626
and one of 1628, but altered at the Commonwealth and again at the
Restoration. The silver mace with crystal globe of the lord high
treasurer of Scotland, at Holyrood Palace, was made about 1690 by
Francis Garthorne. The remarkable mace or sceptre of the lord mayor of
London is of crystal and gold and set with pearls; the head dates from
the 15th century, while the mounts of the shaft are early medieval. A
mace of an unusual form is that of the Tower ward of London, which has a
head resembling the White Tower in the Tower of London, and which was
made in the reign of Charles II. The beautiful mace of the Cork gilds,
made by Robert Goble of Cork in 1696 for the associated gilds, of which
he had been master, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, where there is
also a large silver mace of the middle of the 18th century, with the
arms of Pope Benedict XIV., which is said to have been used at the
coronation of Napoleon as king of Italy at Milan in 1805.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Jewitt and Hope, _Corporation Plate and Insignia of
  Office_, &c. (2 vols., 1895); J. R. Garstin, _Irish State and Civic
  Maces_, &c. (1898); J. Paton, _Scottish History and Life_ (1902); J.
  H. Buck, _Old Plate_ (1903), pp. 124-140; Cripps, _Old English Plate_
  (9th ed., 1906), pp. 394-404; E. Alfred Jones, _Old Plate at the Tower
  of London_ (1908); ed., "Some Historic Silver Maces," _Burlington
  Magazine_ (Dec. 1908).     (E. A. J.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The mace was carried in battle by medieval bishops (Odo of Bayeux
    is represented on the Bayeux tapestry as wielding one) instead of the
    sword, so as to conform to the canonical rule which forbade priests
    to shed blood.--[ED.]



MACEDO, JOSÉ AGOSTINHO DE (1761-1831), Portuguese poet and prose writer,
was born at Beja of plebeian family, and studied Latin and rhetoric with
the Oratorians in Lisbon. He became professed as an Augustinian in 1778,
but owing to his turbulent character he spent a great part of his time
in prison, and was constantly being transferred from one convent to
another, finally giving up the monastic habit to live licentiously in
the capital. In 1792 he was unfrocked, but by the aid of powerful
friends he obtained a papal brief which secularized him and permitted
him to retain his ecclesiastical status. Taking to journalism and
preaching he now made for himself a substantial living and a unique
position. In a short time he was recognized as the leading pulpit orator
of the day, and in 1802 he became one of the royal preachers. Macedo was
the first to introduce from abroad and to cultivate didactic and
descriptive poetry, the best example of which is his notable
transcendental poem _Meditation_ (1813). His colossal egotism made him
attempt to supersede Camoens as Portugal's greatest poet, and in 1814 he
produced _Oriente_, an insipid epic notwithstanding its correct and
vigorous verse, dealing with the same subject as the _Lusiads_--Gama's
discovery of the sea route to India. This amended paraphrase met with a
cold reception, whereupon Macedo published his _Censura dos Lusiadas_,
containing a minute examination and virulent indictment of Camoens.
Macedo founded and wrote for a large number of journals, and the tone
and temper of these and his political pamphlets induced his leading
biographer to name him the "chief libeller" of Portugal, though at the
time his jocular and satirical style gained him popular favour. An
extreme adherent of absolutism, he expended all his brilliant powers of
invective against the Constitutionalists, and advocated a general
massacre of the opponents of the Miguelite regime. Notwithstanding his
priestly office and old age, he continued his aggressive journalistic
campaign, until his own party, feeling that he was damaging the cause by
his excesses, threatened him with proceedings, which caused him in 1829
to resign the post of censor of books for the Ordinary, to which he had
been appointed in 1824. Though his ingratitude was proverbial, and his
moral character of the worst, when he died in 1831 he left behind him
many friends, a host of admirers, and a great but ephemeral literary
reputation. His ambition to rank as the king of letters led to his
famous conflict with Bocage (q.v.), whose poem _Pena de Talião_ was
perhaps the hardest blow Macedo ever received. His malignity reached its
height in a satirical poem in six cantos, _Os Burros_ (1812-1814), in
which he pilloried by name men and women of all grades of society,
living and dead, with the utmost licence of expression. His translation
of the _Odes_ of Horace, and his dramatic attempts, are only of value as
evidence of the extraordinary versatility of the man, but his treatise,
if his it be, _A Demonstration of the Existence of God_, at least proves
his possession of very high mental powers. As a poet, his odes on
Wellington and the emperor Alexander show true inspiration, and the
poems of the same nature in his _Lyra anacreontica_, addressed to his
mistress, have considerable merit.

  See _Memorias para la vida intima de José Agostinho de Macedo_ (ed.
  Th. Braga, 1899); _Cartas e opusculos_ (1900); _Censuras á diversas
  obras_ (1901).     (E. Pr.)



MACEDONIA, the name generally given to that portion of European Turkey
which is bounded on the N. by the Kara-Dagh mountain range and the
frontier of Bulgaria, on the E. by the river Mesta, on the S. by the
Aegean Sea and the frontier of Greece, and on the W. by an ill-defined
line coinciding with the mountain chains of Shar (ancient _Scardus_)
Grammus and Pindus. The Macedonia of antiquity was originally confined
to the inland region west of the Axius, between that river and the
Scardus range, and did not include the northern portion, known as
Paeonia, or the coast-land, which, with the eastern districts, was
inhabited by Thracian tribes; the people of the country were not
Hellenic. In modern Macedonia are included the viláyet of Salonica
(Turk. _Selanik_), the eastern and greater portion of the viláyet of
Monastir (sanjaks of Monastir, Servia [Turk. _Selfijé_], and part of
that of Kortcha), and the south-eastern portion of the viláyet of
Kossovo (sanjak of Usküb). The greater part of Macedonia is inhabited by
a Slavonic population, mainly Bulgarian in its characteristics; the
coast-line and the southern districts west of the Gulf of Salonica by
Greeks, while Turkish, Vlach and Albanian settlements exist
sporadically, or in groups, in many parts of the country.

  _Geographical Features._--The coast-line is broken by the remarkable
  peninsula of Chalcidice, with its three promontories of Athos (ancient
  _Acte_), Longus (_Sithonia_) and Cassandra (_Pallene_). The country is
  divided into two almost equal portions by the river Vardar (_Axius_),
  the valley of which has always constituted the principal route from
  Central Europe to the Aegean. Rising in the Shar mountains near
  Gostivar (Bulgarian _Kostovo_), the Vardar, flowing to the N.E.,
  drains the rich elevated plain of Tetovo (Turk. _Kalkandelen_) and,
  turning to the S.E. at the foot of Mt Liubotrn, traverses the town and
  plain of Usküb, leaving to the left the high plateau of Ovchepolye
  ("the sheep-plain"); then flowing through the town of Veles, it
  receives on its right, near the ruins of the ancient Stobi, the waters
  of its principal tributary, the Tcherna (_Erigon_), which drains the
  basin of Monastir and the mountainous region of Morichovo, and after
  passing through the picturesque gorge of Demir-Kapu (the Iron Gate)
  finds its way to the Gulf of Salonica through the alluvial tract known
  as the Campania, extending to the west of that town. The other
  important rivers are the Struma (_Strymon_) and Mesta (_Nestus_) to
  the east, running almost parallel to the Vardar, and the Bistritza in
  the south, all falling into the Aegean. (The Black Drin, issuing from
  Lake Ochrida and flowing N.W. to the Adriatic, is for the greater part
  of its course an Albanian river.) The Struma, which rises in Mt
  Vitosha in Bulgaria, runs through a narrow defile till, within a short
  distance of the sea, it expands into Lake Tachino, and falls into the
  Aegean near the site of the ancient Amphipolis. The Mesta, rising in
  the Rhodope range, drains the valley of Razlog and forms a delta at
  its entrance into the Aegean opposite the island of Thasos. The
  Bistritza, which has its source in the eastern slope of Mt Grammus,
  receives early in its course the outflow from Lake Castoria on the
  left; it flows to the S.E. towards the frontier of Greece, where its
  course is arrested by the Cambunian mountains; then turning sharply to
  the N.E., and passing through the districts of Serfije and Verria, it
  reaches the Campania and enters the Gulf of Salonica at a point a few
  miles to the S.W. of the mouth of the Vardar. The valleys of most of
  the rivers and their tributaries broaden here and there into fertile
  upland basins, which were formerly lakes. Of these the extensive
  plateau of Monastir, the ancient plain of Pelagonia, about 1500 ft.
  above the sea, is the most remarkable; the basins of Tetovo, Usküb,
  Kotchané, Strumnitza, Nevrokop, Melnik, Serres and Drama furnish other
  examples. The principal lakes are Ochrida (_Lychnitis_) on the
  confines of Albania; Prespa, separated from Ochrida by the Galinitza
  mountains, and supposed to be connected with it by a subterranean
  channel; Castoria, to the S.E. of Prespa; Ostrovo, midway between
  Prespa and the Vardar; Tachino (_Cercinitis_) on the lower course of
  the Struma; Beshik (_Bolbe_), separating the Chalcidian peninsula from
  the mainland, and Doiran (probably _Prasias_), beneath the southern
  declivity of the Belasitza mountains; the smaller lakes of Amatovo and
  Yenije are in the alluvial plain on either side of the lower Vardar.
  Lake Ochrida (q.v.) finds egress into the Black Drin (_Drilon_) at
  Struga, where there are productive fisheries. The lacustrine
  habitations of the Paeonians on Lake Prasias described by Herodotus
  (v. 16) find a modern counterpart in the huts of the fishing
  population on Lake Doiran. The surface of the country is generally
  mountainous; the various mountain-groups present little uniformity in
  their geographical contour. The great chain of Rhodope, continued to
  the N.W. by the Rilska and Osogovska Planina, forms a natural boundary
  on the north; the principal summit, Musalla (9031 ft.), is just over
  the Bulgarian frontier. The adjoining Dospat range culminates in
  Belmeken (8562 ft.), also just over the Bulgarian frontier. Between
  the upper courses of the Mesta and Struma is the Perim Dagh or Pirin
  Planina (_Orbelos_) with Elin (8794 ft.), continued to the south by
  the Bozo Dagh (6081 ft.); still further south, overlooking the bay of
  Kavala, are the Bunar Dagh and Mt Pangaeus, famous in antiquity for
  its gold and silver mines. Between the Struma and the Vardar are the
  Belasitza, Krusha and other ranges. West of the Vardar is the lofty
  Shar chain (_Scardus_) overlooking the plain of Tetovo and terminating
  at its eastern extremity in the pyramidal Liubotrn (according to some
  authorities, 10,007 ft., and consequently the highest mountain in the
  Peninsula; according to others 8989, 8856, or 8200 ft.). The Shar
  range, with the Kara Dagh to the east, forms the natural boundary of
  Macedonia on the N.W.; this is prolonged on the west by the
  Yaina-Bistra and Yablanitza mountains with several summits exceeding
  7000 ft. in height, the Odonishta Planina overlooking Lake Ochrida on
  the west, the Morova Planina, the Grammus range, and Pindus with
  Smolika (8546 ft.). The series of heights is broken by the valleys of
  the Black Drin and Devol, which flow to the Adriatic. Between the
  Vardar and the plain of Monastir the Nija range culminates in
  Kaimakchalan (8255 ft.); south-west of Monastir is Mt Peristeri (7720
  ft.) overlooking Lake Prespa on the east; on the west is the Galinitza
  range separating it from Lake Ochrida. Between Lake Ostrovo and the
  lower Bistritza are the Bermius and Kitarion ranges with Doxa (5240
  ft.) and Turla (about 3280 ft.). South of the Bistritza are the
  Cambunian mountains forming the boundary of Thessaly and terminating
  to the east in the imposing mass of Etymbos, or Olympus (9794 ft.).
  Lastly, Mt Athos, at the extremity of the peninsula of that name,
  reaches the height of 6350 ft. The general aspect of the country is
  bare and desolate, especially in the neighbourhood of the principal
  routes; the trees have been destroyed, and large tracts of land remain
  uncultivated. Magnificent forests, however, still clothe the slopes of
  Rhodope, Pirin and Pindus. The well-wooded and cultivated districts of
  Grevena and Castoria, which are mainly inhabited by a Vlach
  population, are remarkably beautiful, and the scenery around Lakes
  Ochrida and Prespa is exceedingly picturesque. For the principal
  geological formations see BALKAN PENINSULA.

  The climate is severe; the spring is often rainy, and the melted snows
  from the encircling mountains produce inundations in the plains. The
  natural products are in general similar to those of southern Bulgaria
  and Servia--the fig, olive and orange, however, appear on the shores
  of the Aegean and in the sheltered valleys of the southern region. The
  best tobacco in Europe is grown in the Drama and Kavala districts;
  rice and cotton are cultivated in the southern plains.

  _Population._--The population of Macedonia may perhaps be estimated at
  2,200,000. About 1,300,000 are Christians of various churches and
  nationalities; more than 800,000 are Mahommedans, and about 75,000 are
  Jews. Of the Christians, the great majority profess the Eastern
  Orthodox faith, owning allegiance either to the Greek patriarchate or
  the Bulgarian exarchate. Among the Orthodox Christians are reckoned
  some 4000 Turks. The small Catholic minority is composed chiefly of
  Uniate Bulgarians (about 3600), occupying the districts of Kukush and
  Doiran; there are also some 2000 Bulgarian Protestants, principally
  inhabiting the valley of Razlog. The Mahommedan population is mainly
  composed of Turks (about 500,000). In addition to these there are some
  130,000 Bulgars, 120,000 Albanians, 35,000 gipsies and 14,000 Greeks,
  together with a smaller number of Vlachs, Jews and Circassians, who
  profess the creed of Islam. The untrustworthy Turkish statistics take
  religion, not nationality, as the basis of classification. All Moslems
  are included in the _millet_, or nation, of Islam. The Rum, or Roman
  (i.e. Greek) _millet_ comprises all those who acknowledge the
  authority of the Oecumenical patriarch, and consequently includes, in
  addition to the Greeks, the Servians, the Vlachs, and a certain number
  of Bulgarians; the Bulgar _millet_ comprises the Bulgarians who accept
  the rule of the exarchate; the other _millets_ are the _Katolik_
  (Catholics), _Ermeni_ (Gregorian Armenians), _Musevi_ (Jews) and
  _Prodesdan_ (Protestants). The population of Macedonia, at all times
  scanty, has undoubtedly diminished in recent years. There has been a
  continual outflow of the Christian population in the direction of
  Bulgaria, Servia and Greece, and a corresponding emigration of the
  Turkish peasantry to Asia Minor. Many of the smaller villages are
  being abandoned by their inhabitants, who migrate for safety to the
  more considerable towns--usually situated at some point where a
  mountain pass descends to the outskirts of the plains. In the
  agricultural districts the Christian peasants, or _rayas_, are either
  small proprietors or cultivate holdings on the estates of Turkish
  landowners. The upland districts are thinly inhabited by a nomad
  pastoral population.

  _Towns._--The principal towns are Salonica (pop. in 1910, about
  130,000), Monastir (60,000), each the capital of a viláyet, and Usküb
  (32,000), capital of the viláyet of Kossovo. In the Salonica viláyet
  are Serres (28,000), pleasantly situated in a fertile valley near Lake
  Tachino; Nevrokop (6200), Mehomia (5000), and Bansko (6500), in the
  valley of the Upper Mesta; Drama (9000), at the foot of the Bozo Dagh,
  with its port Kavala (9500); Djumaia (6440), Melnik (4300) and Demir
  Hissar (5840) in the valley of the Struma, with Strumnitza (10,160)
  and Petrich (7100) in the valley of its tributary, the Strumnitza;
  Veles (Turk. _Koprülü_) on the Vardar (19,700); Doiran (6780) and
  Kukush (7750); and, to the west of the Vardar, Verria (Slav. _Ber_,
  anc. _Beroea_, Turk. _Karaferia_, 10,500), Yenijé-Vardar (9599) and
  Vodena (anc. _Edessa_, q.v., 11,000). In the portion of the Kossovo
  viláyet included in Macedonia are Kalkandelen (Slav. _Tetovo_,
  19,200), Kumanovo (14,500) and Shtip (Turk. _Istib_, 21,000). In the
  Monastir viláyet are Prilep (24,000) at the northern end of the
  Pelagonian plain, Krushevo (9350), mainly inhabited by Vlachs, Resen
  (4450) north of Lake Prespa, Florina (Slav. _Lerin_, 9824); Ochrida
  (14,860), with a picturesque fortress of Tsar Samuel, and Struga
  (4570), both on the north shore of Lake Ochrida; Dibra (Slav. _Debr_)
  on the confines of Albania (15,500), Castoria (Slav. _Kostur_), on the
  lake of that name (6190), and Kozhané (6100). (Dibra, Kavala,
  Monastir, Ochrida, Salonica, Serres, Usküb and Vodena are described in
  separate articles.)


  The Turks.

_Races._--Macedonia is the principal theatre of the struggle of
nationalities in Eastern Europe. All the races which dispute the
reversion of the Turkish possessions in Europe are represented within
its borders. The Macedonian probably may therefore be described as the
quintessence of the Near Eastern Question. The Turks, the ruling race,
form less than a quarter of the entire population, and their numbers are
steadily declining. The first Turkish immigration from Asia Minor took
place under the Byzantine emperors before the conquest of the country.
The first purely Turkish town, Yenijé-Vardar, was founded on the ruins
of Vardar in 1362. After the capture of Salonica (1430), a strong
Turkish population was settled in the city, and similar colonies were
founded in Monastir, Ochrida, Serres, Drama and other important places.
In many of these towns half or more of the population is still Turkish.
A series of military colonies were subsequently established at various
points of strategic importance along the principal lines of
communication. Before 1360 large numbers of nomad shepherds, or Yuruks,
from the district of Konia, in Asia Minor, had settled in the country;
their descendants are still known as Konariotes. Further immigration
from this region took place from time to time up to the middle of the
18th century. After the establishment of the feudal system in 1397 many
of the Seljuk noble families came over from Asia Minor; their
descendants may be recognized among the beys or Moslem landowners in
southern Macedonia. At the beginning of the 18th century the Turkish
population was very considerable, but since that time it has
continuously decreased. A low birth-rate, the exhaustion of the male
population by military service, and great mortality from epidemics,
against which Moslem fatalism takes no precautions, have brought about a
decline which has latterly been hastened by emigration. On the other
hand, there has been a considerable Moslem immigration from Bosnia,
Servia, Bulgaria and Greece, but the newcomers, _mohajirs_, do not form
a permanent colonizing element. The Turkish rural population is found in
three principal groups: the most easterly extends from the Mesta to
Drama, Pravishta and Orfano, reaching the sea-coast on either side of
Kavala, which is partly Turkish, partly Greek. The second, or central,
group begins on the sea-coast, a little west of the mouth of the
Strymon, where a Greek population intervenes, and extends to the
north-west along the Kara-Dagh and Belasitza ranges in the direction of
Strumnitza, Veles, Shtip and Radovisht. The third, or southern, group is
centred around Kaïlar, an entirely Turkish town, and extends from Lake
Ostrovo to Selfijé (Servia). The second and third groups are mainly
composed of Konariot shepherds. Besides these fairly compact settlements
there are numerous isolated Turkish colonies in various parts of the
country. The Turkish rural population is quiet, sober and orderly,
presenting some of the best characteristics of the race. The urban
population, on the other hand, has become much demoralized, while the
official classes, under the rule of Abdul Hamid II. and his
predecessors, were corrupt and avaricious, and seemed to have parted
with all scruple in their dealings with the Christian peasantry. The
Turks, though still numerically and politically strong, fall behind the
other nationalities in point of intellectual culture, and the contrast
is daily becoming more marked owing to the educational activity of the
Christians.


  The Greeks and Vlachs.

The Greek and Vlach populations are not always easily distinguished, as
a considerable proportion of the Vlachs have been hellenized. Both show
a remarkable aptitude for commerce; the Greeks have maintained their
language and religion, and the Vlachs their religion, with greater
tenacity than any of the other races. From the date of the Ottoman
conquest until comparatively recent times, the Greeks occupied an
exceptional position in Macedonia, as elsewhere in the Turkish Empire,
owing to the privileges conferred on the patriarchate of Constantinople,
and the influence subsequently acquired by the great Phanariot families.
All the Christian population belonged to the Greek _millet_ and called
itself Greek; the bishops and higher clergy were exclusively Greek;
Greek was the language of the upper classes, of commerce, literature and
religion, and Greek alone was taught in the schools. The supremacy of
the patriarchate was consummated by the suppression of the autocephalous
Slavonic churches of Ipek in 1766 and Ochrida in 1767. In the latter
half of the 18th century Greek ascendancy in Macedonia was at its
zenith; its decline began with the War of Independence, the
establishment of the Hellenic kingdom, and the extinction of the
Phanariot power in Constantinople. The patriarchate, nevertheless,
maintained its exclusive jurisdiction over all the Orthodox population
till 1870, when the Bulgarian exarchate was established, and the Greek
clergy continued to labour with undiminished zeal for the spread of
Hellenism. Notwithstanding their venality and intolerance, their merits
as the only diffusers of culture and enlightenment in the past should
not be overlooked. The process of hellenization made greater progress in
the towns than in the rural districts of the interior, where the
non-Hellenic populations preserved their languages, which alone saved
the several nationalities from extinction. The typical Greek, with his
superior education, his love of politics and commerce, and his distaste
for laborious occupations, has always been a dweller in cities. In
Salonica, Serres, Kavala, Castoria, and other towns in southern
Macedonia the Hellenic element is strong; in the northern towns it is
insignificant, except at Melnik, which is almost exclusively Greek. The
Greek rural population extends from the Thessalian frontier to Castoria
and Verria (_Beroea_); it occupies the whole Chalcidian peninsula and
both banks of the lower Strymon from Serres to the sea, and from Nigrita
on the west to Pravishta on the east; there are also numerous Greek
villages in the Kavala district. The Mahommedan Greeks, known as
Valachides, occupy a considerable tract in the upper Bistritza valley
near Grevena and Liapsista. The purely Greek population of Macedonia may
possibly be estimated at a quarter of a million. The Vlachs, or Rumans,
who call themselves _Aromuni_ or _Aromâni_ (i.e. Romans), are also known
as _Kutzovlachs_ and _Tzintzars_: the last two appellations are, in
fact, nicknames, "Kutzovlach" meaning "lame Vlach," while "Tzintzar"
denotes their inability to pronounce the Rumanian _cinci_ (five). The
Vlachs are styled by some writers "Macedo-Rumans," in contradistinction
to the "Daco-Rumans," who inhabit the country north of the Danube. They
are, in all probability, the descendants of the Thracian branch of the
aboriginal Thraco-Illyrian population of the Balkan Peninsula, the
Illyrians being represented by the Albanians. This early native
population, which was apparently hellenized to some extent under the
Macedonian empire, seems to have been latinized in the period succeeding
the Roman conquest, and probably received a considerable infusion of
Italian blood. The Vlachs are for the most part either highland
shepherds or wandering owners of horses and mules. Their settlements are
scattered all over the mountains of Macedonia: some of these consist of
permanent dwellings, others of huts occupied only in the summer. The
compactest groups are found in the Pindus and Agrapha mountains
(extending into Albania and Thessaly), in the neighbourhood of Monastir,
Grevena and Castoria, and in the district of Meglen. The Vlachs who
settle in the lowland districts are excellent husbandmen. The urban
population is considerable; the Vlachs of Salonica, Monastir, Serres and
other large towns are, for the most part, descended from refugees from
Moschopolis, once the principal centre of Macedonian commerce. The towns
of Metzovo, on the confines of Albania, and Klisura, in the Bistritza
valley, are almost exclusively Vlach. The urban and most of the rural
Vlachs are bilingual, speaking Greek as well as Rumanian; a great number
of the former have been completely hellenized, partly in consequence of
mixed marriages, and many of the wealthiest commercial families of Vlach
origin are now devoted to the Greek cause. The Vlachs of Macedonia
possibly number 90,000, of whom only some 3000 are Mahommedans. The
Macedonian dialect of the Rumanian language differs mainly from that
spoken north of the Danube in its vocabulary and certain phonetic
peculiarities; it contains a number of Greek words which are often
replaced in the northern speech by Slavonic or Latin synonyms.


  The Albanians, Circassians, &c.

