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Title: Harper's New Monthly Magazine, No. XXVII, August 1852, Vol. V
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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NO. XXVII.--AUGUST, 1852.--VOL. V.






The Christian traveler, in journeying to the Holy Land, often
obtains his first view of the sacred shores from the deck of some
small Levantine vessel in which he has embarked at Alexandria, after
having completed his tour among the wonders of Egypt and the Nile.
He ascends, perhaps, to the deck of his vessel, early in the
morning, summoned by the welcome intelligence that the land is full
in view. Here, as he surveys the shore that presents itself before
him, the first object which attracts his eye is a lofty promontory
which he sees rising in sublime and sombre majesty above the
surrounding country, and at the same time jutting boldly into the
sea. It forms, he observes, the seaward terminus of a mountain range
which his eye follows far into the interior of the country, until
the undulating crest loses itself at last from view in the haze of
distant hills. The massive and venerable walls of an ancient convent
crown its summit; its sloping sides are enriched with a soft and
luxuriant vegetation; and the surf, rolling in from the sea, whitens
the rocks at its foot with breakers and foam. This promontory is Mt.


The geographical situation of Mt. Carmel is shown by the adjoining
map. Palestine in the time of our Saviour was comprised in three
distinct provinces--Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Of these, Judea,
which bordered upon the Dead Sea and the lower portion of the
Jordan, was the most southerly; while Galilee, which was opposite to
the sea of Tiberias and the upper part of the Jordan, was the most
northerly; being separated from Judea by the mountainous district of
Samaria, which lay between. The region comprised upon the map is
chiefly that of Samaria and Galilee. The chain of which Mt. Carmel
is the terminus forms the southern and southwestern boundary of
Galilee. A little south of the boundary was Mt. Gerizim, the holy
ground of the Samaritans. Mt. Gerizim forms a part of the great
central chain or congeries of mountains which rises in the interior
of Palestine, and from which the Carmel range branches, as a sort of
spur or offshoot, traversing the country in a westward and northward
direction, and continuing its course until it terminates at the sea.
The other principal mountain groups in the Holy Land are the ranges
of Lebanon on the north, and the mountainous tract about Jerusalem
in the south.

[Illustration: MAP OF MOUNT CARMEL.]

On the northern side of the Carmel chain, at some distance from the
sea, there lies a broad expanse of extremely rich and fertile
country, which, though not strictly level, is called a plain. It was
known in ancient times as the plain of Jezreel. It is now called the
plain of Esdraelon. The waters of this plain, flowing westward and
northward along the foot of Mt. Carmel to the sea, constitute the
river Kishon, so celebrated in sacred history. The sea itself sets
up a little way into the valley through which this river flows,
forming thus a broad bay to the north of Mt. Carmel, called the Bay
of Acre. The town of Acre lies at the northern extremity of this
bay, and the town of Haïfa[1] at the southern border of it, just at
the foot of Carmel. The ceaseless action of the sea has sloped and
smoothed the shore of this bay throughout the whole distance from
Haïfa to Acre, and formed upon it a beach of sand, which serves the
double purpose of a landing-place for the boats of the fishermen,
and a road for the caravans of travelers that pass to and fro along
the coast. The conformation of the bay, together with the precise
situation of Acre and Haïfa, as well as the more important
topographical details of the mountain, will be found very clearly
represented in the chart upon the adjoining page.


The topographical chart of the bay of Acre here given is one made by
the engineers of the French army during Napoleon's celebrated
expedition to Egypt and Syria. These engineers accompanied the army
wherever it marched, and in the midst of all the scenes of
excitement, difficulty, and danger, through which they were
continually passing, devoted themselves to the performance of the
scientific duties which their commander had assigned them, with a
calmness and composure almost incredible. No possible excitement or
commotion around them seemed to have power to interrupt or disturb
them in their work. The din and confusion of the camp, the marches
and countermarches of the troops, the battles, the sieges, the
assaults, the excitement of victory, and the confusion of sudden and
unexpected retreats--all failed to embarrass or disconcert them.
Whatever were the scenes that might be transpiring around them, they
went quietly and fearlessly on, paying no regard to any thing but
their own proper duties. They adjusted their instruments; they made
their observations, their measurements, their drawings; they
computed their tables and constructed their charts; and in the end
they brought back to France a complete daguerreotype, as it were, of
every hill, and valley, and river, and plain, of the vast surface
which they traversed. The great chart from which the adjoining map
is taken was the last one which they made, for Acre was the northern
termination of Napoleon's expedition.[2]



By reference to the map, it will be seen that there are three roads
by which Mt. Carmel may be approached on land. One advances along
the coast from the southward, and passing round the promontory on
the western and northern side, between its steep declivity and the
sea, it turns to the east, and comes at last to the foot of the
branch road which leads up the mountain to the convent on the top.
The second is the road from Acre. It may be seen upon the map
following closely the line of the shore on the margin of the sandy
beach which has already been described. The third comes from
Nazareth, in the interior of the country. It descends from the plain
of Esdraelon by the banks of the Kishon, and joins the Acre road a
little to the east of the town of Haïfa. After passing through
Haïfa, the road follows the shore for a short distance, and then a
branch diverges to the right, leading to some ancient ruins on the
extremity of the cape. A little farther on another branch turns off
to the left, and leads up the mountain to the convent, while the
main road continues its course round the northern and western
extremity of the promontory, and there passes into the road that
comes up on the western coast, as at first described.

Travelers approaching Mt. Carmel from the interior of the country
come generally from Nazareth by the way of the third road above
described, that is, the one that leads down from the valley of the
Kishon, following the bank of the stream. The town of Nazareth,
where the journey of the day in such cases is usually commenced,
lies among the hills about midway between the Mediterranean Sea and
the Sea of Tiberias. The route for some hours leads the traveler
along the northern part of the plain of Esdraelon, and charms him by
the scenes of beauty and fertility which pass before his view. He
sees rich fields of corn and grain, groves of the pomegranate, the
fig, and the olive, verdant valleys clothed with the most luxuriant
herbage, masses of hanging wood, that adorn the declivities of the
hills, and descend in capes and promontories of foliage to beautify
the plain, and ruins of ancient fortresses and towns, scattered here
and there in picturesque and commanding positions. The whole country
is like a romantic park, with the great chain of Mt. Carmel
extending continuously to the southward of it, and bounding the


At length the great plain of Acre, with the bay, and the broad
expanse of the Mediterranean in the distance, opens before him. The
town of Acre, surrounded with its white walls, stands just on the
margin of the water, at the northern extremity of the bay; while at
the southern point of it stands Haïfa, sheltered by the mountain,
and adorned by the consular flags of the several nations who have
commercial agents there. In former times the principal harbor for
shipping was at Acre, but from some change which the course of time
has effected in the conformation of the coast or in the deposit of
sand, the only deep water is now found at the southern extremity of
the bay, where the Kishon finds its outlet--and Haïfa has
consequently become the port. It is not improbable, in fact, that
the greater depth of water at this point is to be attributed to the
effect produced by the outflow of the river in impeding the
accumulation of deposits from the sea.

The river, as will be seen from the map, in flowing into the bay
passes across the beach of sand. Its depth and the quantity of water
which issues from it vary very much, according to the season of the
year, and thus the accounts of travelers who ford it at different
periods differ extremely. In its ordinary condition it is very
easily forded, but sometimes, when swollen with rains, it overflows
the meadows that line its banks, up the valley, and becomes wholly
impassable near its mouth. In the summer the stream often becomes so
low that the sea, incessantly rolling in from the offing, fills up
the outlet entirely with sand, and then smoothing over the dyke
which it has made, it forms a beach on the outer slope of it, and
thus the sandy shore of the bay is carried continuously across the
mouth of the river, and the water is shut back as by a dam.

The next rain, however, and perhaps even the ordinary flow of the
river, causes the water to accumulate and rise behind this barrier
until it surmounts it. A small stream then begins to flow over the
beach--rapidly increasing in force and volume as the sand is washed
away--and thus the river regains once more its accustomed channel.
This alternate closing and opening of the outlet of a river is a
phenomenon often witnessed in cases where the river, at its mouth,
traverses a sandy beach on a coast exposed to winds and storms.[3]

The distance from Haïfa to Acre along the shore of the bay is about
eight miles. Acre itself has always been a very celebrated fortress,
having figured as the central point of almost all great military
operations in Syria for nearly two thousand years. It has
experienced every possible form and phase of the fortune of war,
having been assaulted, defended, besieged, destroyed, and rebuilt
again and again, in an endless succession of changes, and in the
experience of every possible fortune and misfortune which twenty
centuries of uninterrupted military vicissitude could bring. Within
the knowledge of the present generation it has been the scene of two
terrific conflicts. Perhaps the most important of these events, in a
historical point of view, was the struggle for the possession of the
place between Napoleon and its English defenders, and the consequent
check which was placed upon Napoleon's career, on his advance from
Egypt into Syria. On his arrival at Acre, the young general found
the port in possession of an English force under the command of Sir
Sydney Smith, and though he made the most desperate and determined
efforts to dislodge them, he was unable to succeed. He planted his
batteries on the declivities of the hills behind the town, and
cannonaded the walls from that position; while the English supported
the garrison in their defense of the place, by firing upon the
batteries of the besiegers from ships which they had anchored in the

[Illustration: DEFENSE OF ACRE.]


The plains and valleys which border the Carmel chain of mountains,
especially on the northern side, are extremely fertile. They yield
grapes, olives, corn, and other similar productions, in the greatest
abundance, while the grass that clothes the slopes of the
surrounding mountains, and adorns with verdure and beauty a thousand
secluded valleys that wind among them, furnishes an almost
exhaustless supply of food for flocks and herds. A considerable
quantity of wheat, barley, cotton, and other similar products is
exported, being brought down to Haïfa and Acre from the interior, on
the backs of mules and camels, led by drivers in long caravans and
trains. One traveler speaks of having been detained at the gates of
Acre, when going out to make an excursion into the surrounding
country, by a train of _one hundred_ camels, laden with corn, that
were just then coming in.


The commerce of the port, however, would be vastly greater than it
is, were it not for the exactions of the government which restrict
and burden it exceedingly. It is true that governments generally
maintain themselves by taxing the commerce of the countries over
which they rule, but the despotic authorities that have borne
military sway in Syria and Palestine for the last five hundred
years, have done this, as it would seem, in a peculiarly exorbitant
and reckless manner. A practice is adopted in those countries of
"farming out" the revenue, as it is called; that is, the government
sells the privilege of collecting a certain tax to some wealthy
capitalist, who pays, or secures payment, in advance, and then
collects from the people what is due, on his own account. Of course
he is invested with power and authority from the government to
enforce the collection, and as it is a matter of personal interest
to him to make the amount that he receives as great as possible, he
has every conceivable inducement to be extortionate and oppressive.
The sufferers, too, in such cases generally find it useless to
complain; for the government know well that, if they wish to obtain
high prices from the farmers of the revenue, from year to year, they
must not obstruct them in any way in the claims which they make, or
the measures which they adopt, in collecting the amounts due, from
the people.

In the more highly civilized and commercial nations of the world, a
very different system is adopted. The revenue is never farmed, but
it is collected by officers appointed for the purpose, in the name
and for the benefit of the government; and generally in such a way,
that they who assess the tax, have no direct pecuniary interest--or,
at most, a very inconsiderable one--in the amount whether larger or
smaller, which they receive. The assessors and collectors thus
occupy, in some respects, the position of impartial umpires between
the government and the people, with very slight influences operating
upon their minds, to produce a bias in favor of one side or the
other. Even in this way, the evils and disadvantages of raising
national revenues by taxing commercial transactions, are very great,
while, in the form that has so long prevailed in Syria and
Palestine, the result is utterly disastrous. The taxes are
increased, under one pretext or another, until the poor peasant and
laborer finds himself robbed of every thing but the bare means of
subsistence. All hope and possibility of acquiring property by his
industry and thrift, and of rising to a respectable position in
society are taken away from him, and he spends his life in idleness,
degradation, and despair.


An incident strikingly illustrative of these truths, occurred to a
traveler who was visiting Acre, about the year 1815. One morning, in
rambling about the city, he chanced to come into the vicinity of the
custom house, at the port, and there he overheard a violent dispute
going on between some fishermen and a certain farmer of the
revenue--probably a wealthy merchant of the town--who was standing
near. It seems that a duty of about thirty-three per cent., that is,
one-third part of the whole price, had been laid upon all fish that
should be taken in the bay and brought into the port for sale; and
the privilege of collecting the tax had been sold to the merchant,
who was engaged in the dispute. It had been calculated that the
remaining two-thirds of the value of the fish would be sufficient to
induce the fishermen to continue their vocation. It proved, however,
not to be so. The cost of boats and outfit, and the other expenses
which were necessarily incurred in the prosecution of the business,
were so great, that the poor fishermen found when they had returned
to the shore and sold their fares, and paid the expenses of their
trip, that the government tax took so large a portion of what
remained, as to leave little or nothing over, to reimburse them for
their labor. They accordingly became discouraged, and began to
abandon the employment; so that the farmer who had bought the right
to collect the tax, was alarmed at finding that the revenue was
likely to fail altogether, inasmuch as for every five boats that had
been accustomed to go out to fish before, only one went now. The
dispute which attracted the attention of the traveler was occasioned
by the anger of the farmer, who was assailing the fishermen with
bitter invectives and criminations, and threatening to compel them
to go out to fish, in order that he might receive his dues.


For many years extending through the latter part of the last
century, and the earlier portion of the present one, the narratives
of travelers visiting Acre are filled with accounts of the tyranny
and oppression exercised upon the people of the country by a certain
despot named Djezzar, the history of whose government illustrates
very forcibly the nature of the injuries to which the wretched
inhabitants of those countries are compelled to submit. Djezzar, in
his infancy was carried into Egypt a slave, and sold to Ali-Bey, a
celebrated ruler of that country. In the service of Ali-Bey he rose
to high civil stations, and at length, after passing through a
great number of vicissitudes and romantic adventures, in the course
of which he was transferred to the service of the Turkish
government, he was placed by the Turks in command of the Pachalik of
Acre, in 1775. Here he ruled with such despotic cruelty, that he
made himself an object of universal execration to all mankind,
excepting always those who had placed him in power; for they seemed
to be pleased rather than otherwise with his remorseless and
terrible energy. One of the first measures which he adopted when he
entered upon his government, was to confiscate all the houses of the
town of Acre, declaring them the property of the government, and
requiring the inhabitants to pay rent for them to him. The taxes
were exorbitantly increased, and every possible pretext was resorted
to to deprive the people of their property, and transfer it to the
government. Land which was left uncultivated for three years was
considered as abandoned by the owners, and thenceforth fell to him.
Whenever a vessel was stranded upon the coast, he seized upon every
thing that could be saved from the wreck, as his perquisite. His
favorite mode of punishing those who displeased him, was to mutilate
their persons by cutting off an ear, a nose, an arm, or a foot, or
by taking out an eye. Those who visited his palace, say that it was
common to see many persons in the ante-chambers and halls who were
disfigured thus, having incurred the cruel monster's displeasure
from time to time in the course of their service. These were his
"marked men," as he called them--"persons bearing signs of their
having been instructed to serve their master with fidelity." His
secretary, who was his principal banker and minister, was deprived
of both an ear and an eye, at the same time, for some offense, real
or imaginary, which he had committed, and yet still continued to
serve his savage master. Djezzar lived in a massive palace,
occupying a well-protected part of the city of Acre, with gardens in
the rear between the palace and the city wall. Within this palace
was his harem, the residence of his women. No person but himself was
ever admitted to the harem. He was accustomed to retire thither
every evening through three massive doors, one within the other,
which doors he always closed and barred with his own hands. No one
knew how many or what women the harem contained. Additions were
often made to the number, from female slaves that were presented to
Djezzar from time to time; but no one knew how many were thus
introduced, or what was their fate after they disappeared from
public view. Every possible precaution was taken to seclude the
inmates of this harem in the most absolute manner from the outer
world. Their food was conveyed to them by means of a sort of wheel
or cylinder, turning in the wall, and so contrived that those
without could not see who received it. If any one was sick, a
physician was brought to a room where there was a hole in the wall
through which the patient, concealed on the other side, put her arm,
and thus the pulse was examined, and a prescription made. We might
fill many pages with curious details in respect to the life and
character, and peculiar habits, of this extraordinary man, but we
must leave Acre and the bay, and prepare to ascend the mountain.

[Illustration: HORSEMAN OF ACRE.]


The height of Mt. Carmel has been generally estimated at about
fifteen hundred feet. This is a very unusual elevation for land that
rises thus abruptly from the margin of the sea. Of course, from
every cliff, and rock, and projecting head-land on the higher
portions of it there is obtained a widely extended and most
commanding view both over the water and over the land. The sea lies
toward the west; the prospect is consequently in that direction
unobstructed to the horizon, and the whole western quarter of the
sky is fully exposed to view. It is by understanding the position of
Mt. Carmel in this respect, that we appreciate the full force and
beauty of the passage that describes the coming of the rain, after
the destruction of the priests of Baal by the Prophet Elijah; for it
is always, as we observe, in the western sky, through the operation
of some mysterious and hidden laws which human philosophy has not
yet been able to unfold, that the clouds which produce sudden summer
showers arise. It is almost invariably there, that those rounded and
dome-like condensations are formed, which from small and almost
unperceived beginnings expand and swell until they envelop the whole
heavens in darkness and gloom, and then sweep over the earth in
tempests of thunder, lightning, and rain. The narrative of the
sacred writer, describing the event is as follows.


"And Elijah said unto Ahab, Get thee up, eat and drink; for there is
a sound of abundance of rain. So Ahab went up to eat and to drink.
And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he cast himself down
upon the earth, and put his face between his knees, and said to his
servant, Go up now, look toward the sea. And he went up, and looked
and said, There is nothing. And he said, Go again seven times. And
it came to pass at the seventh time that he said, Behold there
ariseth a little cloud out of the sea like a man's hand. And he
said, Go up, say unto Ahab, Prepare thy chariot, and get thee down
that the rain stop thee not. And it came to pass, in the mean while,
that the heaven was black with clouds and wind, and there was a
great rain."--1 Kings, xviii. 41-45.

       *       *       *       *       *

The traveler, as he looks up to the summit of the mountain from the
beach of the Bay of Acre, over the sands of which he is slowly
making his way toward the foot of the ascent, pictures in his
imagination the form of the servant of Elijah standing upon some
projecting pinnacle, and looking off over the sea. He loses for the
moment his recollection of the age in which he lives, and under the
influence of a temporary illusion, forgetting the five-and-twenty
centuries which have elapsed since the days of Elijah, almost looks
to see the chariot and horsemen of Ahab riding away up the valley,
in obedience to the prophet's command.


The road to the mountain, as will appear from the map, passes
through Haïfa. Travelers and pilgrims, however, seldom make any stay
in the town. There is no inn there to detain them. The convent is
the inn--on the top of the mountain. After passing Haïfa, the road,
as may be seen upon the map, follows the line of the shore for about
half a mile, and then turns a little inland, while a branch of the
main road, diverging to the right, continues along the shore of the
sea. This branch leads to the extremity of the cape, where are
situated the ruins of an ancient place named Porphyrion, and also a
small fortress, on the point. Porphyrion was a place of some
consequence in former times, but it went gradually to decay, and at
last when Haïfa was built it was entirely abandoned.

A short distance further on, the traveler comes to another branch,
where a mule-path turns off to the left from the main road, and
leads up the mountain. The ascent is steep, but the path is so
guarded by a parapet on the outer side wherever required, that it
awakens no sense of danger. The declivities of the mountain, above
and below the path, are clothed with trees and herbage, with gray
walls, forming picturesque cliffs, and precipices, appearing here
and there among them. There is a profusion, too, of wild flowers of
every form and hue, which attract and charm the traveler, wherever
he turns. He looks off at every salient point that he passes in his
ascent, over the bay. He sees the white walls of the city of Acre
rising from the margin of the water at the extremity of it, far in
the distance--and never ceases to admire the smooth and beautiful
beach which lies spread out before him, its broad expanse broken,
perhaps, here and there on the side toward the sea, with the wrecks
of ships which lie there half buried, and enlivened on the land with
trains of mules or of camels passing toward Acre or Haïfa, or by
some picturesque group of tents pitched upon the plain--the
encampment of some wandering tribe of Arabs, or of a party of
European travelers. Further inland, he surveys broad fields of
luxuriant vegetation, variegated with every shade of green and
brown, and groves of trees that extend along the margin of the
rivers, and crown the summits of the distant hills. In a calm and
clear summer's morning, the observer looks down upon this brilliant
scene of verdure and beauty, as upon a map, and lingers long on his
way, to study minutely every feature of it.



About midway between Haïfa and Acre, the traveler, pausing at some
resting-place in the progress of his ascent, may trace the course of
the river Belus, as it meanders through the plain beneath him,
northwardly, toward an outlet just in the rear of Acre, where it
empties into the sea. The course and direction of the stream are
delineated upon the map near the commencement of this article. This
river is celebrated as the place where, according to ancient story,
the discovery of the art of making glass was first made by means of
an accidental vitrification which chanced to take place under
certain peculiar circumstances, on its shores.[4] Glass is composed
essentially of silicious substances--such as sand--combined with
certain alkalies by fusion. For sand, though very refractory if
exposed alone to the influence of heat, when mixed with these
alkaline substances fuses easily, and _vitrifies_, that is it forms
a glass, which is more or less perfect according to the precise
nature of the substances employed, and the arrangements of the
process. The story of the origin of the discovery is, that a vessel
came into the mouth of the Belus from the Bay of Acre, laden with
certain fossil alkalies which were found somewhere along the coast,
and were used in those times for certain purposes, and that the
sailors landed on the beach and built a fire there, with a view of
taking supper on the shore. When the fire was made they looked about
the beach for stones to use as a support for their kettle; but the
soil being alluvial and sandy they were not able to find any stones,
and so they brought instead three fragments of the alkaline fossil,
whatever it might have been, with which their vessel was loaded.
These fragments they placed in the margin of the fire which they had
built upon the sand, and rested the kettle upon them; thus by means
of the alkali, the sand, the metal, and the fire, all the conditions
were combined that are essential to produce a vitrification, and
after their supper was ended the seamen found the glassy substance
which had been produced, lying beneath the fire. They made their
discovery known, and the experiment was repeated. Soon after this
the regular manufacture of glass for vessels and ornaments was
commenced in the city of Sidon, which lies on the coast of the
Mediterranean, not many miles north of the mouth of the Belus, and
from Sidon the art soon spread into every part of the civilized



The time required for the ascent from Haïfa to the convent is about
an hour--the buildings of the institution, though often spoken of as
upon the top of the mountain, being really only about two-thirds of
the way up to the highest summit. The condition in which the various
travelers who have visited the spot within the last hundred years
have found the institution, and the accounts which they have given
of the edifice and of the inmates, varies extremely according to the
time of the visit. In fact, after Napoleon's defeat before Acre, the
convent was entirely destroyed, and the spot was for a time
deserted. The cause of this was that Napoleon took possession of the
edifice for the purpose of using it as a hospital, and quartered his
wounded and disabled soldiers there. The Turks, consequently, when
they came and found the institution in the possession of the French,
considered themselves authorized to regard it as a post of the
enemy. They accordingly slaughtered the troops which they found
there, drove away the monks, and blew up the buildings. From this
time the convent remained desolate and in ruins for more than twenty

At length, between 1820 and 1830, a celebrated monk, known by the
name of John Baptist, undertook the work of building up the
institution again. With great zeal, and with untiring patience and
perseverance, he traversed many countries of Europe and Asia to
gather funds for the work, and to remove the various obstacles which
are always in the way in the case of such an undertaking. He
succeeded, at length, in accomplishing the work, and the convent was
rebuilt in a more complete and extended form than ever before. Since
that time, accordingly, the traveler finds, when he reaches the brow
of the mountain where the convent buildings stand, a stately and
commodious edifice ready to receive him. Like most of the other
convents and monasteries of Asia, the institution serves the purpose
of an inn. A monk receives the traveler and his party, and conducts
them to a commodious sitting-room, furnished with a carpet, with
tables, and with chairs. A corridor from this apartment leads to
bed-rooms in the rear, furnished likewise in a very comfortable
manner, with beds, chairs, and tables;--articles which attract the
attention of the traveler, and are specially mentioned in his
journal, as they are very rarely to be found in the East. On the
terraces and balconies of the building the visitor, wearied with the
toil of the ascent, finds seats where he reposes in peace, and
enjoys the illimitable prospect which the view commands, both up and
down the coast, and far out over the waters of the Mediterranean

Travelers are entertained at the convent as at an inn, except that
in place of a formal reckoning when they depart, they make their
acknowledgment for the hospitality which they have received in the
form of a donation to the monastery, the amount of which custom
prescribes. The rule is that no guest is to remain longer than a
fortnight--the arrangements being designed for the accommodation of
travelers, and not of permanent guests. This rule, however, is not
strictly enforced, except so far as to give to parties newly
arriving the precedence in respect to choice of rooms, over those
whose fortnight has expired. While the guests remain, they are very
kindly and hospitably entertained by the monks, who appear before
them clothed in a hood and cassock of coarse brown cloth, with a
rope girdle around the loins, and sandals upon the feet--the ancient
habit of the order. Their countenances wear a thoughtful and
serious, if not sad expression.


The halo of sacredness which invests Mt. Carmel proceeds from the
memory of the prophet Elijah, who, while he lived on the earth, made
this mountain his frequent resort, if not his usual abode. This we
learn from the Scriptures themselves, as well as from the long and
unbroken testimony of ancient tradition. The memorable transactions
connected with the destruction of the priests of Baal, in the time
of Ahab, at the conclusion of which came the sudden rain, as
described in the passage already quoted, is supposed to have taken
place at the foot of the mountain near this spot--and the ground on
which the priests were slain is still shown, as identified by
ancient tradition, on the banks of the Kishon, a little way up the
valley.[5] The mountain above is full of grottos and caves. It is
said that more than a thousand have been counted. The one which is
supposed to have been Elijah's special abode is now within the
buildings of the convent. Higher up, among the rocks behind the
convent, is another which is called Elisha's cave, and at some
distance below, in the bottom of a frightful chasm, into which the
traveler descends by a steep and dangerous path, and which opens
toward the sea, is another cavern, the largest and most noted of
all. It forms a large and lofty apartment, vaulted above, and is
said to have been the place where Obadiah concealed and protected
the company of prophets, one hundred and fifty in number, and fed
them with bread and water while they remained in their retreat.[6]
This cave is called accordingly the cave of the prophets. The
situation of this grotto is beyond description solitary, desolate,
and sublime. Nothing is to be seen from within it but the open sea,
and no sound is heard but the breaking of the surf, as it rolls in
upon the rocky shore six hundred feet below.


Among the other objects of interest and attraction for the pilgrims
and travelers that visit Mt. Carmel, are certain curious stones,
well known to geologists as a common mineral formation, but which
pass with the pilgrims and monks for petrified grapes, dates, or
melons, according to their size and configuration. These stones are
round in form, and are often hollow, being lined with a crystalline
incrustation within, the crystals representing, in the imagination
of the pilgrim, the seeds of the fruit from which the specimen was
formed. These fossils are found in a part of the mountain remote
from the convent, where a stream comes down from the heights above,
and they are supposed to be miraculous in their origin. The legend
accounting for the production of them is this.

In the time of Elijah there was a garden and a vineyard on the spot,
and one day as Elijah was passing that way, weary and faint with his
journey, he looked over the wall and asked the owner of the ground
to give him some of the melons and fruits that he saw growing there.
The man refused the wayfarer's request, saying jestingly in his
refusal, that those things were not melons and fruits, but only
stones. "Stones then let them be," said Elijah, and so passed on.
The gardener, on turning to examine the fruits of his garden, found
to his consternation that they had all been turned into stone, and
ever since that day the ground has been under a curse, and has
produced nothing but stony semblances of fruit, instead of the
reality. These supposed petrifactions are greatly prized by all who
visit the mountain. Well informed travelers value them as specimens
illustrative of a very singular superstition, and as souvenirs of
their visit to the spot;--while monks and pilgrims believe them to
possess some supernatural virtue. They suppose that though Elijah's
denunciation proved a curse to the ground in respect to the owner,
in causing it to produce these flinty mockeries, the stones
themselves, being miraculous in their nature and origin, are endued
with some supernatural power to protect and bless those who
reverently collect and preserve them.



The convent of Mt. Carmel, as alluded to and described by travelers
during the last five hundred years is to be understood as denoting
not a single building, but a series of buildings, that have risen,
flourished, and gone to decay on the same spot, in a long
succession, like a dynasty of kings following each other in a line
on the same throne. The grottos and caverns which are found upon the
mountain began to be occupied at a very early period by hermits and
solitary monks, who lived probably at first in a state of separation
from each other as well as of seclusion from the world. After a time
however they began to combine together, and to live in edifices
specially constructed for their use, and for the last thousand years
the Carmelites have constituted a well known and numerous religious
order, having spread from their original seat and centre to every
part of Europe, and taken a very active and important part in the
ecclesiastical affairs of modern times. Every religious order of the
Roman Church prides itself on the antiquity of its origin, and the
traditions of the Carmelites for a long time carried back the
history of their society to a very remote period indeed--not merely
to the Christian era, but from the time of Christ and the apostles
back to Elijah, and from Elijah to Enoch. In discussing this
subject, however, one ecclesiastical writer very gravely maintains
that the Enoch, if there was one, among the founders of the
Carmelite fraternity, could not have been the patriarch Enoch, the
father of Methusaleh, since it is plain that there could have been
no Carmelite monks among those saved in the ark, at the time of the
deluge, for the vow of celibacy was an essential rule of the order
from the beginning, and the sons of Noah, who were the only men
besides Noah himself that were saved from the flood, were all
married men, and took their wives with them when they went into the

These traditions, however, ascribing a very high antiquity to the
order of the Carmelites, were allowed to pass for many centuries
with very little question; but at last, about two hundred years ago,
certain religious historians belonging to other monastic orders, in
the course of the investigations which they made into the early
history of the church, came to the conclusion that the institution
of the Carmelites was founded in the twelfth century of the
Christian era. The earliest authentic information that they could
find, they said, in respect to its origin was the account given by a
traveler by the name of John Phocas, who visited the mountain in
1185, in the course of a tour which he was making in the Holy Land.
He relates that he ascended Mt. Carmel, and that he found there the
cave of Elijah, describing it as it now appears. He also states that
there was a monastery there which had been founded a few years
before by a venerable monk, gray-headed and advanced in years, who
had come upon the mountain in obedience to a revelation which he had
received from the Prophet Elijah, enjoining upon him so to do, and
that he had built a small tower for a dwelling, and a small chapel
for the purpose of worship, and that he had established himself here
with ten companions of the same religious profession with himself;
and this was the true origin of the convent of Mt. Carmel.


The Carmelite monks throughout Europe were every where greatly
displeased at the publication of this account, which cut off at a
single blow some two thousand years from the antiquity of their
order, even supposing their pretensions to go no farther back than
to the time of Elijah. A protracted and very bitter controversy
arose. Volumes after volumes were published--the quarrel, as is
usual with religious disputes, degenerating in character as it
advanced, and growing continually more and more rancorous and
bitter, until at last the Pope interposed and put an end to the
dispute by a bull. The bull did not attempt to decide the question;
it only silenced the combatants. Nothing more was to be said by any
party, or under any pretext, on the origin of the institution of the
Carmelites, but the whole subject was entirely interdicted. This
bull, the issuing of which was a most excellent act on the part of
his Holiness, proved an effectual remedy for the evil which it was
intended to suppress. The dispute was suddenly terminated, and
though the question was in form left undecided, it was settled in
fact, for it has since been generally admitted that the story of
John Phocas was true, and that Mt. Carmel, though inhabited by
hermits and individual recluses long before, was not the seat of a
regularly organized society of Monks until nearly twelve centuries
after the Christian era.


The Carmelites themselves were accustomed to maintain that the
earliest written rule for the government of their order was given
them by a very celebrated ancient monk, known in history as St.
Basil. St. Basil lived about three hundred years after the time of
Christ. He was descended from a distinguished family, and received
an excellent education in early life, in the course of which he made
very high attainments in all the branches of knowledge customarily
pursued in those days. His mind, however, being strongly impressed
with a sense of religious obligation, he determined not to engage in
the duties of the profession for which he had been trained, but to
seclude himself from the world, in accordance with the custom that
prevailed in those days, and spend his life in religious meditation
and prayer. As a preliminary step he determined on taking a journey
into the countries where the practice of religious retirement had
begun to prevail, in order to visit the hermits, recluses, and
monks, in their dens and caves, and become practically acquainted
with the mode of life which these voluntary exiles from the world
were accustomed to lead. He accordingly set out upon his travels,
and in the course of a few years he explored Egypt, Palestine,
Syria, Asia Minor, and other countries still farther east, in order
to visit and converse with all the monks and hermits that he could
find, in the deserts and solitudes to which they had retired. We can
not here give the subsequent particulars of his life. It is
sufficient to say that his learning, his high rank, his exalted
character, and perhaps his honest and conscientious piety, combined
to raise him in the end to a very commanding position in respect to
the whole monastic world while he lived, and to inspire many
succeeding generations with a great veneration for his memory. He
was believed to have been during his life an object of the special
and miraculous protection of heaven; for it is recorded as sober
historic truth, that at one time, during the latter part of his
career, when certain theological enemies had prevailed in obtaining
a sentence of banishment against him, and the decree, properly drawn
up, was brought to the emperor to sign, the pen which was put into
the emperor's hand broke suddenly into pieces as soon as it touched
the paper. The emperor called for another pen, but on attempting to
use it the same result followed. This was done three times, and at
last, as the emperor seemed determined to persist in his design, his
hand was seized with a sudden and uncontrollable trembling, and the
chair upon which he was sitting broke down, and let him fall upon
the floor. The emperor now perceived that he was contending against
God, and taking up the decree he destroyed it by tearing it in

Now the Carmelites maintained that this St. Basil was a monk of
their order, that he was one of the successors of Elijah, that they
had obtained their first written rule of their order from him, and
that the Basilians, an order of monks taking their name from him and
well known throughout Europe in the middle ages, were to be
considered as only a branch, or offshoot, from the ancient Carmelite
institution. Out of this state of things there arose subsequently a
very extraordinary controversy between the Basilians and the
Carmelites as will presently appear.


The claim of the Carmelites to have received their first written
charter from St. Basil is not very well sustained, as the earliest
authentic evidence of any written rule for the government of the
institution relates to one given them by the patriarch of Jerusalem
in 1205, about thirty years after the time when the monastery was
founded, according to John Phocas's narrative. This "rule," or
charter as it would be called at the present day, consisted of
sixteen articles, and some particulars of it may be interesting to
the reader as illustrating the nature of this species of document.
The first article treats of the election of the prior of the
monastery, and of the obedience which was to be rendered to him by
the other monks. The second treats of the cells in which the
brethren were to live, and prescribes that they should be separated
from each other in such a way that there could be no intercourse or
communication between the respective inmates. The third contains
regulations in respect to the cell of the prior, its situation and
relation to the other cells. The fifth requires the monks to remain
constantly each within his own cell except when called away by
regularly prescribed duties elsewhere, and to devote himself in his
retirement to the work of prayer and meditation. The sixth
prescribes certain regulations in respect to divine service. By the
seventh the monks are forbidden to possess any private property of
any kind. The eighth requires the brethren of the monastery to build
an oratory or place of prayer in some central place, near the cells,
and to assemble there every morning to hear mass. The ninth
prescribes rules for the internal discipline of the institution. The
tenth enjoins certain fast days. The eleventh forbids the use of
flesh for food entirely. The twelfth exhorts the monks to clothe
themselves with certain spiritual armor which it describes. The
thirteenth enjoins upon them to labor with their hands, in
cultivating the fruits of the earth in their little gardens. The
fourteenth enjoins absolute silence upon them, from vespers until
the break of day on the following morning. The fifteenth inculcates
upon them the duty of humility and of devoting themselves to prayer;
and the sixteenth closes the series by exhorting them to be always
obedient and submissive to the prior.


There is no question that the monastic system of Christian Europe,
established originally by such beginnings as these, led in the end
to evil consequences and results of the most deplorable character,
and we are accustomed, as Protestants, to believe that there is
nothing that is not worthy of unqualified condemnation in it from
beginning to end. But when we dismiss from our minds the ideas and
associations with which the religious history of the last five
hundred years has invested every thing that pertains to monastic
life, and look at such a community as this of Mt. Carmel as it was
in its original inception and design, we shall find it impossible to
ascribe the conduct of those simple-minded recluses to any other
motive than a desire to withdraw themselves from the world, in a
spirit of honest self-denial, in order to live nearer to God, and
enjoy the peace and happiness of daily and uninterrupted communion
with him. And as to the delusion and folly of the course which they
pursued, in order to judge impartially, we must look at the
circumstances of the case as they really were, and see how
effectually, in the arrangements which the hermits made, all the
essential requisites for human comfort and happiness were secured.
The mountain which they chose for their retreat was beautiful beyond
description; the soil was fertile, the air was balmy and pure, and
such was the climate that the season with them was an almost
perpetual summer. They had gardens to till, which produced them an
abundance of fruits and vegetables, and in those climes the human
constitution requires no other food. The grottos in which they lived
were dry, and formed undoubtedly very safe and not uncomfortable
dwellings. They suffered neither heat nor cold, for in Palestine
cold is seldom known, and though the sun is sometimes hot, and the
air sultry, in the valleys, the mountain which they dwelt upon rises
into a region of perpetual salubrity, where there is always an
atmosphere of soft and balmy air reposing in the groves, or
breathing gently over the summit. Besides all these natural
advantages of their situation, their course of daily duty gave them
healthful and agreeable employment. Their hours were systematically
arranged, and their occupations, though varied in kind, were regular
in rotation and order. Thus, on the whole, though there was
doubtless much of superstition and of error in their ideas, still we
are inclined to think that there are some usages and modes of life
not at all monastic in their character--to be witnessed among the
world-following Christians of the present day, in palaces of wealth
and prosperity--which exhibit quite as much delusion and folly as
was ever evinced by these poor world-abandoning monks, in the caves
and grottos of Mt. Carmel.



A society of monks once established, depends of course for its
continuance and prosperity on external additions, and not on any
internal growth; for since celibacy is the rule of all monastic
orders, there can not be in such communities, as in the case of an
ordinary hamlet or village, any natural sequence of generations. A
man is never born a monk: so that monasticism has at least one of
the marks and characteristics of a monstrosity. It does not
propagate its kind.

Notwithstanding this, however, the institution on Mt. Carmel
gradually increased. Accessions were made from time to time to the
numbers of the monks, until at length the order became so numerous
that several branch institutions were established in different parts
of Europe, and the Carmelites became very generally known throughout
the Christian world. We can not here, however, go away from the
mountain to follow the society in its general history, though we
will digress from our immediate subject so far as to give a brief
account of the singular controversy which arose in subsequent years
between the Carmelites and the Basilians, a controversy which not
only exhibits in a striking point of view some of the peculiar ideas
and religious usages of the times in which it occurred, but
illustrates certain important principles in respect to the nature of
religious controversy, that are applicable to the disputes of every
age. The question in this case related to the costume in which the
prophet Elijah was represented in a certain picture belonging to a
church which the Basilians built near Messina, in the island of
Sicily. The church was built in the year 1670, and the open
controversy arose then; but the origin of it may be traced to a
period antecedent to that time. It seems that in 1080, six hundred
years before the dispute to which we are referring commenced, a
certain Sicilian potentate built a church near Mt. Etna, in honor of
the prophet Elijah, as a token of his gratitude to the prophet for
appearing to him in a visible form at one time when he was involved
in very imminent danger, in his wars with the Saracens, and for
interposing to protect him. He also built a monastery in connection
with the church, and established a society of Basilian monks in it.

It seems that at the time when the church and monastery were built,
a picture of the prophet Elijah was painted and hung in the church,
where it remained without exciting any question, for six hundred

At length at the expiration of that time the buildings of the
establishment having become very old, and being often greatly
damaged, and the lives of the inmates seriously endangered by the
shocks of earthquakes and the volcanic eruptions to which their
situation so near to Mt. Etna exposed them, it was determined to
remove the institution to another place, several miles distant from
its original location, where the ground was more secure. The old
picture of Elijah was however found to be too much decayed to be
removed. A careful copy of it was therefore made, the artist taking
care to transfer, as nearly as possible, to his copy, both the
features and the costume of the original. The following engraving is
a faithful representation of this portrait and of the dress which
became the subject of the dispute, except of course that the colors
are not shown. The shoulders are covered with a cloak which in the
painting was red. Beneath the cloak was a tunic, formed of the skin
of some animal, which descended to the knees. There were sandals on
the feet. There was a sword tipped with flame in the hand, and the
head was covered with a red cap trimmed with ornaments of gold.


This painting in its original state had hung in its place in the old
convent during the whole six hundred years without attracting any
special notice; but when the copy was made and hung up in the new
convent, it became an object of greater attention, and the
Carmelites who saw or heard of it were much displeased with the
costume, inasmuch as it was not the costume of their order. The
painting by exhibiting the prophet in such a dress, seemed to deny
that Elijah had been a Carmelite, and to claim him as belonging to
some other order. They complained to the Basilians of the injustice
done them, and demanded that the obnoxious costume should be
changed. Finding, however, that their complaints and remonstrances
were unavailing, they appealed to the Archbishop of Sicily, praying
him to interpose his authority to redress the injury which they were
suffering, and to compel the Basilians to take down the painting in
question, the display of which was so dishonorable to the ancient
order of Mt. Carmel. The Basilians in reply alleged that the costume
of the portrait was no innovation of theirs, and they were not
responsible for it at all. The work, they said, was a faithful copy
of an ancient painting that had hung for six hundred years,
unquestioned and uncomplained of, in their former monastery, and
that they could not give up the ancient traditions and relics of
their institution; and they were especially unwilling to consent
that the prophet Elijah should be represented in their church in a
Carmelite dress, since that would prejudice the ancient claims of
the Basilian order.



The Archbishop of Sicily, after a long hearing of the parties to
this dispute, refused to interpose, and finally the case was carried
by the Carmelites to Rome, and laid before a certain board of the
Roman church called the College of Rites, a sort of tribunal having
jurisdiction of all questions of this nature that might arise in the
Catholic church, and assume sufficient importance to come before
them. Here the Carmelites brought forward their cause, and offered
their complaints in language more earnest than ever. They
represented in very strong terms the deep dishonor which the
Basilians were inflicting upon them in publicly exhibiting the
prophet Elijah--the patriarch and the father of their order--dressed
in a cloak, and wearing a red cap upon his head, as if he were a
Turkish pashaw. To give force and emphasis to their plea they
exhibited to the sacred college before whom the cause was to be
tried, a representation of the picture, colored like the original,
in order that the judges might see for themselves how flagrant was
the wrong which they endured, and how much cause they had to
complain. After many long and patient hearings of the case before
the college, and many fruitless attempts to find some mode
satisfactory to all parties, for settling the dispute, the college
finally decided upon a middle course, a sort of forced compromise
which gave the victory to neither party. The costume of the painting
was ordered to be changed. The cap was to be taken away from the
head, and the sandals from the feet, and the red cloak was to be
replaced by one of a saffron color. The tunic of skin was to be
retained, and it was to be bound about the waist with a leathern
girdle. A new picture was accordingly painted in accordance with
this decision, as represented in the above engraving. The
controversy occupied ten years; it gave rise to protracted and
voluminous proceedings, and embroiled a great number of partisans
among all ranks and orders of the church: and by comparing the two
engravings the reader will see at a glance the amount of the
difference about which the combatants were contending. It might
excite surprise in our minds that a large section of the Christian
church could thus be engaged for ten years in an earnest, expensive,
and bitter controversy about the costume of a painting, were it not
that we sometimes see examples at the present day, of disputes
equally earnest and protracted, about points smaller and more
shadowy still. It ought, however, in strict justice to be said that
the real questions at issue in disputes about religious rites and
forms, are not usually as insignificant as they seem. Within and
beyond the outward symbol there usually lies some principle of
religious faith, which is, after all, the real object of the
controversy. In this case, for example, the comparative claims to
antiquity and pre-eminence on the part of two powerful religious
orders constituted the real question at issue. The costume of the
painting formed only the accidental battle ground, as it were, on
which the war was waged. It is thus with a great many religious
controversies, where at first view it would seem that the point at
issue is wholly inadequate to account for the degree of interest
taken in the dispute. The explanation is that the apparent question
is not the real one. The outward aspect of the contest seems to
indicate that the combatants are merely disputing about a form,
while they are really contending for a principle that lies concealed
beneath it. They are like soldiers at a siege, who fight on outer
walls, in themselves worthless, to defend homes and fire-sides that
are concealed within, entirely out of view.


[Illustration: THE SERPENT.]

But we must return to the mountain, though we return to it only to
come down, for it is time that our visit to it should be ended. In
his excursions around the convent during his stay on the mountain,
the visitor is somewhat restricted in respect to the range that he
can safely take, by fear of the wild beasts that infest the jungles
and thickets that grow densely on the declivities of the mountain,
and around the base of it, especially on the southern side.
Panthers, hyenas, wild boars, and strange serpents, make these
forests their abode, occupying, perhaps, in many cases, the caves
and grottos of the ancient recluses, for their dens. Many tales are
told by the monks of these savage beasts, and of the dangers which
pilgrims and travelers have incurred from them. There is an account
of a child which was found in a certain situation dead, with a
monstrous serpent coiled upon its breast. On examination of the body
no mark of any bite or wound could be perceived, and it was
accordingly supposed that the life of the little sufferer had been
extinguished by the chill of the body of the reptile, or by some
other mysterious and deadly agency, which it had power to exert.
Even the roadway leading up and down the mountain is not always
safe, it would seem, from these dangerous intruders. It is rocky and
solitary, and is bordered every where with gloomy ravines and
chasms, all filled with dense and entangled thickets, in which, and
in the cavernous rocks of which the strata of the mountain are
composed, wild beasts and noxious animals of every kind find a
secure retreat. The monks relate that not many years ago a servant
of the convent, who had been sent down the mountain to Haïfa, to
accompany a traveler, was attacked and seized by a panther on his
return. The panther, however, instead of putting his victim
immediately to death, began to play with him as a cat plays with a
mouse which she has succeeded in making her prey--holding him gently
with her claws, for a time, and then, after drawing back a little,
darting upon him again, as if to repeat and renew the pleasure of
capturing such a prize. This was continued so long, that the cries
of the terrified captive brought to the spot some persons that
chanced to be near, when the panther was terrified in her turn, and
fled into the forests; and then the man was rescued from his
horrible situation unharmed.

[Illustration: THE PANTHER.]

For these and similar reasons, travelers who ascend to the convent
of Mt. Carmel enjoy but little liberty there, but must confine their
explorations in most cases to the buildings of the monks, and to
some of the nearest caves of the ancient recluses. Still the spot is
rendered so attractive by the salubrity of the air, the intrinsic
beauty of the situation, the magnificence of the prospect, and the
kind and attentive demeanor of the monks, that some visitors have
recommended it as a place of permanent resort for those who leave
their homes in the West in pursuit of health, or in search of
retirement and repose. The rule that requires those who have been
guests of the convent more than two weeks to give place to others
more recently arrived, proves in fact to be no serious difficulty.
Some kind of an arrangement can in such cases always be made, though
it is seldom that any occasion arises that requires it. The
quarters, too, though plain and simple, are comfortable and neat,
and although the visitor is somewhat restricted, from causes that
have already been named, in respect to explorations of the mountain
itself, there are many excursions that can be made in the country
below, of a very attractive character. He can visit Haïfa, he can
ride or walk along the beach to Acre; he can go to Nazareth, or
journey down the coast, passing round the western declivity of the
mountain. In these and similar rambles he will find scenes of
continual novelty to attract him, and be surrounded every where with
the forms and usages of Oriental life.


The traveler who comes to Mt. Carmel by the way of Nazareth and the
plain of Esdraelon, in going away from it generally passes round the
western declivity of the mountain, and thence proceeds to the south,
by the way of the sea. On reaching the foot of the descent, where
the mountain mule-path comes out into the main road, as shown upon
the map near the commencement of this article, he turns short to the
left, and goes on round the base of the promontory, with the lofty
declivities of the mountain on one hand, and a mass of dense forests
on the other, lying between the road and the shore. As he passes on,
the road, picturesque and romantic from the beginning, becomes
gradually wild, solitary, and desolate. It leads him sometimes
through tangled thickets, sometimes under shelving rocks, and
sometimes it brings him out unexpectedly to the shore of the sea,
where he sees the surf rolling in upon the beach at his feet, and
far over the water the setting sun going down to his rest beneath
the western horizon. At length the twilight gradually disappears,
and as the shades of the evening come on, lights glimmer in the
solitary villages that he passes on his way; but there is no welcome
for him in their beaming. At length when he deems it time to bring
his day's journey to an end, he pitches his tent by the wayside in
some unfrequented spot, and before he retires to rest for the night,
comes out to take one more view of the dark and sombre mountain
which he is about to leave forever. He stands at the door of his
tent, and gazes at it long and earnestly, before he bids it
farewell, equally impressed with the sublime magnificence of its
situation and form, and with the solemn grandeur of its history.


     [1] Spelled variously, by different authors, Caïpha, Kaïfa,
     Caiffa, and in other ways.

     [2] The charts, as executed by the engineers, were on a
     still larger scale than is here represented. It was
     necessary to reduce the scale by one-fourth, in order to
     bring the portion to be copied within the limits of a page.

     [3] A striking example of this occurs at Long Branch in New
     Jersey, where a stream crosses the beach in entering the
     sea, at a point about half a mile to the southward of the
     hotels resorted to on that coast in summer by bathers. The
     visitor who walks along the shore in that direction,
     sometimes at a certain point finds himself upon an elevated
     sandy ridge, with the surf of the sea rolling in upon one
     side of it, and what appears to be a large inland pond lying
     quietly on the other. A few days afterward, on visiting the
     spot, he observes, perhaps, that the pond has disappeared;
     and a wide chasm has been made across the ridge of sand that
     he walked over before in safety, through the centre of which
     a small stream is flowing quietly into the sea. Neither of
     these views are of a nature to awaken any very special
     interest, except when they are considered in connection with
     each other: but if the observer should chance to come upon
     the ground when the pond is nearly full, he may witness a
     very extraordinary spectacle in the rushing out of the
     torrent by which the barrier is carried away. The boys of
     the vicinity often find amusement in hastening the
     catastrophe, by digging a little channel in the sand with
     their hands, when the water has risen nearly to the proper
     level. The stream that flows through this opening is at
     first extremely small, but it grows wider, deeper, and more
     rapid every moment, as the opening enlarges, and soon
     becomes a roaring torrent, spreading to a great width, and
     tossing itself into surges and crests as it rushes down the
     slope into the sea, in the most wild and tumultuous manner.

     The spectacle is almost equally imposing when, after the
     pond has emptied itself, and the tide begins to rise, the
     surf of the sea engages in its work of reconstructing the

     [4] It is somewhat doubtful whether the very first discovery
     of the art of making glass, took place here or not, as
     learned men have noticed a considerable number of allusions
     in various writings of a very high antiquity, which they
     have thought might possibly refer to this substance. An
     example of this kind is found in the book of Job, where a
     word, translated crystal, is used. The writer, speaking of
     wisdom, says, "It can not be equaled with the gold of Ophir,
     with the precious onyx, or the sapphire. The gold and the
     _crystal_ can not equal it." It has been considered doubtful
     whether the word crystal, in this connection, is meant to
     denote a glass or some transparent mineral.

     [5] See 1 Kings xviii. 17-46. For other passages of
     Scripture referring to Mt. Carmel see 2 Kings ii. 25; iv.
     25; xix. 23. 2 Chron. xxvi. 10. Isa. xxxv. 2. Jer. xlvi. 18.
     Amos i. 2; ix. 3. Micah vii. 14.

     [6] 1 Kings xviii. 4




France was now at peace with all the world. It was universally
admitted that Napoleon was the great pacificator. He was the idol of
France. The masses of the people in Europe, every where regarded him
as their advocate and friend, the enemy of aristocratic usurpation,
and the great champion of equality. The people of France no longer
demanded _liberty_. Weary years of woe had taught them gladly to
relinquish the boon. They only desired a ruler who would take care
of them, govern them, protect them from the power of allied
despotism, and give them equal rights. Though Napoleon had now but
the title of First Consul, and France was nominally a republic, he
was in reality the most powerful monarch in Europe. His throne was
established in the hearts of nearly forty millions of people. His
word was law.

It will be remembered that Josephine contemplated the extraordinary
grandeur to which her husband had attained, with intense solicitude.
She saw that more than ordinary regal power had passed into his
hands, and she was not a stranger to the intense desire which
animated his heart to have an heir to whom to transmit his name and
his glory. She knew that many were intimating to him that an heir
was essential to the repose of France. She was fully informed that
divorce had been urged upon him as one of the stern necessities of
state. One day, when Napoleon was busy in his cabinet, Josephine
entered softly, by a side door, and seating herself affectionately
upon his knee, and passing her hand gently through his hair, said to
him, with a burst of tenderness, "I entreat you, my friend, do not
make yourself king. It is Lucien who urges you to it. Do not listen
to him." Napoleon smiled upon her kindly, and said, "Why, my poor
Josephine, you are mad. You must not listen to these fables which
the old dowagers tell you. But you interrupt me now; I am very busy;
leave me alone."

It is recorded that Lucien ventured to suggest to Josephine that a
law higher than the law of ordinary morality required that she must
become a mother, even were it necessary, for the attainment of that
end, that she should violate her nuptial vows. Brutalizing and
vulgar infidelity had obliterated in France, nearly all the
sacredness of domestic ties. Josephine, instinctively virtuous, and
revering the religion of her childhood, which her husband had
reinstated, bursting into tears, indignantly exclaimed, "This is
dreadful. Wretched should I be were any one to suppose me capable of
listening, without horror, to your infamous proposal. Your ideas are
poisonous; your language horrible." "Well, then, madame," responded
Lucien, "all that I can say is, that from my heart I pity you."

Josephine was at times almost delirious in apprehension of the awful
calamity which threatened her. She knew the intensity of her
husband's love. She also knew the boundlessness of his ambition.
She could not be blind to the apparent importance, as a matter of
state policy, that Napoleon should possess an heir. She also was
fully aware that throughout France marriage had long been regarded
but as a partnership of convenience, to be formed and sundered
almost at pleasure. "Marriage," said Madame de Stael, "has become
but the sacrament of adultery." The nation, under the influence of
these views, would condemn her for selfishly refusing assent to an
arrangement apparently essential to the repose of France and of
Europe. Never was a woman placed in a situation of more terrible
trial. Never was an ambitious man exposed to a more fiery
temptation. Laying aside the authority of Christianity, and
contemplating the subject in the light of mere expediency, it seemed
a plain duty for Napoleon and Josephine to separate. But gloriously
does it illustrate the immutable truth of God's word, that even in
such an exigence as this, the path which the Bible pointed out was
the only path of safety and of peace. "In separating myself from
Josephine," said Napoleon afterward, "and in marrying Maria Louisa,
I placed my foot upon an abyss which was covered with flowers."

Josephine's daughter, Hortense, beautiful, brilliant, and amiable,
then but eighteen years of age, was strongly attached to Duroc, one
of Napoleon's aids, a very fashionable and handsome man. Josephine,
however, had conceived the idea of marrying Hortense to Louis
Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother. She said, one day, to
Bourrienne, "My two brothers-in-law are my determined enemies. You
see all their intrigues. You know how much uneasiness they have
caused me. This projected marriage with Duroc, leaves me without any
support. Duroc, independent of Bonaparte's friendship, is nothing.
He has neither fortune, rank, nor even reputation. He can afford me
no protection against the enmity of the brothers. I must have some
more certain reliance for the future. My husband loves Louis very
much. If I can succeed in uniting my daughter to him, he will prove
a strong counterpoise to the calumnies and persecutions of my
brothers-in-law." These remarks were reported to Napoleon. He
replied, "Josephine labors in vain. Duroc and Hortense love each
other, and they shall be married. I am attached to Duroc. He is well
born. I have given Caroline to Murat, and Pauline to Le Clerc. I can
as well give Hortense to Duroc. He is brave. He is as good as the
others. He is general of division. Besides, I have other views for

In the palace the heart may throb with the same joys and griefs as
in the cottage. In anticipation of the projected marriage Duroc was
sent on a special mission to compliment the Emperor Alexander on his
accession to the throne. Duroc wrote often to Hortense while absent.
When the private secretary whispered in her ear, in the midst of the
brilliant throng of the Tuileries, "I have a letter," she would
immediately retire to her apartment. Upon her return her friends
could see that her eyes were moistened with the tears of affection
and joy. Josephine cherished the hope that could she succeed in
uniting Hortense with Louis Bonaparte, should Hortense give birth to
a son, Napoleon would regard him as his heir. The child would bear
the name of Bonaparte; the blood of the Bonapartes would circulate
in his veins; and he would be the offspring of Hortense, whom
Napoleon regarded as his own daughter, and whom he loved with the
strongest parental affection. Thus the terrible divorce might be
averted. Urged by motives so powerful, Josephine left no means
untried to accomplish her purpose.

Louis Bonaparte was a studious, pensive, imaginative man, of great
moral worth, though possessing but little force of character. He had
been bitterly disappointed in his affections, and was weary of the
world. When but nineteen years of age he had formed a very strong
attachment for a young lady whom he had met in Paris. She was the
daughter of an emigrant noble, and his whole being became absorbed
in the passion of love. Napoleon, then in the midst of those
victories which paved his way to the throne of France, was
apprehensive that the alliance of his brother with one of the old
royalist families, might endanger his own ambitious projects. He
therefore sent him away on a military commission, and secured, by
his powerful instrumentality, the marriage of the young lady to
another person. The disappointment preyed deeply upon the heart of
the sensitive young man. All ambition died within him. He loved
solitude, and studiously avoided the cares and pomp of state.
Napoleon, not having been aware of the extreme strength of his
brother's attachment, when he saw the wound which he had inflicted
upon him, endeavored to make all the amends in his power. Hortense
was beautiful, full of grace and vivacity. At last Napoleon fell in
with the views of Josephine, and resolved, having united the two, to
recompense his brother, as far as possible, by lavishing great
favors upon them.

It was long before Louis would listen to the proposition of his
marriage with Hortense. His affections still clung to the lost
object of his idolatry, and he could not, without pain, think of
union with another. Indeed a more uncongenial alliance could hardly
have been imagined. In no one thing were their tastes similar. But
who could resist the combined tact of Josephine and power of
Napoleon. All obstacles were swept away, and the maiden, loving the
hilarity of life, and its gayest scenes of festivity and splendor,
was reluctantly led to the silent, pensive scholar, who as
reluctantly received her as his bride. Hortense had become in some
degree reconciled to the match, as her powerful father promised to
place them in high positions of wealth and rank. Louis resigned
himself to his lot, feeling that earth had no further joy in store
for him. A magnificent _fête_ was given in honor of this marriage,
at which all the splendors of the ancient royalty were revived.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, who, as President of the French Republic,
succeeded Louis Philippe, the King of the French, was the only child
of this marriage who survived his parents.

Napoleon had organized in the heart of Italy a republic containing
about five millions of inhabitants. This republic could by no means
maintain itself against the monarchies of Europe, unaided by France.
Napoleon, surrounded by hostile kings, deemed it essential to the
safety of France, to secure in Italy a nation of congenial
sympathies and interests, with whom he could form the alliance
of cordial friendship. The Italians, all inexperienced in
self-government, regarding Napoleon as their benefactor and their
sole supporter, looked to him for a constitution. Three of the most
influential men of the Cisalpine Republic, were sent as delegates to
Paris, to consult with the First Consul upon the organization of
their government. Under the direction of Napoleon a constitution was
drafted, which, considering the character of the Italian people, and
the hostile monarchical influences which surrounded them, was most
highly liberal. A President and Vice-president were to be chosen for
ten years. There was to be a Senate of eight members and a House of
Representatives of seventy-five members. These were all to be
selected from a body composed of 300 landed proprietors, 200
merchants, and 200 of the clergy and prominent literary men. Thus
all the important interests of the state were represented.

In Italy, as in all the other countries of Europe at that time,
there were three prominent parties. The Loyalists sought the
restoration of monarchy and the exclusive privileges of kings and
nobles. The Moderate Republicans wished to establish a firm
government, which would enforce order and confer upon all equal
rights. The Jacobins wished to break down all distinctions, divide
property, and to govern by the blind energies of the mob. Italy had
long been held in subjection by the spiritual terrors of the priests
and by the bayonets of the Austrians. Ages of bondage had enervated
the people and there were no Italian statesmen capable of taking the
helm of government in such a turbulent sea of troubles. Napoleon
resolved to have himself proposed as President, and then reserving
to himself the supreme direction, to delegate the details of affairs
to distinguished Italians, until they should, in some degree, be
trained to duties so new to them. Says Thiers, "This plan was not,
on his part, the inspiration of ambition, but rather of great good
sense. His views on this occasion were unquestionably both pure and
exalted." But nothing can more strikingly show the almost miraculous
energies of Napoleon's mind, and his perfect self-reliance, than the
readiness with which, in addition to the cares of the Empire of
France, he assumed the responsibility of organizing and developing
another nation of five millions of inhabitants. This was in 1802.
Napoleon was then but thirty-three years of age.

To have surrendered those Italians, who had rallied around the
armies of France in their hour of need, again to Austrian
domination, would have been an act of treachery. To have abandoned
them, in their inexperience, to the Jacobin mob on the one hand, and
to royalist intrigues on the other, would have insured the ruin of
the Republic. But by leaving the details of government to be
administered by Italians, and at the same time sustaining the
constitution by his own powerful hand, there was a probability that
the republic might attain prosperity and independence. As the press
of business rendered it extremely difficult for Napoleon to leave
France, a plan was formed for a vast congress of the Italians, to be
assembled in Lyons, about half way between Paris and Milan, for the
imposing adoption of the republican constitution. Four hundred and
fifty-two deputies were elected to cross the frozen Alps, in the
month of December. The extraordinary watchfulness and foresight of
the First Consul, had prepared every comfort for them on the way. In
Lyons sumptuous preparations were made for their entertainment.
Magnificent halls were decorated in the highest style of earthly
splendor for the solemnities of the occasion. The army of Egypt,
which had recently landed, bronzed by an African sun, was gorgeously
attired to add to the magnificence of the spectacle. The Lyonese
youth, exultant with pride, were formed into an imposing body of
cavalry. On the 11th of January, 1802, Napoleon, accompanied by
Josephine, arrived in Lyons. The whole population of the adjoining
country had assembled along the road, anxiously watching for his
passage. At night immense fires illumined his path, blazing upon
every hill side and in every valley. One continuous shout of "Live
Bonaparte," rolled along with the carriage from Paris to Lyons. It
was late in the evening when Napoleon arrived in Lyons. The
brilliant city flamed with the splendor of noon-day. The carriage of
the First Consul passed under a triumphal arch, surmounted by a
sleeping lion, the emblem of France, and Napoleon took up his
residence in the Hotel de Ville, which, in most princely
sumptuousness had been decorated for his reception. The Italians
adored Napoleon. They felt personally ennobled by his renown, for
they considered him their countryman. The Italian language was his
native tongue, and he spoke it with the most perfect fluency and
elegance. The moment that the name of Napoleon was suggested to the
deputies as President of the Republic, it was received with shouts
of enthusiastic acclamation. A deputation was immediately sent to
the First Consul to express the unanimous and cordial wish of the
convention that he would accept the office. While these things were
transpiring, Napoleon, ever intensely occupied, was inspecting his
veteran soldiers of Italy and of Egypt, in a public review. The
elements seemed to conspire to invest the occasion with splendor.
The day was cloudless, the sun brilliant, the sky serene, the air
invigorating. All the inhabitants of Lyons and the populace of the
adjacent country thronged the streets. No pen can describe the
transports with which the hero was received, as he rode along the
lines of these veterans, whom he had so often led to victory. The
soldiers shouted in a frenzy of enthusiasm. Old men, and young men,
and boys caught the shout and it reverberated along the streets in
one continuous roar. Matrons and maidens, waving banners and
handkerchiefs, wept in excess of emotion. Bouquets of flowers were
showered from the windows, to carpet his path, and every conceivable
demonstration was made of the most enthusiastic love. Napoleon
himself was deeply moved by the scene. Some of the old grenadiers,
whom he recognized, he called out of the ranks, kindly talked with
them, inquiring respecting their wounds and their wants. He
addressed several of the officers, whom he had seen in many
encounters, shook hands with them, and a delirium of excitement
pervaded all minds. Upon his return to the Hotel de Ville, he met
the deputation of the convention. They presented him the address,
urging upon him the acceptance of the Presidency of the Cisalpine
Republic. Napoleon received the address, intimated his acceptance,
and promised, on the following day, to meet the convention.

[Illustration: REVIEW AT LYONS.]

The next morning dawned brightly upon the city. A large church,
embellished with richest drapery, was prepared for the solemnities
of the occasion. Napoleon entered the church, took his seat upon an
elevated platform, surrounded by his family, the French ministers,
and a large number of distinguished generals and statesmen. He
addressed the assembly in the Italian language, with as much ease of
manner, elegance of expression, and fluency of utterance as if his
whole life had been devoted to the cultivation of the powers of
oratory. He announced his acceptance of the dignity with which they
would invest him, and uttered his views respecting the measures
which should be adopted to secure the prosperity of the _Italian
Republic_, as the new state was henceforth to be called. Repeated
bursts of applause interrupted his address, and at its close one
continuous shout of acclamation testified the assent and the delight
of the assembled multitude. Napoleon remained at Lyons twenty days,
occupied, apparently every moment, with the vast affairs which then
engrossed his attention. And yet he found time to write daily to
Paris, urging forward the majestic enterprises of the new government
in France. The following brief extracts, from this free and
confidential correspondence, afford an interesting glimpse of the
motives which actuated Napoleon at this time, and of the great
objects of his ambition.

"I am proceeding slowly in my operations. I pass the whole of my
mornings in giving audience to the deputations of the neighboring
departments. The improvement in the happiness of France is obvious.
During the past two years the population of Lyons has increased more
than 20,000 souls. All the manufacturers tell me that their works
are in a state of high activity. All minds seem to be full of
energy, not that energy which overturns empires, but that which
re-establishes them, and conducts them to prosperity and riches."

"I beg of you particularly to see that the unruly members, whom we
have in the constituted authorities, are every one of them removed.
The wish of the nation is, that the government shall not be
obstructed in its endeavors to act for the public good, and that the
head of Medusa shall no longer show itself, either in our tribunes
or in our assemblies. The conduct of Sieyes, on this occasion,
completely proves that, having contributed to the destruction of all
the constitutions since '91, he wishes now to try his hand against
the present. He ought to burn a wax candle to Our Lady, for having
got out of the scrape so fortunately and in so unexpected a manner.
But the older I grow, the more I perceive that each man must fulfill
his destiny. I recommend you to ascertain whether the provisions for
St. Domingo have actually been sent off. I take it for granted that
you have taken proper measures for demolishing the Châtelet. If the
Minister of Marine should stand in need of the frigates of the King
of Naples, he may make use of them. General Jourdan gives me a
satisfactory account of the state of Piedmont."

"I wish that citizen Royer be sent to the 16th military division, to
examine into the accounts of the paymaster. I also wish some
individual, like citizen Royer, to perform the same duty for the
13th and 14th divisions. It is complained that the receivers keep
the money as long as they can, and that the paymasters postpone
payment as long as possible. The paymasters and the receivers are
the greatest nuisance in the state."

"Yesterday I visited several factories. I was pleased with the
industry and the severe economy which pervaded these establishments.
Should the wintry weather continue severe, I do not think that the
$25,000 a month, which the Minister of the Interior grants for the
purposes of charity, will be sufficient. It will be necessary to add
five thousand dollars for the distribution of wood, and also to
light fires in the churches and other large buildings to give warmth
to a great number of people."

Napoleon arrived in Paris on the 31st of January. In the mean time,
there had been a new election of members of the Tribunate and of the
Legislative body. All those who had manifested any opposition to the
measures of Napoleon, in the re-establishment of Christianity, and
in the adoption of the new civil code, were left out, and their
places supplied by those who approved of the measures of the First
Consul. Napoleon could now act unembarrassed. In every quarter there
was submission. All the officers of the state, immediately upon his
return, sought an audience, and, in that pomp of language which his
majestic deeds and character inspired, presented to him their
congratulations. He was already a sovereign, in possession of regal
power, such as no other monarch in Europe enjoyed. Upon one object
all the energies of his mighty mind were concentrated. France was
his estate, his diadem, his all. The glory of France was his glory,
the happiness of France his happiness, the riches of France his
wealth. Never did a father with more untiring self-denial and toil
labor for his family, than did Napoleon through days of Herculean
exertion and nights of sleeplessness devote every energy of body and
soul to the greatness of France. He loved not ease, he loved not
personal indulgence, he loved not sensual gratification. The
elevation of France to prosperity, wealth, and power, was a
limitless ambition. The almost supernatural success which had thus
far attended his exertions, did but magnify his desires and
stimulate his hopes. He had no wish to elevate France upon the ruins
of other nations. But he wished to make France the pattern of all
excellence, the illustrious leader, at the head of all nations,
guiding them to intelligence, to opulence, and to happiness. Such,
at this time, was the towering ambition of Napoleon, the most noble
and comprehensive which was ever embraced by the conception of man.
Of course, such ambition was not consistent with the equality of
other nations, for he determined that France should be the first.
But he manifested no disposition to destroy the prosperity of
others; he only wished to give such an impulse to humanity in
France, by the culture of mind, by purity of morals, by domestic
industry, by foreign commerce, by great national works, as to place
France in the advance upon the race course of greatness. In this
race France had but one antagonist--England. France had nearly forty
millions of inhabitants. The island of Great Britain contained but
about fifteen millions. But England, with her colonies, girdled the
globe, and, with her fleets, commanded all seas. "France," said
Napoleon, "must also have her colonies and her fleets." "If we
permit that," the statesmen of England rejoined, "we may become a
secondary power, and may thus be at the mercy of France." It was
undeniably so. Shall history be blind to such fatality as this? Is
man, in the hour of triumphant ambition, so moderate, that we can be
willing that he should attain power which places us at his mercy?
England was omnipotent upon the seas. She became arrogant, and
abused that power, and made herself offensive to all nations.
Napoleon developed no special meekness of character to indicate that
he would be, in the pride of strength which no nation could resist,
more moderate and conciliating. Candor can not censure England for
being unwilling to yield her high position--to surrender her
supremacy on the seas--to become a secondary power--to allow France
to become her master. And who can censure France for seeking the
establishment of colonies, the extension of commerce, friendly
alliance with other nations, and the creation of fleets to protect
her from aggression upon the ocean, as well as upon the land?
Napoleon himself, with that wonderful magnanimity which ever
characterized him, though at times exasperated by the hostility
which he now encountered, yet often spoke in terms of respect of the
influences which animated his foes. It is to be regretted that his
antagonists so seldom reciprocated this magnanimity. There was here,
most certainly, a right and a wrong. But it is not easy for man
accurately to adjust the balance. God alone can award the issue.
The mind is saddened as it wanders amid the labyrinths of
conscientiousness and of passion, of pure motives and of impure
ambition. This is, indeed, a fallen world. The drama of nations is a
tragedy. Melancholy is the lot of man.

England daily witnessed, with increasing alarm, the rapid and
enormous strides which France was making. The energy of the First
Consul seemed superhuman. His acts indicated the most profound
sagacity, the most far-reaching foresight. To-day the news reaches
London that Napoleon has been elected President of the Italian
Republic. Thus in an hour five millions of people are added to his
empire! To-morrow it is announced that he is establishing a colony
at Elba, that a vast expedition is sailing for St. Domingo, to
re-organize the colony there. England is bewildered. Again it is
proclaimed that Napoleon has purchased Louisiana of Spain, and is
preparing to fill the fertile valley of the Mississippi with
colonists. In the mean time, all France is in a state of activity.
Factories, roads, bridges, canals, fortifications are every where
springing into existence. The sound of the ship hammer reverberates
in all the harbors of France, and every month witnesses the increase
of the French fleet. The mass of the English people contemplate with
admiration this development of energy. The statesmen of England
contemplate it with dread.

For some months, Napoleon, in the midst of all his other cares, had
been maturing a vast system of public instruction for the youth of
France. He drew up, with his own hand, the plan for their schools,
and proposed the course of study. It is a little singular that, with
his strong scientific predilections, he should have assigned the
first rank to classical studies. Perhaps this is to be accounted for
from his profound admiration of the heroes of antiquity. His own
mind was most thoroughly stored with all the treasures of Greek and
Roman story. All these schools were formed upon a military model,
for, situated as France was, in the midst of monarchies, at heart
hostile, he deemed it necessary that the nation should be
universally trained to bear arms. Religious instruction was to be
communicated in all these schools by chaplains, military instruction
by old officers who had left the army, and classical and scientific
instruction by the most learned men Europe could furnish. The First
Consul also devoted special attention to female schools. "France
needs nothing so much to promote her regeneration," said he, "as
good mothers." To attract the youth of France to these schools, one
million of dollars was appropriated for over six thousand gratuitous
exhibitions for the pupils. Ten schools of law were established,
nine schools of medicine, and an institution for the mechanical
arts, called the "School of Bridges and Roads," the first model of
those schools of art which continue in France until the present day,
and which are deemed invaluable. There were no exclusive privileges
in these institutions. A system of perfect equality pervaded them.
The pupils of all classes were placed upon a level, with an
unobstructed arena before them. "This is only a commencement," said
Napoleon, "by-and-by we shall do more and better."

Another project which Napoleon now introduced was vehemently
opposed--the establishment of the Legion of Honor. One of the
leading principles of the revolution was the entire overthrow of all
titles of distinction. Every man, high or low, was to be addressed
simply as _Citizen_. Napoleon wished to introduce a system of
rewards which should stimulate to heroic deeds, and which should
ennoble those who had deserved well of humanity. Innumerable
foreigners of distinction had thronged France since the peace. He
had observed with what eagerness the populace had followed these
foreigners, gazing with delight upon their gay decorations. The
court-yard of the Tuileries was ever crowded when these illustrious
strangers arrived and departed. Napoleon, in his council, where he
was always eloquent and powerful, thus urged his views:

"Look at these vanities, which genius pretends so much to disdain.
The populace is not of that opinion. It loves these many-colored
ribbons, as it loves religious pomp. The democrat philosopher calls
it vanity. Vanity let it be. But that vanity is a weakness common to
the whole human race, and great virtues may be made to spring from
it. With these so much despised baubles heroes are made. There must
be worship for the religious sentiment. There must be visible
distinctions for the noble sentiment of glory. Nations should not
strive to be singular any more than individuals. The affectation of
acting differently from the rest of the world, is an affectation
which is reproved by all persons of sense and modesty. Ribbons are
in use in all countries. Let them be in use in France. It will be
one more friendly relation established with Europe. Our neighbors
give them only to the man of noble birth. I will give them to the
man of merit--to the one who shall have served best in the army or
in the state, or who shall have produced the finest works."

It was objected that the institution of the Legion of Honor was a
return to the aristocracy which the revolution had abolished. "What
is there aristocratic," Napoleon exclaimed, "in a distinction purely
personal, and merely for life, bestowed on the man who has displayed
merit, whether civil or military--bestowed on him alone, bestowed
for his life only, and not passing to his children. Such a
distinction is the reverse of aristocratic. It is the essence of
aristocracy that its titles are transmitted from the man who has
earned them, to the son who possesses no merit. The ancient regimé,
so battered by the ram of the revolution, is more entire than is
believed. All the emigrants hold each other by the hand. The
Vendeeans are secretly enrolled. The priests, at heart, are not very
friendly to us. With the words 'legitimate king,' thousands might be
roused to arms. It is needful that the men who have taken part in
the revolution should have a bond of union, and cease to depend on
the first accident which might strike one single head. For ten years
we have only been making ruins. We must now found an edifice. Depend
upon it, the struggle is not over with Europe. Be assured that
struggle will begin again."

It was then urged by some, that the Legion of Honor should be
confined entirely to military merit. "By no means," said Napoleon,
"Rewards are not to be conferred upon soldiers alone. All sorts of
merit are brothers. The courage of the President of the Convention,
resisting the populace, should be compared with the courage of
Kleber, mounting to the assault of Acre. It is right that civil
virtues should have their reward, as well as military virtues. Those
who oppose this course, reason like barbarians. It is the religion
of brute force they commend to us. Intelligence has its rights
before those of force. Force, without intelligence, is nothing. In
barbarous ages, the man of stoutest sinews was the chieftain. Now
the general is the most intelligent of the brave. At Cairo, the
Egyptians could not comprehend how it was that Kleber, with his
majestic form, was not commander-in-chief. When Mourad Bey had
carefully observed our tactics, he could comprehend how it was that
I, and no other, ought to be the general of an army so conducted.
You reason like the Egyptians, when you attempt to confine rewards
to military valor. The soldiers reason better than you. Go to their
bivouacs; listen to them. Do you imagine that it is the tallest of
their officers, and the most imposing by his stature, for whom they
feel the highest regard? Do you imagine even that the bravest stands
first in their esteem? No doubt they would despise the man whose
courage they suspected; but they rank above the merely brave man him
whom they consider the most intelligent. As for myself, do you
suppose that it is solely because I am reputed a great general that
I rule France? No! It is because the qualities of a statesman and a
magistrate are attributed to me. France will never tolerate the
government of the sword. Those who think so are strangely mistaken.
It would require an abject servitude of fifty years before that
could be the case. France is too noble, too intelligent a country to
submit to material power. Let us honor intelligence, virtue, the
civil qualities; in short, let us bestow upon them, in all
professions, the like reward."

The true spirit of republicanism is certainly equality of rights,
not of attainments and honors; the abolition of hereditary
distinctions and privileges, not of those which are founded upon
merit. The badge of the Legion of Honor was to be conferred upon all
who, by genius, self-denial, and toil, had won renown. The prizes
were open to the humblest peasant in the land. Still the popular
hostility to any institution which bore a resemblance to the
aristocracy of the ancient nobility was so strong, that though a
majority voted in favor of the measure, there was a strong
opposition. Napoleon was surprised. He said to Bourrienne: "You are
right. Prejudices are still against me. I ought to have waited.
There was no occasion for haste in bringing it forward. But the
thing is done; and you will soon find that the taste for these
distinctions is not yet gone by. It is a taste which belongs to the
nature of man. You will see that extraordinary results will arise
from it."

The order was to consist of six thousand members. It was constituted
in four ranks: grand officers, commanders, officers, and private
legionaries. The badge was simply a red ribbon, in the button-hole.
To the first rank, there was allotted an annual salary of $1000; to
the second, $400; to the third, $200; to the fourth, $50. The
private soldier, the retired scholar, and the skillful artist were
thus decorated with the same badge of distinction which figured upon
the breasts of generals, nobles, and monarchs. That this institution
was peculiarly adapted to the state of France, is evident from the
fact, that it has survived all the revolutions of subsequent years.
"Though of such recent origin," says Thiers, "it is already
consecrated as if it had passed through centuries; to such a degree
has it become the recompense of heroism, of knowledge, of merit of
every kind--so much have its honors been coveted by the grandees and
the princes of Europe the most proud of their origin."

The popularity of Napoleon was now unbounded. A very general and
earnest disposition was expressed to confer upon the First Consul a
magnificent testimonial of the national gratitude--a testimonial
worthy of the illustrious man who was to receive it, and of the
powerful nation by which it was to be bestowed. The President of the
Tribunal thus addressed that body: "Among all nations public honors
have been decreed to men who, by splendid actions, have honored
their country, and saved it from great dangers. What man ever had
stronger claims to the national gratitude than General Bonaparte?
His valor and genius have saved the French people from the excesses
of anarchy, and from the miseries of war; and France is too great,
too magnanimous to leave such benefits without reward."

