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Title: Original Photographs Taken on the Battlefields during the Civil War of the United States
Author: Gardner, Alexander, Brady, Mathew B.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Original Photographs Taken on the Battlefields during the Civil War of the United States" ***

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                              Taken on the
                              BATTLEFIELDS
                               During the

                     Civil War of the United States

                By Mathew B. Brady and Alexander Gardner
     Who operated under the Authority of the War Department and the
                    Protection of the Secret Service

    Rare Reproductions from Photographs Selected from Seven Thousand
         the Midst of One of the Most Terrific Conflicts of Men
           that the World Has Ever Known, and in the Earliest
           Days of Photography--These Negatives Have Been in
              Storage Vaults for More than Forty Years and
                              are now the

               Private Collection of Edward Bailey Eaton

                           Valued at $150,000

            FIRST PRESENTATION FROM THIS HISTORIC COLLECTION
                    MADE OFFICIALLY AND EXCLUSIVELY
                              BY THE OWNER

                         Hartford, Connecticut
                                  1907



                     COPYRIGHT 1907 BY E. B. EATON

                  COPIES OF THIS ALBUM MAY BE OBTAINED
                  BY A REMITTANCE OF THREE DOLLARS TO
                            EDWARD B. EATON
                         HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT
                               PUBLISHER



                    Martyrs on Altar of Civilization

                                   BY
                        FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER
               EDITOR OF THE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY


[Illustration: MATHEW BRADY, FIRST WAR PHOTOGRAPHER IN AMERICA

He followed the Armies during the Civil War and secured these remarkable
Negatives--In conference with Major-General Burnside at the Headquarters
of the Army of the Potomac near Richmond, Virginia--Brady occupies the
chair directly in front of the tree while General Burnside is reading a
newspaper--This picture was found among his negatives]


THIS is undoubtedly the most valuable collection of historic photographs
in America. It is believed to be the first time that the camera was used
so extensively and practically on the battle-field. It is the first
known collection of its size on the Western Continent and it is the only
witness of the scenes enacted during the greatest crisis in the annals
of the American nation. As a contribution to history it occupies a
position that the higher art of painting, or scholarly research and
literal description, can never usurp. It records a tragedy that neither
the imagination of the painter nor the skill of the historian can so
dramatically relate.

The existence of this collection is unknown by the public at large. Even
while this book has been in preparation eminent photographers have
pronounced it impossible, declaring that photography was not
sufficiently advanced at that period to prove of such practical use in
War. Distinguished veterans of the Civil War have informed me that they
knew positively that there were no cameras in the wake of the army. This
incredulity of men in a position to know the truth enhances the value of
the collection inasmuch that its genuineness is officially proven by the
testimony of those who saw the pictures taken, by the personal statement
of the man who took them, and by the Government Records. For forty-two
years the original negatives have been in storage, secreted from public
view, except as an occasional proof is drawn for some special use. How
these negatives came to be taken under most hazardous conditions in the
storm and stress of a War that threatened to change the entire history
of the world is itself an interesting historical incident. Moreover, it
is one of the tragedies of genius.

While the clouds were gathering, which finally broke into the Civil War
in the United States, there died in London one named Scott-Archer, a man
who had found one of the great factors in civilization, but died poor
and before his time because he had overstrained his powers in the cause
of science. It was necessary to raise a subscription for his widow, and
the government settled upon the children a pension of fifty pounds per
annum on the ground that their father was "the discoverer of a
scientific process of great value to the nation, from which the inventor
had reaped little or no benefit."

This was in 1857, and four years later, when the American Republic
became rent by a conflict of brother against brother, Mathew B. Brady of
Washington and New York, asked the permission of the Government and the
protection of the Secret Service to demonstrate the practicability of
Scott-Archer's discovery in the severest test that the invention had
ever been given. Brady was an artist by temperament and gained his
technical knowledge of portraiture in the rendezvous of Paris. He had
been interested in the discoveries of Niepce and Daguerre and Fox-Talbot
along the crude lines of photography but with the introduction of the
collodion process of Scott-Archer he accepted the science as a
profession and, during twenty-five years of labor as a pioneer
photographer, took the likenesses of the political celebrities of the
epoch and of eminent men and women throughout the country.

Brady's request was granted and he invested heavily in cameras which
were made specially for the hard usage of warfare. These cameras were
cumbersome and were operated by what is known as the old wet-plate
process, requiring a dark room which was carried with them onto the
battle-fields. The experimental operations under Brady proved so
successful that they attracted the immediate attention of President
Lincoln, General Grant and Allan Pinkerton, known as Major Allen and
chief of the Secret Service. Equipments were hurried to all divisions of
the great army and some of them found their way into the Confederate
ranks.



"THE black art," by which Brady secured these photographs, was as
mystifying as the work of a magician. It required a knowledge of
chemistry and, considering the difficulties, one wonders how Brady had
courage to undertake it on the battle-field. He first immersed eighty
grains of cotton-wool in a mixture of one ounce each of nitric and
sulphuric acids for fifteen seconds, washing them in running water. The
pyroxylin was dissolved in a mixture of equal parts of sulphuric ether
and absolute alcohol. This solution gave him the ordinary collodion to
which he added iodide of potassium and a little potassium bromide. He
then poured the iodized collodion on a clean piece of sheet glass and
allowed two or three minutes for the film to set. The coated plate was
taken into a "dark room," which Brady carried with him, and immersed for
about a minute in a bath of thirty grains of silver nitrate to every
ounce of water. The plate was now sensitive to white light and must be
placed immediately in the camera and exposed and developed within five
minutes to get good results, especially in the South during the summer
months. It was returned to the dark room at once and developed by
pouring over it a mixture of water, one ounce; acetic acid, one dram;
pyrogallic acid, three grains, and "fixed" by soaking in a strong
solution of hyposulphite of soda or cyanide of potassium. This
photograph shows Brady's "dark room" in the Confederate lines southeast
of Atlanta, Georgia, shortly before the battle of July 22, 1864. It is a
fine example of wet-plate photography.

[Illustration]



THE secret never has been divulged. How Mr. Brady gained the confidence
of such men as Jefferson Davis and General Robert E. Lee, and was passed
through the Confederate lines, may never be known. It is certain that he
never betrayed the confidence reposed in him and that the negatives were
not used for secret service information, and this despite the fact, that
Allan Pinkerton and the Artist Brady were intimate. Neither of these men
had any idea of the years which the conflict was to rage and Mr. Brady
expended all his available funds upon paraphernalia. The government was
strained to its utmost resources in keeping its defenders in food and
ammunition. It was not concerned in the development of a new science nor
the preservation of historical record. It faced a mighty foe of its own
blood. It must either fall or rise in a decisive blow.

It was indeed a sorry time for an aesthete. Mr. Brady was unable to
secure money. His only recourse was credit. This he secured from
Anthony, who was importing photographic materials into America and was a
founder of the trade on this continent. The next obstacle was the
securing of men competent to operate a camera. Nearly every able-bodied
man was engaged in warfare. The science was new and required a knowledge
of chemistry. Brady was a man of speculative disposition and plunged
into the apparently impossible undertaking of preserving on glass the
scenes of action during one of the most tremendous conflicts that the
world has known. Pressing toward the firing-line, planting his camera on
the field almost before the smoke of artillery and musket had cleared,
he came out of the War with his thousands of negatives, perpetuating
scenes that human eyes never expected to look upon again. There can be
but very few important movements that failed to become imprinted on
these glass records.


[Illustration: FIRST CAMERAS EVER USED ON THE BATTLEFIELD

One of Brady's Photograph Wagons in the wake of the Army at Manassas on
the Fourth of July, in 1862--These mysterious canvas-covered wagons,
traveling under the protection of the Secret Service, aroused the
curiosity of the soldiers whose frequent queries "What is it?" soon
earned for them the epithet of the "What is it?" wagon--Found among
Brady's negatives]


With the close of the War, Brady was in the direst financial straits. He
had spent every dollar of the money accumulated in early portraiture and
was heavily in debt. Seven thousand of his negatives were sent to New
York as security for Anthony, his largest creditor. The remaining six
thousand negatives were placed in a warehouse in Washington. Brady then
began negotiations for replenishing his funds by disposing of the
property. He exhibited proofs of his negatives in galleries of the New
York Historical Society the year following the cessation of the
conflict. On the twenty-ninth of January of that same year, 1866, the
Council of the National Academy of Design adopted a resolution in which
it acknowledged the value of the Brady collection as a reliable
authority for art and an important contribution to American history. It
indorsed the proposal to place the collection permanently with the New
York Historical Society. General Ulysses S. Grant had been much
interested in the work of Brady on the battlefield, and in a letter
written on February third, 1866, spoke of it as "a collection of
photographic views of battlefields taken on the spot, while the
occurrences represented were taking place." General Grant added: "I knew
when many of these representations were being taken and I can say that
the scenes are not only spirited and correct, but also well-chosen. The
collection will be valuable to the student and artist of the present
generation, but _how much more valuable it will be to future
generations_?"

These were days of reconstruction. It was almost impossible to interest
men in matters not pertaining to the re-establishment of Commerce and
Trade. Brady had spent twenty-five years in collecting the portraits of
distinguished personages and endeavored to dispose of these to the
Government. The joint committee on libraries, on March third, 1871,
recommended the purchase of some two thousand portraits which they
called: "A National Collection of Portraits of Eminent Americans." The
congressmen, however, faced problems too great to allow them to give
attention to pictorial art and took no final action on the subject. In
the meantime Brady was unable to meet the bill for storage and the
negatives in Washington were offered at auction. William W. Belknap, the
Secretary of War, was advised of the conditions and in July, 1874, he
paid the storage bill and the negatives fell into possession of the
Government. The purchase was made at a public auction and the Government
bid was $2840 from money accumulated by Provost Marshals and turned in
to the Adjutant-General at the close of the Civil War. The Government
Records fail to give a list of the negatives made either at the time of
the purchase or for many subsequent years. The original voucher dated
July 31st, 1874, is silent as to the number of negatives received by the
Government.



THIS photograph is selected from the seven thousand negatives left by
Mathew B. Brady, the celebrated government photographer, as one of the
most valuable in existence. It seems to be the first instance on the
Western Continent, and possibly in the world, in which a camera
successfully imprinted on glass the actual vision of a great army in
camp. While scenes such as this are engraved on the memories of the
venerable warriors who participated in the terrific struggle this
remarkable negative preserves for all ages the magnificent pageant of
men, who have offered their lives in defense of their country, waiting
for the call to the battle-line. The photograph was taken on a day in
the middle of May in 1862 when the Army of the Potomac was encamped at
Cumberland Landing on the Pamunky River. A hundred thousand men rested
in this city of tents, in the seclusion of the hills, eager to strike a
blow for the flag they loved, yet such was the tragic stillness that one
who recalls it says that absolute quiet reigned throughout the vast
concourse like the peace of the Sabbath-day. On every side were immense
fields of wheat, promising an abundant harvest, but trammeled under the
feet of the encroaching armies. Occasionally the silence was broken by
the strains of a national song that swept from tent to tent as the men
smoked and drowsed, fearless of the morrow. The encampment covered many
square miles and this picture represents but one brigade on the old
Custis place, near White House, which became the estate of General
Fitzhugh Lee, the indomitable cavalry leader of the Confederacy and an
American patriot during the later war with Spain. The original negative,
although now forty-five years old, has required but slight retouching in
the background.

[Illustration]



GENERAL JAMES A. GARFIELD was fully acquainted with the conditions under
which the negatives were taken and the subsequent impoverishment of
Mathew Brady. He insisted that something should be done for the man who
risked all he had in the world and through misfortune lost the results
of his labors. General Benjamin Butler, Congressman from Massachusetts,
also felt the injustice, and on his motion a paragraph was inserted in
the Sundry Civil Appropriation Bill for $25,000 "to enable the Secretary
of War to acquire a full and perfect title to the Brady collection of
photographs of the War." The business element in Congress was inclined
to question the material value of the negatives. They were but little
concerned with the art value and the discussion became a matter of
business inventory. Generals Garfield and Butler in reply to the
economists declared: "_The commercial value of the entire collection is
at least $150,000._" Ten years after the War, but too late to save him a
vestige of business credit, the Government came to Brady's relief and on
April 15, 1875, the sum of $25,000 was paid to him. During these years
of waiting, Brady had been unable to satisfy the demands of his
creditors and an attachment was placed on the negatives in storage in
New York. Judgment was rendered to his creditor, Anthony, and the
negatives became his property.

Army officers who knew of the existence of the negatives urged the
Government to publish them as a part of the Official Records of the War.
The Government stated in reply: "The photographic views of the War
showing the battlefields, military divisions, fortifications, etc., are
among the most authentic and valuable records of the Rebellion. The
preservation of these interesting records of the War is too important to
be intrusted in glass plates so easily destroyed by accident or design
and no more effective means than printing can be devised to save them
from destruction." While a few proofs were taken for the purpose of
official records, the public still remained unacquainted with the scenes
so graphically preserved. One who is acquainted with the conditions
says: "From different sources verbal and unofficial, it was learned that
quite a number of the negatives were broken through careless handling by
the employees of the War Department." The negatives were transferred to
the War Records Office and placed under the careful supervision of
Colonel R. N. Scott.


[Illustration: BRADY'S "WHAT IS IT?" IN THE CIVIL WAR

The Photographer's Headquarters at Cold Harbor, Virginia, in 1862, where
he had taken refuge to prepare his paraphernalia for a long and
hazardous journey--It was with much difficulty that the delicate glass
negatives were protected from breakage on these daring rides through
forests and fields and proofs were taken at the first opportunity that
offered]


Twenty-five years ago, in 1882, Bierstadt, a chemist, informed the
Government: "The breakableness of the glass and the fugitive character
of photograph chemicals will in short time obliterate all traces of the
scenes these represent. Unless they are reproduced in some permanent
form they will soon be lost." Fifty-two negatives were sent to him and
he reproduced six of these by a photographic mechanical process. The
Government, however, decided that the cost was prohibitive, the expense
of making the prints was seventy-five dollars a thousand and would not
allow any general circulation.

Honorable John C. Taylor, of Hartford, Connecticut, a veteran of the
Civil War, believed that the heroes of the conflict should be allowed to
look upon the scenes in which they participated, and made a thorough
investigation. Mr. Taylor is now Secretary of the Connecticut Prison
Association and Past Commander of Post No. 50, Grand Army of the
Republic. In relating his experiences to me a few days ago he said; "I
found the seven thousand negatives in New York stored in an old garret.
Anthony, the creditor, had drawn prints from some of them and I
purchased all that were in his possession. I also made a deal with him
to allow me to use the prints exclusively. General Albert Ordway of the
Loyal Legion became acquainted with the conditions and, with Colonel
Rand of Boston, he purchased the negatives from Anthony who had a clear
title through court procedure. I met these gentlemen and contracted to
continue my arrangement with them for the exclusive use of the prints. I
finally purchased the Brady negatives from General Ordway and Colonel
Rand with the intention of bringing them before the eyes of all the old
soldiers so that they might see that the lens had forever perpetuated
their struggle for the Union. The Government collection had for nine
years remained comparatively neglected but through ordinary breakage,
lax supervision, and disregard of orders, nearly three hundred of their
negatives were broken or lost. To assist them in securing the prints for
Government Records I loaned my seven thousand negatives to the Navy
Department and shipped them to Washington where they were placed in a
fireproof warehouse at 920 E Street, North West. I did all that was
possible to facilitate the important work."



THE lens here perpetuates the interesting spectacle of an army wagon
train being "parked" and guarded from a raid by the enemy's cavalry.
With a million of the nation's strongest men abandoning production to
wage devastation and destruction the problem of providing them with food
barely sufficient to sustain life was an almost incalculable enigma. The
able-bodied men of the North and the South had turned from the fields
and factories to maintain what both conscientiously believed to be their
rights. Harvests were left to the elements and the wheels of industry
fell into silence. The good women and children at home, aided by men
willing but unable to meet the hardships and exposures of warfare,
worked heroically to hold their families together and to send to their
dear ones at the battle-front whatever comforts came within their humble
power. The supply trains of the great armies numbered thousands of
six-mule teams and when on the march they would stretch out for many
miles. It was in May, in 1863, that one of these wagon trains safely
reached Brandy Station, Virginia. Its journey had been one of imminent
danger as both armies were in dire need of provisions and the capture of
a wagon train was as good fortune as victory in a skirmish. To protect
this train from a desperate dash of the Confederate cavalry it was
"parked" on the outskirts of a forest that protected it from envious
eyes and guarded by the Union lines. One of Mr. Brady's cameras took
this photograph during this critical moment. It shows but one division
of one corps. As there were three divisions in each corps, and there
were many corps in the army, some idea of the immense size of the trains
may be gained by this view. The train succeeded in reaching its
destination at a time of much need.

[Illustration]



ENDEAVORS to reveal these negatives have been futile as far as rank and
file of the army and the public at large are concerned. The Government,
as the years passed, became impressed with the value of this wonderful
record, but has now officially stated with positive finality: "It is
evident that these invaluable negatives are rapidly disappearing and in
order to insure their preservation it is ordered that hereafter
negatives shall not be loaned to private parties for exploitation or to
subserve private interest in any manner."

The genius Brady, in possession of $25,000, which, came from the
Government too late to save his property, entirely lost track of his
collection. Misfortune seemed to follow him and his Government money was
soon exhausted. In speaking of him a few days ago, John N. Stewart, Past
Vice Commander of the Department of Illinois, Grand Army of the
Republic, told me: "I was with the Army of the Potomac as telegraph
operator. I knew that views of battlefields were taken by men with a
cumbersome outfit as compared with the modern field photographer. I have
often wondered what became of their product. I saw Mr. Brady in
Washington, shortly before his death, and I made inquiry of him as to
the whereabouts of his war scenes. I asked him if the negatives were
still in existence and where proofs could be procured. He replied: '_I
do not know!_' The vast collection must possess great value and be of
remarkable historical interest at this late date."


[Illustration: BRADY ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF GETTYSBURG IN JULY 1863--The
smoke of the terrific conflict had hardly cleared away when Brady's
"What is it" wagon rolled onto the bloody "wheat field"--This picture
shows Brady looking toward McPherson's woods on the left of the
Chambersburg Pike at the point near which the Battle of Gettysburg
began]


In talking with Mr. Taylor, in his office at the State Capitol at
Hartford, Connecticut, recently he recalled his acquaintance with Brady,
and said: "I met him frequently. He was a man of artistic appearance and
of very slight physique. I should judge that he was about five feet, six
inches tall. He generally wore a broad-brimmed hat similar to those worn
by the art students in Paris. His hair was long and bushy. The last time
I met him was about twenty-five years after the War and he appeared to
be a man of about sixty-five years of age. Despite his financial
reverses he was still true to his love for art. I told him that I owned
seven thousand of his negatives and he seemed to be pleased. He became
reminiscent and among the things that he told me I especially remember
these words: 'No one will ever know what I went through in securing
those negatives. The world can never appreciate it. It changed the whole
course of my life. By persistence and all the political influence that I
could control I finally secured permission from Stanton, the Secretary
of War, to go onto the battlefields with my cameras. Some of those
negatives nearly cost me my life.'" Mr. Brady told Mr. Taylor of his
difficulty in finding men to operate his cameras.



"PINKERTON" is a name associated with the discovery of crime the world
over. It is a word shrouded in mystery and through it works one of the
most subtle forces on the face of the earth to-day. Sixty-five years ago
an unassuming man fled from Scotland to America. It was charged against
him that he was a chartist. Eight years later he was in Chicago
established in the detection of crime. While the distant rumbles of a
Civil War were warning the nation, he went to Washington and became
closely attached to President Lincoln. When a plot was organized to
assassinate Lincoln in his first days of the presidency, this strange
man discovered the murderous compact. It was he who, in 1861, hurriedly
organized the Secret Service of the National Army and forestalled
conspiracies that threatened to overthrow the Republic. In speaking of
himself he once said: "Now that it is all over I am tempted to reveal
the secret. I have had many intimate friends in the army and in the
government. They all know Major E. J. Allen, but many of them will never
know that their friend, Major Allen and Allan Pinkerton, are one and the
same person." To those who knew Major Allen this picture is dedicated.
It reveals Allan Pinkerton divested of all mystery, father of the great
system that has literally drawn a net around the world into which all
fugitive wrongdoers must eventually fall. Under the guise of Major
Allen, chief of the Secret Service in the Civil War, he was passing
through the camp at Antietam one September day in 1862. He was riding
his favorite horse and carelessly smoking a cigar when one of Mr.
Brady's men called to him to halt a moment while he took this picture.

[Illustration]



BRADY said he always made two exposures of the same scene, sometimes
with a shift of the camera which gave a slight change in the same
general view. He related several interesting incidents of his early
experiences in photography in America. It is generally conceded that Mr.
Brady should be recognized as one of the great figures of the epoch in
which he worked.

It is here my duty to record an unfortunate incident that is not unusual
in the annals of art and literature. Brady's life, which seems to have
been burdened with more ill luck than the ordinary lot of man, found
little relief in its venerable years. Misfortune followed him to the
very threshold of his last hour. He died about eight years ago in New
York, with a few staunch friends, but without money, and without public
recognition for his services to mankind. Since Brady's death some of
those who knew and esteemed him have been interested in making a last
endeavor to bring his work before the world. Mr. Taylor has worked
unceasingly to accomplish this result. The late Daniel S. Lamont,
Secretary of War in President Cleveland's Cabinet, was much interested.
Brigadier-General A. W. Greeley, in supervisory charge of the Government
collection, said: "This collection cost the United States originally the
sum of $27,840, and it is a matter of general regret that these
invaluable reproductions of scenes and faces connected with the late
civil conflict should remain inaccessible to the general public. The
features of most of the permanent actors connected with the War for the
Union have been preserved in these negatives, where also are portrayed
certain physical aspects of the War that are of interest and of historic
value ... graphic representations of the greatest of American, if not of
all, wars."


[Illustration: SECRET SERVICE GUIDE DIRECTING BRADY TO SCENE OF
ACTION--Pointing toward the edge of the woods where General Reynolds was
killed at Gettysburg in July, 1863--Brady carried his cameras onto this
field]


The Government, however, has stated positively that their negatives must
not be exploited for commercial purposes. They are the historic
treasures of the whole people and the Government has justly refused to
establish a dangerous system of "special privilege" by granting
permission for publication to individuals. As the property of the people
the Government negatives are held in sacred trust.

Mr. Edward B. Eaton, the first president of the Connecticut Magazine,
one of the leading historical publications in this country, became
interested in the historical significance of the Brady collection and
conferred with the War Department at Washington about the Brady
negatives. He found that the only possible way to bring the scenes
before the public was through the private collection which not only
includes practically all of the six thousand Government negatives but is
supplemented by a thousand negatives not in the Government collection.

Mr. Johann Olsen of Hartford, who was one of the first operators of the
old wet-plate process used by Brady, personally examined many of the
negatives in storage in Washington and stated that some action should be
taken immediately. He says: "Many of the negatives are undergoing
chemical action which will soon destroy them. Others are in a remarkable
state of preservation. I have found among them some of the finest
specimens of photography that this country has ever seen. The modern
development of the art is placed at a disadvantage when compared with
some of these wonderful negatives. I do not believe that General
Garfield overestimated their value when he said they were worth
$150,000. I do not believe that their value to American History can be
estimated in dollars. I was personally acquainted with one of Brady's
men at the time these pictures were taken and I know something of the
tremendous difficulties in securing them." A few months ago Mr. Eaton
secured a clear title to the seven thousand Brady negatives owned by Mr.
Taylor with a full understanding that he would immediately place the
scenes before the public. The delicate glass plates were fully protected
and removed from Washington to Hartford, where they are today in storage
in a fire-proof vault.



THIS is conceded to be the most characteristic photograph of Lincoln
ever taken. It shows him on the battle-field, towering head and
shoulders above his army officers. It is said that Lincoln once sent for
this photograph and after looking at it for several minutes he remarked
that it was the best full-length picture that the camera had ever
"perpetrated." The original negative is in a good state of preservation.
The greater significance of this picture, however, is the incident which
it perpetuates. There had been unfortunate differences between the
government and the Army of the Potomac. The future of the Union cause
looked dark. A critical state of the disorder had been reached; collapse
seemed imminent. On the first day of October, in 1862, President Lincoln
went to the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac and traversed the
scenes of action, walking over the battlefields of South Mountain,
Crampton's Gap, and Antietam with General McClellan. As Lincoln was
bidding good-bye to McClellan and a group of officers at Antietam on
October 4, 1862, this photograph was taken. Two days later Lincoln
ordered McClellan to cross the Potomac and give battle to the enemy.
Misunderstandings followed, and on the fifth of November, President
Lincoln, with his own hand, wrote the historic order that deposed the
beloved commander of the Potomac, and started controversies which are
still renewed and vigorously argued by army officers and historians. It
is one of the sad incidents of the passing of a hero, who had endeared
himself to his men as have few generals in the annals of war.

[Illustration]



MODERN photographers have experienced some difficulty in securing proofs
from the collodion negatives, due both to the years that the negatives
have been neglected and their inexperience with the peculiar wet-plate
process. Mr. Olsen is still working over them and has succeeded in
stopping the chemical action that threatened to destroy many of them.
Six thousand of the negatives are pronounced to be in as good condition
today as on the day they were taken, nearly a half-century ago.
Accompanying the collection is found an occasional negative that seems
to have been made by Alexander Gardner or Samuel Cooley. Gardner was one
of the photographers employed by Brady, but he later left him and
entered into competition. Cooley was an early photographer who conceived
a plan similar to Brady's, but operated on a very limited scale. Most of
his negatives were taken in South Carolina.

From this remarkable collection, witnessing the darkest days on the
American continent and the first days of modern American photography,
the prints are selected for these pages and are here dedicated to the
American People. Until recent years there has been no mechanical process
by which these negatives could be reproduced for general observation.
The negatives are here accurately presented from the originals, by the
modern half-tone process with only the slightest retouching where
chemical action has made it absolutely necessary.

In selecting these prints it has been the desire of the editor to
present, as nearly as possible, a chronological pictorial record of the
Civil War in the United States. At strategic points where the large
cameras could not be drawn into the conflict, Brady used a smaller and
lighter camera that allowed him to get very close to the field of
action. Many of the most critical moments in the long siege are embodied
in these small negatives. They link the larger pictures into one strong
chain of indisputable evidence. It would require forty volumes to
present the entire collection. This book can be but a kaleidoscopic
vision of the great conflict. Thousands of remarkable scenes must for
the present, at least remain unveiled. That the public may know just
what these negatives conceal, a partial record has been compiled in the
closing pages of this volume.


    It has been estimated that since the beginning of authentic
    history war has destroyed fifteen billions of human lives. I
    have seen the estimate put at twice that number. The estimated
    loss of life by war in the past century is fourteen millions.
    Napoleon's campaigns of twenty years cost Europe six millions of
    lives.

    The Crimean War                             1854         750,000
    The Italian War                             1859          63,000
    Our Civil War, North and South
        (killed and died in other ways)                    1,000,000
    The Prussian-Austrian War                   1866          45,000
    The expeditions to Mexico,
        China, Morocco, etc                                   65,000
    The Franco-German War                       1870         250,000
    The Russo-Turkish War                       1877         225,000
    The Zulu and Afghan Wars                    1879          40,000
    The Chinese-Japanese War                    1894          10,000
    The Spanish-American War                                   5,000
    The Philippine War                  1899   { Americans     5,000
                                               { Filipinos 1,000,000
    The Boer War        (killed and wounded)   { Boers        25,000
                                               { British     100,000
    The Russo-Japanese War                                   450,500
    These are probably all under the actual facts.

                                          BENJAMIN F. TRUEBLOOD,
                                   Secretary American Peace Society.


The drama here revealed by the lens is one of intense realism. In it one
can almost hear the beat of the drum and the call of the bugle. It
throbs with all the passions known to humanity. It brings one face to
face with the madness of battle, the thrill of victory, the broken heart
of defeat. There is in it the loyalty of comradeship, the tenderness of
brotherhood, the pathos of the soldier's last hour; the willingness to
sacrifice, the fidelity to principle, the love of country.

Far be it from the power of these old negatives to bring back the memory
of forgotten dissensions or long-gone contentions. Whatever may have
been the differences that threw a million of America's strongest manhood
into bloody combat, each one offered his life for what he believed to be
_the right_. The American People today are more strongly united then
ever before--North, South, East and West, all are working for the moral,
the intellectual, the industrial and political upbuilding of Our Beloved
Land.

The path of Progress has been blazed by fire. Strong men with strong
purposes have thrown their lives on the altar of civilization that their
children and their children's children might live and work in the light
of a new epoch that found its birth in the agonizing throes of human
sacrifice. From the beginning of all ages the soldier has been, and
always must be, a _mighty man_.

He who will step deliberately into the demon's jaws to defend a
principle or to save his country must be among the greatest of men. His
is the heroic heart to whom the world must look for the dawn of the Age
of Universal Peace. It is his courageous arm that must force the world
to halt. The citizenship of the future must be moulded and dominated by
the men with the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of Justice and
such men are soldiers, whether it be in War or Peace.

There is a longing in the hearts of men, and especially those who have
felt the ravages of battle, for the day when there shall be no more War;
when Force will be dethroned and Reason will rule triumphant. The Great
Washington, who led the conflict for our National Independence, longed
for the epoch of Peace. "My first wish," he exclaimed, "is to see this
plague to mankind banished from the earth."

The mission of these pages is one of Peace--that all may look upon the
horrors of War and pledge their manhood to "Peace on Earth, Good Will
toward Men!"



"WAR is hell!" The daring Sherman's familiar truth is here witnessed
with all its horrors. War _is hell_, and _this is war_! If it were not
for the service that this negative should do for the great cause of the
world's Peace, this picture, which has lain in a vault in Washington for
an epoch, would never be exposed to public view. Its very gruesomeness
is a plea to men to lay down arms. Its ghastliness is an admonition to
the coming generations. It is a silent prayer for universal brotherhood.
The negative was taken after the third day's battle at Gettysburg. The
din of the batteries had died away. The clash of arms had ceased. The
tumult of men was hushed. The clouds of smoke had lifted and the morning
sun engraved on the glass plate this mute witness of the tragedy that
had made history. It was the nation's holiday--the Fourth of July in
1863. The camera was taken into the wheat-field near the extreme left of
the Union line. The heroes had been dead about nineteen hours. It will
be observed that their bodies are already much bloated by exposure to
the sun. These men were killed on July 3, 1863, by one discharge of
"canister" from a Confederate cannon which they were attempting to
capture. Tin cans were filled with small balls about the size of marbles
and when the cannon was fired the force of the discharge burst open the
can, and the shower of canister balls swept everything before it. When
this photograph was taken a detail had already passed over the field,
and gathered the guns and accoutrements of the dead and wounded. Shoes,
cartridge belts and canteens have been removed from these dead heroes as
it was frequently necessary to appropriate them to relieve the needs of
the living soldiers. From diamond at extreme right of picture these men
are identified as belonging to the second division of third army corps.

[Illustration]



IN the conflicts within the lifetime of men now living, more than three
billions of dollars sterling have been thrown into the cannon's mouth,
and nearly five millions of human lives have fallen martyrs to the
battlefield. In the United States of America, a government founded on
the Brotherhood of Man, the greatest expenditure since the beginning of
the Republic has been for bloodshed, over six billions for War, nearly
two billions for navy, and about three and one-half billions for
pensions--more than eleven billions out of a total of something over
nineteen billions of dollars. In the last half century the population of
the world has doubled; its indebtedness, chiefly for war purposes, has
quadrupled. It was but eight billions fifty years ago; it is thirty-two
billions today.

America has never been a war-seeking nation. Its one desire has been to
"live and let live." When once aroused, however, it is the greatest
fighting force on the face of the globe. It is in this peace-loving land
that civilization witnessed the most terrible and heart-rending struggle
that ever befell men of the same blood. "Men speaking the same language,
living for eighty-four years under the same flag, stood as enemies in
deadly combat. Brother fighting against brother; father against son;
mothers praying for their boys--one in the uniform of blue, and the
other wearing the gray; and churches of the same faith appealing to God,
each for the other's overthrow."

There were 2,841,906 men and boys sworn into the defence of their
country during the Civil War in the United States. The extreme youth of
these patriots is one of the most remarkable records in the annals of
the world's warfare. The average age of the soldier in the army and navy
was about nineteen years. Some of them followed the marching armies on
the impulse of the moment; most of them were enlisted with the consent
of their parents or guardians. Thousands of them never returned home;
thousands more came back to the pursuits of Peace and have contributed
for nearly a half century to the Good Citizenship of the Republic. Today
they are gray-haired patriarchs. One by one they are stepping from the
ranks to answer the call to the Greater Army from which no soldier has
ever returned. This record has been compiled for this volume from an
authoritative source. The men who re-enlisted are counted twice as there
is no practical way to estimate the number of individual persons:

    682,117 were over 21 years of age;
    1,159,789 were 21 years old and under;
    1,151,438 were 18 years old and under;
    844,891 were 17 years old and under;
    231,051 were 16 years old and under;
    104,987 were 15 years old and under;
    1,523 were 14 years old and under;
    300 were 13 years old and under;
    278 were 12 years old and under.

When the Great Struggle began, the United States was the home of less
than thirty-two millions of people. Today it has passed eighty millions
and the peoples from all the nations of the earth are flooding into our
open gates to the extent of more than a million a year. A new community
of more than three thousand inhabitants could be founded every day from
the men, women and children who disembark from the sea of ships charted
to the American shores. There are among us today more than forty-eight
millions who have been born here or immigrated into this country since
the beginning of the Civil War. These people have no personal knowledge
of it and their information is gathered from the narrations of others.
These Brady negatives will come as a revelation to them and give a truer
understanding of the meaning of it all. The good service they may do for
the nation in this one respect cannot be overestimated.

With thirty-two millions of people aroused by an overpowering impulse
that dared them to follow the dictates of conscience by pledging their
loyalty to the states they loved--whether it be under Southern suns or
Northern snows--it is almost beyond comprehension that Brady came out of
the chaos with even one photographic record. While his extensive
operations could not begin until system and organization were
accomplished, he did secure many negatives in 1861.

Hardly had the news of the first gun passed around the globe when a half
million men were offering their services to their country. Loyal
Massachusetts was the first to march her strong and willing sons to the
protection of the Government. The shrill notes of the fife sounded
throughout the land and battle-scarred old Europe beheld in amazement
the marshalling of great armies from a nation of volunteer patriots
wholly inexperienced in military discipline--a miracle in the eyes of
older civilization that had been drenched in the blood of centuries.

It was the simultaneous uprising of a Great People. The first shot from
South Carolina transformed Virginia, the beloved mother of presidents,
into a battleground. The streets of Baltimore became a scene of riot.
The guns of the navy boomed on the North Carolina coast. The men of the
West moved on through Missouri, blazing their way with shot and shell.
Through Kentucky and Tennessee the reign of fire swept on until it
re-echoed from Florida on the gulf to the wilderness of New Mexico and
the borderline of Texas.

The American Republic was in the clutches of terrific conflict and in
the first twelve months nearly a million and a quarter of its manhood
was fighting for the National Flag. There was no turning from the
struggle. It must be waged to its deadliest end. From this moment, for
four dreadful years, fighting was taking place somewhere along the line
every day and more than seven thousand battles and skirmishes were
fought on land and sea.

Nearly three-fourths of the men who stood in the Union ranks in the
Civil War were native-born Americans. The others were the best and
bravest blood of fellow-nations.



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT FORT SUMTER IN 1861]

"THEY have fired on Fort Sumter!" These are the words that rang across
the continent on the morning of the twelfth of April, in 1861, and the
echo was heard around the world. The shot that began one of the
fiercest conflicts that civilization has ever seen was fired just
before sunrise at four in the morning. Special editions of newspapers
heralded the tidings through the land. Thousands of excited men
crowded the streets. Trade was suspended. Night and day the people
thronged the thoroughfares, eager to hear the latest word from the scene
of action. Friday and Saturday were the most anxious days that the
American people have ever experienced. When the news came on Sunday
morning that Major Robert Anderson had evacuated the fort with flags
flying and drums beating "Yankee Doodle," the North was electrified with
patriotism. The stars and stripes were thrown to the breeze from spires
of churches, windows of residences, railway stations and public
buildings. The fife and drum were heard in the streets. Recruiting
offices were opened on public squares. Men left their business and
stepped into the ranks. A few days later, when the brave defenders of
Fort Sumter reached New York, the air was alive with floating banners.
Flowers, fruits and delicacies were showered upon the one hundred and
twenty-nine courageous men who had so gallantly withstood the onslaught
of six thousand. Crowds seized the heroes and carried them through the
streets on their shoulders. The South was mad with victory. It was
believed that its independence had been already gained. Several days
after the bombardment this picture was secured of the historic fort in
South Carolina, about which centered the beginning of a great war. It
was taken in four sections and this is a panoramic view of them all. The
photograph did not fall into the possession of the Government, but was
held for many years by a Confederate naval officer, Daniel Ellis,
commander of the twenty-gun ram "Chicora" and at one time in command of
Fort Sumter. It is now in possession of James W. Eldridge of Hartford.
It corrects the erroneous impression that the fort was demolished in
1861. It stood the bombardment with but slight damage, other than a few
holes knocked in the masonry as this picture testifies. In saluting the
American flag before the evacuation on April 15, Private Daniel Hough
was killed and three men wounded by the premature explosion of one of
their own guns.



"JOHN BROWN'S body lies a-mouldering in the grave; his soul is marching
on!" In every public meeting, through village and town, along the lines
of recruits marching to the front, around the army campfires, this song
became the battle-cry. It had been but three years since John Brown,
with seventeen whites and five negroes, seized the United States Arsenal
at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and began the freeing of slaves. It
required eighteen hours and 1,500 militia and marines to subdue the
ardent abolitionist. He took refuge in the armory engine house. The
doors were battered down. Eight of the insurgents were killed. Brown,
with three whites and a half dozen negroes, was captured and hanged. The
Confederates planned its capture, but upon their approach on the
eighteenth of April, in 1861, three days after the firing on Fort
Sumter, they found only the burning arsenal. They held the coveted
position with 6,500 men, but fearing the attack of 20,000 Unionists,
deserted it. It was held by the Union troops until 1862, when, on the
fifteenth of September, Stonewall Jackson bombarded the town and forced
its surrender. The Union loss was 80 killed, 120 wounded, 11,583
captured. The Confederate loss was 500. In this engagement were the
brave boys of the 12th New York State Militia; 39th, 111th, 115th, 125th
and 126th New York; 32nd, 60th and 87th Ohio; 9th Vermont; 65th
Illinois; 1st and 3rd Maryland "Home Brigade;" 15th Indiana Volunteers;
Phillips' Battery; 5th New York; Graham's, Pott's and Rigby's Batteries;
8th New York; 12th Illinois, and 1st Maryland Cavalry. It was during
these days that the Army of the Potomac engaged the Confederate forces
in bloody conflict at Turner's and Crampton's Gap, South Mountain,
Maryland, leaving Harper's Ferry again in the hands of the Union.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT HARPER'S FERRY]



THERE is not a fleet on the seas that can withstand a modern battery if
kept under fire by proper obstructions. Modern sea-coast artillery can
destroy a vessel at a single shot. The watchdog that guarded the
waterway to the National Capital in the Civil War was Fortress Monroe.
The old stone fort, partially protected by masses of earth that
sheltered it from the view and fire of the assailant, challenged the
ugliest iron-clads to pass through Hampton Roads. Fortress Monroe early
became the base of operations and under its protection volunteer
regiments were mobilized. When the 2nd New York Volunteers reached the
fort, about six weeks after the firing on Fort Sumter, the 4th
Massachusetts Volunteers had come to the assistance of the regular
garrison of four companies of artillery on duty day and night over their
guns. Something of the conditions may be understood by the statement of
an officer who says that his men had to appear on parade with blankets
wrapped about them to conceal a lack of proper garments, and sometimes
stood sentinel with naked feet and almost naked bodies. The volunteers
arrived faster than provisions could be furnished and there was a
scarcity of food. So great was the difficulty in procuring small arms
that some of the soldiers were not really fitted for war during the year
of 1861. The Government operations were centered around Fortress Monroe
and President Lincoln personally visited the headquarters to ascertain
the actual conditions. Brady was admitted behind the parapets with his
camera and secured this photograph of one of the heaviest guns in the
great fortification.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT FORTRESS MONROE]



[Illustration]

TO feed the millions of fighting men in both armies during the years
1861 to 1865, was an enigma equalled only by the problem of ammunition.
After the diets of hardtack on the long marches there is no memory
dearer to the heart of the old veteran than a good, old-fashioned
"square meal" from the log-cabin kitchen in the camp. This is a typical
scene of one of these winter camps. They were substantially built of
logs, chinked in with mud and provided on one end with a generous mud
chimney and fireplace. The most "palatial" afforded a door and a window.
Roaring fires burned on the hearths. With the arrival of the soldiers,
knapsacks and traps were unpacked. The canteen was hung on its proper
peg. The musket found its place on the wall. The old frying pan and tin
cup were hung near the fire. There was to be a real "old home feast."
The soldiers crowded around the sutler's tent dickering over canned
goods and other luxuries which cost perhaps a half-month's pay. The log
settlement was all astir. Smoke issued from the mud chimneys. Crackling
fires and savory odors lightened the hearts of the warriors and the
community of huts rang with jovialty, laughter and song. Stories of the
conflict were told as the soldiers revelled over the hot and hearty meal
and not until the late hours did the tired comrades wrap themselves in
their blankets and fall onto their beds of pine needles or hard board
bunks.

THE charge of the cavalry is an intense moment on the battlefield. At
the time of the Civil War nothing was known of the snap-shot process in
photography and Brady tried frequently throughout the four years to
secure negatives of the cavalry. It seems to have been an impossibility
under the long "time exposure process." He did, however, succeed in
securing negatives of horses. Frequent opportunity to try to secure a
photograph of the cavalry, is proven by the fact that there were 3,266
troops, or more than 272 regiments, in defense of the Government. This
picture is found in Brady's collection and shows the cavalry depot at
Giesboro Point, Maryland, just outside of Washington. At the beginning
of the war the mounted men were used as scouts, orderlies, and in
outpost duty. General "Joe" Hooker finally turned a multitude of
detachments into a compact army corps of 12,000 horsemen. The gallant
horseman, "Phil" Sheridan, under instructions from General Grant,
organized three divisions of 5,000 mounted men, each armed with
repeating carbines and sabers. It was with this force that Sheridan met
the Confederate cavalry at Yellow Tavern, near Richmond, and
demonstrated the importance of mounted troops by great military powers.
One of the most magnificent scenes in the war was when 10,000 horsemen
moved out on the Telegraph Road leading from Fredericksburg to Richmond,
and the column, as it stood in "fours," well closed up, was thirteen
miles long and required four hours to pass a given point.

[Illustration]



"CAPTURE the National Capital, throw the city into confusion and terror
by conflagration, seize the President and his Cabinet, and secure
control of the Government." This was the first cry of the Confederacy.
Thousands of volunteers were moving toward the city in answer to the
call for men to save the Nation. Orders were issued to hold back the
enemy from crossing the bridges that entered Washington. Two batteries
were thrown up at the east end of the Upper, or Chain Bridge, and a
heavy two-leaved gate covered with iron plates pierced for musketry, was
constructed at the center of the bridge. Blockhouses at Arlington
Heights and the battery at Georgetown Heights, guarded the Aqueduct
Bridge. The largest approach to Washington was the famous Long Bridge, a
mile in length, and connecting the National Capital with Alexandria,
Virginia, the gateway to the Confederacy. Three earthen forts commanded
its entrance. All soldiers of the Army of the Potomac remember Long
Bridge. It was over this structure that a hundred thousand men passed in
defense of their country, many of them never to recross it. This was one
of the strategic points in the first days of the war and consequently
one of the first pictures taken by Brady, with its sentinel on duty and
the sergeant of the guard ready to examine the pass. No man ever crossed
Long Bridge without this written oath: "It is understood that the within
named and subscriber accepts this pass on his word of honor that he is
and will be ever loyal to the United States; and if hereafter found in
arms against the Union, or in any way aiding her enemies, the penalty
will be death."

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT LONG BRIDGE ENTRANCE TO WASHINGTON]



THERE is nothing impossible to any army in time of war. Bridges are
thrown across rivers in a night; roads are constructed as the line
advances; telegraph wires are uncoiled in the wake of the moving
regiments. To protect from a delay that might mean defeat, the army
frequently carried its own "bridges" with it. These army or pontoon
bridges consisted of boats over which planks were thrown to span the
waterways. This view shows two of the boat's wheels ready for the march.
Each pontoon wagon is drawn by six mules. These pontoons were always
getting stuck in the mud, and the soldiers, struggling along under their
own burdens, were obliged to haul on the drag ropes, and raise the
blockade. Probably no soldier will see this picture without being
reminded of the time when he helped to pull these pontoons out of the
mud, and comforted himself by _shouting at the mules_. A view is also
shown of a pontoon bridge across the James River ready for the approach
of the army. It was often necessary to establish an immediate telegraph
service between different points in the lines. This photograph shows one
of the characteristic field telegraph stations. An old piece of canvas
stretched over some rails forms the telegrapher's office, and a
"hardtack" box is his telegraph table; but from such a rude station
messages were often sent which involved the lives of hundreds and
thousands of soldiers. The building of corduroy roads to allow
ammunition and provision trains to pass on their journeys was of utmost
importance. An hour's delay might throw them into the hands of the
enemy. Many disasters were averted by the ingenuity of the engineers'
corps.

[Illustration: PONTOON BOATS ON WHEELS]

[Illustration: BUILDING A CORDUROY ROAD]

[Illustration: FIELD TELEGRAPH STATION IN OPERATION]

[Illustration: PONTOON BRIDGE ACROSS JAMES RIVER]



"IF any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the
spot!" The order rang from town to town. Old Glory waved in the breeze
defiantly. "The flag of the Confederacy will be hoisted over Washington
within sixty days," came the retort from the far South. "Only over our
dead bodies," replied the men of the North. The National Government
discovered that a conspiracy had been in operation to denude its
armories and weaken its defenses. Political influences had secretly
disarmed the incoming administration, scattering the regular army in
helpless and hopeless positions far from the seat of the Government and
beyond its call in an emergency. Northern forts had been dismantled and
the munitions from Northern arsenals had been dispatched to Southern
vantage grounds to be used in case of necessity. The treasury had been
depleted and the Government was on the verge of bankruptcy. Eleven of
the historic old states of the Union had withdrawn and formed a new
republic, the "Confederate States of America." These were the conditions
that confronted Lincoln in his first days of the Presidency. Plots were
rampant to take his life. His steps were shadowed by Secret Service
detectives to safeguard him against assassins, and he was practically
held a prisoner in the White House. In further protection the defenses
around the city were strengthened. From every hillside grim guns turned
their deep mouths into the valleys until a chain of fortifications made
the city impregnable. Brady secured permission to take his cameras into
these fortifications. This is the best negative which he secured. It is
taken behind the breastworks at Fort Lincoln, near Washington.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT FORT LINCOLN]



THE first serious collision of the two great armies of divided Americans
took place at Bull Run, in Virginia, on the twenty-first of July, in
1861. The Government had confined its operations almost wholly to the
protection of Washington, and the public demand for more aggressive
action was loud and alarming. The Confederate pickets had become so
confident that they advanced within sight of the National Capital.
Accusations were strong against the seeming desire of the Government to
evade the enemy. Charges of deliberate delay and cowardice came from the
North. "On to Richmond," the stronghold of the Confederacy, was the
demand. So great became the public clamor that, despite the judgment of
military authorities, 29,000 Federals under McDowell advanced against
the 32,000 Confederates under Beauregard, driving them back only to be
repulsed, after one of the hardest and strangest combats that military
history has ever recorded. The Union ranks were so demoralized that they
retreated without orders and straggled back to Washington, although a
strong stand might have turned the tide of battle. The Union loss was
481 killed; 2,471 wounded and missing, besides 27 cannon and 4,000
muskets. The Confederate loss was 378 killed; 1,489 wounded and missing.
Brady's cameras were soon on the field. He did not reach it in time,
however, to secure pictures of the fighting armies. One of his negatives
shows the historic stream of Bull Run along which the battle occurred.
Another negative shows the field over which the hardest fighting took
place. A third negative is that of Sudley Church, which was the main
hospital after the conflict. It was here that, after a long detour, the
Union forces found a vulnerable point and crossed to meet the enemy.
Brady also secured a negative of Fairfax Court House, one of the
outposts of the Confederacy, in this campaign.

