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Title: Illustrated Index of British Shells - Containing figures of all the recent species
Author: Sowerby, George Brettingham
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Index of British Shells - Containing figures of all the recent species" ***

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With Names and other Information.








       *       *       *       *       *


The first idea of this Work arose from the occasional use of Mr. Damon's
'Catalogue of the Shells of Great Britain and Ireland,' named after the
'History of British Mollusca,' etc. Here was, on one side, a very useful
list of names, without figures or references to guide an inquirer to the
species; and on the other, a very large and splendid Work, placed by its
heavy price beyond the reach of Naturalists in general. There was nothing
between the two; nothing within reach that would assist collectors of
British Shells to name their acquisitions from ocean, beach, river, pond,
or hedgerow. A public want seemed here to be discovered. It was thought
that a list like the above, with a coloured drawing of every species, if
produced at an available price, would supply that want. At first no more
than this was thought of, but afterwards, as the preparations advanced,
various suggestions were made tending to some extension of the plan. The
results are here presented.

About 700 Figures in the Plates represent all the recognized species. They
amount to 600, being 60 more than are admitted in the latest monograph. The
greater part of these are either new or newly introduced as British. The
rest are raised from varieties to species.

As the nomenclature used by Messrs. Forbes and Hanley in their great Work
will be most generally adopted in this country, it is followed here with
very few alterations; and the synonyms given (in italics) are selected from
those which are most familiar and likely to be met with.

Some information is added respecting habits and localities, range of depth
of marine species, and comparative abundance. The letters C., Cc., Mc., R.,
Rr., and Mr., signifying 'common,' 'extremely common,' 'moderately common,'
'rare,' etc., must be taken with great caution, especially the latter, as
subject to continual change.

A list is given of British Fossil Shells identical with now living species.

A familiar description of British Mollusca and some peculiarities in their
families and genera will, it is hoped, form a useful and suitable
introduction to the names and figures. The Author's best thanks are due to
his friends, Madame De Burgh, who has collected many beautiful shells; R.
McAndrew, Esq., F.L.S., whose dredging experiences are so extensive; J. G.
Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., etc., whose researches have resulted in so many
additions to our Fauna; Mr. Brice Wright, the Naturalist, of Great Russell
Street, and others, who have in the most liberal manner supplied him with
specimens from which his drawings are taken. The loan of delicate and
minute shells to authors and artists has so often proved disastrous, that
nothing but a generous friendship, and a zealous love of Natural History,
could have induced proprietors so freely to incur the risk.

       *       *       *       *       *




A common garden Snail, observed crawling and feeding, is easily seen to
possess a distinct head, upon which are four feelers or horns, with eyes at
the end, and underneath which is a mouth; a broad disc, extending the whole
length of the body, is the organ of locomotion; a spiral or coiled shell
surmounts the whole.

If, on the other hand, an Oyster be opened, no distinct head, or place for
eyes or mouth, can be seen, but only a seeming mass of pulp, with a round
gristle in the centre (the muscle of attachment), the former enclosed in a
soft skin with a double fringe round the edge (mantle), placed within a
shell composed of two pieces.

All Mollusca are more or less completely represented by these two. The
Snail and its class are named _Gasteropoda_ (abdomen-creeping), and their
shells _Univalves_; the Oyster and its class, _Acephala_ (headless), and
their shells _Bivalves_. We begin with the latter class at--


_Pholadidæ_, or "Borers," 1-13, have the power of piercing and inhabiting
holes in submarine wood, rocks, and stones. The hinder part of the body is
lengthened out in the form of a double tube, with openings for the ingress
and egress of fluids. _Teredo_, 1-6, has short valves, two pallets fixed at
the sides of the siphons, and lines its hole with a shelly tube. _Pholas_
and _Pholadidea_, 8-13, have long valves and sometimes accessory plates.
The shell of _Xylophaga_, 7, is like that of _Teredo_, but the animal has
neither pallets nor tube.

_Gastrochæna_, 14, has a gaping shell, and encloses itself in a
bottle-shaped covering of cemented stones and sand. _Saxicava_, 15, 16,
_Venerupis_, 18, and _Petricola_, 17, burrow in sand, or live in holes of

_Myadæ_, or "Gapers," _Mya_, 19, 20, and _Panopæa_, 21, 21*, burrow
downwards in sand and mud, their siphons protected by a coriaceous
covering. Their shells are not closed all round, and those of _Mya_ have a
spoon-shaped process in the hinge of one valve.

_Corbulidæ_, 22-28, have short siphons with fringed edges, and the foot
protrudes through a hole in the otherwise closed mantle.


_Poromya_, 1, 1*, and the beautiful pearly _Pandora_, 2, 3, might be
included in the family of _Corbulidæ_. _Lyonsia_, 4, and _Thracia_, 5-10,
represent the _Anatinidæ_. 11-18 are _Solenidæ_, or "Razor-shells." Solens
burrow in deep holes in the sand, where they remain in a perpendicular
position at a great depth below the surface, where yet their presence may
be traced by the opening left. Their large muscular foot enables them to
take great leaps when out of the holes.


_Psammobia_, 1-4, and _Tellina_, 5-16, include some of our most beautiful
shells. The animals have a large, fleshy, curved foot, and the mantle open
and fringed. Their shells are provided with an external ligament, and teeth
on the hinge. _Donax_, or "Wedge," 19, 20, has long, separated, fringed
siphons. Besides the small external ligament, properly so called, the
_Mactridæ_ have a triangular pit in the hinge of their shell, containing an
elastic substance or spring, designed to resist the action of the adductor
muscles. _Mactra_, 21-26, ends the Plate.


_Lutraria_, 1-3, is another genus of _Mactridæ_. The _Veneridæ_, 4-16 and
23, or "Venus" tribe, differ from it in not having the spring-holding pit.
_Artemis_, 10, 11, is known by a large angular bend in the pallial
impression; and _Cytherea_, 23, is distinguished from Venus by one tooth on
the hinge standing out a little way from the central ones. _Astarte_,
17-22, belongs to the _Cyprinidæ_.


Fig. 1-3 also represent genera of _Cyprinidæ_. They have no bend in the
palleal impression. _Cardium_, or "Cockle," 4-13, presents a peculiarity in
the foot, which is large and bent, and enables the animal to leap in a very
lively manner. The family of _Lucinidæ_ occupy the remaining figures.
_Lucina_ has a curious tongue-shaped doubling of the pallial impression.


The _Kelliadæ_, 1-15, are marine, while the _Cycladidæ_, completing the
Plate, are fresh-water bivalves, and may be found in many ponds and rivers.


Of the _Unionidæ_, or "Fresh-water Mussels," _Unio_, 1-3, has teeth on the
hinge, and _Anodon_, 4, has not: it is a thin shell. The foot of these
molluscs is very large, and is used in cutting the animal's way through the
mud in which it burrows. Of the marine, or true Mussels, _Modiola_, 6-9,
and _Crenella_, 12-17, have a portion of the shell reaching beyond the
point or apex, which in _Mytilus_ is terminal, 18-21. _Dreissina_, 5, is
shaped like _Mytilus_, but lives in fresh-water docks. The _Mytilidæ_
attach themselves by means of horny threads spun from the foot, and called
a "byssus."


Shells of _Arcadæ_, 1-14, have the hinge characterized by a series of teeth
on each side of the apex. _Nucula_, _Arca_, and _Pectunculus_ are easily
distinguished. _Limopsis_, 14, has a spring pit between the two rows. Our
figure of _Pinna_, 16, is from a young specimen: it grows to great size,
and spins a very silky byssus. The shell of _Anomia_, 18, is fixed to
rocks, etc., by means of a bony button passing through a hole or sinus in
the lower valve. _Lima_, 22-24, has a light, thin shell, and its mantle is
adorned with beautiful fringes. It swims rapidly through the water by the
opening and shutting of its valves, and also has the habit, in seasons of
rest, of protecting itself by a network or vest of marine fragments strung
together by its byssal threads.


Contains the shells of our Pectens, or Scallops, 1-16. The animals swim
like _Lima_, as above, and also spin a byssus.

The class _Brachiopoda_, 17-24, so named because what seem to be organs of
locomotion consist of a pair of coiled, ciliated arms, ends the list of
Headless Molluscs and their bivalve shells.


Class _Pteropoda_, 1-4, contains minute Mollusca, with glassy shells
variously formed, and wing-like expansions for swimming.

_Chiton_, 5-17, or "Coat of Mail," which may often be seen incrusting
rocks, commences the _Gasteropoda_; although seemingly fixed, they are
capable of locomotion, using the whole of the oval disc, which may be seen
on turning them over, for the purpose. The same may be said of the "Limpet"
tribe, _Patella_, 1-22.


This Plate commences with other forms of the Limpet tribe, _Fissurella_, 1,
2, with a hole at the top; _Puncturella_, 3, with a fissure near the top;
and _Emarginula_, 4-6, with a slit at the margin. _Haliotis_, 7, or pearly
"Ear-shell," leads to the _Trochidæ_, or "Tops," 8-27.


_Ianthina_, 1-4, is genus of oceanic molluscs, which are provided with a
beautiful floating apparatus, on which the female carries her egg-bags.

_Neritina_, 5, and the _Paludinidæ_, 8-11, live in fresh-water. The animal
of _Paludina_ is sprinkled all over with bright, golden specks. The
_Littorinæ_, or "Winkles," 12-24, are marine, and frequent the shore among
seaweeds. _Lacuna_, 25-32, belongs to the same family.


Are small genera, various in their characters and habits, but reasonably
included in the last family, _Littorinidæ_.


The animals of _Turritella_, 1-3, and _Cæcum_, 6, 7, are not unlike,
although the shells are so different; eyes at the base of the tentacles, a
short foot, and horny operculum. The somewhat similar animal of
_Aporrhais_, 4, 5, is brilliantly coloured with gold and red. _Cerithium_,
8-10, differs from _Cerithiopsis_, 11-15, more in regard to the animal than
the shell; the latter animal has a retractile proboscis, and its operculum
is not spiral.


_Chemnitzia_, 1-11, and _Truncatella_, 12, together with _Stylifer_,
_Eulima_, and _Odostomia_, form the family of _Pyramidellidæ_.
Notwithstanding the difference in the shells, the animals are very similar,
having a retractile proboscis, and eyes immersed at the base of their

The animal of _Natica_, 13-19, has a lobe on the upper part of the foot,
reflected over the shell in front, and another lobe behind. The shells of
_Laminaria_, 23, 24, are completely enveloped in similar lobes.


The shells of _Odostomia_ are known by a fold in the inner lip of the


Two _Tritons_, 1, 2, are admitted for the first time as British, on what we
consider fair evidence, although only two or three specimens have been
taken off Guernsey. One of _T. nodiferus_ was incrusted by a truly British
_Lepralia_. _Murex_, 3, is now familiar as an aquarian, as well as
_Purpura_, 5. A milky secretion found in the head turns purple when
exposed, and gives the celebrated purple dye. _Buccinum_, 7-13, includes
the common "Whelk," 8. _Fusus Berniciensis_, 14, is among the rarest and
most beautiful of our British shells.


_Nassa reticulata_, 3, is a favourite inhabitant of the tank; it burrows in
search of food among the pebbles, elevating its siphon above the surface.
_Mangelia_, 4-26, has a similar long siphon. The shell of _Erato_, 27, is
wrapped in the lobes of the animal's mantle, as is also that of _Cyprea_,
28, the latter presenting a beautiful object.


After _Tornatella_, 1, and _Ovula_, 2, 3, come _Bullidæ_, 4-27, including
several genera differing remarkably in the shape and disposition of the
lobes of their mantles, which in some instances, as in _Philine_, 20-25,
cover the shell. The stomach of _Scapander_, 26, 27, is a remarkable kind
of mill, composed of two bones, between which the food is ground. The
shells of _Aplysia_, 28, and _Pleurotranchus_, 29, 30, are quite internal.
_Spirula_, 31, belonging to the Cephalopodous or Cuttlefish tribe, is only
introduced doubtfully, as there is no proof of the species living in our


These are occupied by shells of _Gasteropoda pulmonifera_, so named because
they breathe air by a pulmonary cavity, instead of water by gills. The
_Limnæadæ_, or fresh-water Snails, contained in Plate I., live in water,
but breathe by exposing the pulmonary cavity to air at the surface.
_Succinea_, Plate XXII., 1-3, lives by the sides of streams, sometimes
immersed. _Conovulus_, 4-7, affects brackish marshes. Our common Slugs
yield, on dissection, thin shells, which are concealed beneath the mantle,
_Limax_, 9-12. The shells of _Testacellus_, 13, 14, are fixed near the end
of the foot, outside. The glassy shells of _Vitrina_, 15, 16, do not
enclose the whole Slug-like animal. The other genera of Land Snails have
shells large enough to receive the animal when retracted and withdrawn for

       *       *       *       *       *


The following living species are also found in a fossil state in drift and
strata of the British Isles. They are all enumerated in Mr. Searles Wood's
monograph of the CRAG Mollusca.

The numbers refer to the species as figured in our Plates, Mr. Wood's
nomenclature being inserted in italics when differing from ours.

Pl. I. Teredo 2. Pholas 11. Pholadidea 12. Gastrochæna 14, as _dubia_.
Saxicava 15, 16. Venerupis 18. Mya 19, 20. Panopea 21, 21*, as _Faujasii_.
Corbula 22, 23? Sphænia 25. Neæra 27.

Pl. II. Poromya 1. Pandora 2, as _inæquivalvis_, 3, as _pinna_. Thracia 7,
8. Solen, 13, 15. Solecurtus 18, as _Mactra strigilata_. Syndosmya, as
_Abra_, 19, 22.

Pl. III. Psammobia 1, 3, 4. Tellina 5, 6, 7, 9, as _ovata_, 15, as
_Balthica_, 16. Scrobicularia 18, as _Trigonella plana_. Donax 19, as
_vittatus_. Mactra 20, 21, 22, as _ovalis_, 23, 25, 26.

Pl. IV. Lutraria 2. Tapes 7, 8. Artemis 11. Venus 12, 14, 15, 17. Astarte
18, 19, 20, 22, as _borealis_.

Pl. V. Cyprina 1. Circe 2. Isocardia 3. Cardium 6, 8, 9, 12, 13. Lucina 14,
as _Loripes_, 15, as _Cryptodon flexuosum_, 16. Diplodonta 19. Clausina 20,
as _Cryptodon f._

Pl. VI. Montacuta 1, 2, 3. Kellia 5, 6. Poronia 7, as _Kellia r._ Cyclas
16, 18. Pisidium 23, 24, 25, 26.

Pl. VII. Unio 2, 3. Anodon 4. Modiola 6, 9, 10. Crenella 13, 14, 15, 16.
Mytilus 18, 19, 20.

Pl. VIII. Nucula 1, 5. Leda 6, 7. Area 9, 10, 11, as _pectunculoides_.
Pectunculus 13. Avicula 15. Pinna 16. Ostrea 17. Anomia 18, 19, 20, 21.
Lima 22, 23, 24.

Pl. IX. Pecten 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.

Pl. X. Chiton 7, as _fascicularis_. Patella 18. Acme 23. Propilidium, as
_Tectura_, 24. Dentalium 26, 27. Capulus 28. Calyptræa 29.

Pl. XI. Fissurella 1, as _græca_. Puncturella 3. Emarginula 5, 6. Trochus
8, 10, 11, 12, as _papillosus_, 15, 16, 17, 19. Margarita 21. Adeorbis 25.
Scissurella 26.

Pl. XII. Paludina 9. Valvata 10. Littorina 14. Lacuna 27.

Pl. XIII. Rissoa 3*, as _Paludestrina subumbilicata_, 7, 11?, 13?, 15, 23,

Pl. XIV. Rissoa 2, 9, as _Chemnitzia_. Aclis 24, as _Alvania ascaris_, 25,
as _Chemnitzia n._

Pl. XV. Turritella 2. Aporrhais 4. Cæcum 6, 7. Cerithium 9, 10.
Cerithiopsis, as _Cerithium_, 11. Scalaria 17, 19, 20. Eulima 22, 25.

Pl. XVI. Chemnitzia 1, 2, as _similis_, 4, 8. Natica 13, 17, as _Catena_,
19, as _Groenlandica_. Velutina 21. Trichotropis 26.

Pl. XVII. Odostomia 1, 8, as _plicata_, 9, as _plicata_, 10?, 12.

Pl. XVIII. Purpura 5. Buccinum 10? Fusus 15, as _Trophon_, 16, as _Tr._,
17, as _Tr. gracile_, 18, as _Tr. T._, 19, as _Tr. p._ Trophon 22, 24.

Pl. XIX. Nassa 1, 2. Mangelia, as _Clavatula_, 4, 5, 8, as _Philberti_, 9,
11, as _Boothii_, 12, 14, 15, 17?, 21, 22. Erato 27. Cypræa 28.

Pl. XX. Tornatella 1, as _Actæon tornatilis_. Ovula 3, as _Bulla_.
Cylichna, as _Bulla_, 4, 5, as _regulbiensis_, 7, 9, 12. Bulla 19. Philine
as _Bullæa_, 21, 22. Scaphander, as _Bulla_, 26.