A deputation was immediately chosen to confer with Napoleon upon the
subject of the tribute of gratitude and affection which he should
receive. Surrounded by his colleagues and the principal officers of
the state, he received them the next day in the Tuileries. With
seriousness and modesty he listened to the high eulogium upon his
achievements which was pronounced, and then replied: "I receive
with sincere gratitude the wish expressed by the Tribunate. I desire
no other glory than that of having completely performed the task
imposed upon me. I aspire to no other reward than the affection of
my fellow-citizens. I shall be happy if they are thoroughly
convinced, that the evils which they may experience, will always be
to me the severest of misfortunes; that life is dear to me solely
for the services which I am able to render to my country; that death
itself will have no bitterness for me, if my last looks can see the
happiness of the republic as firmly secured as is its glory."


But how was Napoleon to be rewarded? That was the great and
difficult question. Was wealth to be conferred upon him? For wealth
he cared nothing. Millions had been at his disposal, and he had
emptied them all into the treasury of France. Ease, luxury,
self-indulgence had no charms for him. Were monuments to be reared
to his honor, titles to be lavished upon his name? Napoleon regarded
these but as means for the accomplishment of ends. In themselves
they were nothing. The one only thing which he desired was _power_,
power to work out vast results for others, and thus to secure for
himself renown, which should be pure and imperishable. But how could
the _power_ of Napoleon be increased? He was already almost
absolute. Whatever he willed, he accomplished. Senators,
legislators, and tribunes all co-operated in giving energy to his
plans. It will be remembered, that Napoleon was elected First Consul
for a period of ten years. It seemed that there was absolutely
nothing which could be done, gratifying to the First Consul, but to
prolong the term of his Consulship, by either adding to it another
period of ten years, or by continuing it during his life. "What does
he wish?" was the universal inquiry. Every possible means were
tried, but in vain, to obtain a single word from his lips,
significant of his desires. One of the senators went to Cambaceres,
and said, "What would be gratifying to General Bonaparte? Does he
wish to be king? Only let him say so, and we are all ready to vote
for the re-establishment of royalty. Most willingly will we do it
for him, for he is worthy of that station." But the First Consul
shut himself up in impenetrable reserve. Even his most intimate
friends could catch no glimpse of his secret wishes. At last the
question was plainly and earnestly put to him. With great apparent
humility, he replied: "I have not fixed my mind upon any thing. Any
testimony of the public confidence will be sufficient for me, and
will fill me with satisfaction." The question was then discussed
whether to add ten years to his Consulship, or to make him First
Consul for life. Cambaceres knew well the boundless ambition of
Napoleon, and was fully conscious, that any limited period of power
would not be in accordance with his plans. He ventured to say to
him; "You are wrong not to explain yourself. Your enemies, for
notwithstanding your services, you have some left even in the
Senate, will abuse your reserve." Napoleon calmly replied: "Let them
alone. The majority of the Senate is always ready to do more than it
is asked. They will go further than you imagine."

On the evening of the 8th of May, 1802, the resolution was adopted,
of prolonging the powers of the First Consul for _ten years_.
Napoleon was probably surprised and disappointed. He, however,
decided to return a grateful answer, and to say that not from the
Senate, but from the suffrages of the people alone could he accept a
prolongation of that power to which their voices had elevated him.
The following answer was transmitted to the Senate, the next

"The honorable proof of your esteem, given in your deliberation of
the 8th, will remain forever engraven on my heart. In the three
years which have just elapsed fortune has smiled upon the republic.
But fortune is fickle. How many men whom she has loaded with favors,
have lived a few years too long. The interest of my glory and that
of my happiness, would seem to have marked the term of my public
life, at the moment when the peace of the world is proclaimed. But
the glory and the happiness of the citizen ought to be silent, when
the interest of the state, and the public partiality, call him. You
judge that I owe a new sacrifice to the people. I will make it, if
the wishes of the people command what your suffrage authorizes."

[Illustration: MALMAISON.]

Napoleon immediately left Paris for his country-seat at Malmaison.
This beautiful chateau was about ten miles from the metropolis.
Josephine had purchased the peaceful, rural retreat at Napoleon's
request, during his first Italian campaign. Subsequently, large sums
had been expended in enlarging and improving the grounds; and it was
ever the favorite residence of both Napoleon and Josephine.
Cambaceres called an extraordinary meeting of the Council of State.
After much deliberation, it was resolved, by an immense majority,
that the following proposition should be submitted to the people:
"Shall Napoleon Bonaparte be First Consul for life?" It was then
resolved to submit a second question: "Shall the First Consul have
the power of appointing his successor?" This was indeed
re-establishing monarchy, under a republican name.

Cambaceres immediately repaired to Malmaison, to submit these
resolutions to Napoleon. To the amazement of all, he immediately and
firmly rejected the second question. Energetically, he said: "Whom
would you have me appoint my successor? My brothers? But will
France, which has consented to be governed by me, consent to be
governed by Joseph or Lucien? Shall I nominate you consul,
Cambaceres? You? Dare you undertake such a task? And then the will
of Louis XIV. was not respected; is it likely that mine would be? A
dead man, let him be who he will, is nobody." In opposition to all
urgency, he ordered the second question to be erased, and the first
only to be submitted to the people. It is impossible to divine the
motive which influenced Napoleon in this most unexpected decision.
Some have supposed that even then he had in view the Empire and the
hereditary monarchy, and that he wished to leave a chasm in the
organization of the government, as a reason for future change.
Others have supposed that he dreaded the rivalries which would arise
among his brothers and his nephews, from his having at his disposal
so resplendent a gift as the Empire of France. But the historian
treads upon dangerous ground, when he begins to judge of motives.
That which Napoleon actually _did_ was moderate and noble in the
highest degree. He declined the power of appointing his successor,
and submitted his election to the suffrages of the people. A
majority of 3,568,885 voted for the Consulate for life, and only
eight thousands and a few hundreds, against it. Never before, or
since, was an earthly government established by such unanimity.
Never had a monarch a more indisputable title to his throne. Upon
this occasion Lafayette added to his vote these qualifying words: "I
can not vote for such a magistracy, until public freedom is
sufficiently guaranteed. When that is done, I give my voice to
Napoleon Bonaparte." In a private conversation with the First
Consul, he added: "A free government, and you at its head--that
comprehends all my desires." Napoleon remarked: "In theory Lafayette
is perhaps right. But what is theory? A mere dream, when applied to
the masses of mankind. He thinks he is still in the United
States--as if the French were Americans. He has no conception of
what is required for this country."

A day was fixed for a grand diplomatic festival, when Napoleon
should receive the congratulations of the constituted authorities,
and of the foreign embassadors. The soldiers, in brilliant uniform,
formed a double line, from the Tuileries to the Luxembourg. The
First Consul was seated in a magnificent chariot, drawn by eight
horses. A cortège of gorgeous splendor accompanied him. All Paris
thronged the streets through which he passed, and the most
enthusiastic applause rent the heavens. To the congratulatory
address of the Senate, Napoleon replied: "The life of a citizen
belongs to his country. The French nation wishes that mine should be
wholly consecrated to France. I obey its will. Through my efforts,
by your assistance, citizen-senators, by the aid of the authorities,
and by the confidence and support of this mighty people, the
liberty, equality, and prosperity of France will be rendered secure
against the caprices of fate, and the uncertainty of futurity. The
most virtuous of nations will be the most happy, as it deserves to
be; and its felicity will contribute to the general happiness of all
Europe. Proud then of being thus called, by the command of that
Power from which every thing emanates, to bring back order, justice,
and equality to the earth, when my last hour approaches, I shall
yield myself up with resignation, and, without any solicitude
respecting the opinions of future generations."


On the following day the new articles, modifying the constitution in
accordance with the change in the consulship, were submitted to the
Council of State. The First Consul presided, and with his accustomed
vigor and perspicuity, explained the reasons of each article, as he
recounted them one by one. The articles contained the provision that
Napoleon should nominate his successor to the Senate. To this, after
a slight resistance, he yielded. The most profound satisfaction now
pervaded France. Even Josephine began to be tranquil and happy. She
imagined that all thoughts of royalty and of hereditary succession
had now passed away. She contemplated with no uneasiness the power
which Napoleon possessed of choosing his successor. Napoleon
sympathized cordially with her in her high gratification that
Hortense was soon to become a mother. This child was already, in
their hearts, the selected heir to the power of Napoleon. On the
15th of August, Paris magnificently celebrated the anniversary of
the birth-day of the First Consul. This was another introduction of
monarchical usages. All the high authorities of the Church and the
State, and the foreign diplomatic bodies, called upon him with
congratulations. At noon, in all the churches of the metropolis, a
_Te Deum_ was sung, in gratitude to God for the gift of Napoleon. At
night the city blazed with illuminations. The splendors and the
etiquette of royalty were now rapidly introduced; and the same
fickle populace who had so recently trampled princes and thrones
into blood and ruin, were now captivated with the reintroduction of
these discarded splendors. Napoleon soon established himself in the
beautiful chateau of St. Cloud, which he had caused to be repaired
with great magnificence. On the Sabbath the First Consul, with
Josephine, invariably attended divine service. Their example was
soon followed by most of the members of the court, and the nation as
a body returned to Christianity, which, even in its most corrupt
form, saves humanity from those abysses of degradation into which
infidelity plunges it. Immediately after divine service he conversed
in the gallery of the chateau with the visitors who were then
waiting for him. The brilliance of his intellect, and his high
renown, caused him to be approached with emotions of awe. His words
were listened to with intensest eagerness. He was the exclusive
object of observation and attention. No earthly potentate had ever
attained such a degree of homage, pure and sincere, as now circled
around the First Consul.

Napoleon was very desirous of having his court a model of decorum
and of morals. Lucien owned a beautiful rural mansion near Neuilly.
Upon one occasion he invited Napoleon, and all the inmates of
Malmaison, to attend some private theatricals at his dwelling.
Lucien and Eliza were the performers in a piece called Alzire. The
ardor of their declamation, the freedom of their gestures, and above
all the indelicacy of the costume which they assumed, displeased
Napoleon exceedingly. As soon as the play was over he exclaimed, "It
is a scandal. I ought not to suffer such indecencies. I will give
Lucien to understand that I will have no more of it." As soon as
Lucien entered the saloon, having resumed his usual dress, Napoleon
addressed him before the whole company, and requested him in future
to desist from all such representations. "What!" said he, "when I am
endeavoring to restore purity of manners, my brother and sister must
needs exhibit themselves upon a platform, almost in a state of
nudity! It is an insult!"

One day at this time Bourrienne, going from Malmaison to Ruel, lost
a beautiful watch. He proclaimed his loss by means of the bellman at
Ruel. An hour after, as he was sitting down to dinner, a peasant boy
brought him the watch, which he had found on the road. Napoleon
heard of the occurrence. Immediately he instituted inquiries
respecting the young man and the family. Hearing a good report of
them, he gave the three brothers employment, and amply rewarded the
honest lad. "Kindness," says Bourrienne, "was a very prominent trait
in the character of Napoleon."

If we now take a brief review of what Napoleon had accomplished
since his return from Egypt, it must be admitted that the records of
the world are to be searched in vain for a similar recital. No
mortal man before ever accomplished so much, or accomplished it so
well, in so short a time.

Let us for a moment return to his landing at Frejus on the 8th of
October, 1799, until he was chosen First Consul for life, in August,
1802, a period of not quite three years. Proceeding to Paris, almost
alone, he overthrew the Directory, and seized the supreme power;
restored order into the administration of government, established a
new and very efficient system for the collection of taxes, raised
public credit, and supplied the wants of the suffering army. By
great energy and humanity he immediately terminated the horrors of
that unnatural war which had for years been desolating La Vendee.
Condescending to the attitude of suppliant, he implored of Europe
peace. Europe chose war. By a majestic conception of military
combinations, he sent Moreau with a vast army to the Rhine;
stimulated Massena to the most desperate strife at Genoa, and then,
creating as by magic, an army, from materials which excited but the
ridicule of his foes, he climbed, with artillery and horse, and all
the munitions of war, the icy pinnacles of the Alps, and fell like
an avalanche upon his foes upon the plain of Marengo. With far
inferior numbers, he snatched the victory from the victors; and in
the exultant hour of the most signal conquest, wrote again from the
field of blood imploring peace. His foes, humbled, and at his mercy,
gladly availed themselves of his clemency, and promised to treat.
Perfidiously, they only sought time to regain their strength. He
then sent Moreau to Hohenlinden, and beneath the walls of Vienna
extorted peace with continental Europe. England still prosecuted the
war. The First Consul, by his genius, won the heart of Paul of
Russia, secured the affection of Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden, and
formed a league of all Europe against the Mistress of the Seas.
While engaged in this work, he paid the creditors of the State,
established the Bank of France, overwhelmed the highway robbers with
utter destruction, and restored security in all the provinces; cut
magnificent communications over the Alps, founded hospitals on their
summits, surrounded exposed cities with fortifications, opened
canals, constructed bridges, created magnificent roads, and
commenced the compilation of that civil code which will remain an
ever-during monument of his labors and his genius. In opposition to
the remonstrances of his best friends, he re-established
Christianity, and with it proclaimed perfect liberty of conscience.
Public works were every where established, to encourage industry.
Schools and colleges were founded. Merit of every kind was
stimulated by abundant rewards. Vast improvements were made in
Paris, and the streets cleaned and irrigated. In the midst of all
these cares, he was defending France against the assaults of the
most powerful nation on the globe; and he was preparing, as his last
resort, a vast army, to carry the war into the heart of England.
Notwithstanding the most atrocious libels with which England was
filled against him, his fame shone resplendent through them all, and
he was popular with the English people. Many of the most illustrious
of the English statesmen advocated his cause. His gigantic
adversary, William Pitt, vanquished by the genius of Napoleon, was
compelled to retire from the ministry--and the world was at peace.

The difficulties, perplexities, embarrassments which were
encountered in these enterprises were infinite. Says Napoleon, with
that magnanimity which history should recognize and applaud, "We are
told that all the First Consul had to look to, was to do justice.
But to whom was he to do justice? To the proprietors whom the
revolution had violently despoiled of their properties, for this
only, that they had been faithful to their legitimate sovereign and
to the principle of honor which they had inherited from their
ancestors; or to those new proprietors, who had purchased these
domains, adventuring their money on the faith of laws flowing from
an illegitimate authority? Was he to do justice to those royalist
soldiers, mutilated in the fields of Germany, La Vendee, and
Quiberon, arrayed under the white standard of the Bourbons, in the
firm belief that they were serving the cause of their king against a
usurping tyranny; or to the million of citizens, who, forming around
the frontiers a wall of brass, had so often saved their country from
the inveterate hostility of its enemies, and had borne to so
transcendent a height the glory of the French eagle? Was he to do
justice to that clergy, the model and the example of every Christian
virtue, stripped of its birthright, the reward of fifteen hundred
years of benevolence; or to the recent acquirers, who had converted
the convents into workshops, the churches into warehouses, and had
turned to profane uses all that had been deemed most holy for ages?"

"At this period," says Thiers, "Napoleon appeared so moderate, after
having been so victorious, he showed himself so profound a
legislator, after having proved himself so great a commander, he
evinced so much love for the arts of peace, after having excelled in
the arts of war, that well might he excite illusions in France and
in the world. Only some few among the personages who were admitted
to his councils, who were capable of judging futurity by the
present, were filled with as much anxiety as admiration, on
witnessing the indefatigable activity of his mind and body, and the
energy of his will, and the impetuosity of his desires. They
trembled even at seeing him do good, in the way he did--so impatient
was he to accomplish it quickly, and upon an immense scale. The wise
and sagacious Tronchet, who both admired and loved him, and looked
upon him as the saviour of France, said, nevertheless, one day in a
tone of deep feeling to Cambaceres, 'This young man begins like
Cæsar; I fear that he will end like him.'"

The elevation of Napoleon to the supreme power for life was regarded
by most of the states of continental Europe with satisfaction, as
tending to diminish the dreaded influences of republicanism, and to
assimilate France with the surrounding monarchies. Even in England,
the prime minister, Mr. Addington, assured the French embassador of
the cordial approbation of the British government of an event,
destined to consolidate order and power in France. The King of
Prussia, the Emperor Alexander, and the Archduke Charles of Austria,
sent him their friendly congratulations. Even Catharine, the haughty
Queen of Naples, mother of the Empress of Austria, being then at
Vienna, in ardent expression of her gratification to the French
embassador said, "General Bonaparte is a great man. He has done me
much injury, but that shall not prevent me from acknowledging his
genius. By checking disorder in France, he has rendered a service to
all of Europe. He has attained the government of his country because
he is most worthy of it. I hold him out every day as a pattern to
the young princes of the imperial family. I exhort them to study
that extraordinary personage, to learn from him how to direct
nations, how to make the yoke of authority endurable, by means of
genius and glory."

But difficulties were rapidly rising between England and France. The
English were much disappointed in not finding that sale of their
manufactures which they had anticipated. The cotton and iron
manufactures were the richest branches of industry in England.
Napoleon, supremely devoted to the development of the manufacturing
resources of France, encouraged those manufactures by the almost
absolute prohibition of the rival articles. William Pitt and his
partisans, still retaining immense influence, regarded with extreme
jealousy the rapid strides which Napoleon was making to power, and
incessantly declaimed, in the journals, against the ambition of
France. Most of the royalist emigrants, who had refused to
acknowledge the new government, and were still devoted to the cause
of the Bourbons, had taken refuge in London. They had been the
allies with England in the long war against France. The English
government could not refrain from sympathizing with them in their
sufferings. It would have been ungenerous not to have done so. The
emigrants were many of them supported by pensions paid them by
England. At the same time they were constantly plotting conspiracies
against the life of Napoleon, and sending assassins to shoot him. "I
will yet teach those Bourbons," said Napoleon, in a moment of
indignation, "that I am not a man to be shot at like a dog."
Napoleon complained bitterly that his enemies, then attempting his
assassination, were in the pay of the British government. Almost
daily the plots of these emigrants were brought to light by the
vigilance of the French police.

A Bourbon pamphleteer, named Peltier, circulated widely through
England the most atrocious libels against the First Consul, his
wife, her children, his brothers and sisters. They were charged with
the most low, degrading, and revolting vices. These accusations were
circulated widely through England and America. They produced a
profound impression. They were believed. Many were interested in the
circulation of these reports, wishing to destroy the popularity of
Napoleon, and to prepare the populace of England for the renewal of
the war. Napoleon remonstrated against such infamous representations
of his character being allowed in England. But he was informed that
the British press was free; that there was no resource but to
prosecute for libel in the British courts; and that it was the part
of true greatness to treat such slanders with contempt. But Napoleon
felt that such false charges were exasperating nations, were paving
the way to deluge Europe again in war, and that causes tending to
such woes were too potent to be despised.

The Algerines were now sweeping with their piratic crafts the
Mediterranean, exacting tribute from all Christian powers. A French
ship had been wrecked upon the coast, and the crew were made
prisoners. Two French vessels and a Neapolitan ship had also been
captured and taken to Algiers. The indignation of Napoleon was
aroused. He sent an officer to the Dey with a letter, informing him
that if the prisoners were not released and the captured vessels
instantly restored, and a promise given to respect in future the
flags of France and Italy, he would send a fleet and an army and
overwhelm him with ruin. The Dey had heard of Napoleon's career in
Egypt. He was thoroughly frightened, restored the ships and the
prisoners, implored clemency, and with barbarian injustice doomed to
death those who had captured the ships in obedience to his commands.
Their lives were saved only through the intercession of the French
minister. Napoleon then performed one of the most gracious acts of
courtesy toward the Pope. The feeble monarch had no means of
protecting his coasts from the pirates who still swarmed in those
seas. Napoleon selected two fine brigs in the naval arsenal at
Toulon, equipped them with great elegance, armed them most
effectively, filled them with naval stores, and conferring upon them
the apostolical names of St. Peter and St. Paul, sent them as a
present to the Pontiff. With characteristic grandeur of action, he
carried his attentions so far as to send a cutter to bring back the
crews, that the papal treasury might be exposed to no expense. The
venerable Pope, in the exuberance of his gratitude, insisted upon
taking the French seamen to Rome. He treated them with every
attention in his power; exhibited to them St. Peter's, and dazzled
them with the pomp and splendor of cathedral worship. They returned
to France loaded with humble presents, and exceedingly gratified
with the kindness with which they had been received.

It was stipulated in the treaty of Amiens, that both England and
France should evacuate Egypt, and that England should surrender Malta
to its ancient rulers. Malta, impregnable in its fortifications,
commanded the Mediterranean, and was the key of Egypt. Napoleon had
therefore, while he professed a willingness to relinquish all claim to
the island himself, insisted upon it, as an essential point, that
England should do the same. The question upon which the treaty hinged,
was the surrender of Malta to a neutral power. The treaty was signed.
Napoleon promptly and scrupulously fulfilled his agreements. Several
embarrassments, for which England was not responsible, delayed for a
few months the evacuation of Malta. But now nearly a year had passed
since the signing of the treaty. All obstacles were removed from the
way of its entire fulfillment, and yet the troops of England remained
both in Egypt and in Malta. The question was seriously discussed in
Parliament and in the English journals, whether England were bound to
fulfill her engagements, since France was growing so alarmingly
powerful. Generously and eloquently Fox exclaimed, "I am astonished at
all I hear, particularly when I consider who they are that speak such
words. Indeed I am more grieved than any of the honorable friends and
colleagues of Mr. Pitt, at the growing greatness of France, which is
daily extending her power in Europe and in America. That France, now
accused of interfering with the concerns of others, we invaded, for
the purpose of forcing upon her a government to which she would not
submit, and of obliging her to accept the family of the Bourbons,
whose yoke she spurned. By one of those sublime movements, which
history should recommend to imitation, and preserve in eternal
memorial, she repelled her invaders. Though warmly attached to the
cause of England, we have felt an involuntary movement of sympathy
with that generous outburst of liberty, and we have no desire to
conceal it. No doubt France is great, much greater than a good
Englishman ought to wish, but that ought not to be a motive for
violating solemn treaties. But because France now appears too great to
us--greater than we thought her at first--to break a solemn
engagement, to retain Malta, for instance, would be an unworthy breach
of faith, which would compromise the honor of Britain. I am sure that
if there were in Paris an assembly similar to that which is debating
here, the British navy and its dominion over the seas would be talked
of, in the same terms as we talk in this house of the French armies,
and their dominion over the land."

Napoleon sincerely wished for peace. He was constructing vast works
to embellish and improve the empire. Thousands of workmen were
employed in cutting magnificent roads across the Alps. He was
watching with intensest interest the growth of fortifications and
the excavation of canals. He was in the possession of absolute
power, was surrounded by universal admiration, and, in the enjoyment
of profound peace, was congratulating himself upon being the
pacificator of Europe. He had disbanded his armies, and was
consecrating all the resources of the nation to the stimulation of
industry. He therefore left no means of forbearance and conciliation
untried to avert the calamities of war. He received Lord Whitworth,
the English embassador in Paris, with great distinction. The most
delicate attentions were paid to his lady, the Duchess of Dorset.
Splendid entertainments were given at the Tuileries and at St. Cloud
in their honor. Talleyrand consecrated to them all the resources of
his courtly and elegant manners. The two Associate Consuls,
Cambaceres and Lebrun, were also unwearied in attentions. Still all
these efforts on the part of Napoleon to secure friendly relations
with England were unavailing. The British government still, in open
violation of the treaty, retained Malta. The honor of France was at
stake in enforcing the sacredness of treaties. Malta was too
important a post to be left in the hands of England. Napoleon at
last resolved to have a personal interview himself with Lord
Whitworth, and to explain to him, with all frankness, his sentiments
and his resolves.


It was on the evening of the 18th of February, 1803, that Napoleon
received Lord Whitworth in his cabinet in the Tuileries. A large
writing-table occupied the middle of the room. Napoleon invited the
embassador to take a seat at one end of the table, and seated
himself at the other. "I have wished," said he, "to converse with
you in person, that I may fully convince you of my real opinions and
intentions." Then with that force of language and that perspicuity
which no man ever excelled, he recapitulated his transactions with
England from the beginning; that he had offered peace immediately
upon his accession to the consulship; that peace had been refused;
that eagerly he had renewed negotiations as soon as he could with
any propriety do so; and that he had made great concessions to
secure the peace of Amiens. "But my efforts," said he, "to live on
good terms with England, have met with no friendly response. The
English newspapers breathe but animosity against me. The journals of
the emigrants are allowed a license of abuse which is not justified
by the British constitution. Pensions are granted to Georges and his
accomplices, who are plotting my assassination. The emigrants,
protected in England, are continually making excursions to France to
stir up civil war. The Bourbon princes are received with the
insignia of the ancient royalty. Agents are sent to Switzerland and
Italy to raise up difficulties against France. Every wind which
blows from England brings me but hatred and insult. Now we have come
to a situation from which we must relieve ourselves. Will you or
will you not execute the treaty of Amiens? I have executed it on my
part with scrupulous fidelity. That treaty obliged me to evacuate
Naples, Tarento, and the Roman States, within three months. In less
than two months, all the French troops were out of those countries.
Ten months have elapsed since the exchange of the ratifications, and
the English troops are still in Malta, and at Alexandria. It is
useless to try to deceive us on this point. Will you have peace, or
will you have war? If you are for war, only say so; we will wage it
unrelentingly. If you wish for peace, you must evacuate Alexandria
and Malta. The rock of Malta, on which so many fortifications have
been erected, is, in a maritime point of view, an object of great
importance; but, in my estimation, it has an importance infinitely
greater, inasmuch as it implicates the honor of France. What would
the world say, if we were to allow a solemn treaty, signed with us,
to be violated? It would doubt our energy. For my part, my
resolution is fixed. I had rather see you in possession of the
Heights of Montmartre, than in possession of Malta."

"If you doubt my desire to preserve peace, listen, and judge how far
I am sincere. Though yet very young, I have attained a power, a
renown to which it would be difficult to add. Do you imagine that I
am solicitous to risk this power, this renown, in a desperate
struggle? If I have a war with Austria, I shall contrive to find the
way to Vienna. If I have a war with you, I will take from you every
ally upon the Continent. You will blockade us; but I will blockade
you in my turn. You will make the Continent a prison for us; but I
will make the seas a prison for you. However, to conclude the war,
there must be more direct efficiency. There must be assembled
150,000 men, and an immense flotilla. We must try to cross the
Strait, and perhaps I shall bury in the depths of the sea my
fortune, my glory, my life. It is an awful temerity, my lord, the
invasion of England." Here, to the amazement of Lord Whitworth,
Napoleon enumerated frankly and powerfully all the perils of the
enterprise: the enormous preparations it would be necessary to make
of ships, men, and munitions of war--the difficulty of eluding the
English fleet. "The chance that we shall perish," said he, "is
vastly greater than the chance that we shall succeed. Yet this
temerity, my lord, awful as it is, I am determined to hazard, if you
force me to it. I will risk my army and my life. With me that great
enterprise will have chances which it can not have with any other.
See now if I ought, prosperous, powerful, and peaceful as I now am,
to risk power, prosperity, and peace in such an enterprise. Judge,
if when I say I am desirous of peace, if I am not sincere. It is
better for you; it is better for me to keep within the limits of
treaties. You must evacuate Malta. You must not harbor my assassins
in England. Let me be abused, if you please, by the English
journals, but not by those miserable emigrants, who dishonor the
protection you grant them, and whom the Alien Act permits you to
expel from the country. Act cordially with me, and I promise you, on
my part, an entire cordiality. See what power we should exercise
over the world, if we could bring our two nations together. You have
a navy, which, with the incessant efforts of ten years, in the
employment of all my resources, I should not be able to equal. But I
have 500,000 men ready to march, under my command, whithersoever I
choose to lead them. If you are masters of the seas, I am master of
the land. Let us then think of uniting, rather than of going to war,
and we shall rule at pleasure the destinies of the world. France and
England united, can do every thing for the interests of humanity."

England, however, still refused, upon one pretense and another, to
yield Malta; and both parties were growing more and more
exasperated, and were gradually preparing for the renewal of
hostilities. Napoleon, at times, gave very free utterance to his
indignation. "Malta," said he, "gives the dominion of the
Mediterranean. Nobody will believe that I consent to surrender the
Mediterranean to the English, unless I fear their power. I thus
loose the most important sea in the world, and the respect of
Europe. I will fight to the last, for the possession of the
Mediterranean; and if I once get to Dover, it is all over with those
tyrants of the seas. Besides, as we must fight, sooner or later,
with a people to whom the greatness of France is intolerable, the
sooner the better. I am young. The English are in the wrong; more so
than they will ever be again. I had rather settle the matter at
once. They shall not have Malta."

Still Napoleon assented to the proposal for negotiating with the
English for the cession of some other island in the Mediterranean.
"Let them obtain a port to put into," said he. "To that I have no
objection. But I am determined that they shall not have two
Gibraltars in that sea: one at the entrance, and one in the middle."
To this proposition, however, England refused assent.

Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in
the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust,
till the discussions between France and England were decided. It had
so happened that the emperor had just offered his mediation, if that
could be available, to prevent a war. This the English government
also declined, upon the plea that it did not think that Russia would
be willing to accept the office thus imposed upon her. The English
embassador now received instructions to demand that France should
cede to England, Malta for ten years; and that England, by way of
compensation, would recognize the Italian republic. The embassador
was ordered to apply for his passports, if these conditions were not
accepted within seven days. To this proposition France would not
accede. The English minister demanded his passports, and left
France. Immediately the English fleet commenced its attack upon
French merchant-ships, wherever they could be found. And the world
was again deluged in war.

[Illustration: SEA COMBAT.]



France has recorded her past history and her present condition, in
the regal palaces she has reared. Upon these monumental walls are
inscribed, in letters more legible than the hieroglyphics of Egypt,
and as ineffaceable, the long and dreary story of kingly vice,
voluptuousness and pride, and of popular servility and oppression.
The unthinking tourist saunters through these magnificent saloons,
upon which have been lavished the wealth of princes and the toil of
ages, and admires their gorgeous grandeur. In marbled floors and
gilded ceilings and damask tapestry, and all the appliances of
boundless luxury and opulence, he sees but the triumphs of art, and
bewildered by the dazzling spectacle, forgets the burning outrage
upon human rights which it proclaims. Half-entranced, he wanders
through uncounted acres of groves and lawns, and parterres of
flowers, embellished with lakes, fountains, cascades, and the most
voluptuous statuary, where kings and queens have reveled, and he
reflects not upon the millions who have toiled, from dewy morn till
the shades of night, through long and joyless years, eating black
bread, clothed in coarse raiment--the man, the woman, the ox,
companions in toil, companions in thought--to minister to this
indulgence. But the palaces of France proclaim, in trumpet tones,
the shame of France. They say to her kings, Behold the undeniable
monuments of your pride, your insatiate extortion, your measureless
extravagance and luxury. They say to the people, Behold the proofs
of the outrages which your fathers, for countless ages, have
endured. They lived in mud hovels that their licentious kings might
riot haughtily in the apartments, canopied with gold, of Versailles,
the Tuileries, and St. Cloud--the Palaces of France. The mind of the
political economist lingers painfully upon them. They are gorgeous
as specimens of art. They are sacred as memorials of the past.
Vandalism alone would raze them to their foundations. Still, the
_judgment_ says, It would be better for the political regeneration
of France, if, like the Bastile, their very foundations were plowed
up, and sown with salt. For they are a perpetual provocative to
every thinking man. They excite unceasingly democratic rage against
aristocratic arrogance. Thousands of noble women, as they traverse
those gorgeous halls, feel those fires of indignation glowing in
their souls, which glowed in the bosom of Madame Roland. Thousands
of young men, with compressed lip and moistened eye, lean against
those marble pillars, lost in thought, and almost excuse even the
demoniac and blood-thirsty mercilessness of Danton, Marat, and
Robespierre. These palaces are a perpetual stimulus and provocative
to governmental aggression. There they stand, in all their
gorgeousness, empty, swept, and garnished. They are resplendently
beautiful. They are supplied with every convenience, every luxury.
King and Emperor dwelt there. Why should not the _President_? Hence
the palace becomes the home of the Republican President. The
expenses of the palace, the retinue of the palace, the court
etiquette of the palace become the requisitions of good taste. In
America, the head of the government, in his convenient and
appropriate mansion, receives a salary of twenty-five thousand
dollars a year. In France, the President of the Republic receives
four hundred thousand dollars a year, and yet, even with that vast
sum, can not keep up an establishment at all in accordance with the
dwellings of grandeur which invite his occupancy, and which
unceasingly and irresistibly stimulate to regal pomp and to regal
extravagance. The palaces of France have a vast influence upon the
present politics of France. There is an unceasing conflict between
those marble walls of monarchical splendor, and the principles of
republican simplicity. This contest will not soon terminate, and its
result no one can foresee. Never have I felt my indignation more
thoroughly aroused than when wandering hour after hour through the
voluptuous sumptuousness of Versailles. The triumphs of taste and
art are admirable, beyond the power of the pen to describe. But the
moral of execrable oppression is deeply inscribed upon all. In a
brief description of the Palaces of France, I shall present them in
the order in which I chanced to visit them.

1. _Palais des Thermes._--In long-gone centuries, which have faded
away into oblivion, a wandering tribe of barbarians alighted from
their canoes, upon a small island in the Seine, and there reared
their huts. They were called the Parisii. The slow lapse of
centuries rolled over them, and there were wars and woes, bridals
and burials, and still they increased in numbers and in strength,
and fortified their little isle against the invasions of their
enemies; for man, whether civilized or savage, has ever been the
most ferocious wild beast man has had to encounter. But soon the
tramp of the Roman legions was heard upon the banks of the Seine,
and all Gaul, with its sixty tribes, came under the power of the
Cæsars. Extensive marshes and gloomy forests surrounded the
barbarian village; but, gradually, Roman laws and institutions were
introduced; and Roman energy changed the aspect of the country.
Immediately the proud conquerors commenced rearing a palace for the
provincial governor. The Palace of Warm Baths rose, with its massive
walls, and in imposing grandeur. Roman spears drove the people to
the work; and Roman ingenuity knew well how to extort from the
populace the revenue which was required. Large remains of that
palace continue to the present day. It is the most interesting
memorial of the past which can now be found in France. The
magnificence of its proportions still strike the beholder with awe.
"Behold," says a writer, who trod its marble floors nearly a
thousand years ago: "Behold the Palace of the Kings, whose turrets
pierce the skies, and whose foundations penetrate even to the empire
of the dead." Julius Cæsar gazed proudly upon those turrets; and
here the shouts of Roman legions, fifteen hundred years ago,
proclaimed Julian emperor; and Roman maidens, with throbbing hearts,
trod these floors in the mazy dance. No one can enter the grand hall
of the baths, without being deeply impressed with the majestic
aspect of the edifice, and with the grandeur of its gigantic
proportions. The decay of nearly two thousand years has left its
venerable impress upon those walls. Here Roman generals proudly
strode, encased in brass and steel, and the clatter of their arms
resounded through these arches. In these mouldering, crumbling tubs
of stone, they laved their sinewy limbs. But where are those fierce
warriors now? In what employments have their turbulent spirits been
engaged, while generation after generation has passed on earth, in
the enactment of the comedies and the tragedies of life? Did their
rough tutelage in the camp, and their proud bearing in the court,
prepare them for the love, the kindness, the gentleness, the
devotion of Heaven? In fields of outrage, clamor, and blood, madly
rushing to the assault, shouting in frenzy, dealing, with iron hand,
every where around, destruction and death, did they acquire a taste
for the "green pastures and the still waters?" Alas! for the mystery
of our being! They are gone, and gone forever! Their name has
perished--their language is forgotten.

      "The storm which wrecks the wintry sky,
        No more disturbs their deep repose,
      Than summer evening's gentlest sigh,
        Which shuts the rose."

Upon a part of the ruins of this old palace of the Cæsars, there has
been reared, by more _modern ancients_, still another palace, where
mirth and revelry have resounded, where pride has elevated her
haughty head, and vanity displayed her costly robes--but over all
those scenes of splendor, death has rolled its oblivious waves.
About four hundred years ago, upon a portion of the crumbling walls
of this old Roman mansion, the Palace of Cluny was reared. For three
centuries, this palace was one of the abodes of the kings of France.
The tide of regal life ebbed and flowed through those saloons, and
along those corridors. There is the chamber where Mary of England,
sister of Henry VIII., and widow of Louis XII., passed the weary
years of her widowhood. It is still called the chamber of the "white
queen," from the custom of the queens of France to wear white
mourning. Three hundred years ago, these Gothic turrets, and
gorgeously ornamented lucarne windows, gleamed with illuminations,
as the young King of Scotland, James V., led Madeleine, the blooming
daughter of Francis I., to the bridal altar. Here the haughty family
of the Guises ostentatiously displayed their regal retinue--vying
with the kings of France in splendor, and outvying them in power.
These two palaces, now blended by the nuptials of decay into one,
are converted into a museum of antiquities--silent depositories of
memorials of the dead. Sadly one loiters through their deserted
halls. They present one of the most interesting sights of Paris. In
the reflective mind they awaken emotions which the pen can not

2. _The Louvre._--When Paris consisted only of the little island in
the Seine, and kings and feudal lords, with wine and wassail were
reveling in the saloons of Cluny, a hunting-seat was reared in the
dense forest which spread itself along the banks of the river. As
the city extended, and the forest disappeared, the hunting-seat was
enlarged, strengthened, and became a fortress and a state-prison.
Thus it continued for three hundred years. In its gloomy dungeons
prisoners of state, and the victims of crime, groaned and died; and
countless tragedies of despotic power there transpired, which the
Day of Judgment alone can reveal. Three hundred years ago, Francis
I. tore down the dilapidated walls of this old castle, and commenced
the magnificent Palace of the Louvre upon their foundations. But its
construction has required the labor of ages, and upon it has been
expended millions, which despotic power has extorted from the hard
hands of penury. This gorgeous palace contains a wilderness of
saloons and corridors, and flights of stairs; and seems rather
adapted to accommodate the population of a city, than to be merely
one of the residences of a royal family. The visitor wanders
bewildered through its boundless magnificence. The spirits of the
dead rise again, and people these halls. Here the pure and the noble
Jeanne d'Albret was received in courtly grandeur, by the impure and
the ignoble Catherine de Medici. Here Henry IV. led his profligate
and shameless bride to the altar. From this window Charles IX. shot
down the Protestants as they fled, amidst the horrors of the
perfidious massacre of St. Bartholomew. In this gilded chamber, with
its lofty ceiling and its tapestried walls, Catherine de Medici died
in the glooms of remorse and despair. Her bed of down, her despotic
power could present no refuge against the King of Terrors; and the
mind is appalled with the thought, that from this very room, now so
silent and deserted, her guilty spirit took its flight to the
tribunal of the King of kings, and the Lord of lords. Successive
generations of haughty sovereigns have here risen and died. And if
there be any truth in history, they have been, almost without
exception, proud, merciless, licentious oppressors. The orgies of
sin have filled this palace. Defiance to God and man has here held
its high carnival.

[Illustration: THE LOUVRE.]

The mind is indeed bewildered with a flood of emotions rushing
through it, as one is pointed to the alcove where Henry IV. was
accustomed to sleep three hundred years ago, and to the very spot
where, in anguish, he gasped and died, after having been stabbed by
Ravaillac. Here one sees the very helmet worn by Henry II. on that
unfortunate day, when the tilting spear of the Count of Montgommeri,
entering his eye, pierced his brain. It requires the labor of a day
even to saunter through the innumerable rooms of this magnificent
abode. But it will never again resound with the revelries of kings
and queens. Royalty has forsaken it forever. Democracy has now taken
strange and anomalous possession of its walls. It is converted into
the most splendid museum in the world--filled with the richest
productions of ancient and modern art. The people now enter freely
that sanctuary, where once none but kings and courtiers ventured to
appear. The Louvre now is useful to the world; but upon its massive
walls are registered deeds of violence, oppression, and crime which
make the ear to tingle.


3. _Malmaison._--When Napoleon was in the midst of his Egyptian
campaign, he wrote to Josephine, to purchase somewhere in the
vicinity of Paris, a pleasant rural retreat, to which they could
retire from the bustle of the metropolis, and enjoy the luxury of
green fields and shady groves. Josephine soon found a delightful
chateau, about nine miles from Paris, and five from Versailles,
which she purchased, with many acres of land around it, for about
one hundred thousand dollars. The great value of the place was in
the spacious and beautiful grounds, not in the buildings. The
chateau itself was plain, substantial, simple, far less ostentatious
in its appearance than many a country-seat erected upon the banks of
the Hudson, or in the environs of Boston. Here Josephine resided
most of the time during the eighteen months of Napoleon's absence in
Egypt. Upon Napoleon's return, this became the favorite residence of
them both. Amid all the splendors of the Empire, it was ever their
great joy to escape to the rural quietude of Malmaison. There they
often passed the Sabbath, in the comparative happiness of private
life. Often Napoleon said, as he left those loved haunts, to attend
to the cares and toils of the Tuileries, "Now I must again put on
the yoke of misery." Napoleon ever spoke of the hours passed at
Malmaison, as the happiest of his life. He erected for himself
there, in a retired grove, a little pavilion, very simple, yet
beautiful, in its structure, which still retains the name of the
Pavilion of the Emperor. Here he passed many hours of uninterrupted
solitude, in profound study of his majestic plans and enterprises.
Directly behind the chateau there was a smooth and beautiful lawn,
upon a level with the ground floor of the main saloon. The windows,
extending to the floor, opened upon this lawn. When all the kings of
Europe were doing homage to the mighty emperor, crowds of visitors
were often assembled at Malmaison; and upon this lawn, with the
characteristic gayety of the French, many mirthful games were
enacted. The favorite amusement here was the game of prisoners.
Frequently, after dinner, the most distinguished gentlemen and
ladies, not of France only, but of all Europe, were actively and
mirthfully engaged in this sport. Kings and queens, and princes of
the blood royal were seen upon the green esplanade, pursuing and
pursued. Napoleon occasionally joined in the sport. He was a poor
runner, and not unfrequently fell and rolled over upon the grass,
while he and his companions were convulsed with laughter. Josephine,
fond of deeds of benevolence, loved to visit the cottages in the
vicinity of Malmaison; and her sympathy and kindness gave her
enthronement in the hearts of all their inmates. After the divorce
of Josephine, the Palace of Malmaison, which Napoleon had
embellished with all those attractions which he thought could soothe
the anguish of his wounded, weeping, discarded wife, was assigned to
Josephine. A jointure of six hundred thousand dollars a year was
settled upon her, and she retained the title and the rank of Empress
Queen. Here Napoleon frequently called to see her; though from
motives of delicacy, he never saw her alone. Taking her arm, he
would walk for hours through those embowered avenues, confiding to
her all his plans.

Just before Napoleon set out for his fatal campaign to Russia, he
called to see Josephine. Taking her hand, he led her out to a
circular seat in the garden, in front of the mansion, and for two
hours continued engaged with her in the most earnest conversation.
At last he rose and affectionately kissed her hand. She followed him
to his carriage and bade him adieu. This was their last interview
but one. He soon returned a fugitive from Moscow. All Europe was in
arms against him. He earnestly sought a hurried interview with the
faithful wife of his youth in her retreat at Malmaison. As he gazed
upon her beloved features, tenderly and sadly he exclaimed,
"Josephine! I have been as fortunate as was ever man upon the face
of this earth. But in this hour, when a storm is gathering over my
head, I have not any one in this wide world but you upon whom I can
repose." With a moistened eye he bade her farewell. They met not

When the allied armies entered Paris a guard was sent, out of
respect to Josephine, to protect Malmaison. The Emperor Alexander,
with a number of illustrious guests, dined with the Empress Queen,
and in the evening walked out upon the beautiful lawn. Josephine,
whose health was shattered by sympathy and sorrow, took cold, and
after the illness of a few days died. It was the 29th of May, 1814.
It was the serene and cloudless evening of a tranquil summer's day.
The windows of the apartment were open where the Empress was dying.
The sun was silently sinking behind the trees of Malmaison, and its
rays, struggling through the foliage, shone cheerfully upon the bed
of death. The air was filled with the songs of birds, warbling, as
it were, the vespers of Josephine's most eventful life. Thus sweetly
her gentle spirit sank into its last sleep. In the antique village
church of Ruel, about two miles from Malmaison, the mortal remains
of this most lovely of women now slumber. A beautiful monument of
white marble, with a statue representing the Empress kneeling in
her coronation robes, is erected over her burial place, with this
simple but affecting inscription:


It was a bright and beautiful morning when I took a carriage, with a
friend, and set out from Paris to visit Malmaison. We had been
informed that the property had passed into the hands of Christina,
the Queen-Mother of Spain, and that she had given strict injunctions
that no visitors should be admitted to the grounds. My great desire,
however, to visit Malmaison induced me to make special efforts to
accomplish the object. A recent rain had laid the dust, the trees
were in full leaf, the grass was green and rich, the grain was
waving in the wind, and the highly cultivated landscape surrounding
Paris presented an aspect of extraordinary beauty. We rode quietly
along, enjoying the luxury of the emotions which the scene inspired,
till we came to the village of Ruel. A French village has no aspect
of beauty. It is merely the narrow street of a city set down by
itself in the country. The street is paved, the cheerless, tasteless
houses are huddled as closely as possible together. There is no yard
for shrubbery and flowers, apparently no garden, no barn-yards with
lowing herds. The flowers of the empire have been garnered in the
palaces of the kings. The taste of the empire has been concentrated
upon the Tuileries, Versailles, St. Cloud, Fontainebleau, and none
has been left to embellish the home of the peasant. The man who
tills the field must toil day and night, with his wife, his
daughter, and his donkey, to obtain food and clothing for his
family, as animals. This centralization of taste and opulence in
particular localities, is one of the greatest of national mistakes
and wrongs. America has no Versailles. May God grant that she never
may have. But thousands of American farmers have homes where poets
would love to dwell. Their daughters trim the shrubbery in the yard,
and cultivate the rose, and partake themselves of the purity and the
refinement of the rural scenes in the midst of which they are
reared. In the village of Ruel, so unattractive to one accustomed to
the rich beauty of New England towns, we found the church, an old,
cracked, mouldering and crumbling stone edifice, built five hundred
years ago. It was picturesque in its aspect, venerable from its
historical associations, and as poorly adapted as can well be
imagined for any purposes to which we in America appropriate our
churches. The floor was of crumbling stone, worn by the footfalls of
five centuries. There were enormous pillars supporting the roof,
alcoves running in here and there, a pulpit stuck like the mud nest
of a swallow upon a rock. The village priest was there catechising
the children. A large number of straight-backed, rush-bottomed
chairs were scattered about in confusion, instead of pews. These old
Gothic churches, built in a semi-barbarian age, and adapted to a
style of worship in which the pomp of paganism and a corrupted
Christianity were blended, are to my mind gloomy memorials of days
of darkness. Visions of hooded monks, of deluded penitents, of
ignorant, joyless generations toiling painfully through them to the
grave, impress and oppress the spirit. In one corner of the church,
occupying a space some twenty feet square, we saw the beautiful
monument reared by Eugene and Hortense to their mother. It was
indeed a privilege to stand by the grave of Josephine; there to
meditate upon life's vicissitudes, there to breathe the prayer for
preparation for that world of spirits to which Josephine has gone.
How faithful her earthly love; how affecting her dying prayer!
clasping the miniature of the Emperor fervently to her bosom, she
exclaimed, "O God! watch over Napoleon while he remains in the
desert of this world. Alas! though he hath committed great faults,
hath he not expiated them by great sufferings? Just God, thou hast
looked into his heart, and hast seen by how ardent a desire for
useful and durable improvements he was animated! Deign to approve my
last petition. And may this image of my husband bear me witness that
my latest wish and my latest prayer were for him and for my

As the Emperor Alexander gazed upon her lifeless remains, he
exclaimed, "She is no more; that woman whom France named the
Beneficent; that angel of goodness is no more. Those who have known
Josephine can never forget her. She dies regretted by her offspring,
her friends, and her contemporaries."

In the same church, opposite to the tomb of Josephine, stands the
monument of her daughter Hortense. Her life was another of those
tragedies of which this world has been so full. Her son, the present
President of France, has reared to her memory a tasteful monument of
various colored marble, emblematic, as it were, of the vicissitudes
of her eventful life. The monument bears the inscription--"To Queen
Hortense, by Prince Louis Bonaparte." She is represented kneeling in
sorrowful meditation. As I stood by their silent monuments, and
thought of the bodies mouldering to dust beneath them, the beautiful
lines of Kirke White rose most forcibly to my mind:

      "Life's labor done, securely laid
        In this their last retreat,
      Unheeded o'er their silent dust
        The storms of life shall beat."

From Ruel we rode slowly along, through vineyards and fields of
grain, with neither hedges nor fences to obstruct the view, for
about two miles, when we arrived at the stone wall and iron
entrance-gate of the chateau of Malmaison. The concierge, a
pleasant-looking woman, came from the porter's lodge, and looking
through the bars of the gate very politely and kindly told us that
we could not be admitted. I gave her my passport, my card, and a
copy of the Life of Josephine, which I had written in America, and
requested her to take them to the head man of the establishment,
and to say to him that I had written the life of Josephine, and that
I had come to France to visit localities which had been made
memorable by Napoleon and Josephine, and that I was exceedingly
desirous to see Malmaison. The good woman most obligingly took my
parcel, and tripping away as lightly as a girl, disappeared in the
windings of the well-graveled avenue, skirted with trees and
shrubbery. In about ten minutes she returned, and smiling and
shaking her head, said that the orders were positive, and that we
could not be admitted. I then wrote a note to the keeper, in French,
which I fear was not very classical, informing him "that I was
writing the life of Napoleon; that it was a matter of great
importance that I should see Malmaison, his favorite residence; that
I had recently been favored with a private audience with the Prince
President, and that he had assured me that he would do every thing
in his power to facilitate my investigations, and that he would give
me free access to all sources of information. But that as I knew the
chateau belonged to the Queen of Spain, I had made no efforts to
obtain from the French authorities a ticket of admission." Then for
the first time I reflected that the proper course for me to have
pursued was to have called upon the Spanish embassador, a very
gentlemanly and obliging man, who would unquestionably have removed
every obstacle from my way. Giving the good woman a franc to quicken
her steps, again she disappeared, and after a considerable lapse of
time came back, accompanied by the keeper. He was a plain,
pleasant-looking man, and instead of addressing me with that angry
rebuff, which, in all probability in America one, under similar
circumstances, would have encountered, he politely touched his hat,
and begged that I would not consider his refusal as caprice in him,
but that the Queen of Spain did not allow any visitors to enter the
grounds of Malmaison. The French are so polite, that an American is
often mortified by the consciousness of his own want of
corresponding courtesy. Assuming, however, all the little suavity at
my command, I very politely touched my hat, and said: "My dear sir,
is it not rather a hard case? I have crossed three thousand miles of
stormy ocean to see Malmaison. Here I am at the very gate of the
park, and these iron bars won't let me in." The kind-hearted man
hesitated for a moment, looked down upon the ground as if deeply
thinking, and then said, "Let me see your passports again, if you
please." My companion eagerly drew out his passport, and pointed to
the cabalistic words--"Bearer of dispatches." Whether this were the
talisman which at last touched the heart of our friend I know not,
but suddenly relenting he exclaimed, with a good-natured smile, "Eh
bien! Messieurs, entrez, entrez," and rolling the iron gate back
upon its hinges, we found ourselves in the enchanting park of

Passing along a beautiful serpentine avenue, embowered in trees and
shrubbery, and presenting a scene of very attractive rural beauty,
we came in sight of the plain, comfortable home-like chateau. A
pleasant garden, smiling with flowers, bloomed in solitude before
the windows of the saloon, and a statue of Napoleon, in his familiar
form, was standing silently there. An indescribable air of
loneliness and yet of loveliness was spread over the scene. It was
one of the most lovely of May days. Nearly all the voices of nature
are pensive; the sighing of the zephyr and the wailing of the
tempest, the trickling of the rill and the roar of the ocean, the
vesper of the robin and the midnight cry of the wild beast in his
lair. Nature this morning and in this scene displayed her mood of
most plaintive pathos. There was Napoleon, standing in solitude in
the garden. All was silence around him. The chateau was empty and
deserted. Josephine and Hortense were mouldering to dust in the damp
tombs of Ruel. The passing breeze rustled the leaves of the forest,
and the birds with gushes of melody sung their touching requiems.
Shall I be ashamed to say that emotions uncontrollable overcame me,
and I freely wept? No! For there are thousands who will read this
page who will sympathize with me in these feelings, and who will
mingle their tears with mine.

We entered the house, and walked from room to room through all its
apartments. Here was the library of Napoleon, for he loved books.
Christina has converted it into a billiard-room, for she loves play.
Here was the little boudoir where Napoleon and Josephine met in
their hours of sacred confidence, and the tapestry and the window
curtains, in their simplicity, remain as arranged by Josephine's own
hands. Here is the chamber in which Josephine died, and the very bed
upon which she breathed her last. The afternoon sun was shining
brilliantly in through the windows, which we had thrown open, as it
shone forty years ago upon the wasted form and pallid cheek of the
dying Josephine. The forest, so secluded and beautiful, waved
brightly in the sun and in the breeze then as now; the birds then
filled the air with the same plaintive melody. The scene of nature
and of art--house, lawn, shrubbery, grove, cascade, grotto--remains
unchanged; but the billows of revolution and death have rolled over
the world-renowned inmates of Malmaison, and they are all swept

An old-serving man, eighty years of age, conducted us through the
silent and deserted apartments. The affection with which he spoke of
Napoleon and of Josephine amounted almost to adoration. He was in
their service when the Emperor and Empress, arm-in-arm, sauntered
through these apartments and these shady walks. There must have been
some most extraordinary fascination in Napoleon, by which he bound
to him so tenaciously all those who were brought near his person.
His history in that respect is without a parallel. No mortal man,
before or since, has been so enthusiastically loved. The column in
the Place Vendome is still hung with garlands of flowers by the hand
of affection. It is hardly too much to say, that the spirit of
Napoleon, emerging from his monumental tomb under the dome of the
Invalids, still reigns in France. Louis Napoleon is nothing in
himself. His power is but the reflected power of the Emperor.

We passed from the large saloon, upon the smooth green lawn, which
has so often resounded with those merry voices, which are now all
hushed in death. We looked upon trees which Napoleon and Josephine
had planted, wandered through the walks along which their footsteps
had strayed, reclined upon the seats where they had found repose,
and culling many wild flowers, as memorials of this most beautiful
spot, with lingering footsteps retired. Nothing which I have seen in
France has interested me so much as Malmaison. Galignani's
Guide-Book says: "The park and extensive gardens in which Josephine
took so much delight are nearly destroyed. The chateau still exists,
but the Queen Dowager of Spain, to whom Malmaison now belongs, has
strictly forbidden all visits." This appears to be, in part, a
mistake. The park and the grounds immediately around the mansion, as
well as the chateau itself, remain essentially as they were in the
time of Josephine. France contains no spot more rich in touching

4. _The Tuileries._--"Will Prince Louis Napoleon," inquired a
gentleman, of a French lady, "take up his residence in the
Tuileries?" "He had better not," was the laconic reply. "It is an
unlucky place." It requires not a little effort of imagination to
invest this enormous pile of blackened buildings with an aspect of
beauty. Three hundred years ago the palace was commenced by
Catherine de Medici. But it has never been a favorite residence of
the kings of France, and no effort of the imagination, and no
concomitants of regal splendor can make it an agreeable home. It has
probably witnessed more scenes of woe, and more intensity of
unutterable anguish, than any other palace upon the surface of the
globe. Its rooms are of spacious, lofty, cheerless grandeur. Though
millions have been expended upon this structure, it has had but
occasional occupants. A few evenings ago I was honored with an
invitation to a party given by Prince Louis Napoleon in the palace
of the Tuileries. Four thousand guests were invited. The vast
palace, had all its rooms been thrown open, might perhaps have
accommodated twice as many more. When I arrived at half-past nine
o'clock at the massive gateway which opens an entrance to the court
of the Tuileries, I found a band of soldiers stationed there to
preserve order. Along the street, also, for some distance, armed
sentinels were stationed on horseback, promptly to summon, in case
of necessity, the 80,000 troops who, with spear and bayonet, keep
the restless Parisians tranquil. The carriage, following a long
train, and followed by a long train, entered, between files of
soldiers with glittering bayonets, the immense court-yard of the
palace, so immense that the whole military force of the capital can
there be assembled. The court-yard was illuminated with almost the
brilliance of noon-day, by various pyramids of torches; and dazzling
light gleamed from the brilliant windows of the palace, proclaiming
a scene of great splendor within. A band of musicians, stationed in
the court-yard, pealed forth upon the night air the most animating
strains of martial music. At the door, an armed sentry looked at my
ticket of invitation, and I was ushered into a large hall.
It was brilliantly lighted, and a swarm of servants, large,
imposing-looking men in gorgeous livery, thronged it. One of these
servants very respectfully conducted the guest through the hall to a
spacious ante-room. This room also was dazzling with light, and
numerous servants were there to take the outer garments of the
guests, and to give them tickets in return. My number was 2004. We
then ascended a magnificent flight of marble stairs, so wide that
twenty men could, with ease, march up them abreast. Sentinels in
rich uniform stood upon the stairs with glittering bayonets. We
were ushered into the suit of grand saloons extending in long
perspective, with regal splendor. Innumerable chandeliers suspended
from the lofty gilded ceilings, threw floods of light upon the
brilliant throng which crowded this abode of royalty. In two
different saloons bands of musicians were stationed, and their
liquid notes floated through the hum of general conversation. Men of
lofty lineage were there, rejoicing in their illustrious birth, and
bearing upon their breasts the jeweled insignia of their rank.
Generals of armies were there, decorated with garments inwoven with
gold. Ladies, almost aerial in their gossamer robes, floated like
visions through the animated assembly. Occasionally the dense throng
was pressed aside, and a little space made for the dancers. The
rooms were warm, the crowd immense, the champagne abundant, and the
dancers seemed elated and happy. As the hours of the night wore
away, and the throng was a little diminished, and the bottles
emptied, I thought that I could perceive that the polka and the
waltz were prosecuted with a decided increase of fervor. I must
confess that, with my Puritan notions, I should not like to see a
friend of mine, whose maiden delicacy I desired to cherish, exposed
to such hugs and such twirls.

About half-past ten o'clock, a wide door was thrown open at one end
of the long suit of rooms, and the Prince President, accompanied by
a long retinue of lords, ladies, embassadors, &c., entered the
apartments. They passed along through the crowd, which opened
respectfully before them, and entering one of the main saloons, took
their seats upon an elevated platform, which had been arranged and
reserved for them. All eyes were fastened upon the President. Every
one seemed to feel an intense curiosity to see him. Wherever he
moved, a circle, about ten feet in diameter, was left around him. It
was curious to see the promptness with which the crowd would
disperse before him, and close up behind him, whenever he changed
his position. There were two immense refreshment rooms, supplied
with every luxury, at the two ends of the suit of apartments, filled
with guests. These rooms of vast capacity--for four thousand hungry
people were to be provided for--were fitted up with counters running
along three of their sides like those of a shop. Behind these
counters stood an army of waiters; before them, all the evening
long, an eager crowd. As soon as one had obtained his supply, there
were two or three others ready to take his place. In one of the
rooms there were provided wines, meats of all kinds, and a
most luxurious variety of substantial viands. In the other
refreshment-room, at the other end of the thronged apartments, there
were ices, confectionery, fruits, and all the delicacies of the

This was seeing the Palace of the Tuileries in all its glory.
Embassadors of all nations were there--the turbaned Turk, the proud
Persian, the white-robed Arab. Many of the ladies were glittering
with diamonds and every variety of precious stones.

      "Music was there with her voluptuous swell,
      And all went merry as a marriage bell."

But as I sauntered through the brilliant scene, visions of other
days, and of spectacles more impressive, filled my mind. Through
these very halls, again and again, has rolled an inundation of all
that Paris can furnish of vulgarity, degradation, and violence. Into
the embrasure of this very window the drunken mob of men and women
drove, with oaths and clubs, Louis XVI., and compelled him to drink
the cup of humiliation to its very dregs. It was from this window
that the hapless Maria Antoinette looked, when the sentinel beneath
brutally exclaimed to her, "I wish, Austrian woman, that I had your
head upon my bayonet here, that I might pitch it over the wall to
the dogs in the street!" It was upon this balcony that the sainted
Madame Elizabeth and Maria Antoinette stepped, that dark and
dreadful night when frenzied Paris, from all its garrets, and all
its kennels, was surging like the billows of the ocean against the
Tuileries. Their hearts throbbed with terror as they heard the
tolling of the alarm bells, the rumbling of artillery wheels, and
the rattle of musketry, as the infuriate populace thronged the
palace, thirsting for their blood. From this balcony that awful
night, Maria entered the chamber where her beautiful son was
sleeping, gazed earnestly upon him, and left a mother's loving kiss
upon his cheek. She then went to the apartment of her daughter. The
beautiful child, fifteen years of age, comprehending the peril of
the hour, could not sleep. Maria pressed her to her throbbing heart,
and a mother's tenderness triumphed over the stoicism of the Queen.
Her pent-up feelings burst through all restraints, and she wept with
anguish unendurable.

[Illustration: THE TUILERIES.]

The Tuileries! It is, indeed, an "unlucky palace." This saloon, now
resounding with music and mirth, is the very spot where Josephine,
with swollen eyes and heart of agony, signed that cruel deed of
divorcement which sundered the dearest hopes and the fondest ties
which a human heart can cherish. History contains not a more
affecting incident than her final adieu to her husband, which
occurred in this chamber the night after the divorce. The Emperor,
restless and wretched, had just placed himself in the bed from which
he had ejected his faithful wife, when the door of his chamber was
slowly opened, and Josephine tremblingly entered. She tottered into
the middle of the room, and approached the bed. Here, irresolutely
stopping, she burst into a flood of tears. She seemed for a moment
to reflect that it was no longer proper for her to approach the bed
of Napoleon. But suddenly the pent-up fountains of love and grief in
her heart burst forth; and, forgetting every thing, in the fullness
of her anguish, she threw herself upon the bed, clasped Napoleon's
neck in her arms, and exclaiming, "My husband! my husband!" wept in
agony which could not be controlled. The firm spirit of Napoleon
was vanquished: he folded her to his bosom, pressed her cheek to
his, and their tears were mingled together. He assured her of his
love, of his ardent and undying love, and endeavored in every way to
sooth her anguish.

It was down this marble staircase, now thronged with brilliant
guests, that the next morning Josephine descended, vailed from head
to foot. Her grief was too deep for utterance. Waving an adieu to
the affectionate and weeping friends who surrounded her, she entered
her carriage, sank back upon the cushion, buried her face in her
handkerchief, and, sobbing bitterly, left the Tuileries forever. It
is not probable that the Tuileries will ever again be inhabited by
royalty. There are too many mournful associations connected with the
place ever to render it agreeable as a residence. When Louis
Philippe was driven from the Tuileries, the mob again sacked it, and
its vast saloons are unfurnished and empty. Four years ago, the
Provisional Government passed a decree that this palace should be
converted into a hospital for invalid workmen. The Provisional
Government, however, has passed away, and the decree has not been
carried into effect. After the insurrection in June of 1848 it was
used as a hospital for the wounded. More recently it has been used
as a museum for the exhibition of paintings. Its days of regal pride
and splendor have now passed away for ever.


5. _The Palace Elysée._--This is a beautiful rural home in the very
heart of Paris. It is now occupied by Prince Louis Napoleon. For a
regal residence it is quite unostentatious, and few abodes could any
where be found, combining more attractions, for one of refined and
simple tastes. Through the kindness of our minister, Mr. Rives, I
obtained an audience with Count Roguet, who is at the head of the
Presidential household, and through him secured an "audience
particulière" with Prince Louis Napoleon in the Elysée. As I
alighted from a hackney-coach at the massive gateway of the palace,
armed sentinels were walking to and fro upon the pavements,
surrounding the whole inclosure of the palace with a vigilant guard.
At the open iron gate two more were stationed. I passed between
their bayonets and was directed into a small office where a
dignified-looking official examined my credentials, and then pointed
my steps along the spacious court-yard to the door of the mansion.
Armed soldiers were walking their patrols along the yard, and upon
the flight of steps two stood guarding the door, with their
glittering steel. They glanced at my note of invitation, and I
entered the door. Several servants were there, evidently picked men,
large and imposing in figure, dressed in small-clothes, and silk
stockings, and laced with rich livery. One glanced at my letter, and
conducting me across the hall introduced me into another room. There
I found another set of servants and three clerks writing at a long
table. One took my note of invitation and sat down, as if to copy
it, and I was ushered into the third room. This was a large room in
the interior of the palace, richly ornamented with gilded pilasters
and ceiling. The walls were painted with landscapes, representing
many scenes of historic interest. There were ten gentlemen, who had
come before me, waiting for an audience. Some were nobles, with the
full display upon their breasts of the decorations of their rank.
Others were generals, in brilliant military costume. Several I
observed with the modest red ribbon in the button hole, indicating
that they were members of the Legion of Honor. All spoke in low and
subdued tones of voice, and with soft footsteps moved about the
room. Occasionally, an officer of the household would enter the room
with a paper in his hands, apparently containing a list of the
names of those who had arrived, and softly would call out the name
of one, who immediately followed him into another room. As I at once
saw that I had at least an hour to wait in the ante-room, I turned
my thoughts to the scenes which, in years gone by, have transpired
in this palace of Elysium. Nearly 150 years ago, the Count of Evreux
built it for his aristocratic city residence. It was afterward
purchased, enlarged, and beautified for the residence of Madame de
Pompadour, the frail, voluptuous, intriguing paramour of Louis XV.;
and often have they, arm-in-arm, paced this floor. They have passed
out at these open French windows into the beautiful lawn which
spreads before the mansion, and sauntered until lost in the
wilderness of fountains, flowers, shrubbery, grove, and serpentine
walks which spread over these enchanting grounds. But inexorable
death struck down both king and mistress, and they passed away to
the Judgment. The Revolution came, the awful retribution for
centuries of kingly pride and oppression, and the regal palace
became a printing-office for the irreligion of Voltaire, and the
Jacobinism of Marat. These saloons and boudoirs were turned into
eating rooms, and smoking rooms. The girls of the street crowded
this spacious parlor, and where kings and queens had danced before
them, they proudly danced with _liberté, fraternité, égalité_, in
red cap and blouse. Then came the young soldier from Corsica, and
with a whip of small cords drove printer, blouse, and grisette into
the street. By his side stands the tall, athletic, mustached
inn-keeper's boy, who had learned to ride when grooming the horses
of his father's guests. With his whirlwind cloud of cavalry he had
swept Italy and Egypt, and now enriched and powerful, Murat claims
the hand of Caroline Bonaparte, the sister of the great conqueror.
With his bride he takes the palace of the Elysée, and lives here in
extravagance which even Louis XV. could not surpass. These paintings
on the wall, Murat placed here. These pyramids of Egypt ever remind
his guests that Murat, with his crushing squadrons, trampled down
the defiant Mamelukes upon the Nile. This lady, walking beneath the
trees of the forest, is Caroline, his wife. The children filling
this carriage so joyously, are his sons and daughters. But he who
had crowns at his disposal, places his brother-in-law upon the
throne of Naples, and Napoleon himself chooses this charming spot
for his favorite city residence. Weary with the cares of empire, he
has often sought repose in these shady bowers. But allied Europe
drove him from his Elysium, and the combined forces of Russia,
Prussia, and Austria, take possession of the capital of his empire,
and reinstate the Bourbons upon the throne from which they had been
driven. Napoleon returns from Elba, and again hastens to his beloved
Elysée. A hundred days glide swiftly by, and he is a prisoner, bound
to St. Helena, to die a captive in a dilapidated stable. As I was
reflecting upon the changes, and upon the painful contrast which
must have presented itself to Napoleon, between the tasteful and
exquisite seclusion of the Elysée, and the cheerless, barren,
mist-enveloped rock of St. Helena, I was awakened from my reverie by
a low tone of voice calling my name. I followed the messenger
through a door, expecting to enter the presence of Louis Napoleon.
Instead of that I was ushered into a large, elegantly furnished
saloon--the council chamber of the Emperor Napoleon, but it was
empty. There was a large folio volume, resembling one of the account
books of a merchant, lying open upon a table. The messenger who
summoned me, with my note of invitation in his hand, went to the
book, passed his finger down the page, and soon I saw it resting
upon my name. He read, apparently, a brief description of my
character, and then, leaving me alone, went into another room, I
suppose to inform the President who was to be introduced to him. In
a few moments he returned, and I was ushered into the presence of
the Prince President of Republican France. He was seated in an
arm-chair, at the side of a table covered with papers. Louis
Napoleon is a small man, with a mild, liquid, rather languid eye,
and a countenance expressive of much passive resolution rather than
of active energy. In his address, he is courteous, gentle, and
retiring, and those who know him best, assign him a far higher
position in the grade of intellect than is usually in our country
allotted to him. His government is an utter despotism, sustained by
the bayonets of the army. I have made great efforts, during the two
months in which I have been in Paris, to ascertain the state of
public opinion respecting the government of Louis Napoleon.
Circumstances have thrown me much into French society, both into the
society of those who are warm friends, and bitter enemies of the
present government. So far as I can ascertain facts, they seem to be
these. There are four parties who divide France--the Bourbonists,
the Orleanists, the Socialists, and the Bonapartists. Like the
military chieftains in Mexico, they are all struggling for dominion.
There is not sufficient intelligence and virtue in France, for it to
be governed by _opinion_, by a _vote_. The bayonet is the
all-availing argument. If Louis Napoleon is overthrown, it must be
to give place to some one, who, like him, must call the army and
despotic power to his support. Consequently, multitudes say, What
shall we gain by the change? We shall have new barricades in the
street, new rivulets of blood trickling down our gutters, and simply
another name in the Elysée.--I can see no indication that Louis
Napoleon has any personal popularity. The glory of his uncle
over-shadows him and renders him available. The army and the church,
but without any enthusiasm, are in his favor. Most of the men in
active business who seek protection and good order, support his
claims. The American merchants, settled in Paris, generally feel
that the overthrow of Louis Napoleon would be to them a serious
calamity, and that they should hardly dare in that case, to remain
in Paris. His government is submitted to, not merely as a choice of
evils, but there is a kind of approval of his despotism as necessary
to sustain him in power, and for the repose of France. I do not say
that these views are correct. I only say, that so far as I can
learn, this appears to me to be the state of the public mind.

It is very evident that no portion of the people regard Louis
Napoleon with enthusiasm. At the great fête in the Champs Elysée,
which called all Europe to Paris, to witness the restoration of the
ancient eagles of France to the standards of the army, it was almost
universally supposed out of Paris, that the hundred thousand troops
then passing in proud array before the President would hail him
_Emperor_. A countless throng encircled the area of that vast field.
It was estimated that nearly a million of people were there
assembled. Yet when Louis Napoleon made his appearance with his
brilliant staff, I did not hear one single _citizen's_ voice raised
in applause. As he rode along the ranks of the army, a murmur of
recognition followed his progress, but no shouts of enthusiasm.

Immediately after the fête, a magnificent ball and entertainment
were given by the army, to Prince Louis Napoleon. It is said, that
one hundred and sixty thousand dollars were expended in canopying
the vast court yard of the Ecole Militaire, and in decorating it for
this occasion. Fifteen thousand guests were invited. The scene of
brilliance and splendor, no pen can describe. About half-past twelve
o'clock the President entered upon an elevated platform, accompanied
by the foreign ministers and the members of his court. But not one
single voice even shouted a welcome. He remained a couple of hours
conversing with those around him, and then bowing to the enormous
throng of those whose invited guest he was, retired. One man, by my
side, shouted in a clear, shrill voice which filled the vast
saloons, "Vive l'Empereur," two others promptly responded, "Vive
_Napoleon_." No other acclaim was heard.

The prospect of France is gloomy. Such a government as the present
can not be popular. No other seems possible. No one seems to expect
that the government can last for many years. And yet a change is
dreaded. Rich men are transferring their property to England and
America. Never did I love my own country as now. Never did I
appreciate as now, the rich legacy we have inherited from our
fathers. The hope of the world is centred in America. We must let
Europe alone. To mortal vision her case is hopeless. We must
cultivate our country, spread over our land, virtue and
intelligence, and freedom; and welcome to peaceful homes in the new
world, all who can escape from the taxation and despotism of the
old. In half a century from now, the United States will be the most
powerful nation upon which our sun has ever shone. Then we can speak
with a voice that shall be heard. Our advice will have the
efficiency of commands. Europe now has apparently but to choose
between the evils of despotism, and the evils of anarchy. And still
it is undeniable that the progress, though slow and painful is
steadily onward toward popular liberty.

In this paper I have but commenced the description of the Palaces of
France. In a subsequent number I may continue the subject.



"Another flask of Orvieto, Gaetano, and tell the vetturino that we
start to-morrow morning, punctually at six," exclaimed one of three
foreigners, seated around a table, in the smokiest corner of the
"_Lepre_"--the artist-haunt of the _Via Condotti_.

The speaker was a plain looking French gentleman, who, under the
simplest exterior, concealed the most admirable mind and the highest
personal qualities. A Provincial by birth, a Parisian by education,
and a cosmopolite by travel, he united all the peculiar sagacity of
his nation with that more dignified tone of character so rarely met
with in his countrymen. Descended from a family of Lorraine, who had
inherited the magistracy for centuries, and who, ruined at the
emigration, had only partially recovered their fortunes at the
restoration, our friend (_ours_, at least, reader) found himself, on
attaining his majority, possessed of a sufficient competency to
enable him to travel in a moderate way, so long as the taste should
continue. And here he had been residing in Rome a twelvemonth (not
_rushing through_ it with cis-Atlantic steam-power), studying art
with devotion, and living the intense life of Italian existence. His
companions at the moment our recital commences, were an old
Hollander, who had emerged from commerce into philosophy (no very
usual exit!) and myself, whom chance had made a lounger in European
capitals--a pilgrim from both Mecca and Jerusalem--and a connoisseur
in every vintage from Burgundy to Xeres.

Carnival, with its fantastic follies, when the most constitutionally
sedate by a species of frenzied reaction become the most reckless in
absurdity, was past. Holy Week, with its gorgeous ecclesiastical
mummery--its magnificent fire-works, and its still more magnificent
illumination was likewise gone. Nearly all the travelers who had
been spending the winter in Rome, including the two thousand English
faces which, from their constant repetition at every public place,
seemed at least two hundred thousand, had disappeared. Our own party
had lingered after the rest, loath to leave, perhaps forever, the
most fascinating city in the world to an intelligent mind. But at
last we too, had determined to go, and our destination was Naples.

That very afternoon we had taken one of the tumble-down carriages,
which station on the _Piazza di Spagna_, to make a farewell _giro_
through the Forum. Leaving Rome is not like leaving any other town.
Associations dating from early childhood, and linking the present
with the past, make familiar, before they are known, objects in
themselves so intrinsically interesting and beautiful, that the
strongest attachment is sure to follow a first actual acquaintance
with them. And when that acquaintance has been by daily intercourse
matured, it is hard to give it up.

The weather was delicious. And as our crazy vehicle rattled over the
disjointed pavement of the Appian way, among sandaled monks,
lounging Jesuits, and herdsmen from the Campagna, a heart-sickness
came over us which, in the instance of one, at least, of the party,
has since settled down into a chronic _mal du pays_.

We had been taking our last meal at the "_Trattoria Lepre_," where
we had so often, after a hard day's work, feasted upon _cignale_
(wild boar), or something purporting so to be, surrounded by the
bearded _pensionnaires_ of all the academies.

Our Figaro-like attendant, who had served us daily for so many
months, was more than commonly officious in the consciousness that
the next morning we proposed to start for Naples. And, in fact, on
the succeeding day at an early hour, an antediluvian vehicle,
with chains and baskets slung beneath, drawn by three wild
uncouth-looking animals, under the guidance of a good-for-nothing,
half-bandit Trasteverino, in a conical hat and unwashed lineaments,
might be seen emerging from the _Porta San Giovanni_, with their
three _Excellenzas_ in the inside.

The hearts of all three were too full for utterance--several miles
we jogged on in silence, straining our eyes with last glimpses of
St. Peter's, the Pantheon, and St. John Lateran.

At Albano we proposed to breakfast; and, while the meal was being
prepared and the horses being refreshed, we started for a walk to
the Lake, familiar to all the party from previous visits.

As we were seated on the bank, cigars in mouth, and as moody as
might be, the Frenchman first endeavored to turn the current of our
thoughts by speaking of Naples, which he alone of us knew. The
effort was not particularly successful. But the Frenchman promised
that when we resumed our journey, he would tell us a Neapolitan
story, the effect of which, he hoped, would be to raise our spirits.

After returning to the inn, and breakfasting upon those mysterious
Italian cutlets, the thick breading upon which defies all
satisfactory investigation into their original material, we resumed
our journey.

Legs dovetailed, and cigars relighted, the Frenchman thus commenced
the story of


The summer before last, after a shocking soaking in crossing the
Apennines, I contracted one of those miserable fevers that nature
seems to exact as a toll from unfortunate Trans-Alpines for a
summer's residence in Italy. I had no faith in Italian doctors, and
as there was no medical man from my own country in Florence, I was
persuaded to call in Doctor Playfair a Scotch physician, long
domiciled in Italy, and as I afterwards discovered, both a skillful
practitioner and a charming companion. I was kept kicking my heels
against the footboard in all some six weeks, and when I had become
sufficiently convalescent to sit up, the doctor used to make me long
and friendly visits. In these visits he kept me posted up with all
the chit-chat of the town; and upon one occasion related to me,
better than I can tell it, the following story, of the truth of
which (in all seriousness), he was perfectly satisfied, having heard
it from the mouth of one of the parties concerned.

"Do throw some _bajocchi_ to those clamorous natives, my dear
Republican, that I may proceed with my story in peace."

Well, then, to give you a little preliminary history--don't be
alarmed--a very little. The liberal government established in Naples
in the winter of 1820-21, on the basis of the Spanish Cortes of
1812, was destined to a speedy dissolution. The despotic powers of
the Continent, at the instigation of Austria, refused to enter into
diplomatic relations with a kingdom which had adopted the
representative system, after an explicit and formal engagement to
maintain the institutions of absolutism. An armed intervention was
decided upon at the Congress of Laybach, with the full consent and
approbation of Ferdinand I., who treacherously abandoned the cause
of his subjects. It was agreed to send an Austrian army, backed by a
Russian one, into the Neapolitan dominions, for the purpose of
putting down the Carbornari and other insurgents who, to the number
of one hundred and fifty thousand men, badly armed, badly clothed,
and badly disciplined, had assembled under the command of that
notorious adventurer, Guiliemo Pepe, for the protection of those
feebly secured liberties which had resulted to their country from
the Sicilian revolution of the previous summer. This foreign force
was to be maintained entirely at the expense of Ferdinand, and to
remain in his kingdom, if necessary, for three years. The feeble
resistance offered by the patriots to the invading forces--their
defeat at the very outset--and their subsequent flight and
disbandment--constitute one of those disgraceful denouements so
common to Italian attempts at political regeneration.

"By all the storks in Holland," exclaimed the Dutchman, "cut short
your story--I see nothing in it particularly enlivening."

"_Badinage à part_," resumed the Frenchman, "I have done in a word."

After the disastrous engagement of March 7, at Rieti, and the
restoration of the old government, the patriot forces were scattered
over the country; and as has too often been the case in southern
Europe upon the discomfiture of a revolutionary party, many bands of
banditti were formed from the disorganized remnants of the defeated
army. For a long time the whole of the kingdom, particularly the
Calabrias, was infested by robber gangs, whose boldness only
equaled their necessities. Most of these banditti were hunted down
and transferred to the galleys. The Neapolitan police has at all
times been active in the suppression of disorders known or suspected
to have a political origin. Fear of a revolution has ever been a
more powerful incentive to the government than respect for justice
or love of order; and "_Napoli la Fidelissima_" has so far reserved
the name, and inspired such confidence in the not particularly
intellectual sovereign who now sits on the throne, that the last
time that I was there, his Majesty was in the habit of parading his
bewhiskered legions through the streets of his capital, completely
equipped at all points--except that they were unarmed!