[Illustration: FAIRFAX COURT HOUSE IN 1861]

[Illustration: STREAM OF BULL RUN IN 1861]

[Illustration: SUDLEY'S CHURCH AND FORD AT BULL RUN]

[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD OF BULL RUN IN 1861]



THE man behind the gun risks his life on his faith in the ammunition
train to keep him supplied with powder and shell. An old warrior
estimates that an army of 60,000 men, comprising a fair average of
infantry, cavalry, artillery and engineers must be provided with no less
than 18,000,000 ball cartridges for small arms, rifles, muskets,
carbines and pistols for six months' operation. In the field an infantry
soldier usually carries about sixty rounds. The lives of the men depend
upon the promptness of the ammunition trains. To supply these 60,000 men
requires one thousand ammunition wagons and 3,600 horses. The wagon
constructed for this service will carry 20,000 rounds of small-arm
munition. The cartridges are packed in boxes and the wagon is generally
drawn by four to six horses or mules. Several wagons are organized into
an "equipment," moving under the charge of an artillery, and there are
several such "equipments" for an army of this magnitude, one for each
division of infantry, a small portion for the cavalry, and the rest in
reserve. Early in the Civil War a chemist suggested to General McClellan
that he could throw shells from a mortar that would discharge streams of
fire "most fearfully in all directions." McClellan replied: "Such means
of destruction are hardly within the category of civilized warfare. I
could not recommend their employment until we have exhausted the
ordinary means of warfare." The Government preferred to depend largely
upon these silent, ghost-like wagons, with their deadly loads of
millions of cartridges, pressing toward the battle lines throughout the
conflict. This picture shows an ammunition train of the Third Division
Cavalry Corps in motion with the army encamped on the distant hills. It
is one of Brady's best negatives.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS AMMUNITION TRAINS WERE MOVING]



SLAVE pens were common institutions in the days of negro bondage in
America. The system had developed from the early days of colonization
and was for many generations a legitimate occupation throughout the
country. So many rumors, false and true, were told of the "pens" that
Brady schemed to secure photographs of some of them. Early in 1861 he
succeeded in gaining entrance to one of the typical institutions in
Alexandria, Virginia. The results are here shown. The cell rooms with
their iron-barred doors and small cage windows relate their own story.
While they were installed by the larger slave traders they were wholly
unknown on most of the old Southern plantations. A picture is also here
shown of the exterior of the "slave pen" kept at Alexandria with the
inscription over the door, "Price, Birch & Co., Dealers in Slaves." This
shows the proportions to which the system had grown in the greatest
republic in the world. Enormous fortunes were being accumulated by some
dealers who had thrown aside sentiment and humanity and were herding
black men for the market. With the outbreak of the war many of the
slaves sought the protection of the Union Army, while others, who had
kind masters, were willing to remain on the plantations. Mr. Brady
secured several photographs of these typical slave groups. The one here
shown is a party of "contrabands" that had fled to the Union lines.
Another familiar scene in 1861 was the pilgrimage of poor whites to the
Union ranks. When the troops passed through many of the mountain
villages, these frightened white sympathizers would hastily gather their
scanty belongings, pile them onto an old wagon, desert their homes and
follow the army, to be passed on from line to line until they reached
the North.

[Illustration: IRON-BARRED CELLS IN AN OLD SLAVE PEN]

[Illustration: SLAVE DEALERS' HEADQUARTERS IN ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA]

[Illustration: REFUGEES LEAVING THE OLD HOMESTEAD]

[Illustration: CONTRABANDS IN WAKE OF THE UNION ARMY]



ONE of the greatest secret forces in the Civil War was the electric
telegraph. Wires were uncoiled as the army moved on its march toward the
enemy and over them passed the hurried words that frequently saved
hundreds and thousands of lives. While England was the first to
experiment with the new science on the battlefield, the war in America
demonstrated its permanent importance in the maneuvers of armies. Brady
was much interested in the development of telegraphy as a factor in war
and never missed any opportunity to take a photograph of the field
telegraph corps as they passed him on marches. This picture shows one of
the construction corps in operation. The wires were laid as each column
advanced, keeping the General in command fully informed of every
movement and enabling him to communicate from his headquarters in the
rear of the army with his officers in charge of the wings. The military
construction corps laid and took up these wires as fast as an infantry
regiment marches. An instant's intelligence may cause a charge, a flank
or a retreat. By connecting with the semi-permanent lines strung through
woods and fields, into which the enemy would have little reason to
venture unless aroused by suspicion, the commander on the field is kept
informed of the transportation of troops and supplies and the approach
of reinforcements. It was also the duty of the military construction
corps to seize all wires discovered by them and to utilize them for
their own army or tear them down. Constant watch is kept for these
secret lines. Great care must also be taken that false messages do not
pass over them. Their destruction is generally left to the cavalry. The
heavy construction wagons, carrying many miles of telegraph wire in
coils, were drawn by four horses.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS MILITARY TELEGRAPH WAS BEING STRUNG]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS FIELD TELEGRAPH WAGON WAS SENDING
MESSAGE]

TELEGRAPH stations in wagons were not uncommon sights to the soldiers
between the years of 1861 to 1865. Great responsibility rested upon the
operators who halted alongside the road to send a message back to
headquarters that might change the whole course of events and defeat
into victory. The operators in the Civil War stood by their posts like
sentinels. The confidential communications of commanders and the
movements of the morrow were intrusted with them, but not in a single
instance is one known to have proven false to that trust. It was part of
the duty of the telegraph service to take messages from the scouts sent
out to ascertain the resources of the country, the advantages of certain
routes, and the general lay of the land. Every click of the instrument
transmitted secrets upon which might depend the rise or fall of the
nation. These field telegraph wagons, drawn by horses, carried the
instruments and batteries which had but recently been invented by an
American scientist, and by which an electric spark shot messages through
wire in the fraction of a second's time. The War of 1861 proved for all
time the advantages of this new science. It left the signal corps to
attend to only short-range communications and lightened the duties of
mounted orderlies, conveying messages in a flash of electricity that had
hitherto taken a day's reckless riding on horseback. While it saved the
orderlies from many hazardous journeys there were many more where the
telegraph wires did not penetrate and dependence was still placed on the
dashing mounted messenger. The chief service of the electric telegraph
was to maintain communication between corps and divisions and
headquarters. It was also utilized in some of the brilliant strokes of
the Secret Service in forestalling deep-laid plots.



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN AN ARSENAL AT WASHINGTON]

THE downfall of Washington in the first days of the war would have meant
the downfall of the Republic. What changes this would have wrought in
the history of the Western Continent can never be known. Its
probabilities were such that the Treasury Building was guarded by
howitzers, the Halls of Congress were occupied by soldiers, the Capitol
building became a garrisoned citadel. Lincoln was virtually imprisoned
by guards in the White House, and the streets were patrolled by armed
men. Troops were quartered in the Patent Building. The basement
galleries of the Capitol were converted into store-rooms for barrels of
pork, beef and rations for a long siege. The vaults under the broad
terrace on the western front were turned into bakeries where sixteen
thousand loaves of bread were baked every day. The chimneys of the ovens
pierced the terrace and smoke poured out in dense black clouds like a
smoldering volcano. Ammunition and artillery were held in readiness to
answer a moment's call. So intense was the excitement that one of the
generals in command at the Government arsenal exclaimed: "We are now in
such a state that a dog-fight might cause the gutters of the Capital to
run with blood." There was the clank of cavalry on the pavements, the
tramp, tramp of regiments of men whose polished muskets flashed in the
sunlight as they moved over Long Bridge. Cavalcades of teams and
white-topped army wagons carrying provisions, munitions of war and
baggage followed in weird procession. Brady was then in Washington
negotiating with the Government and the Secret Service for permission to
follow the armies with his cameras. This is one of the pictures that he
took at that time, showing the artillery and cannon-balls parked at the
National Capital.



NO one, except the men who did it, can ever know the tremendous
difficulties overcome in preparing an army for warfare. The
transformation of a nation of peaceful home-lovers to a battle-thirsty,
fighting populace is almost beyond human understanding. To arm them
instantly with the implements of war is a problem hardly conceivable.
When the first guns of the Civil War were belching their death-fire, all
the man-killing weapons known to civilization were being hurried to the
front. There were flint and percussion and long-range muskets and
rifles; bayonets and cavalry sabers; field and siege cannon; mortars and
sea-coast howitzers; projectiles, shot, shell, grape and canister;
powder, balls, strap and buckshot; minie balls and percussion caps;
fuses, wads and grenades; columbiads and navy carronades; lances,
pistols and revolvers; heavy ordnance and carriages. Europe was called
upon to send its explosives across the sea. Caves were opened for the
mining of nitre, lead and sulphur. Factories were run day and night for
the manufacture of saltpeter. On land and sea the greatest activity
prevailed. This photograph was taken on the twenty-sixth day of August
in 1861, when the ammunition schooners, accompanying the fleet from
Fortress Monroe on the expedition to Fort Hatteras, N. C., were passing
through Hampton Roads. The fleet, sailing under sealed orders, in
command of Flag Officer Silas H. Stringham, arrived before sunset. Two
days later, in conjunction with the troops of the 9th, 20th, and 99th
New York Volunteers, under General Benjamin F. Butler, it forced the
surrender of Fort Hatteras without the loss of a man and took seven
hundred prisoners. The Confederates lost about fifty killed and wounded.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN HAMPTON ROADS--AMMUNITION SCHOONERS]



SPIES lived in the White House according to the rumors in 1861, and
every council of the Administration was reported to the enemy. Whether
this is true or not has never been verified, but by some mysterious
channel the Administration's plans invariably fell into the hands of the
Confederates. One of the first instances of this is the expedition to
Port Royal on the South Carolina coast. This was one of the finest
harbors along the South Atlantic and it was planned to take it from the
Confederates and use it as a base for future Union operations. The most
careful preparations were laid for two months. On the twenty-ninth of
October, in 1861, fifty vessels under sealed orders with secret
destination sailed from Hampton Roads. The fleet had hardly left the
range of Fortress Monroe when the full details of its sealed orders
reached the Confederates at Port Royal. Off Cape Hatteras it ran into a
severe gale; one transport was completely wrecked, with a loss of seven
lives; another transport threw over her cargo; a storeship went down in
the storm, and a gunboat was saved only by throwing her broadside
battery into the sea. The fleet was so scattered that when the storm
cleared there was only a single gunboat in sight of the flagship.
Undismayed by the misfortune, within a few hours the vessels that had
withstood the tremendous gale were moving on to Port Royal. Several
frigates that had been blockading Charleston Harbor joined them and on
the morning of the seventh of November the attack was made on Fort
Walker at Hilton Head and Fort Beauregard on St. Helena Island. The guns
of the fleet wrought dreadful havoc. The stream of fire was more than
the entrenched men had expected or could endure. The troops fled across
Hilton Head in panic from Fort Walker. When the commander at Fort
Beauregard looked upon the fleeing soldiers he abandoned his position
and joined the retreat. A flag of truce was sent ashore but there was no
one to receive it, and soon after two o'clock the National colors were
floating over the first permanent foothold of the Government in South
Carolina, a Confederate stronghold.

[Illustration: GUN IN BATTERY AT PORT ROYAL, S. C., 1861]

[Illustration: COOSAW FERRY, PORT ROYAL ISLAND, S. C.]

[Illustration: FORT BEAUREGARD, BAY POINT, S. C., 1861]

[Illustration: GENERAL ISAAC I. STEVENS' STAFF, BEAUFORT, S. C.]



THE American people, in their one hundred and twenty years of "Life,
Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness," have had but three wars with the
outside world. They have enjoyed a greater immunity from armed encounter
than any of their neighbors. Other than the grievous struggle which we
have had with our own people, it may be fairly said that we have been
blessed by Peace.

As if by magic the hundreds of thousands of volunteers were armed with
the munitions of War and marched to the battle-front. The great Lincoln,
under the constitutional provisions, was commander-in-chief of the
citizen armies, and worked in conjunction with his War Department at
Washington. The military genius of a trained fighter was needed and from
the outbreak of the War until November 6, 1861, Brevet-Lieutenant
Winfield Scott was in command; then came Major-General George B.
McClellan, a man of great caution, until March 11, 1862. From that time
until July 12, 1862, the Government was without a general commander
until Major-General Henry W. Halleck took control and continued till
March 12, 1864. It was then that Lieutenant-General Ulysses S. Grant was
called upon to end the struggle. Under these military leaders the great
fighting force of volunteers was organized into armies. The first of
these patriot legions was the Army of the Potomac.

Army of the Potomac was called into existence in July, 1861, and was
organized by Major-General George B. McClellan, its first commander;
November 5, 1862, Major-General A. E. Burnside took command of it;
January 25, 1863, Major-General Joe Hooker was placed in command, and
June 27, 1863, Major-General George G. Meade succeeded him.

Army of Virginia was organized August 12, 1862. The forces under
Major-Generals Fremont, Banks, and McDowell, including the troops then
under Brigadier-General Sturgis at Washington, were consolidated under
the command of Major-General John Pope; and in the first part of
September, 1862, the troops forming this army were transferred to other
organizations, and the army as such discontinued.

Army of the Ohio became a power, November 9, 1861. General Don Carlos
Buell assumed command of the Department of the Ohio. The troops serving
in this department were organized by him as the Army of the Ohio,
General Buell remaining in command until October 30, 1862, when he was
succeeded by General W. S. Rosecranz. This Army of the Ohio became, at
the same time, the Army of the Cumberland. A new Department of the Ohio
having been created, Major-General H. G. Wright was assigned to the
command thereof; he was succeeded by Major-General Burnside, who was
relieved by Major-General J. G. Foster of the command of the Department
and Army. Major-General J. M. Schofield took command January 28, 1864,
and January 17, 1865, the Department was merged into the Department of
the Cumberland.

Army of the Cumberland developed from the Army of the Ohio, commanded by
General Don Carlos Buell, October 24, 1862, and was placed under the
command of Major-General W. S. Rosecranz; it was also organized at the
same time as the Fourteenth Corps. In January, 1863, it was divided into
three corps, the Fourteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-first; in September,
1863, the Twentieth and Twenty-first Corps were consolidated into the
Fourth Corps. October, 1863, General George H. Thomas took command of
the army, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were added to it. In
January, 1864, the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were consolidated and
known as the Twentieth Corps.

Army of the Tennessee was originally the Army of the District of Western
Tennessee, fighting as such at Shiloh, Tennessee. It became the Army of
the Tennessee upon the concentration of troops at Pittsburg Landing,
under General Halleck; and when the Department of the Tennessee was
formed, October 16, 1862, the troops serving therein were placed under
the command of Major-General U. S. Grant. October 24, 1862, the troops
in this Department were organized as the Thirteenth Corps; December 18,
1862, they were divided into the Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Corps. October 27, 1863, Major-General William T. Sherman
was appointed to the command of this army; March 12, 1864, Major-General
J. B. McPherson succeeded him; July 30, 1864, McPherson having been
killed, Major-General O. O. Howard was placed in command, and May 19,
1865, Major-General John A. Logan succeeded him.

Army of the Mississippi began operations on the Mississippi River in
Spring, 1862; before Corinth, Mississippi, in May, 1862; Iuka and
Corinth, Mississippi, in September and October, 1862.

Army of the Gulf operated at Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, May, June,
and July, 1863.

Army of the James consisted of the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps and
Cavalry, Major-General Butler commanding and operating in conjunction
with Army of the Potomac.

Army of West Virginia was active at Cloyd's Mountain, May 9 and 10,
1864.

Army of the Middle Military Division operated at Opepuan and Cedar
Creek, September and October, 1864.

During the year 1862, Brady's men followed these legions. Both armies
were maneuvering to strike a decisive blow at the National Capital of
either foe--one aiming at Washington and the other at Richmond. The
scenes enacted in these campaigns are remarkable in military strategy,
and Brady's men succeeded in perpetuating nearly every important event.

Cameras were also hurried to the far South and West where great leaders
with great soldiers were doing great things. Several of these cameras
arrived in time to bear witness to the bravery of the men of the
Mississippi, who were waging battle along the greatest waterway in North
America--the stronghold of the Confederacy and the control of the inland
commerce of the Continent.



THE first naval conflicts of the Civil War took place early in 1862. On
the ninth of March, the revolving turret iron-clad "Monitor" met the
enormous Confederate ram, "Merrimac," in Hampton Roads. Both powerful
vessels forced the attack and stood under the fiercest bombardment only
to again invite assault. After four hours of the nerviest fighting that
the seas had ever known, the adversaries withdrew, undefeated, to repair
their respective damages. Brady secured several photographs of these
vessels immediately after the engagement. One of them on this page shows
part of the deck and turret of the "Monitor;" near the port-hole can be
seen the dents made by the heavy steel-pointed shot from the guns of the
"Merrimac." While the news of this conflict was amazing even old Europe,
naval operations along the American coast were creating consternation.
On the first anniversary of the Fall of Fort Sumter the National navy,
in an attempt to sweep the Confederates from the Atlantic coast,
bombarded Fort Pulaski in Georgia. All day long the bombardment was
terrific and firing did not cease until nightfall, when five of the guns
of the fortress were silent. All night long four of Gillmore's guns
fired at intervals of fifteen or twenty minutes and at daybreak the
onslaught became furious. At two in the afternoon a white flag appeared
from its walls. The spoils of victory were the fort, forty-seven heavy
guns, a large supply of fixed ammunition, forty thousand pounds of gun
powder, a large quantity of commissary stores; three hundred prisoners
and the port of Savannah was sealed against blockade runners--all this
with the loss of but one killed on each side. Brady seems to have had
unusual foresight. He was nearly always in the right place at the right
time and these negatives picture the ruins of Fort Pulaski.

[Illustration: ORIGINAL "MONITOR" AFTER HER FIGHT WITH THE "MERRIMAC"]

[Illustration: RUINS OF FORT PULASKI, GA., APRIL, 1862]

[Illustration: OFFICERS ON BOARD "MONITOR," JULY 9, 1862, AT HAMPTON
ROADS]

[Illustration: THE BREACHFORT AT PULASKI AFTER BATTLE]



[Illustration]

The most powerful fleet that had ever sailed under the American Flag
entered the deltas of the Mississippi River on the eighteenth day of
April, in 1862, to force the surrender of the largest and richest city
of the Confederacy. The strategic value of New Orleans was greater than
that of any other point in the Southern States. Its export trade in
cotton and sugar was larger than any city in the world. The great fleet
had sailed from Hampton Roads on the second of February under the
command of a man sixty years old, who was born in Tennessee, but offered
himself to the Union cause--David G. Farragut. This photograph was taken
as he stood on the deck of his flagship "Hartford." From the firing of
the first gun on New Orleans a rain of iron fell upon the forts. During
the first twenty-four hours Captain David Porter's gunners dropped
fifteen hundred bombs in and around the forts. The night was hideous
with fiery meteors and the day dense with smoke and flame. The roar of
the artillery was deafening and shattered the windows in the houses for
many miles. For six days and nights the terrific bombardment raged. When
Farragut attempted to run the gauntlet to the metropolis of the gulf he
swept the shores with a continuous fire of twenty-six thousand shells--a
million and a half pounds of metal. The Confederates pushed a fire raft
down the river to the daring admiral's flagship and the "Hartford" burst
into flame. While one part of the crew fought the fire, the others
poured metal from her guns onto the enemy. On the twenty-sixth day of
April, Farragut entered the harbor to New Orleans and on the
twenty-ninth unfurled the Stars and Stripes in the city.

WITH flags flying and bands playing "The Star Spangled Banner," the
troops from the transports, which brought fifteen thousand men under
command of General Benjamin F. Butler, marched into New Orleans on the
first day of May in 1862. Crowds of men and women surged the sidewalks
cursing the Yankees and hurrahing for Beauregard, Bull Run and Shiloh.
When Butler established military government over New Orleans the city
had a population of about 140,000. About 13,000 of these were slaves.
Nearly 30,000 of the best citizenship were fighting in the Confederate
ranks. The city was on the verge of starvation. More than a third of the
population had no money and no means of earning it. Prices rose
enormously. Butler contributed a thousand dollars of his own money to
relieve the suffering. Supplies were hurried from all sources and sold
under Butler's orders at cost to those who had funds. The price of flour
fell from sixty to twenty-four dollars a barrel. Butler proved to be a
great organizer. The people were set to work cleaning and improving
their city. His administration was always humane. The execution of a
gambler who tore down the American Flag from the mint, and the
condemning of a gang of thugs was his only show of the iron hand. This
photograph shows Major-General Butler, with his staff, as he appeared in
his fighting days. When leaving Lincoln and his cabinet to start on his
expedition, Butler exclaimed: "Good-bye, Mr. President; we shall take
New Orleans or you will never see me again!" With Farragut he kept his
promise.

[Illustration]



THE heaviest battery of artillery ever mounted in the world, up to 1862,
was before Yorktown when the Union army was maneuvering to enter
Richmond from the south. The intention was to shell the Confederates out
of a strongly intrenched position by overwhelming fire. This photograph
was taken inside of the fortification that threatened to annihilate an
entire army. In it were huge demons of death--that were hitherto unknown
in warfare--capable of throwing 900 pounds of iron at one broadside into
the lines of the enemy. There were five 100-pounder and two 200-pounder
Parrot rifled cannon. The topography of the country would not admit of
engagements with unfortified lines. The Confederates concentrated their
forces in the woods. The Union commanders at first despised picks and
shovels. They insisted that all defenses except those naturally
available were beneath a soldier's dignity. The battles of the East and
West were being fought on open ground. The campaign against Richmond,
however, proved the necessity of defenses to protect the lines from
unexpected attacks from the hidden enemy. The Confederates became uneasy
over this shift of fighting front and the magnitude of the preparations
at Yorktown so astounded them that they abandoned the position. On May
third the great battery threw a charge into the Confederate stronghold.
It was intended to open the bombardment on the following morning, but at
dawn it was found that the Confederates had evacuated. The heavy
artillery was known as Battery No. 1, and manned by Company B, First
Connecticut Heavy Artillery. It became a matter of discussion throughout
the world. Military attachés from many foreign powers visited the
breastworks to report the situation to their governments.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BEHIND THE BREASTWORKS AT YORKTOWN, VA.,
IN 1862]



AT sunrise of the fourth of May, in 1862, the Union troops entered the
deserted Confederate works at Yorktown and found seventy-one heavy guns,
a large number of tents, with ammunition and materials of war. The works
were found to be of scientific construction and great strength and
undoubtedly could have withstood the heavy fire from the heaviest
battery in the world. This photograph shows the remains of one of the
heavy Confederate guns blown into atoms rather than leave it to the
Union forces. Fragments of the gun strew the ground, together with shell
and grape-shot. The soldiers seen in works are Union Zouaves. The
Confederate forces of 50,000 men under Magruder were pursued by
McClellan's 85,000 Union soldiers to Williamsburg, after which the enemy
retired unmolested behind the lines of Richmond. While Brady was taking
his photographs at Yorktown, he met the distinguished Prince de
Joinville and his royal companions of the House of Orleans, who, for
pure love of adventure, had come from France and were following the Army
of the Potomac as aides-de-camp, being permitted to serve without taking
the oath of allegiance, and without pay. The noblemen were eating dinner
in camp when Brady secured this picture. A few days later Brady met the
Battery C, 3rd U.S. Flying Artillery, on the road to Fair Oaks and
secured a remarkable photograph. Another picture in this campaign is the
ruins of the Norfolk navy-yard. It had been the chief naval depot of the
Confederates, but on the tenth of May, 1862, General John E. Wool, with
5,000 men, entered the city. The navy-yard, with its workshops,
storehouses and other buildings had been wrecked, but two hundred cannon
fell into the hands of the Union forces. The Confederate ironclad
"Merrimac" tried to escape up the James, but grounded and was blown up.

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE WORKS AFTER EVACUATION OF YORKTOWN]

[Illustration: ADVENTUROUS EUROPEAN NOBLEMEN WITH ARMY OF THE POTOMAC IN
1862]

[Illustration: RUINS OF NORFOLK NAVY YARD IN 1862]

[Illustration: FLYING ARTILLERY ON ROAD TO FAIR OAKS]



AFTER the evacuation of Yorktown on the fourth of May, in 1862, this
picture was taken. It shows the generals of the Army of the Potomac in
full uniforms after the hard siege, and at the very time when they were
maneuvering to drive back the Confederates, forcing them to stand in
defense of the Capital of the Confederacy--Richmond. It was through the
personal friendship of Major-General McClellan that Brady was allowed to
take this rare photograph. The warriors lined up in front of the camera
on the field at Yorktown. In the center is General McClellan--a man in
whose veins flowed the blood of Scotch cautiousness--"Be sure you're
right, then go ahead!" He was but thirty-six years of age when he held
the great army under his control. From boyhood he had been a military
tactician. When twenty years old he was graduated from West Point,
standing second in his class, and distinguished himself for gallantry in
the Mexican War. Six years before the outbreak of the Civil War, when
only thirty years old, McClellan was in Crimea and two years later he
submitted his report to the Government and resigned from the army to
become vice-president and chief engineer of the Illinois Central
Railroad. In 1860, he was general superintendent of the Ohio and
Mississippi Railroad. When the call swept across the continent for
troops to preserve the Nation, the old war spirit was aroused and
McClellan was one of the first to respond.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT YORKTOWN OF MCCLELLAN AND HIS
OFFICERS IN 1862]



BRADY'S cameras took an active part in the campaign about Richmond, the
Capital of the Confederacy. Four of the old negatives are here
reproduced. The first is a view of light field-works on the
Chickahominy, near Fair Oaks. The men are at the guns ready to receive
the attack and the infantry are hurrying into line on the right and left
of the battery. The second photograph is where the battle raged hottest
in June, 1862. In the rear of the battery of howitzers in the
foreground, is the left of Sickle's brigade in line of battle. Near the
twin houses, seen still further in the rear, the bodies of over 400
Union soldiers were buried after the battle. The Confederate loss was
7,997 men killed, wounded and missing; the Union loss, 5,739. The
headquarters of the army, at the opening of the seven days' fight, was
at Savage Station, where vast amounts of rations, forage, ammunition and
hospital stores were distributed for the use of the troops. This station
fell into the hands of the enemy together with many of our sick and
wounded soldiers during the seven days' battles. One of these views
gives a glimpse of the field hospital at Savage Station during the
battle. The wounded were brought in by the hundreds and laid on the
ground and the surgeons may be seen leaning over them. During the
Peninsula Campaign in 1862, the army balloon was a valuable aid in the
signal service. This view shows Professor T. S. C. Lowe in his balloon
watching the battle of Fair Oaks. He can easily discern the movements of
the enemy's troops and give warning to the generals. The balloon rises
to the desired elevation and is anchored to a tree.

[Illustration: ARTILLERY IN LINE AT FAIR OAKS IN 1862]

[Illustration: BATTERY OF HOWITZERS IN BATTLE OF FAIR OAKS]

[Illustration: WATCHING BATTLE OF FAIR OAKS FROM BALLOON]

[Illustration: THE WOUNDED AT SAVAGE STATION AFTER THE BATTLE]



DESPERATE battles day and night crimsoned the fields in the siege about
Richmond. McClellan called for reinforcements to force his way into the
city, but they failed to arrive. So dismayed was he that he sent this
warning to Stanton at Washington: "If I save this army now, I tell you
plainly that I owe no thanks to you, or any other person in Washington."
This photograph shows the Grapevine Bridge on the Chickahominy over
which McClellan passed his army. This bridge was built by the 15th New
York Engineer Corps. All the supplies that could be taken in the wagon
trains were hurried over Grapevine Bridge and the remainder were burned
or abandoned. Hundreds of artillery charges were opened. Powder was
scattered over the pile and barrels of oil poured on. At Savage Station
a railroad train loaded with ammunition was set on fire, then sent, with
the locomotive throttle wide open, to plunge from the broken tracks into
the river, each car exploding as it reached the surface of the stream.
Grapevine Bridge was destroyed and Jackson held away from the Battle of
Gaines' Mill, which undoubtedly saved the Army of the Potomac from
capture. Through Mechanicville, Gaines' Mill, Savage Station, Peach
Orchard, White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill the Union soldiers fought
their way from the twenty-sixth of June to the first of July, finally
escaping to Harrison's Landing on the James River after a loss of 15,249
men. The Confederates had beaten them back from Richmond at a cost of
17,583 men. McClellan set up his base of operations at Harrison's
Landing and remained a menace to Richmond.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT GRAPEVINE BRIDGE OVER THE
CHICKAHOMINY]



BRILLIANT strokes came like flashes of lightning. With McClellan still
setting his heart on taking Richmond, "Stonewall" Jackson was making
threatening moves towards Washington. Demonstrations were begun to plant
fear in the Government and cause sufficient alarm to order the
withdrawal of McClellan to the defense of Washington. This daring ruse
was successful inasmuch as it completely upset the plans to take
Richmond, and the seat of battle was almost instantly transferred to the
North. There was no denying it; Washington stood in abject fear of the
brilliant Jackson. His presence in the vicinity of the National Capital
caused much uneasiness. The stand against him came at Cedar Mountain,
known from its hard fight as Slaughter Mountain, on the ninth of August,
1862. At a cost of about 1,400 men, the Union army frustrated Jackson
and depleted his forces to the extent of 1,307. Brady's cameras were
with the army at Cedar Mountain. The first photograph was taken just as
one of the batteries was fording a tributary of the Rappahannock.
Another picture was taken of the Union camp on the battlefield. The
Confederate general, Charles S. Winder, was struck by a shell while
leading his division on the field. He was taken to the house shown in
one of these photographs where he died. The marks of the shells can
easily be seen in the roof. It was about this time, at Harrison's
Landing, that Brady met the famous Irish Brigade which was then fighting
in the defense of Washington, under Brigadier-General Thomas Francis
Meagher, who had taken prominent part in a recent rebellion in Ireland.
A group of officers of the sturdy Irish Brigade sat before one of
Brady's cameras. The charges of this brigade are among the most daring
in warfare.

[Illustration: OFFICERS OF IRISH BRIGADE AT HARRISON'S LANDING IN 1862]

[Illustration: HOUSE AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN WHERE GENERAL WINDER DIED]

[Illustration: CAMP AND BATTLEFIELD ON CEDAR MOUNTAIN IN 1862]

[Illustration: BATTERY FORDING STREAM NEAR CEDAR MOUNTAIN IN 1862]



ONE hundred and sixty thousand men fought in the Union lines in the
Peninsula campaign. When Lincoln reviewed the army at Harrison's
Landing, in 1862, he saw only eighty-six thousand men. The remainder had
been removed by casualties on the field or disease. Fifty thousand had
fallen victims to fever or malaria. The president and his cabinet were
dissatisfied with the conditions and General Henry Wager Halleck, who
had been showing much ability in the West, was summoned to Washington
and appointed commander-in-chief. McClellan was practically deposed from
the Potomac. The Army of Virginia, under command of General John Pope,
was instructed to cover Washington and guard the Shenandoah entrance to
Maryland. In taking command of this division, Pope said to his men: "I
have come to you from the West, where we have always seen the backs of
our enemies." The Confederates were mapping routes on a large scale.
Bragg was to advance on Louisville and Cincinnati; Lee was to invade
Maryland and march upon Washington, Baltimore and Philadelphia. The
capture of these three cities was to assure the Independence of the
Confederacy. Lee had 150,000 men and two-thirds of them were to be taken
on this invasion. This is the scheme that was being worked out when the
two armies met on the thirtieth day of August at Manassas. The
Confederate troops poured onto the Federal lines and forced them back
beyond Bull Run until the darkness of the night stopped the pursuit.
Bridges were burned and railroads destroyed by the Union Army as they
withdrew toward Washington, making brave stands to hold back the enemy,
only to be driven back to the banks of the Potomac with 7,800 missing
and dead, while the Confederate lines had 3,700 vacancies.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BEHIND CONFEDERATE FORTIFICATIONS AT
MANASSAS IN 1862]



[Illustration: GENERAL IRVIN MCDOWELL AND OFFICERS IN 1862]

[Illustration: RUINED BRIDGE AT MANASSAS]

CONSTERNATION was caused in Washington by the terrible slaughter at
Manassas, on the thirtieth of August, in 1862. The Federal Army was
driven from the Virginia valley. The mighty Confederate generals Lee,
Jackson, and Longstreet, renewed their hopes of entering the National
Capital and pushing into Pennsylvania and Maryland, and as one
enthusiastic Southerner exclaimed: "The Confederate flag will yet wave
over Faneuil Hall in Boston." It was but thirteen months since the Union
Army met a fearful defeat along this same stream of Bull Run. After a
three weeks' campaign, the Federals, under Major-General John Pope, were
forced to retire and hastened to the defense of Washington which they
believed to be in instant danger of attack. It was in a volley of heavy
fire that General Phil Kearney fell dead from his saddle. Kearney and
Lee had been personal friends before the war and Lee sent the body of
his old friend back to the Union headquarters under a flag of truce.
During this campaign, Brady secured an excellent photograph of
Major-General Irvin McDowell and staff, who had been in the first battle
of Bull Run and now commanded the Third Army Corps. He also made the
acquaintance of General Robert E. Lee, who had assumed command of the
Confederate Army in Virginia in the second battle, two months before.
Standing at Lee's right is Major-General G. W. C. Lee and on his left
Colonel Walter Taylor of the Confederates.

[Illustration: GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE AT MANASSAS]



TIRED and hungry, the Federal soldiers were driven from the Virginia
Valley. The cutting off of supplies had placed them in a precarious
condition. There was nothing left for them to do but retreat to the
nearest provisions. Even the 4,000 horses in the cavalry were so broken
down and footsore that not more than 500 of them were fit for riding.
The only considerable depot of supplies was at Manassas Junction and it
had fallen into the hands of the Confederates. A strong body of cavalry
under "Jeb" Stuart, with 500 infantry, had raided it during the night
three days before the battle. These stores were destroyed by the
Confederates as a safer way to force back the Federals by starvation.
While they brought little succor to the rank and file of the Confederate
army they left the Union soldiers without food. One of Brady's cameras
reached Manassas Junction shortly after the destruction and this is the
negative that was taken. The railroad train is wrecked, the engine is
derailed, and the cars have been looted. 50,000 pounds of bacon, 1,000
barrels of corned beef, 2,000 barrels of salt pork, 2,000 barrels of
flour, two train loads with stores and clothing, large quantities of
forage, 42 wagons and ambulances, 200 tents, 300 prisoners, 200 negroes,
eight pieces of artillery with their horses and equipments, and 175
horses other than those belonging to the artillery fell into the
possession of the enemy. Immense quantities of quartermasters' and
commissaries' stores were burned. Only rations enough for a single day
were saved by the captors. The conflict was too hot and the action too
swift to allow carrying them along on the movement into the North. With
these provisions gone the Union army was in dire want.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT RUINS OF MANASSAS JUNCTION, VIRGINIA,
IN 1862]



THE pursuit by the Confederates toward the very gates of Washington,
after the route of the Union army along Bull Run, was stopped only by
the thoughtfulness of the retreating Federals in destroying their
bridges. Lee, in his report after the battle, says: "After a fierce
combat, which raged until after nine o'clock, Pope's Union Army was
completely defeated and driven beyond Bull Run. The darkness of the
night, his destruction of the Stone Bridge after crossing, and the
uncertainty of the fords, stopped the pursuit." This photograph is an
actual verification of the truth of Lee's excuse. Brady arrived on the
following day and this picture shows the ruins as he found them. It
would have been foolhardy for an army in the blackness of night to have
attempted to tramp through wreckage, the extent of which they knew
nothing, and water the depth of which was questionable. Bull Run was a
treacherous stream with its rocks and holes. Moreover, the Confederate
soldiers, after the fearful struggle through which they had passed, were
not in a condition to travel through the night in drenched and
mud-soaked clothing. The Union forces at the fierce battle of Manassas
were: Army of Virginia, under Pope--1st Corps under Major-General Franz
Sigel; Third Corps under Major-General Irvin McDowell; Second Corps
under Major-General Nathaniel P. Banks; Army of the Potomac--Third Corps
under Major-General S. P. Heintzelman; Fifth Corps under Major-General
Fitz John Porter; Ninth Corps under Major-General Jesse L. Reno.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT RUINS OF STONE BRIDGE OVER BULL RUN
IN 1862]



[Illustration: THE DEAD ALONG HAGERSTOWN ROAD AFTER BATTLE OF ANTIETAM]

[Illustration: SIGNAL CORPS WATCHING BATTLE FROM HILLSIDE AT ANTIETAM]

THRILLED with the victory at Manassas, the second Bull Run, the leader
of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, ordered an immediate movement to
the North with all the chances of glorious triumph in his favor. It was
conceded even by the military tacticians of the Government that Lee
could march to Washington with probabilities of entrance. He was aware
that a direct attack was feasible, but he desired to cross the Potomac
into Maryland and enter the National Capital from the north, thus giving
him a free route to the great municipalities of the North. It is
probable that he even had visions of the capture of New York. While
developing this military stratagem he met the Federals in the open at
Antietam. It was the seventeenth of September in 1862. General McClellan
was in command and Lee's fondest dreams were blasted. The men of both
armies fought as they never fought before. Brady's cameras were soon on
the scene and secured many negatives of this bloody day. The one above
reveals the west side of Hagerstown Road after the battle. The bodies of
the dead are strewn thickly beside the fence, just as they fell. The
guns succeeded in getting an excellent range of this road, and
slaughtered the enemy like sheep. This view of some of the men just as
they fell, is only a glimpse of many groups of dead in that terrible
combat. Brady "caught" the Independent Pennsylvania Battery E, well
known as Knapp's Battery, shortly after the battle.

[Illustration: ARTILLERY AFTER THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM]



THIS is believed to be the first photograph ever taken of armies in
battle on the Western Continent. The historic negative was taken from
the hill overlooking the battle of Antietam. It shows the artillery in
terrific conflict and the fire belching from the cannon's mouth. The
clouds of smoke rising from the valley tell the fearful story of that
seventeenth day of September, in 1862, when 25,899 Confederates were
killed, wounded and captured at the cost of 12,469 Union men. On the
left of the lines stand the reserve artillery waiting for the call to
action. One can almost hear the voice of "Little Mac" urging his men on
to victory. The defeat at Manassas, and the destruction of Pope's
trains, with the hot haste in which the troops had passed through
Washington, gave no time for the issuance of shoes, socks or other
necessaries. The men who had tramped through the Chickahominy swamps and
down the Virginia Valley were ragged and bleeding, but when the order
rose above the tumult: "Give ground to the right," a mighty cheer swept
along the lines as a cavalry of horsemen galloped madly to the front,
for the men in the ranks knew that McClellan was coming. There was not a
man at Antietam who did not know that it was a last desperate chance to
thwart the great Lee from marching on to Washington, and possibly
Baltimore and Philadelphia. The people in the North eagerly awaited the
news. The National Capital was almost in a state of panic. It was the
hardest fought and bloodiest single day's battle of the war and more men
were killed than in any single day's fight during the conflict.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN DURING THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM IN 1862]



[Illustration: SCOUTS AND GUIDES WITH THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC]

[Illustration: GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER AND HIS FAVORITE HORSE AT ANTIETAM]

[Illustration: PICKETS IN THE LEAD OF THE ARMY IN 1862]

THE scouts and guides of the Civil War saved the armies from many
defeats by their shrewdness and bravery. Upon them rested the great
responsibility of leading the soldiers through the unknown country to
advantageous and safe positions. During the Peninsula campaign in 1862 a
group of these men sat before one of Brady's cameras. A photograph was
also secured at a reserve picket station near the Potomac. The advance
picket was a short distance ahead and upon the approach of the enemy
began firing, and gradually fell back on these reserves, who keep up a
continuous fire as they retire slowly, fighting as they go, giving time
for the army to form into line for battle. About this same time an
excellent picture was secured of "Fighting Joe" Hooker standing beside
his horse. Hooker was seriously wounded at Antietam and borne from the
field. Still another photograph shown here is the "Sunken Road" or
"Bloody Lane" at Antietam, in which the Confederate dead lay three deep
for a distance of half a mile. This ditch was used by the Confederates
as a rifle pit. A Union battery succeeded in getting an excellent range
of the road and this view, taken the day after the battle, shows the
dead just as they fell. It is a scene of slaughter that few men have
ever seen and its horrors are here preserved in detail by the camera.

[Illustration: DEAD IN SUNKEN ROAD AFTER BATTLE OF ANTIETAM]



STONEWALL JACKSON, in speaking of the battle of Antietam, said: "The
carnage on both sides was terrific. The hottest fight seemed to center
about Dunker Church, where there were no less than four charges and
counter-charges. Each army had taken and retaken the ground until it was
literally carpeted with dead and dying men." The Confederates posted a
battery of light artillery outside of the little building used for
religious services by the sect known as the Dunkers. This photograph
shows where one gun of the battery stood. The dead artillerymen and
horses, and the shell-holes through the little church, prove how
terrible a fire was rained onto this spot by the Union batteries.
Another view on this page shows the dead collected for burial after the
battle of Antietam. The wounded were taken from the battlefield to an
improvised hospital which consisted of canvas stretched over stakes
driven into the ground. A view is here given of one of these hospitals
in which wounded Confederate prisoners are being relieved of their
suffering. One of the most interesting of these photographs is Burnside
Bridge. With fixed bayonets the Union soldiers started on their mission
of death, rushing over the slope leading to the bridge, and engaging in
fierce combat with the enemy. The fire that swept it was more than they
could stand and they were obliged to retire. Two heavy guns were placed
in position and aimed upon the Confederates. In a maddening charge, the
bayonets again flashed in the light and the Union soldiers swept
everything before them, planting the Stars and Stripes on the opposite
bank. Five hundred of their men lay dead behind them. By this time
Burnside had crossed the stream and after a quick encounter the battle
was ended with both armies severely punished and neither inclined to
resume the fight.

[Illustration: BURNSIDE BRIDGE AT ANTIETAM IN 1862]

[Illustration: THE DEAD COLLECTED FOR BURIAL AFTER BATTLE OF ANTIETAM]

[Illustration: FIELD HOSPITAL AT ANTIETAM BATTLEFIELD IN 1862]

[Illustration: DEAD ARTILLERYMEN AT DUNKER'S CHURCH, ANTIETAM]



THE last echo of the guns of Antietam had hardly died away when the
great Lincoln and the cautious McClellan stood literally at swords'
points at the very instant when the Confederacy was repulsed and
weakened. Lincoln was positive that this was the opportune moment to
take the offensive and drive the Confederates into the South. McClellan
insisted that his soldiers were suffering; that they needed shoes and
supplies; that the cavalry horses were fatigued. He felt that the
Government had been saved by his men and that the administration should
now provide them with proper clothing and food before they plunged again
into the wilderness. President Lincoln hurried to the battlefield of
Antietam on the first of October, in 1862, to learn the real condition.
While the president and "Little Mac" were seated in General McClellan's
tent about noon on the third of October, with maps and plans on the
table before them, discussing the situation, Lincoln submitted to having
this photograph taken. The silk hat of the president lies on the table
over which is thrown an American flag. It is a remarkable likeness of
the great American and the negative is treasured as one of the most
valuable contributions to our National records. In speaking of this
visit, McClellan said: "We spent some time on the battlefield and
conversed fully on the state of affairs. He told me that he was entirely
satisfied with me and with all that I had done; that he would stand by
me. He parted from me with the utmost cordiality. We never met again on
this earth." On the following morning Lincoln returned to Washington.
Two days later McClellan received an order from Washington to
immediately move onto the enemy and engage them in battle. The breach
between the two men was now irreparable. McClellan believed that it was
the influence of Stanton whom he had accused of working deliberately
against him. It was nineteen days before he began the movement and on
the fifth of November, Lincoln issued this order: "By direction of the
president it is ordered that Major-General McClellan be relieved from
the command of the Army of the Potomac, and that Major-General Burnside
take command of that army."

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE LINCOLN WAS CONFERRING WITH
McCLELLAN ON BATTLEFIELD OF ANTIETAM]



WHEN Lincoln visited the battlefield of Antietam, he was accompanied by
Allan Pinkerton, chief of the Secret Service, known under the alias of
Major Allen. On the morning of the third of October, 1862, when he was
leaving McClellan's tent to look over the army in camp, he again stood
before one of the war cameras and this rare photograph is the witness.
Comparatively few of this generation have any clear idea of how the real
Lincoln looked as he passed through the heart-rending ordeal from 1861
to 1865. This photograph shows him in his characteristic attitude. At
his right stands Pinkerton, one of the shrewdest detectives that the
world has produced. The officer in uniform is Major John A. McClernand,
who was appointed to command the Army of the West and fought at Fort
Donelson, Shiloh and Vicksburg, but who was in the East at this time.
From Lincoln's visit resulted McClellan's deposal. Never before or since
has such a scene been witnessed in any army as the one when McClellan
took leave of his officers and soldiers. Seated on a magnificent steed,
at the head of his brilliant staff, he rode down the lines, lifting his
cap as the regimental colors fell into salute. Whole regiments dropped
their muskets to cheer their hero. The tears came to McClellan's eyes
and the vast army shook with emotion. As he was boarding the train
troops fired a salute. Impassioned soldiers wildly insisted that he
should not leave them, and uttered bitter imprecations against those who
had deprived them of their beloved commander. It was a moment of fearful
excitement. A word, or a look of encouragement, would have been the
signal for a revolt, the consequences of which no man can measure.
McClellan stepped to the platform of the car. He spoke slowly but
appealingly: "Stand by General Burnside as you have stood by me, and all
will be well!" A calm fell over the soldiers and they bade farewell to
their idolized commander. McClellan, upon reaching Washington, remained
less than an hour and proceeded at once to Trenton. From that time he
never again saw Lincoln, or Stanton, or Halleck.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE LINCOLN WAS PASSING THROUGH CAMP
AT ANTIETAM IN 1862]



A FEW days after Burnside replaced McClellan in command of the Army of
the Potomac, this photograph was taken while he was with his staff at
Warrenton, Virginia, in the middle of November, in 1862. Burnside is
here seen in the midst of his officers, with one hand characteristically
tucked into his coat and the other holding a written military order.
Burnside was a graduate of West Point and when twenty-four years old
helped to take the Capital in the Mexican War. He had also been an
Indian fighter and during those days made a journey of over a thousand
miles across the plains in seventeen days, accompanied by only three
men, to carry dispatches to President Filmore. At twenty-nine years of
age he resigned from the United States Army and invented the Burnside
rifle. He was one of McClellan's intimate friends, and while a civilian
he was engaged with him on the Illinois Central Railroad. Burnside was
in New York when the Civil War broke out and hurried to the front in
command of the First Rhode Island Volunteers. He fought at the first
battle of Bull Run and commanded an expedition that stormed the North
Carolina coast. He was in the famous Battle of Roanoke Island and
Newbern and as a reward for these successes he was given the rank of
major-general. He later fought the Battle of Camden, attacked and
reduced Fort Macon, and during the Peninsula Campaign fought at the
Battle of South Mountain and Antietam. When Lincoln first offered
Burnside the command held by McClellan it is said that he refused it
three times. Not until he knew that his friend must go did he concede to
the wishes of the president. When Burnside took command of the Union
forces he was but thirty-nine years old, but an experienced warrior.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE MAJOR-GENERAL AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE
WAS ENCAMPED WITH HIS STAFF IN 1862]



[Illustration: GENERAL EDWIN V. SUMNER AND STAFF IN PENINSULA CAMPAIGN
IN 1862]

SHORTLY after the battle of Antietam this photograph was taken of
General Sumner, who was distinguished for gallantry on that bloody
field. Sumner is seen standing on the steps in the center of a group of
officers. At this time he was a warrior sixty-six years of age and had
seen a long life of hard fighting. He was born during the first days of
the American Republic, in the year 1796. When twenty-three years old he
became a second lieutenant in the United States Infantry and served with
distinction during the Black Hawk War. He later had command of a cavalry
school and at the outbreak of the Mexican War he led an attack against
five thousand lancers and was breveted colonel. With the cessation of
this conflict he took charge of the Department of New Mexico, and was
later ordered to Europe on official business. Upon his return he entered
into border warfare and defeated the Cheyenne Indians. When Lincoln was
elected president, Sumner was selected to accompany him from Springfield
to Washington and was promoted brigadier-general. Sumner was active in
the Peninsula Campaign and was promoted to major-general. He fought
through the Maryland Campaign, and at Antietam his corps made one of the
fiercest charges over the field, carrying destruction and death. He
commanded the right wing at the battle of Fredericksburg and was ordered
to the West, but while preparing to depart he died suddenly.

WHILE the campaigns against Richmond and Washington were being waged,
hard fighting was taking place in the Southwest. Grant was in command of
the Army of the Tennessee. Buell was near Chattanooga, facing Bragg who
threatened Louisville. Rosecranz was at the head of the Army of the
Mississippi and occupied Alabama and Northern Mississippi. Terrific
engagements had taken place at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, Tennessee. The
Guerilla Campaign was being waged in Missouri. There were frequent
clashes in Kentucky and Arkansas, but Mississippi seemed to be the
battle-ground. Corinth, in that state, was considered the military key
to Tennessee. It was in the conflict for the control of this coveted
position that the Confederates made one of their bravest charges. A
photograph is here shown of Fort Robinette which was protected by
Federal guns. The Southerners charged almost to the cannon's mouth, only
to be swept back by the murderous shower of lead. The second charge
stands as a wonderful example of human courage. Colonel Rogers of Texas,
led the column, and scaled the breastwork, falling inside. Three charges
were made, but the Confederates were finally forced to retreat. The
Federal loss at this battle of Corinth in killed, wounded and missing
was 2,359; the Confederates left behind them 9,423.

