Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Horses Past and Present
Author: Gilbey, Walter
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Horses Past and Present" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



    Transcriber's Note:

    Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as
    possible. Some changes have been made. They are listed at the end of
    the text.

    The illustration "On Saddle and Pillion" is the frontispiece, but the
    list of illustrations has it "Face p. 28".

    Italic text has been marked with _underscores_.
    Bold text has been marked with =equals signs=.



HORSES PAST AND PRESENT


[Illustration: SADDLE AND PILLION.

(From "The Procession of the Flitch of Bacon," by THOMAS STOTHARD,
R.A.)]



                                 HORSES
                            PAST AND PRESENT

                                   BY
                        SIR WALTER GILBEY, BART.

                              ILLUSTRATED

                           VINTON & Co., LTD.
                   9, NEW BRIDGE STREET, LONDON, E.C.

                                  1900



CONTENTS.


                                    PAGE

 Introduction                          1

 Before the Conquest                   2

 William the Conqueror                 5

 William Rufus                         7

 Henry I.                              7

 Henry II.                             8

 Richard I.                            9

 John                                 10

 Edward II.                           11

 Edward III.                          12

 Richard II.                          15

 Henry VII.                           17

 Henry VIII.                          18

 Edward VI. and Queen Mary            22

 Elizabeth                            24

 James I.                             30

 Charles I.                           33

 The Commonwealth                     36

 Charles II.                          38

 William III.                         41

 Queen Anne                           43

 George I.                            46

 George II.                           48

 George III.                          52

 George IV.                           59

 William IV.                          60

 Her Majesty Queen Victoria           62

 Light Horses: Breed--Societies       88

 Heavy Horses: Breed--Societies       89



ILLUSTRATIONS.


 A Cart-Horse of the XVth Century       Face p. 16

 On Saddle and Pillion                   "      28

 Guy, Earl of Warwick, XVIth Century     "      32

 The Darley Arabian                      "      46

 Jacob Bates, The Trick Rider            "      52

 Grey Diomed                             "      55

 Hunter Sire, Cognac                     "      64

 The Hack Hunter                         "      70

 The Norfolk Phenomenon                  "      80



_This brief history of the Horse in England to the close of the
nineteenth century is a compilation which, it is hoped, may prove
useful as well as interesting._

_So much has been done to improve our breeds of horses since the year
1800, and so many and important have been the changes in our methods
of travel, in the use of heavy horses in agriculture, in hunting,
racing and steeplechasing, that the latter portion of the book might be
amplified indefinitely._

_It is not thought necessary to do more than touch briefly upon the
more important events which have occurred during Her Majesty's reign._

_The interesting and instructive work by Mr. Huth, which contains the
titles of all the books written in all languages relating to the Horse
shows that the number published up to the year 1886 exceeds 4,060: and
since that date, works on the Horse, embracing veterinary science,
breeding, cavalry, coaching, racing, hunting and kindred subjects,
have been issued from the publishing houses of Europe at the rate of
about two per month. During the ten years 1886-95 upwards of 232 such
works were issued, and there has been no perceptible decrease during
the last four years._

_Under these circumstances an apology for adding to the mass of
literature on the Horse seems almost necessary._

                                                                      WG

 _Elsenham Hall, Essex,
     November, 1900._



HORSES PAST AND PRESENT.


First among animals which man has domesticated, or brought under
control to do him service, stands the horse. The beauty of his form,
his strength, speed and retentive memory, alike commend him to
admiration; the place he holds, whether in relation to our military
strength, our commercial and agricultural pursuits, or our pleasures,
is unique. Whether as servant or companion of man the horse stands
alone among animals.

There can be no doubt but that the horse was broken to man's service at
an early period of the world's history. The art of taming him was first
practised by the peoples of Asia and Africa, who earliest attained to
a degree of civilisation; but whether he was first ridden or driven is
a question which has often been debated with no definite result. The
earliest references to the use of horses occur in the Old Testament,
where numerous passages make mention of chariots and horsemen in
connection with all warlike operations.



BEFORE THE CONQUEST.


From very remote times England has possessed horses which her
inhabitants turned to valuable account, as we find occasion to note
elsewhere[1]; and the farther she advanced on the path of civilisation
the wider became the field for utility open to the horse. To the
necessity for adapting him to various purposes, to the carrying
of armour-clad soldiery, to draught, pack work, hawking, hunting,
coaching, for use in mines where ponies are required, &c., we owe the
several distinct breeds which we now possess in such perfection.

In early times horses were held the most valuable of all property in
Britain; we see evidence of the importance attached to them in the
figures on ancient coins. The Venerable Bede states that the English
first used saddle horses about the year 631, when prelates and other
Church dignitaries were granted the privilege of riding. This statement
needs qualification, for it is certain that riding was practised by the
ancient Britons and their descendants; we shall no doubt be right in
reading Bede's assertion to refer to _saddles_, which were in use among
the nations of Eastern Europe in the fourth century. The ancient Greek
and Roman horsemen rode barebacked; but a law in the Theodosian Code,
promulgated in the fifth century, by which the weight of a saddle was
limited to 60 Roman lbs., proves that saddles were then in general use
in the Roman Empire.

The Saxon saddle was little more than a pad; this would give no very
secure seat to the rider, and therefore we cannot marvel that the art
of fighting on horseback remained unknown in Britain until it was
introduced by our Norman conquerors. Even after that epoch only the
heavily-mailed knights fought from the saddle; for some centuries
subsequently the lightly armed horsemen dismounted to go into action,
leaving their horses in charge of those who remained with the baggage
of the army in the rear. It would be wrong to call these troops
cavalry; they employed horses only for the sake of greater mobility,
and were what in modern phrase are styled mounted infantry.

Saxons and Danes brought horses of various breeds into England,
primarily to carry on their warfare against the British; the most
useful of these were horses of Eastern blood, which doubtless performed
valuable service in improving the English breeds. The Saxon and Danish
kings of necessity maintained large studs of horses for military
purposes, but whether they took measures to improve them by systematic
breeding history does not record.

King Alfred (871 to 899) had a Master of the Horse, named Ecquef, and
the existence of such an office indicates that the Royal stables were
ordered on a scale of considerable magnitude.

King Athelstan (925-940) is entitled to special mention, for it was he
who passed the first of a long series of laws by which the export of
horses was forbidden. Athelstan's law assigns no reason for this step;
but the only possible motive for such a law must have been to check
the trade which the high qualities of English-bred horses had brought
into existence. At no period of our history have we possessed more
horses than would supply our requirements, and Athelstan's prohibition
of the export of horses beyond sea, unless they were sent as gifts,
was undoubtedly due to a growing demand which threatened to produce
scarcity. This king saw no objection to the importation of horses: he
accepted several as gifts from Continental Sovereigns, and evidently
attached much value to them, for in his will he made certain bequests
of white horses and others which had been given him by Saxon friends.



WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR (1066-1087).


William the Conqueror brought with him many horses from Normandy when
he invaded England. Many of these were Spanish horses, if we may
apply to the famous Bayeux tapestry the test of comparison. William
himself, at Hastings, rode a Spanish horse, which had been presented
to him by his friend, Alfonso of Spain, and the riders on horseback
on the tapestry show that the Norman knights rode horses similar in
all respects to that of their leader. They are small, probably not
exceeding 14 hands, and of course all stallions. Berenger[2] describes
these horses as of a class adapted to the "purposes of war and the
exhibition of public assemblies."

There is nothing to tell us when horses were first used in agriculture
in England; the earliest mention of such, some considerable research
has revealed, is the reference to "four draught horses" owned by the
proprietor of an Essex manor in the reign of Edward the Confessor
(1042-1066). Under the Norman and Plantagenet kings the plough appears
to have been adapted for draught by either oxen or horses. The former
undoubtedly were the more generally used, and continued in use until
comparatively recent times in some parts of the country.

One of the pieces of tapestry worked in Bayonne in 1066 shows the
figure of a man driving a horse harnessed to a harrow. This is the
earliest pictorial evidence we possess of the employment of the horse
in field labour.

The Conqueror and his followers came from a country in which
agriculture was in a more advanced state than it was in England, and it
cannot be doubted that the Normans did much to promote the interests of
English husbandry.



WILLIAM RUFUS (1087-1100).


It was probably during the reign of William Rufus that the first
endeavour to improve the British breed of horses was made. Giraldus
Cambrensis informs us that Robert de Belesme brought Spanish stallions
to his property in Powysland, Central Wales, and that to these
importations many years afterwards the district owed its reputation
for a superior stamp of horse. The results of this enterprise were
certainly of a lasting character, for "a Powys horse" occurs among the
purchases made by Edward II. (1272-1307), indicating clearly that the
locality still produced a good stamp of animal.



HENRY I. (1100-1135).


King Henry I. would appear to have taken an interest in the work of
horse-breeding. The scanty existing records of his reign contain
mention of a visit paid in 1130 to the royal manor at Gillingham, in
Dorsetshire, by a squire "with a stallion to leap the king's mares." In
this king's reign the first Arabs were received in England from Eastern
Europe, in the shape of two horses, with costly Turkish armour, as a
gift. One of these horses was retained in England and the other was
sent to King Alexander I. of Scotland, who presented it to the Church
of St. Andrews.



HENRY II. (1154-1189).


Henry II. took a keen interest in horses, and the records of his reign
show us the system then in vogue for the maintaining the royal studs.
The horses, in greater or smaller numbers, with their grooms, were
placed under the charge of the Sheriffs of counties, whose duty it was
to provide them with pasture, stabling, and all necessaries, recovering
the cost from the Exchequer. The Tournament was introduced into
England in this reign; but these knightly exercises received little
encouragement from the king, who forbade them under ecclesiastical
pressure.

William Stephanides, a monk of Canterbury, has left us a Latin tract or
pamphlet descriptive of the mounted sports of Londoners in the latter
half of the twelfth century, which possesses both interest and value.
From this it is evident that races of a primitive character, and sham
fights of a rough and ready kind had place among the recreations of
the people of Henry II.'s time. Smithfield, then a level expanse of
grass where periodical horse markets were held, was the scene of these
amusements:--

    "Every Sunday in Lent after dinner young men ride out into the
    fields on horses which are fit for war and excellent for their
    speed. The citizens' sons issue out through the gates by troops,
    furnished with lances and shields, and make representation of
    battle and exercise and skirmish. To this performance many young
    courtiers yet uninitiated in arms resort, and great persons to
    train and practice. They begin by dividing into troops; some labour
    to outstrip their leaders without being able to reach them; others
    unhorse their antagonists without being able to get beyond them.
    At times two or three boys are set on horseback to ride a race and
    push their horses to their utmost speed, sparing neither whip nor
    spur."[3]



RICHARD I. (1189-1199).


Richard I., ignoring the opposition of the Church, which held them
dangerous alike to body and soul, encouraged tournaments as valuable
training for his knights; and it may here be observed that from his
time through the succeeding ages until 1559, when a fatal accident to
King Henry II., of France, in the lists, caused the institution to go
out of fashion, tournaments were held from time to time in England.
Some of our kings encouraged them for military reasons; others
discouraged them under Church influence, or as records show, because
they were productive of loss in horses and arms, which the resources of
the country could ill afford.

We find traces of the old "Justs of Peace," as tournaments were
officially called, in the names of streets in London. Knightrider
and Giltspur Streets, for example: the former owed its name to the
circumstance that through it lay the route taken by knights on their
way from the Tower to the lists at Smithfield; the latter to the fact
that the makers of the gilt spurs worn by knights carried on their
business there. Cheapside was the scene of some historical tournaments,
as were the Barbican and Roderwell. The Tiltyard near St. James's was
the exercise ground of knights and gentlemen at a later date.



JOHN (1199-1216).