Pl. XXI. Limnæa 1, 4, 7, 11. Planorbis 18, 24, as _complanatus_, and in the
upper fresh-water formation, all except 9, 11.

Pl. XXII. Succinea 1, 3. Conovulus 5, and in the more recent fresh-water
deposits, all except 7 and 13 to 16.

Pl. XXIII. Helix 19, 22, and upper fresh-water, all except 1, 12, 14, 15,
24, 25, 26.

Pl. XXIV. Upper fresh-water deposits, all except 16, 24.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Referring to Plates and Figures.

  Achatina, XXIV. 24.
  Aclis, XIV. 23, 25.
  Acmæa, X. 22, 23.
  Acme, XXIV. 26.
  Adeorbis, XI. 25.
  Akera, XX. 16.
  Amphispira, XX. 14, 15.
  Ancylus, XXI. 14-17.
  Anodonta, VII. 4.
  Anomia, VIII. 18-21.
  Aplysia, XX. 28.
  Aporrhais, XV. 4, 5.
  Arca, VIII. 18-12.
  Argiope, IX. 20, 23.
  Artemis, IV. 10, 11.
  Assiminea, XIII. 1, 2.
  Astarte, IV. 17, 22.
  Avicula, VIII. 15.
  Azeca, XXIV. 23.

  Balea, XXIV. 17.
  Barleeia, XIV. 12.
  Bithinea, XII. 6, 7.
  Buccinum, XVIII. 8-13.
  Bulla, XX. 17-19.
  Bulimus, XXIV. 1-4.

  Calyptræa, X. 29.
  _Capulus_, Pileopsis.
  Cardium, V. 4-13.
  Carychium, XXII. 8.
  Cæcum, XV. 6-7.
  _Cemoria_, Puncturella.
  Ceratisolen, II. 11.
  Cerithiopsis, XV. 11-15.
  Cerithium, XV. 8-10.
  Chemnitzia, XVI. 1-11.
  Chiton, X. 5-17.
  Circe, V. 2.
  _Clavatula_, Mangelia.
  Clausilia, XXIV. 18-21.
  Clausina, V. 20-22.
  Cochlodesma, II. 10.
  Conovulus, XXII. 4-7.
  Corbula, I. 22-24.
  Crania, IX. 24.
  Crenella, VII. 12-17.
  Cyclostoma, XXIV. 25.
  Cyclas, VI. 16-20.
  Cylichna, XX. 4-13.
  Cypræa, XIX. 28.
  Cyprina, V. 1.
  Cytherea, IV. 23.

  Dentalium, X. 26, 27.
  Diodonta, II. 16, 16*.
  Diplodonta, V. 19.
  Donax, III. 19, 20.
  Dreissina, VII. 5.

  Emarginula, XI. 4-6.
  Euomphalus, XIV. 17, 18.
  Ervillia, III. 17.
  Eulima, XV. 22-26.
  Eulimella, XIV. 26-30.

  Fissurella, XI. 1, 2.
  Fusus, XVIII. 14-19.

  Galeomma, VI. 14, 15.
  Gastrochæna, I. 14.

  Haliotis, XI. 7.
  _Helix_ (Zonites), XXII. 17-29.
  Helix, XXIII. 1-29.
  _Hinnites_, Pecten, IX. 1.
  Hippothyris, IX. 17.
  Hyalæa, X. 1.

  Ianthina, XII. 1-4.
  Isocardia, V. 3.

  Jeffreysia, XIV. 13-16.

  Kellia, VI. 5-8.

  Lachesis, XVIII. 6.
  Lacuna, XII. 25-32.
  Lamellaria, XVI. 23, 24.
  Leda, VIII. 6, 7.
  Lepton, VI. 9-13.
  Lima, VIII. 22-24.
  Limax, XXII. 9-12.
  Limnæa, XXI. 1-11.
  Limopsis, VIII. 14.
  Littorina, XII. 12-24.
  Lucina, V. 14-18.
  Lucinopsis, IV. 9.
  Lutraria, IV. 1-3.
  Lyonsia, II. 4.

  Mactra, III. 21-26.
  Mangelia, XIX. 4-26.
  Margarita, XI. 21-24.
  _Marginella_, Erato.
  _Megathyris_, Argiope.
  Modiola, VII. 6-11.
  Montacuta, VI. 1-3.
  Murex, XVIII. 3, 4.
  Mya, I. 19-20.
  Mytilus, VII. 18-21.

  Nassa, XIX. 1-3.
  Natica, XVI. 13-19.
  Neæra, I. 26-28.
  Neritina, XII. 5.
  Nucula, VIII. 1-5.

  Odostomia, XVII. 1-31.
  Ostrea, VIII. 17.
  Otina, XVI. 25.
  Ovula, XX. 2, 3.

  Paludina, XII. 8, 9.
  Pandora, II. 2, 3.
  Panopæa, I. 21, 21*.
  Patella, X. 18-21.
  Pecten, IX. 1-16.
  Pectunculus, VIII. 13.
  Petricola, I. 17.
  Phasianella, XI. 27.
  Philine, XX. 20-25.
  Pholas, I. 8-11, 13.
  Pholadidea, I. 12.
  Physa, XXI. 12, 13.
  Pileopsis, X. 28.
  Pilidium, X. 24.
  Pinna, VIII. 16.
  Pisidium, VI. 21-28.
  Planorbis, XXI. 18-28.
  Pleurobranchus, XX. 29.
  _Pleurotoma_, Mangelia.
  Poromya, II. 1, 1*, IX.
  Propilidium, X. 25.
  Psammobia, III. 1-4.
  Puncturella, XI. 3.
  Pupa, XXIV. 5-16.
  Purpura, XVIII. 5.

  Recluzia, XVI. 20.
  Rissoa, XIII. 3-28; XIV.

  Saxicava, I. 15, 16.
  Scalaria, XV. 16-20.
  Scaphander, XX. 26, 27.
  Scrobicularia, III. 18.
  Scissurella, XI. 26.
  _Segmentina_, Planorbis, XXI. 27, 28.
  Skenea, XIV. 19-22.
  Solen, II. 12-15.
  Solecurtus, II. 17, 18.
  Spirialis, X. 2-4.
  Spirula, XX. 31.
  Stylifer, XV. 21.
  Succinea, XXII. 1-3.
  Syndosmya, II. 19-22.
  Sphænia, I. 25.

  Tapes, IV. 4-8.
  Tellina, III. 5-16.
  Terebratula, IX. 18-20.
  Teredo, I. 1-6.
  Testacellus, XXII. 13, 14.
  Thracia, II. 5-9.
  Tornatella, XX. 1.
  Trichotropis, XVI. 26.
  Triton, XVIII. 1, 2.
  Trochus, XI. 8-20.
  Trophon, XVIII. 20-24.
  Truncatella, XVI. 12.
  Turritella, XV. 1-3.
  Turtonia, VI. 4.

  Unio, VII. 1-3.

  Valvata, XII. 10, 11.
  Velutina, XVI. 21, 22.
  Venerupis, I. 18.
  Venus, IV. 12-16.
  _Vertigo_, Pupa.
  Vitrina, XXII. 15-16.

  Xylophaga, I. 7.

  Zonites, XXII. 17-29.
  Zua, XXIV. 22.

[Illustration: BRITISH SHELLS. PLATE I.]


TEREDO. Pierces and inhabits wood.


 1. T. NAVALIS, _Linn._--_T. Batavæ._--Herne Bay, R. Pallets shelly,
crescented; valves with auricles extended sidewise; tube long.

 2. T. NORVEGICA, _Spengl._--_T. Bruguieri._--Port Patrick, Teignmouth,
etc., Mc. Pallets shelly, not crescented; auricles not extended.

 3. T. MEGOTARA, _Hanl._--_T. nana_ (young).--Herne Bay, Devon, Swansea,
etc., R. Pallets shelly, spade-shaped; auricles raised and expanded.

 4. T. BIPENNATA, _Turt._--Ireland, Scarborough, etc., R. Pallets horny,
long; auricles lobed.

 5. T. MALLEOLUS, _Turt._--Torquay, Rr. Pallets shelly, mallet-shaped;
valves narrow.

 6. T. PALMULATA, _Lamk._--_T. bipalmulata._--Floating wood, Ire., S. Eng.
Pallets horny, short; valves small, shaped like _T. navalis_.

XYLOPHAGA. In fixed and floating timber.

 7. X. DORSALIS, _Turt._--Ayrs., Dubl., Exm., Scarb., etc., C. Two dorsal
plates, no tube, no pallets.

PHOLAS. Pierces and inhabits stone.

 8. P. DACTYLUS, _Linn._--_P. hians_, _P. callosa_.--Eng., Scot., Ire., C.
Dorsal plates four; hinge pitted.

 9. P. CANDIDA, _Linn._--Eng., Scot., Ire., C. One dorsal plate; valves not

10. P. PARVA, _Penn._--_P. callosa_, _P. tuberculata_.--Salcombe, Belfast,
Cornwall, etc., M. C. One dorsal plate; valves beaked.

11. P. CRISPATA, _Linn._--_P. bifrons._--Hastings, Liverp., Scarb., Dubl.,
Forth, etc., C. No dorsal plate; valves broad, beaked, with oblique

13. P. STRIATA. Rare and doubtful as British. Valves closed.

PHOLADIDEA. Pierces and inhabits stone.

12. P. PAPYRACEA, _P. Loscombiana_, _P. Goodalli._--S. Devon, N. Ire., R.
Valves closed, with a cup. _P. lamellata_, Turt., when young, not closed;
no cup.

GASTROCHÆNA. Bores and inhabits stone, thick shells, etc.

14. G. MODIOLINA, _Lamk._--_G. Pholadia_, _G. hians_, _Mya dubia_, _Mytilus
ambiguus_, _Pholas faba_.--Torbay, Birterbuy, Galway, Weymouth, etc. Valves
thin, gaping, enclosed in bottle-shaped tube.

SAXICAVA. Bores and inhabits stone.

15. S. RUGOSA, _Linn._--_Mytilus r._, _Hiatella r._, _S. gallicana_, _S.
pholadis_, _Byssomya pholadis_, _Mya byssifera_.--Eng., Scot., Ire., C.
Valves oval.

16. S. ARCTICA, _Linn._--(_Mya_) _Hiatella a._, _Anatina a_., _Hiatella
minuta_, _Solen minutus_, _S. rhomboides_, _Agina purpurea_, _Solen
p._--Eng., Scot., Ire., C. Valves rhomboidal; angle serrated.

_Omitted._--S. fragilis, _Nyst._ _Not_ the young of _S. rugosa_. Vigo Bay.

PETRICOLA. Inhabits stone.

17. P. LITHOPHAGA, _Retz._--_P. striata_, _costellata_, _rocellaria_,
_ruperella_, Lamk., _Mya_ and _Sphænia decussata_.--Cork, Bristol, R. as

VENERUPIS. Bores and inhabits stone.

18. V. IRUS, _Linn._ (Donax).--_Tellina cornubiensis_, _Cuneus foliaceus_,
_Petric._, and _Pullastra_, I.--In limestone at Plymouth and other southern
coasts. Wedge-shaped.

MYA. Burrows in mud and sand.

19. M. TRUNCATA, _Linn._--_M. ovalis_ and _Sphænia Swainsoni_
(young).--Various localities and depths, C. Truncated at end.

20. M. ARENARIA, _Linn._--Herne Bay, Portsmouth, etc., C. Tapering at end.

PANOPÆA. Burrows in mud.

21. P. NORVEGICA, _Spengl._--_P. glycimeris_, _P. arctica_.--Scarborough,
Zetland (90 fath.), Rr. Quadrate.

21*. P. ALDROVANDI, _Lamk._--Cornwall, one specimen, _Jeffreys_. Oblique.

CORBULA. Dredged in mud and sand.

22. C. NUCLEUS, _Lamk._--_C. striata_, _Mya_, and _C.
inæquivalvis_.--Dublin, Torquay, Forth, 4 to 80 fath., C. Valves unequal,

23. C. ROSEA, _Brown_.--Weymouth, Rr. as Brit. Valves not beaked.

24. C. OVATA, _Forbes_.--Isle of Man, Rr. Oval, truncated at end.

SPHÆNIA. Burrows in foliaceous shells.

25. S. BINGHAMI, _Turt._--_Corbula B._--Torquay, Guernsey, Swansea, Forth,
etc., R.

NEÆRA. Lives incrusted in sand.

26. N. COSTELLATA, _Desh._--_Corbula c._, _N. sulcata_.--Loch Fyne, Rr.
Radiately 3-ribbed.

27. N. CUSPIDATA, _Olivi_.--Forth, Northumberland, Cape Clear, etc., Mr.

28. N. ABBREVIATA, _Forbes_.--Loch Fyne, Mc. Radiately 1-ribbed.



POROMYA. On mud, in deep water.


 1. P. GRANULATA, _Nyst._--_P. anatinoides_, Forbes.--Skye, R.

 1*. P. SUBTRIGONA, _Jeffreys_.--Shetland, Mr. Minute, posteriorly
expanded. See Pl. IX.


 2. P. ROSTRATA, _Lamk._--_Tellina inæquivalvis_, Linn.; _P. margaritacea_
and _inæquivalvis_.--S. Devon?, Guernsey, R. as Brit. Valves long.

 3. P. OBTUSA, _Leach_.--_Solen Pinna_, Mont.--S. Devon, Dorset, Mc. Ire.,
R. Valves short and broad.

LYONSIA. With byssal attachment.

 4. L. NORVEGICA, _Chemn._--_Mya_ and _Anatina n._, _Mya_ and _Anatina
striata_, _M. nitida_, _Lyonsia elongata_, _Myatella_, and
_Osteodesma_.--Tenby, Bantry, Oban, etc., 5 to 80 fath. With movable
ossicle on hinge.

THRACIA. Laminarian and Coralline.

 5. T. DISTORTA, _Mont._--(_Mya_) _Anatina_ and _Amphidesma d._, _Th.
truncata_.--Distribution general, but not common. Short, truncated,

 6. T. CONVEXA, _Wood_.--(_Mya_) _Anatina_ and _Amphidesma c._, _T.
declivis_.--S. Devon, Bantry Bay, Arran, etc., Mc. Inflated.

 7. T. PHASEOLINA, _Lamk._--_Amphidesma p._, _T. declivis_.--Various
localities and depths, C. Oval, obliquely truncated.

 8. T. PUBESCENS, _Pult._--(_Mya_) _Anatina_ and _Amphidesma p._, _T.
declivis_.--S. Devon, Cornwall, Belfast, etc., C. Oblong, straightly

 9. T. VILLIOSULCA, _Macgillivray_.--_T. ovata_, Brown.--Exmouth, Swansea,
Bantry Bay, etc. Various depths, Mc.

COCHLODESMA. Laminarian and Coralline.

10. C. PRÆTENUE, _Pult._--(_Mya_) _Anatina_, _Ligula_, and _Amphidesma
pr._--Dorset, Devon, Man, Bantry B., Oban, etc., (25 to 60 fath.), R.
Spoon-shaped process on hinge.

CERATISOLEN. Burrows in sand.

11. C. LEGUMEN, _Linn._--(_Solen_) _Psammoiia_ and _Solenicurtus
l._--Exmouth, Swansea, Bantry, etc., C. Hinge nearly central.

SOLEN. Burrows perpendicularly in sand.

12. S. PELLUCIDUS, _Penn._--Various British localities, 6 to 100 fath.
Curved; hinge not terminal.

13. S. ENSIS, _Linn._--Eng., Scot., Ire., generally 5 to 15 fath., C.
Arched and slender.

14. S. MARGINATUS, _Pult._--_S. vagina_, Penn., not Linn.--Exmouth, Clyde,
Cork, etc., littoral to 10 fath., Mc. Straight, with terminal constriction.

15. S. SILIQUA, _Linn._--_S. novacula_, _S. ligula_.--Eng., Scot., Ire.,
many places; littoral and laminarian, C. Straight, end not constricted.


16. D. FRAGILIS, _Linn._--(_Tellina_) _Psammobia f._, _Tellina jugosa_ and
_ochroleuca_.--Dublin, Tenby, Weymouth, R. Oval or wedge-shaped.

16*. D. BARLEEI, _Jeffr._--Arran, Rr. Minute, subquadrate.


17. S. COARCTATUS, _Gmel._--_S. cultellus_, _S. emarginatus_, _S.
antiquatus_, etc.--Torbay, Anglesea, Man, Skye, etc., R. Oblong, smooth.

18. S. CANDIDUS, _Renieri._--(_Solen_) _S. strigilatus_, Turt., not Linn.,
_Psammobia scopula_.--S. Devon, Dublin, etc., R. Striated.


19. S. PRISMATICA, _Mont._--(_Ligula_) _Mya_ and _Amphidesma p._--Weymouth,
Forth, Dublin, Antrim, etc., littoral, Mc. More pointed and narrow than _S.