[Illustration: IN FRONT OF THE EARTHWORKS AT FORT ROBINETTE IN CORINTH,
MISSISSIPPI]



WITH colors flying, armament in first-class condition, and soldiers
well-clothed and fed, the Union lines under the new command of Burnside
began offensive operations against Virginia. This had been Lincoln's
long desire. The scene of action was now to be forced away from the
National Capital. On a bright morning in November, the men who had
served under McClellan marched in three grand divisions to their new
campaign. The Rappahannock was reached on the seventeenth, but the
bridge across the river had been destroyed by the Confederates who were
intrenched in Fredericksburg on the opposite bank. Pontoons promised by
the Government had not yet arrived. "Where are my pontoons?" wired
Burnside. "They will start to-morrow," came the reply from the War
Department. It was the tenth of December before the engineers could
build their bridges and in the meantime ill-feeling had arisen between
Burnside and the Government. The fatal delay had enabled Lee to
concentrate his army on Marye's Heights, overlooking Fredericksburg. The
work of building five bridges across the Rappahannock was begun under a
drawn musketry fire from the opposite bank of the river. Nearly every
blow of a hammer cost a human life. Burnside ordered his artillerymen to
open fire on the city. Fredericksburg became a mass of ruins. This
photograph shows abutments of the destroyed bridge. The trees are
cropped short by the artillery fire from the Union guns. The Confederate
sharpshooters were concealed in the buildings on the opposite river
front. Burnside ordered his men to cross the river on a line of pontoon
boats. The sharpshooters were driven from their shelter while the bridge
building was completed. The river was crossed. At dawn, the twelfth of
September, both armies stood ready for combat.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON THE RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER AFTER
DESTRUCTION OF BRIDGE TO FREDERICKSBURG IN 1862]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ALONG THE SUNKEN ROAD AT FREDERICKSBURG
AFTER THE BATTLE IN 1862]

CONFRONTED by sheets of flame, the Union Army made its attack on
Fredericksburg on the morning of the thirteenth of December, in 1862.
The Confederates occupied the Heights with a line five and a half miles
long and fortified with earthworks and artillery. The Federals moved
through the town under a heavy fire of Confederate batteries. Marye's
Hill was protected at its base by a stone wall, back of which was a
sunken road, occupied by two brigades of Confederate infantry. The
charging columns of the Union Army were rushing across the open ground
under a fierce artillery fire when suddenly they were confronted by a
rain of lead from the sunken road back of the stone wall. Nearly half of
the charging column was shot down and the remainder fell back. Five
thousand more charged in the same manner. Some of them approached within
twenty yards of the wall, but fell back, leaving two thousand of their
number on the field. Twelve thousand men were again charged against
Marye's Heights, but scarcely four thousand returned. The Union ranks
were depleted by 12,355, while the Confederates held their position with
a loss of but 4,576, and the Federal Army withdrew across the
Rappahannock and Lee held Fredericksburg.



[Illustration: ARTILLERY DEFENSES ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF FREDERICKSBURG
IN 1862]

[Illustration: FIGHTING GROUND ALONG THE CHICKASAW BAYOU]

[Illustration: POISONED SPRING OF CHICKASAW BAYOU]

[Illustration: MEDICAL CORPS OF ARMY OF POTOMAC IN CAMP UNDER SURGEON
JONATHAN LETTERMAN]

THE end of 1862, in the Civil War, found the army in the East in camp at
Falmouth, Virginia, after severe reverses. In the Southwest a vigorous
campaign was being waged by the heroes of Iuka and Corinth, Mississippi.
Grant was in supreme command of the Federal corps in northern
Mississippi. A movement was in operation against Vicksburg. Sherman was
attempting to get into the rear of the city by the Chickasaw Bayou road
which ran from the Yazoo battlefield to the Walnut Hills, six miles
above the city. His column of thirty thousand men was defeated and
driven back with dreadful slaughter on the twenty-eighth and
twenty-ninth of December. Rosecranz was established at Nashville, while
Bragg was putting his men into winter huts at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
The Federal troops enjoyed Christmas in camp and on the following
morning, in a cold rain, the Army of the Cumberland advanced to Stone
River where it enters the Cumberland River just above Nashville. At
sunrise on the last day of 1862, Rosecranz's army met Bragg's forces
with a deafening roar of artillery and musketry that fairly caused the
earth to tremble. The fighting on both sides was of a determined
character. The fields were literally covered with dead and dying men.
Victory was claimed by both the Federals and the Confederates.
Photographs are here shown of Chickasaw Bayou and the deadly Poison
Spring on the battlefield; also an excellent portrait of the medical
corps of the Army of the Potomac, in camp under charge of Dr. Jonathan
Letterman, a prominent battlefield surgeon.



EVERY AMERICAN citizen pledges his "life, fortune and sacred honor" to
the truth that "all men are created free and equal," and that they are
endowed by their Creator, with certain "unalienable rights." It was
fidelity to this oath, as sacred as life itself, that led the American
people to rush "to arms" to defend it.

The mobilization of a volunteer army, of freemen born and bred in the
arts of peace, never was known until the new Republic of the Western
Hemisphere championed the cause of Liberty and common manhood.
Battle-trained monarchies declared that it could not be maintained; that
the hundreds of thousands of men who were offering their services to
their country could never stand the severe exposures and deprivations of
warfare. The tongues of the Nations knew not what they were talking.
These men were fighters, not by training or nature, but by an honest
impulse of the heart they were patriots. It was not love of adventure
that urged the strongest men of the North to leave home and family and
shoulder a musket under the Stars and Stripes; nor was it a brutal love
of combat that marshalled the best manhood of the South to the flag of
the Confederacy. It was an impulse that no people had ever before felt.
It was a sense of justice that was early kindled in the American Heart
with the first tidings of the Declaration of Independence.


[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL AMBROSE EVERETT BURNSIDE ON HIS HORSE ON
THE BATTLEFIELD IN 1863

One day during the interval between the defeat at Fredericksburg,
Virginia, and the siege at Knoxville, Tennessee, General Burnside was
mounted on his favorite charger, viewing his army maneuvers in the
distance, when one of the Brady cameras was brought into focus and, with
the General's permission, the negative was secured--General Burnside
valued this photograph highly]


While the anguish of the Civil War was brooding over the Nation,
mountain and valley, plain and forest, farm and factory--from ocean to
ocean--offered its strongest manhood in defense of the country. New
York, the largest state in the Western World, sent the greatest number
of men to the line of battle--448,850; then came Pennsylvania with
337,936; Ohio with 313,180, and Illinois with 259,092. Indiana came to
the front with 196,363; Massachusetts with 146,730, and Missouri brought
109,111.

Wisconsin offered 61,327 of her sons; Michigan, 87,364; New Jersey,
76,814; Iowa, 76,242; Kentucky, 75,760; Maine, 70,107, and Connecticut,
55,864.

Maryland marched under the Stars and Stripes with 46,638; New Hampshire
with 33,937, Vermont with 33,288; West Virginia, 32,068; Tennessee,
31,092; Minnesota with 24,020; Rhode Island, 23,236, and Kansas, 20,149.

From the Pacific Coast, California answered with 15,725; District of
Columbia contributed 16,534 to the support of the Government; Delaware
furnished 12,284 men; Arkansas, 8,289; New Mexico, 6,561. The Southern
State of Louisiana, dear to the heart of the Confederacy, came to the
support of the Union with 5,224; Colorado with 4,903; Nebraska, 3,157;
North Carolina, 3,156; Alabama, 2,576. The border state of Texas sent
1,965; far-away Oregon, 1,810; Florida, 1,290; Nevada, 1,080; Washington
gave 964; Mississippi, 545, and Dakota, 206. These are the contributions
of the states. The Negro Race, the freedom of which was one of the
results of the War, supported their cause with 186,097 troops, while the
Indian Nation sent 3,530. In the regular army there were enlisted during
the War about 67,000 men. There were thousands of brave soldiers who
fought in the Civil War, claiming no Commonwealth as their home, but who
joined the ranks as Common Americans.

The spirit which animated the American People is shown by several
occasions when troops were needed to avert impending disaster, and they
poured into the army from remote states with incredible speed. The year
1863 witnessed the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, of
Vicksburg and Chickamauga and Chattanooga. It was the turning point in
the struggle and Brady's cameras caught many of the most dramatic scenes
worthy of reproduction.



"FIGHTING Joe" Hooker is one of the notable figures of the Civil War.
When a boy of fourteen years, he entered West Point and served in the
Mexican War in the same regiment with "Stonewall" Jackson. His early
life was crowded with hard fighting and when thirty-nine years of age he
resigned from the army and went to California, where he became
superintendent of the National Road and also entered into agriculture.
He answered the call to arms in 1861 and entered into the defense of
Washington. During the battles around Fair Oaks, Hooker led his men
courageously into many daring positions. His bravery at Malvern Hill
gave him the rank of major-general, and at Antietam he fell wounded
before the Confederate guns while trying to force the army into a
complete surrender. He commanded the center at Fredericksburg. On the
twenty-sixth of January, 1863, he was appointed to the command of the
Army of the Potomac and began its thorough reorganization. On the
twenty-eighth of April he crossed the Rappahannock and arrived at
Chancellorsville two days later. On the second of May, a fearful
onslaught was made by "Stonewall" Jackson--his old comrade of the
Mexican War as a foe. "Stonewall" Jackson was wounded by one of his own
sentinels. His men, who were devoted to him, lost heart, and, after a
battle of three days, Hooker succeeded in withdrawing his army in
safety, after losses in killed, wounded and missing of 16,030 against a
Confederate loss of 12,281. This photograph of Hooker and his staff was
taken shortly after this battle at Chancellorsville. Hooker may be seen
sitting in the second chair from the right. This is considered an
excellent likeness of the warrior.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN SHORTLY AFTER THE BATTLE OF
CHANCELLORSVILLE IN 1863--MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER AND STAFF]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ALONG LINE OF CONFEDERATE PRISONERS
AFTER CAVALRY CHARGE IN 1863]

THE retreat from Chancellorsville began on the fourth of May, in 1863.
In the midst of a pouring rain, with ammunition wagons and cavalry
struggling hub-deep through the mud, the Federals moved back to the
Rappahannock. The ponderous batteries, with heavy wheels wrapped in
blankets, passed over the road. Then came the ordnance supply trains,
swathed in strips of cloth, followed by columns of hurrying infantry.
During the remainder of May, neither of the armies assumed an offensive
attitude. Lee, now in high hopes, began preparations for a second
invasion in Maryland. Panic again seized the people of the North.
Lincoln called on Pennsylvania for 50,000 militia; Ohio, 30,000; New
York, 20,000; Maryland and Virginia, 10,000 each. The Army of the
Potomac had lost all of its two years' service men and its strength did
not reach 100,000. The Confederacy had been endeavoring for months to
induce England to recognize it as a separate nation, but learned that it
must first conquer Northern territory. Lee's movements began early in
June and resulted in frequent skirmishes as he approached the Potomac.
This photograph was taken immediately after one of these encounters at
Aldie, Virginia, on the seventeenth of June, 1863. The Confederate
cavalry, under "Jeb" Stuart, was guarding the passes of the Bull Run
mountains and watching Hooker's Army. There was a succession of cavalry
combats and many Confederates were taken prisoners. This view shows a
group of Confederates under a Union guard composed largely of negro
soldiers.



IN the stirring scenes of war there is nothing more exciting than to see
a battery take position in battle. On the sixth of June, in 1863, this
picture was secured by the government photographers just as the
artillery was going into action on the south bank of the Rappahannock
River. It is one of the earliest attempts to secure a photograph at the
instant of motion and was taken at a strategic moment during Sedgwick's
reconnaissance. An artilleryman who remembers the day says that while a
battery has not the thrill of the cavalry charge, nor the grimness of a
line of bayonets moving to slaughter, there is an intense emotion about
it that brings the tears to the eyes and the cheers to the throats of
battle-scarred veterans. Every horse on the gallop, every rider lashing
his team and yelling; through ugly clumps of bushes; over fallen logs
and falling men--the sight is one that can never be forgotten. The guns
jump from the ground as the heavy wheels strike a rock or lunge from a
ditch, but not a horse slackens his pace, not a cannoneer loses his
seat. Six guns, six caissons, sixty horses, eighty men race for the brow
of the hill. Boom! Boom! The ground shakes and trembles. The roar shuts
out all sound from a line several miles long. Shells shriek through the
swamps, cutting down great trees, mowing deep gaps in regiments of men.
It is like a tornado howling through the forest, followed by billows of
fire. There are men to-day who will look upon this picture and live
again the scenes which it recalls. Artillery is the great support of
armies and often saves them from defeat.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS ARTILLERY WAS GOING INTO ACTION ON
THE RAPPAHANNOCK IN 1863]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE CAPTAIN GEORGE A. CUSTER AND
MAJOR-GENERAL ALFRED PLEASONTON WERE AT BRANDY STATION, VIRGINIA, IN
1863]

THERE have been few men in American wars more daring than General George
A. Custer. As a cavalryman, he won a place in military history by his
bravery. Custer was a captain on the staff of General Pleasonton during
the operations early in 1863. This photograph was taken near Brandy
Station, Virginia, in June, 1863. It shows Custer on his black war-horse
conferring with Pleasonton who is astride a gray charger. The
Confederate cavalry had succeeded in breaking a part of the Federal
rank. Pleasonton turned in his saddle and called to Custer: "Ride to our
right and get the battery in position to reply to these infernal guns."
Custer spurred his horse into the thunder of cannon and the crash of
musket and carbine volleys. "The man is lost," muttered Pleasonton.
Suddenly, emerging from the bank of smoke, the Union batteries wheeled
into view under the rapid fire. Custer dashed across the field. From
that moment he became a notable figure in the war. He was then but
twenty-three years of age, but was immediately appointed by Lincoln a
brigadier-general of volunteers. In speaking of him, General Pleasonton
said: "I regard Custer as one of the finest cavalry officers in the
world, and, therefore, have placed him in command of what is no doubt
the best cavalry brigade in the world." Custer was about six feet tall,
with sharp blue eyes, and light hair hanging over his shoulders. He had
a slight impediment in his speech and uttered a shrill yell as he rushed
like an avalanche at his foe. He wore a black velvet jacket, slouched
hat and a red scarf cravat.



THE Army of the Potomac lay massed about the city of Frederick. Lee was
rushing toward the Susquehanna. Hooker disagreed with Halleck at
Washington regarding his method of attack and resigned his command,
requesting instant release from further responsibility. Lincoln accepted
the resignation and appointed General George G. Meade to the chief
command. In the midst of this momentous campaign the great army changed
leaders. This photograph was taken shortly after Meade began his
operations. It shows him with his generals of the Army of the Potomac.
Meade occupies the chair in the center of the picture. At this time he
was about forty-eight years of age. He had graduated from West Point
when nineteen years old, but resigned the following year and remained
out of the army for the next six years, but returned in the period
preceding the Mexican War, after which he was engaged in the survey of
the northern lakes. He was one of the first to respond to the call in
1861. He took part in the early engagements of the Army of the Potomac
and was in the Battle of Mechanicsville and Gaine's Mills and the Battle
of Newmarket Crossroads. When Hooker was wounded at Antietam, Meade took
charge of a corps and continued the brave fight during the remainder of
the day. He had two horses killed under him and was slightly wounded,
but did not leave the field. At Fredericksburg he led his men boldly to
the Confederate works. In the Battle of Chancellorsville, Meade's corps
carried the earth-works and fought fearlessly. On the twenty-eighth day
of June, in 1863, Meade assumed command of the Army of the Potomac. The
tide of battle seemed to turn with his appointment and his victories are
almost unparalleled.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHEN MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE G. MEADE
COMMANDED THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON THE FIELD OF GETTYSBURG AFTER THE
BATTLE IN 1863]

THE turning point of the Civil War is the Battle of Gettysburg. From
that day the Confederate cause began to wane. Few battles of modern
times show such great percentage of loss. Out of the one hundred and
sixty thousand men engaged on both sides, forty-four thousand were
killed or wounded. Brady's cameras reached the field of battle in time
to perpetuate some of its scenes. The ghastliness of the pictures is
such that it is with some hesitation that any of them are presented in
these pages. It is on the horrors of war, however, that all pleas of
peace are based. Only by depicting its gruesomeness can the age of
arbitration be hastened. It is with this in mind that this photograph is
here revealed. There is probably not another in existence that witnesses
more fearful tragedy. The photograph is taken on the field of Gettysburg
about nineteen hours after the last day's battle. It shows a Union
soldier terribly mutilated by a shell of a Confederate gun. His arm is
torn off and may be seen on the ground near his musket. The shell that
killed this soldier disemboweled him in its fiendishness. This picture
is as wonderful as it is horrible and should do more in the interest of
peace than any possible argument. Something of the bloodshed on the
battlefield of Gettysburg may be understood when it is considered that
the battlefield, which covered nearly twenty-five square miles, was
literally strewn with dead bodies, many of them mutilated even worse
than the one in this picture. The surviving veterans of Gettysburg have
seen war's most horrible aspects. Gallant and daring commanders led
those brave men in that three days' inferno, from the first to the third
of July, in 1863.



[Illustration: BOROUGH OF GETTYSBURG IN 1863--SCENE OF ONE OF WORLD'S
GREATEST CONFLICTS]

[Illustration: MEADE'S HEADQUARTERS ON CEMETERY RIDGE]

GETTYSBURG witnessed some of the hardest fighting that the world has
ever seen. This photograph was taken a short time after the battle in
1863. This little borough became a field of carnage. In the surrounding
hills occurred the terrific conflict of Big Round Top and Little Round
Top, Seminary Ridge and Cemetery Ridge, and Culp's Hill, the Bloody
Wheatfield and Peach Orchard. A view is given of the little house in
which General Meade made his headquarters. On the first day of battle
this house was in direct range of the artillery fire rained by the
Confederates on the Union lines just before Pickett's great charge. The
horses of General Meade's aides were hitched to the fence and trees near
the house. Sixteen of these horses were killed during the artillery
fire, and their dead bodies are seen in the road.

[Illustration: LEE'S HEADQUARTERS ON SEMINARY RIDGE]



[Illustration: DEAD ARTILLERY HORSES AFTER FIGHT AT TROSTLE'S HOUSE AND
BARN IN GETTYSBURG]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE DEAD ON GETTYSBURG "WHEATFIELD"]

SOME knowledge of the slaughter of Gettysburg may be gained by this
picture of Trostle's house and barn at which was stationed a Union
battery of light artillery. This view shows where the guns stood.
Sixty-five of the eighty-eight artillery horses were left dead on the
field. About this time, on the last day of the greatest battle of the
war, Pickett made his fierce charge, which is one of the mightiest in
history. It was witnessed by the two great armies in the middle of the
afternoon of a summer day--a most spectacular tragedy of magnificent
courage. It has been said that Gettysburg was the common soldier's
battle and that its great results were due, not so much to military
strategy as to the intelligent courage and the magnificent heroism of
the brave soldiers.

[Illustration: SHATTERED CAISSON--GETTYSBURG "PEACH ORCHARD"]



[Illustration: DEAD AMONG THE ROCKS OF LITTLE ROUND TOP ON GETTYSBURG
BATTLEFIELD]

[Illustration: DEAD SHARPSHOOTER IN "DEVIL'S DEN" ON LITTLE ROUND TOP AT
GETTYSBURG]

[Illustration: UNCOVERED CONFEDERATE GRAVE AT GETTYSBURG]

GETTYSBURG is the "Waterloo of the American Continent." A photograph is
here shown of the dead soldiers lying on the battlefield. To silence
Hazlett's Battery, which was posted on the summit of Little Round Top,
the Confederates pushed their sharpshooters among the rocks in the
mountain. A few hours before these photographs were taken one of these
sharpshooters mortally wounded General Weed, who was directing the
movement of his troops from the summit. Lieutenant Hazlett, who was an
old schoolmate of the fallen general, was commanding the battery and
hastened to take the dying words of his friend and comrade, when he,
too, fell dead, pierced by a bullet from the dread sharpshooters. Like a
flash the guns of the battery were turned on the "Devil's Den" from
which came the fatal shots as this picture attests.

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE DEAD IN "WHEATFIELD" AT GETTYSBURG]



[Illustration: EARTHWORKS AT CULP'S HILL AT GETTYSBURG IN 1863]

[Illustration: TENTS ALONG RIVER FRONT AT VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI, IN
1863]

[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD OF BIG BLACK RIVER IN MISSISSIPPI IN 1863]

AS the tide of battle drifted to the West in 1863, the war photographers
hurried to the region of the Mississippi. Grant had been pursuing his
operations toward Vicksburg. With Sherman and McClernand, he was
maneuvering to take the key to the South by storm. A photograph is here
shown of Champion Hills near Big Black River territory, on the outskirts
of Vicksburg, where the armies first met. The Confederates held a strong
line of earthworks on the eastern bank of the river. The Federals,
before a heavy fire of musketry, crossed a ditch, delivered a terrific
volley, and clambered over the breastworks with empty muskets. The
Confederates, in falling back, found that their comrades had set fire to
both of the bridges and were compelled to surrender. Two thousand
prisoners, eighteen pieces of artillery, six thousand stand of small
arms, and many commissary stores were captured. General Lawler's Brigade
led the charge. The battle lasted four hours. On the eighteenth of May,
1863, the Federals began crossing the Big Black by felling trees on both
banks so that they tumbled into the river and interlaced, using bales of
cotton instead of boats. On the morning of the twenty-second, with
furious cannonading, the last assault on the defences of Vicksburg was
made. This campaign is a remarkable military exploit. In twenty days
Grant crossed the Mississippi River with his entire force, moved into
the rear of Vicksburg, fought and won four distinct battles, captured
the State Capitol, and destroyed the Confederate arsenals and
manufactories. His troops marched one hundred eighty miles with only
five days' rations from the quartermaster, and captured over six
thousand prisoners, twenty-seven cannon and sixty-one field pieces. All
this was accomplished by forty thousand brave men against sixty
thousand.



[Illustration: BOMB-PROOF CAMP IN UNION LINES IN FRONT OF VICKSBURG]

[Illustration: BEHIND THE ENTRENCHMENT AT BATTERY SHERMAN BEFORE
VICKSBURG]

THE Confederate works held by Pemberton at Vicksburg were seven miles
long. Grant's lines about the city extended over fifteen miles.
Commander Porter brought down all his mortar boats on the Mississippi
and began a fusilade of six thousand mortar shells a day, while the land
batteries threw four thousand. In the meantime, famine stalked through
Vicksburg on the thirty-sixth day of the siege. Mule and dog meat, with
bean flour and corn coffee formed the daily fare. The earth trembled
under the concussions from the Army and Navy cannon and the entire
forest was set on fire. The Confederate general, on the morning of July
third, proposed an armistice, preparatory to recapitulation. Grant met
the Confederate commander under an oak tree. At ten o'clock on the
morning of July fourth, General Logan began a march into Vicksburg and
hoisted the American ensign over the court-house. The fall of Vicksburg
and the defeat of Lee at Gettysburg occurred on the same day and lifted
the hearts of the Northern people to a sense of thanksgiving, for it was
believed that the war was now over. During the siege the Confederate
loss was fifty-six thousand men. Grant captured more than sixty thousand
muskets, light and heavy artillery, with a vast amount of other
property, such as locomotives, cars, steamboats and cotton. The Federal
loss during the siege was about 9,000 killed, wounded and missing. The
war cameras followed the Union Army into the captured city and the old
negatives vividly picture the conditions. A camera was taken to the
bomb-proof quarters of Logan's Division and into Battery Sherman. These
negatives are here reproduced. About this same time several cameras were
taken into the far South and one of the first negatives was taken at Big
Black River Station in Mississippi and another at New Orleans when the
commissioned officers of the 19th Iowa Infantry were being brought in
from Camp Ford, Texas, as exchanged prisoners of war.

[Illustration: PRISONERS OF WAR FROM TEXAS]

[Illustration: BIG BLACK RIVER STATION IN MISSISSIPPI]



[Illustration: BOMB-PROOF AT FORT WAGNER UNDER HEAVY FIRE IN 1863]

THE Government at Washington believed that it was now time to secure the
reparation for the firing on Fort Sumter which had precipitated the War.
Sumter, during the entire conflict had been the center of a radius of
forts which now had over three hundred guns mostly of the heaviest
caliber. It held a strong position on the Atlantic Coast and protected
the land movements about South Carolina. Fort Sumter barred the main
channel. On Sullivan's Island were Fort Moultrie, Fort Beauregard,
Battery Bee and sand bag batteries at the extremity. On James Island
stood Fort Johnson, Fort Ripley and smaller forts. Castle Pinckney lay
in front of the city, and on Morris Island there were Battery Gregg,
Fort Wagner, and a battery on Lighthouse Inlet. All the channels were
blocked with huge iron chains, and an immense hawser buoyed with empty
casks, extended from Fort Sumter to Fort Ripley, the entire harbor being
blocked with torpedoes. Brady's cameras lay in the Union lines and
occasionally were ventured toward the Confederate fortifications. Many
negatives of exteriors were obtained at a distance. After the forts fell
into the Government control the cameras were taken behind the
breast-works. These remarkable negatives are now exhibited and reveal
the secrets of the Confederates. The picture of the bomb-proof at Fort
Wagner, under heavy fire in 1863, reveals the ingenuity of the engineers
in both armies in utilizing every available substance in protecting the
soldiers. The Confederates constructed many strong fortifications and
they fell only under the severest bombardment from the heaviest guns of
the Federal troops.

[Illustration: FORT JOHNSON ON JAMES' ISLAND IN 1863]

[Illustration: FORT MARSHALL ON SULLIVAN'S ISLAND IN 1863]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF FORT MOULTRIE ON SULLIVAN'S ISLAND]



[Illustration: 300-POUNDER PARROTT GUN IN BATTERY STRONG AFTER BURSTING
OF MUZZLE]

[Illustration: BATTERY BROWN--TWO 8-INCH PARROTT RIFLES, ONE OF WHICH
BURST DURING BOMBARDMENT]

[Illustration: FIVE 10-INCH SIEGE MORTARS IN BATTERY REYNOLDS FIRING
AGAINST FORT SUMTER]

[Illustration: NAVAL BATTERY OF TWO 80-P0UNDER WHITWORTH'S--BREECHING
BATTERY AGAINST FORT SUMTER]



[Illustration: SECTION OF BIRCHMEYER'S BATTERY IN SECOND PARALLEL]

[Illustration: FORT SUMTER IN RUINS AFTER BOMBARDMENT IN 1863]

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL QUINCY A. GILLMORE AND STAFF IN 1863]

EARLY in 1863 the Government decided that Fort Sumter must be reduced.
Admiral Dahlgren was given full charge of the undertaking. On the
eighteenth of July, the land forces under General Quincy A. Gillmore
began siege. He erected batteries across Morris Island and commenced
fire on Fort Wagner while Dahlgren attacked both Fort Wagner and Fort
Sumter. Fort Wagner responded with only two guns which led Gillmore to
believe that the Confederates were demoralized. The Federal troops were
within two hundred yards of the fort before the Confederates opened
grape fire. A flash of musketry blazed from the parapet. The daring
Federals rushed at the fort and clambered up the exterior slope. It was
here that Joseph Alvan Wooster, color bearer for the Sixth Connecticut,
performed the valiant deed that cost him his life. He climbed along in
advance of the line and triumphantly placed his flag on the parapet. A
Confederate soldier sprang forward and placed the muzzle of his musket
on Wooster's heart and fired. General Putnam rushed to the rescue with a
brigade, only to be killed, with nearly every commissioned officer in
his command. The remnants of Strong's and Putnam's command retired,
having lost over half of their strength. General Gillmore, and his
staff, in charge of the land forces at Charleston allowed the war
photographers to turn the lens on them in camp. The general was born in
Black River, Loraine County, Ohio, and had graduated from West Point. In
1861 he was placed on General W. T. Sherman's staff on the South
Carolina Expedition. During February, 1862, he commenced operations for
the attack of Fort Pulaski, on the Savannah River, Georgia. On April 28,
1862, he was promoted to a brigadier-generalship of volunteers. In
September, 1862, he was ordered to the West as Commander of the District
of Western Virginia, of the Department of the Ohio. He was afterwards
assigned to the command of one of the Divisions of the Army of Kentucky.
He assumed command of Department of South Carolina June 12, 1863.



[Illustration: THE 8-INCH PARROTT RIFLE GUN. "SWAMP ANGEL" AFTER
BURSTING]

ON the ninth of August the Federal cannon were within three hundred and
thirty yards of Fort Wagner and the guns were trained on Fort Sumter and
Battery Gregg. General Gillmore had a small battery placed in a marsh
west of Morris Island, on which was an eight-inch Parrott Gun nick-named
the "Swamp Angel." It had a range of five miles and threw its enormous
shells into the city of Charleston. The Confederate fortifications were
reinforced by General Beauregard and maintained a continuous fire from
over two hundred guns. On the seventeenth of August, Gillmore had twelve
heavy guns on Morris Island, and the simultaneous assault by batteries
and infantry was directed against Fort Sumter. For seven days this
terrible fusilade continued. Over one hundred thousand shells and shot
were thrown into the fort which was battered into ruins. The bombardment
of Fort Sumter was begun on the fifth of September and continued for
forty-two hours. An assault was planned for the ninth, but when daylight
came it was found that several forts were abandoned. It was supposed
that Fort Sumter was tenantless. A boat load of soldiers was sent to
take possession. As they landed, a terrific volley of musketry was
fired. The Confederates fought like tigers from covered positions in the
ruins of the fort. The Federals abandoned the attempt without further
molestation, satisfied with the destruction they had wrought and the
successful blockade of Charleston Harbor. The views engraved by the lens
on these pages lay the actual scenes of destruction before the eyes of
the world. The "Swamp Angel" was one of the demons of war. Piles were
driven, a platform was laid upon them, and a parapet was built with bags
of sand, fifteen thousand being required. All this had to be done after
dark, and occupied fourteen nights. Then, with great labor, the
eight-inch rifled gun was dragged across the swamp and mounted on this
platform. It was nearly five miles from Charleston, but by firing with a
high elevation was able to reach the lower part of the city. The
soldiers named this gun the "Swamp Angel." Late in August it was ready
for work, and, after giving notice for the removal of non-combatants,
General Gillmore opened fire, and produced great consternation, but at
the thirty-sixth discharge the "Swamp Angel" burst, and was never
replaced.

[Illustration: BATTERED EXTERIOR OF FORT SUMTER]

[Illustration: DESTRUCTION AFTER BOMBARDMENT OF SUMTER]

[Illustration: WRECKED INTERIOR OF FORT SUMTER]

[Illustration: DISMOUNTED CANNON AT FORT SUMTER]



[Illustration: DESTROYED RAILROAD BRIDGE, BRIDGEPORT, ALABAMA--PONTOON
IN COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION]

[Illustration: BLOCKHOUSES AND ARMY BRIDGE ACROSS TENNESSEE RIVER NEAR
CHATTANOOGA]

[Illustration: ON BATTLEFIELD OF CHICKAMAUGA CREEK--LEE AND GORDON'S
MILLS]

WHEN Vicksburg fell, the cheering along the Federal lines in the
Mississippi Campaign aroused the attention of the Confederate pickets
until it was carried clear through to Louisiana, where the Confederate
forces were concentrated at Port Hudson. General Banks had succeeded
Butler at New Orleans and was co-operating with Grant on the Mississippi
to take possession of the Red River region and expel the Confederate
forces from Louisiana and Texas. The siege of Port Hudson had been hard
fought. The Confederates under General Gardner agreed that if Vicksburg
had fallen their surrender was the only thing left for them. On the
ninth of July, in 1863, the Confederate general at Port Hudson with
visible emotion tendered his sword. It was declined because his bravery
entitled him to retain it. The Federals were now in the entire
possession of the Mississippi. While Grant's Army had been pounding at
the gates of Vicksburg, Rosecranz was maneuvering with Bragg at
Murfreesboro, Tennessee. For six months these two armies stood
confronted, but met only in severe skirmishes. Rosecranz compelled Bragg
to fall back from one place to another. He was driven through middle
Tennessee, to Bridgeport, Alabama, where he crossed the Tennessee River,
burned the bridge behind him and entered Chattanooga. The Brady cameras
were in the Union lines and arrived in time to secure this negative of
the ruined bridge and the pontoon bridge that was being built by the
Union forces in pursuit of Bragg. A clash came at Chickamauga, a point
about twelve miles from Chattanooga, on the nineteenth and twentieth of
September, in 1863. It has been called the greatest battle of the West.
The cannonading and the musketry was at close range and the Federal
lines were being swept back when General Thomas and his men made the
heroic stand that saved the Federal Army from destruction, after a loss
of 15,851, killed, wounded and missing. The Confederate victory was
gained at the cost of 17,804.



[Illustration: BATTLEGROUND OF MISSIONARY RIDGE NEAR CHATTANOOGA,
TENNESSEE, TWO DAYS AFTER BATTLE]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE PRISONERS AT CHATTANOOGA]

CHICKAMAUGA has been called the greatest battle in the West. When the
smoke of the conflict had lifted, the war photographers found the
Federal Army closed up in Chattanooga. The Confederate general moved to
cut off all communication to the Federal lines, seizing roads,
destroying the bridges and preventing access to Nashville where the base
of supplies had been located. The Army of the Cumberland was reduced to
the verge of starvation. Not less than 10,000 horses and mules perished.
Grant was given command of the department of the Mississippi, comprising
the armies and departments of the Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland. He
telegraphed to Thomas: "Hold Chattanooga at all hazards." The hero of
Chattanooga replied: "I will hold the town until we starve."

[Illustration: BLOCKHOUSES NEAR CHATTANOOGA]



[Illustration: GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT IN MISSISSIPPI CAMPAIGN, 1863]

[Illustration: "BATTLE ABOVE THE CLOUDS" ON LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN IN
TENNESSEE--ENGINEERS OF ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND IN CAMP]

THE war cameras reached Nashville on the same day that Grant entered the
city, October 21, 1863, and followed him closely throughout the
campaign. Grant hurried to Chattanooga and found the troops without
shoes or clothing, and all food exhausted. He telegraphed to Burnside to
hold Knoxville and appealed to Admiral Porter at Cairo to send gunboats
to convey transports carrying rations from St. Louis for Sherman's Army,
which was moving up from the Mississippi. Bragg was entrenched on
Missionary Ridge, extending along the crest and across Chattanooga
Valley to Lookout Mountain. The Confederate fortifications were very
strong and their lines reached over the Raccoon Mountain. The war
cameras were taken to the foothills of Lookout Mountain, where an
engineers' brigade of the Army of the Cumberland was encamped. Grant
succumbed to appeals to stand before the camera and the negative is here
reproduced. The haggard expression on his face shows the tremendous
responsibility that rested upon him. On the twenty-third of November, in
1863, long lines of infantry moved forward and the heavy guns opened
fire. The Federal lines flashed across the valley sweeping everything
before them, pushing the Confederate skirmish line from their rifle
pits, to the foothills of Lookout Mountain. On the twenty-fourth, Grant
stood on the top of Orchard Knob, watching Hooker's men rush to the side
of Lookout Mountain, leaping from one rocky ledge to another, scrambling
over huge boulders, and through deep chasms in a rain of solid shot and
shell. They charged almost to the muzzle of the enemy's cannon, gaining
ground foot by foot, until at last they reached the foot of the
Palisades, and were finally lost in the mist that veiled the mountain.
For three hours the battle raged above the clouds. At sunset the mist
disappeared and moonlight fell on old Lookout. The Confederate forces
could be seen occupying the summit. Hooker's men scaled the Palisades.
The Confederates withdrew into the woods and sought the protection of
the night. At sunrise, on the twenty-fifth of November, these Kentucky
soldiers unfurled the Stars and Stripes. A great cheer arose from the
army in the valley.



THE Battle of Lookout Mountain is the most spectacular in history. It
was impossible to carry the war camera over its rugged heights. Had they
succeeded in getting to the summit, the mist that enveloped the valley
would have made it impossible to have secured a single scene of the
great conflict. The Federals occupied a strong position on the mountain,
looking across the Chattanooga Valley to Missionary Ridge, where Bragg
had concentrated his entire army. The twenty-fifth of November was a
magnificent day. Seldom has a battle begun under a brighter sun. The
Confederate artillery frowned from the summit of Missionary Ridge. The
glittering steel of Hooker's men flashed on Lookout Mountain. The
Cumberland veterans under Thomas were a solemn phalanx in the valley
while Sherman's compact lines were eager for the charge. On the top of
Orchard Knob stood Grant's bugler and the echoes of the "Forward" signal
fell into the valley, being taken up by the other buglers in melodious
refrain. Hooker's men moved down the eastern slope of Lookout Mountain,
sweeping across the valley in grand lines. Bragg's batteries were
centered on Sherman, who swept his men heroically forward over a
succession of low hills.


[Illustration: GENERALS GRANT, SHERMAN, SHERIDAN, HOOKER, HARNEY, DODGE,
GIBBON, POTTER, AT FORT SANDERS]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE ARTILLERY CAPTURED AT MISSIONARY
RIDGE--PARKED NEAR CHATTANOOGA]


UNDER fire from the Confederates, Corse's Brigade struggled desperately
for an hour and a half without gaining advantage, while Generals Loomis
and Smith took possession of Missionary Ridge. At two in the afternoon
occurred one of the most impressing spectacles ever witnessed on a
battlefield. Union soldiers with fixed bayonets rushed into the storm of
shell without firing a shot until after the skirmish line had been taken
and the Sixth Brigade swept over the Confederate rifle pits. The men
flung themselves to the earth to avoid the volleys of canister, grape
and musketry that were hurled upon them. At sunset Sherman held Bragg's
right in check; Hooker was driving at his left. The final assault on his
center was begun and in twenty minutes Missionary Ridge was belching
flames. Every Confederate gun and cannon was in action. The Federal
soldiers rushed into the very mouth of death, reaching the crest,
breaching the Confederate lines until they gave way and retreated. The
cannon which they abandoned were swung and turned upon them. The victory
had cost the Union Army 5,616, killed, wounded and missing, against a
Confederate loss of 8,684.



THE siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, was raised late in 1863. When the
news of Bragg's defeat at Chattanooga reached Longstreet, who was
besieging Knoxville, he knew that Grant would now send Burnside relief.
Bragg decided to carry the city by storm. The attack was to be made on
Fort Sanders, a Federal fort of great strength, containing twenty-six
guns. The Confederate columns forced their way through a network of wire
that had been wound from stump to stump, until they finally reached the
parapet. A Confederate officer sprang to the summit with the flag of his
regiment and demanded surrender. Pierced by a shower of bullets, his
body rolled into the ditch, his hand clutching the flagstaff. The
Confederates charged again only to be repulsed. Under a flag of truce
the fighting ceased while Longstreet's men carried away their dead,
dying and wounded. Grant had ordered twenty thousand men under General
Granger to the rescue of the besieged city, but they failed to start,
and Sherman hurried to the relief. He reached Knoxville on the fifth of
December and found the siege reduced and Longstreet had started for
Virginia. Sherman's troops had marched four hundred miles to fight at
Chattanooga, then marched one hundred and two miles to compel the
Confederates to retire from Knoxville. When the news reached the North,
Grant was hailed as the Nation's saviour. Congress bestowed upon him a
gold medal, while Bragg, the Confederate general, went down before a
storm of indignation in the South. One of the war cameras shortly after
the battle was placed on the parapet of Fort Sanders, and this negative
of the ruins was taken, showing the University of Tennessee.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN OVER THE RUINS AT KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE,
IN 1863, FROM FORT SANDERS]



[Illustration: LIBBY PRISON AT RICHMOND CROWDED WITH UNION PRISONERS IN
1864]

[Illustration: ANDERSONVILLE PRISON WITH ITS "DEAD LINE" AND "BROOK"]

IT is estimated that 188,000 Union soldiers and sailors endured the
hardships of the sixteen Confederate prisons during the Civil War. In
the prison yards are 36,401 graves. 11,599 of those released from
prisons died before reaching their homes, and 12,000 after reaching
home--making 60,000 lives sacrificed in Confederate prisons. Several
estimates place the deaths as high as 80,000. Strange as it may seem,
the war photographers succeeded in taking their cameras behind prison
walls. Three of these remarkable negatives are here revealed. The first
one was taken at Libby prison, Richmond, where most of the commissioned
officers were confined. In Libby, men were often shot for approaching
near enough to a window for a sentry to see their heads. The other two
were secured within the "dead line" at Andersonville prison in Georgia.
It was an open stockade with little or no shelter, covering about 30
acres. The palisade was of pine logs 15 feet high, closely set together.
Outside of this, at a distance of 120 feet, was another palisade, and
between the two were the guards. About 20 feet from the inner stockade
was a railing known as the "dead line," and any prisoner who passed it
was instantly shot. A small stream flowed through the enclosure and
furnished the prisoners their only supply of water. The cook houses and
camp of the guards were placed on this stream, above the stockade.
Starvation and disease drove many of the prisoners mad and they wandered
across the "dead line" to end their misery. Fugitives were followed by
horsemen and tracked by a large pack of blood hounds. The crowded
condition of the prisons at the beginning of 1864 was appalling. There
were as many as 33,000 hungry and dying men confined in Andersonville at
one time, which gave a space of about four feet square to each man. Some
of the other Confederate prisons were at Salisbury, North Carolina, at
Florence, South Carolina, on Belle Island in the James River, at Tyler,
Texas, at Millen, Georgia, and at Columbia, South Carolina. At Belle
Isle the prisoners were packed so close that when they lay sleeping no
one could turn over until the whole line agreed to turn simultaneously.
While many imaginary pictures have been drawn from descriptions of
Andersonville, it has remained for the lens to to engrave the actual
scenes, and they are here perpetuated by the negatives.

[Illustration: ANDERSONVILLE PRISON WITH ITS STOCKADE AND GUARD TOWERS]



AMERICANS are the most loyal people on the face of the earth.
Self-government encourages fidelity to Home and Country. In a nation
where the _citizens are the Government_, patriotism cannot die. Unfurl
the flag of a monarchy and there will be a dutiful reverence to it.
Unfurl the Stars and Stripes of the Republic and there will arise a
mighty ovation that thrills from the hearts of men--a spontaneous
outburst that has never been heard except under the Emblem of Freedom.
Liberty is everywhere the mother of patriots.


[Illustration: SURGEONS ADMINISTERING TO THE WOUNDED]

[Illustration: LIVES SACRIFICED FOR THEIR COUNTRY]

[Illustration: BURIAL OF THE DEAD HEROES]

PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON THE BATTLEFIELDS DURING THE CIVIL WAR IN THE UNITED
STATES


In the Civil War the heart of American Citizenship was put to the test
and it was found "tried and true." The first call for volunteers came on
April 15, 1861 for 75,000 militia for three months, and 91,816 men
answered. The second call was on May 3, 1861, when Lincoln asked for
500,000 men and the reply was 700,680. The third call on July 2, 1862
for 300,000 troops for three years' service to their country brought
421,465. The fourth call on August 4, 1862, for nine months' service met
the response of 87,588 men. Under the fifth proclamation, on June 15,
1863, for militia for six months' service, the ranks were recruited by
16,361 men. The calls of October 17, 1863, and February 1, 1864, brought
369,380 men. Under the call of March 14, 1864, came 292,193 men; between
April 23 and July 18, 1864, there were 83,612 mustered into the United
States' service. Lincoln's appeal to the manhood of the Nation on July
18, 1864 was met by 386,461 men. The last call for volunteers came on
December 19, 1864, and 212,212 patriots marched to the battle ground to
help strike the last blow of the conflict. The willingness with which
these men offered their lives to their country is the greatest tribute
that can ever be paid to American patriotism. After the disasters on the
Peninsula over 80,000 troops were enlisted, organized, armed, and
marched to the battleground within four weeks. An army of 90,000
infantry came to the front from the five states of Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin, within twenty days. In many instances
over 60,000 recruits fell into line in less than a month. At the last
moment of the War, and to the very scene of surrender, thousands of men
were pouring into the field.

If the world could have looked upon the marvelous spectacle of all the
men who took part in the Civil War, marching five abreast, the
triumphant procession would have stretched from the Atlantic, across the
Continent, to the Pacific--a grand pageant of 1,696 regiments, six
companies infantry; 272 regiments, two companies cavalry; 78 regiments,
two companies artillery. The boys who wore the Gray could have
intercepted this procession by another magnificent pageant reaching from
the Canadian borders to the mountains of Mexico.

The war cameras during 1864 were taxed to their utmost. It was the
hardest test that had ever been given the new science of photography.
The thrilling story of this closing year is told in the rare old
negatives in these pages--actual photographs taken at the scene of
battle.



THE last days of 1863 were inactive. The armies in the East were going
into winter quarters. Brady's men had experienced a hard year with their
cameras, but had perpetuated many tragic incidents. One of the cameras
was held in winter quarters at Rappahannock Station until early in 1864.
It was used in recording conditions in camp and one of its negatives is
here reproduced. This camp was occupied by the 50th New York Engineers.
It was the duty of these engineers to construct roads, bridges and
fortifications, and their services in the Civil War were of great
importance. An interesting feature of this photograph is the row of
pontoon boats on wheels. These pontoons are vessels, used to support the
roadway of floating bridges. The boats were a small, substantial frame
of wood, light of weight, and easily transported overland. By stretching
them across a river an army could begin its movement to the other side
within half an hour on reaching the banks. A pontoon train of the army
carries about one hundred yards of pontoon bridge for each army corps,
including the boats, roadway planks, etc. Early in the spring of 1864
the skirmishing began for what promised to be the deadliest year of the
Civil War. Sherman organized his expedition in February against
Meridian, Mississippi, a position of great importance to the
Confederacy, as it controlled the railroad communications with Mobile
and Wilmington. Banks began his Red River expedition in March. Meade's
columns crossed the Rapidan River, in Virginia, in May. Grant was placed
in command of all the United States armies in the field on March 1,
1864, while Sherman was given command of Federal armies in the West.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN WINTER QUARTERS AT RAPPAHANNOCK
STATION, VIRGINIA, IN 1864]



THE first great conflict of 1864 occurred on the fifth of May when the
Army of the Potomac met Lee's forces in the Battle of the Wilderness. It
was a virgin forest of oak and pine, choked with dense undergrowth. The
Federal soldiers knew nothing of its entanglements, but the Confederates
had full knowledge of the roads and wagon paths intersecting the woods.
It was so dense that the troops found it necessary at times to move in
single file. The artillery and cavalry had great difficulty in getting
into the encounter, and in one of the sallies nearly all the men and
horses were killed. The battle was deadly. Regiments shot into their own
ranks as they fled through forest and undergrowth, becoming separated
from the main line. General Longstreet, of the Confederate Army, was
shot and severely wounded by his own men. Tremendous volleys of musketry
rang through the woods. Dead leaves and branches were swept with flames.
Men lost their way and wandered into the enemy's lines. So rapid was the
fire that the muskets became hot and blistered the fingers of the
soldiers. The losses in this great two-days' battle cannot be stated
accurately. One estimate places the Union killed, wounded and missing at
18,387 and the Confederate, 11,400. On the afternoon of the seventh of
May, Grant moved his army toward Spottsylvania Court House, fifteen
miles southeast of the Wilderness Battlefield, with the intent of
getting between the enemy and Richmond and compelling Lee to fight at a
disadvantage. It was during these maneuvers that this photograph was
taken while the artillery was stationed at the edge of the forest. The
negative was taken in the full light of the noonday sun in the Spring of
1864.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE ARTILLERY WAS AT EDGE OF WOODS
NEAR BATTLE OF WILDERNESS IN 1864]



[Illustration: GENERAL MEADE AND GENERAL SEDGWICK WITH STAFF OFFICERS AT
RAPPAHANNOCK STATION, MARCH, 1864]

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL G. K. WARREN AND STAFF AT BEVERLY HOUSE,
SPOTTSYLVANIA]

[Illustration: LOOKING TOWARDS SPOTTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE FROM BEVERLY
HOUSE, HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL WARREN IN MAY, 1864]

[Illustration: GERMANIA FORD, RAPIDAN RIVER, WHERE TROOPS CROSSED IN
GRANT'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST RICHMOND BEFORE BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS]



[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN SEDGWICK AND STAFF--SEDGWICK WAS
KILLED AT SPOTTSYLVANIA IN 1864]

[Illustration: GENERALS OF THE CAVALRY CORPS--SHERIDAN, MERRITT, DAVIS,
GREGG, TORBERT AND WILSON]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE DEAD ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF SPOTTSYLVANIA
COURT HOUSE IN 1864]

BOTH armies faced each other in full force at Spottsylvania Court House
in the forenoon of the ninth of May, 1864. The Brady cameras arrived
with the Government supply trains and perpetuated the historic scenes.
While the Union lines were placing their batteries, they were annoyed by
sharpshooters, and General Sedgwick was killed. His death was a great
loss to the Federals, just as Jackson's had crippled the Confederacy.
During the first day at Spottsylvania the Federals lost fully 10,000
men, while the Confederates' loss was very nearly 9,000. The unburied
bodies of 3,000 men lay scattered along the slopes of the ridges and
under the trees. Out of the 200,000 Federals and Confederates who rushed
into battle on the fifth of May, 43,000 were either dead, wounded, or
prisoners, after three days of fighting. During the week the fighting
extended along the Fredericksburg road, Laurel Hill and Ny River,
reaching to Swift Creek and Cloyd's Mountain. The Army of the Potomac,
since it crossed the Rapidan River, had lost nearly one-fourth of its
men in the brief space of eight days, and now had a fighting force of
only 87,000. The photograph of the Confederate dead was taken near
Spottsylvania Court House, May 12, 1864, after Ewell's attack.