King John reigned at a period when the armour worn by mounted men was
becoming stronger, and when the difficulty of finding horses powerful
enough to carry heavily mailed riders was increasing. This sovereign,
so far as can be discovered, was the first to make an endeavour to
increase the size of our English breed of Great Horses; he imported
from Flanders one hundred stallions of large size. The Low Countries,
in the Early and Middle Ages, were the breeding grounds of the largest
and most powerful horses known; and John's importations must have
wrought marked influence upon the British stock. He also purchased
horses in Spain which are described as Spanish _dextrarii_, or Great
Horses. _Dextrarius_ was the name by which the war horse was known at
this period and for centuries afterwards.



EDWARD II. (1307-1327).


Edward II. devoted both energy and money to the task of improving our
horses. We have record of several horse-buying commissions despatched
by him to the Champaign district in France, to Italy and other parts
vaguely described as "beyond seas." One such commission brought home
from Lombardy thirty war horses and twelve others of the heavy type.
There can be no doubt but that the foreign purchases of Edward II.
were destined for stud purposes; the more extensive purchases of his
successor, Edward III., suggest that he required horses for immediate
use in the ranks.

Husbandry in England was at a low ebb during the thirteenth century,
but towards the end of Edward II.'s reign it began to make progress in
the midland and southwestern counties. The high esteem in which English
wool was held caused large tracts of country to be retained as pasture
for sheep for a long period, and while farmers possessed this certain
source of revenue the science of cultivation was naturally neglected.



EDWARD III. (1327-1377).


Edward III., to meet the drain upon the horse supply caused by his
wars with Scotland and France, bought large numbers of horses on the
Continent; more, it would appear, than his Treasury could pay for,
as he was at one time in the Count of Hainault's debt for upwards of
25,000 florins for horses. These were obviously the Great Horses for
which the Low Countries were famous; all the animals so imported were
marked or branded. Edward III. organised his remount department on a
scale previously unknown in England. It was established in two great
divisions under responsible officers, one of whom had charge of all the
studs on the royal manors north of the Trent, the other exercising
control of those south of that boundary; these two custodians being in
their turn responsible to the Master of the Horse.

There is ample evidence to prove that Edward III. took close personal
interest in horse-breeding, and it is certain that the cavalry was
better mounted in his wars than it had been at any previous period.
The Great Horse, or War Horse, essential to the efficiency of heavily
armoured cavalry, was by far the most valuable breed and received the
greatest meed of attention; but the Wardrobe Accounts of this reign
contain mention of many other breeds or classes of horse indispensable
for campaigning or useful for sport and ordinary saddle work--palfreys,
hackneys, hengests, and somers, coursers, trotters, hobbies, nags, and
genets.

The distinction between some of these classes was probably somewhat
slight. The palfrey was the animal used for daily riding for pleasure
or travel by persons of the upper ranks of life, and was essentially
the lady's mount, though knights habitually rode palfreys or hackneys
on the march, while circumstances allowed them to put off for the time
their armour. The weight of this, with the discomfort of wearing it in
the cold of winter and heat of summer, furnished sufficient reason for
the knights to don their mail only when actually going into action, or
on occasions of ceremony.

"Hengests and somers" were probably used for very similar purposes,
as more than once we find them coupled thus: these were the baggage
or transport animals, and were doubtless of no great value. "Courser"
is a term somewhat loosely used in the old records; it is applied
indifferently to the war horse, to the horse used in hunting, and
for daily road work, but generally in a sense that suggests speed.
"Trotters," we must assume, were horses that were not taught to amble;
and the name was distinctive at a period when all horses used for
saddle by the better classes were taught that gait. Edward III.'s
Wardrobe Accounts mention payment for _trammels_, the appliances, it is
supposed, used for this purpose, and at a much later date in another
Royal Account Book, we find an item "To making an horse to amble, 2
marks (13s. 4d.)." The amble was a peculiarly easy and comfortable
pace which would strongly commend itself to riders on a long journey.
Hobbies were Irish horses, small but active and enduring; genets were
Spanish horses nearly allied to, if not practically identical with,
the barbs introduced into Spain by the Moors. The animal described as a
"nag" was probably the saddle-horse used by servants and camp followers.



RICHARD II. (1377-1399).


Richard II. was fond of horses and did not neglect the interests of
breeding; though he on one occasion displayed his regard in a fashion
which to modern minds is at least high-handed. There was a scarcity of
horses in the early years of his reign, and prices rose in conformity
with the law of supply and demand. Richard, considering only the needs
of his knights, issued a proclamation (1386) forbidding breeders to ask
the high prices they were demanding. This proclamation was published in
Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire and Yorkshire.

Passing mention may be made of an Act which was placed on the Statute
Book in 1396. In those days all travelling was performed on horseback,
and the equivalent of the coach or jobmaster of much later times was
the hackneyman, who let out horses to travellers at rates of hire
fixed by law. The hackneymen were in the very nature of their business
liable to be imposed upon by unprincipled persons, who would demand
horses from them without tendering payment, on the false plea that they
were royal messengers journeying in haste on business of the State.
Not infrequently, too, the hirer or borrower was none other than a
horse-thief, who rode the animal into some remote country town, and
sold him to whoever would buy. Richard II.'s Act of 1396, aimed at
suppression of these practices, laying penalties upon anyone found
guilty of them; and it further called upon the hackneymen to help
themselves by placing a distinctive mark on their horses. Any animal
bearing such a mark might be seized by the hackneyman if he found it
in possession of another, and no compensation could be claimed by the
person from whose custody it was taken.

The earliest account of a race that we can trace (apart from the
sports at Smithfield) refers to the year 1377, the first of Richard's
reign. In that year the King and the Earl of Arundel rode a race[4]
(particulars of conditions, distance, weights, &c., are wanting!),
which it would seem was won by the Earl, since the King purchased
his horse afterwards for a sum equal to £20,000 in modern money.

[Illustration: A CART-HORSE OF THE XVth CENTURY.

From a Contemporary MS.]

For nearly a hundred years after the deposition of Richard II., the
available records throw little or no light upon our subject. The Wars
of the Roses (1450-1471) were productive of results injurious alike to
agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce. During a period when horses
for military service were in constant demand, and were liable, unless
the property of some powerful noble, to seizure by men of either of the
contending factions, it was not worth any man's while to breed horses,
still less to try to improve them. The fifteenth century, therefore, or
at least a considerable portion of it, saw retrogression rather than
progress in English horse-breeding.



HENRY VII. (1485-1509).


Henry VII., in 1495, found the horse supply of the country so
deficient, and the prices so high, that he passed an Act forbidding the
export of any horse without Royal permission, on pain of forfeiture,
and of any mare whose value exceeded six shillings and eightpence; no
mare under three years old might be sent out of the country, and on
all exported a duty of six shillings and eightpence was levied.

Under the old "Statutes of Arms" Henry VII. established a force known
as Yeomen of the Crown. There were fifty of these; each yeoman had a
spare horse and was attended by a mounted groom. In times of peace they
acted as Royal messengers carrying letters and orders. In disturbed
times they formed the backbone of the militia levies.



HENRY VIII. (1509-1547).


Henry VIII. went a good deal further in his efforts to foster and
promote the breeding of good horses. In 1514 he absolutely forbade the
export of horses abroad, and extended the prohibition to Scotland. He
obliged all prelates and nobles of a certain degree, to be ascertained
by the richness of their wives' dress, to maintain stallions of a
given stature. He made the theft of horse, mare, or gelding a capital
offence, and deprived persons convicted under this law (37 Henry VIII.,
c. 8) of the benefit of clergy. And by two Acts, the gist of which will
be found on page 5 _et seq._ of _Ponies Past and Present_, he made a
vigorous attempt to weed out the ponies whose small size rendered them
useless.

It is to be borne in mind that the King's legislation against the
animals that ran in the forests and wastes aimed definitely at the
greater development and perfection of the Great Horse. Armour during
Henry VIII.'s time had reached its maximum weight, and a horse might be
required to carry a load of from 25 to 30 stone;[5] hence very powerful
horses were indispensable.

Henry's interest in horseflesh was not confined to the breed on which
the efficiency of his cavalry depended. He was a keen sportsman, who
took a lively pleasure in all forms of sport, and he appears to have
been the first king who ran horses for his own amusement. It would
hardly be correct to date the beginnings of the English Turf from Henry
VIII.'s reign, as the "running geldings" kept in the Royal Stables at
Windsor seem to have been run only against one another in a field hired
by the king for the purpose.

The _Privy Purse Expenses_ contain very curious scraps of information
concerning the running geldings, their maintenance, and that of the
boys retained to ride them. There is mention of "rewardes" to the
keeper of the running geldings, to the "children of the stable," and
also to the "dyatter" of the running geldings. This last functionary's
existence is worth notice, as it indicates some method of training
or dieting the horses. Nearly seventy years later--in 1599--Gervaise
Markham produced his book, "How to Chuse, Ryde and Dyet both Hunting
and Running Horses."

In the year 1514, the Marquis of Mantua sent Henry VIII., from Italy,
a present of some thoroughbred horses; these in all probability formed
the foundation stock of our sixteenth-century racehorses. The _Privy
Purse Expenses_ quoted above refer to "the Barbaranto hors" and "the
Barbary hors," which are doubtless the same animal. A hint that it
was raced occurs in the mention of a payment to Polle (Paul, who as
previous entries show, was the keeper of this horse), "by way of
rewarde," 18s. 4d., and on the same day (March 17, 1532), "paid in
rewarde to the boy that ran the horse, 18s. 4d."

That curious record, _The Regulations of the Establishment of Algernon
Percy, Fifth Earl of Northumberland_, which was commenced in the year
1512, gives us a very valuable glimpse of the private stud maintained
by a great noble in Henry VIII.'s time. The list of the Earl's horses
"that are appointed to be in the charge of the house yearly, as to say,
gentell horseys, palfreys, hobys, naggis, cloth-sek hors, male hors,"
is as follows:--

    "First, gentell horsys, to stand in my lordis stable, six. Item,
    palfreys of my ladis, to wit, oone for my lady and two for her
    gentell-women, and oone for her chamberer. Four hobys and nags for
    my lordis oone ('own' in this connection) saddill, viz., oone for
    my lord, and oone to stay at home for my lord.

    "Item, chariot hors to stand in my lordis stable yerely.

    "Seven great trottynge horsys to draw in the chariot and a nag
    for the chariott man to ride--eight. Again, hors for Lord Lerey,
    his lordship's son and heir. A gret doble trottynge hors called
    a curtal, for his lordship to ride out on out of towns. Another
    trottynge gambaldyn hors for his lordship to ride on when he comes
    into towns. An amblynge hors for his lordship to journeye on daily.
    A proper amblynge little nag for his lordship when he goeth on
    hunting and hawking. A gret amblynge gelding, or trottynge gelding,
    to carry his male."

In regard to these various horses, it may be added that the "gentell
hors" was one of superior breeding; the chariott horse and "gret
trotting horsys" were powerful cart horses; the "curtal" was a docked
great horse; the "trottynge gambaldyn" horse one with high and showy
action, and the "cloth sek" and "male hors" carried respectively
personal luggage and armour.



EDWARD VI. (1547-1553) AND QUEEN MARY (1553-1558).


The brief reign of Edward VI. was productive of little legislation
that had reference to horse-breeding. An Act was passed to sanction
the export of mares worth not more than ten shillings, and another
to remove some ambiguity in Henry VIII.'s law concerning the death
penalty, without benefit of clergy, for horse-stealers.

If nothing was done to promote the breeding industry during this
reign, the King's advisers took measures to raise the English
standard of horsemanship. The Duke of Newcastle informs us that he
"engaged Regnatelle to teach, and invited two Italians who had been
his scholars, into England. The King had an Italian farrier named
Hemnibale, who taught more than had been known before." The farrier
of old times was the veterinary surgeon--as the barber was the
surgeon--and the invitations so given show that the Royal advisers
were conscious of English shortcomings. Horsemanship and the principles
of stable management perhaps stood at a higher level in Italy than
in any other European country at this period; whence the choice of
Italians as riding-masters.