The Albanians, called by the Turks and Slavs _Arnauts_, by the Greeks
[Greek: Apbanitai], and by themselves _Shkyipetar_, have always been the
scourge of western Macedonia. After the first Turkish invasion of
Albania many of the chiefs or beys adopted Mahommedanism, but the
conversion of the great bulk of the people took place in the 16th and
17th centuries. Professing the creed of the dominant power and entitled
to bear arms, the Albanians were enabled to push forward their limits at
the expense of the defenceless population around them, and their
encroachments have continued to the present day. They have not only
advanced themselves, but have driven to the eastward numbers of their
Christian compatriots and a great portion of the once-prosperous Vlach
population of Albania. Albanian revolts and disturbances have been
frequent along the western confines of Macedonia, especially in the
neighbourhood of Dibra: the Slavonic peasants have been the principal
sufferers from these troubles, while the Porte, in pursuance of the
"Islamic policy" adopted by the sultan Abdul Hamid II., dealt tenderly
with the recalcitrant believers. In southern Macedonia the Albanians of
the Tosk race extend over the upper Bistritza valley as far west as
Castoria, and reach the southern and western shores of Lakes Prespa and
Ochrida: they are also numerous in the neighbourhood of Monastir. In
northern Macedonia the Albanians are of the Gheg stock: they have
advanced in large numbers over the districts of Dibra, Kalkandelen and
Usküb, driving the Slavonic population before them. The total number of
Albanians in Macedonia may be estimated at about 120,000, of whom some
10,000 are Christians (chiefly orthodox Tosks). The Circassians, who
occupy some villages in the neighbourhood of Serres, now scarcely number
3000: their predatory instincts may be compared with those of the
Albanians. The Jews had colonies in Macedonia in the time of St Paul,
but no trace remains of these early settlements. The Jews now found in
the country descend from refugees who fled from Spain during the
persecutions at the end of the 15th century: they speak a dialect of
Spanish, which they write with Hebrew characters. They form a
flourishing community at Salonica, which numbers more than half the
population: their colonies at Monastir, Serres and other towns are poor.
A small proportion of the Jews, known as _Deunmé_ by the Turks, have
embraced Mahommedanism.


  The Slavonic Population.

With the exception of the southern and western districts already
specified, the principal towns, and certain isolated tracts, the whole
of Macedonia is inhabited by a race or races speaking a Slavonic
dialect. If language is adopted as a test, the great bulk of the rural
population must be described as Slavonic. The Slavs first crossed the
Danube at the beginning of the 3rd century, but their great immigration
took place in the 6th and 7th centuries. They overran the entire
peninsula, driving the Greeks to the shores of the Aegean, the Albanians
into the Mirdite country, and the latinized population of Macedonia into
the highland districts, such as Pindus, Agrapha and Olympus. The Slavs,
a primitive agricultural and pastoral people, were often unsuccessful in
their attacks on the fortified towns, which remained centres of
Hellenism. In the outlying parts of the peninsula they were absorbed, or
eventually driven back, by the original populations, but in the central
region they probably assimilated a considerable proportion of the
latinized races. The western portions of the peninsula were occupied by
Serb and Slovene tribes: the Slavs of the eastern and central portions
were conquered at the end of the 7th century by the Bulgarians, a
Ugro-Finnish horde, who established a despotic political organization,
but being less numerous than the subjected race were eventually absorbed
by it. The Mongolian physical type, which prevails in the districts
between the Balkans and the Danube, is also found in central Macedonia,
and may be recognized as far west as Ochrida and Dibra. In general,
however, the Macedonian Slavs differ somewhat both in appearance and
character from their neighbours beyond the Bulgarian and Servian
frontiers: the peculiar type which they present is probably due to a
considerable admixture of Vlach, Hellenic, Albanian and Turkish blood,
and to the influence of the surrounding races. Almost all independent
authorities, however, agree that the bulk of the Slavonic population of
Macedonia is Bulgarian. The principal indication is furnished by the
language, which, though resembling Servian in some respects (e.g. the
case-endings, which are occasionally retained), presents most of the
characteristic features of Bulgarian (see BULGARIA: _Language_). Among
these may be mentioned the suffix-article, the nasal vowels (retained in
the neighbourhood of Salonica and Castoria, but modified elsewhere as in
Bulgarian), the retention of l (e.g. _vulk_ "wolf," _bel_ "white";
Servian _vuk_, _beo_), and the loss of the infinitive. There are at
least four Slavonic dialects in Macedonia, but the suffix-article,
though varying in form, is a constant feature in all. The Slavs of
western Macedonia are of a lively, enterprising character, and share the
commercial aptitude of the Vlachs: those of the eastern and southern
regions are a quiet, sober, hardworking agricultural race, more
obviously homogeneous with the population of Bulgaria. In upper
Macedonia large family communities, resembling the Servian and Bulgarian
_zadruga_, are commonly found: they sometimes number over 50 members.
The whole Slavonic population of Macedonia may be estimated at about
1,150,000, of whom about 1,000,000 are Christians of the Orthodox faith.
The majority of these own allegiance to the Bulgarian exarchate, but a
certain minority still remains faithful to the Greek patriarchate. The
Moslem Bulgarians form a considerable element: they are found
principally in the valley of the upper Mesta and the Rhodope district,
where they are known as _Pomaks_ or "helpers," i.e. auxiliaries to the
Turkish army.

_The Racial Propaganda._--The embittered struggle of the rival
nationalities in Macedonia dates from the middle of the 19th century.
Until that period the Greeks, owing to their superior culture and their
privileged position, exercised an exclusive influence over the whole
population professing the Orthodox faith. All Macedonia was either
Moslem or Orthodox Christian, without distinction of nationalities, the
Catholic or Protestant _millets_ being inconsiderable. The first
opposition to Greek ecclesiastical ascendancy came from the Bulgarians.
The Bulgarian literary revival, which took place in the earlier part of
the 19th century, was the precursor of the ecclesiastical and national
movement which resulted in the establishment of the exarchate in 1870
(see BULGARIA). In the course of the struggle some of the Bulgarian
leaders entered into negotiations with Rome; a Bulgarian Uniate church
was recognized by the Porte, and the pope nominated a bishop, who,
however, was mysteriously deported to Russia a few days after his
consecration (1861). The first exarch, who was elected in 1871, was
excommunicated with all his followers by the patriarch, and a
considerable number of Bulgarians in Macedonia--the so-called
"Bulgarophone Greeks"--fearing the reproach of schism, or influenced by
other considerations, refrained from acknowledging the new spiritual
power. Many of the recently converted uniates, on the other hand,
offered their allegiance to the exarch. The firman of the 28th of
February 1870 specified a number of districts within the present
boundaries of Bulgaria and Servia, as well as in Macedonia, to which
Bulgarian bishops might be appointed; other districts might be subjected
to the exarchate should two-thirds of the inhabitants so desire. In
virtue of the latter provision the districts of Veles, Ochrida and Usküb
declared for the exarchate, but the Turkish government refrained from
sanctioning the nomination of Bulgarian bishops to these dioceses. It
was not till 1891 that the Porte, at the instance of Stamboloff, the
Bulgarian prime minister, whose demands were supported by the Triple
Alliance and Great Britain, issued the _berat_, or exequatur, for
Bulgarian bishops at Ochrida and Usküb; the sees of Veles and Nevrokop
received Bulgarian prelates in 1894, and those of Monastir, Strumnitza
and Dibra in 1898. The Bulgarian position was further strengthened in
the latter year by the establishment of "commercial agents" representing
the principality at Salonica, Usküb, Monastir and Serres. During this
period (1891-1898) the Bulgarian propaganda, entirely controlled by the
spiritual power and conducted within the bounds of legality, made rapid
and surprising progress. Subsequently the interference of the Macedonian
committee at Sofia, in which the advocates of physical force
predominated, and the rivalry of factions did much to injure the
movement; the hostility of the Porte was provoked and the sympathy of
the powers alienated by a series of assassinations and other crimes.
According to the official figures, the Bulgarian schools, which in 1893
were 554, with 30,267 pupils and 853 teachers, in 1900 numbered 785
(including 5 gymnasia and 58 secondary schools), with 39,892 pupils and
1250 teachers. A great number of the schools were closed by the Turkish
authorities after the insurrection of 1903 and many had not been
reopened in 1909; the teachers were imprisoned or had fled into exile.

The Rumanian movement comes next to the Bulgarian in order of time. The
Vlachs had shown greater susceptibility to Greek influence than any of
the other non-Hellenic populations of Macedonia, and, though efforts to
create a Rumanian propaganda were made as early as 1855, it was not till
after the union of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 1861
that any indications of a national sentiment appeared amongst them. In
1886 the principal apostle of the Rumanian cause, a priest named Apostol
Margaritis, founded a gymnasium at Monastir, and the movement,
countenanced by the Porte, supported by the French Catholic missions,
and to some extent encouraged by Austria, has made no inconsiderable
progress since that time. There are now about forty Rumanian schools in
Macedonia, including two gymnasia, and large sums are devoted to their
maintenance by the ministry of education at Bucharest, which also
provides qualified teachers. The Rumanian and Servian movements are at a
disadvantage compared with the Bulgarian, owing to their want of a
separate ecclesiastical organization, the orthodox Vlachs and Serbs in
Turkey owning allegiance to the Greek patriarchate. The governments of
Bucharest and Belgrade therefore endeavoured to obtain the recognition
of Vlach and Servian _millets_, demanding respectively the establishment
of a Rumanian bishopric at Monastir and the restoration of the
patriarchate of Ipek with the appointment of a Servian metropolitan at
Usküb. The Vlach _millet_ was recognized by the Porte by iradé on the
23rd of May 1905, but the aims of the Servians, whose active
interference in Macedonia is of comparatively recent date, have not been
realized. Previously to 1878 the hopes of the Servians were centred on
Bosnia, Herzegovina and the viláyet of Kossovo; but when the Berlin
Treaty assigned Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria, the national
aspirations were directed to Macedonia, the Slavonic population of which
was declared to be Servian. The strained relations existing between
Russia and Bulgaria from 1886 to 1895 were to the advantage of the
Servian propaganda, which after 1890 made remarkable progress. Great
expenditure has been incurred by the Servian government in the opening
and maintenance of schools. At the beginning of 1899 there were stated
to be 178 Servian schools in the viláyets of Usküb, Salonica and
Monastir (including fifteen gymnasia), with 321 teachers and 7200
pupils.

The Albanian movement is still in an inceptive stage; owing to the
persistent prohibition of Albanian schools by the Turks, a literary
propaganda, the usual precursor of a national revival, was rendered
impossible till the outbreak of the Young Turk revolution in July 1908.
After that date numerous schools were founded and an Albanian committee,
meeting in November 1908, fixed the national alphabet and decided on the
adoption of the Latin character. The educational movement is most
conspicuous among the Tosks, or southern Albanians. Notwithstanding the
encroachments of their rivals, the impoverishment of the patriarchate,
and the injury inflicted on their cause by the Greco-Turkish War of
1897, the Greeks still maintain a large number of schools; according to
statistics prepared at Athens there were in 1901, 927 Greek schools in
the viláyets of Salonica and Monastir (including five gymnasia), with
1397 teachers and 57,607 pupils. The great educational activity
displayed by the proselytizing movements in Macedonia, while tending to
the artificial creation of parties, daily widens the contrast between
the progressive Christian and the backward Moslem populations.

  _Antiquities._--Macedonia, like the neighbouring Balkan countries,
  still awaited exploration at the beginning of the 20th century, and
  little had been learned of the earlier development of civilization in
  these regions. The ancient indigenous population has left many traces
  of its presence in the tumuli which occur on the plains, and more
  especially along the valley of the Vardar. The unquiet state of the
  country went far to prevent any systematic investigation of these
  remains; excavations, however, were made by Körte and Franke at
  Niausta and near Salonica (see Kretschner, _Einleitung in die
  Geschichte der griechischen Sprache_, pp. 176, 421), and fragments of
  primitive pottery, with peculiar characteristics, were found by
  Perdrizet at Tchepelje, on the left bank of Lake Tachino. The oldest
  archaeological monuments of Macedonia are its coins, for which the
  mines of Crenides (the later Philippi), at the foot of Mt Pangaeus, of
  Chalcidice, of the island of Thasos, and of the mountains between Lake
  Prasias and the ancient Macedonian kingdom (Herod. v. 17), furnished
  abundance of metal. From the reign of Alexander I., in the epoch of
  the Persian wars (502-479 B.C.), the Macedonian dynasty issued silver
  coins of a purely Greek style. The Thracian communities around Mt
  Pangaeus also produced a variety of coins, especially at the beginning
  of the 5th century. The great octodrachms of this period were perhaps
  struck for the purpose of paying tribute to the Persians when the
  country between the Strymon and the Nestos was in their possession;
  most of the specimens have been found in Asia Minor. These large
  pieces present many characteristics of the Ionian style; it is evident
  that the Thracians derived the arts of minting and engraving from the
  neighbouring Thasos, itself a colony from the Ionian Paros. The
  monarchs of Pella were enthusiastic admirers of Hellenic culture, and
  their court was doubtless frequented by Greek sculptors as well as men
  of letters, such as Herodotus and Euripides. At Pella has been found a
  funerary _stele_ of the late 5th or early 4th century representing a
  Macedonian _hetaerus_--a beautiful specimen of the best Greek art, now
  preserved in the Imperial Ottoman Museum at Constantinople. To the
  Hellenic period belong the vaulted tombs under tumuli discovered at
  Pella, Pydna, Palatitza, and other places; the dead were laid in
  marble couches ornamented with sculptures, like those of the so-called
  sarcophagus of Alexander at Constantinople. These tombs doubtless
  received the remains of the Macedonian nobles and _hetaeri_: in one of
  them a fresco representing a conflict between a horseman and a warrior
  on foot has been brought to light by Kinch. Similarly constructed
  places of sepulture have been found at Eretria and elsewhere in
  Greece. At Palatitza the ruins of a remarkable structure, perhaps a
  palace, have been laid bare by Heuzey and Daumet. Unlike Greece, where
  each independent city had its acropolis, Macedonia offers few remnants
  of ancient fortification; most of the country towns appear to have
  been nothing more than open market-centres. The most interesting ruins
  in the country are those of the Roman and Byzantine epochs, especially
  those at Salonica (q.v.). The Byzantine fortifications and aqueduct of
  Kavala are also remarkable. At Verria (_Beroea_) may be seen some
  Christian remains, at Melnik a palace of the age of the Comneni, at
  Serres a fortress built by the Servian tsar Stephen Dushan
  (1336-1356). The remains at Filibejik (_Philippi_) are principally of
  the Roman and Byzantine periods; the numerous _ex voto_ rock-tablets
  of the acropolis are especially interesting. The Roman inscriptions
  found in Macedonia are mainly funerary, but include several ephebic
  lists. The funerary tablets afford convincing proof of the persistence
  of the Thracian element, notwithstanding hellenization and
  latinization; many of them, for instance, represent the well-known
  Thracian horseman hunting the wild boar. The monastic communities on
  the promontory of Athos (q.v.), with their treasures of Byzantine art
  and their rich collections of manuscripts, are of the highest
  antiquarian interest.

_History._--For the history of ancient Macedonia see MACEDONIAN
EMPIRE.[1] After its subjugation by the Romans the country was divided
into four districts separated by rigid political and social limitations.
Before long it was constituted a province, which in the time of Augustus
was assigned to the senate. Thenceforward it followed the fortunes of
the Roman empire, and, after the partition of that dominion, of its
eastern branch. Its Thraco-Illyrian inhabitants had already been largely
latinized when Constantine the Great made Byzantium the imperial
residence in A.D. 330; they called themselves Romans and spoke Latin.
Towards the close of the 4th century the country was devastated by the
Goths and Avars, whose incursions possessed no lasting significance. It
was otherwise with the great Slavonic immigration, which took place at
intervals from the 3rd to the 7th century. An important ethnographic
change was brought about, and the greater part of Macedonia was
colonized by the invaders (see BALKAN PENINSULA).


  Byzantine and Bulgarian Domination.

The Slavs were in their turn conquered by the Bulgarians (see BULGARIA:
_History_) whose chief Krum (802-815) included central Macedonia in his
dominions. The Byzantines retained the southern regions and Salonica,
which temporarily fell into the hands of the Saracens in 904. With the
exception of the maritime districts, the whole of Macedonia formed a
portion of the empire of the Bulgarian tsar Simeon (893-927); the
Bulgarian power declined after his death, but was revived in western
Macedonia under the Shishman dynasty at Ochrida; Tsar Samuel (976-1014),
the third ruler of that family, included in his dominions Usküb, Veles,
Vodena and Melnik. After his defeat by the emperor Basil II. in 1014
Greek domination was established for a century and a half. The Byzantine
emperors endeavoured to confirm their positions by Asiatic colonization;
Turkish immigrants, afterwards known as Vardariotes, the first of their
race who appeared in Macedonia, were settled in the neighbourhood of
Salonica in the 9th century; colonies of Uzes, Petchenegs and Kumans
were introduced at various periods from the 11th to the 13th century.
While Greeks and Bulgarians disputed the mastery of Macedonia the
Vlachs, in the 10th century, established an independent state in the
Pindus region, which, afterwards known as Great Walachia, continued to
exist till the beginning of the 14th century. In 1185 southern Macedonia
was exposed to a raid of the Normans under William of Sicily, who
captured Salonica and massacred its inhabitants. After the taking of
Constantinople in 1204 by the Franks of the fourth crusade, the Latin
empire of Romania was formed and the feudal kingdom of Thessalonica was
bestowed on Boniface, marquis of Montferrat; this was overthrown in 1222
by Theodore, despot of Epirus, a descendant of the imperial house of the
Comneni, who styled himself emperor of Thessalonica and for some years
ruled over all Macedonia. He was defeated and captured by the Bulgarians
in 1230 and the remnant of his possessions, to which his son John
succeeded, was absorbed in the empire of Nicaea in 1234. Bulgarian rule
was now once more established in Macedonia under the powerful monarch
Ivan Asen II. (1218-1241) whose dynasty, of Vlach origin, had been
founded at Trnovo in 1186 after a revolt of the Vlachs and Bulgars
against the Greeks. A period of decadence followed the extinction of the
Asen dynasty in 1257; the Bulgarian power was overthrown by the Servians
at Velbuzhd (1330), and Macedonia was included in the realm of the great
Servian tsar Dushan (1331-1355) who fixed his capital at Usküb. Dushan's
empire fell to pieces after his death, and the anarchy which followed
prepared the way for the advance of the Turks, to whom not only
contending factions at Constantinople but Servian and Bulgarian princes
alike made overtures.


  Turkish Rule.

Macedonia and Thrace were soon desolated by Turkish raids; when it was
too late the Slavonic states combined against the invaders, but their
forces, under the Servian tsar Lazar, were routed at Kossovo in 1389 by
the sultan Murad I. Salonica and Larissa were captured in 1395 by
Murad's son Bayezid, whose victory over Sigismund of Hungary at
Nicopolis in 1396 sealed the fate of the peninsula. The towns in the
Struma valley were yielded to the Turks by John VII. Palaeologus in
1424; Salonica was taken for the last time in 1428 by Murad II. and its
inhabitants were massacred. Large tracts of land were distributed among
the Ottoman chiefs; a system of feudal tenure was developed by Mahommed
II. (1451-1481), each fief furnishing a certain number of armed
warriors. The Christian peasant owners remained on the lands assigned to
the Moslem feudal lords, to whom they paid a tithe. The condition of the
subject population was deplorable from the first, and became worse
during the period of anarchy which coincided with the decadence of the
central power in the 17th and 18th centuries; in the latter half of the
17th century efforts to improve it were made by the grand viziers
Mehemet and Mustafa of the eminent house of Koprülü. The country was
policed by the janissaries (q.v.). Numbers of the peasant proprietors
were ultimately reduced to serfdom, working as labourers on the farms or
_tchifliks_ of the Moslem beys. Towards the end of the 18th century many
of the local governors became practically independent; western Macedonia
fell under the sway of Ali Pasha of Iannina; at Serres Ismail Bey
maintained an army of 10,000 men and exercised a beneficent despotism.
For more than two centuries Albanian incursions, often resulting in
permanent settlements, added to the troubles of the Christian
population. The reforms embodied in the Hatt-i-Sherif of Gulhané (1839)
and in the Hatt-i-humayun (1856), in both of which the perfect equality
of races and religions was proclaimed, remained a dead letter; the first
"Law of the Vilayets" (1864), reforming the local administration,
brought no relief, while depriving the Christian communities of certain
rights which they had hitherto possessed.


  European Intervention.

  Treaties of San Stefano and Berlin.

In 1876 a conference of the powers at Constantinople proposed the
reorganization of the Bulgarian provinces of Turkey in two viláyets
under Christian governors-general aided by popular assemblies. The
"western" viláyet, of which Sofia was to be the capital, included
northern, central and western Macedonia, extending south as far as
Castoria. The _projet de règlement_ elaborated by the conference was
rejected by the Turkish parliament convoked under the constitution
proclaimed on the 23rd of December 1876; the constitution, which was
little more than a device for eluding European intervention, was shortly
afterwards suspended. Under the treaty of San Stefano (March 3, 1878)
the whole of Macedonia, except Salonica and the Chalcidic peninsula, was
included in the newly formed principality of Bulgaria; this arrangement
was reversed by the Treaty of Berlin (July 13) which left Macedonia
under Turkish administration but provided (Art. xxiii.) for the
introduction of reforms analogous to those of the Cretan Organic Statute
of 1868. These reforms were to be drawn up by special commissions, on
which the native element should be largely represented, and the opinion
of the European commission for eastern Rumelia was to be taken before
their promulgation. The Porte, however, prepared a project of its own,
and the commission, taking this as a basis, drew up the elaborate "Law
of the Vilayets" (Aug. 23, 1880). The law never received the sultan's
sanction, and European diplomacy proved unequal to the task of securing
its adoption.


  The Macedonian Question.

The Berlin Treaty, by its artificial division of the Bulgarian race,
created the difficult and perplexing "Macedonian Question." The
population handed back to Turkish rule never acquiesced in its fate; its
discontent was aggravated by the deplorable misgovernment which
characterized the reign of Abdul Hamid II., and its efforts to assert
itself, stimulated by the sympathy of the enfranchised portion of the
race, provoked rival movements on the part of the other Christian
nationalities, each receiving encouragement and material aid from the
adjacent and kindred states. Some insignificant risings took place in
Macedonia after the signature of the Berlin Treaty, but in the interval
between 1878 and 1893 the population remained comparatively tranquil,
awaiting the fulfilment of the promised reforms.


  Bulgarian Conspiracies.

In 1893, however, a number of secret revolutionary societies
(_druzhestva_) were set on foot in Macedonia, and in 1894 similar bodies
were organized as legal corporations in Bulgaria. The fall of Stamboloff
in that year and the reconciliation of Bulgaria with Russia encouraged
the revolutionaries in the mistaken belief that Russia would take steps
to revive the provisions of the San Stefano treaty. In 1895 the "Supreme
Macedo-Adrianopolitan Committee" (_Vrkhoven Makedoni-Odrinski Komitet_)
was formed at Sofia and forthwith despatched armed bands into northern
Macedonia; the town of Melnik was occupied for a short time by the
revolutionaries under Boris Sarafoff, but the enterprise ended in
failure. Dispirited by this result, the "Vrkhovists," as the
revolutionaries in Bulgaria were generally styled, refrained from any
serious effort for the next five years; the movement was paralysed by
dissensions among the chiefs, and rival parties were formed under
Sarafoff and General Tzoncheff. Meanwhile the "Centralist" or local
Macedonian societies were welded by two remarkable men, Damian Grueff
and Gotzé Delcheff, into a formidable power known as the "Internal
Organization," founded in 1893, which maintained its own police, held
its own tribunals, assessed and collected contributions, and otherwise
exercised an _imperium in imperio_ throughout the country, which was
divided into rayons or districts, and subdivided into departments and
communes, each with its special staff of functionaries. The Internal
Organization, as a rule, avoided co-operation with the revolutionaries
in Bulgaria; it aimed at the attainment of Macedonian autonomy, and at
first endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to enlist the sympathies of the
Greeks and Servians for the programme of "Macedonia for the
Macedonians."


  Greek Action.

The principle of autonomy was suspected at Athens and Belgrade as
calculated to ensure Bulgarian predominance and to delay or preclude the
ultimate partition of the country. At Athens, especially, the progress
of the Bulgarian movement was viewed with much alarm; it was feared that
Macedonia would be lost to Hellenism, and in 1896 the _Ethniké Hetaerea_
(see GREECE and CRETE) sent numerous bands into the southern districts
of the country. The Hetaerea aimed at bringing about a war between
Greece and Turkey, and the outbreak of trouble in Crete enabled it to
accomplish its purpose. During the Greco-Turkish War (q.v.) Macedonia
remained quiet, Bulgaria and Servia refraining from interference under
pressure from Austria, Russia and the other great powers. The reverses
of the Greeks were to the advantage of the Bulgarian movement, which
continued to gain strength, but after the discovery of a hidden dépôt of
arms at Vinitza in 1897 the Turkish authorities changed their attitude
towards the Bulgarian element; extreme and often barbarous methods of
repression were adopted, and arms were distributed among the Moslem
population. The capture of an American missionary, Miss Stone, by a
Bulgarian band under Sandansky in the autumn of 1901 proved a windfall
to the revolutionaries, who expended her ransom of LT16,000 in the
purchase of arms and ammunition.


  Troubles in 1902: Intervention of the Powers.