[Illustration: SLING CART USED IN HAULING CAPTURED CONFEDERATE ARTILLERY
AT DREWRY'S BLUFF ON THE JAMES RIVER IN 1864]



[Illustration: DUTCH GAP CANAL ENTERING JAMES RIVER IN VIRGINIA--BUILT
UNDER SEVERE FIRE]

[Illustration: OBSTRUCTIONS IN JAMES RIVER NEAR DREWRY'S BLUFF]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE FORT DARLING AT DREWRY'S BLUFF]

[Illustration: AIKEN'S LANDING, WHERE PRISONERS WERE EXCHANGED]

WHILE Grant was moving toward Richmond from the north, Butler was
forcing his way from Yorktown on the south, threatening Richmond from
the peninsula as McClellan had done two years before. It was at this
time that the photographs here shown were taken in May, 1864. Butler
succeeded in destroying part of the road from Petersburg to Richmond. He
received word that Lee was in full retreat for Richmond, with Grant
close upon his heels. One of the extreme southern positions in the
defense of Richmond was Fort Darling at Drewry's Bluff. On the
thirteenth of May, Butler succeeded in carrying a portion of the outer
lines, capturing a considerable amount of artillery, but on the
sixteenth he was repulsed and fell back upon Bermuda Hundred. A powerful
Confederate battery on the James River barred the bridge toward
Richmond. Butler conceived the idea of cutting a canal through the
narrow neck of land known as Dutch Gap for the passage of the monitors.
A photograph was taken of this canal, which was constructed under a
severe and continuous fire. The dredge and steam pump used were
bomb-proof. The greater part of the excavation was done by colored
troops, who sought cover, from the bombardment of the enemy, in earthen
dugouts that covered the site of the work. The canal was only 174 yards
long, 43 yards wide at the top, 27 yards at the water level, and 13 5/10
yards at a depth of 15 feet below water level. It cut off 4-3/4 miles of
river navigation and the excavation was nearly 67,000 cubic yards. The
war photographers secured many negatives of these operations and several
of the most important ones are shown on these pages. One of them was
taken at Aiken's Landing, where the flag-of-truce boat from Richmond
came to discharge her cargo of poor, starved, and often dying Union
prisoners, and received in exchange the same number of healthy, well-fed
rebels from our guards. Two or three rough old canal boats, and the grim
old monitor there at anchor, but above all the glorious old Stars and
Stripes, and on the shore the loving hearts and kindly hands of friends.
The soldiers called it "the gate into God's country."



[Illustration: PONTOON BRIDGE AT JERICHO MILLS ON NORTH ANNA RIVER,
VIRGINIA]

[Illustration: HEADQUARTERS OF GRANT AND MEADE AT MASSAPONAX CHURCH,
VIRGINIA]

[Illustration: COUNCIL OF WAR AT MASSAPONAX CHURCH, VIRGINIA, IN
1864--GENERALS GRANT AND MEADE, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF WAR DANA AND
STAFF OFFICERS]

AFTER the battle of Spottsylvania Court House the war photographers
exposed many negatives, during the five days that the relative positions
of the two armies remained unchanged. Grant and Lee were engaged in
brilliant strategy. Grant had thrown out his left until it rested on
Massaponax Church. While the great General was in council of war at this
place on the twenty-first of May, 1864, a remarkable photograph was
taken. In the reproduction on this page it will be seen that the pews
have been brought out under the trees and the officers are gathered to
discuss the situation. Grant is sitting on the bench against the trees.
With him are General Meade, Assistant Secretary of War, Charles A. Dana,
and the staff officers. This was a critical time. The Union losses had
been heavy and Lee had not yet been outwitted. This photograph is of
much historic significance. In advance of Grant's movements, General
Sheridan had started on a raid, with 10,000 sabres, and reaching the
North Anna River, captured Beaver Dam Station, destroyed ten miles of
railroad track and three freight trains containing a million and a half
Confederate rations. Here he was fiercely assaulted by "Jeb" Stuart, but
he succeeded in crossing the North Anna River by Ground-Squirrel Bridge
and proceeded toward Richmond as far as Yellow Tavern, six miles from
the Confederate Capital. Stuart fell mortally wounded and died in the
city of Richmond. Sheridan then attempted to capture the works around
Richmond, and Custer crossed the first line and seized two pieces of
artillery and one hundred prisoners. Lee had fallen back from the North
Anna River and assumed a position still covering Richmond. A photograph
was taken of the pontoon bridge constructed across the North Anna River
at Jericho Mills, where General Warren's five corps crossed on the
twenty-third of May. The Federal base of supplies was shifted to the
White House on the Pamunkey River where the remainder of the Federal
Army crossed on the twenty-eighth of May, followed by the war cameras.



[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD AT RESACA, IN GEORGIA, MAY 13-16, 1864]

[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD OF NEW HOPE CHURCH, IN GEORGIA, MAY 25 TO
JUNE 4, 1864]

[Illustration: BATTLEGROUND ON KENESAW MOUNTAIN, GEORGIA, IN JULY, 1864]

WHILE Grant was moving on toward Richmond, Sherman's armies of Arkansas,
Cumberland, Ohio and Tennessee, with 352,000 men distributed in many
garrisons over this wide expanse of territory, was moving against
Atlanta, Georgia. Opposed to Sherman was Lieutenant-General Joseph E.
Johnston, who commanded all the Confederate troops in the West,
including the men of Bragg's old army. Atlanta was of equal importance
with Richmond. It was a great railroad center and it contained the
Confederate depots, mills, foundries and the manufactories of military
supplies. Sherman had moved simultaneously with the Army of the Potomac,
on the second day of the Battle of the Wilderness. On the thirteenth of
May, Sherman's men met the Confederates at Resaca, Georgia. There was
brisk, sharp fighting all along the lines. On the night of the fifteenth
the Confederates abandoned the town and crossed the Oostenaula River,
setting fire to the bridges. At dawn of the sixteenth the Federals
entered Resaca and began a vigorous pursuit, and the camera recorded the
scene of the abandoned entrenchments. The fields across which the
Confederates withdrew may be seen in the distance. The Confederates
concentrated their forces near New Hope Church on the twenty-fifth, and
attacked the advancing Union troops but were driven back with heavy
loss. The war photographers here secured a photograph of the
entrenchments in the woods where there was continuous fighting for six
days. The Federal Army forced its way through the mountainous country to
the towering peaks of Kenesaw Mountain, Lost Mountain, and Pine
Mountain. On all these heights the Confederates had signal towers. The
outlying hills were occupied by batteries. The cameras were carried to
the heights of Kenesaw Mountain and taken into its entrenchments.
Sherman's troops climbed this slope, through its tangled wood and rifle
pits, in the face of a steady musketry and artillery fire. This really
ended the first movement of Sherman's campaign against Atlanta.
Sherman's losses during May and June were over 2,000 killed and 13,000
wounded. Johnston's losses were about 1,200 killed and nearly 14,000
wounded. During the fifty-four days, both armies were depleted by 3,200
killed, 27,000 wounded.



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE SKELETONS OF DEAD SOLDIERS WERE
BEING REMOVED SEVERAL MONTHS AFTER BATTLE OF COLD HARBOR]

GRANT and Lee met at Cold Harbor in a desperate struggle on the first
day of June in 1864. The following day was occupied by a general massing
for the deadly encounter. Meade's army moved silently on the enemy at
daylight on the third and the result was the fiercest battle of the
entire war. There was a drizzling rain. The armies could hardly see the
faces of their antagonists. Not a shot was fired until they were upon
each other. One hundred thousand muskets simultaneously began their
murderous work at a range of sixty to seventy yards. Two hundred pieces
of artillery added to the deafening roar. It was the tragedy of
Fredericksburg and Gettysburg re-enacted. The Union soldiers pressed
toward the solid mass of lead and flame from the Confederate
entrenchments only to be forced back. At times they swept to the
breastworks against the torrents of musketry and mounted the parapets.
The assault lasted but twenty minutes and the Union Army lost in killed,
wounded and missing over 14,000 men; the Confederate loss has been
estimated at 1,700. The two armies stayed at Cold Harbor for ten days,
working on their field entrenchments, and fighting whenever either side
grew bold. Lee remained immovable in his entrenchments before Richmond
and on the afternoon of the sixteenth of June, Grant's army, horse, foot
and artillery, had crossed the James River. On the seventh of June the
dead were buried and the wounded gathered during an armistice of two
hours. This is a ghastly view, showing the process of collecting the
remains of Union soldiers who were hastily interred at the time of the
battle. This photograph was taken on the battlefield months after the
battle, when the Government ordered the remains gathered for permanent
burial. The grinning skulls, the boots still hanging on the bones, the
old canteen, all testify to the tragedy.



SHERMAN, in his campaign in Georgia in 1864, was much interested in the
cameras that followed his army and urged the photographer to take
negatives of every movement as his forces pushed the Confederates toward
Atlanta. On the morning of July 3, 1864, the Stars and Stripes fluttered
on the crest of old Kenesaw Mountain. All the Federal corps were in
rapid motion, and on Independence Day Sherman could distinguish the
houses of Atlanta only nine miles away. General Johnston withdrew into
the city and a storm of indignation swept the Confederacy. Johnston
resigned his command and was succeeded by General J. B. Hood. Sherman
set his troops in motion for the city on the seventeenth of July. On the
nineteenth, the troops were so near Atlanta, and were meeting such
feeble resistance that it was supposed the Confederates were evacuating,
until they poured out of their entrenchments and opened furious fire on
the north side of Peach Tree Creek. The war cameras were busily engaged
and one of the negatives is an abandoned Confederate fortification on
the road leading to Atlanta. A camera was taken into this fort shortly
after its capture by Sherman. It shows the extent to which the
Confederates had protected themselves. It is one of the rare pictures in
which chevaux-de-frise construction is shown. It is here seen that the
defense is a temporary obstruction by placing rails in a row with their
pointed ends directed against the enemy. They impeded the advance of the
foe and afforded cover for the defenders. During the conquest of Georgia
the Confederates were much awed by the Brady "what is it?" wagons. It is
the first time that field photography was witnessed in the far South.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT A CONFEDERATE FORT ON MARIETTA ROAD,
NEAR ATLANTA, GEORGIA, AFTER CAPTURE BY SHERMAN, SEPTEMBER 2, 1864]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON THE LINES BEFORE ATLANTA, GEORGIA, IN
1864--GENERAL WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN AND STAFF]

WHILE Sherman's Army was literally standing at the gates of Atlanta,
this photograph was taken. The great general was with his staff in a
Federal fort on the outlying hills. He was leaning on the breech of the
cannon in one of his most characteristic attitudes. At this time Sherman
was forty-four years of age. When sixteen years old he had entered West
Point as a cadet, through the influence of his father, who was a Supreme
Court judge in Ohio. At twenty years of age he entered the United States
regular army and during the Mexican War was engaged in service in
California. When thirty-three years of age, Sherman resigned from the
army and became President of the State Military Institute of Louisiana.
At the outbreak of the Civil War he left the South and offered his
services to the Union. He was a colonel at the Battle of Bull Run. After
that battle, when the Northern Army was reorganized, Sherman was
appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers and commanded the Department
of the Cumberland. He demanded 200,000 men to reach the Gulf, but it was
refused and he was ordered into Missouri. He was for a time inactive but
came to the front again at Shiloh in command of a division under Grant.
His bravery secured his promotion to Major-General and he became active
in the campaign around Vicksburg. He then entered into the Mississippi
Campaign and led the forces against Atlanta, resulting in his famous
march to the sea. This photograph was taken on the eighteenth day of
July, in 1864, on the lines before Atlanta. Sherman was much interested
in the new science of photography and he always protected the cameras.



[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD OF PEACH TREE CREEK, GEORGIA, JULY 20,
1864--HOOD'S FIRST SORTIE NEAR ATLANTA]

[Illustration: WHERE GENERAL MCPHERSON WAS KILLED, JULY 22, 1864, NEAR
ATLANTA--HOOD'S SECOND SORTIE]

[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD AT ATLANTA, GEORGIA, JULY 22, 1864--HOOD'S
SECOND SORTIE]

[Illustration: MILL AND RAILROAD DESTROYED BY CONFEDERATES ON EVACUATION
OF ATLANTA, SEPTEMBER 2, 1864]



[Illustration: CAPTAIN JOHN A. WINSLOW AND OFFICERS ON DECK OF
"KEARSARGE" ON RETURN TO AMERICA AFTER DESTRUCTION OF THE "ALABAMA" IN
THE ENGLISH CHANNEL]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE IRONCLAD RAM "TENNESSEE" CAPTURED AT MOBILE
BAY AUGUST 5, 1864, BY ADMIRAL FARRAGUT]

ATLANTA was evacuated by the Confederates on the first day of September,
in 1864 after a long, hard siege. The formal surrender was made by the
Mayor on September second and the city became a military depot governed
by military law. During this campaign of four months the Federals lost
31,680 men; the Confederates 34,986. The war photographers secured many
negatives of the battlefields in the siege around Atlanta. A view is
here shown of Peach Tree Creek where the Federal loss was 1,710 and the
Confederate 4,796. Another camera was taken to the woods where the Union
general, McPherson, was killed in Hood's second sortie outside of the
city. The daring commander rode directly into the enemy's line, without
knowledge of danger. An interesting picture is that of the earth works
before Atlanta, during Hood's first sortie, in which the Union losses
were 3,641, and the Confederate 8,499. The destruction that was wrought
during the siege of Atlanta is perpetuated by many of these negatives.
While the armies were making these decisive blows, the "Kearsarge" 3,000
miles away, met and sunk the Confederate ship, "Alabama," in the English
Channel on Sunday morning, June 19, 1864. The "Alabama" had been roaming
the seas nearly two years, capturing and burning American merchantmen.
Another important naval conflict occurred on the 5th of August when
Admiral Farragut gained possession of Mobile Bay, Alabama, and the war
cameras caught a picture of the rebel ram, "Tennessee," the ironclad
captured at that time by Farragut.

[Illustration: DEVASTATION ON "MARCH TO THE SEA"]

[Illustration: SHERMAN'S MEN DESTROYING RAILROAD]



[Illustration: CONFEDERATE DEFENSES AT CHATTAHOOCHIE RIVER BRIDGE,
GEORGIA, IN 1864]

[Illustration: BATTLEGROUND OF ALLATOONA PASS, IN GEORGIA, OCTOBER 5,
1864]

[Illustration: GENERAL U. S. GRANT AND STAFF AT CITY POINT, VIRGINIA, IN
AUGUST, 1864]

WHILE the combined armies under Sherman lay in and around Atlanta until
October, 1864, the war photographers were used extensively. Fierce
encounters took place early in that month around Kenesaw Mountain and
along Allatoona Pass. During this famous encounter Sherman stood on the
top of Kenesaw. General Corse, who was leading the Union Division into
combat, sent him this message: "I am short a cheek-bone and one ear, but
am able to whip all hell yet." It was to this that Sherman made his
famous reply: "Hold the fort, for I am coming." Sherman began his famous
march to the sea on the fifteenth of November. As the columns left
Atlanta the Federal engineers applied their torches to the depot,
roundhouse, and the machine shops of the Georgia railroad. The columns
extended to the northern part of the city. Stores, warehouses, hotels,
and mills, with many private dwellings, were destroyed to the value of
more than three millions of dollars. Amid the fierce heat and roar
Sherman rode out of Atlanta on the afternoon of November 16th. The great
army for five consecutive weeks swept across Georgia. The 62,000 men,
20,000 horses and mules, marched 300 miles in a route from 20 to 60
miles wide. The army captured twenty million pounds of corn and fodder,
three million rations of bread and meat, one million rations of coffee
and sugar and 350 miles of railroad track were destroyed. Sherman
estimated the property losses at over one hundred millions of dollars.
The Federal losses during the campaign were but 63 men killed on the
field, 245 wounded, and 259 missing. The Confederacy was severed and a
decisive step taken toward ending the Civil War.



[Illustration: DESTRUCTION FROM EXPLOSION OF ORDNANCE BARGES AT WHARVES
AT CITY POINT, VIRGINIA, AUGUST 9, 1864]

WHILE Sherman was marching from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Atlanta,
Georgia, on his famous march to the sea, Grant was laying siege on
Petersburg, Virginia, twenty-two miles south of Richmond. This was the
central point for five railroads, giving communication with the
Carolinas and Southern Virginia. Its possession by Federal troops would
cut off Richmond and force the evacuation of the Confederate Capital.
Lee was strongly intrenched around Petersburg. For a time during the
summer there was hot fighting every hour in the day and frequently far
into the night. The two armies were ready to fight to a finish. The
Union Army was preparing itself for the final stroke and the conflicts
were constant. It was during this campaign that the battles of New
Market Heights and Cedar Creek were fought and Sheridan made his famous
ride down the Shenandoah Valley to Winchester. Grant's base of supplies
was at City Point on the James River. On the ninth day of August, in
1864, there was an explosion of the ordnance barges and a war camera was
hurried to the scene and secured this negative on the same day. At the
same time, while General Grant was in conference with his staff in his
tent at the army headquarters, the war photographers secured the picture
shown on the preceding page. The general may be seen in the center of
the group, sitting in the chair, with his hat characteristically pushed
back on his head and his legs crossed. This is an interesting negative.



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN FORT NEGLEY AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE,
SHOWING IRONCLAD CASEMATES, IN 1864]

IN the closing months of 1864 events occurred in rapid succession in the
southwest. The Confederates, under Hood, driven from Georgia by Sherman,
invaded Middle Tennessee. General Price began his invasion of Missouri
and destroyed property valued at three millions of dollars and seized a
vast quantity of supplies. The Union forces, under General Thomas, were
concentrated at Nashville. There were continual skirmishes and at
nightfall, on the sixteenth of December, General Thomas ordered his
troops into line of battle, with the intent of driving Hood's Army from
the territory. In a terrific fire of musketry, grape and canister, the
Federals pushed forward. In the next two days the Confederates lost all
their artillery. General Thomas took four thousand, five hundred
prisoners, nearly three hundred being officers. The fleeing Confederate
columns left nearly three thousand dead and wounded on the ground, while
the Federal loss was three hundred. The weather was very cold, but
Thomas pursued his foe relentlessly. Flood's men were in a desperate
condition, barefooted, ragged and disheartened. They were pressed to the
Tennessee River where thirteen thousand were taken prisoners, and Hood's
great army was practically annihilated, their small arms scattered along
the roads, and cannon, caissons and wagons abandoned. Hood took the
remnants of his army into Mississippi where he was relieved from command
by his own request and retired minus the arm he left at Gettysburg and
the leg he left at Chickamauga. On the thirtieth day of December, in
1864, Thomas went into winter quarters. One of the last photographs of
the year was taken in Fort Negley, Nashville, Tennessee, showing the
ironclad casemates and the interior of the fort.



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON GRANT'S MILITARY RAILROAD WHEN THE
13-INCH MORTAR "DICTATOR" OR "PETERSBURG EXPRESS" WAS THROWING SHELLS
INTO PETERSBURG IN 1864]

THE last days of 1864 closed with the Army of the Potomac and the Army
of the James maintaining the siege about Petersburg. Nearly every hour
of the day and night the air was filled with the roar of siege cannons
and mortars. Brady and Gardner had several of their cameras at the siege
of Petersburg. Many rare negatives are to-day witnesses of this great
event. The picture shown on this page was taken during the siege. It
shows the thirteen-inch "Dictator," known as the "Petersburg Express,"
mounted on a flat freight car made strong for this purpose. It was on
the military railroad outside of Petersburg and moved continually along
the line, throwing its huge death-dealing bombs into the city. Some of
the mortars were mounted on very strong, special-made cars, protected
with roofs of railroad iron. Grant's line was twenty-five miles long,
but with its parallels extending over ninety miles. The two forts
nearest the city of Petersburg were known by the soldiers as Fort Hell
and Fort Damnation. From their casemates the movements of the soldiers
of the beleaguered city were distinctly visible. The guns of these two
advanced forts were never silent. At nightfall, the pickets, with one
hundred and fifty rounds of ball cartridges, left for the outposts, and
many of them never returned. The night was made hideous by the roar of
huge siege guns, the sudden crashes of musketry and the crack of rifle
shells. The openings of the breastworks were so filled with shot during
this siege that in time of truce the soldiers would dig the narrow
openings out with their fingers. On the next page is shown a photograph
taken April 2, 1865, in Confederate trenches at Petersburg just after
their capture by the daring Union troops.



[Illustration: GENERALS HANCOCK, BARLOW, BIRNEY AND GIBBON]

[Illustration: SIEGE OF PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA--PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN JUST
BEFORE ITS FALL IN 1865]

[Illustration: RAILROAD BATTERY IN FRONT OF PETERSBURG DURING SIEGE]

[Illustration: EARTHWORKS IN FRONT OF PETERSBURG--FEDERAL LINES AT FORT
MORTON]

[Illustration: DEAD CONFEDERATES IN TRENCHES AT PETERSBURG]



DEEDS of valor on the battlefield have been sung from the earliest ages,
but there is no epoch in the world's history when men have shown more
magnificent courage, or greater devotion to principle, than in the Civil
War of the United States. The days of ancient knighthood never saw more
gallant fighters, no lancer ever met a worthier foe. It was the grandest
spectacle of heroism that eyes have ever witnessed. At the battle-front,
in prison pit, in hospital, or wounded on the field--no men ever endured
more intense suffering.

The only National debt we can never pay is the debt we owe to the men
who offered their lives that the United American Nation might live to
become the greatest power in the human race. The heroic sacrifices will
never be known. It has been variously estimated from three hundred
thousand to a million lives. The Government records 44,238 men as having
been killed in battle; 49,205 dying of wounds and injuries; 186,216
succumbing to disease; 24,184 expiring from unknown causes; and 526
suicides, homicides and executions. Thousands of men disappeared during
the conflict and have never been heard from since. The surgeon-general's
records give 280,040 wounded in battle; 184,791 missing or captured;
26,168 dying while prisoners of war. The medical records state that
6,049,648 cases were brought into the hospitals, great numbers of whom
were sent home to die. The Confederate losses can never be ascertained
but it is very probable that the price that America paid for the
preservation of the Union was a million of its manhood.

The crisis of 1865 held not only the future of the United States in the
balance, but threatened to change the political divisions of the world.
The American Nation, which is the "freest, richest and most powerful"
nation under the skies, would have been divided into two weakened
republics, each struggling for existence, disputing the ownership of
rivers and coast, engaged in continual border uprisings, and finally
becoming the prey of the powerful nations of Europe--only to be soon
devoured by encroaching monarchies of the Eastern Hemisphere.


    "When 'Greek meets Greek' the tug of war
      Is sure to follow fierce and strong;
    What wonder that the bloody strife
      'Twixt North and South was four years long!
    Four hundred thousand of our brave
      Gave up their lives that we might be
    A Nation, powerful and great,
      The fitting home of Liberty.
    America will surely stand
      The first and foremost of the earth:
    The Queen of Nations she shall be,
      And all her sons have royal birth.

[Illustration: FOR THE SAKE OF THEIR COUNTRY--Photograph taken by Brady
on the battlefield during the Civil War]

    "The Goddess of sweet Liberty
      Still smiles upon her gallant knights
    Who bravely sprang to her defense,
      And fearless fought to keep our rights.
    Then cheer our heroes, grim and old,
      And let them feel while yet alive,
    We honor them for what they did
      From sixty-one to sixty-five.
    All honor to our sacred dead,
      And honor well the living, too,
    Our Veterans of the Civil War,
      These noble boys who wore the blue."


The problem was settled for all ages in 1865. The American Nation rose
from the ruins of War like a young giant. Grasping the hand of the North
and the South, it clasped them together with the grip of brotherhood and
the sacred pledge, "United we stand; divided we fall." Long live
America, the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave! The vast
armies, "strong enough to have conquered a hemisphere, vanished like a
vision and the men who fought side by side through the perils of four
years of Civil War, laid down their arms, changed their uniforms of blue
and gray for the apparel of everyday life, and took up once more the
peaceful occupations they had abandoned to serve their country."

The Spring of 1865 can never be forgotten by the men who went through
it. It was a time of intense excitement and overflowing enthusiasm which
carried itself almost to pandemonium. The war cameras, which had
perpetuated the last wonderful scenes of the conflict, were taken to
Washington and New York, and the Summer fell upon a peaceful people.

It is the avowed mission of these pages to lay before the present
generation the vision of War in all its horror that those who look upon
them may pledge themselves to the furtherance of the day "when a cannon
will be exhibited in public museums, just as an instrument of torture is
now, and people will be amazed that such a thing could have been;" the
day when "those two immense groups, the United States of America, and
the United States of Europe," and the United States of Asia and of
Africa, "will be seen placed in the presence of each other, extending
the hand of fellowship across the oceans, exchanging their produce,
their commerce, their industries, their arts, their genius; clearing the
earth, peopling the desert, improving creation under the eye of the
Creator, and uniting for the good of all, these two irresistible and
infinite powers--the fraternity of men and the power of God!"



THE first days of 1865 around Petersburg were a hard strain on the
soldiers. The winter's siege had been severe. The Confederates were
desperate. Unable to break the Federal lines at Dinwiddie, Five Forks,
or any of the many combats that were continually taking place, defeat
and annihilation awaited them. On the first of April the entire
artillery forces in the trenches before Petersburg began a tremendous
cannonading which continued until dawn. The Union troops during the
night tightened their lines around Petersburg until the following
morning, which was Sunday. At daylight, on Monday, the third of April,
Lee evacuated Petersburg and the Union forces entered the city about
nine o'clock. Cameras were soon taken through the gates and during the
day several photographs were taken, including a negative of the trenches
containing the dead. This photograph shows a company of colored
infantry. There were 186,097 colored troops enlisted in the Civil War.
In many conflicts they showed great bravery, especially during the siege
of Petersburg. An instance of their great courage was the attempt to
break through the Confederate lines by tunneling under one of the
fortifications and blowing it up with the charge of eight thousand
pounds of powder. In the smoke of the explosion the colored troops
charged through the crater and up the slope beyond, only to meet with a
terrific fire in which hundreds of colored heroes were mown down like
grass, with no hope of anyone reaching the crest, but they held to the
charge until ordered to retire. The engagements around Petersburg during
its last nine months cost the Union Army more than thirty thousand men.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE COLORED INFANTRY WAS MOVING TO THE
BATTLEGROUND]



THIS witness of a remarkable sight is so old that it will be noted that
the tree at the right of the picture is being eaten away from the
original negative. It lays before the eyes of all generations the view
of the first wagon train entering Petersburg with provisions for the
starving inhabitants after one of the greatest sieges in history. It was
on Sunday night, about ten o'clock, the second day of April, in 1865,
that the resolute Lee marshalled his troops for the evacuation of
Petersburg. At three on the following morning the stronghold of the
Confederacy was left to the Union forces. At nine on the same morning
General Grant rode into the deserted city. The remaining inhabitants
were panic-stricken and in a destitute condition. Many of them had
escaped with their beloved leader while others, in abject terror,
secluded themselves in their homes. Grant, with his staff, rode quietly
through the streets until he came to a comfortable-looking brick house,
with a yard in front, where he dismounted and took a seat on the
veranda. The gentle manner of the great general found a response in the
hearts of those who had feared him. Citizens soon gathered on the
sidewalk and gazed with curiosity on the Union commander. News of the
hunger of the people was hurried along the line. Great wagon trains of
provisions struggled for miles through roadways choked with prisoners,
stragglers and wounded. This photograph was taken as the first division,
loaded with barrels of flour, pork, coffee, sugar, and other
necessaries, rolled into Petersburg. With the brotherly affection that
even the madness of war cannot destroy, the men in blue came to those
devoted to the gray, not as enemies, but as fellowmen ever willing to
relieve the suffering. The humanity of war is here exemplified.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE GOVERNMENT PROVISION TRAINS WERE
ENTERING PETERSBURG AFTER EVACUATION IN 1865]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS GUNBOAT "SANTIAGO DE CUBA" SAILED ON
THE FORT FISHER EXPEDITION]

THE largest fleet that had ever been assembled under one command in the
history of the American Navy concentrated before Fort Fisher, North
Carolina, late in 1864. It included nearly sixty vessels, of which five
were ironclads, and the three largest United States steam frigates,
"Minnesota," "Colorado" and "Wabash," and was accompanied by one of the
war cameras. The total number of guns and howitzers of the fleet were
over six hundred, and the weight of projectiles at a single discharge of
all the guns, both broadsides, was over twenty-two tons. The Atlantic
and Gulf coast were almost entirely in the Government possession and the
Navy was prepared to strike its decisive blow. Fort Fisher was now the
most important Confederate naval position. The first attack took place
in the night of December twenty-third, when a powder-boat was exploded
under the towering walls of the old fort. It was believed that it was
leveled to the ground, but in the morning the grim fort stood absolutely
uninjured with its flag floating defiantly. An attack was then led by
the ironclads, followed by the monitors and frigates. A naval officer in
describing it says: "Their sides seemed a sheet of flame, and the roar
of their guns like a mighty thunderbolt." The enemy took refuge in their
bomb-proofs. Owing to misunderstanding between army and navy the fort
was not taken. An excellent photograph was secured of one of the
gunboats in the Fort Fisher expedition--the "Santiago de Cuba," and the
negative is one of the finest naval pictures ever taken.



[Illustration: INTERIOR VIEW OF FORT FISHER IN 1865]

[Illustration: DISMANTLED GUN AT FORT FISHER IN 1865]

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT FORT FISHER, NORTH CAROLINA, SHOWING
DESTRUCTION OF GUN CARRIAGE IN 1865]



THE last stronghold of the Southern Confederacy on the Atlantic Coast
fell early in 1865. On the twelfth of January operations were agreed
upon for the final assault on Fort Fisher and a photograph was taken of
the fleet as it lay off the coast. On the morning of the thirteenth the
ironclads opened a terrific fire. Fort Fisher was at this time much
stronger than at the first attack. Troops had reinforced the garrison.
Damages from the first bombardment had been repaired and new defenses
added. In describing the downfall of the fort one who participated says:
"I believe there had never before been such a storm of shell in any
naval engagement. At noon on the fifteenth the attempt was made for the
sailors and marines to land. From thirty-five of the sixty ships of the
fleet boats were lowered, and with flags flying, pulled toward the beach
in line abreast, a most spirited scene. The sailors were armed with
cutlasses and pistols. The great land battery, the artillery and a
thousand rifles opened fire from Fort Fisher. The daring sailors found
themselves packed like sheep in a death pen, under a most galling fire."
The army pressed forward under General Terry's command, fighting its way
from traverse to traverse, overpowering the garrison, and finally
driving the Confederates from their last refuge. Fort Fisher fell on the
fifteenth of January. The casualties in the fleet amounted to 309, while
Terry's command lost 110 killed and 536 wounded--a total of nearly 1,000
men. With the fall of Fort Fisher and its seventy-five guns, the
Confederates abandoned Fort Caswell and all the works on Smith's Island;
all those between Caswell and Smithville up to the battery on Reeve's
Point on the west side of the river. This photograph of the fleet that
took Fort Fisher shows the ships assembling off the coast. The negative
was secured under much difficulty.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AS GREATEST FLEET CARRYING AMERICAN FLAG
WAS PREPARING TO ATTACK FORT FISHER IN 1865]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE ADMIRAL PORTER AND STAFF WERE ON
FLAGSHIP "MALVERN" IN FORT FISHER EXPEDITION IN 1865]

THE Civil War was a great practical demonstration of naval vessels
propelled by steam. The whole system of naval tactics had undergone a
great change. The guns had become vastly more powerful; war ships were
now protected by a light armor, and the torpedo had found its way into
successful employment. The normal strength of the Navy at the beginning
of the war was ninety vessels; fifty of these were sailing ships, worthy
vessels in years gone by, but now left behind by progress. There were
forty vessels propelled by steam and many of these were scattered on the
high seas. As the war progressed, the Navy was increased and at its
close had nearly six hundred ships, including every variety of
merchantman and river steamboat roughly adapted in navy-yards for war
services. There were built or projected during the war nearly sixty
ironclads. At the beginning of the war the total number of officers of
all grades in the Navy was 1,457, and during its progress the number was
increased to 7,500, chiefly from the merchant marine. The normal
strength of seamen, which was 7,600, rose during the war to 51,500. The
South entered upon the war without any naval preparation and with very
limited resources, but by purchases and seizures equipped a considerable
fleet. Toward the close of the conflict the war photographers secured a
large number of negatives during naval demonstrations. Among those here
presented is Admiral David D. Porter and staff on his flagship,
"Malvern," on the Fort Fisher Expedition. The gallant admiral may be
seen standing in the center of the group. A picture is on the following
page of Major-General A. H. Terry and staff, in command of the land
demonstrations around Fort Fisher, and on whom special honors were
conferred by Congress for his courageous leadership in the attack. These
photographs witness the last great naval demonstration of the war.



[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF FORT FISHER, NORTH CAROLINA, IN 1865]

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL ALFRED H. TERRY AND STAFF AT FORT FISHER]

[Illustration: ENGLISH ARMSTRONG GUN IN FORT FISHER]



[Illustration: RUINS OF COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA, FROM THE
CAPITOL--SHELLED BY SHERMAN, FEBRUARY 16, 1865--PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BY
BRADY WHILE RUINS WERE SMOKING]

[Illustration: RUINS OF DEPOT WHERE TWO HUNDRED PERSONS WERE BLOWN UP ON
EVACUATION OF CHARLESTON]

[Illustration: RUINS OF SECESSION HALL AT CHARLESTON AFTER SURRENDER,
FEBRUARY 18, 1865]

THE final blows of the Civil War came quick and sharp. Grant had taken
Petersburg; Thomas had annihilated the Confederate forces under Hood
along the Mississippi River; Sherman had swept through Georgia and
overrun the Carolinas. Exactly four years after the inauguration of
Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederacy, historic Columbia and
Charleston, South Carolina, surrendered. The closing days sowed flame
and devastation. The war cameras followed Sherman's Army into Columbia
and the old negatives tell the tragedy of the destroyed Confederate
cities. One of them here reproduced is historic Secession Hall in ruins.
It was here that the first Ordinance of Secession was passed. This view
shows the historic edifice as it appeared when the Union troops took
possession of the city. Adjoining the Hall are the ruins of Central
Church, and in the background is St. Phillips Church. The fall of
Columbia occurred on February 12, 1865. Charleston surrendered the
following day, and the Federal Government took possession. One of these
photographs shows the ruins of the Northeastern Railroad Depot at
Charleston where two hundred persons were blown up on the day of
evacuation, February 17, 1865. Sherman moved on through North Carolina
and fought his last battle at Bentonville, where the National loss was
1,604 men and the Confederate loss 2,342. During these last days of the
war occurred a disaster on the Mississippi River. The "Sultana" was on
her journey from New Orleans to St. Louis, receiving on board 1,964
Union prisoners from Columbia, Salisbury, Andersonville and other
Confederate prisons. Anxious to proceed North, little heed was given
that the ship was already carrying a heavy load of passengers on board,
occupying every foot of available space on all the decks to the tops of
the cabins and the wheelhouse, and on the twenty-seventh of April, when
about eight miles above Memphis, one of her boilers blew up. The dead at
the scene numbered 1,500.

[Illustration: STEAMER "SULTANA" CONVEYING EXCHANGED UNION
PRISONERS--DESTROYED IN MISSISSIPPI RIVER IN 1865]



IN the hospitals of the army during the Civil War 6,049,648 cases were
treated by the officers of the Medical Department. The medical skill of
the surgeons and physicians is evidenced by the fact that only 185,353
of these patients died during their detention in the hospitals. While a
large number of these soldiers suffered from gunshot wounds, the
disease of chronic diarrhoea was nearly as fatal, and its deadliness
was closely followed by the ravages of typhoid fever and lung diseases.
It is estimated that 285,245 men were discharged during the war for
disability. A tribute should be paid to the nobility of the hospital
corps. Many noble men and women did great service to their country in
relieving the sufferings that followed the battles. After many of the
terrific conflicts the ground was strewn with the dead and dying. The
wounded, in whom there was a hope of life, were given immediate care and
hurried on stretchers to nearby houses and barns from which floated the
yellow flag of the Medical Department. Large hospital tents were erected
near the scene of battle. At times all the rooms in the surrounding
farmhouses were full of wounded; the injured men were laid on cornstalks
and hay in the barns. Sometimes it was impossible to find shelter for
them all and they were laid on boards inclined against fences. Many of
the large trees formed a shelter for a temporary hospital, where the men
were laid in rows while the attendants administered to their wants. In
no previous war in the history of the world was so much done to
alleviate suffering as in the War of 1861-1865. But notwithstanding all
that was done, the wounded suffered horribly. After any great battle it
required several days and nights of steady work before all the wounded
men were gathered.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE AMBULANCE CORPS WERE REMOVING
WOUNDED SOLDIERS TO THE FIELD HOSPITAL]



[Illustration: SMOKESTACK OF EXPLODED RAM "VIRGINIA" IN 1865]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE ARTILLERY ON WHARVES NEAR RICHMOND]

[Illustration: RUINED LOCOMOTIVE AFTER FALL OF RICHMOND IN 1865]

[Illustration: AMBULANCE CONVEYING JEFFERSON DAVIS AFTER HIS
CAPTURE--PASSING THROUGH THE STREETS OF MACON, GEORGIA]

JEFFERSON DAVIS was at St. Paul's Church, in Richmond, at the usual hour
of Sunday morning worship when he received the message that Petersburg
was being evacuated and Lee's lines were irreparably broken. The sexton
walked up to Davis's pew and whispered a few words in the President's
ear. The members of the Cabinet received similar calls. From church to
church the note of warning was communicated. By two o'clock everybody in
Richmond knew that the city was to be abandoned. The Presidential party
with difficulty made its way through the excited crowd which thronged
and blocked the streets. Davis began his flight by boarding a train and
went as far as Danville where, on April 4, 1865, he began to establish a
new seat of government. The following day he issued a proclamation to
his people, only to again flee to Greensborough, North Carolina, where
he remained in a railroad car. On reaching Charlotte, he threw off the
semblance of authority and planned to reach Texas. The flight was
continued through South Carolina and into Macon, Georgia. In the
meantime, a reward of $100,000 was offered for the apprehension of
Davis. He was finally captured in a camp in the woods near Irwinsville,
Georgia, while trying to escape in a lady's waterproof coat, gathered at
the waist, with a shawl thrown over the head, and carrying a tin pail.
This remarkable photograph was taken while the Confederate President was
being carried as a prisoner in an ambulance through the streets of
Macon. He was conveyed to Fortress Monroe, for safe keeping, on May 22,
1865, and was finally allowed his freedom on bail and never brought to
trial. Brady entered Richmond with his cameras a few hours after the
departure of Davis and these negatives witness the ruins. The great
tobacco warehouses had been destroyed and the ironclad rams on the river
had been blown up. The city was being pillaged. The Union troops entered
as conquerors and immediately set to work with a will to extinguish the
flames which wrought great destruction and havoc.



RICHMOND was a mass of flames on the third of April, in 1865. As the
Federal forces entered the city it was a scene of terrible splendor. The
explosion of magazines caused the earth to rock and tremble as with the
shock of an earthquake. The flames were leaping from building to
building until thirty squares were ablaze, consuming over one thousand
structures. Prisoners were liberated from the penitentiary and the torch
was applied to it. Men, women and children, faint from hunger, fled from
their homes. The provision depots were battered at the doors and forced
open in the demoniacal struggle against starvation. The gutters ran with
whiskey, and men fell to their knees and lapped it as it flowed through
the streets. The clatter of the hoofs of the horses added to the tumult
as the Union troops entered the city. At daylight the approach of the
Federal forces could be plainly discerned. The war cameras came into
Richmond with the army. The Union soldiers began to fight the flames,
blowing up houses to check their advance. There was a cavalry rush for
Libby prison to bring freedom to the Union soldiers confined within its
walls, but upon reaching it not a guard nor an inmate remained. The
doors were wide open. An old negro placidly remarked: "Dey's all gone,
massa!" The day following a mighty cheer was heard near the abandoned
residence of Jefferson Davis. President Lincoln walked down the street
with his usual long, careless stride. After viewing the situation and
impressing upon the officers his desire that they exert the most humane
influences, Lincoln returned to Washington. One of the most valuable
negatives in the Civil War collection is the ruins of Richmond on the
day that Lincoln inspected the condition of the city.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN OF THE RUINS AT RICHMOND THE DAY AFTER
ITS EVACUATION IN 1865]



[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT THE MCLEAN HOUSE AT APPOMATTOX THE
DAY THAT LEE SURRENDERED TO GRANT, APRIL 9, 1865]

WHEN Lee, with the remnant of his army, fled from Richmond and
Petersburg, he was closely pursued by Grant and attacked vigorously at
every approach. For seventy miles it was a race that was marked by a
long track of blood. There were collisions at Jestersville, Detonville,
Deep Creek, Paine's Cross Roads, and Farmville. At Sailor's Creek the
Confederate lines were broken by Custer. The Confederate General Ewell,
with four other generals and his entire corps, were captured and on the
eighth of April the Southern Army, under Lee, was completely surrounded.
Lee had but 28,000 men left and his brave dead were lying in heaps along
the route of his retreat. Hemmed in at Appomattox Court House a last
desperate effort was made to cut through the Federal cavalry. He was
gaining ground when Sheridan's bugles rang out the signal for a general
charge and a halt was called under a flag of truce. The two historic
armies never exchanged another shot. General Lee left his camp on the
morning of April 8 and was conducted to the McLean house, where he found
General Grant awaiting him. The actual surrender took place on April 12,
1865. The Confederate officers and men were paroled. Lee returned to his
men and bade them farewell. The scene was one of the most pathetic in
the records of war. The Confederate veterans wept like children as they
looked upon the face of their beloved leader. His last words to his men
were: "You will take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the
consciousness of duty faithfully performed. I earnestly pray that a
merciful God will extend to you His blessing and protection." A few
hours after Lee's surrender this photograph was taken at Appomattox.



IT is here in these closing pages the sad duty of these wonderful old
negatives to record one of the deepest tragedies in the history of the
world. In it the greatest Republic of the earth, at the close of the
most terrific conflict ever waged by fellow countrymen, saw its champion
of Liberty fall at the hands of an assassin. The great Lincoln looked
forward to years of peace among a re-united people. On the night of
April 14, 1865, he was murdered at Ford's Theater. The bitter tidings
swept the country. The American Nation was bowed down with grief. The
rendezvous of the conspirators was found to be the house of Mrs. M. E.
Surratt, located in the very heart of Washington. Mrs. Surratt, her
daughter Anna, Miss Fitzpatrick and a Miss Holahan were arrested. George
A. Atzerott, and one named Powell, were later captured. The principal
assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was found eleven days after the murder and
was shot when he refused to surrender. His companion, Harold, who had
been a fugitive with him, was taken prisoner. The trial of the
conspirators took place in Washington before a military commission. On
July 6, 1865, sentence was pronounced and on the following day the four
conspirators--Harold, Atzerott, Powell and Mrs. Surratt--were hanged.
Two of Brady's cameras were taken into the prison yard and placed near
the scaffold. When the warrant was being read one camera was used and
the historic view is now in the Eaton Collection. When the drop was
sprung, the second negative was exposed and the tragic scene is here
recorded. Mrs. Surratt is hanging at the left. The ghastliness was such
that many of the guards turned their heads. It is believed to be the
first time that the camera has been used to perpetuate the execution of
political conspirators. The negatives are in excellent condition and
their historic value is beyond purchase.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN PRISON YARD IN WASHINGTON AT HANGING
OF MRS. SURRATT AND THE LINCOLN ASSASSINATION CONSPIRATORS IN 1865]



THE funeral procession of Lincoln as it passed through New York was
witnessed by nearly a million people. The body was taken to Springfield,
Ohio, his old home town to which he had not returned since he left it to
go to Washington as President of the United States. Lincoln was buried
at Oak Ridge Cemetery, about two miles from Springfield. Immediately
after the close of the war the Government began inquiry into the
cruelties alleged to have taken place in many of the prisons. The result
was the arrest of Captain Henry Wirtz, the jailor at Andersonville. He
was given trial before a military commission and convicted of brutally
murdering Union prisoners. Wirtz was sentenced to death and hanged on
the tenth of November, 1865. The execution took place in Washington
within short distance of the National Capitol, and Brady's cameras were
taken into the prison yard. The negative was taken as the condemned man
stood on the scaffold, with head bowed, listening to the reading of his
death warrant. Another negative was secured after the noose had been
tightened around his neck and the drop had been sprung. The photographs
perpetuate a tragic moment. It will be seen that the soldiers on guard
were standing at "attention." The evidence against Wirtz was
overwhelming. Many witnesses testified to the cruelty of the accused man
and the horrors enacted within the dead lines at Andersonville.
Prisoners were forced to go forty-eight hours without food. Many of them
became insane; others committed suicide. There were deliberate,
cold-blooded murders of peaceable men. No opportunities were afforded
for cleanliness and the prisoners were covered with vermin. The
execution of Wirtz met public approval and this photograph shows him in
his last moments of life.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN WHILE DEATH WARRANT WAS BEING READ TO
WIRTZ, THE KEEPER OF ANDERSONVILLE PRISON IN 1865]



[Illustration: HERO OF THE AMERICANS WHO WORE THE BLUE

Ulysses Simpson Grant--Born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 27,
1822--Died at Mt. Gregor, New York, July 23, 1885--Graduated from West
Point in 1843 and fought gallantly under the Stars and Stripes in the
War against Mexico--Commander-in-chief of the victorious Union Army in
the Civil War in the United States--This photograph was taken when he
was forty-two years of age, during the Civil War, and was never before
published--It is protected by copyright]


AMERICANS--true to the blue or true to the gray--bow in reverence to the
memory of these two great fellow countrymen--the greatest leaders that
mankind has ever followed. Under the same beloved flag they fought in
their early days, only to stand arrayed against each other as foes in
their latter days, and to finally die as loyal Americans. Never before
has the public looked upon these photographs, which were taken by the
war cameras at Appomattox at the end of the war. When Lee offered his
sword to Grant it was courteously returned to him. The two gallant
generals lifted their hats and parted forever. Grant mounted his horse,
and started with his staff for Washington. Lee set out for Richmond, a
broken-hearted man. The armies returning from the field were brought to
Washington for a grand review and mustered out of service. The news of
Lee's surrender passed from army to army through the South and West, and
six weeks later the last gun had been fired and musket laid down in the
Civil War of the United States. In closing these pages, acknowledgment
is made to the many eminent historians whose scholarly works have been
consulted and quoted in narrating the incidents surrounding these
photographs. Mr. Edward B. Eaton, who has prepared this remarkable
presentation from his valuable collection; Mr. Francis T. Miller, the
editor and writer of this book; and Mr. George E. Tracy, associated with
Mr. Eaton in placing this volume before the public, wish to express
their appreciation for the cordial interest taken in the work by the
department commanders of the Grand Army of the Republic, many of whom
testify to having seen the Brady cameras on the battlefield when these
negatives were being taken. To these men--and to all who witnessed the
scenes herein perpetuated--this book is dedicated with the benediction
of the victorious Grant:


[Illustration: HERO OF THE AMERICANS WHO WORE THE GRAY

Robert Edward Lee--Born at Stratford, Virginia, January 19, 1807--Died
at Lexington, Virginia, October 12, 1870--Graduated at West Point in
1829 and fought gallantly under the Stars and Stripes in the War against
Mexico--Commander-in-chief of the vanquished Confederate Army in the
Civil War in the United States--This photograph was taken when he was
fifty-seven years of age, during the Civil War, and was never before
published--It is protected by copyright]


                           "LET US HAVE PEACE"


              THE ASSOCIATED PUBLISHERS OF AMERICAN RECORDS
                PRESS OF THE DORMAN LITHOGRAPHING COMPANY

                          NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT

       HALFTONE ENGRAVINGS BY ROBERT WELLER, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT



THE EDWARD B. EATON COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CIVIL WAR


    PARTIAL LIST OF THE SEVEN THOUSAND NEGATIVES TAKEN UNDER THE
    PROTECTION OF THE SECRET SERVICE BY MATHEW B. BRADY AND
    ALEXANDER GARDNER ON THE BATTLEFIELDS OF THE CIVIL WAR IN THE
    UNITED STATES DURING THE YEARS 1861--1862--1863--1864--1865--AND
    NOW SAFELY STORED IN THE PRIVATE VAULT OF THE OWNER AT HARTFORD,
    CONNECTICUT

THE Eaton Collection of Original Photographs of the Civil War, the full
history of which is given in the introductory to this Volume, is now for
the first time unveiled to the public. In presenting the reproductions
in this book the owner of this remarkable collection has protected them
fully by copyright and warns the public against infringers. Mr. Eaton is
the sole owner of these original negatives, which are valued at
$150,000, and henceforth, any other reproduction must be with his
written authority or it is an infringement. That the public may become
fully acquainted with the negatives in this official collection, experts
are now at work drawing two prints from each negative, protecting them
under copyright, and identifying, arranging and preparing them for a
complete catalogue. In several instances the label which the
photographer placed on the negatives when he made the photograph, over
forty years ago, has been lost. These are being carefully identified by
veterans of the Civil War who offer affidavits to having been on the
scene. At present there are still many views that are labeled "unknown."
It is nearing a half century since the sun painted these real scenes of
that great War, and some negatives have undergone chemical changes which
make it difficult to secure "prints" from them. There can be no
substitution, as the scenes represented on the old glass plates have
passed away forever. The great value of these pictures is apparent.
Several negatives are entirely past printing and all of them require
retouching by old-time photographers who understand the process. Even to
the thinning ranks of heroes of the Civil War the scenes of 1861-1865
are but a fading memory; cherished, it is true, and often called up from
among the dim pictures of the past, but after all, only the vision of a
dream. Artists have painted and sketched and engraved, with more or less
fidelity to fact and detail, those "scenes of trial and danger." Their
pictures can be but imaginary conceptions of the artist. Fortunately,
our Government authorized courageous photographers to skillfully secure
with their cameras the reflection, as in a mirror, of the thrilling
scenes of the conflict. These views vividly renew the memories of the
war days. The camp, the march, the battlefields, the forts and trenches,
the wounded, the prisoners, the dead, the hurriedly-made graves, and
many other of those once familiar scenes are photographically portrayed
and perpetuated.