The crime of horse-theft was so rife at this period that one of the
first Acts of Queen Mary (2 & 3 Phil. & Mary, 7), passed in 1555, aimed
at its suppression. A place was to be appointed in every fair for the
sale of horses, and there the market toll-gatherer was to call the
seller and buyer before him and register their names and addresses,
with a description of the horse changing hands. Under this law the
property in a stolen horse was not diverted from the lawful owner
unless the horse had been publicly shown in the market for one hour; if
it had not been so exposed, the owner might seize and retain it if he
discovered the horse in possession of another afterwards.

Queen Mary, by the Statute known as 4 Phil. & Mary, considerably
extended the obligation to keep horses which Henry VIII. had laid upon
persons of the upper and middle class; but the object of this law was
to provide for the defences of the kingdom, and there is nothing in its
clauses that would indicate desire to promote horse-breeding; on the
contrary, geldings are frequently mentioned as alternative to horses.



ELIZABETH (1558-1603).


Queen Elizabeth, herself an admirable horsewoman, was as fully imbued
with the necessity for encouraging the breeding of horses as her
father, Henry VIII., and she lost little time in dealing with the whole
subject after her accession. Energetic measures were evidently much
needed, if we may accept the statements made by Sir Thomas Chaloner,
in a Latin poem written when he was ambassador at Madrid, in 1579. He
observes that if Englishmen chose to devote attention to breeding, with
all the advantages their country offered, they could rear better horses
than they could import. England, he averred, had none but "vile and
ordinary horses," which were suffered to run at large with the mares.

In the first year of her reign Elizabeth renewed Henry VIII.'s Act
forbidding the export of horses to Scotland. Her next important step
was taken in the fourth year of her reign; she issued a Proclamation
in which she reminded her subjects that various laws had been made and
that the penalties for disobedience would be enforced. The Proclamation
announced the creation of machinery to see that her father's statute
requiring nobles of prescribed degree to keep a stallion was being
obeyed; that his laws[6] concerning the height of mares in parks
and enclosed lands, and requiring chases, forests and moors, to be
periodically driven, and worthless mares, fillies and geldings found
thereon destroyed, should be vigorously enforced. The law of Philip
and Mary which obliged people to keep horses or geldings in conformity
with the scheme for national defence, was recapitulated at length, and
obedience within three months enjoined on penalty of fine.

The Queen evidently considered the laws she found on the statute
book all that were necessary to ensure attention to the interests
of horse-breeding; for she refrained for many years from fresh
legislation, contenting herself with Royal Proclamations in which she
prescribed limits of time for her subjects to supply themselves with
horses according to their legal obligation, and appointed suitable
persons to see that her commands were carried out. One of these
documents, issued in 1580, announces that the number of horsemen in the
country shown by the returns is "much less than she looked for."

She made some changes in the existing laws, notably that passed
in the thirty-second year of Henry VIII.'s reign, concerning the
stature of horses in specified shires. That law applied among other
counties to Cambridgeshire, Huntingdon, Northampton, Lincolnshire,
Norfolk and Suffolk; 8 Eliz., c. 8, passed in 1566, exempted the Isle
of Ely and "other moors, marshes and fens of Cambridgeshire," and
the above-mentioned counties from operation of the Act because "the
said moors, of their unfirmness, moysture and wateryshnes" could not
bear such big horses without danger of their "mireyng, drowning and
peryshinge."

She also (31 Eliz. 12) passed another "Acte to avoyde horse stealinge,"
the chief feature of which was to forbid anyone unknown to the
toll-taker to sell a horse in the market unless the would-be seller
could produce "one sufficient and credible" witness to vouch for his
respectability. The evil had grown to the proportions of a national
scandal at this time: Holinshed's account, published eleven years
before this Act was passed, shows us that no horse in pasture or stable
was safe.

Queen Elizabeth's reign saw important changes. The application of
gunpowder to hand-firearms destroyed the protective value of heavy
armour, and with heavy armour gradually went the horse required to
carry it. The disappearance of the Great Horse as a charger was very
slow, however. In 1685 the Duke of Newcastle published his famous work,
_The Manner of Feeding, Dressing and Training of Horses for the Great
Saddle, and fitting them for the Service of the Field in time of War_.
The book was probably of little use to posterity, for by that time the
day of the Great Horse as a charger was very near its close, if not
quite at an end. The introduction of coaches was another mark of social
progress; and light horses, Arab, Barb and Spanish, were in demand to
improve our native breeds.

Until 1580, when carriages came into use in England, saddle horses
were used by all of whatever degree. Though the side saddle had been
introduced in Richard II.'s time, ladies still rode frequently on
a pillion behind a gentleman or man-servant. Queen Elizabeth rode
on a pillion behind her Master of the Horse when she went in state
to St. Paul's; but when hunting or hawking she seems to have ridden
her own palfrey. Coaches increased so rapidly towards the end of
Elizabeth's reign that a bill was brought into the House of Lords
(1601) to check their use. The measure was lost, the Lords directing
the Attorney-General to frame a new bill to secure more attention to
horse-breeding instead, but if this was done the bill never passed into
law.

The Queen was an ardent supporter of the Turf and kept racehorses at
Greenwich, Waltham, St. Albans, Eaton, Hampton Court, Richmond, Windsor
and Charing Cross. Racing had become a popular amusement in the earlier
years of Elizabeth's reign, and her participation in the sport was
probably due in great measure to her conviction that it must prove
beneficial to the breeding industry. The Roodee at Chester appears to
have been one of the first public racecourses; the townspeople gave a
silver bell to be run for. Racing was well established in Scotland at
an earlier date; in 1552, during Edward VI.'s reign, there were races
with bells as prizes.

There were races at Salisbury in 1585, when the Earl of Cumberland won
"the golden bell." In 1599, the Corporation of Carlisle took the sport
under its patronage and gave silver bells. According to Comminius, who
wrote about the year 1590, racing had grown out of fashion at that
period; the old sport of tilting at the quintain had been revived and
was apparently a more popular spectacle. It is probable that suspension
of public interest in racing was of a very temporary character, for
Bishop Hall, in one of his _Satires_, published in 1599, refers to the
esteem in which racehorses were then held.

Queen Elizabeth retained her love of sport and the physical ability to
indulge it to an advanced age. It is said that in April, 1602, being
then in her sixty-ninth year, she rode ten miles on horseback and
hunted the same day.

Following the example set in Edward VI.'s reign, Sir Philip Sydney
engaged two Italian experts named Prospero and Romano, to teach riding;
the Earl of Leicester, the Queen's Master of the Horse, also had among
his suite an Italian horseman, named Claudio Corte, who wrote a book
on the art of riding, which was published in London, in 1584. Thomas
Blundeville, of Newton Hotman, in Norfolk, ere this date, had published
a curious little black-letter volume, entitled "The Art of Ryding and
Breaking Great Horses" (1566), which was sold by William Seres, at "The
Sygne of the Hedgehogge," in St. Paul's Churchyard. Some extracts from
this very interesting little work have been given in a previous book.[7]



JAMES I. (1603-1625).


The feature of King James's reign was the formation of a racecourse
at Newmarket, which had previously been a favourite hunting-ground of
Royalty, and continued to be so, at least till James II.'s time.

Mr. J. P. Hore[8] says that the King probably resided at an inn known
as "The Griffin," and held court there during his early visits, and
that this inn subsequently became the King's own property. It is
quite certain that Newmarket as a Turf centre dates from the time of
James I.; he spent some days there in the year 1605, and appears to
have paid very frequent visits to the place to enjoy the sport he was
anxious to encourage. He kept racehorses, and in his purchase of the
Markham Arabian[9] we have evidence that he did not spare endeavour
to procure the best. It is true that this horse proved a failure on
the Turf; that his indifferent performance did something to discredit
the Arab in the eyes of Englishmen, and no doubt contributed to check
the importation of Eastern sires for racing; but his failure does not
affect the fact that his purchase goes for proof of King James's desire
to improve the breed of racehorses. Many foreign horses were imported
into England during this reign. The Spanish horse still held its high
reputation; in 1623, the Duke of Buckingham, then at Madrid, shipped
from St. Sebastian thirty-five horses, a present from the Court of
Spain to the Prince of Wales. Whether these were racehorses or not
records omit to tell us.

Under royal encouragement and patronage the Turf soon took its place
as a national institution. Races were held at Croydon, Theobalds on
Enfield Chase, and Garterly in Yorkshire, among other places, and
of each of the meetings named the King was the President. James's
most important studs were stabled at Newmarket, Middle Park, Eltham,
Malmesbury, Nutbury and Tetbury. During this reign a silver bell and
bowl were among the prizes offered at the Chester Races; the races for
these were now run on St. George's Day, and the trophies then came to
be known by the name of England's patron saint. Horses were regularly
trained and prepared for these "bell courses;" the usual weight carried
was 10 stone, and riders went to scale before starting.

[Illustration: GUY, EARL OF WARWICK. XVIth CENTURY.

_The fact that Guy of Warwick was a hero of legend does not affect the
utility of the picture as an example of the type of horse ridden by
knights in the XVIth century._]

In Scotland it would appear that betting on races was carried on to
an extent that called for legislative interference; for in 1621 the
Parliament at Edinburgh passed an Act which required any man who
might win over 100 marks in twenty-four hours "at cards, dice, or
wagering on horse races," to make over the surplus to the kirk for the
benefit of the poor.

Apart from the fostering care James I. bestowed upon the Turf, the
only proceedings that require mention are: his Proclamation issued in
1608, which notified that the laws against the export of horses were
not being obeyed, and would thenceforward be enforced; and his repeal
in 1624 of Henry VIII.'s law obliging every person whose wife wore "any
French hood or bonnet of velvet" to keep a stallion. He also repealed
32 Henry VIII., so far as it applied to Cornwall (21 Jac. I., c. 28),
even as Queen Elizabeth had relieved some Eastern and Midland counties
from operation of that law, in view of their unsuitability to breed
heavy horses.



CHARLES I. (1625, Behd. 1649).


Charles I. inherited, to some extent, his father's taste for the
Turf, and combined therewith a love of the _manége_, due to his own
accomplished horsemanship. The interest in racing was now so general,
and the inducement to breed light and swift horses for the purpose
so great, that other classes of horse were neglected, to the alarm of
the more far-seeing among the King's subjects. So seriously was the
tendency to breed only light horses regarded, that Sir Edward Harwood
presented a memorial to Charles, in which it was pointed out that there
was a great deficiency in the kingdom of horses of a useful type,
and praying that steps should be taken to encourage the breeding of
horses for service, and racing discouraged. Charles would seem to have
been conscious that excessive attention to breeding light horses was
a national question; at all events, that animals of a more generally
useful stamp were scarce; for in 1641 he granted licenses for the
importation of horses, enjoining the licensees to import coach horses,
mares, and geldings not under 14 hands, and between the ages of three
and seven years.

In November, 1627, Charles issued his Proclamation forbidding the use
of snaffles, except for hunting and hawking ("in times of Disport"),
and requiring all riders to use bits. His motive was, no doubt, a
desire to encourage the _manége_, which was then considered the
highest form of horsemanship. The King and the Queen had separate
establishments, and each kept a large number of horses, including
racehorses. The English system of stable management had made such
advances at this time that Marshal Bassompierre, the French Ambassador
in London, refers to it in his memoirs, and recommends that English
methods be followed in France. The same writer speaks, too, of the
superiority of English horses.