In 1902 the Servians, after a prolonged conflict with the Greeks,
succeeded with Russian aid in obtaining the nomination of Mgr.
Firmilian, a Servian, to the archbishopric of Usküb. Contemporaneously
with a series of Russo-Bulgarian celebrations in the Shipka pass in
September of that year, an effort was made to provoke a rising in the
Monastir district by Colonel Yankoff, the lieutenant of General
Tzoncheff; in November a number of bands entered the Razlog district
under the general's personal direction. These movements, which were not
supported by the Internal Organization, ended in failure, and merciless
repression followed. The state of the country now became such as to
necessitate the intervention of the powers, and the Austrian and Russian
governments, which had acted in concert since April 1897, drew up an
elaborate scheme of reforms. The Porte, as usual, endeavoured to
forestall foreign interference by producing a project of its own, which
was promulgated in November 1902, and Hilmi Pasha was appointed
Inspector General of the Rumelian viláyets and charged with its
application. The two powers, however, persevered in their intention and
on the 21st of February 1903 presented to the Porte an identic
memorandum proposing a series of reforms in the administration, police
and finance, including the employment of "foreign specialists" for the
reorganization of the gendarmerie.


  Bulgarian Insurrection in 1903.

At the same time the Bulgarian government, under pressure from Russia,
arrested the revolutionary leaders in the principality, suppressed the
committees, and confiscated their funds. The Internal Organization,
however, was beyond reach, and preparations for an insurrection went
rapidly forward. In March a serious Albanian revolt complicated the
situation. At the end of April a number of dynamite outrages took place
at Salonica; public opinion in Europe turned against the revolutionaries
and the Turks seized the opportunity to wreak a terrible vengeance on
the Bulgarian population. On the 2nd of August, the feast of St Elias, a
general insurrection broke out in the Monastir viláyet, followed by
sporadic revolts in other districts. The insurgents achieved some
temporary successes and occupied the towns of Krushevo, Klisura and
Neveska, but by the end of September their resistance was overcome; more
than 100 villages were burned by the troops and bashi-bazouks, 8400
houses were destroyed and 60,000 peasants remained homeless in the
mountains at the approach of winter.


  The "Mürzsteg Programme."

The Austrian and Russian governments then drew up a further series of
reforms known as the "Mürzsteg programme" (Oct. 9, 1903) to which the
Porte assented in principle, though many difficulties were raised over
details. Two officials, an Austrian and a Russian, styled "civil agents"
and charged with the supervision of the local authorities in the
application of reforms, were placed by the side of the inspector-general
while the reorganization of the gendarmerie was entrusted to a foreign
general in the Turkish service aided by a certain number of officers
from the armies of the great powers. The latter task was entrusted to
the Italian General de Giorgis (April 1904), the country being divided
into sections under the supervision of the officers of each power. The
reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the
Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European
officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation. In
1905 the powers agreed on the establishment of a financial commission on
which the representatives of Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy
would sit as colleagues of the civil agents. The Porte offered an
obstinate resistance to the project and only yielded (Dec. 5) when the
fleets of the powers appeared near the Dardanelles. Some improvement was
now effected in the financial administration, but the general state of
the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad
by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely
composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed
renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged
resistance to all their foes.


  The "Reval Programme."

The Austro-Russian _entente_ came to an end in the beginning of 1908
owing to the Austrian project of connecting the Bosnian and Macedonian
railway systems, and Great Britain and Russia now took the foremost
place in the demand for reforms. After a meeting between King Edward
VII. and the emperor Nicholas II. at Reval in the early summer of 1908
an Anglo-Russian scheme, known as the "Reval programme," was announced;
the project aimed at more effective European supervision and dealt
especially with the administration of justice. Its appearance was almost
immediately followed by the military revolt of the Young Turk or
constitutional party, which began in the Monastir district under two
junior officers, Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, in July. The restoration of
the constitution of 1876 was proclaimed (July 24,1908), and the powers,
anticipating the spontaneous adoption of reforms on the part of
regenerated Turkey, decided to suspend the Reval programme and to
withdraw their military officers from Macedonia.

  See Lejean, _Ethnographie de la Turquie d'Europe_ (Gotha, 1861); Hahn,
  _Reise von Belgrad nach Salonik_ (Vienna, 1868); Yastreboff, _Obichai
  i pesni turetskikh Serbov_ (St Petersburg, 1886); "Ofeicoff"
  (Shopoff), _La Macédoine au point de vue ethnographique, historique et
  philologique_ (Philippopolis, 1888); Gopchevitch, _Makedonien und
  Alt-Serbien_ (Vienna, 1889); Verkovitch,
  _Topografichesko-ethnographicheskii ocherk Makedonii_ (St Petersburg,
  1889); Burada, _Cercetari despre scoalele Romanesci din Turcia_
  (Bucharest, 1890); Tomaschek, _Die heutigen Bewohner Macedoniens_
  (Sonderabdruck aus den Verhandlungen des IX. D. Geographen-Tages in
  Wien, 1891) (Berlin, 1891); _Die alten Thraker_ (Vienna, 1893);
  Bérard, _La Turquie et l'Hellénisme contemporain_, (Paris, 1893); _La
  Macédoine_ (Paris, 1900); Shopoff, _Iz zhivota i polozhenieto na
  Bulgarite v vilayetite_ (Philippopolis, 1894); Weigand, _Die Aromunen_
  (Leipzig, 1895); _Die nationalen Bestrebungen der Balkanvolker_
  (Leipzig, 1898); Nikolaides, _La Macédoine_ (Berlin, 1899);
  "Odysseus," _Turkey in Europe_ (London, 1900); Kunchoff, _Makedonia:
  etnografia i statistika_ (Sofia, 1900); _La Macédoine et la Vilayet
  d'Andrinople_ (Sofia, 1904), anonymous; L. Villari, _The Balkan
  Question_ (London, 1905); H. N. Brailsford, _Macedonia: its Races and
  their Future_ (London, 1906); J. Cviji['c], _Grundlinien der
  Geographie und Geologie von Mazedonien und Altserbien_ (Gotha, 1908).
  For the antiquities, see Texier and Pullan, _Byzantine Architecture_
  (London, 1864); Heuzey and Daumet, _Mission archéologique en
  Macédoine_ (Paris, 1865); Duchesne and Bayet, _Mémoire sur une mission
  en Macédoine et au Mont Athos_ (Paris, 1876); Barclay V. Head,
  _Catalogue of Greek Coins_; Macedonia (London, 1879); Kinch, _L'Arc de
  triomphe de Salonique_ (Paris, 1890); _Beretnung om en archaeologisk
  Reise i Makedonien_ (Copenhagen, 1893); Mommsen, Suppl. to vol. iii.
  _Corpus inscript., latinarum_ (Berlin, 1893); Perdrizet, Articles on
  Macedonian archaeology and epigraphy in _Bulletin de correspondance
  hellenique_, since 1894.     (J. D. B.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Also Alexander, Perdiccas, Philip, &c.



MACEDONIAN EMPIRE, the name generally given to the empire founded by
Alexander the Great of Macedon in the countries now represented by
Greece and European Turkey, Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, Persia and
eastwards as far as northern India.[1] The present article contains a
general account of the empire in its various aspects. It falls naturally
into two main divisions:--I. The reign of Alexander. II. The period of
his successors, the "Diadochi" and their dynasties.


  1. Greeks and Persians.

I. _The Reign of Alexander._--At the beginning of the 4th century B.C.
two types of political association confronted each other in the lands of
the Eastern Mediterranean,--the Persian monarchy with its huge
agglomeration of subject peoples, and the Greek city-state. Each had a
different principle of strength. The Persian monarchy was strong in its
size, in the mere amount of men and treasure it could dispose of under a
single hand; the Greek state was strong in its _morale_, in the energy
and discipline of its soldiery. But the smallness of the single
city-states and their unwillingness to combine prevented this
superiority in quality from telling destructively upon the bulk of the
Persian empire. The future belonged to any power that could combine the
advantages of both systems, could make a state larger than the Greek
_polis_, and animated by a spirit equal to that of the Greek soldier.
This was achieved by the kings of Macedonia. The work, begun by his
predecessors, of consolidating the kingdom internally and making its
army a fighting-machine of high power was completed by the genius of
Philip II. (359-336 B.C.), who at the same time by war and diplomacy
brought the Greek states of the Balkan peninsula generally to recognize
his single predominance. At the synod of Corinth (338) Philip was
solemnly declared the captain-general ([Greek: strategos autokrator]) of
the Hellenes against the Great King. The attack on Persia was delayed by
the assassination of Philip in 336, and it needed some fighting before
the young Alexander had made his position secure in Macedonia and
Greece. The recognition as captain-general he had obtained at another
synod in Corinth, by an imposing military demonstration in Greece
immediately upon his accession. Then came the invasion of the Persian
empire by Alexander in 334 at the head of an army composed both of
Macedonians and contingents from the allied Greek states. Before this
force the Persian monarchy went down, and when Alexander died eleven
years later (323) a Macedonian empire which covered all the territory of
the old Persian empire, and even more, was a realized fact.


    2. Extent of the Empire.

  The empire outside of Macedonia itself consisted of 22 provinces. _In
  Europe_, (1) Thrace; _in Asia Minor_, (2) Phrygia on the Hellespont,
  (3) Lydia, (4) Caria, (5) Lycia and Pamphylia, (6) Great Phrygia, (7)
  Paphlagonia and Cappadocia; _between the Taurus and Iran_, (8)
  Cilicia, (9) Syria, (10) Mesopotamia, (11) Babylonia, (12) Susiana;
  _in Africa_, (13) Egypt; _in Iran_, (14) Persis, (15) Media, (16)
  Parthia and Hyrcania, (17) Bactria and Sogdiana, (18) Areia and
  Drangiana, (19) Carmania, (20) Arachosia and Gedrosia; lastly _the
  Indian provinces_, (21) the Paropanisidae (the Kabul valley), and (22)
  the province assigned to Pithon, the son of Agenor, upon the Indus (J.
  Beloch, _Griech. Gesch._ III. [ii.], p. 236 seq.; for the Indian
  provinces cf. B. Niese, _Gesch. der griech. und maked. Staaten_, I. p.
  500 seq.). Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities,
  were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered
  land beyond the Indus--the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.


  3. System of Government.

The conquered empire presented Alexander with a system of government
ready-made, which it was natural for the new masters to take over. For
the Asiatic provinces and Egypt, the old Persian name of _satrapy_ (see
SATRAP) was still retained, but the governor seems to have been styled
officially in Greek _strategos_, although the term _satrap_ certainly
continued current in common parlance. The governors appointed by
Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in
the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the
satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in
Parthia and Hyrcania, and Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes in the
Paropanisidae. Alexander had at first trusted Persian grandees more
freely in this capacity; in Babylonia, Bactria, Carmania, Susiana he had
set Persian governors, till the ingrained Oriental tradition of
misgovernment so declared itself that to the three latter provinces
certainly Macedonians had been appointed before his death. Otherwise the
only eastern satrapy whose governor was not a Macedonian, was Areia,
under Stasanor, a Cypriote Greek. In the case of certain provinces,
possibly in the empire generally, Alexander established a double
control. The financial administration was entrusted to separate
officials; we hear of such in Lydia (Arr. i. 17, 7), Babylonia (id. iii.
16, 4), and notably in Egypt (id. iii. 5, 4). Higher financial
controllers seem to have been over groups of provinces (Philoxenus over
Asia Minor, Arr. i. 17, 7; see Beloch, _Gr. Gesch._ III. [i] p. 14), and
Harpalus over the whole finances of the empire, with his seat in
Babylon. Again the garrisons in the chief cities, such as Sardis,
Babylon, Memphis Pelusium and Susa, were under commands distinct from
those of the provinces. The old Greek cities of the motherland were not
formally subjects of the empire, but sovereign states, which assembled
at Corinth as members of a great alliance, in which the Macedonian king
was included as a member and held the office of captain-general. The
Greek cities of Asia Minor stood to him in a similar relation, though
not included in the Corinthian alliance, but in federations of their own
(Kaerst, _Gesch. d. hellenist. Zeitalt._ i. 261 seq.). Their territory
was not part of the king's country (_Inscr. in the Brit. Mus._ No. 400).
Of course, in fact, the power of the king was so vastly superior that
the Greek cities were in reality subject to his dictation, even in so
intimate a matter as the readmission of their exiles, and might be
obliged to receive his garrisons. Within the empire itself, the various
communities were allowed, subject to the interference of the king or his
officials, to manage their own affairs. Alexander is said to have
granted the Lydians to be "free" and "to use the laws of the ancient
Lydians," whatever exactly these expressions may mean (Arr. i. 17, 4).
So too in Egypt, the native monarchs were left as the local authorities
(Arr. iii. 5, 4). Especially to the gods of the conquered people
Alexander showed respect. In Egypt and in Babylon he appeared as the
restorer of the native religions to honour after the unsympathetic rule
of the Persians. The temple of Marduk in Babylon which had fallen began
to rise again at his command. It is possible that he offered sacrifice
to Yahweh in Jerusalem. In Persia, the native aristocracy retained their
power, and the Macedonian governor adopted Persian dress and manners
(Diod. xix. 48, 5; Arr. vi. 30). A new factor introduced by Alexander
was the foundation of Greek cities at all critical points of intercourse
in the conquered lands. These, no doubt, possessed municipal autonomy
with the ordinary organization of the Greek state; to what extent they
were formally and regularly controlled by the provincial authorities we
do not know; Pithon, the satrap of the Indian province is specially
described as sent "in colonias in Indis conditas" (Just. xiii. 4, 21).
The empire included large tracts of mountain or desert, inhabited by
tribes, which the Persian government had never subdued. The subjugation
of such districts could only be by a system of effective military
occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning
by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the
free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case
of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan),
the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the
Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in
preparation when Alexander died.

  See A. Köhler, _Reichsverwaltung u. Politik Alexanders des Grossen in
  Klio_, v. 303 seq. (1905).


  4. Court.

Alexander, who set out as king of the Macedonians and captain-general of
the Hellenes, assumed after the death of Darius the character of the
Oriental great king. He adopted the Persian garb (Plutarch, _de fort.
Al._ i. 8) including a head-dress, the _diadema_, which was suggested by
that of the Achaemenian king (_Just._ xii. 3, 8). We hear also of a
sceptre as part of his insignia (_Diod._ xviii. 27, 1). The pomps and
ceremonies which were traditional in the East were to be continued. To
the Greeks and Macedonians such a regime was abhorrent, and the
opposition roused by Alexander's attempt to introduce among them the
practice of _proskynesis_ (prostration before the royal presence), was
bitter and effectual. The title of _chiliarch_, by which the Greeks had
described the great king's chief minister, in accordance with the
Persian title which described him as "commander of a thousand," i.e. of
the royal body-guard, was conferred by Alexander upon his friend
Hephaestion. The Greek Chares held the position of chief usher ([Greek:
eisangeleus]). Another Greek, Eumenes of Cardia, was chief secretary
([Greek: archigrammateus]). The figure of the eunuch, so long
characteristic of the Oriental court, was as prominent as ever (e.g.
Bagoas, Plut. _Alex._ 67, &c.; cf. Arr. vii. 24).

Alexander, however, who impressed his contemporaries by his sexual
continence, kept no harem of the old sort. The number of his wives did
not go beyond two, and the second, the daughter of Darius, he did not
take till a year before his death. In closest contact with the king's
person were the seven, or latterly eight, body-guards, [Greek:
somatophylakes], Macedonians of high rank, including Ptolemy and
Lysimachus, the future kings of Egypt, and Thrace (Arr. vi. 28, 4). The
institution, which the Macedonian court before Alexander had borrowed
from Persia, of a corps of pages composed of the young sons of the
nobility ([Greek: paides basileioi] or [Greek: basilikoi]) continued to
hold an important place in the system of the court and in Alexander's
campaigns (see Arr. iv. 13, 1; Curt. viii. 6, 6; Suid. [Greek: basileioi
paides]; cf. the [Greek: paides] of Eumenes, Diod. xix. 28, 3).

  See Spiecker, _Der Hof und die Hofordnung Alex. d. Grossen_ (1904).


    5. Army.

  The army of Alexander was an instrument which he inherited from his
  father Philip. Its core was composed of the Macedonian peasantry who
  served on foot in heavy armour ("the Foot-companions" [Greek:
  pezetairoi]). They formed the phalanx, and were divided into 6
  brigades ([Greek: taxeis]), probably on the territorial system. Their
  distinctive arm was the great Macedonian pike (_sarissa_), some 14 ft.
  long, of further reach than the ordinary Greek spear. They were
  normally drawn up in more open order than the heavy Greek phalanx, and
  possessed thereby a mobility and elasticity in which the latter was
  fatally deficient. Reckoning 1,500 to each brigade, we got a total for
  the phalanx of 9,000 men. Of higher rank than the _pezetaeri_ were the
  royal foot-guards ([Greek: basilikoi hypaspistai]), some 3,000 in
  number, more lightly armed, and distinguished (at any rate at the time
  of Alexander's death) by silver shields. Of these 1,000 constituted
  the royal corps ([Greek: to agema to basilikou]). The Macedonian
  cavalry was recruited from a higher grade of society than the
  infantry, the _petite noblesse_ of the nation. They bore by old custom
  the name of the king's Companions ([Greek: hetairoi]), and were
  distributed into 8 territorial squadrons ([Greek: ilai]) of probably
  some 250 men each, making a normal total of 2,000. In the cavalry also
  the most privileged squadron bore the name of the _agema_. The ruder
  peoples which were neighbors to the Macedonians (Paeonians, Agrianes,
  Thracians) furnished contingents of light cavalry and javelineers
  ([Greek: akontistai]). From the Thessalians the Macedonian king, as
  overlord, drew some thousand excellent troopers. The rest of
  Alexander's army was composed of Greeks, not formally his subjects.
  These served partly as mercenaries, partly in contingents contributed
  by the states in virtue of their alliance. According to Diodorus
  (xvii. 17, 3) at the time of Alexander's passage into Asia, the
  mercenaries numbered 5,000, and the troops of the alliance 7,000 foot
  and 600 horse. All these numbers take no account of the troops left
  behind in Macedonia, 12,000 foot and 1,500 horse, according to
  Diodorus. When Alexander was lord of Asia, innovations followed in the
  army. Already in 330 at Persepolis, the command went forth that 30,000
  young Asiatics were to be trained as Macedonian soldiers (the
  _epigoni_, Arr. vii., 6, 1). Contingents of the fine Bactrian cavalry
  followed Alexander into India. Persian nobles were admitted into the
  _agema_ of the Macedonian cavalry. A far more radical remodelling of
  the army was undertaken at Babylon in 323, by which the old phalanx
  system was to be given up for one in which the unit was to be composed
  of Macedonians with pikes and Asiatics with missile arms in
  combination--a change calculated to be momentous both from a military
  point of view in the coming wars, and from a political, in the close
  fusion of Europeans and Asiatics. The death of Alexander interrupted
  the scheme, and his successors reverted to the older system. In the
  wars of Alexander the phalanx was never the most active arm; Alexander
  delivered his telling attacks with his cavalry, whereas the
  slow-moving phalanx held rather the position of a reserve, and was
  brought up to complete a victory when the cavalry charges had already
  taken effect. Apart from the pitched battles, the warfare of Alexander
  was largely hill-fighting, in which the _hypaspistae_ took the
  principal part, and the contingents of light-armed hillmen from the
  Balkan region did excellent service.

  For Alexander's army and tactics, beside the regular histories
  (Droysen, Niese, Beloch, Kaerst), see D. G. Hogarth, _Journal of
  Philol._, xvii. 1 seq. (corrected at some points in his _Philip and
  Alexander_).


  6. Fusion of Greeks and Asiatics.

The modifications in the army system were closely connected with
Alexander's general policy, in which the fusion of Greeks and Asiatics
held so prominent a place. He had himself, as we have seen, assumed to
some extent the guise of a Persian king. The Macedonian Peucestas
received special marks of his favour for adopting the Persian dress. The
most striking declaration of his ideals was the marriage feast at Susa
in 324, when a large number of the Macedonian nobles were induced to
marry Persian princesses, and the rank and file were encouraged by
special rewards to take Eastern wives. We are told that among the
schemes registered in the state papers and disclosed after Alexander's
death was one for transplanting large bodies of Asiatics into Europe and
Europeans into Asia, for blending the peoples of the empire by
intermarriage into a single whole (Diod. xviii. 4, 4). How far did
Alexander intend that in such a fusion Hellenic culture should retain
its pre-eminence? How far could it have done so, had the scheme been
realized? It is not impossible that the question may yet be raised again
whether the Eurasian after all is the heir of the ages.


  7. Divine Honours.

High above all the medley of kindreds and tongues, untrammelled by
national traditions, for he had outgrown the compass of any one nation,
invested with the glory of achievements in which the old bounds of the
possible seemed to fall away, stood in 324 the man Alexander. Was he a
man? The question was explicitly suggested by the report that the
Egyptian priest in the Oasis had hailed him in the god's name as the son
of Ammon. The Egyptians had, of course, ascribed deity by old custom to
their kings, and were ready enough to add Alexander to the list. The
Persians, on the other hand, had a different conception of the godhead,
and we have no proof that from them Alexander either required or
received divine honours. From the Greeks he certainly received such
honours; the ambassadors from the Greek states came in 323 with the
character of _theori_, as if approaching a deity (Arr. vii. 23, 2). It
has been supposed that in offering such worship the Greeks showed the
effect of "Oriental" influence, but indeed we have not to look outside
the Greek circle of ideas to explain it. As early as Aeschylus (_Supp._
991) the proffering of divine honours was a form of expression for
intense feelings of reverence or gratitude towards men which naturally
suggested itself--as a figure of speech in Aeschylus, but the figure had
been translated into action before Alexander not in the well-known case
of Lysander only (cf. the case of Dion, Plut. _Dio_, 29). Among the
educated Greeks rationalistic views of the old mythology had become so
current that they could assimilate Alexander to Dionysus without
supposing him to be supernatural, and to this temper the divine honours
were a mere form, an elaborate sort of flattery. Did Alexander merely
receive such honours? Or did he claim them himself? It would seem that
he did. Many of the assertions as to his action in this line do not
stand the light of criticism (see Hogarth, _Eng. Hist. Rev._ ii., 1887,
p. 317 seq.; Niese, _Historische Zeitschrift_, lxxix., 1897, p. 1,
seq.); even the explicit Statement in Arrian as to Alexander and the
Arabians is given as a mere report; but we have well-authenticated
utterances of Attic orators when the question of the cult of Alexander
came up for debate, which seem to prove that an intimation of the king's
pleasure had been conveyed to Athens.


  8. Intercourse and Discovery.

A new life entered the lands conquered by Alexander. Human intercourse
was increased and quickened to a degree not before known. Commercial
enterprise now found open roads between the Aegean and India; the new
Greek cities made stations in what had been for the earlier Greek
traders unknown lands; an immense quantity of precious metal had been
put into circulation which the Persian kings had kept locked up in their
treasuries (cf. Athen, vi. 231 e). At the same time Alexander himself
made it a principal concern to win fresh geographical knowledge, to
open new ways. The voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates
was intended to link India by a waterway with the Mediterranean lands.
So too Heraclides was sent to explore the Caspian; the survey, and
possible circumnavigation, of the Arabian coasts was the last enterprise
which occupied Alexander. The improvement of waterways in the interior
of the empire was not neglected, the Babylonian canal system was
repaired, the obstructions in the Tigris removed. A canal was attempted
across the Mimas promontory (Plin. _N.H._ v. 116). The reports of the
[Greek: Bematistai], Baeton and Diognetus, who accompanied the march of
Alexander's army, gave an exacter knowledge of the geographical
conformation of the empire, and were accessible for later investigators
(Susemihl, _Gesch. d. griech. Litt._, I. p. 544). Greek natural science
was enriched with a mass of new material from the observations of the
philosophers who went with Alexander through the strange lands (H.
Bretzl, _Botanische Forschungen d. Alexanderzuges_, 1903); whilst on the
other hand attempts were made to acclimatize the plants of the
motherland in the foreign soil (Theophr., _Hist. Plant._ iv. 4, 1).


    9. Coinage.

  The accession of Alexander brought about a change in the monetary
  system of the kingdom. Philip's bimetallic system, which had attempted
  artificially to fix the value of silver in spite of the great
  depreciation of gold consequent upon the working of the Pangaean
  mines, was abandoned. Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not
  struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of
  Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver
  coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the
  Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been
  Philip's. With the conquest of Asia, Alexander conceived the plan of
  issuing a uniform coinage for the empire. Gold had fallen still
  further from the diffusion of the Persian treasure, and Alexander
  struck in both metals on the Attic standard, leaving their relation to
  adjust itself by the state of the market. This imperial coinage was
  designed to break down the monetary predominance of Athens (Beloch,
  _Gr. Gesch._ iii. i, 42). None of the coins with Alexander's own image
  can be shown to have been issued during his reign; the traditional
  gods of the Greeks still admitted no living man to share their
  prerogative in this sphere. Athena and Nike alone figured upon
  Alexander's gold; Heracles and Zeus upon his silver.

  See L. Müller, _Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand_ (1855); also
  NUMISMATICS: § I. "Greek Coins, Macedonian."