And now for the story.

Among the most notorious of the banditti chieftains was one Carlo
Carrera. This person, who had been a subaltern officer, succeeded
for a long time, with some thirty followers, in defying the attempts
of the police to capture him. Driven from hold to hold, and from
fastness to fastness, he had finally been pursued to the
neighborhood of Naples. Here the gendarmes of the government were
satisfied that he was so surrounded as soon to be compelled to
surrender at discretion. This was late in the following winter.

About this time his Britannic Majesty's frigate "Tagus," commanded
by Captain, now Vice-Admiral, Sir George Dundas, was cruising in the
Mediterranean. In the month of February Sir George anchored in the
bay of Naples, with the intention of remaining there some weeks. It
happened that another officer in his Majesty's navy, Captain, now
Vice-Admiral, Sir Edward Owen, was wintering at Naples for the
benefit of his health, accompanied by his wife and her sister, Miss
V----, a young lady of extraordinary beauty and accomplishments. Sir
George and Sir Edward were old friends. They had been together in
the same ship as captain and first-lieutenant on the African
station, and their accidental meeting when equals in rank was as
cordial as it was unexpected.

A few days after the arrival of the frigate, a pic-nic excursion to
the shores of Lake Agnano was proposed. The party was to consist of
the persons of whom I have just been speaking, together with a few
other English friends, chiefly gentlemen from the embassy.
Accordingly they set off on one of those delightful mornings which
are of themselves almost sufficient to make strangers exclaim with
the enthusiastic Neapolitans, "_Vedi Napoli e poi mori!_" The
surpassing loveliness of the scene, its perfect repose with so many
elements of action, brought to the soul such a luxurious sense of
passive enjoyment, that it seemed like the echo of all experienced
happiness. I can not say if the _Strada Nuova_, in all its present
paved perfection, then existed; but there must have been some sort
of a road following the indentations of that lovely shore.

I have traced from Genoa to Nice the far-famed windings of the
Maritime Alps--I have sailed along the glittering shores of the
Bosphorus--I have admired the boasted site of the Lusitanian
capital--and yet I feel, as all travelers must feel, that the
combined charms of all these would fail to make another Naples.

Far out before them lay the fair island of Capri, like a sea
goddess, with arms outstretched to receive the playful waters of the
Mediterranean. Behind, Vesuvius rose majestically, the blue smoke
lazily curling from its summit, as peaceful as if it had only been
placed there as an accessory to the beauty of the scene; and further
on, as they turned the promontory, lay the bright islets of Nisita
and Procida, so fantastic in their shapes and so romantic in their

On reaching the shore of Lake Agnano, our travelers left their
carriage near the villa of Lucullus. Of course they suffocated
themselves, according to the approved habit of tourists, in the
vapor baths of San Germano--and according to the same approved
habit, devoted an unfortunate dog to temporary strangulation in the
mephitic air of the _Grotta del cane_. After doing up the lions of
the neighborhood, our friends seated themselves near the shore, to
partake of the cold fowls and champagne, of which ample provision
had been made for the excursion.

"I should have preferred the native _Lachrymæ Christi_ to
champagne," interrupted the Dutchman, "if the usual quality compares
with that of some I once drank at Rotterdam."

The repast finished, resumed the Frenchman, most of the party
strolled off to the other extremity of the lake--until after a short
time no one was left but Miss V----, who was amusing herself by
making a sketch of the landscape. What a pity that the women of
other nations are so rarely accomplished in drawing, while the
English ladies are almost universally so!

Well then, our fair heroine for the moment, had got on most
industriously with her work, when suddenly, on raising her eyes from
her paper to a stack of decayed vines, she was disagreeably
surprised at finding a pair of questionable optics leveled upon her.
Retaining her composure of manner, she continued tranquilly her
occupation, until she had time to remark that the intruder was
accompanied by at least a dozen companions. At this moment the
personage whom she had first seen, quietly left his place of partial
concealment, walked up to the astonished lady, folded his arms, and
stationed himself behind her back. He was a large, heavy,
good-looking person--but the circumstances under which he presented
himself, rather than any peculiarity in his appearance, caused Miss
V---- to suspect the honesty of his profession.

"Indeed you are making an uncommonly pretty picture there, if you
will permit me to say so," remarked the stranger.

"I am glad you like it," replied the young lady. "I think, however,
that it would be vastly improved, if you would permit me to sketch
your figure in the foreground."

"Nothing would flatter me more. But, cara signorina, my present
object is a much less romantic one than sitting for my portrait to
so fair an artist. Will you allow me to gather up for myself and my
half famished friends, the fragments of your recent meal?"

"You are quite welcome to them, I assure you."

The dialogue had proceeded thus far when it was interrupted by the
return, to the no small satisfaction of one of the party at least,
of the two English officers and some others of the stragglers.

The stranger, in no way disconcerted, turned to Sir Edward Owen, and

"I believe that I have the honor of addressing his Excellency, the
commander of the British frigate in the harbor."

"Excuse me," said Sir George Dundas, "I am that person."

"Sono il servitore di Vostra Excellenza. The young lady whom I found
here has given me permission to make use of the food that has been
left by your party. But if your Excellency, and you, sir,"
addressing the other officer, "will grant me the favor of a moment's
private conversation, you will increase the obligation already

The three, thereupon, retired to a short distance from the rest of
the company, when the stranger resumed:

"If your Excellencies have been in this poor country long enough,
you must have heard speak of one Carlo Carrera. You may or you may
not be surprised to hear that I am he--and that my followers are not
far off. I have no desire to inconvenience your Excellencies, your
friends, or, least of all, the ladies who accompany you, and shall,
therefore, be but too happy to release you at once--I say _release_,
for you are in my power--upon the single condition, however, that
you two gentlemen give me your word of honor that you will both, or
either of you, come to me whenever or wherever I shall send for you
during the next two weeks--and that you will not speak of this
conversation to any one."

Disposed at all hazards to extricate the ladies from any thing like
an adventure, our travelers willingly entered into the required
engagement, and, with a mutual "_a rivederla_," the two parties

Our English friends returned to Naples, amused at the singular
episode to their excursion, and rather disposed to admire the
gallant behavior of the intruder than to regard him with any
unfavorable sentiments.

Some three days after this, as Sir George Dundas was strolling about
nightfall in the Villa Reale, a person in the dress of a priest
approached him, and beckoned him to follow. Leading the officer into
an obscure corner behind one of the numerous statues, the stranger
informed him that he came from the bandit of Lake Agnano, and that
he was directed to request him to be at seven o'clock that evening
in front of the Filomarini Chapel, in the Church of the Santissimi

The gallant captain did not hesitate to obey. At the appointed hour,
on entering the church and advancing to the indicated chapel, he
found before it what appeared to be an old woman on her knees,
engaged in the deepest devotion. At a sign from the pretended
worshiper, the captain fell upon his knees at her side. The old
crone briefly whispered to him, that it was known to Carrera that
his Excellency was invited to a ball at the British Embassy the next
evening--that he must by no means fail to go--but that at midnight
precisely he must leave the ball-room, return home, remove his
uniform, put on a plain citizen's dress, and be at the door of the
same church at one o'clock in the morning.

After these directions the old woman resumed her devotions, and the
captain left the church, his curiosity considerably excited by the
adventurous turn that things were taking. His brother officer, to
whom he related the particulars of the meeting at the Villa Reale,
and of the interview in the church, strongly urged him to fulfill
the promise which he had made at Lake Agnano, and to follow to the
letter the mysterious instructions which he had received.

Of course, the ball at the British Embassy on the following evening
was graced by the presence of nearly all the distinguished
foreigners in town. The English wintered at Naples at that time in
almost as large numbers as they do at present; and in all matters of
gayety and festivity, display and luxury, they as far exceeded the
Italians as they now do. It is a curious circumstance, which both of
you must have had occasion to remark, that the English, so rigid and
austere at home, when transplanted south of the Alps, surpass the
natives themselves in license and frivolity.

Our captain was of course there, and at an early hour. After
mingling freely in the gayeties of the evening, at midnight
precisely he withdrew from the ball-room, _sans congé_, and hastened
to his apartments. Changing his dress, and arming himself with a
brace of pistols, he hurried to the Church of the Apostoli. In his
excess of punctuality, he arrived too early at the rendezvous; and
it was only after the expiration of some twenty minutes, that he was
joined by the withered messenger before employed to summon him.
Bidding him follow her, the old woman led the way with an activity
little to have been expected in one apparently so feeble. Turning
down the _Chiaja_, they followed the course of the bay a weary way
beyond the grotto of _Posilipo_. The captain was already tolerably
exhausted when the guide turned off abruptly to the right, and
commenced the ascent of one of those vine-clad hills which border
the road. The hill was thickly planted with the vine, so that their
progress was both difficult and fatiguing.

They had been toiling upward more than an half hour since leaving
the highway, and the patience of Sir George was all but exhausted,
when on a sudden they came to one of those huts constructed of
interlaced boughs, which are temporarily used by the vine-dressers
in the south of Italy. The entrance was closed by a plaited mat of
leaves and stalks. Raising this mat, the old woman entered,
followed by her companion.

The hut was dimly lighted by a small lantern. Closing the entrance
as securely as the nature of the fastening would permit, the
pretended old woman threw off her disguise and disclosed the
well-remembered features of the courteous bandit of Lake Agnano.

Thanking his guest for the punctuality with which he had kept his
appointment, Carrera motioned him to follow him to the further
extremity of the hut. Taking the lantern in his hand, and stooping,
the Italian raised a square slab of stone, which either from the
skill with which it was adjusted or from the partial obscurity which
surrounded him, had escaped Sir George's eye. As he did this a flood
of light poured into the hut. Descending by a flight of a dozen or
more steps, followed by the robber chieftain, who drew back the
stone after them, the captain found himself in one of those spacious
catacombs so common in the neighborhood of Naples. Seated around a
table were a score or more of as fierce looking vagabonds as the
imagination could paint, who all rose to their feet as their leader
entered with his guest, saluting both with that propriety of address
so peculiar to the lower classes of Italians and Spaniards.

When all were seated, Carrera turned to the Englishman, and said,

"Your Excellency will readily suppose that I had a peculiar motive
for desiring an interview. God knows that I was not brought up to
wrong and violence--but evil times have sadly changed the current of
my life. A poor soldier, I have become a poorer brigand--at least in
these latter days, when hunted like a wild beast I am at last
enveloped in the toils of my pursuers, egress from which is now
impossible by my own unaided efforts. I have no particular claim
upon your excellency's sympathy, but I have thought that mere pity
might induce you to receive me and my followers on board your
frigate, and transport us to some place of safety beyond the limits
of unhappy Italy."

Here the astonished Englishman sprang to his feet, protesting that
his position as a British officer prevented him from entertaining
for a moment so extraordinary a proposition.

"Your Excellency will permit me, with all respect, to observe,"
Carrera resumed, "that I have treated you and yours generously. Do
not compel me to regret that I have done so; and do not force me to
add another to the acts of violence which already stain my hands.
Your Excellency knows too many of our secrets; we could not,
consistently with our own safety, permit you to exist otherwise than
as a friend."

The discussion was long. The robbers pleaded hard, pledging
themselves not to disgrace the captain's generosity, if he would
consent to save them. Sir George could not prevent himself from
somewhat sympathizing with these unfortunate men, who had been
driven to the irregular life they led as much by the viciousness of
the government under which they lived as by any evil propensities
of their own. It is not at all probable that the threat had any
thing to do with his decision, but certain it is, that the dialogue
terminated by a conditional promise on his part to yield to their

"If your Excellency will send a boat to a spot on the shore,
directly opposite where we now are, to-morrow, at midnight, it will
be easy for us to dispatch the sentinel and jump aboard," continued

"I will send the boat," answered the Englishman, "but will under no
circumstances consent to any bloodshed. You forget your own
recently-expressed scruples on the same subject."

It was finally decided that the boat should be sent--that the
captain should arrange some plan to divert the attention of the
sentinel--and that to their rescuer alone should be left the choice
of their destination.

Matters being thus arranged, Carrera resumed his disguise, and
conducted his guest homeward as far as the outskirts of the town.

The following night at the appointed hour, a boat with muffled oars
silently approached the designated spot. An officer, wrapped in a
boat cloak was seated in the stern. As the boat drew near the shore,
the sentinel presented his musket, and challenged the party. The
officer, with an under-toned "_Amici_," sprang to the beach.

A few hundred yards from the spot where the landing had been
effected, stood an isolated house with a low verandah. The officer,
slipping a scudo into the sentinel's hand, told him that he was come
for the purpose of carrying off a young girl residing in that house,
and begged him to assist him by making a clatter on the door at the
opposite side, so as to divert the attention of the parents while he
received his inamorata from the verandah. The credulous Neapolitan
was delighted to have an opportunity to earn a scudo by so easy a

The moment that he disappeared, Carrera and his band rushed to the
boat. A few powerful strokes of the oars and they were out of the
reach of musket-shot before the bewildered sentry could understand
that in some way or other his credulity had been imposed upon.

That night the "Tagus" weighed anchor for Malta. The port of
destination was reached after a short and prosperous voyage. Sir
George remained there only sufficiently long to discharge his
precious cargo, who left him, as may be imagined, with protestations
of eternal gratitude.

The fact that the frigate was on a cruise prevented any particular
surprise at her sudden disappearance from the waters of Naples. And
when she returned to her anchorage after a short absence, even the
party to the pic-nic were far from conjecturing that there was any
connection between her last excursion and the adventure of Lake

Carrera and his band enlisted in a body into one of the Maltese
regiments. A year or two later, becoming dissatisfied, they passed
over into Albania, and took service with Ali Pasha.

Some seven years after these events, Sir George Dundas was again at
Naples. As he was lounging one day in the Villa Reale, a tall and
noble-looking man, whose countenance seemed familiar, approached
him. Shaking him warmly by the hand, the stranger whispered in his

      "_Il suo servitore Carrera!_"

And thus ends the Frenchman's story.



      "Water, water, every where,
      And not a drop to drink!"

I could never understand why we call our summer resorts
_Watering-Places_. I am but an individual, quite anonymous, as you
see, and only graduated this summer, yet I have "known life," and
there was no fool of an elephant in our college town, and other
towns and cities where I have passed vacations. Now, if there have
been any little anti-Maine-Law episodes in my life, they have been
my occasional weeks at the Watering-Places.

It was only this summer, as I was going down the Biddle staircase at
Niagara, that Keanne, who was just behind me, asked quietly, and in
a wondering tone, "Why do cobblers drive the briskest trade of all,
from Nahant to Niagara?" I was dizzy with winding down the spiral
stairs, and gave some philosophical explanation, showing up my
political economy. But when in the evening, at the hotel, he invited
me to accompany him in an inquiry into the statistics of cobblers, I
understood him better.

So far from being Watering-Places, it is clear that there is not
only a spiritual but a sentimental intoxication at all these
pleasant retreats. There is universal exhilaration. Youth, beauty,
summer, money, and moonlight conspire to make water, or any thing of
which water is a type, utterly incredible. There is no practical
joke like that of asking a man if he came to Saratoga to drink the
waters. Every man justly feels insulted by such a suspicion. "Am I
an invalid, sir? Have I the air of disease, I should like to know?"
responds Brummell, fiercely, as he turns suddenly round from tying
his cravat, upon which he has lavished all his genius, and with
which he hoped to achieve successes. "Do I look weak, sir? Why the
deuce should you think I came to Saratoga to drink the waters?"

At Niagara it is different. There you naturally speak of water--over
your champagne or chambertin at dinner; and at evening you take a
little tipple to protect yourself against the night air as you step
out to survey the moonlight effects of the cataract. You came
professedly to see the water. There is nothing else to see or do
there, but to look at the falls, eat dinner, drink cobblers, and
smoke. If you have any doubt upon this point, run up in the train
and see. I think you will find people doing those things and nothing
else. I am not sure, indeed, but you will find some young ladies
upon the piazza overhanging the rapids, rapt and fascinated by the
delirious dance of the water beneath, who add a more alluring terror
to the weird awe that the cataract inspires, by wild tales of ghosts
and midnight marvels, which, haply, some recent graduate more
frightfully emphasizes by the ready coinage of his brain.

No, it is a melancholy misnomer. To call these gay summer courts of
Bacchus and Venus Watering-Places, is like the delightful mummery of
the pastoral revels of the king in the old Italian romance, who
attired himself as an abbot, and all his rollicking court as monks
and nuns, and shaping his pavilion into the semblance of a
monastery, stole, from contrast, a sharper edge for pleasure.

I must laugh when you call Saratoga, for instance, a Watering-Place;
because there, this very summer, I was intoxicated with that elixir
of life, which young men do not name, and which old men call love.
Let me tell you the story; for, if your eye chances to fall upon
this page while you are loitering at one of those pleasant places,
you can see in mine your own experience, and understand why Homer is
so intelligible to you. Are you not all the time in the midst of an
Iliad? That stately woman who is now passing along the piazza is
beautiful Helen, although she is called Mrs. Bigge in these
degenerate days, and Bigge himself is really the Menelaus of the old
Trojan story, although he deals now in cotton. Paris, of course, is
an habitué of Saratoga in the season, goes to Newport in the middle
of August, and always wears a mustache. But Paris is not so
dangerous to the connubial felicity of Menelaus Bigge, as he was in
the gay Grecian days.

Now what I say is this, that you who are swimming down the current
of the summer at a Watering-Place, are really surrounded by the
identical material out of which Homer spun his Iliad--yes, and
Shakspeare his glowing and odorous Romeo and Juliet--only it goes by
different names at Saratoga, Newport, and Niagara. And to point the
truth of what I say, I shall tell you my little story, illustrative
of summer life, and shall leave your wit to define the difference
between my experience and yours. It is of the simplest kind, mark
you, and "as easy as lying."

I left college, in the early summer, flushed with the honors of the
valedictory. It was in one of those quiet college towns which are
the pleasantest spots in New England, that I had won and worn my
laurels. After four years--so long in passing, such a swift line of
light when passed--the eagerly-expected commencement day arrived. It
was the greatest day in the year in that village, and I was the
greatest man of the day.

Ah! I shall always see the gathering groups of students and
alumni upon the college lawn, in the "ambrosial darkness" of
broad-branching elms. I can yet feel the warm sunshine of that quiet
day--and see our important rustling about in the black silk
graduating gowns--I, chiefest of all, and pointed out, to the
classes just entered, as the valedictorian, saluted as I passed by
the homage of their admiring glances. Then winding down the broad
street, over which the trees arched, and which they walled with
green, again my heart dilates upon the swelling music, that pealed
in front of the procession, while all the town made holiday, and
clustered under the trees to see us pass. I hear still chiming, and
a little muffled even now, through memory, the sweet church bell
that rang gayly and festally, not solemnly, that day--and how shall
I forget the choking and exquisite delight and excitement with
which, in the mingled confusion of ringing bell and clanging martial
instruments, we passed from the warm, bright sunshine without, into
the cool interior of the church. As we entered, the great organ
aroused from its majestic silence, and drowned bell and band in its
triumphant torrent of sound, while, to my excited fancy, the church
seemed swaying in the music, it was so crowded with women, in light
summer muslins, bending forward, and whispering, and waving fans.
The rattling of pew-doors--the busy importance of the "Professor of
Elocution and Belles-Lettres"--the dying strains of the organ--the
brief silence--the rustling rising to hear the President's
prayer--it is all as distinct in my mind as in yours, my young
friend fresh from college, and "watering" for your first season.

Then, when the long list was called, and the degrees had been
conferred, came my turn--"the valedictory addresses." In that
moment, as I gathered my gown around me and ascended the platform, I
did not envy Demosthenes nor Cicero, nor believe that a sweeter
triumph was ever won. That soft, country summer-day, and I the focus
of a thousand enthusiastic eyes to which the low words of farewell I
spoke to my companions, brought a sympathetic moisture--that is a
picture which must burn forever, illuminating life. The first
palpable and visible evidence of your power over others is that
penetrating aroma of success--sweeter than success itself--which
comes only once, and only for a moment, but for that single moment
is a dream made real. The memory of that day makes June in my mind

You see I am growing garrulous, and do not come to Saratoga by
steam. But I did come, fresh from that triumph, and full of it. I
had been the greatest man of the greatest day in a town not five
hundred miles away, and could not but feel that my fame must have
excited Saratoga. With what modest trembling I wrote my name in the
office-book. The man scarcely looked at it, but wrote a number
against it, shouted to the porter to take Mr. ----'s (excuse my
name) luggage to No. 310, and I mechanically followed that
functionary, and observed that not a single loiterer in the office
raised his head at my name.

But worse than that, the name seemed to be of no consequence. I was
no longer Mr. ---- with "the valedictory addresses," &c, &c.
(including the thousand eyes). I was merely No. 310--and you too
have already observed, I am sure, wherever you are passing the
summer, that you are not an individual at a Watering-Place. You lose
your personal identity in a great summer hotel, as you would in a
penitentiary; you are No. this or No. that. It is No. 310 who wishes
his Champagne frappé. It is No. 310 who wishes his card taken to No.
320. It is No. 310 who goes in the morning, pays his bill, and
hears, as the porter slings on his luggage and takes his shilling,
"put No. 310 in order."

This is one of the humiliating aspects of Watering-Place life. You
are one of a mass, and distinguished by your number. Yet you can
never know the mortifying ignominy of such treatment until it comes
directly upon the glory of a commencement, at which you have
absorbed all other individuality into yourself.

I reached Saratoga and came down to dinner. I could not help
laughing at the important procession of negro-waiters stamping in
with the different courses, and concentrating attention upon their
movements. I felt then, instinctively, how it is the last degree of
vulgarity--that the serving at table instead of being noiseless as
the wind that blows the ship along, is the chief spectacle and
amusement at dinner. Dinner at Saratoga, or Newport, or Niagara is a
grand military movement of black waiters, who advance, halt, load,
present, and fire their dishes, and in which the elegant ladies and
the elegant gentlemen are merely lay-figures, upon which the African
army exercise their skill by not hitting or spilling. For the first
days of my residence it was a quiet enjoyment to me to see with what
elaborate care the fine ladies and gentlemen arrayed themselves to
play their inferior parts at dinner. The chief actors in the
ceremony--the negro waiters--ran, a moment before the last bell, to
put on clean white jackets and when the bell rang, and the puppets
were seated--fancying, with charming naïveté, that they were the
principle objects of the feast--then thundered in the sable host and
deployed right and left, tramping like the ghost in Don Giovanni,
thumping, clashing, rattling, and all thought of elegance or
propriety was lost in the universal tumult.

People who submit to this, consider themselves elegant. But what if
in their own houses and dining-rooms there should be this "alarum,
enter an army," as the old play-books say, whenever they entertained
their friends at dinner.

I was lonely at first. Nothing is so solitary as a gay and crowded
Watering-Place, where you have few friends. The excessive hilarity
of others emphasizes your own quiet and solitude. And especially at
Saratoga, where there is no resource but the company. You must bowl,
or promenade the piazza, or flirt, with the women. You must drink,
smoke, chat, and game a little with the men. But if you know neither
women nor men, and have no prospect of knowing them, then take the
next train to Lake George.

It is very different elsewhere. At Newport, for instance, if you are
only No. 310 at your hotel and nothing more; if you know no one, and
have to drink your wine, and smoke, and listen to the music alone,
you have only to leap into your saddle, gallop to the beach, and as
you pace along the margin of the sea, that will laugh with you at
the frivolities you have left behind--will sometimes howl harsh
scorn upon the butterflies, who are not worth it, and who do not
deserve it--and the Atlantic will be to you lover, counselor, and
sweet society.

Toward the end of my first Saratoga week, I met an old college
friend. It was my old chum, Herbert, from the South. Herbert, who,
over many a midnight glass and wasting weed, had leaned out of my
window in the moonlight, and recited those burning lines of Byron
which all students do recite to that degree, that I have often
wondered what students did, in romantic moonlights, before Byron was
born. In those midnight recitals Herbert used often to stop, and say
to me:

"I wonder if you would like my sister?"

Her name was not mentioned, but Herbert was so handsome in the
southern style; he was so picturesque, and manly, and graceful--a
kind of Sidney and Bayard--that I was sure his sister was not less
than Amy Robsart, or Lucy of Lammermoor, or perhaps Zuleika.

Toward the close of our course, we were one day sauntering beyond
the little college-town, and dreaming dreams of that Future which,
to every ambitious young man, seems a stately palace waiting to be
royally possessed by him, when Herbert, who really loved me, said:

"I wish you knew Lulu."

"I wish I did know Lulu."

And that was all we ever said about it.

When we met at Saratoga it was a pleasant surprise to both, and
doubly so to me, for I was sadly bored by my want of acquaintances.
We fell into an earnest conversation, in the midst of which Herbert
suddenly said:

"Ah! there, I must run and join Lulu!" and left me.

Who has not had just this experience, or a similar one, at any
Watering-Place? One day you suddenly discover that some certain
person has arrived; and when you go to your room to dress for
dinner, your boots look splayed--your waistcoats are not the
thing--your coat isn't half as handsome as other coats--and you
spoil all your cravats in your nervous efforts to tie them
exquisitely. You get dressed, however, and descend to dinner, giving
yourself a Vivian Grey-ish air--a combination of the coxcomb, the
poet, and the politician--and yet wonder why your hands seem so
large, and why you do not feel at your ease, although every thing is
the same as yesterday, except that Lulu has arrived.

And there she sits!

So sat Lulu, Herbert's sister, cool in light muslin, as if that
sultry summer day she were Undine draped in mist. She had the
self-possession, which many children have, and which greatly
differs from the elaborate _sang froid_ of elegant manners. There
was no haughty reserve, no cold unconsciousness, as if the world
were not worth her treading. But when Herbert nodded to me--and I,
knowing that she was about to look at me, involuntarily put forward
the poet-aspect of Vivian--she turned and looked toward me earnestly
and unaffectedly for a few moments, while I played with a
sweet-bread, and looked abstracted. It is a pity that we men make
such fools of ourselves when we are in the callow state! Lulu turned
back and said something to Herbert; of course, it was telling him
her first impression of me! Do you think I wished to hear it?

She was not tall nor superb: her face was very changeful and
singularly interesting. I watched her during dinner, and such were
my impressions. If they were wrong, it was the fault of my

We met upon the piazza after dinner while the beautifully-dressed
throng was promenading, and the band was playing. It was an Arcadian
moment and scene.

"Lulu, this is my friend, Mr. ----, of whom I have spoken to you so

Herbert remained but a moment. I offered my arm to his sister, and
we moved with the throng. The whole world seemed a festival. The day
was golden--the music swelled in those long, delicious chords, which
imparadise the moment, and make life poetry. In that strain, and
with that feeling, our acquaintance commenced. It was Lulu's first
summer at a Watering-Place (at least she said so); it was my first,
too, at a Watering-Place--but not my first at a flirtation, thought
I, loftily. She had all the cordial freshness of a Southern girl,
with that geniality of manner which, without being in the least
degree familiar, is confiding and friendly, and which to us,
reserved and suspicious Northerners, appears the evidence of the
complete triumph we have achieved, until we see that it is a general
and not a particular manner.

The band played on: the music seemed only to make more melodious and
expressive all that we said. At intervals, we stopped and leaned
upon the railing by a column wreathed with a flowering vine, and
Lulu's eye seeking the fairest blossom, found it, and her hand
placed it in mine. I forgot commencement-day, and the glory of the
valedictory. Lulu's eyes were more inspiring than the enthusiastic
thousand in the church; and the remembered bursts of the band that
day were lost in the low whispers of the girl upon my arm. I do not
remember what we said. I did not mean to flirt, in the usual sense
of that word (men at a Watering-Place never do). It was an
intoxication most fatal of all, and which no Maine law can avert.

Herbert joined us later in the afternoon, and proposed a drive; he
was anxious to show me his horses. We parted to meet at the door.
Lulu gently detached her arm from mine; said gayly, "Au revoir,
bientôt!" as she turned away; and I bounded into the hall, sprang
up-stairs into my room, and sat down, stone-still, upon a chair.

I looked fixedly upon the floor, and remained perfectly motionless
for five minutes. I was lost in a luxury of happiness! Without a
profession, without a fortune, I felt myself irresistibly drawn
toward this girl;--and the very fascination lay here, that I knew,
however wild and wonderful a feeling I might indulge, it was all
hopeless. We should enjoy a week of supreme happiness--suffer in
parting--and presently be solaced, and enjoy other weeks of supreme
felicity with other Lulus!

My young friends of the Watering-Places, deny having had just such
an emotion and "course of thought," if you dare!

We drove to the lake, and the whole world of Saratoga with us.
Herbert's new bays sped neatly along--he driving in front, Lulu and
I chatting behind. Arrived at the lake, we sauntered down the steep
slope to the beach. We stepped into a boat and drifted out upon the
water. It was still and gleaming in the late afternoon; and the
pensive tranquillity of evening was gathering before we returned. We
sang those passionate, desperate love-songs which young people
always sing when they are happiest and most sentimental. So rapidly
had we advanced--for a Watering-Place is the very hot-bed of
romance--that I dropped my hand idly upon Lulu's; and finding that
hers was not withdrawn, gradually and gently clasped it in mine. So,
hand-in-hand, we sang, floating homeward in the golden twilight.

There was a dance in the evening at the hotel. Lulu was to dance
with me, of course, the first set, and as many waltzes as I chose.
She was so sparkling, so evidently happy, that I observed the New
York belles, to whom happiness is an inexplicable word, scanned her
with an air of lofty wonder and elegant disdain. But Lulu was so
genuinely graceful and charming; she remained so quietly superior in
her simplicity to the assuming _hauteur_ of the metropolitan misses,
that I kept myself in perfect good-humor, and did not feel myself at
all humbled in the eyes of the Young America of that city, because I
was the cavalier of the unique Southerner. So far did this go, that
in my desire to revenge myself upon the New Yorkers, I resolved to
increase their chagrin by praising Lulu to the chief belle of the

To her I was introduced. A New York belle at a Watering-Place!
"There's a divinity doth hedge her," and a mystery too. She looked
at me with supreme indifference as I advanced to the ordeal of
presentation, evidently measuring my claims upon her consideration
by the general aspect of my outer man. I moved with a certain pride,
because although I felt awkward before the glance of Lulu, I was
entirely self-possessed in the consciousness of unexceptionable
attire before the unmeaning stare of the fashionable _parvenue_. You
see I do get a little warm in speaking of her, and yet I was as cool
as an autumn morning, when I made my bow, and requested her hand
for the next set.

We danced _vis-a-vis_ to Lulu. My partner swung her head around upon
her neck, as none but Juno or Minerva should venture to do, and
looked at the other _personal_ of the quadrille, to see if she were
in a perfectly safe set. I ventured a brief remark upon nothing--the
weather, probably. The Queen of the Cannibal Islands bent
majestically in a monosyllabic response.

"It is very warm to-night," continued I.

"Yes, very warm," she responded.

"You have been long here?"

"Two weeks."

"Probably you came from Niagara?"

"No, from Sharon."

"Shall you go to Lake George?"

"No, we go to Newport."

There I paused, and fondled my handkerchief, while the impassible
lady relapsed into her magnificent silence, and offered no hope of
any conversation in any direction. But I would not be balked of my
object, and determined that if the living stream did run "quick
below," the glaring polish of ice which these "fine manners"
presented, my remark should be an Artesian bore to it.

"How handsome our _vis-a-vis_ is?" said I.

My stately lady said nothing, but tossed her head slightly, without
changing her expression, except to make it more pointedly frigid, in
a reply which was a most vociferous negative, petrified by
politeness into ungracious assent.

"She is what Lucia of Lammermoor might have been before she was
unhappy," continued I, plunging directly off into the sea of

"Ah! I don't know Miss Lammermoor," responded my partner, with

I am conscious that I winced at this. A New York belle, hedged with
divinity and awfulness, &c, _not know Miss Lammermoor_. Such stately
_naïveté_ of ignorance drew a smile into my eyes, and I concluded to
follow the scent.

"You misunderstand me," said I. "I was speaking of Scott's
Lucia--the Waverley novel, you know."

"Waverley, Waverley," replied my Cannibal Queen, who moved her head
like Juno, but this time lisping and somewhat confused, as if she
knew that, by the mention of books, we were possibly nearing the
verge of sentiment. "Waverley--I don't know what you mean: you're
too deep for me."

I was silent for that moment, and sat a mirthful Marius, among the
ruins of my proud idea of a metropolitan belle. Had she not
exquisitely perfected my revenge? Could the contrast of my next
dance with Lulu have been pointed with more diamond distinctness
than by the unweeting lady, whom I watched afterward, with my eyes
swimming in laughter, as she glided, passionlessly, without smiling,
without grace, without life--like a statue clad in muslin, over
grass-cloth, around the hall. Once again, during the evening, I went
to her and said:

"How graceful that Baltimore lady is."

"The Baltimore ladies may have what you call grace and ease," said
she, with the same delicious hauteur, "and the Boston ladies are
very 'strong-minded,'" she continued, in a tone intended for
consuming satire, the more unhappy that it was clear she could make
no claim to either of the qualities--"but the New York women have
_air_," she concluded, and sailed away with what "might be air,"
said Herbert, who heard her remark, "but certainly very bad air."

Learn from this passage of my experience, beloved reader, you who
are for the first time encountering that Sphinx, a New York belle,
that she is not terrible. You shall find her irreproachable in
_tournure_, but it is no more exclusively beautiful or admirable,
than New York is exclusively the fine city of the country. I am a
young man, of course, and inexperienced; but I prefer that lovely
languor of the Southern manners, which is expressed in the
negligence, and sometimes even grotesqueness of dress, to the vapid
superciliousness, which is equally expressed in the coarse grass
cloth that imparts the adorable _Je ne sais quoi_ of _style_. "It is
truly amusing," Herbert says, who has been a far traveler, "to see
these nice New Yorkers assuming that the whole country outside their
city is provincial." A Parisian lady who should affect to treat a
Florentine as a provincial, would be exiled by derision from social
consideration. Fair dames of New York, I am but an anonymous
valedictorian; yet why not make your beauty more beautiful, by that
courtesy which is loftier than disdain, and superior to

Ah, well! it was an aromatic evening. Disraeli says that Ferdinand
Armine had a Sicilian conversation with Henrietta Temple, in the
conservatory. You know how it ended, and they knew how it would
end,--they were married. But if Ferdinand had plunged into that
abyss of excitement, knowing that however Sicilian his conversation
might be, it would all end in a bachelor's quarters, with Henrietta
as a lay figure of memory, which he might amuse himself in draping
with a myriad rainbow fancies--if he had known this, ought he to
have advanced farther in the divine darkness of that prospect? Ought
he not to have said, "Dear Miss Temple, my emotions are waxing
serious, and I am afraid of them, and will retire."

You will say, "certainly," of course. We all say, "certainly," when
we read or talk about it quietly. Young men at Saratoga and Newport
say, "certainly," over their cigars. But when the weed is whiffed
away, they dress for conquest, and draw upon the Future for the
consequences. Unhappily, the Future is perfectly "good," and always
settles to the utmost copper.

At least, so Herbert says, and he is older than I am. I only
know--in fact, I only cared, that the evening fled away like a
sky-lark singing up to the sun at daybreak--(that was a much
applauded sentence in my valedictory). I deliberately cut every
cable of remorse that might have held me to the "ingenuous course,"
as it is called, and drove out into the shoreless sea of enjoyment.
I revelled in Lulu's beauty, in her grace, in her thousand nameless
charms. I was naturally sorry for her. I knew her young affections
would "run to waste, and water but the desert." But if a girl will
do so! Summer and the midsummer sun shone in a cloudless sky. There
was nothing to do but live and love, and Lulu and I did nothing
else. Through the motley aspects of Watering-Place existence, our
life shot like a golden thread, embroidering it with beauty. We
strolled on the piazza at morning and evening. During the forenoon
we sat in the parlor, and Lulu worked a bag or a purse, and I sat by
her, gossiping that gossip which is evanescent as foam upon
champagne--yes, and as odorous and piercing, for the moment it
lasts. We only parted to dress for dinner. I relinquished the Vivian
Grey style, and returned to my own. Every day Lulu was more
exquisitely dressed, and when the band played, after dinner, and the
sunlight lay, golden-green, upon the smooth, thick turf, our
conversation was inspired by the music, as on the first day, which
seemed to me centuries ago, so natural and essential to my life had
Lulu become. Toward sunset we drove to the lake. Sometimes in a
narrow little wagon, not quite wide enough for two, and in which I
sat overdrifted by the azure mist of the dress she wore--nor ever
dreaming of the Autumn or the morrow; and sometimes with Herbert and
his new horses.

Young America sipping cobblers, and roving about in very loose and
immoral coats, voted it "a case." The elderly ladies thought it a
"shocking flirtation." The old gentlemen who smoke cigars in the
easy chairs under the cool colonnade, watched the course of events
through the slow curling clouds of tobacco, and looked at me, when I
passed them, as if I were juvenile for a Lothario; while the great
dancing, bowling, driving, flirting, and fooling mass of the
Saratoga population thought it all natural and highly improper.

It is astonishing to recur to an acquaintance which has become a
large and luminous part of your life, and discover that it lasted a
week. It is saddening to sit among the withered rose-leaves of a
summer, and remember that each rose in its prime seemed the sweetest
of roses. The old ladies called it "shocking," and the young ladies
sigh that it is "heartless," and the many condemn, while the few
wrap themselves in scornful pride at the criminal fickleness of men.

One such I met on a quiet Sunday morning when Lulu had just left me
to go and read to her mother.

"You are a vain coxcomb," was the promising prelude of my friend's
conversation. But she _was_ a friend, so I did not frown nor play
that I was offended.

"Why a coxcomb?"

"Because you are flirting with that girl merely for your own
amusement. You know perfectly well that she loves you, and you know
equally well that you mean nothing. You are a flippant, shallow
Arthur Pendennis--"

"_Pas trop vite._ If I meet a pleasant person in a pleasant place,
and we like each other, I, for my part, will follow the whim of the
hour. I will live while I live--provided, always, that I injure no
other person in following that plan--and in every fairly supposable
case of this kind the game is equal. Good morning."

Now you will say that I was afraid to continue the argument, and
that I felt self-convicted of folly. Not at all; but I chanced to
see Lulu returning, and I strolled down the piazza to meet her.

She was flushed, and tears were ill-concealed in her eyes. Her
mother had apprised her that she was to leave in the morning. It was
all over.

I did not dare to trust my tongue, but seized her hand a moment, and
then ran for my life--literally for my life. Reaching my room I sat
down in my chair again, and stared upon the floor. I loved Lulu more
than any woman in the world. Yet I remembered precisely similar
occasions before, when I felt as if the sun and life were departing
when certain persons left my side, and I therefore could not trust
my emotion, and run back again and swear absolute and eternal
fidelity. You think I was a great fool, and destitute of feeling,
and better not venture any more into general female society. Perhaps
so. But it was written upon my consciousness suddenly and
dazzlingly, as the mystic words upon Nebuchadnezzar's hall, that
this, though sweet and absorbing, was but a summer fancy--offspring
of sunshine, flowers, and music--not the permanent reality which all
men seek in love. It was one of the characteristic charms of the
summer life. It made the weeks a pleasant Masque of Truth--a
paraphrase of the poetry of Love. I would not avoid it. I would not
fail to sail among the isles of Greece, though but for a summer
day--though Memory might forever yearningly revert to that
delight--conscious of no dishonor, of no more selfishness than in
enjoying a day or a flower--exposed to all the risks to which my
partner in the delirious and delicious game was exposed.

We met at dinner. We strolled after dinner, and I felt the trembling
of the arm within mine, as we spoke of travel, of Niagara, of
Newport, and of parting. "Lulu," said I, "the pleasure of a
Watering-Place is the meeting with a thousand friends whom we never
saw before, and shall never see again."

That was the way I began.

"We meet here, Lulu, like travelers upon a mountain-top, one coming
from the clear, green north, another from the sun-loved south; and
we sit together for an hour talking, each of his own, and each story
by its strangeness fascinating the other hearer. Then we rise, say
farewell, and each pursues his journey alone, yet never forgetting
that meeting on the mountain, and the sweet discourse that charmed
the hours."

I found myself again delivering valedictory addresses, and to an
audience more moved than the first.

Yet who would not have had the day upon the mountain! Who would not
once have seen Helen, though he might never see her more? Who would
not wish to prove by a thousand-fold experience Shelley's lines--

      "True love in this differs from gold to clay,
      That to divide is not to take away."

Lulu said nothing, and we walked silently on.

"I hate the very name Watering-Place," said she, at length.

I did not ask her why.

When the full moonlight came, we went to the ball-room. It is the
way they treat moonlights at a Watering-Place.

"Yes," said Lulu, "let us die royally, wreathed with flowers."

And she smiled as she said it. Why did she smile? It was just as we
parted, and mark the result. The moment I suspected that the
flirtation was not all on one side, I discovered--beloved budding
Flirt, male or female, of this summer, you will also discover the
same thing in similar cases--that I was seriously in love. Now that
I fancied there was no reason to blind my eyes to the fact, I stared
directly upon it.

We went into the hall. It was a wild and melancholy dance that we
danced. There was a frenzy in my movements, for I knew that I was
clasping for the last time the woman for whom my admiring and tender
compassion was by her revelation of superiority to loving me,
suddenly kindled into devotion! She was very beautiful--at least,
she was so to me, and I could not but mark a kind of triumph in her
air, which did not much perplex, but overwhelmed me. At length she
proposed stepping out upon the piazza, and then we walked in the
cool moonlight while I poured out to her the overflowing enthusiasm
of my passion. Lulu listened patiently, and then she said:

"My good friend (fancy such a beginning in answer to a declaration),
you have much to learn. I thought from what you said this afternoon
that you were profoundly acquainted with the mystery of
Watering-Place life. You remember you delivered a very polished
disquisition on the subject to me--to a woman who, you had every
reason to suppose, was deeply in love with you. My good sir, a
Watering-Place passion, you ought to know, is an affair of sunshine,
music, and flowers. We meet upon a mountain-top, and enjoy
ourselves, then part with longing and regret."

Here she paused a moment, and my knees smote together.

"You are a very young man, with very much to learn, and if you mean
to make the tour of the Watering-Places during this or any summer,
you must understand this; and, as Herbert tells me you were a very
moving valedictorian this year, this shall be my moving valedictory
to you, for I leave to-morrow--in all summer encounters of the heart
or head, at any of the leisure resorts where there is nothing to do
but to do nothing, never forget that _all baggage is at the risk of
the owner_."

And so saying, Lulu slipped her arm from mine, glided up the stairs
into the hall, and the next moment was floating down the room to a
fragrant strain of Strauss.

I, young reader, remained a few moments bewildered in the moonlight,
and the next morning naturally left Saratoga. I am meditating
whether to go to Newport; but I am sure Lulu is there. Let me advise
you, meanwhile, to beware, let me urge you to adapt the old proverb
to the meridian of a Watering-Place by reversing it--that "whoever
goes out to find a kingdom may return an ass."



About eight o'clock on the night of the 22d of January, 1793, while
the Reign of Terror was still at its height in Paris, an old woman
descended the rapid eminence in that city, which terminates before
the Church of St. Laurent. The snow had fallen so heavily during the
whole day, that the sound of footsteps was scarcely audible. The
streets were deserted; and the fear that silence naturally inspires,
was increased by the general terror which then assailed France. The
old woman passed on her way, without perceiving a living soul in the
streets; her feeble sight preventing her from observing in the
distance, by the lamp-light, several foot passengers, who flitted
like shadows over the vast space of the Faubourg, through which she
was proceeding. She walked on courageously through the solitude, as
if her age were a talisman which could shield her from every
calamity. No sooner, however, had she passed the Rue des Morts, than
she thought she heard the firm and heavy footsteps of a man walking
behind her. It struck her that she had not heard this sound for the
first time. Trembling at the idea of being followed, she quickened
her pace, in order to confirm her suspicions by the rays of light
which proceeded from an adjacent shop. As soon as she had reached
it, she abruptly turned her head, and perceived, through the fog,
the outline of a human form. This indistinct vision was enough: she
shuddered violently the moment she saw it--doubting not that the
stranger had followed her from the moment she had quitted home. But
the desire to escape from a spy soon renewed her courage, and she
quickened her pace, vainly thinking that, by such means, she could
escape from a man necessarily much more active than herself.

After running for some minutes, she arrived at a pastry-cook's
shop--entered--and sank, rather than sat down, on a chair which
stood before the counter. The moment she raised the latch of the
door, a woman in the shop looked quickly through the windows toward
the street; and, observing the old lady, immediately opened a
drawer in the counter, as if to take out something which she had to
deliver to her. Not only did the gestures and expression of the
young woman show her desire to be quickly relieved of the new-comer,
as of a person whom it was not safe to welcome; but she also let
slip a few words of impatience at finding the drawer empty.
Regardless of the old lady's presence, she unceremoniously quitted
the counter, retired to an inner apartment, and called her husband,
who at once obeyed the summons.

"Where have you placed the--?" inquired she, with a mysterious air,
glancing toward the visitor, instead of finishing the sentence.

Although the pastry-cook could only perceive the large hood of black
silk, ornamented with bows of violet-colored ribbon, which formed
the old lady's head-dress, he at once cast a significant look at his
wife, as much as to say, "Could you think me careless enough to
leave what you ask for, in such a place as the shop!" and then
hurriedly disappeared.

Surprised at the silence and immobility of the stranger lady, the
young woman approached her; and, on beholding her face, experienced
a feeling of compassion--perhaps, we may add, a feeling of curiosity
as well.

Although the complexion of the old lady was naturally colorless,
like that of one long accustomed to secret austerities, it was easy
to see that a recent emotion had cast over it an additional
paleness. Her head-dress was so disposed as completely to hide her
hair; and thereby to give her face an appearance of religious
severity. At the time of which we write, the manners and habits of
people of quality were so different from those of the lower classes,
that it was easy to identify a person of distinction from outward
appearance alone. Accordingly, the pastry-cook's wife at once
discovered that the strange visitor was an ex-aristocrat--or, as we
should now express it, "a born lady."

"Madame!" she exclaimed, respectfully, forgetting, at the moment,
that this, like all other titles, was now proscribed under the

The old lady made no answer, but fixed her eyes steadfastly on the
shop windows, as if they disclosed some object that terrified her.

"What is the matter with you, citizen?" asked the pastry-cook, who
made his appearance at this moment, and disturbed her reverie by
handing her a small pasteboard box, wrapped up in blue paper.

"Nothing, nothing, my good friends," she replied, softly. While
speaking, she looked gratefully at the pastry-cook; then, observing
on his head the revolutionary red cap, she abruptly exclaimed: "You
are a Republican! you have betrayed me!"

The pastry-cook and his wife indignantly disclaimed the imputation
by a gesture. The old lady blushed as she noticed it--perhaps with
shame, at having suspected them--perhaps with pleasure, at finding
them trustworthy.

"Pardon me," said she, with child-like gentleness, drawing from her
pocket a louis d'or. "There," she continued, "there is the
stipulated price."

There is a poverty which the poor alone can discover. The
pastry-cook and his wife felt the same conviction as they looked at
each other--it was perhaps the last louis d'or which the old lady
possessed. When she offered the coin her hand trembled: she had
gazed upon it with some sorrow, but with no avarice; and yet, in
giving it, she seemed to be fully aware that she was making a
sacrifice. The shop-keepers, equally moved by pity and interest,
began by comforting their consciences with civil words.

"You seem rather poorly, citizen," said the pastry-cook.

"Would you like to take any refreshment, madame?" interrupted his

"We have some excellent soup," continued the husband.

"The cold has perhaps affected you, madame," resumed the young
woman; "pray, step in, and sit and warm yourself by our fire."

"We may be Republicans," observed the pastry-cook; "but the devil is
not always so black as he is painted."

Encouraged by the kind words addressed to her by the shop-keepers,
the old lady confessed that she had been followed by a strange man,
and that she was afraid to return home by herself.

"Is that all?" replied the valiant pastry-cook. "I'll be ready to go
home with you in a minute, citizen."

He gave the louis d'or to his wife, and then--animated by that sort
of gratitude which all tradesmen feel at receiving a large price for
an article of little value--hastened to put on his National Guard's
uniform, and soon appeared in complete military array. In the mean
while, however, his wife had found time to reflect; and in her case,
as in many others, reflection closed the open hand of charity.
Apprehensive that her husband might be mixed up in some
misadventure, she tried hard to detain him; but, strong in his
benevolent impulse, the honest fellow persisted in offering himself
as the old lady's escort.

"Do you imagine, madame, that the man you are so much afraid of, is
still waiting outside the shop?" asked the young woman.

"I feel certain of it," replied the lady.

"Suppose he should be a spy! Suppose the whole affair should be a
conspiracy! Don't go! Get back the box we gave her." These words
whispered to the pastry-cook by his wife, had the effect of cooling
his courage with extraordinary rapidity.

"I'll just say two words to that mysterious personage outside, and
relieve you of all annoyance immediately," said he, hastily quitting
the shop.

The old lady, passive as a child, and half-bewildered, reseated

The pastry-cook was not long before he returned. His face, which was
naturally ruddy, had turned quite pale; he was so panic-stricken,
that his legs trembled under him, and his eyes rolled like the eyes
of a drunken man.

"Are you trying to get our throats cut for us, you rascally
aristocrat?" cried he, furiously. "Do you think you can make _me_
the tool of a conspiracy? Quick! show us your heels! and never let
us see your face again!"

So saying, he endeavored to snatch away the box, which the old lady
had placed in her pocket. No sooner, however, had his hands touched
her dress, than, preferring any perils in the street to losing the
treasure for which she had just paid so large a price, she darted
with the activity of youth toward the door, opened it violently, and
disappeared in a moment from the eyes of the bewildered shopkeepers.

Upon gaining the street again, she walked at her utmost speed; but
her strength soon failed, when she heard the spy who had so
remorselessly followed her, crunching the snow under his heavy
tread. She involuntarily stopped short: the man stopped short too!
At first, her terror prevented her from speaking, or looking round
at him; but it is in the nature of us all--even of the most
infirm--to relapse into comparative calm immediately after violent
agitation; for, though our feelings may be unbounded, the organs
which express them have their limits. Accordingly, the old lady,
finding that she experienced no particular annoyance from her
imaginary persecutor, willingly tried to convince herself that he
might be a secret friend, resolved at all hazards to protect her.
She reconsidered the circumstances which had attended the stranger's
appearance, and soon contrived to persuade herself that his object
in following her, was much more likely to be a good than an evil

Forgetful, therefore, of the fear with which he had inspired the
pastry-cook, she now went on her way with greater confidence. After
a walk of half an hour, she arrived at a house situated at the
corner of a street leading to the Barrière Pantin--even at the
present day, the most deserted locality in all Paris. A cold
northeasterly wind whistled sharply across the few houses, or rather
tenements, scattered about this almost uninhabited region. The place
seemed, from its utter desolation, the natural asylum of penury and

The stranger, who still resolutely dogged the poor old lady's steps,
seemed struck with the scene on which his eyes now rested. He
stopped--erect, thoughtful, and hesitating--his figure feebly
lighted by a lamp, the uncertain rays of which scarcely penetrated
the fog. Fear had quickened the old lady's eyes. She now thought she
perceived something sinister in the features of the stranger. All
her former terrors returned and she took advantage of the man's
temporary indecision, to steal away in the darkness toward the door
of a solitary house. She pressed a spring under the latch, and
disappeared with the rapidity of a phantom.

The stranger, still standing motionless, contemplated the house,
which bore the same appearance of misery as the rest of the
Faubourg. Built of irregular stones, and stuccoed with yellowish
plaster, it seemed, from the wide cracks in the walls, as if a
strong gust of wind would bring the crazy building to the ground.
The roof, formed of brown tiles, long since covered with moss, was
so sunk in several places that it threatened to give way under the
weight of snow which now lay upon it. Each story had three windows,
the frames of which, rotted with damp and disjointed by the heat of
the sun, showed how bitterly the cold must penetrate into the
apartments. The comfortless, isolated dwelling resembled some old
tower which Time had forgotten to destroy. One faint light glimmered
from the windows of the gable in which the top of the building
terminated; the remainder of the house was plunged in the deepest

Meanwhile, the old woman ascended with some difficulty a rude and
dilapidated flight of stairs, assisting herself by a rope, which
supplied the place of bannisters. She knocked mysteriously at the
door of one of the rooms situated on the garret-floor, was quickly
let in by an old man, and then sank down feebly into a chair which
he presented to her.

"Hide yourself! Hide yourself!" she exclaimed. "Seldom as we venture
out, our steps have been traced; our proceedings are known!"

"What is the matter?" asked another old woman, seated near the fire.

"The man whom we have seen loitering about the house since
yesterday, has followed me this evening," she replied.

At these words, the three inmates of the miserable abode looked
on each other in silent terror. The old man was the least
agitated--perhaps for the very reason that his danger was really the
greatest. When tried by heavy affliction, or threatened by bitter
persecution, the first principle of a courageous man is, at all
times, to contemplate calmly the sacrifice of himself for the safety
of others. The expression in the faces of his two companions showed
plainly, as they looked on the old man, that _he_ was the sole
object of their most vigilant solicitude.

"Let us not distrust the goodness of God, my sisters," said he, in
grave, reassuring tones. "We sang His praises even in the midst of
the slaughter that raged through our Convent. If it was His
good-will that I should be saved from the fearful butchery committed
in that holy place by the Republicans, it was no doubt to reserve me
for another destiny, which I must accept without a murmur. God
watches over His chosen, and disposes of them as seems best to His
good-will. Think of yourselves, my sisters--think not of me!"

"Impossible!" said one of the women. "What are _our_ lives--the
lives of two poor nuns--in comparison with _yours_; in comparison
with the life of a priest?"

"Here, father," said the old nun, who had just returned; "here are
the consecrated wafers of which you sent me in search." She handed
him the box which she had received from the pastry-cook.

"Hark!" cried the other nun; "I hear footsteps coming up-stairs."

They all listened intently. The noise of footsteps ceased.

"Do not alarm yourselves," said the priest. "Whatever happens, I
have already engaged a person, on whose fidelity we can depend, to
escort you in safety over the frontier; to rescue you from the
martyrdom which the ferocious will of Robespierre and his coadjutors
of the Reign of Terror would decree against every servant of the

"Do _you_ not mean to accompany us?" asked the two nuns,

"_My_ place, sisters, is with the martyrs--not with the saved," said
the old priest, calmly.

"Hark! the steps on the staircase!--the heavy steps we heard
before!" cried the women.

This time it was easy to distinguish, in the midst of the silence of
night, the echoing sound of footsteps on the stone stairs. The nuns,
as they heard it approach nearer and nearer, forced the priest into
a recess at one end of the room, closed the door, and hurriedly
heaped some old clothes against it. The moment after, they were
startled by three distinct knocks at the outer door.

The person who demanded admittance appeared to interpret the
terrified silence which had seized the nuns on hearing his knock,
into a signal to enter. He opened the door himself, and the
affrighted women immediately recognized him as the man whom they had
detected watching the house--the spy who had watched one of them
through the streets that night.

The stranger was tall and robust, but there was nothing in his
features or general appearance to denote that he was a dangerous
man. Without attempting to break the silence, he slowly looked round
the room. Two bundles of straw, strewn upon boards, served as a bed
for the two nuns. In the centre of the room was a table, on which
were placed a copper-candlestick, some plates, three knives, and a
loaf of bread. There was but a small fire in the grate, and the
scanty supply of wood piled near it, plainly showed the poverty of
the inmates. The old walls, which at some distant period had been
painted, indicated the miserable state of the roof, by the patches
of brown streaked across them by the rain, which had filtered, drop
by drop, through the ceiling. A sacred relic, saved probably from
the pillage of the convent to which the two nuns and the priest had
been attached, was placed on the chimney-piece. Three chairs, two
boxes, and an old chest-of-drawers completed the furniture of the

At one corner near the mantle-shelf, a door had been constructed
which indicated that there was a second room in that direction.

An expression of pity appeared on the countenance of the stranger,
as his eyes fell on the two nuns, after having surveyed their
wretched apartment. He was the first to break the strange silence
that had hitherto prevailed, by addressing the two poor creatures
before him in such tones of kindness as were best adapted to the
nervous terror under which they were evidently suffering.

"Citizens!" he began, "I do not come to you as an enemy." He stopped
for a moment, and then continued: "If any misfortune has befallen
you, rest assured that I am not the cause of it. My only object here
is to ask a great favor of you."

The nuns still kept silence.

"If my presence causes you any anxiety," he went on, "tell me so at
once, and I will depart; but, believe me, I am really devoted to
your interests; and if there is any thing in which I can befriend
you, you may confide in me without fear. I am, perhaps, the only man
in Paris whom the law can not assail, now that the kings of France
are no more."

There was such a tone of sincerity in these words, as he spoke them,
that Sister Agatha (the nun to whom the reader was introduced at the
outset of this narrative, and whose manners exhibited all the court
refinement of the old school) instinctively pointed to one of the
chairs, as if to request the stranger to be seated. His expression
showed a mixture of satisfaction and melancholy, as he acknowledged
this little attention, of which he did not take advantage until the
nuns had first seated themselves.

"You have given an asylum here," continued he, "to a venerable
priest, who has miraculously escaped from massacre at a Carmelite

"Are you the person," asked Sister Agatha, eagerly, "appointed to
protect our flight from--?"

"I am not the person whom you expected to see," he replied, calmly.

"I assure you, sir," interrupted the other nun, anxiously, "that we
have no priest here; we have not, indeed."

"You had better be a little more careful about appearances on a
future occasion," he replied, gently, taking from the table a Latin
breviary. "May I ask if you are both in the habit of reading the
Latin language?" he inquired, with a slight inflexion of sarcasm in
his voice.

No answer was returned. Observing the anguish depicted on the
countenance of the nuns, the trembling of their limbs, the tears
that filled their eyes, the stranger began to fear that he had gone
too far.

"Compose yourselves," he continued, frankly. "For three days I have
been acquainted with the state of distress in which you are living.
I know your names, and the name of the venerable priest whom you are
concealing. It is--"

"Hush! do not speak it," cried Sister Agatha, placing her finger on
her lips.

"I have now said enough," he went on, "to show that if I had
conceived the base design of betraying you, I could have
accomplished my object before now."

On the utterance of these words, the priest, who had heard all that
had passed, left his hiding-place, and appeared in the room.

"I can not believe, sir," said he, "that you are leagued with my
persecutors; and I therefore willingly confide in you. What do you
require of me?"

The noble confidence of the priest--the saint-like purity expressed
in his features--must have struck even an assassin with respect. The
mysterious personage who had intruded on the scene of misery and
resignation which the garret presented, looked silently for a moment
on the three beings before him, and then, in tones of secrecy, thus
addressed the priest:

"Father, I come to entreat you to celebrate a mortuary mass for the
repose of the soul of--of a--of a person whose life the laws once
held sacred, but whose corpse will never rest in holy ground."

An involuntary shudder seized the priest, as he guessed the hidden
meaning in these words. The nuns unable to imagine what person was
indicated by the stranger, looked on him with equal curiosity and

"Your wish shall be granted," said the priest, in low, awe-struck
tones. "Return to this place at midnight, and you will find me ready
to celebrate the only funeral service which the church can offer in
expiation of the crime to which I understand you to allude."

The stranger trembled violently for a moment, then composed himself,
respectfully saluted the priest and the two nuns, and departed
without uttering a word.

About two hours afterward, a soft knock at the outer door announced
the mysterious visitor's return. He was admitted by Sister Agatha,
who conducted him into the second apartment of their modest retreat,
where every thing had been prepared for the midnight mass. Near the
fire-place the nuns had placed their old chest of drawers, the
clumsy workmanship of which was concealed under a rich altar-cloth
of green velvet. A large crucifix, formed of ivory and ebony was
hung against the bare plaster wall. Four small tapers, fixed by
sealing-wax on the temporary altar, threw a faint and mysterious
gleam over the crucifix, but hardly penetrated to any other part of
the walls of the room. Thus almost exclusively confined to the
sacred objects immediately above and around it, the glow from the
tapers looked like a light falling from heaven itself on that
unadorned and unpretending altar. The floor of the room was damp.
The miserable roof, sloping on either side, was pierced with rents,
through which the cold night air penetrated into the rooms. Nothing
could be less magnificent, and yet nothing could be more truly
solemn than the manner in which the preliminaries of the funeral
ceremony had been arranged. A deep, dread silence, through which the
slightest noise in the street could be heard, added to the dreary
grandeur of the midnight scene--a grandeur majestically expressed by
the contrast between the homeliness of the temporary church, and the
solemnity of the service to which it was now devoted. On each side
of the altar, the two aged women kneeling on the tiled floor,
unmindful of its deadly dampness, were praying in concert with the
priest, who, clothed in his sacerdotal robes, raised on high a
golden chalice, adorned with precious stones, the most sacred of the
few relics saved from the pillage of the Carmelite Convent.

The stranger, approaching after an interval, knelt reverently
between the two nuns. As he looked up toward the crucifix, he saw,
for the first time, that a piece of black crape was attached to it.
On beholding this simple sign of mourning, terrible recollections
appeared to be awakened within him; the big drops of agony started
thick and fast on his massive brow.

Gradually, as the four actors in this solemn scene still fervently
prayed together, their souls began to sympathize the one with the
other, blending in one common feeling of religious awe. Awful, in
truth, was the service in which they were now secretly engaged!
Beneath that mouldering roof, those four Christians were then
interceding with Heaven for the soul of a martyred King of France;
performing, at the peril of their lives, in those days of anarchy
and terror, a funeral service for that hapless Louis the Sixteenth,
who died on the scaffold, who was buried without a coffin or a
shroud! It was, in them, the purest of all acts of devotion--the
purest, from its disinterestedness, from its courageous fidelity.
The last relics of the loyalty of France were collected in that poor
room, enshrined in the prayers of a priest and two aged women.
Perhaps, too, the dark spirit of the Revolution was present there as
well, impersonated by the stranger, whose face, while he knelt
before the altar, betrayed an expression of the most poignant

The most gorgeous mass ever celebrated in the gorgeous Cathedral of
St. Peter, at Rome, could not have expressed the sincere feeling of
prayer so nobly as it was now expressed, by those four persons,
under that lowly roof!

There was one moment, during the progress of the service, at which
the nuns detected that tears were trickling fast over the stranger's
cheeks. It was when the Pater Noster was said.

On the termination of the midnight mass, the priest made a sign to
the two nuns, who immediately left the room. As soon as they were
alone, he thus addressed the stranger:

"My son, if you have imbrued your hands in the blood of the martyred
king, confide in me, and in my sacred office. Repentance so deep and
sincere as yours appears to be, may efface even the crime of
regicide in the eyes of God."

"Holy father," replied the other, in trembling accents, "no man is
less guilty than I am of shedding the king's blood."

"I would fain believe you," answered the priest. He paused for a
moment as he said this, looked steadfastly on the penitent man
before him, and then continued:

"But remember, my son, you can not be absolved of the crime of
regicide, because you have not co-operated in it. Those who had the
power of defending their king, and who, having that power, still
left the sword in the scabbard, will be called to render a heavy
account at the day of judgment, before the King of kings; yes, a
heavy and an awful account indeed! for, in remaining passive, they
became the involuntary accomplices of the worst of murders."

"Do you think then, father," murmured the stranger, deeply abashed,
"that all indirect participations are visited with punishment? Is
the soldier guilty of the death of Louis who obeyed the order to
guard the scaffold?"

The priest hesitated.

"I should be ashamed," continued the other, betraying by his
expression some satisfaction at the dilemma in which he had placed
the old man--"I should be ashamed of offering you any pecuniary
recompense for such a funeral service as you have celebrated. It is
only possible to repay an act so noble by an offering which is
priceless. Honor me by accepting this sacred relic. The day perhaps
will come when you will understand its value."

So saying, he presented to the priest a small box, extremely light
in weight, which the aged ecclesiastic took, as it were,
involuntarily; for he felt awed by the solemn tones in which the man
spoke as he offered it. Briefly expressing his thanks for the
mysterious present, the priest conducted his guest into the outer
room, where the two nuns remained in attendance.

"The house you now inhabit," said the stranger, addressing the nuns
as well as the priest, "belongs to a landlord who outwardly affects
extreme republicanism, but who is at heart devoted to the royal
cause. He was formerly a huntsman in the service of one of the
Bourbons, the Prince de Condé, to whom he is indebted for all that
he possesses. So long as you remain in this house you are safer than
in any other place in France. Remain here, therefore. Persons worthy
of trust will supply all your necessities, and you will be able to
await in safety the prospect of better times. In a year from this
day, on the 21st of January, should you still remain the occupants
of this miserable abode, I will return to repeat with you the
celebration of to-night's expiatory mass." He paused abruptly, and
bowed without adding another word; then delayed a moment more, to
cast a parting look on the objects of poverty which surrounded him,
and left the room.

To the two simple-minded nuns, the whole affair had all the interest
of a romance. Their faces displayed the most intense anxiety, the
moment the priest informed them of the mysterious gift which the
stranger had so solemnly presented to him. Sister Agatha immediately
opened the box, and discovered in it a handkerchief, made of the
finest cambric, and soiled with marks of perspiration. They unfolded
it eagerly, and then found that it was defaced in certain places
with dark stains.

"Those stains are _blood stains_!" exclaimed the priest.

"The handkerchief is marked with the royal crown!" cried Sister

Both the nuns dropped the precious relic, marked by the King's
blood, with horror. To their simple minds, the mystery which was
attached to the stranger, now deepened fearfully. As for the priest,
from that moment he ceased, even in thought, to attempt identifying
his visitor, or discovering the means by which he had become
possessed of the royal handkerchief.

Throughout the atrocities practiced during a year of the Reign of
Terror, the three refugees were safely guarded by the same
protecting interference, ever at work for their advantage. At first,
they received large supplies of fuel and provisions; then the two
nuns found reason to imagine that one of their own sex had become
associated with their invisible protector, for they were furnished
with the necessary linen and clothing which enabled them to go out
without attracting attention by any peculiarities of attire. Besides
this, warnings of danger constantly came to the priest in the most
unexpected manner, and always opportunely. And then, again, in spite
of the famine which at that period afflicted Paris, the inhabitants
of the garret were sure to find placed every morning at their door,
a supply of the best wheaten bread, regularly left for them by some
invisible hand.

They could only guess that the agent of the charitable attentions
thus lavished on them, was the landlord of the house, and that the
person by whom he was employed was no other than the stranger who
had celebrated with them the funeral mass for the repose of the
King's soul. Thus, this mysterious man was regarded with especial
reverence by the priest and the nuns, whose lives for the present,
and whose hopes for the future, depended on their strange visitor.
They added to their usual prayers at night and morning, prayers for

At length the long-expected night of the 21st of January arrived,
and, exactly as the clock struck twelve, the sound of heavy
footsteps on the stairs announced the approach of the stranger. The
room had been carefully prepared for his reception, the altar had
been arranged, and, on this occasion, the nuns eagerly opened the
door, even before they heard the knock.

"Welcome back again! most welcome!" cried they; "we have been most
anxiously awaiting you."

The stranger raised his head, looked gloomily on the nuns, and made
no answer. Chilled by his cold reception of their kind greeting,
they did not venture to utter another word. He seemed to have frozen
at their hearts, in an instant, all the gratitude, all the friendly
aspirations of the long year that had passed. They now perceived but
too plainly that their visitor desired to remain a complete stranger
to them, and that they must resign all hope of ever making a friend
of him. The old priest fancied he had detected a smile on the lips
of their guest when he entered, but that smile--if it had really
appeared--vanished again the moment he observed the preparations
which had been made for his reception. He knelt to hear the funeral
mass, prayed fervently as before, and then abruptly took his
departure; briefly declining, by a few civil words, to partake of
the simple refreshment offered to him, on the expiration of the
service, by the two nuns.

Day after day wore on, and nothing more was heard of the stranger by
the inhabitants of the garret. After the fall of Robespierre, the
church was delivered from all actual persecution, and the priest and
the nuns were free to appear publicly in Paris, without the
slightest risk of danger. One of the first expeditions undertaken by
the aged ecclesiastic led him to a perfumer's shop, kept by a man
who had formerly been one of the Court tradesmen, and who had always
remained faithful to the Royal Family. The priest, clothed once more
in his clerical dress, was standing at the shop door talking to the
perfumer, when he observed a great crowd rapidly advancing along the

"What is the matter yonder?" he inquired of the shopkeeper.

"Nothing," replied the man carelessly, "but the cart with the
condemned criminals going to the place of execution. Nobody pities
them--and nobody ought!"

"You are not speaking like a Christian," exclaimed the priest. "Why
not pity them?"

"Because," answered the perfumer, "those men who are going to the
execution are the last accomplices of Robespierre. They only travel
the same fatal road which their innocent victims took before them."

The cart with the prisoners condemned to the guillotine had by this
time arrived opposite the perfumer's shop. As the old priest looked
curiously toward the state criminals, he saw, standing erect and
undaunted among his drooping fellow prisoners, the very man at whose
desire he had twice celebrated the funeral service for the martyred
King of France!

"Who is that standing upright in the cart?" cried the priest,

The perfumer looked in the direction indicated, and answered--



Visionaries are usually slovens. They despise fashions, and imagine
that dirtiness is an attribute of genius. To do the honorable member
for Artois justice, he was above this affectation. Small and neat in
person, he always appeared in public tastefully dressed, according
to the fashion of the period--hair well combed back, frizzled, and
powdered; copious frills at the breast and wrists; a stainless white
waistcoat; light-blue coat, with metal buttons; the sash of a
representative tied round his waist; light-colored breeches, white
stockings, and shoes with silver buckles. Such was his ordinary
costume; and if we stick a rose in his button-hole, or place a
nosegay in his hand, we shall have a tolerable idea of his whole
equipment. It is said he sometimes appeared in top-boots, which is
not improbable; for this kind of boot had become fashionable among
the republicans, from a notion that as top-boots were worn by
gentlemen in England, they were allied to constitutional government.
Robespierre's features were sharp, and enlivened by bright and
deeply-sunk blue eyes. There was usually a gravity and intense
thoughtfulness in his countenance, which conveyed an idea of his
being thoroughly in earnest. Yet, his address was not unpleasing.
Unlike modern French politicians, his face was always smooth, with
no vestige of beard or whiskers. Altogether, therefore, he may be
said to have been a well-dressed, gentlemanly man, animated with
proper self-respect, and having no wish to court vulgar applause by
neglecting the decencies of polite society.

Before entering on his public career in Paris, Robespierre had
probably formed his plans, in which, at least to outward appearance,
there was an entire negation of self. A stern incorruptibility
seemed the basis of his character; and it is quite true that no
offers from the court, no overtures from associates, had power to
tempt him. There was only one way by which he could sustain a
high-souled independence, and that was the course adopted in like
circumstances by Andrew Marvel--simple wants, rigorous economy, a
disregard of fine company, an avoidance of expensive habits. Now,
this is the curious thing in Robespierre's history. Perhaps there
was a tinge of pride in his living a life of indigence; but in
fairness it is entitled to be called an honest pride, when we
consider that the means of profusion were within his reach. On his
arrival in Paris, he procured a humble lodging in the Marais, a
populous district in the northeastern faubourgs; but it being
represented to him sometime afterward, that, as a public man, it was
unsafe to expose himself in a long walk daily to and fro from this
obscure residence, he removed to a house in the Rue St. Honoré, now
marked No. 396, opposite the Church of the Assumption. Here he found
a lodging with M. Duplay, a respectable but humble cabinet-maker,
who had become attached to the principles of the Revolution; and
here he was joined by his brother, who played an inferior part in
public affairs, and is known in history as "the Younger
Robespierre." The selection of this dwelling seems to have fallen in
with Robespierre's notions of economy; and it suited his limited
patrimony, which consisted of some rents irregularly paid by a few
small farmers of his property in Artois. These ill-paid rents, with
his salary as a representative, are said to have supported three
persons--himself, his brother, and his sister; and so straitened was
he in circumstances, that he had to borrow occasionally from his
landlord. Even with all his pinching, he did not make both ends
meet. We have it on authority, that at his death he was owing £160;
a small debt to be incurred during a residence of five years in
Paris, by a person who figured as a leader of parties; and the
insignificance of this sum attests his remarkable self-denial.

Lamartine's account of the private life of Robespierre in the house
of the Duplays is exceedingly fascinating, and we should suppose is
founded on well-authorized facts. "The house of Duplay," he says,
"was low, and in a court surrounded by sheds filled with timber and
plants, and had almost a rustic appearance. It consisted of a parlor
opening to the court, and communicating with a sitting-room that
looked into a small garden. From the sitting-room a door led into a
small study, in which was a piano. There was a winding staircase to
the first floor, where the master of the house lived, and thence to
the apartment of Robespierre."

Here, long acquaintance, a common table, and association for several
years, "converted the hospitality of Duplay into an attachment that
became reciprocal. The family of his landlord became a second family
to Robespierre, and while they adopted his opinions, they neither
lost the simplicity of their manners nor neglected their religious
observances. They consisted of a father, mother, a son yet a youth,
and four daughters, the eldest of whom was twenty-five, and the
youngest eighteen. Familiar with the father, filial with the mother,
paternal with the son, tender and almost brotherly with the young
girls, he inspired and felt in this small domestic circle all those
sentiments that only an ardent soul inspires and feels by spreading
abroad its sympathies. Love also attached his heart, where toil,
poverty, and retirement had fixed his life. Eléonore Duplay, the
eldest daughter of his host, inspired Robespierre with a more
serious attachment than her sisters. The feeling, rather
predilection than passion, was more reasonable on the part of
Robespierre, more ardent and simple on the part of the young girl.
This affection afforded him tenderness without torment, happiness
without excitement: it was the love adapted for a man plunged all
day in the agitation of public life--a repose of the heart after
mental fatigue. He and Eléonore lived in the same house as a
betrothed couple, not as lovers. Robespierre had demanded the young
girl's hand from her parents, and they had promised it to him.

"'The total want of fortune,' he said, 'and the uncertainty of the
morrow, prevented him from marrying her until the destiny of France
was determined; but he only awaited the moment when the Revolution
should be concluded, in order to retire from the turmoil and strife,
marry her whom he loved, go to reside with her in Artois, on one of
the farms he had saved among the possessions of his family, and
there to mingle his obscure happiness in the common lot of his

"The vicissitudes of the fortune, influence, and popularity of
Robespierre effected no change in his simple mode of living. The
multitude came to implore favor or life at the door of his house,
yet nothing found its way within. The private lodging of Robespierre
consisted of a low chamber, constructed in the form of a garret,
above some cart-sheds, with the window opening upon the roof. It
afforded no other prospect than the interior of a small court,
resembling a wood-store, where the sounds of the workmen's hammers
and saws constantly resounded, and which was continually traversed
by Madame Duplay and her daughters, who there performed all their
household duties. This chamber was also separated from that of the
landlord by a small room common to the family and himself. On the
other side were two rooms, likewise attics, which were inhabited,
one by the son of the master of the house, the other by Simon
Duplay, Robespierre's secretary, and the nephew of his host.

"The chamber of the deputy contained only a wooden bedstead, covered
with blue damask ornamented with white flowers, a table, and four
straw-bottomed chairs. This apartment served him at once for a study
and dormitory. His papers, his reports, the manuscripts of his
discourses, written by himself in a regular but labored hand, and
with many marks of erasure, were placed carefully on deal-shelves
against the wall. A few chosen books were also ranged thereon. A
volume of Jean Jacques Rousseau or of Racine was generally open
upon his table, and attested his philosophical and literary

With a mind continually on the stretch, and concerned less or more
in all the great movements of the day, the features of this
remarkable personage "relaxed into absolute gayety when in-doors at
table, or in the evening around the wood-fire in the humble chamber
of the cabinet-maker. His evenings were all passed with the family,
in talking over the feelings of the day, the plans of the morrow,
the conspiracies of the aristocrats, the dangers of the patriots,
and the prospects of public felicity after the triumph of the
Revolution. Sometimes Robespierre, who was anxious to cultivate the
mind of his betrothed, read to the family aloud, and generally from
the tragedies of Racine. He seldom went out in the evening; but two
or three times a year he escorted Madame Duplay and her daughter to
the theatre. On other days, Robespierre retired early to his
chamber, lay down, and rose again at night to work. The innumerable
discourses he had delivered in the two national assemblies, and to
the Jacobins; the articles written for his journal while he had one;
the still more numerous manuscripts of speeches which he had
prepared, but never delivered; the studied style, so remarkable;
the indefatigable corrections marked with his pen upon the
manuscripts--attest his watchings and his determination.

"His only relaxations were solitary walks in imitation of his model,
Jean Jacques Rousseau. His sole companion in these perambulations
was his great dog, which slept at his chamber-door, and always
followed him when he went out. This colossal animal, well known in
the district, was called Brount. Robespierre was much attached to
him, and constantly played with him. Occasionally, on a Sunday, all
the family left Paris with Robespierre; and the politician, once
more the man, amused himself with the mother, the sisters, and the
brother of Eléonore in the wood of Versailles or of Issy." Strange
contradiction! The man who is thus described as so amiable, so
gentle, so satisfied with the humble pleasures of an obscure family
circle, went forth daily on a self-imposed mission of turbulence and


You sometimes find in the same family, children of the same parents,
who in all respects present the most striking contrast. They not
only seem to be of different parentage, but of different races;
unlike in physical conformation, in complexion, in features, in
temperament, and in moral and intellectual qualities. They are
sometimes to be found diametrically opposed to each other in tastes,
pursuits, habits, and sympathies, though brought up under the same
parental eye, subject to the same circumstances and conditions, and
educated by the same teachers. Indeed, education does comparatively
little toward the formation of character--that is to say, in the
determination of the _individuality_ of character. It merely brings
out, or _e-duces_ that character, the germs of which are born in us,
and only want proper sunning, and warmth, and geniality, to bring
them to maturity.

You could scarcely have imagined that Elizabeth and Jane Byfield
were in any way related to each other. They had not a feature in
common. The one was a brilliant beauty, the other was plain in the
extreme. Elizabeth had a dazzling complexion, bright, speaking eyes,
an oval face, finely turned nose and chin, a mouth as pouting as if
"a bee had stung it newly;" she was tall and lithe; taper, yet
rounded--in short, she was a regular beauty, the belle of her
neighborhood, pursued by admirers, besonneted by poetasters,
serenaded by musical amateurs, toasted by spirit-loving old fogy
bachelors, and last, but not least, she was the subject of many a
tit-bit piece of scandal among her young lady rivals in the
country-town of Barkstone.

As for her sister Jane, with her demure, old-maidish air, her little
dumpy, thick-set figure, her _retroussé_ nose, and dingy features,
nobody bestowed a thought upon her. She had no rival, she was no
one's competitor, she offended nobody's sense of individual prowess
in grace or charms, by _her_ assumptions. Not at all. "That horrid
little fright, Jane Byfield," as some of her stylish acquaintances
would speak of her, behind her back, stood in no young lady's way.
She was very much of a house-bird, was Jane. In the evenings, while
her sister was dashing off some brilliant bravura in the
drawing-room, Jane would be seated in a corner, talking to some
person older than herself--or, perhaps you might find her in the
little back parlor, knitting or mending stockings. Not that she was
without a spice of fun in her; for, among children, she romped like
one of themselves; indeed, she was a general favorite with those who
were much younger as well as much older than herself. Yet, among
those of her own age, she never excited any admiration, except for
her dutifulness--though that, you know, is a very dull sort of
thing. Certainly, she never excited any young lady's envy, or
attracted any young gentleman's homage, like her more highly favored
sister. Indeed, by a kind of general consent, she was set down for
"a regular old maid."