The hackney-coach question came up again in this reign, and Charles
issued a Proclamation dealing with the subject in January, 1636. He
forbade the use of coaches in London and Westminster unless they were
about to make a journey of at least three miles; and he required every
owner of a coach to keep four horses for the King's service. We may
conjecture that his prohibition of hackney coaches was not the outcome
of a desire to encourage horsemanship; for about eighteen months later
he granted to his Master of the Horse, James, Marquis of Hamilton,
power to license fifty hackney coachmen in London and the suburbs and
convenient places in other parts of the realm. This license, granted
by Proclamation in July, 1637, suggests favouritism, as according to a
contemporary publication[10] there were in 1636 over 6,000 coaches,
private and public, in London and the suburbs: surely more than were
needed, as some 10,000 odd hansoms and four-wheelers meet London's
normal requirements to-day.

Thomas D'Urfey's song,[11] "Newmarket," which is thought to have been
written in the reign of Charles I., shows that Newmarket was then, as
now, regarded as the headquarters of the Turf.



THE COMMONWEALTH (1649-1659).


Mr. Christie Whyte, in his _History of the English Turf_, says:--
"Oliver Cromwell, with his accustomed sagacity, perceiving the
vast benefit derived to the nation by the improvement of its breed of
horses, the natural consequence of racing, patronised this peculiarly
national amusement, and we find accordingly that he kept a racing
stud." If Cromwell kept a racing stable it was before he took the
style of "Lord Protector," in December, 1653; for in February, 1654,
he issued his first Proclamation against racing, in the shape of a
prohibition for six months, which prohibition was repeated in July.
In subsequent years, by the same means, he made racing, cock-fighting,
bear-baiting, and gambling, illegal.

Owing what he did to his cavalry, it was only to be expected that he
should devote attention to the matter of remounts. He imported many
Arabs, Barbs, and other horses suitable for the lightly armoured troops
which had now replaced the knighthood of former days; he also took
measures to encourage the breeding of horses for hunting and hawking,
sports in which he himself indulged.

At what date stage-coaches began to supersede the old waggons, which
(apart from saddle and pack horses) were the only means of journeying
in England in Queen Elizabeth's time, is not known. In the year 1610, a
Pomeranian speculator was granted a royal patent for fifteen years to
run coaches and waggons between Edinburgh and Leith;[12] but not until
the end of the Commonwealth (May, 1659) do we find definite mention of
a stage coach in England in the diary of a Yorkshire clergyman.[13]
This diary shows that stage coaches and waggons were then plying
between London and Coventry, London and Aylesbury, London and Bedford,
and on other roads.

It is highly improbable that there existed any horses of the coaching
stamp at this period; on the contrary, the wretched condition of the
roads until late in the eighteenth century,[14] and the time occupied
on a journey, indicates that animals of the Great Horse breed were used
to drag the ponderous vehicles through the mud.



CHARLES II. (1660-1685).


After the gloom of the Commonwealth the nation was ripe for such
changes in its social life as came in with the Restoration. Newmarket,
which had been deserted during the civil war and the rule of Cromwell,
recovered its former position as the headquarters of racing under
the patronage of Charles II. The King entered his horses in his own
name, and came to see them run, residing at the King's House when he
visited Newmarket. He did away with the bell as a prize, substituting
a bowl or cup of the value of a hundred guineas, upon which the name
and pedigree of the winner was engraved. He also devoted considerable
attention to improving the English racehorse; he sent his Master
of Horse abroad to purchase stallions and brood mares, principally
Arabs, Barbs and Turkish horses. To these "King's mares," as they were
entitled, our modern racehorse traces his descent on the dam's side.

Charles II.'s love of racing was not satisfied by the meetings at
Newmarket, which was not readily accessible from Windsor, and he
instituted races on Datchet Mead, within sight of the castle, across
the Thames. Here, as at Newmarket, he encouraged the sport by the
presentation of cups and bowls. Burford Races owed the prestige they
long enjoyed to the encouragement of Charles II. in 1681. Political
considerations required that public attention should be diverted for
the time, if possible, and to secure this end Charles had all his best
horses brought from Newmarket for the occasion.

The only piece of legislation that demands notice is the repeal of the
laws against export, which had been on the Statute Book since Henry
VII.'s reign. The prohibition was cancelled and a duty of 5s. per head
imposed on every horse sent over sea.

As proving the wide interest now taken in racing, the publication in
1680 of a curious little book called _The Compleat Gamester_, may
be mentioned. This gives very full and minute instructions for the
preparation and training of racehorses.

Stage coaches and waggons increased in number during Charles II.'s
reign. There is among the _Harleian Miscellany_ (vol. viii.) a tract
dated 1673, in which the writer adduces several reasons for the
suppression of coaches, "especially those within 40, 50, or 60 miles
off London." His first reason for objecting to the coach is that it
works harm to the nation "by destroying the breed of good horses,
the strength of the nation, and making men careless of attaining to
good horsemanship, a thing so useful and commendable in a gentleman."
Charles apparently did not share this opinion; at all events, he gave
countenance to the coach-building industry by founding, in 1677, the
Company of Coach and Coach Harness Makers.[15]

We may pass over the brief reign of James II. (1685-1688), as it was
marked by nothing of importance bearing on our subject.



WILLIAM III. (1689-1702).


The first year of this reign saw the importation of the first of
the Eastern sires which contributed to found the modern breed of
racehorses--the Byerley Turk. The Oglethorpe Arabian arrived about the
same time. The Turf was growing in importance and popularity; and we
find that a gold bowl was one of the prizes offered at the Newmarket
meeting of 1689. King William took personal interest in racing, and
kept a stud under the charge of the famous Tregonwell Frampton,
who filled the office of Keeper of the Running Horses under Queen
Anne, George I. and George II. The King seems often to have visited
Newmarket, and he encouraged other meetings--Burford, for example--by
his presence.

He was keenly alive to the importance of encouraging horsemanship;
sharing, perhaps, the view held by many persons at this period that the
general use of stage coaches and carriages was likely to lead to loss
of proficiency in the saddle. He established a riding school, placing
in charge Major Foubert, a French officer, whom he invited to England
for the purpose. At the same time he recognised that travelling on
wheels would increase in popularity, and took such measures as he might
to prevent the breed of horses from degenerating. His Act of 1694 (5
and 6 Wm. and M., c. 22), granting licenses to 700 hackney coaches,
four-wheel carriages, now called cabs, in London and Westminster,
contains a clause forbidding the use of any horse, gelding or mare
under 14 hands in hackney or stage coach.

The increasing numbers of people who travelled by stage coach had
brought the highwayman into flourishing existence, and 4 of Wm. and M.
c. 8, to encourage the apprehension of these gentry, gave the taker
of a highwayman the horse, arms, and other property of the thief. In
the tenth year of his reign another Act was passed (10 Wm. III., c.
12) which made horse stealers liable to the penalty of branding on the
cheek; this enactment, however, was repealed in 1706 by Queen Anne
(6 Anne, 9), who substituted burning in the hand for a penalty which
declared the sufferer's character to all who saw him.

William, by legislation, endeavoured to procure improvements in the
public highways, whose condition in many parts had become dangerous "by
reason of the great and many loads which are weekly drawn through the
same." The records of subsequent years, however, showed that the state
of the roads continued to leave much to be desired.



QUEEN ANNE (1702-1714).


The arrival in England of the Darley Arabian in 1706 was a fit opening
of the era of prosperity on the Turf which dawned in Anne's time.
The Queen, from the beginning of her reign, evinced her desire to
promote racing, and added several royal plates to those already in
existence--at the instance, says Berenger,[16] of her consort, Prince
George of Denmark, who is said to have been exceedingly fond of the
Turf. A writer in the _Sporting Magazine_ of 1810 gives the following
account of the circumstances under which the royal plates were given:--

    "... Gentlemen went on breeding their horses so fine for the sake
    of shape and speed only. Those animals which were only second,
    third or fourth rates in speed were considered to be quite useless.
    This custom continued until the reign of Queen Anne, when a public
    spirited gentleman (observing inconvenience arising from this
    exclusiveness) left thirteen plates or purses to be run for at
    such places as the Crown should appoint. Hence they are called
    the King's or Queen's Plates or Guineas. They were given upon the
    condition that each horse, mare or gelding should carry twelve
    stone weight, the best of three heats over a four-mile course. By
    this method a stronger and more useful breed was soon raised; and
    if the horse did not win the guineas, he was yet strong enough
    to make a good hunter. By these crossings--as the jockeys term
    it--we have horses of full blood, three-quarters blood, or half
    bred, suitable to carry burthens; by which means the English breed
    of horses is allowed to be the best and is greatly esteemed by
    foreigners."

Whether the money for the royal plates was provided, as Berenger
states, from the Queen's own purse, at the instance of her consort,
or whether it came from the estate of the public spirited gentleman
referred to by the contributor to the _Sporting Magazine_, the fact
remains that these plates were established in Anne's reign, and that
they did something to encourage the production of a better stamp of
horse. An animal able to carry twelve stone three four-mile heats must
be one of substance, and not merely a racing machine.

Much attention would seem to have been given to the mounting of our
cavalry and the general efficiency of that arm by Anne's generals. Col.
Geo. Denison, in his _History of Cavalry_ (London, 1877), says that
the battle of Blenheim in 1704 was almost altogether decided by the
judicious use of cavalry, while at Ramillies in 1706, and Malplaquet,
the cavalry played a very important part in the operations.

In the later years of her reign the Queen's interest in racing became
still more apparent; she gave her first Royal gold cup, value 60
guineas, in 1710; and yet more plates: further, she ran horses in her
own name at York and elsewhere.

There was little change on the "Road" during Anne's time; springs of
steel had replaced the leather straps used in England until about
1700, but the coaches, improved in minor details, were still ponderous
and required powerful teams to draw them. The Queen's own state coach
was drawn by six mares of the Great Horse, or as it should be called
in connection with the period under survey, the Shire Horse breed.
Oxen were used in the slow stage waggons, as appears from the laws
passed by William III. and Anne. The law of the latter sovereign (6
Anne, cap. 56) enacted that not more than six horses or oxen might be
harnessed to any vehicle plying on the public roads except to drag
them up hills; and this latter indulgence was withdrawn three years
later (1710), leaving the team of six to negotiate hills as they might.
Hackney coachmen evidently displayed a tendency to evade their legal
obligations in the matter of size in their horses; for in 1710 another
Act (9 Anne, c. 16) was passed to the same effect as a former law,
requiring hackney-coach horses to be not less than 14 hands in height.

[Illustration: THE DARLEY-ARABIAN (Foaled 1702).]



GEORGE I. (1714-1727).


During the first seventy years of the eighteenth century Eastern horses
were imported in large numbers; there is in existence a list of 200
stallions which were sent to this country, but that number does not
represent a tithe of the whole. The event of George I.'s reign, from
a Turf point of view, was, of course, the arrival, in 1724, of the
Godolphin Arabian, the sire to which our racers of to-day owe so much.
George I. appears to have taken little personal interest in the Turf,
though at least one visit paid by him to Newmarket, in October 1717,
is recorded; nor does the parliamentary history of his brief reign show
that much attention was given to the work of improving our horses.

The science of travel had gone back rather than forward, for in 1715
the post from London to Edinburgh took six days, whereas in 1635 it
took three. At this time, and until 1784, the mails were carried
by boys on horseback; and between the badness of the roads, the
untrustworthiness of the boys, and the wretched quality of the horses
supplied them, the postal service was both slow and uncertain. The Post
Office still held the monopoly (first granted in 1603) of furnishing
post-horses at a rate of threepence a mile, and its control over its
subordinates was of the slightest.

The only Act of George I.'s reign relating to horses was that of 1714
(1 George I., c. 11), which forbade waggoners, carriers, and others,
from drawing any vehicle "with more than four horses in length."

The omission of reference to oxen in this connection may indicate that
for draught purposes on the highways they were going out of use.



GEORGE II. (1727-1760).