20. S. TENUIS, _Mont._--(_Mactra_) _Amphidesma t._--Dorset, Scarborough,
Antrim, etc., 5 to 100 fath., Mc. Short, subtrigonal.

21. S. INTERMEDIA, _Thompson._--_Mya_ and _Syndosmya nitida_, _Abra
profundissima_.--In mud, 6 to 100 fath., Zetland, Skye, Cape Clear, etc.,
R. Broader and more pointed than _S. prismatica_.

22. S. ALBA, _Wood._--(_Mactra_) _M._ and _Amphidesma Boysii_ and _A.
album_.--Brit. co. generally, C. Short, rounded, oval.



PSAMMOBIA. Inhabits sand and mud.


 1. P. FERROENSIS, _Chemn._--(_Tellina_) _T. incarnata_, _T. radiata_, _T.
trifasciata_, _T. truncata_.--Brit. co. generally; coralline, C. Oblong,
keeled and angulated behind.

 2. P. COSTULATA, _Turt._--_P. discors._--Torbay, Cornwall, Skye, etc., R.
Ribbed behind.

 3. P. TELLINELLA, LAMK.--_P. florida._--Exmouth, Guernsey, Tenby, Bantry
B., Oban, Zetland, etc., 5 to 50 fath., C. Oval, smooth.

 4. P. VESPERTINA, _Chemn._--(_Lux V._) _Solen_, _Sanguinolaria V._,
_Tellina depressa_, _variabilis_.--Weymouth, Scarborough, Tenby, Bantry,
etc., Guernsey, C. Not angular nor keeled behind.


 5. T. CRASSA, _Penn._--_T. maculata_, _T. rigida_.--S. Devon, Guernsey,
Man, Tenby, Bantry, Forth, etc., low-water to 15 fath., C. Thick,

 6. T. BALAUSTINA, _Linn._--Birterbuy, Skye, Exmouth, Rr. as British.

 7. T. DONACINA, _Linn._--_T. trifasciata_, _T. variegata_, _T.
Llantivyi_.--Various British loc., and S. Europe, 5 to 50 fath., C.

 8, 9. T. PROXIMA, _Brown._--Var. _T. calcarea_ (9), _T. ovalis_, _T.
sordida_, _Sanguinolaria sordida_, _Macroma tenera_.--Skye, etc., R.

10, 11. T. PYGMÆA, _Phil._--Devon, Cork, Shetland, etc., 8 to 50 fath., C.
Smaller, more convex, and more truncate than _T. donacina_.

12, 13. T. TENUIS, _Da Costa._--_T. planata_, _T. polita_, _T. exigua_.--On
sandy shores, in various localities, C. Flat, thin.

14. T. INCARNATA, _Linn._--_T. squalida_, _T. depressa_.--Devon, Bantry,
Tenby, R. Flat, beaked.

15. T. SOLIDULA, _Pult._--_T. rubra_, Da Costa, _T. carnaria_, _T. zonata_,
_Psammobia solidula_, _T. Balthica_.--All British coasts; littoral, C.
Thick, inflated.

16. T. FABULA, _Gronovius._--_T. discors._--On sandy shores generally, C.
Valve with oblique striæ (omitted by error).


17. E. CASTANEA, _Mont._--(_Donax_) _Mesodesma c._, _Capsa c._--Cornwall
and Scilly Isles, R. Ligament within.


18. S. PIPERITA, _Gmel._--Generic syn.: _Mya_, _Venus_, _Trigonella_,
_Mactra_, _Lutraria_, _Listera_.--Specific syn.: _hispanica_, _borealis_,
_plana_, _gaditana_, _Listeri_, _compressa_.--Scarborough, Southend,
Swansea, Cork, Clyde, C. Broad, compressed.


19. D. ANATINUS, _Lamk._--_D. trunculus_, Linn.?, _Cuneus vittatus_, _D.
ruber_ (young).--Brit. co. generally, sandy shores, C. Broad; margin

20. D. POLITUS, _Poci._--(_Tellina_) _D._ and _Capsa complanata_.--S.
Devon, Bantry Bay, etc., Mr. Smooth; inner edge not crenated.

MACTRA. Lives on sandy beaches.

21. M. STULTORUM, _Linn._--(_Cardium_) _Tellina radiata_, _Trigonella r._,
_M. cinerea_, _M. magna_.--British co. generally, C.

22. M. ELLIPTICA, _Brown._--British co. generally, C. Oval.

23. M. SUBTRUNCATA, _Costa._--_M. lactea_, _M. triangula_, _M.
crassatella_.--Brit. co. generally, C. Obliquely cuneiform.

24. M. HELVACEA, _Chemn._--_M. glauca_, _M. neapolitana_.--Odd valves found
dead in Cornwall, R. Large, obliquely oval.

25. M. SOLIDA, _Linn._--_Trigonella zonaria_ and _gallina_.--Brit. co.
generally, C. Trigonal, thick.

26. M. TRUNCATA, _Mont._--Forth, Cork, Cornwall, etc., C. Trigonal, deep,



LUTRARIA. Inhabits mud.


 1. L. INTERMEDIA?, _Sowb._--Perhaps only the young of _L. elliptica_.

 2. L. ELLIPTICA, _Lamk._--_Mactra lutraria_, Linn.--Scarborough, Torbay,
Dublin, Forth, Lerwick, etc., C. Broad, oval.

 3. L. OBLONGA, _Chemn._--(_Mya_) _L. solenoides_, _L. hians_, _Mactra
hians_, _Chama magna_.--Cornwall, Devon, etc., Mc. Arched, narrow.

TAPES. Burrows in mud and stone.

 4, 5. T. PULLASTRA, _Wood._--_Venus pullastra_, _V. perforans_ (var. f.
4), _Venerupis nucleus_, _Pullastra vulgaris_, etc.--Plymouth, Scarborough,
Swansea, Forth, etc., C.

 6. T. DECUSSATA, _Linn._--(_Venus_) _V. litterata_, _V. florida_,
_Venerupis_ and _Pullastra d._--S. Devon, Weymouth, Tenby, etc., Mc.
Oblong, coarsely decussated.

 7. T. AUREA, _Gmel._--(_Venus_) _V. nebulosa_, _V. ænea_, _V. nitens_, _V.
sinuata_, _Pullastra a._--Cornwall, Sussex, Bantry Bay, Loch Ryan, Mc.
Yellow within.

 8. T. VIRGINEA, _Linn._--(_Venus_) _V. rhomboides_, _V. sarniensis_, _V.
virago_, _Cuneus fasciatus_.--Various British loc., C. Pink within.

LUCINOPSIS, _Forbes_ and _Hanley_. Sandy ground.

 9. L. UNDATA, _Pennant._--(_Venus_) _V. sinuosa_, _V. incorrupta_, _Lucina
undata_.--Exm., Scarborough, Man, etc., 5 to 80 fathoms, M.R. Orbicular,
flexuous at side.


10. A. EXOLETA, _Linn._--(_Venus_) _Cytherea e._, _Pectunculus
capillaceus_.--Sandy ground, on Brit. co. generally, low-water to 80 fath.,
C. Compressed; striæ coarse.

11. A. LINCTA, _Pult._--(_Venus_) _V. sinuata_, _Cytherea
sinuata_.--Various Brit, loc., C. Dorsal edge sloping; striæ fine.


12. V. CASINA, _Linn._--_V. reflexa_, _V. lactea_, _V.
discina_.--Northumberland, S. Devon, Man, Bantry, Skye, etc., Mc.
Concentrically laminated.

13. V. VERRUCOSA, _Linn._--_V. erycina_, _V. cancellata_, etc.--Devon,
Cornwall, Channel Isls., etc., C. Ventricose, warted.

14. V. FASCIATA, _Donov._--Various southern Brit, loc., C. Round, with
thick ribs.

15. V. OVATA, _Pennant._--Brit. co. generally, C. Oval, radiately ribbed.

16. V. STRIATA, _Donov._--_V. gallina_, _V. Pennantii_, _V. rugosa_.--Brit.
co. generally. Shores and deep water, C.


17. A. TRIANGULARIS, _Mont._--_Mactra_ and _Goodallia_, _minutissima_ and
_triangularis_.--Northern parts of Britain, 15 to 20 fathoms, C. Minute,

18. A. ELLIPTICA, _Brown._--_Crassina e._, _Crassina ovata_, and _C.
sulcata_. Scotland, 5 to 10 fath., mud, M. C. Oblong, smooth near the

19. A. SULCATA, _Costa._--(_Pectunculus_) _V. scotica_ and _Damnoniensis_,
_Crassina sulcata_, etc.--Devon, Cornwall, Bantry, etc., C. Thickly ribbed.

20. A. COMPRESSA, _Mont._--(_Venus_) _Venus and Crassina Montagui_,
_Cyprina comp._--Scarborough, Northumbria, Bantry Bay, Firth of Forth, 7 to
40 fath., M. C.

21. A. CREBRICOSTATA, _Forbes._--Zetland and Skye (dead), R. Ribs more
numerous than in _A. sulcata_.

22. A. ARCTICA, _Gray._--(_Crassina_) _Venus borealis_, _Astarte
compressa_.--Aberdeen, Zetland, St. Andrew's bay, etc., Rr. Lenticular, not


23. C. CHIONE, _Linn._--(_Venus._)--Plymouth, S. Devon, Falmouth,
Carnarvon, 12 to 20 fath., Mr.

[Illustration: BRITISH SHELLS. PLATE V.]




 1. C. ISLANDICA, _Linn._ (_Venus._)--_C. vulgaris_, _V.
mercenaria_.--Brit. co. generally, most abundant north, 5 to 80 fath. Oval,
with thick epidermis.


 2. C. MINIMA, _Mont._ (_Venus._)--Gen. _Cyprina_ and _Cytherea
triangularis_, _apicialis_, _Cyrillii_, _minuta_.--Guernsey, Cornwall,
Milford Haven, Clyde, Bantry Bay, etc., 10 to 50 fath., C.


 3. I. COR, _Linn._ (_Chama._)--_I. hibernica_, _Cardita cor._--Dublin,
Skye, etc., Mc. Heart-shaped, beaks coiled.

CARDIUM, or _Cockle_.

 4. C. PYGMÆUM, _Donovan._--_C. exiguum._--Herne, Sark, Weymouth, Zetland,
Bantry Bay, 5 to 50 fath., Mc. Hinder side large, angular.

 5. C. PAPILLOSUM, _Poli._--Guernsey, St. Martin's Port, _Jeffreys_, R.
Rather rounded, equally ribbed and grained.

 6. C. PUNCTATUM, _Broc._, C. NODOSUM, _Turt._--_C. scabrum_, Ph.--Exmouth,
Falmouth, Galloway, etc., Mc. Angular behind.

 7. C. FASCIATUM, _Mont._--_C. elongatum_, _C. ovale_, _C. parvum_, _C.
rubrum_ (young).--Various Brit. loc., Mr.

 8. C. SUECICUM, _Loven._--_C. Swediense_, Reeve, _C. Loveni_,
Thompson.--Down, Oban, Zetland, 30 to 70 fath., Rr. Oval, equally ribbed.

 9. C. ACULEATUM, _Linn._--_C. ciliare_ and _parvum_ (young).--S. Devon,
Mc. Thin, oblique, with thorn-like tubercles; interstices of ribs smooth.

10. C. RUSTICUM, _Linn._--_C. tuberculatum_, Linn.?--Paignton, Torbay,
Velvet Strand, Dublin co., Mc. Thick, not oblique, coarsely wrinkled.

11. C. ECHINATUM, _Linn._--_C. mucronatum_, _C. spinosum_.--Brit. co.
generally, mud and sand, 7 to 80 fath. Oblique, wrinkled; hinder tubercles

12. C. EDULE, _Linn._--_C. vulgare_, _C. zonatum_, _C. obliquum_, _C.
crenulatum_, _C. rusticum_.--Brit. co. generally. Common eatable, Cockle.

13. C. NORVEGICUM, _Spengler._--_C. lævigatum_, _C. serratum_, _C.
oblongum_, _C. Pennantii_.--Brit. co. generally. Sand and gravel, 15 to 80
fath. Smooth, variegated when young.


14. L. DIVARICATA, _Linn._ (_Tellina._)--_Cardium arcuatum_, _L. arcuata_,
_commutata_.--Near Falmouth, 20 fath., Rr. Rounded, with diverging ribs.

15. L. FLEXUOSA, _Mont._ (_Tellina._)--_Venus sinuosa_, _Amphidesma
flexuosa_, _L. sinuata_; gen. _Cryptodon_, _Axinus_, and
_Ptychina_.--Clyde, Bantry, Anglesea, etc., 7 to 80 fath., Mc. Thin, with a
fold behind.

16. L. BOREALIS, _Linn._ (_Venus._)--_Tellina radula_, _Lucina r._, _L.
alba_.--Many Brit. loc., 1 to 90 fath., C. Lenticular, concentrically

17. L. LEUCOMA, _Turt._--_L. lactea_, not Linn., _Loripes lactea_.--Torbay,
Scarborough, Bantry Bay, etc., low-water to 80 fath., C. Round, smooth.

18. L. SPINIFERA, _Mont._ (_Venus._)--_Myrtea s._, _L.
hiatelloides_.--Dartmouth, Plymouth, Hebrides, etc., 8 to 100 fath., M. R.
Oval; dorsal margin spinose.


19. T. ROTUNDATA, _Mont._ (_Tellina._)--_T. undata_, _Lucina r._, _D.
dilatata_.--Dorset, Devon, Tenby, Bantry Bay, etc., 7 to 25 fath., R.

CLAUSINA, _Jeffreys._

20. C. FERRUGINOSA, _Forbes_, (_Kellia._)--Skye, Loch Fyne, etc., 30 to 100
fath., C. Concentrically ribbed, minute, oval.

21. C. CROULINENSIS, _Jeffreys._--Croulin Island, Shellands, R.

22. C. ABYSSLICOLA, _Jeffreys._--Not ribbed, R.





 1. M. FERRUGINOSA, _Mont._ (_Mya._)--_M. oblonga_, _M. glabra_, _Tellimya
elliptica_, _Erycina f._--S. Devon, Scarborough, Tenby, Cape Clear, etc.,
Mr. Wedge-shaped, long.

 2. M. BIDENTATA, _Mont._ (_Mya._)--_Erycina_, _Petricola_, and _Tellimya
b._--Newcastle, Weymouth, Dublin, etc. Burrows in dead shells, Mr. Short,

 3. M. SUBSTRIATA, _Mont._ (_Mya._)--_Erycina_ and _Tellimya s._--Devon,
Tenby, Durham, Zetland, Bantry Bay, etc., on spines of _Spatangus_, deep
water, C. Minute, with diverging striæ.


 4. T. MINUTA, _O. Fabr._ (_Venus._)--_Mya purpurea_, etc.--Scarborough,
Tenby, Cork, Oban, etc., C.


 5. K. SUBORBICULARIS, _Mont._ (_Mya._)--_Bornia inflata_, _Tellina_ and
_Tellimya s._--Anglesea, Portland, Zetland, etc., low-water to 60 fath.,

 6. K. LACTEA, _Brown_, (_Tellimya._)--Brit. co. generally. More oblong
than _K. sub._

 7, 8. K. RUBRA, _Mont._ (_Cardium._)--_Poronia r._, etc.--Numerous
localities; littoral, C.


 9. L. SQUAMOSUM, _Mont._--_Solen_ and _Lutraria s._--Salcombe Bay, Tenby,
Cork, etc., R. Flat, subquadrate.

10. L. NITIDUM, _Turt._ (_Kellia._)--Torbay, Skye, R. Less square and flat
than _L. squamosum_.

11. L. CONVEXUM, _Alder._--Bantry Bay, Rr. Convex, granulated.

12. L. CLARKIÆ, _Clark._--Exmouth, Plymouth, Zetland, Rr. Minute, oval,

13. L. SULCATULUM, _Jeffr._--Annals, Feb. 1859. Guernsey, Mc.
Concentrically wrinkled.

GALEOMMA. Adheres to rocks by byssus.

14, 15. G. TURTONI, _Sowb._--Channel Islands, and Exmouth. Oblong, gaping.

CYCLAS. Inhabits fresh-water.

16. C. CORNEA, _Linn._ (_Tellina._)--_Sphærium c._, Scopoli, _C. rivalis_,
etc.--Ponds and ditches everywhere. Equilateral, subquadrate.

17. C. PISIDIOIDES, _Gray._--_C. cornea_, var., Brit. Moll.--Ditches and
ponds, C. Oblique, and light coloured.

18. C. RIVICOLA, _Leach._--_Cardium nux_, etc.--Thames, etc. Large, oval,

19. C. CALICULATA, _Drap._-_C. lacustris_, etc.--Newcastle, Bristol, etc.,
Mr. With a ridge at the apex.

20. C. LACUSTRIS, _Drap._--_pallida_, Gray.--Regent's Park, etc., Mr. Oval,

PISIDIUM. Inhabits fresh-water.