As a record of a crisis in the history of the world, these negatives are
worth their weight in gold. Their value is such that they cannot be
handled, except with great care, or removed for exhibition purposes.
They are in a vault in Hartford, Connecticut, where the owner is very
willing to allow the public, especially the Veterans of the Civil War,
to examine them. It is desired to have the old negatives become of as
much service to the public-at-large as possible and for this purpose is
compiled this partial catalogue from the collection. Whenever the
condition of the negative permits, Mr. Eaton is willing to allow the
privilege of printing a proof. This is especially granted to Old
Soldiers or Grand Army Posts who desire certain original photographs of
scenes in which they participated. The service of this collection,
inasmuch as it pertains to commendable purposes, is here extended to the
American People who are no longer "Federal" and "Confederate."



THIS is a partial list of the negatives in the Eaton Collection of
Original Negatives taken on the Battlefields during the Civil War of the
United States, under the protection of the Secret Service. They include
all phases of army life. The cameras followed, not only the Eastern Army
and the Army of the West, but accompanied the Naval Fleets and were
present in many demonstrations. Veterans of the Civil War are cordially
invited to visit Hartford and inspect these negatives. Proofs will be
taken from any negative here registered, for Grand Army Veterans or
Posts, providing sufficient reasons are given with the request, which
should be sent direct to the owner of the collection, Mr. Edward B.
Eaton, Hartford, Connecticut.


                            ARMY OF POTOMAC

                     APRIL, 1861, TO AUGUST, 1861.

                       _Three Months' Campaign._

Long Bridge. Washington, D. C., L.7824.

Christ church, Alexandria, where General Washington attended, S.2301.

Marshall House, Alexandria, Va., S.1189.

Slave-pen, Alexandria, Va., L.7264. S.1003, S.1174.

Ruins of Norfolk navy-yard, 8.984.

Ruins of Harper's Ferry arsenal, S.655.

Ruins of bridge across Potomac River at Berlin, S.658.

Fairfax court-house, S.298.

Fairfax seminary, S.2322.

Fairfax church, S.2323.

Taylor's tavern, near Fall's Church, S.2320.

Cub Run, S.307.

Bull Hun, S.1111.

Battlefield of Bull Run, S.1046.

Ruins of stone bridge, Bull Run, L.7082, S.310, S.312.

Sudley church, S.315, S.316, S.1017, S.1148.

Sudley Ford, Bull Run, S.313, S.314.

Thorburn's house, Bull Run, S.317.

Matthews's house, Bull Run, S.318.

Robinson's house, Bull Run, S.319, S.1176.

Ruins of Henry's house, Bull Run, S.320.

Headquarters of General Beauregard (confederate) at Manassas, S.327.

Stone church, Centreville, S.302.

Mrs. Spinner's house, near Centreville, S.308, S.309.

Grigsby House (Stevens's house), near Centreville, S.1163, S.303.

Soldier' graves, Bull Run, S.321.

Dedication of monument on battlefield of Bull Run, L.7362, L.7363,
L.7364.

Monument on battlefield of Bull Run, L.7532, S.1193, S.1194.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                     AUGUST, 1861, TO MARCH, 1862.

Headquarters of General McClellan at Fairfax Court House, Va., (also
used by General Beauregard) L.7142, S.299.

Camp of Tenth Massachusetts Infantry, S.2421.

Signal tower near camp of Fourteenth New York Infantry, S.2352.

Camp of Thirty-fifth New York Infantry, S.2422.

Camp of Seventy-first New York Infantry, S.2413, S.2415.

Camp of Thirty-first Pennsylvania Infantry, Queen's farm, near Fort
Slocum, Virginia, S.2409, S.2410, S.2412.

Camp scenes in camp of Thirty-first Pennsylvania Infantry, S.2405,
S.2406.

Review of Dwight's brigade, 8.2419, S.2420.

Newspaper dealer in camp, C.1378.

Sunday services in camp of Sixty-ninth New York Infantry, S.3713.

Professor Lowe's balloon, S.2349, S.2350.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                      MARCH, 1862, TO JULY, 1862.

                         _Peninsula Campaign._

Battery No. 1, in front of Yorktown, L.7094, S.361, S.362, S.363, S.364,
S.365.

Battery No. 4, in front of Yorktown, S.373, S.374, S.375, S.376, S.377,
S.378, S.379, S.380.

Naval battery in front of Yorktown, S.463.

Battery Magruder (confederate), Yorktown, S.2360, S.2361, S.2362.

Confederate fortifications, Yorktown, S.450, S.451, S.452, S.453, S.458,
S.1026, S.2364, S.2365, S.2366, S.2367, S.2368, S.2369, S.2425.

Confederate fortifications, Yorktown, with exploded gun, S.455. S.2370.

Ravine at Yorktown in which confederate magazines located, S.447.

Confederate water battery at Gloucester Point, S.454, S.457, S.460,
S.461.

Yorktown Landing, S.2383.

Artillery park at Yorktown Landing, S.2358.

Wagon park at Yorktown Landing, S.2357.

Sally-port at Yorktown, S.2371.

Street view in Yorktown, S.2372.

Court-house, Yorktown, S.2375, S.2376.

Church, used as Second Corps hospital, Yorktown, S.2374.

Baptist church and hospital of Third Division, Sixth Corps, Yorktown,
S.2373.

Cornwallis's headquarters during Revolutionary war, S.2336.

Headquarters of General Magruder (confederate), Yorktown, Va., S.449.

Cornwallis Cave, Yorktown, used by confederates for magazine, S.2379,
S.2380.

Captain Perkins's "Secesh," horse captured at Cornwallis Cave, Yorktown,
S.2381.

Confederate winter quarters near Yorktown, S.2377.

Camp scene in front of Yorktown--quarters of Dr. Grant and Dr. Dwight,
of French's brigade, S.2378.

Farnhold's house, near Yorktown, May, 1862, S.360.

Moore's house, near Yorktown, S.462.

Clark's house, near Yorktown--used as hospital, S.371.

House used by General La Fayette during Revolutionary war as
Headquarters, S.369, S.372.

Tabb's house, Yorktown, L.7413.

=Camp Winfield Scott, headquarters Army of Potomac, in front of
Yorktown, May, 1862:=

--views of camp, S.350, S.367, S.368.

--Prince de Joinville, Duc de Chartres, Comte de Paris, English army
officers, and officers of General McClellan's staff, S.352, S.353,
S.354.

--staff and foreign officers at General McClellan's headquarters, S.429,
S.355.

--Prince de Joinville, Duc de Chartres, and Comte de Paris at mess
table, S.356, S.358.

--group of staff officers at General McClellan's headquarters, S.388.

--group of English officers at General McClellan's headquarters, S.638.

--topographical engineers, S.366.

--group at photographer's tent, S.349.

--Captain Custer, U. S. A., and Lieutenant Washington, a confederate
prisoner, May, 1862, S.428.

--orderlies and servants, S.359, S.444.

Camp at General Andrew Porter's headquarters in front of Yorktown, May,
1862, S.370.

General Andrew Porter's staff, May, 1862, S.389.

Generals Franklin, Slocum, Barry, and Newton, and staff officers, May,
1862, S.381, S.382.

Embarkation at Yorktown for White House Landing, S.2363.

=Encampment of Army of Potomac at Cumberland Landing:=

--view of camp, L.7597, L.7598, L.7519, L.7648, S.1180.

--views making panoramic view, S.1076, S.1186, S.1212, S.1213, S.1214,
S.1219.

--views making panoramic view, S.1215, S.1216, S.1217, S.1218.

--seven views making one panoramic view, S.1220, S.1221, S.1222, S.1223,
S.1224, S.1225, S.1226.

Foller's house, Cumberland Landing, S.385.

Contrabands at Foller's house, Cumberland Landing, S.383.

White House Landing, S.2485.

Conway Landing, S.2490.

View of river below White House Landing, S.2489.

The White House, former residence of Mrs. Custis Washington, S.384.

Ruins of the White House, S.2486.

Camp of Christian Commission, at White House Landing, S.2487.

Ruins of bridge across Pamunkey River, near White House Landing, S.386.

Saint Peter's church, near White House, where General Washington was
married, S.2302, S.2303.

Headquarters Army of Potomac, at Savage Station, June, 1862, S.468.

Field hospital, at Savage Station, after battle of June 27, 1862, S.491.

=Battlefield of Fair Oaks:=

--house used as hospital for Hooker's division during the battle, S.478,
S.479.

--house used as hospital, S.480.

--house near which over four hundred soldiers were buried, S.470.

--Sickles's brigade coming into line in distance, S.471.

--Quarle's house, S.474.

--earthworks at extreme front, S.472.

Fort Richardson, near Fair Oaks Station, June, 1862, S.473.

Fort Sumner, near Fair Oaks Station, June, 1862, S.476.

Camp Lincoln, near Fair Oaks, June, 1862, S.430.

Battery,--First New York Artillery Battalion, near Fair Oaks, June,
1862, S.443, S.640.

Robertson's Battery of Horse Artillery, Battery B, Second United States
Artillery, near Fair Oaks, June, 1862, S.642, S.439.

Benson's Battery of Horse Artillery, Battery M, Second United States
Artillery, near Fair Oaks, June, 1862, S.433, S.641.

Gibson's Battery of Horse Artillery, Battery C, Third United States
Artillery, near Fair Oaks, June, 1862, S.431.

Officers of Brigade of Horse Artillery, near Fair Oaks, June, 1862,
S.434, S.639.

General Stoneman, General Naglee, and staff officers, near Fair Oaks,
June, 1862, S.436, S.438, S.445.

Gun captured by Butterfield's brigade, near Hanover Court House, S.2353,
S.2354.

Mechanicsville, Va., S.909.

Elliston's Mill, battlefield of Mechanicsville, S.920.

Gaines's Mill, Va., S.932.

Battlefield of Gaines's Mill, Va., unburied dead, S.914, S.916.

Engineer Corps making corduroy roads, June, 1862, S.656.

Bridge across Chickahominy River, built by Fifteenth New York Engineers,
S.489.

Grape Vine Bridge across Chickahominy River, L.7383.

Bridge across Chickahominy River, S.930.

Bridge across Chickahominy River, Mechanicsville Road, S.913.

Telegraph station, Wilcox's Landing, S.2351.

Westover House, James River, S.2334, S.2335.

Westover Landing, James River, S.620.

Officers of Third and Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Westover Landing,
S.623, S.629.

General W. W. Averell and staff, Westover Landing, S.635.

Headquarters of Signal Corps camp at Harrison's Landing, S.621.

General Sedgwick, Colonel Sackett, and Lieutenant-Colonel Colburn,
Harrison's Landing, August, 1862, S.653.

Group of officers that graduated in class of 1860, United States
Military Academy, Harrison's Landing, August, 1862, S.624.

Major Myers, Lieutenant Stryker, and Lieutenant Norton, Harrison's
Landing, August, 1862, S.626.

Group of officers belonging to Irish brigade, Harrison's Landing, July,
1862, S.627.

Lieutenants Jones, Bowen, and Custer, May, 1862, S.387.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                    JULY, 1862, TO SEPTEMBER, 1862.

                           _Pope's Campaign._

=Centreville, after its evacuation by confederate army in March, 1862:=

--confederate barracks, L.7212, S.331, S.332, S.648, S.1045.

--confederate fortifications, S.305, S.334, S.333, S.1144, S.1145.

--headquarters of (confederate) General Johnston, S.303.

=Manassas, after its evacuation by confederate army in March, 1862:=

--destruction of railroad, L.7197.

--confederate fortifications, L.7171, S.323, S.543, S.544, S.545, S.546.

Yellow hospital, Manassas, July, 1862, S.650.

Headquarters of General McDowell, near Manassas, July, 1862, S.646,
S.647.

Our photographer, near Manassas, July, 1862, S.651.

=Battlefield of Cedar Mountain:=

--general views, S.500, S.506, S.511.

--west view of the field, S.504.

--dead horses, S.510.

--house in which General Winder (confederate) was killed, S.501, S.502.

--house used as confederate hospital, S.507.

--Mrs. Hudson's house, S.505.

--Slaughter's house, position of confederate battery, S.508.

Federal battery fording a tributary of the Rappahannock River on day of
battle of Cedar Mountain, S.520.

Hazel River, S.521.

=Culpeper, Va.:=

--general views of town, S.216, S.527, S.530.

--court-house, S.523.

--railroad depot, S.528, S.529.

--street views, S.524, S.525, S.526.

Troops building bridge across north fork of Rappahannock River, near
Fauquier Sulphur Springs, S.512, S.513, S.515.

Fugitive negroes fording Rappahannock River, escaping from advance of
confederate army, S.518, S.519.

Fauquier Sulphur Springs hotel, S.537, S.542.

Rappahannock station, S.522.

Rappahannock bridge, S.514, S.517.

=Warrenton, Va.:=

--street views, S.532, S.534.

--court-house, S.533.

--railroad depot, S.535, S.536.

--church, S.736.

Catlett's Station, August, 1862, S.594.

Destruction of railroad rolling stock on Orange & Alexandria Railroad,
S.593.

=Battlefield of Manassas:=

--ruins of Mrs. Henry's house, S.320.

--Thorburn's house, S.317.

--Matthews's house, S.318.

--Robinson's house, S.319, S.1176.

Bridge across Bull Run, built by Engineers of McDowell's corps, August,
1862, S.547.

Picket post near Blackburn's Ford, Bull Run, =S.=645.

Sudley Ford, Bull Run, =S.=313, =S.=314.

Sudley church, =S.=315, =S.=316, =S.=1017, =S.=1148.

Ruins of stone bridge, Bull Run, =L.=7082, =S.=310, =S.=312.

Ruins of bridge at Blackburn's Ford, Bull Run, =S.=2338.

Bull Run, =S.=1111.

Cub Run, =S.=307.

Stone church, Centreville, =S.=302.

Mrs. Spinner's house, near Centreville, =S.=308, =S.=309.

Grigsby House (Stevens's house), near Centreville, =S.=1163, =S.=303.

Fairfax court-house, =S.=298.

Monument on battlefield of Groveton, =L.=7299, =S.=1193.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                  SEPTEMBER, 1862, TO NOVEMBER, 1862.

                          _Antietam Campaign._

=Battlefield at Antietam:=

--view of part of the field on the day of the battle, =S.=671.

--view on Antietam Creek, =S.=597.

--signal station on Elk Mountain, =L.=7270, =L.=7563, =S.=633.

--Antietam bridge, =S.=1178, =S.=1179.

--Antietam bridge, looking up stream, =L.=7214, =S.=578.

--Antietam bridge, looking down stream, =L.=7093, =S.=609.

--Antietam bridge, southeastern view, =S.=608.

--Antietam bridge, northeastern view, =S.=607.

--Antietam bridge, eastern view, =S.=583, =S.=610, =S.=614.

--Burnside bridge, looking up stream, =S.=584.

--Burnside bridge, northeastern view, =S.=615.

--Burnside bridge, southeastern view, =S.=600, =S.=601.

--Burnside bridge, southwestern view, =S.=613.

--Burnside bridge, northwestern view, =S.=612.

--Miller's house, =L.=7019.

--Newcomer's mill, =S.=582.

--Sherrick's house, =S.=598.

--Rullet's house, =S.=575.

--Ruins of Mumma's house, =S.=574.

--Real's barn, =S.=591.

--General Hooker's headquarters during the battle, =S.=576.

--Dunker church, =S.=573, =S.=1196.

--bodies of dead confederate soldiers alongside the fence on Hagerstown
road, =S.=559, =S.=560, =S.=566, =S.=567.

--bodies of dead confederate soldiers near Sherrick's house, =S.=554,
=S.=555, =S.=571.

--views on the field where Sumner's corps charged, =S.=552, =S.=562,
=S.=564, =S.=568.

--views in the ditch on the right, showing many dead confederates,
=S.=553, =S.=563, =S.=565.

--bodies of dead confederate soldiers, =S.=325, =S.=326, =S.=567.

--burying the dead, =S.=551, =S.=557, =S.=561, =S.=569.

--graves of federal soldiers at Burnside bridge, =S.=585.

--a lone grave, =S.=570.

--confederate wounded at Smith's barn after the battle; Dr. Hurd, of
Fourteenth Indiana, in attendance, =S.=588, =S.=589, =S.=590, =S.=592.

President Lincoln in General McClellan's tent at headquarters Army of
Potomac, October, 1862, =S.=602.

General Marcy and other officers at headquarters Army of Potomac,
October, 1862, =S.=603.

Blacksmith's forge and horse-shoers, at headquarters Army of Potomac,
September, 1862, =S.=587.

Group at secret-service quarters, headquarters Army of Potomac, October,
1862, =S.=631.

Major Allen Pinkerton, at secret-service quarters, October, 1826,
=S.=618.

Sharpsburg, Md., September, 1862, =S.=595, =S.=599.

Lutheran church, Sharpsburg, Md., September, 1862, =S.=596.

Pontoon bridges and ruins of stone bridge across Potomac River at
Berlin, October, 1862,=L.=7437, =S.=616.

=Harper's Ferry, W. Va.:=

--general views, =L.=7443, =L.=7649, =S.=654.

--Maryland Heights, =L.=7132, =L.=7441, =S.=1002.

--Loudoun Heights, =L.=7072.

--Maryland and, Loudoun Heights, =L.=7133.

--Bolivar Heights, =L.=7187.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                     NOVEMBER, 1862, TO JUNE, 1863.

                       _Fredericksburg Campaign._

Generals of the Army of the Potomac, November 10, 1862, =L.=7380.

General A. E. Burnside and staff, Warrenton, Va., November, 1862,
=L.=7186, =L.=7379, =L.=7382, =S.=1049.

=Acquia Creek Landing:=

--distant views, =S.=673, =S.=674, =S.=681.

--wharves, =L.=7014, =L.=7446, =L.=7643, =S.=682.

--quartermaster's office, =L.=7108, =S.=176.

--commissary depot, =S.=680.

--group at hospital, =L.=7355.

--clerks at commissary depot, =L.=7322, =L.=7533.

--employees at quartermaster's wagon-camp, =L.=7323.

--Lieut.-Col. Sawtelle, Captain Forsyth, Dr. Wright, Lieut.-Col. Porter,
and others, at Acquia Creek Landing, =L.=7320.

Phillips's house, near Falmouth, =S.=677.

Lacey's house, near Falmouth, =S.=697, =S.=698.

=Fredericksburg:=

--view taken from Tyler's battery, =S.=676.

--panoramic view, =S.=683, =S.=1191.

--lower end of town, =S.=178.

--houses, showing effect of shelling on December 13, 1862, =S.=716,
=S.=717, =S.=718, =S.=719, =S.=2511.

Barnard's house, below Fredericksburg, destroyed during battle,
=L.=7141.

Marye's house, on Marye's Heights, in rear of Fredericksburg, rifle-pits
in front, =S.=733, =S.=734.

A frame house on Marye's Heights, in rear of Fredericksburg, showing
effects of shot and shell, =S.=735.

Embarkation of Ninth Corps at Acquia Creek Landing, February, 1863,
=S.=679.

=Headquarters Army of Potomac:=

--group of staff officers, =S.=693, =S.=695.

--Lieutenant-Colonel Dickinson and other officers, =L.=7467.

--Dr. Letterman, medical director, and other officers, =L.=7356.

--clerks in office of Assistant Adjutant-General, =S.=177.

--post-office, =L.=7314, =L.=7396.

--mail-wagon, =S.=296.

General Alfred Pleasonton and Captain Custer, near Falmouth, April,
1863, =L.=7551.

General J. H. H. Ward and group, Acquia Creek Landing, February, 1863,
=L.=7040.

Colonel Graham and other officers, Falmouth, Va., March, 1863, =L.=7525.

Captains Moore, Russell, and Chandler, of General Hooker's staff,
Falmouth, Va., April, 1863, =L.=7552.

Major Whitney, Captain Harrison, and Captain Owen, Warrenton, Va,
November, 1862, =L.=7450.

Company "I" Sixth Pennsylvania (Rush's lancers), near Falmouth, June,
1863, =L.=7140.

Camp of One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Infantry, March, 1863,
=S.=297.

Headquarters of Sixty-first New York Infantry, and group of officers,
near Falmouth, Va., April, 1863, =L.=7530, =L.=7531.

Balloon Camp, near Falmouth, Va., March, 1863, =S.=678.

Ambulance train of Engineer Brigade, near Falmouth, April, 1863,
=L.=7523, =S.=516.


                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                          JUNE AND JULY, 1863.

                         _Gettysburg Campaign._

Headquarters Army of Potomac, near Fairfax Court House, June, 1863,
=L.=7507.

Commissary tent, and Capt Howard and group, at headquarters Army of
Potomac, near Fairfax Court House, June, 1863, =L.=7438, =L.=7549.

=Emmettsburg, Md.:=

--view of the town, =S.=272.

--Farmer's Hotel, =S.=228.

--Mount Saint Mary's College, =L.=7234, =L.=7357, =S.=269, =S.=270.

--Saint Joseph's Academy, =L.=7473, =L.=7595, =S.=271.

=Gettysburg, Pa.:=

--view of town from Culp's Hill, =L.=7360.

--view of town from the cemetery, =S.=273.

--college, =L.=7596.

--seminary, =S.=2393.

--office of Sanitary Commission, =S.=238.

--entrance to National Cemetery, July, 1865, =L.=7248, =L.=7489.

--dedication of monument, =S.=1159, =S.=1160.

--White's house, near Gettysburg, =L.=7465.

=Battlefield of Gettysburg:=

--General Meade's headquarters, =S.=259, =S.=1167.

--General R. E. Lee's (confederate) headquarters, =S.=2394, =S.=2395.

--scene at Trossel's barn, where Ninth Massachusetts Battery was cut up,
showing dead horses, =S.=266.

--scene at Trossel's house, near center of battlefield, =S.=248.

--bodies of dead confederate sharpshooters among the rocks in front of
Little Round Top, =L.=7096, =S.=229, =S.=237, =S.=244, =S.=251, =S.=258,
=S.=263.

--body of confederate soldier disemboweled by a shell, =L.=7258,
=S.=274.

--a shattered caisson, and dead horses, =S.=226.

--bodies of confederate soldiers killed by fire of federal batteries on
Round Top, =S.=236.

--bodies of dead in the "wheat field," near Emmettsburg road--scene of
fighting on second day, =S.=227, =S.=239, =S.=256, =S.=257, =S.=260,
=S.=268.

--bodies of dead confederate soldiers of South Carolina Regiment on the
left of their line, =S.=240, =S.=250.

--bodies of dead confederate soldiers who were killed in fight on first
day, collected for burial, =S.=233, =S.=235, =S.=245, =S.=246.

--bodies of dead in the woods In front of Little Round Top, =S.=249,
=S.=252, =S.=253.

--views in the "slaughter pen" showing dead confederates at foot of
Little Round Top, =S.=262, =S.=265, =S.=267.

--views of temporary intrenchments of federal troops on Little Round
Top, =S.=230, =S.=231, =S.=241, =S.=247, =S.=255, =S.=261, =S.=264.

--views of Little Round Top, =L.=7318, =L.=7319, =L.=7491, =L.=7493.

--bodies of dead federal soldiers on the field where General Reynolds
was killed, =S.=234, =S.=243.

=Battlefield of Gettysburg,--Continued:=

--bodies of dead federal soldiers in front of Seminary Ridge, =S.=242.

--Little Round Top, =S.=2400.

--woods on federal left, showing wounded trees, or how the bullets flew,
=S.=2386, =S.=2391.

--breastworks on federal left, =S.=2387.

--old cemetery gate, =S.=2388, =S.=2389.

John L. Burns, the "hero of Gettysburg," recovering from his wounds,
=S.=2401, =S.=2402.

John L. Burns's cottage, =S.=2403.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                    AUGUST, 1863, TO DECEMBER, 1863.

                      _Gettysburg to Mine Run._

Destruction of Orange & Alexandria Railroad by the confederates on their
retreat from Manassas in October, 1863, =S.=173, =S.=174.

Rebuilding bridge on Orange & Alexandria Railroad, across Cedar Run,
near Catlett's Station, =S.=343.

Generals of the Army of the Potomac, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863,
=L.=7329.

=Headquarters Army of Potomac, Bealeton, Va.:=

--General Patrick's quarters near Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =L.=7120.

--sutler's tent, =L.=7216.

--Colonel Sharpe and officers of secret service, =S.=213.

--military telegraph operators, =L.=7311, =L.=7312, =L.=7358.

--officers of Signal Corps, =L.=7374.

--Captain Pierce, Captain Page, Captain Howell, Lieutenant Kelly,
=L.=7332, =L.=7333, =L.=7375.

--wagons and horses of quartermaster's repair shops, =S.=276, =L.=7328.

--Captain Kimball's tent, =S.=215.

"John Henry" at Headquarters Third Army Corps, staff officers, =L.=7339.

Dr. Murray's house, near Auburn, Va., =L.=7081, =S.=224.

General Pleasonton's headquarters, near Auburn, Va., =S.=275.

Battery A, Fourth United States Artillery, Culpeper, Va., September,
1863, =L.=7334.

Headquarters of Battery,--United States Artillery, Culpeper, Va.,
September, 1863, =L.=7341, =L.=7342.

Officers of Eightieth New York Infantry (Twentieth N. Y. S. M.),
Culpeper, Va., September, 1863, =L.=7071, =L.=7373.

Camp of Ninety-third New York Infantry, near Bealeton, Va., August,
1863, =S.=212, =S.=219.

Officers of Ninety-third New York Infantry, near Bealeton, Va., August,
1863, =L.=7515.

Officers of regimental staff of Ninety-third New York Infantry, near
Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =L.=7011, =S.=284.

Commissioned officers' mess, Company D, Ninety-third New York Infantry,
near Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =S.=218.

Non-commissioned officers' mess, Company D, Ninety-third New York
Infantry, near Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =S.=217.

Commissioned officers' mess, Company E, Ninety-third New York Infantry,
near Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =S.=225.

Commissioned officers' mess, Company F, Ninety-third New York Infantry,
near Bealeton, Va., August, 1863, =S.=220.

Camp in the woods, near Culpeper, Va., November, 1863, =S.=223.

General Custer and General Pleasonton, Warrenton, Va., October, 1863,
=L.=7371.

General Mott, General Ward, Colonels Austin, Brewster, and Farnum,
October, 1863, =L.=7079, =S.=280.

Lieutenant-Colonel Wood and other officers, Culpeper, Va., November,
1863, =S.=222.

Officers of Horse Artillery Brigade, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863,
=L.=7076, =L.=7078, =L.=7083, =L.=7607.

Surgeons of Second Division, Third Corps, Culpeper, Va., September,
1863, =L.=7378.

Catlett's Station, =S.=594.

Rappahannock Station, =S.=522.

Ruins of hotel at Fauquier Sulphur Springs, =L.=7092, =S.=293, =S.=1161.

Residence of John Minor Botts, =L.=7123, =L.=7124, =L.=7125, =S.=286,
=S.=287.

=Warrenton, Va.:=

--street views, =S.=532, =S.=534.

--court-house, =S.=533.

--railroad depot, =S.=535, =S.=536.

--church, =S.=736.

=Culpeper, Va.:=

--general views of town, =S.=216, =S.=527, =S.=530.

--court-house, =S.=523.

--railroad depot, =S.=528, =S.=529.

--street views, =S.=524, =S.=525, =S.=526.

--Wallack's house, =L.=7080.

Headquarters of New York Herald in the field, near Bealeton, Va.,
August, 1863, =L.=7235, =L.=7237, =S.=294.

Newsboy in camp, =S.=617.

Headquarters of Christian Commission, Germantown, Va., August, 1863,
=L.=7471.

Gimlet, a noted war-horse on the Rappahannock, =S.=643.

Contrabands at leisure, =S.=221.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC

                     DECEMBER, 1863, TO MAY, 1864.

           _Winter Quarters at Brandy Station and Vicinity._

View near Brandy Station, =L.=7624.

=Headquarters Army of Potomac, April, 1864:=

---- eastern half of camp, =L.=7337, =L.=7495, =S.=130, =S.=131.

---- western half of camp, =S.=130, =L.=7327.

---- quarters of chief commissary, =L.=7325, =L.=7352.

---- officers' winter quarters, =L.=7126, =L.=7161, =L.=7163.

---- quarters of chief quartermaster (General Ingalls), =L.=7621.

---- army post-office, =L.=7587.

---- provost-marshal's office, =L.=7259.

---- General Patrick's quarters, =S.=125.

---- Colonel Sharpe's quarters, =S.=124, =S.=129.

---- Captain Harry Clinton's quarters, =L.=7326, =L.=7500, =S.=128.

---- commissary department, =S.=123.

---- camp of Military Telegraph Corps, =L.=7353, =S.=126.

---- quarters of scouts and guides, =S.=127.

---- quartermaster's repair shops, =S.=136.

Headquarters of General D. B. Birney, =L.=7628.

Headquarters of General J. H. H. Ward, =L.=7626, =L.=7627.

Headquarters of First Brigade Horse Artillery, =L.=7157, =L.=7590,
=L.=7634, =L.=7637.

=Headquarters Third Army Corps:=

---- quarters of Colonel Howard, chief quartermaster, =L.=7277.

---- quarters of Captain Bates, =S.=133, =S.=137.

A regimental winter headquarters, =L.=7309.

Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, officers' quarters, =L.=7158.

Headquarters Third Division, Cavalry Corps, =L.=7638.

Sutler's tent, First Brigade Horse Artillery, =L.=7164, =L.=7165,
=L.=7496.

Field hospital of First Division, Second Corps, =L.=7301.

Field hospital of Second Division, Second Corps, =L.=7305, =L.=7306.

Field hospital of Third Division, Second Corps, =L.=7146, =L.=7632.

Mail-wagon of Second Army Corps, =L.=7303.

=Camp of United States Engineer Battalion, March, 1864:=

---- general views of camp, =L.=7310, =L.=7433, =L.=7560.

---- headquarters, =L.=7097.

---- officers' quarters, =L.=7109.

---- quarters of Co. D, =L.=7005.

Camp of Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, =L.=7650.

Camp of One Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Infantry, =L.=7308,
=L.=7612.

Guard mounting of One Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Infantry,
=L.=7613, =S.=134, =S.=135.

Camp of Sixth New York Artillery, =L.=7265.

=Camp of Fiftieth New York Engineers, near Rappahannock Station, March,
1864,--Winter Camp:=

---- winter camp, general view, =L.=7461, =L.=7276, =L.=7276, =S.=138.

---- stockade entrance, =L.=7351.

---- sutler's hut, =L.=7290.

---- quarters of field and staff =L.=7293, =L.=7604, =L.=7608.

---- quarters of line officers, =L.=7614.

General Meade, General Sedgwick, and staff officers, at headquarters
Horse Artillery Brigade, =L.=7618, =S.=1228.

Major William Riddle and group, at headquarters Army of Potomac,
=S.=139.

General Rufus Ingalls and other officers, at headquarters Army of
Potomac, =L.=7497, =L.=7610.

A dinner party at headquarters Army of Potomac, =S.=132, =S.=140.

General Judson Kilpatrick and staff, Stevensburg, Va., =L.=7224,
=L.=7516.

Captain J. M. Robertson and staff, First Brigade Horse Artillery,
=L.=7555, =L.=7589.

Provost-marshals of Third Corps, =L.=7088, =L.=7402.

Colonel Sharpe and officers of Secret Service Department, headquarters
Army of Potomac, =L.=7202.

Scouts and guides of Army of Potomac, =L.=7105, =L.=7294, =L.=7599.

Clerks at headquarters Army of Potomac, =L.=7184.

Clerks in provost-marshal's office at headquarters Army of Potomac,
=L.=7130, =L.=7291.

Canvas pontoon wagon, =L.=7128, =L.=7272.

Canvas pontoon boat, =L.=7273.

Pontoon wagon and boat (side view), =L.=7160, =L.=7181.

Pontoon boat (front view), =L.=7074, =L.=7584.

Pontoon boat (rear view), =L.=7585, =L.=7586.

Ordnance train of Third Division, Cavalry Corps, =L.=7640.

Military Telegraph Construction Corps, =L.=7117.

Wagon park, near Brandy Station, =L.=7268.

                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC.

                       MAY, 1864, TO JUNE, 1864.

                         _Wilderness Campaign._

=Belle Plain Landing, Potomac River:=

---- general view, =S.=708.

---- camp of Second New York Artillery and First Massachusetts
Artillery, =S.=709, =S.=710.

=Belle Plain Landing, Potomac River,--Continued:=

--distant views, =S.=2476, =S.=2477.

--pontoon wharves, =S.=705, =S.=707, =S.=2480, =S.=2482, =S.=2483.

--quartermaster's camp, =S.=704.

--camp of Sanitary Commission, =S.=2484.

--Sanitary Commission wagons, =S.=2478.

Headquarters of Sanitary Commission at Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=737.

Store-rooms of Sanitary Commission at Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=739.

Cooking-tents of Sanitary Commission at Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=742.

Officers and nurses of Sanitary Commission at Fredericksburg, Va., May.
1864, =S.=741.

Wounded soldiers from the Wilderness of Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=740, =S.=2507.

Burial of dead at Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864, =S.=2506, =S.=2508,
=S.=2509.

Soldiers filling their water-cart, Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=2504, =S.=2505.

Soldiers drawing water, Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864, =S.=2512.

Views of Fredericksburg, from north bank of Rappahannock River, =S.=178,
=S.=683.

Court-house, Fredericksburg, Va., =S.=713.

Wagon-trains crossing Rappahannock River on pontoon bridge, below
Fredericksburg, =S.=715.

Battery-wagon of military telegraph corps, =S.=786.

Evacuation of Port Royal, Rappahannock River, May 30, 1864, =S.=2491,
=S.=2492.

Ruins of bridge at Germania Mills, Rapidan River, May, 1864, =S.=700.

Troops crossing pontoon bridges over Rapidan River, at Germania Mills,
May, 1864, =S.=701, =S.=702.

Massaponax church, May 21, 1864, =S.=729.

Council of war, at Massaponax church, May 21, 1864, General Grant
leaning over General Meade's shoulder, examining map, =S.=732, =S.=730,
=S.=731.

Confederate prisoners captured from Johnson's division of Ewell's corps,
May 12, encamped at Belle Plain awaiting transportation, =S.=703.

Beverly's house, near Spottsylvania court-house, used as headquarters by
General Warren, May, 1864, =S.=728.

View from Beverly's house, looking toward Spottsylvania court-house,
May, 1864, =S.=727.

Allsop's house, near Spottsylvania court-house, point of Ewell's attack
on the federal right on May 19, (bringing in the wounded,) =S.=721.

Confederate dead of Ewell's Corps on the field near Allsop's house after
Ewell's attack on May 19, =S.=723, =S.=725, =S.=726.

First Massachusetts Artillery burying the dead at Mrs. Allsop's house
after Ewell's attack of May 19, =S.=722, =S.=724.

=Canvas pontoon bridge across North Anna River at Jericho Mills; point
at which Fifth Corps crossed, May, 1864:=

--views from north bank, =S.=745, =S.=746, =S.=747.

--views from south bank, =S.=748, =S.=750.

--Fifth Corps ammunition train crossing, =S.=751.

Fiftieth New York engineers constructing road on south bank of North
Anna River at Jericho Mills, May, 1864, =L.=7304, =S.=749, =S.=1079.

Chesterfield bridge, North Anna River, May, 1864, =S.=752, =S.=753.

Confederate fortifications at Chesterfield bridge, North Anna River,
captured by Second Corps, May, 1864, =S.=755, =S.=756.

Destroyed railroad bridge across North Anna River, May, 1864, =S.=762.

Quarle's Mill, North Anna River, May, 1864, =S.=757, =S.=758, =S.=761.

Log bridge across North Anna River at Quarle's mill, where portion of
Fifth Corps crossed and carried enemy's line of works on crest of hill,
May, 1864, =S.=759, =S.=760.

Pontoon bridges over North Anna River, on which portion of Second Corps
crossed, May, 1864, =S.=763, =S.=764, =S.=765.

Bethel church, headquarters of General Burnside, May, 1864, =S.=744.

Canvas pontoon bridges over the Pamunkey River at Hanovertown Ferry,
May, 1864, =L.=7395, =S.=766, =S.=767.

Pontoon bridge over the Pamunkey River at Mrs. Nelson's crossing, May,
1864, =S.=768.

Ruins of bridge over Pamunkey River at Mrs. Nelson's crossing, May,
1864, =S.=769.

Old Church hotel, near Cold Harbor, June, 1864, =S.=770.

Burnett's house, near Cold Harbor, June, 1864, =S.=771.

Camp in the woods at Cold Harbor, June, 1864, =S.=772.

Part of battlefield of Cold Harbor, =S.=1173.

Collecting remains of the dead on battlefield of Cold Harbor, months
after the battle, for permanent burial, =S.=918.

Photographer's camp at Cold Harbor, =S.=2447.

=Charles City, Va., June, 1864:=

--views of court-house, June, 1864, =S.=773, =S.=774, =S.=775, =S.=776,
=S.=777, =S.=778.

--view of jail, June, 1864, =S.=779.

--ruins of town, June, 1864, =S.=780.

Marshes on north bank of James River, at point at which Army of Potomac
crossed, June, 1864, =S.=960.

Pontoon bridge over James River, on which Army of Potomac crossed, June,
1864, =L.=7484, =S.=781, =S.=2465.


                               * * * * *

                            ARMY OF POTOMAC

                      JUNE, 1864, TO APRIL, 1865.

                         _Siege of Petersburg._

Six different views on James River at City Point, =S.=793, =S.=798,
=S.=799, =S.=958, =S.=2452, =S.=2453.

Seventeen different views on the docks at City Point, =L.=7044, =S.=794,
=S.=795, =S.=796, =S.=797, =S.=812, =S.=813, =S.=2456, =S.=2457
=S.=2458, =S.=2459, =S.=2460, =S.=2449, =S.=2450, =S.=2454, 8.2455,
=S.=3332.

View on docks at City Point after explosion of ordnance barges,
=L.=7254, =L.=7255, =L.=7449.

Railroad depot, City Point, =S.=2461.

General hospital, City Point, =L.=7134, =L.=7399, =L.=7664.

Hospital landing and medical supply boat Planter, on Appomattox River,
near City Point, =L.=7050, =S.=1038.

Group of staff officers at General Grant's headquarters, =S.=3401,
=S.=3402.

Stable at General Grant's headquarters, =L.=7004.

Cattle corral near City Point, =S.=2462, =S.=2463.

Generals of the Army of Potomac, =L.=7100, =L.=7252.

Non-commissioned officers of General Grant's cavalry escort, City Point,
March, 1865, =L.=7445.

Group of provost-guard at headquarters Army of Potomac, February, 1865,
=L.=7251.

Camp of Third Pennsylvania Cavalry at headquarters Army of Potomac,
February, 1865, =L.=7298.

Camp of Oneida Cavalry at headquarters Army of Potomac, February, 1865,
=L.=7112.

Camp of military telegraph operators at headquarters Army of Potomac,
August, 1864, =S.=282.

Group of officers at headquarters Army of Potomac, August, 1864,
=L.=7135, =L.=7136.

Capt. H. P. Clinton and clerks, at headquarters Army of Potomac, August,
1864, =L.=7529, =L.=7537.

Military telegraph operators at headquarters Army of Potomac, August,
1864, =L.=7478, =S.=1023, =S.=1025, =S.=1030, =S.=1032, =S.=1033.

Assistant engineers and draughtsmen at headquarters Army of Potomac,
November, 1864, =L.=7106, =L.=7107, =L.=7116.

Officers of First Massachusetts Cavalry at headquarters Army of Potomac,
August, 1864, =L.=7390, =L.=7490.

Officers and non-commissioned officers of First Massachusetts Cavalry at
headquarters Army of Potomac, August, 1864 =L.=7354, =L.=7391.

Company C, First Massachusetts Cavalry, at headquarters Army of Potomac,
August, 1864, =L.=7295.

Company D, First Massachusetts Cavalry, at headquarters Army of Potomac.
August, 1864, =L.=7392, =L.=7476.

Detachment of Third Indiana Cavalry at headquarters Army of Potomac,
November, 1864, =L.=7023, =L.=7068.

=One Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Infantry provost-guard at
headquarters Army of Potomac, August, 1864:=

--officers, =L.=7137, =L.=7138, =L.=7316, =L.=7602.

--officers of Company--,=L.=7144, =L.=7145, =L.=7173.

--Company F, =L.=7003, =L.=7038, =L.=7143, =L.=7175, =L.=7447.

--Company G, =L.=7108, =L.=7348.

--Company H, =L.=7077, =L.=7262, =L.=7263.

=United States Engineer Battalion, August, 1864:=

--Company A, =L.=7062, =L.=7384, =L.=7386.

--Company C, =L.=7240, =L.=7568.

--Company D, =L.=7054, =L.=7548.

--Essayon's Dramatic Club, =L.=7336, =L.=7439.

--Battalion headquarters, =L.=7065.

=Camp of Fiftieth New York Engineers, November, 1864:=

--colonel's quarters, Colonel Spaulding at the door, =L.=7059, =S.=1047.

--headquarters, =L.=7167, =S.=1028, =S.=1048.

--surgeon's quarters, =L.=7233.

--officers' quarters and church, =L.=7210, =L.=7213, =S.=344, =S.=3338.

--church, =L.=7151, =S.=345, =S.=3339, =S.=3340.

--commissary department, =L.=7060.

Officers of the Fiftieth Now York Engineers celebrating the 4th of July,
1864, =S.=790, =S.=791.

Camp of Thirteenth New York Artillery, =S.=2495, =S.=2496.

Sutler's tent, Second Division, Ninth Corps, =S.=2448.

Winter headquarters of Sixth Army Corps, February, 1865, =L.=7545.

Headquarters of General O. B. Willcox, August, 1864, =L.=7222.

Winter quarters of photographers attached to United States Engineer
Battalion, March, 1865, =L.=7347.

Winter camp of Second Wisconsin Infantry, February, 1865, =L.=7543.

Camp of chief ambulance officer of Ninth Corps, August, 1864, =L.=7538,
=L.=7667, =S.=818.

A summer camp in the woods, August, 1864, =L.=7152, =L.=7154, =S.=1037.

Execution of Johnson (a colored soldier) for attempted rape, June, 1864,
=S.=783.

Troops drawn up to witness execution of a deserter, August, 1864,
=S.=983.

Commissary depot at Cedar Level, August, 1864, =S.=819, =L.=7182,
=L.=7645.

Surgeons of First Division, Ninth Corps, October, 1864, =L.=7448.

Surgeons of Second Division, Ninth Corps, October, 1864, =L.=7567,
=L.=7575.

Hospital stewards of Second Division, Ninth Corps, October, 1864,
=L.=7296, =L.=7571.

Surgeons of Third Division, Ninth Corps, August, 1864, =L.=7042,
=L.=7063.

Surgeons of Fourth Division, Ninth Corps, August, 1864, =L.=7045,
=L.=7046.

Chaplains of Ninth Corps, October, 1864, =L.=7049.

Employees of quartermaster of First Division, Ninth Corps, forage
department, November, 1864, =L.=7569.

Employees of quartermaster of First Division, Ninth Corps, mechanics,
November, 1864, =L.=7048.

Surgeon Brinton and others, October, 1864, =L.=7564.

=Outer line of confederate fortifications captured by Eighteenth Corps
on June 15, 1864:=

--redoubt near Dunn's house, =S.=784, =S.=785, =S.=1027.

--redoubt and curtain, =S.=1137.

--interior view, with Cowan's 1st New York battery in occupation,
=S.=787, =S.=788, =S.=2343.

Confederate camp captured by Eighteenth Corps, June 15, 1864, =S.=782.

The "Dictator"--13-inch mortar, August, 1864, =L.=7394, =L.=7463,
=S.=820, =S.=822.

Railroad battery, =S.=1171, =S.=1245.

Bomb-proof soldiers' restaurant on the lines, =S.=1051.

General view from the signal tower, =L.=7631.

Bomb-proof quarters in federal camp, =S.=118, =S.=801, =S.=802, =S.=803,
=S.=804, =S.=805, =S.=806, =S.=808, =S.=809, =S.=810, =S.=950, =S.=1053,
=S.=1065, =S.=1073, =S.=3336, =S.=3337.

=Fort Sedgwick ("Fort Hell"):=

--interior views, showing bomb-proof quarters of garrison, =L.=7534,
=S.=1084, =S.=1093, =S.=1094, =S.=1095, =S.=3334, =S.=3335.

--officer's bomb-proof quarters in Fort Sedgwick, =S.=1085.

--interior view of the fort, looking south from its center, =L.=7633.

View of federal line, looking from right of Fort Sedgwick to the left,
=L.=7115.

Fort Steadman, interior view, =S.=1086, =S.=3341, =S.=3342, =S.=3343.

Crow's Nest battery and lookout, =S.=2494.

Confederate fortifications at Gracie's salient, =L.=7018, =S.=1059,
=S.=1060, =S.=1061.

Fort McGilvery, confederate fortifications, =S.=1050, =S.=1052,
=S.=1054, =S.=1057, =S.=1058, =S.=1063, =S.=1064, =S.=1066, =S.=1067,
=S.=1068, =S.=1069, =S.=1071, =S.=1072, =S.=1074, =S.=1075, =S.=1091.

Fortifications on the lines, not known whether federal or confederate,
=S.=35, =S.=950, =S.=1055, =S.=1062, =S.=1070, =S.=1096, =S.=1097.

"High Bridge," across Appomattox River, Southside Railroad, =L.=7162,
=L.=7179, =L.=7286, =L.=7287, =S.=1013, =S.=1184.

McLean's house, scene of General Lee's surrender, =L.=7191, =L.=7292,
=S.=1210.

Appomattox court-house, =L.=7169, =L.=7189, =L.=7193, =S.=1164.

First wagon-train entering Petersburg, =L.=7172, =S.=951.

=Petersburg, Va.:=

--view of gas works, showing effect of bombardment, =S.=1021, =S.=1182.

--view of planing-mills, showing effect of bombardment, =S.=1104.

--Blandford church, =L.=7269, =S.=1089, =S.=1090.

--street views, =S.=952, =S.=959, =L.=7444.

--female seminary, =L.=7315.

--Michler's cottage, =L.=7485.

--Brant's house, =L.=7522.

--Appomattox River above city, =S.=1092.

--Johnson's mill, =L.=7207, =S.=1102, =S.=1103.

--merchant's mill, =L.=7113.

--cotton mills, =S.=1081, =S.=1082, =S.=1083, =S.=1087, =S.=1088,
=S.=1098, =S.=1100, =S.=1101, =S.=1105, =S.=1106, =S.=1107, =S.=1108,
=S.=1110, =S.=1112, =S.=1113, =S.=1114.

                               * * * * *

                           ARMY OF THE JAMES.

Bermuda Hundred Landing--distant view, taken from City Point, =S.=2451.

Signal tower on left of Bermuda Hundred lines, near Appomattox River,
=L.=7006, =S.=1015, =S.=2500, =S.=2501, =S.=2502.

Army bridge across James River, near Varina Landing, =L.=7174, =S.=953,
=S.=954.

Varina Landing, James River, =S.=10, =S.=957.

Aiken's house, near Varina Landing, James River, =S.=2464.

Signal station on James River, =S.=2503.

Transports and monitors in James River, near Deep Bottom, =S.=2466.

Dutch Gap Canal, =L.=7482, =S.=955, =S.=956, =S.=1121, =S.=1122.

Federal obstructions in Trent's Reach, James River, =S.=2475.

Confederate gunboat sunk in James River, above Dutch Gap Canal,
=S.=1124.

Views on James River between Dutch Gap Canal and Drewry's Bluff, =S.=22,
=S.=23, =S.=1128, =S.=1133.

Confederate obstructions in James River, near Drewry's Bluff, =S.=1116,
=S.=1117, =S.=3350, =S.=3351.