An important step was taken in regard to the Turf by George II. in
1740; some of its provisions will be found in _Ponies Past and Present_
(pp. 8 and 9), but it contained other clauses of a far-reaching
character. This law (13 Geo. II., c. 19) provided that every horse
entered for a race must be _bonâ fide_ the property of the person
entering it, and that one person might enter only one horse for a race
on pain of forfeiture. The weights to be carried were prescribed:

    A 5-year-old was to carry 10 stone.
    A 6-year-old  "     "     11 stone.
    A 7-year-old  "     "     12 stone.

Any horse carrying less was to be forfeited and his owner fined £200.
Every race was to be finished on the day it began, that is to say, all
heats were to be run off in one day. The Act went even further. It
declared that matches might be run for a stake of under £50, only at
Newmarket and Black Hambleton in Yorkshire, under a penalty of £200 for
disobedience. Prizes elsewhere were to be of an intrinsic value of at
least £50, and entrance money was to go to the second horse.

So drastic a measure as this could not long be upheld in a free
and sport-loving country; and it is without surprise we find the
Government, five years later, withdrawing from a position which must
have made it excessively unpopular. The next law (18 Geo. II., c. 34,
sec. xi.) opens with the announcement that, whereas the thirteen Royal
Plates of 100 guineas value each, annually run for, as also the high
prices that are continually given for horses of strength and size are
sufficient to encourage breeders to raise their cattle (_sic_) to the
utmost size and strength possible, "Therefore it shall be lawful to
run any match for a stake of not less than £50 value at any weights
whatsoever and at any place or places whatsoever."

The effect of this "climbing down" measure was naturally to introduce
lighter weights. Thus in 1754, to take an example that presents itself,
Mr. Fenwick's Match'em won the Ladies' Plate of 126 guineas at York
carrying nine stone, as a five-year-old; six-year-olds carrying 10
stone, four-mile heats; and in 1755 Match'em beat Trajan at Newmarket
carrying 8 stone 7 lbs. Perhaps it is not too much to say that the Act
of 1745 was the first step towards modern light-weight racing. It must
be added that the scale of weights prescribed for the Royal Plates was
as follows:--

    4-year-olds carried 10 stone 4 lb.
    5-year-olds    "    11   "   6 "
    6-and aged     "    12   "

Races decided in 4-mile heats.

The King himself lent a somewhat perfunctory support to the Turf,
keeping at Hampton Court a grey Arab stallion, whose services were
available for mares at a stated fee.

A most important event in the history of the Turf marks George II.'s
reign. The Jockey Club was founded, and its existence first received
public recognition in Mr. John Pond's _Sporting Kalendar_, published at
the end of 1751 or the beginning of 1752. It is probable, however, that
the club was actually in existence in the year 1750; but it was started
without any attempt at publicity, and, so far as can be ascertained,
with no idea whatever of acquiring the despotic power which eventually
came into its hands. As Mr. Robert Black, in _The Jockey Club and its
Founders_, remarks:

    "What more natural than that the noblemen and gentlemen who
    frequented Newmarket, where ruffians and blacklegs were wont to
    congregate, should conceive the notion of forming themselves into
    a body apart, so that they might have at Newmarket as well as
    in London and elsewhere a place of their own, to which not every
    blackguard who could pay a certain sum of money would have as much
    right as they to claim entrance."

The conjecture is a most plausible one; but it was not long before the
Club showed that it intended to support racing in practical fashion,
for at the Newmarket meeting in May, 1753, two Jockey Club Plates were
given for horses belonging to members of the Club.

It is stated that, in the year 1752, sixty thoroughbred stallions, of
which only eight were reputed imported Arabs, were standing for service
in various parts of England; fees, as may be supposed, were low. A
horse named Oronooka headed the list at a fee of 20 guineas; another,
Bolton Starling, covered at 8½ guineas; but the usual charge was one,
two or three guineas. Flying Childers in the earlier part of the
century stood at 50 guineas, then at 100 guineas, and one season at 200
guineas.

There is little to note concerning the "Road" or other spheres of
equine work during this reign. The roads were as bad as ever, and
travel was so slow that in 1740 Metcalf, the blind road-maker, walked
the 200 miles from London to Harrogate more quickly than Colonel
Liddell could cover the distance in his coach with post-horses.
The barbarous methods of training cavalry recruits at this period
was attracting notice, as we learn from a little work on _Military
Equitation_, by Henry Earl of Pembroke, which was published in 1761.
The writer refers to the "wretched system of horsemanship at present
prevailing in the army," and refers to the common method of putting a
man on a rough trotting horse, to which he is obliged to stick with all
his might of arms and legs." Most of the officers, he says, when on
horseback are a disgrace to themselves and the animals they ride; and
he proceeds to urge the adoption of methods based on practical common
sense.

[Illustration: JACOB BATES, THE TRICK RIDER.

(About 1750.)]



GEORGE III. (1760-1820.)


The laws concerning horses made by the Parliaments of George III. have
bearing on the subject of breeding and improvement, inasmuch as they
deal with the horse as taxable property. The turf, road, and hunting
history of the reign is important, the first particularly so, though
the King himself took little personal interest in racing. "Give and
Take" plates for horses from 12 to 15 hands were in fashion during the
latter part of the last century, George II.'s Act directed against
small racehorses notwithstanding. A 12-hand pony carried 5 stone, and
the scale of weight for inches prescribed 14 oz. for each additional
quarter of an inch; whereby 13 hands carried 7 stone, 14 hands 9 stone,
15 hands 11 stone. Hunter races were run at Ascot in 1722, and after
that date the _Calendar_ of 1762, however, is the first of the series
that contains the form of "Qualification for a Hunter."

The Royal Plates were still among the most important events of the
Turf; in 1760 there were 18 of these in England and Scotland, and 6
in Ireland, 5 of the latter in Kildare. The "King's Plate Articles,"
which appear in every annual issue of the _Racing Calendars_ for very
many years, were retained in their original form. "Six-year-olds
shall carry 12 stone, 14 lbs. to the stone; three heats"; but in the
_Calendar_ of 1773 a footnote occurs, "By a late order altered to one
heat." Nevertheless, very cursory inspection of the books shows that
much latitude was allowed in weights, distances, and numbers of heats
both before 1773 and after. In 1799 another footnote appears under the
"King's Plate Articles," to effect that the conditions "By a late order
are altered to one heat and different weights are appointed." In spite
of this order races for the plates were on occasion still run in two or
three heats, apparently by permission of the Master of the Horse. We
are not informed what weight the new scale required, but the pages of
the _Calendar_ show they were reduced; authoritative information on the
point appears with the Articles at a later date. In 1807 the number of
Royal Plates had been increased to 23 in Great Britain.

On the 4th May, 1780, the first Derby was run; the value of the stake
was 50 guineas, and the race, open to three-year-old colts at 8
stone, and fillies at 7 stone 11 lbs., distance one mile, was won by
Diomed. In 1801, 1803, 1807, and 1862, the weights for the Derby were
altered, always increasing by a few pounds, till they reached their
present level. By 1793, the Derby had grown into great popularity.
The establishment of the St. Leger, in 1776, and the Oaks in 1779,
are events which also aid to make King George III.'s reign memorable.
Races for Arab produce occur on the Newmarket "cards" about the time
our classic races were founded; sweepstakes of 100 guineas being run
for in 1775, 1776, and 1777. Races for Arabs, however, have never been
continued for many years in succession.

[Illustration: _After J. N. Sartorius_

GREY DIOMED, foaled 1785. By Diomed--Grey Dorimant.

Bred by Sir CHARLES BUNBURY, Bart.]

The accompanying portrait of Grey Diomed, a son of Diomed, the winner
of the first Derby, in 1780, gives a good idea of the racehorse of this
period. Grey Diomed was foaled in 1785, and won many important races
between the years 1788 and 1792. He was bred at Great Barton, Bury St.
Edmunds, by Sir Charles Bunbury.

It was in 1780 that Mr. William Childe, of Kinlet, "Flying Childe,"
introduced the modern method of riding fast to hounds. Prior to Mr.
Childe's time, men rode to hounds in a fashion we should consider slow
and over-cautious, timber being taken at a stand; but once the superior
excitement of fast riding across country was realised, the old, slow
method soon disappeared.

Though the Norfolk Hackney achieved its fame through Blaze (foaled
1733), who begat the original Shales, foaled in 1755, and the
foundations of this invaluable breed were thus laid in George II.'s
time, we must have regard to the period during which the breed achieved
its celebrity both at home and abroad, and that period is the long
reign of George III.

The old system of conveying mails on horseback, with its innumerable
faults and drawbacks, came to an end in George III.'s time, a mail
coach making its first trip in August, 1784, when the journey from
Bristol to London, about 119 miles, was performed in 17 hours, or at
a rate of 7 miles per hour. The era of macadamised roads, which was
followed by the short "golden age" of fast coaching, can hardly be said
to belong to this reign, Mr. Macadam's system of road-making having
been generally adopted only in 1819.

The founding of the Royal Veterinary College at Camden Town in 1791 was
by no means the least important event of this reign; it is not too much
to say that it marked an epoch in the history of the Horse; for the
establishment of this institution made an end of the quackery, often
exceedingly cruel, which for centuries had passed for medical treatment
of animals. Until the end of the eighteenth century English veterinary
practitioners had been content to follow in the footsteps of such
teachers as Gervaise Markham, who was the great authority on equine
diseases two hundred years before; and the principles and practice
of Gervaise Markham were hardly free from the taint of witchcraft
and sorcery. Some of the more drastic and obviously useless remedies
had been discredited and abandoned, but at the period of which we
write, English veterinarians appear to have been following their own
way regardless of the more enlightened methods which were beginning
to gain acceptance among the advanced practitioners of France. For to
the French is due the credit of laying the first foundations on which
scientific veterinary surgery was built.

The helplessness of the old school is proved by the ravages of
epizootics. The loss of horses and other live stock when contagious
disease gained footing was enormous, such diseases being entirely
beyond the understanding of veterinarians. The last half of the
eighteenth century saw the establishment of veterinary colleges in
Europe. Lyons led the way in 1761; the next to be founded was that of
Alfort near Paris in 1765; the next, Copenhagen, in 1773; Vienna, 1775;
Berlin, 1790, and London, as already mentioned, in 1791.

Study of animal diseases was stimulated by the invasion of deadly
plagues, which wrought such havoc that stock-raising in some countries
threatened to disappear as an industry. Knowledge of these plagues
and efficient remedies had become essential to the existence of horse
and cattle breeding, and the collection of facts and correct views
concerning such diseases was the greatest task of the veterinary
colleges: the progress made was necessarily slow; but the foundation
of veterinary surgery as a science dates from the establishment of the
colleges named. For many years the new school of veterinarians were
groping in the dark; but if they made no striking advance they did
valuable work in collecting facts and correct views concerning animal
diseases, which were of great value to a later generation.

The Royal Veterinary College was founded by a Frenchman named Charles
Vial de St. Bel, or Sainbel. Sainbel was born at Lyons in 1753. His
talents developed early in life, and after a brief but brilliantly
successful career in France he came over to England in 1788. He
published proposals for founding a Veterinary School in this country,
but his suggestions were not favourably received, and he returned home.
Perhaps the fact that he had married an Englishwoman during his short
residence on this side of the Channel influenced Sainbel in his choice
of refuge when the Revolution threatened; but however that may be, it
was to London that he repaired when political unrest in Paris bade him
seek a new sphere of activity.

By a stroke of good fortune Mr. Dennis O'Kelly selected the young
French veterinary surgeon to dissect the carcase of the great
race-horse Eclipse in February, 1789. Sainbel did the work, and wrote
an "Essay on the Geometrical Proportions of Eclipse," which attracted
immediate notice and established his reputation as a veterinary
anatomist.