I wish I could have told my readers that Jane got married after all,
and disappointed the prophetic utterances of her friends. I am sure
that, notwithstanding her plainness, she would have made a thrifty
manager and a thorough good housewife. But, as I am relating a true
history, I can not thus indulge my readers. Jane remained single;
but her temper continued unruffled. As she did not expect, so she
was not disappointed. She preserved her cheerfulness, continued to
be useful, kept her heart warm and her head well stored--for she was
a great reader--another of her "old-maidish" habits, though,
fortunately, the practice of reading good books by young women is
now ceasing to be "singular:" readers are now of the plural number,
and every day adds to the list.

But what of Elizabeth--the beauty? Oh, she got married--of course
she did. The beautiful are always sought after, often when they have
nothing but their beauty to recommend them. And, after all, we can
not wonder at this. Nature has so ordered it, that beauty of person
must command admirers; and, where beauty of heart and beauty of
intellect are joined together in the person of a beautiful woman,
really nothing in nature can be more charming. And so Elizabeth got
married; and a "good match" she made, as the saying is,
with a gentleman in extensive business, rather stylish, but
prosperous--likely to get on in the world, and to accumulate a
fortune. But the fortune was to make, and the business was
speculative. Those in business well know that it is not all gold
that glitters.

The married life of the "happy pair" commenced. First one, and then
another "toddling wee thing" presented itself in the young mother's
household, and the mother's cares and responsibilities multiplied.
But, to tell the truth, Elizabeth, though a beauty, was not a very
good manager. She could sit at the head of her husband's table, and
do the honors of the house to perfection. But look into her
wardrobe, into her drawers, into her kitchen, and you would say at
once, there was the want of the managing head, and the ready hand. A
good housewife, like a good poet, is "born, not made"--_nascitur non
fit_. It's true. There are some women whom no measure of drilling
can convert into good housewives. They may lay down systems,
cultivate domesticity, study tidying, spending, house-drilling, as
an art, and yet they can not acquire it. To others it comes without
effort, without consciousness, as a kind of second nature. They are
"to the manner born." They don't know how it is themselves. Yet
their hand seems to shed abroad order, regularity, and peace, in the
household. Under their eye, and without any seeming effort on their
part, every thing falls into its proper place, and every thing is
done at its proper time. Elizabeth did not know how it was; yet,
somehow, she could not get servants like any body else (how often
imperfect management is set down to account of "bad servants!"); she
could not get things to go smoothly; there was always something
"getting across;" the house got out of order; dinners were not ready
at the right time, and then the husband grew querulous; somehow, the
rooms could not be kept very tidy, for the mistress of the household
having her hands full of children, of course she "could not attend
to every thing;" and, in short, poor Elizabeth's household was fast
getting into a state of muddle.

Now, husbands don't like this state of things, and so, the result of
it was, that Elizabeth's husband, though not a bad-natured man,
sometimes grew cross and complaining, and the beautiful wife found
that her husband had "a temper"--as who has not? And about the same
time, the husband found that his wife was "no manager,"
notwithstanding her good looks. Though his wife studied economy, yet
he discovered that, somehow, she got through a deal of money, and
yet there was little comfort got in exchange for it. Things were
evidently in a bad way, and going wrong entirely. What might have
been the end, who knows? But, happily, at this juncture, aunt Jane,
the children's pet, the "little droll old maid," appeared on the
stage; and though sisters are not supposed to be of good omen in
other sisters' houses, certainly it must be admitted that, in this
case, the "old maid" at once worked a wonderful charm.

The quiet creature, in a few weeks, put quite a new feature on the
face of affairs. Under her eye, things seemed at once to fall into
their proper places--without the slightest "ordering," or bustling,
or noise, or palaver. Elizabeth could not make out how it was, but
sure enough Jane "had _such_ a way with her," and always had. The
positions of the sisters seemed now to be reversed. Jane was looked
up to by her sister, who no longer assumed those airs of
superiority, which, in the pride of her beauty and attractiveness,
had come so natural to her. Elizabeth had ceased to be competed for
by rival admirers; and she now discovered that the fleeting charms
of her once beautiful person could not atone for the want of those
more solid qualities which are indispensable in the house and the
home. What made Jane's presence more valuable at this juncture was,
that illness had come into the household, and, worst of all, it had
seized upon the head of the family. This is always a serious
calamity in any case; but in this case the consequences threatened
to be more serious than usual. An extensive business was
interrupted; large transactions, which only the head of the concern
himself, could adequately attend to, produced embarrassments, the
anxiety connected with which impeded a cure. All the resources of
medicine were applied; all the comfort, warmth, silence, and
attention that careful nursing could administer, were tried; and
tried in vain. The husband of Elizabeth died, and her children were
fatherless; but the fatherless are not forsaken--they are the care
of God.

Now it was that the noble nature of aunt Jane came grandly into
view. Her sister was stricken down--swallowed up in grief. Life, for
her, had lost its charm. The world was as if left without its sun.
She was utterly overwhelmed. Even the faces of her children served
only to awaken her to a quicker sense of misery. But aunt Jane's
energies were only awakened to renewed life and vigor. To these
orphans she was now both father and mother in one. What woman can
interfere in _business_ matters without risk of censure? But Jane
interfered: she exerted herself to wind up the affairs of the
deceased; and she did so; she succeeded! There was but little left;
only enough to live upon, and that meanly. Every thing was sold
off--the grand house was broken up--and the family subsided into the
ranks of the genteel poor. Elizabeth could not bear up under such a
succession of shocks. She was not querulous, but her sorrows were
too much for her, and she fed upon them--she petted them, and they
became her masters. A few years passed, and the broken-down woman
was laid in the same grave with her husband.

But Jane's courage never flagged. The gentle, dear, good creature,
now advancing into years, looked all manner of difficulties
courageously in the face; and she overcame them. They fled before
her resolution. Alone she bore the burden of that family of sons and
daughters not her own, but as dear to her now as if they were. What
scheming and thought she daily exercised to make the ends meet--to
give to each of them alike such an amount of school education as
would enable them "to make their way in the world," as she used to
say--can not be described. It would take a long chapter to detail
the patient industry, the frugal care, the motherly help, and the
watchful up-bringing with which she tended the helpless orphans. But
her arduous labors were all more than repaid in the end.

It was my privilege to know this noble woman. I used occasionally to
join the little family circle in an evening, round their crackling
fire, and contribute my quota of wonderful stories to the listening
group. Aunt Jane herself, was a capital story-teller; and it was her
wont thus, of an evening, to entertain the youngsters after the
chief part of the day's work was done. She would tell the boys--John
and Edward--of those self-helping and perseverant great men who had
climbed the difficult steeps of the world, and elevated themselves
to the loftiest stations by their own energy, industry, and
self-denial. The great and the good were her heroes, and she labored
to form those young minds about her after the best and noblest
models which biographic annals could furnish. "Without goodness,"
she would say--and her bright, speaking looks (plain though her
features were), with her animated and glowing expression, on such
occasions, made the lessons root themselves firmly in their young
minds and hearts--"Without goodness, my dear children, greatness is
naught--mere gilding and lacker; goodness is the real jewel in the
casket; so never forget to make that your end and aim."

I, too, used to contribute my share toward those delightful
evenings' entertainments, and aunt Jane would draw me on to tell the
group of the adventures and life of our royal Alfred--of his
struggles, his valor, his goodness, and his greatness; of the old
contests of the Danes and the Saxons; of Harold, the last of the
Saxon kings; of William the Norman, and the troublous times which
followed the Conquest; and of the valorous life of our forefathers,
out of which the living English character, habits, and institutions
had at length been formed. And oftentimes the shadow would flit
across those young faces, by the fire's light, when they were told
of perilous adventures on the lone sea; of shipwrecked and cast-away
sailors; of the escape of Drake, and the adventures of Cook, and of
that never-ending source of wonderment and interest--the life and
wanderings of Robinson Crusoe. And there was merriment and fun, too,
mixed with the marvelous and the imaginative--stories of giants, and
fairies, and Sleeping Beauties--at which their eyes would glance
brightly in the beams of the glowing fire. Then, first one little
face, and then another, would grow heavy and listless, and their
little heads begin to nod; at which the aunt would hear, one by one,
their little petitions to their "Father which art in Heaven," and
with a soft kiss and murmured blessing, would then lay them in their
little cribs, draw the curtains, and leave them to sleep.

But, as for the good aunt, bless you, nearly half of her work was
yet to do! There she would sit, far on into the night, till her eyes
were red and her cheeks feverish, with her weary white seam in her
hand; or, at another time, she would be mending, patching, and eking
out the clothes of the children just put to bed--for their wardrobe
was scanty, and often very far gone. Yes! poor thing! she was ready
to work her fingers to the bone for these dear fatherless young
ones, breathing so softly in the next room, and whose muttered
dreams would now and then disturb the deep stillness of the night;
when she would listen, utter a heartfelt "bless them," and then go
on with her work again. The presence of those children seemed only
to remind her of the need of more toil for their sakes. For them did
aunt Jane work by day, and work by night; for them did she ply the
brilliant needle, which, save in those gloaming hours by the
fireside, was scarcely ever out of her hand.

Sorrowful needle! What eyes have followed thee, strained themselves
at thee, wept over thee! And what sorrow yet hangs about the
glittering, polished, silver-eyed needle! What lives hang upon it!
What toil and night-watching, what laughter and tears, what gossip
and misery, what racking pains and weary moanings has it not
witnessed! And, would you know the poetry it has inspired--then read
poor Hood's terrible wail of "The Song of the Shirt!" The friend of
the needy, the tool of the industrious, the helper of the starving,
the companion of the desolate; such is that weakest of human
instruments--the needle! It was all these to our aunt Jane!

I can not tell you the life-long endurance and courage of that
woman; how she devoted herself to the cherishment and domestic
training of the girls, and the intellectual and industrial education
of the boys, and the correct moral culture of all the members of her
"little family," as she styled them.

Efforts such as hers are _never_ without their reward, even in this
world; and of her better and higher reward, surely aunt Jane might
well feel assured. Her children did credit to her. Years passed, and
one by one they grew up toward maturity. The character of the aunt
proved the best recommendation for the youths. The boys got placed
out at business--one in a lawyer's office, the second in a
warehouse. I do not specify further particulars; for the boys are
now men, well-known in the world; respected, admired, and
prosperous. One of them is a barrister of the highest distinction in
his profession, and it has been said of him, that he has the heart
of a woman, and the courage of a lion. The other is a well-known
merchant, and he is cited as a model of integrity among his class.
The girls have grown into women, and are all married. With one of
these aunt Jane now enjoys, in quiet and ease, the well-earned
comforts and independence of a green old age. About her knees now
clamber a new generation--the children of her "boys and girls."

Need I tell you how that dear old woman is revered! how her patient
toils are remembered and honored! how her nephews attribute all
their successes in life to her, to her noble example, to her tender
care, to her patient and long-suffering exertions on their behalf.
Never was aunt so honored--so beloved! She declares they will "spoil
her"--a thing she is not used to; and she often beseeches them to
have done with their acknowledgments of gratitude. But she is never
wearied of hearing them recall to memory those happy hours, by the
evening's fire-light, in the humble cottage in which I was so often
a sharer; and then her eye glistens, and a large tear of
thankfulness droops upon the lower lid, which she wipes off as of
old, and the same heartfelt benison of "Bless them," mutters on her
quivering lips.

I should like, some day, to indulge myself in telling a long story
about that dear aunt Jane's experiences; but I am growing old and a
little maudlin myself, and after all, her life and its results are
best told in the character and the history of the children she has
so faithfully nurtured and educated.


The art and practice of ventriloquism, has of late years exhibited
so much improvement that it deserves and will reward a little
judicious attention directed toward its all but miraculous
phenomena, and the causes and conditions of their astonishing
display. The art is of ancient date, the peculiarity of the vocal
organs in which it originates, like other types of genius or
aptitude, having been at intervals repeated. References in Scripture
to "the familiar spirits that peep and mutter" are numerous. In the
early Christian Church the practice also was known, and a treatise
was written on it by Eustathius, Archbishop of Antioch, in Greek.
The main argument of the book is the evocation of the ghost of

By the Mosaic law the Hebrews were prohibited from consulting those
who had familiar spirits. By one of such it is stated that the Witch
of Endor divined, or perhaps that she was possessed by it; for the
Hebrew _ob_ designates both those persons in whom there is a
familiar spirit, as well as those who divined by them. The plural
_oboth_ corresponds with the word ventriloquism. In the Septuagint,
it is associated with gastromancy--a mode of ancient divination,
wherein the diviner replied without moving his lips, so that the
consulter believed he actually heard the voice of a spirit; from
which circumstance, many theologians have doubted whether Samuel's
ghost really appeared, or rather whether the whole were not a
ventriloquial imposition on the superstitious credulity of Saul. We
may see in this unfortunate monarch and his successor the
distinction between true religion and false superstition; and,
indeed, in the poets and prophets generally of the Israelites, who
continually testify against the latter in all its forms. To them, to
the Greeks, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians, ventriloquism was
evidently well known. By reference to Leviticus, we shall find, as
we have said, the law forbids the Hebrews to consult those having
familiar spirits. The prophet Isaiah also draws an illustration from
the kind of voice heard in a case of divination. "Thou shalt be
brought down, shalt speak out of the ground, and thy speech shall be
low out of the dust; thy voice shall be as one that hath a familiar
spirit out of the ground, and thy speech shall whisper out of the
dust." It is curious that the Mormons quote this text as prophetic
of the discovery of their Sacred Book. In the Acts, Paul is
described as depriving a young woman of a familiar spirit, in the
city of Philippi in Macedonia;--she is announced as "a certain
damsel possessed with a spirit of divination, which brought her
master much gain by sooth-saying." There is also that well-known
tale in Plutarch, which is so impressive even to this day on the
Christian imagination--the story we mean, of Epitherses, who, having
embarked for Italy in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, suddenly heard a
voice from the shore, while becalmed one evening before the
Paxe--two small islands in the Ionian sea, which lie between Corcyra
and Leucadia; such voice addressing Thamus, a pilot, and an Egyptian
by birth, who refused to answer till he received the third summons,
whereupon it said, "When thou art come to the Palodes, proclaim
aloud that the great Pan is dead!" It is added, that "the passengers
were all amazed; but their amazement gave place to the most alarming
emotions, when, on arriving at the specified place, Thamus stood in
the stern of the vessel, and proclaimed what he had been commanded
to announce." St. Chrysostom and the early fathers mention
divination by a familiar spirit as practiced in their day; and the
practice is still common in the East; as it is also among the
Esquimaux. As to the treatise of Eustathius, the good bishop's
notion was that the Witch of Endor was really possessed of a demon;
whose deception the vision was, being produced by supernatural
agency, not, as cited in the Septuagint, by Engastrimism, or

In the nineteenth century, we are told by Sir David Brewster, that
ventriloquists made great additions to their art. The performances,
he says, of Fitzjames and Alexandré were far superior to those of
their predecessors. "Besides the art of speaking by the muscles of
the throat and the abdomen, without moving those of the face, these
artists had not only studied, with great diligence and success, the
modifications which sounds of all kinds undergo from distance,
obstructions, and other causes, but had acquired the art of
imitating them in the highest perfection. The ventriloquist was
therefore able to carry on a dialogue in which the _dramatis voces_,
as they may be called, were numerous; and, when on the outside of an
apartment, could personate a mob with its infinite variety of noise
and vociferation. Their influence over the minds of an audience was
still further extended by a singular power which they had obtained
over the muscles of the body. Fitzjames actually succeeded in making
the opposite or corresponding muscles act differently from each
other; and while one side of his face was merry and laughing, the
other side was full of sorrow and tears. At one time, he was tall,
and thin, and melancholy, and after passing behind a screen, he came
out bloated with obesity and staggering with fullness. M. Alexandré
possessed the same power over his face and figure, and so striking
was the contrast between two of these forms, that an excellent
sculptor (M. Joseph) has perpetuated them in marble. This new
acquirement of the ventriloquist of the nineteenth century, enabled
him in his own single person, and with his own single voice, to
represent a dramatic composition which would formerly have required
the assistance of several actors. Although only one character in
the piece could be seen at the same time, yet they all appeared
during its performance; and the change of face and figure on the
part of the ventriloquist was so perfect that his personal identity
could not be recognized in the _dramatis personæ_. This deception
was rendered still more complete by a particular construction of the
costumes, which enabled the performer to appear in a new character,
after an interval so short that the audience necessarily believed
that it was another person."

Some amusing anecdotes may be gathered, illustrative of

One M. St. Gille, a ventriloquist of France, had once occasion to
shelter himself from a sudden storm in a monastery in the
neighborhood of Avranche. The monks were at the time in deep sorrow
for the loss of an esteemed member of their fraternity, whom they
had recently buried. While lamenting over the tomb of their departed
brother the slight honors which had been paid to his memory, a
mysterious voice was heard to issue from the vaults of the church,
bewailing the condition of the deceased in purgatory, and reproving
the monks in melancholy tones for their want of zeal and reverence
for departed worth. Tidings of the event flew abroad; and quickly
brought the inhabitants to the spot. The miraculous speaker still
renewed his lamentations and reproaches; whereupon the monks fell on
their faces, and vowed to repair their neglect. They then chanted a
_De profundis_, and at intervals the ghostly voice of the deceased
friar expressed his satisfaction.

One Louis Brabant turned his ventriloquial talent to profitable
account. Rejected by the parents of an heiress as an unsuitable
match for their daughter, Louis, on the death of the father, paid a
visit to the widow, during which the voice of her deceased husband
was all at once heard thus to address her: "Give my daughter in
marriage to Louis Brabant:--he is a man of fortune and character,
and I endure the pains of purgatory for having refused her to him.
Obey this admonition, and give repose to the soul of your departed
husband." Of course, the widow complied; but Brabant's difficulties
were not yet all overcome. He wanted money to defray the wedding
expenses, and resolved to work on the fears of an old usurer, a M.
Cornu, of Lyons. Having obtained an evening interview, he contrived
to turn the conversation on departed spirits and ghosts. During an
interval of silence, the voice of the miser's deceased father was
heard, complaining of his situation in purgatory, and calling loudly
upon his son to rescue him from his sufferings, by enabling Brabant
to redeem the Christians at that time enslaved by the Turks. Not
succeeding on the first occasion, Brabant was compelled to make a
second visit to the miser, when he took care to enlist not only his
father but all his deceased relations in the appeal; and in this way
he obtained a thousand crowns.

There have been few female ventriloquists. Effects produced by the
female organs of speech have always manifested a deficiency of
power. The artificial voices have been few in number, and those
imperfectly defined. A woman at Amsterdam possessed considerable
powers in this way. Conrad Amman, a Dutch doctor in medicine, who
published a Latin treatise at Amsterdam in 1700, observes of her,
that the effects she exhibited were produced by a sort of swallowing
of the words, or forcing them to retrograde, as it were, by the
trachea, by speaking during the inspiration of the breath, and not,
as in ordinary speech, during expiration. The same writer notices
also the performances of the famous Casimir Schreckenstein.

Different professors of ventriloquism have given different accounts
of the manner in which they succeeded in producing their illusions.
Baron Mengen, one of the household of Prince Lichtenstein, at
Vienna, said that it consisted in a passion for counterfeiting the
cries of animals and the voices of different persons. M. St. Gille
referred his art to mimicry; and the French Academy, combining these
views, defines the art as consisting in an accurate imitation of any
given sound as it reaches the ear. Scientific solutions are various.
Mr. Nicholson thought that artists in this line, by continual
practice from childhood, acquire the power of speaking during
inspiration with the same articulation as the ordinary voice, which
is formed by expiration. M. Richerand declares that every time a
professor exhibits his vocal peculiarities, he suffers distension in
the epigastric region; and supposes that the mechanism of the art
consists in a slow, gradual expiration, drawn in such a way, that
the artist either makes use of the influence exerted by volition
over the parietes of the thorax, or that he keeps the epiglottis
down by the base of the tongue, the apex of which is not carried
beyond the dental arches. He observes, that ventriloquists possess
the power of making an exceedingly strong inspiration just before
the long expiration, and thus convey into the lungs an immense
quantity of air, by the artistical management of the egress of which
they produce such astonishing effects upon the hearing and
imagination of their auditors.

The theory propounded by Mr. Gough in the "Manchester Memoir," on
the principle of reverberated sound, is untenable, because
ventriloquism on that theory would be impossible in a crowded
theatre, which admits not of the predicated echoes. Mr. Love, in his
account of himself, asserts a natural aptitude, a physical
predisposition of the vocal organs; which, in his case, discovered
itself as early as the age of ten, and gradually improved with
practice, without any artistic study whatever. He states that not
only his pure ventriloquisms, but nearly all his lighter vocal
imitations of miscellaneous sounds, were executed in the first
instance on the spur of the moment, and without any pre-meditation.
The artist must evidently possess great flexibility of larynx and
tongue. Polyphony, according to our modern professor, is produced
by compression of the muscles of the chest, and is an act entirely
different from any species of vocal deception or modulation. There
is no method, he tells us, of manufacturing true ventriloquists.
Nature must have commenced the operation, by placing at the artist's
disposal a certain quality of voice adapted for the purpose, as the
raw material to work upon. It is like a fine ear or voice for
singing--the gift of Nature. It follows, therefore, that an expert
polyphonist must be as rare a personage as any other man of genius
in any particular art.



I knew James Dutton, as I shall call him, at an early period of
life, when my present scanty locks of iron-gray were thick and dark,
my now pale and furrowed cheeks were fresh and ruddy, like his own.
Time, circumstance, and natural bent of mind, have done their work
on both of us; and if his course of life has been less equable than
mine, it has been chiefly so because the original impulse, the first
start on the great journey, upon which so much depends, was directed
by wiser heads in my case than in his. We were school-fellows for a
considerable time; and if I acquired--as I certainly did--a larger
stock of knowledge than he, it was by no means from any superior
capacity on my part, but that his mind was bent on other pursuits.
He was a born Nimrod, and his father encouraged this propensity from
the earliest moment that his darling and only son could sit a pony
or handle a light fowling-piece. Dutton, senior, was one of a then
large class of persons, whom Cobbett used to call bull-frog farmers;
men who, finding themselves daily increasing in wealth by the
operation of circumstances, they neither created nor could insure or
control--namely, a rapidly increasing manufacturing population, and
tremendous war-prices for their produce--acted as if the
chance-blown prosperity they enjoyed was the result of their own
forethought, skill, and energy, and therefore, humanly speaking,
indestructible. James Dutton was, consequently, denied nothing--not
even the luxury of neglecting his own education; and he availed
himself of the lamentable privilege to a great extent. It was,
however, a remarkable feature in the lad's character, that whatever
he himself deemed essential should be done, no amount of indulgence,
no love of sport or dissipation, could divert him from thoroughly
accomplishing. Thus he saw clearly, that even in the life--that of a
sportsman-farmer he had chalked out for himself, it was
indispensably necessary that a certain quantum of educational power
should be attained; and so he really acquired a knowledge of
reading, writing, and spelling, and then withdrew from school to
more congenial avocations.

I frequently met James Dutton in after-years; but some nine or ten
months had passed since I had last seen him, when I was directed by
the chief partner in the firm to which Flint and I subsequently
succeeded, to take coach for Romford, Essex, in order to ascertain
from a witness there what kind of evidence we might expect him to
give in a trial to come off in the then Hilary term at Westminster
Hall. It was the first week in January: the weather was bitterly
cold; and I experienced an intense satisfaction when, after
dispatching the business I had come upon, I found myself in the long
dining-room of the chief market-inn, where two blazing fires shed a
ruddy, cheerful light over the snow-white damask table-cloth, bright
glasses, decanters, and other preparatives for the farmers'
market-dinner. Prices had ruled high that day; wheat had reached £30
a load; and the numerous groups of hearty, stalwart yeomen present
were in high glee, crowing and exulting alike over their full
pockets and the news--of which the papers were just then full--of
the burning of Moscow, and the flight and ruin of Bonaparte's army.
James Dutton was in the room, but not, I observed, in his usual flow
of animal spirits. The crape round his hat might, I thought, account
for that, and as he did not see me, I accosted him with an inquiry
after his health, and the reason of his being in mourning. He
received me very cordially, and in an instant cast off the
abstracted manner I had noticed. His father, he informed me, was
gone--had died about seven months previously, and he was alone now
at Ash Farm--why didn't I run down there to see him sometimes, &c.?
Our conversation was interrupted by a summons to dinner, very
cheerfully complied with; and we both--at least I can answer for
myself--did ample justice to a more than usually capital dinner,
even in those capital old market-dinner times. We were very jolly
afterward, and amazingly triumphant over the frost-bitten,
snow-buried soldier-banditti that had so long lorded it over
continental Europe. Dutton did not partake of the general hilarity.
There was a sneer upon his lip during the whole time, which,
however, found no expression in words.

"How quiet you are, James Dutton!" cried a loud voice from out the
dense smoke-cloud that by this time completely enveloped us. On
looking toward the spot from whence the ringing tones came, a jolly,
round face--like the sun as seen through a London fog--gleamed redly
dull from out the thick and choking atmosphere.

"Every body," rejoined Dutton, "hasn't had the luck to sell two
hundred quarters of wheat at to-day's price, as you have, Tom

"That's true, my boy," returned Master Southall, sending, in the
plentitude of his satisfaction, a jet of smoke toward us with
astonishing force. "And, I say, Jem, I'll tell 'ee what I'll do;
I'll clap on ten guineas more upon what I offered for the brown

"Done! She's yours, Tom, then, for ninety guineas!"

"Gie's your hand upon it!" cried Tom Southall, jumping up from his
chair, and stretching a fist as big as a leg of mutton--well, say
lamb--over the table. "And here--here," he added, with an exultant
chuckle, as he extricated a swollen canvas-bag from his
pocket--"here's the dibs at once."

This transaction excited a great deal of surprise at our part of the
table; and Dutton was rigorously cross-questioned as to his reason
for parting with his favorite hunting mare.

"The truth is, friends," said Dutton at last, "I mean to give up
farming, and--"

"Gie up farmin'!" broke in half-a-dozen voices. "Lord!"

"Yes; I don't like it. I shall buy a commission in the army.
There'll be a chance against Boney, now; and it's a life I'm fit

The farmers looked completely agape at this announcement; but making
nothing of it, after silently staring at Dutton and each other, with
their pipes in their hands and not in their mouths, till they had
gone out, stretched their heads simultaneously across the table
toward the candles, relit their pipes, and smoked on as before.

"Then, perhaps, Mr. Dutton," said a young man in a smartly-cut
velveteen coat with mother-of-pearl buttons, who had hastily left
his seat farther down the table--"perhaps you will sell the double
Manton, and Fanny and Slut?"

"Yes; at a price."

Prices were named; I forget now the exact sums, but enormous prices,
I thought, for the gun and the dogs, Fanny and Slut. The bargain was
eagerly concluded, and the money paid at once. Possibly the buyer
had a vague notion, that a portion of the vender's skill might come
to him with his purchases.

"You be in 'arnest, then, in this fool's business, James Dutton,"
observed a farmer, gravely. "I be sorry for thee; but as I s'pose
the lease of Ash Farm will be parted with; why--John, waiter, tell
Master Hurst at the top of the table yonder, to come this way."

Master Hurst, a well-to-do, highly respectable-looking, and rather
elderly man, came in obedience to the summons, and after a few words
in an under-tone with the friend that had sent for him, said, "Is
this true, James Dutton?"

"It is true that the lease and stock of Ash Farm are to be sold--at
a price. You, I believe, are in want of such a concern for the young
couple just married."

"Well, I don't say I might not be a customer, if the price were

"Let us step into a private room, then," said Dutton, rising. "This
is not a place for business of that kind. Sharp," he added, _sotto
voce_, "come with us; I may want you."

I had listened to all this with a kind of stupid wonderment, and I
now, mechanically, as it were, got up and accompanied the party to
another room.

The matter was soon settled. Five hundred pounds for the lease--ten
years unexpired--of Ash Farm, about eleven hundred acres, and the
stock and implements; the plowing, sowing, &c., already performed,
to be paid for at a valuation based on present prices. I drew out
the agreement in form, it was signed in duplicate, a large sum was
paid down as deposit, and Mr. Hurst with his friend withdrew.

"Well," I said, taking a glass of port from a bottle Dutton had just
ordered in--"here's fortune in your new career; but, as I am a
living man, I can't understand what you can be thinking about."

"You haven't read the newspapers?"

"O yes, I have! Victory! Glory! March to Paris! and all that sort of
thing. Very fine, I dare say; but rubbish, moonshine, I call it, if
purchased by the abandonment of the useful, comfortable, joyous life
of a prosperous yeoman."

"Is that all you have seen in the papers?"

"Not much else. What, besides, have you found in them?"

"Wheat, at ten or eleven pounds a load--less perhaps--other produce
in proportion."


"I see farther, Sharp, than you bookmen do, in some matters. Boney's
done for; that to me is quite plain, and earlier than I thought
likely; although I, of course, as well as every other man
with a head instead of a turnip on his shoulders, knew such a
raw-head-and-bloody-bones as that must sooner or later come to the
dogs. And as I also know what agricultural prices were _before_ the
war, I can calculate without the aid of vulgar fractions, which,
by-the-by, I never reached, what they'll be when it's over, and the
thundering expenditure now going on is stopped. In two or three
weeks, people generally will get a dim notion of all this; and I
sell, therefore, while I can, at top prices."

The shrewdness of the calculation struck me at once.

"You will take another farm when one can be had on easier terms than
now, I suppose?"

"Yes; if I can manage it. And I _will_ manage it. Between ourselves,
after all the old man's debts are paid, I shall only have about nine
or ten hundred pounds to the good, even by selling at the present
tremendous rates; so it was time, you see, I pulled up, and rubbed
the fog out of my eyes a bit. And hark ye, Master Sharp!" he added,
as we rose and shook hands with each other--"I have now done
_playing_ with the world--it's a place of work and business; and
I'll do my share of it so effectually, that my children, if I have
any, shall, if I do not, reach the class of landed gentry; and this
you'll find, for all your sneering, will come about all the more
easily that neither they nor their father will be encumbered with
much educational lumber. Good-by."

I did not again see my old school-fellow till the change he had
predicted had thoroughly come to pass. Farms were every where to
let, and a general cry to parliament for aid rang through the land.
Dutton called at the office upon business, accompanied by a young
woman of remarkable personal comeliness, but, as a very few
sentences betrayed, little or no education in the conventional sense
of the word. She was the daughter of a farmer, whom--it was no fault
of hers--a change of times had not found in a better condition for
weathering them.--Anne Mosley, in fact, was a thoroughly
industrious, clever farm economist. The instant Dutton had secured
an eligible farm, at his own price and conditions, he married her;
and now, on the third day after the wedding, he had brought me the
draft of his lease for examination.

"You are not afraid, then," I remarked, "of taking a farm in these
bad times?"

"Not I--at a price. We mean to _rough_ it, Mr. Sharp," he added
gayly. "And, let me tell you, that those who will stoop to do
that--I mean, take their coats off, tuck up their sleeves, and fling
appearances to the winds--may, and will, if they understand their
business, and have got their heads screwed on right, do better here
than in any of the uncleared countries they talk so much about. You
know what I told you down at Romford. Well, we'll manage that before
our hair is gray, depend upon it, bad as the times may be--won't we,

"We'll try, Jem," was the smiling response.

They left the draft for examination. It was found to be correctly
drawn. Two or three days afterward, the deeds were executed, and
James Dutton was placed in possession. The farm, a capital one, was
in Essex.

His hopes were fully realized as to money-making, at all events. He
and his wife rose early, sat up late, ate the bread of carefulness,
and altogether displayed such persevering energy, that only about
six or seven years had passed before the Duttons were accounted a
rich and prosperous family. They had one child only--a daughter. The
mother, Mrs. Dutton, died when this child was about twelve years of
age; and Anne Dutton became more than ever the apple of her father's
eye. The business of the farm went steadily on in its accustomed
track; each succeeding year found James Dutton growing in
wealth and importance; and his daughter in sparkling, catching
comeliness--although certainly not in the refinement of manner which
gives a quickening life and grace to personal symmetry and beauty.
James Dutton remained firm in his theory of the worthlessness of
education beyond what, in a narrow acceptation of the term, was
absolutely "necessary;" and Anne Dutton, although now heiress to
very considerable wealth, knew only how to read, write, spell, cast
accounts, and superintend the home-business of the farm. I saw a
great deal of the Duttons about this time, my brother-in-law,
Elsworthy and his wife having taken up their abode within about half
a mile of James Dutton's dwelling-house; and I ventured once or
twice to remonstrate with the prosperous farmer upon the positive
danger, with reference to his ambitious views, of not at least so
far cultivating the intellect and taste of so attractive a maiden as
his daughter, that sympathy on her part with the rude, unlettered
clowns, with whom she necessarily came so much in contact, should be
impossible. He laughed my hints to scorn. "It is idleness--idleness
alone," he said, "that puts love-fancies into girls' heads.
Novel-reading, jingling at a piano-forte--merely other names for
idleness--these are the parents of such follies. Anne Dutton, as
mistress of this establishment, has her time fully and usefully
occupied; and when the time comes, not far distant now, to establish
her in marriage, she will wed into a family I wot of; and the
Romford prophecy of which you remind me will be realized, in great
part at least."

He found, too late, his error. He hastily entered the office one
morning, and although it was only five or six weeks since I had last
seen him, the change in his then florid, prideful features was so
striking and painful, as to cause me to fairly leap upon my feet
with surprise.

"Good Heavens, Dutton!" I exclaimed, "What is the matter? What has

"Nothing has happened, Mr. Sharp," he replied, "but what you
predicted, and which, had I not been the most conceited dolt in
existence, I too, must have foreseen. You know that good-looking,
idle, and, I fear, irreclaimable young fellow, George Hamblin?"

"I have seen him once or twice. Has he not brought his father to the
verge of a work-house by low dissipation and extravagance?"

"Yes. Well, he is an accepted suitor for Anne Dutton's hand. No
wonder that you start. She fancies herself hopelessly in love with
him--Nay, Sharp, hear me out. I have tried expostulation, threats,
entreaties, locking her up; but it's useless. I shall kill the silly
fool if I persist, and I have at length consented to the marriage;
for I can not see her die." I began remonstrating upon the folly of
yielding consent to so ruinous a marriage, on account of a few tears
and hysterics, but Dutton stopped me peremptorily.

"It is useless talking," he said. "The die is cast; I have given my
word. You would hardly recognize her, she is so altered. I did not
know before," added the strong, stern man, with trembling voice and
glistening eyes, "that she was so inextricably twined about my
heart--my life!" It is difficult to estimate the bitterness of such
a disappointment to a proud, aspiring man like Dutton. I pitied him
sincerely, mistaken, if not blameworthy, as he had been.

"I have only myself to blame," he presently resumed. "A girl of
cultivated taste and mind could not have bestowed a second
thought on George Hamblin. But let's to business. I wish the
marriage-settlement, and my will, to be so drawn, that every
farthing received from me during my life, and after my death, shall
be hers, and hers only; and so strictly and entirely secured, that
she shall be without power to yield control over the slightest
portion of it, should she be so minded." I took down his
instructions, and the necessary deeds were drawn in accordance with
them. When the day for signing arrived, the bridegroom-elect
demurred at first to the stringency of the provisions of the
marriage-contract; but as upon this point, Mr. Dutton was found to
be inflexible, the handsome, illiterate clown--he was little
better--gave up his scruples, the more readily as a life of assured
idleness lay before him, from the virtual control he was sure to
have over his wife's income. These were the thoughts which passed
across his mind, I was quite sure, as taking the pen awkwardly in
his hand, he affixed _his mark_ to the marriage-deed. I reddened
with shame, and the smothered groan which at the moment smote
faintly on my ear, again brokenly confessed the miserable folly of
the father in not having placed his beautiful child beyond all
possibility of mental contact or communion with such a person. The
marriage was shortly afterward solemnized, but I did not wait to
witness the ceremony.

The husband's promised good-behavior did not long endure; ere two
months of wedded life were past, he had fallen again into his old
habits; and the wife, bitterly repentant of her folly, was fain to
confess, that nothing but dread of her father's vengeance saved her
from positive ill usage. It was altogether a wretched, unfortunate
affair; and the intelligence--sad in itself--which reached me about
a twelvemonth after the marriage, that the young mother had died in
childbirth of her first-born, a girl, appeared to me rather a matter
of rejoicing than of sorrow or regret. The shock to poor Dutton was,
I understood, overwhelming for a time, and fears were entertained
for his intellects. He recovered, however, and took charge of his
grandchild, the father very willingly resigning the onerous burden.

My brother-in-law left James Dutton's neighborhood for a distant
part of the country about this period, and I saw nothing of the
bereaved father for about five years, save only at two business
interviews. The business upon which I had seen him, was the
alteration of his will, by which all he might die possessed of was
bequeathed to his darling Annie. His health, I was glad to find, was
quite restored; and although now fifty years of age, the bright
light of his young days sparkled once more in his keen glance. His
youth was, he said, renewed in little Annie. He could even bear to
speak, though still with remorseful emotion, of his own lost child.
"No fear, Sharp," he said, "that I make that terrible mistake again.
Annie will fall in love, please God, with no unlettered, soulless
booby! Her mind shall be elevated, beautiful, and pure as her
person--she is the image of her mother--promises to be charming and
attractive. You must come and see her." I promised to do so; and he
went his way. At one of these interviews--the first it must have
been--I made a chance inquiry for his son-in-law, Hamblin. As the
name passed my lips, a look of hate and rage flashed out of his
burning eyes. I did not utter another word, nor did he; and we
separated in silence.

It was evening, and I was returning in a gig from a rather long
journey into the country, when I called, in redemption of my
promise, upon James Dutton. Annie was really, I found, an engaging
pretty, blue-eyed, golden-haired child; and I was not so much
surprised at her grandfather's doting fondness--a fondness entirely
reciprocated, it seemed, by the little girl. It struck me, albeit,
that it was a perilous thing for a man of Dutton's vehement, fiery
nature to stake again, as he evidently had done, his all of life and
happiness upon one frail existence. An illustration of my thought or
fear occurred just after we had finished tea. A knock was heard at
the outer door, and presently a man's voice, in quarreling, drunken
remonstrance with the servant who opened it. The same deadly scowl I
had seen sweep over Dutton's countenance upon the mention of
Hamblin's name, again gleamed darkly there; and finding, after a
moment or two, that the intruder would not be denied, the master of
the house gently removed Annie from his knee, and strode out of the

"Follow grandpapa," whispered Mrs. Rivers, a highly respectable
widow of about forty years of age, whom Mr. Dutton had engaged at a
high salary to superintend Annie's education. The child went out,
and Mrs. Rivers, addressing me, said in a low voice: "Her presence
will prevent violence; but it is a sad affair." She then informed me
that Hamblin, to whom Mr. Dutton allowed a hundred a year, having
become aware of the grandfather's extreme fondness for Annie,
systematically worked that knowledge for his own sordid ends, and
preluded every fresh attack upon Mr. Dutton's purse by a threat to
reclaim the child. "It is not the money," remarked Mrs. Rivers in
conclusion, "that Mr. Dutton cares so much for, but the thought that
he holds Annie by the sufferance of that wretched man, goads him at
times almost to insanity."

"Would not the fellow waive his claim for a settled increase of his

"No; that has been offered to the extent of three hundred a year;
but Hamblin refuses, partly from the pleasure of keeping such a man
as Mr. Dutton in his power, partly because he knows that the last
shilling would be parted with rather than the child. It is a very
unfortunate business, and I often fear will terminate badly." The
loud but indistinct wrangling without ceased after a while, and I
heard a key turn stiffly in a lock. "The usual conclusion of these
scenes," said Mrs. Rivers. "Another draft upon his strong-box will
purchase Mr. Dutton a respite as long as the money lasts." I could
hardly look at James Dutton when he re-entered the room. There was
that in his countenance which I do not like to read in the faces of
my friends. He was silent for several minutes; at last he said
quickly, sternly: "Is there no instrument, Mr. Sharp, in all the
enginery of law, that can defeat a worthless villain's legal claim
to his child?"

"None; except, perhaps, a commission of lunacy, or--"

"Tush! tush!" interrupted Dutton; "the fellow has no wits to lose.
That being so--But let us talk of something else." We did so, but
on his part very incoherently, and I soon bade him good-night.

This was December, and it was in February the following year that
Dutton again called at our place of business. There was a strange,
stern, iron meaning in his face. "I am in a great hurry," he said,
"and I have only called to say, that I shall be glad if you will run
over to the farm to-morrow on a matter of business. You have seen,
perhaps, in the paper, that my dwelling-house took fire the night
before last. You have not? Well, it is upon that I would consult
you. Will you come?" I agreed to do so, and he withdrew.

The fire had not, I found, done much injury. It had commenced in a
kind of miscellaneous store-room; but the origin of the fire
appeared to me, as it did to the police-officers that had been
summoned, perfectly unaccountable. "Had it not been discovered in
time, and extinguished," I observed to Mrs. Rivers, "you would all
have been burned in your beds."

"Why, no," replied that lady, with some strangeness of manner. "On
the night of the fire, Annie and I slept at Mr. Elsworthy's" (I have
omitted to notice, that my brother-in-law and family had returned to
their old residence), "and Mr. Dutton remained in London, whither he
had gone to see the play."

"But the servants might have perished?"

"No. A whim, apparently, has lately seized Mr. Dutton, that no
servant or laborer shall sleep under the same roof with himself; and
those new outhouses, where their bedrooms are placed, are, you see,
completely detached, and are indeed, as regards this dwelling, made

At this moment Mr. Dutton appeared, and interrupted our
conversation. He took me aside. "Well," he said, "to what conclusion
have you come? The work of an incendiary, is it not? Somebody too,
that knows I am not insured--"

"Not insured!"

"No; not for this dwelling-house. I did not renew the policy some
months ago."

"Then," I jestingly remarked, "you, at all events, are safe from any
accusation of having set fire to your premises with the intent to
defraud the insurers."

"To be sure--to be sure, I am," he rejoined with quick earnestness,
as if taking my remark seriously. "That is quite certain. Some one,
I am pretty sure, it must be," he presently added, "that owes me a
grudge--with whom I have quarreled, eh?"

"It may be so, certainly."

"It _must_ be so. And what, Mr. Sharp, is the highest penalty for
the crime of incendiarism?"

"By the recent change in the law, transportation only; unless,
indeed, loss of human life occur in consequence of the felonious
act; in which case, the English law construes the offense to be
willful murder, although the incendiary may not have intended the
death or injury of any person."

"I see. But here there could have been no loss of life."

"There might have been, had not you, Mrs. Rivers, and Annie, chanced
to sleep out of the house."

"True--true--a diabolical villain, no doubt. But we'll ferret him
out yet. You are a keen hand, Mr. Sharp, and will assist, I know.
Yes, yes--it's some fellow that hates me--that I perhaps hate and
loathe--" he added with sudden gnashing fierceness, and striking his
hand with furious violence on the table--"as I do a spotted toad!"

I hardly recognized James Dutton in this fitful, disjointed talk,
and as there was really nothing to be done or to be inquired into, I
soon went away.

"Only one week's interval," I hastily remarked to Mr. Flint, one
morning after glancing at the newspaper, "and another fire at
Dutton's farm-house!"

"The deuce! He is in the luck of it, apparently," replied Flint,
without looking up from his employment. My partner knew Dutton only
by sight.

The following morning, I received a note from Mrs. Rivers. She
wished to see me immediately on a matter of great importance. I
hastened to Mr. Dutton's, and found, on arriving there, that George
Hamblin was in custody, and undergoing an examination, at no great
distance off, before two county magistrates, on the charge of having
fired Mr. Dutton's premises. The chief evidence was, that Hamblin
had been seen lurking about the place just before the flames broke
out, and that near the window where an incendiary might have entered
there were found portions of several lucifer matches, of a
particular make, and corresponding to a number found in Hamblin's
bedroom. To this Hamblin replied, that he had come to the house by
Mr. Dutton's invitation, but found nobody there. This however, was
vehemently denied by Mr. Dutton. He had made no appointment with
Hamblin to meet at his (Dutton's) house. How should he, purposing as
he did to be in London at the time? With respect to the lucifer
matches, Hamblin said he had purchased them of a mendicant, and that
Mr. Dutton saw him do so. This also was denied. It was further
proved, that Hamblin, when in drink, had often said he would ruin
Dutton before he died. Finally, the magistrates, though with some
hesitation, decided that there was hardly sufficient evidence to
warrant them in committing the prisoner for trial, and he was
discharged, much to the rage and indignation of the prosecutor.

Subsequently, Mrs. Rivers and I had a long private conference. She
and the child had again slept at Elsworthy's on the night of the
fire, and Dutton in London. "His excuse is," said Mrs. Rivers, "that
he can not permit us to sleep here unprotected by his presence." We
both arrived at the same conclusion, and at last agreed upon what
should be done--attempted rather--and that without delay.

Just before taking leave of Mr. Dutton, who was in an exceedingly
excited state, I said: "By-the-by, Dutton, you have promised to dine
with me on some early day. Let it be next Tuesday. I shall have one
or two bachelor friends, and we can give you a shake-down for the

"Next Tuesday?" said he quickly. "At what hour do you dine?"

"At six. Not a half-moment later."

"Good! I will be with you." We then shook hands, and parted.

The dinner would have been without interest to me, had not a note
previously arrived from Mrs. Rivers, stating that she and Annie were
again to sleep that night at Elsworthy's. This promised results.

James Dutton, who rode into town, was punctual, and, as always of
late, flurried, excited, nervous--not, in fact, it appeared to me,
precisely in his right mind. The dinner passed off as dinners
usually do, and the after-proceedings went on very comfortably till
about half-past nine o'clock, when Dutton's perturbation, increased
perhaps by the considerable quantity of wine he had swallowed, not
drunk, became, it was apparent to every body, almost uncontrollable.
He rose--purposeless it seemed--sat down again--drew out his watch
almost every minute, and answered remarks addressed to him in the
wildest manner. The decisive moment was, I saw, arrived, and at a
gesture of mine, Elsworthy, who was in my confidence, addressed
Dutton. "By the way, Dutton, about Mrs. Rivers and Annie. I forgot
to tell you of it before."

The restless man was on his feet in an instant, and glaring with
fiery eagerness at the speaker.

"What! what!" he cried with explosive quickness--"what about Annie?
Death and fury!--speak! will you?"

"Don't alarm yourself, my good fellow. It's nothing of consequence.
You brought Annie and her governess, about an hour before I started,
to sleep at our house--"

"Yes--yes," gasped Dutton, white as death, and every fibre of his
body shaking with terrible dread. "Yes--well, well, go on. Thunder
and lightning! out with it, will you?"

"Unfortunately, two female cousins arrived soon after you went away,
and I was obliged to escort Annie and Mrs. Rivers home again." A
wild shriek--yell is perhaps the more appropriate expression--burst
from the conscience and fear-stricken man. Another instant, and he
had torn his watch from the fob, glanced at it with dilated eyes,
dashed it on the table, and was rushing madly toward the door,
vainly withstood by Elsworthy, who feared we had gone too far.

"Out of the way!" screamed the madman. "Let go, or I'll dash
you to atoms!" Suiting the action to the threat, he hurled my
brother-in-law against the wall with stunning force, and rushed on,
shouting incoherently: "My horse! There is time yet! Tom Edwards,
my horse!"

Tom Edwards was luckily at hand, and although mightily surprised at
the sudden uproar, which he attributed to Mr. Dutton being in drink,
mechanically assisted to saddle, bridle, and bring out the roan
mare; and before I could reach the stables, Dutton's foot was in the
stirrup. I shouted "Stop," as loudly as I could, but the excited
horseman did not heed, perhaps not hear me: and away he went, at a
tremendous speed, hatless, and his long gray-tinted hair streaming
in the wind. It was absolutely necessary to follow. I therefore
directed Elsworthy's horse, a much swifter and more peaceful animal
than Dutton's, to be brought out; and as soon as I got into the high
country road, I too dashed along at a rate much too headlong to be
altogether pleasant. The evening was clear and bright, and I now and
then caught a distant sight of Dutton, who was going at a frantic
pace across the country, and putting his horse at leaps that no man
in his senses would have attempted. I kept the high-road, and we had
thus ridden about half an hour perhaps, when a bright flame about a
mile distant, as the crow flies, shot suddenly forth, strongly
relieved against a mass of dark wood just beyond it. I knew it to be
Dutton's house, even without the confirmation given by the frenzied
shout which at the same moment arose on my left hand. It was from
Dutton. His horse had been _staked_, in an effort to clear a high
fence, and he was hurrying desperately along on foot. I tried to
make him hear me, or to reach him, but found I could do neither: his
own wild cries and imprecations drowned my voice, and there were
impassable fences between the high-road and the fields across which
he madly hasted.

The flames were swift this time, and defied the efforts of the
servants and husbandmen who had come to the rescue, to stay, much
less to quell them. Eagerly as I rode, Dutton arrived before the
blazing pile at nearly the same moment as myself, and even as he
fiercely struggled with two or three men, who strove by main force
to prevent him from rushing into the flames, only to meet with
certain death, the roof and floors of the building fell in with a
sudden crash. He believed that all was over with the child, and
again hurling forth the wild despairing cry I had twice before heard
that evening, he fell down, as if smitten by lightning, upon the
hard, frosty road.

It was many days ere the unhappy, sinful man recovered his senses,
many weeks before he was restored to his accustomed health. Very
cautiously had the intelligence been communicated to him, that Annie
had not met the terrible fate, the image of which had incessantly
pursued him through his fevered dreams. He was a deeply grateful,
and, I believe, a penitent and altogether changed man. He purchased,
through my agency, a valuable farm in a distant county, in order to
be out of the way, not only of Hamblin, on whom he settled two
hundred a year, but of others, myself included, who knew or
suspected him of the foul intention he had conceived against his
son-in-law, and which, but for Mrs. Rivers, would, on the last
occasion, have been in all probability successful, so cunningly had
the evidence of circumstances been devised. "I have been," said
James Dutton to me at the last interview I had with him, "all my
life an overweening, self-confident fool. At Romford, I boasted to
you that my children should ally themselves with the landed gentry
of the country, and see the result! The future, please God, shall
find me in my duty--mindful only of that, and content, while so
acting, with whatever shall befall me or mine."

Dutton continues to prosper in the world; Hamblin died several years
ago of delirium tremens; and Annie, I hear, _will_ in all
probability marry into the squirearchy of the country. All this is
not perhaps what is called poetical justice, but my experience has
been with the actual, not the ideal world.




Richard left us on the very next evening, to begin his new career,
and committed Ada to my charge with great love for her, and great
trust in me. It touched me then to reflect, and it touches me now,
more nearly, to remember (having what I have to tell) how they both
thought of me, even at that engrossing time. I was a part of all
their plans, for the present and the future. I was to write to
Richard once a week, making my faithful report of Ada, who was to
write to him every alternate day. I was to be informed, under his
own hand, of all his labors and successes; I was to observe how
resolute and persevering he would be; I was to be Ada's bridesmaid
when they were married; I was to live with them afterward; I was to
keep all the keys of their house; I was to be made happy forever and
a day.

"And if the suit _should_ make us rich, Esther--which it may, you
know!" said Richard, to crown all.

A shade crossed Ada's face.

"My dearest Ada," asked Richard, pausing, "why not?"

"It had better declare us poor at once," said Ada.

"O! I don't know about that," returned Richard; "but at all events,
it won't declare any thing at once. It hasn't declared any thing in
Heaven knows how many years."

"Too true," said Ada.

"Yes, but," urged Richard, answering what her look suggested rather
than her words, "the longer it goes on, dear cousin, the nearer it
must be to a settlement one way or other. Now, is not that

"You know best, Richard. But I am afraid if we trust to it, it will
make us unhappy."

"But, my Ada, we are not going to trust to it!" cried Richard,
gayly. "We know it better than to trust to it. We only say that if
it _should_ make us rich, we have no constitutional objection to
being rich. The Court is, by solemn settlement of law, our grim old
guardian, and we are to suppose that what it gives us (when it gives
us any thing) is our right. It is not necessary to quarrel with our

"No," said Ada, "but it may be better to forget all about it."

"Well, well!" cried Richard, "then we will forget all about it! We
consign the whole thing to oblivion. Dame Durden puts on her
approving face, and it's done!"

"Dame Durden's approving face," said I, looking out of the box in
which I was packing his books, "was not very visible when you called
it by that name; but it does approve, and she thinks you can't do

So, Richard said there was an end of it--and immediately began, on
no other foundation, to build as many castles in the air as would
man the great wall of China. He went away in high spirits. Ada and
I, prepared to miss him very much, commenced our quieter career.

On our arrival in London, we had called with Mr. Jarndyce at Mrs.
Jellyby's, but had not been so fortunate as to find her at home. It
appeared that she had gone somewhere, to a tea-drinking, and had
taken Miss Jellyby with her. Besides the tea-drinking, there was to
be some considerable speech-making and letter-writing on the general
merits of the cultivation of coffee, conjointly with natives, at the
Settlement of Borrioboola Gha. All this involved, no doubt,
sufficient active exercise of pen and ink, to make her daughter's
part in the proceedings, any thing but a holiday.

It being, now, beyond the time appointed for Mrs. Jellyby's return,
we called again. She was in town, but not at home, having gone to
Mile End, directly after breakfast, on some Borrioboolan business,
arising out of a Society called the East London Branch Aid
Ramification. As I had not seen Peepy on the occasion of our last
call (when he was not to be found any where, and when the cook
rather thought he must have strolled away with the dustman's cart) I
now inquired for him again. The oyster shells he had been building a
house with, were still in the passage, but he was nowhere
discoverable, and the cook supposed that he had "gone after the
sheep." When we repeated, with some surprise, "The sheep?" she said,
O yes, on market days he sometimes followed them quite out of town,
and came back in such a state as never was!

I was sitting at the window with my Guardian, on the following
morning, and Ada was busy writing--of course to Richard--when Miss
Jellyby was announced, and entered, leading the identical Peepy,
whom she had made some endeavors to render presentable, by wiping
the dirt into corners of his face and hands, and making his hair
very wet, and then violently frizzling it with her fingers. Every
thing the dear child wore, was either too large for him or too
small. Among his other contradictory decorations he had the hat of a
Bishop, and the little gloves of a baby. His boots were, on a small
scale, the boots of a plowman: while his legs, so crossed and
recrossed with scratches that they looked like maps, were bare,
below a very short pair of plaid drawers, finished off with two
frills of perfectly different patterns. The deficient buttons on his
plaid frock had evidently been supplied from one of Mr. Jellyby's
coats, they were so extremely brazen and so much too large. Most
extraordinary specimens of needlework appeared on several parts of
his dress, where it had been hastily mended; and I recognized the
same hand on Miss Jellyby's. She was, however, unaccountably
improved in her appearance, and looked very pretty. She was
conscious of poor little Peepy being but a failure, after all her
trouble, and she showed it as she came in, by the way in which she
glanced, first at him, and then at us.

"O dear me!" said my Guardian, "Due East!"

Ada and I gave her a cordial welcome, and presented her to Mr.
Jarndyce; to whom she said, as she sat down:

"Ma's compliments, and she hopes you'll excuse her, because she's
correcting proofs of the plan. She's going to put out five thousand
new circulars, and she knows you'll be interested to hear that. I
have brought one of them with me. Ma's compliments." With which she
presented it sulkily enough.

"Thank you," said my Guardian. "I am much obliged to Mrs. Jellyby. O
dear me! This is a very trying wind!"

We were busy with Peepy; taking off his clerical hat; asking him if
he remembered us; and so on. Peepy retired behind his elbow at
first, but relented at the sight of sponge-cake, and allowed me to
take him on my lap, where he sat munching quietly. Mr. Jarndyce then
withdrawing into the temporary Growlery, Miss Jellyby opened a
conversation with her usual abruptness.

"We are going on just as bad as ever in Thavies Inn," said she. "I
have no peace of my life. Talk of Africa! I couldn't be worse off if
I was a what's-his-name-man and a brother!"

I tried to say something soothing.

"O, it's of no use, Miss Summerson," exclaimed Miss Jellyby, "though
I thank you for the kind intention all the same. I know how I am
used, and I am not to be talked over. You wouldn't be talked over,
if you were used so. Peepy, go and play at Wild Beasts under the

"I shan't!" said Peepy.

"Very well, you ungrateful, naughty, hard-hearted boy!" returned
Miss Jellyby, with tears in her eyes. "I'll never take pains to
dress you any more."

"Yes, I will go, Caddy!" cried Peepy, who was really a good child,
and who was so moved by his sister's vexation that he went at once.

"It seems a little thing to cry about," said poor Miss Jellyby,
apologetically, "but I am quite worn out. I was directing the new
circulars till two this morning. I detest the whole thing so, that
that alone makes my head ache till I can't see out of my eyes. And
look at that poor unfortunate child. Was there ever such a fright as
he is!"

Peepy, happily unconscious of the defects in his appearance, sat on
the carpet behind one of the legs of the piano, looking calmly out
of his den at us, while he ate his cake.

"I have sent him to the other end of the room," observed Miss
Jellyby, drawing her chair nearer ours, "because I don't want him to
hear the conversation. Those little things are so sharp! I was going
to say, we really are going on worse than ever. Pa will be a
bankrupt before long, and then I hope Ma will be satisfied. There'll
be nobody but Ma to thank for it."

We said we hoped Mr. Jellyby's affairs were not in so bad a state as

"It's of no use hoping, though it's very kind of you!" returned Miss
Jellyby, shaking her head. "Pa told me, only yesterday morning (and
dreadfully unhappy he is), that he couldn't weather the storm. I
should be surprised if he could. When all our tradesmen send into
our house any stuff they like, and the servants do what they like
with it, and I have no time to improve things if I knew how, and Ma
don't care about any thing, I should like to make out how Pa _is_ to
weather the storm. I declare if I was Pa, I'd run away!"

"My dear!" said I, smiling. "Your papa, no doubt, considers his

"O yes, his family is all very fine, Miss Summerson," replied Miss
Jellyby; "but what comfort is his family to him? His family is
nothing but bills, dirt, waste, noise, tumbles down stairs,
confusion, and wretchedness. His scrambling home, from week's-end to
week's-end, is like one great washing-day--only nothing's washed!"

Miss Jellyby tapped her foot upon the floor, and wiped her eyes.

"I am sure I pity Pa to that degree," she said, "and am so angry
with Ma, that I can't find words to express myself! However, I am
not going to bear it, I am determined. I won't be a slave all my
life, and I won't submit to be proposed to by Mr. Quale. A pretty
thing, indeed, to marry a Philanthropist! As if I hadn't had enough
of _that_!" said poor Miss Jellyby.

I must confess that I could not help feeling rather angry with Mrs.
Jellyby, myself; seeing and hearing this neglected girl, and knowing
how much of bitterly satirical truth there was in what she said.

"If it wasn't that we had been intimate when you stopped at our
house," pursued Miss Jellyby, "I should have been ashamed to come
here to-day, for I know what a figure I must seem to you two. But,
as it is, I made up my mind to call: especially as I am not likely
to see you again, the next time you come to town."

She said this with such great significance that Ada and I glanced at
one another, foreseeing something more.

"No!" said Miss Jellyby, shaking her head. "Not at all likely! I
know I may trust you two. I am sure you won't betray me. I am

"Without their knowledge at home?" said I.

"Why, good gracious me, Miss Summerson," she returned, justifying
herself in a fretful but not angry manner, "how can it be otherwise?
You know what Ma is--and I needn't make poor Pa more miserable by
telling _him_."

"But would it not be adding to his unhappiness, to marry without his
knowledge or consent, my dear?" said I.

"No," said Miss Jellyby, softening. "I hope not. I should try to
make him happy and comfortable when he came to see me; and Peepy and
the others should take it in turns to come and stay with me; and
they should have some care taken of them, then."

There was a good deal of affection in poor Caddy. She softened more
and more while saying this, and cried so much over the unwonted
little home-picture she had raised in her mind, that Peepy, in his
cave under the piano, was touched, and turned himself over on his
back with loud lamentations. It was not until I had brought him to
kiss his sister, and had restored him to his place in my lap, and
had shown him that Caddy was laughing (she laughed expressly for the
purpose), that we could recall his peace of mind; even then, it was
for some time conditional on his taking us in turns by the chin, and
smoothing our faces all over with his hand. At last, as his spirits
were not yet equal to the piano, we put him on a chair to look out
of window; and Miss Jellyby, holding him by one leg, resumed her

"It began in your coming to our house," she said.

We naturally asked how?

"I felt I was so awkward," she replied, "that I made up my mind to
be improved in that respect, at all events, and to learn to dance. I
told Ma I was ashamed of myself, and I must be taught to dance. Ma
looked at me in that provoking way of hers, as if I wasn't in sight;
but, I was quite determined to be taught to dance, and so I went to
Mr. Turveydrop's Academy in Newman Street."

"And was it there, my dear----" I began.

"Yes, it was there," said Caddy, "and I am engaged to Mr.
Turveydrop. There are two Mr. Turveydrops, father and son. My Mr.
Turveydrop is the son, of course. I only wish I had been better
brought up, and was likely to make him a better wife; for I am very
fond of him."

"I am sorry to hear this," said I, "I must confess."

"I don't know why you should be sorry," she retorted, a little
anxiously, "but I am engaged to Mr. Turveydrop, whether or no, and
he is very fond of me. It's a secret as yet, even on his side,
because old Mr. Turveydrop has a share in the connection, and it
might break his heart, or give him some other shock, if he was told
of it abruptly. Old Mr. Turveydrop is a very gentlemanly man,
indeed--very gentlemanly."

"Does his wife know of it?" asked Ada.

"Old Mr. Turveydrop's wife, Miss Clare?" returned Miss Jellyby,
opening her eyes. "There's no such person. He is a widower."

We were here interrupted by Peepy, whose leg had undergone so much
on account of his sister's unconsciously jerking it, like a
bell-rope, whenever she was emphatic, that the afflicted child now
bemoaned his sufferings with a very low-spirited noise. As he
appealed to me for compassion, and as I was only a listener, I
undertook to hold him. Miss Jellyby proceeded, after begging Peepy's
pardon with a kiss, and assuring him that she hadn't meant to do it.

"That's the state of the case," said Caddy. "If I ever blame myself,
I still think it's Ma's fault. We are to be married whenever we can,
and then I shall go to Pa at the office, and write to Ma. It won't
much agitate Ma: I am only pen and ink to _her_. One great comfort
is," said Caddy, with a sob, "that I shall never hear of Africa
after I am married. Young Mr. Turveydrop hates it for my sake; and
if old Mr. Turveydrop knows there is such a place, it's as much as
he does."

"It was he who was very gentlemanly, I think?" said I.

"Very gentlemanly, indeed," said Caddy. "He is celebrated, almost
every where, for his Deportment."

"Does he teach?" asked Ada.

"No, he don't teach any thing in particular," replied Caddy. "But
his Deportment is beautiful."

Caddy went on to say, with considerable hesitation and reluctance,
that there was one thing more she wished us to know, and felt we
ought to know, and which, she hoped, would not offend us. It was,
that she had improved her acquaintance with Miss Flite, the little
crazy old lady; and that she frequently went there early in the
morning, and met her lover for a few minutes before breakfast--only
for a few minutes. "_I_ go there, at other times," said Caddy, "but
Prince does not come then. Young Mr. Turveydrop's name is Prince; I
wish it wasn't, because it sounds like a dog, but of course he
didn't christen himself. Old Mr. Turveydrop had him christened
Prince, in remembrance of the Prince Regent. Old Mr. Turveydrop
adored the Prince Regent on account of his Deportment. I hope you
won't think the worse of me for having made these little
appointments at Miss Flite's, where I first went with you; because I
like the poor thing for her own sake, and I believe she likes me. If
you could see young Mr. Turveydrop, I am sure you would think well
of him--at least, I am sure you couldn't possibly think any ill of
him. I am going there now, for my lesson. I couldn't ask you to go
with me, Miss Summerson; but if you would," said Caddy, who had
said all this, earnestly and tremblingly, "I should be very
glad--very glad."

It happened that we had arranged with my Guardian to go to Miss
Flite's that day. We had told him of our former visit, and our
account had interested him; but something had always happened to
prevent our going there again. As I trusted that I might have
sufficient influence with Miss Jellyby to prevent her taking any
very rash step, if I fully accepted the confidence she was so
willing to place in me, poor girl, I proposed that she, and I, and
Peepy, should go to the Academy, and afterward meet my guardian and
Ada at Miss Flite's--whose name I now learnt for the first time.
This was on condition that Miss Jellyby and Peepy should come back
with us to dinner. The last article of the agreement being joyfully
acceded to by both, we smartened Peepy up a little, with the
assistance of a few pins, some soap and water, and a hair-brush; and
went out: bending our steps toward Newman Street, which was very

I found the academy established in a sufficiently dingy house at the
corner of an arch-way, with busts in all the staircase windows. In
the same house there were also established, as I gathered from the
plates on the door, a drawing-master, a coal-merchant (there was,
certainly, no room for his coals), and a lithographic artist. On the
plate which, in size and situation, took precedence of all the rest,
I read, MR. TURVEYDROP. The door was open, and the hall was blocked
up by a grand piano, a harp, and several other musical instruments
in cases, all in progress of removal, and all looking rakish in the
daylight. Miss Jellyby informed me that the academy had been lent,
last night, for a concert.

We went up-stairs--it had been quite a fine house once, when it was
any body's business to keep it clean and fresh, and nobody's
business to smoke in it all day--and into Mr. Turveydrop's great
room, which was built out into a mews at the back, and was lighted
by a skylight. It was a bare, resounding room, smelling of stables;
with cane forms along the walls; and the walls ornamented at regular
intervals with painted lyres, and little cut-glass branches for
candles, which seemed to be shedding their old-fashioned drops as
other branches might shed autumn leaves. Several young lady pupils,
ranging from thirteen or fourteen years of age to two or three and
twenty, were assembled; and I was looking among them for their
instructor, when Caddy, pinching my arm, repeated the ceremony of
introduction. "Miss Summerson, Mr. Prince Turveydrop!"

[Illustration: THE DANCING SCHOOL.]

I courtesied to a little blue-eyed fair man of youthful appearance,
with flaxen hair parted in the middle, and curling at the ends all
round his head. He had a little fiddle, which we used to call at
school a kit, under his left arm, and its little bow in the same
hand. His little dancing-shoes were particularly diminutive, and he
had a little innocent, feminine manner, which not only appealed to
me in an amiable way, but made this singular effect upon me: that
I received the impression that he was like his mother, and that his
mother had not been much considered or well used.

"I am very happy to see Miss Jellyby's friend," he said, bowing low
to me. "I began to fear," with timid tenderness, "as it was past the
usual time, that Miss Jellyby was not coming."

"I beg you will have the goodness to attribute that to me, who have
detained her, and to receive my excuses, sir," said I.

"O dear!" said he.

"And pray," I entreated, "do not allow me to be the cause of any
more delay."

With that apology I withdrew to a seat between Peepy (who, being
well used to it, had already climbed into a corner-place), and an
old lady of a censorious countenance, whose two nieces were in the
class, and who was very indignant with Peepy's boots. Prince
Turveydrop then tinkled the strings of his kit with his fingers, and
the young ladies stood up to dance. Just then, there appeared from a
side-door, old Mr. Turveydrop, in the full lustre of his Deportment.

He was a fat old gentleman with a false complexion, false teeth,
false whiskers, and a wig. He had a fur collar, and he had a padded
breast to his coat, which only wanted a star or a broad blue ribbon
to be complete. He was pinched in and swelled out, and got up, and
strapped down, as much as he could possibly bear. He had such a
neck-cloth on (puffing his very eyes out of their natural shape),
and his chin and even his ears so sunk into it, that it seemed as
though he must inevitably double up, if it were cast loose. He had,
under his arm, a hat of great size and weight, shelving downward
from the crown to the brim; and in his hand a pair of white gloves,
with which he flapped it, as he stood poised on one leg, in a
high-shouldered, round-elbowed state of elegance not to be
surpassed. He had a cane, he had an eye-glass, he had a snuff-box,
he had rings, he had wristbands, he had every thing but any touch of
nature; he was not like youth, he was not like age, he was like
nothing in the world but a model of Deportment.

"Father! A visitor. Miss Jellyby's friend, Miss Summerson."

"Distinguished," said Mr. Turveydrop, "by Miss Summerson's
presence." As he bowed to me in that tight state, I almost believed
I saw creases come into the whites of his eyes.

"My father," said the son, aside to me, with quite an affecting
belief in him, "is a celebrated character. My father is greatly

"Go on, Prince! Go on!" said Mr. Turveydrop, standing with his back
to the fire, and waving his gloves condescendingly. "Go on, my son!"

At this command, or by this gracious permission, the lesson went on.
Prince Turveydrop, sometimes, played the kit, dancing; sometimes
played the piano, standing; sometimes hummed the tune with what
little breath he could spare, while he set a pupil right; always
conscientiously moved with the least proficient through every step
and every part of the figure; and never rested for an instant. His
distinguished father did nothing whatever, but stand before the
fire, a model of Deportment.

"And he never does any thing else," said the old lady of the
censorious countenance. "Yet, would you believe that it's _his_ name
on the door-plate?"

"His son's name is the same, you know," said I.

"He wouldn't let his son have any name, if he could take it from
him," returned the old lady. "Look at the son's dress!" It certainly
was plain--threadbare--almost shabby. "Yet the father must be
garnished and tricked out," said the old lady, "because of his
Deportment. I'd deport him! Transport him would be better!"

I felt curious to know more, concerning this person. I asked, "Does
he give lessons in Deportment, now?"

"Now!" returned the old lady, shortly. "Never did."

After a moment's consideration, I suggested that perhaps fencing had
been his accomplishment.

"I don't believe he can fence at all, ma'am," said the old lady.

I looked surprised and inquisitive. The old lady, becoming more and
more incensed against the Master of Deportment as she dwelt upon the
subject, gave me some particulars of his career, with strong
assurances that they were mildly stated.

He had married a meek little dancing-mistress, with a tolerable
connection (having never in his life before done any thing but
deport himself), and had worked her to death, or had, at the best,
suffered her to work herself to death, to maintain him in those
expenses which were indispensable to his position. At once to
exhibit his Deportment to the best models, and to keep the best
models constantly before himself, he had found it necessary to
frequent all public places of fashionable and lounging resort; to be
seen at Brighton and elsewhere at fashionable times, and to lead an
idle life in the very best clothes. To enable him to do this, the
affectionate little dancing-mistress had toiled and labored, and
would have toiled and labored to that hour, if her strength had
lasted so long. For, the mainspring of the story was, that, in spite
of the man's absorbing selfishness, his wife (overpowered by his
Deportment) had, to the last, believed in him, and had, on her
death-bed in the most moving terms, confided him to their son as one
who had an inextinguishable claim upon him, and whom he could never
regard with too much pride and deference. The son, inheriting his
mother's belief, and having the Deportment always before him, had
lived and grown in the same faith, and now, at thirty years of age,
worked for his father twelve hours a day, and looked up to him with
veneration on the old imaginary pinnacle.

"The airs the fellow gives himself!" said my informant, shaking her
head at old Mr. Turveydrop with speechless indignation, as he drew
on his tight gloves; of course unconscious of the homage she was
rendering. "He fully believes he is one of the aristocracy! And he
is so condescending to the son he so egregiously deludes, that you
might suppose him the most virtuous of parents. O!" said the old
lady, apostrophizing him with infinite vehemence, "I could bite

I could not help being amused, though I heard the old lady out with
feelings of real concern. It was difficult to doubt her, with the
father and son before me. What I might have thought of them without
the old lady's account, or what I might have thought of the old
lady's account without them, I can not say. There was a fitness of
things in the whole that carried conviction with it.

My eyes were yet wandering, from young Mr. Turveydrop working so
hard to old Mr. Turveydrop deporting himself so beautifully, when
the latter came ambling up to me, and entered into conversation.

He asked me, first of all, whether I conferred a charm and a
distinction on London by residing in it? I did not think it
necessary to reply that I was perfectly aware I should not do that,
in any case, but merely told him where I did reside.

"A lady so graceful and accomplished," he said, kissing his right
glove, and afterward extending it toward the pupils, "will
look leniently on the deficiencies here. We do our best to

He sat down beside me; taking some pains to sit on the form, I
thought, in imitation of the print of his illustrious model on the
sofa. And really he did look very like it.

"To polish--polish--polish!" he repeated, taking a pinch of snuff,
and gently fluttering his fingers. "But we are not--if I may say so,
to one formed to be graceful both by Nature and Art;" with the
high-shouldered bow, which it seemed impossible for him to make
without lifting up his eyebrows and shutting his eyes--"we are not
what we used to be in point of Deportment."

"Are we not, sir?" said I.

"We have degenerated," he returned, shaking his head, which he could
do, to a very limited extent, in his cravat. "A leveling age is not
favorable to Deportment. It develops vulgarity. Perhaps I speak with
some little partiality. It may not be for me to say that I have been
called, for some years now, Gentleman Turveydrop; or that His Royal
Highness the Prince Regent did me the honor to inquire, on my
removing my hat as he drove out of the Pavilion at Brighton (that
fine building), 'Who is he? Who the Devil is he? Why don't I know
him? Why hasn't he thirty thousand a year?' But these are little
matters of anecdote--the general property, ma'am--still repeated,
occasionally among the upper classes."

"Indeed?" said I.

He replied with the high-shouldered bow. "Where what is left among
us of Deportment," he added, "still lingers. England--alas, my
country!--has degenerated very much, and is degenerating every day.
She has not many gentlemen left. We are few. I see nothing to
succeed us, but a race of weavers."

"One might hope that the race of gentlemen would be perpetuated
here," said I.

"You are very good," he smiled, with the high-shouldered bow again.
"You flatter me. But, no--no! I have never been able to imbue my
poor boy with that part of his art. Heaven forbid that I should
disparage my dear child, but he has--no Deportment."

"He appears to be an excellent master," I observed.

"Understand me, my dear madam, he is an excellent master. All that
can be acquired, he has acquired. All that can be imparted, he can
impart. But there _are_ things"--he took another pinch of snuff and
made the bow again, as if to add, "this kind of thing, for

I glanced toward the centre of the room, where Miss Jellyby's lover,
now engaged with single pupils, was undergoing greater drudgery than

"My amiable child," murmured Mr. Turveydrop, adjusting his cravat.

"Your son is indefatigable," said I.

"It is my reward," said Mr. Turveydrop, "to hear you say so. In some
respects, he treads in the footsteps of his sainted mother. She was
a devoted creature. But Wooman, lovely Wooman," said Mr. Turveydrop,
with very disagreeable gallantry, "what a sex you are!"

I rose and joined Miss Jellyby, who was, by this time, putting on
her bonnet. The time allotted to a lesson having fully elapsed,
there was a general putting on of bonnets. When Miss Jellyby and the
unfortunate Prince found an opportunity to become betrothed I don't
know, but they certainly found none, on this occasion, to exchange a
dozen words.

"My dear," said Mr. Turveydrop benignly to his son, "do you know the

"No, father." The son had no watch. The father had a handsome gold
one, which he pulled out, with an air that was an example to

"My son," said he, "it's two o'clock. Recollect your school at
Kensington at three."

"That's time enough for me, father," said Prince. "I can take a
morsel of dinner, standing, and be off."

"My dear boy," returned his father, "you must be very quick. You
will find the cold mutton on the table."

"Thank you, father. Are _you_ off now, father?"

"Yes, my dear. I suppose," said Mr. Turveydrop, shutting his eyes
and lifting up his shoulders, with modest consciousness, "that I
must show myself, as usual, about town."

"You had better dine out comfortably, somewhere," said his son.

"My dear child, I intend to. I shall take my little meal, I think,
at the French house, in the Opera Colonnade."

"That's right. Good-by, father!" said Prince, shaking hands.

"Good-by, my son. Bless you!"

Mr. Turveydrop said this in quite a pious manner, and it seemed to
do his son good; who, in parting from him, was so pleased with him,
so dutiful to him, and so proud of him, that I almost felt as if it
were an unkindness to the younger man not to be able to believe
implicitly in the elder. The few moments that were occupied by
Prince in taking leave of us (and particularly of one of us, as I
saw, being in the secret), enhanced my favorable impression of his
almost childish character. I felt a liking for him, and a compassion
for him, as he put his little kit in his pocket--and with it his
desire to stay a little while with Caddy--and went away
good-humoredly to his cold mutton and his school at Kensington, that
made me scarcely less irate with his father than the censorious old

The father opened the room door for us, and bowed us out, in a
manner, I must acknowledge, worthy of his shining original. In the
same style he presently passed us on the other side of the street,
on his way to the aristocratic part of the town, where he was going
to show himself among the few other gentlemen left. For some
moments, I was so lost in reconsidering what I had heard and seen in
Newman Street, that I was quite unable to talk to Caddy, or even to
fix my attention on what she said to me; especially, when I began to
inquire in my mind whether there were, or ever had been, any other
gentlemen, not in the dancing profession, who lived and founded a
reputation entirely on their Deportment. This became so bewildering,
and suggested the possibility of so many Mr. Turveydrops, that I
said, "Esther, you must make up your mind to abandon this subject
altogether, and attend to Caddy." I accordingly did so, and we
chatted all the rest of the way to Lincoln's Inn.

Caddy told me that her lover's education had been so neglected, that
it was not always easy to read his notes. She said, if he were not
so anxious about his spelling, and took less pains to make it clear,
he would do better; but he put so many unnecessary letters into
short words, that they sometimes quite lost their English
appearance. "He does it with the best intentions," observed Caddy,
"but it hasn't the effect he means, poor fellow!" Caddy then went on
to reason, how could he be expected to be a scholar, when he had
passed his whole life in the dancing-school, and had done nothing
but teach and fag, fag and teach, morning, noon, and night! And what
did it matter? She could write letters enough for both, as she knew
to her cost, and it was far better for him to be amiable than
learned. "Besides, it's not as if I was an accomplished girl who had
any right to give herself airs," said Caddy. "I know little enough,
I am sure, thanks to Ma!"

"There's another thing I want to tell you, now we are alone,"
continued Caddy, "which I should not have liked to mention unless
you had seen Prince, Miss Summerson. You know what a house ours is.
It's of no use my trying to learn any thing that it would be useful
for Prince's wife to know, in our house. We live in such a state of
muddle that it's impossible, and I have only been more disheartened
whenever I have tried. So, I get a little practice with--who do you
think? Poor Miss Flite! Early in the morning, I help her to tidy her
room, and clean her birds; and I make her cup of coffee for her (of
course she taught me), and I have learnt to make it so well that
Prince says it's the very best coffee he ever tasted, and would
quite delight old Mr. Turveydrop, who is very particular indeed
about his coffee. I can make little puddings too; and I know how to
buy neck of mutton, and tea, and sugar, and butter, and a good many
housekeeping things. I am not clever at my needle, yet," said Caddy,
glancing at the repairs on Peepy's frock, "but perhaps I shall
improve. And since I have been engaged to Prince, and have been
doing all this, I have felt better-tempered, I hope, and more
forgiving to Ma. It rather put me out, at first this morning, to see
you and Miss Clare looking so neat and pretty, and to feel
ashamed of Peepy and myself too; but on the whole, I hope I am
better-tempered than I was, and more forgiving to Ma."

The poor girl, trying so hard, said it from her heart, and touched
mine. "Caddy, my love," I replied, "I begin to have a great
affection for you, and I hope we shall become friends." "Oh, do
you?" cried Caddy; "how happy that would make me!" "My dear Caddy,"
said I, "let us be friends from this time, and let us often have a
chat about these matters, and try to find the right way through
them." Caddy was overjoyed. I said every thing I could, in my
old-fashioned way, to comfort and encourage her; and I would not
have objected to old Mr. Turveydrop, that day, for any smaller
consideration than a settlement on his daughter-in-law.

By this time, we were come to Mr. Krook's, whose private door stood
open. There was a bill, pasted on the door-post, announcing a room
to let on the second floor. It reminded Caddy to tell me as we
proceeded up-stairs, that there had been a sudden death there, and
an inquest; and that our little friend had been ill of the fright.
The door and window of the vacant room being open, we looked in. It
was the room with the dark door, to which Miss Flite had secretly
directed my attention when I was last in the house. A sad and
desolate place it was; a gloomy, sorrowful place, that gave me a
strange sensation of mournfulness and even dread. "You look pale,"
said Caddy, when we came out, "and cold!" I felt as if the room had
chilled me.