  1. History of the "Successors."

II. _After Alexander._--The external fortunes of the Macedonian Empire
after Alexander's death must be briefly traced before its inner
developments be touched upon.[2] There was, at first, when Alexander
suddenly died in 323, no overt disruption of the empire. The dispute
between the Macedonian infantry and the cavalry (i.e. the commonalty and
the nobles) was as to the person who should be chosen to be the king,
although it is true that either candidate, the half-witted son of Philip
II., Philip Arrhidaeus, or the posthumous son of Alexander by Roxana,
opened the prospect of a long regency exercised by one or more of the
Macedonian lords. The compromise, by which both the candidates should be
kings together, was, of course, succeeded by a struggle for power among
those who wished to rule in their name. The resettlement of dignities
made in Babylon in 323, while it left the eastern commands practically
undisturbed as well as that of Antipater in Europe, placed Perdiccas
(whether as regent or as chiliarch) in possession of the kings' persons,
and this was a position which the other Macedonian lords could not
suffer. Hence the first intestine war among the Macedonians, in which
Antipater, Antigonus, the satrap of Phrygia, and Ptolemy, the satrap of
Egypt, were allied against Perdiccas, who was ultimately murdered in 321
on the Egyptian frontier (see PERDICCAS [4], EUMENES). A second
settlement, made at Triparadisus in Syria in 321, constituted Antipater
regent and increased the power of Antigonus in Asia. When Antipater
died, in 319, a second war broke out, the wrecks of the party of
Perdiccas, led by Eumenes, combining with Polyperchon, the new regent,
and later on (318) with the eastern satraps who were in arms against
Pithon, the satrap of Media. Cassander, the son of Antipater,
disappointed of the regency, had joined the party of Antigonus. In 316
Antigonus had defeated and killed Eumenes and made himself supreme from
the Aegean to Iran, and Cassander had ousted Polyperchon from
Macedonia. But now a third war began, the old associates of Antigonus,
alarmed by his overgrown power, combining against him--Cassander,
Ptolemy, Lysimachus, the governor of Thrace, and Seleucus, who had fled
before Antigonus from his satrapy of Babylonia. From 315 to 301 the war
of Antigonus against these four went on, with one short truce in 311.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son
Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested
almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling
Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and
after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated
Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring
all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India. Meanwhile
the struggle changed its character in an important respect. King Philip
had been murdered by Olympias in 317; the young Alexander by Cassander
in 310; Heracles, the illegitimate son of Alexander the Great, by
Polyperchon in 309. Thus the old royal house became extinct in the male
line, and in 306 Antigonus assumed the title of king. His four
adversaries answered this challenge by immediately doing the same. Even
in appearance the empire was no longer a unity. In 301 the coalition
triumphed over Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus (in Phrygia) and he
himself was slain. Of the four kings who now divided the Macedonian
Empire amongst them, two were not destined to found durable dynasties,
while the house of Antigonus, represented by Demetrius, was after all to
do so. The house of Antipater came to an end in the male line in 294,
when Demetrius killed the son of Cassander and established himself on
the throne of Macedonia. He was however expelled by Lysimachus and
Pyrrhus in 288; and in 285 Lysimachus took possession of all the
European part of the Macedonian Empire. Except indeed for Egypt and
Palestine under Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus now divided the empire
between them, with the Taurus in Asia Minor for their frontier. These
two survivors of the forty years' conflict soon entered upon the
crowning fight, and in 281 Lysimachus fell in the battle of Corupedion
(in Lydia), leaving Seleucus virtually master of the empire. Seleucus'
assassination by Ptolemy Ceraunus in the same year brought back
confusion.

Ptolemy Ceraunus (the son of the first Ptolemy, and half-brother of the
reigning king of Egypt) seized the Macedonian throne, whilst Antiochus,
the son of Seleucus, succeeded in holding together the Asiatic dominions
of his father. The confusion was aggravated by the incursion of the
Gauls into the Balkan Peninsula in 279; Ptolemy Ceraunus perished, and a
period of complete anarchy succeeded in Macedonia. In 276 Antigonus
Gonatas, the son of Demetrius, after inflicting a crushing defeat on the
Gauls near Lysimachia, at last won Macedonia definitively for his house.
Three solid kingdoms had thus emerged from all the fighting since
Alexander's death: the kingdom of the Antigonids in the original land of
the race, the kingdom of the Ptolemies in Egypt, and that of the
Seleucids, extending from the Aegean to India. For the next 100 years
these are the three great powers of the eastern Mediterranean. But
already parts of the empire of Alexander had passed from Macedonian rule
altogether. In Asia Minor, Philetaerus a Greek of Tios (Tieium) in
Paphlagonia, had established himself in a position of practical
independence at Pergamum, and his nephew, Attalus, was the father of the
line of kings who reigned in Pergamum till 133--antagonistic to the
Seleucid house, till in 189 they took over the Seleucid possessions west
of the Taurus. In Bithynia a native dynasty assumed the style of kings
in 297. In Cappadocia two Persian houses, relics of the old aristocracy
of Achaemenian days had carved out principalities, one of which became
the kingdom of Pontus and the other the kingdom of Cappadocia (in the
narrower sense); the former regarding Mithradates (281-266) as its
founder, the latter being the creation of the second Ariarathes
(?302-?281). Armenia, never effectively conquered by the Macedonians,
was left in the hands of native princes, tributary only when the
Seleucid court was strong enough to compel. In India, Seleucus had in
302 ceded large districts on the west of the Indus to Chandragupta, who
had arisen to found a native empire which annexed the Macedonian
provinces in the Panjab.

Whilst the Antigonid kingdom remained practically whole till the Roman
conquest ended it in 168 B.C., and the house of Ptolemy ruled in Egypt
till the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C., the Seleucid Empire perished by
a slow process of disruption. The eastern provinces of Iran went in 240
or thereabouts, when the Greek Diodotus made himself an independent king
in Bactria (q.v.) and Sogdiana, and Tiridates, brother of Arsaces, a
"Scythian" chieftain, conquered Parthia (so Arrian, but see PARTHIA).
Armenia was finally lost in 190, when Artaxias founded a new native
dynasty there. Native princes probably ruled in Persis before 166,
though the district was at least nominally subject to Antiochus IV.
Epiphanes till his death in 164 (see PERSIS). In southern Syria, which
had been won by the house of Seleucus from the house of Ptolemy in 198,
the independent Jewish principality was set up in 143. About the same
time Media was totally relinquished to the Parthians. Babylonia was
Parthian from 129. Before 88 the Parthians had conquered Mesopotamia.
Commagene was independent under a king, Mithradates Callinicus, in the
earlier part of the last century B.C. Syria itself in the last days of
the Seleucid dynasty is seen to be breaking up into petty
principalities, Greek or native. From 83 to 69 is the transient episode
of Armenian conquest, and in 64 the last shadow of Seleucid rule
vanished, when Syria was made a Roman province by Pompey. From this time
Rome formally entered upon the heritage of Alexander as far as the
Euphrates, but many of the dynasties which had arisen in the days of
Macedonian supremacy were allowed to go on for a time as client states.
One of them, the royal house of Commagene, not deposed by the Romans
till A.D. 72, had Seleucid blood in its veins through the marriage of a
Seleucid princess with Mithradates Callinicus, and regarded itself as
being a continuation of the Seleucid dynasty. Its kings bore the name of
Antiochus, and were as proud of their Macedonian, as of their Persian,
descent (see the Inscription of Nimrud Dagh, Michel, No. 735).


  2. Constitution of the Macedonian Kingdom.

The Macedonians of Alexander were not mistaken in seeing an essential
transformation of their national monarchy when Alexander adopted the
guise of an Oriental great king. Transplanted into this foreign soil,
the monarchy became an absolute despotism, unchecked by a proud
territorial nobility and a hardy peasantry on familiar terms with their
king. The principle which Seleucus is reported to have enunciated, that
the king's command was the supreme law (App. _Syr._ 61), was literally
the principle of the new Hellenistic monarchies in the East. But the
rights belonging to the Macedonian army as Alexander inherited it did
not altogether disappear. Like the old Roman people, the Macedonian
people under arms had acted especially in the transference of the royal
authority, conferring or confirming the right of the new chief, and in
cases of the capital trials of Macedonians. In the latter respect the
army came regularly into function under Alexander, and in the wars which
followed his death (Diod. xviii. 4, 3; 36, 7; 37, 2, 39, 2; xix. 61, 3),
and in Macedonia; although the power of life and death came _de facto_
into the hands of the Antigonid king, the old right of the army to act
as judge was not legally abrogated, and friction was sometimes caused by
its assertion (Polyb. v. 27, 5). The right of the army to confer the
royal power was still symbolized in the popular acclamation required on
the accession of a new king, and at Alexandria in troubled times we hear
of "the people" making its will effective in filling the throne,
although it is here hard to distinguish mob-rule from the exercise of a
legitimate function. Thus the people put Euergetes II. on the throne
when Philometor was captured (Polyb. xxix. 23, 4); the people compelled
Cleopatra III. to choose Soter II. as her associate (Just. xxxiv. 3, 2).
In Syria, the usurper Tryphon bases his right upon an election by the
"people" (Just. xxxvi. 1, 7) or "the army" (Jos. _Ant._ xiii. § 219).
Where it is a case of delegating some part of the supreme authority, as
when Seleucus I. made his son Antiochus king for the eastern provinces,
we find the army convoked to ratify the appointment (App. _Syr._ 61). So
too the people is spoken of as appointing the guardians of a king
during his minority (Just. xxxiv. 3, 6). Nor was the power of the army a
fiction. The Hellenistic monarchies rested, as all government in the
last resort must, upon the loyalty of those who wielded the brute force
of the state, and however unlimited the powers of the king might be in
theory, he could not alienate the goodwill of the army with impunity.
The right of primogeniture in succession was recognized as a general
principle; a woman, however, might succeed only so long as there were no
male agnates. Illegitimate children had no rights of succession. In
disturbed times, of course, right yielded to might or to practical
necessities.

The practice by which the king associated a son with himself, as
secondary king, dates from the very beginning of the kingdoms of the
Successors; Antigonus on assuming the diadem in 306 caused Demetrius
also to bear the title of king. Some ten years later Seleucus appointed
Antiochus as king for the eastern provinces. Thenceforth the practice is
a common one. But the cases of it fall into two classes. Sometimes the
subordinate or joint kingship implies real functions. In the Seleucid
kingdom the territorial expanse of the realm made the creation of a
distinct subordinate government for part of it a measure of practical
convenience. Sometimes the joint-king is merely titular, an infant of
tender years, as for instance Antiochus Eupator, the son of Antiochus
Epiphanes, or Ptolemy Eupator, the son of Ptolemy Philometor. The object
here is to secure the succession in the event of the supreme king's
dying whilst his heir is an infant. The king's government was carried on
by officials appointed by him and responsible to him alone. Government
at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has
little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the
subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if
satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local
authorities. In the loosely-knit Seleucid realm it is plain that a great
deal more independence was left to the various communities,--cities or
native tribes,--than in Egypt, where the conditions made a bureaucratic
system so easy to carry through. In their outlying possessions the
Ptolemies may have suffered as much local independence as the Seleucids;
the internal government of Jerusalem, for instance, was left to the high
priests. In so far as the older Greek cities fell within their sphere of
power, the successors of Alexander were forced to the same ambiguous
policy as Alexander had been, between recognizing the cities' unabated
claim to sovereign independence and the necessity of attaching them
securely. In Asia Minor, the "enslavement" and liberation of cities
alternated with the circumstances of the hour, while the kings all
through professed themselves the champions of Hellenic freedom, and were
ready on occasion to display munificence toward the city temples or in
public works, such as might reconcile republicans to a position of
dependence. Antiochus III. went so far as to write on one occasion to
the subject Greek cities that if any royal mandate clashed with the
civic laws it was to be disregarded (Plut. _Imp. et duc. apophth._). But
it was the old cry of the "autonomy of the Hellenes," raised by Smyrna
and Lampsacus, which ultimately brought Antiochus III. into collision
with Rome. How anxious the Pergamene kings, with their ardent Hellenism,
were to avoid offence is shown by the elaborate forms by which, in their
own capital, they sought to give their real control the appearance of
popular freedom (Cardinali, Regno di _Pergamo_, p. 281 seq.). A similar
problem confronted the Antigonid dynasty in the cities of Greece itself,
for to maintain a predominant influence in Greece was a ground-principle
of their policy. Demetrius had presented himself in 307 as the
liberator, and driven the Macedonian garrison from the Peiraeus; but his
own garrisons held Athens thirteen years later, when he was king of
Macedonia, and the Antigonid dynasty clung to the points of vantage in
Greece, especially Chalcis and Corinth, till their garrisons were
finally expelled by the Romans in the name of Hellenic liberty.


  3. Commerce.

The new movement of commerce initiated by the conquest of Alexander
continued under his successors, though the break-up of the Macedonian
Empire in Asia in the 3rd century and the distractions of the Seleucid
court must have withheld many advantages from the Greek merchants which
a strong central government might have afforded them. It was along the
great trade-routes between India and the West that the main stream of
riches flowed then as in later centuries. One of these routes was by sea
to south-west Arabia (Yemen), and thence up the Red Sea to Alexandria.
This was the route controlled and developed by the Ptolemaïc kings.
Between Yemen and India the traffic till Roman times was mainly in the
hands of Arabians or Indians; between Alexandria and Yemen it was
carried by Greeks (Strabo ii. 118). The west coast of the Red Sea was
dotted with commercial stations of royal foundation from Arsinoë north
of Suez to Arsinoë in the south near the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. From
Berenice on the Red Sea a land-route struck across to the Nile at
Coptos; this route the kings furnished with watering stations. That
there might also be a waterway between Alexandria and the Red Sea, they
cut a canal between the Delta and the northern Arsinoë. It was
Alexandria into which this stream of traffic poured and made it the
commercial metropolis of the world. We hear of direct diplomatic
intercourse between the courts of Alexandria and Pataliputra, i.e. Patna
(Plin. vi. § 58). An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the
Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across
Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no
doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaïc and Seleucid houses
for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III. to subjugate
the Gerrhaeans. Or from the Persian Gulf wares might be taken up the
Euphrates and carried across to Antioch; this route lay altogether in
the Seleucid sphere. With Iran Antioch was connected most directly by
the road which crossed the Euphrates at the Zeugma and went through
Edessa and Antioch-Nisibis to the Tigris. The trade from India which
went down the Oxus and then to the Caspian does not seem to have been
considerable (Tarn, _Journ. of Hell. Stud._ xxi. 10 seq.). From Antioch
to the Aegean the land high-road went across Asia Minor by the Cilician
Gates and the Phrygian Apamea.


  4. Finance.

Of the financial organization of the Macedonian kingdoms we know
practically nothing, except in the case of Egypt. Here the papyri and
ostraca have put a large material at our disposal, but the circumstances
in Egypt[3] were too peculiar for us to generalize upon these data as to
the Seleucid and Antigonid realms. That the Seleucid kings drew in a
principal part of their revenues from tribute levied upon the various
native races, distributed in their village communities as tillers of the
soil goes without saying.[4] In districts left in the hands of native
chiefs these chiefs would themselves exploit their villages and pay the
Seleucid court and tribute. To exact tribute from Greek cities was
invidious, but both Antigonid and Seleucid kings often did so
(Antigonid, Diog. Laërt. II., 140; Plut. _Dem._ 27; Seleucid, Michel,
No. 37; Polyb. xxi. 43, 2). Sometimes, no doubt, this tribute was
demanded under a fairer name, as the contribution of any ally ([Greek:
syntaxis], not [Greek: phoros]), like the [Greek: Galatika] levied by
Antiochus I. (Michel, No. 37; cf. Polyb. xxii. 27, 2). The royal
domains, again, and royal monopolies, such as salt-mines, were a source
of revenue.[5] As to indirect taxes, like customs and harbour dues,
while their existence is a matter of course (cf. Polyb. v. 89, 8), their
scale, nature and amount is quite unknown to us. Whatever the financial
system of the Antigonid and Seleucid kingdoms may have been, it is
clear that they were far from enjoying the affluence of the Ptolemaïc.
During the first Seleucid reigns indeed the revenues of Asia may have
filled its treasuries (see Just. xvii. 2, 13), but Antiochus III.
already at his accession found them depleted (Polyb. v. 50, 1), and from
his reign financial embarrassment, coupled with extravagant expenditure,
was here the usual condition of things. Perseus, the last of the
Antigonid house, amassed a substantial treasure for the expenses of the
supreme struggle with Rome (Polyb. xviii. 35, 4; Liv. xlv, 40), but it
was by means of almost miserly economies.

Special officials were naturally attached to the service of the
finances. Over the whole department in the Seleucid realm there presided
a single chief ([Greek: ho epi ton prosodon], App. _Syr_. 45). How far
the financial administration was removed from the competence of the
provincial governors, as it seems to have been in Alexander's system, we
cannot say. Seleucus at any rate, as satrap of Babylonia, controlled the
finances of the province (Diod. xix. 55, 3), and so, in the Ptolemaïc
system, did the governor of Cyprus (Polyb. xxvii. 13). The fact that
provincial officials [Greek: epi ton prosodon] (in Eriza, _Bull. corr.
hell._ xv. 556) are found does not prove anything, since it leaves open
the question of their being subordinate to the governor.


  5. Coinage.

With the exception of Ptolemaïc Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed
in their coinage that of Alexander. Money was for a long while largely
struck with Alexander's own image and superscription; the gold and
silver coined in the names of Antigonid and Seleucid kings and by the
minor principalities of Asia, kept to the Attic standard which Alexander
had established. Only in Egypt Ptolemy I. adopted, at first the Rhodian,
and afterwards the Phoenician, standard, and on this latter standard the
Ptolemaïc money was struck during the subsequent centuries. Money was
also struck in their own name by the cities in the several dynasties'
spheres of power, but in most cases only bronze or small silver for
local use. Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under
Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia
retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaïc supremacy.


  6. The Court.

In language and manners the courts of Alexander's successors were Greek.
Even the Macedonian dialect, which it was considered proper for the
kings to use on occasion, was often forgotten (Plut. _Ant._ 27). The
Oriental features which Alexander had introduced were not copied. There
was no _proskynesis_ (or certainly not in the case of Greeks and
Macedonians), and the king did not wear an Oriental dress. The symbol of
royalty, it is true, the _diadem_, was suggested by the head-band of the
old Persian kings (Just. xii. 3, 8); but, whereas, that had been an
imposing erection, the Hellenistic diadem was a simple riband. The
king's state dress was the same in principle as that worn by the
Macedonian or Thessalian horsemen, as the uniform of his own cavalry
officers. Its features were the broad-brimmed hat (_kausia_), the cloak
(_chlamys_) and the high-laced boots (_krepides_) (Plut. _Ant._ 54;
Frontinus, iii. 2, 11). These, in the case of the king, would be of
richer material, colour and adornment. The diadem could be worn round
the kausia; the chlamys offered scope for gorgeous embroidery; and the
boots might be crimson felt (see the description of Demetrius' chlamys
and boots, Plut. _Dem_. 41). There were other traces in the Hellenistic
courts of the old Macedonian tradition besides in dress. One was the
honour given to prowess in the chase (Polyb. xxii. 3, 8; Diod. xxxiv.
34). Another was the fashion for the king to hold wassail with his
courtiers, in which he unbent to an extent scandalous to the Greeks,
dancing or indulging in routs and practical jokes.[6]

The prominent part taken by the women of the royal house was a
Macedonian characteristic. The history of these kingdoms furnishes a
long list of queens and princesses who were ambitious and masterful
politicians, of which the great Cleopatra is the last and the most
famous. The kings after Alexander, with the exception of Demetrius
Poliorcetes and Pyrrhus, are not found to have more than one legitimate
wife at a time, although they show unstinted freedom in divorce and the
number of their mistresses. The custom of marriages between brothers and
sisters, agreeable to old Persian as to old Egyptian ethics, was
instituted in Egypt by the second Ptolemy when he married his full
sister Arsinoë Philadelphus. It was henceforth common, though not
invariable, among the Ptolemies. At the Seleucid court there seems to be
an instance of it in 195, when the heir-apparent, Antiochus, married his
sister Laodice. The style of "sister" was given in both courts to the
queen, even when she was not the king's sister in reality (Strack,
_Dynastie_, Nos. 38, 40, 43; _Archiv. f. Papyr_, i. 205). The "Friends"
of the king are often mentioned. It is usual for him to confer with a
council ([Greek: synedrion]) of his "Friends" before important
decisions, administrative, military or judicial (e.g. Polyb. v. 16, 5;
22, 8). They form a definite body about the king's person ([Greek:
philon syntagma], Polyb. xxxi. 3, 7); cf. [Greek: hoi philoi] in
contrast with [Greek: hai dynameis], id. v. 50, 9), admission into which
depends upon his favour alone, and is accorded, not only to his
subjects, but to aliens, such as the Greek refugee politicians (e.g.
Hegesianax, Athen. iv. 155b; Hannibal and the Aetolian Thoas take part
in the councils of Antiochus III. A similar body, with a title
corresponding to [Greek: philoi], is found in ancient Egypt (Erman,
_Ancient Egypt_, Eng. trans., p. 72) and in Persia (Spiegel. _Eran.
Alt._ iii. 626); but some such support is so obviously required by the
necessities of a despot's position that we need not suppose it derived
from any particular precedent. The Friends (at any rate under the later
Seleucid and Ptolemaïc reigns) were distinguished by a special dress and
badge of gold analogous to the stars and crosses of modern orders. The
dress was of crimson ([Greek: porphyra]); this and the badges were the
king's gift, and except by royal grant neither crimson nor gold might,
apparently, be worn at court (1 Macc. 10, 20; 62; 89; 11, 58; Athen. v.
211b). The order of Friends was organized in a hierarchy of ranks, which
were multiplied as time went on. In Egypt we find them classified as
[Greek: syngeneis, homotimoi tois syngenesin, archisomatophylakes,
protoi philoi, philoi] (in the narrower sense), [Greek: diadochoi]. For
the Seleucid kingdom [Greek: syngeneis, protoi philoi] and [Greek:
philoi] are mentioned. These classes do not appear in Egypt before the
2nd century; Strack conjectures that they were created in imitation of
the Seleucid court. We have no direct evidence as to the institutions of
the Seleucid court in the 3rd century. Certain [Greek: somatophylakes]
of Antiochus I. are mentioned, but we do not know whether the name was
not then used in its natural sense (Strack, _Rhein. Mus._ LV., 1900, p.
161 seq.; Wilamowitz, _Archiv f. Pap._ I., p. 225; Beloch, _Gr. Gesch._
iii (i), p. 391). As to Macedonia, whatever may have been the
constitution of the court, it is implied that it offered in its
externals a sober plainness in comparison with the vain display and
ceremonious frivolities of Antioch and Alexandria (Polyb. xvi, 22, 5;
Plut. _Cleom._ 31; _Arat_, 15). The position of a Friend did not carry
with it necessarily any functions; it was in itself purely honorary. The
ministers and high officials were, on the other hand, regularly invested
with one or other of the ranks specified. The chief of these ministers
is denoted [Greek: ho epi ton pragmaton], and he corresponds to the
_vizier_ of the later East. All departments of government are under his
supervision, and he regularly holds the highest rank of a kinsman. When
the king is a minor, he acts as guardian or regent ([Greek: epitropos]).
Over different departments of state we find a state secretary ([Greek:
epistolographos] or [Greek: hypomnematographos]: Seleucid, Polyb. xxxi,
3, 16; Ptolemaïc, Strack, _Inschriften_ 103) and a minister of finance
([Greek: ho epi ton prosodon] in the Seleucid kingdom; App. _Syr._ 45;
[Greek: dioiketes] in Egypt, Lumbroso, _Econ. Pol._ p. 339). Under each
of these great heads of departments was a host of lower officials,
those, for instance, who held to the province a relation analogous to
that of the head of the department of the realm. Such a provincial
authority is described as [Greek: epi ton prosodon] in the inscription
of Eriza (_Bull. corr. hell._ xv. 556). Beside the officials concerned
with the work of government we have those of the royal household: (1)
the chief-physician, [Greek: archiatros] (for the Seleucid see App.
_Syr._ 59; Polyb. v. 56, 1; Michel, No. 1158; for the Pontic, _Bull.
corr. hell._ vii. 354 seq.); (2) the chief-huntsman, [Greek:
archikunegos] (Dittenb. _Orient. Graec._ 99); (3) the maître-d'hotel
[Greek: archedeatros] (Dittenb. _Orient. Graec._ 169) (4) the lord of
the queen's bedchamber, [Greek: ho epi tou koitonos tês Basilissês]
(Dittenb. _Orient. Graec._ 256). As in the older Oriental courts, the
high positions were often filled by eunuchs (e.g. Craterus, in last
mentioned inscription).

It was customary, as in Persia and in old Macedonia, for the great men
of the realm to send their children to court to be brought up with the
children of the royal house. Those who had been so brought up with the
king were styled his [Greek: syntrophoi] (for the Seleucid, Polyb. v.
82, 8 and xxxi. 21, 2; _Bull. corr. hell._ i. 285; 2 Macc. ix. 29; for
the Ptolemaïc [Greek: syntrophoi paidiskai] of the queen, Polyb. xv. 33,
11; for the Pontic, _Bull. corr. hell._ vii. 355; for the Pergamene.
Polyb. xxxii. 27, 10, &c.; for the Herodian, Acts 13). It is perfectly
gratuitous to suppose with Deissmann that "the fundamental meaning had
given place to the general meaning of intimate friend." With this custom
we may perhaps bring into connexion the office of [Greek: tropheus]
(Polyb. xxxi. 20, 3; Michel, No. 1158). As under Alexander, so under his
successors, we find a corps of [Greek: Basilikoi paides]. They appear as
a corps, 600 strong, in a triumphal procession at Antioch (Polyb. xxxi.
3, 17; cf. v. 82, 13; Antigonid, Livy, xlv. 6; cf. Curtius, viii. 6, 6).