=Fort Darling (confederate), Drewry's Bluff, James River:=

--exterior views, =S.=1118, =S.=1119, =S.=1123, =S.=1126, =S.=3347.

--interior views, =S.=55, =S.=56, =S.=1138, =S.=3344, =S.=3345,
=S.=3346, =S.=3352, =S.=3353.

Confederate water battery, Fort Darling, Drewry's Bluff, James River,
=S.=1120, =S.=3348, =S.=3349.

=Confederate battery at Howlett House, Trent's Reach, James River:=

--general views, =S.=13, =S.=14.

--traverse and gun, =S.=15, =S.=17, =S.=18, =S.=19, =S.=20, =S.=21.

Confederate battery on James River, above Dutch Gap, =S.=24, =S.=25,
=S.=26, =S.=27, =S.=28, =S.=32, =S.=34, =S.=36, =S.=38, =S.=39, =S.=41,
=S.=42, =S.=43, =S.=44, =S.=45, =S.=46, =S.=47, =S.=48, =S.=49, =S.=50,
=S.=51, =S.=52, =S.=53, =S.=54, =S.=58.

Fort Brady, interior view, =S.=2316.

Fort Brady, building winter quarters, =S.=2315.

Fortifications on the lines to the right of Fort Brady, =S.=2314.

Fort Burnham, previously confederate Fort Harrison, =S.=2498.

Headquarters Tenth Army Corps, General Alfred Terry, =S.=2443.

Headquarters Second Division, Tenth Corps, General Birney, =S.=2446.

Headquarters Eighteenth Corps, General Godfrey Weitzel, =S.=2445.

Headquarters of General Adelbert Ames, =S.=2347.

General R. =S.= Foster's Headquarters, near Fort Brady, =S.=2317.

Camp of Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, =S.=2497.

Interior of Surgeon McKay's quarters, =S.=1024.

Surgeon McKay and others, Army of the James, =L.=7442.

Surgeons of Tenth Army Corps, =L.=7194.

Contrabands on Aiken's farm, =S.=2497.

                               * * * * *

                         CITY OF RICHMOND, VA.

                            IN APRIL, 1865.

General views of the city, =L.=7026, =L.=7110, =L.=7159, =L.=7623,
=S.=875, =S.=3621, =S.=3622.

Panoramic view of the city, =S.=881, =S.=882, =S.=3619, =S.=3620.

Views in the "burnt district," =S.=856, =S.=857, =S.=858, =S.=864,
=S.=872, =S.=900, =S.=901, =S.=902, =S.=903, =S.=904, =S.=905, =S.=906,
=S.=942, =S.=943, =S.=944, =S.=945, =S.=946, =S.=3355, =S.=3356.

Ruins of Mayo's bridge, =L.=7574, =S.=874, =S.=1181.

Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad bridge, =L.=7646, =S.=853,
=S.=869.

Ruins of Richmond & Petersburg Railroad bridge, =S.=846, =S.=870,
=S.=885, =S.=3361.

Ruins of paper mill, =S.=867.

Ruins of arsenal, =L.=7561, =S.=848, =S.=861, =S.=863, =S.=879, =S.=887,
=S.=888, =S.=889, =S.=907.

Ruins of State armory, =L.=7030, =S.=865.

Ruins of State armory, and view down James River, =L.=7111, =L.=7236,
=S.=883, =S.=884.

Ruins of Gallego flour-mills, =L.=7031, =L.=7176, =L.=7177, =S.=854,
=S.=886, =S.=908, =S.=939.

Haxall & Crenshaw flour-mills, =S.=852, =S.=880.

Ruins of Exchange Bank, =S.=3357.

Ruins of Southern Express office, =S.=3354.

Tredegar iron-works, =L.=7542, =S.=847, =S.=862, =S.=3358.

Views on canal basin, =L.=7033, =S.=940, =S.=947.

Views on the canal, =L.=7617, =S.=941, =S.=868, =S.=940.

Libby Prison, =L.=7557, =S.=873, =S.=895, =S.=3364, =S.=3365.

Kerr's tobacco factory, storehouse for federal supplies for prisoners,
=S.=894.

Castle Thunder, =L.=7616, =S.=859, =S.=897, =S.=3362, =S.=3363,
=S.=3617.

Views on Belle Isle, =S.=871, =S.=876, =S.=891.

Pontoon bridge across James River, =S.=1011, =S.=3372, =S.=3373.

View of James River from Hollywood Cemetery, =S.=929.

Views of James River during freshet, =S.=877, =S.=878.

State capitol, =S.=3359, =S.=3360.

Governor's mansion, =S.=3378.

General Washington's headquarters, =S.=935.

Residence of Jefferson Davis, President of Confederate States, =S.=911,
=S.=3376.

Residence of Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of Confederate
States, =S.=912.

Residence of General Robert E. Lee, =L.=7087, =S.=925, =S.=3375.

Washington Monument, =L.=7028, =S.=855, =S.=919.

Henry Clay Monument, =S.=3383.

Monumental Church, =S.=928, =S.=3369.

First African Church, =S.=3368.

Saint Paul's Church, =S.=937.

Saint John's Church, =S.=3366, =S.=3367.

Ballard House, =S.=921.

Spotswood House, =S.=938.

City Hall, =S.=850, =S.=923.

City almshouse, =S.=860.

Street views, =S.=866, =S.=926, =S.=927, =S.=936.

=Hollywood Cemetery:=

--graves of confederate soldiers, =S.=931, =S.=1020.

--tomb of President Monroe, =L.=7372, =S.=910, =S.=3379.

--grave of General J. E. B. Stuart, =S.=3618.

Wagon-train of military telegraph corps, June, 1865, =L.=7183, =L.=7239.

Operators of military telegraph, June, 1865, =L.=7481.

New York newspaper correspondents' row, =S.=3370.

Headquarters of Christian Commission, =S.=3371.

                               * * * * *

                         ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE.

Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi, =S.=394.

Battlefield of Chickasaw Bluffs, Mississippi, =S.=395.

Poison spring on battlefield of Chickasaw Bluffs, Mississippi, =S.=396,
=S.=922.

Big Black River Station, Mississippi, =S.=392.

Battlefield of Big Black River, Mississippi, =S.=1056.

                               * * * * *

                         PORT ROYAL EXPEDITION.

Fort Beauregard, Bay Point, Saint Helena Island, S. C., November, 1861,
=S.=203, =S.=204, =S.=205.

Fort Wallace (or Walker), Hilton Head, S. C., November, 1861, =S.=207.

Siege train, Hilton Head, S. C., November, 1861, =S.=166.

Graves of sailors at Hilton Head, killed during bombardment of forts,
=S.=187.

Coosaw Ferry, Port Royal Island, S. C., =S.=183, =S.=201.

Mock battery at Seabrook Point, Port Royal Island, S. C., built by
Seventy-ninth New York infantry, =S.=161.

Natural arch at Seabrook Point, Port Royal, S. C., =S.=202.

Building pontoon bridge near Beaufort, S. C., March, 1862, =S.=157.

Officers' mess, at Beaufort, S. C., February, 1862, =S.=208.

Fiftieth Pennsylvania Infantry, Beaufort, S. C., February, 1862,
=S.=156.

General I. I. Stevens, Beaufort, S. C., March, 1862, =S.=1183, =S.=164.

General I. I. Stevens and staff; Beaufort, S. C., March, 1862, =S.=163.

Signal station at Beaufort, S. C., formerly residence of J. G. Barnwell,
February, 1862, =S.=172.

Fuller's house, Beaufort, S. C., February, 1862, =S.=162, =S.=168.

Rhett's house, Beaufort, S. C., February, 1862, =S.=155.

Boat landing, Beaufort, S. C., February, 1862, =S.=171.

Old tomb on Rhett's plantation, Port Royal Island, S. C., =S.=158.

Smith's plantation, Port Royal Island, S. C., =S.=151, =S.=152, =S.=154.

Preparing cotton for the gin, =S.=159.

Mill's plantation, Port Royal Island, S. C., =S.=169, =S.=211, =S.=1177.

Dock at Hilton Head, built by soldiers, April, 1862, =S.=170.

Headquarters of General Hunter at Hilton Head, April, 1862, =S.=209.

Army bakery, Hilton Head, April, 1862, =S.=210.

                               * * * * *

                         SIEGE OF FORT PULASKI.

Exterior view of front after bombardment, April, 1862, =S.=188.

Exterior view of rear, April, 1862, =S.=189.

Exterior view of side, April, 1862, =S.=193.

Distant view of breach, April, 1862, =S.=190.

Close view of breach, April, 1862, =S.=192.

Interior view of breach, April, 1862, =S.=191.

Interior view of rear parapet, April, 1862, =S.=194.

Interior view of front parapet, April, 1862, =S.=198.

A dismounted mortar, April, 1862, =S.=199.

The "Jeff Davis" gun, April, 1862, =S.=196.

The "Beauregard" gun, April, 1862, =S.=197.

Interior view of parapet with guns "Jeff Davis," "Beauregard," and
"Stephens" in position, April, 1862, =S.=200.

                               * * * * *

                        FORT FISHER EXPEDITION.

Fleet of Fort Fisher Expedition In Hampton Roads, December, 1864,
=L.=7432, =S.=836.

Admiral Porter's flagship Malvern, Norfolk, Va., December, 1864,
=L.=7147.

Admiral Porter and staff on board flagship Malvern, Norfolk, Va.,
December, 1864, =L.=7227, =L.=7244, =L.=7541.

=Fort Fisher:=

--panoramic view of land face (part 1), =L.=7297, (part 2) =L.=7480,
=L.=7168, (part 3) =L.=7170, (part 4) =L.=7242.

--views on land face, =L.=7149, =L.=7572, =L.=7635.

--first six traverses on sea face, =L.=7335.

--sixth to eleventh traverse on sea face, =L.=7577.

--from tenth traverse to end on sea face, =L.=7573.

--interior view of first traverse, northwest end, showing entrance to
fort, =L.=7196.

--interior view of first three traverses on land front, =L.=7440,
=S.=1229.

--interior view of a traverse on land front, =L.=7056, =S.=1236.

--interior view at southeast end, showing site of main magazine,
=L.=7057.

--interior view of first six traverses on sea face, =L.=7101.

--ten different interior views of traverses, showing guns dismounted and
destruction caused by bombardment, =L.=7061, =L.=7195, =L.=7243,
=S.=1230, =S.=1233, =S.=1235, =S.=1238, =S.=1239, =S.=1241, =S.=1242.

--interior view of "the pulpit," =L.=7535, =S.=1240.

--Armstrong gun, =L.=7073, =S.=1234.

Battery Lamb, on sea front of Fort Fisher, =L.=7119, =L.=7622, =S.=1232.

Battery Buchanan, near Fort Fisher, =S.=1231.

Quartermaster and commissary office, near Fort Fisher, =L.=7209.

                               * * * * *

                          SIEGE OF CHARLESTON.

=Fort Sumter:=

--Interior views, showing how walls were strengthened, =S.=3457,
=S.=3458, =S.=3459, =S.=3460.

--interior views on parapet, =S.=3461, =S.=3466.

--view from parapet, =S.=3464.

--view from east angle of parapet, facing Morris Island, =S.=3465.

--interior views at time of celebrating raising United States flag
=S.=3454, =S.=3455, =S.=3456.

--exterior views showing cheveaux-de-frise and wires to protect against
assaulting parties, =S.=3462, =S.=3463.

Fort Moultrie, interior views, =S.=3467, =S.=3468, =S.=3469, =S.=3470,
=S.=3473, =S.=3476, =S.=3477.

=Fort Johnson:=

--interior views, =S.=3484, =S.=3485, =S.=3487, =S.=3488.

--interior view, looking toward Fort Sumter, =S.=3475.

--water battery, Fort Sumter in distance, =S.=3471, =S.=3472.

Fort Putnam, interior views, =S.=3474, =S.=3478, =S.=3479, =S.=3480,
=S.=3481, =S.=3482, =S.=3483.

Fort Marshall, interior view at northeast angle, =S.=3486.

Wreck of blockade-runner Colt, off Sullivan's Island, =S.=3411.

=City of Charleston:=

--view of city from top of orphan asylum, =S.=3419, =S.=3420.

--view of city from top of Mills House, looking up Meeting Street,
=S.=3440.

--headquarters of General Hatch, =S.=3429.

--house on Broad Street in which federal officers were confined under
fire, =S.=3449, =S.=3450.

--Roper's Hospital, =S.=3434.

--ruins on the battery, effects of the bombardment, =S.=3451.

--ruins of Northeastern Railroad depot, =S.=3452, =S.=3453.

--ruins of Secession Hall, where first ordinance of secession was
passed, =S.=3447.

--Hibernian Hall, =S.=3439.

--Circular Church, =S.=3441, =S.=3442.

--ruins opposite Circular Church, =S.=3448.

--Saint Michael's Church, =S.=3437.

--Unitarian and German Lutheran Churches, =S.=3436.

--ruins of Roman Catholic Cathedral, burned in 1861, =S.=3443, =S.=3444,
=S.=3445, =S.=3446.

--ruins of Dr. Gadsden's house, effects of bombardment, =S.=3438.

--city hall, =S.=3432.

--post-office, =S.=3426, =S.=3427.

--market house, =S.=3428.

--Charleston Hotel, =S.=3431.

--orphan asylum, =S.=3422, =S.=3423, =S.=3424, =S.=3425.

--offices of United States Treasury agent and quartermaster, =S.=3435.

--Governor Aiken's house, =S.=3433.

--grave of John C. Calhoun, =S.=3421.

                               * * * * *

                                 NAVY.

Ruins of Norfolk navy-yard, =S.=984.

Steam frigate Pensacola, off Alexandria, June, 1861, =S.=103.

Deck and turret of the original "Monitor," July, 1862, =S.=486, =S.=659.

Officers of the original "Monitor," July, 1862, =S.=390, =S.=487,
=S.=492, =S.=1077.

Crew of the original "Monitor," July, 1862, =S.=490, =S.=660.

Iron-clad gunboat Galena, after her attack on Fort Darling, July, 1862,
=S.=488, =S.=652.

Gunboat Yankee at Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864, =S.=714.

Confederate blockade-runner Teaser, captured by the United States
gunboat Maritanza, July, 1862, =L.=7414, =L.=7426.

Gunboat Maritanza, as she appeared immediately after capture of
blockade-runner Teaser, July, 1862, =S.=484.

Bow gun on confederate blockade-runner Teaser, July, 1862, =S.=481.

One hundred-pounder gun on confederate blockade-runner Teaser, July,
1862, =S.=482.

Dock of confederate blockade-runner Teaser, showing destruction caused
by shell fired by United States gunboat Maritanza, July, 1862, =S.=483.

Gunboat Santiago de Cuba, Hampton Roads, December, 1864, =L.=7226.

School-ship Sabine, Hampton Roads, December, 1864, =L.=7415.

Steamer Malvern, Admiral Porter's flagship on the Fort Fisher
expedition, Norfolk, Va., December, 1864, =L.=7147.

Admiral Porter and staff, on flagship Malvern, Hampton Roads, December,
1864, =L.=7244, =L.=7227, =L.=7541.

Gunboat Fort Donelson, Norfolk, Va., December, 1864, =L.=7416.

Gunboat Fort Jackson, Norfolk, Va., December, 1864, =L.=7425.

Deck and turret of monitor Kaatskill, Charleston Harbor, S. C.,
=S.=3412.

Quarter-deck of Pawnee, Charleston Harbor, S. C., =S.=3408, =S.=3410.

Gunboat Mendota, James River, Va., =S.=2471.

Gunboat Commodore Perry, James River, Va., =S.=2472.

The monitor Canonicus, James River, Va., =S.=2468, =S.=2469, =S.=2470.

Officers on deck of Philadelphia, Charleston Harbor, S. C., =S.=3414.

Admiral Dahlgren and staff, on deck of Pawnee, Charleston Harbor, S. C.,
=S.=3413.

                               * * * * *

                   PORTRAITS OF EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF
                       UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

Abraham Lincoln, President, =S.=1312.

Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President, =S.=1429.

William H. Seward, Secretary of State, =S.=1431.

Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of Treasury, =S.=1747.

Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, =S.=1599.

Edwin S. Stanton, Secretary of War, =S.=2208.

Charles A. Dana. Assistant Secretary of War, =S.=2430.

Gideon Welles, Secretary of Navy, =S.=1175, =S.=1375.

John P. Usher, Secretary of Interior, =S.=1708.

Edward Bates, Attorney-General, =S.=1741.

James Speed, Attorney-General, =S.=2080.

                               * * * * *

                   PORTRAITS OF EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF
                     CONFEDERATE STATES GOVERNMENT.

Jefferson Davis, President, =S.=1453.

Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President, =S.=1430.

R. M. T. Hunter, Secretary of State, =S.=1740.

Stephen R. Mallory, Secretary of Navy, =S.=1743.

John H. Reagan, Postmaster-General, =S.=1996.

                               * * * * *

                       GRAND REVIEW OF THE ARMY.

                WASHINGTON, D. C., MAY 22 AND 23, 1865.

Fourteen different views at the reviewing-stand in front of Executive
Mansion, =L.=7694, =L.=7749, =S.=1248, =S.=1249, =S.=1250, =S.=1251,
=S.=1252, =S.=1253, =S.=1254, =S.=1255, =S.=1256, =S.=3388, =S.=3390,
=S.=3391.

Three different views looking up Pennsylvania Avenue towards Seventeenth
Street from opposite reviewing-stand, =S.=1277, =S.=1278, =S.=1283.

Fifteen different views looking down Pennsylvania Avenue from corner of
Fifteenth Street, =S.=1257, =S.=1258, =S.=1259, =S.=1260, =S.=1261,
=S.=1262, =S.=1263, =S.=1264, =S.=1265, =S.=1266, =S.=1267, =S.=1268,
=S.=1269, =S.=1270, =S.=1271.

Stand for spectators at corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Fifteenth
Street, =S.=1276, =S.=1279.

The public school children on west front of capitol, =L.=7748, =S.=1280,
=S.=1281.

Troops marching down Capitol Hill on west side of the Capitol, =S.=1282.

View looking down Pennsylvania Avenue from corner of Ninth Street,
=L.=7907.

General John A. Logan and staff, and Army of Tennessee, passing in
review, =S.=3321.

General H. S. Wright and staff, and Sixth Army Corps, passing in review,
=S.=3392.

General H. W. Slocum and staff, and Army of Georgia, passing in review,
=S.=3393, =S.=3394.

General Jefferson C. Davis and staff, and Nineteenth Army Corps, passing
in review, =S.=3395.

Portion of Twentieth Army Corps passing in review, =S.=3396, =S.=3397,
=S.=3398.

                               * * * * *

                  ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN.

=Ford's Theater, place of assassination:=

--exterior view, =L.=7765.

--view of box in which President was assassinated, =S.=3403, =S.=3404.

--chair occupied by President at time of assassination, =S.=1939,
=S.=3405, =S.=3406, =S.=3407.

Howard's stable, place where Booth hired the horse on which he escaped,
=L.=7766, =L.=7767.

Lewis Payne, one of the conspirators, =L.=7769, =L.=7770, =L.=7771,
=L.=7772, =L.=7773, =L.=7774, =L.=7775, =L.=7776, =L.=7777.

Michael O'Laughlin, one of the conspirators, =L.=7768, =L.=7780,
=L.=7783.

Samuel Arnold, one of the conspirators, =L.=7778, =L.=7779.

George A. Atzerot, one of the conspirators, =L.=7781, =L.=7782.

David E. Harrold, one of the conspirators, =L.=7784, =L.=7785, =L.=7786.

Edward Spangler, one of the conspirators, =L.=7787, =L.=7788.

Unknown persons, arrested on suspicion, =L.=7789, =L.=7790, =L.=7791,
=L.=7792, =L.=7793.

=Execution of conspirators:=

--views of the scaffold before the execution, =L.=7757, =L.=7759.

--on the scaffold, =L.=7795.

--reading the warrant, =L.=7796.

--adjusting the ropes, =L.=7797, =L.=7799.

--the trap sprung, =L.=7798, =L.=7800.

--the graves, =L.=7760.

Funeral procession of President Lincoln on Pennsylvania Avenue,
Washington, D. C., =S.=1272, =S.=1273, =S.=1275.

Funeral car of President Lincoln, =S.=1985.

                               * * * * *

                EXECUTION OF CAPTAIN WIRTZ (C. =S.= A.),
                   THE BRUTAL KEEPER OF ANDERSONVILLE
                              PRISON-PEN.

Reading the death warrant, =L.=7752.

Adjusting the rope, =L.=7753.

Springing the trap, =L.=7754.

Wirtz hanging, =L.=7755.

Newspaper correspondents viewing the execution, =L.=7756.

                               * * * * *

                     CITY OF WASHINGTON, 1861-1865.

=Office of Chief Signal Officer:=

--with Colonel Fisher and officers, =L.=7814, =L.=7848.

--with group of officers and clerks, =L.=7695.

Central signal station, =L.=7683.

Medical department, =L.=7811, =L.=7921.

Quartermaster's office (Captain Tompkins), =L.=7840, =L.=7918, =L.=7919.

Quartermaster's office (Seventh Street wharf), =L.=7876.

Hospital of quartermaster's department, =L.=7812, =L.=7904.

Government bakery, =L.=7859, =L.=7885.

Mess-house at government stable, =L.=7674, =L.=7676.

Mess-house of quartermaster's employees, =L.=7901, =L.=7902, =L.=7903.

Quartermaster's warehouse, =L.=7013, =L.=7821, =L.=7831, =L.=7858,
=L.=7870.

Government horse-shoeing shop, =L.=7820.

=Government repair shops:=

--wheelwright shop, =L.=7856, =L.=7878, =L.=7900.

--trimming shop, =L.=7700.

--paint shop, =L.=7701.

--carpenter shop, =L.=7836.

--blacksmith shop, =L.=7699, =L.=7864.

--ambulance shop, =L.=7834.

--office, =L.=7923, =L.=7925.

--general view, =L.=7922.

--street in rear, =L.=7888.

General M. D. Hardin's headquarters, April, 1865, =L.=7883.

General Alfred Pleasonton's headquarters, April, 1865, =L.=7838,
=L.=7920.

Old Capitol Prison, =S.=1019.

Forest Hall Prison, =L.=7867.

Park of artillery at arsenal, =L.=7250, =L.=7671, =S.=2283, =S.=2284,
=S.=2285.

Wiard guns at arsenal, =L.=7246, =S.=2286.

Groups of clerks at War Department, =L.=7873, =L.=7899.

Groups of clerks at Quartermaster-General's Office, =L.=7055, =L.=7826,
=L.=7827, =L.=7828, =L.=7829, =L.=7855, =L.=7871, =L.=7872.

Group of employees at quartermaster's depot, =L.=7891.

Group of clerks at provost-marshal's office, =L.=7889.

Office of Christian Commission, =L.=7718, =L.=7719, =L.=7720, =L.=7721.

Long Bridge, =L.=7824.

Long Bridge, after its destruction by freshet, =L.=7819.

Fire at which Ellsworth's Zouaves distinguished themselves, =S.=2293.

                               * * * * *

                        DEFENCES OF WASHINGTON.

Headquarters of defences of Washington, south of Potomac, August, 1865,
=L.=7340.

=Fort Corcoran=

--guard-house and guard, =L.=7841.

--rear entrance, =S.=2309

--loading big gun, =S.=2310

Fort Lincoln, =L.=7409.

Fort Lincoln, detachment manning the guns, Co. "H," 3d Massachusetts
Artillery, =L.=7874

Fort Richardson, view of interior, =S.=2311.

Fort C. F. Smith, views of interior, Co's "F," "L," and "K," 2d New York
Artillery, =L.=7672, =L.=7673, =L.=7675.

=Fort Stevens:=

--views of interior and 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7692, =L.=7744,
=L.=7803, =L.=7917.

--officers' quarters, 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7282, =L.=7696.

--barracks, 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7746, =L.=7897.

Fort Slemmer, rear entrance, =S.=2318.

=Fort Totten:=

--sally-port and group of 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7021.

--views of interior and group of 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7249,
=L.=7253, =L.=7681, =L.=7687.

--officers' quarters, 3d Massachusetts Artillery, =L.=7261, =L.=7678.

--view of interior, =S.=2313.

=Fort Whipple:=

--headquarters, =L.=7408.

--batteries in No. 2, =L.=7034.

--light battery, =L.=7669.

Fort Woodbury, =S.=2319.

Camp Barry, artillery depot, July, 1863, =L.=7010, =L.=7436.

=Camp Stoneman, Griesboro, Md., cavalry depot:=

--general views, May, 1864, =L.=7015, =L.=7017.

--General Gamble, Major Sawyer, and officers, March, 1865, =L.=7808,
=L.=7349, =L.=7835, =L.=7837.

--band and quarters, March, 1865, =L.=7350.

Signal Corps camp, =L.=7724, =L.=7725, =L.=7727, =L.=7730, =L.=7732.

Camp of Thirteenth New York Cavalry, Prospect Hill, =L.=7218, =L.=7722,
=L.=7733, =L.=7736, =L.=7737, =L.=7739.

Headquarters of General Hardin near Fort Slocum, =L.=7228, =L.=7431.

Brigade headquarters near Fort Lincoln, =L.=7908, =S.=1147.

Headquarters of General S. P. Heintzelman, Fort Lyon, =S.=2305.

Roche's house, near Arlington House, =S.=2306.

Headquarters of General Irwin McDowell, Arlington House, =S.=2307.

Headquarters of General W. F. Bartlett, =L.=7020, =L.=7221, =L.=7223,
=L.=7731.

Headquarters of General A. McD. McCook, Brightwood, D. C., July, 1804,
=L.=7205.

Blair's house, Silver Springs, D. C., =S.=1012, =S.=1197.

House near Fort Stevens, showing effect of shot during Early's attack on
Washington, =S.=1018, =S.=1170.

Soldiers' cemetery, near Fort Stevens, =L.=7682.

Soldiers' cemetery at Soldiers' Home, =S.=1188.

General A. McD. McCook and staff, Brightwood, D. C., July, 1864,
=L.=7206, =L.=7660, =S.=1022.

General C. C. Augur and staff, =L.=7118, =L.=7869, =S.=1001.

Examining passes at Georgetown Ferry, =S.=290, =S.=291.

Pontoon bridge between Georgetown and Analostan Island, =L.=7866.

Block-house near Aqueduct Bridge, =S.=2282.

Views of Georgetown, =L.=7685, =L.=7846, =L.=7894, =L.=7895.

Views from Georgetown Heights, =L.=7823, =L.=7882.

Aqueduct Bridge, Potomac River, =L.=7817, =S.=288, =S.=289, =S.=2308.

Cabin John Bridge, Potomac River, =L.=7651.

Chain Bridge, Potomac River, =L.=7655, =L.=7656, =L.=7657, =S.=2282,
=S.=2290, =S.=2291.

Foot-bridge, near Chain Bridge, =S.=2292.

View on Cabin John Run, =S.=2287.

Great Falls, Potomac River, =L.=7652, =L.=7653, =L.=7654.

                               * * * * *

                      HOSPITALS IN WASHINGTON AND
                               VICINITY.

Quartermasters' Hospital, =L.=7812, =L.=7904.

Douglass Hospital, =L.=7816, =L.=7884.

Tent Hospital in rear of Douglass Hospital, =L.=7924.

Stanton Hospital, =L.=7914.

=Armory Square Hospital:=

--chapel, showing dome of Capitol in the distance, =L.=7916.

--interior of Ward K, =L.=7822, =L.=7886, =L.=7887.

=Harewood Hospital:=

--general views, =L.=7825, =S.=1014.

--exterior of Ward B, =S.=1209.

--interior of ward, =S.=1006, =S.=1007, =S.=1008.

--interior of mess-room, =S.=1168.

--officers' quarters, =L.=7663, =S.=1206.

--ambulance train, =S.=1146.

Tent hospital at Kendall Green, =S.=1208.

Ruins of Kalorama Hospital, May. 1865, =L.=7690.

Surgeons at Finlay Hospital, April, 1864, =L.=7853.

Surgeons at Seminary Hospital, April, 1865, =L.=7875.

                               * * * * *

                        CITY OF ALEXANDRIA, VA.

Marshall House, where Colonel Ellsworth was killed, =S.=1189, =S.=2294,
=S.=2295.

Slave-pen, =L.=7264, =S.=1003, =S.=1174, =S.=2296, =S.=2297, =S.=2298,
=S.=2299, =S.=2300.

=Soldiers' Rest:=

--exterior views, July, 1865, =L.=7815, =S.=1039.

--interior of kitchen, July, 1865, =L.=7863.

Lodge of Sanitary Commission, July, 1864, =S.=1203.

Lodge of Sanitary Commission at convalescent camp, May, 1863, =S.=1204.

Soldiers' cemetery, =L.=7256, =S.=1172.

Christ Church, =S.=2301.

                               * * * * *

                  FORT MONROE AND HAMPTON, VA., 1864.

=Fortress Monroe:=

--the sally-port, =S.=829.

--the parade-ground, =S.=830.

--the Lincoln gun, =L.=7419, =S.=833.

--exterior of officers' quarters in the casemates, =S.=832.

--interior of officers' Quarters in the casemates, =S.=835.

--group of officers and their families, =L.=7411.

--post band, =L.=7421.

--hygeia saloon, =L.=7420.

--quartermaster's office, =L.=7418, =L.=7422, =S.=838.

--the beach, =S.=839.

--light-house, =S.=837.

Hampton, Va., =L.=7029, =L.=7412, =S.=841.

Ruins of old church at Hampton, Va., =S.=16, =S.=459, =S.=405, =S.=466,
=S.=467, =S.=1244.

Chesapeake Hospital, Hampton, Va., =L.=7417, =L.=7427, =S.=840.

Ammunition schooners in Hampton Roads, Va., =L.=7424.

                               * * * * *

                   SANITARY COMMISSION AND CHRISTIAN
                              COMMISSION.

Sanitary commissioners, =S.=1816.

Central office of Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. C., =L.=7704,
=L.=7706, =L.=7708, =S.=1198.

Storehouse of Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. C., =L.=7709,
=L.=7710.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7707.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7712.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7713.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7714.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7715.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7716.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =L.=7717.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =S.=1200.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =S.=1201.

Sanitary Commission, Lodge No. --, Washington, D. C., =S.=1202.

Wagon and outfit of field relief corps of Sanitary Commission, =L.=7711,
=S.=1199.

Lodge of Sanitary Commission, Alexandria, Va., =S.=1203.

Office of Sanitary Commission, convalescent camp, near Alexandria, Va.,
=S.=1204.

Office of Sanitary Commission, Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864, =S.=737

Storehouse of Sanitary Commission, Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=739.

Cooking tents of Sanitary Commission, Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864,
=S.=742.

Nurses and officers of Sanitary Commission, Fredericksburg, Va., May,
1864, =S.=741.

Wounded soldiers of Kearney's Division at Sanitary Commission,
Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1864, =S.=740.

Office of Sanitary Commission, Gettysburg, Pa., =S.=238.

Camp of Sanitary Commission at Belle Plain Landing, May, 1864, =S.=2484.

Wagons of Sanitary Commission at Belle Plain Landing, May, 1864,
=S.=2478.

Headquarters of Christian Commission in the field, Germantown, Va.,
August, 1863, =L.=7471.

Office of Christian Commission, Washington, D. C., =L.=7718, =L.=7719,
=L.=7720, =L.=7721.

Camp of Christian Commission at White House Landing, Va., =S.=2487.

Headquarters of Christian Commission, Richmond, Va., =S.=3371.

                               * * * * *

                             MISCELLANEOUS.

Levee at Vicksburg, Miss., February, 1864, =S.=391.

Brazilian steamer, =L.=7830, =S.=346, =S.=347.

Dix's autograph letter, "Shoot him on the spot," =S.=3763.

Tomb of Washington's mother, Fredericksburg, Va., =S.=712.

Residence of John Minor Botts, =L.=7123, =L.=7124, =L.=7125, =L.=7629,
=S.=286, =S.=287.

John Minor Botts and family, =L.=7121, =L.=7122.

Pateilus's house, =L.=7745.

Agricultural College near Bladensburg, Md., =L.=7428.

Memorial tablet to Lieut. Henry B. Hidden, =L.=7462.

Captain Huff's camp at Gettysburg, =L.=7231, =L.=7232, =L.=7247.

Wounded Indian soldiers, =S.=2312.

Manner of removing wounded, =L.=7285, =L.=7381, =L.=7636, =S.=304,
=S.=1078.

General Rufus Ingalls and group, City Point, Va., =L.=7284, =L.=7524,
=L.=7619.

Military Telegraph Corps, Major Eckert and group, =L.=7487.

Group of artillery officers, Antietam, Md., September, 1862, =S.=579.

Captain Clark and Captain Jane, =S.=2356.

Two officers of General A. A. Humphrey's staff, =L.=7300, =L.=7404.

Officers of staff of General Pierce, =L.=7368.

Officers of staff of General Gersham Mott, =L.=7257.

Officers of staff of General A. McD. McCook, Brightwood, D. C., July.
1864, =L.=7070.

Officers or Signal Corps camp, near Washington, D. C., =L.=7266,
=L.=7728, =L.=7729.

General Daniel Butterfield's horse, Falmouth, Va., April, 1863,
=L.=7558.

Captain Beckwith's horse, headquarters Army of Potomac, February, 1863,
=L.=7278.

General George G. Meade's horse, =L.=7370.

General U. S. Grant's horses, Cold Harbor, Va., June 14, 1864, =S.=2429.

General John A. Rawlins's horse, Cold Harbor, Va., June 14, 1864,
=S.=2431.

Captain Webster's horse, headquarters Army of Potomac, March, 1864,
=L.=7307.

Lieutenant King's horse, =L.=7376.

Colonel Sharpe's horse, headquarters Army of Potomac, April, 1863,
=L.=7321, =L.=7536.

Major Allen (Pinkerton), of Secret Service Department, =L.=7468.

William Wilson, headquarters Army of Potomac, =L.=7127.

Mr. Talfor, engineer-draughtsman at headquarters Army of Potomac,
=L.=7435.

J. Furey, Quartermaster's Department, October, 1863, =L.=7469.

A. R. Ward, artist for Harper's Weekly, =L.=7164, =S.=254.

Mrs. Tynan and sons, Frederick, Md., =L.=7190.

Captain Huff's clerk, =L.=7488.

Frank C. Tilley (or Filley), =S.=1624.

Discussing probabilities of next advance, =S.=175.

Departure from the old homestead, =S.=306.

A camp kitchen (tasting the soup), =S.=2416.

Inauguration of President Grant, =S.=1284, =S.=1285, =S.=1286.

Fifteen-inch gun, =L.=7909.

Big gun, =L.=7659.

Wiard guns, =L.=7012, =L.=7102, =L.=7832, =L.=7857.

Park of artillery, =L.=7024.

Army office wagon, =L.=7860.

Arrival of a negro family in the lines, =S.=657.

A picnic party at Antietam, =S.=581.

A cavalry orderly, =S.=619.

Camp fun, =S.=694.

Mule team crossing a brook, =L.=7131.

An old Virginia family carriage, =S.=743.

And a large quantity of views not yet identified.

                               * * * * *

                      PORTRAITS OF ARMY OFFICERS.

    NOTE.-- _Groups of regimental officers are catalogued under
    title "Regiments and Batteries." Other groups, except generals
    and their staffs, are catalogued under campaigns during which
    taken, or under title "Miscellaneous."_