We had walked slowly, while we were talking; and my Guardian and Ada
were here before us. We found them in Miss Flite's garret. They were
looking at the birds, while a medical gentleman who was so good as
to attend Miss Flite with much solicitude and compassion, spoke with
her cheerfully by the fire.

"I have finished my professional visit," he said, coming forward.
"Miss Flite is much better, and may appear in court (as her mind is
set upon it) to-morrow. She has been greatly missed there, I

Miss Flite received the compliment with complacency, and dropped a
general courtesy to us.

"Honored, indeed," said she, "by another visit from the Wards in
Jarndyce! Ve-ry happy to receive Jarndyce of Bleak House beneath my
humble roof!" with a special courtesy. "Fitz-Jarndyce, my dear;" she
had bestowed that name on Caddy, it appeared, and always called her
by it; "a double welcome!"

"Has she been very ill?" asked Mr. Jarndyce of the gentleman whom we
had found in attendance on her. She answered for herself directly,
though he had put the question in a whisper.

"O, decidedly unwell! O, very unwell indeed," she said,
confidentially. "Not pain, you know--trouble. Not bodily so much as
nervous, nervous! The truth is," in a subdued voice and trembling,
"we have had death here. There was poison in the house. I am very
susceptible to such horrid things. It frightened me. Only Mr.
Woodcourt knows how much. My physician, Mr. Woodcourt!" with
great stateliness. "The Wards in Jarndyce--Jarndyce of Bleak

"Miss Flite," said Mr. Woodcourt, in a grave, kind voice as if he
were appealing to her while speaking to us; and laying his hand
gently on her arm; "Miss Flite describes her illness with her usual
accuracy. She was alarmed by an occurrence in the house which might
have alarmed a stronger person, and was made ill by the distress and
agitation. She brought me here in the first hurry of the discovery,
though too late for me to be of any use to the unfortunate man. I
have compensated myself for that disappointment by coming here
since, and being of small use to her."

"The kindest physician in the college," whispered Miss Flite to me.
"I expect a Judgment. On the day of Judgment. And shall then confer

"She will be as well, in a day or two," said Mr. Woodcourt, looking
at her with an observant smile, "as she ever will be. In other
words, quite well, of course. Have you heard of her good fortune?"

"Most extraordinary!" said Miss Flite, smiling brightly. "You never
heard of such a thing, my dear! Every Saturday, Conversation Kenge,
or Guppy (clerk to Conversation K.), places in my hand a paper of
shillings. Shillings. I assure you! Always the same number in the
paper. Always one for every day in the week. Now you know, really!
So well-timed, is it not? Ye-es! From whence do these papers come,
you say? That is the great question. Naturally. Shall I tell you
what _I_ think? _I_ think," said Miss Flite, drawing herself back
with a very shrewd look, and shaking her right forefinger in a most
significant manner, "that the Lord Chancellor, aware of the length
of time during which the Great Seal has been open (for it has been
open a long time!) forwards them. Until the Judgment I expect, is
given. Now that's very creditable, you know. To confess in that way
that he _is_ a little slow for human life. So delicate! Attending
Court the other day--I attend it regularly--with my documents--I
taxed him with it, and he almost confessed. That is, I smiled at him
from my bench, and _he_ smiled at me from his bench. But it's great
good fortune, is it not? And Fitz-Jarndyce lays the money out for me
to great advantage. O, I assure you to the greatest advantage!"

I congratulated her (as she addressed herself to me) upon this
fortunate addition to her income, and wished her a long continuance
of it. I did not speculate upon the source from which it came, or
wonder whose humanity was so considerate. My Guardian stood before
me, contemplating the birds, and I had no need to look beyond him.

"And what do you call these little fellows, ma'am?" said he in his
pleasant voice. "Have they any names?"

"I can answer for Miss Flite that they have," said I, "for she
promised to tell us what they were. Ada remembers?"

Ada remembered very well.

"Did I?" said Miss Flite.--"Who's that at my door? What are you
listening at my door for, Krook?"

The old man of the house, pushing it open before him, appeared there
with his fur-cap in his hand, and his cat at his heels.

"_I_ warn't listening, Miss Flite," he said. "I was going to give a
rap with my knuckles, only you're so quick!"

"Make your cat go down. Drive her away!" the old lady angrily

"Bah, bah!--There ain't no danger, gentle-folks," said Mr. Krook,
looking slowly and sharply from one to another, until he had looked
at all of us; "she'd never offer at the birds when I was here,
unless I told her to do it."

"You will excuse my landlord," said the old lady with a dignified
air. "M, quite M! What do you want, Krook, when I have company?"

"Hi!" said the old man. "You know I am the Chancellor."

"Well?" returned Miss Flite. "What of that?"

"For the Chancellor," said the old man, with a chuckle, "not to be
acquainted with a Jarndyce is queer, ain't it, Miss Flite? Mightn't
I take the liberty?--Your servant, sir. I know Jarndyce and Jarndyce
a'most as well as you do, sir. I knowed old Squire Tom, sir. I never
to my knowledge see you afore though, not even in court. Yet, I go
there a mortal sight of times in the course of the year, taking one
day with another."

"I never go there," said Mr. Jarndyce (which he never did on any
consideration). "I would sooner go--somewhere else."

"Would you though?" returned Krook, grinning. "You're bearing hard
upon my noble and learned brother in your meaning, sir; though,
perhaps, it is but nat'ral in a Jarndyce. The burnt child, sir!
What, you're looking at my lodger's birds, Mr. Jarndyce?" The old
man had come by little and little into the room, until he now
touched my Guardian with his elbow, and looked close up into his
face with his spectacled eyes. "It's one of her strange ways, that
she'll never tell the names of these birds if she can help it,
though she named 'em all." This was in a whisper. "Shall I run 'em
over, Flite?" he asked aloud, winking at us and pointing at her as
she turned away, affecting to sweep the grate.

"If you like," she answered hurriedly.

The old man, looking up at the cages, after another look at us, went
through the list.

"Hope, Joy, Youth, Peace, Rest, Life, Dust, Ashes, Waste, Want,
Ruin, Despair, Madness, Death, Cunning, Folly, Words, Wigs, Rags,
Sheepskin, Plunder, Precedent, Jargon, Gammon, and Spinach. That's
the whole collection," said the old man, "all cooped up together, by
my noble and learned brother.

"This is a bitter wind!" muttered my Guardian.

"When my noble and learned brother gives his Judgment, they're to be
let go free," said Krook, winking at us again. "And then," he added,
whispering and grinning, "if that ever was to happen--which it
won't--the birds that have never been caged would kill 'em."

"If ever the wind was in the east," said my Guardian, pretending to
look out of the window for a weathercock, "I think it's there

We found it very difficult to get away from the house. It was not
Miss Flite who detained us; she was as reasonable a little creature
in consulting the convenience of others, as there possibly could be.
It was Mr. Krook. He seemed unable to detach himself from Mr.
Jarndyce. If he had been linked to him, he could hardly have
attended him more closely. He proposed to show us his Court of
Chancery, and all the strange medley it contained; during the whole
of our inspection (prolonged by himself) he kept close to Mr.
Jarndyce, and sometimes detained him, under one pretense or other,
until we had passed on, as if he were tormented by an inclination to
enter upon some secret subject, which he could not make up his mind
to approach. I can not imagine a countenance and manner more
singularly expressive of caution and indecision, and a perpetual
impulse to do something he could not resolve to venture on, than Mr.
Krook's was, that day. His watchfulness of my Guardian was
incessant. He rarely removed his eyes from his face. If he went on
beside him, he observed him with the slyness of an old white fox. If
he went before, he looked back. When we stood still, he got opposite
to him, and drawing his hand across and across his open mouth with
a curious expression of a sense of power, and turning up his eyes,
and lowering his gray eyebrows until they appeared to be shut,
seemed to scan every lineament of his face.

At last, having been (always attended by the cat) all over the
house, and having seen the whole stock of miscellaneous lumber,
which was certainly curious, we came into the back part of the shop.
Here, on the head of an empty barrel stood on end, were an
ink-bottle, some old stumps of pens, and some dirty playbills; and
against the wall were pasted several large printed alphabets in
several plain hands.

"What are you doing here?" asked my Guardian.

"Trying to learn myself to read and write," said Krook.

"And how do you get on?"

"Slow. Bad," returned the old man, impatiently. "It's hard at my
time of life."

"It would be easier to be taught by some one," said my Guardian.

"Ay, but they might teach me wrong!" returned the old man, with a
wonderfully suspicious flash of his eye. "I don't know what I may
have lost, by not being learned afore. I wouldn't like to lose any
thing by being learned wrong now."

"Wrong?" said my Guardian, with his good-humored smile. "Who do you
suppose would teach you wrong?"

"I don't know, Mr. Jarndyce of Bleak House!" replied the old man,
turning up his spectacles on his forehead, and rubbing his hands. "I
don't suppose as any body would--but I'd rather trust my own self
than another!"

These answers, and his manner, were strange enough to cause my
Guardian to inquire of Mr. Woodcourt, as we all walked across
Lincoln's Inn together, whether Mr. Krook were really, as his lodger
represented him, deranged? The young surgeon replied, no, he had
seen no reason to think so. He was exceedingly distrustful, as
ignorance usually was, and he was always more or less under the
influence of raw gin: of which he drank great quantities, and of
which he and his back shop, as we might have observed, smelt
strongly; but he did not think him mad, as yet.

On our way home, I so conciliated Peepy's affections by buying him a
windmill and two flour-sacks, that he would suffer nobody else to
take off his hat and gloves, and would sit nowhere at dinner but at
my side. Caddy sat upon the other side of me, next to Ada, to whom
we imparted the whole history of the engagement as soon as we got
back. We made much of Caddy, and Peepy too; and Caddy brightened
exceedingly; and my Guardian was as merry as we were; and we were
all very happy indeed; until Caddy went home at night in a
hackney-coach, with Peepy fast asleep, but holding tight to the

I have forgotten to mention--at least I have not mentioned--that
Mr. Woodcourt was the same dark young surgeon whom we had met at Mr.
Badger's. Or, that Mr. Jarndyce invited him to dinner that day. Or,
that he came. Or, that when they were all gone, and I said to Ada,
"Now, my darling, let us have a little talk about Richard!" Ada
laughed, and said--

But, I don't think it matters what my darling said. She was always


While we were in London, Mr. Jarndyce was constantly beset by the
crowd of excitable ladies and gentlemen whose proceedings had so
much astonished us. Mr. Quale, who presented himself soon after our
arrival, was in all such excitements. He seemed to project those two
shining knobs of temples of his into every thing that went on, and
to brush his hair farther and farther back, until the very roots
were almost ready to fly out of his head in inappeasable
philanthropy. All objects were alike to him, but he was always
particularly ready for any thing in the way of a testimonial to any
one. His great power seemed to be his power of indiscriminate
admiration. He would sit, for any length of time, with the utmost
enjoyment, bathing his temples in the light of any order of
luminary. Having first seen him perfectly swallowed up in admiration
of Mrs. Jellyby, I had supposed her to be the absorbing object of
his devotion. I soon discovered my mistake, and found him to be
train-bearer and organ-blower to a whole procession of people.

Mrs. Pardiggle came one day for a subscription to something--and
with her, Mr. Quale. Whatever Mrs. Pardiggle said, Mr. Quale
repeated to us; and just as he had drawn Mrs. Jellyby out, he drew
Mrs. Pardiggle out. Mrs. Pardiggle wrote a letter of introduction to
my Guardian, in behalf of her eloquent friend, Mr. Gusher. With Mr.
Gusher, appeared Mr. Quale again. Mr. Gusher, being a flabby
gentleman with a moist surface, and eyes so much too small for his
moon of a face that they seemed to have been originally made for
somebody else, was not at first sight prepossessing; yet, he was
scarcely seated, before Mr. Quale asked Ada and me, not inaudibly,
whether he was not a great creature--which he certainly was,
flabbily speaking; though Mr. Quale meant in intellectual
beauty--and whether we were not struck by his massive configuration
of brow? In short, we heard of a great many missions of various
sorts, among this set of people; but, nothing respecting them was
half so clear to us, as that it was Mr. Quale's mission to be in
ecstasies with everybody else's mission, and that it was the most
popular mission of all.

Mr. Jarndyce had fallen into this company, in the tenderness of his
heart and his earnest desire to do all the good in his power; but,
that he felt it to be too often an unsatisfactory company, where
benevolence took spasmodic forms; where charity was assumed, as a
regular uniform, by loud professors and speculators in cheap
notoriety, vehement in profession, restless and vain in action,
servile in the last degree of meanness to the great, adulatory of
one another, and intolerable to those who were anxious quietly to
help the weak from falling, rather than with a great deal of bluster
and self-laudation to raise them up a little way when they were
down; he plainly told us. When a testimonial was originated to Mr.
Quale, by Mr. Gusher (who had already got one, originated by Mr.
Quale), and when Mr. Gusher spoke for an hour and a half on the
subject to a meeting, including two charity schools of small boys
and girls, who were specially reminded of the widow's mite, and
requested to come forward with half-pence and be acceptable
sacrifices; I think the wind was in the east for three whole weeks.

I mention this, because I am coming to Mr. Skimpole again. It seemed
to me that his off-hand professions of childishness and carelessness
were a great relief to my Guardian, by contrast with such things,
and were the more readily believed in; since, to find one perfectly
undesigning and candid man, among many opposites, could not fail to
give him pleasure. I should be sorry to imply that Mr. Skimpole
divined this, and was politic: I really never understood him well
enough to know. What he was to my Guardian, he certainly was to the
rest of the world.

He had not been very well; and thus, though he lived in London, we
had seen nothing of him until now. He appeared one morning, in his
usual agreeable way, and as full of pleasant spirits as ever.

Well, he said, here he was! He had been bilious, but rich men were
often bilious, and therefore he had been persuading himself that he
was a man of property. So he was, in a certain point of view--in his
expansive intentions. He had been enriching his medical attendant in
the most lavish manner. He had always doubled, and sometimes
quadrupled, his fees. He had said to the doctor, "Now my dear
doctor, it is quite a delusion on your part to suppose that you
attend me for nothing. I am overwhelming you with money--in my
expansive intentions--if you only knew it!" And really (he said) he
meant it to that degree, that he thought it much the same as doing
it. If he had had those bits of metal or thin paper to which mankind
attached so much importance, to put in the doctor's hand, he would
have put them in the doctor's hand. Not having them, he substituted
the will for the deed. Very well! If he really meant it--if his will
were genuine and real: which it was--it appeared to him that it was
the same as coin, and canceled the obligation.

"It may be, partly, because I know nothing of the value of money,"
said Mr. Skimpole, "but I often feel this. It seems so reasonable!
My butcher says to me, he wants that little bill. It's a part of the
pleasant unconscious poetry of the man's nature, that he always
calls it a 'little' bill--to make the payment appear easy to both of
us. I reply to the butcher, My good friend, if you knew it, you are
paid. You haven't had the trouble of coming to ask for the little
bill. You are paid. I mean it."

"But suppose," said my Guardian, laughing, "he had meant the meat in
the bill, instead of providing it?"

"My dear Jarndyce," he returned, "you surprise me. You take the
butcher's position. A butcher I once dealt with, occupied that very
ground. Says he, 'Sir, why did you eat spring lamb at eighteen pence
a pound?' 'Why did I eat spring lamb at eighteen pence a pound, my
honest friend?' said I, naturally amazed by the question. 'I like
spring lamb!' This was so far convincing. 'Well, sir,' says he, 'I
wish I had meant the lamb, as you mean the money?' 'My good fellow,'
said I, 'pray let us reason like intellectual beings. How could that
be? It was impossible. You _had_ got the lamb, and I have _not_ got
the money. You couldn't really mean the lamb without sending it in,
whereas I can, and do, really mean the money without paying it?' He
had not a word. There was an end of the subject."

"Did he take no legal proceedings?" inquired my Guardian.

"Yes, he took legal proceedings," said Mr. Skimpole. "But in that,
he was influenced by passion; not by reason. Passion reminds me of
Boythorn. He writes me that you and the ladies have promised him a
short visit at his bachelor-house in Lincolnshire."

"He is a great favorite with my girls," said Mr. Jarndyce, "and I
have promised for them."

"Nature forgot to shade him off, I think?" observed Mr. Skimpole to
Ada and me. "A little too boisterous--like the sea? A little too
vehement--like a bull who has made up his mind to consider every
color scarlet? But I grant a sledge-hammering sort of merit in him!"

I should have been surprised if those two could have thought very
highly of one another; Mr. Boythorn attaching so much importance to
many things, and Mr. Skimpole caring so little for any thing.
Besides which, I had noticed Mr. Boythorn more than once on the
point of breaking out into some strong opinion, when Mr. Skimpole
was referred to. Of course I merely joined Ada in saying that we had
been greatly pleased with him.

"He has invited me," said Mr. Skimpole; "and if a child may trust
himself in such hands: which the present child is encouraged to do,
with the united tenderness of two angels to guard him: I shall go.
He proposes to frank me down and back again. I suppose it will cost
money? Shillings perhaps? Or pounds? Or something of that sort?
By-the-by. Coavinses. You remember our friend Coavinses, Miss

He asked me as the subject arose in his mind, in his graceful,
light-hearted manner, and without the least embarrassment.

"O yes?" said I.

"Coavinses has been arrested by the great Bailiff," said Mr.
Skimpole. "He will never do violence to the sunshine any more."

It quite shocked me to hear it; for, I had already recalled, with
any thing but a serious association, the image of the man sitting on
the sofa that night, wiping his head.

"His successor informed me of it yesterday," said Mr. Skimpole, "His
successor is in my house now--in possession, I think he calls it. He
came yesterday, on my blue-eyed daughter's birth-day. I put it to
him. 'This is unreasonable and inconvenient. If you had a blue-eyed
daughter, you wouldn't like _me_ to come, uninvited, on _her_
birthday?' But he staid."

Mr. Skimpole laughed at the pleasant absurdity, and lightly touched
the piano by which he was seated.

"And he told me," he said, playing little chords where I shall put
full stops. "That Coavinses had left. Three children. No mother. And
that Coavinses' profession. Being unpopular. The rising Coavinses.
Were at a considerable disadvantage."

Mr. Jarndyce got up, rubbing his head, and began to walk about. Mr.
Skimpole played the melody of one of Ada's favorite songs. Ada and I
both looked at Mr. Jarndyce, thinking that we knew what was passing
in his mind.

After walking, and stopping, and several times leaving off rubbing
his head, and beginning again, my Guardian put his hand upon the
keys and stopped Mr. Skimpole's playing. "I don't like this,
Skimpole," he said, thoughtfully.

Mr. Skimpole, who had quite forgotten the subject, looked up

"The man was necessary," pursued my Guardian, walking backward and
forward in the very short space between the piano and the end of the
room, and rubbing his hair up from the back of his head as if a high
east wind had blown it into that form. "If we make such men
necessary by our faults and follies, or by our want of worldly
knowledge, or by our misfortunes, we must not revenge ourselves upon
them. There was no harm in his trade. He maintained his children.
One would like to know more about this."

"O! Coavinses?" cried Mr. Skimpole, at length perceiving what he
meant. "Nothing easier. A walk to Coavinses head-quarters, and you
can know what you will."

Mr. Jarndyce nodded to us, who were only waiting for the signal.
"Come! We will walk that way, my dears. Why not that way, as soon as
another!" We were quickly ready, and went out. Mr. Skimpole went
with us, and quite enjoyed the expedition. It was so new and so
refreshing, he said, for him to want Coavinses, instead of Coavinses
wanting him!

He took us, first, to Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, where there
was a house with barred windows, which he called Coavinses Castle.
On our going into the entry and ringing a bell, a very hideous boy
came out of a sort of office, and looked at us over a spiked

"Who did you want?" said the boy, fitting two of the spikes into his

"There was a follower, or an officer, or something, here," said Mr.
Jarndyce, "who is dead."

"Yes," said the boy. "Well?"

"I want to know his name, if you please."

"Name of Neckett," said the boy.

"And his address?"

"Bell Yard," said the boy. "Chandler's shop, left hand side, name of

"Was he--I don't know how to shape the question," murmured my

"Was Neckett?" said the boy. "Yes, wery much so. He was never tired
of watching. He'd sit upon a post at a street corner, eight or ten
hours at a stretch, if he undertook to do it."

"He might have done worse," I heard my Guardian soliloquize. "He
might have undertaken to do it, and not done it. Thank you. That's
all I want."

We left the boy, with his head on one side, and his arms on the
gate, fondling and sucking the spikes, and went back to Lincoln's
Inn, where Mr. Skimpole, who had not cared to remain nearer
Coavinses, awaited us. Then, we all went to Bell Yard: a narrow
alley, at a very short distance. We soon found the chandler's shop.
In it was a good-natured-looking old woman, with a dropsy or an
asthma, or perhaps both.

"Neckett's children?" said she, in reply to my inquiry. "Yes,
surely, miss. Three pair, if you please. Door right opposite the top
of the stairs." And she handed me a key across the counter.

I glanced at the key, and glanced at her; but, she took it for
granted that I knew what to do with it. As it could only be intended
for the children's door, I came out, without asking any more
questions, and led the way up the dark stairs. We went as quietly as
we could; but four of us, made some noise on the aged boards; and,
when we came to the second story, we found we had disturbed a man
who was standing there, looking out of his room.

"Is it Gridley that's wanted?" he said, fixing his eyes on me with
an angry stare.

"No, sir," said I, "I am going higher up."

He looked at Ada, and at Mr. Jarndyce, and at Mr. Skimpole: fixing
the same angry stare on each in succession, as they passed and
followed me. Mr. Jarndyce gave him good-day! "Good-day!" he said,
abruptly and fiercely. He was a tall sallow man, with a care-worn
head, on which but little hair remained, a deeply-lined face, and
prominent eyes. He had a combative look; and a chafing, irritable
manner, which, associated with his figure--still large and powerful,
though evidently in its decline--rather alarmed me. He had a pen in
his hand, and, in the glimpse I caught of his room in passing, I saw
that it was covered with a litter of papers.

Leaving him standing there, we went up to the top room. I tapped at
the door, and a little shrill voice inside said, "We are locked in.
Mrs. Blinder's got the key."

I applied the key on hearing this, and opened the door. In a poor
room with a sloping ceiling, and containing very little furniture,
was a mite of a boy, some five or six years old, nursing and hushing
a heavy child of eighteen months. There was no fire, though the
weather was cold; both children were wrapped in some poor shawls and
tippets, as a substitute. Their clothing was not so warm, however,
but that their noses looked red and pinched, and their small figures
shrunken, as the boy walked up and down, nursing and hushing the
child, with its head on his shoulder.

"Who has locked you up here alone?" we naturally asked.

"Charley," said the boy, standing still to gaze at us.

"Is Charley your brother?"

"No. She's my sister, Charlotte. Father called her Charley."

"Are there any more of you besides Charley?"

"Me," said the boy "and Emma," patting the limp bonnet of the child
he was nursing. "And Charley."

"Where is Charley now?"

"Out a-washing," said the boy, beginning to walk up and down again,
and taking the nankeen bonnet much too near the bedstead, by trying
to gaze at us at the same time.

We were looking at one another, and at these two children, when
there came into the room a very little girl, childish in figure but
shrewd and older-looking in the face--pretty faced too--wearing a
womanly sort of bonnet much too large for her, and drying her bare
arms on a womanly sort of apron. Her fingers were white and wrinkled
with washing, and the soap-suds were yet smoking which she wiped off
her arms. But for this, she might have been a child, playing at
washing, and imitating a poor working woman with a quick observation
of the truth.

She had come running from some place in the neighborhood, and had
made all the haste she could. Consequently, though she was very
light, she was out of breath, and could not speak at first, as she
stood panting, and wiping her arms, and looking quietly at us.

"O, here's Charley!" said the boy.

The child he was nursing, stretched forth its arms, and cried out to
be taken by Charley. The little girl took it, in a womanly sort of
manner belonging to the apron and the bonnet, and stood looking at
us over the burden that clung to her most affectionately.

"Is it possible," whispered my Guardian, as we put a chair for the
little creature, and got her to sit down with her load: the boy
keeping close to her, holding to her apron, "that this child works
for the rest? Look at this! For God's sake look at this!"

It was a thing to look at. The three children close together, and
two of them relying solely on the third, and the third so young and
yet with an air of age and steadiness that sat so strangely on the
childish figure.

"Charley, Charley!" said my Guardian. "How old are you?"

"Over thirteen, sir," replied the child.

"O! What a great age," said my Guardian. "What a great age,

I can not describe the tenderness with which he spoke to her; half
playfully, yet all the more compassionately and mournfully.

"And do you live alone here with these babies, Charley?" said my

"Yes, sir," returned the child, looking up into his face with
perfect confidence, "since father died."

"And how do you live, Charley? O! Charley," said my Guardian,
turning his face away for a moment, "how do you live?"

"Since father died, sir, I've gone out to work. I'm out washing

"God help you, Charley!" said my Guardian. "You're not tall enough
to reach the tub!"

"In pattens I am, sir," she said quickly. "I've got a high pair as
belonged to mother."

"And when did mother die? Poor mother!"

"Mother died, just after Emma was born," said the child, glancing at
the face upon her bosom. "Then, father said I was to be as good a
mother to her as I could. And so I tried. And so I worked at home,
and did cleaning and nursing and washing, for a long time before I
began to go out. And that's how I know how; don't you see, sir?"

"And do you often go out?"

"As often as I can," said Charley, opening her eyes, and smiling,
"because of earning sixpences and shillings!"

"And do you always lock the babies up when you go out?"

"To keep 'em safe, sir, don't you see?" said Charley. "Mrs. Blinder
comes up now and then, and Mr. Gridley comes up sometimes, and
perhaps I can run in sometimes, and they can play, you know, and Tom
ain't afraid of being locked up, are you, Tom?"

"No-o!" said Tom, stoutly.

"When it comes on dark, the lamps are lighted down in the court, and
they show up here quite bright--almost quite bright. Don't they,

"Yes, Charley," said Tom, "almost quite bright."

"Then he's as good as gold," said the little creature--O! in such a
motherly, womanly way! "And when Emma's tired, he puts her to bed.
And when he's tired, he goes to bed himself. And when I come home
and light the candle, and has a bit of supper, he sits up again and
has it with me. Don't you, Tom?"

"O yes, Charley!" said Tom. "That I do!" And either in this glimpse
of the great pleasure of his life, or in gratitude and love for
Charley, who was all in all to him, he laid his face among the
scanty folds of her frock, and passed from laughing into crying.

It was the first time since our entry, that a tear had been shed
among these children. The little orphan girl had spoken of their
father, and their mother, as if all that sorrow were subdued by the
necessity of taking courage, and by her childish importance in being
able to work, and by her bustling busy way. But, now, when Tom
cried, although she sat quite tranquil, looking quietly at us, and
did not by any movement disturb a hair of the head of either of her
little charges, I saw two silent tears fall down her face.

I stood at the window with Ada, pretending to look at the housetops,
and the blackened stacks of chimneys, and the poor plants, and the
birds in little cages belonging to the neighbors, when I found that
Mrs. Blinder, from the shop below, had come in (perhaps it had taken
her all this time to get up-stairs) and was talking to my Guardian.

"It's not much to forgive 'em the rent, sir," she said: "who could
take it from them!"

"Well, well!" said my Guardian to us two. "It is enough that the
time will come when this good woman will find that it _was_ much,
and that forasmuch as she did it unto the least of these--! This
child," he added, after a few moments, "could she possibly continue

"Really, sir, I think she might," said Mrs. Blinder, getting her
heavy breath by painful degrees. "She's as handy as it's possible to
be. Bless you, sir, the way she tended them two children, after the
mother died, was the talk of the yard! And it was a wonder to see
her with him after he was took ill, it really was! 'Mrs. Blinder,'
he said to me the very last he spoke--he was lying there--'Mrs.
Blinder, whatever my calling may have been, I see a Angel sitting in
this room last night along with my child, and I trust her to Our

"He had no other calling?" said my Guardian.

"No, sir," returned Mrs. Blinder, "he was nothing but a follerer.
When he first came to lodge here, I didn't know what he was, and I
confess that when I found out I gave him notice. It wasn't liked in
the yard. It wasn't approved by the other lodgers. It is _not_ a
genteel calling," said Mrs. Blinder, "and most people do object to
it. Mr. Gridley objected to it, very strong; and he is a good
lodger, though his temper has been hard tried."

"So you gave him notice?" said my Guardian.

"So I gave him notice," said Mrs. Blinder. "But really when the time
came, and I knew no other ill of him, I was in doubts. He was
punctual and diligent; he did what he had to do, sir," said Mrs.
Blinder, unconsciously fixing Mr. Skimpole with her eye; "and it's
something, in this world, even to do that."

"So you kept him, after all?"

"Why, I said that if he could arrange with Mr. Gridley, I could
arrange it with the other lodgers, and should not so much mind its
being liked or disliked in the yard. Mr. Gridley gave his consent
gruff--but gave it. He was always gruff with him, but he has been
kind to the children since. A person is never known till a person is

"Have many people been kind to the children?" asked Mr. Jarndyce.

"Upon the whole, not so bad, sir," said Mrs. Blinder, "but,
certainly not so many as would have been, if their father's calling
had been different. Mr. Coavins gave a guinea, and the follerers
made up a little purse. Some neighbors in the yard, that had always
joked and tapped their shoulders when he went by, came forward with
a little subscription, and--in general--not so bad. Similarly with
Charlotte. Some people won't employ her because she was a follerer's
child; some people that do employ her, cast it at her; some make a
merit of having her to work for them, with that and all her
drawbacks upon her: and perhaps pay her less and put upon her more.
But she's patienter than others would be, and is clever too, and
always willing, up to the full mark of her strength and over. So I
should say, in general, not so bad sir, but might be better."

Mrs. Blinder sat down to give herself a more favorable opportunity
of recovering her breath, exhausted anew by so much talking before
it was fully restored. Mr. Jarndyce was turning to speak to us, when
his attention was attracted by the abrupt entrance into the room of
the Mr. Gridley who had been mentioned, and whom we had seen on our
way up.

"I don't know what you may be doing here, ladies and gentlemen," he
said, as if he resented our presence, "but you'll excuse my coming
in. I don't come in, to stare about me. Well, Charley! Well, Tom!
Well, little one! How is it with us all to-day?"

He bent over the group, in a caressing way, and clearly was regarded
as a friend by the children, though his face retained its stern
character, and his manner to us was as rude as it could be. My
Guardian noticed it, and respected it.

"No one, surely, would come here to stare about him," he said

"May be so, sir, may be so," returned the other, taking Tom upon his
knee, and waving him off impatiently. "I don't want to argue with
ladies and gentlemen. I have had enough of arguing, to last one man
his life."

"You have sufficient reason, I dare say," said Mr. Jarndyce, "for
being chafed and irritated--"

"There again!" exclaimed the man, becoming violently angry. "I am of
a quarrelsome temper. I am irascible. I am not polite!"

"Not very, I think."

"Sir," said Gridley, putting down the child, and going up to him as
if he mean to strike him, "Do you know any thing of Courts of

"Perhaps I do, to my sorrow."

"To your sorrow?" said the man, pausing in his wrath. "If so, I beg
your pardon. I am not polite, I know. I beg your pardon! Sir," with
renewed violence, "I have been dragged for five-and-twenty years
over burning iron, and I have lost the habit of treading upon
velvet. Go into the Court of Chancery yonder, and ask what is one of
the standing jokes that brighten up their business sometimes, and
they will tell you that the best joke they have, is the man from
Shropshire. I," he said, beating one hand on the other passionately,
"am the man from Shropshire."

"I believe, I and my family have also had the honor of furnishing
some entertainment in the same grave place," said my Guardian,
composedly. "You may have heard my name--Jarndyce."

"Mr. Jarndyce," said Gridley, with a rough sort of salutation, "you
bear your wrongs more quietly than I can bear mine. More than that,
I tell you--and I tell this gentleman, and these young ladies, if
they are friends of yours--that if I took my wrongs in any other
way, I should be driven mad! It is only by resenting them, and by
revenging them in my mind, and by angrily demanding the justice I
never get, that I am able to keep my wits together. It is only
that!" he said, speaking in a homely, rustic way, and with great
vehemence. "You may tell me that I over-excite myself. I answer that
it's in my nature to do it, under wrong, and I must do it. There's
nothing between doing it, and sinking into the smiling state of the
poor little mad woman that haunts the Court. If I was once to sit
down under it, I should become imbecile."

The passion and heat in which he was, and the manner in which his
face worked, and the violent gestures with which he accompanied what
he said, were most painful to see.

"Mr. Jarndyce," he said, "consider my case. As true as there is a
Heaven above us, this is my case. I am one of two brothers. My
father (a farmer) made a will, and left his farm and stock, and so
forth, to my mother, for her life. After my mother's death, all was
to come to me, except a legacy of three hundred pounds that I was
then to pay my brother. My mother died. My brother, some time
afterward, claimed his legacy. I, and some of my relations, said
that he had had a part of it already, in board and lodging, and some
other things. Now, mind! That was the question, and nothing else. No
one disputed the will! no one disputed any thing but whether part of
that three hundred pounds had been already paid or not. To settle
that question, my brother filing a bill, I was obliged to go into
this accursed Chancery; I was forced there, because the law forced
me, and would let me go nowhere else. Seventeen people were made
defendants to that simple suit! It first came on, after two years.
It was then stopped for another two years, while the Master (may his
head rot off!) inquired whether I was my father's son--about which,
there was no dispute at all with any mortal creature. He then found
out, that there were not defendants enough--remember, there were
only seventeen as yet!--but, that we must have another who had been
left out; and must begin all over again. The costs at that
time--before the thing was begun!--were three times the legacy. My
brother would have given up the legacy, and joyful, to escape more
costs. My whole estate, left to me in that will of my father's, has
gone in costs. The suit still undecided, has fallen into rack, and
ruin, and despair, with every thing else--and here I stand this day!
Now, Mr. Jarndyce, in your suit there are thousands and thousands
involved where in mine there are hundreds. Is mine less hard to
bear, or is it harder to bear, when my whole living was in it, and
has been thus shamefully sucked away?"

Mr. Jarndyce said that he condoled with him with all his heart, and
that he set up no monopoly, himself, in being unjustly treated by
this monstrous system.

"There again!" said Mr. Gridley, with no diminution of his rage.
"The system! I am told, on all hands, it's the system. I mustn't
look to individuals. It's the system. I mustn't go into Court, and
say, 'My Lord, I beg to know this from you--is this right or wrong?
Have you the face to tell me I have received justice, and therefore
am dismissed?' My Lord knows nothing of it. He sits there to
administer the system. I mustn't go to Mr. Tulkinghorn, the
solicitor in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and say to him when he makes me
furious, by being so cool and satisfied--as they all do; for I know
they gain by it while I lose, don't I?--I mustn't say to him, I will
have something out of some one for my ruin, by fair means or foul!
_He_ is not responsible. It's the system. But if I do no violence to
any of them, here--I may! I don't know what may happen if I am
carried beyond myself at last!--I will accuse the individual workers
of that system against me, face to face, before the great eternal

His passion was fearful. I could not have believed in such rage
without seeing it.

"I have done!" he said, sitting down and wiping his face. "Mr.
Jarndyce, I have done! I am violent, I know. I ought to know it. I
have been in prison for contempt of Court. I have been in prison for
threatening the solicitor. I have been in this trouble, and that
trouble, and shall be again. I am the man from Shropshire, and I
sometimes go beyond amusing them--though they have found it amusing,
too, to see me committed into custody, and brought up in custody,
and all that. It would be better for me, they tell me, if I
restrained myself. I tell them, that if I did restrain myself, I
should become imbecile. I was a good-enough-tempered man once, I
believe. People in my part of the country, say, they remember me so;
but, now, I must have this vent under my sense of injury, or nothing
could hold my wits together. 'It would be far better for you, Mr.
Gridley,' the Lord Chancellor told me last week, 'not to waste your
time here, and to stay, usefully employed, down in Shropshire.' 'My
Lord, my Lord, I know it would,' said I to him, 'and it would have
been far better for me never to have heard the name of your high
office; but, unhappily for me, I can't undo the past, and the past
drives me here!'--Besides," he added, breaking fiercely out, "I'll
shame them. To the last, I'll show myself in that court to its
shame. If I knew when I was going to die, and could be carried
there, and had a voice to speak with, I would die there, saying,
'You have brought me here, and sent me from here, many and many a
time. Now send me out, feet foremost!'"

His countenance had, perhaps for years, become so set in its
contentious expression that it did not soften, even now when he was

"I came to take these babies down to my room for an hour," he said,
going to them again, "and let them play about. I didn't mean to say
all this, but it don't much signify. You're not afraid of me, Tom;
are you?"

"No!" said Tom. "You ain't angry with _me_."

"You are right, my child. You're going back, Charley? Ay? Come then,
little one!" He took the youngest child on his arm, where she was
willing enough to be carried. "I shouldn't wonder if we found a
gingerbread soldier down-stairs. Let's go and look for him!"

He made his former rough salutation, which was not deficient in a
certain respect, to Mr. Jarndyce; and bowing slightly to us, went
down-stairs to his room.

Upon that, Mr. Skimpole began to talk, for the first time since our
arrival, in his usual gay strain. He said, Well, it was really very
pleasant to see how things lazily adapted themselves to purposes.
Here was this Mr. Gridley, a man of a robust will, and surprising
energy--intellectually speaking, a sort of inharmonious
black-smith--and he could easily imagine that there Gridley was,
years ago, wandering about in life for something to expend his
superfluous combativeness upon--a sort of Young Love among the
thorns--when the Court of Chancery came in his way, and accommodated
him with the exact thing he wanted. There they were, matched ever
afterward! Otherwise he might have been a great general, blowing up
all sorts of towns, or he might have been a great politician,
dealing in all sorts of parliamentary rhetoric; but, as it was, he
and the Court of Chancery had fallen upon each other in the
pleasantest way, and nobody was much the worse, and Gridley was, so
to speak, from that hour provided for. Then look at Coavinses! How
delightfully poor Coavinses (father of these charming children)
illustrated the same principle! He, Mr. Skimpole, himself, had
sometimes repined at the existence of Coavinses. He had found
Coavinses in his way. He could have dispensed with Coavinses. There
had been times, when, if he had been a Sultan, and his Grand Vizier
had said one morning, "What does the Commander of the Faithful
require at the hands of his slave?" he might have even gone so far
as to reply, "The head of Coavinses!" But what turned out to be the
case? That, all that time, he had been giving employment to a most
deserving man; that he had been a benefactor to Coavinses; that he
had actually been enabling Coavinses to bring up these charming
children in this agreeable way, developing these social virtues!
Insomuch that his heart had just now swelled, and the tears had
come into his eyes, when he had looked round the room, and thought,
"_I_ was the great patron of Coavinses, and his little comforts were
_my_ work!"

There was something so captivating in his light way of touching
these fantastic strings, and he was such a mirthful child by the
side of the graver childhood we had seen, that he made my Guardian
smile even as he turned toward us from a little private talk with
Mrs. Blinder. We kissed Charley, and took her down stairs with us,
and stopped outside the house to see her run away to her work. I
don't know where she was going, but we saw her run, such a little,
little creature, in her womanly bonnet and apron, through a covered
way at the bottom of the court; and melt into the city's strife and
sound, like a dew-drop in an ocean.


My Lady Dedlock is restless, very restless. The astonished
fashionable intelligence hardly knows where to have her. To-day, she
is at Chesney Wold; yesterday, she was at her house in town;
to-morrow, she may be abroad, for any thing the fashionable
intelligence can with confidence predict. Even Sir Leicester's
gallantry has some trouble to keep pace with her. It would have
more, but that his other faithful ally, for better and for
worse--the gout--darts into the old oak bed-chamber at Chesney Wold,
and grips him by both legs.

Sir Leicester receives the gout as a troublesome demon, but still a
demon of the patrician order. All the Dedlocks, in the direct male
line, through a course of time during and beyond which the memory of
man goeth not to the contrary, have had the gout. It can be proved,
sir. Other men's fathers may have died of the rheumatism, or may
have taken base contagion from the tainted blood of the sick vulgar;
but, the Dedlock family have communicated something exclusive, even
to the leveling process of dying, by dying of their own family gout.
It has come down, through the illustrious line, like the plate, or
the pictures, or the place in Lincolnshire. It is among their
dignities. Sir Leicester is, perhaps, not wholly without an
impression, though he has never resolved it into words, that the
angel of death in the discharge of his necessary duties may observe
to the shades of the aristocracy, "My lords and gentlemen, I have
the honor to present to you another Dedlock, certified to have
arrived per the family gout."

Hence, Sir Leicester yields up his family legs to the family
disorder, as if he held his name and fortune on that feudal tenure.
He feels, that for a Dedlock to be laid upon his back and
spasmodically twitched and stabbed in his extremities, is a liberty
taken somewhere; but, he thinks, "We have all yielded to this; it
belongs to us; it has, for some hundreds of years, been understood
that we are not to make the vaults in the park interesting on more
ignoble terms; and I submit myself to the compromise."

And a goodly show he makes, lying in a flush of crimson and gold, in
the midst of the great drawing-room, before his favorite picture of
my Lady, with broad strips of sunlight shining in, down the long
perspective, through the long line of windows, and alternating with
soft reliefs of shadow. Outside, the stately oaks, rooted for ages
in the green ground which has never known plowshare, but was still a
Chase when kings rode to battle with sword and shield, and rode
a-hunting with bow and arrow; bear witness to his greatness. Inside,
his forefathers, looking on him from the walls, say, "Each of us was
a passing reality here, and left this colored shadow of himself, and
melted into remembrance as dreamy as the distant voices of the rooks
now lulling you to rest;" and bear their testimony to his greatness
too. And he is very great, this day. And woe to Boythorn, or other
daring wight, who shall presumptuously contest an inch with him!

My Lady is at present represented, near Sir Leicester, by her
portrait. She has flitted away to town, with no intention of
remaining there, and will soon flit hither again, to the confusion
of the fashionable intelligence. The house in town is not prepared
for her reception. It is muffled and dreary. Only one Mercury in
powder, gapes disconsolate at the hall-window; and he mentioned last
night to another Mercury of his acquaintance, also accustomed to
good society, that if that sort of thing was to last--which it
couldn't, for a man of his spirits couldn't bear it, and a man of
his figure couldn't be expected to bear it--there would be no
resource for him, upon his honor, but to cut his throat!

What connection can there be between the place in Lincolnshire, the
house in town, the Mercury in powder, and the whereabout of Jo the
outlaw with the broom, who had that distant ray of light upon him
when he swept the churchyard-step? What connection can there have
been between many people in the innumerable histories of this world,
who, from opposite sides of great gulfs, have, nevertheless, been
very curiously brought together!

Jo sweeps his crossing all day long, unconscious of the link, if any
link there be. He sums up his mental condition, when asked a
question, by replying that he "don't know nothink." He knows that
it's hard to keep the mud off the crossing in dirty weather, and
harder still to live by doing it. Nobody taught him, even that much;
he found it out.

Jo lives--that is to say, Jo has not yet died--in a ruinous place,
known to the like of him by the name of Tom-all-alone's. It is a
black, dilapidated street, avoided by all decent people; where the
crazy houses were seized upon, when their decay was far advanced, by
some bold vagrants, who, after establishing their own possession,
took to letting them out in lodgings. Now these tumbling tenements
contain, by night, a swarm of misery. As, on the ruined human
wretch, vermin parasites appear, so, these ruined shelters have bred
a crowd of foul existence, that crawls in and out of gaps in walls
and boards; and coils itself to sleep, in maggot numbers, where the
rain drips in; and comes and goes, fetching and carrying fever, and
sowing more evil in its every footprint than Lord Coodle, and Sir
Thomas Doodle, and the Duke of Foodle, and all the fine gentlemen in
office, down to Zoodle, shall set right in five hundred
years--though born expressly to do it.

Twice, lately, there has been a crash and a cloud of dust, like the
springing of a mine, in Tom-all-alone's; and, each time, a house has
fallen. These accidents have made a paragraph in the newspapers, and
have filled a bed or two in the nearest hospital. The gaps remain,
and there are not unpopular lodgings among the rubbish. As
several more houses are nearly ready to go, the next crash in
Tom-all-alone's may be expected to be a good one.

This desirable property is in Chancery, of course. It would be an
insult to the discernment of any man with half an eye, to tell him
so. Whether "Tom" is the popular representative of the original
plaintiff or defendant in Jarndyce and Jarndyce; or, whether Tom
lived here when the suit had laid the street waste, all alone, until
other settlers came to join him, or, whether the traditional title
is a comprehensive name for a retreat cut off from honest company
and put out of the pale of hope; perhaps nobody knows. Certainly, Jo
don't know.

"For _I_ don't," says Jo, "_I_ don't know nothink."

It must be a strange state to be like Jo! To shuffle through the
streets, unfamiliar with the shapes, and in utter darkness as to the
meaning, of those mysterious symbols, so abundant over the shops,
and at the corners of streets, and on the doors, and in the windows!
To see people read, and to see people write, and to see the postmen
deliver letters, and not to have the least idea of all that
language--to be, to every scrap of it, stone blind and dumb! It must
be very puzzling to see the good company going to the churches on
Sundays, with their books in their hands, and to think (for perhaps
Jo _does_ think, at odd times) what does it all mean, and if it
means any thing to any body, how comes it that it means nothing to
me? To be hustled, and jostled and moved on; and really to feel that
it would appear to be perfectly true that I have no business, here,
or there, or any where; and yet to be perplexed by the consideration
that I _am_ here somehow too, and every body overlooked me until I
became the creature that I am! It must be a strange state, not
merely to be told that I am scarcely human (as in the case of my
offering myself for a witness), but to feel it of my own knowledge
all my life! To see the horses, dogs, and cattle, go by me, and to
know that in ignorance I belong to them, and not to the superior
beings in my shape, whose delicacy I offend! Jo's ideas of a
Criminal Trial, or a Judge, or a Bishop, or a Government, or that
inestimable jewel to him (if he only knew it) the Constitution,
should be strange! His whole material and immaterial life is
wonderfully strange; his death, the strangest thing of all.

Jo comes out of Tom-all-alone's, meeting the tardy morning which is
always late in getting down there, and munches his dirty bit of
bread as he comes along. His way lying through many streets, and the
houses not yet being open, he sits down to breakfast on the
door-step of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts, and gives it a brush when he has finished, as an
acknowledgment of the accommodation. He admires the size of the
edifice, and wonders what it's all about. He has no idea, poor
wretch, of the spiritual destitution of a coral reef in the Pacific,
or what it costs to look up the precious souls among the cocoa-nuts
and bread-fruit.

He goes to his crossing, and begins to lay it out for the day. The
town awakes; the great tee-totum is set up for its daily spin and
whirl; all that unaccountable reading and writing, which has been
suspended for a few hours, recommences. Jo, and the other lower
animals, get on in the unintelligible mess as they can. It is
market-day. The blinded oxen, over-goaded, over-driven, never
guided, run into wrong places and are beaten out; and plunge,
red-eyed and foaming, at stone walls; and often sorely hurt the
innocent, and often sorely hurt themselves. Very like Jo and his
order; very, very like!

A band of music comes and plays. Jo listens to it. So does a dog--a
drover's dog, waiting for his master outside a butcher's shop, and
evidently thinking about those sheep he has had upon his mind for
some hours, and is happily rid of. He seems perplexed respecting
three or four; can't remember where he left them; looks up and down
the street, as half expecting to see them astray; suddenly pricks up
his ears and remembers all about it. A thoroughly vagabond dog,
accustomed to low company and public-houses; a terrific dog to
sheep; ready at a whistle to scamper over their backs, and tear out
mouthfuls of their wool; but an educated, improved, developed dog,
who has been taught his duties and knows how to discharge them. He
and Jo listen to the music, probably with much the same amount of
animal satisfaction; likewise, as to awakened association,
aspiration or regret, melancholy or joyful reference to things
beyond the senses, they are probably upon a par. But, otherwise, how
far above the human listener is the brute!

Turn that dog's descendants wild, like Jo, and in a very few years
they will so degenerate that they will lose even their bark--but not
their bite.

The day changes as it wears itself away, and becomes dark and
drizzly. Jo fights it out, at his crossing, among the mud and
wheels, the horses, whips, and umbrellas, and gets but a scanty sum
to pay for the unsavory shelter of Tom-all-alone's. Twilight comes
on; gas begins to start up in the shops; the lamp-lighter, with his
ladder, runs along the margin of the pavement. A wretched evening
is beginning to close in.

In his chambers, Mr. Tulkinghorn sits meditating an application to
the nearest magistrate to-morrow morning for a warrant. Gridley, a
disappointed suitor, has been here to-day, and has been alarming. We
are not to be put in bodily fear, and that ill-conditioned fellow
shall be held to bail again. From the ceiling, foreshortened
allegory, in the person of one impossible Roman upside down, points
with the arm of Samson (out of joint, and an odd one) obtrusively
toward the window. Why should Mr. Tulkinghorn, for such no reason,
look out of window? Is the hand not always pointing there? So he
does not look out of window.

And if he did, what would it be to see a woman going by? There are
women enough in the world, Mr. Tulkinghorn thinks--too many; they
are at the bottom of all that goes wrong in it though, for the
matter of that, they create business for lawyers. What would it be
to see a woman going by, even though she were going secretly? They
are all secret. Mr. Tulkinghorn knows that, very well.

But they are not all like the woman who now leaves him and his house
behind; between whose plain dress, and her refined manner, there is
something exceedingly inconsistent. She should be an upper servant
by her attire, yet, in her air and step, though both are hurried and
assumed--as far as she can assume in the muddy streets, which she
treads with an unaccustomed foot--she is a lady. Her face is vailed,
and still she sufficiently betrays herself to make more than one of
those who pass her look round sharply.

She never turns her head. Lady or servant, she has a purpose in her,
and can follow it. She never turns her head, until she comes to the
crossing where Jo plies with his broom. He crosses with her, and
begs. Still, she does not turn her head until she has landed on the
other side. Then, she slightly beckons to him, and says, "Come

Jo follows her, a pace or two, into a quiet court.

"Are you the boy I have read of in the papers?" she asks, behind her

"I don't know," says Jo, staring moodily at the vail, "nothink about
no papers. I don't know nothink about nothink at all."

"Were you examined at an Inquest?"

"I don't know nothink about no--where I was took by the beadle, do
you mean?" says Jo. "Was the boy's name at the Inkwhich, Jo?"


"That's me!" says Jo.

"Come farther up."

"You mean about the man?" says Jo, following. "Him as was dead?"

"Hush! Speak in a whisper! Yes. Did he look, when he was living, so
very ill and poor!"

"O jist!" says Jo.

"Did he look like--not like _you_?" says the woman with abhorrence.

"O not so bad as me," says Jo. "I'm a reg'lar one, _I_ am! You
didn't know him, did you?"

"How dare you ask me if I knew him?"

"No offense, my lady," says Jo, with much humility; for even he has
got at the suspicion of her being a lady.

"I am not a lady. I am a servant."

"You are a jolly servant!" says Jo; without the least idea of saying
any thing offensive; merely as a tribute of admiration.

"Listen and be silent. Don't talk to me, and stand farther from me!
Can you show me all those places that were spoken of in the account
I read? The place he wrote for, the place he died at, the place
where you were taken to, and the place where he was buried? Do you
know the place where he was buried?"

Jo answers with a nod; having also nodded as each other place was

"Go before me, and show me all those dreadful places. Stop opposite
to each, and don't speak to me unless I speak to you. Don't look
back. Do what I want, and I will pay you well."

Jo attends closely while the words are being spoken; tells them off
on his broom-handle, finding them rather hard; pauses to consider
their meaning; considers it satisfactory, and nods his ragged head.

"I am fly," says Jo. "But fen larks, you know! Stow hooking it!"

"What does the horrible creature mean?" exclaims the servant,
recoiling from him.

"Stow cutting away, you know!" says Jo.

"I don't understand you. Go on before! I will give you more money
than you ever had in your life."

Jo screws up his mouth into a whistle, gives his ragged head a rub,
takes his broom under his arm, and leads the way; passing deftly,
with his bare feet, over the hard stones, and through the mud and

Cook's Court. Jo stops. A pause.

"Who lives here?"

"Him wot give him his writing, and give me half a bull," says Jo in
a whisper, without looking over his shoulder.

"Go on to the next."

Krook's house. Jo stops again. A longer pause.

"Who lives here!"

"_He_ lived here," Jo answers as before.

After a silence, he is asked "In which room?"

"In the back room up there. You can see the winder from this corner.
Up there! That's where I see him stritched out. This is the public
ouse where I was took to."

"Go on to the next!"

It is a longer walk to the next; but, Jo relieved of his first
suspicions, sticks to the terms imposed upon him, and does not look
round. By many devious ways, reeking with offense of many kinds,
they come to the little tunnel of a court, and to the gas-lamp
(lighted now), and to the iron gate.

"He was put there," says Jo, holding to the bars and looking in.

"Where? O, what a scene of horror!"

"There!" says Jo, pointing. "Over yinder. Among them piles of bones,
and close to that there kitchin winder! They put him very nigh the
top. They was obliged to stamp upon it to git it in. I could unkiver
it for you, with my broom, if the gate was open. That's why they
locks it, I s'pose," giving it a shake. "It's always locked. Look at
the rat!" cries Jo, excited. "Hi! Look! There he goes! Ho! Into the

The servant shrinks into a corner--into a corner of that hideous
archway, with its deadly stains contaminating her dress; and putting
out her two hands, and passionately telling him to keep away from
her, for he is loathsome to her, so remains for some moments. Jo
stands staring, and is still staring when she recovers herself.


"Is this place of abomination, consecrated ground?"

"I don't know nothink of consequential ground," says Jo, still

"Is it blessed?"

"WHICH?" says Jo, in the last degree amazed.

"Is it blessed?"

"I'm blest if I know," says Jo, staring more than ever; "but I
shouldn't think it warn't. Blest?" repeats Jo, something troubled in
his mind. "It an't done it much good if it is. Blest? I should think
it was t'othered myself. But _I_ don't know nothink!"

The servant takes as little heed of what he says, as she seems to
take of what she has said herself. She draws off her glove, to get
some money from her purse. Jo silently notices how white and small
her hand is, and what a jolly servant she must be to wear such
sparkling rings.

She drops a piece of money in his hand, without touching it, and
shuddering as their hands approach. "Now," she adds, "show me the
spot again!"

Joe thrusts the handle of his broom between the bars of the gate,
and, with his utmost power of elaboration, points it out. At length,
looking aside to see if he has made himself intelligible, he finds
that he is alone.

His first proceeding is, to hold the piece of money to the
gas-light, and to be overpowered at finding that it is yellow--gold.
His next, is, to give it a one-sided bite at the edge, as a test of
its quality. His next, to put it in his mouth for safety, and to
sweep the step and passage with great care. His job done, he sets
off for Tom-all-alone's; stopping in the light of innumerable
gas-lamps to produce the piece of gold, and give it another
one-sided bite, as a re-assurance of its being genuine.

The Mercury in powder is in no want of society to-night, for my Lady
goes to a grand dinner and three or four balls. Sir Leicester is
fidgety, down at Chesney Wold, with no better company than the gout;
he complains to Mrs. Rouncewell that the rain makes such a
monotonous pattering on the terrace, that he can't read the paper,
even by the fireside in his own snug dressing-room.

"Sir Leicester would have done better to try the other side of the
house, my dear," says Mrs. Rouncewell to Rosa. "His dressing-room is
on my Lady's side. And in all these years I never heard the step
upon the Ghost's Walk, more distinct than it is to-night!"



     [7] Continued from the July Number.



We have seen Squire Hazeldean (proud of the contents of his
pocket-book, and his knowledge of the mercenary nature of foreign
women), set off on his visit to Beatrice di Negra. Randal, thus left
musing lone in the crowded streets, revolved with astute complacency
the probable results of Mr. Hazeldean's bluff negotiation; and,
convincing himself that one of his vistas toward Fortune was
becoming more clear and clear, he turned, with the restless activity
of some founder of destined cities in a new settlement, to lop the
boughs that cumbered and obscured the others. For truly, like a man
in a vast Columbian forest, opening entangled space, now with the
ready ax, now with the patient train, that kindles the slower fire,
this child of civilized life went toiling on against surrounding
obstacles, resolute to destroy, but ever scheming to construct. And
now Randal has reached Levy's dainty business-room, and is buried
deep in discussion how to secure to himself, at the expense of his
patron, the representation of Lansmere, and how to complete the
contract which shall reannex to his forlorn inheritance some
fragments of its ancient wealth.

Meanwhile, Chance fought on his side in the boudoir of May Fair. The
Squire had found the Marchesa at home--briefly introduced himself
and his business--told her she was mistaken if she had fancied she
had taken in a rich heir in his son--that, thank Heaven, he could
leave his estates to his plowman, if he so pleased, but that he was
willing to do things liberally; and whatever she thought Frank was
worth, he was very ready to pay for.

At another time Beatrice would perhaps have laughed at this strange
address; or she might, in some prouder moment, have fired up with
all a patrician's resentment and a woman's pride; but now her spirit
was crushed, her nerves shattered; the sense of her degraded
position, of her dependence on her brother, combined with her
supreme unhappiness at the loss of those dreams with which Leonard
had for a while charmed her wearied waking life--all came upon her.
She listened, pale and speechless; and the poor Squire thought he
was quietly advancing toward a favorable result, when she suddenly
burst into a passion of hysterical tears; and just at that moment
Frank himself entered the room. At the sight of his father, of
Beatrice's grief, his sense of filial duty gave way. He was maddened
by irritation--by the insult offered to the woman he loved, which a
few trembling words from her explained to him; maddened yet more by
the fear that the insult had lost her to him--warm words ensued
between son and father, to close with the peremptory command and
vehement threat of the last.

"Come away this instant, sir! Come with me, or before the day is
over I strike you out of my will!"

The son's answer was not to his father; he threw himself at
Beatrice's feet.

"Forgive him--forgive us both--"

"What! you prefer that stranger to me--to the inheritance of
Hazeldean!" cried the Squire, stamping his foot.

"Leave your estates to whom you will; all that I care for in life is

The Squire stood still a moment or so, gazing on his son, with a
strange bewildered marvel at the strength of that mystic passion,
which none not laboring under its fearful charm can comprehend,
which creates the sudden idol that no reason justifies, and
sacrifices to its fatal shrine alike the Past and the Future. Not
trusting himself to speak, the father drew his hand across his eyes,
and dashed away the bitter tear that sprang from a swelling
indignant heart; then he uttered an inarticulate sound, and, finding
his voice gone, moved away to the door, and left the house.

He walked through the streets, bearing his head very erect, as a
proud man does when deeply wounded, and striving to shake off some
affection that he deems a weakness; and his trembling, nervous
fingers fumbled at the button on his coat, trying to tighten the
garment across his chest, as if to confirm a resolution that still
sought to struggle out of the revolting heart.

Thus he went on, and the reader, perhaps, will wonder whither; and
the wonder may not lessen when he finds the Squire come to a dead
pause in Grosvenor Square, and at the portico of his "distant
brother's" stately house.

At the Squire's brief inquiry whether Mr. Egerton was at home, the
porter summoned the groom of the chambers; and the groom of the
chambers, seeing a stranger, doubted whether his master was not
engaged, but would take in the stranger's card and see.

"Ay, ay," muttered the Squire, "this is true relationship--my child
prefers a stranger to me. Why should I complain that I am a stranger
in a brother's house. Sir," added the Squire aloud, and very
meekly--"Sir, please to say to your master that I am William

The servant bowed low, and without another word conducted the
visitor into the statesman's library, and announcing Mr. Hazeldean,
closed the door.

Audley was seated at his desk, the grim iron boxes still at his
feet, but they were now closed and locked. And the ex-minister was
no longer looking over official documents; letters spread open
before him, of far different nature; in his hand there lay a long
lock of fair silken hair, on which his eyes were fixed sadly and
intently. He started at the sound of his visitor's name, and the
tread of the Squire's stalwart footstep; and mechanically thrust
into his bosom the relic of younger and warmer years, keeping his
hand to his heart, which beat loud with disease, under the light
pressure of that golden hair.

The two brothers stood on the great man's lonely hearth, facing each
other in silence, and noting unconsciously the change made in each
during the long years in which they had never met.

The Squire, with his portly size, his hardy, sun-burnt cheeks, the
partial baldness of his unfurrowed open forehead, looked his
full age--deep into middle life. Unmistakably he seemed the
_paterfamilias_--the husband and the father--the man of social
domestic ties. But about Audley (really some few years junior to the
Squire), despite the lines of care on his handsome face, there still
lingered the grace of youth. Men of cities retain youth longer than
those of the country--a remark which Buffon has not failed to make
and to account for. Neither did Egerton betray the air of the
married man; for ineffable solitariness seemed stamped upon the man,
whose private life had long been so stern a solitude. No ray from
the focus of Home played round that reserved, unjoyous, melancholy
brow. In a word, Audley looked still the man for whom some young
female heart might fondly sigh; and not the less because of the cold
eye and compressed lip, which challenged interest even while seeming
to repel it.

Audley was the first to speak, and to put forth the right hand,
which he stole slowly from its place at his breast, on which the
lock of hair still stirred to and fro at the heave of the laboring
heart. "William," said he, with his rich, deep voice, "this is
kind. You are come to see me, now that men say I am fallen. The
minister you censured is no more; and you see again the brother."

The Squire was softened at once by this address. He shook heartily
the hand tendered to him; and then, turning away his head, with an
honest conviction that Audley ascribed to him a credit which he did
not deserve, he said, "No, no, Audley; I am more selfish than you
think me. I have come--I have come to ask your advice--no, not
exactly that--your opinion. But you are busy--?"

"Sit down, William. Old days were coming over me when you entered;
days earlier still return now--days, too, that leave no shadow when
their suns are set."

The proud man seemed to think he had said too much. His practical
nature rebuked the poetic sentiment and phrase. He re-collected
himself, and added, more coldly, "You would ask my opinion? What on?
Some public matter--some Parliamentary bill that may affect your

"Am I such a mean miser as that? Property--property? What does
property matter, when a man is struck down at his own hearth?
Property, indeed! But you have no child--happy brother!"

"Ay, ay; as you say, I am a happy man; childless! Has your son
displeased you? I have heard him spoken of well, too."

"Don't talk of him. Whether his conduct be good or ill is my
affair," resumed the poor father with a testy voice--jealous alike
of Audley's praise or blame of his rebellious son. Then he rose a
moment, and made a strong gulp as if for air; and laying his broad
brown hand on his brother's shoulder, said, "Randal Leslie tells me
you are wise--a consummate man of the world. No doubt you are
so. And Parson Dale tells me that he is sure you have warm
feelings--which I take to be a strange thing for one who has lived
so long in London, and has no wife and no child--a widower, and a
Member of Parliament--for a commercial city, too. Never smile; it is
no smiling matter with me. You know a foreign woman, called Negra or
Negro--not a blackymoor, though, by any means--at least on the
outside of her. Is she such a woman as a plain country gentleman
would like his only son to marry--ay or no?"

"No, indeed," answered Audley, gravely, "and I trust your son will
commit no action so rash. Shall I see him or her? Speak, my dear
William. What would you have me do?"

"Nothing; you have said enough," replied the Squire, gloomily; and
his head sank on his breast.

Audley took his hand, and pressed it fraternally. "William," said
the statesman, "we have been long estranged; but I do not forget
that when we last met, at--at Lord Lansmere's house, and when I took
you aside, and said, 'William, if I lose this election, I must
resign all chance of public life: my affairs are embarrassed; I may
need--I would not accept money from you--I would seek a profession,
and you can help me there,' you divined my meaning, and said--'Take
orders; the Hazeldean living is just vacant. I will get some one to
hold it till you are ordained.' I do not forget that. Would that I
had thought earlier of so serene an escape from all that then
tormented me. My lot might have been far happier."

The Squire eyed Audley with a surprise that broke forth from his
more absorbing emotions. "Happier! Why, all things have prospered
with you; and you are rich enough now; and--you shake your head.
Brother, is it possible! do you want money? Pooh, not accept money
from your mother's son!--stuff." Out came the Squire's pocket-book.
Audley put it gently aside.

"Nay," said he, "I have enough for myself; but since you seek and
speak with me thus affectionately, I will ask you one favor. Should
I die before I can provide for my wife's kinsman, Randal Leslie, as
I could wish, will you see to his fortunes, so far as you can,
without injury to others--to your own son?"

"My son! He _is_ provided for. He has the Casino estate--much good
may it do him. You have touched on the very matter that brought me
here. This boy, Randal Leslie, seems a praiseworthy lad, and has
Hazeldean blood in his veins. You have taken him up because he is
connected with your late wife. Why should not I take him up, too,
when his grandmother was a Hazeldean? I wanted to ask you what you
meant to do for him; for if you did not mean to provide for him, why
I will, as in duty bound. So your request comes at the right time; I
think of altering my will. I can put him into the entail, besides a
handsome legacy. You are sure he is a good lad--and it will please
you too, Audley?"

"But not at the expense of your son. And stay, William--as to this
foolish marriage with Madame di Negra, who told you Frank meant to
take such a step?"

"He told me himself; but it is no matter. Randal and I both did all
we could to dissuade him; and Randal advised me to come to you."

"He has acted generously, then, our kinsman Randal--I am glad to
hear it"--said Audley, his brow somewhat clearing. "I have no
influence with this lady; but at least, I can counsel her. Do not
consider the marriage fixed because a young man desires it. Youth is
ever hot and rash."

"Your youth never was," retorted the Squire, bluntly. "You married
well enough, I'm sure. I will say one thing for you: you have been,
to my taste, a bad politician--beg pardon--but you were always a
gentleman. You would never have disgraced your family and married

"Hush!" interrupted Egerton, gently. "Do not make matters worse than
they are. Madame di Negra is of high birth in her own country; and
if scandal--"

"Scandal!" cried the Squire, shrinking and turning pale. "Are you
speaking of the wife of a Hazeldean? At least, she shall never sit
by the hearth at which now sits his mother; and whatever I may do
for Frank, her children shall not succeed. No mongrel cross-breed
shall kennel in English Hazeldean. Much obliged to you, Audley, for
your good feeling--glad to have seen you; and harkye, you startled
me by that shake of your head, when I spoke of your wealth; and,
from what you say about Randal's prospects, I guess that you London
gentlemen are not so thrifty as we are. You _shall_ let me speak. I
say again, that I have some thousands quite at your service. And
though you are not a Hazeldean, still you are my mother's son; and
now that I am about to alter my will, I can as well scratch in the
name of Egerton as that of Leslie. Cheer up, cheer up; you are
younger than I am, and you have no child; so you will live longer
than I shall."

"My dear brother," answered Audley, "believe me, I shall never live
to want your aid. And as to Leslie, add to the £5000 I mean to give
him, an equal sum in your will, and I shall feel that he has
received justice."

Observing that the Squire, though he listened attentively, made no
ready answer, Audley turned the subject again to Frank; and with the
adroitness of a man of the world, backed by cordial sympathy in his
brother's distress, he pleaded so well Frank's lame cause, urged so
gently the wisdom of patience and delay, and the appeal to filial
feeling rather than recourse to paternal threats, that the Squire
grew molified in spite of himself, and left his brother's house a
much less angry, and less doleful man.

Mr. Hazeldean was still in the square when he came upon Randal
himself, who was walking with a dark-whiskered, showy gentleman,
toward Egerton's house. Randal and the gentleman exchanged a hasty
whisper, and the former exclaimed,

"What, Mr. Hazeldean, have you just left your brother's house? Is it

"Why, you advised me to go there, and I did. I scarcely knew what I
was about. I am very glad I did go. Hang politics! hang the landed
interest! what do I care for either now?"

"Foiled with Madame di Negra?" asked Randal, drawing the Squire

"Never speak of her again!" cried the Squire, fiercely. "And as to
that ungrateful boy--but I don't mean to behave harshly to him--he
shall have money enough to keep her if he likes--keep her from
coming to me--keep him, too, from counting on my death, and
borrowing post-obits on the Casino--for he'll be doing that
next--no, I hope I wrong him there; I have been too good a father
for him to count on my death already. After all," continued the
Squire, beginning to relax, "as Audley says, the marriage is not yet
made; and if the woman has taken him in, he is young, and his heart
is warm. Make yourself easy, my boy. I don't forget how kindly you
took his part; and before I do any thing rash, I'll at least take
advice with his poor mother."

Randal gnawed his pale lip, and a momentary cloud of disappointment
passed over his face.

"True, sir," said he, gently; "true, you must not be rash. Indeed, I
was thinking of you and poor dear Frank at the very moment I met
you. It occurred to me whether we might not make Frank's very
embarrassments a reason to induce Madame di Negra to refuse him; and
I was on my way to Mr. Egerton, in order to ask his opinion, in
company with the gentleman yonder."

"Gentleman yonder? Why should he thrust his long nose into my family
affairs? Who the devil is he?"

"Don't ask, sir. Pray let me act."

But the Squire continued to eye askant the dark-whiskered personage
thus thrust between himself and his son, and who waited patiently a
few yards in the rear, carelessly readjusting the camellia in his

"He looks very outlandish. Is he a foreigner, too?" asked the
Squire, at last.

"No, not exactly. However, he knows all about Frank's
embarrassments; and--"

"Embarrassments! what, the debt he paid for that woman? How did he
raise the money?"

"I don't know," answered Randal; "and that is the reason I asked
Baron Levy to accompany me to Egerton's, that he might explain in
private what I have no reason--"

"Baron Levy!" interrupted the Squire. "Levy, Levy--I have heard of a
Levy who has nearly ruined my neighbor, Thornhill--a money-lender.
Zounds! is that the man who knows my son's affairs? I'll soon learn,

Randal caught hold of the Squire's arm: "Stop, stop; if you really
insist upon learning more about Frank's debts, you must not appeal
to Baron Levy directly, and as Frank's father; he will not answer
you. But if I present you to him as a mere acquaintance of mine, and
turn the conversation, as if carelessly, upon Frank--why, since, in
the London world, such matters are never kept secret except from the
parents of young men--I have no doubt he will talk out openly."

"Manage it as you will," said the Squire.

Randal took Mr. Hazeldean's arm, and joined Levy--"A friend of mine
from the country, Baron." Levy bowed profoundly, and the three
walked slowly on.

"By-the-by," said Randal, pressing significantly upon Levy's arm,
"my friend has come to town upon the somewhat unpleasant business of
settling the debts of another--a young man of fashion--a relation of
his own. No one, sir (turning to the Squire), could so ably assist
you in such arrangements as could Baron Levy."

BARON (modestly, and with a moralizing air).--"I have some
experience in such matters, and I hold it a duty to assist the
parents and relations of young men who, from want of reflection,
often ruin themselves for life. I hope the young gentleman in
question is not in the hands of the Jews?"

RANDAL.--"Christians are as fond of good interest for their money as
ever the Jews can be."

BARON.--"Granted, but they have not always so much money to lend.
The first thing, sir (addressing the Squire)--the first thing for
you to do is to buy up such of your relation's bills and notes of
hand as may be in the market. No doubt we can get them a bargain,
unless the young man is heir to some property that may soon be his
in the course of nature."

RANDAL.--"Not soon--heaven forbid! His father is still a young
man--a fine healthy man," leaning heavily on Levy's arm; "and as to

BARON.--"Post-obits on sound security cost more to buy up, however
healthy the obstructing relative may be."

RANDAL.--"I should hope that there are not many sons who can
calculate, in cold blood, on the death of their fathers."

BARON.--"Ha, ha--he is young, our friend, Randal; eh, sir?"

RANDAL.--"Well, I am not more scrupulous than others, I dare say:
and I have often been pinched hard for money, but I would go
barefoot rather than give security upon a father's grave! I can
imagine nothing more likely to destroy natural feeling, nor to
instill ingratitude and treachery into the whole character, than to
press the hand of a parent, and calculate when that hand may be
dust--than to sit down with strangers and reduce his life to the
measure of an insurance table--than to feel difficulties gathering
round one, and mutter in fashionable slang, 'But it will be all well
if the governor would but die.' And he who has accustomed himself to
the relief of post-obits must gradually harden his mind to all

The Squire groaned heavily; and had Randal proceeded another
sentence in the same strain, the Squire would have wept outright.
"But," continued Randal, altering the tone of his voice, "I think
that our young friend of whom we were talking just now, Levy, before
this gentleman joined us, has the same opinion as myself on this
head. He may accept bills, but he would never sign post-obits."

BARON (who with the apt docility of a managed charger to the touch
of a rider's hand, had comprehended and complied with each quick
sign of Randal's).--"Pooh! the young fellow we are talking of?
Nonsense. He would not be so foolish as to give five times the
percentage he otherwise might. Not sign post-obits! Of course he has
signed one."

RANDAL.--"Hist--you mistake, you mistake."

SQUIRE (leaving Randal's arm and seizing Levy's).--"Were you
speaking of Frank Hazeldean?"

BARON.--"My dear sir, excuse me; I never mention names before

SQUIRE.--"Strangers again! Man, I am the boy's father! Speak out,
sir," and his hand closed on Levy's arm with the strength of an
iron vice.

BARON.--"Gently; you hurt me, sir; but I excuse your feelings.
Randal, you are to blame for leading me into this indiscretion; but
I beg to assure Mr. Hazeldean, that though his son has been a little

RANDAL.--"Owing chiefly to the arts of an abandoned woman."

BARON.--"Of an abandoned woman; still he has shown more prudence
than you would suppose; and this very post-obit is a proof of it. A
simple act of that kind has enabled him to pay off bills that were
running on till they would have ruined even the Hazeldean estate;
whereas a charge on the reversion of the Casino--"

SQUIRE.--"He has done it then? He has signed a post-obit?"

RANDAL.--"No, no; Levy must be wrong."

BARON.--"My dear Leslie, a man of Mr. Hazeldean's time of life can
not have your romantic boyish notions. He must allow that Frank has
acted in this like a lad of sense--very good head for business has
my young friend Frank! And the best thing Mr. Hazeldean can do is
quietly to buy up the post-obit, and thus he will place his son
henceforth in his own power."

SQUIRE.--"Can I see the deed with my own eyes?"

BARON.--"Certainly, or how could you be induced to buy it up? But on
one condition; you must not betray me to your son. And, indeed, take
my advice, and don't say a word to him on the matter."

SQUIRE.--"Let me see it, let me see it with my own eyes. His mother
else will never believe it--nor will I."

BARON.--"I can call on you this evening."


BARON.--"You can spare me, Randal; and you yourself can open to Mr.
Egerton the other affair, respecting Lansmere. No time should be
lost, lest L'Estrange suggest a candidate."

_Randal_ (whispering).--"Never mind me.--This is more important.
(Aloud)--Go with Mr. Hazeldean. My dear kind friend (to the Squire),
do not let this vex you so much. After all, it is what nine young
men out of ten would do in the same circumstances. And it is best
you should know it; you may save Frank from farther ruin, and
prevent, perhaps, this very marriage."

"We will see," exclaimed the Squire, hastily. "Now, Mr. Levy, come."

Levy and the Squire walked on not arm-in-arm, but side by side.
Randal proceeded to Egerton's house.

"I am glad to see you, Leslie," said the ex-minister. "What is it I
have heard? My nephew, Frank Hazeldean, proposes to marry Madame di
Negra against his father's consent? How could you suffer him to
entertain an idea so wild? And how never confide it to me?"

RANDAL.--"My dear Mr. Egerton, it is only to-day that I was informed
of Frank's engagement. I have already seen him, and expostulated in
vain; till then, though I knew your nephew admired Madame di Negra,
I could never suppose he harbored a serious intention."

EGERTON.--"I must believe you, Randal. I will myself see Madame di
Negra, though I have no power, and no right, to dictate to her. I
have but little time for all such private business. The dissolution
of Parliament is so close at hand."

RANDAL (looking down.)--"It is on that subject that I wished to
speak to you, sir. You think of standing for Lansmere. Well, Baron
Levy has suggested to me an idea that I could not, of course, even
countenance, till I had spoken to you. It seems that he has some
acquaintance with the state of parties in that borough! He is
informed that it is not only as easy to bring in two of our side, as
to carry one; but that it would make your election still more safe,
not to fight single-handed against two opponents; that if canvassing
for yourself alone, you could not carry a sufficient number of
plumper votes; that split votes would go from you to one or other of
the two adversaries; that, in a word, it is necessary to pair you
with a colleague. If it really be so, you of course will learn best
from your own Committee; but should they concur in the opinion Baron
Levy has formed--do I presume too much on your kindness--to deem it
possible that you might allow me to be the second candidate on your
side? I should not say this, but that Levy told me you had some wish
to see me in Parliament, among the supporters of your policy. And
what other opportunity can occur? Here the cost of carrying two
would be scarcely more than that of carrying one. And Levy says, the
party would subscribe for my election; you, of course, would refuse
all such aid for your own; and indeed, with your great name, and
Lord Lansmere's interest, there can be little beyond the strict
legal expenses."

As Randal spoke thus at length, he watched anxiously his patron's
reserved, unrevealing countenance.

EGERTON (drily.)--"I will consider. You may safely leave in my hands
any matter connected with your ambition and advancement. I have
before told you I hold it a duty to do all in my power for the
kinsman of my late wife--for one whose career I undertook to
forward--for one whom honor has compelled to share in my own
political reverses."

Here Egerton rang the bell for his hat, and gloves, and walking into
the hall, paused at the street door. There beckoning to Randal, he
said slowly, "You seem intimate with Baron Levy; I caution you
against him--a dangerous acquaintance, first to the purse, next to
the honor."

RANDAL.--"I know it, sir; and am surprised myself at the
acquaintance that has grown up between us. Perhaps its cause is in
his respect for yourself."


RANDAL.--"Whatever it be, he contrives to obtain a singular hold
over one's mind, even where, as in my case, he has no evident
interest to serve. How is this? It puzzles me!"

EGERTON.--"For his interest, it is most secured where he suffers it
to be least evident; for his hold over the mind, it is easily
accounted for. He ever appeals to two temptations, strong with all
men--Avarice and Ambition.--Good-day."

RANDAL.--"Are you going to Madame di Negra's? Shall I not accompany
you? Perhaps I may be able to back your own remonstrances."

EGERTON.--"No, I shall not require you."

RANDAL.--"I trust I shall hear the result of your interview? I feel
so much interested in it. Poor Frank!"

Audley nodded. "Of course, of course."


On entering the drawing-room of Madame di Negra, the peculiar charm
which the severe Audley Egerton had been ever reputed to possess
with women, would have sensibly struck one who had hitherto seen him
chiefly in his relations with men in the business-like affairs of
life. It was a charm in strong contrast to the ordinary manners of
those who are emphatically called "Ladies' men." No artificial
smile, no conventional hollow blandness, no frivolous gossip, no
varnish either of ungenial gayety or affected grace. The charm was
in a simplicity that unbent more into kindness than it did with men.
Audley's nature, whatever its faults and defects, was essentially
masculine; and it was the sense of masculine power that gave to his
voice a music when addressing the gentler sex--a sort of indulgent
tenderness that appeared equally void of insincerity and

Frank had been gone about half-an-hour, and Madame di Negra was
scarcely recovered from the agitation into which she had been thrown
by the affront from the father and the pleading of the son.

Egerton took her passive hand cordially, and seated himself by her

"My dear Marchesa," said he, "are we then likely to be near
connections? And can you seriously contemplate marriage with my
young nephew, Frank Hazeldean? You turn away. Ah, my fair friend,
there are but two inducements to a free woman to sign away her
liberty at the altar. I say a free woman, for widows are free, and
girls are not. These inducements are, first, worldly position;
secondly, love. Which of these motives can urge Madame di Negra to
marry Mr. Frank Hazeldean?"

"There are other motives than those you speak of--the
need of protection--the sense of solitude--the curse of
dependence--gratitude for honorable affection. But you men never
know women!"