  7. Hellenic Culture.

All the Hellenistic courts felt it a great part of prestige to be filled
with the light of Hellenic culture. A distinguished philosopher or man
of letters would find them bidding for his presence, and most of the
great names are associated with one or other of the contemporary kings.
Antigonus Gonatas, bluff soldier-spirit that he was, heard the Stoic
philosophers gladly, and, though he failed to induce Zeno to come to
Macedonia, persuaded Zeno's disciple, Persaeus of Citium, to enter his
service. Nor was it philosophers only who made his court illustrious,
but poets like Aratus. The Ptolemaïc court, with the museum attached to
it, is so prominent in the literary and scientific history of the age
that it is unnecessary to give a list of the philosophers, the men of
letters and science, who at one time or other ate at King Ptolemy's
table. One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution
of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's
campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but
himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II. issued a
book of memoirs. The Pergamene court was in no degree behind the
Ptolemaïc in its literary and artistic zeal. The notable school of
sculpture connected with it is treated elsewhere (see GREEK ART); to its
literary school we probably owe in great part the preservation of the
masterpieces of Attic prose (Susemihl I., p. 4), and two of its kings
(Eumenes I. and Attalus III.) were themselves authors. The Seleucid
court did not rival either of the last named in brilliance of culture;
and yet some names of distinction were associated with it. Under
Antiochus I. Aratus carried out a recension of the _Odyssey_, and
Berossus composed a Babylonian history in Greek; under Antiochus III.
Euphorion was made keeper of the library at Antioch. Antiochus IV., of
course, the enthusiastic Hellenist, filled Antioch with Greek artists
and gave a royal welcome to Athenian philosophers. Even in the
degenerate days of the dynasty, Antiochus Grypus, who had been brought
up at Athens, aspired to shine as a poet. The values recognized in the
great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their
authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin. The Cappadocian court
admitted the full stream of Hellenistic culture under Ariarathes V.
(Diod. xxxi. 19, 8). One of the kings called Nicomedes in Bithynia
offered immense sums to acquire the Aphrodite of Praxiteles from the
Cnidians (Plin. _N.H._ xxxvi. 21), and to a king Nicomedes the
geographical poem of the Pseudo-Scymnus is dedicated. Even Iranian kings
in the last century B.C. found pleasure in composing, or listening to,
Greek tragedies, and Herod the Great kept Greek men of letters beside
him and had spasmodic ambitions to make his mark as an orator or author
(Nicol. Dam. frag. 4; _F.H.G._ III. p. 350).


  8. Divine Honours.

The offering of divine honours to the king, which we saw begin under
Alexander, became stereotyped in the institutions of the succeeding
Hellenistic kingdoms. Alexander himself was after his death the object
of various local cults, like that which centred in the shrine near
Erythrae (Strabo, xiv. 644). His successors in the first years after his
death recognized him officially as a divinity, except Antipater (Suïdas,
s.v. [Greek: Antipatros]), and coins began to be issued with his image.
At Alexandria the state cult of him seems to have been instituted by the
second Ptolemy, when his body was laid in the _Sema_ (Otto, _Priester u.
Tempel_, i. 139 seq.). The successors themselves received divine
honours. Such worship might be the spontaneous homage of a particular
Greek community, like that offered to Antigonus by Scepsis in 311
(_Journ. of Hell. Stud._ xix. 335 seq.), the Antigonus and Demetrius by
Athens in 307, to Ptolemy I. by the Rhodians in 304, or by Cassandrea to
Cassander, as the city's founder (Ditt. 2nd ed. 178); or it might be
organized and maintained by royal authority. The first proved instance
of a cult of the latter kind is that instituted at Alexandria by the
second Ptolemy for his father soon after the latter's death in 283/2, in
which, some time after, 279/8, he associated his mother Berenice also,
the two being worshipped together as [Greek: theoi soteres] (Theoc.
xvii. 121 seq.). Antiochus I. followed the Ptolemaïc precedent by
instituting at Seleucia-in-Pieria a cult for his father as Seleucus Zeus
Nicator. So far we can point to no instance of a cult of the living
sovereign (though the cities might institute such locally) being
established by the court for the realm. This step was taken in Egypt
after the death of Arsinoë Philadelphus (271) when she and her
still-living brother-husband, Ptolemy II., began to be worshipped
together as [Greek: theoi adelphoi]. After this the cult of the reigning
king and queen was regularly maintained in Greek Egypt, side by side
with that of the dead Ptolemies. Under Antiochus II. (261-246) a
document shows us a cult of the reigning king in full working for the
Seleucid realm, with a high priest in each province, appointed by the
king himself; the document declares that the Queen Laodice is now to be
associated with the king. The official surname of Antiochus II., Theos,
suggests that he himself had here been the innovator. Thenceforward, in
the Hellenistic kingdoms of the East the worship of the living sovereign
became the rule, although it appears to have been regarded as given in
anticipation of an apotheosis which did not become actual till death. In
the Pergamene kingdom at any rate, though the living king was worshipped
with sacrifice, the title [Greek: theos] was only given to those who
were dead (Cardinali, _Regno di Pergamo_, p. 153). The Antigonid
dynasty, simpler and saner in its manners, had no official cult of this
sort. The divine honours offered on occasion by the Greek cities were
the independent acts of the cities.

  See Plut. _Arat._ 45; _Cleom._ 16; Kornemann, "Zur Gesch. d. antiken
  Herrscherkulte" in _Beiträge z. alt. Gesch._ i. 51 sqq.; Otto,
  _Priester u. Tempel_, pp. 138 seq.


    9. Surnames.

  There does not seem any clear proof that the surnames which the
  Hellenistic kings in Asia and Egypt bore were necessarily connected
  with the cult, even if they were used to describe the various kings in
  religious ceremonies. Some had doubtless a religious colour, _Theos,
  Epiphanes, Soter_; others a dynastic, _Phitopator, Philometor,
  Philadelphus_. Under what circumstances, and by whose selection, the
  surname was attached to a king, is obscure. It is noteworthy that
  while modern books commonly speak of the surnames as _assumed_, the
  explanations given by our ancient authorities almost invariably
  suppose them to be given as marks of homage or gratitude (_English
  Historical Review_, xvi. 629 (1901). The official surnames must not,
  of course, be confused with the popular nicknames which were naturally
  not recognized by the court, e.g. _Ceraunus_ ("Thunder"), _Hierax_
  ("Hawk"), _Physcon_ ("Pot-belly"), _Lathyrus_ ("Chick-pea").


    10. Armies.

  The armies of Alexander's successors were still in the main principles
  of their organization similar to the army with which Alexander had
  conquered Asia. During the years immediately after Alexander the very
  Macedonians who had fought under Alexander were ranged against each
  other under the banners of the several chiefs. The most noted corps
  of veterans, Argyraspides (i.e. the royal Hypaspistae) played a great
  part in the first wars of the successors, and covered themselves with
  infamy by their betrayal of Eumenes. As the soldiers of Alexander died
  off, fresh levies of home-born Macedonians could be raised only by the
  chief who held the motherland. The other chiefs had to supply
  themselves with Macedonians from the numerous colonies planted before
  the break-up of the empire in Asia or Egypt, and from such Macedonians
  they continued for the next two centuries to form their phalanx. The
  breed--at least if the statement which Livy puts into the mouth of a
  Roman general can be relied on--degenerated greatly under Asiatic and
  Egyptian skies (Liv. xxxviii. 17, 10); but still old names like that
  of _pezetaeri_ attached to the phalangites (Plut. _Tib._ 17), and they
  still wielded the national _sarissa_. The latter weapon in the
  interval between Alexander and the time of Polybius had been increased
  to a length of 21 ft. (Polyb. xviii. 12), a proportion inconsistent
  with any degree of mobility; once more indeed the phalanx of the 2nd
  century seems to have become a body effective by sheer weight only and
  disordered by unevenness of ground. The Antigonid kings were never
  able from Macedonian levies to put in the field a phalanx of more than
  20,000 at the utmost (Liv. xlii. 51); Antigonus Doson takes with him
  to Greece (in 222) one of 10,000 only. The phalanx of Antiochus III.
  at Raphia numbered 20,000, and Ptolemy Philopator was able at the same
  time to form one of 25,000 men (Polyb. v. 4). As these phalangites are
  distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian
  levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more
  Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in
  Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353). The royal foot-guards are
  still described in Macedonia in 171 as the _agema_ (Polyb. v. 25, 1;
  27, 3; Liv. xlii. 51), when they number 2000; at the Ptolemaïc court
  in 217 the _agema_ had numbered 3000 (Polyb. v. 65, 2); and a similar
  corps of _hypaspistae_ is indicated in the Seleucid army (Polyb. vii.
  16, 2; xvi. 18, 7). So too the old name of "Companions" was kept up in
  the Seleucid kingdom for the Macedonian cavalry (see Polyb. v. 53, 4,
  &c.), and divisions of rank in it are still indicated by the terms
  _agema_ and royal squadron ([Greek: basilike hile], see Bevan, _House
  of Seleucus_, ii. 288). The Antigonid and Seleucid courts had much
  valuable material at hand for their armies in the barbarian races
  under their sway. The Balkan hill-peoples of Illyrian or Thracian
  stock, the hill-peoples of Asia Minor and Iran, the chivalry of Media
  and Bactria, the mounted bowmen of the Caspian steppes, the
  camel-riders of the Arabian desert, could all be turned to account.
  Iranian troops seem to have been employed on a large scale by the
  earlier Seleucids. At Raphia, Antiochus III. had 10,000 men drawn from
  the provinces, armed and drilled as Macedonians, and another corps of
  Iranians numbering 5000 under a native commander (Polyb. v. 79). The
  experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not
  seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
  formed corps of the Macedonian pattern from Egyptians and Libyans (cf.
  Polyb. v. 107, 2; Ptolemy I. had employed Egyptians in the army,
  though chiefly as carriers, Diod. xix. 80, 4). From this time native
  rebellions in Egypt are recurrent. To the troops drawn from their own
  dominions the mercenaries which the kings procured from abroad were an
  important supplement. These were mainly the bands of Greek
  _condottieri_, and even for their home-born troops Greek officers of
  renown were often engaged. The other class of mercenaries were Gauls,
  and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or
  Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies. They were a weapon
  apt to be dangerous to the employer, but the terror they inspired was
  such that every potentate sought to get hold of them. The elephants
  which Alexander brought back from India were used in the armies of his
  successors, and in 302 Seleucus procured a new supply. Thenceforward
  elephants, either brought fresh from India or bred in the royal
  stables at Apamea, regularly figured in the Seleucid armies. The
  Ptolemies supplied themselves with this arm from the southern coasts
  of the Red Sea, where they established stations for the capture and
  shipping of elephants, but the African variety was held inferior to
  the Indian. Scythed chariots such as had figured in the old Persian
  armies were still used by the Greek masters of Asia (Seleucus I.,
  Diod. xx. 113, 4; Molon, Polyb. v. 53, 10; Antiochus III., Liv.
  xxxvii. 41), at any rate till the battle of Magnesia. The Hellenistic
  armies were distinguished by their external magnificence. They made a
  greater display of brilliant metal and gorgeous colour than the Roman
  armies, for instance. The description given by Justin of the army
  which Antiochus Sidetes took to the East in 130 B.C., boot-nails and
  bridles of gold, gives an idea of their standard of splendour (Just.
  xxxviii. 10, 1; cf. Polyb. xxxi. 3; Plut. _Eum._ 14; id. _Aemil._ 18;
  id. _Sulla_, 16).

  During the 3rd century B.C. Egypt was the greatest sea power of the
  eastern Mediterranean, and maintained a large fleet (the figures in
  App. _Prooem_, 10 are not trustworthy, see Beloch III. i, 364). Its
  control of the Aegean was, however, contested not without success by
  the Antigonids, who won the two great sea-fights of Cos (c. 256) and
  Andros (227), and wrested the overlordship of the Cyclades from the
  Ptolemies. Of the numbers and constitution of the Antigonid fleet we
  know nothing.[7] At the Seleucid court in 222 the admiral ([Greek:
  nauarchos]) appears as a person of high consideration (Polyb. v. 43,
  1); in his war with Rome Antiochus III. had 107 decked battleships on
  the sea at one time. By the Peace of Apamea (188) the Seleucid navy
  was abolished; Antiochus undertook to keep no more than 10 ships of
  war.

  For the Hellenistic armies and fleets see A. Bauer in L. von Müller's
  _Handbuch_, vol. iv.; Delbruck, _Gesch. d. Kriegskunst_ (1900).


  11. Treatment of Subject Peoples.

To their native subjects the Seleucid and Ptolemaïc kings were always
foreigners. It was considered wonderful in the last Cleopatra that she
learnt to speak Egyptian (Plut. _Anton._ 27). Natives were employed, as
we have seen, in the army, and Iranians are found under the Seleucids
holding high commands, e.g. Aspasianus the Mede (Polyb. v. 79, 7),
Aribazus, governor of Cilicia (Flinders Petrie, _Papyri_, II., No. 45),
Aribazus, governor of Sardis (Polyb. vii. 17, 9), and Omanes (Michel,
No. 19, l. 104). Native cults the Hellenistic kings thought it good
policy to patronize. Antiochus I. began rebuilding the temple of Nebo at
Borsippa (_Keilinschr. Bibl._ iii. 2, 136 seq.) Antiochus III. bestowed
favours on the Temple at Jerusalem. Even if the documents in Joseph,
_Arch._ xii. SS 138 seq. are spurious, their general view of the
relation of Antiochus III. and Jerusalem is probably true. Even small
local worships, like that of the village of Baetocaece, might secure
royal patronage (_C.I.G._ No. 4474). Of course, financial straits might
drive the kings to lay hands on temple-treasures, as Antiochus III. and
Antiochus IV. did, but that was a measure of emergency.


  12. Significance of Macedonian Rule.

The Macedonian kingdoms, strained by continual wars, increasingly
divided against themselves, falling often under the sway of prodigals
and debauchees, were far from realizing the Hellenic idea of sound
government as against the crude barbaric despotisms of the older East.
Yet, in spite of all corruption, ideas of the intelligent development of
the subject lands, visions of the Hellenic king, as the Greek thinkers
had come to picture him, haunted the Macedonian rulers, and perhaps
fitfully, in the intervals of war or carousal, prompted some degree of
action. Treatises "Concerning Kingship" were produced as a regular thing
by philosophers, and kings who claimed the fine flower of Hellenism,
could not but peruse them. Strabo regards the loss of the eastern
provinces to the Parthians as their passage under a government of lower
type, beyond the sphere of Hellenic [Greek: epimegeia] (Strabo xi. 509).
In the organization of the administrative machinery of these kingdoms,
the higher power of the Hellene to adapt and combine had been operative;
they were organisms of a richer, more complex type than the East had
hitherto known. It was thus that when Rome became a world-empire, it
found to some extent the forms of government ready made, and took over
from the Hellenistic monarchies a tradition which it handed on to the
later world.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the general history of the Macedonian kingdoms, see
  Droysen, _Histoire de l'Hellénisme_ (the French translation by
  Bouché-Leclercq, 1883-1885, represents the work in its final
  revision); A. Holm, _History of Greece_, vol. iv. (1894); B. Niese,
  _Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten_ (1893-1903);
  Kaerst, _Gesch. des hellenist. Zeitalters_, vol. i. (1901). A masterly
  conspectus of the general character of the Hellenistic kingdoms in
  their political, economic and social character, their artistic and
  intellectual culture is given by Beloch, _Griech. Gesch._ iii. (i.),
  260-556; see also Kaerst, _Studien zur Entwicklung d. Monarchie_; E.
  Breccia, _Il Diritto dinastico helle monarchie dei successori
  d'Alessandro Magno_ (1903). Popular sketches of the history,
  enlightened by special knowledge and a wide outlook, are given by J.
  P. Mahaffy, _Alexander's Empire_ ("Stories of the Nations Series");
  _Progress of Hellenism in Alexander's Empire_ (1905); _The Silver Age
  of the Greek World_ (1906). See also HELLENISM; PTOLEMIES; SELEUCID
  DYNASTY.     (E. R. B.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For the events which brought this empire into being see ALEXANDER
    THE GREAT. For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into
    which it was divided after Alexander's death, see SELEUCID DYNASTY,
    ANTIGONUS, PERGAMUM, &c., and for its effect on the spread of
    Hellenic culture see HELLENISM.

  [2] For details see separate articles on the chief generals.

  [3] For Ptolemaïc Egypt, see PTOLEMIES and EGYPT.

  [4] A _tenth_ of the produce is suggested to have been the normal tax
    by what the Romans found obtaining in the Attalid kingdom. The
    references given by Beloch (_Griech. Gesch._ iii. i, p. 343) to prove
    it for the Seleucid kingdom are questionable. Beloch refers (1) to
    the letter of Demetrius II. to Lasthenes in which [Greek: hai dekatai
    kai ta tele] are mentioned, 1 Macc. 11, 35 (Beloch, by an oversight,
    refers to the paraphrase of the documents in Joseph. _Ant._ xiii. 4,
    § 126 seq., in which the mention of the [Greek: dekatai] is
    omitted!). The authenticity of this document is, however, very
    doubtful. He refers (2) to Dittenb. 171 (1st ed.), line 101; but here
    the tax seems to be, not an imperial one, but one paid to the city of
    Smyrna.

  [5] The salt monopoly is mentioned in 1 Macc. 10, 29; 11, 35, a
    suspected source, but supported in this detail by the analogy of
    Ptolemaïc Egypt and Rome. For domains in Antigonid, Attalid and
    Bithynian realms, see Cic. _De leg. agr._ ii. 19, 50.

  [6] Antiochus Epiphanes was an extreme case. For the Antigonid court
    see Diog. Laërt. vii. 13; Plut. _Arat._ 17; for the Seleucid, Athen.
    iv. 155b; v. 211a; for the Ptolemaïc, Diog. L. vii. 177; Athen. vi.
    246c; Plut. _Cleom._ 33; Just. xxx. 1.

  [7] For the Antigonid [Greek: nauarchos] or admiral, see Polyb. xvi. 6.



MACEDONIUS, (1) bishop of Constantinople in succession to Eusebius of
Nicomedia, was elected by the Arian bishops in 341, while the orthodox
party elected Paul, whom Eusebius had superseded. The partisans of the
two rivals involved the city in a tumultuous broil, and were not quelled
until the emperor Constantius II. banished Paul. Macedonius was
recognized as patriarch in 342. Compelled by the intervention of
Constans in 348 to resign the patriarchate in favour of his former
opponent, he was reinstalled in 350. He then took vengeance on his
opponents by a general persecution of the adherents of the Nicene
Creed. In 359, on the division of the Arian party into Acacians (or pure
Arians) and semi-Arians or Homoiousians, Macedonius adhered to the
latter, and in consequence was expelled from his see by the council of
Constantinople in 360. He now became avowed leader of the sect of
Pneumatomachi, Macedonians or Marathonians, whose distinctive tenet was
that the Holy Spirit is but a being similar to the angels, subordinate
to and in the service of the Father and the Son, the relation between
whom did not admit of a third. He did not long survive his deposition.

  See the Church Histories of Socrates and Sozomen; Art. in _Dict. Chr.
  Biog._; F. Loofs in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyk._; H. M. Gwatkin,
  _Arianism_.

MACEDONIUS, (2) bishop of Mopsuestia, was present at the councils of
Nicaea and Philippopolis, and inclined to the reactionary party who
thought the Athanasians had gone too far.

MACEDONIUS, (3) bishop of Constantinople (fl. 510), a strict
Chalcedonian who vainly opposed the fanaticism of the monophysite
Severus and was deposed in 513.



MACEIÓ or MACAYO, a city and port of Brazil and capital of the state of
Alagôas, about 125 m. S.S.W. of Pernambuco, in lat. 9° 39´ 35´´ S.,
long. 35° 44´ 36´´ W. Pop. including a large rural district and several
villages (1890), 31,498; (1908, estimate), 33,000. The city stands at
the foot of low bluffs, about a mile from the shore line. The water-side
village of Jaraguá, the port of Maceió, is practically a suburb of the
city. South of the port is the shallow entrance to the Lagôa do Norte,
of Lagôa Mundahú, a salt-water lake extending inland for some miles.
Maceió is attractively situated in the midst of large plantations of
coco-nut and _dendé_ palms, though the broad sandy beach in front and
the open sun-burned plain behind give a barren character to its
surroundings. The heat is moderated by the S.E. trade winds, and the
city is considered healthful. The public buildings are mostly
constructed of broken stone and mortar, plastered outside and covered
with red tiles, but the common dwellings are generally constructed of
_tapia_--rough trellis-work walls filled in with mud. A light tramway
connects the city and port, and a railway--the Alagôas Central--connects
the two with various interior towns. The port is formed by a stone reef
running parallel with and a half-mile from the shore line, within which
vessels of light draft find a safe anchorage, except from southerly
gales. Ocean-going steamers anchor outside the reef. The exports consist
principally of sugar, cotton, and rum (_aguardiente_). Maceió dates from
1815 when a small settlement there was created a "villa." In 1839 it
became the provincial capital and was made a city by the provincial
assembly.



McENTEE, JERVIS (1828-1891), American artist, was born at Rondout, New
York, on the 14th of July 1828, and was a pupil of Frederick E. Church.
He was made an associate of the National Academy of Design, New York, in
1860, and a full academician in 1861. In 1869 he visited Europe,
painting much in Italy. He was identified with the Hudson River School,
and excelled in pictures of autumn scenery. He died at Rondout, N.Y., on
the 27th of January 1891.



MACER, AEMILIUS, of Verona, Roman didactic poet, author of two poems,
one on birds (_Ornithogonia_), the other on the antidotes against the
poison of serpents (_Theriaca_), imitated from the Greek poet Nicander
of Colophon. According to Jerome, he died in 16 B.C. It is possible that
he wrote also a botanical work. The extant hexameter poem _De viribus_
(or _virtutibus_) _herbarum_, ascribed to Macer, is a medieval
production by Odo Magdunensis, a French physician. Aemilius Macer must
be distinguished from the Macer called _Iliacus_ in the Ovidian
catalogue of poets, the author of an epic poem on the events preceding
the opening of the Iliad. The fact of his being addressed by Ovid in one
of the epistles _Ex Ponto_ shows that he was alive long after Aemilius
Macer. He had been identified with the son or grandson of Theophanes of
Mytilene, the intimate friend of Pompey.

  See Ovid, _Tristia_, iv. 10, 43; Quintilian, _Instit._ x. 1, 56, 87;
  R. Unger, _De Macro Nicandri imitatore_ (Friedland, 1845); C. P.
  Schulze in _Rheinisches Museum_ (1898), liii. p. 541; for Macer
  Iliacus see Ovid, _Ex Ponto_, ii 10, 13, iv. 16, 6; _Amores_, ii. 18.



MACERATA, a city of the Marches, Italy, the chief town of the province
of Macerata and a bishop's see, 44 m. by rail S. of Ancona. Pop. (1901),
6,176 (town), 22,473 (commune). Crowning a hill 919 ft. above sea-level,
with a picturesque mass of buildings enclosed by walls and towers,
Macerata looks out over the Adriatic. The cathedral is modern, but some
of the churches and palaces are not without interest. Besides the
university, agricultural school and industrial institute, Macerata has a
communal library founded by Leo XII., containing a small but choice
collection of early pictures, and in the municipal buildings, a
collection of antiquities from Helvia Ricina. There is an enormous
amphitheatre or _sferisterio_ for _pallone_, a ball game which is very
popular in the district. The industries comprise the making of bricks,
matches, terra-cotta and chemicals.

Macerata, as well as Recanati, was founded by the inhabitants of Ricina
after the destruction of their city by Alaric in 408. During the Lombard
period it was a flourishing town; but it was raised from comparative
insignificance by Nicholas IV. to be the seat of the governors of the
March. It was enclosed in the 13th century by a new line of walls more
than 2½ m. in circuit; and in the troubles of the next two hundred years
it had frequent occasion to learn their value. For the most part it
remained faithful to the popes, and in return it was rewarded by a
multitude of privileges. Though in 1797 the inhabitants opened their
gates to the French, two years afterwards, when the country people took
refuge within the walls, the city was taken by storm and delivered to
pillage. The bishopric of Macerata dates from the suppression of the see
of Recanati (1320).