Abbott, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. I. C., =S.=1469.
Abercrombie, Brig.-Gen. J. J., =S.=1526.
Abert, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W S., =S.=3178.
Adams, Lieut.-Col. A. D., 27th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1964.
Adams, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. P., =S.=1749.
Adams, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. (in group), =L.=7390, =L.=7490.
Adams, Col. J. W., 67th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2092.
Alden, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A., Col. 169th, N Y., =S.=3062.
Alexander, Col. C. N., 2d D. C. Infantry S.2155, =S.=3755.
Alexander, Lieut.-Col. T. L., 5th U. S. Infantry, =S.=1381.
Alexander, Capt. T., 80th N. Y. Infantry, =L.=7605.
Allaire, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. J., =S.=1917.
Allen, Col., =S.=1676.
Allen, Lieut.-Col. D. B., 154th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1444.
Allen, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =S.=3108.
Allen, Major W., paymaster, =S.=3773.
Allen, Col. W. H., 1st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1735.
Alvord, Brig.-Gen. B., =C.=4506.
Ames, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =S.=1390, =S.=1728.
Ames, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. and staff, =C.=4073.
Arnes, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =C.=4666.
Anderson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. N. L., =S.=3004.
Anderson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =S.=1376, =S.=1753, =S.=3780.
Andrews, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. C., =S.=2076.
Andrews, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. L., =S.=1470, =S.=3732.
Antisel, Surgeon T., =S.=3789.
Armstrong, Bvt. Brig-Gen. S. C., Col. 8th U. S., =S.=1920.
Arnold, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =C.=4667.
Arrowsmith, Lieut., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=2116.
Asboth, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =C.=4591.
Aspinwall, Lieut.-Col. L., 22d N. Y. S. M., =S.=3733.
Astor, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. J., =S.=1807.
Audenreid. Bvt. Lieut.-Col. J. C., aide-de-camp, =S.=3757.
Augur, Maj.-Gen. C. C., =S.=1400.
Augur, Maj.-Gen. C. C. and staff, =L.=7118, =L.=7869, =S.=1001.
Averell, Brig.-Gen W. W., =S.=1655.
Averell, Brig.-Gen. W. W. and staff, =L.=7576, =S.=635.
Avery, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =C.=4504.
Ayres, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. B., =S.=1682.
Babcock, Lieut. C. B., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1586.
Babcock, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. E., =C.=4505.
Bache, Capt. F. M., 16th U. S. Infantry, =S.=2439.
Bagley, Lieut.-Col. J., 69th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1856.
Bailey, Col. B. P., 86th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1866.
Bailey, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=3235.
Bailey, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. M., Col. 37th Pa., =S.=1854.
Baird, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =S.=2115.
Baker, Col. E. D., 71st Pa. Infantry, =S.=1459.
Baker, Lieut. J. A., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1665.
Baker, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L. C., =C.=4965.
Ballier, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. F., Col. 98th Pa., =S.=2027.
Banks, Maj.-Gen. N. P., =S.=1321.
Banks, Maj.-Gen. N. P. and staff, =C.=4527, =C.=5194.
Banta, Lieut.-Col. W. C., 7th Ind. Infantry, =S.=1794.
Barlow, Maj.-Gen. F. C., =S.=1955.
Barnard, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. G., =S.=1568, =S.=1641.
Barnes, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. K., =C.=4477.
Barnett, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=5167.
Barney, Col. E. L., 6th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1083.
Barnum, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. A., =S.=2051.
Barrett, Maj. O. D., 11th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=3832.
Barry, Bvt. Maj. R. P., l6th U. S. Infantry, =S.=3871.
Barry, Bvt, Maj.-Gen. W. F., =S.=1951, =S.=2018.
Barry, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. F. and staff, =S.=429.
Barstow, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. F. (in group), =L.=7957.
Bartholemew, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. A., =S.=2614.
Bartlett, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. G., =S.=3091.
Bartlett, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. J., =S.=1487, =S.=1769, =S.=2125, =S.=3716.
Bartlett, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. F., =C.=4597.
Bartlett, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. F. and staff, =L.=7217, =L.=7221.
Barton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. B., Col. 48th N. Y., =S.=1604.
Bartram, Lieut.-Col. N. B., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=3749.
Batchelder, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. N., =S.=2600.
Baxter, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D. C., Col. 72d Pa., =S.=3014.
Baxter, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H., =S.=3041.
Baxter, Surgeon J. H., =S.=3833.
Bayard, Brig.-Gen. G. D., =C.=4668.
Bayles, Surgeon G., 4th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, =S.=1379.
Beal, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. L., =S.=3020.
Beatty, Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4742.
Beaumont, Col. M. H., 1st N. J. Cavalry, =S.=1943.
Beaver, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =C.=4715.
Beazell, Major J. W., paymaster, =S.=1395, =S.=1412.
Beckwith, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. G. (in group), =C.=5194.
Bedrer, Major R. P., =S.=1947.
Beecher, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. C., =S.=1466.
Belknap, Lieut.-Col. J., =S.=1841.
Belknap, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. W., =S.=2034.
Belknap, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. W. and orderlies, =C.=4060.
Bell, Lieut.-Col. T. S., 51st Pa. Infantry, =S.=3737.
Bendix, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. F., =S.=3201.
Benedict, Ass't Surg. A. C., 1st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1458.
Benedict, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L., =S.=1709.
Benham, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. W., =S.=2096.
Bennett, Gen. W. T., =S.=3099.
Bensel, Capt. W. P., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1671.
Benton, Lieut.-Col. R. C., 1st Vt. Heavy Artillery, =S.=1355.
Benton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. H., =C.=4544.
Benton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. P., =S.=3775.
Berdan, Bvt. Brig-Gen. H., =S.=3771.
Berry, Maj.-Gen. H. G., =S.=2224.
Berthond, Col. A. P., 31st N. J. Infantry, =S.=3738.
Betge, Col. R. J., 68th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2132.
Betts, Lieut.-Col. G. F., 9th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1635.
Biddle, Brig.-Gen. C. J., =S.=3221.
Biddle, Col. G. H., 95th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1800.
Bidwell, Lieut.-Col., =S.=1960.
Bingham, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. H., =S.=3006.
Birdwell, Brig.-Gen. D. D., =S.=1723.
Birge, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. W., =C.=5178.
Birney, Maj.-Gen. D. B., =S.=2216.
Birney, Maj.-Gen. D. B. and staff, =L.=7153.
Blackman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. M., =S.=2042.
Blair, Maj.-Gen. Frank P., =S.=1704.
Blair, Maj.-Gen. Frank P. and staff, =L.=7054.
Blaisdell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=3111.
Blanchard, Lieut.-Col. C. D., quartermaster, =S.=1475.
Bleuker, Brig.-Gen. L., =S.=1738.
Blunt, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A, P., =S.=1813.
Bogert, Lieut. J. W., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1588.
Bohlen, Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=2091
Bonneville, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. L. E., =S.=1968.
Bostwick, Maj., 12th. N. Y. S. M., =S.=1767.
Bostwick, Lieut. C. B., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1662.
Bostwick, Col. H., 71st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1578.
Boughton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=2035.
Bourri, Col. G., 68th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1519.
Bowen, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. James, =S.=1952.
Bowerman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. N., =S.=2652.
Boyd, Maj. C., 5th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1450.
Boyle, Brig.-Gen. J. T., =S.=3078.
Brackett, Col. A. G., 9th Ill. Cavalry, =S.=1649.
Bradley, Capt. J., quartermaster, =S.=1573.
Bragg, Brig.-Gen. E. S., 6th Wisc. Infantry, =S.=1367, =S.=2036.
Brandenstien, Capt. H., 46th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1824.
Brannon, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. M., =S.=1490.
Breck, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S., =S.=2663.
Brewster, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. R., =L.=7579, =S.=1842.
Brewster, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. R. and staff, =L.=7343, =L.=7580.
Brice, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. B. W., =C.=4499.
Briggs, Brig.-Gen. H. S., =S.=1707.
Britt, Lieut.-Col. J. W., 57th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1548.
Broadhead, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. F., Col. 1st Mich. Cavalry, =S.=1958.
Brooke, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. R., =S.=3046.
Brooks, Maj.-Gen. W. T. H., =S.=3054.
Brown, Lieut.-Col., =S.=3772.
Brown, Lieut.-Col. A. C., 13th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1463.
Brown, Brig.-Gen. E. B., =S.=3228.
Brown, Maj. F., paymaster, =S.=2169.
Brown, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. L., Col. 145th Pa. Infantry, =S.=3107.
Brown, Col. J. M., 100th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2603.
Brown, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N. W., =C.=4669.
Brown. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O., =C.=4948.
Brownlow, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. P., 1st Tenn. Cavalry, =S.=3077.
Brumm, Maj. G. W., 50th Pa. Infantry, =L.=7271.
Brusie, Ass't Surg. L., 3d Ind. Cavalry, =S.=1889.
Buchanan, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. C., =C.=4793.
Buck, Surg. E. J., 18th Wisc. Infantry, =S.=3798.
Buck, Lieut.-Col. S. L., 2d N. J. Infantry, =S.=1706.
Buckingham, Brig.-Gen. C. P., =S.=2175.
Buckland, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. P., =C.=4741.
Buell, Col. C., 169th N. Y Infantry, =S.=3740.
Buell, Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos, =S.=1551.
Buford, Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=2171.
Buford, Maj.-Gen. J. and staff, =C.=4061.
Buford, Maj.-Gen. N. B., =S.=1547.
Bunting, Lieut. T. B., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1663.
Burbank, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S., Col. 2d U. S. Infantry, =S.=3101.
Burger, Capt. A. A., =S.=2237.
Burgess, Col., =S.=3739.
Burke, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. W., =C.=5176.
Burling, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. C., Col. 6th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3102.
Burnett, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. L., Judge Advocate, =S.=2056.
Burnham, Col. G. S., 22d Conn. Infantry, =S.=1477, =S.=3736.
Burns, Brig.-Gen. W. W., =S.=3098.
Burnside, Maj.-Gen., and Brady, the Photographer, =S.=2433.
Burnside, Maj.-Gen. A. E., =S.=1625.
Burnside, Maj.-Gen. A. E. and staff, =L.=7186, =L.=7379, =L.=7382,
    =S.=1049.
Burt, Lieut.-Col. E., 3d Me. Infantry, =S.=3779.
Bussey, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C., =C.=4643.
Busteed, Brig.-Gen. Richard, =S.=2180.
Butler, Lieut. E. K., 69th N. Y. S. M., =S.=2255.
Butler, Maj.-Gen. B. F., =S.=1406, =C.=4028.
Butler, Maj.-Gen. B. F. and staff, =C.=4208.
Butterfield, Maj.-Gen. D., =L.=7540, =S.=1651.
Buxton, Surg. B. F., 5th Me. Infantry, =S.=1389.
Cadwalader, Maj.-Gen. G., =C.=4670.
Cake, Col. H. L., 96th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1817.
Cadwell, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. C., =S.=1457.
Cadwell, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. C. and staff, =S.=441, =S.=580.
Callis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. B., =C.=4740.
Cameron, Col. J., 79th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1637.
Campbell, Col. D., 4th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1724.
Campbell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. L. (in group), =L.=7957.
Campbell, Surg. J., =S.=3725.
Campbell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =C.=4780.
Canby, Maj.-Gen. E. R. S., =S.=3173.
Candy, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., Col. 66th Ohio Infantry, =S.=2181.
Capehart, Lieut.-Col. C. E., 1st W. Va. Cavalry, =S.=1623.
Capron, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =C.=4579.
Carleton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. A., =S.=3003.
Carlin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. P., =C.=4659.
Carmen, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. A., Col. 13th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1386.
Carpenter, Maj. J. W., paymaster, =S.=1720.
Carpenter, quartermaster, =S.=1687.
Carr, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2228.
Carrington, Brig.-Gen. H. B., =S.=3060.
Carroll, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. S., =S.=1913, =S.=3866.
Carroll, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. S. and staff, =L.=7651.
Carson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., =S.=2620.
Carter, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. P., =S.=3056.
Carter, Lieut. L., 50th Pa. Infantry, =L.=7410.
Cary, Col. W. H., =S.=3787.
Casey, Maj.-Gen. Silas, =S.=1710.
Casey, Maj.-Gen. Silas and staff, =C.=4566.
Cass, Col. T., 9th Mass. Infantry, =S.=3774.
Cassidy, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. L., 93d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2187, =S.=3068.
Catlin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. S., =C.=4501.
Chamberlain, Lieut.-Col. G. E., 1st Vt. Heavy Artillery, =S.=3735.
Chamberlain, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. L., =S.=1859.
Chambers, Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=3052.
Chandler, Surg. C. M., 6th Vt. Infantry, =S.=2148.
Chapman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. H., =S.=2441.
Chapman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. H. and staff, =S.=2442.
Chapman, Lieut.-Col. A. B., 57th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1398.
Charles, Col. E. C., 42d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2005.
Chase, Adjt. D. L., 78th and 102d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1779.
Cheeseman, Surg. T. M., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1491.
Chetlaine, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. L., =S.=2616.
Chickering, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. E., =S.=3092.
Childs, Lieut.-Col. J. H., 4th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1869.
Chipman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N. P., =C.=4500.
Christensen, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. T., =S.=3009.
Christian, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=2138.
Chrysler. Bvt. Maj.-Gen. M. H., =S.=3051.
Church, Surg. W. H., =S.=1691.
Churchill, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S., =S.=1460.
Chustill, Maj. W. B., =S.=1959.
Cilley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. P., =C.=5160.
Clark, Captain E., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1684.
Clark, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G., =C.=4720.
Clark, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. W., =C.=4645.
Clark, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. T., =S.=1580, =S.=1880.
Clarke, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. F., =S.=1902, =C.=5194.
Clay, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., =S.=3000.
Clay, Maj.-Gen. C. M., =C.=4671.
Clayton, Brig.-Gen. P., =C.=4986.
Clitz, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. B., Col. 10th U. S. Infantry, =S.=1521.
Cluseret, Brig.-Gen. G. P., =S.=2219.
Cobb, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A., =C.=4739.
Coburn, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4738.
Cochran, Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=1326.
Cogswell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., 2d Mass. Infantry, =S.=2029.
Cogswell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. and staff, =C.=4068.
Colburn, Lieut.-Col. A. V., aide-de-camp, =L.=7043.
Cole, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. W., =S.=3076.
Colgate, Lieut.-Col. C. G., 15th N. Y. Engineers, =S.=1923.
Collet, Col. M. W., 1st N. J. Infantry, =S.=1353.
Connor, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. P. E., =S.=2124.
Connor, Brig.-Gen. Selden, =S.=1764.
Conrad, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=2661.
Cook, Maj.-Gen. A. McD., =S.=1744.
Cook, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. P. St. G., =C.=4599.
Cook, Maj. W. W., 5th N. H. Infantry, =S.=1929.
Cooper, Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=2066.
Cooper, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. A., =S.=3236.
Copeland, Lieut.-Col., =S.=1349.
Coppinger, Adjt. J. B., 83d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1514.
Corbin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. C., =S.=2617.
Corcoran, Brig.-Gen. M., =S.=2234.
Corley, Lieut. C., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1570.
Corse, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. M., ("Hold the Fort,") =C.=4497.
Coster, Col. C. R., 134th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3193.
Couch, Maj.-Gen. D. N., =S.=3768.
Coulter, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =C.=4724.
Covode, Col. G. H., 4th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1848.
Cowdin, Brig.-Gen. R., =S.=2217.
Cox, Maj.-Gen. J. D., =C.=4672.
Cox, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. C., =C.=4713.
Cozzens, Sergt. F., =S.=1591.
Cradlebough, Col. J., 114th Ohio Infantry, =S.=1775.
Crandall, Surg. W. B., 16th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2156.
Crane, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. H., =S.=1911.
Crane, Maj. F. W., paymaster, =S.=1895.
Crawford, Capt. J. S., 114th Pa. Infantry, =L.=7037.
Crawford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. J., =C.=4784.
Crawford, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. W., =S.=2095, =S.=3718, =S.=3807.
Creiger, Lieut.-Col. J. A., 11th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1627.
Crittenden, Maj.-Gen. T. L., =S.=1730.
Crocker, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. S., =S.=630.
Crocker, Brig.-Gen. M. M., =C.=4646.
Crook, Maj.-Gen. G., =C.=4498, =C.=5121.
Cross, Col. E. E., 5th N. H. Infantry, =S.=1983.
Cross, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O., =S.=1606.
Croxton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. T., =C.=5096.
Cullum, Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=1712.
Cummings, Lieut.-Col. C., 17th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1468.
Cummins, Lieut.-Col. F. M., 124th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1366, =S.=1621.
Cunningham, Capt., =L.=7483.
Cunningham, Maj., =S.=1451.
Curtin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. J., =S.=2038.
Curtis, Lieut.-Col., =S.=1881.
Curtis, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. N. M., =S.=2039.
Curtis, Maj.-Gen. S. R., =S.=2075.
Curtis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. B., =S.=3224.
Custer, Maj.-Gen. G. A., =S.=1613.
Cutler, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L., =S.=1892.
Dahlgren, Col. Ulric, =C.=4642.
Dana, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. L., =S.=3748.
Dana, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. J., =C.=4469.
Dana, Maj.-Gen. N. J. T., =S.=1809.
Daniels, Maj. R. R., =S.=1523.
Dare, Lieut.-Col., 34th Pa. Infantry, =S.=2159.
Davies, Maj.-Gen. H. E., =S.=1654.
Davies, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. A., =S.=2101.
Davis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. P., =S.=3206.
Davis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=1425.
Davis, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Jeff G., =L.=7080, =L.=7691, =S.=1162, =S.=2021.
Davis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. W. H., =C.=4723.
Day, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=3793.
Dayton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. V., =S.=1777, =S.=2065.
Deane, Maj. C. W., =S.=1791.
De Golyer, Maj. S., 4th Mich. Cavalry, =S.=1992.
De Hautville, Capt. F. S. G., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=1517.
Deitzler, Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=3233.
De Joinville, Prince, =S.=2097.
De Lacy, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=3226.
De Lacy, Maj. W., 37th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2253.
Dennison, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. W., =C.=4665.
Dent, Brig.-Gen. F. T., =C.=4493.
Denver, Brig.-Gen. J. W., =S.=1808.
Derrom, Col. A., 25th N. J. Infantry, =S.=3741.
De Russy, Capt. Isaac D., 1st U. S. Infantry, =S.=1698.
De Russy, Brig.-Gen. G. A., =S.=1612.
De Russy, Brig.-Gen. G. A. and staff, =L.=7215.
De Trobriand, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. P. R., =S.=2117.
Devens, Maj.-Gen. C. and staff, =C.=4178.
Devereaux, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. F., =S.=3066.
Devin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. C., =S.=1872, =S.=2048.
Dewey, Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=3053.
Dexter, Surg. J. E., 40th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1888.
Dick, Maj. M. M., 105th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1725.
Dickinson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=1446.
Dilger, Capt. H., Ohio Artillery, =S.=3177.
Dimock, Maj. J. J., 82d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1393.
Diven, Surg., =S.=2203.
Diven, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. S., =S.=1852.
Dix, Maj.-Gen. J. A., =S.=1546.
Dodd, Adjt. C. O., 5th N. H. Infantry, =S.=1838.
Dodd, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L. A. (in group), =L.=7758.
Dodge, Brig.-Gen. C. C., =S.=1555, =S.=1566.
Dodge, Maj.-Gen. G. M., =S.=1672.
Dodge, Col. J. A., 75th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3869.
Donaldson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. L., =S.=2613.
Dore, Sergt., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1619.
D'Orleans, Louis Phillipe (Comte de Paris), aide-de-camp, =S.=3818,
    =S.=3820.
D'Orleans, R. (Duc de Chartres), aide-de-camp, =S.=3818, =S.=3819.
D'Orville, Lieut, A., 6th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2112.
Doubleday, Maj.-Gen. Abner, =S.=1497.
Doubleday, Col. T. D., 4th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, =S.=1874.
Doubleday, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=3312.
Dougherty, Surg. A. N., =S.=1891.
Downing, Maj. P. J., 42d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2106.
Drew, Lieut.-Col. W. O., 2d D. C. Infantry, =S.=1362.
Drinning, Maj., =S.=1432.
Drum, Brig.-Gen. R. C., =C.=4492.
Ducat, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. C., =C.=5166.
Dudley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. W., =S.=2625.
Duffie, Brig.-Gen. A. N., =S.=1565, =S.=2154.
Duryee, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Abram, =S.=1374.
Dustin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D., =S.=3847.
Dustin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D. and staff, =L.=7572.
D'Utassy, Col. F. G., 39th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1496, =S.=2184.
Dwight, Maj. W., 2d Mass. Infantry, =S.=1811, =S.=1814.
Dwight, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=1694.
Dyer, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. B., =C.=5161.
Dyer, Capt. C. G., 2d R. I. Infantry, =S.=1686.
Easton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L. C. (in group), =L.=7963.
Eaton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Amos B., =S.=1915.
Eckel, Lieut. J. S., 50th Pa. Infantry, =L.=7359.
Eckert, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. T., =S.=2057.
Edwards, Col. C. S., 5th Me. Infantry, =S.=1509.
Edwards, Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4646.
Edwards, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. O., =S.=2028.
Ekin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=1834.
Elder, Lieut.-Col. A. B., 10th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3868.
Ellett, Brig.-Gen. A. W., =S.=1745.
Elliott, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. L., =S.=3216.
Ellis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. V. H., 124th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2093.
Ellsworth, Col. E. E., 11th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3175.
Ely, Maj. G. B., paymaster, =S.=1792.
Ely, Maj. John, =S.=1714.
Emory, Maj.-Gen. W. H., =C.=4507.
English, Lieut.-Col. James, =S.=1350.
Enos, Maj. A. G. 8th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=2158.
Ent, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=3266.
Eustis, Brig.-Gen. H. L., =S.=3172.
Everett, Surg. F., =S.=3809.
Everdell, Col. W., 23d N. Y. S. M., =S.=1404.
Ewing, Lieut.-Col. C., 4th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1648.
Ewing, Brig.-Gen. Thomas, =S.=2054.
Ewing, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H., =C.=4495.
Ewing, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T., =C.=4484.
Fairchild, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., =S.=3202.
Fairchild, Brig.-Gen. L., =S.=1611.
Fairman, Col. J., 96th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2232.
Farnham, Lieut.-Col. N. L., 11th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1628.
Farnham, Lieut.-Col. R., 15th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1479.
Farnsworth, Brig.-Gen. E. J., =S.=2638, =S.=3106.
Farnsworth, Brig.-Gen. J. F., =S.=1894.
Farnum, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. E., =S.=1385.
Farquhar, Lieut. F. U., Engineer Corps, =S.=2114.
Farrell, Lieut., =S.=1484.
Faulke, Col. A. G., =S.=3867.
Ferrell, Capt. W. G., =S.=2130.
Ferrero, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E., =S.=807, =S.=1652.
Ferrero, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. and staff, =L.=7053, =C.=5333.
Ferry, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. O. S., =C.=5177.
Fessenden, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. F., =S.=3745.
Fessenden, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. D., =S.=1914.
Finklemeier, Maj. J. P., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=3804.
Finley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. A., =C.=4788.
Fisher, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. F. (in group), =L.=7848.
Fisher, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. W. and staff, =L.=7058.
Fisk, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. B., =C.=4664.
Fisk, Lieut.-Col. F. S., 2d N. H. Infantry, =S.=3849.
Fletcher, Maj. A. W., paymaster, =S.=1732.
Flint, Capt. E. A., 1st Mass. Cavalry, =L.=7403.
Floyd, Lieut.-Col. H. C., =S.=1748.
Foote, Maj. F., =S.=1418.
Force, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. M. F., =C.=5099.
Ford, Maj. G. W., 50th N. Y. Engineers, =L.=7166.
Forsyth, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. A., =C.=4508.
Forsyth, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. W., February, 1863, =S.=214.
Foster, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=1538, =S.=1605, =S.=1796.
Foster, Maj.-Gen. J. G., =S.=3828.
Foster, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. S., =S.=2026, =S.=2053.
Foster, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. S. and staff, =C.=4043, =C.=4201.
Fowler, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. B., =S.=3801.
Fowler, Col. Henry, =S.=1906.
Frank, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. P., =S.=3001.
Franklin, Maj.-Gen. W. B., =S.=3795.
Fremont, Maj.-Gen. John C., =S.=1315.
French, Maj.-Gen. W. H., =L.=7345, =L.=7578, =S.=1884.
French, Maj-Gen. W. H. and staff, =L.=7501, =L.=7502.
Frost, Surg. C. P., 15th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1447.
Fry, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=1377, =S.=1508.
Fuller, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =S.=2031.
Fullerton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. S., =C.=4782.
Gaines, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. P., =S.=1327.
Gansevoort, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. S. and staff, =L.=7723, =L.=7726,
    =L.=7738.
Gardiner, Maj. C. C., 27th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1703.
Garfield, Maj.-Gen. James A., =S.=2218.
Garland, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. John, =S.=1329.
Gates, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. B., =S.=1827.
Geary, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =S.=2033.
Geddes, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. L., =S.=3064.
Gerhardt, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=3097.
Getty, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. W., =S.=3783.
Gibbon, Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=1464.
Gibbs, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =S.=1901.
Gibson, Maj. Thomas, 14th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1543.
Giesy, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. H., =S.=3190.
Gilbert, Surg. R. H., =S.=1552, =S.=3720.
Gilbert, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. S. A., =C.=5048.
Gillmore, Maj.-Gen. Q. A., =S.=2239.
Gilman, Lieut. J. H., 1st U. S. Artillery, =S.=1372.
Glasgow, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. L., =C.=4648.
Goddard, Capt. R. H. I., aide-de-camp, =S.=1498.
Goff, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N., =S.=3035.
Goodell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. A., =C.=5182.
Goodrich, Maj. Edwin R., =S.=1773.
Goodrich, Maj. C. S. (Surgeon), =S.=2229.
Gordon, Capt. G. A., 2d U. S. Cavalry, =S.=1482.
Gordon, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. H., =S.=1855.
Gorman, Brig.-Gen. W. A., =S.=1713.
Gould, Lieut.-Col. E., 5th Mich. Cavalry, =S.=1439.
Gould, Maj. W. P., paymaster, =S.=3794.
Gouley, Ass't Surg. J. W. S., =S.=1909.
Gowan, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=2624.
Graham, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Charles K., =S.=1963.
Graham, Brig.-Gen. L. P., =S.=2631, =S.=3049.
Granger, Maj.-Gen. Gordon, =S.=1787.
Grant, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L. A., =S.=3095, =S.=3174.
Grant, Gen. U. S., =L.=7947, =S.=1559.
Greble, Lieut, J. T., 2d U. S. Artillery, =C.=4655.
Greene, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. S., =S.=1867.
Greene, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. D., =S.=3019.
Gregg, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. McM., =S.=1756.
Gregg, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. McM. and staff, =C.=4067, =C.=4075.
Gregg, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. I., =S.=3090.
Grierson, Maj.-Gen. B. H., =S.=3073.
Griffin, Maj.-Gen. Charles (as Captain), =S.=1373.
Griffin, Maj.-Gen. C. and staff, =L.=7064.
Griffin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. G., =C.=5095.
Grover, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C., =S.=3717.
Grover, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. I. G., =S.=1677.
Guiney, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Patrick R., =S.=3096.
Gurney, Lieut. W., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1585.
Guss, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H., =C.=4703.
Hackleman, Brig.-Gen. P. A., =C.=4674.
Hagadorn, Maj. F. A., 79th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1700.
Hall, Col. H. B., =S.=3760.
Hall, Lieut.-Col. H. H., 4th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, =S.=1921.
Hall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=2637.
Hall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A. and staff, =L.=7229, =L.=7915.
Hall, Capt. T. E., quartermaster, =L.=7039.
Halleck, Maj.-Gen. H. W., =S.=3845.
Hallowell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. N., =S.=2665.
Halpine, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. G., =C.=4962.
Hamblin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen J. E., =S.=1476, =S.=2150.
Hambright, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. A., =S.=3204.
Hamilton, Maj. A., aide-de-camp, =S.=1501.
Hamilton, Brig.-Gen. A. J., =S.=3875.
Hamilton, Maj.-Gen. C. S., =S.=1982.
Hamilton, Maj.-Gen. S., =S.=2230.
Hamlin, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C., =S.=3200.
Hammell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. S., =S.=2671.
Hammond, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4980.
Hammond, Brig.-Gen. W. A., Surgeon General, =S.=1558.
Hancock, Maj.-Gen. W. S., =S.=1877.
Hardenburgh, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. B., =S.=1715.
Hardie, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. A., =S.=1761.
Hardin, Brig.-Gen. M. D., =S.=1831.
Hardin, Brig.-Gen. M. D. and staff, =L.=7338, =L.=7429, =L.=7430.
Harker, Brig.-Gen. C. G., =S.=3079.
Harkins, Maj. D. H., 1st N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=3870.
Harney, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. S., =L.=7928, =S.=1323.
Harris, Col., =S.=1688. =C.=
Harris, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. M., =S.=2023.
Harrison, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Benjamin, =S.=3039.
Harrison, Lieut.-Col. A. I., 22d Ind. Infantry, =S.=3776.
Harrow, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=3043.
Hart, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. H., =L.=7139.
Hartsuff, Maj.-Gen. G. L., =S.=1534.
Hartsuff, Maj.-Gen. G. L. and staff, =L.=7571.
Hartwell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. A. (group), =L.=7194.
Haskin, Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=3217.
Hatch, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E., =C.=4982.
Hatch, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. P. and staff, =S.=3430.
Hatch, Col. W. B., 4th N. J. Infantry, =S.=3746.
Hathaway, Col. S. G., 141st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1448.
Haupt, Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=1567.
Hawes, Capt. Jas. D., 133d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1597.
Hawkins, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. P., =S.=3074.
Hawkins, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. C., =S.=1511.
Hawley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. and staff, =L.=7843, =L.=7844.
Haws, Lieut. G. T., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1493.
Hayes, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=3271.
Hayes, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. B., =S.=3002.
Hayman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. B., =S.=3058.
Hays, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Alex., =S.=1645, =S.=1961.
Hays, Capt. H. B., 6th U. S. Cavalry, =S.=2067.
Hays, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=1727.
Hays, Brig.-Gen. W. and staff, =L.=7833, =L.=7877.
Hazard, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. S., =C.=4675.
Hazen, Maj.-Gen. W. B., =S.=2126.
Healey, Maj. H. G., 65th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1421.
Heath, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. E., =S.=1361.
Heath, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. H., =C.=4488.
Hedrick, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. M., =S.=2049.
Heintzelman, Maj.-Gen. S. P., =S.=1384.
Heintzelman, Maj.-Gen. S. P. and staff, =L.=7839, =S.=628, =S.=2304.
Heniner, Maj. R. H., =S.=3851.
Henry, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. V., =S.=3220.
Herron, Maj.-Gen. F. J., =S.=1602.
Hewitt (or Hawks), Surg. C. N., 50th N. Y. Engineers, =L.=7101.
Hidden, Lieut. H. B., 1st N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=2135.
Higgins, Lieut.-Col. J., 1st Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1368.
Hill, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. H., =S.=2046.
Hillyer, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. S., =S.=1886.
Hinks, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. W., =S.=1542.
Hitchcock, Maj.-Gen. E. A., =S.=2020.
Hobart, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. C., =S.=3205.
Hoffman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. C., =C.=5163.
Hoffman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. W., =C.=5154.
Hoffman, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W., =L.=7288, =L.=7679.
Holabird, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. B., =C.=4658.
Holliday, Maj. S. V., paymaster, =S.=1793.
Holman, Maj. O., paymaster, =S.=1948.
Holston, Surg. J. G. F., =S.=1908.
Holt, Lieut.-Col. W., 31st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=138.
Hooker, Maj.-Gen. Joe, =S.=1922.
Hooker, Maj.-Gen. Joe (on horseback), =C.=4490.
Hooker, Maj.-Gen. Joe and staff, June, 1863, =L.=7950.
Hopkins, Lieut.-Col. R. H., =S.=1520.
Horn, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. W., =C.=4663.
Hough, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4590.
Hovey, Brig.-Gen. A. P., =S.=3084.
Hovey, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. E., =S.=3219.
Howard, Maj. J., paymaster, =S.=1873, =S.=3816.
Howard, Maj.-Gen. O. O., =S.=3719, =S.=3788.
Howe, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. P., =S.=1646.
Howell, Brig.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2662.
Howland, Paymaster M., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1589.
Hoyt, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. H., =C.=5162.
Hoyt, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. M., =C.=4722.
Hubbard, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L. F., =S.=3110.
Hubbard, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. H., =C.=5136.
Hudson, Lieut.-Col. E. McK., aide-de-camp, =S.=1776.
Huff, Capt., =L.=7361.
Huger, Capt. J. B., =S.=1692.
Hughston, Col. R. S., 144th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3759.
Humphreys, Maj.-Gen. A. A., =S.=2346.
Humphreys, Maj.-Gen. A. A. and staff, =L.=7397, =L.=7581.
Hunt, Col., =S.=1797.
Hunt, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. J., Chief of Artillery, =S.=1912.
Hunt, Brig.-Gen. L. C., =S.=1541.
Hunter, Maj.-Gen. D., =S.=1820.
Hunter, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. M. C., =C.=4601.
Hurlburt, Maj.-Gen. S. A., =S.=1782.
Hurst, Maj. S. H., =S.=1438.
Hutchinson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. S., =S.=3225.
Hyde, Col. B. N., 3d Vt. Infantry, =S.=3770.
Hyde, Lieut.-Col. W. B., 9th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1471.
Ingalls, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Rufus, =S.=1569.
Innes, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. P., =C.=5172.
Irwine, Surg. C. K., 72d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=279, =S.=3821.
Jackson, Brig.-Gen. J. S., =S.=2023.
Jackson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. N. J., =S.=1413, =S.=3797, =S.=3812.
Jackson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. M., =S.=3728.
Jacobs, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F., =S.=3015.
James, Surg., =S.=3811.
Jameson, Adjt. A. H., 32d Pa. Infantry, =S.=1837.
Jameson, Brig.-Gen. C. D., =S.=3817.
Janeway, Col. H., 1st N. J. Cavalry, =S.=1658.
Jay, Capt. W., aide-de-camp, =S.=2246.
Jehl, Maj. F., 55th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1949.
Jenkins, Col. D. T., 146th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1763.
Jewett, Col. A. B., 10th Vt. Infantry, =S.=2165.
Jewett, Col. W. N. J., =S.=2164.
Johnson, Brig.-Gen. A., =C.=4592.
Johnson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. A., =S.=1857, =S.=2254.
Johnson, Maj. L. E., paymaster, =S.=2194.
Johnson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen R. W., =C.=4698.
Johnston, Lieut.-Col. J. W., 93d Pa. Infantry, =S.=2183.
Jones, Col. C., =S.=1937.
Jones, Surg. Henry, =S.=1910.
Jones, Col. Owen, 1st Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1938.
Jones, Brig.-Gen. P. H., =S.=3268.
Jones, Maj. R., Ass't. Insp.-Gen., =S.=1730, =S.=2195.
Jones, Maj. W. T., =S.=3850.
Jordan, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. J., =C.=4712.
Jourdan, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=1962.
Judah, Brig.-Gen. H. M., =S.=1601.
Judson, Col. R. W., 142d N. Y. Infantry, =S.= 1414.
Judson, Col. E. Z. C., =S.=1883.
Judson, Surg. O. A., =S.=3813.
Kane, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. L., =S.=1847.
Karge, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=1616.
Kautz, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. V., =C.=4575.
Kearney, Maj.-Gen. P., =S.=2209.
Keifer, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =C.=4487.
Keim, Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=1885.
Kelly, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. B. F., =S.=1681.
Kelton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. C., =S.=1427.
Keyes, Maj.-Gen. E. D., =S.=1634.
Kiernan, Brig.-Gen. J. L., S.1553, =S.=1759.
Kilpatrick, Col., =S.=1918.
Kilpatrick, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=340, =S.=341, =S.=1391.
Kilpatrick, Bvt, Maj.-Gen. J. and staff, =L.=7224, =S.=7516.
Kimball, Lieut.-Col. E. A., 9th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3862.
Kimball, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. N., =S.=1647.
Kimball, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. K., =S.=2658.
King, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. H., =S.=2609.
King, Brig.-Gen. R., =S.=3823.
King, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. W. S., =S.=3273.
Kip, Maj. L., aide-de-camp, =S.=1483.
Kirby, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D. T., =C.=4472.
Kirk, Brig.-Gen. E. N., =S.=3237.
Knap, Bvt. Maj. J. M., Ind. Battery E, Pa. Artillery, =S.=1790.
Knight, Lieut.-Col. F. L., 24th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1456.
Knight, Capt. S. F., 87th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1696.
Knipe, Brig.-Gen. J. F., =S.=1592.
Knowles, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. O. B., =C.=4707.
Koltes, Col. J. A., 73d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1734.
Kopp, Capt. William, =S=.1839.
Kron, Capt. M., 8th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3861.
Krzyzanowski, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=1897.
Laflin, Maj., =S.=1932.
Laidley, Surg. J. B., 85th Pa. Infantry, =S.=3844.
Lambert, Capt. L. J., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=1518.
Lander, Brig.-Gen. F. W., =S.=1314.
Landram, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. J., =S.=3081.
Lansing, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. S., =S.=1595.
Larned, Capt. D. R., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=1481.
Larrabee, Col. C. H., 5th Wisc. Infantry, =S.=2186.
Lawton, Col. R. B., 1st R. I. Cavalry, =S.=3727.
Leasure, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D., =C.=4714.
Ledlie, Brig.-Gen. J. H., =S.=1770.
Lee, Brig.-Gen. A. L., =S.=1863.
Lefferts, Col. M., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1669.
Le Gendre, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. W., =S.=1527.
Leggett, Maj.-Gen. M. D., =S.=2047.
Leggett, Maj.-Gen. M. D. and staff, =L.=7052.
Lehmann, Col. T. F., 103d Pa. Infantry, =S.=3814.
Lemon, Maj. Frank, =S.=2149.
Liebenan, Adjt. J. H., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1664.
Lincoln, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. S., =C.=5180.
Littell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. S., =C.=4718.
Littlejohn, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D. C., =C.=4662.
Locke, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. T., =S.=2601.
Lockwood, Brig.-Gen. H. H., =S.=3104.
Logan, Maj.-Gen. John A., =S.=1900.
Long, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E., =C.=5174.
Loomis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. O., =C.=5169.
Loomis, Lieut.-Col. H. C., 154th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3734.
Lord, Col. N., 6th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1731.
Lord, Col. W. B., 35th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3782.
Love, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. M., =S.=2043.
Lovell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. S., =S.=3234.
Ludlow, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. C. (in group), =L.=7098, =L.=7380.
Lyle, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. P., =S.=2018.
Lyman, Lieut.-Col. G. H., Medical Inspector, =S.=1344.
Lynch, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. P., =C.=4676.
Lyon, Col. G., 8th N. Y. S. M., =S.=2107, =S.=2111.
Lyon, Brig.-Gen. N., =C.=4677.
Lytle, Brig.-Gen. W. H., =C.=4737.
McAllister, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =S.=3057.
McArthur, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=3071, =S.=3223.
McArthur, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. W. M., =S.=2627.
McCabe, Maj. G. F., 13th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1617.
McCall, Brig.-Gen. G. A., =S.=1643.
McCallum, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. C., =S.=1489, =S.=1926, =S.=3751.
McCalmont, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. B., =S.=1356.
McCalmont, Col. J. S., 39th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1899.
McCandless, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=2648.
McCarter, Col. J. M., 93d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2137.
McCarty, Col., =S.=1916.
McChesney, Col. W. W., 10th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1737.
McClellan, Maj.-Gen. G. B., =S.=1642.
McClellan, Maj.-Gen. G. B. and staff, =S.=1640, =C.=4530, =C.=5051,
    =C.=4400.
McClellan, Maj.-Gen. G. B. and wife, =S.=1765.
McClernand, Maj.-Gen. J. A., =S.=2220.
McClure, Maj. D., paymaster, =S.=1956.
McClure, Capt. J. W., quartermaster, =S.=1903.
McConthe, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=1359.
McCook, Maj.-Gen. A. McD., =L.=7204, =S.=1744.
McCook, Maj.-Gen. A. McD. and staff, =L.=7206, =L.=7660, =S.=1022.
McCook, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. M., =S.=2006, =S.=2086.
McDougall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., =S.=1709.
McDougall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. D., =S.=1340, =S.=1449, =S.=2060.
McDougall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. D. and staff, =C.=4077.
McDowell, Maj.-Gen. I., =S.=1030.
McGilvery, Lieut.-Col. F., 1st Me. Light Artillery, =S.=3021.
McGroarty, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. J., =S.=2079.
McIntosh, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2055.
McIntosh, Maj. J. D., 7th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1950, =S.=3777.
McIvor, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. P., =C.=5134.
Mackay, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. J., =S.=2061.
McKean, Col. J. B., 77th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2178.
McKechnie, Lieut. R., 9th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1495.
McKeever, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C., =S.=2660.
McKibbin, Maj. T., =S.=3835.
McKinstry, Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=3075.
McLaren, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. N., =S.=3070.
McLaughlin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N. B., =S.=2052.
McLaughlin, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N. B. and staff, =L.=7180, =L.=7201.
McLean, Brig.-Gen. N. C., =S.=2170.
McMahon, Col. J. P., 164th N. Y. Infantry, =C.=4319.
McMahon, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. M. T., =S.=2008.
McMillan, Surg. T., =S.=1583.
McMillen, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =S.=2041.
McNeil, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=1653.
McPherson, Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2612.
McQuade, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=3824.
McReynolds, Col. A. T., 1st. N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1678, =S.=3806.
Madill, Surg. W. A., 23d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1419.
Mahler, Col. F., 75th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1789, =S.=3743.
Mallon, Col. J. E., 42d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1622.
Maluski, Capt. A., 58th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3778.
Manderson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. F., =S.=3112.
Mank, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. G., =S.=3182.
Mann, Col. W. D., 7th Mich. Cavalry, =S.=1644.
Manning, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. H., =S.=3008.
Mansfield, Maj.-Gen. J. K. F., =S.=3038.
Marcy, Brig.-Gen. R. B., =S.=3790.
Marriner, Maj. Edward, =S.=1919.
Marshall, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. G., =S.=2174.
Marshall, Col. L. M., =S.=2167.
Marshall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. R., =S.=3069.
Marston, Brig.-Gen. G., =C.=4577.
Martin, Surg. H. F., 123d Pa. Infantry, =S.=1392.
Martin, Maj. W. J., paymaster, =S.=1970.
Martindale, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. H., =S.=3767.
Martindale, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. H. and staff, =S.=2435.
Marvin, Capt., =S.=1575.
Mason, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. C., =S.=1861.
Mather, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. S., =S.=3742.
Matheson, Col. R., 32d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3022.
Maxwell, Lieut.-Col. W. C., 103d Pa. Infantry, =S.=1365.
May, Maj. Isaac M., 19th Ind. Infantry, =S.=1819.
Meade, Maj.-Gen. G. G., =S.=1467.
Meade, Maj.-Gen. G. G. and staff, =L.=7098, =L.=7099, =L.=7330,
    =L.=7367, =L.=7518, =L.=7957.
Meagher, Brig.-Gen. T. F., =S.=1638.
Meigs, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. M. C., Quartermaster-General, =S.=1333.
Meredith, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S., =S.=2182.
Meredith, Brig.-Gen. S. A., =C.=4679.
Merrill, Lieut.-Col. C. B., 17th Me. Infantry, =S.=1360.
Merritt, Maj.-Gen. Wesley, =S.=1830, =S.=1865.
Merritt, Maj.-Gen. Wesley, and staff, =C.=4064.
Merrow, Maj. J. M., =S.=3846.
Miles, Col. D. S., 2d U. S. Infantry, =S.=2241.
Miles, Maj.-Gen. N. A., S.1879, =S.=2044.
Milhan, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. J., =C.=4790.
Miller, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. F., =C.=5155.
Miller, Brig.-Gen. S., =C.=4736.
Milroy, Maj.-Gen. R. H., =S.=2225.
Minty, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. H. G., =C.=5173.
Mintzer, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. M., =S.=3229.
Mitchell, Maj.-Gen. O. M., =S.=2207.
Mitchell, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. G., =S.=2624.
Mitchell, Brig.-Gen. R. B., =S.=1680.
Mitchell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. G., =S.=2653.
Mix, Col. S. H., 3d N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=2120.
Mizner, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. K., =S.=2668.
Molineux, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. L., =C.=4586.
Moor, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=2651.
Moore, Lieut.-Col. S., 11th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1358.
Morehead, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. G., =S.=586.
Morrell, Maj.-Gen. G. W., =S.=1516.
Morrell, Maj. J. A., paymaster, =S.=3839.
Morford, Capt. W. E., quartermaster, =S=1433, =S.=1821.
Morgan, Brig.-Gen. C. H., =S.=2633.
Morgan, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. N., =S.=3834.
Morgan, Maj.-Gen. E. D., =S.=3876.
Morgan, Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=3061.
Morgan, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. D., =S.=3203.
Morris, Col. L. O., 7th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, =S.=2602.
Morris, Lieut.-Col. T., 4th U. S. Infantry, =S.=3769.
Morris, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. H., S.1596, =S.=2212.
Morrison, Col. A. J., 3d N. J. Cavalry, =S.=1896.
Morrison, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D., =S.=3105.
Morrison. Sergt. J. J., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1486.
Morrow, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. A., =S.=1505, =S.=1853.
Morse, Maj. E. C., paymaster, =S.=2157.
Morton, Brig.-Gen. J. St. C., =C.=5171.
Morton, Lieut.-Col. L., =S.=1357.
Moses. Lieut.-Col. I., 72d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1798.
Mott. Maj.-Gen. G., =S.=2172.
Mott, Capt. T. P., 3d N. Y. Battery, =S.=1726, =S.=2100.
Mower, Maj.-Gen. J. A., =S.=2037.
Mower, Maj.-Gen. J. A. and staff, =L.=4047.
Mulford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. E., =S.=2110, =S.=3374.
Mulick, Lieut.-Col., =S.=1840.
Mulligan, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. A., =S.=2087.
Mundee, Maj. C., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=1524.
Munesly, Maj. C. H., =S.=1946.
Murphy, Col. J. McL., 15th N. Y. Engineers, =S.=1614.
Murphy, Col. M., 182d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1679.
Mussey, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. D., =S.=2606.
Myer, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. J., =C.=4580.
Nagle, Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=2623.
Naglee, Brig.-Gen. H. M., =S.=2223.
Nazer, Lieut.-Col. F., 4th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1805.
Neill, Capt. E. M., Ass't Adjt.-Gen., =S.=1771.
Neill, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. H., =S.=2629.
Nelson, Maj.-Gen. W., =S.=2063.
Newby, Maj. W., 6th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1531.
Newton, Maj.-Gen. John, =S.=1557.
Nichols, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. F., =S.=1397.
Nichols, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. S., =S.=1942.
Nichols, Maj. H. H., =S.=1618.
Norton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. B., =L.=7200, =S.=1352.
Nugent, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R., =S.=3856.
Nye, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. H., =S.=2618.
O'Burne, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. R., =S.=3269.
O'Connell, Capt. J. D., 14th U. S. Infantry, =S.=3270.
O'Connor. Col. E., 2d Wisc. Infantry, =S.=3863.
O'Dowd, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=3208.
Oglesby, Maj.-Gen. R. J., =S.=1755.
Olcott, Maj. E., 121st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1410.
Oliphant, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. D., =S.=3796.
Oliver, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. M., =S.=2630.
Olmstead, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. A., =S.=3088.
O'Mahoney, Col. J., 40th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2104.
Opdyke, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E., =S.=1965.
Opdyke, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. and staff, =C.=4333.
Ord, Maj.-Gen. E. O. C., =S.=2081, =S.=2084, =S.=3384.
Ord, Maj.-Gen. E. O. C. and staff, =C.=4206.
Ordway, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=3080.
Osterhaus, Maj.-Gen. P. J., =S.=1871.
Owen, Brig.-Gen. J. T., =C.=4483.
Owen, Lieut.-Col. S. W. (caught napping), 3d Pa. Cavalry, =S.=625.
Packard, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4735.
Page, Capt, H., quartermaster, =L.=7090, =L.=7274.
Palfrey, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. W., =C.=4657.
Palmer, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. I. N., =S.=1823.
Palmer, Maj.-Gen. J. M., =C.=5168.
Palmer, Capt., =S.=2198.
Pangborn, Maj. Z. K., paymaster, =S.=1697.
Parham, Lieut.-Col. C., 29th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1342.
Parke, Maj.-Gen. J. G., =S.=1403.
Parmalee, Adjt. L. C., 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, =S.=1825.
Parsons, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L. B., =S.=2654.
Parsons, Lieut.-Col. J. B., 10th Mass. Infantry, =S.=1341.
Patrick, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. A., =L.=7001, =S.=1693.
Patrick, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. M. R. and staff =L.=7075, =L.=7238, =L.=7588.
Patten, Commissary W., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1668.
Patterson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. N., =S.=2666.
Patterson, Maj.-Gen. R., =C.=4711.
Patterson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. E., =C.=4963.
Patton, Lieut.-Col. A. G., 1st N. Y. Mounted Rifles, =S.=1750.
Paul, Brig.-Gen. G. R., =C.=4489.
Peard, Lieut.-Col. R., 9th Mass. Infantry, =S.=1717.
Pearson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. L., =S.=3210.
Pease, Ass't Surg. P. C., 6th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2205.
Peck, Maj.-Gen. J. J., =S.=1954.
Peck, Maj.-Gen. J. J. and staff, =S.=1907.
Peisener, Col. E., 119th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3179.
Pelouze, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L. H., =C.=4486.
Pennington, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. C. M., =S.=3089.
Pennypacker, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G., =C.=4709.
Penrose, Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=2050.
Perkins, Lieut-Col. S. H., 14th Conn. Infantry, =S.=1436.
Perley, Col. T. F., Medical Inspector, =S.=2163.
Perry, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. J., =S.=3721.
Perry, Col. J. H., 48th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1778.
Pettes, Col. W. H., 50th N. Y. Engineers, =S.=2145.
Phelps, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. E., =C.=4734.
Piatt, Brig.-Gen. A. S., =S.=3087.
Pickett, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=5179.
Pile, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. A., =C.=4733.
Pineo, Surg. P., Medical Inspector, =S.=3840.
Plaisted, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. M., =S.=3722.
Pleasants, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=2622.
Pleasonton, Maj.-Gen. A., =L.=7317, =S.=342, =S.=2215.
Pleasonton, Maj.-Gen. A. and staff, =L.=7069, =L.=7369, =L.=7603.
Plummer, Brig.-Gen. J. B., =S.=3215.
Poe, Brig.-Gen. O. M., =S.=1953.
Pollock, Lieut. E., 9th U. S. Infantry, =S.=2200.
Poore, Maj. Ben: Perley, 8th Mass. Volunteer Militia, =S.=1426.
Pope, Maj.-Gen. John, =S.=2136.
Porter, Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=3825.
Porter, Col. B., 40th Mass. Infantry, =S.=3754.
Porter, Maj.-Gen. Fitz John, =S.=2062.
Porter, Maj.-Gen. Fitz John and staff, =C.=4560.
Porter, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =C.=4490.
Post, Col. H. A. V., 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, =S.=3731.
Post, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. P. S., =S.=3230.
Potter, Maj., =S.=2193.
Potter, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. E., =S.=2656.
Potter, Surg. H. A., 50th N. Y. Engineers, =S.=3852.
Potter, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. H., =C.=4491.
Potter, Maj.-Gen. R. B., =S.=1729.
Potter, Maj.-Gen. R. B. and staff =C.=4034.
Powell, Lieut.-Col. J. H., 9th R. I. Infantry, =S.=1343.
Pratt, Brig.-Gen. C. E., =S.=1719.
Pratt, Col. G., 80th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1843.
Prendergast, Capt. R. G., 1st N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1492.
Prentice, Maj.-Gen. B. M., =S.=2173.
Preston, Surg. A. W., 6th Wisc. Infantry, =S.=3854.
Preston, Col. A. W., 1st Vt. Cavalry, =S.=1751.
Price, Col. E. L., 145th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1388.
Price, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F., =S.=1752.
Price, Capt. J., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1533.
Pride, Col. G. G., aide-de-camp, =S.=2260.
Prince, Brig.-Gen. H., =S.=2222.
Prine, Lieut. N., 17th U. S. Infantry, =S.=2199.
Puleston, Lieut.-Col. J. H., Military Agent of Pennsylvania, =S.=1957.
Pulford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=3209.
Putnam, Capt. Lee W., =S.=1705.
Quick, Surg. L., =S.=3838.
Quinn, Chaplain T., 1st R. I. Light Artillery, =S.=1780.
Ramsay, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. D., =S.=1331.
Ramsay, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =C.=4598.
Randall, Col. F. V., 13th and 17th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1445.
Randall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=2626.
Randol, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. M., =S.=1660.
Ransom, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. E. G., =S.=1581.
Rathbon, Sergt.-Maj. R. C., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1472.
Rawlins, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. A., Chief of Grant's staff, =S.=1758.
Rawlins, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. A., wife and child, =S.=3616.
Razenski, Maj. A., 31st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2123.
Reid, Brig.-Gen. H. T., =S.=2659.
Reno, Maj.-Gen. J. L., =C.=4680.
Revere, Brig.-Gen. J. W., =S.=1718.
Reynolds, Maj.-Gen. J. F., =S.=3044, =S.=3045.
Reynolds, Maj.-Gen. J. J., =C.=4681.
Rice, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. W., =C.=4650.
Rice, Brig.-Gen. J. C., =S.=3025.
Rice, Brig.-Gen. S. A., =C.=4659.
Richardson, Maj.-Gen. I. B., =S.=815, =S.=3766.
Richardson, Col. R. H., 26th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3724.
Richardson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. P., =S.=1519.
Richmond, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L., =S.=1351, =S.=1485, =S.=1549.
Ricketts, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=3714.
Rikell, Col. J., =S.=1971.
Runyon, Brig.-Gen. T., =S.=1887.
Riker, Col. J. L., 62d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2129.
Riley, Capt., =S.=2197.
Riley, Col. E., 40th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1898.
Ringold, Col. B., 103d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3016.
Ripetti, Lieut.-Col. A., 39th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1544.
Ripley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. H., =S.=3113, =S.=3114.
Ripley, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =S.=3213.
Roberts, Maj.-Gen. B. S., =S.=2083.
Roberts, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. C. W., =S.=3758, =S.=3791.
Roberts, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4721.
Roberts, Col. T. A., 17th Me. Infantry, =S.=3761.
Robertson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. M., =C.=5142.
Robinson, Adjt. H. F., 76th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1832.
Robinson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. L., =S.=2082.
Robinson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. C., =S.=1465.
Robinson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. S., =S.=1529, =S.=3756.
Robinson, Surg. J. W., 141st and 179th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1434.
Rodman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. J., =S.=3093.
Rogers, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H., =C.=4082.
Rogers, Surg. J. K., =S.=3784.
Rogers, Lieut.-Col. L. D., 16th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1441.
Root, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. R., =S.=3214.
Rose, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. E., =C.=4717.
Rosecrans, Maj.-Gen. W. S., =S.=2001.
Ross, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S., =S.=3802.
Rougham, Surg., =S.=3855.
Rousseau, Maj.-Gen. L. H., =S.=2025, =S.=2605.
Rowley, Brig.-Gen. T., =S.=3792.
Rucker, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. H., =C.=4804.
Ruger, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. H., =S.=1673, =S.=3100.
Ruggles, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. D. (in group), =L.=7957.
Runkle, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. B. P., =S.=1762.
Runyon, Maj. N. M., 11th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1984.
Rush, Surg. D. G., 101st Pa. Infantry, =S.=2244.
Rusk, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. M., =C.=4732.
Rushing, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. F., =S.=2610.
Russell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S., =S.=3211.
Russell, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. A., =S.=1746.
Rutherford, Brig.-Gen. F. S., =S.=3218.
Ryder, Sergt. S. O., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1488.
Ryerson, Lieut.-Col. H. O., 10th N. J. Infantry, =S.=2238.
Sabine, Maj. J. A., =S.=1435.
Sackett, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D. B., =S.=1387, =S.=1670.
Sackett, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=1363.
Salm Salm, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F., =S.=3785.
Sanderson, Maj. J. M., aide-de-camp, =S.=1515.
Sanford, Maj.-Gen. C. W., N. Y. S. M., =S.=1319.
Sanford, Maj.-Gen. C. W. and staff, =S.=1563.
Satterlee, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. S., =S.=1925, =S.=3864.
Savage, Lieut.-Col. H. F., 25th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2007.
Sawtelle, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. G., =C.=4470.
Saxton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R., =S.=3715.
Sayers, Surg. L. A., =S.=1532.
Schenck, Maj.-Gen. R. C., =S.=1399, =S.=2000.
Scheffer, Lieut.-Col., =S.=2085.
Schimmelfennig, Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=3042.
Schoepf, Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=3231.
Schoff, Maj. L., =S.=1473.
Schoffer, Capt., =S.=2196.
Schofield, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=2655.
Schofield, Maj.-Gen. J. M., =S.=1944.
Schurz, Maj.-Gen. Carl, =S.=2608, =S.=3007.
Schwartz, Capt., the sharpshooter, =S.=2423.
Schwenk, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. K., =L.=7668.
Scott, Bvt. Lieut.-Gen. Winfield, =S.=1313.
Scott, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. K., =S.=2632.
Scott, Bvt. Lieut.-Gen. Winfield and staff, =S.=3163, =C.=4552.
Scribner, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. F., =S.=3063.
Scully, Chaplain T., 9th Mass. Infantry, =S.=1990, =S.=2192.
Seawell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=1474.
Sedgwick, Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=2177.
Sedgwick, Maj.-Gen. J. and staff, =C.=4619.
Selfridge, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. L., =S.=1461.
Senger, Lieut.-Col. A., 15th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, =S.=2168.
Serrell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. A., =S.=1772.
Sewall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. D., =S.=3753.
Seymour, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T., =S.=3094.
Schackelford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. M., =S.=3055.
Shafter, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. R., =S.=2604.
Shaler, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =S.=1667.
Shanks, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. P. C., =C.=4731.
Sharpe, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. H., =C.=4588.
Sharpe, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=3730.
Shaw, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =C.=4730.
Shaw, Maj. W. M., =S.=2188.
Shepley, Brig.-Gen. G. F., =S.=2236.
Sheridan, Maj.-Gen. P. H., =C.=4016, =C.=4039.
Sheridan, Maj.-Gen. P. H. and generals, =L.=4048.
Sherley, Capt. Z. M., =S.=1574.
Sherman, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. W., =S.=1626.
Sherman, Lieut.-Gen. W. T., =S.=2002, =S.=2017.
Sherman, Lieut.-Gen. W. T. and generals, =S.=1990, =L.=4057.
Sherman, Lieut.-Gen. W. T. and staff, =L.=7963.
Shields, Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=2069.
Shiras, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =S.=3059.
Shreve, Maj. J. E., 132d Pa. Infantry, =S.=1440.
Shriver, Lieut.-Col. R. O., =S.=1346.
Shumway, Capt. H. C., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1590.
Sibley, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. H., =C.=4683.
Sickel, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. G., =C.=4706.
Sickles, Maj.-Gen. D. E., =S.=1702.
Sickles, Maj.-Gen. D. E. and staff, =S.=1754.
Sidell, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. H., =S.=2615.
Sigel, Maj.-Gen. Franz, =S.=1512.
Sigfried, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. K., =S.=2621.
Simmons, Surg. M. E., 22d Mass. Infantry, =S.=1442.
Simpson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. H., =S.=1993.
Simpson, Surg. G. B. F., 62d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3805.
Sinclair, Col. W., 35th Pa. Infantry, =S.=1540.
Sleeper, Capt. J. H., 10th Mass. Battery, =L.=7085, =L.=7086, =L.=7583.
Slemmer, Brig.-Gen. A. J., =S.=1536.
Slocum, Maj.-Gen. H. W., =S.=1876.
Slocum, Maj.-Gen. H. W. and staff, =L.=4046.
Slough, Brig.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2226.
Smalley, Col. H. A., 5th Vt. Infantry, =S.=3729.
Smith, Lieut., =L.=7606.
Smith, Maj.-Gen. A. J., =C.=4805.
Smith, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. F., =S.=1711.
Smith, Maj.-Gen. C. F., =S.=1783.
Smith, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. H., =S.=3065.
Smith, Col. G. F., 61st Pa. Infantry, =S.=1369.
Smith, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. E., =S.=3050.
Smith, Maj. M. W., =S.=2190.
Smith, Brig.-Gen. T. C. H., =S.=1347.
Smith, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. K., =S.=1870.
Smith, Maj.-Gen. W. F., =S.=2160, =S.=2243.
Smith, Maj.-Gen. W. F. and staff, =C.=4038.
Smyth, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T. A., =S.=3048.
Snider, Lieut.-Col. S. W., 4th W. Va. Cavalry, =S.=1455.
Snodgrass, Maj., =S.=3800.
Spaight, Capt. W. A., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1572.
Spaulding, Maj. C. F., 15th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1396.
Spear, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. P., =S.=3072.
Sprague, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. B. R., =C.=5181.
Sprague, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =S.=1934.
Sprague, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W. and staff, =L.=4049.
Sprague, Brig.-Gen. W., =S.=3873.
Spofford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. P., =S.=1348.
Stafford, Lieut.-Col. S. H., 11th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2144.
Stager, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Anson, =S.=1443.
Stahel, Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=1564.
Stanley, Maj.-Gen. D. S., =C.=4503.
Stannard, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. G. J., =S.=3047.
Starkweather, Brig.-Gen. J. C., =S.=1682.
Starr, Col. S. H., 5th N. J. Infantry, =S.=2140.
Starring, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. O., =S.=1577.
Steadman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. A., =S.=3115.
Stebbins, E. N., storekeeper, =S.=3822.
Steedman, Maj.-Gen. J. B., =S.=2024.
Steedman, Maj.-Gen. J. B. and staff, =C.=4059.
Sterling, Lieut. C. R., =S.=1803.
Stevens, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. F., =C.=4729.
Stevens, Col. W. O., 72d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1506, =S.=1845.
Stiles, Col. J. W., 83d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1499.
Stokes, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. B., =C.=4728.
Stone, Brig.-Gen. C. P., =S.=1380.
Stone, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. A., =S.=2657.
Stone, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R., =S.=3103.
Stone, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. M., =C.=4651.
Stoneman, Maj.-Gen. G., =S.=437, =S.=1562, =S.=3815.
Stoneman, Maj.-Gen. G. and staff, =S.=436, =S.=438, =S.=445, =S.=696.
Storm, Gen., =S.=1322.
Stough, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =C.=4594.
Stoughton, Brig.-Gen. E. H., =S.=2139.
Stoughton, Lieut.-Col. H. R., 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, =S.=1620.
Stoughton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. L., =C.=4727.
Stratton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F. A., =C.=4719.
Streight, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. D., =S.=1760.
Strong, Maj.-Gen. G. C., S.1480, =S.=2210.
Strong, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. E., =C.=4595.
Strong, Brig.-Gen. W. K., =C.=4987.
Strother, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. D. H., =S.=3723.
Stryker, Maj. W. S., paymaster, =S.=1631.
Stuart, Col. C. B., 50th N. Y. Engineers, =S.=1846, =S.=2143.
Sturgis, Maj.-Gen. S. D., =S.=3842.
Sullivan, Col. T., 24th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1810, =S.=3744.
Sully, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =C.=4947.
Sumner, Maj.-Gen. E. V., =S.=2227.
Sutton, Chaplain J. F., 102d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2189.
Swain, Col. J. B., 11th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1401, =S.=3752.
Swayne, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W., =S.=3207.
Sweeney, Brig.-Gen. T. W., =S.=2427.
Sweet, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. J., =S.=1733.
Sweitzer, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. B., =S.=1721.
Sweitzer, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. N. B., =C.=4964.
Sykes, Maj.-Gen. G., =S.=1417.
Talley, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. C., =S.=1539.
Tapley, Col. R. P., 27th Me. Infantry, =S.=1422.
Tappan, Lieut.-Col. S. F., 1st Col. Cavalry, =S.=1858.
Taylor, Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=1828.
Taylor, Brig.-Gen. N., =S.=1806.
Telford, Col. W. H., 50th Pa. Infantry, =L.=7281.
Tenner, Lieut. L., 39th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1528.
Terry, Maj.-Gen. A. H., =C.=4578.
Terry, Maj.-Gen. A. H. and staff, =C.=4051.
Terry, Maj. C. L., 13th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1981.
Tevis, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. C., =S.=1420.
Thayer, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. M., =C.=4700.
Thomas, Maj.-Gen. G. C., =S.=1563.
Thomas, Maj.-Gen. Geo. H., =S.=2022, =S.=2607.
Thomas, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L., =S.=1330.
Thomas, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. M. T., =S.=3232.
Thourot, Lieut.-Col. L., 55th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2147.
Tibbitts, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. B., =S.=2667.
Tidball, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. C., =C.=4585.
Tilton, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. S., =S.=1785.
Titus, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. B., =S.=1345.
Todd, Capt. J. B. S., 6th U. S. Infantry, =S.=1336.
Todd, Col. J. G., 35th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1941.
Tompkins, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. H., =C.=4685.
Tompkins, Col. G. W. B., 82d N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1402.
Torbert, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. T. A., =S.=1424, =S.=1904.
Totten, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=2664.
Totten, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. G., =S.=1554.
Tourtelotte, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. E., =C.=4502.
Townsend, Gen., =S.=2213.
Townsend, Lieut.-Col. C., 106th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1659.
Townsend, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. D., =S.=1860, =S.=3765.
Tracy, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. B. F., =S.=1507.
Trowbridge, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. L. S., =S.=1394.
Truex, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. S., =S.=3222.
Tucker, Lieut.-Col. I. M., 2d N. J. Infantry, =S.=2131.
Turner, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. W., =C.=4589.
Tuthill, Ass't Surg., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1584.
Tuttle, Brig.-Gen. J. M., =C.=4652.
Tuttle, Col. O. L., 6th Vt. Infantry, =S.=1802.
Tyler, Brig.-Gen. Daniel, 1629.
Tyler, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E. B., =S.=1437.
Tyler, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. O., =S.=1383.
Tyler, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. O. and staff, =L.=7377, =L.=7504.
Tyndale, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H., =C.=4704.
Ullman, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. D., =S.=1530.
Underwood, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. B., =S.=2045.
Upham, Maj. C. L., 8th Conn. Infantry, =S.=1411.
Upton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. E., =S.=1835.
Vallee, Lieut.-Col. F., 82d Pa. Infantry, =S.=2146.
Van Allen, Brig.-Gen. J. H., =S.=2122.
Van Cleve, Bvt. Maj.-Gen., =C.=5170.
Vanderbilt, Lieut. G. W., 10th U. S. Infantry, =S.=2250.
Vandever, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W., =C.=4686.
Van Etten, Surg. S., 56th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3831.
Van Ness, Lieut., =S.=2251.
Van Ness, Capt. W. W., quartermaster, =S.=1924.
Van Steinhausen, Lieut.-Col. A., 68th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1786.
Van Vliet, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S., =S.=2206.
Van Wedell, Maj. C., 68th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1836.
Varney, Bvt, Brig.-Gen. G., =S.=3802.
Viele, Brig.-Gen. E. L., =S.=1675.
Vincent, Col. S., 83d Pa. Infantry, =S.=3188.
Vincent, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. M., =C.=4509.
Virgin, Col. W. W., 23d Me. Infantry, =S.=1850.
Von Amsberg, Col. G., 45th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=3243.
Von Forstner, Maj. S., 3d N. J. Cavalry, =S.=1935.
Von Gilsa. Col. L., 41st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2629.
Von Penchelstein, Maj., 4th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1882.
Von Schrader, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A., =C.=5165.
Von Shack, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G., =C.=4981.
Von Steinwehr, Brig.-Gen. A., =S.=1415, =S.=2128.
Voris, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. C., =S.=1829.
Wadsworth, Brig.-Gen. J. S., =S.=2064.
Wadsworth, Brig.-Gen. J. S. and staff, =L.=7972.
Waite, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. A., =S.=2670.
Walcutt, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. C., =S.=1928.
Walcutt, Bvt, Maj.-Gen. C. C. and staff, =L.=7002.
Walker, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. M. B., =S.=3238.
Wallace, Maj.-Gen. Lew, =S.=2211.
Wallace, Brig.-Gen. W. H. L., =C.=4687.
Ward, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. H., =C.=5183.
Ward, Brig.-Gen. J. H. H., =S.=1593, =S.=1878.
Ward, Lieut.-Col. W. G., 12th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1661.
Ward, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. T., =L.=4056.
Ward, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. T. and staff, =L.=4063.
Warner, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. A. J., =C.=4708.
Warner, Brig.-Gen. J. M., =S.=3086.
Warren, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. F. H., =C.=4653, =C.=4688.
Warren, Maj.-Gen. G. K., =S.=1757.
Washburn, Col. C., =S.=1849.
Washburn, Maj.-Gen. C. C., =C.=4726.
Washburn, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. F., =C.=5156.
Washburn, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. H. D., =C.=4725.
Washington, Col. P. G., =S.=1739.
Watkins, Brig.-Gen. L. D., =S.=1722.
Watson, Maj. A. B., 8th Mich. Infantry, =S.=1931.
Way, Lieut.-Col. W. B., 9th Mich. Cavalry, =S.=1339.
Webb, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. S., =S.=1933.
Webb, Maj. M. F., paymaster, =S.=2191.
Weber, Brig.-Gen. M., =C.=4689.
Webster, Col. F., 12th Mass. Infantry, =S.=2185.
Webster, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. D., =S.=2611.
Weiss, Capt. A., 41st N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2261.
Weiss, Lieut.-Col. F., 20th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1537.
Weitzel, Maj.-Gen. Godfrey, =S.=2030.
Weitzel, Maj.-Gen. Godfrey and staff, =L.=4066, =L.=4079.
Wellman, Lieut.-Col. A. J., 85th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1804.
Wells, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. D., =S.=1364.
Wells, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W., =S.=2635.
Welsh, Brig.-Gen. T., =S.=3171.
Wessells, Brig.-Gen. H. W., =C.=4494.
West, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. G. W., =S.=3036.
West, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R. M., =S.=2152.
Westbrook, Lieut.-Col. C. D., 120th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1354.
Weston, Chaplain S. H., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1674.
Wheaton, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. F., =S.=2619.
Wherry, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W. M., =S.=3083.
Whipple, Maj.-Gen. A. W., =S.=2632.
Whipple, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. D., =C.=4574.
White, Lieut., =S.=2248.
White, Lieut.-Col. Nelson, 1st Conn. Artillery, =S.=2214.
White, Lieut.-Col. A. H., 5th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1338.
White, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. B., =S.=3227.
White, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J., =S.=2221.
White, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. and staff, =L.=7562, =L.=7845.
Whiting, Maj. C. J., 2d U. S. Cavalry, =S.=1416.
Whittaker, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. E. W., =S.=2040.
Whittlesey, Col. F. W., 1st Mich. Infantry, =S.=1945.
Wickstead, Lieut. J., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1666.
Wilcox, Col. V. M., 132d Pa. Infantry, =S.=1409.
Wild, Brig.-Gen. E. A., =C.=5159.
Wilder, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. T., =C.=5175.
Wiley, Maj. W. M., paymaster, =S.=3837.
Wilkeson, Lieut.-Col. S. H., 11th N. Y. Cavalry, =S.=1742.
Willard, Col. G. L., 125th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1525.
Willard, Maj. J. C., aide-de-camp, =S.=1452.
Willcox, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. O. B. and staff, =L.=7067, =L.=7526, =L.=7527,
    =S.=2440.
Willett, Col. J. H., 12th N. J. Infantry, =S.=1833.
Williams, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A. S., =S.=2179.
Williams, Lieut.-Col. D. A., 136th Ohio Infantry, =S.=1795.
Williams, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. M., =C.=4596.
Williams, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. R., =S.=3067.
Williams, Col. S. J., 19th Indiana Infantry, =S.=1478.
Williams, Brig.-Gen. T., =S.=3191.
Williamson, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. A., =C.=4654.
Williamson, Capt. R. S., U. S. Engineers, =S.=2252.
Willich, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. A., =C.=4669.
Wilson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J., =S.=1966.
Wilson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. G., =S.=1815, =S.=1868.
Wilson, Maj.-Gen. J. H., =S.=2074.
Wilson, Maj.-Gen. J. H. and staff, =C.=4181.
Wilson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. (in group), =L.=7957.
Wilson, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. W., =C.=1382.
Winchester, Quartermaster L. W., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1594.
Winslow, Maj., =S.=2257.
Winslow, Chaplain G., 5th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1592.
Winthrop, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. F., =S.=1927.
Wisewall Bvt. Brig.-Gen. M. N., =S.=3747.
Wistar, Brig.-Gen. I. J., =C.=4705.
Wood, Col. A. M., 84th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=2133.
Wood, Maj.-Gen. T. J., =S.=1695.
Wood, Maj. W. H., 17th U. S. Infantry, =S.=3830.
Woodbury, Chaplain A., 1st R. I. Infantry, =S.=1639.
Woodbury, Col. D. A., 4th Mich. Infantry, =S.=3786.
Woodford, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. L., =C.=5098.
Woodruff, Col. W. L., 2d Ky. Infantry, =S.=2249.
Woods, Bvt. Maj.-Gen C. R., =S.=2636.
Woodward, Lieut.-Col. G. A., 31st Pa. Infantry, =S.=1405.
Wool, Maj.-Gen. J. E., =S.=1318.
Woolsey, Lieut. C. W., =L.=7103.
Worth, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. J., =S.=1316.
Worthington, Surg. W. H., 63d Pa. Infantry, =S.=3841.
Wright, Col. D. R., 15th Conn. Infantry, =S.=3750.
Wright, Col. E. H., aide-de-camp, =S.=3799.
Wright, Maj.-Gen. H. G., =S.=1781.
Wright, Maj.-Gen. H. G. and staff, =C.=4570.
Wyndham, Col. Percy, 1st N. J. Cavalry, =S.=1905, =S.=3762.
Wynkoop, Col. J. E., 20th Pa. Cavalry, =S.=1818.
Yeoman, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. B., =S.=2669.
York, Lieut, J. S., 5th N. Y. Infantry, =S.=1699.
Young, Lieut, J. B., 7th N. Y. S. M., =S.=1615.
Young, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. B. M., =C.=4716.
Zagony, Col. C., aide-de-camp, =S.=3858.
Zook, Maj. P. J., =S.=1622.
Zook, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. S. K., =S.=1500.
Zulick, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. S. M., =C.=4496.