"I grant that you are right there--we never do; neither do women
ever know men. And yet each sex contrives to dupe and to fool the
other! Listen to me. I have little acquaintance with my nephew, but
I allow he is a handsome young gentleman, with whom a handsome young
lady in her teens might fall in love in a ball-room. But you who
have known the higher order of our species--you who have received
the homage of men, whose thoughts and mind leave the small talk of
drawing-room triflers--so poor and bald--you can not look me in the
face and say that it is any passion resembling love which you feel
for my nephew. And as to position, it is right that I should inform
you that if he marry you he will have none. He may risk his
inheritance. You will receive no countenance from his parents. You
will be poor, but not free. You will not gain the independence you
seek for. The sight of a vacant, discontented face in that opposite
chair will be worse than solitude. And as to grateful affection,"
added the man of the world, "it is a polite synonym for tranquil

"Mr. Egerton," said Beatrice, "people say you are made of bronze.
Did you ever feel the want of a home?"

"I answer you frankly," replied the statesman, "if I had not felt
it, do you think I should have been, and that I should be to the
last, the joyless drudge of public life? Bronze though you call my
nature, it would have melted away long since like wax in the fire,
if I had sat idly down and dreamed of a _Home_!"

"But we women," answered Beatrice, with pathos, "have no public
life, and we do idly sit down and dream. Oh," she continued, after a
short pause, and clasping her hands firmly together, "you think me
worldly, grasping, ambitious; how different my fate had been had I
known a home!--known one whom I could love and venerate--known one
whose smiles would have developed the good that was once within me,
and the fear of whose rebuking or sorrowful eye would have corrected
what is evil."

"Yet," answered Audley, "nearly all women in the great world have
had that choice once in their lives, and nearly all have thrown it
away. How few of your rank really think of home when they marry--how
few ask to venerate as well as to love--and how many of every rank,
when the home has been really gained, have willfully lost its
shelter; some in neglectful weariness--some from a momentary doubt,
distrust, caprice--a wild fancy--a passionate fit--a trifle--a
straw--a dream! True, you women are ever dreamers. Common sense,
common earth, is above or below your comprehension."

Both now were silent, Audley first roused himself with a quick,
writhing movement. "We two," said he, smiling half sadly, half
cynically--"we two must not longer waste time in talking sentiment.
We know both too well what life, as it has been made for us by our
faults or our misfortunes, truly is. And once again, I entreat you
to pause before you yield to the foolish suit of my foolish nephew.
Rely on it, you will either command a higher offer for your prudence
to accept; or, if you needs must sacrifice rank and fortune, you,
with your beauty and your romantic heart, will see one who, at least
for a fair holiday season (if human love allows no more), can repay
you for the sacrifice. Frank Hazeldean never can."

Beatrice turned away to conceal the tears that rushed to her eyes.

"Think over this well," said Audley, in the softest tone of his
mellow voice. "Do you remember that when you first came to England,
I told you that neither wedlock nor love had any lures for me. We
grew friends upon that rude avowal, and therefore I now speak to you
like some sage of old, wise because standing apart and aloof from
all the affections and ties that mislead our wisdom. Nothing but
real love--(how rare it is; has one human heart in a million ever
known it!) nothing but real love can repay us for the loss of
freedom--the cares and fears of poverty--the cold pity of the world
that we both despise and respect. And all these, and much more,
follow the step you would inconsiderately take--an imprudent

"Audley Egerton," said Beatrice, lifting her dark, moistened eyes,
"you grant that real love does compensate for an imprudent marriage.
You speak as if you had known such love--you! Can it be possible?"

"Real love--I thought that I knew it once. Looking back with
remorse, I should doubt it now but for one curse that only real
love, when lost, has the power to leave evermore behind it."

"What is that?"

"A void here," answered Egerton, striking his heart.

He rose and left the room.

"Is it," murmured Egerton, as he pursued his way through the
streets--"is it that, as we approach death, all the first fair
feelings of young life come back to us mysteriously? Thus I have
heard, or read, that in some country of old, children scattering
flowers, preceded a funeral bier."


And so Leonard stood beside his friend's mortal clay, and watched,
in the ineffable smile of death, the last gleam which the soul had
left there; and so, after a time, he crept back to the adjoining
room with a step as noiseless as if he had feared to disturb the
dead. Wearied as he was with watching, he had no thought of sleep.
He sate himself down by the little table, and leaned his face on his
hand, musing sorrowfully. Thus time passed. He heard the clock from
below strike the hours. In the house of death the sound of a clock
becomes so solemn. The soul that we miss has gone so far beyond the
reach of time! A cold, superstitious awe gradually stole over the
young man. He shivered, and lifted his eyes with a start, half
scornful, half defying. The moon was gone--the gray, comfortless
dawn gleamed through the casement, and carried its raw, chilling
light through the open doorway, into the death-room. And there, near
the extinguished fire, Leonard saw the solitary woman, weeping low,
and watching still. He returned to say a word of comfort--she
pressed his hand, but waved him away. He understood. She did not
wish for other comfort than her quiet relief of tears. Again, he
returned to his own chamber, and his eyes this time fell upon the
papers which he had hitherto disregarded. What made his heart stand
still, and the blood then rush so quickly through his veins? Why did
he seize upon those papers with so tremulous a hand--then lay them
down--pause, as if to nerve himself--and look so eagerly again? He
recognized the handwriting--those fair, clear characters--so
peculiar in their woman-like delicacy and grace--the same as in the
wild, pathetic poems, the sight of which had made an era in his
boyhood. From these pages the image of the mysterious Nora rose once
more before him. He felt that he was with a mother. He went back,
and closed the door gently, as if with a jealous piety, to exclude
each ruder shadow from the world of spirits, and be alone with that
mournful ghost. For a thought written in warm, sunny life, and then
suddenly rising up to us, when the hand that traced, and the heart
that cherished it, are dust, is verily as a ghost. It is a likeness
struck off of the fond human being, and surviving it. Far more
truthful than bust or portrait, it bids us see the tear flow, and
the pulse beat. What ghost can the church-yard yield to us like the
writing of the dead?

The bulk of the papers had been once lightly sewn to each
other--they had come undone, perhaps in Burley's rude hands; but
their order was easily apparent. Leonard soon saw that they formed a
kind of journal--not, indeed, a regular diary, nor always relating
to the things of the day. There were gaps in time--no attempt at
successive narrative. Sometimes, instead of prose, a hasty burst of
verse, gushing evidently from the heart--sometimes all narrative was
left untold, and yet, as it were, epitomized, by a single burning
line--a single exclamation--of woe, or joy! Everywhere you saw
records of a nature exquisitely susceptible; and where genius
appeared, it was so artless, that you did not call it genius, but
emotion. At the outset the writer did not speak of herself in the
first person. The MS. opened with descriptions and short dialogues,
carried on by persons to whose names only initial letters were
assigned, all written in a style of simple, innocent freshness, and
breathing of purity and happiness, like a dawn of spring. Two young
persons, humbly born--a youth and a girl--the last still in
childhood, each chiefly self-taught, are wandering on Sabbath
evenings among green dewy fields, near the busy town, in which labor
awhile is still. Few words pass between them. You see at once,
though the writer does not mean to convey it, how far beyond the
scope of her male companion flies the heavenward imagination of the
girl. It is he who questions--it is she who answers; and soon there
steals upon you, as you read, the conviction that the youth loves
the girl, and loves in vain. All in this writing, though terse, is
so truthful! Leonard, in the youth, already recognizes the rude,
imperfect scholar--the village bard--Mark Fairfield. Then, there is
a gap in description--but there are short weighty sentences, which
show deepening thought, increasing years, in the writer. And though
the innocence remains, the happiness begins to be less vivid on the

Now, insensibly, Leonard finds that there is a new phase in the
writer's existence. Scenes, no longer of humble work-day rural life,
surround her. And a fairer and more dazzling image succeeds to the
companion of the Sabbath eves. This image Nora evidently loves to
paint--it is akin to her own genius--it captivates her fancy--it is
an image that she (inborn artist, and conscious of her art) feels to
belong to a brighter and higher school of the Beautiful. And yet the
virgin's heart is not awakened--no trace of the heart yet there. The
new image thus introduced is one of her own years, perhaps; nay, it
may be younger still--for it is a boy that is described, with his
profuse fair curls, and eyes new to grief, and confronting the sun
as a young eagle's; with veins so full of the wine of life, that
they overflow into every joyous whim; with nerves quiveringly alive
to the desire of glory; with the frank generous nature rash in its
laughing scorn of the world, which it has not tried. Who was this
boy, it perplexed Leonard. He feared to guess. Soon, less told than
implied, you saw that this companionship, however it chanced, brings
fear and pain on the writer. Again (as before), with Mark Fairfield,
there is love on the one side and not on the other; with her there
is affectionate, almost sisterly, interest, admiration,
gratitude--but a something of pride or of terror that keeps back

Here Leonard's interest grew intense. Were there touches by which
conjecture grew certainty; and he recognized, through the lapse of
years, the boy lover in his own generous benefactor?

Fragments of dialogue now began to reveal the suit of an ardent
impassioned nature, and the simple wonder and strange alarm of a
listener who pitied but could not sympathize. Some great worldly
distinction of rank between the two became visible--that distinction
seemed to arm the virtue and steel the affections of the lowlier
born. Then a few sentences, half blotted out with tears, told of
wounded and humbled feelings--some one invested with authority, as
if the suitor's parent, had interfered, questioned, reproached,
counseled. And it was now evident that the suit was not one that
dishonored;--it wooed to flight, but still to marriage.

And now these sentences grew briefer still, as with the decision of
a strong resolve. And to these there followed a passage so
exquisite, that Leonard wept unconsciously as he read. It was the
description of a visit spent at home previous to some sorrowful
departure. There rose up the glimpse of a proud and vain, but a
tender wistful mother--of a father's fonder but less thoughtful
love. And then came a quiet soothing scene between the girl and her
first village lover, ending thus--"So she put M's hand into her
sister's, and said: 'You loved me through the fancy, love her with
the heart,' and left them comprehending each other, and betrothed."

Leonard sighed. He understood now how Mark Fairfield saw in the
homely features of his unlettered wife the reflection of the
sister's soul and face.

A few words told the final parting--words that were a picture.
The long friendless highway, stretching on--on--toward the
remorseless city. And the doors of home opening on the desolate
thoroughfare--and the old pollard tree beside the threshold, with
the ravens wheeling round it and calling to their young. He too had
watched that threshold from the same desolate thoroughfare. He too
had heard the cry of the ravens. Then came some pages covered with
snatches of melancholy verse, or some reflections of dreamy gloom.

The writer was in London, in the house of some highborn
patroness--that friendless shadow of a friend which the jargon of
society calls "companion." And she was looking on the bright storm
of the world as through prison bars. Poor bird, afar from the
greenwood, she had need of song--it was her last link with freedom
and nature. The patroness seems to share in her apprehensions of the
boy suitor, whose wild rash prayers the fugitive had resisted: but
to fear lest the suitor should be degraded, not the one whom he
pursues--fears an alliance ill-suited to a highborn heir. And this
kind of fear stings the writer's pride, and she grows harsh in her
judgment of him who thus causes but pain where he proffers love.
Then there is a reference to some applicant for her hand, who is
pressed upon her choice. And she is told that it is her duty so to
choose, and thus deliver a noble family from a dread that endures so
long as her hand is free. And of this fear, and of this applicant,
there breaks out a petulant yet pathetic scorn. After this, the
narrative, to judge by the dates, pauses for days and weeks, as if
the writer had grown weary and listless--suddenly to reopen in a new
strain, eloquent with hopes, and with fears never known before. The
first person was abruptly assumed--it was the living "I" that now
breathed and moved along the lines. How was this? The woman was no
more a shadow and a secret unknown to herself. She had assumed the
intense and vivid sense of individual being. And love spoke loud in
the awakened human heart.

A personage not seen till then appeared on the page. And ever
afterward this personage was only named as "_He_," as if the one and
sole representative of all the myriads that walk the earth. The
first notice of this prominent character on the scene showed the
restless, agitated effect produced on the writer's imagination. He
was invested with a romance probably not his own. He was described
in contrast to the brilliant boy whose suit she had feared, pitied,
and now sought to shun--described with a grave and serious, but
gentle mein--a voice that imposed respect--an eye and lip that
showed collected dignity of will. Alas! the writer betrayed herself,
and the charm was in the contrast, not to the character of the
earlier lover, but her own. And now, leaving Leonard to explore and
guess his way through the gaps and chasms of the narrative, it is
time to place before the reader what the narrative alone will not
reveal to Leonard.


Nora Avenel had fled from the boyish love of Harley
L'Estrange--recommended by Lady Lansmere to a valetudinarian
relative of her own, Lady Jane Horton, as companion. But Lady
Lansmere could not believe it possible that the low-born girl could
long sustain her generous pride, and reject the ardent suit of one
who could offer to her the prospective coronet of a countess. She
continually urged upon Lady Jane the necessity of marrying Nora to
some one of rank less disproportioned to her own, and empowered the
lady to assure any such wooer of a dowry far beyond Nora's station.
Lady Jane looked around, and saw in the outskirts of her limited
social ring, a young solicitor, a peer's natural son, who was on
terms of more than business-like intimacy with the fashionable
clients whose distresses made the origin of his wealth. The young
man was handsome, well-dressed, and bland. Lady Jane invited him to
her house; and, seeing him struck dumb with the rare loveliness of
Nora, whispered the hint of the dower. The fashionable solicitor,
who afterward ripened into Baron Levy, did not need that hint; for,
though then poor, he relied on himself for fortune, and, unlike
Randal, he had warm blood in his veins. But Lady Jane's suggestions
made him sanguine of success; and when he formally proposed, and was
as formally refused, his self-love was bitterly wounded. Vanity in
Levy was a powerful passion; and with the vain, hatred is strong,
revenge is rankling. Levy retired, concealing his rage; nor did he
himself know how vindictive that rage, when it cooled into
malignancy, could become, until the arch-fiend OPPORTUNITY prompted
its indulgence and suggested its design.

Lady Jane was at first very angry with Nora for the rejection of a
suitor whom she had presented as eligible. But the pathetic grace of
this wonderful girl had crept into her heart, and softened it even
against family prejudice; and she gradually owned to herself that
Nora was worthy of some one better than Mr. Levy.

Now, Harley had ever believed that Nora returned his love, and that
nothing but her own sense of gratitude to his parents--her own
instincts of delicacy, made her deaf to his prayers. To do him
justice, wild and headstrong as he then was, his suit would have
ceased at once had he really deemed it persecution. Nor was his
error unnatural; for his conversation, till it had revealed his own
heart, could not fail to have dazzled and delighted the child of
genius; and her frank eyes would have shown the delight. How, at his
age, could he see the distinction between the Poetess and the Woman?
The poetess was charmed with rare promise in a soul of which the
very errors were the extravagances of richness and beauty. But the
woman--no! the woman required some nature not yet undeveloped, and
all at turbulent if brilliant strife with its own noble
elements--but a nature formed and full grown. Harley was a boy, and
Nora was one of those women who must find or fancy an Ideal that
commands and almost awes them into love.

Harley discovered, not without difficulty, Nora's new residence. He
presented himself at Lady Jane's, and she, with grave rebuke,
forbade him the house. He found it impossible to obtain an interview
with Nora. He wrote, but he felt sure that his letters never reached
her, since they were unanswered. His young heart swelled with rage.
He dropped threats, which alarmed all the fears of Lady Lansmere,
and even the prudent apprehensions of his friend, Audley Egerton. At
the request of the mother, and equally at the wish of the son,
Audley consented to visit at Lady Jane's, and make acquaintance with

"I have such confidence in you," said Lady Lansmere, "that if you
once know the girl, your advice will be sure to have weight with
her. You will show her how wicked it would be to let Harley break
our hearts and degrade his station."

"I have such confidence in you," said young Harley, "that if you
once know my Nora, you will no longer side with my mother. You will
recognize the nobility which Nature only can create--you will own
that Nora is worthy a rank more lofty than mine; and my mother so
believes in your wisdom, that if you plead in my cause, you will
convince even her."

Audley listened to both with his intelligent, half-incredulous
smile; and wholly of the same advice as Lady Lansmere, and sincerely
anxious to save Harley from an indiscretion that his own notions led
him to regard as fatal, he resolved to examine this boasted pearl,
and to find out its flaws. Audley Egerton was then in the prime of
his earnest, resolute, ambitious youth. The stateliness of his
natural manners had then a suavity and polish which, even in later
and busier life, it never wholly lost; since, in spite of the
briefer words and the colder looks by which care and powers mark the
official man, the Minister had ever enjoyed that personal popularity
which the indefinable, external something, that wins and pleases,
can alone confer. But he had even then, as ever, that felicitous
reserve which Rochefoucault has called the "mystery of the
body"--that thin yet guardian vail which reveals but the strong
outlines of character, and excites so much of interest by provoking
so much of conjecture. To the man who is born with this reserve,
which is wholly distinct from shyness, the world gives credit for
qualities and talents beyond those that it perceives; and such
characters are attractive to others in proportion as these last are
gifted with the imagination which loves to divine the unknown.

At the first interview, the impression which this man produced upon
Nora Avenel was profound and strange. She had heard of him before as
the one whom Harley most loved and looked up to; and she recognized
at once in his mien, his aspect, his words, the very tone of his
deep tranquil voice, the power to which woman, whatever her
intellect, never attains; and to which, therefore, she imputes a
nobility not always genuine--viz., the power of deliberate purpose,
and self-collected, serene ambition. The effect that Nora produced
on Egerton was not less sudden. He was startled by a beauty of face
and form that belonged to that rarest order, which we never behold
but once or twice in our lives. He was yet more amazed to discover
that the aristocracy of mind could bestow a grace that no
aristocracy of birth could surpass. He was prepared for a simple,
blushing village girl, and involuntarily he bowed low his proud
front at the first sight of that delicate bloom, and that exquisite
gentleness which is woman's surest passport to the respect of man.
Neither in the first, nor the second, nor the third interview, nor,
indeed, till after many interviews, could he summon up courage to
commence his mission, and allude to Harley. And when he did so at
last, his words faltered. But Nora's words were clear to him. He saw
that Harley was not loved; and a joy that he felt as guilty, darted
through his whole frame. From that interview Audley returned home
greatly agitated, and at war with himself. Often, in the course of
this story, has it been hinted that under all Egerton's external
coldness, and measured self-control, lay a nature capable of strong
and stubborn passions. Those passions broke forth then. He felt that
love had already entered into the heart, which the trust of his
friend should have sufficed to guard.

"I will go there no more," said he, abruptly, to Harley.

"But why?"

"The girl does not love you. Cease then to think of her."

Harley disbelieved him, and grew indignant. But Audley had every
worldly motive to assist his sense of honor. He was poor, though
with the reputation of wealth--deeply involved in debt--resolved to
rise in life--tenacious of his position in the world's esteem.
Against a host of counteracting influences, love fought
single-handed. Audley's was a strong nature; but, alas! in strong
natures, if resistance to temptation is of granite, so the passions
that they admit are of fire.

Trite is the remark, that the destinies of our lives often date from
the impulses of unguarded moments. It was so with this man, to an
ordinary eye so cautious and so deliberate. Harley one day came to
him in great grief; he had heard that Nora was ill; he implored
Audley to go once more and ascertain. Audley went. Lady Jane Horton,
who was suffering under a disease which not long afterward proved
fatal, was too ill to receive him. He was shown into the room set
apart as Nora's. While waiting for her entrance, he turned
mechanically over the leaves of an album which Nora, suddenly
summoned away to attend Lady Jane, had left behind her on the
table. He saw the sketch of his own features; he read words
inscribed below it--words of such artless tenderness, and such
unhoping sorrow--words written by one who had been accustomed to
regard her genius as her sole confidant, under Heaven, to pour out
to it, as the solitary poet-heart is impelled to do, thoughts,
feelings, and confession of mystic sighs, which it would never
breathe to a living ear, and, save at such moments, scarcely
acknowledge to itself. Audley saw that he was beloved, and the
revelation, with a sudden light, consumed all the barriers between
himself and his own love. And at that moment Nora entered. She saw
him bending over the book. She uttered a cry--sprang forward--and
then sank down, covering her face with her hands. But Audley was at
her feet. He forgot his friend, his trust; he forgot ambition--he
forgot the world. It was his own cause that he pleaded--his own love
that burst forth from his lips. And when the two that day parted,
they were betrothed each to each. Alas for them, and alas for

And now this man, who had hitherto valued himself as the very type
of gentleman--whom all his young contemporaries had so regarded and
so revered--had to press the head of a confiding friend and bid
adieu to truth. He had to amuse, to delay, to mislead his
boy-rival--to say that he was already subduing Nora's hesitating
doubts--and that within a little time, she could be induced to
consent to forget Harley's rank, and his parent's pride, and become
his wife. And Harley believed in Egerton, without one suspicion on
the mirror of his loyal soul.

Meanwhile Audley impatient of his own position--impatient, as strong
minds ever are, to hasten what they have once resolved--to terminate
a suspense that every interview with Harley tortured alike by
jealousy and shame--to put himself out of the reach of scruples, and
to say to himself, "Right or wrong, there is no looking back; the
deed is done;"--Audley, thus hurried on by the impetus of his own
power of will, pressed for speedy and secret nuptials--secret till
his fortunes, then wavering, were more assured--his career fairly
commenced. This was not his strongest motive, though it was one. He
shrank from the discovery of his wrong to his friend--desired to
delay the self-humiliation of such announcement, until, as he
persuaded himself, Harley's boyish passion was over--had yielded to
the new allurements that would naturally beset his way. Stifling his
conscience, Audley sought to convince himself that the day would
soon come when Harley could hear with indifference that Nora Avenel
was another's "The dream of an hour, at his age," murmured the elder
friend; "but at mine, the passion of a life!" He did not speak of
these latter motives for concealment to Nora. He felt that, to own
the extent of his treason to a friend, would lower him in her eyes.
He spoke therefore but slightingly of Harley--treated the boy's suit
as a thing past and gone. He dwelt only on reasons that compelled
self-sacrifice on his side or hers. She did not hesitate which to
choose. And so, where Nora loved, so submissively did she believe in
the superiority of the lover, that she would not pause to hear a
murmur from her own loftier nature, or question the propriety of
what he deemed wise and good.

Abandoning prudence in this arch affair of life, Audley still
preserved his customary caution in minor details. And this indeed
was characteristic of him throughout all his career--heedless in
large things--wary in small. He would not trust Lady Jane Horton
with his secret, still less Lady Lansmere. He simply represented to
the former, that Nora was no longer safe from Harley's determined
pursuit under Lady Jane's roof, and that she had better elude the
boy's knowledge of her movements, and go quietly away for a while,
to lodge with some connection of her own.

And so, with Lady Jane's acquiescence, Nora went first to the house
of a very distant kinswoman of her mother's, and afterward to one
that Egerton took as their bridal home, under the name of Bertram.
He arranged all that might render their marriage most free from the
chance of premature discovery. But it so happened, on the very
morning of their bridal, that one of the witnesses he selected (a
confidential servant of his own) was seized with apoplexy.
Considering, in haste, where to find a substitute, Egerton thought
of Levy, his own private solicitor, his own fashionable
money-lender, a man with whom he was then as intimate as a fine
gentleman is with the lawyer of his own age, who knows all his
affairs, and has helped from pure friendship, to make them as bad as
they are! Levy was thus suddenly summoned. Egerton, who was in great
haste, did not at first communicate to him the name of the intended
bride; but he said enough of the imprudence of the marriage, and
his reasons for secrecy, to bring on himself the strongest
remonstrances; for Levy had always reckoned on Egerton's making a
wealthy marriage, leaving to Egerton the wife, and hoping to
appropriate to himself the wealth, all in the natural course of
business. Egerton did not listen to him, but hurried him on toward
the place at which the ceremony was to be performed; and Levy
actually saw the bride, before he had learned her name. The usurer
masked his raging emotions, and fulfilled his part in the rites. His
smile, when he congratulated the bride, might have shot cold into
her heart; but her eyes were cast on the earth, seeing there but a
shadow from heaven, and her heart was blindly sheltering itself in
the bosom to which it was given evermore. She did not perceive the
smile of hate that barbed the words of joy. Nora never thought it
necessary later to tell Egerton that Levy had been a refused suitor.
Indeed, with the exquisite taste of love, she saw that such a
confidence, the idea of such a rival, would have wounded the pride
of her high-bred, well-born husband.

And now, while Harley L'Estrange, frantic with the news that Nora
had left Lady Jane's roof, and purposely misled into wrong
directions, was seeking to trace her refuge in vain--now Egerton, in
an assumed name, in a remote quarter, far from the clubs in which
his word was oracular--far from the pursuits, whether of pastime or
toil, that had hitherto engrossed his active mind, gave himself up,
with wonder at himself, to the only vision of fairyland that ever
weighs down the watchful eyelids of hard Ambition. The world for a
while shut out, he missed it not. He knew not of it. He looked into
two loving eyes that haunted him ever after, through a stern and
arid existence, and said murmuringly, "Why, this, then, is real
happiness!" Often, often, in the solitude of other years, to repeat
to himself the same words, save that for _is_, he then murmured
_was_! And Nora, with her grand, full heart, all her luxuriant
wealth of fancy and of thought, child of light and of song, did she
then never discover that there was something comparatively narrow
and sterile in the nature to which she had linked her fate? Not
there, could ever be sympathy in feelings, brilliant and shifting as
the tints of the rainbow. When Audley pressed her heart to his own,
could he comprehend one finer throb of its beating? Was all the iron
of his mind worth one grain of the gold she had cast away in
Harley's love?

Did Nora already discover this? Surely no. Genius feels no want, no
repining, while the heart is contented. Genius in her paused and
slumbered: it had been as the ministrant of solitude: it was needed
no more. If a woman loves deeply some one below her own grade in the
mental and spiritual orders, how often we see that she unconsciously
quits her own rank, comes meekly down to the level of the beloved,
is afraid lest he should deem her the superior--she who would not
even be the equal. Nora knew no more that she had genius; she only
knew that she had love.

And so here, the journal which Leonard was reading changed its tone,
sinking into that quiet happiness which is but quiet because it is
so deep. This interlude in the life of a man like Audley Egerton
could never have been long; many circumstances conspired to abridge
it. His affairs were in great disorder; they were all under Levy's
management. Demands that had before slumbered, or been mildly urged,
grew menacing and clamorous. Harley, too, returned to London from
his futile researches, and looked out for Audley. Audley was forced
to leave his secret Eden, and re-appear in the common world; and
thenceforward it was only by stealth that he came to his bridal
home--a visitor, no more the inmate. But more loud and fierce grew
the demands of his creditors, now when Egerton had most need of all
which respectability, and position, and belief of pecuniary
independence can do to raise the man who has encumbered his arms,
and crippled his steps toward fortune. He was threatened with writs,
with prisons. Levy said "that to borrow more would be but larger
ruin"--shrugged his shoulders, and even recommended a voluntary
retreat to the King's Bench. "No place so good for frightening one's
creditors into compounding their claims; but why," added Levy, with
covert sneer, "why not go to young L'Estrange--a boy made to be
borrowed from?"

Levy, who had known from Lady Jane of Harley's pursuit of Nora, had
learned already how to avenge himself on Egerton. Audley could not
apply to the friend he had betrayed. And as to other friends, no man
in town had a greater number. And no man in town knew better that he
should lose them all if he were once known to be in want of their
money. Mortified, harassed, tortured--shunning Harley--yet ever
sought by him--fearful of each knock at his door, Audley Egerton
escaped to the mortgaged remnant of his paternal estate, on which
there was a gloomy manor-house long uninhabited, and there applied a
mind, afterward renowned for its quick comprehension of business, to
the investigation of his affairs, with a view to save some wreck
from the flood that swelled momently around him.

And now--to condense as much as possible a record that runs darkly
on into pain and sorrow--now Levy began to practice his vindictive
arts; and the arts gradually prevailed. On pretense of assisting
Egerton in the arrangement of his affairs--which he secretly
contrived, however, still more to complicate--he came down
frequently to Egerton Hall for a few hours, arriving by the mail,
and watching the effect which Nora's almost daily letters produced
on the bridegroom, irritated by the practical cares of life. He was
thus constantly at hand to instill into the mind of the ambitious
man a regret for the imprudence of hasty passion, or to embitter the
remorse which Audley felt for his treachery to L'Estrange. Thus ever
bringing before the mind of the harassed debtor images at war with
love, and with the poetry of life, he disattuned it (so to speak)
for the reception of Nora's letters, all musical as they were with
such thoughts as the most delicate fancy inspires to the most
earnest love. Egerton was one of those men who never confide their
affairs frankly to women. Nora, when she thus wrote, was wholly in
the dark as to the extent of his stern prosaic distress. And so--and
so--Levy always near--(type of the prose of life in its most cynic
form)--so, by degrees, all that redundant affluence of affection,
with its gushes of grief for his absence, prayers for his return,
sweet reproach if a post failed to bring back an answer to the
woman's yearning sighs--all this grew, to the sensible, positive man
of real life, like sickly romantic exaggeration. The bright arrows
shot too high into heaven to hit the mark set so near to the earth.
Ah! common fate of all superior natures! What treasure, and how
wildly wasted!

"By-the-by," said Levy, one morning, as he was about to take leave
of Audley and return to town--"by-the-by, I shall be this evening in
the neighborhood of Mrs. Egerton."

EGERTON.--"Say Mrs. Bertram!"

LEVY.--"Ay; will she not be in want of some pecuniary supplies?"

EGERTON.--"My wife!--not yet. I must first be wholly ruined before
she can want; and if I were so, do you think I should not be by her

LEVY.--"I beg pardon, my dear fellow; your pride of gentleman is so
susceptible that it is hard for a lawyer not to wound it unawares.
Your wife, then, does not know the exact state of your affairs?"

EGERTON.--"Of course not. Who would confide to a woman things in
which she could do nothing, except to tease one the more?"

LEVY.--"True, and a poetess, too! I have prevented your finishing
your answer to Mrs. Bertram's last letter. Can I take it--it may
save a day's delay--that is, if you do not object to my calling on
her this evening."

EGERTON (sitting down to his unfinished letter).--"Object! no!"

LEVY (looking at his watch).--"Be quick, or I shall lose the coach."

EGERTON (sealing the letter).--"There. And I should be obliged to
you if you _would_ call; and without alarming her as to my
circumstances, you can just say that you know I am much harassed
about important affairs at present, and so soothe the effects of my
very short answers--"

LEVY.--"To those doubly-crossed, very long, letters--I will."

"Poor Nora," said Egerton, sighing, "she will think this answer
brief and churlish enough. Explain my excuses kindly, so that they
will serve for the future. I really have no time, and no heart for
sentiment. The little I ever had is well-nigh worried out of me.
Still I love her fondly and deeply."

LEVY.--"You must have done so. I never thought it in you to
sacrifice the world to a woman."

EGERTON.--"Nor I either; but," added the strong man, conscious
of that power which rules the world infinitely more than
knowledge--conscious of tranquil courage--"but I have not sacrificed
the world yet. This right arm shall bear up her and myself too."

LEVY.--"Well said! But in the mean while, for heaven's sake, don't
attempt to go to London, nor to leave this place; for, in that case,
I know you will be arrested, and then adieu to all hopes of
Parliament--of a career."

Audley's haughty countenance darkened; as the dog, in his bravest
mood, turns dismayed from the stone plucked from the mire, so, when
Ambition rears itself to defy mankind, whisper "disgrace and a
jail," and, lo, crest-fallen, it slinks away! That evening Levy
called on Nora, and ingratiating himself into her favor by praise of
Egerton, with indirect humble apologetic allusions to his own former
presumption, he prepared the way to renewed visits; she was so
lonely, and she so loved to see one who was fresh from seeing
Audley--one who would talk to her of _him_! By degrees the friendly
respectful visitor thus stole into her confidence; and then, with
all his panegyrics on Audley's superior powers and gifts, he began
to dwell upon the young husband's worldly aspirations, and care for
his career; dwelt on them so as vaguely to alarm Nora--to imply
that, dear as she was, she was still but second to Ambition. His way
thus prepared, he next began to insinuate his respectful pity at her
equivocal position, dropped hints of gossip and slander, feared that
the marriage might be owned too late to preserve reputation. And
then what would be the feelings of the proud Egerton if his wife
were excluded from that world, whose opinion he so prized?
Insensibly thus he led her on to express (though timidly) her own
fear--her own natural desire, in her letters to Audley. When could
the marriage be proclaimed? Proclaimed! Audley felt that to proclaim
such a marriage, at such a moment, would be to fling away his last
cast for fame and fortune. And Harley, too--Harley still so uncured
of his frantic love. Levy was sure to be at hand when letters like
these arrived.

And now Levy went further still in his determination to alienate
these two hearts. He contrived, by means of his various agents, to
circulate through Nora's neighborhood the very slanders at which he
had hinted. He contrived that she should be insulted when she went
abroad, outraged at home by the sneers of her own servant, and
tremble with shame at her own shadow upon her abandoned bridal

Just in the midst of this intolerable anguish, Levy reappeared. His
crowning hour was ripe. He intimated his knowledge of the
humiliations Nora had undergone, expressed his deep compassion,
offered to intercede with Egerton "to do her justice." He used
ambiguous phrases that shocked her ear and tortured her heart, and
thus provoked her on to demand him to explain; and then, throwing
her into a wild state of indefinite alarm, in which he obtained her
solemn promise not to divulge to Audley what he was about to
communicate, he said, with villainous hypocrisy of reluctant shame,
"that her marriage was not strictly legal; that the forms required
by the law had not been complied with; that Audley, unintentionally
or purposely, had left himself free to disown the rite and desert
the bride." While Nora stood stunned and speechless at a falsehood
which, with lawyer-like show, he contrived to make truth-like to her
inexperience, he hurried rapidly on, to reawake on her mind the
impression of Audley's pride, ambition, and respect for worldly
position. "These are your obstacles," said he; "but I think I may
induce him to repair the wrong, and right you at last." Righted at
last--oh infamy!

Then Nora's anger burst forth. She believe such a stain on Audley's

"But where was the honor when he betrayed his friend? Did you not
know that he was intrusted by Lord L'Estrange to plead for him. How
did he fulfill the trust?"

Plead for L'Estrange! Nora had not been exactly aware of this. In
the sudden love preceding those sudden nuptials, so little touching
Harley (beyond Audley's first timid allusions to his suit, and her
calm and cold reply) had been spoken by either.

Levy resumed. He dwelt fully on the trust and the breach of it, and
then said--"In Egerton's world, man holds it far more dishonor to
betray a man than to dupe a woman; and if Egerton could do the one,
why doubt that he would do the other? But do not look at me with
those indignant eyes. Put himself to the test; write to him
to say that the suspicions amid which you live have become
intolerable--that they infect even yourself, despite your
reason--that the secrecy of your nuptials, his prolonged absence,
his brief refusal, on unsatisfactory grounds, to proclaim your tie,
all distract you with a terrible doubt. Ask him, at least (if he
will not yet declare your marriage), to satisfy you that the rites
were legal."

"I will go to him," cried Nora impetuously.

"Go to him!--in his own house! What a scene, what a scandal! Could
he ever forgive you?"

"At least, then, I will implore him to come here. I can not write
such horrible words; I can not--I can not--Go, go."

Levy left her, and hastened to two or three of Audley's most
pressing creditors--men, in fact, who went entirely by Levy's own
advice. He bade them instantly surround Audley's country residence
with bailiffs. Before Egerton could reach Nora, he would thus be
lodged in a jail. These preparations made, Levy himself went down to
Audley, and arrived, as usual, an hour or two before the delivery of
the post.

And Nora's letter came; and never was Audley's grave brow more dark
than when he read it. Still, with his usual decision, he resolved to
obey her wish--rang the bell, and ordered his servant to put up a
change of dress, and send for post-horses.

Levy then took him aside, and led him to the window.

"Look under yon trees. Do you see those men? They are bailiffs. This
is the true reason why I come to you to-day. You can not leave this

Egerton recoiled. "And this frantic, foolish letter at such a time,"
he muttered, striking the open page, full of love in the midst of
terror, with his clenched hand.

O Woman, Woman! if thy heart be deep, and its chords tender, beware
how thou lovest the man with whom all that plucks him from the hard
cares of the work-day world is a frenzy or a folly! He will break
thy heart, he will shatter its chords, he will trample out from its
delicate frame-work every sound that now makes musical the common
air, and swells into unison with the harps of angels.

"She has before written to me," continued Audley, pacing the room
with angry, disordered strides, "asking me when our marriage can be
proclaimed, and I thought my replies would have satisfied any
reasonable woman. But now, now this is worse, immeasurably
worse--she actually doubts my honor! I, who have made such
sacrifices--actually doubts whether I, Audley Egerton, an English
gentleman, could have been base enough to--"

"What?" interrupted Levy, "to deceive your friend L'Estrange? Did
not she know _that_?"

"Sir," exclaimed Egerton, turning white.

"Don't be angry--all's fair in love as in war; and L'Estrange will
live yet to thank you for saving him from such a _mésalliance_. But
you are seriously angry; pray, forgive me."

With some difficulty, and much fawning, the usurer appeased the
storm he had raised in Audley's conscience. And he then heard, as if
with surprise, the true purport of Nora's letter.

"It is beneath me to answer, much less to satisfy such a doubt,"
said Audley. "I could have seen her, and a look of reproach would
have sufficed; but to put my hand to paper, and condescend to write,
'I am not a villain, and I will give you the proofs that I am

"You are quite right; but let us see if we can not reconcile matters
between your pride and her feelings. Write simply this: 'All that
you ask me to say or to explain, I have instructed Levy, as my
solicitor, to say and explain for me; and you may believe him as you
would myself.'"

"Well, the poor fool, she deserves to be punished; and I suppose
that answer will punish her more than a lengthier rebuke. My mind is
so distracted I can not judge of these trumpery woman-fears and
whims; there, I have written as you suggest. Give her all the proof
she needs, and tell her that in six months at farthest, come what
will, she shall bear the name of Egerton, as henceforth she must
share his fate."

"Why say six months?"

"Parliament must be dissolved before then. I shall either obtain a
seat, be secure from a jail, have won field for my energies, or--"

"Or what?"

"I shall renounce ambition altogether--ask my brother to assist me
toward whatever debts remain when all my property is fairly
sold--they can not be much. He has a living in his gift--the
incumbent is old, and, I hear, very ill. I can take orders."

"Sink into a country parson!"

"And learn content. I have tasted it already. She was _then_ by my
side. Explain all to her. This letter, I fear, is too unkind--But to
doubt me thus!"

Levy hastily placed the letter in his pocket-book; and, for fear it
should be withdrawn, took his leave.

And of that letter he made such use, that the day after he had given
it to Nora, she had left the house--the neighborhood; fled, and not
a trace! Of all the agonies in life, that which is most poignant and
harrowing--that which for the time most annihilates reason, and
leaves our whole organization one lacerated, mangled _heart_--is
the conviction that we have been deceived where we placed all the
trust of love. The moment the anchor snaps, the storm comes on--the
stars vanish behind the cloud.

When Levy returned, filled with the infamous hope which had
stimulated his revenge--the hope that if he could succeed in
changing into scorn and indignation Nora's love for Audley, he might
succeed also in replacing that broken and degraded idol--his amaze
and dismay were great on hearing of her departure. For several days
he sought her traces in vain. He went to Lady Jane Horton's--Nora
had not been there. He trembled to go back to Egerton. Surely Nora
would have written to her husband, and, in spite of her promise,
revealed his own falsehood; but as days passed and not a clew was
found, he had no option but to repair to Egerton Hall, taking care
that the bailiffs still surrounded it. Audley had received no line
from Nora. The young husband was surprised and perplexed,
uneasy--but had no suspicion of the truth.

At length Levy was forced to break to Audley the intelligence of
Nora's flight. He gave his own color to it. Doubtless she had gone
to seek her own relations, and take, by their advice, steps to make
her marriage publicly known. This idea changed Audley's first shock
into deep and stern resentment. His mind so little comprehended
Nora's, and was ever so disposed to what is called the common-sense
view of things, that he saw no other mode to account for her flight
and her silence. Odious to Egerton as such a proceeding would be, he
was far too proud to take any steps to guard against it. "Let her do
her worst," said he, coldly, masking emotion with his usual
self-command; "it will be but a nine-days' wonder to the world--a
fiercer rush of my creditors on their hunted prey--"

"And a challenge from Lord L'Estrange."

"So be it," answered Egerton, suddenly placing his hand at his

"What is the matter? Are you ill?"

"A strange sensation here. My father died of a complaint of the
heart, and I myself was once told to guard, through life, against
excess of emotion. I smiled at such a warning then. Let us sit down
to business."

But when Levy had gone, and solitude reclosed round that Man of the
Iron Mask, there grew upon him more and more the sense of a mighty
loss, Nora's sweet loving face started from the shadows of the
forlorn walls. Her docile, yielding temper--her generous,
self-immolating spirit--came back to his memory, to refute the idea
that wronged her. His love, that had been suspended for awhile by
busy cares, but which, if without much refining sentiment, was still
the master-passion of his soul, flowed back into all his
thoughts--circumfused the very atmosphere with a fearful softening
charm. He escaped under cover of the night from the watch of the
bailiffs. He arrived in London. He himself sought every where he
could think of for his missing bride. Lady Jane Horton was confined
to her bed, dying fast--incapable even to receive and reply to his
letter. He secretly sent down to Lansmere to ascertain if Nora had
gone to her parents. She was not there. The Avenels believed her
still with Lady Jane Horton.

He now grew most seriously alarmed; and, in the midst of that alarm,
Levy contrived that he should be arrested for debt; but he was not
detained in confinement many days. Before the disgrace got wind, the
writs were discharged--Levy baffled. He was free. Lord L'Estrange
had learned from Audley's servant what Audley would have concealed
from him out of all the world. And the generous boy--who, besides
the munificent allowance he received from the Earl, was heir to an
independent and considerable fortune of his own, when he should
obtain his majority--hastened to borrow the money and discharge all
the obligations of his friend. The benefit was conferred before
Audley knew of it, or could prevent. Then a new emotion, and perhaps
scarce less stinging than the loss of Nora, tortured the man who had
smiled at the warning of science; and the strange sensation at the
heart was felt again and again.

And Harley, too, was still in search of Nora--would talk of nothing
but her--and looked so haggard and grief-worn. The bloom of the
boy's youth was gone. Could Audley then have said, "She you seek is
another's; your love is razed out of your life. And, for
consolation, learn that your friend has betrayed you?" Could Audley
say this? He did not dare. Which of the two suffered the most?

And these two friends, of characters so different, were so
singularly attached to each other. Inseparable at school--thrown
together in the world, with a wealth of frank confidences between
them, accumulated since childhood. And now, in the midst of all his
own anxious sorrow, Harley still thought and planned for Egerton.
And self-accusing remorse, and all the sense of painful gratitude,
deepened Audley's affection for Harley into a devotion as to a
superior, while softening it into a reverential pity that yearned to
relieve, to atone;--but how--oh; how?

A general election was now at hand, still no news of Nora. Levy kept
aloof from Audley, pursuing his own silent search. A seat for the
borough of Lansmere was pressed upon Audley not only by Harley, but
his parents, especially by the Countess, who tacitly ascribed to
Audley's wise counsels Nora's mysterious disappearance.

Egerton at first resisted the thought of a new obligation to his
injured friend; but he burned to have it some day in his power to
repay at least his pecuniary debt: the sense of that debt humbled
him more than all else. Parliamentary success might at last obtain
for him some lucrative situation abroad, and thus enable him
gradually to remove this load from his heart and his honor. No other
chance of repayment appeared open to him. He accepted the offer, and
went down to Lansmere. His brother, lately married, was asked to
meet him; and there, also, was Miss Leslie the heiress, whom Lady
Lansmere secretly hoped her son Harley would admire, but who had
long since, no less secretly, given her heart to the unconscious

Meanwhile, the miserable Nora, deceived by the arts and
representations of Levy--acting on the natural impulse of a heart so
susceptible to shame--flying from a home which she deemed
dishonored--flying from a lover whose power over her she knew to be
so great, that she dreaded lest he might reconcile her to dishonor
itself--had no thought save to hide herself forever from Audley's
eye. She would not go to her relations--to Lady Jane; that were to
give the clew, and invite the pursuit. An Italian lady of high rank
had visited at Lady Jane's--taken a great fancy to Nora--and the
lady's husband, having been obliged to precede her return to Italy,
had suggested the notion of engaging some companion--the lady had
spoken of this to Nora and to Lady Jane Horton, who had urged Nora
to accept the offer, elude Harley's pursuit, and go abroad for a
time. Nora then had refused;--for she then had seen Audley Egerton.

To this Italian lady she now went, and the offer was renewed with
the most winning kindness, and grasped at in the passion of despair.
But the Italian had accepted invitations to English country houses
before she finally departed for the Continent. Meanwhile Nora took
refuge in a quiet lodging in a sequestered suburb, which an English
servant in the employment of the fair foreigner recommended. Thus
had she first came to the cottage in which Burley died. Shortly
afterward she left England with her new companion, unknown to
all--to Lady Jane as to her parents.

All this time the poor girl was under a moral delirium--a confused
fever--haunted by dreams from which she sought to fly. Sound
physiologists agree that madness is rarest among persons of the
finest imagination. But those persons are, of all others, liable to
a temporary state of mind in which judgment sleeps--imagination
alone prevails with a dire and awful tyranny. A single idea gains
ascendency--expels all others--presents itself every where with an
intolerable blinding glare. Nora was at that time under the dread
one idea--to fly from shame!



     [8] Continued from the July Number.



We have just returned from the Park and City-Hall, and from
witnessing the long procession, "melancholy, slow," that accompanied
the remains of the "Great Commoner" and great statesman, HENRY CLAY,
to their temporary resting-place in the Governor's Room. It was not
the weeping flags at half-mast throughout the city; not the tolling
of the bells, the solemn booming of the minute-guns, nor the
plaintive strains of funereal music, which brought the tears to the
eyes of thousands, as the mournful cavalcade passed on. For here
were the lifeless limbs, the dimmed eye, the hushed voice, that
never should move, nor sparkle, nor resound in eloquent tones again!

The last time we had seen Henry Clay was, standing in an open
barouche, on the very spot where his hearse now paused, in front of
the City-Hall. He was addressing then a vast concourse of his
fellow-citizens, who had assembled to do him honor; and never shall
we forget the exquisite grace of his gestures, the melodious tones
of his matchless voice, and the _interior look_ of his eyes--as if
he were rather spoken _from_, than _speaking_. It was an occasion
not to be forgotten.

It is proposed, in the present article, to afford the reader some
opportunity of judging of the character and manner of Mr. Clay, both
as an orator and a man, and of his general habits, from a few
characteristic anecdotes and incidents, which have been well
authenticated heretofore, or are now for the first time communicated
to the writer. Biography, in Mr. Clay's case, has already occupied
much of the space of all our public journals; we shall, therefore,
omit particulars which are now more or less familiar to the general

It was the remark of a distinguished Senator, that Mr. Clay's
eloquence was absolutely intangible to delineation; that the most
labored and thrilling description could not embrace it; and that, to
be understood, it must be _seen_ and _felt_. During his long public
life he enchanted millions, and no one could tell _how_ he did it.
He was _an orator by nature_. His eagle eye burned with true
patriotic ardor, or dashed indignation and defiance upon his foes,
or was suffused with tears of commiseration or of pity; and it was
because _he_ felt, that he made _others_ feel. "The clear
conception, the high purpose, the firm resolve, the dauntless
spirit, speaking on the tongue, beaming from the eye, informing
every feature, and urging the whole man onward, right onward to his
object"--_this_ was the eloquence of Henry Clay; or, rather, to
pursue the definition, "it was something greater and higher than
eloquence; it was _action_--noble, sublime, GOD-like."

While the coffin containing all that remained of the great Orator of
Nature was being carried up the steps of the City-Hall, a by-stander
remarked, in hearing of the writer:

Well, we never shall look upon _his_ like again. What an orator he
was! I heard him speak but once, yet that once I shall always
remember. It was a good many years ago, now. It was in the immense
car-house, or dépôt, at Syracuse. The crowd was immense; and every
eye was turned toward the platform from which he was to speak, as if
the whole crowd were but one expectant face.

Presently he arose--tall, erect as a statue; looked familiarly
around upon the audience, as if he were in an assembly of personal
friends (as in truth he was), and began. He commenced amidst the
most breathless silence; and as he warmed up with his subject, there
was not a look of his eye, not a movement of his long, graceful
right arm, not a swaying of his body, that was not full of grace
and effect. Such a voice I never heard. It was wonderful![9]

Once he took out his snuff-box, and, after taking a pinch of snuff,
and returning the box to his pocket, he illustrated a point which he
was making by an anecdote:

"While I was abroad," said he, "laboring to arrange the terms of the
Treaty of Ghent, there appeared a report of the negotiations, or
letters relative thereto; and several quotations from my remarks or
letters, touching certain stipulations in the treaty, reached
Kentucky, and were read by my constituents.

"Among them, was an odd old fellow, who went by the nickname of
'_Old Sandusky_,' and he was reading one of these letters, one
evening, at a near resort, to a small collection of the neighbors.
As he read on, he came across the sentence, 'This must be deemed a
_sine qua non_."

"'What's a _sine qua non_?' said a half-dozen by-standers.

"'Old Sandusky' was a little bothered at first, but his good sense
and natural shrewdness was fully equal to a 'mastery of the Latin.'

"'_Sine--qua--non?_' said 'Old Sandusky,' repeating the question
very slowly; 'why, _Sine Qua Non_ is three islands in Passamaquoddy
Bay, and Harry Clay is the last man to give them up! 'No _Sine Qua
Non_, no treaty,' he says; and he'll stick to it!'"

You should have seen the laughing eye, the change in the speaker's
voice and manner, said the narrator, to understand the electric
effect the story had upon the audience.

Previous to Mr. Clay's entrance upon public life in the service of
his country, and while he was yet young in the practice of the law,
in Kentucky, the following striking incident is related of him:

Two Germans, father and son, were indicted for murder, and were
tried for the crime. Mr. Clay was employed to defend them. The act
of killing was proved by evidence so clear and strong, that it was
considered not only a case of murder, but an exceedingly aggravated
one. The trial lasted five days, at the close of which he addressed
the jury in the most impassioned and eloquent manner; and they were
so moved by his pathetic appeals, that they rendered a verdict of
manslaughter only. After another hard day's struggle, he succeeded
in obtaining an arrest of judgment, by which his clients, in whose
case he thought there was an absence of all "malice prepense," were
set at liberty.

They expressed their gratitude in the warmest terms to their
deliverer, in which they were joined by an old and ill-favored
female, the wife of one and the mother of the other, who adopted a
different mode, however, of tendering _her_ thanks, which was by
throwing her arms round Mr. Clay's neck, and repeatedly kissing him,
in the presence of a crowded court-room!

Mr. Clay respected her feelings too much to repulse her; but he was
often afterward heard to say, that it was "the longest and strongest
embrace he ever encountered in his professional practice!"

In civil suits, at this period, Mr. Clay gained almost equal
celebrity, and especially in the settlement of land claims, at that
time an important element in Western litigation. It is related of
him, at this stage of his career, that being engaged in a case which
involved immense interests, he associated with him a prominent
lawyer to whom he intrusted its management, as urgent business
demanded his absence from court. Two days were occupied in
discussing the legal points that were to govern the instructions of
the court to the jury, on every one of which his colleague was
frustrated. Mr. Clay returned, however, before a decision was
rendered, and without acquainting himself with the nature of the
testimony, or ascertaining the manner in which the discussion had
been conducted, after conferring a few moments with his associate,
he prepared and presented in a few words the form in which he wished
the instructions to be given, accompanying it with his reasons,
which were so convincing that the suit was terminated in his favor
in less than one hour after he re-entered the court-room.

Thus early, and in a career merely professional, did Henry Clay
commence his sway over the minds of deliberative men.

The subjoined incident, connected with Mr. Clay's style of
"stump-speaking" is related in "Mallory's Life" of our illustrious
subject. It illustrates his tact and ingenuity in seizing and
turning to good account trivial circumstances:

Mr. Clay had been speaking for some time, when a company of
riflemen, who had been performing military exercise, attracted by
his attitude, concluded to "go and hear what the fellow had to say,"
as they termed it, and accordingly drew near. They listened with
respectful attention, and evidently with deep interest, until he
closed, when one of their number, a man of about fifty years of age,
who had seen much back-wood's service, stood leaning on his rifle,
regarding the young speaker with a fixed and sagacious look.

He was apparently the Nimrod of the company, for he exhibited every
characteristic of a "mighty hunter." He had buckskin breeches, and
hunting-shirt, coon-skin cap, black bushy beard, and a visage of the
color and texture of his bullet-pouch. At his belt hung the knife
and hatchet, and the huge, indispensable powder-horn across a breast
bare and brown as the hills he traversed in his forays, yet it
covered a brave and noble heart.

He beckoned with his hand to Mr. Clay to approach him.

Mr. Clay immediately complied.

"Young man," said he, "you want to go to the Legislature, I see."

"Why, yes," replied Mr. Clay; "yes, I _should_ like to go, since my
friends have put me up as a candidate before the people. I don't
wish to be defeated, of course; few people do."

"Are you a good shot, young man?" asked the hunter.

"I consider myself as good as any in the county."

"Then you shall go: but you must give us a specimen of your skill;
we must see you shoot."

"I never shoot any rifle but my own, and that is at home," said the
young orator.

"No matter," quickly responded the hunter, "here's _Old Bess_; she
never failed yet in the hands of a marksman. She has put a bullet
through many a squirrel's head at a hundred yards, and day-light
through many a red-skin _twice_ that distance. If you can shoot
_any_ gun, young man, you can shoot 'Old Bess!'"

"Very well, then," replied Mr. Clay, "put up your mark! put up your

The target was placed at about the distance of eighty yards, when,
with all the coolness and steadiness of an old experienced marksman,
he drew "Old Bess" to his shoulder, and fired. The bullet pierced
the target near the centre.

"Oh, that's a chance-shot! a chance-shot!" exclaimed several of his
political opponents; "he might shoot all day, and not hit the mark
again. Let him try it over!--let him try it over!"

"No, no," retorted Mr. Clay, "_beat that_, and _then_ I will!"

As no one seemed disposed to make the attempt, it was considered
that he had given satisfactory proof of being, as he said, "the best
shot in the county;" and this unimportant incident gained him the
vote of every hunter and marksman in the assembly, which was
composed principally of that class of persons, as well as the
support of the same throughout the county. Mr. Clay was frequently
heard to say: "I had never before fired a rifle, and have not

It was in turning little things like these to account, that Mr.
Clay, in the earlier period of his career, was so remarkable. Two
other instances in this kind, although not new, may be appropriately
mentioned in this connection.

In 1805 an attempt was made to obtain the removal of the capital
from Frankfort, Kentucky. Mr. Clay, in a speech delivered at the
time, reverted to the physical appearance of the place, as
furnishing an argument in favor of the proposed removal. Frankfort
is walled in on all sides by towering, rocky precipices, and in its
general conformation, is not unlike a great pit. "It presents," said
Mr. Clay, in his remarks upon the subject, "the model of an inverted
hat. Frankfort is the body of the hat, and the lands adjacent are
the brim. To change the figure, it is Nature's great penitentiary;
and if the members would know the bodily condition of the
prisoners, let them look at those poor creatures in the gallery."

As he said this, he directed the attention of the members of the
Legislature to some half-dozen emaciated, spectre-like specimens of
humanity, who happened to be moping about there, looking as if they
had just stolen a march from the grave-yard. On observing the eyes
of the House thus turned toward them, and aware of their ill-favored
aspect, they screened themselves with such ridiculous precipitancy
behind the pillars and railing, as to cause the most violent
laughter. This well-directed hit was successful; and the House gave
their votes in favor of the measure.

The second instance is doubtless more familiar to the reader; but
having "spoken of guns," it may not be amiss to quote it here:

During an excited political canvass, Mr. Clay met an old hunter, who
had previously been his devoted friend, but who now opposed him, on
the ground of "the Compensation bill."

"Have you a good rifle, my friend?" asked Mr. Clay.

"Yes," said the hunter.

"Does it ever flash in the pan?" continued Mr. Clay.

"It never did but once in the world," said the hunter, exultingly.

"Well, what did you do with it? You didn't throw it away, did you?"

"No; I picked the flint, tried it again, and brought down the game."

"Have _I_ ever 'flashed,'" continued Mr. Clay, "except on the
'Compensation bill?'"

"No, I can't say that you ever did."

"Well, will you throw _me_ away?" said Mr. Clay.

"No, no!" responded the huntsman, touched on the right point; "no;
_I'll pick the flint, and try you again!_"

And ever afterward he was the unwavering friend of Mr. Clay.

From the same authority we derive another election anecdote, which
Mr. Clay was wont to mention to his friends. In a political canvass
in Kentucky, Mr. Clay, and Mr. Pope a one-armed man, were candidates
for the same office. An Irish barber, residing at Lexington, had
always given Mr. Clay his vote, and on all occasions, when he was a
candidate for office, electioneered warmly for him. He was "Irish
all over," and was frequently in "scrapes," from which Mr. Clay
generally succeeded in rescuing him. Somebody, just before the
election took place, "came the evil eye" over him; for when asked
who he was going to vote for, he replied, "I mane to vote for the
man who can't put more nor _one hand_ into the threasury!"

A few days after the election, the barber met Mr. Clay in Lexington,
and approaching him, began to cry, saying that he had wronged him,
and repented his ingratitude. "My wife," said he, "got round me,
blubbering, and tould me that I was _too bad_, to desert, like a
base spalpeen, me ould frind. 'Niver's the time,' says she 'when
you got in jail or in any bad fix _niver's_ the time he didn't come
and help you out. Och! bad luck to ye for not giving him your
vote!'" Mr. Clay never failed to gain his vote afterward.

An anecdote is related of Mr. Clay, aptly illustrating his ability
to encounter opposition, in whatever manner presented. A Senator
from Connecticut had endeavored to inspire the younger members of
the Senate with a respect for him, nearly allied to awe; and to this
end was accustomed to use toward them harsh and haughty language,
but especially to make an ostentatious display of his attainments,
and his supposed superior knowledge of the subject under discussion.
Mr. Clay could ill brook his insolent looks and language, and
haughty, overbearing manner, and took occasion in his speech to hit
them off, which he did by quoting Peter Pindar's Magpie,

      "Thus have I seen a magpie in the street,
      A chattering bird we often meet,
      A bird for curiosity well known,
                        With head awry,
                        And cunning eye,
      Peep knowingly into a marrow-bone!"

"It would be difficult," says the biographer who relates this
circumstance, "to say which was the greater, the merriment which
this sally caused, or the chagrin of the satirized Senator."

A striking instance of the simplicity as well as humanity of Mr.
Clay's character is given in the following authentic anecdote of
him, while a member of the House of Representatives:

"Almost every body in Washington City will remember an old he-goat,
which formerly inhabited a livery-stable on Pennsylvania Avenue.
This animal was the most independent citizen of the metropolis. He
belonged to no party, although he frequently gave pedestrians
'striking' proofs of his adhesion to the 'leveling' principle; for,
whenever a person stopped any where in the vicinity, 'Billy' was
sure to 'make at him,' horns and all. The boys took delight in
irritating him, and frequently so annoyed him that he would 'butt'
against lamp-posts and trees, to their great amusement.

"One day, Henry Clay was passing along the avenue, and seeing the
boys intent on worrying Billy into a fever, stopped, and with
characteristic humanity expostulated with them upon their cruelty.
The boys listened in silent awe to the eloquent appeal of the
'Luminary of the West,' but it was all Cherokee to Billy, who--the
ungrateful scamp!--arose majestically on his hind legs, and made a
desperate plunge at his friend and advocate. Mr. Clay, however,
proved too much for his horned adversary. He seized both horns of
the dilemma, and then came the 'tug of war.' The struggle was long
and doubtful.

"'Ha!' exclaimed the statesman, 'I've got you fast, you old rascal!
I'll teach you better manners than to attack your friends! But,
boys, he continued, 'what shall I do _now_?'

"'Why, trip up his feet, Mr. Clay.' Mr. Clay did as he was told, and
after many severe efforts brought Billy down on his side. Here he
looked at the boys imploringly, seeming to say, 'I never was in such
a fix as _this_ before!'

"The combatants were now nearly exhausted; but the goat had the
advantage, for he was gaining breath all the while the statesman was
losing it.

"'Boys!' exclaimed Mr. Clay, puffing and blowing, 'this is rather an
awkward business. What am I to do _next_?"

"'Why, don't you know?' said a little fellow, making his own
preparations to run, as he spoke: 'all you've got to do is to let
go, and run like blazes!' The hint was taken at once, much to the
amusement of the boys who had been 'lectured.'"

The collisions between Mr. Clay and Randolph in Congress and out of
it, are well known to the public. The following circumstance,
however, has seldom been quoted. When the Missouri Compromise
question was before Congress, and the fury of the contending parties
had broken down almost every barrier of order and decency, Mr.
Randolph, much excited, approaching Mr. Clay, said:

"Mr. Speaker, I wish you would leave the House. I will follow you to
Kentucky, or any where else in the world."

Mr. Clay regarded him with one of his most searching looks for an
instant; and then replied, in an under-tone:

"Mr. Randolph, your proposition is an exceedingly serious one, and
demands most serious consideration. Be kind enough to call at my
room to-morrow morning, and we will deliberate over it together."

Mr. Randolph called punctually at the moment; they talked long upon
the much-agitated subject, without coming to any agreement, and Mr.
Randolph arose to leave.

"Mr. Randolph," said Mr. Clay, as the former was about stepping from
the house, "with your permission, I will embrace the present
occasion to observe, that your language and deportment on the floor
of the House, it has occurred to me, were rather indecorous and
ungentlemanly, on several occasions, and very annoying, indeed, to
me; for, being in the chair, I had no opportunity of replying."

While admitting that this might, perhaps, be so, Mr. Randolph
excused it, on the ground of Mr. Clay's inattention to his remarks,
and asking for a pinch of snuff while he was addressing him, &c, &c.
Mr. Clay, in reply, said:

"Oh, you are certainly mistaken, Mr. Randolph, if you think I do not
listen to you. I frequently turn away my head, it is true, and ask
for a pinch of snuff; still, I hear every thing you say, although I
may _seem_ to hear nothing; and, retentive as I know your memory to
be, I will wager that I can repeat as many of your speeches as you
yourself can!"

"Well," answered Randolph, "I don't know but I _am_ mistaken; and
suppose we drop the matter, shake hands, and become good friends

"Agreed!" said Mr. Clay, extending his hand, which was cordially
grasped by Mr. Randolph.

During the same session, and some time before this interview, Mr.
Randolph accosted Mr. Clay with a look and manner much agitated, and
exhibited to him a letter, couched in very abusive terms,
threatening to cowhide him, &c., and asked Mr. Clay's advice as to
the course he should pursue in relation to it.

"What caused the writer to send you such an insulting epistle, Mr.
Randolph?" asked Mr. Clay.

"Why, I suppose," said Randolph, "it was in consequence of what I
said to him the other day."

"What _did_ you say?"

"Why, sir, I was standing in the vestibule of the house, when the
writer came up and introduced to me a gentleman who accompanied him;
and I asked him what right he had to introduce that man to me, and
told him that the man had just as good a right to introduce _him_ to
me; whereat he was very indignant, said I had treated him
scandalously, and turning on his heel, went away. I think that must
have made him write the letter."

"Don't you think he was _a little out of his head_ to talk in that
way?" asked Mr. Clay.

"Why, I've been thinking about that," said Randolph: "I _have_ some
doubts respecting his sanity."

"Well, that being the case, would it not be the wisest course
not to bring the matter before the House? I will direct the
sergeant-at-arms to keep a sharp look-out for the man, and to cause
him to be arrested should he attempt any thing improper."

Mr. Randolph acquiesced in this opinion, and nothing more was ever
heard of the subject.

Another incident, touching Mr. Clay and Mr. Randolph, will be read
with interest:

At one time Mr. Randolph, in a strain of most scorching irony, had
indulged in some personal taunts toward Mr. Clay, commiserating his
ignorance and limited education, to whom Mr. Clay thus replied:

"Sir, the gentleman from Virginia was pleased to say, that in one
point at least he coincided with me--in an humble estimate of my
philological acquirements. Sir, I know my deficiencies. I was born
to no proud patrimonial estate from my father. I inherited only
infancy, ignorance, and indigence. I feel my defects: but, so far as
my situation in early life is concerned, I may without presumption
say, they are more my misfortune than my fault. But, however I may
deplore my inability to furnish to the gentleman a better specimen
of powers of verbal criticism, I will venture to say my regret is
not greater than the disappointment of this committee, as to the
strength of his argument."

The particulars of the duel between Mr. Randolph and Mr. Clay may be
unknown to some of our readers. The eccentric descendant of
Pocahontas appeared on the ground in a huge morning gown. This
garment constituted such a vast circumference that the "locality of
the swarthy Senator," was at least a matter of very vague
conjecture. The parties exchanged shots, and the ball of Mr. Clay
hit the centre of the visible object, but Mr. Randolph was not
there! The latter had fired in the air, and immediately after the
exchange of shots he walked up to Mr. Clay, parted the folds of his
gown, pointed to the hole where the bullet of the former had pierced
his coat, and, in the shrillest tones of his piercing voice,
exclaimed, "Mr. Clay, you owe me a coat--you owe me a coat!" to
which Mr. Clay replied, in a voice of slow and solemn emphasis, at
the same time pointing directly at Mr. Randolph's heart, "Mr.
Randolph, I thank God that I am no _deeper_ in your debt!"

The annexed rejoinder aptly illustrates Mr. Clay's readiness at

At the time of the passage of the tariff-bill, as the house was
about adjourning, a friend of the bill observed to Mr. Clay, "We
have done pretty well to-day." "Very well, indeed," rejoined Mr.
Clay--"_very_ well: we made a good stand, considering we lost both
our _Feet_;" alluding to Mr. Foote of New York, and Mr. Foot of
Connecticut, both having opposed the bill, although it was
confidently expected, a short time previous, that both would support

After the nomination of General Taylor as a candidate for the
Presidency, made by the Whig Convention at Philadelphia, in June,
1848, many of the friends of Mr. Clay were greatly dissatisfied, not
to say exasperated, by what they deemed an abandonment of principle,
and unfairness in the proceedings of that body: meetings were held
in this city, at which delegates from the northern and western parts
of this State and from the State of New Jersey attended, and various
arrangements, preliminary to placing Mr. Clay again in nomination
for that office, were made, and perfected. These steps were not
concealed, and many of the friends of General Taylor were so
uncharitable as to avow their belief that this dissatisfaction was
fostered and encouraged by Mr. Clay himself. The following extract
from a letter written to a friend in this city,[10] one who had from
the beginning opposed the movement, will exhibit Mr. Clay's true
sentiments on that subject:

                                  "ASHLAND, _16th October, 1848_.

     "MY DEAR SIR--I duly received your obliging letter of the
     5th instant, and I have perused it with the greatest

     "The vivid picture which you have drawn of the enthusiastic
     attachment, the unbounded confidence, and the entire
     devotion of my warm-hearted friends in the city of New York,
     has filled me with the liveliest emotions of gratitude.

     "There was but one more proof wanting of their goodness, to
     complete and perpetuate my great obligations to them, and
     that they have kindly given, in deference to my anxious
     wishes; it was, not to insist upon the use of my name as a
     candidate for the Presidency, after the promulgation of my
     desire to the contrary."

In another letter, to the same party, written a few weeks earlier,
occurs the following touching passage, indicating his sense of the
oppressive loneliness with which he was then surrounded. Referring
to the recent departure of his son James on his mission to Portugal,
accompanied by his family, he says:

     "If they had, as I hope, a prosperous voyage, they will have
     arrived at Liverpool about the same day that I reached home.
     My separation from them, probably for a length of time, the
     uncertainty of life rendering it not unlikely that I may
     never see them again, and the deep and affectionate interest
     I take in their welfare and happiness, has been extremely

     "I find myself now, toward the close of my life, in one
     respect, in a condition similar to that with which I began
     it. Mrs. Clay and I commenced it alone: and after having had
     eleven children, of whom four only remain, our youngest son
     is the sole white person residing with us."

We are indebted to the same obliging gentleman from whom we derive
the foregoing, for the following graphic description of a visit paid
to Mr. Clay in his sick chamber at Washington:

"On Monday, the first of March last, at about one o'clock, at the
National Hotel, Washington, having sent in my name, Mr. Clay kindly
admitted me to his room. I found it darkened by heavy closed
curtains, and the sufferer seated in an easy chair at the remote
end, near a moderate coal-fire. I approached him rapidly, and,
taking his extended soft hand and attenuated fingers, said, 'My dear
sir, I am most honored and gratified by this privilege of being
again permitted to renew to you, personally, the expression of my
unabated attachment and reverence.'

"'But, my dear sir,' he playfully answered, 'you have a very cold
hand to convey these sentiments to an invalid such as I am. Come,
draw up a chair, and sit near me; I am compelled to use my voice but
little, and very carefully.'

"Doing as he desired, I expressed my deep regret that he was still
confined to a sick room, and added, that I hoped the return of
spring, and the early recurrence of warmer weather would mitigate
his more urgent symptoms, and enable him again to visit the Senate

"'Sir,' said he, 'these are the kind wishes of a friend, but that
hope does not commend itself to my judgment. You may remember that
last year I visited the Havanna, in the expectation that its
remarkably genial and mild climate would benefit me--but I found no
relief; thence to New Orleans, a favorite resort of mine, with no
better result. I even became impatient for the return of autumn,
thinking that possibly its clear bracing atmosphere at Ashland might
lessen my distressing cough; but sir, the Havanna, New Orleans, and
Ashland have all failed to bring me any perceptible benefit.'

"'May I ask, my dear sir, what part of the twenty-four hours are you
most comfortable?'

"'Fortunately, sir, _very_ fortunately--I should add,
_mercifully_--during the night. Then, I am singularly placid and
composed: I am very wakeful, and during the earlier part of it my
thoughts take a wide range, but I lie most tranquilly, without any
sensation of weariness, or nervous excitement, and toward day fall
into a quiet and undisturbed sleep; this continues to a late hour in
the morning, when I rise and breakfast about ten o'clock.
Subsequently my cough for an hour or two, is very exhausting. After
one o'clock, and during the evening, I am tolerably free of it, and
during this period, I see a few of my close personal friends. And
thus passes the twenty-four hours.'

"'I was grieved to learn, through the public prints, that Mrs. Clay
has been ill; may I hope that she is better?'

"'She has been sick; indeed, at one time, I was much alarmed at her
situation; but I thank GOD,' (_with deep emotion_,) 'she is quite

"'I almost expected the gratification of meeting your son James and
his wife here.'

"'No, sir; you may remember that I once told you that he had made a
very fortunate investment in the suburbs of St. Louis. This property
has become valuable, and requires his attention and management: he
has removed thither with his family. It's a long way off, and I
would not have them make a winter journey here; beside, I have every
comfort and attention that a sick man can require. My apartments, as
you perceive, are far removed from the noise and bustle of the
house; and I am surrounded by warm and anxious friends, ever seeking
to anticipate my wishes.'

"During this brief conversation--in which we were quite alone--Mr.
Clay had several paroxysms of coughing. Once he rose and walked
across the room to a spittoon. The most careful use of his voice
seemed greatly and constantly to irritate his lungs. I could not
prolong the interview, though thoroughly impressed with the
belief--since mournfully verified--that it would be the last.

"I rose, took my leave, invoking God's blessing on him; and, as in
the presence of Royalty, bowed myself out of the room backward.

"On rising from his seat, as above remarked, he stood as erect and
commanding as ever; and while sitting in close proximity to him, his
burning eye fixed intently upon me, it seemed as if rays of light
were emitted from each. This phenomenon is not unusual in
consumptive patients, the extraordinary brilliancy of the eye being
often remarked; but in Mr. Clay's case it was so intense as to make
me almost nervous, partaking as it did of the supernatural.

"I have thus given you the arrangement, and very nearly the precise
words,[11] of this my last interview with one of the greatest men of
the age. It was altogether a scene to be remembered--a sick room,
with the thoughts of a nation daily directed to it! It is full of
pathos, and approaches the sublime."

The day previous to the call and conversation above described, the
Editor of the _Knickerbocker Magazine_ saw Mr. Clay in the street at
Washington, and thus mentions the fact in the "Gossip" of his April
Number: "Passing the National Hotel at two o'clock, on this bright
and cloudless warm Sunday, we saw a tall figure, clad in a blue
cloak, attended only by a lady and child, enter a carriage before
the door. Once seen, it was a face never to be forgotten. It was
Henry Clay. That eagle-eye was not dimmed, although the great
statesman's force was abated. We raised our hat, and bowed our
reverence and admiration. Our salutation was gracefully returned,
and the carriage was driven away.

"As we walked on, to keep an engagement to dine, we thought of the
late words of that eminent patriot: 'If the days of my usefulness,
as I have too much reason to fear, be indeed passed, I desire not to
linger an impotent spectator of the oft-scanned field of life. I
have never looked upon old age, deprived of the faculty of
enjoyment, of intellectual perceptions and energies, with any
sympathy; and for such I think the day of fate can not arrive too
soon.' One can hardly choose but drop a tear over such a remark from
such a man."

Thus "broken with the storms of state," and scathed with many a
fiery conflict, Henry Clay gradually descended toward the tomb.
"During this period," says one of his Kentucky colleagues, "he
conversed much and cheerfully with his friends, and took great
interest in public affairs. While he did not expect a restoration to
health, he cherished the hope that the mild season of spring would
bring him strength enough to return to Ashland, that he might die in
the bosom of his family. But, alas! spring, that brings life to all
Nature, brought no life nor hope to him. After the month of March,
his vital powers rapidly wasted, and for weeks he lay patiently
awaiting the stroke of death. The approach of the destroyer had no
terror for him. No clouds overhung his future. He met his end with
composure, and his pathway to the grave was lightened by the
immortal hopes which spring from the Christian faith. Not long
before his death, having just returned from Kentucky, I bore to him
a token of affection from his excellent wife. Never can I forget his
appearance, his manner, or his words. After speaking of his family
and his country, he changed the conversation to his own fortune,
and, looking on me with his fine eyes undimmed, and his voice full
of its original compass and melody, he said: 'I am not afraid to
die, sir; I have hope, faith, and some confidence: I do not think
any man can be entirely certain in regard to his future state, but I
have an abiding trust in the merits and mediation of our Saviour.'"

"On the evening previous to his departure," writes his excellent
pastor and faithful attendant, Rev. Dr. Butler, "sitting an hour in
silence by his side, I could not but realize--when I heard him in
the slight wanderings of his mind, to other days and other scenes,
murmuring the words, 'My mother, mother, mother!' and saying, 'My
dear wife!' as if she were present. I could not but realize then,
and rejoiced to think, how near was the blessed re-union of his
weary heart with the loved dead, and the living who must soon
follow him to his rest, whose spirits even then seemed to visit and
to cheer his memory and his hope."

Mr. Clay's countenance immediately after death looked like an
antique cast. His features seemed to be perfectly classical; and the
repose of all the muscles gave the lifeless body a quiet majesty,
seldom reached by living human being. His last request was that his
body might be buried, not in Washington, but in his own family vault
in his beloved Kentucky, by the side of his relations and friends.
May he rest in peace in his honored grave!


     [9] A gentleman, after hearing one of Mr. Clay's magnificent
     performances in the Senate, thus describes him: "Every
     muscle of the orator's face was at work. His whole body
     seemed agitated, as if each part was instinct with a
     separate life; and his small white hand, with its blue veins
     apparently distended almost to bursting, moved gracefully,
     but with all the energy of rapid and vehement gesture. The
     appearance of the speaker seemed that of a pure intellect,
     wrought up to its mightiest energies, and brightly shining
     through the thin and transparent vail of flesh that invested
     it." It is much to be lamented that no painting exists of
     the departed statesman that really does him justice. What a
     treasure to the country, and to the friends of the "Great
     Commoner," would be a portrait, at this time, from the
     faithful and glowing pencil of our pre-eminent artist,
     Elliott! But it is now "too late".

     [10] NICHOLAS DEAN, Esq., President of the Croton Aqueduct
     Board, a life-long friend of Mr. Clay.

     [11] They were reduced to writing immediately afterward.

A DUEL IN 1830.

I had just arrived at Marseilles with the diligence, in which three
young men, apparently merchants or commercial travelers, were the
companions of my journey. They came from Paris, and were
enthusiastic about the events which had lately happened there, and
in which they boasted of having taken part. I was, for my part,
quiet and reserved; for I thought it much better, at a time of such
political excitement in the south of France, where party passions
always rise so high, to do nothing that would attract attention; and
my three fellow-travelers no doubt looked on me as a plain,
common-place seaman, who had been to the luxurious metropolis for
his pleasure or on business. My presence, it seemed, did not
incommode them, for they talked on as if I had not been there. Two
of them were gay, merry, but rather coarse boon-companions; the
third, an elegant youth, blooming and tall, with luxuriant black
curling hair, and dark soft eyes. In the hotel where we dined, and
where I sat a little distance off, smoking my cigar, the
conversation turned on various love-adventures, and the young man,
whom they called Alfred, showed his comrades a packet of delicately
perfumed letters, and a superb lock of beautiful fair hair.

He told them that in the days of July he had been slightly wounded,
and that his only fear, while he lay on the ground, was, that if he
died, some mischance might prevent Clotilde from weeping over his
grave. "But now all is well," he continued. "I am going to fetch a
nice little sum from my uncle at Marseilles, who is just at this
moment in good-humor, on account of the discomfiture of the Jesuits
and the Bourbons. In my character of one of the heroes of July, he
will forgive me all my present and past follies: I shall pass an
examination at Paris, and then settle down in quiet, and live
happily with my Clotilde." Thus they talked together; and by-and-by
we parted in the court-yard of the coach-office.

Close by was a brilliantly-illumined coffee-house. I entered, and
seated myself at a little table, in a distant corner of the room.
Two persons only were still in the saloon, in an opposite corner,
and before them stood two glasses of brandy. One was an elderly,
stately, and portly gentleman, with dark-red face, and dressed in a
quiet colored suit; it was easy to perceive that he was a clergyman.
But the appearance of the other was very striking. He could not be
far from sixty years of age, was tall and thin, and his gray, indeed
almost white hair, which, however, rose from his head in luxurious
fullness, gave to his pale countenance a peculiar expression that
made one feel uncomfortable. The brawny neck was almost bare; a
simple, carelessly-knotted black kerchief alone encircled it; thick,
silver-gray whiskers met together at his chin; a blue frock-coat,
pantaloons of the same color, silk stockings, shoes with thick
soles, and a dazzlingly-white waistcoat and linen, completed his
equipment. A thick stick leant in one corner, and his broad-brimmed
hat hung against the wall. There was a certain convulsive twitching
of the thin lips of this person, which was very remarkable; and
there seemed, when he looked fixedly, to be a smouldering fire in
his large, glassy, grayish-blue eyes. He was, it was evident, a
seaman like myself--a strong oak that fate had shaped into a mast,
over which many a storm had blustered, but which had been too tough
to be shivered, and still defied the tempest and the lightning.
There lay a gloomy resignation as well as a wild fanaticism in those
features. The large bony hand, with its immense fingers, was spread
out or clenched, according to the turn which the conversation with
the clergyman took. Suddenly he stepped up to me. I was reading a
royalist newspaper. He lighted his cigar.

"You are right, sir; you are quite right not to read those infamous
Jacobin journals." I looked up, and gave no answer. He continued: "A

"Yes, sir."

"And have seen service?"


"You are still in active service?"

"No." And then, to my great satisfaction, for my patience was
well-nigh exhausted, the examination was brought to a conclusion.

Just then, an evil destiny led my three young fellow-travelers into
the room. They soon seated themselves at a table, and drank some
glasses of champagne to Clotilde's health. All went on well; but
when they began to sing the _Marseillaise_ and the _Parisienne_, the
face of the gray man began to twitch, and it was evident a storm was
brewing. Calling to the waiter, he said with a loud voice, "Tell
those blackguards yonder not to annoy me with their low songs!"