He still cherished his scheme for founding a Veterinary School, and
his abilities now being recognised, it was taken up by the Odiham
Agricultural Society. In 1791 Sainbel had the satisfaction of seeing
the school established, in the shape of a farriery with stabling for
fifty horses. He did not live to see the success that was destined to
attend his enterprise, as he died in 1793 in his fortieth year. During
the two years of his work as principal, however, he had laid down the
lines on which scientific veterinary practice should be conducted; in
the words of his biographer, "Sainbel may justly be looked upon as the
founder of scientific veterinary practice in England" (_Dictionary of
National Biography_).



GEORGE IV. (1820-1830).


In George IV. the Turf had, perhaps, the most ardent supporter it ever
boasted among our sovereigns, though the unfortunate Escape affair
caused him to renounce the sport altogether for many years (1791-1810):
The King was passionately fond of horses, and never wearied of trying
hacks and hunters; he got together a splendid breeding stud at Hampton
Court. In the last year of his reign he increased the number of Royal
Plates to 43, of which 27 were run for in England, Scotland and Wales,
and 16 in Ireland: he was also instrumental in bringing about vast
improvements in the royal buckhounds. The legislative measures of
George IV. were a bill to entirely relieve agricultural horses from
taxation, the duties thereon having been reduced by George III. in the
last year of his reign; and a bill to relieve horses let for travelling
of the duties that had been imposed upon them by his father.



WILLIAM IV. (1830-1837).


William IV. had no great love of racing, and his personal attitude
towards the sport is well reflected in his oft-quoted order to "start
the whole fleet" for the Goodwood Cup of 1830. He was, however, fully
alive to the national importance of racing, and did something to
encourage it, presenting the Jockey Club in 1832 with one of the hoofs
of Eclipse set in gold, which, with £200 given by himself, was to be
run for annually by horses the property of members. "The Eclipse Foot"
appears to have brought fields for only four years, and then remained
an ornament of the Jockey Club rooms at Newmarket.

In the same year, 1832, a new schedule of weights was appended to the
Articles for the King's Plates; this shows that the weights to be
carried varied somewhat according to the places where the races were
run. No scale was prescribed for Newmarket, the conditions being left
for settlement by the Jockey Club. In 1837, the last year of William's
reign, the number of Royal Plates had again increased and stood at 48,
34 in England and Scotland, 14 in Ireland.

The king continued the breeding stud at Hampton Court which his brother
had bequeathed to him; if his affection for the Turf was slight, he
deserves the greater credit for having maintained it.

The reign of William IV. saw the coaching age at its best, for rapid
travel by road was raised to a science only a few years before its
extinction by the introduction of railways. Good roads, good horses
and improved coaches in combination rendered it possible to cover long
distances at a uniformly high speed, from 10 to 10½ miles per hour
being the rate at which the mails ran between London and Exeter, London
and York, and other important centres.



HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA.

ACC. JUNE 20, 1837.


The sale of the Hampton Court Stud is the first noteworthy event of
Her Majesty's reign. The step taken by the Queen's advisers, with Lord
Melbourne, the Prime Minister, at their head, was deeply regretted by
all interested in horse breeding, as one seeming to imply that the
national sport would no longer receive the patronage of the Throne.
A respectful but strong memorial against the sale was presented by
the Jockey Club, but without avail, and on October 25, 1837, Messrs.
Tattersall disposed of the stud before a crowded audience, which
included buyers from France, Germany, Russia, and other foreign
countries. The catalogue included 43 brood mares, which brought 9,568
guineas; 13 colt foals, 1,471 guineas; 18 filly foals, 1,109 guineas;
and 5 stallions, including The Colonel and Actæon and two imported
Arabs, 3,556 guineas.

Actuated by patriotic motives and unwilling that so fine a horse should
go abroad, Mr. Richard Tattersall bought The Colonel for 1,600 guineas;
a price which was then considered a very large one. The total realised
by sale of the stud, including a couple of geldings, was 15,692
guineas. Thirteen years later, in 1850, the clear-sightedness of H.R.H.
the Prince Consort, saw that the dispersal had been a mistake, and that
year saw the foundation of a new stud which flourished until 1894, when
it was sent to the hammer. Regarding this second dispersal, it was
urged that the stud did not pay its expenses; and although it produced
The Earl, Springfield and La Flèche, good judges, including the late
General Peel, were of opinion that the ground, on which for so many
years Thoroughbreds had been reared, was tainted and therefore needed
rest.

In 1840 the fifth Duke of Richmond brought in a bill to repeal those
clauses of 13 George II. which still remained on the Statute Book
limiting the value of stakes, and this measure passed into law, not
without opposition (3 and 4 Vic. 5). Some interesting evidence bearing
on our subject was given before the Select Committee on Gaming which
was appointed in 1844. Mr. John Day gave it as his opinion that the
breed of horses had much improved during the twenty to twenty-five
years preceding, the improvement being apparent in riding and draught
horses. Mr. Richard Tattersall shared Mr. Day's opinion as regarded
improvement, but thought fewer horses were bred. About 1836 or 1837
farmers were in such a state that they could not, or did not think
it worth while to breed; by consequence the industry had fallen off
and there was a scarcity. Railways, in Mr. Tattersall's opinion, had
affected the market. "The middling sort does not sell in consequence of
railways; horses that used to fetch £40 now bring £17 or £18." Riding
horses sold better than the middling class, but hunters did not fetch
half the price they did in former years.

[Illustration: HUNTER SIRE COGNAC.

(From a Painting by J. E. FERNELEY, about 1826.)]

The result of this investigation, as far as the horse question is
concerned, was briefly summarised in the following passage of the Third
Report of the Lords' Committee. They thought it desirable that this
amusement should be upheld, "because, without the stimulus which racing
affords, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to maintain that
purity of blood and standard of excellence which have rendered the
breed of English horses superior to that of any other country in the
world."

The last statement was borne out by Mr. Tattersall's evidence. He
said that he had sent horses to every part of the world except China.
America and the countries of Europe have been purchasing the best
stallions and mares money could buy in England during the last hundred
years and more.

In 1845 the number of Queen's Plates stood at 51; 36 in Great Britain
and 15 in Ireland. In 1861 the scale of weights was remodelled and made
applicable to all the Plates wherever run; and in the same year it was
enacted that "none of Her Majesty's Plates shall be run in heats."

Some few abortive attempts to control racing by law have been made
since Her Majesty's accession. In 1860 Lord Redesdale introduced into
the House of Lords a bill to stop light-weight racing by fixing the
minimum weight at 7 stone. This measure was withdrawn, Lord Derby and
Lord Granville, also a member of the Jockey Club and leader of the
Liberal Party in the House of Lords, promising on behalf of the Jockey
Club that that body was prepared to deal with the matter; but nothing
was done in the direction indicated.

In May, 1870, Mr. Thomas Hughes, the member for Frome, brought in a
bill to amend the laws relating to racing. This bill proposed to make
it unlawful to race any horse or mare under three years old, and to
make the Queen's Plates open only to horses four years old and upwards.
Mr. Hughes, in introducing his measure, said that between 1843 and 1868
the number of two-year-olds running had increased fourfold, while the
number of races of a mile and upwards had decreased, and urged that the
system which had grown up tended to cause deterioration in the breed of
horses. As was well known at the time, Mr. Hughes was indebted for his
facts and figures to Sir Joseph Hawley. This bill was read a first time
by 132 votes to 44, but was withdrawn in the following July.

Great and radical changes had come over the Turf during the twenty-five
years mentioned by Mr. Hughes, but they were only incidental to the
general process of Turf development which has been going on since the
advent of the railway.

In 1836 the travelling van was first used for conveying a horse from
training quarters to the race course. Lord George Bentinck, who managed
Lord Lichfield's racing stable, resolved at the last moment to run Elis
in the St. Leger, and astonished the betting fraternity by producing
him at Doncaster in time for the race; to do this he had borrowed a van
which had been constructed to carry fat cattle to Smithfield Show. The
fact that Elis won the St. Leger to which he had been brought in this,
then novel, fashion no doubt did something to stimulate the practice of
transporting race horses thus; but the van was gradually superseded by
the horse-box, which was first employed for the purpose about 1840.

Railways, as they spread over the country, did much to increase the
number of meetings held and to increase the numbers of entries. We find
that in the period between 1827 and 1837 the number of horses running
increased from 1,166 in the former year to 1,213 in the latter; while
during the period between 1860, when railroads had become numerous, and
1870, the number of horses running rose from 1,717 in the former year
to 2,569 in the latter.

The development of the daily sporting press and the spread of the
telegraph system have also contributed to the changes on the Turf. By
quickening the interest of the people in racing, these factors have
helped to increase the attendance on race courses, and at "gate money
meetings," to enhance the funds at the disposal of promoters, whereby
the latter are able to offer in prize money sums beyond the conception
of our grandfathers in the early years of the century.

With the increase in the number of meetings, of horses running and the
value of prizes, other changes have gradually crept in. The Challenge
Whip remains the solitary survival of the old four-mile races. The
Whip, it may be well to remind the reader, was originally the property
of Thomas Lennard, Lord Dacre, whose arms are engraved upon it. Lord
Dacre was created Earl of Sussex in 1674 by Charles II.: he was devoted
to the Turf, and it is believed that he left his Whip (a short, heavy,
old-fashioned jockey-whip with hair from the tail of Eclipse interwoven
into the ring on the handle) as a trophy to be run for at Newmarket. He
died in 1715, but the first race for the Whip does not appear to have
been run till 1756, when Mr. Fenwick's Match'em won from Mr. Bowles'
Trajan. Gimcrack, Mambrino, Shark, Pot-8-os, Dungannon, Thormanby,
and many other famous horses have run for the Whip. The course is the
Beacon, 4 miles 1 furlong 177 yards, and the weight to be carried is 10
stone.

The tendency for years has been in favour of short races at the expense
of long distance events. At the Newmarket Craven meeting of 1820 there
was one race of about three miles, five races of two miles or over,
twenty of about one mile and two of under one mile. At the Newmarket
Craven meeting of 1900 there were three races of about one mile and a
half, six of about one mile, and eleven of five or six furlongs. The
necessity for breeding race horses that could carry from ten to twelve
stone twice or thrice in an afternoon over a four-mile course has
disappeared altogether. In his place we have the animal which can carry
seven stone over six or seven furlongs at a pace that would probably
have left Eclipse hopelessly behind, but which is useless for any
purpose off the race-course.

The highly artificial existence to which our race horses are now
subjected, jealously protected from change of temperature, and "forced"
in preparation to take part in two-year-old races, has done much to
impair fitness to beget horses that will stand work in the hunting
field or on the road. This is a result of the changes which have come
over the English Turf during the century. We must, however, retrace our
steps and glance at the endeavours to improve our horses which have
been made within the last thirty years.

[Illustration: THE HACK HUNTER.

(From a Painting by GEORGE STUBBS, R.A., 1793.)]

The year 1873 saw the appointment of the Select Committee generally
known as Lord Rosebery's Committee "to Enquire into the Condition of
the Country with regard to Horses, and its Capabilities of Supplying
any Present or Future Demands for them." This committee did not
consider the question of Racing; their labours during their sixteen
sittings were restricted to eliciting facts from the witnesses
concerning the breeding and supply of horses of the generally useful
stamp; and much valuable evidence was given before them. To summarise
them briefly, the main points of their Report were as follows:--

The Committee considered that so far as the Army was concerned it
seemed to be admitted that the mounted branches were never better
horsed than they were now: Mr. H. R. Phillips had given evidence that
Irish mares were chiefly used in the Army. They were not prepared to
recommend the formation of Government breeding studs on the Continental
plan, deeming it better that the military authorities should continue
to buy as private customers. They did not recommend any check on the
use of unsound stallions, though admitting this to be a great evil;
to restrain owners of unsound sires from offering their services for
hire would, they thought, be construed as interference with individual
liberty; but, if practicable, they would have prizes given at
agricultural shows to sound stallions which covered mares at a low fee.