21. P. OBTUSALE, _Pfeiffer._--_P. pusillum_, var.?

22. P. PUSILLUM, _Turton_, (_Tellina._)--_Cyclas fontinalis_ and
_gibba_.--In marshes and ponds at various places, C. Includes _P.

23. P. AMNICUM, _Müller_, (_Tellina._)--_T. rivalis_, _Cyclas palustris_,
_C. obliqua_.--British rivers, etc., generally. _C. obliqua_ ribbed.

24. P. NITIDUM, _Jennyns._--Battersea, Swansea, etc., C. Thick, dark,

25. P. HENSLOWIANUM, _Sheppard_, (_Tellina._)--_Cyclas appendiculata_, _P.
acutum_.--Cambridge, Swansea, etc., R. With a projection on the umbones.

26. P. PULCHELLUM, _Jennyns._--_Cyclas fontinalis_, etc.--Various
localities, C. Ridged.

27. P. CINEREUM, _Alder._--_Cyclas c._--Various localities, Mc. Smooth.

28. P. ROSEUM, _Scholtz._--Various loc., with _P. pulchellum_ and _P.
nitidum_ M. C. Subquadrate; animal pink.



UNIO. Fresh-water Mussel with hinge-teeth.


 1. U. MARGARITIFERUS, _Linn._ (_Mya._)--_Alasmodon m._, _A. arcuata_, _U.
elongata_, _U. sinuata_.--R. Conway; rivers in Cumberland, Wales, Ireland,
etc., Mc. Long, thick, arched.

 2. U. PICTORUM, _Linn._ (_Mya._)--_U. ovalis_, _U. rostrata_, _U.
limosus_, _U. Deshayesii_, etc.--Various British rivers, C. Long, oval, not
wedge-shaped behind.

 3. U. TUMIDUS, _Retz._--_Mya_ and _Unio ovalis_, _M. depressa_, _M.
ovata_, _Myscei o._, _M. solida_.--Thames, and various British rivers, C.
More solid, deep, and wedge-shaped than _U. pictorum_.

ANODONTA. Fresh-water Mussel, without teeth.

 4. A. CYGNEA, _Linn._ (_Mytilus._)--_M. anatinus_, _M. stagnalis_, _M.
paludosa_, _Symphonota cy._--Britain and Europe generally, in rivers and
canals, C.

DREISSINA, _Beneden._

 5. D. POLYMORPHA, _Pallas_, (_Mytilus._)--London Docks, Edinburgh Canal,

MODIOLA, _Lamarck._

 6. M. MODIOLUS, _Linn._ (_Mytilus._)--_M. umbilicatus_, _M. curtus_, _M.
vulgaris_.--British coasts generally, C. Large, brown, not rayed.

 7. M. OVALIS?, _Sowb._--_M. tulipa_ (_radiata_), var., Brit. Moll., now
named provisionally. Less tumid, and with longer and more gradually sloped
dorsal line than _M. radiata_, Rr.

 8. M. RADIATA, _Hanley_, _Brit. Marine Conch._--_M. tulipa_, Brit. Moll.,
Mc. Tumid, radiated.

 9. M. BARBATA, _Linn._ (_Mytilus._)--_M. Gibbsii._--Jersey, Torbay,
Milford Haven, Youghal, R. as Brit. Barbs of epidermis serrated.

10. M. PHASEOLINA, _Philippi._--Guernsey, Falmouth, Scotland, Mc. Small
barbs of epidermis not serrated.

11. M. CUPREA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1859_.--In the stomach of
a bird shot at Scarborough, Rr. Minute, rhomboidal, smooth.

CRENELLA, _Brown._

12. C. NIGRA, _Gray_, (_Modiola._)--_Mytilus_ and _Modiola discrepans_,
_depressa_, _compressa_, _discors_.--Scotland, R. Broad and compressed

13. C. DISCORS, _Linn._ (_Mytilus._)--_Modiola d._ and _discrepans_.--Brit.
co. generally, among seaweeds, C. Wedge-shaped and lobed.

14. C. MARMORATA, _Forbes._--_Mytilus_ and _Mediola discors_, _discrepans_,
and _tumida_.--Brit. co. generally, Cc. Rhomboidal, marbled.

15. C. COSTULATA, _Risso._--Exmouth, Cornwall, Swansea, Herm. Wedge-shaped,
marbled, strongly-ribbed.

16. C. RHOMBEA, _Berkley_, (_Modiola._)--_M. Prideauxiana._--Guernsey,
Torbay, Penzance, etc.; coralline, R.

17. C. DECUSSATA, _Montagu_, (_Mytilus._)--_C._ and _Modiola elliptica_,
_cicercula_, and _faba_.--Scarborough, and a few northern localities, 5 to
50 fath., Mc.; Norway, etc. Subquadrate, decussated, minute.

MYTILUS, _Linn._

18. M. EDULIS, _Linn._--_M. vulgaris._--Brit. co. generally, Cc. Byssal
margin swelled.

19. M. UNGULATUS, _Linn. Syst. Nat._--_M. edulis_, var. _M. incurvatus_
(Hoof-Mussel).--Cornwall, Guernsey, etc., Mr. Byssal margin bent inwards,
lower margin broad and straight.

20, 21. M. GALLOPROVINCIALIS, _Lamk._--_M. edulis_, var. _M. dilatatus_?,
_M. pellucidus_? (young, f. 21), _M. subsaxatilis_?--British Channel, etc.,
C. Dorsal margin dilated, beak advancing.



NUCULA, _Linn._


 1. N. NUCLEUS, _Linn._ (_Arca._)--_N. margaritacea_, _Glycimeris
argentea_.--Brit. co. generally, 7 to 90 fath., C. Thick, obtuse; beaks

 2. N. DECUSSATA, _Sowerby._--_N. sulcata_, _N. Polii_.--Hebrides, Loch
Fyne, Dublin Bay, 30 to 50 fath., Mr. Large, striated; beak not terminal.

 3. N. RADIATA, _Hanley._--_N._ and _Arca nucleus_ and _radiata_.--Torbay,
Milford Haven, Arran, etc., 10 to 70 fath., Mc. Prolonged anteriorly,

 4. N. NITIDA, _Sowerby._--_N. nucleus_, var.--Numerous British loc., 1 to
35 fath., C. Shining, ends rather pointed.

 5. N. TENUIS, _Montagu_, (_Arca._)--North British co., 40 to 100 fath.,
sand, C. Thin, inner edge not crenated; beak terminal.

LEDA, _Schum._ Beaked behind.

 6. L. CAUDATA, _Donovan_, (_Arca._)--_Arca_ and _Nucula minuta_ and
_rostrata_.--North co., C.; south co., R. 10 fath. to deep water. Ridged.

 7. L. PYGMÆA, _Munster_, (_Nucula._)--_N._ and _L. tenuis_, _gibbosa_, and
_lenticula_.--Skye, Hebrides, Croulin Isl., 25 to 50 fath. Minute, smooth.
Size (omitted) one-fifth of an inch.

ARCA, _Linnæus._

 8, 9. A. LACTEA, _Linn._--_A. barbata_, _A. Modiolus_, _A. crinita_, _A.
perforans_, _A. Gaimardii_, var. f. 8; _A. Quoyi_, var. f. 9.--Penzance,
Ilfracombe, Bantry Bay, Guernsey, etc. Adhering to shells and stones, 15 to
20 fath., C. Beaks approaching, radiately striated.

10. A. TETRAGONA, _Poli._--_A. Noæ_ and _imbricata_.--Many Brit, loc., C.
(12 to 50 fath.). Broad area between beaks.

11. A. RARIDENTATA, _S. Wood._--_A. pectunculoides._--Skye, Hebrides, etc.,
Scot. Cape Clear, 40 to 60 fath., Mr. Minute, teeth few.

12. A. NODULOSA, _Ph._--E. Zetland, Shetland Isls., Rr.


13. P. GLYCIMERIS, _Linn._ (_Arca._)--_A._ and _P._ and _Glycimeris
pilosa_, _orbicularis_, _undata_, and _marmorata_.--Brit. co. generally, 15
to 60 fath., C.


14. L. PELLUCIDA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 59_.--Dredged in sand
at Guernsey, Rr.


15. A. TARENTINA, _Lamk._--_Mytilus_ and _Avicula hirundo_, etc.--Bantry
Bay, Devon, etc., R.


16. P. PECTINATA, _Linn._--_P. fragilis_, _muricata_, _ingens_, _lævis_,
_papyracea_, _rotundata_, _elegans_.--Dorset, Milford Haven, Hebrides, Cape
Clear; deep water, Mc.


17. O. EDULIS, _Linn._--_O. vulgare_, etc.--Various natural and artificial
beds, in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The common Oyster.


18. A. EPHIPPIUM, _Linn._--_A. electrica_, _A. squamula_, _cepa_,
etc.--Brit. co. generally, 1 to 30 fath., C. Pearly and irregular; beak
marginal, curved.

19. A. ACULEATA, _Müller._--_A. striolata._--Brit. co. generally, Mc.
Small, with spinous sculpture.

20. A. STRIATA, _Lovén._--Hebrides, R. Rayed, striated, with apex not

21. A. PATELLIFORMIS, _Linn._--_A. undulata._--Cape Clear, etc., 1 to 50
fath., Mr. Flat, ribbed.


22. L. SUBAURICULATA, _Montagu_, (_Pecten._)--_L. nivea_, _sulcata_,
etc.--Plymouth, Man, Zetland, Belfast, etc., Mr. Nearly straight.

23. L. HIANS, _Gmel._ (_Vitræa._)--_L. tenera_, _fragilis_, _aperta_,
etc.--Channel Isls., Penzance, Oban, Belfast, etc., Mc. Oblique, gaping at

24. L. LOSCOMBII, _Sowerby._--_Pecten_ and _Ostrea_ and _Lima fragilis_ and
_bullata_.--Many Brit. loc., 10 to 50 fath., Mc. Oblique, closed at sides.



PECTEN. Free, except 1.


 1. P. PUSIO, _Pennant_, (_Ostrea._)--_P._, _O._, and _Hinnites distortus_
and _sinuosus_.--Brit. co. generally, 15 to 90 fath., C. Irregular,
attached to stones, etc.

 2, 3. P. VARIUS, _Linn._ (_Ostrea._)--_P. monotis._--Brit. co. generally,
3 to 35 fath.; C. Vertically elongate; auricles very unequal.

 4. P. NIVEUS, _Macgillivray._--Scotland, R. (15 fath.) Ribs more numerous
than _P. varius_; white.

 5, 6, 7. P. OPERCULARIS, _Linn._ (_Ostrea._)--_O._, and _P. subrufus_,
_pictus_, _lineatus_ (var. f. 6), and _sanguinea_.--Brit. co. generally, 5
to 100 fath., C. As broad as long; ribs rounded.

 8. P. AUDOUINII, _Payraudeau._--_P. opercularis_, var., B. Moll.--Ribs
angular and squamose.

 9, 10. P. DANICUS, _Chemn._--_P._ and _O. pes-felis_, _glaber_,
_triradiata_, _adspersus_, _septemradiata_, etc.--Several Scotch
localities, 25 to 90 fath., Mc. Very variable, extreme vars. f. 9, 10.
Auricles more equal than _P. tigrinus_.

11, 12. P. TIGRINUS, _Müller._--_P. obsoletus_, _domesticus_, _lævis_,
_parvus_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, 12 to 60 fath., C. Variable; one
auricle minute, the other large and ribbed.

13. P. MAXIMUS, _Linn._ (_Ostrea._)--_P. vulgaris._--Brit. co. generally, 3
to 40 fath. The common eatable Scallop. Valves unequal.

14. P. SIMILIS, _Laskey._--_O._ and _P. tumidus_.--Fr. Forth, Isl. Man,
Lerwick, Cape Clear, etc., Mc. Minute, smooth, with undulating marks.

15. P. STRIATUS, _Müller._--_P. aculeatus_, _fuci_, etc.--Scotland, C.;
England, R.

16. P. FURTIVUS, _Lovén._--Zetland, Guernsey, etc., 40 to 50 fath., Mr.
More rounded, and with auricles less broadly based than _P. striatus_.

HIPPOTHYRIS. Fixed by byssus.

17. H. PSITTACEA, _Gmel._ (_Anomia._)--_A. rostrum-psittaci_, Chem.;
_Terebratula psittacea_.--Northumberland, Fr. Forth; deep water, Rr. as
Brit. "The Parrot's-beak Anomia."

TEREBRATULA. Fixed by byssus.

18. T. CRANIUM, _Müller._--_Anomia c._, and _T. vitrea_.--Zetland; deep
water, unique as Brit. Smooth, oval.

19. T. CAPSULA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist._, _Jan. 1859_.--Belfast Bay,
R. Minute, punctured.


20. T. CAPUT-SERPENTIS, _Linn._ (_Anomia._)--_A._ and _T. retusa_,
_pubescens_, _costata_, and _aurita_.--Oban, Skye, etc., 20 to 50 fath.,

21. A. CISTELLULA, _S. Wood._ (_Terebratula._)--_A. seminulum_?, T.

22. A. DECOLLATA, _Chemn._--_A. detruncata._--Guernsey, R.

23. A. SEMINULUM, _Philippi._--Croulin, near Skye, _Jeffreys_.


24. C. ANOMALA, _Müller._ (_Patella._)--_Pat. Anomia_, _Discina_, and
_Criopus distorta_, _ostreoides_, _personata_, and _rostrata_.--Zetland,
Arran, Lerwick, Cork, Mr.

[Illustration: BRITISH SHELLS. PLATE X.]


HYALÆA. _Fam._ Pteropoda.


 1. H. TRISPINOSA, _Lesueur._--Once taken on floating timber, Dublin.
Doubtful as British.

SPIRIALIS, or PERACLE. _Fam._ Pteropoda.

 2. S. FLEMINGII, _Forbes._--_Fusus retroversus_, Fl.--Zetland, Skye,
Arran, Donegal, M. C. Snail-shaped.

 3. S. MACANDREI, _F. and H._--Near Mizen Head, S. Ire., Rr. Turreted.

 4. S. JEFFREYSII, _F. and H._--Brit. Channel, Rr. Discoid.

CHITON. Sedentary on rocks.

 5. C. FASCICULARIS, _Linn._--Brit co. generally, Mc. Tufted margin, small,
granules large.

 6. C. GRACILIS, _Jeffr._ _Ann. Nat. Hist._, _Jan. 1859_.--Weymouth.
Narrow; granules very small; two postero-terminal tufts.

 7. C. DISCREPANS, _Brown._--_crinitus_, Pennant?--Tenby, Guernsey, C.
Tufted margin, large: granules very small.

 8. C. HANLEYI, _Bean._--Scarborough, Skye, W. Ireland, R. Spinose margin.

 9, 10. C. MARMOREUS, _O. Fabr._--_C. latus_, Lowe, _C. lævigatus_,
_ruber_, and _pictus_.--Scarborough, Forth, Skye, Zetland, W. Ire., R.
Margin smooth.

11. C. LÆVIS, _Pennant._--_C. marginatus_, Pult., _C. Achatina_,
Brown.--Dorset, Devon; Brit. co. generally, but rare. Dorsally elevated;
margin reticulated.

12. C. RUBER, _Linn._--Brit, seas generally, Mr. Valves smooth; margin

13. C. CINEREUS, _Linn._--_C. marginatus_, Penn.?--Brit. co. generally, C.
Valves carinated; margin and valves granulated.

14. C. ALBUS, _Linn._--_C. asselloides_, Lowe.--Northern coasts, R.
Marginal granules scaly and large; dorsal gr. smaller than _C. cinereus_.

15, 16. C. ASSELUS, _Chemn._--_C. minimus_, _Cinereus albus_.--Brit. co.
generally, C. Broad, granules on valves beaded.

17. C. CANCELLATUS, _Sowerby._--_C. albus_, Pult.--Devon, Guernsey, Isl.
Man, Oban, Zetland, Loch Carron, R. Narrow, back elevated, else like _C.

PATELLA. (Limpet.) Sedentary.

18. P. VULGATA, _Linn._--Brit, generally, Cc. Ribs not toothed.

19. P. ATHLETICA, _Bean._--Devon, Northumberland, etc., Cc. Ribs toothed.

20. P. PELLUCIDA, _Linn._--_P. lævis_, _cærulea_, _Acmæa pel_.--British co.
generally, C. smooth.

21. ---- var. _lævis_, Penn.


22. A. TESTUDINALIS, _Müller._--_P. Clealandi._--North Ire., C. Oval, with
tortoise-shell markings.

23. A. VIRGINEA, _Müller._--_P. parva_, _pulchella_.--Brit. co. generally,
Mc. Pale, pink-rayed, shallow.


24. P. FULVUM, _Müller._--_P. Forbesii._--Clyde, Cork, Zetland, etc., R.


25. P. ANCYLOIDE, _Forbes._--Lamlash, Ayrshire, etc., R.


26. D. ENTALIS, _Linn._--Brit. co. generally, C. Smooth, small end notched.

27. D. TARENTINUM, _Lamk._--_D. vulgare_, _striatum_, _labiatum_,
_politum_, _læve_.--South coasts, C. Striated and entire at small end.