The young men sprang up in a fury, and asked if it was to them he

"Whom else should I mean," said the gray man, with a contemptuous

"But we may drink and sing if we like, and to whom we like," said
the young man. "_Vive la République et vive Clotilde!_"

"One as blackguardly as the other!" cried the gray-beard tauntingly;
and a wine-glass, that flew at his head from the hand of the
dark-haired youth, was the immediate rejoinder. Slowly wiping his
forehead, which bled and dripped with the spilled wine, the old man
said quite quietly "To-morrow, at the Cap Verd!" and seated himself
again with the most perfect composure.

The young man expressed his determination to take the matter on
himself; that he alone would settle the quarrel, and promised to
appear on the morrow at the appointed time. They then all departed
noisily. The old man rose quietly, and turning to me, said: "Sir,
you have been witness to the insult; be witness also to the
satisfaction. Here is my address: I shall expect you at five
o'clock. Good-night, Monsieur l'Abbé! To-morrow, there will be one
Jacobin less, and one lost soul the more. Good-night!" and taking
his hat and stick, he departed. His companion the abbé followed soon

I now learned the history of this singular man. He was descended
from a good family of Marseilles. Destined for the navy while still
young, he was sent on board ship before the Revolution, and while
yet of tender years. Later, he was taken prisoner; and after many
strange adventures, returned in 1793 to France: was about to marry,
but having been mixed up with the disturbances at Toulon, managed to
escape by a miracle to England; and learned before long that his
father, mother, one brother, a sister of sixteen years of age, and
his betrothed, had all been led to the guillotine to the tune of the
_Marseillaise_. Thirst for revenge, revenge on the detested
Jacobins, was now his sole aim. For a long time he roved about in
the Indian seas, sometimes as a privateer, at others as a
slave-dealer; and was said to have caused the tri-colored flag much
damage, while he acquired a considerable fortune for himself. With
the return of the Bourbons, he came back to France, and settled at
Marseilles. He lived, however, very retired, and employed his large
fortune solely for the poor, for distressed seamen, and for the
clergy. Alms and masses were his only objects of expense. It may
easily be believed, that he acquired no small degree of popularity
among the lower classes and the clergy. But, strangely enough, when
not at church, he spent his time with the most celebrated
fencing-masters, and had acquired in the use of the pistol and the
sword a dexterity that was hardly to be paralleled. In the year
1815, when the royalist reaction broke out in La Vendee, he roved
about for a long time at the head of a band of followers. When at
last this opportunity of cooling his rage was taken from him by the
return of order, he looked out for some victim who was known to him
by his revolutionary principles, and sought to provoke him to
combat. The younger, the richer, the happier the chosen victim was,
the more desirable did he seem. The landlord told me he himself knew
of seven young persons who had fallen before his redoubted sword.

The next morning at five o'clock, I was at the house of this
singular character. He lived on the ground-floor, in a small simple
room, where, excepting a large crucifix, and a picture covered with
black crape, with the date, 1794, under it, the only ornaments were
some nautical instruments, a trombone, and a human skull. The
picture was the portrait of his guillotined bride; it remained
always vailed, excepting only when he had slaked his revenge with
blood; then he uncovered it for eight days, and indulged himself in
the sight. The skull was that of his mother. His bed consisted of
the usual hammock slung from the ceiling. When I entered, he was at
his devotions, and a little negro brought me meanwhile a cup of
chocolate and a cigar. When he had risen from his knees, he saluted
me in a friendly manner, as if we were merely going for a morning
walk together; afterward he opened a closet, took out of it a case
with a pair of English pistols, and a couple of excellent swords,
which I put under my arm; and thus provided, we proceeded along the
quay toward the port. The boatmen seemed all to know him: "Peter,
your boat!" He seated himself in the stern.

"You will have the goodness to row," he said; "I will take the
tiller, so that my hand may not become unsteady."

I took off my coat, rowed away briskly, and as the wind was
favorable, we hoisted a sail, and soon reached Cap Verd. We could
remark from afar our three young men, who were sitting at breakfast
in a garden, not far from the shore. This was the garden of a
_restaurateur_, and was the favorite resort of the inhabitants of
Marseilles. Here you find excellent fish; and also, in high
perfection, the famous _bollenbresse_, a national dish in Provence,
as celebrated as the _olla podrida_ of Spain. How many a
love-meeting has occurred in this place! But this time it was not
Love that brought the parties together, but Hate, his step-brother;
and in Provence the one is as ardent, quick, and impatient as the

My business was soon accomplished. It consisted in asking the young
men what weapons they chose, and with which of them the duel
was to be fought. The dark-haired youth--his name was M----
L----,--insisted that he alone should settle the business, and his
friends were obliged to give their word not to interfere.

"You are too stout," he said to the one, pointing to his portly
figure; "and you"--to the other--"are going to be married; besides,
I am a first-rate hand with the sword. However, I will not take
advantage of my youth and strength, but will choose the pistol,
unless the gentleman yonder prefers the sword."

A movement of convulsive joy animated the face of my old captain:
"The sword is the weapon of the French gentleman," he said; "I shall
be happy to die with it in my hand."

"Be it so. But your age?"

"Never mind; make haste, and _en garde_."

It was a strange sight: the handsome young man on one side,
overbearing confidence in his look, with his youthful form, full of
grace and suppleness; and opposite him that long figure, half
naked--for his blue shirt was furled up from his sinewy arm, and his
broad, scarred breast was entirely bare. In the old man, every sinew
was like iron wire: his whole weight resting on his left hip, the
long arm--on which, in sailor fashion, a red cross, three lilies,
and other marks, were tattooed--held out before him, and the
cunning, murderous gaze riveted on his adversary.

"'Twill be but a mere scratch," said one of the three friends to me.
I made no reply, but was convinced beforehand that my captain, who
was an old practitioner, would treat the matter more seriously.
Young L----, whose perfumed coat was lying near, appeared to me to
be already given over to corruption. He began the attack, advancing
quickly. This confirmed me in my opinion; for although he might be a
practiced fencer in the schools, this was proof that he could not
frequently have been engaged in serious combat, or he would not have
rushed forward so incautiously against an adversary whom he did not
as yet know. His opponent profited by his ardor, and retired step by
step, and at first only with an occasional ward and half thrust.
Young L----, getting hotter and hotter, grew flurried; while every
ward of his adversary proclaimed, by its force and exactness, the
master of the art of fence. At length the young man made a lunge;
the captain parried it with a powerful movement, and, before L----
could recover his position, made a thrust in return, his whole body
falling forward as he did so, exactly like a picture at the Académie
des Armes--"the hand elevated, the leg stretched out"--and his sword
went through his antagonist, for nearly half its length, just under
the shoulder. The captain made an almost imperceptible turn with his
hand, and in an instant was again _en garde_. L---- felt himself
wounded; he let his sword fall, while with his other hand he pressed
his side; his eyes grew dim, and he sank into the arms of his
friends. The captain wiped his sword carefully, gave it to me, and
dressed himself with the most perfect composure. "I have the honor
to wish you good-morning, gentlemen: had you not sung yesterday, you
would not have had to weep to-day;" and thus saying, he went toward
his boat. "'Tis the seventeenth!" he murmured; "but this was easy
work--a mere greenhorn from the fencing-schools of Paris. 'Twas a
very different thing when I had to do with the old Bonapartist
officers, those brigands of the Loire." But it is quite impossible
to translate into another language the fierce energy of this speech.
Arrived at the port, he threw the boatman a few pieces of silver,
saying: "Here, Peter; here's something for you."

"Another requiem and a mass for a departed soul, at the church of
St. Géneviève--is it not so, captain? But that is a matter of
course." And soon after we reached the dwelling of the captain.

The little negro brought us a cold pasty, oysters, and two bottles
of _vin d'Artois_. "Such a walk betimes gives an appetite," said the
captain, gayly. "How strangely things fall out!" he continued, in a
serious tone. "I have long wished to draw the crape-vail from before
that picture, for you must know I only deem myself worthy to do so
when I have sent some Jacobin or Bonapartist into the other world,
to crave pardon from that murdered angel; and so I went yesterday to
the coffee-house with my old friend the abbé, whom I knew ever since
he was field-preacher to the Chouans, in the hope of finding a
victim for the sacrifice among the readers of the liberal journals.
The confounded waiters, however, betray my intention; and when I am
there, nobody will ask for a radical paper. When you appeared, my
worthy friend, I at first thought I had found the right man, and I
was impatient--for I had been waiting for more than three hours for
a reader of the 'National' or of 'Figaro.' How glad I am that I at
once discovered you to be no friend of such infamous papers! How
grieved should I be, if I had had to do with you instead of with
that young fellow!" For my part, I was in no mood even for
self-felicitations. At that time, I was a reckless young fellow,
going through the conventionalisms of society without a thought; but
the event of the morning had made even me reflect.

"Do you think he will die, captain?" I asked. "Is the wound mortal?"

"For certain!" he replied, with a slight smile. "I have a knack--of
course for Jacobins and Bonapartists only--when I thrust _en
quarte_, to draw out the sword by an imperceptible movement of the
hand, _en tierce_, or _vice versâ_, according to circumstances; and
thus the blade turns in the wound--_and that kills_; for the lung is
injured, and mortification is sure to follow."

On returning to my hotel, where L---- also was staying, I met the
physician, who had just visited him. He gave up all hope. The
captain spoke truly, for the slight movement of the hand and the
turn of the blade had accomplished their aim, and the lung was
injured beyond the power of cure. The next morning early, L----
died. I went to the captain, who was returning home with the abbé.
"The abbé has just been to read a mass for him," he said; "it is a
benefit which, on such occasions, I am willing he should
enjoy--more, however, from friendship for him, than out of pity for
the accursed soul of a Jacobin, which in my eyes is worth less than
a dog's! But walk in, sir."

The picture, a wonderfully lovely maidenly face, with rich curls
falling around it, and in the costume of the last ten years of the
preceding century, was now unvailed. A good breakfast, like that of
yesterday, stood on the table. With a moistened eye, and, turning to
the portrait, he said: "Thérèse, to thy memory!" and emptied his
glass at a draught. Surprised and moved, I quitted the strange man.
On the stairs of the hotel I met the coffin, which was just being
carried up for L----; and I thought to myself: "Poor Clotilde! you
will not be able to weep over his grave."

Monthly Record of Current Events.


Our last Monthly Record reported the proceedings of the Democratic
National Convention held at Baltimore on the 1st of June. On the
16th of the same month, the Whig National Convention met at the same
place, and was permanently organized by the election of Hon. John G.
Chapman, of Maryland, President, with thirty-one Vice-Presidents and
thirteen Secretaries. Two days were occupied in preliminary
business, part of which was the investigation of the right to
several contested seats from the States of Vermont and New York. On
the third day, a committee, consisting of one from each State,
selected by the delegation thereof, was appointed to report a series
of resolutions for the action of the Convention. The resolutions
were reported at the ensuing session, on the same day, by Hon.
George Ashmun, of Massachusetts. They set forth that the Government
of the United States is one of limited powers, all powers not
expressly granted, or necessarily implied by the Constitution, being
reserved to the States or the people;--that while struggling freedom
every where has the warmest sympathy of the Whig party, our true
mission as a Republic is not to propagate our opinions, or to impose
on other countries our form of government by artifice or force, but
to teach by our example, and to show by our success, moderation, and
justice, the blessings of self-government and the advantage of free
institutions;--that revenue ought to be raised by duties on imports
laid with a just discrimination, whereby suitable encouragement may
be afforded to American Industry;--that Congress has power to open
and repair harbors, and remove obstructions from navigable rivers,
whenever such improvements are necessary for the common defense and
for the protection and facility of commerce with foreign nations or
among the States;--that the Compromise acts, including the fugitive
slave law, are received and acquiesced in as a final settlement, in
principle and substance, of the dangerous and exciting questions
which they embrace; that the Whig party will maintain them, and
insist upon their strict enforcement until time and experience shall
demonstrate the necessity of further legislation, to guard against
their evasion or abuse, not impairing their present efficiency; and
that all further agitation of the questions thus settled is
deprecated as dangerous to our peace; and all efforts to continue or
renew that agitation, whenever, wherever, or however the attempt may
be made, will be discountenanced.--These resolutions, after some
discussion, were adopted by a vote of 227 yeas, and 66 nays.
Ballotings for a Presidential candidate were then commenced, and
continued until Monday, the fifth day of the session. There were 396
electoral votes represented in Convention, which made 149 (a
majority) essential to a choice. Upon the first ballot, President
Fillmore received 133, General Scott 131, and Daniel Webster 29
votes; and for fifty ballotings this was nearly the relative number
of votes received by each. On the fifty-third ballot, General Scott
receiving 159 votes, Mr. Fillmore 112, and Mr. Webster 21, the
former was declared to have been duly nominated, and that nomination
was made unanimous. Hon. WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, of North Carolina, was
then nominated on the second ballot for Vice-President; and
resolutions were adopted complimentary to Mr. Fillmore and Mr.
Webster; after which the Convention adjourned.

In reply to a communication from the President of the Convention,
apprising him of his nomination, General Scott has written a letter,
dated June 24th, declaring that he "accepts it with the resolutions
annexed." He adds, that if elected, he shall recommend or approve of
"such measures as shall secure an early settlement of the public
domain favorable to actual settlers, but consistent, nevertheless,
with a due regard to the equal rights of the whole American people
in that vast national inheritance;"--and also of an amendment to our
Naturalization laws, "giving to all foreigners the right of
citizenship who shall faithfully serve, in time of war, one year on
board of our public ships, or in our land-forces, regular or
volunteer, on their receiving an honorable discharge from the
service." He adds, that he should not tolerate any sedition,
disorder, faction, or resistance to the law or the Union on any
pretext, in any part of the land; and that his leading aim would be
"to advance the greatness and happiness of this Republic, and thus
to cherish and encourage the cause of constitutional liberty
throughout the world." Mr. Graham also accepted his nomination, with
a cordial approval of the declarations made in the resolutions
adopted by the Convention.----Since the adjournment of the
Convention, a letter from President Fillmore, addressed to that
body, has been published. It was intrusted to the care of Mr.
Babcock, the delegate in Convention from the Erie, N. Y., district,
in which Mr. Fillmore resides; and he was authorized to present it,
and withdraw Mr. Fillmore's name as a candidate whenever he should
think it proper to do so. In this letter, Mr. Fillmore refers to the
circumstances of embarrassment under which he entered upon the
duties of the Presidency, and says that he at once determined within
himself to decline a re-election, and to make that decision public.
From doing so, however, he was at that time, as well as
subsequently, dissuaded by the earnest remonstrances of friends. He
expresses the hope that the Convention may be able to unite in
nominating some one who, if elected, may be more successful in
retaining the confidence of the party than he has been;--he had
endeavored faithfully to discharge his duty to the country, and in
the consciousness of having acted from upright motives and according
to his best judgment, for the public good, he was quite willing to
have sacrificed himself for the sake of his country.

The death of HENRY CLAY has been the most marked event of the month.
He expired at Washington, on Tuesday, June 29, after a protracted
illness, and at the advanced age of 75 years. His decease was
announced in eloquent and appropriate terms in both branches of
Congress, and general demonstrations of regard for his memory and
regret at his loss took place throughout the country. His history is
already so familiar to the American public, that we add nothing here
to the notice given of him in another part of this Magazine. His
remains were taken to Lexington, Ky., for interment.

The proceedings of Congress since our last Record have not been of
special importance. In the Senate on the 28th of June a
communication was received from the President communicating part of
the correspondence had with the Austrian government concerning the
imprisonment of Mr. C. L. Brace. The principal document was a letter
from Prince Schwarzenberg, stating that Mr. Brace was found to have
been the bearer of important papers from Hungarian fugitives in
America to persons in Hungary very much suspected, and also to have
had in his possession inflammatory and treasonable pamphlets; and
that his imprisonment was therefore fully justified. A letter from
Mr. Webster to the American Chargé at Vienna, in regard to Chevalier
Hulsemann's complaints of the U. S. government, has been also
submitted to the Senate. Mr. W. says that notwithstanding his long
residence in this country Mr. Hulsemann seems to have yet to learn
that no foreign government, or its representative, can take just
offense at any thing which an officer of this government may say in
his private capacity; and that a Chargé d'Affairs can only hold
intercourse with this government through the Department of State.
Mr. W. declines to take any notice of the specific subjects of
complaint presented by Mr. H.----In the House of Representatives the
only important action taken has been the passage of a bill providing
for the donation to the several States, for purposes of education
and internal improvement, of large tracts of the public domain. Each
of the old States receives one hundred and fifty thousand acres for
each Senator and Representative in the present Congress: to the new
States the portions awarded are still larger. The bill was passed in
the House on the 26th of June by a vote of ayes 96, nays 86. The
bill was presented by Mr. Bennett of New York, and is regarded as
important, inasmuch as it secures to the old States a much larger
participation in the public lands than they have hitherto seemed
likely to obtain.

A National Agricultural Convention was held at Washington on the
24th of June, of which Marshall Wilder of Massachusetts was elected
President. It was decided to form a National Agricultural Society,
to hold yearly meetings at Washington.----The Supreme Court in New
York on the 11th of June pronounced a judgment, by a majority,
declaring the American Art-Union to be a lottery within the
prohibition of the Constitution of the State, and that it was
therefore illegal. An appeal has been taken by the Managers to the
Court of Appeals, where it has been argued, but no decision has yet
been given.----Madame Alboni, the celebrated contralto singer,
arrived in New York early in June and has given two successful
concerts.----Governor Kossuth delivered an address in New York on
the 21st of June upon the future of nations, insisting that it was
the duty of the United States to establish, what the world has not
yet seen, a national policy resting upon Christian principles as its
basis. He urged the cause of his country upon public attention, and
declared his mission to the United States to be closed. On the 23d
he delivered a farewell address to the German citizens of New York,
in which he spoke at length of the relations of Germany to the cause
of European freedom and of the duty of the German citizens of the
United States to exert an influence upon the American government
favorable to the protection of liberty throughout the world. It is
stated that his aggregate receipts of money in this country have
been somewhat less than one hundred thousand dollars.

In Texas, a company of dragoons, under Lieutenant Haven, has had a
skirmish with the Camanche Indians, from whom four captive children
and thirty-eight stolen horses were recovered. About the 1st of June
a family, consisting of a father, mother, and six children, while
encamped at La Mina, were attacked by a party of Camanches, and all
killed except the father and one daughter, who were severely
wounded, and two young children who were rescued. A few days
previous a party of five Californians were all killed by Mexicans
near San Fernando. On the evening of the 10th of May seven Americans
were attacked by a gang of about forty Mexicans and Indians, at a
lake called Campacuas, and five of them were killed. A good deal of
excitement prevailed in consequence of these repeated outrages, and
of the failure of the General Government to provide properly for the
protection of the parties.----Early in June, as the U. S. steamer
Camanche was ascending the Rio Bravo, five persons landed from her
and killed a cow, when the owner came forward and demanded payment.
This was refused with insults, and the marauders returned on board.
The steamer continued her voyage, and the pilot soon saw a party of
men approaching the bank, and fired upon them. They soon after
returned the fire, wounding two of the passengers, one being the
deputy-collector of the Custom-house of Rio Grande, and the other
his son.

From CALIFORNIA we have intelligence to the 1st of June.
There is no political news of interest. A party of seventy-four
Frenchmen left California last fall for Sonora in Mexico,
accompanied by one American, named Moore. Mr. M. had returned to San
Francisco with intelligence that the party had been favorably
received by the Mexican authorities, who had bestowed upon them a
grant of three leagues of land near Carcospa, at the head of the
Santa Cruz valley, on condition that they should cultivate it for
ten years without selling it, and should not permit any Americans to
settle among them. They had also received from the Mexican
government horses, farming utensils, provisions, and other
necessaries, with permission to have five hundred of their
countrymen join them. They were intending soon to begin working the
rich mines in that neighborhood. Mr. Moore had been compelled by
threats and force to leave them. On his way back he met at Guyamas a
party of twelve who had been driven back, while going to California,
by Indians. While on their way to Sonora, they had fallen in with a
settlement of seventy-five Frenchmen, who treated them with great
harshness, and would have killed them but for the protection of the
Mexican authorities. This hostility between the French and American
settlers in California is ascribed to difficulties which occurred in
the mines between them. The Mexicans, whose hatred of the Americans
in that part of the country seems to be steadily increasing, have
taken advantage of these dissensions, and encourage the French in
their hostility to the Americans.----Previous to its adjournment,
which took place on the 5th of May, the Legislature passed an act to
take the census of the State before the 1st of November.----The
feeling of hostility to the Chinese settlers in California seems to
be increasing. Public meetings had been held in various quarters,
urging their removal, and Committees of Correspondence had been
formed to concert measures for effecting this object. It appears
from official reports that the whole number of Chinamen who had
arrived at San Francisco, from February, 1848, to May, 1852, was
11,953, and that of these only 167 had returned or died. Of the
whole number arrived only seven were women.--Nine missionaries of
the Methodist Episcopal Church had recently arrived, intending to
labor in California and Oregon.--The intelligence from the mines
continued to be highly encouraging. The weather was favorable; the
deposits continued to yield abundantly, and labor was generally well

From the SANDWICH ISLANDS our intelligence is to the 18th of May.
The session of the Hawaiian Parliament was opened on the 13th of
April. The opening speech of the King sets forth that the foreign
relations of the island are of a friendly character, except so far
as regards France, from the government of which no response has been
received as yet to propositions on the part of Hawaii. He states
that the peace of his dominions has been threatened by an invasion
of private adventurers from California; but that an appeal to the
United States Commissioner, promptly acted upon by Captain Gardner,
of the U. S. ship Vandalia, tranquilized the public mind. He had
taken steps to organize a military force for the future defense of
the island. In the Upper House the draft of a new Constitution had
been reported, and was under discussion. In the other House steps
had been taken to contradict the report that the islands desired
annexation to the United States.

From NEW MEXICO we learn that Colonel Sumner had removed his
head-quarters to Santa Fé, in order to give more effective military
support to the government. Governor Calhoun had left the country for
a visit to Washington, and died on the way: the government was thus
virtually in the hands of Colonel Sumner. The Indians and Mexicans
continued to be troublesome.

From UTAH our advices are to May 1st. Brigham Young had been again
elected President. The receipts at the tithing office from November,
1848, to March, 1852, were $244,747, mostly in property; in loans,
&c., $145,513; the expenditures were $353,765--leaving a balance of
$36,495. Missionaries were appointed at the General Conference to
Italy, Calcutta, and England. Edward Hunter was ordained presiding
bishop of the whole church: sixty-seven priests were ordained. The
Report speaks of the church and settlements as being in a highly
flourishing condition.


We have intelligence from Mexico to the 5th of June. Political
affairs seem to be in a confused and unpromising condition. Previous
to the adjournment of the present Congress the Cabinet addressed a
note to the Chamber of Deputies, asking them to take some decided
step whereby to rescue the government from the difficult position in
which it will be placed, without power or resources, and to save the
nation from the necessary consequences of such a crisis. It was
suggested that the government might be authorized to take, in
connection with committees to be appointed by the Chamber, the
resolutions necessary--such resolutions to be executed under the
responsibility of the Ministry. This note was referred to a
committee, which almost immediately reported that there was no
reason why this demand for extraordinary powers should be granted.
This report was adopted by a vote of 74 to 13. Congress adjourned on
the 21st of May. The President's Address referred to the critical
circumstances in which the country was placed when the Congress
first met, which made it to be feared that its mission would be only
the saddest duty reserved to man on earth, that of assisting at the
burial of his country. The flame of war still blazed upon their
frontier: negotiations designed to facilitate means of communication
which would make Mexico the centre of the commercial world, had
terminated in a manner to render possible a renewal of that war; and
the commercial crisis had reached a development which threatened the
domestic peace and the foreign alliances of the country. There was a
daily increase in the deficit; distrust prevailed between the
different departments; the country was fatigued by its convulsions
and disorders, and weakened by its dissensions; and it seemed
impossible to prolong the existence of the government. How the
country had been rescued from such perils it was not easy to say,
unless it were by the special aid and protection of Providence.
Guided by its convictions and sustained by its hope, the government
had employed all the means at its disposal, and would still endeavor
to draw all possible benefit from its resources, stopping only when
those resources should arrest its action. Fearing that this event
might speedily happen, a simplification of the powers of the
Legislature, during its vacation, had been proposed, instead of
leaving all to the exercise of a discretionary power by the
Executive. To this, however, the Legislature had not assented: and,
consequently, the government considering its responsibility
protected for the future, would spare no means or sacrifices to
fulfill its difficult and delicate mission. To this address the Vice
President of the Chamber replied, sketching the labors of the
session, and saying that the legislative donation of the
extraordinary powers demanded, could not have been granted without a
violation of the Constitution--a fact with which the Executive
should be deeply impressed. The means made use of up to the present
time would be sufficient, if applied with care. The Legislature
hoped, as much as it desired, that such would be the case. Great
anxiety was felt as to the nature of the measures which the
government would adopt: the general expectation seemed to be that
the President Arista would take the whole government into his own
hands, and the suggestion was received with a good deal of favor. It
was rumored that the aid of the United States had been sought for
such an attempt--to be given in the shape of six millions of
dollars, in return for abrogating that clause of the treaty which
requires them to protect the Mexican frontier from the Indians.
This, however, is mere conjecture as yet.----Serious difficulties
have arisen between the Mexican authorities and the American Consul,
Mr. F. W. Rice, at Acapulco. Mr. Rice sold the propeller Stockton,
for wages due to her hands: she was bid off by Mr. Snyder, the chief
engineer, at $3000 cash down, and $8500 within twenty-four hours
after the sale. He asked and obtained two delays in making the first
payment; and finally said he could not pay it until the next day.
Upon this Mr. Rice again advertised the vessel for sale, on his
account: she was sold to Capt. Triton, of Panama, for $4250. Mr.
Snyder then applied to the Mexican court, and the judge went on
board, broke the Consular seals, took possession of the vessel, and
advertised her again for sale. Mr. Rice proclaimed the sale illegal,
and protested against it, and, further, prevented Mr. Snyder
forcibly from tearing down his posted protest. At the day of sale no
bidders appeared. The Mexican authorities then arrested Mr. Rice,
and committed him to prison, where he remained at the latest dates.
Proper representations have of course been made to the U. S.
government, and the matter will doubtless receive proper
attention.----An encounter had taken place in Sonora, between a
party of 300 Indians and a detachment of regular Mexican troops and
National Guards. The latter were forced to retreat.----Gen. Mejia;
who acquired some distinction during the late war, died recently in
the city of Mexico, and Gen. Michelena, at Morelia.----The refusal
of Congress to admit foreign flour, free of duty, had created a good
deal of feeling in those districts where the want of it is most
severely felt. In Vera Cruz, a large public meeting was held, at
which it was determined to request the local authorities to send
for a supply of flour, without regard to the law.----The State of
Durango is in a melancholy condition: hunger, pestilence, and
continued incursions of the Indians, have rendered it nearly
desolate.----Four of the revolutionists under Caravajal, captured by
the Mexicans, were executed by Gen. Avalos, at Matamoras, in June:
two of them were Americans.


There is no intelligence of special interest from any of the South
American States. From _Buenos Ayres_, our dates are to the 15th of
May, when every thing was quiet, and political affairs were in a
promising condition. The new Legislature met on the 1st, and
resolutions had been introduced tendering public thanks to General
Urquiza for having delivered the country from tyranny. He had been
invested with complete control of the foreign relations, and the
affairs of peace and war. Don Lopez was elected Governor of the
province of Buenos Ayres on the 13th, receiving 33 of the 38 votes
in the Legislative Chamber. The choice gives universal satisfaction
to the friends of the new order of things. The Governors of all the
provinces were to meet at Santa Fé on the 29th, to determine upon
the form of a Central Government. General Urquiza was to meet them
in Convention there, and it is stated that he was to be accompanied
by Mr. Pendleton, the United States Chargé, whose aid had been
asked, especially in explaining in Convention the nature and working
of American institutions.----At _Rio Janeiro_ a dissolution of the
Cabinet was anticipated. Great dissatisfaction was felt at certain
treaties recently concluded with Montevideo, and at the
correspondence of Mr. Hudson, the late English Minister, upon the
Slave Trade, which had been lately published in London.----From
_Ecuador_ there is nothing new. Flores still remained at Puna, below
Guayaquil, with his forces.----In _Chili_ there was a slight attempt
at insurrection in the garrison at Trospunta, but it was soon put
down. Six persons implicated in previous revolts were executed at
Copiapo on the 22d of May.


Public attention in England has been to a very considerable extent
engrossed by the approaching elections. The Ministry maintain rigid
silence as to the policy they intend to pursue though it is of
course impossible to avoid incidental indications of their
sentiments and purposes. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr.
Disraeli, has issued an address to his constituents, which shows
even more distinctly than his financial _exposé_, of which we gave a
summary last month, that the cause of Protection is, in his
judgment, well-nigh obsolete. In that address he states that the
time has gone by when the injuries which the great producing
interests have sustained from the Free Trade policy of 1846, can be
alleviated or removed by a recurrence to laws which existed before
that time:--"The spirit of the age," he says, "tends to free
intercourse, and no statesman can disregard with impunity the genius
of the epoch in which he lives." It is, however, the intention of
the Ministry to recommend such measures as shall tend to relieve the
producer from the unequal competition he is now compelled to wage,
and the possibility of doing this by a revision and reduction of
taxation, seems to loom in the future. Still, the Chancellor urges,
nothing useful can be done in this direction, unless the Ministry is
sustained by a powerful majority in Parliament; and he accordingly
presses the importance of electing members of the Ministerial
party.----A declaration of at least equal importance was drawn from
the Premier, the Earl of Derby, in the House of Lords, on the 24th
of May, by Earl Granville, who incidentally quoted a remark ascribed
to Lord Derby that a recurrence to the duty on corn would be found
necessary for purposes of revenue and protection. Lord Derby rose to
correct him. He had not represented it as necessary, but only as
desirable,--and whether it should be done or not, depended entirely
on the elections. But he added, that in his opinion, from what he
had since heard and learned, there certainly would not be in favor
of the imposition of a duty on foreign corn, that extensive majority
in the country without which it would not be desirable to impose
it.----Lord John Russell has issued an address to his constituents,
for a re-election, rehearsing the policy of the government while it
was under his direction, sketching the proceedings of the new
Ministry, and declaring his purpose to contend that no duty should
be imposed on the import of corn, either for revenue or protection;
and that the commercial policy of the last ten years is not an evil
to be mitigated, but a good to be extended--not an unwise or
disastrous policy which ought to be reversed, altered, or modified,
but a just and beneficial system which should be supported,
strengthened, and upheld.----The course of the Earl of Malmesbury,
the Foreign Secretary, in regard to the case of Mr. Mather, an
English subject, who had been treated with gross indignities and
serious personal injuries by officers of the Tuscan government, has
excited a good deal of attention. He had first demanded compensation
from the government as a matter of right, and, after consulting Mr.
Mather's father, had named £5000 as the sum to be paid. It seems,
however, from the official documents since published, that he
accompanied this demand with an opinion that it was exorbitant, and
named £500 as a minimum. The negotiation ended by Mr. Scarlett, the
British agent at Florence, accepting £222 as a compensation and that
as a donation from the Tuscan government--waiving the principle of
its responsibility. The matter had been brought up in Parliament,
and the Earl had felt constrained to disavow wholly Mr. Scarlett's
action.----The current debates in Parliament have been devoid of
special interest. On the 8th of June, in reply to a strong speech
from Sir James Graham, Mr. Disraeli vindicated himself from the
charge of having brought the public business into an unsatisfactory
and disgraceful condition, and made a general statement of the bills
which the government thought it necessary to press upon the
attention of Parliament. On the 7th the Militia Bill was read a
third time and passed, by 220 votes to 184.----A bill was pressed
upon the House of Lords by the Earl of Malmesbury, proposing a
Convention with France for the mutual surrender of criminals, which
was found upon examination to give to the French government very
extraordinary powers over any of its subjects in England. The list
of crimes embraced was very greatly extended--and alleged offenders
were to be surrendered upon the mere proof of their identity. All
the leading Peers spoke very strongly of the objectionable features
of the measure, and it was sent to the committee for the purpose of
receiving the material alterations required.----Fergus O'Connor has
been consigned to a lunatic asylum--his insane eccentricities having
reached a point at which it was no longer considered safe to leave
him at liberty.----Professor McDougall has been elected to fill the
chair of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, vacated by
the resignation of Professor Wilson.----The Irish Exhibition of
Industry was opened at Cork, with public ceremonies, in which the
Lord Lieutenant participated, on the 10th of June.----The General
Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and that of the Free Church both
commenced their sittings on the 20th of May.----The electric
telegraph has been carried across the Irish Channel, from Holyhead
to the Hill of Howth, a distance of sixty-five miles;--the mode of
accomplishing this result was by sinking a cable, as had previously
been done across the Straits of Dover.----The Queen has issued a
proclamation forbidding all Roman Catholic ceremonies, and all
appearance in Catholic vestments, except in Catholic churches or in
private houses.


The month has not been marked by any event of special importance in
France. The government has continued in its usual course, though
indications are apparent of impending difficulties in the near
future. The number of prominent men who refuse to take the oath of
allegiance is daily increasing, and many who have hitherto filled
places in the councils of the Departments and of the Municipalities,
have resigned them to avoid the oath. General Bedeau has sent a tart
letter to the Minister of War, conveying his refusal; and a public
subscription has been set on foot, with success, in Paris, for the
relief of General Changarnier, who has been reduced to poverty by
his firm refusal to yield to the usurpation.----The President
continues relentlessly his restriction of the press, and has
involved himself in considerable embarrassment by the extent to
which he carries it. The organs of the Legitimist party in all the
great towns have received the warnings which empower the President,
as the next step, to suppress them entirely. The Paris _Débats_ has
lately received a warning for its silence upon political subjects.
But a very singular quarrel has arisen between the President and the
_Constitutionnel_, which has been from the beginning the least
scrupulous of all his defenders. That paper contained an article
intended to influence the Belgian elections then pending, and
distinctly menacing that country with a retaliatory tariff, if its
hostility to Louis Napoleon were not abandoned, or at least
modified. The effect of the publication of this article was such,
that the Belgian Minister demanded an explanation, and was assured
that the article did not meet the approbation of the Government.
This _quasi_ disavowal was published by the Belgian press, and in
reply M. Granier de Cassagnac, the writer of the article, declared
that he had not spoken in his own name, but at the direct instance
and with the full approval of the President. The Paris _Moniteur_
then contained an official announcement, disavowing M. de
Cassagnac's articles, and stating that "no organ can engage the
responsibility of the Government but the _Moniteur_." The
_Constitutionnel_ replied by a declaration signed by its owner, Dr.
Veron, that he still believed the original article to have been
sanctioned by the President. This brought down upon it an official
warning. Dr. Veron rejoined by expressing his regret, but adding
that the Cabinet had ordered several hundred copies of the paper
containing the articles disavowed; and this he considered _prima
facie_ evidence that they met with the approbation of the
Government. This brought upon the paper a second warning: the next
step, of course, is suppression.----The Paris Correspondents of
three of the London papers have been summoned to the department of
Police, and assured by the Director that they are hereafter to be
held personally responsible, not only for the contents of their own
letters, but for whatever the journals with which they are connected
may say, in leading articles or otherwise, concerning French
affairs. A strong effort was made by them to change this
determination, but without effect.----Girardin, in the _Presse_,
states that General Changarnier, in 1848, proposed to the
Provisional Government the military invasion of England. The General
himself has authorized the _Times_ to give the statement an explicit
contradiction.----M. Heckeren, who was sent by the French Government
to Vienna and Berlin, to ascertain more definitely the disposition
of the Northern Powers toward Louis Napoleon, had returned from his
mission, but its results had not been authoritatively made known.
The London _Times_ has, however, given what purports to be a
synopsis of the documents relating to it. From this it appears that
the allied sovereigns will connive at Louis Napoleon's usurpation of
sovereignty in France for life; but so long as one Bourbon exists
they can recognize no other person as _hereditary_ sovereign of that
country; and they hold themselves bound and justified by the
treaties of 1815 to oppose the establishment of a Bonapartist
dynasty. The three Great Northern Powers, it would seem, are
combining to resuscitate the principles of the Holy Alliance, and to
impose them upon the European system of States as the international
law, notwithstanding the events of the last two-and-twenty years
have rendered them practically obsolete.

From the other European countries there is little intelligence
worthy of record.----In BELGIUM the elections have resulted in the
increase of the liberal members of the Chamber. An editor,
prosecuted for having libeled Louis Napoleon, has been acquitted by
a jury.----In AUSTRIA a new law has been enacted imposing rigorous
restrictions upon the press.

Editor's Table.

The Moral Influences of the Stage is a subject which, although
earnestly discussed for centuries, still maintains all its
theoretical and practical importance. The weight of argument, we
think, has ever been with the assailants, and yet candor requires
the concession, that there have been, at times, thinking men,
serious men, may we not also say, Christian men, to be found among
the defenders of theatrical representations? On a fair statement of
the case, however, it will plainly appear, that these have ever been
the defenders of an imaginary, or hypothetical, instead of a really
existing stage.

Never--we think we may safely say it--never has any true friend of
religion and morality been found upholding the theatre as it
actually _is_, or _was_, at any particular period. Indeed, this may
also be said of its most partial advocates. Their warmest defense is
ever coupled with the admission, that, as at present managed, it
needs some thorough and decided reform to make it, in all respects,
what it ought to be. We do not think that we ever read any thing in
advocacy of the stage without some proviso of this kind. It never
_is_--it never _was_--what it ought to be, and might be. But then
the idea is ever held forth of some future reform. We are told, for
example, what the theatre might become, if, instead of being
condemned by the more moral and religious part of the community, it
received the support of their presence, and could have the benefit
of their regulation.

So plausible have these arguments appeared, that the experiment has
again and again been tried. Reforms have been attempted in the
characters of the plays, of the actors, and of the audiences. Good
men and good women have written expressly for the stage. Johnson and
Hannah Moore, and Young--to say nothing of Buchanan and
Addison--have contributed their services in these efforts at
expurgation, but all alike in vain. Some of these have afterward
confessed the hopelessness of the undertaking, and lamented that by
taking part in it they had given a seeming encouragement to what
they really meant to condemn. The expected reform has never
appeared. If, through great exertion, some improvement may have
manifested itself for a time, yet, sooner or later, the relapse
comes on. Nature--our human nature--will have its way. The evil
elements predominate; and the stage sinks again, until its visible
degradation once more arouses attention, and calls for some other
spasmodic effort, only to meet the same failure, and to furnish
another proof of some radical inherent vitiosity.

Good plays may, indeed, be acted; but they will not long continue to
call forth what are styled _good audiences_--the term having
reference to numbers and pecuniary avails, rather than to moral
worth. In fact, the theatre presents its most mischievous aspect
when it claims to be a school of morals. Its advocates may talk as
they will about "holding the mirror up to Nature, showing Virtue its
own feature, Vice its own image;" but it can only remind us that
there is a cant of the play-house as well as of the conventicle, and
that Shaftsbury and his sentimental followers can "whine" as well as
Whitfield and Beecher. The common sense of mankind pronounces it at
once the worst of all hypocrisies--the hypocrisy of false sentiment
ashamed of its real name and real character. As a proof of this, we
may say that the stage has never been known in any language by any
epithet denoting instruction, either moral or otherwise. It is the
_play-house_, or house of amusement--the _theatrum_, the place for
shows, for spectacles, for pleasurable emotions through the senses
and the excitements of the sensitive nature. There may have been
periods when moral or religious instruction of some kind could,
perhaps, have been claimed as one end of dramatic representations,
but that was before there was a higher stage, a higher _pulpitum_
divinely instituted for the moral tuition of mankind. Since that
time, the very profanity of the claim to be a "school of morals" has
only set in a stronger light the fact that, instead of elevating an
immoral community, the stage is itself ever drawn down by it into a
lower, and still lower degradation.

We will venture the position, that no open vice is so pernicious to
the soul as what may be called a false virtue; and this furnishes
the kind of morality to which the stage is driven when it would make
the fairest show of its moral pretensions. The virtues of the stage
are not Christian virtues. If they are not Christian, they are
anti-Christian; for on this ground there can be no _via media_, no
neutrality. Who would ever think of making the moral excellences
commended in the Sermon on the Mount, or in Paul's Epistles, the
subjects of theatrical instruction? How would humility, forgiveness,
poverty of spirit, meekness, temperance, long-suffering, charity,
appear in a stage hero? In what way may they be made to minister to
the exciting, the sentimental, the melodramatic? These virtues have,
indeed, an elevation to which no stage-heroism or theatrical
affectation ever attained; but such a rising ever implies a previous
descent into the vale of personal humility, a previous lowliness of
spirit altogether out of keeping with any dramatic or merely
æsthetic representation. The Christian moralities can come upon the
stage only in the shape of caricatures, or as the hypocritical
disguise through which some Joseph Surface is placed in most
disparaging contrast with the false virtues or splendid vices the
theatre-going public most admires.

It is equally true that the most tender emotions find no
fitting-place upon the stage. The deepest pathetic--the purest, the
most soul-healing--in other words, the pathetic of common life, can
not be _acted_ without revolting us. Hence, to fit it for the stage,
pity must be mingled with other ingredients of a more exciting or
spicy kind. It must be associated with the extravagance of love, or
stinging jealousy, or complaining madness, or some other less usual
semi-malevolent passion, which, while it adds to the theatrical
effect, actually deadens the more genial and deeper sympathies that
are demanded for the undramatic or ordinary sufferings of humanity.
We can not illustrate this thought better than by referring the
reader to that most touching story which is given in the July number
of our Magazine, and entitled, "The Mourner and the Comforter." How
rich the effect of such a tale when simply read, without any
external accompaniments!--how much richer, we might say, for the
very want of them! How its "rain of tears" mellows and fertilizes
the hard soil of the human heart! And yet how few and simple the
incidents! How undramatic the outward fictitious dress, through
which are represented emotions the most vitally real in human
nature! Like a strain of the richest, yet simplest music, in which
the accompaniment is just sufficient to call out the harmonious
relations of the melody, without marring by its artistic or dramatic
prominence the deep spiritual reality that dwells in the tones. We
appeal to every one who has read that touching narrative--how
utterly would it be spoiled by being _acted_! There might be some
theatrical effect given to the agitated scene upon the balcony, but
a vail would have to be drawn around the chamber of the mourner, and
the more than heroic friend who sits by her in the long watches of
the night. Such scenes, it may be said, are too common for the
stage--ay, and too holy for it, too. They are too pure for the
Kembles and Sinclairs ever to meddle with, and they know it, and
their audiences feel it. We decide instinctively that all _acting_
here would be more than out of place. The very thought of theatrical
representation would seem like a profanation of the purest and
holiest affections of our nature.

And so too of others, which, although not virtues have more of a
prudential or worldly aspect. The stage may sometimes tolerate a
temperance or an anti-gambling hero, but it is only to feed a
temporary public excitement, and the moment that excitement
manifests the first symptom of a relapse, this school of morals must
immediately follow, instead of directing the new public sentiment.
The wonder is, that any thinking man could ever expect it to be
otherwise. Every one knows that the tastes of the audience make the
law to the writer, the actor, and the manager. In this view of the
matter, we need only the application of a very few plain principles
and facts, to show how utterly hopeless must be the idea of the
moral improvement of any representation which can only be sustained
on the tenure of pleasing the largest audiences, without any regard
to the materials of which they are composed. The first of these is,
that the mass of mankind are not virtuous, they are not
intelligent--the second, that even the more virtuous portions are
worse in the midst of an applauding and condemning crowd than they
would be in other circumstances; and the third, that the evil
aspects of our humanity furnish the most exciting themes, or those
best adapted to theatrical representations.

But the world will become better--the world is becoming better, it
may be said--and why should not the stage share in the improvement?
If the world is becoming better, it is altogether through different
and higher means. If it is becoming better, it is by the influence
of truth and grace--through the Church--upon individual souls
brought to a right view, first of all, of the individual depravity,
and thus by individual accretion, contributing to the growth of a
better public sentiment. The spirit of theatrical representations is
directly the reverse of this. It operates upon men in crowds, not as
assembled in the same space merely, but through those feelings and
influences which belong to them solely or chiefly in masses.
Deriving its aliment from the most outward public sentiment, its
tendency is ever, instead of "holding the mirror up to Nature," in
any self-revealing light, to hide men from themselves. By absorbing
the soul in exciting representations, in which the most depraved can
take a sort of abstract or sentimental interest, it causes men to
mistake this feeling for true virtue and true philanthropy, when
they may be in the lowest hell of selfishness. It may become, in
this way, more demoralizing than a display of the most revolting
vices, because it buries the individual character beneath a mass of
sentiments and emotions in which a man or a woman may luxuriate
without one feeling of penitence for their own transgressions, or
one thought of dissatisfaction with their own wretchedly diseased
moral state.

The theatre might with far more truth and honesty be defended on the
ground of mere amusement. This is, doubtless, its most real object;
but there is an instinctive feeling in the human soul that it would
not do to trust its defense solely to such a plea. In the first
place, it may be charged with inordinate excess. Who dare justify
the spending night after night in such ceaseless pleasure-seeking?
And if there were not vast numbers who did this, our theatres could
never be supported. To say nothing here of religion, or a life to
come, the mere consideration of this world, and the poor suffering
humanity by which it is tenanted, would urgently forbid that much of
this life, or even a small portion of it, should be devoted to mere
amusement. Within a very few rods of every theatre in our city,
almost every species of misery to which man is subject is daily and
nightly experienced. How, in view of this, can any truly feeling
soul (and we mean by this a very different species of feeling from
that which is commonly generated in theatres) talk of amusing
himself? In the year 1832, during the severest prevalence of the
cholera, the theatres in New York were closed. We well remember the
impatience manifested at the event by those who claimed to represent
the theatre-going public, and with what exulting spirits they called
upon their patrons to improve the jubilee of their opening. We well
remember how freely the terms "bigot" and "sour religionist" were
applied to all who thought a further suppression of heartless
amusements was due, if only as a sorrowing tribute of respect to
suffering humanity. It was all the sheerest Pharisaism, they said,
thus to stand in the way of the innocent and rational amusements of
mankind; as though, forsooth, amusement was the great end of human
existence, and they who so impatiently claimed it actually needed
some relaxation from the arduous and unremitted exertions they had
been making for the relief of the sorrowing and toiling millions of
their race.

But if not for _amusement_, it might be said, then for _recreation_,
which is a very different thing. The former term is used when the
end aimed at is pleasure merely, without any reference to _the
good_, as a something higher and better than _pleasurable
sensations_, sought simply because they are pleasurable, and without
regard to the spiritual health. In its contemptible French etymology
we see the very soul of the word, so far as such a word may be said
to have any soul. It is _muser_, _s'amuser_, having truly nothing to
do with _music_ or the _Muses_, but signifying to _loiter_, to
_idle_, to _kill time_. We may well doubt whether this ever can be
innocent, even in the smallest degree. Certainly, to devote to it
any considerable portion of our existence, especially in view of
what has been and is now the condition of our race, must be not only
the most heartless, but in its consequences the most damning of
sins. It is in this sense that every true philanthropist, to say
nothing of the Christian, must utter his loud amen to the
denunciation of the heathen Seneca--_Nihil est tam damnosum bonis
moribus quam in spectaculis desidere, tunc enim per voluptatem
facilius vitia surrepunt._--"Nothing is so destructive to good
morals as mere amusement, or the indolent waste of time in public
spectacles; it is through such pleasure that all vices most readily
come creeping into the soul."

We would have our Editor's Table ever serious, ever earnest, and yet
in true harmony with all that innocent and cheerful and even
mirthful recreation, which is as necessary sometimes for the
spiritual as for the bodily health. We would avoid every appearance
of sermonizing, and yet we can not help quoting here an authority
higher than Seneca--_Vanis mundi pompis renuntio_.--"The vain pomp
of the world I renounce," is the language of the primitive form of
Christian baptism, still literally in use in one of our largest
Christian denominations, and expressed in substance by them all. Now
it can be clearly shown that this word, _pompæ_, was not used, as it
now often is, in a vague and general manner, but was employed with
special reference to public theatrical shows and representations. To
every baptized Christian, it seems to us, the argument must be
conclusive. If theatrical shows (_pompæ_) are not "the world," in
the New Testament sense, what possible earthly thing can be included
under this once most significant name? If they are not embraced in
"the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life,"
then not only has language no fixed meaning, but even ideas
themselves have wholly changed.

Recreation, as we have said, is something very different from
amusement. It is the _re-creating_ or renewing the overtasked mental
or bodily powers, by some relaxing and restoring exercise. It is
pleasurable, as all right things ever are; but here is the
all-important distinction--pleasure is not its _end_. The
accompanying enjoyment is only a laxative and recreative _means_ to
something higher and more ultimate, and more _real_ in human
existence; and it is only on this ground that it becomes either
rational or innocent. Amusement never can be either.

But those who need recreation in this sense will never seek it in
the theatre. The reason presents itself at once. Experience concurs
with the _a priori_ view, derived from the very nature of the thing,
in declaring that it can never be found there. The emotions called
out in the play-house are exciting--they are exhausting--they are
dissipating. In each of these aspects they are at war with the
legitimate idea of the recreative. They stimulate but do not
invigorate. All mere pleasure-seeking has in it an element of death.
It has its ground in a morbid feeling of want which is ever rendered
still more morbid by gratification. It is the same with that which
lies at the foundation of the appetite for stimulating drinks,
except that here it affects the whole spiritual system. In a word,
the truly recreative exercises of the soul, in which pleasure is a
means and not an end, are ever attended by a sense of freedom, and
this is the best characteristic by which they are to be
distinguished from others that assume the appearance and the name.
Whatever is healthful, either to body or soul, is never enslaving.
The counterfeit passion for enjoyment, on the other hand, is ever
binding the spirit to a deeper and still deeper bondage. From the
one, the mind returns with a healthier and heartier relish to the
more arduous and serious duties of life; the other at every
repetition renders such duties more and more the objects of an ever
growing distaste and aversion. The slightest observation of the
habitual frequenters of the theatre will determine to which class of
mental exercises the influence of its representations are to be

But there is another thought connected with this. We find in such an
idea of the nature and end of theatrical representations the true
reason why actors and actresses never have been, and never can be
regarded as a reputable class in society. They may contribute ever
so much to our amusement, but no principle of gratitude, even if
there were any ground for so sacred a feeling, will ever bring the
very persons who use them as a means of enjoyment to recognize their
social equality. A favorite actor may now and then be toasted at a
public dinner. Grave men may sometimes manifest a public interest in
some actress who has furnished an exciting theme of newspaper
discussion, or judicial investigation. But let the higher tests be
demanded, and the instinctive feeling of our humanity manifests
itself at once. They never have been, they never will be admitted
freely to the more intimate social relations. The fashionable
frequenter of the theatre would not cordially give his daughter in
marriage to the most popular of actors; he would turn with aversion
from the thought that his son should choose for his bride the most
accomplished actress that ever called forth the rapturous plaudits
of a pleasure-maddened audience. We need not go far for the reason.
It may be partly found in the fact, or suspicion, of their generally
vicious lives. But of that, and the cause of it, in another place.
It is a different though related thought to which we would here give
prominence. With all that is pretended about the theatre being a
place of instruction, or recreation, there is an under-consciousness
that its great end is pleasurable emotion merely--in a word,
amusement. Along with this there is another suppressed consciousness
that such an end is not honorable to our humanity, and that those,
therefore, whose chief employment is to minister to it, can not be
regarded as having a high or even a reputable calling. This decision
may be called unjust, but we can not alter it, even though we fail
to discover the true ground in which it has its origin. The
distinctions exist in the very nature of things and ideas. No
theoretical fraternization can ever essentially change them.

There are three grades of employment whose respective rank must ever
be independent of all conventionalities. Two are reputable, though
differing in degree. The third is essentially dishonorable through
all its great variety of departments. The highest place is given,
and must ever be given, to those who live for the spirit's good, or
the health of the body as conducive to it--the second to those most
useful and reputable employments that have for their end the
material well-being, in itself considered. The region of dishonor
embraces all of every class whose aim is the [Greek: hêdhy] instead
of the [Greek: hagathhon], the _pleasurable_ instead of the _good_
or the truly _useful_, whether in respect to soul or body--all who
live to please, to gratify simply--to _amuse_ mankind--in other
words, to aid them in annihilating their precious earthly time, and
in turning away their thoughts from the great ends of their immortal
existence. The poorest mechanic, or day-laborer, who is toiling in
the lowest department of the _utile_ (or useful as we have defined
it) is of a higher rank, belongs to a more honorable class, than the
proudest play-actor that ever trod the boards of a theatre. Among
these "men and women of pleasure," there may be also numerous
varieties and degrees, from the female balancer on the tight rope to
the most fashionable danseuse; from the clown of the circus to the
Forrest or Macready of the aristocratic theatre; but the instinct of
the human consciousness recognizes in them all but one genus. They
all live to _amuse_, and such a life can not be honorable.

It may be said, perhaps, that this dishonor should attach to those
who are _amused_ as well as to the amusers. It might be so on the
score of abstract justice; but, in fact, from the very thought there
comes an additional load of obloquy upon the condemned caste. Mere
pleasure-seeking, mere amusement, is felt to be, in itself, a
degradation of the rational nature, and a semi-conscious sense of
this finds relief by casting it upon the instruments who are
supposed to receive pecuniary emolument in place of the unavoidable
dishonor. It may be thus seen that the disrepute of actors and
actresses is no accidental disadvantage, but has an unchangeable
reason in the laws of the human consciousness. From no other cause
could have come that universal reprobation of the scenic character,
to be found in the writings of the most enlightened heathen as well
as in those of the most zealous Christian Fathers. The opinions of
Plato and Socrates on this point are most express, and Augustine
only utters the sentiment of the Classical as well as the Christian
world when he says (De Civ. Dei, 2. 14), _Adores removent a
societate civitatis--ab honoribus omnibus repellunt ho mines
scenicos_--"They remove actors from civic society--from all honors
do they repel the men of the stage." The exceptions to this only
prove the rule. The fact that in a very few cases, like those of
Garrick and Mrs. Siddons, they have barely emerged from this load of
dishonor, only shows how universal and how deep is the opprobrium.

The stage can not be reformed. Our proof of this has, thus far, been
drawn mainly from historical experience. But such experience, like
every other legitimate induction, forces upon us the thought of some
underlying principle of evil, some inherent vitiosity which no
change of outward circumstances could be ever expected to eradicate.
In searching for this essential vice we need not indulge in any
affectation of profundity. It will be found, we think, lying nearer
the surface than is commonly imagined. Why is play-acting radically
vicious? Because, we answer, it is just what its name imports. It is
_acting_--_acting_ in the theatrical sense--acting a part--an
unreal part, in distinction from the stern verities which ever ought
to occupy this serious and earnest life of ours. We have alluded to
the heartlessness of the stage in view of the abounding sufferings
and sorrows of the world. It is a varied aspect of the same truth we
would here present. We have no right to waste upon mere amusement
the precious time that might be employed in the alleviation of so
much misery. We have no right to be _acting_, or to take delight in
seeing others _acting_, in a world where abounding insincerity,
falsehood, and disguise, are ever demanding truthfulness, and
earnestness, and reality, as the noblest and most valuable elements
in human character. Certainly there is a call upon us to avoid every
thing of even a seemingly contrary tendency, in whatever fair
disguise it may present itself, or under whatever fair name of art,
or æsthetics, or literature, it may claim our admiration. The
objection is not so much that the representation is fictitious in
itself, as its tendency to generate fictitious characters in the
actors and spectators. No sober thinking man can look round upon our
world without perceiving that its prevailing depravity is just that
which the theatre is most adapted to encourage. There is acting,
stage-acting, every where--in politics, in literature, and even in
religion. Men are playing State and playing Church. Artificialness
of character is pervading our "world of letters" to a most
demoralizing extent. We are every where living too much out of
ourselves--alternately the victims and creators of false public
sentiments under which the theatrical spirit of the times is burying
every thing real and truthful in human nature. Our morals are
theatrical; our public and social life is theatrical; our
revolutions and our sympathy with revolutions are theatrical; our
political conventions are theatrical; our philanthropy and our
reforms are theatrical.

But we can not at present dwell upon this view in its more general
aspects. In the more immediate effect upon actors and actresses
themselves we find the radical cause of the vicious lives which have
ever characterized them as a class. Men and women who act every
character will have no character of their own. The dangerous faculty
of assuming any passion, and any supposed moral state, must, in the
end, be inconsistent with that earnestness of feeling without which
there can be neither moral nor intellectual depth. We have neither
time nor space to dwell upon those evil effects of theatrical
representations which are best known and most generally admitted.
Whoever demands proof of them may be referred to the records of our
Criminal Courts. We would rather search for the root of the evil. It
is here in the most interior idea of the drama that we find the
virus fountain from which all its poison flows, and of which what
are called the incidental evils, are but the necessary ultimate
manifestations. It is not found simply in the personation of vicious
characters, whether in the shape of heroic crime or vulgar comedy.
The radical mischief is in the fact that the theatre is the great
storehouse and seminary of _false feeling_; and all false feeling,
without the exception even of the religious (in fact, the higher the
pretension the greater the evil), is so much spiritual poison. By
this we mean an emotion and a sentimentality having no ground in any
previous healthy moral state with which they may be organically
connected. No fact is more certain than that such a seeming virtue
may be called out in the worst of men, and that instead of truly
softening and meliorating, it invariably exerts a hardening
influence, rendering the affections less capable of being aroused
to the genuine duties and genuine benevolence of real life. It is
indeed a blessed and a blissful thing to have a feeling heart; but,
then, the feeling must be real; that is, as we have defined it,
flowing from within as the legitimate product of a true, moral
organism. Better be without all feeling than have that which is the
unnatural result of artificial stimulus. Better that the soul be an
arid desert than that it should be watered by such Stygian streams,
or luxuriate in the rank Upas of such a deadly verdure. There is
evidence in abundance that a man may melt under the influence of a
theatrical sentimentality, and yet go forth to the commission of the
worst of crimes; with a freedom, too, all the greater for the
fictitious virtue under which his true character has been so
completely concealed from his own eyes.

It might, at first, seem strange that this should be so. The
emotions of benevolence, of compassion, of patriotism, it might be
said, must be the same whatever calls them forth. But a true
analysis will show that there is not only a great but an essential
difference. In the one case feeling is the natural result of a sound
soul in direct communion with the realities of life. In the other it
is entirely artificial.--One has its ground in the reason and the
conscience; the other in the sensitive and imaginative nature. One
comes to us in the due course of things; the other we create for
ourselves. The one is ever recuperative, elevating while it humbles,
softening while it invigorates. It grows stronger and purer by
exercise. It never satiates, never exhausts, never reacts. The other
ever produces an exhaustion corresponding to the unnatural
excitement, and like every other artificial stimulus reduces the
spiritual nature to a lower state at every repetition. In short, to
use the expressive Scriptural comparisons, the one is a continual
pouring into broken cisterns; the other is like a well of _living
water_, springing up to everlasting life. Nothing is more alluringly
deceptive, and therefore more dangerous, than the cultivation of the
æsthetic nature, either to the exclusion of the moral, or by
cherishing a public sentiment that confounds them together. We
should be warned by the fact, of which history furnishes more than
one example, that a nation may be distinguished for artistic and
dramatic refinement, and yet present the most horrid contrast of
crime and cruelty. A similar view may be taken of an age noted for a
theoretical, or sentimental, or theatrical philanthropy. There is
great reason to fear that it will be followed, if not accompanied,
by one distinguished for great ferocity and recklessness of actual
human suffering.

But to return to our analogy. It might with equal justice be
maintained, in respect to the body, that physical _strength_ is the
same, whatever the cause by which it is produced. And yet we all
know that there is a most essential difference between that vigor of
nerve and muscle which is the result of the real and natural
exercise of the healthy organism, in the performance of its
legitimate functions, and that which comes from maddening artificial
stimulants. They may appear the same for the moment; and yet we know
that the one has an element of invigorating and _re-creating_ life;
the other has the seeds of death, and brings death into the human
microcosm with all its train of physical as well as spiritual woes.

And this suggests that idea in which we find the most interior
difference between true and false feeling. In the one the emotion is
sought for its own sake as an _end_. In the other it is the _means_
to a higher good. One seeks to save its life and loses it. The other
loses its life and finds it. The true benevolence is unconscious of
itself as an end, and through such unconsciousness attains to
substantial satisfaction. The spurious looks to nothing but the
luxury of its own emotion, and thus continually transmutes into
poison the very aliment on which it feeds. Like Milton's incestuous
monsters, so do the matricidal pleasures of artificial sentiment.

                            Into the womb
      That bred them ever more return--

engendering, in the end, a fiercer want, and giving birth to a more
intolerable pain--

                            Hourly conceived
      And hourly born with sorrow infinite.

There, too, we find the right notion of that word which would seem
so incapable of all strict definition--we mean the much-used and
much-abused term, _sentimentalism_. It differs from true feeling in
this, that it is a _feeling to feel_--or, for the sake of feeling--a
_feeling of one's own feelings_ (if we may use the strange
expression), instead of the woes and sufferings of others, which are
not strictly the _objects_, but only the _means_ of luxurious
excitement, to this introverted state of the affections. Hence,
while true benevolence ever goes forth in the freedom of its
unconsciousness, sentimentalism is ever most egotistical, ever
turning inward to gaze upon itself, and _feel itself_, and thus ever
more in the most rigorous and ignominious bondage.

The same position, had we time, might be taken in respect to what
may be styled false, or theatrical mirth. Even mirth, which, under
other circumstances, and when produced by other causes, might be an
innocent and healthful recreation, is here utterly spoiled, because
we know it to be all _acting_. It is all false; there is no reality
in it; there is no true merry heart there. To the right feeling,
there is even a thought of sadness in the spectacle, when we reflect
how often amid the wearisome repetition of what must be to him the
same stale buffoonery, the soul of the wretched actor may be
actually aching, and bitterly aching, beneath his comic mask.

Our argument might, perhaps, be charged with proving too much--with
invading the sacred domain of poetry--with condemning all works of
fiction and all reading, as well as acting, of plays. We would like
to dispose of these objections if we had time. In some respects, and
to a certain extent, their validity might be candidly admitted. In
others, we might make modifications and distinctions, drawing the
line, as we think we could, in accordance with the demands of right
reason, right faith, right taste, and right morals. But the limits
of our Editorial Table do not permit; and we, therefore, leave our
readers to draw this line for themselves, believing that, in so
doing, a sound moral sense, proceeding on the tests here laid down,
will easily distinguish all healthful and recreative reading
from those inherent evils that must ever belong to dramatic

Editor's Easy Chair.

"Ouf! ouf!"--The French have a funny way of writing a letter, as
well as of telling a story. For instance, our friend of the
_Courrier_, whose gossip we have time and again transmuted, with
some latitude of construction into our own noon-tide sentences,
commences one of his later epistles with the exclamation, "_Ouf!
ouf!_" "And this," says he, "is the best _resumé_ that I can give
you of the situation of Paris." It is a cry of distress, and of
lassitude, breaking out from the Parisian heart, over-burdened with
plenitude of pleasure; it is the re-action of the fêtes of May. How
many things in ten days! How much dust--cannon-smoke--fire--fury--Roman
candles--thunder--melodramas--and provincials! How much
theatre-going--dining out--spent francs--_demitasses_--and ennui!

It is no wonder that your true Parisian is troubled with the crowd
and uproar that the fêtes bring to Paris, and, above all, with the
uncouth hordes of banditti provincials. The New-Yorker or the
Philadelphian can look complacently upon the throngs that our
Eastern and Northern steamers disgorge upon the city, and upon the
thousand wagons of "Market-street;" for these, all of them, not only
bring their quota of money to his till, but they lend a voice and a
tread to the hurry and the noise in which, and by which, your
true-blooded American feels his fullest life.

But the Parisian--living by daily, methodic, quiet, uninterrupted
indulgence of his tastes and humors--looks harshly upon the stout
wool-growers and plethoric vineyard men, who elbow him out of the
choicest seats at the Theatre of the Palais Royal, and who break
down his appreciative chuckle at a stroke of wit, with their
immoderate guffaw. Then, the dresses of these provincials are a
perpetual eye-sore to his taste. Such coats! such hats! such canes!
The very sight of them makes misery for your habitual frequenter of
the _Maison d'or_, or of the _Café Anglais_.

Moreover, there is something in the very _insouciance_ of these
country-comers to Paris which provokes the citizen the more. What do
they care for their white bell-crowns of ten years ago? or what, for
marching and counter-marching the Boulevard, with a fat wife on one
arm, and a fat daughter on the other? What do they care for the
fashion of a dinner, as they call for a _bouillon_, followed with a
steak and onions, flanked by a melon, and wet with a deep bottle of
_Julienne premier_?

What do they care for any _mode_, or any proprieties of the Faubourg
St. Honoré, as they leer at the dancers of the _Bal Mabil_, or roar
once and again at the clown who figures at the _Estaminet-Café_ of
the Champs Elyssées?

In short, says our aggrieved friend, the letter-writer, they press
us, and torture us every where; they eat our bread, and drink our
wine, and tread on our toes, and crowd us from our seats, as if the
gay capital were made for them alone! Nor is the story unreal:
whoever has happened upon that mad French metropolis, in the days of
its _fête_ madness, can recall the long procession of burly and
gross provincials who swarm the streets and gardens, like the lice
in the Egypt of Pharaoh.

In the old kingly times, when fêtes were regal, and every
Frenchman gloated at the velvet panoply, worked over with golden
_fleurs-de-lis_, as they now gloat at the columns of their
Republican journals, their love for festal-days was well hit off in
an old comedy. The shopkeeper (in the play) says to his wife, "Take
care of the shop; I am going to see the king." And the wife
presently says to the chief clerk, "Take care of the shop; I am
going to see the king." And the clerk, so soon as the good woman is
fairly out of sight, says to the _garçon_, "Take care of the shop; I
am going to see the king." And the _garçon_ enjoins upon the dog to
"take care of the shop, as he is going to see the king." And the
dog, stealing his nose out at the door, leaves all in charge of the
parroquet, and goes to see the king!

The joke made a good laugh in those laughing days: nor is the
material for as good a joke wanting now. The prefect leaves business
with the sub-prefect, that he may go up to the Paris fête. The
sub-prefect leaves his care with some commissioner, that he may go
up to the Paris fête. And the commissioner, watching his chance,
steals away in his turn, and chalks upon the door of the prefecture,
"Gone to the fêtes of May."

All this, to be sure, is two months old, and belonged to that
festive season of the Paris year, which goes before the summer. Now,
if report speaks true, with provincials gone home, and the booths
along the Champs Elyssées struck, and the theatric stars escaped to
Belgium, or the Springs, the Parisian is himself again. He takes his
evening drive in the Bois de Boulogne; he fishes for invitations to
Meudon, or St. Cloud; he plots a descent upon Boulogne, or Aix la
Chapelle; he studies the summer fashions from his apartments on the
Boulevard de la Madeleine; he takes his river-bath by the bridge of
the Institute; he smokes his evening cigar under the trees by the
National Circus; and he speculates vaguely upon the imperial
prospects of his President, the Prince Louis.

Meantime, fresh English and Americans come thronging in by the
Northern road, and the Havre road, and the road from Strasbourg.
They cover every floor of every hotel and _maison garnie_ in the Rue
Rivoli. They buy up all the couriers and valets-de-place; they swarm
in the jewelry and the bronze shops of the Rue de la Paix; and they
call, in bad French, for every dish that graces the _carte du jour_
in the restaurants of the Palais Royal. They branch off toward the
Apennines and the Alps, in flocks; and, if report speak true, the
Americans will this year outnumber upon the mountains of Switzerland
both French and German travelers. Indeed, Geneva, and Zurich, and
Lucerne, are now discussed and brought into the map of tourists, as
thoughtlessly as, ten years since, they compared the charms of the
Blue Lick and the Sharon waters.

Look at it a moment: Ten days, under the Collins guidance, will land
a man in Liverpool. Three days more will give him a look at the
Tower, the Parks, Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace, and Paternoster
Row; and on the fourth he may find himself swimming in a first-class
French car, on damask cushions, at forty miles the hour from
Boulogne to Paris. Five days in the capital will show him (specially
if he is free of service-money) the palaces of Versailles, the
Louvre, the park at St. Cloud, the church of Notre Dame, the
Madeleine, the Bourse, the Dead House, a score of balls, half as
many theatres, the pick of the shops, and the great Louis himself.

Three other summer days, allowing a ten hours' tramp over the
galleries and sombre grounds of Fontainebleau, will set him down, at
the door of "mine host" of the Hotel de l'Ecu, in the city of
Geneva, and he will brush the dews from his eyes in the morning,
within sight of the "blue, arrowy Rhone," and "placid Leman, and the
bald white peak of Mont Blanc." A Sunday in the Genevese church,
will rest his aching limbs, and give him hearing of such high
doctrine as comes from the lips of Merle d'Aubigné, and Monday will
drift him on _char-a-banc_ straight down through wooded
Sardinia--reading Coleridge's Hymn--into the marvelous valley of

There, he may take breath before he goes up upon the Sea of Ice; and
afterward he may idle, on donkeys or his own stout feet, over such
mountain passes as will make Franconia memories tame, and boat it
upon the Lake of Lucerne; and dine at the White Swan of Frankfort,
and linger at Bingen, and drink Hock at Heidelberg; and chaffer with
Jean Maria Farina at Cologne, and measure the stairs of the belfry
at Antwerp, and toss in a cockle shell of a steamer across the
straits, and lay him down in his Collins berth one month from his
landing, a fresher and fuller man--with only six weeks cloven from
his summer, and a short "five hundred" lifted from his purse.

The very fancy of it all--so easy, and so quick-coming--makes our
blood beat in the office-chair, and tempts us strangely to fling
down the pen, and to book ourselves by the Arctic.

       *       *       *       *       *

We happened the other day upon an old French picture of Washington,
which it may be worth while to render into passable English. It
comes from the writings of M. DE BROGLIE.

"I urged," he says, "M. de Rochambeau to present me, and the next
day was conducted by him to dine with the great general. He
received, most graciously, a letter from my father, and gave me a
pleasant welcome. The general is about forty-nine--tall, well-made,
and of elegant proportions. His face is much more agreeable than
generally represented: notwithstanding the fatigues of the last few
years, he seems still to possess all the agility and freshness of

"His expression is sweet and frank; his address rather cold, though
polished; his eye, somewhat pensive, is more observant than
flashing; and his look is full of dignified assurance. He guards
always a dignity of manner which forbids great familiarity, while it
seems to offend none. He seems modest, even to humility; yet he
accepts, kindly and graciously, the homage which is so freely
rendered him. His tone of voice is exceedingly low; and his
attention to what is addressed to him, so marked, as to make one
sure he has fully understood, though he should venture no reply.
Indeed this sort of circumspection is a noted trait of his

"His courage is rather calm than brilliant, and shows itself rather
in the coolness of his decision, than in the vigor with which he
battles against odds.

"He usually dines in company with twenty or thirty of his officers;
his attention to them is most marked and courteous; and his dignity,
at table only, sometimes relapses into gayety. He lingers at dessert
for an hour or two, eating freely of nuts, and drinking wine with
his guests. I had the honor of interchanging several _toasts_ with
the general; among others, I proposed the health of the Marquis de
Lafayette. He accepted the sentiment with a very benevolent smile,
and was kind enough to offer, in turn, the health of my own family.

"I was particularly struck with the air of respect and of admiration
with which his officers uniformly treated General Washington."

M. de Broglie makes mention of the meeting of Washington and Gates,
after their unfortunate difference, and speaks in high praise of the
conduct of both. He furthermore suggests that the assignment of the
chief command of the army to General Greene was owing to a certain
feeling of jealousy which Washington entertained for the reputation
of Gates: a suggestion, which neither contemporaneous history, or
the relative merits of Greene and of Gates would confirm.

It is not a little singular how greedy we become to learn the most
trivial details of the private life of the men we admire. Who would
not welcome nowadays any _bona fide_ contemporaneous account of the
meals or dress of William Shakspeare, or of Francis Bacon? And what
a jewel of a spirit that would be, who would make some pleasant
letter-writer for the Tribune, the _medium_ of communicating to us
what colored coat Shakspeare wore when he wooed Ann Hathaway, and
how much wine he drank for the modeling of Jack Falstaff! Were there
no Boswells in those days, whose spirits might be coaxed into
communicative rappings about the king of the poets? We recommend the
matter, in all sincerity, to the Misses Media.

       *       *       *       *       *

A French court-room is not unfrequently as "good as a play:" besides
which, the Paris reporters have a dainty way of working up the
infirmities of a weak wicked man into a most captivating story. They
dramatize, even to painting the grave nod of the judge; and will
work out a farce from a mere broken bargain about an ass!--as one
may see from this trial of Léonard Vidaillon.

Léonard Vidaillon, as brave a cooper as ever hammered a hoop, having
retired from business, bethought him of buying an equipage for his
family; but hesitated between the purchase of a pony or a donkey.

"A pony," said he, to himself, "is a graceful little beast, genteel,
_coquet_, and gives a man a 'certain air;' but on the other hand,
your pony is rather hard to keep, and costly to equip. The donkey
takes care of himself--eats every thing--wants no comb or brush;
but, unfortunately, is neither vivacious or elegant."

In the midst of this embarrassment, an old friend recommended to
him--a mule. With this idea flaming in his thought, Léonard ran over
all of Paris in search of a mule, and ended with finding, at the
stable of a worthy donkey-drover, a little mule of a year old--of
"fine complexion"--smaller than a horse--larger than a donkey--with
a lively eye--in short, such a charming little creature as bewitched
the cooper, and secured the sale.

The price was a hundred francs, it being agreed that the young mule
should have gratuitous nursing of its donkey-mother for three
months; at the expiration of which time our cooper should claim his

The next scene opens in full court.

Léonard, the defendant, is explaining.

"Yes, your honor, I bought the mule, to be delivered at the end of
three months. At the end of three months I fell sick; I lay a-bed
twelve weeks; I drugged myself to death; I picked up on water-gruel;
I got on my legs; and the second day out I went after my little

DONKEY-MAN (being plaintiff).--The court will observe that three
months and twelve weeks make six months.

The Judge nods acquiescence.

LEONARD.--Agreed. They make six months. I went then after my little
mule, a delicate creature, not larger than a large ass, that I had
picked out expressly for my little wagon. I went, as I said, to see
my little mule. And what does the man show me? A great, yellow
jackass, high in the hips, with a big belly, that would be sure to
split the shafts of my carriage! I said to him, "M. Galoupeau, this
is not my little mule, and I sha'n't pay you."

GALOUPEAU (_plaintiff_).--And what did I say?

LEONARD.--You swore it was my mule.

GALOUPEAU.--I said better than that: I said I couldn't constrain the
nature of the beast, and hinder a little mule from growing large.

LEONARD.--But mine was a blond, and yours is yellow.

GALOUPEAU.--Simply another effect of nature! And I have seen a
little black ass foal turn white at three months old!

LEONARD.--Do you think I have filled casks so long, not to know that
red wine is red, and white wine, white.

GALOUPEAU.--I don't know. I don't understand the nature of wines;
but donkeys--yes.

JUDGE (_to the defendant_).--So you refuse to take the mule?

LEONARD.--I rather think so--a mule like a camel, and such a
ferocious character, that he came within an ace of taking my life!

JUDGE.--You will please to make good this point of the injuries

LEONARD.--The thing is easy. This M. Galoupeau insisted that I
should take a look at his beast, and brought him out of the stable.
The animal made off like a mad thing, and came near killing all the
poultry. Then M. Galoupeau, who professes to know his habits,
followed him up to the bottom of the yard, spoke gently to him, and
after getting a hand upon his shoulder, called me up. As for myself,
I went up confidently. I came near the beast, and just as I was
about to reach out my hand for a gentle caress, the brute kicked me
in the stomach--such a kick!--Mon Dieu! but here, your Honor, is the
certificate--"twelve days a-bed; one hundred and fifty leeches." All
that for caressing the brute!

GALOUPEAU.--If you were instructed, M. Léonard, in the nature of
these beasts, you would understand that they never submit to any
flattery from behind; and you know very well that you approached him
by the tail.

Here two stable-boys were called to the stand, who testified that
Signor Léonard Vidaillon, late cooper, did approach their master's
jackass by the tail; and furthermore, that the mule (or jackass) was
ordinarily of a quiet and peaceable disposition. This being shown to
the satisfaction of the Court, and since it appeared that an
inexperience, arising out of ignorance of the nature of the beast,
had occasioned the injury to Signor Vidaillon, the case was decided
for the plaintiff. Poor Léonard was mulcted in the cost of the mule,
the costs of the suit, the cost of a hundred and fifty leeches, and
the cost of broader shafts to his family wagon.

We have entertained our reader with this report--first, to show how
parties to a French suit plead their own cause; and next, to show
how the French reporters render the cause into writing. The story is
headed in the French journal, like a farce--"A little mule will

       *       *       *       *       *

As for the town, in these hot days of summer, it looks slumberous.
The hundreds who peopled the up-town walks with silks and plumes,
are gone to the beach of Newport, or the shady verandas of the
"United States." Even now, we will venture the guess, there are
scores of readers running over this page under the shadow of the
Saratoga colonnades, or in view of the broad valley of the Mohawk,
who parted from us last month in some cushioned _fauteuil_ of the
New York Avenues.

The down-town men wear an air of _ennui_, and slip uneasily through
the brick and mortar labyrinths of Maiden-lane and of John-street.
Brokers, even, long for their Sunday's recess--when they can steal
one breath of health and wideness at New Rochelle, or Rockaway.
Southerners, with nurses and children, begin to show themselves in
the neighborhood of the Union and Clarendon, and saunter through
our sunshine as if our sunshine were a bath of spring.

Fruits meantime are ripening in all our stalls; and it takes the
edge from the sultriness of the season to wander at sunrise, through
the golden and purple show of our Washington market. Most of all, to
such as are tied, by lawyer's tape or editorial pen, to the desks of
the city, does it bring a burst of country glow to taste the
firstlings of the country's growth, and to doat upon the garden
glories of the year--as upon so many testimonial clusters, brought
back from a land of Canaan.

And in this vein, we can not avoid noting and commending the
increasing love for flowers. Bouquets are marketable; they are
getting upon the stalls; they flank the lamb and the butter. Our
civilization is ripening into a sense of their uses and beauties.
They talk to us even now--(for a tenpenny bunch of roses is smiling
at us from our desk) of fields, fragrance, health, and wanton youth.
They take us back to the days when with urchin fingers we grappled
the butter-cup and the mountain daisy--days when we loitered by
violet banks, and loved to loiter--days when we loved the violets,
and loved to love; and they take us forward too--far forward to the
days that always seem coming, when flowers shall bless us again, and
be plucked again, and be loved again, and bloom around us, year
after year; and bloom over us, year after year!

       *       *       *       *       *

The two great hinges of public chat are--just now--the rival
candidates, Generals Pierce and Scott; serving not only for the hot
hours of lunch under the arches of the Merchants' Exchange, but
toning the talk upon every up-bound steamer of the Hudson, and
giving their creak to the breezes of Cape May.

Poor Generals!--that a long and a worthy life should come to such
poor end as this. To be vilified in the journals, to be calumniated
with dinner-table abuse, or with worse flattery--to have their
religion, their morals, their courage, their temper, all brought to
the question;--to have their faces fly-specked in every hot shop of
a barber--to have their grandparents, and parents all served up in
their old clothes; to have their school-boy pranks ferreted out, and
every forgotten penny pitched into their eyes; to have their wine
measured by the glass, and their tears by the tumbler; to have their
names a bye-word, and their politics a reproach--this is the honor
we show to these most worthy candidates!