MACFARREN, SIR GEORGE ALEXANDER (1813-1887), English composer, was born
in London on the 2nd of March 1813, and entered the Royal Academy of
Music in 1829. A symphony by him was played at an Academy concert in
1830; for the opening of the Queen's Theatre in Tottenham Street, under
the management of his father, in 1831, he wrote an overture. His _Chevy
Chase_ overture, the orchestral work by which he is perhaps best known,
was written as early as 1836, and in a single night. On leaving the
Academy in 1836, Macfarren was for about a year a music teacher in the
Isle of Man, and wrote two unsuccessful operas. In 1837 he was appointed
a professor at the Academy, and wrote his _Romeo and Juliet_ overture.
In the following year he brought out _The Devil's Opera_, one of his
best works. In 1843 he became conductor at Covent Garden, producing the
_Antigone_ with Mendelssohn's music; his opera on _Don Quixote_ was
produced under Bunn at Drury Lane in 1846; his subsequent operas include
_Charles II._ (1849), _Robin Hood_ (1860), _She Stoops to Conquer_
(1864), and _Helvellyn_ (1864). A gradual failure of his eyesight, which
had been defective from boyhood, resulted in total blindness in 1865,
but he overcame the difficulties by employing an amanuensis in
composition, and made hardly a break in the course of his work. He was
made principal of the Royal Academy of Music in succession to Sterndale
Bennett in February 1875, and in March of the same year professor of
music in Cambridge University. Shortly before this he had begun a series
of oratorios: _St John the Baptist_ (Bristol, 1873); _Resurrection_
(Birmingham, 1876); _Joseph_ (Leeds, 1877); and _King David_ (Leeds,
1883). In spite of their solid workmanship, and the skill with which the
ideas are treated, it is difficult to hear or read them through without
smiling at some of the touches of quite unconscious humour often
resulting from the way in which the Biblical narratives have been, as it
were, dramatized. He delivered many lectures of great and lasting value,
and his theoretical works, such as the _Rudiments of Harmony_, and the
treatise on counterpoint, will probably be remembered longer than many
of his compositions. He was knighted in 1883, and died suddenly in
London on the 31st of October 1887.

  An excellent memoir by H. C. Banister appeared in 1891.



McGEE, THOMAS D'ARCY (1825-1868), Irish-Canadian politician and writer,
second son of James McGee, a coast-guard, was born at Carlingford, Co.
Louth, on the 13th of April 1825. He early showed a remarkable aptitude
for oratory. At the age of thirteen he delivered a speech at Wexford,
and when four years later he emigrated to America he quickly gained a
reputation as a writer and public speaker in the city of Boston. He thus
attracted the attention of O'Connell, and before he was twenty years of
age he returned to London to become parliamentary correspondent of the
_Freeman's Journal_, and shortly afterwards London correspondent of the
_Nation_, to which he also contributed a number of poems. He married in
1847 Mary Theresa Caffry, by whom he had two children. In 1846 he became
one of the moving spirits in the "Young Ireland" party, and in promoting
the objects of that organization he contributed two volumes to the
"Library of Ireland." On the failure of the movement in 1848 McGee
escaped in the disguise of a priest to the United States, where between
1848 and 1853 he established two newspapers, the _New York Nation_ and
the _American Celt_. His writings at first were exceedingly bitter and
anti-English; but as years passed he realized that a greater measure of
political freedom was possible under the British constitution than under
the American. He had now become well-known as an author, and as a
lecturer of unusual ability. In 1857 McGee, driven from the United
States by the scurrilous attacks of the extreme Irish revolutionaries,
took up his abode in Canada, and was admitted to the bar of the province
of Lower Canada in 1861. At the general election in 1858 he was returned
to parliament as the member for Montreal, and for four years he was
regarded as a powerful factor in the house. On the formation of the
Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte administration in 1862 he accepted the
office of president of the council. When the cabinet was reconstructed a
year later the Irish were left without representation, and McGee sought
re-election as a member of the opposite party. In 1864 he was appointed
minister of agriculture in the administration of Sir E. P. Tache, and he
served the country in that capacity until his death. He actively
supported the policy of federation and was elected a member of the first
Dominion parliament in 1867. On the 7th of April 1868, after having
delivered a notable speech in the house, he was shot by an assassin as
he was about to enter his house at Ottawa. His utterances against the
Fenian invasion are believed to have been the cause of the crime for
which P. J. Whelan was executed. McGee's loss was keenly felt by all
classes, and within a few weeks of his death parliament granted an
annuity to his widow and children. McGee had great faith in the future
of Canada as a part of the empire. Speaking at St John, N.B., in 1863,
he said: "There are before the public men of British America at this
moment but two courses: either to drift with the tide of democracy, or
to seize the golden moment and fix for ever the monarchical character of
our institutions. I invite every fellow colonist who agrees with me to
unite our efforts that we may give our province the aspect of an empire,
in order to exercise the influence abroad and at home of a state, and to
originate a history which the world will not willingly let die." Sir
Charles Gavan Duffy considered that as a poet McGee was not inferior to
Davis, and that as an orator he possessed powers rarer than those of T.
F. Meagher.

  McGee's principal works are: _A Popular History of Ireland_ (2 vols.,
  New York, 1862; 1 vol., London, 1869); _Irish Writers of the
  Seventeenth Century_ (Dublin, 1846); _Historical Sketches of O'Connell
  and his Friends_ (Boston, 1844); _Memoirs of the Life and Conquests of
  Art McMurrogh, King of Leinster_ (Dublin, 1847); _Memoir of C. G.
  Duffy_ (Dublin, 1849); _A History of the Irish Settlers in North
  America_ (Boston, 1851); _History of the Attempts to establish the
  Protestant Reformation in Ireland_ (Boston, 1853); _Life of Edward
  Maginn, Coadjutor Bishop of Derry_ (New York, 1857); _Catholic History
  of North America_ (Boston, 1854); _Canadian Ballads and Occasional
  Pieces_ (New York, 1858); _Notes on Federal Governments Past and
  Present_ (Montreal, 1865); _Speeches and Addresses, chiefly on the
  Subject of the British American Union_ (London, 1865); _Poems_, edited
  by Mrs M. A. Sadleir with introductory memoir (New York, 1869). See
  Fennings Taylor, _The Hon. Thomas D'Arcy McGee_ (Montreal, 1867); J.
  K. Foran, _Thomas D'Arcy McGee as an Empire Builder_ (Ottawa, 1904);
  H. J. O'C. French, _A Sketch of the Life of the Hon. T. D. McGee_
  (Montreal); Appleton's _Cyclopaedia of American Biography_., iv. 116;
  N. F. Dvin's _Irishman in Canada_ (1887); C. G. Duffy, _Four Years of
  Irish History_ (1883); Alfred Webb, _Compendium of Irish Biography_
  (Dublin, 1878).     (A. G. D.)



McGIFFERT, ARTHUR CUSHMAN (1861-   ), American theologian, was born in
Sauquoit, New York, on the 4th of March 1861, the son of a Presbyterian
clergyman of Scotch descent. He graduated at Western Reserve College in
1882 and at Union theological seminary in 1885, studied in Germany
(especially under Harnack) in 1885-1887, and in Italy and France in
1888, and in that year received the degree of doctor of philosophy at
Marburg. He was instructor (1888-1890) and professor (1890-1893) of
church history at Lane theological seminary, and in 1893 became Washburn
professor of church history in Union theological seminary, succeeding Dr
Philip Schaff. His published work, except occasional critical studies in
philosophy, dealt with church history and the history of dogma. His best
known publication is a _History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age_
(1897). This book, by its independent criticism and departures from
traditionalism, aroused the opposition of the General Assembly of the
Presbyterian Church; though the charges brought against McGiffert were
dismissed by the Presbytery of New York, to which they had been
referred, a trial for heresy seemed inevitable, and McGiffert, in 1900,
retired from the Presbyterian ministry and entered the Congregational
Church, although he retained his position in Union theological seminary.
Among his other publications are: _A Dialogue between a Christian and a
Jew_ (1888); a translation (with introduction and notes) of Eusebius's
_Church History_ (1890); and _The Apostles' Creed_ (1902), in which he
attempted to prove that the old Roman creed was formulated as a protest
against the dualism of Marcion and his denial of the reality of Jesus's
life on earth.



McGILLIVRAY, ALEXANDER (c. 1730-1793), American Indian chief, was born
near the site of the present Wetumpka, in Alabama. His father was a
Scotch merchant and his mother the daughter of a French officer and an
Indian "princess." Through his father's relatives in South Carolina,
McGillivray received a good education, but at the age of seventeen,
after a short experience as a merchant in Savannah and Pensacola, he
returned to the Muscogee Indians, who elected him chief. He retained his
connexion with business life as a member of the British firm of Panton,
Forbes & Leslie of Pensacola. During the War of Independence, as a
colonel in the British army, he incited his followers to attack the
western frontiers of Georgia and the Carolinas. Georgia confiscated some
of his property, and after the peace of 1783 McGillivray remained
hostile. Though still retaining his British commission, he accepted one
from Spain, and during the remainder of his life used his influence to
prevent American settlement in the south-west. So important was he
considered that in 1790 President Washington sent an agent who induced
him to visit New York. Here he was persuaded to make peace in
consideration of a brigadier-general's commission and payment for the
property confiscated by Georgia; and with the warriors who accompanied
him he signed a formal treaty of peace and friendship on the 7th of
August. He then went back to the Indian country, and remained hostile to
the Americans until his death. He was one of the ablest Indian leaders
of America and at one time wielded great power--having 5000 to 10,000
armed followers. In order to serve Indian interests he played off
British, Spanish and American interests against one another, but before
he died he saw that he was fighting in a losing cause, and, changing his
policy, endeavoured to provide for the training of the Muscogees in the
white man's civilization. McGillivray was polished in manners, of
cultivated intellect, was a shrewd merchant, and a successful
speculator; but he had many savage traits, being noted for his
treachery, craftiness and love of barbaric display.     (W. L. F.)



MACGILLIVRAY, WILLIAM (1796-1852), Scottish naturalist, was born at
Aberdeen on the 25th of January 1796. At King's College, Aberdeen, he
graduated in 1815, and also studied medicine, but did not complete the
latter course. In 1823 he became assistant to R. Jameson, professor of
natural history in Edinburgh University; and in 1831 he was appointed
curator of the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, a
post which he resigned in 1841 to become professor of natural history
and lecturer on botany in Marischal College, Aberdeen. He died at
Aberdeen on the 4th of September 1852. He possessed a wide and
comprehensive knowledge of natural science, gained no less from personal
observations in different parts of Scotland than from a study of
collections and books. His industry and extensive knowledge are amply
shown in his published works. He assisted J. J. Audubon in his classical
works on the _Birds of America_, and edited W. Withering's _British
Plants_. His larger works include biographies of A. von Humboldt, and of
zoologists from Aristotle to Linnaeus, a _History of British
Quadrupeds_, a _History of the Molluscous Animals of Aberdeen, Banff and
Kincardine_, a _Manual of British Ornithology_, and a _History of
British Birds_, in 5 vols. (1837-1852). The last work holds a high rank
from the excellent descriptions of the structure, habits and haunts of
birds, and from the use in classification of characters afforded by
their anatomical structure. His _Natural History of Deeside_,
posthumously published by command of Queen Victoria, was the result of a
sojourn in the highlands of Aberdeenshire in 1850. He made large
collections, alike for the instruction of his students and to illustrate
the zoology, botany and geology of the parts of Scotland examined by
him, especially around Aberdeen, and a number of his original
water-colour drawings are preserved in the British Museum (Natural
History).

  His eldest son, JOHN MACGILLIVRAY (1822-1867), published an account of
  the voyage round the world of H.M.S. "Rattlesnake," on board of which
  he was naturalist. Another son, PAUL, published an _Aberdeen Flora_ in
  1853.



MacGREGOR, JOHN ["ROB ROY"] (1825-1892), Scottish canoeist, traveller
and philanthropist, son of General Sir Duncan MacGregor, K.C.B., was
born at Gravesend on the 24th of January 1825. He combined a roving
disposition with a natural taste for mechanics and for literature. In
1839 he went to Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1844 to Trinity,
Cambridge, where he was a wrangler. He was called to the bar in 1851,
but did not pursue his profession. He travelled a great deal in Europe,
Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863
was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of
marine propulsion. He was the pioneer of British canoeing. In 1865 he
started on a long canoeing cruise in his "Rob Roy" canoe, and in this
way made a prolonged water tour through Europe, a record of which he
published in 1866 as _A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe_. This book
made MacGregor and his canoe famous. He made similar voyages in later
years in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the North Sea and Palestine.
Another voyage, in the English Channel and on French waters, was made in
a yawl. He published accounts of all these journeys. He did not,
however, confine his energies to travelling. He was active in charity
and philanthropic work, being one of the founders of the Shoe-black
Brigade. In 1870 and again in 1873 he was elected on the London school
board. He died at Boscombe on the 16th of July 1892.



MACH, ERNST (1838-   ), Austrian physicist and psychologist, was born on
the 18th of February 1838 at Turas in Moravia, and studied at Vienna. He
was professor of mathematics at Grätz (1864-1867), of physics at Prague
(1867-1895), and of physics at Vienna (1895-1901). In 1879 and 1880 as
_Rector Magnificus_ he fought against the introduction of Czech instead
of German in the Prague University. In 1901 he was made a member of the
Austrian house of peers. In philosophy he began with a strong
predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he
came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a
lapse into noümenalism under the influence of Fechner's _Psychophysics_,
finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism. The Ego he considers
not an entity sharply distinguished from the Non-ego, but merely, as it
were, a medium of continuity of sensory impressions. His whole theory
appears to be vitiated by the confusion of physics and psychology.

  WORKS.--_Kompendium der Physik für Mediziner_ (Vienna, 1863);
  _Einleitung in die Heimholtz'sehe Musiktheorie_ (Grätz, 1866); _Die
  Gesch. u. d. Wurzel d. Satzes von d. Erhaltung d. Arbeit_ (Prague,
  1872); _Grundlinien d. Lehre v. d. Bewegungsempfindungen_ (Leipzig,
  1875); _Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung_ (Leipzig, 1883; rev. ed.,
  1908; Eng. trans., T. J. McCormack, 1902); _Beiträge zur Analyse d.
  Empfindungen_ (Jena, 1886), 5th ed., 1906, entitled _Die Analyse d.
  Empfindungen; Leitfaden d. Physik für Studierende_ (Prague, 1881, in
  collaboration); _Populärwissenschaftliche Vorlesungen_ (3rd ed.,
  Leipzig, 1903); _Die Prinzipien d. Wärmelehre_ (2nd ed., 1900);
  _Erkenntnis und Irrtum_ (Leipzig, 1905).



MACHAERODUS, or MACHAIRODUS, the typical genus of a group of long-tusked
extinct cats, commonly known as sabre-tooths. Although best regarded as
a sub-family (_Machaerodontinae_) of the _Felidae_, they are sometimes
referred to a separate family under the name _Nimravidae_ (see
CARNIVORA). The later forms, as well as some of the earlier ones, are
more specialized as regards dentition than the modern _Felidae_,
although in several other respects they exhibit more primitive features.
The general type of dentition is feline, but in some instances more
premolars are retained, as well as a small tubercular molar behind the
lower carnassial. The characteristic feature is, however, the great
development of the upper canines, which in the more specialized types
reach far below the margin of the lower jaw, despite the development of
a flange-like expansion of the extremity of the latter for their
protection. In these extreme forms it is quite evident that the jaws
could not be used in the ordinary manner; and it seems probable that in
attacking prey the lower jaw was dropped to a vertical position, and the
huge upper tusks used as stabbing instruments. The group is believed to
be derived from a creodont allied to the Eocene _Palaeonictis_ (see
CREODONTA).

_Nimravus_, of the American Oligocene, with two premolars and two molars
in the lower jaw, and comparatively short upper canines, seems to be the
least specialized type; next to which comes _Hoplophoneus_, another
North American Oligocene genus, in which the tubercular lower molar is
lost, and the upper canine is longer. It is noteworthy, however, that
this genus retains the third trochanter to the femur, which is lost in
_Nimravus_. _Machaerodus_, in the wider sense, includes the larger and
more typical forms. In the Pliocene of France and Italy it is
represented by _M. megantereon_, a species not larger than a leopard,
and allied forms occur in the Pliocene of Greece, Hungary, Samos,
Persia, India and China, as well as in the Middle Miocene of France and
Germany. Far larger is the Pleistocene _M. cultridens_ of the caverns of
Europe, with serrated upper tusks several inches in length. From Europe
and Asia the sabre-toothed tigers may be traced into North and thence
into South America, the home of _M. (Smilodon) neogaeus_, the largest of
the whole tribe, whose remains occur in the Brazilian caves and the silt
of the Argentine pampas. This animal was as large as a tiger, with tusks
projecting seven inches from the jaw and very complex carnassials; the
feet were very short, with only four toes to the hind-pair, and the
humerus has lost the foramen at the lower end. Very noteworthy is the
occurrence of an imperfectly known specialized type--_Eusmilus_--in the
Lower Oligocene of Europe and perhaps also North America. Unlike all
other cats, it had only two pairs of lower incisors, and the large
cheek-teeth were reduced to the carnassial and one premolar in advance
of the same.     (R. L.*)



MACHALE, JOHN (1791-1881), Irish divine, was born on the 15th of March
1791 at Tuber-na-Fian, Mayo, and was educated at Maynooth, where after
graduating in 1814 he was ordained priest and appointed lecturer in
theology, succeeding to the professoriate in 1820. In 1825 he became
coadjutor bishop of Killala, and in July 1834 archbishop of Tuam and
metropolitan. He visited Rome in 1831, and was there again at the
proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin
(Dec. 1854) and in 1869-1870 at the Vatican council. Though he did not
favour the dogma of Papal Infallibility he submitted as soon as it was
defined. Machale was an intensely patriotic Irishman, who fought hard
for Catholic Emancipation, for separate Roman Catholic schools, and
against the Queen's Colleges. He translated part of the _Iliad_ (Dublin,
1861), and made an Irish version of some of Moore's melodies and of the
Pentateuch. He died at Tuam on the 7th of November 1881.



MACHAULT D'ARNOUVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE DE (1701-1794), French statesman,
was a son of Louis Charles Machault d'Arnouville, lieutenant of police.
In 1721 he was counsel to the parlement of Paris, in 1728 _maître des
requêtes_, and ten years later was made president of the Great Council;
although he had opposed the court in the _Unigenitus_ dispute, he was
appointed intendant of Hainaut in 1743. From this position, through the
influence at court of his old friend René Louis, Marquis d'Argenson, he
was called to succeed Orry de Fulvy as controller-general of the
finances in December 1745. He found, on taking office, that in the four
years of the War of the Austrian Succession the economies of Cardinal
Fleury had been exhausted, and he was forced to develop the system of
borrowings which was bringing French finances to bankruptcy. He
attempted in 1749 a reform in the levying of direct taxes, which, if
carried out, would have done much to prevent the later Revolutionary
movement. He proposed to abolish the old tax of a tenth, which was
evaded by the clergy and most of the nobility, and substitute a tax of
one-twentieth which should be levied on all without exception. The cry
for exceptions, however, began at once. The clergy stood in a body by
their historical privileges, and the outcry of the nobility was too
great for the minister to make headway against. Still he managed to
retain his office until July 1754, when he exchanged the controllership
for the ministry of marine. Foreseeing the disastrous results of the
alliance with Austria, he was drawn to oppose more decidedly the schemes
of Mme de Pompadour, whose personal ill-will he had gained. Louis XV.
acquiesced in her demand for his disgrace on the 1st of February 1757.
Machault lived on his estate at Arnouville until the Revolution broke
out, when, after a period of hiding, he was apprehended in 1794 at Rouen
and brought to Paris as a suspect. He was imprisoned in the
Madelonnettes, where he succumbed in a few weeks, at the age of
ninety-three.

His son, LOUIS CHARLES MACHAULT D'ARNOUVILLE (1737-1820), was bishop of
Amiens from 1774 until the Revolution. He was famous for his charity;
but proved to be a most uncompromising Conservative at the estates
general of 1789, where he voted consistently against every reform. He
emigrated in 1791, resigned his bishopric in 1801 to facilitate the
concordat, and retired to the ancestral château of Arnouville, where he
died in 1820.



MACHAUT, GUILLAUME DE (c. 1300-1377), French poet and musician, was born
in the village of Machault near Réthel in Champagne. Machaut tells us
that he served for thirty years the adventurous John of Luxembourg, king
of Bohemia. He followed his master to Russia and Poland, and, though of
peaceful tastes himself, saw twenty battles and a hundred tourneys. When
John was killed at Crécy in 1346 Machaut was received at the court of
Normandy, and on the accession of John the Good to the throne of France
(1350) he received an office which enabled him to devote himself
thenceforth to music and poetry. Machaut wrote about 1348 in honour of
Charles III., king of Navarre, a long poem much admired by
contemporaries, _Le Jugement du roi de Navarre_. When Charles was thrown
into prison by his father-in-law, King John, Machaut addressed him a
_Confort d'ami_ to console him for his enforced separation from his
young wife, then aged fifteen. This was followed about 1370 by a poem of
9000 lines entitled _La Prise d'Alexandrie_, one of the last chronicles
cast in this form. Its hero was Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus.
Machaut is best known for the strange book telling of the love affair of
his old age with a young and noble lady long supposed to be Agnes of
Navarre, sister of Charles the Bad; Paulin Paris in his edition of the
_Voir dit_ (_Historie vraie_) identified her as Perronne d'Armentières,
a noble lady of Champagne. In 1362, when Machaut must have been at least
sixty-two years of age, he received a rondeau from Perronne, who was
then eighteen, expressing her devotion. She no doubt wished to play
Laura to his Petrarch, and the _Voir dit_ contains the correspondence
and the poems which they exchanged. The romance, which ended with
Perronne's marriage and Machaut's desire to remain her _doux ami_, has
gleams of poetry, especially in Perronne's verses, but its subject and
its length are both deterrent to modern readers. But Machaut with
Deschamps marks a distinct transition. The _trouvères_ had been
impersonal. It is difficult to gather any details of their personal
history from their work. Machaut and Deschamps wrote of their own
affairs, and the next step in development was to be the self-analysis of
Villon. Machaut was also a musician. He composed a number of motets,
songs and ballads, also a mass supposed to have been sung at the
coronation of Charles V. This was translated into modern notation by
Perne, who read a notice on it before the Institute of France in 1817.

  Machaut's _Oeuvres choisies_ were edited by P. Tarbe (Rheims and
  Paris, 1849); _La Prise d'Alexandrie_, by L. de Mas-Latrie (Geneva,
  1877); and _Le Livre du voir-dit_, by Paulin Paris (1875). See also F.
  G. Fétis, _Biog. universelle des musiciens ..._ (Paris, 1862), and a
  notice on the _Instruments de musique au xiv^e siècle d'après
  Guillaume de Machaut_, by E. Travers (Paris, 1882).



MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ (1469-1527), Italian statesman and writer, was born
at Florence on the 3rd of May 1469. His ancestry claimed blood
relationship with the lords of Montespertoli, a fief situated between
Val di Pesa and Val d'Elsa, at no great distance from the city.
Niccolò's father, Bernardo (b. 1428), followed the profession of a
jurist. He held landed property worth something like £250 a year of our
money. His son, though not wealthy, was never wholly dependent upon
official income.

Of Niccolò's early years and education little is known. His works show
wide reading in the Latin and Italian classics, but it is almost certain
that he had not mastered the Greek language. To the defects of
Machiavelli's education we may, in part at least, ascribe the peculiar
vigour of his style and his speculative originality. He is free from the
scholastic trifling and learned frivolity which tainted the rhetorical
culture of his century. He made the world of men and things his study,
learned to write his mother-tongue with idiomatic conciseness, and
nourished his imagination on the masterpieces of the Romans.

The year of Charles VIII.'s invasion and of the Medici's expulsion from
Florence (1494) saw Machiavelli's first entrance into public life. He
was appointed clerk in the second chancery of the commune under his old
master, the grammarian, Marcello Virgilio Adriani. Early in 1498 Adriani
became chancellor of the republic, and Machiavelli received his vacated
office with the rank of second chancellor and secretary. This post he
retained till the year 1512. The masters he had to serve were the _dieci
di libertà e pace_, who, though subordinate to the _signoria_, exercised
a separate control over the departments of war and the interior. They
sent their own ambassadors to foreign powers, transacted business with
the cities of the Florentine domain, and controlled the military
establishment of the commonwealth. The next fourteen years of
Machiavelli's life were fully occupied in the voluminous correspondence
of his bureau, in diplomatic missions of varying importance, and in the
organization of a Florentine militia. It would be tedious to follow him
through all his embassies to petty courts of Italy, the first of which
took place in 1499, when he was sent to negotiate the continuance of a
loan to Catherine Sforza, countess of Forli and Imola. In 1500
Machiavelli travelled into France, to deal with Louis XII. about the
affairs of Pisa. These embassies were the school in which Machiavelli
formed his political opinions, and gathered views regarding the state of
Europe and the relative strength of nations. They not only introduced
him to the subtleties of Italian diplomacy, but also extended his
observation over races very different from the Italians. He thus, in the
course of his official business, gradually acquired principles and
settled ways of thinking which he afterwards expressed in writing.

In 1502 Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini, who bore him several
children, with whom, in spite of his own infidelities, he lived on good
terms, and who survived him twenty-six years. In the same year Piero
Soderini was chosen gonfalonier for life, in accordance with certain
changes in the constitution of the state, which were intended to bring
Florence closer to the Venetian type of government. Machiavelli became
intimately connected with Soderini, assisted him in carrying out his
policy, suggested important measures of military reform which Soderini
adopted, and finally was involved in ruin by his fall.