28. P. HUNGARICUS, _Linn._--Fool's-cap Limpet.--S. Devon, and Br. co.
generally, C.


29. C. SINENSIS, _Linn._ (_Patella._)--_C. chinensis_, _albida_,
_lævigata_.--S. Brit., and Chan. Isls., R. With oblique septum.





 1. F. RETICULATA, _Donov._ (_Patella._)--_P._ and _F. Græca_, _apertura_
(young), _cancellata_, _europæa_.--Hebrides, Thanet, Devon, Ireland. On
shells, etc., 1 to 15 fath., C.

 2. F. COSTARIA, _Deshayes._--Guernsey, R. More fine and numerous ribs than
_F. reticulata_.


 3. P. NOACHINA, _Linn._ (_Patella._)--_Cemoria Flemingii_, _Fissurella
N._, _Rimula Flemingii_, etc.--Scotland and Northumberland, 20 to 100
fath., R. With slit under apex.


 4. E. RETICULATA, _Sowerby._--_Patella fissura_, etc.--Brit. co.
generally, C. Conical, with slit in margin.

 5. E. ROSEA, _Bell._--_E. pileolus_, _conica_, _capuliformis_,
etc.--Channel Isls., Exmouth, Cornwall, etc., 7 to 25 fath., Mc. Curved,
coarsely cancellated. Red within.

 6. E. CRASSA, _Sowerby._--Loch Fyne, Oban and Belfast, 20 to 25 fath., Rr.
Large, not cancellated.

HALIOTIS, or "Ear-shell."

 7. H. TUBERCULATA, _Leim._--_H. vulgaris_, Channel Isls., Cc.


 8. T. ZIZYPHINUS, _Linn._-_-C. conulus_, _C. discrepans_, _C. Lyonsii_
(white, ribbed var.), etc. Brit. co. generally, low-water to 50 fath., C.

 9. T. CONULUS, _Linn._--Lincolnshire, Rr. More simply conical than the
most extreme forms of _T. zizyphinus_.

10. T. ALABASTRUM, _Beck._--_T. formosus_.--Zetland, Lerwick, etc., 45 to
80 fath., R. White, with deep, plain, and beaded ridges.

11. T. MILLEGRANUS, _Philippi._--_T. Clealandi_, _T. Martini_.--Brit. co.
generally, 15 to 90 fath., Mr. Granulated, whorls with prominent margin.

12. T. GRANULATUS, _Born._--_T. papillosus_, _T. fragilis_.--Channel Isls.,
Weymouth, Dublin, etc., R. Like 8, but grained.

13. T. STRIATUS, _Linn._--_T. parvus_, etc.--S. Brit., C. More finely
ribbed than _T. exiguus_.

14. T. EXIGUUS, _Pult._--_T. exasperatus_, _minutus_, etc. S. co., C.

15. T. MONTAGUI, _Gray._--_T. striatus_, Forbes.--Scarborough, Exmouth,
Cape Clear, etc., C. Elevated, whorls tumid.

16. T. TUMIDUS, _Mont._--_T. patholatus_, _Rackettii_, etc. Brit. co.
generally, C. Short, whorls tumid, umbilicated.

17. T. CINEREUS, _Linn._--_T. lineatus_, _T. perforatus_, etc.--Brit. co.
generally, C. Littoral, small umbilicus.

18. T. UMBILICATUS, _Mont._--_T. cinerarius_, etc.--Guernsey, S. and W.
Brit. co., C. Littoral, umbilicus large.

19. T. MAJUS, _Linn._--_T. tuberculatus._--Brit. co. generally; littoral,
C. Broad, tuberculated. Large umbilicus.

20. T. LINEATUS, _Costa._--_T. crassus_, etc.--Channel Isls., Devon. W.
Ire., Mc. Smooth, imperforate.


21. M. UNDULATUS, _Sowerby._--_Turbo carneus_, _M. striata_,
etc.--Scotland, 5 to 50 fath., Mc. Striated and undulated.

22. M. HELICINUS, _Fabricius._--_Turbo_ and _Trochus neritoideus_,
_margarita_, _M. vulgaris_, etc.--Many Brit. loc.; littoral, C.

23. M. PUSILLUS, _Jeffreys._--Lerwick, R., 10 to 40 fath. Minute, white,

24. M. EXILIS, _Phil._--_Skenea Cutleriana._--Guernsey, Skye, etc., R.
Globose, striated.


25. A. SUBCARINATA, _Mont._--(_Helix_) _Trochus rugosus_, _Cingula subc._,
etc.--S. Brit, co., Mr. Depressed, keeled.


26. S. CRISPATA, _Flem._--Zetland, etc., in sand, Mc.


27. P. PULLUS, _Linn._ (_Turbo._)--_T. pictus_, _Cingula p._, etc.--Brit.
co. generally, C.



IANTHINA. Floats on ocean.


 1. I. COMMUNIS, _Lamk._--_Helix Ianthina_, _I. fragilis_, etc.--Cornwall,
Bristol, etc.; oceanic, C. Sides depressed.

 2. I. BRITANNICA, _Leech._ _Reeve._--Ireland, Cornwall, etc., Mr. Darkly
coloured, not compressed.

 3. I. PALLIDA, _Harvey._--_I. patula._--Clare, Rr. as Brit.

 4. I. EXIGUA, _Lamk._--Cornwall, Clare, etc., Mr.

NERITINA. In rivers.

 5. N. FLUVIATILIS, _Linn._--_N. fontinalis._--Thames, Trent, Humber, etc.,
Scotch lakes, Cc.

BITHINIA. In ponds.

 6. B. LEACHII, _Shepp._ (_Turbo._)--_B. ventricosus_, _Paludina acuta_,
_similis_, etc.--Rivers S. Brit., Mr. Narrow, with rounded whorls.

 7. B. TENTACULATA, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_T. nucleus_, _Paludina impura_,
etc.--Fresh-water, throughout Brit. Oval.

PALUDINA. In ponds.

 8. P. LISTERI, _Forbes and Hanley._--_Helix vivipara_, etc.--Lakes and
ponds generally, Mc. Whorls more separate, umbilicus larger than _P.

 9. P. VIVIPARA, _Linn._--_Pal. achatina_, etc.--Thames, etc., C.

VALVATA. In ponds.

10. V. PISCINALIS, _Müller._--_Nerita_, _Turbo_, _Cyclostoma fontinalis_,
_obtusa_, _thermalis_, etc.--Fresh-water, C. Subglobose.

11. V. CRISTATA, _Müller._--_V. planorbis_, etc.--Many loc., Mc. Orbicular.

LITTORINA. On the sea-shore.

12, 13. L. RUDIS, _Donov._ (_Turbo._)--_L. littoreus_, etc., _L.
nigro-lineatus_ (var. f. 13).--British shores generally, Cc.

14, 15. L. LITTOREA, _Linn._ (_Turbo._)--_L. vulgaris_, etc.--British
shores generally. The common eatable Winkle.

16, 17. L. TENEBROSA, _Mont._ (_Turbo_).--British shores generally, C. Not
thickened at bottom of mouth like _L. rudis_.

18. L. PATULA, _Jeffreys._--_L. labiata_, _L. jugosa_, etc.--Common on our

19. L. SAXATILIS, _Johnston._--_L. neglecta._--Probably _L. patula_ var.?

20, 21. L. LITTORALIS, _Linn._ (_Turbo._)--_T. neritoides_, _T. ustulatus_,
etc,--Brit. co. generally. Depressed above.

22. L. FABALIS, _Turt._--_L. Beanii._--Young of _L. littoralis_?

23. L. NERITOIDES, _Linn._ (_Turbo._)--_T. petræa_, _L. cærulea_,
etc.--Kent, Sussex, etc., C. With white band.

24. L. PALLIATA, _Say_, (_Turbo._)--Yarmouth, Mr.


25, 26. L. PUTEOLUS, _Turt._ (_Turbo._)--_Cochlea_, _Helix_, and _Nerita
parva_, _fasciata_, _lacuna_, _rufa_, etc.--Brit. shores, C. Globose.

27, 28. L. VINCTA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_T. canalis_, _quadrifasciatus_,
etc,--Brit. co. generally, C.

29. L. CRASSIOR, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_L. pallidus._--Numerous Brit. co.
Thick, conical.

30. ---- var. ? of this rather than of _C. vincta_.

31. L. PALLIDULA, _Costa_, (_Turbo._)--Brit. co. generally, C.

32. L. PATULA.--Fry of _L. pallidula_?





 1. A. GRAYANA, _Jeffreys._--_Limneus_ and _Paludina G._--Greenwich and
other marshes.

 2. A. LITTOREA, _Delle Chiaje_, (_Helix littorina._)--_Rissoa globularis_
and _littorea_.--On shore at Weymouth, Serk, Portland, Mr.


 3. R. ULVÆ, _Pennant_, (_Turbo._)--_Helix_, _Cingula_, _Paludina_, and
_Littorina_.--In brackish water, on British shores, C.

 3*. ---- var. _subumbilicata_, R.

 4. R. BARLEEI, _Jeffreys._--_R. ulvæ_ var.--Loch Carron, Skye, R.

 5. R. STRIATULA, _Mont._--_R._, _Turbo_, _Cingula_, and _Littorina
carinata_ and _monilis_.--Devon, Margate, Galway, Herm, etc., 0 to 7 fath.,
Mr.; S. Eu. Carinated.

 6. R. CIMICOIDES, _Forbes._--_R. sculpta._--W. Scotland. Like _R.
zetlandica_, but with outer lip crenulated; finely decussated.

 7. R. ZETLANDICA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_R._, _Cyclostoma_, _Cingula
scalariformis_, _Cyclostrema z._--N. Scotland, 0 to 60 fath., Mc. Whorls

 8. R. CRENULATA, _Michaud._--_Turbo_ and _R. cimex_ and
_cancellatus_.--Falmouth, Cornwall, Skye, Galway, C. Very coarsely

 9. R. CALATHUS.--_Forbes and Hanley._--Sheerness, Whitesand Bay, 15 to 50
fath., R. Finely cancellated.

10. R. BEANII, _Hanley._--Cornwall, Plymouth, Orkney, Galway, C.; N. Eu.

11. R. ABYSSICOLA, _Forbes._--N. Scotland; deep water, R.

12. R. LACTEA, _Michaud._--_Turbo cancellatus._--Jersey and Medit., Rr.
Oval, plicated and striated.

13. R. PUNCTURA, _Montagu._--_Turbo_ and _Cingula_ and _R.
reticulata_.--Brit. co. generally, 10 to 20 fath.

14. R. COSTATA, _Adams._--_R._, _Turbo_, _Cingula plicata_, _costata_, and
_exigua_.--South co. Brit., S. Wales, Orkneys, Ireland, Channel Isls., 0 to
25 fath., C.

15. R. STRIATA, _Mont._--_R._, _Turbo_, and _Cingula semicostata_,
_minutissima_, _communis_, _gracilis_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, N. and S.
Eu.; littoral C.

16, 17, 18. R. PARVA, _Costa._--_T._, _C._, and _R. sublutea_, _lactea_,
_alba_, etc., _R. interrupta_ (var. f. 17), _R. Sarsii_, var. f. 18
(unique).--Brit. shores generally, C.

19. R. COSTULATA, _Alder._--_Turbo variabilis_, _R. similis_.--Devon,
Channel Isls., W. Ireland, etc., C.; S. Eu.

20. R. RUFILABRUM, _Leach._--_R._ and _C. hyalina_ and _punctata_.--Devon,
Belfast, etc., Mc.

21. R. LABIOSA, _Mont._ (_Helix._)--_T._, _C._, and _R. membranacea_ and
_costata_.--Brit. co. generally, C.

22, 23, 24, R. INCONSPICUA, _Alder._--_R. albula_ and _supra-costata_, var.
f. 23, _R. similis_, var. 24, _R. maculata_.--Brit. co. generally, C.

25. R. SEMISTRIATA, _Mont._--_T._ and _R. pulchra_ and _tristriata_.--Brit.
shores generally, C.

26. R. CINGILLUS, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_R._, _T._, and _C. vittata_, var.,
_R. graphica_ and _R. rupestris_.--Brit co. generally.

27. R. VITREA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Helix glabrata_, _R.
crystallina_.--Exmouth, Oban, Birterbuy, etc., Mr. Elongated, smooth.

28. R. PROXIMA, _Alder._--A rare Irish species. Elongated, striated.





 1. R. PULCHERRIMA, _Jeffreys._--Channel Isls., R.

 2. R. SOLUTA, _Philippi._--Exmouth, Bute, Cork, etc., R. Like _R. pulch._,
but with spiral striæ.

 3. R. ALDERI, _Jeffreys_, _Annals, Aug. 1858_.--Skye, Rr. Larger and more
conical than _R. soluta_.

 4. R. FULGIDA, _Adams_, (_Helix._)--_Turbo_ and _Cingula f._--Weymouth,
Arran, Cork, etc., Mr. Whorls rounded and banded.

 5. R. ANATINA, _Drap._ (_Cyclostoma._)--_Paludina_ and _Littorina
a._--Very rare, Greenwich marshes.

 6. R. EXIMIA, _Jeffreys._--_Chemnitzia Barleei_, Clark.

 7. R. VENTROSA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Cyclostoma_, _Paludina_, and _Cingula
acutus_, _ventricosus_, _octona_, _stagnorum_, etc.--Marine shores and
brackish-water marshes, Mc.

 8. R. DENTICULATA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--Herm, Rr.

 9. R. UNICA, (_Turbo._)--_Aclis u._, Brit. Moll., _Turritella_, _Pyramis_,
and _Chemnitzia_, R.--Devon, Cork, etc., Mr.

10. R. GLABRATA, _Jeffreys._--N. sp.

11. R. CASTANEA, _Jeffreys._--N. sp.


12. B. RUBRA, _Flem._ (_Cingula._)--_Turbo_, _C._, and _Rissoa ruber_,
_unifasciatus_, _fulva_.--Herm, Tenby, Dunbar, etc., S. Eu., Mr.


13. J. DIAPHANA, _Alder_, (_Rissoa._)--_R. glabra._--Dublin, Swansea,
Northumberland, etc.; littoral, R.

14. J. OPALINA, _Jeffreys_, (_Rissoa._)--Channel Isls., R.

15. J. GLOBULARIS, _Jeffreys._--Skye.

16. J. GULSONÆ, _Clark_, (_Odostomia._)--_Chemnitzia G._--Sandwith,
Lerwick, Weymouth, etc., Guernsey.


17. E. NITIDISSIMUS, _Adams_, (_Helix._)--_Skenea_, B. Moll., _Truncatella
atomus_.--Shetland to Channel Isls., Mc.

18. E. ROTA, _Forbes and Hanley_, (_Skenea._)--Donegal, rare. Like a minute


19. S. PLANORBIS, _O. Fabr._ (_Helix._)--_Turbo_, _Sk. depressa_.--Brit.
shores generally, on coastal Corallines, C. Flat, like a _Planorbis_.

20. S. DIVISA, _Flem._ (_Turbo._)--_Helix_ and _Sk. serpuloides_, _Adeorbis
striatus_.--Scarborough, Weymouth, Orkney, Galway, etc., 7 to 25 fath., Mr.

21. S. COSTULATA, _Möller_, (_Margarita._)--Loch Fyne, Rr.

22. S. LÆVIS, _Philippi_, (_Delphinula._)--Newcastle-on-Tyne, Rr.


23. A. ASCARIS, _Turt._ (_Turbo._)--_Turritella_, _Alvania_, and _Pyramis
supranitida_ and _acutissima_.--Ireland, Tenby, Zetland, Mr.

24. A. SUPRA-NITIDA, _S. Wood_ (_Alvania._)--Tenby, Dublin, etc., Rr.

25. A. NITIDISSIMA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Turritella_, _Pyramis_, and
_Chemnitzia_.--Falmouth, Burrow Isl., R.


26. E. SCILLÆ, _Lovén_, (_Turbonilla._)--_Eulima_, _Odostomia_,
_Chemnitzia_, and _Eulimella crassula_, and _Macandræi_.--N. Scotland,
Croulin, etc., 20 to 90 fath., R.

27. E. ACICULA, Philippi, (_Melania._)--_E._, _Chemn._, _Odost._, and
_Eulima clavula_.--Skye, Rr.

28. E. AFFINIS, _Philippi_, (_Eulima._)--_Pyramis_, _Odost._, and _E.
gracilis_, _lævis_.--Skye, Torbay, R.

29. E. CLAVULA, _Lovén_ (_Turbonilla._)--_Odostomia c._--Torbay, Rr.

30. E. OBELISCUS, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1858._--Shetland.





 1. T. CORNEA, _Lamk._--_T. communis_, var., B. M.--Cork and Zetland, Mr.
Whorls less flat and less rapidly enlarged than _T. communis_. A white var.
exists (_T. nivea_).

 2, 3. T. COMMUNIS, _Risso._--_T. cornea_?, _T. Terebra_.--Brit. co.
generally; 4 to 100 fath., Cc. Aperture rather square.