       *       *       *       *       *

As a relief to the wearisome political chat, our city has just now
been blessed with Alboni; and it is not a little curious to observe
how those critics who were coy of running riot about Jenny Lind, are
lavishing their pent-up superlatives upon the new-comer. The odium
of praising nothing, it appears, they do not desire; and seize the
first opportunity to win a reputation for generosity. The truth is,
we suspect, that Alboni is a highly cultivated singer, with a voice
of southern sweetness, and with an air of most tempered
pleasantness; but she hardly brings the _prestige_ of that wide
benevolence, noble action, and _naïve_ courtesy, which made the
world welcome Jenny as a woman, before she had risked a note.

In comparing the two as artists, we shall not venture an opinion;
but we must confess to a strong liking for such specimen of
humanity, as makes its humanity shine through whatever art it
embraces. Such humanity sliding into song, slides through the song,
and makes the song an echo; such humanity reveling in painting,
makes the painting only a shadow on the wall. Every true artist
should be greater than his art; or else it is the art that makes
him great.

And while we are upon this matter of song, we take the liberty of
suggesting, in behalf of plain-spoken, and simple-minded people,
that musical criticism is nowadays arraying itself in a great
brocade of words, of which the fustian only is clear to common
readers. We can readily understand that the art of music, like other
arts, should have its technicalities of expression; but we can not
understand with what propriety those technicalities should be warped
into such notices, as are written professedly for popular
entertainment and instruction.

If, Messrs. Journalists, your musical critiques are intended solely
for the eye of connoisseurs, stick to your shady Italian; but if
they be intended for the enlightenment of such hungry outside
readers, as want to know, in plain English, how such or such a
concert went off, and in what peculiar way each artist excels, for
Heaven's sake, give us a taste again of old fashioned Saxon
expletive! He seems to us by far the greatest critic, who can carry
to the public mind the clearest and the most accurate idea of what
was sung, and of the way in which it was sung. It would seem,
however, that we are greatly mistaken; and that the palm of
excellence should lie with those, whose periods smack most
of the green-room, and cover up opinions with a profusion of
technicalities. We shall not linger here, however, lest we be
attacked in language we can not understand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the novelties which have provoked their share of the boudoir
chit-chat, and which go to make our monthly digest of trifles
complete, may be reckoned the appearance of a company of trained
animals at the Astor Place Opera House. Their débût was modest and
maidenly; and could hardly have made an eddy in the talk, had not
the purveyors of that classic temple, entered an early protest
against the performance, as derogatory to the dignity of the place.

This difficulty, and the ensuing discussions, naturally led to a
comparison of the habits of the various animals, who are accustomed
to appear in that place, whether as spectators, or as actors. What
the judicial decision may have been respecting the matter, we are
not informed. Public opinion, however, seems to favor the conclusion
that the individuals composing the monkey troup would compare well,
even on the score of dignity, with very many habitués of the house;
and that the whole monkey tribe, being quite harmless and
inoffensive, should remain, as heretofore, the subjects of Christian
toleration, whether appearing on the bench (no offense to the
Judges) or the boards.

With this theatric note, to serve as a snapper to our long column of
gossip, we beg to yield place to that very coy lady--the Bride of



DEAR SIR--The small village of Landeck is situated in a very
beautiful spot near the river Inn, with a fine old castle to the
southeast, against the winds from which quarter it shelters the
greater part of the village--a not unnecessary screen; for easterly
winds in the Tyrol are very detestable. Indeed I know no country in
which they are any thing else, or where the old almanac lines are
not applicable--

      "When the wind is in the east,
      'Tis neither good for man or beast."

Some people, however, are peculiarly affected by the influence of
that wind; and they tell a story of Dr. Parr--for the truth of
which I will not vouch, but which probably has some foundation in
fact. When a young man, he is said to have had an attack of ague,
which made him dread the east wind as a pestilence. He had two
pupils at the time, gay lads, over whose conduct, as well as whose
studies, he exercised a very rigid superintendence. When they went
out to walk, Parr was almost sure to be with them, much to their
annoyance on many occasions. There were some exceptions, however;
and they remarked that these exceptions occurred when the wind was
easterly. Boys are very shrewd, and it did not escape the lads'
attention, that every day their tutor walked to the window, and
looked up at the weather-cock on the steeple of the little parish
church. Conferences were held between the young men; and a carpenter
consulted. A few days after, the wind was in the east, and the
Doctor suffered them to go out alone. The following day it was in
the east still. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday,
Saturday, all easterly wind--if the weather-cock might be believed.
Sunday, Parr went to church, and shivered all day. The next week it
was just the same thing. Never was such a spell of easterly wind.
Parr was miserable. But at the end of some five weeks, a friend, and
man of the world, came to visit him, with the common salutation
of--"A fine day, Doctor!"

"No day is a fine day, sir, with an easterly wind," said Parr, with
his usual acerbity.

"Easterly wind?" said his visitor, walking toward the window; "I
don't think the wind is east--yes it is, indeed."

"Ay, sir, and has been for these six weeks," answered Parr, sharply.
"I could tell it by my own sensations, without looking at the

"Why, Doctor," answered the other, "the wind was west yesterday:
that I know; and I thought it was west to-day."

"Then you thought like a fool, sir," answered Parr. "A man who can
not tell when the wind is in the east, has no right to think at all.
Let him look at the weather-cock."

"But the weather-cock may be rusty," answered the other; "and your
weather-cock must be rusty if it pointed to the east yesterday; for
it blew pretty smartly from the west all day."

"Do you think I am a fool, sir: do you think I am a liar?" asked
Parr, angrily.

"No; but you may be mistaken, Doctor," replied the other. "Even
Solomon, as you know, made a mistake sometimes; and you are mistaken
now; and the weather-cock too. Look at the clouds: they are coming
rapidly from the west. If you would take my advice, you would look
to our friend there on the top of the steeple."

"I will, sir--I will this moment," replied Parr; and ringing the
bell violently, he ordered his servant to take the village carpenter
and a bottle of oil, and have the weather-cock examined and greased.
He and his visitor watched the whole proceeding from the window--the
bringing forth of the ladders, the making them fast with ropes, the
perilous ascent, and then the long operations which seemed much more
complicated than the mere process of greasing the rusty
weather-cock. "What can the fools be about?" said Parr. In the end,
however, the deed, whatever it was, was done; and the servant and
the carpenter descended, and came toward the house. By this time the
weather-cock had whirled round, pointing directly to the west, and
the Doctor asked eagerly, as soon as the men appeared. "Well,
sir--well: what prevented the vane from turning?"

"A large nail, sir," answered the man.

"I will never trust a weather-cock again," cried Parr.

"Nor your own sensations either, Doctor," said his friend, "unless
you are very sure they are right ones; for if you pin them to a
weather-cock, there may be people who will find it for their
interest to pin the weather-cock to the post."

The two poor pupils from that day forward lost their advantage; but
they had six weeks of fun out of it, and, like the fishes in the
Arabian tale, "were content."

There is an old proverb, that "Fancy is as good for a fool as
physic," and I believe the saying might be carried further still;
for there is such a thing as corporeal disease, depending entirely
upon the mind; and that with very wise men too. The effect of mental
remedies we all know, even in very severe and merely muscular
diseases. Whether Doctor Parr was cured of his aguish sensations or
not, I can not tell; but I have known several instances of mental
remedies applied with success; to say nothing of having actually
seen the incident displayed by old Bunbury's caricature of a
rheumatic man enabled to jump over a high fence by the presence of a
mad bull. I will give you one instance of a complete, though
temporary cure, performed upon a young lady by what I can only
consider mental agency. One of the daughters of a Roman Catholic
family, named V----, a very beautiful and interesting girl, had
entirely lost the use of her limbs for nearly three years, and was
obliged to be fed and tended like a child. Her mind was acute and
clear, however, and as at that time the celebrated Prince Hohenloe
was performing, by his prayers, some cures which seemed miraculous,
her father entered into correspondence with him, to see if any thing
could be done for the daughter. The distance of some thousand miles
lay between the Prince and the patient; but he undertook to pray and
say mass for her on a certain day, and at a certain hour, and
directed that mass should also be celebrated in the city where she
resided, exactly at the same moment. As the longitude of the two
places was very different, a great deal of fuss was made to
ascertain the precise time. All this excited her imagination a good
deal, and at the hour appointed the whole family went to mass,
leaving her alone, and in bed. On their return they found Miss
V----, who for years had not been able to stir hand or foot, up,
dressed, and in the drawing-room. For the time, she was perfectly
cured; but I have been told that she gradually fell back into the
same state as before.

Mental medicine does not always succeed, however; and once, in my
own case, failed entirely. When traveling in Europe, in the year
1825, I was attacked with very severe quartan fever. I was drugged
immensely between the paroxysms, and the physician conspired with my
friends to persuade me I was quite cured. They went so far as,
without my knowing it, to put forward a striking-clock that was on
the mantle-piece, and when the hour struck, at which the fit usually
seized me, without any appearance of its return, they congratulated
me on my recovery, and actually left me. Nevertheless, at the real
hour, the fever seized me again, and shook me nearly to pieces.
Neither is it that mental medicine sometimes fails; but it sometimes
operates in a most unexpected and disastrous manner; especially when
applied to mental disease; and I am rather inclined to believe, that
corporeal malady may often be best treated by mental means; mental
malady by corporeal means.

A friend of my youth, poor Mr. S---- lost his only son, in a very
lamentable manner. He had but two children: this son and a daughter.
Both were exceedingly handsome, full of talent and kindly affection;
and the two young people were most strongly attached to each other.
Suddenly, the health of young S---- was perceived to decline. He
became grave--pale--sad--emaciated. His parents took the alarm.
Physicians were sent for. No corporeal disease of any kind could be
discovered. The doctors declared privately that there must be
something on his mind, as it is called, and his father with the
utmost kindness and tenderness, besought him to confide in him,
assuring him that if any thing within the reach of fortune or
influence could give him relief, his wishes should be accomplished,
whatever they might be.

"You can do nothing for me, my dear father," replied the young man,
sadly; "but you deserve all my confidence, and I will not withhold
it. That which is destroying me, is want of rest. Every night, about
an hour after I lie down, a figure dressed in white, very like the
figure of my dear sister, glides into the room, and seats itself on
the right side of my bed, where it remains all night. If I am asleep
at the time of its coming, I am sure to wake, and I remain awake all
night with my eyes fixed upon it. I believe it to be a delusion; but
I can not banish it; and the moment it appears, I am completely
under its influence. This is what is killing me."

The father reasoned with him, and took every means that could be
devised either by friends or physicians, to dispel this sad
phantasy. They gave parties; they sat up late; they changed the
scene; but it was all in vain. The figure still returned; and the
young man became more and more feeble. He was evidently dying; and
as a last resource, it was determined to have recourse to a trick to
produce a strong effect upon his mind. The plan arranged was as
follows. His sister was to dress herself in white, as he had
represented the figure to be dressed, and about the hour he
mentioned, to steal into his room, and seat herself on the other
side of the bed, opposite to the position which the phantom of his
imagination usually occupied, while the parents remained near the
door to hear the result. She undertook the task timidly; but
executed it well. Stealing in, with noiseless tread, she approached
her brother's bed-side, and by the faint moonlight, saw his eyes
fixed with an unnatural stare upon vacancy, but directed to the
other side. She seated herself without making the least noise, and
waited to see if he would turn his eyes toward her. He did not stir
in the least, however; but lay, as if petrified by the sight his
fancy presented. At length she made a slight movement to call his
attention, and her garments rustled. Instantly the young man turned
his eyes to the left, gazed at her--looked back to the right--gazed
at her again; and then exclaimed, almost with a shriek, "Good God:
there are two of them!"

He said no more. His sister darted up to him. The father and mother
ran in with lights; but the effect had been fatal. He was gone.

Nor is this the only case in which I have known the most detrimental
results occur from persons attempting indiscreetly to act upon the
minds of the sick while in a very feeble state. Once, indeed, the
whole medical men--and they were among the most famous of their time
in the world--belonging to one of the chief hospitals of Edinburgh,
were at fault in a similar manner. The case was this: A poor woman
of the port of Leith had married a sailor, to whom she was very
fondly attached. They had one or two children, and were in by no
means good circumstances. The man went to sea in pursuit of his
usual avocations, and at the end of two or three months intelligence
was received in Leith of the loss of the vessel with all on board.
Left in penury, with no means of supporting her children but her own
hard labor, the poor woman, who was very attractive in appearance,
was persuaded to marry a man considerably older than herself, but in
very tolerable circumstances. By him she had one child; and in the
summer of the year 1786, she was sitting on the broad, open way,
called Leith-walk, with a baby on her lap. Suddenly, she beheld her
first husband walk up the street directly toward her. The man
recognized her instantly, approached, and spoke to her. But she
neither answered nor moved. She was struck with catalepsy. In this
state she was removed to the Royal Infirmary, and her case, from the
singular circumstances attending it, excited great interest in the
medical profession in Edinburgh, which at that time numbered among
its professors the celebrated Cullen, and no less celebrated
Gregory. The tale was related to me by one of their pupils, who was
present, and who assured me that every thing was done that science
could suggest, till all the ordinary remedial means were exhausted.
The poor woman remained without speech or motion. In whatever
position the body was placed, there it remained; and the rigidity of
the muscles was such, that when the arm was extended, twenty minutes
elapsed before it fell to her side by its own weight. Death was
inevitable, unless some means could be devised of rousing the mind
to some active operation on the body. From various indications, it
was judged that the poor woman was perfectly sensible, and at a
consultation of all the first physicians of the city, the first
husband was sent for, and asked if he was willing to co-operate, in
order to give his poor wife a chance of life. He replied, with deep
feeling, that he was willing to lay down his own life, if it would
restore her: that he was perfectly satisfied with her conduct; knew
that she had acted in ignorance of his existence; and explained,
that having floated to the coast of Africa upon a piece of the
wreck, he had been unable for some years to return to his native
land, or communicate with any one therein. In these circumstances,
it was determined to act immediately. The Professors grouped
themselves round the poor woman, and the first husband was brought
suddenly to the foot of the bed, toward which her eyes were turned,
carrying the child by the second husband in his arms. A moment of
silence and suspense succeeded; but then, she who had lain for so
many days like a living corpse, rose slowly up, and stretched out
her hands toward the poor sailor. Her lips moved, and with a great
effort she exclaimed, "Oh, John, John--you know that it was nae my
fault." The effort was too much for her exhausted frame: she fell
back again immediately, and in five minutes was a corpse indeed.

This story may have been told by others before me, for the thing was
not done in a corner. But I always repeat it, when occasion serves,
in order to warn people against an incautious use of means to which
we are accustomed to attribute less power than they really possess.

And now, I will really go on with "The Bride of Landeck" in my next
letter.--Yours faithfully,

Editor's Drawer.

Here is a very amusing picture of that species of odd fish known as
a _Matter-of-Fact Man_:

"I am what the old women call 'An Odd Fish.' I do nothing, under
heaven, without a motive--never. I attempt nothing unless I think
there is a probability of my succeeding. I ask no favors when I
think they won't be granted. I grant no favors when I think they are
not deserved; and finally, I don't wait upon the girls when I think
my attentions would be disagreeable. I am a matter-of-fact man--_I_
am. I do things seriously. I once offered to attend a young lady
home--I did, seriously: that is, I meant to wait on her home if she
wanted me. She accepted my offer. I went home with her; and it has
ever since been an enigma to me whether she wanted me or not. She
took my arm, and said not a word. I bade her 'Good Night,' and she
said not a word. I met her the next day, and _I_ said not a word. I
met her again, and she gave a two-hours' talk. It struck me as
curious. She feared I was offended, she said, and couldn't for the
life of her conceive why. She begged me to explain, but didn't give
me the ghost of a chance to do it. She said she hoped I wouldn't be
offended: asked me to call: and it has ever since been a mystery to
me whether she really wanted me to call or not.

"I once saw a lady at her window. I thought I would call. I _did_. I
inquired for the lady, and was told that she was not at home. I
expect she was. I went _away_ thinking so. I rather think so still.
I met her again. She was offended--said I had not been 'neighborly.'
She reproached me for my negligence; said she thought I had been
unkind. And I've ever since wondered whether she _was_ sorry or not.

"A lady once said to me that she should like to be married, if she
could get a good congenial husband, who would make her happy, or at
least _try_ to. She was not difficult to please, she said. I said, 'I
should like to get married too, if I could get a wife that would try
to make me happy.' She said, 'Umph!' and looked as if she meant what
she said. She _did_. For when I asked her if she thought she could
be persuaded to marry me, she said, she'd rather be excused. I
excused her. I've often wondered _why_ I excused her.

"A good many things of this kind have happened to me that are
doubtful, wonderful, mysterious. What, then, is it that causes doubt
and mystery to attend the ways of men? _It is the want of fact._
This is a matter-of-fact world, and in order to act well in it, we
must deal in matter-of-fact."

       *       *       *       *       *

Some modern author says of gambling, that it is "a magical stream,
into which, if a man once steps, and wets the sole of his foot, he
must needs keep on until he is overwhelmed." Perhaps some readers of
the "Drawer" may have heard of the officer, who, having lost all his
money at play, received assistance from a friend, on condition that
he would never after touch a pack of cards. A few weeks after,
however, he was found in an out-house drawing short and long straws
with a brother-gamester for hundreds of pounds!

"The most singular species of gambling, however, is one which is
said to be practiced among the blacks in Cuba. Many of these stout,
hearty, good-humored fellows daily collect about the docks in
Havanna, waiting for employment, and gambling in cigars, for they
are inveterate smokers. This forms one of their most favorite
amusements. Two parties challenge each other, and each lays down, in
separate places, three or more cigars, forming a figure resembling a
triangle: they then withdraw a few paces, and eagerly watch their
respective 'piles.' The owner of the 'pile' _on which a fly first
alights_, is entitled to the whole!

"It should be added, that a pile smeared any where with molasses,
to attract the more ready visit of the flies, was considered in the
light of 'loaded dice' among 'professional men' of a kindred stamp."

       *       *       *       *       *

Let any man, "in populous city pent," who has left the cares,
turmoils, and annoyances of the town for a brief time behind him,
with the heated bricks and stifling airs, that make a metropolis
almost a burthen in the fierce heats of a summer solstice, say
whether or no this passage be not true, both in "letter" and in

"In the country a man's spirit is free and easy; his mind is
discharged, and at its own disposal: but in the city, the persons of
friends and acquaintances, one's own and other people's business,
foolish quarrels, ceremonious visits, impertinent discourses, and a
thousand other fopperies and diversions, steal away the greater part
of our time, and leave us no leisure for better and more necessary
employment. Great towns are but a larger sort of prison to the soul,
like cages to birds, or 'pounds' to beasts."

       *       *       *       *       *

There is a good story told, and we believe a new one--(at least, so
far as we know, it is such, as the manuscript which records it is
from a traveled friend, in whose "hand-of-write" it has remained
long in the "Drawer")--a story of Samuel Rogers, the rich banker,
and accomplished poet of "The Pleasures of Memory:"

Rogers arrived at Paris at noon one day in the year 18--. He found
all his countrymen prepared to attend a splendid party at
Versailles. They were all loud in expressing their regrets that he
could not accompany them. They were "very sorry"--but "the thing was
impossible:" "full court-dresses alone were admissible;" and to
obtain one _then_--why "of course it was in vain to think of it."

Rogers listened very patiently; told them to "leave him entirely to
himself;" and added, that "he was sure he could find some amusement

No sooner were they gone, than he began to dress; and within the
space of a single hour he was on the road to Versailles, fully
equipped, in a blue coat, white waistcoat, and drab pantaloons. At
the door of the splendid mansion in which the company were
assembled, his further progress was opposed by a servant whose
livery was far more showy and imposing than his own costume.

Rogers affected the utmost astonishment at the interruption, and
made as if he would have passed on. The servant pointed to his

"It is not _comme il faut_: you can not pass in: Monsieur must

"Dress! dress!" exclaimed Rogers, with well-feigned surprise: "Not
pass! not enter! Why, mine is the same dress that is worn by the
_General Court_ at Boston!"

No sooner were the words uttered, than the doors flew open, and the
obsequious valet, "booing and booing," like Sir Pertinax
Macsycophant in the play, preceded the poet, and in a loud voice

"_Monsieur le General Court, de Boston!_"

The amusement of the Americans in the group scarcely exceeded that
of the new-made "General" himself.

On another occasion, Rogers relates, he was announced at a Parisian
party as "Monsieur le Mort," by a lackey, who had mistaken him for
"Tom Moore."

Not unlike an old New-Yorker, who was announced from his card as

"_Monsieur le Koque en Bow!_"

His simple name was Quackenbos!

Now that we are hearing of the manner in which foolish and
ostentatious Americans are lately representing themselves in Paris
by military titles, as if connected with the army of the United
States, perhaps "Monsieur le General Court, de Boston" may "pass
muster" with our readers.

The implied satire, however, of the whole affair, strikes us as not
altogether without a valuable lesson for those miscalled "Americans"
who forget alike their country and themselves while abroad.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the oxy-hydrogen microscope was first exhibited in Edinburgh, a
poor woman, whose riches could never retard her ascent to the
kingdom above, took her seat in the lecture-room where the wonders
of the instrument were shown, and which were, for the first time, to
meet her sight. A piece of lace was magnified into a salmon-net; a
flea was metamorphosed into an elephant; and other the like marvels
were performed before the eyes of the venerable dame, who sat in
silent astonishment staring open-mouthed at the disk. But when, at
length, a milliner's needle was transformed into a poplar-tree, and
confronted her with its huge eye, she could "hold in" no longer.

"My goodness!" she exclaimed, "a camel could get through _that_!
There's some hopes for the rich folk yet!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Legal tautology and unnecessary formulas have often been made the
theme of ridicule and satire; but we suspect that it is somewhat
unusual to find a simple "_levy_" made with such elaborate
formalities, or, more properly, "solemnities," as in the following

The Dogberryan official laid his execution very formally upon a
saddle; and said:

"_Saddle_, I level upon you, in the name of the State!"

"_Bridle_, I level upon _you_, in the name of the State!"

Then, turning to a pair of martingales, the real name of which he
did not know, he said:

"Little forked piece of leather, I level on you, in the name of the

"Oh, yes! oh, yes! oh, yes! Saddle, and Bridle, and little forked
piece of leather, I now _inds_ you upon this execution, and summon
you to be and appear at my sale-ground, on Saturday, the tenth of
this present month, to be executed according to law. Herein fail
not, or you will be proceeded against for contempt of the

       *       *       *       *       *

We find recorded in the "Drawer" two instances where ingenuity was
put in successful requisition, to obviate the necessity of "making
change," a matter of no little trouble oftentimes to tradesmen and
others. A rude fellow, while before the police-magistrate for some
misdemeanor, was fined nine dollars for eighteen oaths uttered in
defiance of official warning that each one would cost him fifty
cents. He handed a ten-dollar bill to the Justice, who was about
returning the remaining one to the delinquent, when he broke forth:

"No, no! keep the whole, keep the whole! _I'll swear it out!_"

And he proceeded to expend the "balance" in as round and condensed a
volley of personal denunciation as had ever saluted the ears of the
legal functionary. He then retired content.

Something similar was the "change" given to one of our hack-drivers
by a jolly tar, who was enjoying "a sail" in a carriage up Broadway.
A mad bull, "with his spanker-boom rigged straight out abaft," or
some other animal going "at the rate of fourteen knots an hour" in
the street, attracted Jack's attention, as he rode along; and,
unable to let the large plate-glass window down, he broke it to
atoms, that he might thrust forth his head.

"A dollar and a half for _that_!" says Jehu.

"Vot of it?--here's the blunt," said the sailor, handing the driver
a three-dollar note.

"I can't change it," said the latter.

"Well, never mind!" rejoined the tar; "_this_ will make it right!"

The sudden crash of the _other_ window told the driver in what
manner the "change" had been made!

       *       *       *       *       *

Some bachelor-reader, pining in single-blessedness, may be induced,
by the perusal of the ensuing parody upon Romeo's description of an
apothecary, to "turn from the error of his way" of life, and both
confer and receive "reward:"

      "I do remember an old Bachelor,
      And hereabout he dwells; whom late I noted
      In suit of sables, with a care-worn brow,
      Conning his books; and meagre were his looks;
      Celibacy had worn him to the bone;
      And in his silent chamber hung a coat,
      The which the moths had used not less than he.
      Four chairs, one table, and an old hair trunk,
      Made up 'the furniture;' and on his shelves
      A greasy candle-stick; a broken mug,
      Two tables, and a box of old cigars;
      Remnants of volumes, once in some repute,
      Were thinly scattered round, to tell the eye
      Of prying strangers, "_This man had no wife!_"
      His tattered elbow gaped most piteously;
      And ever as he turned him round; his skin
      Did through his stockings peep upon the day.
      Noting his gloom, unto myself I said:
      'And if a man did covet single life,
      Reckless of joys that matrimony gives,
      Here lives a gloomy wretch would show it him
      In such most dismal colors, that the shrew,
      Or slut, or idiot, or the gossip spouse,
      Were each an heaven, compared to such a life!'"

"There are always two sides to a question," the bachelor-"defendant"
may affirm, in answer to this; and possibly himself try a hand at a

       *       *       *       *       *

There are a good many proverbs that will not stand a very close
analysis; and some one who is of this way of thinking has selected a
few examples, by way of illustration. The following are specimens:

"_The more the merrier._"--Not so, "by a jug-full," one hand, for
example, is quite enough in a purse.

"_He that runs fastest gets most ground._"--Not exactly; for then
footmen would get more than their masters.

"_He runs far who never turns._"--"Not quite: he may break his neck
in a short course.

"_No man can call again yesterday._"--Yes, he may _call_ till his
heart ache, though it may never come.

"_He that goes softly goes safely._"--Not among thieves.

"_Nothing hurts the stomach more than surfeiting._"--Yes; _lack_ of

"_Nothing is hard to a willing mind._"--Surely; for every body is
willing to get money, but to many it is hard.

"_None so blind as those that will not see._"--Yes; those who _can
not_ see.

"_Nothing but what is good for something._"--"Nothing" isn't good
for _any_ thing.

"_Nothing but what has an end._"--A ring hath no end; for it is

"_Money is a great comfort._"--But not when it brings a thief to the
State Prison.

"_The world is a long journey._"--Not always; for the sun goes over
it every day.

"_It is a great way to the bottom of the sea._"--Not at all; it is
merely "a stone's throw."

"_A friend is best found in adversity._"--"No, sir;" for then there
are none to be found.

"_The pride of the rich makes the labor of the poor._"--By no manner
of means. The labor of the poor makes the pride of the rich.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following lines, accompanying a trifling present, are not an
unworthy model for those who wish to say a kind word in the most
felicitous way:

      "Not want of heart, but want of art
      Hath made my gift so small;
      Then, loving heart, take hearty love,
      To make amends for all.
      Take gift with heart, and heart with gift,
      Let will supply my want;
      For willing heart, nor hearty will,
      Nor is, nor shall be scant."

Please to observe how adroitly an unforced play upon words is
embodied in these eight lines.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is "more truth than poetry" in the subjoined _Extract from a
Modern Dictionary._

_The Grave._--An ugly hole in the ground, which lovers and poets
very often wish they were in, but at the same time take precious
good care to keep out of.

_Constable._--A species of snapping-turtle.

_Modesty._--A beautiful flower, that flourishes only in secret

_Lawyer._--A learned gentleman who rescues your estate from the
hands of your opponent, and keeps it himself.

_"My Dear."_--An expression used by man and wife at the commencement
of a quarrel.

_"Joining Hands" in Matrimony._--A custom arising from the practice
of pugilists shaking hands before they begin to fight.

_"Watchman."_--A man employed by the corporation to sleep in the
open air.

_Laughter._--A singular contortion of the human countenance, when a
friend, on a rainy day, suddenly claims his umbrella.

_Dentist._--A person who finds work for his own teeth by taking out
those of other people.

       *       *       *       *       *

A singular anecdote of Thomas Chittenden the first Governor of the
State of Vermont, has found its way into our capacious receptacle.
"Mum," said he, one night (his usual way of addressing his wife),
"Mum, who is that stepping so softly in the kitchen?"

It was midnight, and every soul in the house was asleep, save the
Governor and his companion. He left his bed as stealthily as he
possibly could, followed the intruder into the cellar, and, without
himself being perceived, heard him taking large pieces of pork out
of his meat-barrel, and stowing them away in a bag.

"Who's there?" exclaimed the Governor, in a stern, stentorian voice,
as the intruder began to make preparations to "be off."

The thief shrank back into the corner, as mute as a dead man.

"Bring a candle, Mum!"

The Governor's wife went for the light.

"What are you waiting for, Mr. Robber, Thief, or whatever your
Christian-name may be?" said the Governor.

The guilty culprit shook as if his very joints would be sundered.

"Come, sir," continued Governor Chittenden, "fill up your sack and
be off, and don't be going round disturbing honest people so often,
when they want to be taking their repose."

The thief, dumb-founded, now looked more frightened than ever.

"Be quick, man," said the Governor, "fill up, sir! I shall make but
few words with you!"

He was compelled to comply.

"Have you got enough, now? Begone, then, in one minute! When you
have devoured this, come again in the day-time, and I'll give you
more, rather than to have my house pillaged at such an hour as this.
One thing more, let me tell you, and that is, that, as sure as fate,
if I ever have the smallest reason to suspect you of another such an
act, the law shall be put in force, and the dungeon receive another
occupant. Otherwise, you may still run at large for any thing that I
shall do."

The man went away, and was never afterward known to commit an
immoral act.

       *       *       *       *       *

This story is related, as a veritable fact, of a Dutch justice,
residing in the pleasant valley of the Mohawk not a thousand miles
from the city of Schenectady:

He kept a small tavern, and was not remarkable for the acuteness of
his mental perceptions, nor would it appear was at least _one_ of
his customers much better off in the matter of "gumption." One
morning a man stepped in and bought a bottle of small-beer. He stood
talking a few minutes, and by-and-by said:

"I am sorry I purchased this beer. I wish you would exchange it for
some crackers and cheese to the same amount."

The simple-minded Boniface readily assented, and the man took the
plate of crackers and cheese, and ate them. As he was going out, the
old landlord hesitatingly reminded him that he hadn't _paid_ for

"Yes, I did," said the customer; "I gave you the beer for 'em."

"Vell den, I knowsh dat; but den you haven't give me de monish for
de _beersh_."

"But I didn't _take_ the beer: there stands the same bottle now!"

The old tavern-keeper was astounded. He looked sedate and confused;
but all to no purpose was his laborious thinking. The case was still
a mystery.

"Vell den," said he, at length, "I don't zee how it ish: I got de
beersh--yaäs, I _got_ de beersh; but den, same times, I got no
monish! Vell, you _keeps_ de grackers--und--gheese; but I don't want
any more o' your gustoms. You can keeps away from my davern!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Some years ago, at the Hartford (Conn.) Retreat for the Insane,
under the excellent management of Doctor B----, a party used
occasionally to be given, to which those who are called "sane" were
also invited; and as they mingled together in conversation,
promenading, dancing, &c., it was almost impossible for a stranger
to tell "which was which."

On one of these pleasant occasions a gentleman-visitor was "doing
the agreeable" to one of the ladies, and inquired how long she had
been in the Retreat. She told him; and he then went on to make
inquiries concerning the institution, to which she rendered very
intelligent answers; and when he asked her, "_How do you like the
Doctor?_" she gave him such assurances of her high regard for the
physician, that the stranger was entirely satisfied of the Doctor's
high popularity among his patients, and he went away without being
made aware that his partner was no other than _the Doctor's wife_!

She tells the story herself, with great zest; and is very frequently
asked by her friends, who know the circumstances, "how she likes the

       *       *       *       *       *

A fine and quaint thought is this, of the venerable Archbishop

"Riches oftentimes, if nobody take them away, make to _themselves_
wings, and fly away; and truly, many a time the undue sparing of
them is but letting their wings grow, which makes them ready to fly
away; and the contributing a part of them to do good only clips
their wings a little, and makes them stay the longer with their

This last consideration may perhaps be made "operative" with certain
classes of the opulent.

       *       *       *       *       *

Is not the following anecdote of the late King of the French not
only somewhat characteristic, but indicative of a superior mind?

Lord Brougham was dining with the King in the unceremonious manner
in which he was wont to delight to withdraw himself from the
trammels of state, and the conversation was carried on entirely as
if between two equals. His Majesty (_inter alia_) remarked:

"I am the only sovereign now in Europe fit to fill a throne."

Lord Brougham, somewhat staggered by this piece of egotism, muttered
out some trite compliments upon the great talent for government
which his royal entertainer had always displayed, &c., when the King
burst into a fit of laughter, and exclaimed:

"No, no; _that_ isn't what I mean; but kings are at such a discount
in our days, that there is no knowing what may happen; and I am the
only monarch who has cleaned his own boots--and I can do it again!"

His own reverses followed so soon after, that the "exiled Majesty of
France" must have remembered this conversation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mrs. P. was a dumpy little Englishwoman, with whom and her husband
we once performed the voyage of the Danube from Vienna to
Constantinople. She was essentially what the English call "a nice
person," and as adventurous a little body as ever undertook the
journey "from Cheapside to Cairo." She had left home a bride, to
winter at Naples, intending to return in the spring. But both she
and her husband had become so fascinated with travel, that they had
pushed on from Italy to Greece, and from Greece to Asia Minor. In
the latter country, they made the tour of the Seven Churches--a
pilgrimage in which it was our fortune afterward to follow them.
Upon one occasion, somewhere near Ephesus, they were fallen upon by
a lot of vagabonds, and Mr. P. got most unmercifully beaten. His
wife did not stop to calculate the damage, but whipping up her
horse, rode on some two miles further, where she awaited in safety
her discomfited lord. Upon the return of the warm season, our
friends had gone up to Ischl in the Tyrol, to spend the summer, and
when we had the pleasure of meeting them, they were "en route" for
Syria, the Desert, and Egypt.

Mrs. P., although a most amiable woman, had a perverse prejudice
against America and the Americans. Among other things, she could not
be convinced that any thing like refinement among females could
possibly exist on this side of the Atlantic. We did our utmost to
dispel this very singular illusion, but we do not think that we ever
entirely succeeded. Upon one occasion, when we insisted upon her
giving us something more definite than mere general reasons for her
belief, she answered us in substance as follows: She had met, the
summer before, she said, at Ischl, a gentleman and his wife from New
York, who were posting in their own carriage, and traveling with all
the appendages of wealth. They were well-meaning people, she
declared, but shockingly coarse. That they were representatives of
the best class at home, she could not help assuming. Had she met
them in London or Paris, however, she said, she might have thought
them mere adventurers, come over for a ten days' trip. The lady, she
continued, used to say the most extraordinary things imaginable.
Upon one occasion, when they were walking together, they saw, coming
toward them, a gentleman of remarkably attenuated form. The
American, turning to her companion, declared that the man was so
thin, that if he were _to turn a quid of tobacco, from one cheek to
the other, he would lose his balance and fall over_. This was too
much for even our chivalry, and for the moment we surrendered at

Our traveling companion for the time was a young Oxonian, a
Lancashire man of family and fortune. T. C. was (good-naturedly, of
course,) almost as severe upon us Americans as was Mrs. P. One
rather chilly afternoon, he and ourselves were sitting over the fire
in the little cabin of the steamer smoking most delectable
"Latakea," when he requested us to pass him the _tongues_ (meaning
the tongs).

"The what!" we exclaimed.

"The tongues," he repeated.

"Do you mean the tongs?" we asked.

"The _tongs_! and do you call them _tongs_? Come, now, that is too
good," was his reply.

"We _do_ call them the tongs, and we speak properly when we call
them so," we rejoined, a little nettled at his contemptuous tone;
"and, if you please, we will refer the matter for decision to Mrs.
P., but upon this condition only, that she shall be simply asked the
proper pronunciation of the word, without its being intimated to her
which of us is for _tongues_, and which for _tongs_." We accordingly
proceeded at once to submit the controversy to our fair arbitrator.
Our adversary was the spokesman, and he had hardly concluded when
Mrs. P. threw up her little fat hands, and exclaimed, as soon as the
laughter, which almost suffocated her, permitted her to do so, "Now,
you don't mean to say that you are barbarous enough to say _tongues_
in America?" It was _our_ turn, then, to laugh, and we took
advantage of it.

       *       *       *       *       *

A pilgrim from the back woods, who has just been awakened from a
Rip-Van-Winkleish existence of a quarter of a century by the
steam-whistle of the Erie Railroad, recently came to town to see the
sights--Barnum's anacondas and the monkeys at the Astor Place Opera
House included. Our friend, who is of a decidedly benevolent and
economical turn of mind, while walking up Broadway, hanging on our
arm, the day after his arrival, had his attention attracted to a
watering-cart which was ascending the street and spasmodically
sprinkling the pavement. Suddenly darting off from the wing of our
protection, our companion rushed after the man of Croton, at the
same time calling out to him at the top of his voice, "My friend! my
friend! your spout behind is leaking; and if you are not careful you
will lose all the water in your barrel!"

He of the cart made no reply, but merely drawing down the lid of his
eye with his fore-finger, "went on his way rejoicing."

       *       *       *       *       *

The following epigram was written upon a certain individual who has
rendered himself _notorious_, if not _famous_, in these parts. His
name we suppress, leaving it to the ingenuity of the reader to place
the cap upon whatever head he thinks that it will best fit:

      "'Tis said that Balaam had a beast,
        The wonder of his time;
      A stranger one, as strange at least,
        The subject of my rhyme;
      One twice as full of talk and gas,
      And at the same time twice--the ass!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the many good stories told of that ecclesiastical wag, Sydney
Smith, the following is one which we believe has never appeared in
print, and which we give upon the authority of a gentleman
representing himself to have been present at the occurrence.

Mr. Smith had a son who, as is frequently the case with the
offshoots of clergymen (we suppose from a certain unexplained
antagonism in human nature)--

      "----ne in virtue's ways did take delight,
      But spent his days in riot most uncouth,
      And vex'd with mirth the drowsy ear of night,
      Ah, me! in sooth he was a shameless wight,
      Sore given to revel and ungodly glee!"

So _fast_ indeed was this young gentleman, that for several years he
was excluded from the parental domicile. At length, however, the
prodigal repented, and his father took him home upon his entering
into a solemn engagement to mend his ways and his manners. Shortly
after the reconciliation had taken place, Mr. Smith gave a
dinner-party, and one of his guests was Sumner, the present Bishop
of Winchester. Before dinner, the facetious clergyman took his son
aside, and endeavored to impress upon him the necessity of his
conducting himself with the utmost propriety in the distinguished
company to which he was about to be introduced. "Charles, my boy,"
he said, "I intend placing you at table next to the bishop; and I
hope that you will make an effort to get up some conversation which
may prove interesting to his lordship." Charles promised faithfully
to do as his father requested.

At the dinner the soup was swallowed with the usual gravity. In the
interval before the fish, hardly a word was spoken, and the silence
was becoming positively embarrassing, when all of a sudden, Charles
attracted the attention of all at table to himself, by asking the
dignitary upon his right if he would do him the favor to answer a
Scriptural question which had long puzzled him. Upon Doctor Sumner's
promising to give the best explanation in his power, the questioner,
with a quizzical expression of countenance, begged to be informed,
"_how long it took Nebuchadnezzar to get into condition after he
returned from grass?_"

It is needless to say that a hearty laugh echoed this _professional
inquiry_ on every side, and how unanimously young Smith was voted a
genuine chip off the old block.

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss C----, of the Fifth Avenue, was complaining the other day to
Mrs. F----, of Bond-street, that she could never go shopping without
taking cold, because the shops are kept open, and not closed like
the rooms of a house. Mrs. F---- thereupon dryly advised her friend
to confine her visits to Stewart's and Beck's to Sundays.

       *       *       *       *       *

Some one says that the reason why so few borrowed books are ever
returned, is because it is so much easier to keep them than what is
in them.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following matrimonial dialogue was accidentally overheard one
day last week on the piazza of the United States Hotel at Saratoga.

_Wife._--"My dear, I can not, for the life of me, recollect where I
have put my pink bonnet."

_Husband._--"Very likely. You have so many bonnets and so little

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Andrew Jackson Allen, who was one of the prominent witnesses in
the recent Forrest Divorce case, is evidently an original. While
passing up the Bowery the other day, our editorial eye was attracted
by a curious sign on the east side of the street, and we crossed
over for the purpose of more conveniently reading it. It was as

                  INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL


And under this was a smaller sign upon which was inscribed the
following piece of Macawber-like advice:

                       CHERISH HOPE
                     TRUST TO FORTUNE.

We take the liberty of expressing our desire that Mr. Allen may be
as fortunate (if he has not already been so) in having something
"turn up" in the end, as was the illustrious Wilkins of "hopeful"
and "trustful" memory.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two of our lady friends were reading, the other day, Byron's
"Prisoner of Chillon." We intended to say that the one lady was
_pretending_ to read it aloud to the other lady. No woman ever has
been, now is, or ever will be, capable of listening without
interrupting. So that at the very commencement when the _reader_
read the passage,

                "Nor grew it white
                In a single night
      As man's have grown from sudden fears--"

the _readee_ interposed as follows: "_White?_ How odd, to be sure.
Well, I know nothing about men's hair; but there is our friend, Mrs.
G----, of Twelfth-street, the lady who has been just twenty-nine
years old for the last fifteen years; her husband died, you know,
last winter, at which misfortune her grief was so intense that her
hair turned completely _black_ within twenty-four hours after the
occurrence of that sad event."

This bit of verbal annotation satisfied us, and we withdrew.

       *       *       *       *       *

Epitaphs are notoriously hyperbolical. It is refreshing occasionally
to meet with one which is terse, business-like, and to the point.
Such an one any antiquarian may find, who has the patience to hunt
it out, upon the tombstone of a juvenile pilgrim father (in embryo)
somewhere in the New Haven graveyard. For fear that it _may_ not be
found in the first search, we give it from memory.

      "Since I so very soon was done for,
      I wonder what I was begun for."

Literary Notices.

A new work, by GEORGE W. CURTIS (the Howadji of Oriental travel),
entitled _Lotus-Eating_, published by Harper and Brothers, is a
delightful reminiscence of Summer Rambles, describing some of the
most attractive points of American scenery, with impressions of life
at famous watering-places, and suggestive comparisons with
celebrated objects of interest in Europe. Dreamy, imaginative,
romantic, but reposing on a basis of the healthiest reality--tinged
with the richest colors of poetry, but full of shrewd observation
and mischievous humor--clothed in delicate and dainty felicities of
language--this volume is what its title indicates--the reverie of a
summer's pastime, and should be read in summer haunts, accompanied
with the music of the sea-shore or breezy hill-sides. Although
claiming no higher character than a pleasant book of light reading,
it will enhance the reputation of the author both at home and
abroad, as one of the most picturesque and original of American

_A New Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels_, by JAMES STRONG. This
elaborate volume, intended for the popular illustration of the New
Testament, consists of a parallel and combined arrangement of the
Four Gospel Narratives, a continuous commentary with brief
additional notes, and a supplement containing several chronological
and topographical dissertations. The Harmony is constructed on a
novel plan, combining the methods of Newcome and Townsend, and
securing the conveniences of both, without the defects of either. A
continuous narrative is formed by the selection of a leading text,
while at the same time, the different narratives are preserved in
parallel columns, so that they may be examined and compared with
perfect facility. The Exposition of the text is given in the form of
a free translation of the original, in which the sense of the sacred
writers is expressed in modern phraseology, and slightly
paraphrased. This was the most delicate portion of the author's
task. The venerable simplicity of the inspired volume can seldom be
departed from, without a violation of good taste. As a general rule,
a strict adherence to the original language best preserves its
significance and beauty. This was the plan adopted by the
translators of the received version, and their admirable judgment in
this respect, is evinced by the fact that almost every modern
attempt to improve upon their labors has been a failure. No new
translations have even approached the place of the received one, in
the estimation either of the people or of scholars, while many, with
the best intentions, no doubt, on the part of their authors, present
only a painful caricature of the original. Mr. Strong has done well
in avoiding some of the most prominent faults of his predecessors.
He has generally succeeded in preserving the logical connection of
thought, which often appears in a clearer light in his paraphrase.
His explanation of passages alluding to ancient manners and customs
is highly satisfactory and valuable. But to our taste, he frequently
errs by the ambitious rhetorical language in which he has clothed
the discourses of the Great Teacher. The reverent simplicity of the
original is but poorly reproduced by the florid phrases of modern
oratory. In this way, the sacred impression produced by the
Evangelists is injured, a lower tone of feeling is substituted, and
the refined religious associations connected with their purity of
language is sacrificed to the intellectual clearness which is aimed
at by a more liberal use of rhetorical expressions than a severe and
just taste would warrant. With this exception, we regard the present
work as an important and valuable contribution to biblical
literature. It displays extensive research, various and sound
learning, and indefatigable patience. The numerous engravings with
which the volume is illustrated, are selected from the most
authentic sources, and are well adapted to throw light on the
principal localities alluded to in the text, as well as attractive
by their fine pictorial effect. We have no doubt that the labors of
the studious author will be welcomed by his fellow students of the
sacred writings, by preachers of the Gospel, and by Sunday School
teachers, no less than by the great mass of private Christians of
every persuasion, who can not consult his volume without
satisfaction and advantage. (Published by Lane and Scott.)

A valuable manual of ecclesiastical statistics is furnished by FOX
and HOYT'S _Quadrennial Register of the Methodist Episcopal Church_,
of which the first Number has been recently published by Case,
Tiffany, and Co., Hartford. It is intended to exhibit the condition,
economy, institutions, and resources of the Methodist Episcopal
Church in this country, in a form adapted to popular use and general
reference. Among the contents of this Number, we find a complete
Report of the General Conference for 1852, a copious Church
Directory, an Abstract of the Discipline of the Church, a list of
the Seminaries of Learning and their officers, and a general view of
the various religious denominations in this country. The work
evinces a great deal of research, and the compilers have evidently
spared no pains to give it the utmost fullness of detail as well as
accuracy of statement. It does credit both to their judgment and
diligence. To the clergy of the Methodist Church it will prove an
indispensable companion in their journeys and labors. Nor is it
confined in its interest to that persuasion of Christians. Whoever
has occasion to consult an ecclesiastical directory, will find this
volume replete with useful information, arranged in a very
convenient method, and worthy of implicit reliance for its general

A new edition of _The Mother at Home_, by JOHN S. C. ABBOTT, with
copious additions and numerous engravings, is published by Harper
and Brothers. The favor with which this work has been universally
received by the religious public renders any exposition of its
merits a superfluous task.

We have received the second volume of Lippincott, Grambo & Co.'s
elegant and convenient edition of _The Waverley Novels_, containing
_The Antiquary_, _The Black Dwarf_, and _Old Mortality_. With the
Introduction and Notes by Sir Walter Scott, and the beautiful style
of typography in which it is issued, this edition leaves nothing to
be desired by the most fastidious book-fancier.

Another work in the department of historical romance, by HENRY
WILLIAM HERBERT, has been issued by Redfield. It is entitled _The
Knights of England, France, and Scotland_, and consists of "Legends
of the Norman Conquerors," "Legends of the Crusaders," "Legends of
Feudal Days," and "Legends of Scotland." Mr. Herbert has a quick
and accurate eye for the picturesque features of the romantic Past;
he pursues the study of history with the soul of the poet; and
skillfully availing himself of the most striking traditions and
incidents, has produced a series of fascinating portraitures.
Whoever would obtain a vivid idea of the social and domestic traits
of France and Great Britain in the olden time, should not fail to
read the life-like descriptions of this volume.

_Marco Paul's Voyages and Travels_, by JACOB ABBOTT (published by
Harper and Brothers), is another series for juvenile reading from
the prolific pen of the writer, who, in his peculiar department of
composition, stands without a rival. It is Mr. Abbott's forte to
describe familiar scenes in a manner which attracts and charms every
variety of taste. He produces this effect by his remarkable keenness
of observation, the facility with which he detects the relations and
analogies of common things, his unpretending naturalness of
illustration, and his command of the racy, home-bred, idiomatic
language of daily life, never descending, however, to slang or
vulgarity. The series now issued describes the adventures of Marco
Paul in New York, on the Erie Canal, in Maine, in Vermont, in
Boston, and at the Springfield Armory. It is emphatically an
American work. No American child can read it without delight and
instruction. But it will not be confined to the juvenile library.
Presenting a vivid commentary on American society, manners, scenery,
and institutions, it has a powerful charm for readers of all ages.
It will do much to increase the great popularity of Mr. Abbott as an
instructor of the people.

Among the valuable educational works of the past month, we notice
WOODBURY'S _Shorter Course with the German Language_, presenting the
main features of the author's larger work on a reduced scale.
(Published by Leavitt and Allen.)--KIDDLE'S _Manual of Astronomy_,
an excellent practical treatise on the elementary principles of the
science, with copious Exercises on the Use of the Globes (published
by Newman and Ivison),--and RUSSELL'S _University Speaker_,
containing an admirable selection of pieces for declamation and
recitation. (published by J. Munroe and Co.)

_Summer Gleanings_, is the title of a book for the season by Rev.
JOHN TODD, consisting of sketches and incidents of a pastor's
vacation, adventures of forest life, legends of American history,
and tales of domestic experience. A right pleasant book it is, and
"good for the use of edifying" withal. Lively description, touching
pathos, playful humor, and useful reflection, are combined in its
pages in a manner to stimulate and reward attention. Every where it
displays a keen and vigorous mind, a genuine love of rural scenes, a
habit of acute observation, and an irrepressible taste for gayety
and good-humor, which the author wisely deems compatible with the
prevailing religious tone of his work. Among the best pieces, to our
thinking, are "The Poor Student," "The Doctor's Third Patient," and
"The Young Lamb," though all will well repay perusal. (Northampton:
Hopkins, Bridgman and Co.)

The concluding volume of _The History of the United States_, by
RICHARD HILDRETH, is issued by Harper and Brothers, comprising the
period from the commencement of the Tenth Congress, in 1807, to the
close of the Sixteenth, in 1821. This period, including the whole of
Madison's administration, with a portion of that of Jefferson and of
Monroe, is one of the most eventful in American history, and
sustains a close relation to the existing politics of the country.
No one can expect an absolute impartiality in the historian of such
a recent epoch. Mr. Hildreth's narrative is undoubtedly colored, to
a certain degree, by his political convictions and preferences,
which, as we have seen, in the last volume, are in favor of the old
Federal party; but, he may justly challenge the merit of diligent
research in the collection of facts, and acute judgment in the
comparison and sifting of testimony, and a prevailing fairness in
the description of events. He never suffers the feelings of a
partisan to prejudice the thoroughness of his investigations; but
always remains clear, calm, philosophical, vigilant, and
imperturbable. His condensation of the debates in Congress, on
several leading points of dispute, exhibits the peculiarities of the
respective debaters in a lucid manner, and will prove of great value
for political reference. His notices of Josiah Quincy, John Quincy
Adams, Madison, Monroe, and Henry Clay, are among the topics on
which there will be wide differences of opinion; but they can not
fail to attract attention. The style of Mr. Hildreth, in the present
volume, preserves the characteristics, which we have remarked in
noticing the previous volumes. Occasionally careless, it is always
vigorous, concise, and transparent. He never indulges in any license
of the imagination, never makes a display of his skill in fine
writing, and never suffers you to mistake his meaning. Too uniform
and severe for the romance of history, it is an admirable vehicle
for the exhibition of facts, and for this reason, we believe that
Mr. Hildreth's work will prove an excellent introduction to the
study of American history.

We congratulate the admirers of FITZ-GREENE HALLECK--and what reader
of American poetry is not his admirer--on a new edition of his
_Poetical Works_, recently issued by Redfield, containing the old
familiar and cherished pieces, with some extracts from a hitherto
unpublished poem. The fame of Halleck is identified with the
literature of his country. The least voluminous of her great poets,
few have won a more beautiful, or a more permanent reputation--a
more authentic claim to the sacred title of poet. Combining a
profuse wealth of fancy with a strong and keen intellect, he tempers
the passages in which he most freely indulges in a sweet and tender
pathos, with an elastic vigor of thought, and dries the tears which
he tempts forth, by sudden flashes of gayety, making him one of the
most uniformly piquant of modern poets. His expressions of sentiment
never fall languidly; he opens the fountains of the heart with the
master-touch of genius; his humor is as gracious and refined as it
is racy; and, abounding in local allusions, he gives such a point
and edge to their satire, that they outlive the occasions of their
application, and may be read with as much delight at the present
time as when the parties and persons whom they commemorate were in
full bloom. The terseness of Mr. Halleck's language is in admirable
harmony with his vivacity of thought and richness of fancy, and in
this respect presents a most valuable object of study for young

_Mysteries; or, Glimpses of the Supernatural_, by C. W. ELLIOTT.
(Published by Harper and Brothers.) This is an original work,
treating of certain manifestations on the "Night-Side of Nature," in
a critico-historical tone, rather than in either a dogmatic or a
skeptical spirit. "The Salem Witchcraft," "The Cock-Lane Ghost,"
"The Rochester Knockings," "The Stratford Mysteries," are some of
the weird topics on which it discourses, if not lucidly, yet
genially and quaintly. The author has evidently felt a "vocation" to
gather all the facts that have yet come to light on these odd
hallucinations, and he sets them forth with a certain grave naïveté
and mock Carlylese eloquence, which give a readable character to his
volume, in spite of the repulsiveness of its themes. Of his discreet
non-committalism we have a good specimen in the close of the chapter
on the "The Stratford Mysteries," of which the Rev. Dr. Phelps is
the chief hierophant. "Here the case must rest; we would not
willingly charge upon any one deliberate exaggeration or falsehood,
nor would any fair-minded person decide that what seems novel and
surprising is therefore false. Every sane person will appeal to the
great laws of God ever present in history and in his own
consciousness, and by these he will try the spirits, whether they be
of God or of man. The great jury of the public opinion will decide
this thing also; we have much of the evidence before us. The burden
of proof, however, rests with Dr. Phelps himself. Fortunately he is
a man of character, property, and position, and he chooses to stand
where he does; no man will hinder him if none heed him. Many
believe, but may be thankful for any help to their unbelief. Many
more will be strongly disposed to exclaim when they shall have read
through this mass of evidence--'It began with nothing, it has ended
with nothing.' _Ex nihil, nihil fit!_"

             *       *       *       *       *

A _perfect_ and liberal scheme has been matured, for the publication
of a complete edition of the _Church Historians of England_, from
Bede to Foxe. The plan is worthy of support, and a large number of
subscribers have already enrolled their names. The terms of
publication are moderate, and the projectors give the best
guarantees of good faith.

             *       *       *       *       *

Among recent English reprints worthy of notice are _Papers on
Literary and Philosophical Subjects_, by PATRICK C. MACDOUGALL,
Professor of Moral Philosophy in New College, Edinburgh. They are
collected from various periodicals, and appear to be published at
present with a view to the author's candidateship for the Ethical
chair in the University of Edinburgh. The Essays on Sir James
Mackintosh, Jonathan Edwards, and Dr. Chalmers display high literary
taste as well as philosophical talent.

             *       *       *       *       *

MR. KINGSLEY, the author of _Alton Locke_, _Yeast_, and other works,
has published _Sermons on National Subjects_, which are marked by
the originality of thought and force of utterance which characterize
all this author's writings. Some of the sermons are very much above
the reach of village audiences to which they were addressed, and in
type will find a more fitting circle of intelligent admirers. There
is much, however, throughout the volume suited to instruct the minds
and improve the hearts of the humblest hearers, while the principles
brought out in regard to national duties and responsibilities,
rewards and punishments, are worthy of the attention of all
thoughtful men.

             *       *       *       *       *

A new English translation of the _Republic of Plato_, with an
introduction, analysis, and notes, by JOHN LLEWELLYN DAVIES, M.A.,
and DAVID JAMES VAUGHAN, M.A., Fellows of Trinity College,
Cambridge, is a valuable contribution to the study of classic
literature. The translation is done in a scholar-like way, and in
the analysis and introduction the editors show that they enter into
the spirit of their author as well as understand the letter of his
work, which is more than can be said of the greater number of
University translations. The text of the Zurich edition of 1847 has
been generally followed, and the German translation of Schneider
has evidently afforded guidance in the rendering of various

             *       *       *       *       *

The Life of DAVID MACBETH MOIR, by THOMAS AIRD, says the London
Critic, is every way worthy of Mr. Aird's powers. It is written in a
calm, dignified, yet rich and poetical style. It is an offering to
the memory of dear, delightful "Delta," equally valuable from the
tenderness which dictated it, and from the intrinsic worth of the
gift. Aird and "Delta" were intimate friends. They had many
qualities in common. Both were distinguished by genuine simplicity
and sincerity of character, by a deep love for nature, for poetry,
and for "puir auld Scotland;" and by unobtrusive, heart-felt piety.
"Delta" had not equal power and originality of genius with his
friend; but his vein was more varied, clearer, smoother, and more
popular. There was, in another respect, a special fitness in Aird
becoming "Delta's" biographer. He was with him when he was attacked
by his last illness. He watched his dying bed, received his last
blessing, and last sigh. And religiously has he discharged the
office thus sadly devolved on him.

             *       *       *       *       *

The fourth and last volume of _The Life of Chalmers_, by DR. HANNA,
is principally devoted to the connection of Chalmers with the Free
Church movement. _The Athenæum_ says: "Altogether, Dr. Hanna is to
be congratulated on the manner in which he has fulfilled the
important task on which he has now for several years been engaged.
Dr. Chalmers is a man whose life and character may well engage many
writers; but no one possessed such materials as Dr. Hanna for
writing a biography so full and detailed as was in this case
demanded. The four volumes which he has laid before the public are
not only an ample discharge of his special obligations as regards
his splendid subject, but also a much needed example of the manner
in which biographies of this kind, combining original narrative with
extracts from writings and correspondence, ought to be written."

             *       *       *       *       *

A meeting of literary men has been held at Lansdowne House, for the
purpose of raising a fund for erecting a monument to the late Sir
James Mackintosh. The proposal for a monument was moved by Mr. T. B.
Macaulay, seconded by Lord Mahon. Mr. Hallam moved the appointment
of a committee, which was seconded by Lord Broughton, Lord Lansdowne
agreeing to act as chairman, and Sir R. H. Inglis as secretary. We
are glad to see literary men of all political parties uniting in
this tribute of honor to one of the greatest and best men of whom
his country could boast.

             *       *       *       *       *

At the sixty-third anniversary of the Royal Literary Fund, Lord
Campbell presided effectively; and, after stating that he owed his
success in law to the fostering aid of his labors in literature, he
held out hopes that he may yet live to produce a work which shall
give him a better title to a name in literature than he has yet
earned. Pleasant speeches were made by Justice Talfourd, Mr.
Monckton Milnes, Chevalier Bunsen, Mr. Abbott Lawrence, and
especially by Mr. Thackeray, who improved the event of the coming
year of the society's existence--that Mr. Disraeli, M.P., is to be
chairman of the anniversary of 1853. The funds of the past year had
been £600 more than in any former year.

             *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAM MACCALL in _The People_, gives the following graphic account
of his first interview with John Stirling. "Sometime in March,
1841, I was traveling by coach from Bristol to Devonport. I had for
companion part of the way a tall, thin gentleman, evidently in bad
health, but with a cheerful, gallant look which repelled pity. We
soon got into conversation. I was much impressed by his brilliant
and dashing speech, so much like a rapid succession of impetuous
cavalry charges; but I was still more impressed by his frankness,
his friendliness, his manliness. A sort of heroic geniality seemed
to hang on his very garments. We talked about German literature;
then about Carlyle. I said that the only attempt at an honest and
generous appreciation of Carlyle's genius was a recent article in
_The Westminster Review_. My companion replied, 'I wrote that
article. My name is John Sterling.' We seemed to feel a warmer
interest in each other from that moment; and, by quick instinct, we
saw that we were brothers in God's Universe, though we might never
be brought very near each other in brotherhood on earth. Sterling
left me at Exeter, and a few days after my arrival at Devonport I
received a letter, which leavens my being with new life, every time
I read it, by its singular tenderness and elevation."

             *       *       *       *       *

The English literary journals are always suggestive, often amusing,
and sometimes not a little "verdant," as the Yankees say, in their
notices of American books. We subjoin a few of their criticisms on
recent popular works. Of _Queechy_, by ELIZABETH WETHERELL, the
_Literary Gazette_ discourses as follows: "The authoress of
'Queechy' has every quality of a good writer save one. Good feeling,
good taste, fancy, liveliness, shrewd observation of character, love
of nature, and considerable skill in the management of a story--all
these she possesses. But she has yet to learn how much brevity is
the soul of wit. Surely she must live in some most quiet nook of
'the wide, wide world,' and the greater part of her American readers
must have much of the old Dutch patience and the primitive leisure
of the days of Rip Van Winkle. Doubtless the book will have admirers
as ardent in the parlors of Boston as in the farm-houses of the far
West, who will make no complaints of prolixity, and will wish the
book longer even than it is. There is a large circle in this country
also to whom it will be faultless. The good people who take for gold
whatever glitters on the shelves of their favorite booksellers, will
be delighted with a work far superior to the dreary volumes of
commonplace which are prepared for the use of what is called 'the
religious public.' But we fear that those to whom such a book would
be the most profitable will deem 'Queechy' somewhat tiresome. The
story is too much drawn out, and many of the dialogues and
descriptions would be wonderfully improved by condensation."

             *       *       *       *       *

The _Athenæum_ has a decent notice of CURTIS'S _Howadji in Syria_,
which by the by, has got metamorphosed into _The Wanderer in Syria_,
in the London edition.

"It is about a year since we noticed a book of Eastern travel called
'Nile Notes'--evidently by a new writer, and evincing his possession
of various gifts and graces--warmth of imagination, power of poetic
coloring, and a quick perception of the ludicrous in character and
in incident. We assumed that an author of so much promise would be
heard of again in the literary arena; and accordingly he is now
before us as 'The Wanderer in Syria,' and has further announced a
third work under the suggestive title of 'Lotus-Eating.' 'The
Wanderer' is a continuation of the author's travels--and is divided
between the Desert, Jerusalem, and Damascus. It is in the same style
of poetic reverie and sentimental scene-painting as 'Nile
Notes,'--but it shows that Mr. Curtis has more than one string to
his harp. The characteristic of his former volume was a low, sad
monotone--the music of the Memnon, in harmony with the changeless
sunshine and stagnant life of Egypt--with the silence of its sacred
river and the sepulchral grandeur of its pyramids and buried cities.
'The Wanderer,' on the contrary, is never melancholy. There is in
him a prevailing sense of repose, but the spirit breathes easily,
and the languid hour is followed by bracing winds from Lebanon.
There is the same warm sunshine,--but the gorgeous colors and
infinite varieties of Eastern life are presented with greater
vivacity and grace.

"Mr. CURTIS'S fault is that of Ovid--an over-lusciousness of
style--too great a fondness for color. He cloys the appetite with
sweetness. His aim as a writer should be to obtain a greater depth
and variety of manner--more of contrast in his figures. He is rich
in natural gifts, and time and study will probably develop in him
what is yet wanting of artistic skill and taste.

"Of Mr. CURTIS'S latest work, entitled '_Lotus-Eating; a Summer
Book_,' the _Literary Gazette_ says:

"A very cheerful and amusing, but always sensible and intelligent
companion is Mr. CURTIS. Whether on the Nile or the Hudson, on the
Broadway of New York or the Grand Canal of Venice, we have one whose
remarks are worth listening to. Not very original in his thoughts,
nor very deep in his feelings, we yet read with pleasant assent the
record of almost every thing that he thinks and feels. This new
summer book is a rough journal of a ramble in the States, but every
chapter is full of reminiscences of the old European world, and an
agreeable medley he makes of his remarks on scenery, and history,
and literature, and mankind. Mr. CURTIS is one of the most
cosmopolitan writers that America has yet produced. This light
volume is fittingly called a summer book, just such as will be read
with pleasure on the deck of a steamer, or under the cliffs of some
of our modern Baiæ. It may also teach thoughtless tourists how to
reflect on scenes through which they travel."

             *       *       *       *       *

The question whether the honor of the authorship of the "Imitation
of Jesus Christ," a work held in the highest esteem in the Roman
Catholic church, and which has been translated into almost every
living language, belongs to John Gersen or Gesson, supposed to have
been an abbot of the order of Saint Benedict, at the beginning of
the fourteenth century, or to Thomas à Kempis, monk of the order of
Regular Canons of the monastery of Mount Saint Agnes, has given rise
to an immense deal of controversy among Catholic ecclesiastical
writers, and has set the two venerable orders of Benedictines and
Regular Canons terribly by the ears. It has just, however, been set
at rest, by the discovery of manuscripts by the Bishop of Bruges, in
the Library at Brussels, proving beyond all doubt, to his mind, that
Thomas à Kempis really was the author, and not, as the partisans of
Gersen assert, merely the copyist. The Bishop of Munster has also,
singular to relate, recently discovered old manuscripts which lead
him to the same conclusion. The manuscript of Gersen, on which his
advocates principally relied to prove that he was the author, must
therefore henceforth be considered only as a copy; it is in the
public library at Valenciennes.

The last two numbers of the "_Leipzig Grenzboten_" contain, among
some half-dozen articles of special German interest, papers on
Görgey's Vindication, on Longfellow, and Margaret Fuller Ossoli, and
on the department of northern antiquities in the new museum at
Berlin. The German critic considers Professor Longfellow's poetry as
a cross between the "Lakers" and Shelley. Longfellow's novels remind
him of Goethe and Jean Paul Richter, and in some instances of
Hoffmann. The "Golden Legend" is of course a frantic imitation of
Goethe's "Faust." Margaret Fuller, too, is represented as an
emanation from the German mind.

             *       *       *       *       *

We learn from the "_Vienna Gazette_" that Dr. Moritz Wagner, the
renowned naturalist and member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences,
has set out on a journey across the continent of America to New
Orleans, Panama, Columbia, and Peru. Dr. Wagner, accompanied by Dr.
Charles Scherzer, who has undertaken to edit the literary portion of
the description of his travels, is expected to devote the next three
years to this expedition, and great are the hopes of the Vienna
papers as to its results.

             *       *       *       *       *

The "_Presse_" of Vienna states that Prince Metternich possesses an
amulet which Lord Byron formerly wore round his neck. This amulet,
the inscriptions of which have been recently translated by the
celebrated Orientalist, von Hammer-Purgstall, contains a treaty
entered into "between Solomon and a she-devil," in virtue of which
no harm could happen to the person who should wear the talisman.
This treaty is written half in Turkish and half in Arabic. It
contains besides, prayers of Adam, Noah, Job, Jonah, and Abraham.
The first person who wore the amulet was Ibrahim, the son of
Mustapha, in 1763. Solomon is spoken of in the Koran as the ruler of
men and of devils.

             *       *       *       *       *

The University of Berlin has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of
the nomination to the degree of Doctor of M. Lichtenstein, the
celebrated naturalist, who, since the foundation of the university,
in 1810, has occupied the chair of zoology. Three busts of M.
Lichtenstein were inaugurated--one in the grand gallery of the
University, one in the Zoological Museum, and the third in the
Zoological Garden of Berlin. Baron Von Humboldt delivered a speech
to the professors and students, in which he detailed at great length
the scientific labors of M. Lichtenstein. Some days before the
ceremony, M. Lichtenstein, who is remarkable for his modesty, left
Berlin for Trieste, from whence he was to proceed to Alexandria.

             *       *       *       *       *

Görgey's _Memoirs of the Hungarian Campaign_ have been confiscated,
and forbidden throughout Austria. Exceptions, however, are made in
favor of individuals.

             *       *       *       *       *

This year, 1852, the Royal Academy of Sweden has caused its annual
medal to be struck to the memory of the celebrated Swedenborg, one
of its first members. The medal, which has already been distributed
to the associates, has, on the obverse, the head of Swedenborg,
with, at the top, the name, EMANUEL SWEDENBORG; and underneath,
_Nat. 1688. Den. 1772._ And on the reverse, a man in a garment
reaching to the feet, with eyes unbandaged, standing before the
temple of Isis, at the base of which the goddess is seen. Above is
the inscription: _Tantoque exsultat alumno_; and below: _Miro
naturæ investigatori socio quond. æstimatiss. Acad. reg. Scient.

             *       *       *       *       *

In Sweden during the year 1851 there were 1060 books published, and
113 journals. Of the books, 182 were theological, 56 political, 123
legal, 80 historical, 55 politico-economical and technical, 45
educational, 40 philological, 38 medical, 31 mathematical, 22
physical, 18 geographical, 3 æsthetical, and 3 philosophical.
Fiction and Belles-Lettres have 259; but they are mostly
translations from English, French, and German. Of these details we
are tempted to say, remarks the _Leader_, what Jean Paul's
hero says of the lists of _Errata_ he has been so many years
collecting--"Quintus Fixlein declared there were profound
conclusions to be drawn from these _Errata_; and he advised the
reader to draw them!"

             *       *       *       *       *

Another eminent and honorable name is added to the list of victims
to the present barbarian Government of France. M. Barthélemy St.
Hilaire has refused to take the oath of allegiance--and he will
accordingly be deprived of the chair which he has long filled with
so much ability at the Collège de France. The sacrifice which M. St.
Hilaire has made to principle is the more to be honored, since he
has no private fortune, and has reached a time of life when it is
hard to begin the world anew. But the loss of his well-earned means
of subsistence is, we know, a light evil in his eyes compared to the
loss of a sphere of activity which he regarded as eminently useful
and honorable, and which he had acquired by twenty-seven years of
laborious devotion to learning and philosophy.

             *       *       *       *       *

Among the few French books worthy of notice, says the _Leader_, let
us not forget the fourth volume of Saint Beuve's charming _Causeries
du Lundi_, just issued. The volume opens with an account of
Mirabeau's unpublished dialogues with Sophie, and some delicate
remarks by SAINTE BEUVE, in the way of commentary. There are also
admirable papers on Buffon, Madame de Scudery, M. de Bonald, Pierre
Dupont, Saint Evremont et Ninon, Duc de Lauzun, &c. Although he
becomes rather tiresome if you read much at a time, Sainte Beuve is
the best _article_ writer (in our Macaulay sense) France possesses.
With varied and extensive knowledge, a light, glancing, sensitive
mind, and a style of great _finesse_, though somewhat spoiled by
affectation, he contrives to throw a new interest round the oldest
topics; he is, moreover, an excellent critic. _Les Causeries du
Lundi_ is by far the best of his works.

             *       *       *       *       *

Dramatic literature is lucrative in France. The statement of
finances laid before the Dramatic Society shows, that during the
years 1851-52, sums paid for pieces amount to 917,531 francs (upward
of £36,000). It would be difficult to show that English dramatists
have received as many hundreds. The sources of these payments are
thus indicated. Theatres of Paris, 705,363 francs; the provincial
theatres, 195,450 francs (or nearly eight thousand pounds; whereas
the English provinces return about eight hundred pounds a
year!)--and suburban theatres, 16,717 francs. To these details we
may add the general receipts of all the theatres in Paris during the
year--viz., six millions seven hundred and seventy-one thousand
francs, or £270,840.

Comicalities, Original and Selected.


YOUNG LADIES (_both at once_).--"Why, Mr. Bull! how terribly you
have been bitten by the Musquitoes!"

MR. BULL (_a fresh importation_).--"I can't hunderstand 'ow it
'appened. I did hevery thing I could think of to keep them hoff. I
'ad my window hopen and a light burning hall night in my

             *       *       *       *       *


That exquisite young officer, CAPTAIN GANDAW, was reading a
newspaper, when his brilliant eye lighted on the following passage
in a letter which had been written to the journal by MR. MECHI, on
the subject of "Irrigation."

     "I may be thought rather speculative when I anticipate that
     within a century from this period, the sewage from our cities
     and towns will follow the lines of our lines of railway, in
     gigantic arterial tubes, from which diverging veins will convey
     to the eager and distant farmer the very essence of the meat
     and bread which he once produced at so much cost."

"Fancy," remarked the gallant Captain, "the sewage of towns and
cities being the essence of owa bwead and meat--and of beeaw too, of
cawse, as beeaw is made from gwain! How vewy disgasting! MR. MECHI
expects that his ideas will be thought wathaw speculative.--He
flatters himself. They will only be consida'd vewy dawty. The wetch!
I shall be obliged to abjaw bwead, and confine myself to Iwish
potatoes--which are the simple productions of the awth--and avoid
all animal food but game and fish. And when fish and game are not in
season, I shall be unda the necessity of westwicting my appetite to

      "A scwip with hawbs and fwuits supplied,
        And wataw fwom the spwing."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: YOUNG NEW YORK HARD UP.

TENDER MOTHER.--"A hundred Dollars! why, what can you want a hundred
dollars so soon for?"

YOUNG NEW YORK.--"Why, Mother, I'm deucedly hard up. I'm almost out
of Cologne and Cigars. Besides, the fellows are going to run me for
President of the St. Nicholas Club, and I must pony up my dues, and
stand the Champagne."]

       *       *       *       *       *


YOUNG LADY.--"Now then, what is it that you wish to say to me that
so nearly concerns your happiness?"

ENAMORED JUVENILE.--"Why, I love you to the verge of distraction,
and can't be happy without you! Say, dearest, only say that you will
be mine!"]

       *       *       *       *       *


ROGUY.--"See that girl looking at me, Poguy?"

POGUY.--"Don't I? Why, she can't keep her eyes off you."

ROGUY (_poking Poguy in the waistcoat_).--"What women care for, my
boy, isn't Features, but Expression!"]

       *       *       *       *       *


YOUNG LADY "couldn't take any thing--only a Pine-apple Ice"--but the
ice once broken, she makes such havoc upon pies, tongue, Roman
punches, tarts, Champagne, and sundry other potables and
comestibles, as to produce a very perceptible feeling in the

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: RATHER A BAD LOOK-OUT.

YOUNG SISTER.--"Oh, Mamma! I wish I could go to a party."

MAMMA.--"Don't be foolish. I've told you a hundred times that you
can not go out until Flora is married. So do not allude to the
subject again, I beg. It's utterly out of the question."]

       *       *       *       *       *


EDWARD.--"There, Dearest, do you feel refreshed?"

ANGELINA.--"Yes, my Love. A little more upon the left cheek, if you
please. That's much nicer than fanning one's self. Now a little
higher, on my forehead."]

Fashions for Summer.


FIG. 1.--BRIDE'S TOILET.--Hair in bands very much puffed. Back hair
tied rather low; the wreath of white iris flowers, with foliage.
Behind this, and rather on one side, is the crown of orange flowers
that holds the vail, which is placed very backward, and is of plain
tulle, with a single hem. Dress of taffeta, with _bayadères_, or,
rather, velvet, with rows of velvet flowers, appearing like terry
velvet. The body, almost high behind, opens very low in front, and
is trimmed with a double plain _berthe_, that follows its cut. The
waist is lengthened in front, but not pointed. The bouquet decorates
the bottom of the body, and spreads in the form of a fan. The sleeve
pagoda-shaped, half-wide, and plain at top, terminated by two
trimmings worked like the edge of the _berthes_; a wide lace
under-sleeve covers the arm. The habit shirt is square at the top,
composed of lace, the upper row raised at the edge and four or five
other rows below.

FIG. 2.--WALKING DRESS.--Bonnet of taffeta and blond. The brim,
high, narrow, and sitting close to the chin, is of taffeta, gathered
from the bottom of the crown to the edge; on the sides of the crown
an ornament is placed, cut rather round at the ends, and consisting
of three rows of taffeta _bouillonnes_, fastened together by a
cross-piece of taffeta. The crown is not deep, falls back, and has a
soft top. The curtain, of taffeta, cut cross-wise, is not gathered
in the seam. The blond that covers the lower part is gathered, and
ends in vandykes that hang below the curtain. A like blond is sewed
full on the cross-piece that borders the ornament, and the points
also reaching beyond the edge are fastened to those of the other
blond, so that the edge of the brim is seen through them. Toward the
bottom the blond above separates from that below, and sits full near
the edge of the ornament. A blond forming a _fanchon_ on the
_calotte_ is laid also under the other edge of the ornament. Lastly
the curtain itself is covered with blond. Inside are white roses,
mixed with bows of ribbon. Dress of taffeta. Body high, buttoning
straight up in front. Two trimmings are put up the side of the body.
These trimmings, made of bands resembling the narrow flounces, get
narrower toward the bottom. They are pinked at the edges, and
shaded. The sleeve is plain, and terminated by two trimmings, pinked
and shaded. The skirt has five flounces five inches wide, then a
sixth of eight, pinked and shaded.

[Illustration: FIGURE 3.--BONNET.]

FIG. 3.--DRAWN BONNET, of taffeta and blond; the brim, which is four
inches wide, is of taffeta doubled, that is, the inside and outside
are of one piece. It has several gathers. The side of crown, three
inches and a quarter wide, is of the same material, puffed at the
sides for about an inch, and there are also fourteen ribs in the
whole circuit. The top of crown is soft; a roll along the edge of
the crown. The ornaments consist of small rolls of taffeta, to which
are sewed two rows of blond three-quarters of an inch wide. These
same rolls ornament the brim, being placed on the edge, and inside
as well as outside. There are seventeen of these ornaments on the
brim, with an inch and a half of interval between them. The curtain
is trimmed in the same manner, and has ten of them. The top of crown
has five rolls, trimmed with blond. The inside is ornamented with
roses, brown foliage, and bouclettes of narrow blue ribbons mixing
with the flowers.

[Illustration: FIGURE 4.--BONNET.]

FIG. 4.--DRAWN BONNET of white tulle and straw-colored taffeta,
edged with a fringed _guipure_ and bouquets of Parma violets. The
taffeta trimming is disposed inside and outside the brim, in
vandykes, the points of which are nearly three inches apart. In each
space between them is a bouquet of Parma violets. The points of the
_fanchon_ lie upon the crown.

[Illustration: FIGURE 5.--BONNET.]

FIG. 5.--DRAWN BONNET, of tulle, blond, taffeta, and straw
trimmings, with flowers of straw and crape. The edge of the brim is
cut in fourteen scollops. The inside is puffed tulle, mixed with
blond. The scollops of the edge are continued all over the bonnet,
and are alternately tulle and white taffeta, with a straw edging.

       *       *       *       *       *

For morning and home costume, _organdie_ muslins will be in great
favor, the bodies made in the loose jacket style, and worn either
with lace or silk waist coats. Silks, with designs woven in them for
each part of the dress, are still worn; those woven with plaided
stripe, _à-la robe_, are very stylish.

White bodies will be worn with colored skirts they will be
beautifully embroidered, and will have a very _distinguée_

Dress bodies are worn open; they have lappets or small _basquines_:
for all light materials, such as _organdie_, _tarlatane_, _barège_,
&c., the skirts will have flounces. In striped and figured silks,
the skirts are generally preferred without trimming, as it destroys
the effect and beauty of the pattern. Black lace mantillas and
shawls will receive distinguished favor; those of Chantilly lace are
very elegant. Scarf mantelets are worn low on the shoulders.

A novelty in the form of summer mantelets has just been introduced
in Paris, where it has met with pre-eminent favor. It is called the
_mantelet echarpe_, or scarf mantelet; and it combines, as its name
implies, the effect of the scarf and mantelet. It may be made in
black or colored silk, and is frequently trimmed simply with braid
or embroidery. Sometimes the trimming consists of velvet or
_passementerie_, and sometimes of fringe and lace.

Transcriber's Notes:

Words surrounded by _ are italicized.

Obvious printer's errors have been repaired, other inconsistent
spellings have been kept, including variation in:
- use of accent (e.g. "Léonard" and "Leonard" in p. 413-414);
- use of hyphen (e.g. "archway" and "arch-way");
- capitalisation (e.g. "Vice-president" and "Vice-President").

Pg 356, word "upon" removed from sentence "...attack upon [upon] Mr.
Dutton's purse..."

Pg 378, sentence "(TO BE CONTINUED.)" added to the end of article.

Pg 386, word "of" added to sentence "...the wish of the son..."

Pg 416, word "is" removed from sentence "Here [is] is a very amusing

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