The year 1502 was marked by yet another decisive incident in
Machiavelli's life. In October he was sent, much against his will, as
envoy to the camp of Cesare Borgia, duke of Valentinois. The duke was
then in Romagna, and it was Machiavelli's duty to wait upon and watch
him. He was able now to observe those intricate intrigues which
culminated in Cesare's murder of his disaffected captains. From what
remains of Machiavelli's official letters, and from his tract upon the
_Modo che tenne il duca Valentino per ammazzar Vitellozzo Vitelli_, we
are able to appreciate the actual relations which existed between the
two men, and the growth in Machiavelli's mind of a political ideal based
upon his study of the duke's character. Machiavelli conceived the
strongest admiration for Cesare's combination of audacity with
diplomatic prudence, for his adroit use of cruelty and fraud, for his
self-reliance, avoidance of half-measures, employment of native troops,
and firm administration in conquered provinces. More than once, in
letters to his friend Vettori, no less than in the pages of the
_Principe_, Machiavelli afterwards expressed his belief that Cesare
Borgia's behaviour in the conquest of provinces, the cementing of a new
state out of scattered elements, and the dealing with false friends or
doubtful allies, was worthy of all commendation and of scrupulous
imitation. As he watched Cesare Borgia at this, the most brilliant
period of his adventurous career, the man became idealized in his
reflective but imaginative mind. Round him, as a hero, he allowed his
own conceptions of the perfect prince to cluster. That Machiavelli
separated the actual Cesare Borgia, whom he afterwards saw, ruined and
contemptible, at Rome, from this radiant creature of his political
fancy, is probable. That the Cesare of history does not exactly match
the Duca Valentino of Machiavelli's writings is certain. Still the fact
remains that henceforth Machiavelli cherished the ideal image of the
statesman which he had modelled upon Cesare, and called this by the name
of Valentino.

On his return to Florence early in January 1503, Machiavelli began to
occupy himself with a project which his recent attendance upon Cesare
Borgia had strengthened in his mind. The duties of his office obliged
him to study the conditions of military service as they then existed in
Italy. He was familiar with the disadvantages under which republics
laboured when they engaged professional captains of adventure and levied
mercenary troops. The bad faith of the condottiere Paolo Vitelli
(beheaded at Florence in 1499) had deeply impressed him. In the war with
Pisa he had observed the insubordination and untrustworthiness of
soldiers gathered from the dregs of different districts, serving under
egotistical and irresponsible commanders. His reading in Livy taught him
to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of
the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the
troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this
plan might be adopted with success by the Italians. He was now
determined, if possible, to furnish Florence with a national militia.
The gonfalonier Soderini entered into his views. But obstacles of no
small magnitude arose. The question of money was immediately pressing.
Early in 1503 Machiavelli drew up for Soderini a speech, _Discorso sulla
provisione del danaro_, in which the duty and necessity of liberal
expenditure for the protection of the state were expounded upon
principles of sound political philosophy. Between this date and the last
month of 1506 Machiavelli laboured at his favourite scheme, working out
memorials on the subject for his office, and suggesting the outlines of
a new military organization. On the 6th of December 1506 his plan was
approved by the signoria, and a special ministry, called the nove _di
ordinanza e milizia_, was appointed. Machiavelli immediately became
their secretary. The country districts of the Florentine dominion were
now divided into departments, and levies of foot soldiers were made in
order to secure a standing militia. A commander-in-chief had to be
chosen for the new troops. Italian jealousy shrank from conferring this
important office on a Florentine, lest one member of the state should
acquire a power dangerous to the whole. The choice of Soderini and
Machiavelli fell, at this juncture, upon an extremely ineligible person,
none other than Don Micheletto, Cesare Borgia's cut-throat and assassin.
It is necessary to insist upon this point, since it serves to illustrate
a radical infirmity in Machiavelli's genius. While forming and promoting
his scheme, he was actuated by principles of political wisdom and by the
purest patriotism. But he failed to perceive that such a ruffian as
Micheletto could not inspire the troops of Florence with that devotion
to their country and that healthy moral tone which should distinguish a
patriot army. Here, as elsewhere, he revealed his insensibility to the
ethical element in human nature.

Meanwhile Italy had been the scene of memorable events, in most of which
Machiavelli took some part. Alexander VI. had died suddenly of fever.
Julius II. had ascended the papal chair. The duke of Valentinois had
been checked in mid-career of conquest. The collapse of the Borgias
threw Central Italy into confusion; and Machiavelli had, in 1505, to
visit the Baglioni at Perugia and the Petrucci at Siena. In the
following year he accompanied Julius upon his march through Perugia into
the province of Emilia, where the fiery pope subdued in person the
rebellious cities of the Church. Upon these embassies Machiavelli
represented the Florentine dieci in quality of envoy. It was his duty to
keep the ministry informed by means of frequent despatches and reports.
All this while the war for the recovery of Pisa was slowly dragging on,
with no success or honour to the Florentines. Machiavelli had to attend
the camp and provide for levies amid his many other occupations. And yet
he found time for private literary work. In the autumn of 1504 he began
his _Decennali_, or _Annals of Italy_, a poem composed in rough terza
rima. About the same time he composed a comedy on the model of
Aristophanes, which is unfortunately lost. It seems to have been called
_Le Maschere_. Giuliano de' Ricci tells us it was marked by stringent
satire upon great ecclesiastics and statesmen, no less than by a
tendency to "ascribe all human things to natural causes or to fortune."
That phrase accurately describes the prevalent bias of its author's
mind.

The greater part of 1506 and 1507 was spent in organizing the new
militia, corresponding on the subject, and scouring the country on
enlistment service. But at the end of the latter year European affairs
of no small moment diverted Machiavelli from these humbler duties.
Maximilian was planning a journey into Italy in order to be crowned
emperor at Rome, and was levying subsidies from the imperial burghs for
his expenses. The Florentines thought his demands excessive. Though they
already had Francesco Vettori at his court, Soderini judged it advisable
to send Machiavelli thither in December. He travelled by Geneva, all
through Switzerland, to Botzen, where he found the emperor. This journey
was an important moment in his life. It enabled him to study the Swiss
and the Germans in their homes; and the report which he wrote on his
return is among his most effective political studies. What is most
remarkable in it is his concentrated effort to realize the exact
political weight of the German nation, and to penetrate the causes of
its strength and weakness. He attempts to grasp the national character
as a whole, and thence to deduce practical conclusions. The same
qualities are noticeable in his _Ritratti delle cose di Francia_, which
he drew up after an embassy to Louis XII. at Blois in 1510. These notes
upon the French race are more scattered than the report on German
affairs. But they reveal no less acumen combined with imaginative
penetration into the very essence of national existence.

Machiavelli returned from Germany in June 1508. The rest of that year
and a large part of 1509 were spent in the affairs of the militia and
the war of Pisa. Chiefly through his exertions the war was terminated by
the surrender of Pisa in June 1509. Meanwhile the league of Cambray had
disturbed the peace of Italy, and Florence found herself in a perilous
position between Spain and France. Soderini's government grew weaker.
The Medicean party lifted up its head. To the league of Cambray
succeeded the Holy League. The battle of Ravenna was fought, and the
French retired from Italy. The Florentines had been spectators rather
than actors in these great events. But they were now destined to feel
the full effects of them. The cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, who was
present at the battle of Ravenna, brought a Spanish army into Tuscany.
Prato was sacked in the August of 1512. Florence, in extreme terror,
deposed the gonfalonier, and opened her gates to the princes of the
house of Medici.

The government on which Machiavelli depended had fallen, never to rise
again. The national militia in which he placed unbounded confidence had
proved inefficient to protect Florence in the hour of need. He was
surrounded by political and personal enemies, who regarded him with
jealousy as the ex-gonfalonier's right-hand man. Yet at first it appears
that he still hoped to retain his office. He showed no repugnance to a
change of masters, and began to make overtures to the Medici. The _nove
della milizia_ were, however, dissolved; and on the 7th of November 1512
Machiavelli was deprived of his appointments. He was exiled from
Florence and confined to the dominion for one year, and on the 17th of
November was further prohibited from setting foot in the Palazzo
Pubblico. Ruin stared him in the face; and, to make matters worse, he
was implicated in the conspiracy of Pier Paolo Boscoli in February 1513.
Machiavelli had taken no share in that feeble attempt against the
Medici, but his name was found upon a memorandum dropped by Boscoli.
This was enough to ensure his imprisonment. He was racked, and only
released upon Giovanni de' Medici's election to the papacy in March
1513. When he left his dungeon he retired to a farm near San Casciano,
and faced the fact that his political career was at an end.

Machiavelli now entered upon a period of life to which we owe the great
works that have rendered his name immortal. But it was one of prolonged
disappointment and annoyance. He had not accustomed himself to
economical living; and, when the emoluments of his office were
withdrawn, he had barely enough to support his family. The previous
years of his manhood had been spent in continual activity. Much as he
enjoyed the study of the Latin and Italian classics, literature was not
his business; nor had he looked on writing as more than an occasional
amusement. He was now driven in upon his books for the employment of a
restless temperament; and to this irksomeness of enforced leisure may be
ascribed the production of the _Principe_, the _Discorsi_, the _Arte
della guerra_, the comedies, and the _Historie fiorentine_. The
uneasiness of Machiavelli's mind in the first years of this retirement
is brought before us by his private correspondence. The letters to
Vettori paint a man of vigorous intellect and feverish activity,
dividing his time between studies and vulgar dissipations, seeking at
one time distraction in low intrigues and wanton company, at another
turning to the great minds of antiquity for solace. It is not easy to
understand the spirit in which the author of the _Principe_ sat down to
exchange obscenities with the author of the _Sommario della storia
d'Italia_. At the same time this coarseness of taste did not blunt his
intellectual sagacity. His letters on public affairs in Italy and
Europe, especially those which he meant Vettori to communicate to the
Medici at Rome, are marked by extraordinary fineness of perception,
combined, as usual in his case, with philosophical breadth. In
retirement at his villa near Percussina, a hamlet of San Casciano,
Machiavelli completed the _Principe_ before the end of 1513. This famous
book is an analysis of the methods whereby an ambitious man may rise to
sovereign power. It appears to have grown out of another scarcely less
celebrated work, upon which Machiavelli had been engaged before he took
the _Principe_ in hand, and which he did not finish until some time
afterwards. This second treatise is the _Discorsi sopra la prima deca di
Tito Livio_.

  Cast in the form of comments on the history of Livy, the _Discorsi_
  are really an inquiry into the genesis and maintenance of states. The
  _Principe_ is an offshoot from the main theme of the _Discorsi_,
  setting forth Machiavelli's views at large and in detail upon the
  nature of principalities, the method of cementing them, and the
  qualities of a successful autocrat. Being more limited in subject and
  more independent as a work of literary art, this essay detaches itself
  from the main body of the _Discorsi_, and has attracted far more
  attention. We feel that the _Principe_ is inspired with greater
  fervency, as though its author had more than a speculative aim in
  view, and brought it forth to serve a special crisis. The moment of
  its composition was indeed decisive. Machiavelli judged the case of
  Italy so desperate that salvation could only be expected from the
  intervention of a powerful despot. The unification of Italy in a state
  protected by a national army was the cherished dream of his life; and
  the peroration of the _Principe_ shows that he meant this treatise to
  have a direct bearing on the problem. We must be careful, however, not
  to fall into the error of supposing that he wrote it with the sole
  object of meeting an occasional emergency. Together with the
  _Discorsi_, the _Principe_ contains the speculative fruits of his
  experience and observation combined with his deductions from Roman
  history. The two works form one coherent body of opinion, not
  systematically expressed, it is true, but based on the same
  principles, involving the same conclusions, and directed to the same
  philosophical end. That end is the analysis of the conception of the
  state, studied under two main types, republican and monarchical. Up to
  the date of Machiavelli, modern political philosophy had always
  presupposed an ideal. Medieval speculation took the Church and the
  Empire for granted, as divinely appointed institutions, under which
  the nations of the earth must flourish for the space of man's
  probation on this planet. Thinkers differed only as Guelfs and
  Ghibellines, as leaning on the one side to papal, on the other to
  imperial supremacy. In the revival of learning, scholarship supplanted
  scholasticism, and the old ways of medieval thinking were forgotten.
  But no substantial philosophy of any kind emerged from humanism; the
  political lucubrations of the scholars were, like their ethical
  treatises, for the most part rhetorical. Still the humanists effected
  a delivery of the intellect from what had become the bondage of
  obsolete ideas, and created a new medium for the speculative faculty.
  Simultaneously with the revival, Italy had passed into that stage of
  her existence which has been called the age of despots. The yoke of
  the Empire had been shaken off. The Church had taken rank among
  Italian tyrannies. The peninsula was, roughly speaking, divided into
  principalities and sovereign cities, each of which claimed autocratic
  jurisdiction. These separate despotisms owned no common social tie,
  were founded on no common _jus_ or right, but were connected in a
  network of conflicting interests and changeful diplomatic
  combinations. A keen and positive political intelligence emerged in
  the Italian race. The reports of Venetian and Florentine ambassadors
  at this epoch contain the first germs of an attempt to study politics
  from the point of view of science.

  At this moment Machiavelli intervenes. He was conscious of the change
  which had come over Italy and Europe. He was aware that the old
  strongholds of medieval thought must be abandoned, and that the
  decaying ruins of medieval institutions furnished no basis for the
  erection of solid political edifices. He felt the corruption of his
  country, and sought to bring the world back to a lively sense of the
  necessity for reformation. His originality consists in having extended
  the positive intelligence of his century from the sphere of
  contemporary politics and special interests to man at large regarded
  as a political being. He founded the science of politics for the
  modern world, by concentrating thought upon its fundamental
  principles. He began to study men, not according to some
  preconception, but as he found them--men, not in the isolation of one
  century, but as a whole in history. He drew his conclusions from the
  nature of mankind itself, "ascribing all things to natural causes or
  to fortune." In this way he restored the right method of study, a
  method which had been neglected since the days of Aristotle. He formed
  a conception of the modern state, which marked the close of the middle
  ages, and anticipated the next phase of European development. His
  prince, abating those points which are purely Italian or strongly
  tinctured with the author's personal peculiarities, prefigured the
  monarchs of the 16th and 17th centuries, the monarchs whose motto was
  _L'état c'est moi!_ His doctrine of a national militia foreshadowed
  the system which has given strength in arms to France and Germany. His
  insight into the causes of Italian decadence was complete; and the
  remedies which he suggested, in the perorations of the _Principe_ and
  the _Arte della guerra_, have since been applied in the unification of
  Italy. Lastly, when we once have freed ourselves from the antipathy
  engendered by his severance of ethics from the field of politics, when
  we have once made proper allowance for his peculiar use of phrases
  like _frodi onorevoli_ or _scelleratezze gloriose_, nothing is left
  but admiration for his mental attitude. That is the attitude of a
  patriot, who saw with open eyes the ruin of his country, who burned
  above all things to save Italy and set her in her place among the
  powerful nations, who held the duty of self-sacrifice in the most
  absolute sense, whose very limitations and mistakes were due to an
  absorbing passion for the state he dreamed might be reconstituted. It
  was Machiavelli's intense preoccupation with this problem--what a
  state is and how to found one in existing circumstances--which caused
  the many riddles of his speculative writings. Dazzled, as it were,
  with the brilliancy of his own discovery, concentrated in attention on
  the one necessity for organizing a powerful coherent nation, he forgot
  that men are more than political beings. He neglected religion, or
  regarded it as part of the state machinery. He was by no means
  indifferent to private virtue, which indeed he judged the basis of all
  healthy national existence; but in the realm of politics he postponed
  morals to political expediency. He held that the people, as
  distinguished from the nobles and the clergy, were the pith and fibre
  of nations; yet this same people had to become wax in the hands of the
  politician--their commerce and their comforts, the arts which give a
  dignity to life and the pleasures which make life liveable,
  neglected--their very liberty subordinated to the one tyrannical
  conception. To this point the segregation of politics from every other
  factor which goes to constitute humanity had brought him; and this it
  is which makes us feel his world a wilderness, devoid of atmosphere
  and vegetation. Yet some such isolation of the subject matter of this
  science was demanded at the moment of its birth, just as political
  economy, when first started, had to make a rigid severance of wealth
  from other units. It is only by a gradual process that social science
  in its whole complexity can be evolved. We have hardly yet discovered
  that political economy has unavoidable points of contact with ethics.

  From the foregoing criticism it will be perceived that all the
  questions whether Machiavelli meant to corrupt or to instruct the
  world, to fortify the hands of tyrants or to lead them to their ruin,
  are now obsolete. He was a man of science--one who by the vigorous
  study of his subject matter sought from that subject-matter itself to
  deduce laws. The difficulty which remains in judging him is a
  difficulty of statement, valuation, allowance. How much shall we allow
  for his position in Renaissance Italy, for the corruption in the midst
  of which he lived, for his own personal temperament? How shall we
  state his point of departure from the middle ages, his sympathy with
  prevalent classical enthusiasms, his divination of a new period? How
  shall we estimate the permanent worth of his method, the residuum of
  value in his maxims?

After finishing the _Principe_, Machiavelli thought of dedicating it to
one of the Medicean princes, with the avowed hope that he might thereby
regain their favour and find public employment. He wrote to Vettori on
the subject, and Giuliano de' Medici, duke of Nemours, seemed to him the
proper person. The choice was reasonable. No sooner had Leo been made
pope than he formed schemes for the aggrandizement of his family.
Giuliano was offered and refused the duchy of Urbino. Later on, Leo
designed for him a duchy in Emilia, to be cemented out of Parma,
Piacenza, Reggio and Modena. Supported by the power of the papacy, with
the goodwill of Florence to back him, Giuliano would have found himself
in a position somewhat better than that of Cesare Borgia; and Borgia's
creation of the duchy of Romagna might have served as his model.
Machiavelli therefore was justified in feeling that here was an
opportunity for putting his cherished schemes in practice, and that a
prince with such alliances might even advance to the grand end of the
unification of Italy. Giuliano, however, died in 1506. Then Machiavelli
turned his thoughts towards Lorenzo, duke of Urbino. The choice of this
man as a possible Italian liberator reminds us of the choice of Don
Micheletto as general of the Florentine militia. To Lorenzo the
_Principe_ was dedicated, but without result. The Medici, as yet at all
events, could not employ Machiavelli, and had not in themselves the
stuff to found Italian kingdoms.

Machiavelli, meanwhile, was reading his _Discorsi_ to a select audience
in the Rucellai gardens, fanning that republican enthusiasm which never
lay long dormant among the Florentines. Towards the year 1519 both Leo
X. and his cousin, the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, were much perplexed
about the management of the republic. It seemed necessary, if possible,
in the gradual extinction of their family to give the city at least a
semblance of self-government. They applied to several celebrated
politicians, among others to Machiavelli, for advice in the emergency.
The result was a treatise in which he deduced practical conclusions from
the past history and present temper of the city, blending these with his
favourite principles of government in general. He earnestly admonished
Leo, for his own sake and for Florence, to found a permanent and free
state system for the republic, reminding him in terms of noble eloquence
how splendid is the glory of the man who shall confer such benefits upon
a people. The year 1520 saw the composition of the _Arte della guerra_
and the _Vita di Castruccio_.

  The first of these is a methodical treatise, setting forth
  Machiavelli's views on military matters, digesting his theories
  respecting the superiority of national troops, the inefficiency of
  fortresses, the necessity of relying upon infantry in war, and the
  comparative insignificance of artillery. It is strongly coloured with
  his enthusiasm for ancient Rome; and specially upon the topic of
  artillery it displays a want of insight into the actualities of modern
  warfare. We may regard it as a supplement or appendix to the
  _Principe_ and the _Discorsi_, since Machiavelli held it for a
  fundamental axiom that states are powerless unless completely armed in
  permanence. The peroration contains a noble appeal to the Italian
  liberator of his dreams, and a parallel from Macedonian history,
  which, read by the light of this century, sounds like a prophecy of
  Piedmont.

  The _Vita di Castruccio_ was composed at Lucca, whither Machiavelli
  had been sent on a mission. This so-called biography of the medieval
  adventurer who raised himself by personal ability and military skill
  to the tyranny of several Tuscan cities must be regarded in the light
  of an historical romance. Dealing freely with the outline of
  Castruccio's career, as he had previously dealt with Cesare Borgia, he
  sketched his own ideal of the successful prince. Cesare Borgia had
  entered into the _Principe_ as a representative figure rather than an
  actual personage; so now conversely the theories of the _Principe_
  assumed the outward form and semblance of Castruccio. In each case
  history is blent with speculation in nearly the same proportions. But
  Castruccio, being farther from the writer's own experience, bears
  weaker traits of personality.

  In the same year, 1520, Machiavelli, at the instance of the cardinal
  Giulio de' Medici, received commission from the officers of the
  _Studio pubblico_ to write a history of Florence. They agreed to pay
  him an annual allowance of 100 florins while engaged upon the work.
  The next six years were partly employed in its composition, and he
  left a portion of it finished, with a dedication to Clement VII., when
  he died in 1527. In the _Historie fiorentine_ Machiavelli quitted the
  field of political speculation for that of history. But, having
  already written the _Discorsi_ and the _Principe_, he carried with him
  to this new task of historiography the habit of mind proper to
  political philosophy. In his hands the history of Florence became a
  text on which at fitting seasons to deliver lessons in the science he
  initiated. This gives the work its special character. It is not so
  much a chronicle of Florentine affairs, from the commencement of
  modern history to the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in 1492, as a
  critique of that chronicle from the point of view adopted by
  Machiavelli in his former writings. Having condensed his doctrines in
  the _Principe_ and the _Discorsi_, he applies their abstract
  principles to the example of the Florentine republic. But the _History
  of Florence_ is not a mere political pamphlet. It is the first example
  in Italian literature of a national biography, the first attempt in
  any literature to trace the vicissitudes of a people's life in their
  logical sequence, deducing each successive phase from passions or
  necessities inherent in preceding circumstances, reasoning upon them
  from general principles, and inferring corollaries for the conduct of
  the future. In point of form the _Florentine History_ is modelled upon
  Livy. It contains speeches in the antique manner, which may be taken
  partly as embodying the author's commentary upon situations of
  importance, partly as expressing what he thought dramatically
  appropriate to prominent personages. The style of the whole book is
  nervous, vivid, free from artifice and rhetoric, obeying the writer's
  thought with absolute plasticity. Machiavelli had formed for himself a
  prose style, equalled by no one but by Guicciardini in his minor
  works, which was far removed from the emptiness of the latinizing
  humanists and the trivialities of the Italian purists. Words in his
  hands have the substance, the self-evidence of things. It is an
  athlete's style, all bone and sinew, nude, without superfluous flesh
  or ornament.

It would seem that from the date of Machiavelli's discourse to Leo on
the government of Florence the Medici had taken him into consideration.
Writing to Vettori in 1513, he had expressed his eager wish to "roll
stones" in their service; and this desire was now gratified. In 1521 he
was sent to Carpi to transact a petty matter with the chapter of the
Franciscans, the chief known result of the embassy being a burlesque
correspondence with Francesco Guicciardini. Four years later, in 1525,
he received a rather more important mission to Venice. But Machiavelli's
public career was virtually closed; and the interest of his biography
still centres in his literary work. We have seen that already, in 1504,
he had been engaged upon a comedy in the manner of Aristophanes, which
is now unfortunately lost. A translation of the _Andria_ and three
original comedies from his pen are extant, the precise dates of which
are uncertain, though the greatest of them was first printed at Rome in
1524. This is the _Mandragola_, which may be justly called the ripest
and most powerful play in the Italian language.

  The plot is both improbable and unpleasing. But literary criticism is
  merged in admiration of the wit, the humour, the vivacity, the satire
  of a piece which brings before us the old life of Florence in a
  succession of brilliant scenes. If Machiavelli had any moral object
  when he composed the _Mandragola_, it was to paint in glaring colours
  the corruption of Italian society. It shows how a bold and plausible
  adventurer, aided by the profligacy of a parasite, the avarice and
  hypocrisy of a confessor, and a mother's complaisant familiarity with
  vice, achieves the triumph of making a gulled husband bring his own
  unwilling but too yielding wife to shame. The whole comedy is a study
  of stupidity and baseness acted on by roguery. About the power with
  which this picture of domestic immorality is presented there can be no
  question. But the perusal of the piece obliges us to ask ourselves
  whether the author's radical conception of human nature was not false.
  The same suspicion is forced upon us by the _Principe_. Did not
  Machiavelli leave good habit, as an essential ingredient of character,
  out of account? Men are not such absolute fools as Nicia, nor such
  compliant catspaws as Ligurio and Timoteo; women are not such weak
  instruments as Sostrata and Lucrezia. Somewhere, in actual life, the
  stress of craft and courage acting on the springs of human vice and
  weakness fails, unless the hero of the comedy or tragedy, Callimaco or
  Cesare, allows for the revolt of healthier instincts. Machiavelli does
  not seem to have calculated the force of this recoil. He speculates a
  world in which _virtu_, unscrupulous strength of character, shall deal
  successfully with frailty. This, we submit, was a deep-seated error in
  his theory of life, an error to which may be ascribed the numerous
  stumbling-blocks and rocks of offence in his more serious writings.