 4. A. PES-PELICANI, _Linn._ (_Strombus._)--_A. quadrifidus_, _Tritonium_,
and _Rostellaria p._--Brit. co. gen.; N. and S. Eu.; 4 to 100 fath., C.
Outer lip with one anterior lobe.

 5. A. PES-CARBONIS, _Brongniart._--_Rostellaria_ and _A. p._, and
_serressiana_.--Zetland, 70 to 100 fath., R. Outer lip with two anterior


 6. C. TRACHEA, _Mont._--_Dentalium_ and _Orthocera imperforatum_, _C.
annulatus_.--Devon, Weymouth, Scotland, Cork, etc., R.; S. Eu. Ringed and

 7. C. GLABRUM, _Mont._--_C._, _Dentalium_, and _Orthocera minutum_, and
_lævissimum_.--Exmouth, Weymouth, Swansea, Lerwick, Bantry Bay. Rare,


 8. C. RETICULATUM, _Costa_, (_Strombiformis._)--_Murex_ and _Terebra
r._--Brit. co. gen., 0 to 20 f., C. Narrow, and closely reticulated.

 9. C. METAXA, _Delle Chiaje._--_C. angustissimum._--Guernsey, R.; S. Eu.
Lengthened, white.

10. C. ADVERSUM, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_C._, _Triphoris_, _Turbo_, and
_Terebra a._, _perversus_, and _reticulatus_.--W. and S. Brit., Channel
Isls., etc., 5 to 25 fath., Mr.


11. C. TUBERCULARE, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_Cerithium_ and _Terebra t._--Brit.
co. gen.; S. Eu.; 4 to 40 fath., Mc. Three rows of tubercles in the
penultimate whorl.

12. C. CLARKII, _Hanley._--Exmouth, Rr. Two rows of tubercles.

13. C. NIVEA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. 1859_.--In shell sand, Belfast,
R. Rather Buccinum-shaped.

14. C. METULA, _Lovén_, (_Cerithium._)--_C. nitidum_, Forbes.--Zetland, 50
to 80 fath., R. White, with angular whorls.

15. C. PULCHELLA, _Jeffreys._--Falmouth, Plymouth, Guernsey, R. Closely
whorled and cancellated.


16. S. COMMUNIS, _Lamk._--_Turbo_ and _Strombiformis clathrus_ and
_clathratus_.--S. co. principally, C. Laminarian zone, S. Eu. Ridges
raised; whorls separated.

17. S. GROENLANDICA, _Chemn._ (_Turbo._)--_S. planicostata_,
_subulata_.--Fragments only, N. Scotland, N. Eu. Grooved between ridges.

18. S. TURTONIS, _Turton._--Scarborough, Exmouth, Cork, etc., N. and S.
Eu., R. as Brit. Ridges flat.

19. S. TREVELYANA, _Leach._--N. Brit., 15 to 85 fath., Mr. Thin, with ribs
narrower than _Sc. Turtonis_.

20. S. CLATHRATULA, _Mont._--S. Brit. and Channel Isls., Mr. Small, white,
with thin ribs.


21. S. TURTONI, _Brod._--_Phasianella stylifera_, _Velutina s._, _S.
globosus_ and _astericola_.--On spines of _Echinus sphæra_, Torbay and
Berwick, R. Glassy, thin.


22. E. POLITA, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_Strombiformis_, _Turbo_, _Rissoa_, and
_Phasianella p._ and _albus_, _Boscii_ and _anglica_.--Ireland, S. Brit.,
E. Scot., N. and S. Eu., 7 to 50 fath., Mr. Rather solid.

23. E. DISTORTA, _Deshayes._--Brit. co. gen., Mc.; 12 to 90 fath.; N. and
S. Eu. Small, tortuous.

24. E. STENOSTOMA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. 1858._--Zetland and Norway,
Rr. Thin, with rapidly increasing whorls.

25. E. SUBULATA, _Donov._ (_Turbo._)--_Strombiformis_, _Helix_, and
_Melania s._ and _glaber_, _trifasciatus_, _Donovani_, and _lineata_.--S.
and W. Brit., Ire., Zetland, Medit., 10 to 80 fath., Mr. Whorls deep,

26. E. BILINEATA, _Alder._--Or _E. subulata_, var.--Northumberland, etc.
Whorls more swelled than _E. su._, two-banded.





 1. C. ELEGANTISSIMA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_T. lacteus_, Linn.?, _T.
acutus._--Brit. co. generally; not deep, C. Interstices of longitudinal
ribs smooth.

 2. C. SIMILLIMUS, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_C. gracilis_, Phil. More slender
and minute than f. 1.

 3. C. PUSILLA, _Phil. Moll. Sic._ 2. _p._ 224. _pl._ 28. _f._ 21.--More
stout than f. 1, with the ribs straight and broad. Medit., Brit.?

 4, 5. C. RUFA, _Phil._--And var. _C. fulvocincta_ (f. 5).--Brit. co.
generally, 15 to 50 fath., Mc. Spiral grooves between ribs.

 6. C. FORMOSA, _Jeffreys_, (_Odostomia._)--Swansea, Shellness, Bantry Bay,
etc., Mr. Grooved between ribs, excavated at suture.

 7. C. FENESTRATA, _Forbes and Jeffr._ (_Odostomia._)--Torbay, etc., R.
With pits between spiral ridges.

 8. C. RUFESCENS, _Forbes._--_Odostomia_ and _Turritella indistincta_ and
_scalaris_.--Clyde, Hebrides, Oban, 15 to 50 fath., R. More stout than _C.
rufa_. Three-banded.

 9. C. SCALARIS, _Philippi_, (_Melania._)--Exmouth, Guernsey, Medit., R.
Ribbed; whorls angular above.

10. C. CLATHRATA, _Jeffreys._--Birterbuy Bay, R. Lower part of whorls
spirally grooved between ribs.

11. C. INDISTINCTA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Odost._, _Turritella_, _Terebra_,
and _Pyramis truncata_ and _speciosa_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, 5 to 40
fath., Mr.; S. Eu. Ribs curved, striated between.


12. T. SUBCYLINDRICA, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_T. Montagui_, _Turbo truncatus_,
_subtruncatus_, _Cyclostoma truncatulum_, _Turritella t._ and _s._,
etc.--Weymouth, S. Devon, Scarborough, etc., C.


13. N. HELICOIDES, _Johnston._--Scotland, Scarborough, etc., 15 to 40
fath., R.; N. Eu. Thin-grooved suture.

14. N. MONTAGUI, _Forbes._--_Nerita rufa_, _Natica r._ and
_rutilla_.--Principally northern loc. In sand and gravel, 12 to 90 fath.,
Mr. Small, stout.

15. N. KINGII, _Forbes and Hanley._--Northumberland, unique, _Jeffreys_

16. N. NITIDA, _Donovan._--_Nerita_ and _Natica catena_, _nitida_,
_Alderi_, _glaucina_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, 4 to 90 fath., C. Oblique,
marked with undulating lines.

17. N. MONILIFERA, _Lamk._--_Nerita glaucina_, _catena_, etc.--Near
water-mark, in sandy places generally, C. Whorls rounded.

18. N. SORDIDA, _Phil._--_N. fulva_, _plumbea_, etc.--Scilly, Cape Clear,
Zetland, etc., 25 to 90 fath., R.

19. N. PUSILLA, _Say._--_N. Groenlandica_, _livida_,
_alba_.--Northumberland, Yorkshire, N. Eu., 45 fath., R. White; umbilicus


20. R. APERTA, _Jeffreys._--_Natica aperta_, Lovén?--Zetland, Rr.


21. N. LÆVIGATA, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_Bulla_, _Velutina_, etc.--Brit. co.
generally, 1 to 30 fath., N. Eu., C.

22. N. FLEXILIS, _Mont._ (_Bulla._)--_Coriocella_ and _Sigaretus
plicatilis_.--N. Scot., 25 fath., Rr.


23. L. PERSPICUA, _Linn._--_Helix_, _Bulla haliotoidea_, _Sigareta_ and
_Coriocella neritoideus_.--Brit. co. generally, but R.; 1 to 15 fath., Mr.
Thin, glassy, more ventricose than _L. tentaculata_.

24. L. TENTACULATA, _Mont._--_Sig._ and _Cor._--Falmouth, Swansea, Arran,
etc. Laminarian, Mr. Upper whorls less full than _L. perspicua_.


25. O. OTIS, _Turt._ (_Helix._)--_Velutina_, _Galericulum ovatum_.--Wales,
Devon, Channel Isls., Clare, etc., Mc. Littoral.


26. T. BOREALIS, _Broderip and Sowb._--_T._ and _Murex carinatus_,
_umbilicatus_, _acuminatus_, etc.--N. Scotland, W. Ireland, 15 to 80 fath.,





 1. O. UNIDENTATA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Voluta u._, _O. plicata_.--Brit.
co. generally, Mc. Rather conical. Tooth strong; no epidermis.

 2. O. TURRITA, _Hanley_, _Brit. Mar. Conch._--_O. unidentata_, var. B.
M.--R. More lengthened than No. 1.

 3, 4. O. ACUTA, _Jeffreys._--Torbay, Loch Fyne, Galway, etc., Mc. Strong,
conical. Suture deep.

 5. O. PLICATA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Voluta p._, _V. plicatula_, _O. Annæ_,
_Jaminia p._, etc., Mc.--Salcombe, Swansea, Dublin, Aberdeen, Mc. Turreted.
Narrow, thin.

 6. O. INSCULPTA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Voluta_, _Jaminia_, and _O.
ins._--S. Devon, Oban, Hebrides, etc., R. Conical, spirally striated.

 7. O. PALLIDA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Vol._, _Cingula_, _Phasianella p._,
_O. ambigua_.--S. Devon, Rr. Broad. Thin, pillar straight.

 8. O. CONOIDEA, _Brock._--_Turbo_, _Odost._, etc.--N. Scotland, Mc. S.
Devon, Mr. N. and S. Eu. White. Whorls straight; throat striated.

 9. O. CONSPICUA, _Alder._--Isl. Man, Whitburn, Herm. Coloured. Whorls
rounded; throat striated.

10. O. TRUNCATULA, _Jeffreys._--Plymouth. Elongated.

11. O. CYLINDRICA, _Alder._--_Turbo nivosus_?--S. Devon, Ilfracombe,
Guernsey, Cork, R. Cylindrical, few whorls.

12, 13. O. EULIMOIDES, _Hanley._--_O. crassa_, _O. pallida_ (var. f. 13),
_O. notata._--Brit. co. generally. Coralline zone, Mr. Ample body-whorl.

14. O. DUBIA, _Jeffr._--S. Devon, Lerwick, Guernsey, Mr. Rather large

15, 16. O. ALBA, _Jeffreys_, (and var.)--Swansea, Skye, Zetland, Guernsey,
Mr. Thin, whorls rounded.

17. O. NITIDA, _Alder._--S. Devon. Littoral, Mc. Aperture differently
formed from No. 17.

18. O. LUKISII, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. 1859._--Guernsey. Sublittoral
and coralline, Mc. Whorls tumid; a slight umbilicus.

19. O. GLABRATA, _Muhlfeldt_, (_Helix._)--_Rissoa punctulum_,
etc.--Zetland, R. Pillar-lip thin, arched.

20. O. RISSOIDES, _Hanley._--_O. scalaris._--Channel Isls., Devon,
Cornwall, Tenby, etc., Mc. Thin, conical, no umbilicus.

21. O. ALBELLA, _Lovén._--_O. rissoides_, var., B. M.--Guernsey, S. Devon,
etc. Turreted, upper whorls more cylindrical than No. 20.

22. O. OBLIQUA, _Alder._--Tynemouth, Guernsey, 7 fath. to deep water, Rr.
Thin, oblique.

23. O. DIAPHANA, _Jeffr._ _Ann. Nat. Hist. New Ser. vol._ ii. _p._ 341.--R.
Manifestly distinct from No. 22.

24. O. STRIALATA, _Alder._--Northumberland, Rr. Conical, striated.

25. O. MINIMA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1, 1858._

26. O. INTERSTINCTA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_T._, _O._, _Voluta_, and _Jaminia
canaliculata_, _oblonga_, and _obtusa_.--Brit. co. generally. Shallow
water, C. With longitudinal ribs.

27. O. DOLIOLIFORMIS, _Jeffr._--Scarborough, Exmouth, Swansea, Tenby, Rr.,
Scotland. Oval, body-whorl very tumid.

28. O. WARRENII, _Thompson_, (_Rissoa_.)--_Turbonilla_ and _O. obliqua_,
_O. decorata_.--Dublin, S. Devon, W. Scotland, R. Turreted. Mouth oblique;
an umbilicus; no fold or columella.

29. O. SPIRIALIS, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_Voluta_ and _Rissoa s._,
_pellucida_, and _plicatula_.--Brit. co. generally, not deep, Mc. Whorls
ribbed longitudinally above, spirally beneath.

30. O. DECUSSATA, _Mont._ (_Turbo._)--_T. Helix_, _Rissoa_ and _O.
arenaria_, _pellucida_?, and _d._--Exmouth, Lerwick, etc., R. Ribbed and
spirally striated.

31. O. EXCAVATA, _Phil._ (_Rissoa_.)--_R._, _O._, and _Cingula Harveyi_ and
_Deshayesiana_.--Dublin, Arran, Guernsey, R. Largely sculptured.





 1. T. CUTACEUS, _Linn._--Channel Isls., Rr. as Brit. Mr. Lukis's specimen
taken living off Guernsey.

 2. T. NODIFERUS, _Lamk._--Guernsey; three living specimens, one incrusted
with _Lepralia coccinea_ (truly British). Mr. Jeffrey's specimen reduced.


 3. M. ERINACEUS, _Linn._--_Purpura scalata_, var. _M. Tarentinus_.--Brit.
co. generally; 5 to 30 fath., C. N. and S. Eu.

 4. M. CORALLINUS, _Scacchi._--_Fusus_ and _M. lavatus_, _inconspicuus_,
_gyrinus_, and _badius_?--Channel Isls. and S. Eu., C.

   M. RUDIS. See _Trophon_.


 5. P. LAPILLUS, _Linn._ (_Buccinum._)--_B._ and _P. filosum_,
_imbricatum_, and _bizonalis_.--In crevices on shores, Brit. co. generally,
N. and S. Eu., C.


 6. L. MINIMA, _Mont._ (_Buccinum_.)--_B. brunneum_, _B. rubrum_, _Nesæa
granulata_, _mamillata_, _Fusus minimus_, etc.--Channel Isls. and S. Brit.,
on shores. S. Eu.


 7. B. HOLBOLLII.--_Mangelia H._--Cornwall, Rr.

 8. B. UNDATUM, _Linn._--_B. striatum_, _anglicanum_, _pyramidale_,
_imperiale_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, shores, Cc. N. Eu. and Am.

 9. B. ACUMINATUM, _Brod._--_B. undatum_ var., B. M.--Rr.

10. B. CILIATUM, _Fabr._ (_Tritonium._)--Shetland, deep water, R. More thin
than No. 9; with striæ finer, and hairs of epidermis tufted minutely.

11. B. FUSIFORME, _Brod._--Cork, Wexford, Rr. Turreted, fusiform, white,
ribbed, striated.

12. B. DALEI, _Sowerby._--_B. ovum_, _Halia Flemingiana_.--Torbay,
Northumberland, Aberdeen, etc., R. Ventricose.

13. B. HUMPHREYSIANUM, _Bennett._--_Tritonium H._--Cork, Skye, Bantry Bay,
R. Light, smooth.


14. F. BERNICIENSIS, _King._--Northumberland, Rr. Carinated, with open pink

15. F. NORVEGICUS, _Chemn._ (_Strombus._)--_Tritonium n._--Scarborough,
Durham, Rr. Oval, smooth, with large aperture.

16. F. ANTIQUUS, _Linn._ (_Murex._)--_M._, _B._, and _Tritonium despectus_,
_contrarius_, _carinatus_, _babylonicus_, etc.--Various Brit. co., 5 to 30
fath., C.

17. F. ISLANDICUS, _Chemn._--_Murex corneus_, _Tritonium gracile_,
etc.--Brit. co. generally; 5 to 80 fath.; N. Eu., C. (See _F. propinquus_.)

18. F. TURTONI, _Bean._--Yorkshire, Northumberland, 60 fath., Rr.

19. F. PROPINQUUS, _Alder._--_F. corneus_ and _islandicus_, var.--N.
Scotland, Bantry Bay, Northumberland, deep water, Mr. Shorter than _F.
islandicus_, with deep suture and symmetrical spire.


20. T. RUDIS, _Phil._ (_Fusus._)--_Murex r._, Jeffreys.--Tenby; unique as
British. Whorls and ribs rounded.

21. T. MURICATUS, _Mont._--_Fusus_ and _Murex m._--Brit. co. generally,
Channel Isls., 15 to 50 fath., Mr. Whorls angular, ribs intersected.