They also recommended (and this was the only one of their
recommendations adopted by the House of Commons) the abolition of taxes
on horses which operated as a deterrent to farmers who would otherwise
pay more attention to breeding. The evidence given before them showed
that there appeared to be no scarcity of Thoroughbreds: high-class
hunters had increased in price and more in proportion than other
horses, but those who could afford to pay could generally find what
they required. There was a general decrease in the number of horses
in England; the evidence pointed to a great scarcity of agricultural
horses, and while the Cleveland Bay and old-fashioned Hackney or
Roadster had become extremely rare, we had been obliged of late years
to look abroad for supplies of harness horses.

The causes of deficiency in these breeds were (1) the export of mares;
(2) the increased profits accruing to sheep and cattle rearing, and (3)
the increased demand for horses, consequent on increased population and
augmented wealth, which produced a relative scarcity. The Committee
recorded great improvements during the few years preceding in Cornwall
and Devon, where formerly few horses had been bred.

The value of the work performed by this Committee was much qualified by
the disinclination of its members to hear any evidence which did not
bear directly upon Thoroughbreds and the production of saddle horses.
Perusal of the mass of evidence given by numerous witnesses shows that
the Committee would hear little or nothing in relation to the condition
of Harness Horse breeding, apparently holding that very important
department of the industry as without the scope of their inquiry. It
is difficult to understand why this attitude was adopted, but the
published minutes stand to prove that any witness who ventured to
comment upon harness horses and the advisability of stimulating their
production, was not encouraged to give information.

What little evidence was accepted in regard to harness horses showed
the existence of a growing demand for the best Roadster stock in
continental countries. French, Italian, German and Austrian breeders
were fully alive to the value of Hackney blood, and their agents
coming every year to England for the purpose since about 1840 had
purchased all the good stallions they could find to foster and promote
the breeding of horses eminently suitable for carriage artillery and
transport work.

Mr. J. East, of the firm of Phillips and East, said that the French
agents "buy the very best mares they can get; you cannot get them to
buy a bad mare." The late Mr. H. R. Phillips stated in course of his
evidence that his firm sent "from thirty to forty of these roadster
stallions every year to France and Italy and different countries;
they sent as many as they could procure." When asked how the number
of Hackney stallions exported at that date compared with the number
exported ten or fifteen years previously (say about the year 1858), Mr.
Phillips replied that the foreigners had always taken as many as they
could get.

Horses of roadster stamp are not less necessary to the efficiency of
the British army than to Continental armies; but while the Committee
displayed the greatest care and assiduity in their investigations
concerning the causes of dearth in saddle horses, they passed over the
not less important question of harness horse supply, as though holding
that a matter of no account.

It is to be regretted that the Committee did not ask questions as to
the enormous number of mares purchased for France, Germany, Russia and
Austria, and also enquire concerning the use to which the mares are put
in those countries. The answers would have been instructive, for it is
now well known that fifteen out of every twenty of them were medium and
heavy weight hunter mares--many of them stale for riding to hounds, but
in every other respect suitable for breeding. These foreign buyers had
no prejudices: they bought the mares with the view of breeding stock
of the type most suitable for the requirements of their respective
countries: the mares had plenty of thoroughbred blood in their veins,
and it remained for breeders to select stallions of the right stamp.
Hence the demand from all continental countries for Hackney sires which
began sixty years ago and which has continued ever since.

How urgent was the necessity for attention to this department of
horse-breeding was very fully demonstrated by Earl Cathcart in
a paper[17] which was published in the _Journal_ of the Royal
Agricultural Society of England about ten years afterwards. Lord
Cathcart adopted the practical method of obtaining from friends who had
long experience, their opinions on the condition of the breeding of
horses other than thoroughbreds; and the communications sent by these
gentlemen make up the bulk of the paper referred to.

There was but one opinion among Lord Cathcart's correspondents who,
it must be noted, wrote quite independently of one another. To
briefly summarise their statements, they deplored the disappearance
of the old-fashioned thoroughbred with bone and stamina, and the
disappearance of the Cleveland breed and the Hackney of the 'thirties.
Many influences had been at work to bring about the regrettable change
in the stock of the country.

The spread of railways had put an end to the demand for coach horses
and roadsters, and the men who used to ride everywhere in the old
days had given up their hardy and enduring saddle horses for the more
luxurious seat in the train. At the same time buyers from France,
Germany, and other Continental countries, having discovered the
willingness of English breeders to part with their breeding stock if
sufficiently tempted, purchased every good mare money could command.

Again, the craze for height had done something to impair the merits of
what roadsters the foreigners left us. The Clevelands were ruined by
crossing with leggy inferior thoroughbreds, whose sole recommendation
consisted in their height at the shoulder and which were wanting in
every useful quality.

The value of the half-bred hunter was also insisted on by Lord
Cathcart's correspondents--all of them men who had right to form an
opinion. Mr. Sax Maynard, who for fifteen years was Master of the
North Durham Hounds, laid stress on the "wear and tear" qualities
of the hunter got by the old stamp of thoroughbred out of the
Cleveland mare, and conversely of hunters got by Cleveland sires out
of thoroughbred mares. The superior speed of the thoroughbred was
admitted; but the greater endurance of the half-bred hunter in hilly
country was a quality which gave him a value which did not attach to
the pure thoroughbred.

Nothing more convincing could have been compiled than this essay from
several horse-breeding correspondents. It shows clearly how very great
is the change which has come over the principal breeding grounds of
England during the present reign.

In regard to the disappearance of horses of the useful stamp for
harness and saddle it is not necessary to require evidence for the
reasons. When we remember how enormous was the network of coach route
that spread all over the kingdom in pre-railway days; and consider
how vast were the studs necessary to horse the mail and passenger
coaches, to say nothing of the post-chaises preferred by people of
means; and when we think that the road-coach survives now only in
a few out-of-the-way corners of the country, and is regarded as an
interesting relic of by-gone days where it does exist, we can form
perhaps a vague idea of the extent of the change. About the year 1830
upwards of 1,040 coaches were running daily out of London alone.

We need not, thanks to "Nimrod" and other chroniclers of the coaching
age, remain content with a vague idea of the number of horses then
in use on the roads. It is easy to take a single route and reckon up
the stud required to work a coach running thereon. The usual "stage"
for a team was from eight to ten miles, and making due provision for
rests, accidents, &c., the proprietors estimated the needs of a coach
at one horse per mile "one way." Therefore a coach running from London
to York, 200 miles, and back, required about 200 horses; from London
to Edinburgh, 400 miles, and back, about 400 horses; from London to
Exeter, 175 miles, and back, about 175 horses.

On roads where the passenger traffic was heavy, coaches were numerous:
as many as twenty-five ran daily in the summer during the 'thirties
from London to Brighton. The distance by road is about sixty miles,
whence it would seem that no fewer than 1,500 horses were used by the
coach proprietors on that route alone; probably more, as competition
was keen and the speed maintained was hard upon horseflesh.

The average working life of a horse in a fast road coach was about
four years, according to Nimrod. Hence the coach proprietor found it
necessary to renew one fourth of his stud at a cost of from £25 to £45
per head every year. Mr. Chaplin, who owned five "yards" in London in
the 'thirties, had upwards of 1,300 horses at work in various coaches
on various roads, and would therefore have been obliged to purchase
about £11,375 worth of horses every year.

When the railway banished the coach from the highroad, which it did
with considerable rapidity, these great coaching studs were necessarily
given up, and a market for horses of the most useful stamp disappeared.
An eminent proprietor gave the qualities required in a road coach-horse
for fast work as follows: "First requisite, action; second, sound legs
and feet, with power and breeding equal to the nature and length of
the ground he will work upon; third, good wind, without which the
first and second qualifications will not avail in very fast work for
any length of time. The hunter and racer are good or bad, chiefly in
proportion to their powers of respiration; and such is the case with
the road-coach horse."

The practical disappearance from our country of such horses as those
used in the mail and ordinary coaches and in post carriages was nothing
short of a national calamity. They were horses of the essentially
useful stamp, sound, hardy and enduring, just such animals as are
indispensable for cavalry, artillery, and transport work on a campaign.
And though the full importance of the loss which had befallen us was
evident, the difficulties in the way of retrieving our position as
breeders was not less evident. The breeding of horses had ceased to
be remunerative, and as a natural consequence men had ceased to breed
them, preferring to devote their energies and capital to stock of a
stamp for which they could depend upon finding a market. Any horses of
the useful class that were produced found their way, if worth having,
into the hands of foreigners, as we have seen.

[Illustration: NORFOLK PHENOMENON (Foaled 1824).]

In March, 1887, Lord Ribblesdale took the matter up and in a very able
speech drew the attention of the House of Lords to the question of
the "Horse Supply for Military and Industrial Purposes." He rendered
a tribute to the work that was being done by private persons and by
societies and associations, thanks to whose endeavours the breeders of
Shire horses and Clydesdales were prospering. The brisk foreign demand
for British stock proved its merit, but so long as halfbred horses
suitable for remounts and all useful purposes were as scarce as they
were, while we were importing horses to the value of over a quarter of
a million sterling annually, including harness-horses and match pairs
of carriage-horses, we had evidence that we were not breeding high
class horses up to the demand for our own daily increasing needs.

He urged that the money given in Queen's Plates be diverted from its
then use and devoted to subsidising approved stallions, which should
serve at low fees; and that large prizes should be offered from the
public purse for foals, yearlings, and two-year-olds. As regarded
military horses he advised the purchase of two-year-olds to be kept at
maturing _depôts_ till old enough to take in hand; and in recommending
the system of direct purchase from the breeder referred to the fact
that direct purchase was approved by Baron Nathansius, the French
Inspector General of Remounts, in a letter which that officer had
addressed to the present writer.

Lord Ribblesdale paid me the compliment of seeking my assistance in his
task: and in order to obtain the actual views of the horse-breeding
interest in England, Colonel Sir Nigel Kingscote, Sir Jacob Wilson and
the writer met in February, 1887, and drew up a series of questions.

These questions were printed and sent out to between three and four
hundred of the best known horse-breeders in the Kingdom; to all, in
point of fact, whose experience would lend weight to their views and
whose addresses could be secured. The principal questions put were as
follows:--

    "_Q. 1._ Assuming that an annual Grant from the Government of
    £5,000 be made for the encouragement of the breeding of halfbred
    horses, to whom in your opinion ought such grant to be entrusted
    for distribution? Whether to a specially constituted Board of
    Trustees or to any other body?

    "_Q. 2._ Is it your opinion that the distribution of the above
    Grant should take the form of a subsidy in the shape of Premiums
    for Thoroughbred Stallions covering at a moderate fee similar to
    those offered by the Hunters' Improvement Society at their Annual
    Spring Show, and this year by the Royal Agricultural Society at
    Newcastle?"

In answer to Question 1, 194 replies were received in time for
tabulation; of these 79 were in favour of the grant being distributed
by a specially constituted Board of Trustees; 60 were in favour of
its distribution by the Royal Agricultural, Hibernian and Caledonian
Societies; 33 preferred that the duty should be vested in local and
county societies, and 22 offered no opinion.

Of answers to Question 2, 113 were in the affirmative, 44 replied "No,"
and partial concurrence was expressed by 19; a few gentlemen advised
subsidising roomy halfbred mares. The body of opinion so collected
and tabulated was placed in Lord Ribblesdale's hands about the end of
April; but not until August did opportunity occur for him to ask in the
House of Lords whether the Government proposed to take any action in
the matter. He referred briefly to the fact that the breeders of the
Kingdom had been circularised on the subject, but omitted to support
his enquiry by any analysis of the very important and valuable mass of
expert opinion thus placed at his disposal.