  Some time after the _Mandragola_, he composed a second comedy,
  entitled _Clizia_, which is even homelier and closer to the life of
  Florence than its predecessor. It contains incomparable studies of the
  Florentine housewife and her husband, a grave business-like citizen,
  who falls into the senile folly of a base intrigue. There remains a
  short piece without title, the _Commedia in prosa_, which, if it be
  Machiavelli's, as internal evidence of style sufficiently argues,
  might be accepted as a study for both the _Clizia_ and the
  _Mandragola_. It seems written to expose the corruption of domestic
  life in Florence, and especially to satirize the friars in their
  familiar part of go-betweens, tame cats, confessors and adulterers.

  Of Machiavelli's minor poems, sonnets, _capitoli_ and carnival songs
  there is not much to say. Powerful as a comic playwright, he was not a
  poet in the proper sense of the term. The little novel of _Belfagor_
  claims a passing word, if only because of its celebrity. It is a
  good-humoured satire upon marriage, the devil being forced to admit
  that hell itself is preferable to his wife's company. That Machiavelli
  invented it to express the irritation of his own domestic life is a
  myth without foundation. The story has a medieval origin, and it was
  almost simultaneously treated in Italian by Machiavelli, Straparola
  and Giovanni Brevio.

In the spring of 1526 Machiavelli was employed by Clement VII. to
inspect the fortifications of Florence. He presented a report upon the
subject, and in the summer of the same year received orders to attend
Francesco Guicciardini, the pope's commissary of war in Lombardy.
Guicciardini sent him in August to Cremona, to transact business with
the Venetian _provveditori_. Later on in the autumn we find him once
more with Guicciardini at Bologna. Thus the two great Italian historians
of the 16th century, who had been friends for several years, were
brought into relations of close intimacy.

After another visit to Guicciardini in the spring of 1527, Machiavelli
was sent by him to Civita Vecchia. It seemed that he was destined to be
associated in the papal service with Clement's viceroy, and that a new
period of diplomatic employment was opening for him. But soon after his
return to Florence he fell ill. His son Piero said that he took medicine
on the 20th of June which disagreed with him; and on the 22nd he died,
having received the last offices of the Church.

There is no foundation for the legend that he expired with profane
sarcasms upon his lips. Yet we need not run into the opposite extreme,
and try to fancy that Machiavelli, who had professed Paganism in his
life, proved himself a believing Christian on his death-bed. That he
left an unfavourable opinion among his fellow citizens is very decidedly
recorded by the historian Varchi. The _Principe_, it seems, had already
begun to prejudice the world against him; and we can readily believe
that Varchi sententiously observes, that "it would have been better for
him if nature had given him either a less powerful intellect or a mind
of a more genial temper." There is in truth a something crude,
unsympathetic, cynical in his mental attitude toward human nature, for
which, even after the lapse of more than three centuries, we find it
difficult to make allowance. The force of his intellect renders this
want of geniality repulsive. We cannot help objecting that one who was
so powerful could have been kindlier and sounder if he willed. We
therefore do him the injustice of mistaking his infirmity for
perversity. He was colour-blind to commonplace morality; and we are
angry with him because he merged the hues of ethics in one grey monotone
of politics.

In person Machiavelli was of middle height, black-haired, with rather a
small head, very bright eyes and slightly aquiline nose. His thin, close
lips often broke into a smile of sarcasm. His activity was almost
feverish. When unemployed in work or study he was not averse to the
society of boon companions, gave himself readily to transient amours,
and corresponded in a tone of cynical bad taste. At the same time he
lived on terms of intimacy with worthy men. Varchi says that "in his
conversation he was pleasant, obliging to his intimates, the friend of
virtuous persons." Those who care to understand the contradictions of
which such a character was capable should study his correspondence with
Vettori. It would be unfair to charge what is repulsive in their letters
wholly on the habits of the times, for wide familiarity with the
published correspondence of similar men at the same epoch brings one
acquainted with little that is so disagreeable.     (J. A. S.)

  Among the many editions of Machiavelli's works the one in 8 vols.,
  dated Italia, 1813, may be mentioned, and the more comprehensive ones
  published by A. Parenti (Florence, 1843) and by A. Usigli (Florence,
  1857). P. Fanfani and L. Passerini began another, which promised to be
  the most complete of all; but only 6 vols. were published (Florence,
  1873-1877); the work contains many new and important documents on
  Machiavelli's life. The best biography is the standard work of
  Pasquale Villari, _La Storia di Niccolò Machiavelli e de' suoi tempi_
  (Florence, 1877-1882; latest ed., 1895; Eng. trans. by Linda Villari,
  London, 1892); in vol. ii. there is an exhaustive criticism of the
  various authors who have written on Machiavelli. See also T. Mundt,
  _Niccolò Machiavelli und das System der modernen Politik_ (3rd ed.,
  Berlin, 1867); E. Feuerlein, "_Zur Machiavelli-Frage_" in H. von
  Sybel's _Histor. Zeitschrift_ (Munich, 1868); P. S. Mancini,
  _Prelezioni con un saggio sul Machiavelli_; F. Nitti, _Machiavelli
  nella vita e nelle opere_ (Naples, 1876); O. Tomasini, _La Vita e gli
  scritti di Niccolò Machiavelli_ (Turin, 1883); L. A. Burd, _Il
  Principe, by Niccolò Machiavelli_ (Oxford, 1891); Lord Morley,
  _Machiavelli_ (Romanes lecture, Oxford, 1897). _The Cambridge Modern
  History_, vol. i. (Cambridge, 1903), contains an essay on Machiavelli
  by L. A. Burd, with a very full biography.



MACHICOLATION (from Fr. _machicoulis_), an opening between a wall and a
parapet, formed by corbelling out the latter, so that the defenders
might throw down stones, melted lead, &c., upon assailants below.



MACHINE (through Fr. from Lat. form _machina_ of Gr. [Greek: mechane]),
any device or apparatus for the application or modification of force to
a specific purpose. The term "simple machine" is applied to the six
so-called mechanical powers--the lever, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley,
screw, and inclined plane. For machine-tools see TOOLS. The word machine
was formerly applied to vehicles, such as stage-coaches, &c., and is
still applied to carriages in Scotland; a survival of this use is in the
term "bathing machine." Figuratively, the word is used of persons whose
actions seem to be regulated according to a rigid and unchanging system.
In politics, especially in America, machine is synonymous with party
organization. A stage device of the ancient Greek drama gave rise to the
proverbial expression, "the god from the machine," Lat. _deus ex
machina_, for the disentangling and conclusion of a plot by supernatural
interference or by some accident extraneous to the natural development
of the story. When a god had to be brought on the stage he was floated
down from above by a [Greek: geranos] (crane) or other machine ([Greek:
mechane]). Euripides has been reproached with an excessive use of the
device, but it has been pointed out (A. E. Haigh, _Tragic Drama of the
Greeks_, p. 245 seq.) that only in two plays (_Orestes_ and
_Hippolytus_) is the god brought on for the solution of the plot. In the
others the god comes to deliver a kind of epilogue, describing the
future story of the characters, or to introduce some account of a
legend, institution, &c.



MACHINE-GUN, a weapon designed to deliver a large number of bullets or
small shells, either by volleys[1] or in very quick succession, at a
high rate of fire. Formerly the mechanism of machine-guns was hand
operated, but all modern weapons are automatic in action, the gas of the
explosion or the force of recoil being utilized to lock and unlock the
breech mechanism, to load the weapon and to eject the fired cartridge
cases. The smaller types approximate to the "automatic rifle," which is
expected to replace the magazine rifle as the arm of the infantryman.
The large types, generically called "pompoms," fire a light artillery
projectile, and are considered by many artillery experts as "the gun of
the future." The medium type, which takes the ordinary rifle ammunition
but is fired from various forms of carriage, is the ordinary machine-gun
of to-day, and the present article deals mainly with this.


HISTORICAL SKETCH

Machine-guns of a primitive kind are found in the early history of
gunpowder artillery, in the form of a grouping or binding of several
small-calibre guns for purposes of a volley or a rapid succession of
shots. The earliest field artillery (q.v.) was indeed chiefly designed
to serve the purpose of a modern machine-gun, i.e. for a mechanical
concentration of musketry. Infantry fire (till the development of the
Spanish arquebus, about 1520) was almost ineffective, and the
disintegration of the masses of pikes, preparatory to the decisive
cavalry charge, had to be effected by guns of one sort or another (see
also INFANTRY). Hence the "cart with gonnes," although the prototype of
the field gun of to-day was actually a primitive _mitrailleuse_.


  Ribaudequins.

  "Organs."

Weapons of this sort were freely employed by the Hussites, who fought in
laager formation (_Wagenburg_), but the fitting of two or more hand-guns
or small culverins to a two-wheeled carriage garnished with spikes and
scythe blades (like the ancient war-chariots) was somewhat older, for in
1382 the men of Ghent put into the field 200 "chars de canon" and in
1411 the Burgundian army is said to have had 2000 "ribaudequins"
(meaning probably the weapons, not the carts, in this case). These were
of course hardly more than carts with hand-gun men; in fact most armies
in those days moved about in a hollow square or lozenge of wagons, and
it was natural to fill the carts with the available gunners or archers.
The method of breaking the enemy's "battles" with these carts was at
first, in the ancient manner, to drive into and disorder the hostile
ranks with the scythes. But they contained at least the germ of the
modern machine-gun, for the tubes (_cannes, canons_) were connected by a
train of powder and fired in volleys. As however field artillery
improved (latter half of 15th century), and a cannon-ball could be fired
from a mobile carriage, the ribaudequin ceased to exist, its name being
transferred to heavy hand-guns used as rampart pieces. The idea of the
machine-gun reappeared however in the 16th century. The weapons were now
called "organs" (_orgues_), from the number of pipes or tubes that they
contained. At first used (defensively) in the same way as the
ribaudequins, i.e. as an effective addition to the military equipment of
a war-cart, they were developed, in the early part of the 16th century,
into a really formidable weapon for breaking the masses of the enemy,
not by scythes and spikes but by fire. Fleurange's memoirs assign the
credit of this to the famous gunner and engineer Pedro Navarro, who made
two hundred weapons of a design of his own for Louis XII. These "were
not more than two feet long, and fired fifty shots at a round," but
nevertheless "organs" were relatively rare in the armies of the 16th
century, for the field artillery, though it grew in size and lost in
mobility, had discovered the efficacy of case shot (then called
"perdreaux") against uncovered animate targets, and for work that was
not sufficiently serious for the guns heavy arquebuses were employed.
Infantry fire, too, was growing in power and importance. In 1551 a
French army contained 21 guns and 150 arquebuses _à croc_ and one _pièce
façon d'orgue_. By about 1570 it had been found that when an "organ" was
needed all that was necessary was to mount some heavy arquebuses on a
cart, and the organ, as a separate weapon, disappeared from the field,
although under the name of "mantelet" (from the shield which protected
the gunners), it was still used for the defence of breaches in siege
warfare. Diego Ufano, who wrote in the early years of the 17th century,
describes it as a weapon consisting of five or six barrels fired
simultaneously by a common lock, and mentions as a celebrated example
the "Triquetraque of Rome" which had five barrels. Another writer,
Hanzelet, describes amongst other devices a mitrailleuse of four barrels
which was fired from the back of an ass or pony. But such weapons as
these were more curious than useful. For work in the open field the
musket came more and more to the front, its bullet became at least as
formidable as that of an "organ," and when it was necessary to obtain a
concentrated fire on a narrow front arquebuses _à croc_ were mounted for
the nonce in groups of four to six. The "organ" maintained a precarious
existence, and is described by Montecucculi a century later, and one of
twelve barrels figures in the list of military Stores at Hesdin in 1689.
But its fatal defect was that it was neither powerful enough to engage
nor mobile enough to evade the hostile artillery.

Enthusiastic inventors, of course, produced many models of machine-gun
in the strict sense of the word--i.e. a gun firing many charges, in
volleys or in rapid succession, by a mechanical arrangement of the lock.
Wilhelm Calthoff, a German employed by Louis XIII., produced arquebuses
and muskets that fired six to eight shots per round, but his invention
was a secret, and it seems to have been more of a magazine small arm
than a machine-gun (1640). In 1701 a Lorrainer, Beaufort de Mirecourt,
proposed a machine-gun which had as its purpose the augmentation of
infantry-fire power, so as to place an inferior army on an equality with
a superior. At this time inventors were so numerous and so embarrassing
that the French grand master of artillery, St Hilaire, in 1703 wrote
that he would be glad to have done with "ces sortes de gens à secrets,"
some of whom demanded a grant of compensation even when their
experiments had failed. The machine-gun of the 17th and 18th centuries
in fact possessed no advantage over contemporary field artillery, and
the battalion gun in particular, which possessed the long ranging and
battering power that its rival lacked, and was moreover more efficacious
against living targets with its case-shot or grape. As compared with
infantry fire, too, it was less effective and slower than the muskets of
a well-drilled company. Rapid fire was easily arranged, but the rapid
_loading_ which would have compensated for other defects was
unobtainable in the then existing state of gun-making.

Thus a satisfactory machine-gun was not forthcoming until breech-loading
had been, so to speak, rediscovered, that is until about 1860. At that
time the tactical conditions of armament were peculiar. As regards
artillery, the new (muzzle-loading) long-range rifle sufficed, in the
hand of determined infantry, to keep guns out of case-shot range. This
made the Napoleonic artillery attack an impossibility. At the same time
the infantry rifle was a slow loader, and the augmentation of the volume
of infantry fire attracted the attention of several inventors. The
French, with their artillery traditions, regarded the machine-gun
therefore as a method of restoring the lost superiority of the gunner,
while the Americans, equally in accordance with traditions and local
circumstances, regarded it as a musketry machine. The representative
weapons evolved by each were the _canon à balles_, more commonly called
_mitrailleuse_, and the Gatling gun.


  The Canon a Balles, 1866-1870.

The declared purpose of the _canon à balles_ was to replace the old
artillery case-shot attack. Shrapnel, owing to the defects of the
time-fuzes then available, had proved disappointing in the Italian War
of 1859, and the gun itself, of the existing model, was not considered
satisfactory. Napoleon III., a keen student of artillery, maintained a
private arsenal and workshop at the château of Meudon[2] and in 1866, in
the alarm following upon Königgrätz, he ordered Commandant Reffye
(1821-1880), the artillery officer he had placed in charge of it, to
produce a machine-gun. Reffye held that the work of a mitrailleuse
should only begin where that of the infantry rifle ceased. The handbook
to his gun issued to the French army in 1870 stated that it was "to
carry balls to distances that the infantry, and the artillery firing
case, could not reach." The most suitable range was given as 1500-2000
yards against infantry in close order, 2000-2700 against artillery. As
the French shrapnel (_obus à balles_) of these days was only used to
give its peculiar case-shot effect between 550 and 1350 yards, and even
so sparingly and without much confidence in its efficacy, it is clear
that the _canon à balles_ was intended to do the field-gun's work,
except at (what were then) extreme field artillery ranges (2800 and
above), in which case the ordinary gun with common shell (time or
percussion) alone was used.

  Constructed to meet these conditions, the Reffye machine-gun in its
  final form resembled outwardly an ordinary field gun, with wheeled
  carriage, limber and four-horse team. The gun barrel was in reality a
  casing for 25 rifle barrels disposed around a common axis (the idea of
  obtaining sweeping effect by disposing the barrels slightly fan-wise
  had been tried and abandoned). The barrels were held together at
  intervals by wrought-iron plates. They were entirely open at the
  breech, a removable false breech containing the firing mechanism (the
  cartridge cases were of brass, solid-drawn, like those of the American
  and unlike those of the British Gatlings). This false breech, held in
  the firing position by a strong screw--resembling roughly those of
  contemporary B.L. ordnance such as the Armstrong R. B. L.--consisted
  of a plate with 25 holes, which allowed the points of the strikers to
  pass through and reach the cartridges. The plate was turned by hand so
  that one striker was admitted at a time, the metal of the plate
  holding back the rest. To avoid any deflection of the bullet by the
  gases at an adjoining muzzle the barrels were fired in an irregular
  order. Each gun was provided with four chambers, which were loaded
  with their 25 cartridges apiece by a charger, and fixed to the breech
  one after the other as quickly as the manipulation of the powerful
  retaining screw permitted. The rates of fire were "slow," 3 rounds or
  75 shots a minute, and "rapid," 5 rounds or 125 shots per minute. One
  advantage as against artillery that was claimed for the new weapon was
  rapidity of ranging. Any ordinary target, such as a hostile gun,
  would, it was expected, be accurately ranged by the mitrailleuse
  before it was ready to open fire for effect. The ordinary rifle bullet
  was employed, but to enhance the case-shot effect a heavy bullet made
  up in three parts, which broke asunder on discharge, was introduced in
  1870 in the proportion of one round in nine. The weapon was sighted to
  3000 metres (3300 yds.). The initial velocity was 1558 f.s.; and the
  weight of the gun 350 kg. (6.45 cwt.), of the carriage 371 kg. (6.86
  cwt.); total behind the team, 1,485 kg. (27.1 cwt.).

  For an artillery effect, dispersion had to be combined with accuracy.
  The rifle-barrels when carefully set gave a very close grouping of
  shots on the target, and dispersion was obtained by traversing the gun
  during the firing of a round. When this was skilfully performed a
  front of 18 metres (about 20 yds.) at l,000 metres range was
  thoroughly swept by the cone of bullets.

The design and manufacture of these mitrailleuses under the personal
orders and at the expense of the emperor enabled the French authorities
to keep their new weapon most secret. Even though, after a time,
mitrailleuses were constructed by scores, and could therefore no longer
be charged to a "sundry" or "petty cash" account in the budget, secrecy
was still maintained. The pieces were taken about, muffled in
tarpaulins, by by-ways and footpaths. In 1869, two years after the
definitive adoption of the weapon, only a few artillery captains were
instructed in its mechanism; the non-commissioned officers who had to
handle the gun in war were called up for practice in July 1870, when
Major Reffye's energies were too much absorbed in turning out the
material so urgently demanded to allow him to devote himself to their
instruction. The natural consequence was that the mitrailleuses were
taken into battle by officers and men of whom nine-tenths had never seen
them fire one round of live cartridges. The purpose of this fatal
secrecy was the maintenance of prestige. No details were given, but it
was confidently announced that war would be revolutionized. One foreign
officer only, Major Fosbery, R.A. (see _R.U.S.I. Journal_, v. xiii.),
penetrated the secret, and he felt himself bound in honour to keep it to
himself, not even communicating it to the War Office. But public
attention was only too fully aroused by these mysterious prophecies.
"The mitrailleuse paid dearly for its fame." The Prussians, who had
examined mitrailleuses of the Gatling or infantry type, were well aware
that the artillery machine-gun was at the least a most formidable
opponent. They therefore ostentatiously rejected the Gatling gun, taught
their troops that the new weapons were in the nature of scientific toys,
and secretly made up their minds to turn the whole weight of their guns
on to the mitrailleuse whenever and wherever it appeared on the field,
and so to overwhelm it at once. This policy they carried into effect in
the War of 1870; and although on occasions the new weapon rendered
excellent service, in general it cruelly disappointed the over-high
hopes of its admirers. And thus, although the Gatling and similar types
of gun were employed to a slight extent by both sides in the later stage
of the war, machine-guns, as a class of armament for civilized warfare,
practically disappeared.

  As a good deal of criticism--after the event--has been levelled at the
  French for their "improper use of the machine-gun as a substitute for
  artillery," it is necessary to give some summary of the ideas and
  rules which were inspired by the inventor or dictated by the
  authorities as to its tactical employment. The first principle laid
  down was that the gun should not be employed within the zone of the
  infantry fight. Officers commanding batteries were explicitly warned
  against infantry divisional generals who would certainly attempt to
  put the batteries, by sections, amongst the infantry. The second
  principle was that the mitrailleuses were to share the work of the
  guns, the latter battering obstacles with common shell, and the former
  being employed against troops in the open, and especially to cover and
  support the infantry advance. This tendency to classify the roles of
  the artillery and to tell off the batteries each in its special task
  has reappeared in the French, and to a more limited extent in the
  British, field artillery of to-day (the Germans alone resolutely
  opposing the idea of subdivision). The mitrailleuse of 1870 was, in
  fact, intended to do what the perfected Shrapnel of 1910 does, to
  transfer the case-shot attack to longer ranges. But, as we have seen,
  secrecy had prevented any general spread of knowledge as to the uses
  to which the _canon à balles_ was to be put, and consequently, after a
  few weeks of the war, we find Reffye complaining that the machine-guns
  were being used by their battery commanders "in a perfectly idiotic
  fashion. They are only good at a great distance and when used in
  masses, and they are being employed at close quarters like a rifle."
  The officers in the field, however, held that it was foolish to pit
  the mitrailleuse against the gun, which had a longer range, and
  exerted themselves to use it as an infantry weapon, a concentrated
  company, for which, unlike the Gatlings of 1870 and the machine-guns
  of to-day, it was never designed. As to which was right in the
  controversy it is impossible to dogmatize and needless to argue.


  Gatling Gun.

Very different was the Gatling gun, the invention of Richard Jordan
Gatling (1818-1903), which came into existence and was to a slight
extent used in the field in the latter years of the American Civil
War,[3] and also to a still slighter extent by the Bavarians and the
French in the latter part of the war of 1870. This was distinctively an
infantry type weapon, a sort of revolving rifle, the ten barrels of
which were set around an axis, and fired in turn when brought into
position by the revolving mechanism. This weapon had a long reign, and
was used side by side with the latest automatic machine gun in the
Spanish-American War of 1898. The following account of the old British
service Gatling (fig. 1), as used in the Egyptian and Sudanese
campaigns, is condensed from that in the article "Gun-making," _Ency.
Brit._ 9th ed.

  A block of ten barrels is secured round an axis, which is fixed in a
  frame _a a_. On turning the handle _h_ (fig. 2) the spindle _g g_
  causes the worm _f_ to act on the pinion _w_, making the axis and
  barrels revolve. A drum T (figs. 1 and 4) is placed on the top at the
  breech end of the barrels over a hopper, through a slot in which the
  cartridges drop into the carrier (fig. 3). The construction of the
  lock is shown in fig. 4. A A A A is a cam, sloping as in the drawing,
  which, it must be understood, represents the circular construction
  opened out and laid flat. As the barrels, carrier and locks revolve
  the slope of the cam forces the locks forward and backward
  alternately. At position I. the cartridge has just fallen into the
  carrier, the lock and bolt are completely withdrawn. At positions II.,
  III., IV., the cam is forcing them forward, so that the bolt pushes
  the cartridge into the barrel. At IV. the cocking cam R begins to
  compress the spiral spring, releasing it at V. Position VI. shows the
  cartridge just after firing; the extractor is clutching the base of
  the cartridge case, which is withdrawn as the locks retreat down the
  slope of the cam, till at X it falls through an aperture to the
  ground. The drum consists of a number of vertical channels radiating
  from the centre. The cartridges are arranged horizontally, one above
  the other, in these channels, bullet ends inwards. The drum revolves
  on the pivot b (fig. 3). and the cartridges fall through the aperture
  B. When all the channels are emptied, a full drum is brought from the
  limber, and substituted for the empty one. Each barrel fires in turn
  as it comes to a certain position, so that by turning the handle
  quickly an almost continuous stream of bullets can be ejected.
  Experimental Gatlings were constructed which could be made to fire
  nearly 1000 shots a minute, and an automatic traversing arrangement
  was also fitted.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Gatling Gun.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Lock of Gatling Gun.]

As has been said, this weapon had a long reign. It was used with great
effect in the Zulu War at Ulundi and in the Sudan. But a grave
disadvantage of the English pattern was that it had to be used with the
Boxer coiled cartridge supplied for the Martini-Henry rifle, and until
this was replaced by a solid-drawn cartridge case it was impossible to
avoid frequent "jams." The modern, fully automatic, machine gun suffers
from this to a considerable extent, and it was an even more serious
defect with a hand-operated weapon, as the British troops found in their
campaigns against the Mahdists. But the Gatling had many advantages over
its newer rivals as regards simplicity and strength. Theodore Roosevelt,
who commanded sections of both types in the Spanish-American War, speaks
with enthusiasm of the old-fashioned weapon[4] while somewhat
disparaging the Colt automatic.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Nordenfeldt Machine-Gun.

  1-10, Parts of frame;
  11, Breech plug;
  12, Striker;
  13, Extractor;
  14, Cartridge receiver;
  15-18, 23-31, Lock and trigger parts;
  19-22, Locking action;
  32-35, Loading action;
  36-39, Cartridge receiver;
  40, Cover;
  41-44, Parts of hand-lever,
  45-49, Traversing action,
  50-55, Elevating and trailing action;
  56, 57, Hopper and slide.]

The Gardner was another type which had a certain vogue[5] and was used
by the British in savage warfare. But, next to the Gatling, the most
important of the hand-operated machine