22. T. SCALARIFORMIS, _Gould._--Belfast, in sand, Rr. Ribs smooth.

23. T. CLATHRATUS, _Linn._ (_Murex._)--_Tritonium_, _Fusus_, and
_Pleurotoma Bamfius_.--Irish sea, Zetland, Mc. Ribs laminated.

24. T. BARVICENSIS, _Johnston._--_Fusus_ and _Tritonium b._--Hebrides,
Cork, Northumberland, 60 fath., Mr. Ribs aculeated.





 1. N. RETICULATA, _Linn._ (_Buccinum._)--_N. pullus_, _Tritonium
r._--Brit. and Eu. co. generally. Littoral, Cc.

 2. N. INCRASSATA, _Müller_, (_Buccinum._)--_N._ and _B. minutum_,
_macula_, _asperulum_, etc.--Brit. shores generally, 0 to 50 fath., gravel,

 3. N. PYGMÆA, _Lamk._ (_Ranella._)--_B. tuberculatum_, _Tritonia
varicosa_, etc.--S. Brit. co., S. Eu., 4 fath. to deep water, C. Small,
with white varices on the body.


 4. M. TURRICULATA, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_Bela_, _Fusus_, and _Pleurotoma
angulatus_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, 3 to 100 fath., N. Eu., C. Whorls
flat above.

 5. M. TREVELLIANA, _Turt._--_Pleurotoma_, _Bela_, and _M. reticulata_,
_decussata_, and _leucostoma_.--Northumberland, Aberdeen, Zetland, etc., 15
to 40 fath., R. Whorls with angular slope above.

 6. M. RUFA, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_F._, _M._, and _B. chordula_, _Ulideana_
(var.), etc.--Brit. co. generally, Mc.

 7. M. TERES, _Forbes_, (_Pleurotoma._)--_P. boreale._--Various loc., 15 to
50 fath. S. Eu., Mr. Carinated, aperture deeply notched.

 8. M. PURPUREA, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_Fusus_ and _Pleu. p._, _Philberti
versicolor_ and _variegatum_.--Brit. co. gen., 3 to 60 fath., C. S. Eu.

 9. M. CANCELLATA, _Sowerby_ (_Fusus._)--_M. purpurea_ var., _F.
asperrimus_,--Cornwall, Cork, R. Sharply sculptured.

10. M. RETICULATUM, _Brown_, (_Pleurotoma._)--_M. cancellata_
var.--Shetland, Guernsey, Rr. Sculpture between 8 and 9; inner lip not

11. M. LEUFROYI, _Michaud_, (_Pleurotoma._)--_P._, _F._, and _M. inflata_,
_Boothii_.--Arran, Orkneys, Guernsey, etc.; S. Eu., 5 to 50 fath., Mc.

12. M. LINEARIS, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_M._, _Pl._, _Fus. elegans_,
_concinna_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, sand and shells, 1 to 80 fath., C.

13. M. SCABRA, _Jeffreys_, (_Pleur._)--_M. linearis_ var.--Guernsey,
Plymouth, R.

14. M. NEBULA, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_M._, _P._, and _F. Bertrandi_,
_varians_, and _pyramidatus_.--Various places and depths, N. and S. Eu., C.

15. M. LÆVIGATA, _Phil._ (_Pleu._)--_M. nebula_ var.--South Brit., S. Eu.
Small, fusiform, shiny, banded.

16. M. GUINNIANA, _Phil._ (_Pleu._)--_M. nebula_ var.--Tenby, etc., Mr. S.
Eu. Whorls longer than No. 14.

17. M. BRACHYSTOMA, _Phil._ (_Pleu._)--_M. tiarula_ and _Clavatula
b._--Brit. co. gen., Mr. Turreted; ribs crossed by raised lines.

18. M. NANA, _Lovén_, (_Tritonium._)--_Fusus albus._--Lerwick, Zetland,
Orkneys, etc., 45 fath., and deep, R. Ventricose, cancellated.

19, 20. M. STRIOLATA, _Scacchi_, (_Pleu._)--_P._ and _Murex Smithii_,
_Farranti_.--S. Devon, Clyde, Guernsey, Bantry, etc., Medit., R. as Brit.
Ribs angularly curved above.

21, 22. M. COSTATA, _Pennant_, (_Murex._)--_Buccinum_, _Fusus_, _Pl. c._,
etc.; var. f. 22, _M. Metcalfei_.--Brit co. generally, 5 to 50 fath., N.
and S. Eu., C. Body-whorl larger than No. 24.

23. M. COARCTATA, _Forbes._--_Pl._, _M. costata_ var., B. M.--Distribution
as 21 and 22; not so common.

24. M. SEPTANGULARIS, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_M._, _F._, and _Pl. costatus_,
_heptagona_, etc.--Torbay, Bristol Channel, Forth, Galway, 5 to 30 fath.,

25. M. ATTENUATA, _Mont._ (_Murex._)--_M. aciculatus_, _Pl. gracilis_,
_Villiersii_, etc.--S. Devon, Oban, Hebrides, Cork, etc., Mr. S. Eu.

26. M. GRACILIS, _Mont._ (_Murex_)--_M. emarginatus_, _suturalis_,
_elegans_, etc., S. Brit., Galway, S. Eu., Mr.

   M. HOLBOLLII. See _Buccinum_.


27. E. LÆVIS, _Donovan_, (_Voluta._)--_E._, _Marginella_, _Bulla_,
_Volvaria_, and _Columbella fusiformis_, _Cypræola_, _Donovani_,
_Muscaria_, etc.--Brit. co. generally, 1 to 50 fath., Mc.


28. C. EUROPÆA, _Mont._--_Cypr._ and _Trivia_, _Pediculus arctica_,
_bullata_, and _diaphana_.--Brit. co. generally, 0 to 50 fath., C.





 1. T. FASCIATA, _Lamk._--_Voluta tornatilis_, Linn., _Bulimus T._, _T.
pellucida_ and _pusilla_ (young).--Brit. co. generally. N. and S. Eu.


 2. O. PATULA, _Penn._ (_Bulla_).--Exmouth, Arran, etc., 20 fath. S. Eu.
Wide aperture, Mc.

 3. O. ACUMINATA, _Brug._--_Bulla_ and _Volvula a._--Loch Fyne, Lamlash,
Galway, etc., R. S. Eu. Narrow, pointed.


 4. C. CYLINDRACEA, _Penn._ (_Bulla._)--_Bullina_ and _Volvaria c._,
_oliva_, and _umbilicata_.--Brit. co. generally, C. N. and S. Eu.

 5. C. OBTUSA, _Montagu_ (_Bulla_).--_Utriculus_, _B._ and _C.
Jerviscensis_ and _discors_.--Brit. co. generally, C.

 6. C. MAMILLATA, _Philippi._--_Bulla_ and _Tornatina m._ and
_truncatula_.--Exm., Skye, Galway, etc., Mc. S. Eu. Spire sunk, apex

 7. C. TRUNCATA, _Adams_, (_Bulla._)--_B. truncatula_, _retusa_,
_semisulcata_.--Brit. co. generally, C. N. and S. Eu.

 8. C. NITIDULA, _Lovén._--_C._ and _Bulla n._ and _umbilicata_.--Skye,
Loch Fyne, etc., R. N. Eu. Elongated, oval.

 9. C. CONULUS, _Desh._--Zetland, Rr. Conical.

10. C. STRIGILLA, _Lovén._--_C._, _Bulla_, and _Atys s._ and
_ovulata_.--Scotland, Mr. Spirally striated.

11. C. UMBILICATA, _Mont._ (_Bulla_).--_Bullina_ and _Volvaria u._ and
_subcylindrica_.--Brit. co. gen., Mc. With umbilicated apex.

12, 13. C. LAJONKAIREANA, _Basterot_, (_Bulla._)--Guernsey, R. Narrower,
and with more raised spire than _C. obtusa_.


14. A. HYALINA, _Turt._ (_Bulla._)--_A. diaphana_ and _Utriculus
pellucidus_, _minutus_, and _candidus_.--Scarborough, Weymouth, Cork, etc.
Littoral, Mc. N. Eu. Rather square.

15. A. GLOBOSA, _Jeffreys_, _Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1859._--Skye.


16. A. BULLATA, _Müller._--_Bulla Akera_, _B. norvegica_, _B. resiliens_,
_fragilis_, _flexilis_, _Hanleyi_.--Southampton, Zetland, Galway, etc.
Littoral, Mc. N. and S. Eu.


17. B. CRANCHII, _Leach._--_B. punctura_ and _striata_.--Brit. co. gen.
Devon, Aberdeen, Cork, etc., 50 to 100 fath., Mr. Spirally puncto-striated.

18. B. CORNEA, _Lamk._--_B. hydatis_ (as of _Linn._), _B. navicula_, _B.
ampulla_, _Haminea hydatis_.--South Brit. co., 0 to 50 fath., C. S. Eu.
Broad, thin.

19. B. HYDATIS, _Linn._--_Haminea elegans._--Guernsey and Mediterranean.
Narrower and more solid than _B. cornea_.


20. P. APERTA, _Linn._--_P. Bulla_, _Bullæa_, and _Lobaria a._,
_quadripartita_, _quadrilobata_, and _Planciana_.--Brit. co. gen., C. S.
Eu. Large, smooth.

21. P. SCABRA, _Müller._--_Bulla_ and _Scaphander scabra_, _pectinata_,
_dilatata_, and _catenulifera_.--Northumberland, Zetland, Ireland, etc.,
Mc., 5 to 50 fath. N. Eu. Oblong, serrated.

22. P. QUADRATA, _S. Wood._--_Bullæa_ and _P. scutulum_.--Zetland, etc., 10
to 100 fath., R. Striated.

23. P. CATENA, _Mont._--_Bulla_ and _Bullæa c._, _angustata_, and
_punctata_,--Brit. co. generally, Mr., 0 to 40 fath. With chain-like

24. P. PUNCTATA, _Clark._--_Bulla_ and _Bullæa_.--Devon, Swansea, Aberdeen,
Clare. In sand, 60 fath., Mc. With punctured sculpture.

25. P. PRUINOSA, _Clark._--_Bulla_ and _Bullæa_.--Devon, Northumb.,
Hebrides, etc. Mud, 20 to 70 fath. N. Eu.


26. S. LIGNARIUS, _Linn._ (_Bulla._)--_B. oblonga_.--Brit. co. generally. 1
to 50 fath. N. and S. Eu., C.

27. S. ZONATUS, _Turt._ (_Bulla_)--Young specimen taken at Zetland by Mr.
Jeffreys, resembling older Norwegian specimens. More oval than _S.
lignarius_. Spire umbilicated.


28. A. HYBRIDA, _Sowerby._--_Laplysia depilans_, _A. depilans_ and
_punctata_.--Brit. co. generally. Among seaweeds, 0 to 6 fath., C.


29. P. MEMBRANACEUS, _Mont._ (_Lamellaria._)--Devon, Arran, Cork, etc.
Low-water, Mr. Broad, flexible.

30. P. PLUMULA, _Mont._ (_Bulla._)--Guernsey, Devon, Skye, etc. Littoral,
R. Narrow, less flexible.


31. S. PERONII--Once taken near Swansea, imperfect.



LIMNÆUS. In and near fresh-water.


 1, 2. L. PEREGER, _Müller_ (_Buccinum._)--_Helix_, _Turbo_, _Bulimus_, and
_L. putris_, _inflata_, _teres_, _lutea_, _limosa_, _ovata_, _vulgaris_,
_marginata_, _intermedia_, _lacustris_, etc.--Springs and ponds, Cc.

 3. L. STAGNALIS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_Buccinum_, _Turbo_, etc.,
_stagnalis_, _fragilis_, and _major_, etc.--Ponds, etc., not so generally
as No. 1, 2, C.

 4. L. PALUSTRIS, _Müller_, (_Bucc._)--_Helix_ and _L. fragilis_,
_fontinalis_, _stagnalis_, etc.--Ditches, ponds, etc., C. Whorls more
numerous and less rapidly enlarged than No. 3.

 5. L. AURICULARIUS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_L._, _Helix_, _Bucc._, _Turbo_,
_Bulimus a._, _patulus_, etc.--Near London, Swansea, etc., Mc. Aperture
very wide, and outer lip partially reflected.

 6. L. ACUTUS, _Jeffreys._--_L. auricularius_, var. B. M.--Oban, Clumber
Lake, Bloomfield, Kent, R. Apex sharp and tapering; aperture smaller than
No. 5.

 7. L. TRUNCATULUS, _Müller_, (_Bucc._)--_H._, _B._, and _L. truncatus_,
_fossarius_, _minutus_, _limosus_, etc.--Partly amphibious, generally
diffused, C. Small, spire equal to body.

 8. L. GLABER, _Müller_, (_Buccinum._)--_H._, _B._, and _L. octanfracta_,
_peregrina_, _elongata_, _octona_, _leucostoma_, etc.--Fresh and brackish
marshes, Stafford, Somerset, York, etc., R. Spire longer than aperture.

 9. L. INVOLUTUS, _Harvey._--_Amphipeplea i._--Lake near Killarney,
Belfast, Rr. Spire almost covered.

10. L. GLUTINOSUS, _Müller_, (_Buccinum._)--_Helix_, _Amphipeplea_, and
_L._--Windermere, etc., Mr. Oval.

11. L. BURNETTI, _Alder._--Lakes in Dumfries and Breconshire. Inflated;
spire flat; colour opaque-amber.

PHYSA. In and near fresh-water.

12. P. HYPNORUM, _Linn._ (_Bulla._)--_Helix_, _Physa_, _Limnæa_, and
_Aplexa turrita_ and _marmorata_. Pools and lakes, Brit. generally, C.

13. P. FONTINALIS, _Linn._ (_Bulla._)--_Turbo_, _Planorbis_, _Bulimus_, and
_Ph. adversus_, _bulla_, _bulloides_, and _fluviatilis_.--Brit. pools,
lakes, and ditches, C.

ANCYLUS. In fresh-water.

14, 15. A. FLUVIATILIS, _Müller._--_Patella lacustris._--Running streams,
on stones and plants generally, C. Oval, apex turned to left.

16, 17. A. OBLONGUS, _Lightfoot_, (_Patella._)--_A._ and _P. lacustris_.
More lacustrine than No. 14, Mc. Oblong, apex turned to right.

PLANORBIS. In fresh-water.

18. P. CORNEUS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_P._ and _H. cornu-arietis_,
_purpureus_, and _similis_, _P. nana_ (young).--Ponds and ditches
generally, C.

19. P. ALBUS, _Müller._--_Helix_ and _P. hispidus_,
_hirsutus_.--Distribution general, C. Finely ciliated in lines.

20. P. GLABER, _Jeffreys._--_P. lævis_, Alder.--Penzance, Falmouth,
Swansea, Belfast, etc., Mr.

21. P. NAUTILEUS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_P. imbricatus_, Müller; _P.
cristatus_, _Turbo nautileus_, etc., Mc. With horny ridges.

22. P. CONTORTUS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_P._and _H. crassa_,
_umbilicata_.--Distribution general, C. Numerous close whorls; aperture

23. P. CARINATUS, _Müller._--_Helix Planorbis_, Linn.; _P. planata_ and
_lutescens_.--Generally distr., C. Whorls more rapidly increased than No.
24; keel more distinct.

24. P. MARGINATUS, _Drap._--_H. Planorbis_, _H._, _P. limbata_,
_complanata_, _Draparnaldi turgidus_, _rhombeus_, etc.--Distr. gen., C.
Whorls more rhomboidal than 23.

25. P. VORTEX, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_Pl. compressa_.--Distr. gen., C. Many
whorls, very compressed.

26. P. SPIRORBIS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_P. vortex_, var.--Distr. general, C.
Fewer whorls than No. 25; mouth not angular.

27. P. NITIDUS, _Müller._--_Helix_ and _P. fontanus_, _complanatus_, and
_lenticularis_.--Most parts of Brit., Mc. Very compressed.

28. P. LACUSTRIS, _Lightfoot._--_P. nitidus_, var., _Segmentina lineata_,
_P. nautileus_ and _clausulatus_.--Ponds and ditches near London, etc., Mc.
With internal divisions; lower disc flat.



SUCCINEA. Amphibious.


 1. S. PUTRIS, _Linn._ (_Helix._)--_H._, _S._, and _Limnæa Succinea_ and
_amphibia_.--On plants by the side of rivers, ditches, etc., C. Rather oval
in form.

 2. S. GRACILIS, _Alder._--_S. putris_, var. _gracilis_, _S. amphibia_,
var. _Pfeifferi_.--By sides of streams and in damp meadows, C. Elongated,
with spire produced.

 3. S. OBLONGA, _Drap._--_Helix elongata_, _Amphibulina o._ and
_e._--Swansea, Glasgow, etc. Sometimes at a distance from water, R. Spire
with more distinct whorls.

CONOVULUS. Partly marine, amphibious.

 4. C. BIDENTATUS, _Mont._ (_Voluta._)--_C._, _N._, _Actæon_, and _Auricula
alba_ (var.) and _erosa_.--Salt-water marshes, and on rocks near high-water
mark all round our coasts, C. No tooth on outer lip.