It is quite probable that during the months which elapsed between
receipt of the information we had collected for him and the date of
his August speech, Lord Ribblesdale had made use of them to influence
the Government in the desired direction; for the speech appeared to be
framed solely for the purpose of affording Lord Salisbury opportunity
to declare the intentions of his Government.

In brief, the Premier announced that it was proposed to devote the
money theretofore given as Queen's Plates to breeding; that this sum,
£3,000 a year, would be made up to £5,000 by a small addition to the
Estimates; and that it was proposed to assign the duty of administering
the fund to an independent Trust. The Royal Commission on Horse
Breeding was appointed, consisting of the Duke of Portland, the Earl
of Coventry, Lord Ribblesdale, Mr. Chaplin, M.P., Mr. F. G. Ravenhill,
Mr. John Gilmour, Sir Jacob Wilson and Mr. Bowen Jones; and, acting
in concert with the Royal Agricultural Society, the Commissioners, in
December, 1887, issued their first Report.

This document stated that only in recent years had any further
necessity arisen to encourage breeding apart from private enterprise;
the scarcity of horses was due, in their opinion, to the creation of
large breeding studs by foreign Governments, who came to us for their
stock and caused a drain upon our resources.

The Commission reported "there was little doubt that the Queen's Plates
had failed to fulfil their purpose;" but perhaps it had been nearer the
mark to say that the Royal Plates had _ceased_ to fulfil their original
purpose, owing to the multiplication of valuable stakes which reduced
the Royal hundred-guinea prizes to third-class rank and rendered them
useless as factors in the encouragement of breeding. The Commission
recommended the abolition of the Royal Plates and the application
of the money thereto devoted to a scheme of Queen's Premiums, under
which sound and approved thoroughbred sires should stand in specified
districts and under control of a local committee, serve mares at a low
fee. The scheme was at once adopted, and has worked well in practice.

The year 1896 saw the appointment of the Royal Commission to Inquire
into the Horse Breeding Industry in Ireland. Though the enquiry
resolved itself into a comparatively narrow issue, a very large amount
of evidence, much of it exceedingly interesting and instructive, was
recorded. In pursuance of their policy of encouraging the breeding
of all live stock in Ireland, it was proposed to send over selected
stallions, thoroughbred and roadster, for the use of owners of mares in
the horse-breeding districts. There was much diversity of opinion on
the propriety of establishing hackney sires in a country so famed for
its hunters, and the principal object of the Commission was to take the
opinions of experts on the proposed step.

While the majority of witnesses were averse from the introduction of
the hackney sire, on the ground that the happy-go-lucky methods of the
small Irish farmer would lead to intermingling of blood to the ultimate
deterioration of the Irish hunter, it was generally acknowledged that
the bone and substance of the hackney was eminently desirable in many
districts to improve the character of the local stock.

Could a workable system of mare registration have been devised to
prevent hunter mares being sent to hackney sires in those counties
where hunter-breeding is a valuable industry, there can be no doubt
that the introduction of such sires would lay the foundation in Ireland
of the breed of high class harness-horses in which Britain is so
singularly deficient, and which could be produced in Ireland with as
much, if not greater, success, as they are produced on the Continent.

Her Majesty's reign has seen the rapid growth of demands from every
civilised country in the world for British horses of every breed,
eloquent proof of the esteem in which our horses are held abroad and of
the success which has attended our endeavours to improve them.

We have, it must be confessed, "gone back" in our department of
horse-breeding; the supersession of coaches and their teams of fast
and enduring horses by railway traffic has brought about neglect of
this most useful stamp of animal. The tens of thousands of coach horses
formerly required created a large and valuable industry, and it is only
in the natural order of things that when railways made an end of the
coaching era that horse-breeders should have turned their energies into
new channels.

It is only within recent years that breeders have recognised how much
combined and systematic endeavour can do to assist them in their task
of improving our several breeds; and it is worth observing that the
most important societies for the promotion of horse-breeding (apart
from the General Stud Book) were all founded in the short space of
nine years, one after the other, till at the present day every breed
is represented by a body whose sole aim is to care for its interests.



LIGHT HORSES.


_The Hunters' Improvement Society_, founded 1885. Secretary, Mr. A. B.
Charlton, 12, Hanover Square, London, W.

_The Hackney Horse Society_, founded 1884. Secretary, Mr. Euren, 12,
Hanover Square, W.

_The Cleveland Bay Horse Society_, founded 1884. Secretary, Mr. F. W.
Horsfall, Potto Grange, Northallerton, Yorks.

_The Yorkshire Coach Horse Society_, founded 1886. Secretary, Mr. J.
White, Appleton Roebuck, Yorkshire.

_The Trotting Union of Great Britain and Ireland_, founded 1889.
Secretary, Mr. E. Cathcart, 7, Trinity Square, Brixton, London.

_The Polo Pony Society_, founded 1894. Secretary, Mr. A. B. Charlton.

_The New Forest Pony Society_, founded 1891. Secretary, Mr. H. St.
Barbe, Lymington, Hants.

_The Shetland Pony Society_, founded 1891. Secretary, Mr. Robert R.
Ross, 35, Market Street, Aberdeen.



HEAVY HORSES.


_The Shire Horse Society_, founded 1878 (as the English Cart Horse
Society; name changed in 1884). Secretary, Mr. J. Sloughgrove, 12,
Hanover Square, W.

_The Suffolk Horse Society_, founded 1891. Secretary, Mr. Fred Smith,
Woodbridge, Suffolk.

_The Clydesdale Horse Society_, founded 1883. Secretary, Mr. Archibald
MacMilage, 93, Hope Street, Glasgow.

_London Cart Horse Parade Society_, founded 1885. Secretary, Mr. Euren,
12, Hanover Square, London, W.

The dates when these Societies were established are given, as the
information eloquently bears out that passage in the Report of the
Royal Commission on Horse-breeding which refers to private enterprise.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Ponies Past and Present._ By Sir Walter Gilbey, Bart, published by
Vinton & Co., Limited.

[2] "The History and Art of Horsemanship." By Richard Berenger,
Gentleman of the Horse to George III., published 1771.

[3] "London," by Stephanides. Leland's _Itinerary_, vol. viii.

[4] "The History of Newmarket." By T. P. Hore. (3 vols.) H. Baily & Co.
London, 1886.

[5] See _The Great Horse or War Horse_ (p. 26). Third edition. By Sir
Walter Gilbey, Bart. Vinton & Co., Ltd. 1899.

[6] See _Ponies Past and Present_, pp. 5-6.

[7] _The Great Horse or War Horse_. Third edition. By Sir Walter
Gilbey, Bart., Vinton & Co., Ltd., 1899.

[8] "History of Newmarket."

[9] There is some doubt concerning the price paid by the King for
the Markham Arabian. The Duke of Newcastle, in _The New Method of
Dressing Horses_ (1667) says: "Mr. Markham sold him to King James for
five hundred pounds," and this statement has been repeated by Sidney
and other writers. In the _Times_ of September 1, 1878, however, a
correspondent signing himself "H" drew attention to the following entry
in the "Records of the Exchequer:" "Item, December 20, 1616, paid to
Master Markham for an Arabian Horse for His Majesty's own use £154.
Item, the same paid to a man that brought the same Arabian Horse and
kept him £11."

[10] _Coach and Sedan._

[11] _Pills to Purge Melancholy._

[12] "Remarks on the Early Use of Carriages in England," _Archæologia_,
1821.

[13] _Ibid._

[14] "Carriages: Their First Use in England," by Sir Walter Gilbey;
_Live Stock Journal Almanac_, 1897.

[15] _History of the Art of Coach Building_. By Geo. A. Thrupp, London,
1876.

[16] _The History and Art of Horsemanship._ By Richard Berenger,
London, 1771.

[17] "Half Bred Horses for Field and Road; Their Breeding and
Management," _Journal_ of the R. A. S. E. vol. xix., part 1, No. xxxvii.



VINTON'S SPORTING BOOKS.


 =ANIMAL PAINTERS OF ENGLAND=, Vols. I. and II., =21s.= each: =Lives
    of Fifty Painters whose works appertain to Animal Life and Sport=.
    Illustrated. By Sir WALTER GILBEY, Bart.

 =BAILY'S HUNTING DIRECTORY.= Cloth, gilt, =5s.=; by Post, =5s. 4d.=

 =DRUID SPORTING LIBRARY.= Five Vols., =5s.= each; Post Free, =5s.
    4d.=, or complete, =25s.=, Carriage Free. 1.--The Post and the
    Paddock. 2.--Silk and Scarlet. 3.--Scott and Sebright. 4.--Saddle
    and Sirloin. 5.--Life and Times of "The Druid."

 =DRY FLY ENTOMOLOGY.= =25s.= net. Illustrated. By FREDERIC M. HALFORD.

 =DRY FLY FISHING.= =15s.= net. By FREDERIC M. HALFORD. Illustrated.

 =ESSEX FOXHOUNDS,= =25s.=, =with Notes and full History.= Illustrated.

 =HARNESS HORSE.= Post Free, =2s. 3d.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY.

 =HINTS TO HUNTSMEN.= Post Free, =1s. 1d.= By Col. J. ANSTRUTHER
    THOMSON.

 =HORSES, PAST AND PRESENT.= Post Free, =2s. 3d.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY.

 =LAYS OF THE CHASE, and Odds and Ends.= By HARRY L. =2s. 6d.=

 =LEAVES FROM A HUNTING DIARY IN ESSEX.= 2 Vols., =21s.= each. By H.
    BEAUCHAMP YERBURGH ("McAdam").

 =LETTERS ON WHIST.= =1s.=, Post Free. By W. M. DEANE, C.M.G., M.A.

 =LIFE OF GEORGE STUBBS, R. A.= =£3 3s.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY, Bart.

 =LIGHT HORSES: Breeds and Management.= Post Free, =3s. 10d.=

 =LIVE STOCK JOURNAL ALMANAC.= Illustrated. Cloth, =2s.=; By post, =2s.
    6d.= Paper covers, =1s.=; by Post, =1s. 4d.=

 =LORD HENRY BENTINCK ON FOXHOUNDS.= 1s.; Post Free, =1s. 1d.=

 =NOTES ON THE RIFLE.= By Hon. T. F. FREMANTLE. Post Free, =5s. 4d.=

 =POLO.= Post Free, =5s. 3d.= By the late J. MORAY BROWN. Illustrated.

 =POLO.= Price =15s.= net, Post Free. By T. B. DRYBROUGH. Prospectus
    free.

 =PONIES: Past and Present.= Post Free, =2s. 3d.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY,
    Bart.

 =PRACTICAL VETERINARY ADVICE.= Post Free, =1s. 8d.= By A. H. AIDEN.

 =SIDE-SADDLE RIDING.= Illustrated. By EVA CHRISTY. =6s.=; by Post,
    =6s. 3d.=

 =SMALL HORSES IN WARFARE.= Post Free, =2s. 2d.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY.

 =YOUNG RACE HORSES.= Post Free, =2s. 2d.= By Sir WALTER GILBEY.

                Complete Catalogue Free on Application.

VINTON & CO., LTD., 9, New Bridge Street, Ludgate Circus, London, E.C.



    Transcriber's notes:

    The following is a list of changes made to the original.
    The first line is the original line, the second the corrected one.

    King Alfred (871 to 991) had a Master of the Horse, named Ecquef,
    King Alfred (871 to 899) had a Master of the Horse, named Ecquef,

    It is stated that, in the year 1752, sixty throughbred stallions,
    It is stated that, in the year 1752, sixty thoroughbred stallions,

    putting a man on a rough trotting horse, to which he is obliged
    putting a man on a rough trotting horse, "to which he is obliged

    GREY DIOMED, folded 1785. By Diomed--Grey Dorimant.
    GREY DIOMED, foaled 1785. By Diomed--Grey Dorimant.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Horses Past and Present" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home