 5. C. MYSOTIS, _Drap._--_C. denticulatus_, var., etc.--Brackish marshes,
Thames, etc., C. Outer lip with one tooth.

 6. C. DENTICULATUS, _Mont._ (_Voluta._)--_C._, _V._, _Auricula_, and
_Actæon ringens_, _reflexa_ (var. f. 7), _Mysotis_, and
_personata_.--Numerous places, near the sea, C. Outer lip with many teeth.

 7. C. REFLEXUS.--_Auricula reflexa_, _C. denticulatus_, var. _Jeffreys_.


 8. C. MINIMUM, _Müller._--_Turbo Carychium_, _Auricula minima_.--Moist
places, wet Mosses, etc. Generally distr., C.

LIMAX. Land Slug, with shell under shield.

 9. L. CINEREUS _Müller._--_L. maximus_, _maculatus_, _Limacella parma_.
Brit. gen., C.; Eu. Shell oval, large, thin.

10. L. AGRESTIS, _Müller._--_L. concava_ and _obliquus_.--Brit, gen., C.
_Foss cr._ Shell small, oblique.

11. L. BRUNNEUS, _Drap._--_L. concava._--Under stones, etc. Shell minute,

12. L. FLAVUS, _Linn._--_Limacella unguiculata_ and _variegata_.--The large
Cellar Slug. Shell thick, rather square.

TESTACELLA. Slug with shell on tail.

13. T. MAUGEI, _Férussac._--Clifton, Taunton, Plymouth, Swansea, etc., Mr.
Large, and more square than 14.

14. T. HALIOTOIDEA, _Drap._--_T. europæa_, _T. scutulum_.--Near London.
Channel Isls., etc., Mc.

VITRINA. Shell not including the whole Slug.

15. V. PELLUCIDA, _Müller_, (_Helix._)--_H. diaphana_, _Helicolimax_,
_Limacina major_, etc.--Various parts of the country, under stones, etc.,
Mc. Eu. Very transparent.

16. V. DRAPARNALDI, _Jeffreys._--_V. oblonga_, _H. brevipes_?--Less
globular than 15, R.

ZONITES. Transparent, thin-edged Snails.

17, 18. Z. CELLARIUS, _Müller_, (_Helix._)--_H._ and _Z. lucida_ and
_nitens_.--Brit. gen., C.

19, 20. Z. NITIDUS, _Müller_, (_Helix._)--_H._ and _Z. nitens_, _lucida_,
_tennis_, _Succinea_, etc.--Less depressed than 17, 18, with larger

21. Z. CRYSTALLINUS, _Müller_, (_Helix._)--_H._, _Z._, _Discus_, and
_"Polita" c._, _eburnea_, _vitrea_.--In damp spots, among stones and Moss.
Minute, white, transparent.

22. Z. NITIDULUS, _Drap._--Generally distributed, Mc. Mouth oblique.
Umbilicus small.

23, 24. Z. ALLARIUS, _Miller_, (_Helix._)--_H._ and _Z. glabra_,
_alliacea_, _nitens_, _tenera_, _lurida_, etc.--Distr. gen., C. Smaller and
more convex than 17, 18.

25. Z. EXCAVATUS, _Bean_, (_Helix_)--_H._ and _G. nitida_, _lucida_,
etc.--Durham, Northumberland, Galway, etc., Mc. Umbilicus very large.

26, 27. Z. RADIATULUS, _Alder_, (_Helix._)--Distr. gen., C. Striated,

28, 29. Z. PURUS, _Alder_, (_Helix._)--_H._ and _Z. polita_, and _Helicella
nitidosa_, _electrina_, etc.--Most common North Engl. Whorls less close and
more oblique than 21.



HELIX. Snails with thickened lips.


 1. H. PISANA, _Müller._--_H. zonaria_, _cingenda_, _rhodostoma_,
_strigata_, _albella_.--Cornwall, S. Wales, Dublin, C. S. and N. Eu.

 2. H. ASPERSA, _Müller._--_H. grisea_, _hortensis_, _variegata_,
_vulgaris_, etc.--Common in all our gardens and hedges.

 3. H. VIRGATA, _Costa._--_H. variabilis_, _ericetorum_, _zonaria_,
etc.--In sandy and chalky places, C. More compressed than No. 1.

 4. H. CANTIANA, _Mont._--_H. pallida_, etc.--South and west Engl., C.

 5. H. ERICETORUM, _Müller._--_H. itala_, _striata_, _albella_, _erica_,
_nivea_, _cæspita_, etc.--Chalky and sandy places, C. Depressed, delicately
banded; large umbilicus.

 6. H. RUFESCENS, _Pennant._--_H. rufina_, _montana_, _cælata_,
_clandestina_, etc.--Most common in southern, chalky and limestone
districts. Depressed, striated; whorls slightly angular. Generally lighter
than our figure, sometimes nearly white.

 7. H. LAPICIDA, _Linn._--_H. acuta_, _affinis_, _Carocolla l._--Chalk and
limestone districts, C. S. and N. Eu. Sharply angular.

 8, 9. H. HISPIDA, _Linn._--_H. rufescens_, _sericea_, _concinna_ (var.
without hairs), etc., _plebeia_.--All parts of Brit., C. More depressed
than _H. sericea_, with larger umbilicus.

10. H. FUSCA, _Mont._--_H. subrufescens._--Brit. gen., Mc.

11. H. SERICEA, _Drap._--_H. hispida_, _globularis_, _granulata_,
etc.--Granulated, hairy. Mouth wider than 8. Small umbilicus.

12. H. OBVOLUTA, _Müller._--_H. trigonophora_, etc.--Ditcham Wood,
Hampshire. In Moss at roots of trees, Rr.

13. H. FULVA, _Müller._--_H. terrestris_, _trochiformis_, _nitidula_,
etc.--Pretty general and common. Conical, minute, transparent.

14. H. POMATIA, _Linn._--Southern chalky districts, S. Eu., C.

15. H. CAPERATA, _Mont._--_H. striata_, _H. crenulala_, etc.--Chalk-pits,
etc., C.

16. H. CARTHUSIANA, _Müller._--_H. nitida_, _carthusianella_, _rufilabris_,
etc.--Chalk-districts of Surrey and Kent, C.

17, 18. H. NEMORALIS, _Linn._--_H. hortensis_, _fasciata_, _hybrida_,
etc.--Cc. A peculiar flattening near the base of aperture.

19. H. ARBUSTORUM, _Linn._--Common and general. Brown-marbled. Edge of
aperture different from 17, 18.

20, 21. H. ROTUNDATA.--_H. radiata_, _Turtoni_, etc.--Common and general.

22, 23. H. PULCHELLA, _Müller._--_H. costata_, _paludosa_, _crenella_,
_minuta_, etc.--Common and general under stones, etc.

24. H. REVELATA, _Férussac._--Cornwall, Devon, Torquay, Guernsey. Rare. A
transparent, greenish, hairy shell.

25. H. APERTA.--_H. neritoides_, _naticoides_, etc.--A single specimen
found in Guernsey. Not uncommon in S. Eu. Our specimen is foreign.

26. H. UMBILICATA, _Mont._--_H. rupestris_, etc.--On perpendicular heights
and under stones, C.

27. H. PYGMÆA, _Drap._--_H. minuta_, etc.--Common in damp places.

28. H. LAMELLATA, _Jeffreys._--_H. Scarburgensis_, _seminulum_.--Brit. and
Germany, C.

29. H. ACULEATA, _Müller._--_H. spinulosa_, etc.--Among Moss and stones,
etc., C. General.



BULIMUS. Long Snail.


 1. B. LACKHAMENSIS, _Mont._--_B. montanus_, _Montacuti_, _Eua
montana_.--Kent, Surrey, Gloucester, Selborne, N. and S. Eu., R. as Brit.

 2. B. OBSCURUS, _Müller._--_Turbo rupium_, _B. hordaceus_, etc.--C. and
general. Surface smooth.

 3, 4. B. ACUTUS, _Müller._--_Helix barbara_, _B. cretacea_, _articulatus_,
_Turbo fasciatus_, etc.--On sand and limestone in marine neighbourhoods, C.

PUPA. Small Snails, among Moss, stones, etc.

 5. P. SECALE, _Drap._--_Turbo_, _Helix_, _Chondrus_, and _Vertigo
juniperi_ and _cylindricus_.--S. Engl., Channel Isls., C. S. Eu. Larger and
more tapering than the other sp.

 6. P. UMBILICATA, _Drap._--_Turbo_, _Bulimus_, _Helix_, and _P. muscorum_,
_cylindraceus_, _bidentata_, etc.--C. and general, Eu. Mouth oblique, long,
one tooth.

 7. P. MUSCORUM, _Linn._--_T._, _P._, _H._, _B. marginata_, _chrysalis_,
_unidentatus_, etc.--C. and gen. A rib behind the outer lip.

 8. P. ANGLICA, _Férussac._--_Vertigo_, _Turbo_, and _P. a._ and
_ringens_.--Scarborough, Newcastle, Guernsey, etc., Mr. More cylindrical
than 5.

 9. P. EDENTULA, _Drap._--_H. exigua_, _Vertigo_, _Helix_, and _Jamimia
e._, _nitida_, etc.--C. and gen. No teeth in aperture; smooth.

10. P. MINUTISSIMA, _Hartmann._--_P._, _Vertigo_, _Alæa cylindrica_,
_obtusa_, _muscorum_, etc.--Bristol, Salisbury, Skye, etc., R. as Brit.; C.
in S. Eu. No teeth in aperture; striated.

11, 12. P. PYGMÆA, _Drap._--_P._, _T._, _V._, _H._, _Alæa_, etc.,
_sexdentatus_, _quinquedentatus_, _vulgaris_, etc.--The lighter variety,
_P. alpestris_, C. and general. Four or five teeth.

13. P. SUBSTRIATA, _Jeffreys._--_Vertigo_, _Turbo_, _Alæa sexdentata_,
_curta_, etc.--C. and gen. Very cylindrical; six teeth; striated.

14. P. ANTIVERTIGO, _Drap._--_P._, _V._, _Alæa octodentata_,
_septemdentata_, _palustris_, etc.--Near Swansea and London; Bristol,
Devon, Northumberland, Ayr, Mr. Ireland. Aperture subtrigonal, eight or
nine teeth.

15. P. PUSILLA, _Müller._--_Helix vertigo_, and _V. heterostropha_.--S.
Wales, Northumberland, Belfast, etc., Mc. Sinistral, with seven teeth.

16. P. VENETZII, _Charpentier._--_Turbo_, _Vertigo_, and _P. vertigo_ and
_angustior_.--Swansea, Cork, Clare, R. Sinistral; four teeth and a flat
fold on columella.


17. B. FRAGILIS, _Drap._ (_Pupa._)--_Bulimus_, _Pupa_, _Clausilia f._,
_perversus_.--C. and gen. Under bark on trees, and under stones.

CLAUSILIA. With a twisted _clausium_ on columella.

18. C. LAMINATA, _Mont._--_Helix_, _Turbo_, _Bulimus_, and _Pupa bidens_
and _perversus_ and _derugata_.--S. Brit. principally. Among dead leaves,
and on Beech-trunks, Mc. Smooth, broad.

19. C. NIGRICANS, _Maton and Rackett._--_Strombiformis_, _Turbo_, and
_Odostomia perversus_, _bidens_, _parvula_, etc.--C. and gen.; under
stones, on walls and trees, etc. Narrow, striated.

20. C. BIPLICATA, _Mont._--_Helix_, _Turbo_, _Odost._, _C. perversa_,
_plicata_, _ventricosa_, etc.--Near London, etc., Mc. Two folds on

21. C. PLICATULA, _Drap._--_Turbo_ and _C. conversus_.--Charlton Wood,
Kent, Hastings, Gloucestershire, etc., R. Numerous plaits on columella
above fold.


22. Z. LUBRICA, _Müller_, (_Helix._)--_Turbo_, _Bulimus l._,
_subcylindrica_, _muscorum_, etc.--C. and gen. Among leaves and under


23. A. TRIDENS, _Pulteney_, (_Turbo._)--_Helix_, _Pupa_ and _Cionella
Goodallii_, _Britannica_, etc.--C. and general. Habits as _Zua_ and _Pupa_.


24. A. ACICULA, _Müller._--_Buccinum_, _Bulimus_, _Helix octona_,
_terrestre_, etc.--In marshy places, among Grass, etc., C. S. Eu.

CYCLOSTOMA. Snail with operculum.

25. C. ELEGANS, _Müller_, (_Nerita._)--_Turbo reflexus_, _T. tumidus_,
_striatus_, _elegans_.--Chalky districts of S. Engl., C.

ACME. Cylindrical Snail with operculum.

26. A. LINEATA, _Drap._ (_Auricula._)--_Turbo_, _Carychium_, _Cyclostoma_,
_Bulimus fuscus_, _Cochlea minuta_.--Bristol, Pembroke, Clare, Dublin,
etc., R.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Supplies single Specimens or large parcels of_


Parcels will be sent for selection, to those who forward suitable
credentials, in any part of the world, so that those Collectors whose
supplies have been interrupted by a recent lamented death can now have them

G. B. S., Junr., has a very large stock of Shells, purchased from the
VAUTERIAN and DENNISSONIAN Collections, and from the stores of the late M.
CUMING, as well as from the sale of Mr. REEVE'S stock, and other sources.


Seventy-five named species, arranged in a box, having the appearance of a
book in two volumes, One Guinea. Or a more extensive series prepared in the
same manner.



(_Discount to direct purchasers._)



Parts 24 and 25 will be published before Christmas, 1865, containing
additions to former Monographs, and some new Monographs;

_Completing Vol III. and the First Series._

The New Series, to be commenced early next year, will appear under improved
conditions, and will be carried to a completion in as small a compass and
as short a time as possible.


_Cloth gilt, Imperial._

700 coloured figures of 600 species, with names, localities, and other



The Author has long been engaged collecting materials for this Work, which
is to contain a harmonization of existing systems, in which a balance will
be struck between a too negligent and too minute subdivision. Comparative
susceptibility of _definition_ will be the guiding principle in deciding
the claims of certain groups to generic separation. The illustrations will
be copious and of full size, embracing every marked form, whether recent or
fossil, and whether adopted as a genus or not. The price is not yet fixed,
but is expected to be about £3 3s. To appear between March and May, 1866.

G. B. S., jun., will be glad to receive the names and addresses of those
who desire to see the Work when published.


       *       *       *       *       *





_Collections Bought, Sold on Commission, or Prepared for Auction._



CRAG.--Numerous fine Teeth, Bones, and Shells.

LONDON CLAY.--Fish-heads, Teeth, Fruits, Teredinæ, etc.

CHALK and GAULT.--A magnificent series, including fine specimens of
Goniaster, Cidaris, Ventriculites, Crustacea, Shells, etc.

GREENSAND.--A comprehensive series from Blackdown, Cambridge, etc.

OOLITES.--A fine specimen of the New Cidaris (block with five individuals
and many long spines), extensive Minchinhampton series, etc.

LIAS.--Ichthyosaurus,--a fine museum specimen, mounted 6 ft. 6
in.,--Plesiosaurus, Teleosaurus, a most beautiful specimen of Lepidotus,
and numerous other Fishes in fine condition.

COAL.--Fine specimens of Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Ferns, etc.

DEVONIAN Fishes, Plants, etc.


Among a most extensive range of genera and species are included Voluta
Rossiana, V. fulgetrum, Conus Aurisiacus, C. princeps, C. marchionatus, a
fine series of C. venulatus, etc., Halia Priamus, Cypræa picta, Cardium
hians, C. Æolicum (true), Galathæa concamerata, Velorita, Anastoma,
beautiful Spondyli, etc. Series of British Shells made up.


A very extensive series of specimens; also illustrative collections.


A fine collection of British and other Birds in 31 cases.

Beautiful rosewood cabinet (48 drawers), with fine Butterflies, etc.

Beautiful mahogany cabinet (40 drawers), with fine Butterflies, etc.


Works on Crustacea, including Milne-Edwards' 'Histoire;' Desmarets'
'Considérations;' Roux, 'Crust. de la Méditerranée;' 'Crustacea of the
Fauna Japonica,' etc.; on Zoology, the 'Historia de Chili;' 'Journal de
Conchyliologie,' by Crosse; Bernardi's 'Monog. des Galathées,' etc.;
Supplement to Sowerby's 'Cones;' Deshayes' 'Coquilles Fossiles de Paris;'
Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, Pt. 1 to 22; Sowerby's 'Wild Flowers;'
and new edition of Sowerby's 'English Botany.'

THESAURUS CONCHYLIORUM, 22 parts at 25_s._ each.

ILLUSTRATED INDEX OF BRITISH SHELLS, 700 Coloured Figures, with Names,
Localities, and other information; by G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S., etc. Impl.
cloth gilt, 30_s._ Labels, 6_d._

*** _Further particulars will be furnished. Sets made up to illustrate
Formations, Classes, or Genera, and specimens forwarded on approval._

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Index of British Shells - Containing figures of all the recent species" ***

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