                               * * * * *

                        REGIMENTS AND BATTERIES.

                               * * * * *

                          =Colorado Cavalry.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. S. F. Tappan, =S.=1858.

                         =Connecticut Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. E. W. Whittaker, =S.=2040.

                     =Connecticut Heavy Artillery.=

=1st.= _At Fort Richardson, Va._:
      --Officers of regiment, =C.=4534.
      --Interior of Fort Richardson, =C.=4547.
      --Camp at Fort Richardson, =C.=4552.
      _At Fort Darling, James River, Va., April, 1865_:
      --Officers of regiment, =S.=6, =S.=11.
      --Officers' quarters, =S.=1134, =S.=1136, =S.=1139, =S.=1141.
      --Band, =S.=1129.
      --Lieut.-Col. Nelson White, =S.=2214.

                        =Connecticut Infantry.=

=3d.= Company--, =C.=4129.

=11th.= Col. G. A. Steadman, =S.=3115.

=14th.= Lieut.-Col. S. H. Perkins, =S.=1436.

=15th.= Col. D. R. Wright, =S.=3750.
        Maj. C. L. Upham, =S.=1411.

=20th.= Col. S. Ross, =S.=3082.

=22d.= Col. G. S. Burnham, =S.=1477, =S.=3736.

                    =District of Columbia Cavalry.=

=1st.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4558.
       Col. L. C. Baker, =C.=4965.

                    =District of Columbia Infantry.=

=2d.= Col. C. N. Alexander, =S.=2155, =S.=3755.
      Lieut.-Col. W. O. Drew, =S.=1362.

                          =Illinois Cavalry.=

=9th.= Col. A. G. Brackett, =S.=1649.

=12th.= Col. H. Davis, =S.=1425.

                      =Illinois Light Artillery.=

=2d.= Col. T. S. Mather, =S.=3742.

                          =Illinois Infantry.=

=23d.= Col. J. A. Mulligan, =S.=2087.

=36th.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4331.

=58th.= Col. W. P. Lynch, =C.=4676.

=59th.= Col. P. S. Post, =S.=3230.

=72d.= Col. F. A. Starring, =S.=1577.

=105th.= Col. D. Dustin, =S.=3847.

                           =Indiana Cavalry.=

=3d.= Detachment at headquarters Army of Potomac, November,
1864, =L.=7023. Ass't Surg. L. Brusie, =S.=1889.

                          =Indiana Infantry.=

=7th.= Col. I. G. Grover, =S.=1677.
       Col. J. P. C. Shanks, =C.=4731.
       Lieut.-Col. W. C. Banta, =S.=1794.

=9th.= Company C., =C.=4096, =C.=4728.

=18th.= Col. H. D. Washburn, =C.=4725.

=19th.= Col. S. J. Williams, =S.=1478.
        Lieut.-Col. W. W. Dudley, =S.=2625.
        Maj. I. M. May, =S.=1819.

=22d.= Lieut.-Col. A. I. Harrison, =S.=3776.

=32d.= Maj. W. G. Mank, =S.=3182.

=33d.= Col. John Colburn, =C.=4738.

=38th.= Col. B. F. Scribner, =S.=3063.

=44th.= Company H, =C.=4338.
        Company --, =C.=4335, =C.=4342.
        Company --, =C.=4337, =C.=4340.

=51st.= Col. A. D. Streight, =S.=1760.

=70th.= Col. B. Harrison, =S.=3039.

=128th.= Col. Jasper Packard, =C.=4735.

                            =Iowa Infantry.=

=8th.= Col. J. L. Geddes, =S.=3064.

=13th.= Col. J. Wilson, =S.=1966.

=15th.= Col. J. M. Hedrick, =S.=2049.

=19th.= Exchanged prisoners, after release from Camp Ford, Texas,
=L.=3010, =L.=3028, =L.=3029, =L.=3030.

=22d.= Col. W. M. Stone, =C.=4651.

=23d.= Col. =S.= L. Glasgow, =C.=4648.

=25th.= Col. G. A. Stone, =S.=2657.

=29th.= Col. T. H. Benton, =C.=4644.

=34th.= Col. G. W. Clark, =C.=4645.

                          =Kentucky Infantry.=

=2d.= Col. W. E. Woodruff, =S.=2249.

=19th.= Col. W. J. Landran, =S.=3081.

                            =Maine Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. C. H. Smith, =S.=3065.
       Lieut.-Col. J. P. Cilley, =C.=5160.

                   =Battalion Maine Light Artillery.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. J. A. Hall, =S.=2637.
       Lieut.-Col. F. McGilvery, =S.=3021.

                           =Maine Infantry.=

=2d.= Camp Jamison, near Washington, D. C., =C.=4547, =C.=4548,
        =C.=4130.
      Col. C. W. Roberts, =S.=3758, =S.=3791.
      Col. G. Varney, =S.=3802.

=3d.= Lieut.-Col. E. Burt, =S.=3779.

=5th.= Col. C. S. Edwards, =S.=1509.
       Surg. B. F. Buxton, =S.=1389.

=7th.= Col. E. C. Mason, =S.=1861.

=8th.= Col. W. M. McArthur, =S.=2627.

=10th.= Group of officers, Cedar Mountain, Va., August, 1862, =S.=509.

=11th.= Col. H. M. Plaisted, =S.=3722.

=12th.= Col. W. K. Kimball, =S.=2658.

=17th.= Col. T. A. Roberts, =S.=3761.
        Col. G. W. West, =S.=3036.
        Lieut.-Col. C. B. Merrill, =S.=1360.

=19th.= Col. F. E. Heath, =S.=1361.

=23d.= Col. W. W. Virgin, =S.=1853.

=27th.= Col. R. P. Tapley, =S.=1422.

=29th.= Col. G. H. Nye, =S.=2618.

=30th.= Col. T. H. Hubbard, =C.=5136.
        Lieut.-Col. G. W. Randall, =S.=2626.

                          =Maryland Cavalry.=

=3d.= Col. C. C. Tevis, =S.=1420.

                          =Maryland Infantry.=

=4th.= Col. R. N. Bowerman, =S.=2652.

=6th.= Col. J. W. Horn, =C.=4663.

=7th.= Col. Charles E. Phelps, =C.=4734.

=8th.= Col. A. W. Dennison.

                        =Massachusetts Cavalry.=

=1st.= _At headquarters Army of Potomac, August, 1864_:
     --Officers of Companies C and D, =L.=7390, =L.=7490.
     --Officers and non-commissioned officers of Companies C and D,
       =L.=7354, =L.=7391.
     --Company C, =L.=7295.
     --Company D, =L.=7392, =L.=7476.
     --Capt. E. A. Flint, =L.=7403.

=3d.= Col. T. E. Chickering, =S.=3092.

=4th.= Col. F. Washburn, =C.=5156.

                       =Massachusetts Artillery.=

=3d.= Officers in Fort Totten, Va., =S.=1115.
    --Officers and men, =S.=1156, =S.=1157, =S.=1190, =S.=1227.
    --Col. W. S. Abert, =S.=3178.
    _Fort Totten, near Washington, D. C._:
    --Officers of Companies A and B, =L.=7261, =L.=7678, =L.=7681.
    --Sergeants of Company A, =L.=7253.
    --Sergeants of Company B, =L.=7687.
    _Fort Stevens. near Washington, D. C._:
    --Officers of Companies F and K, =L.=7282, =L.=7696.
    --Company F, =L.=7744, =L.=7803, =L.=7917.
    --Company K, =L.=7692, =L.=7746, =L.=7897.
    _Fort Lincoln, near Washington, D. C._:
    --Company H, =L.=7874.

                    =Massachusetts Heavy Artillery.=

=4th.= Col. W. S. King, =S.=3273.

                        =Massachusetts Battery.=

=10th.= Officers, =L.=7085, =L.=7086, =L.=7089, =L.=7583.

                        =Massachusetts Militia.=

=8th.= Maj. Ben: Perley Poore, =S.=1426.

                       =Massachusetts Infantry.=

=2d.= Col. W. Cogswell, =S.=2029.
      Maj. W. Dwight, =S.=1811, =S.=1814.

=9th.= Groups of officers, =C.=4101, =C.=4102.
       Father Scully holding mass in camp, =C.=4131.
       Col. T. Cass, =S.=3774.
       Col. P. R. Guiney, =S.=3096.
       Lieut.-Col. R. Peard, =S.=1717.
       Chaplain T. Scully, =S.=1990, =S.=2192.

=10th.= Camp near Washington, D. C., =S.=2421.
        Lieut.-Col. J. B. Parsons, =S.=1341.

=11th.= Col. W. Blaisdell, =S.=3111.

=12th.= Col. F. Webster, =S.=2185.
        Surg. J. H. Baxter, =S.=3833.

=15th.= Col. G. H. Ward, =C.=5183.
        Lieut.-Col. G. C. Joslin, =C.=5190.
        Surg. S. F. Haven, =C.=5193.
        Lieut. J. W. Grout, =C.=5191.
        Lieut. T. J. Spurr, =C.=5192.

=19th.= Col. A. F. Devereaux, =S.=3066.

=22d.= Col. H. Wilson, =C.=4593.
       Col. W. S. Tilton, =S.=1785.
       Surg. M. E. Simmons, =S.=1442.

=24th.= Col. A. Ordway, =S.=3080.

=25th.= Col. Josiah Pickett, =C.=5179.

=28th.= Officers of regiment, =L.=7750.

=34th.= Col. W. S. Lincoln, =C.=5180.
        Col. G. D. Wells, =S.=1364.
        Maj. H. W. Pratt, =C.=5185.

=36th.= Lieut.-Col. A. A. Goodell, =C.=5182.

=40th.= Camp near Miners' Hill, Va., =C.=4278, =C.=4357.
        Col. G. V. Henry, =S.=3220.
        Col. B. Porter, =S.=3754.

=51st.= Col. A. B. R. Sprague, =C.=5181.

=54th.= Col. E. N. Hallowell, =S.=2665.

=57th.= Col. N. B. McLaughlin, =S.=2052.
        Col. J. M. Tucker, =C.=5184.

                          =Michigan Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. T. F. Broadhead, =S.=1958.

=3d.= Col. J. K. Mizner, =S.=2668.

=5th.= Lieut.-Col. E. Gould, =S.=1439.

=7th.= Col. W. D. Mann, =S.=1644.

=9th.= Lieut-Col. W. B. Way, =S.=1339.

=10th.= Col. L. S. Trowbridge, =S.=1394.

                          =Michigan Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. I. C. Abbott, =S.=1469.
       Col. F. W. Whittlesey, =S.=1945.

=4th.= Col. D. A. Woodbury, =S.=3786.
       Capt. S. De Golyer, =S.=1992.

=5th.= Col. J. Pulford, =S.=3209.

=8th.= Maj. A. B. Watson, =S.=1931.

=11th.= Col. W. L. Stoughton, =C.=4727.

=12th.= Headquarters, =C.=4603, =C.=4611.

=15th.= Col. F. S. Hutchinson, =S.=3225.

=21st.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4103.
        Company B, =C.=4101.
        Company D, =C.=4099.
        Company E, =C.=4100.
        Company --, =C.=4092.
        Company --, =C.=4750.

=24th.= Col. H. A. Morrow, =S.=1505, =S.=1853.

                          =Minnesota Cavalry.=

=2d.= Col. R. N. McLaren, =S.=3070.

                         =Minnesota Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. George N. Morgan, =S.=3834.
       Lieut.-Col. C. P. Adams, =S.=1749.

=5th.= Col. L. F. Hubbard, =S.=3110.

=7th.= Col. W. R. Marshall, =S.=3069.

=8th.= Col. M. T. Thomas, =S.=3232.

                      =Missouri Light Artillery.=

=2d.= Lieut.-Col. G. W. Schofield, =S.=2655.

                          =Missouri Infantry.=

=15th.= Col. J. Conrad, =S.=2661.

                       =New Hampshire Infantry.=

=2d.= Col. J. N. Patterson, =S.=2666.
      Maj. F. S. Fisk, =S.=3849.

=5th.= Col. E. E. Cross, =S.=1983.
       Maj. W. W. Cook, =S.=1929.
       Adjt. C. O. Dodd, =S.=1838.

=9th.= Col. H. B. Titus, =S.=1345.

=13th.= Col. A. F. Stevens, =C.=4729.

                         =New Jersey Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. M. H. Beaumont, =S.=1943.
       Col. H. Janeway, =S.=1658.
       Col. P. Wyndham, =S.=1905, =S.=3762.

=2d.= Col. J. Karge, =S.=1616.

=3d.= Col. A. J. Morrison, =S.=1896.
      Col. A. C. M. Pennington, =S.=3089.
      Maj. S. Von Forstner, =S.=1935.

                         =New Jersey Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. M. W Collet, =S.=1353.

=2d.= Lieut.-Col. I. M. Tucker, =S.=2131.
      Lieut.-Col. S. L. Buck, =S.=1706.

=4th.= Col. W. B. Hatch, =S.=3746.
       Col. J. H. Simpson, =S.=1993.
       Lieut.-Col. C. Ewing, =S.=1648.

=5th.= Col. S. H. Starr, =S.=2140.

=6th.= Col. G. C. Burling, =S.=3102.

=7th.= Col. F. Price, =S.=1752.
       Maj. J. D. McIntosh, =S.=1950, =S.=3777.

=8th.= Col. John Ramsay, =C.=4598.

=9th.= Col. A. Zabriskie, =C.=5135.

=10th.= Lieut.-Col. H. O. Ryerson, =S.=2238.

=11th.= Lieut.-Col. S. Moore, =S.=1358.

=12th.= Col. J. H. Willett, =S.=1833.

=13th.= Col. E. A. Carmen, =S.=1386.

=14th.= Col. W. S. Truex, =S.=3222.

=24th.= Lieut.-Col. F. L. Knight, =S.=1456.

=25th.= Col. A. Derrom, =S.=3741.

=28th.= Col. M. N. Wisewell, =S.=3747.

=31st.= Col. A. P. Berthond, =S.=3738.
        Lieut.-Col. W. Holt, =S.=1337.

                         =New Mexico Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. Kit Carson, =S.=2620.

                       =New York Mounted Rifles.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. A. G. Patton, =S.=1750.

                          =New York Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. A. T. McReynolds, =S.=1678, =S.=3806.
       Capt. D. Harkins, =S.=3870.
       Capt. R. G. Prendergrast, =S.=1492.
       Lieut. H. B. Hidden, =S.=2135.

=2d.= Col. A. M. Randol, =S.=1660.
      Maj. A. N. Duffie, =S.=2154.

=3d.= Col. S. H. Mix, =S.=2120.

=4th.= Lieut.-Col. F. Nazer, =S.=1805.
       Maj. A. Von Peuchelstein, =S.=1882.

=5th.= Col. John Hammond, =C.=4980.
       Col. Amos H. White, =S.=1338.

=7th.= On parade, and camp near Washington, =C.=4543.

=9th.= Col. G. S. Nichols, =S.=1942.
       Lieut.-Col. H. B. Hyde, =S.=1471.
       Lieut.-Col. W. Sackett, =S.=1363.

=11th.= Col. J. B. Swain, =S.=1401, =S.=3752.
        Lieut.-Col. S. H. Wilkeson, =S.=1742.

=13th.= _Prospect Hill, Va., near Washington, D. C._:
        --Regiment on inspection, =L.=7735.
        --Field and staff officers, =L.=7723, =L.=7726, =L.=7738.
        --Officers of regiment, =L.=7185, =L.=7734.
        --Non-commissioned staff officers, =L.=7740.
        --General view of camp, =L.=7218, =L.=7733, =L.=7737, =L.=7739.
        --Headquarters in camp, =L.=7722.
        --Signal station in camp, =L.=7736.

=16th.= Col. N. B. Sweitzer, =C.=4964.

=26th.= Lieut.-Col. F. Jacobs, =S.=3015.

                    =New York Artillery Battalion.=

=1st.= Battery --, near Fair Oaks, Va., June, 1862, =S.=443, =S.=640.

                      =New York Light Artillery.=

=1st.= Field and staff officers, =S.=2417.

                      =New York Heavy Artillery.=

=2d.= _Fort C. F. Smith, near Washington, D. C._:
      --Officers of regiment, =L.=7906.
      --Officers of Company F, =L.=7479.
      --Officers of Companies K and L, =L.=7842.
      --Company F, =L.=7283.
      --Company K, =L.=7675.
      --Company L, =L.=7672, =L.=7673.

=4th.= Officers, =L.=7178.
       Officers in Fort Corcoran, Va., =C.=4103.
       Col. T. D. Doubleday, =S.=1874.
       Col. H. H. Hall, =S.=1921.
       Col. J.C. Tidball, =C.=4585.
       Surg. G. Bayles, =S.=1379.

=6th.= Camp at Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864, =L.=7265.

=7th.= Col. L. O. Morris, =S.=2602.

=9th.= Company M, previously 22d New York Battery, =L.=7818.

=13th.= Camp in front of Petersburg, Va., =S.=2495, =S.=2496.

=14th.= Col. E. G. Marshall, =S.=2174.

=15th.= Officers of Third Battalion, =L.=7743.
        Lieut.-Col. A. Senges, =S.=2168.

                          =New York Battery.=

=1st.= Cowan's Battery, in front of Petersburg, June, 1864, =S.=787,
        =S.=2343.

=3d.= Capt. T. P. Mott, =S.=1726, =S.=2100.

=17th.= Officers, =L.=7559.
        On parade, =L.=7008, =L.=7010, =L.=7620.

                         =New York Engineers.=

=1st.= Officers of Company E, =S.=1034.
       Col. E. A. Serrell, =S.=1772.

=15th.= Col. J. McL. Murphy, =S.=1614.
        Lieut.-Col. C. G. Colgate, =S.=1923.
        Officers of regiment, =C.=4477.

=50th.= Col. W. H. Peters, =S.=2145.
        Col. C. B. Stuart, =S.=1846, =S.=2143.
        Maj. G. W. Ford, =L.=7166.
        Surg. C. N. Hewitt, =L.=7401.
        Surg. H. A. Potter, =S.=3852.
        _At Rappahannock Station, March, 1864_:
        --Field and staff officers, =L.=7600, =L.=7615.
        --General view of camp, =L.=7275, =L.=7276, =L.=7461, =S.=138.
        --Stockade entrance to camp, =L.=7351.
        --Sutler's hut, =L.=7290.
        --Quarters of field and staff officers, =L.=7293, =L.=7604,
               =L.=7608.
        --Quarters of line officers, =L.=7614.
        _In front of Petersburg, Va._:
        --Officers of regiment, =L.=7324.
        --Officers' dinner on Fourth of July, 1864, =S.=790, =S.=791.
        --Headquarters, =L.=7167, =S.=1028, =S.=1048.
        --Colonel's quarters, =L.=7059, =S.=1047.
        --Surgeon's quarters, =L.=7233.
        --Officers' quarters, =L.=7210, =L.=7213, =S.=344, =L.=1028,
              =S.=3338.
        --Church, =L.=7151, =L.=7932, =S.=345, =S.=3339, =S.=3340.
        --Commissary department, =L.=7060.

                          =New York Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. W. H. Allen, =S.=1735.
       Ass't Surg. A. C. Benedict, =S.=1458.

=3d.= Col. J. E. Mulford, =S.=2110.

=5th.= Col. F. Winthrop, =S.=1927.
       Maj. C. Boyd, =S.=1450.
       Surg. S. Van Etten, =S.=3831.
       Chaplain G. Winslow, =S.=1592.
       Lieut. J.S. York, =S.=1699.

=6th.= Col. W. Wilson, =S.=1382.
       Maj. W. Newby, =S.=1531.
       Ass't Surg. P. C. Pease, =S.=2205.
       Lieut. A. D'Orville, =S.=2112.

=7th.= Col. George Von Shack, =C.=4981.

=8th.= Capt. M. Kron, =S.=3861.

=9th.= Col. R. C. Hawkins, =S.=1511.
       Lieut.-Col. G. F. Betts, =S.=1635.
       Maj. E. A. Kimball, =S.=3862.
       Lieut. R. McKechnie, =S.=1495.

=10th.= Col. J. E. Bendix, =S.=3201.
        Col. W. W. McChesney, =S.=1737.
        Lieut.-Col. A. B. Elder, =S.=3868.

=11th.= Col. E. E. Ellsworth, =S.=3175.
        Lieut.-Col. N. L. Farnham, =S.=1628.
        Lieut.-Col. S. H. Stafford, =S.=2144.
        Maj. J. A. Creiger, =S.=1627.
        Francis E. Brownell, =S.=1494.

=13th.= Maj. C. L. Terry, =S.=1981.

=14th.= Col. J. McQuade, =S.=3824.

=16th.= Surg. W. B. Crandall, =S.=2156.

=17th.= Col. H. S. Lansing, =S.=1595.
        Maj. C. A. Johnson, =S.=2254.
        Camp and regiment, =C.=4541.

=20th.= Col. F. Salm Salm, =S.=3785.
        Lieut.-Col. F. Weiss, =S.=1537.

=23d.= Col. H. C. Hoffman, =C.=5163.
       Surg. W. A. Madill, =S.=1419.

=24th.= Col. T. Sullivan, =S.=1810, =S.=3744.

=25th.= Col. C. A. Johnson, =S.=1857, =S.=2254.
        Maj. H. F. Savage, =S.=2007.

=26th.= Col. W. H. Christian, =S.=2138.
        Lieut.-Col. R. H. Richardson, =S.=3724.
        On parade, =C.=4529, =C.=4545.

=27th.= Lieut.-Col. A. D. Adams, =S.=1964.
        Maj. C. C. Gardiner, =S.=1703.

=29th.= Col. A. Von Steinwehr, =S.=2128.

=31st.= Maj. A. Razenski, =S.=2123.

=32d.= Col. R. Matheson, =S.=3022.

=33d.= Field and staff officers, =C.=4542.

=35th.= Col. W. B. Lord, =S.=3782.
        Maj. J. G. Todd, =S.=1941.
        Company --, =S.=2422.

=37th.= Col. S. B. Hayman, =S.=3058.
        Capt. W. De Lacy, =S.=2253.

=39th.= Col. F. G. D'Utassy, =S.=1496, =S.=2184.
        Lieut.-Col. A. Ripetti, =S.=1544.
        Lieut. L. Tenner, =S.=1528.

=40th.= Col. E. Riley, =S.=1898.
        Surg. J. E. Dexter, =S.=1888.

=41st.= Col. L. Von Gilsa, =S.=2649.
        Capt. A. Weiss, =S.=2261.
        Company C, Manassas, Va., July, 1862, =L.=7517.

=42d.= Col. E. C. Charles, =S.=2005.
       Col. J. E. Mallon, =S.=1522.
       Maj. P. J. Downing, =S.=2106.

=44th.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4227.
        Camp of regiment, near Alexandria, =C.=4069, =C.=4172,
        =C.=4173, =C.=4192, =C.=4230, =C.=4231, =C.=4086, =C.=4186.
        Flag of regiment, =S.=1504.

=45th.= Col. G. Von Amsberg, =S.=3243.

=46th.= Col. J. Gerhardt, =S.=3097.
        Capt. H. Brandenstein, =S.=1824.

=48th.= Col. W. B. Barton, =S.=1604.
        Col. J. H. Perry, =S.=1778.

=51st.= Col. C. W. Le Gendre, =S.=1527.

=52d.= Col. P. Frank, =S.=3001.

=55th.= Lieut.-Col. L. Thourot, =S.=2147.
        Maj. F. Jehl, =S.=1949.
        Officers of regiment, =C.=4550.
        Camp at Fort Gaines, =C.=4071, =C.=4544.

=57th.= Lieut.-Col. J. W. Britt, =S.=1548.
        Lieut.-Col. A. B. Chapman, =S.=1398.

=58th.= Capt. A. Maluski, =S.=3778.

=59th.= Col. W. A. Olmstead, =S.=3088.

=60th.= Officers of regiment at Fauquier Springs, Va., August,
        1862, =S.=538, =S.=539.

=61st.= _At Falmouth, Va., April, 1863_:
        --Officers of regiment, 7530, =L.=7531.
        --Drum Corps, =L.=7520.
        --Company D, =L.=7313.
        --Company G, =L.=7554.
        --Company K, =L.=7556.

=62d.= Col. J. L. Riker, =S.=2129.
       Lieut.-Col. O. V. Dayton, =S.=1777, =S.=2065.
       Surg. G. B. F. Simpson, =S.=3805.

=63d.= Col. Henry Fowler, =S.=1906.
       Officers of regiment, =L.=7542.

=65th.= Col. J. E. Hamblin, =S.=1476, =S.=2150.
        Maj. H. G. Healey, =S.=1421.

=66th.= Lieut.-Col. J. S. Hammell, =S.=2671.

=67th.= Col. J. W. Adams, =S.=2092.
        Camp near Washington, D. C., in 1861, =C.=4546, =C.=4114,
        =C.=4115, =C.=4116.

=68th.= Col. R. J. Betge, =S.=2132.
        Col. G. Bourri, =S.=1519.
        Lieut-Col. A. Van Steinhauser, =S.=1786.
        Maj. C. Van Wedell, =S.=1836.

=69th.= Col. R. Nugent, =S.=3856.
        Lieut.-Col. James Bagley, =S.=1856.
        Officers of regiment, =L.=7642.

=70th.= Col. J. E. Farnum, 1385.

=71st.= Regiment on parade at camp near Miner's Hill, Va, =S.=2415.
        Group of Company G, =S.=2413.

=72d.= Col. W. O. Stevens, =S.=1506, =S.=1845.
       Lieut.-Col. Israel Moses, =S.=1798.
       Surg. C. K. Irwine, =S.=279, =S.=3821.

=73d.= Col. W. R. Brewster, =S.=1842.

=75th.= Col. J. A. Dodge, =S.=3869.

=76th.= Adjt. H. F. Robinson, =S.=1832.

=77th.= Col. J. B. McKean, =S.=2178.

=79th.= Col. J. Cameron, =S.=1637.
        Col. D. Morrison, =S.=3105.
        Maj. F. A. Hagadorn, =S.=1700.

=80th.= Col. J. B. Hardenburgh, =S.=1715.
        Col. G. Pratt, =S.=1843.
        Lieut.-Col. T. B. Gates, =S.=1827.
        Capt. T. Alexander, =L.=7605.
        Officers of regiment, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863, =L.=7071,
          =L.=7373, =S.=278.

=82d.= Col. G. W. B. Tompkins, =S.=1402.
       Maj. J. J. Dimock, =S.=1393.

=83d.= Col. J. W. Stiles, =S.=1499.
       Adjt. J. B. Coppinger, =S.=1514.

=84th.= Col. E. B. Fowler, =S.=3801.
        Col. A. M. Wood, =S.=2133.

=85th.= Lieut.-Col. A. J. Wellman, =S.=1804.

=86th.= Col. B. P. Bailey, =S.=1866.

=87th.= Capt. S. F. Knight, =S.=1696.

=93d.= Col. J. S. Crocker, =C.=4673.
       Col. J. M. McCarter, =S.=2137.
       Maj. A. L. Cassidy, =S.=2187, =S.=3068.
       At Antietam, Md., September, 1862, =L.=7938, =L.=7941.
       _At Bealeton, Va., August, 1863_:
       --Officers of regiment, =L.=7505.
       --Field and staff officers, =S.=630.
       --Commissioned and non-commissioned staff, =L.=7011, =S.=284.
       --Company A, L.7510, =L.=7512.
       --Company B, L.7453, =L.=7506.
       --Company C. L.7451, =L.=7592.
       --Officers and non-commissioned officers of Company D, =L.=7458,
         =L.=7539.
       --Company D, =L.=7452, =L.=7591.
       --Officers' "mess," Company D, =S.=218.
       --Non-commissioned officers' "mess," Company D, =S.=217.
       --Company E, =L.=7455, =L.=7460.
       --Officers' "mess," Company E, =S.=225.
       --Company F, =L.=7454, =L.=7594.
       --Officers' "mess," Company F, =S.=220.
       --Company G, =L.=7456, =L.=7459.
       --Officers and non-commissioned officers of Company I, =L.=7511.
       --Company I, =L.=7457, =L.=7593.
       --Company K, =L.=7009, =L.=7036, =L.=7508.
       --Drum Corps, =L.=7514, =L.=7565.
       --Views of camp, =S.=219, =S.=824, =S.=826, =S.=827, =S.=828.

=94th.= Col. A. R. Root, =S.=3214.

=95th.= Col. G. H. Biddle, =S.=1800.

=96th.= Col. J. Fairman, =S.=2232.

=97th.= Col, J. P. Spofford, =S.=1348.

=99th.= Col. J. O'Mahoney, =S.=2104.

=100th.= Col. J. M. Brown, =S.=2603.

=102d.= Chaplain J. F. Sutton, =S.=2189.

=103d.= Col. B. Ringold, =S.=3016.

=105th.= Col. B. F. Tracy, =S.=1507.

=106th.= Lieut.-Col. C. Townsend, =S.=1659.

=107th.= Col. A. S. Diven, =S.=1852.

=110th.= Col. D. C. Littlejohn, =C.=4662.

=111th.= Col. C. D. McDougall, =S.=1340, =S.=1449, =S.=2060.

=116th.= Col. G. M. Love, =S.=2043.

=118th.= Col. G. F. Nichols, =S.=1397.

=119th.= Col. E. Peisener, =S.=3179.

=120th.= Col. G. H. Sharpe, =C.=4588.
         Lieut.-Col. C. D. Westbrook, =S.=1354.

=121st.= Maj. E. Olcott, =S.=1410.

=124th.= Col. A. V. H. Ellis, =S.=2093.
         Lieut.-Col. F. M. Cummins, =S.=1366, =S.=1621.

=125th.= Col. G. L. Willard, =S.=1525.

=133d.= Lieut.-Col. A. J. Allaire, =S.=1917.

=134th.= Col. C. Coster, =S.=3193.

=141st.= Col. S. G. Hathaway, =S.=1448.
         Surg. J. W. Robinson, =S.=1434.

=143d.= Col. H. Boughton, =S.=2035.

=144th.= Col. R. S. Hughston, =S.=3759.

=145th.= Col. E. L. Price, =S.=1388.

=146th.= Col. D. Jenkins, =S.=1763.

=153d.= Col. E. P. Davis, =S.=3206.
        Lieut. J. B. Neill, =C.=4310.
        Officers of regiment, =C.=4291.
        Officers of Company --, =C.=4320.
        Company --, =C.=4281.

=154th.= Lieut.-Col. D. B. Allen, =S.=1444.
         Lieut.-Col. H. C. Loomis, =S.=3734.

=156th.= Col. J. Sharp, =S.=3730.

=158th.= Col. J. Jourdan, =S.=1962.

=159th.= Col. E. L. Molineux, =C.=4586.

=162d.= Col. L. Benedict, 1799.

=164th.= Col. J. P. McMahon, =C.=4319.
         Lieut.-Col. W. De Lacey, =S.=3226.
         Officers of regiment, =C.=4312.
         Company --, =C.=4297.
         Guard mounting, =C.=4396.
         Surgeon's quarters, =C.=4426.

=169th.= Col. A. Alden, =S.=3062.
         Col. Clarence Buell, =S.=3740.
         Col. J. McConihe, =S.=1359.

=170th.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4280, =C.=4282, =C.=3626.
         Company --, =C.=4315.
         Company --, =C.=4348.

=175th.= Lieut.-Col. J. A. Foster, =S.=1558, =S.=1605, =S.=1796.

=179th.= Surg. J. W. Robinson, =S.=1434.

=182d.= Col. M. Murphy, =S.=1679.

                          =New York Militia.=

=7th.= Col. M. Lefferts, =S.=1669.
       Adjt. J. H. Liebenau, =S.=1664.
       Surg. T. M. Cheeseman, =S.=1491.
       Ass't Surg. Tuthill, =S.=1584.
       Commissary W. Patten, =S.=1668.
       Paymaster M. Howland, =S.=1589.
       Quartermaster  W. Winchester, =S.=1594.
       Chaplain S. H. Weston, =S.=1674.
       Capt. W. P. Bensel, =S.=1671.
       Capt. E. Clark, =S.=1684.
       Capt. J. Price, =S.=1533.
       Capt. H. C. Shumway, =S.=1590.
       Capt. W. A. Spaight, =S.=1572.
       Lieut. C. B. Babcock, =S.=1586.
       Lieut. J. A. Baker, =S.=1665.
       Lieut. J. W. Bogert, =S.=1588.
       Lieut. C. B. Bostwick, =S.=1662.
       Lieut. T. B. Bunting, =S.=1663.
       Lieut. C. Corley, =S.=1570.
       Lieut W. Gurney, =S.=1585.
       Lieut. G. T. Haws, =S.=1493.
       Lieut. J. Wickstead, =S.=1666.
       Lieut. J. B. Young, =S.=1615.
       Sergt.-Maj. R. C. Rathbon, =S.=1472.
       Sergt. J. J. Morrison, =S.=1486.
       Sergt. S. O. Ryder, =S.=1488.

=8th.= Col. G. Lyon, =S.=2107.
       Group of officers, Camp McDowell, Va., =C.=4104.
       Officers and non-commissioned officers of Company --, =C.=4112.
       Engineer company, =C.=4137.
       Company A, =C.=4541.
       Drum Corps, =C.=4540.

=12th.= Lieut.-Col. W. G. Ward, =S.=1661.
        Maj. Bostwick, =S.=1767.
        Engineer company, =C.=4138.

=22d.= Lieut.-Col. L. Aspinwall, =S.=3733.
       Officers of regiment, =C.=4010.
       Adjutant and First Sergeants, =C.=4135.
       Company --, =C.=4194.
       Company --, =C.=4134.
       Groups, =C.=4155, =C.=4163, =C.=4186.

=23d.= Col. Wm. Everdell, =S.=1404.

=69th.= Lieut. E. K. Butler, =S.=2255.
        Sunday services in camp, =S.=3713.

=71st.= Group of officers, Washington Navy-yard, =C.=4105.
        Col. Bostwick, =S.=1578.

                            =Ohio Cavalry.=

=9th.= Lieut.-Col. W. Stough, =C.=4594.

                   =Battery I, Ohio Light Artillery.=

Capt. H. Dilger, =S.=3177.

                            =Ohio Infantry.=

=6th.= Col. N. L. Anderson, =C.=3004.

=12th.= Col. C. B. White, =C.=3227.

=19th.= Col. C. F. Manderson, =S.=3112.

=25th.= Col. W. P. Richardson, =S.=1510.

=28th.= Col. A. Moor, =S.=2651.

=31st.= Col. M. B. Walker, =S.=3238.

=41st.= Col. W. B. Hazen, =S.=2126.

=44th.= Col. S. A. Gilbert, =C.=5048.

=46th.= Maj. H. H. Gilsy, =S.=3190.

=61st.= Col. S. J. McGroarty, =S.=2079.

=66th.= Col. C. Candy, =S.=2181.

=73d.= Lieut.-Col. S. H. Hurst, =S.=1438.

=114th.= Col. J. Cradlebough, =S.=1775.

=125th.= Group of officers, =C.=4325
         Company B, =C.=4324.
         Company C, =C.=4329.
         Company H, =C.=4330.
         Band, =C.=4328.

=126th.= Col. B. F. Smith, =S.=1711.

=136th.= Lieut.-Col. D. A. Williams, =S.=1795.

=176th.= Col. E. C. Mason, =S.=1861.

=181st.= Col. J. O'Dowd, =S.=3208.

                        =Pennsylvania Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. O. Jones, =S.=1938.
       Lieut.-Col. J. Higgins, =S.=1868.

=3d.= Group of officers at Westover Landing, Va., =C.=4532.
      Group of officers, =C.=4106.
      Camp at headquarters Army of Potomac, February, 1865, =L.=7298.
      Company D, Brandy Station, March, 1864, =L.=7389.
      Lieut. J. W. Ford and Lieut. A. M. Wright, August, 1862, =S.=622.
      Field and staff officers, =L.=7576, =S.=635.
      Lieut.-Col. S. W. Owen, caught napping, =S.=625.

=4th.= Col. D. Campbell, =S.=1724.
       Col. G. H. Covode, =S.=1848.
       Col. S. B. M. Young, =C.=4716.
       Lieut.-Col. J. H. Childs, =S.=1869.
       Field and staff officers at Westover Landing, August, 1862,
         =L.=7474, =S.=629.

=5th.= Camp in front of Richmond, Va., =S.=2499.
       Col. R. M. West, =S.=2152.

=6th.= Company I, Falmouth, Va., June, 1863, =L.=7140.

=8th.= Maj. A. G. Enos, =S.=2158.

=9th.= Col. T. J. Jordan, =C.=4712.

=11th.= Col. F. A. Stratton, =C.=4719.
        Col. S. P. Spear, =S.=3072.
        Maj. N. M. Runyon, =S.=1984.

=13th.= Maj. G. F. McCabe, =S.=1617.

=14th.= Maj. T. Gibson, =S.=1543.

=16th.= Lieut.-Col. L. D. Rogers, =S.=1441.

=18th.= Regimental camp, February, 1864, =L.=7650.

=20th.= Col. J. E. Wynkoop, =S.=1818.

=21st.= Col. 0. B. Knowles, =C.=4707.

                    =Pennsylvania Light Artillery.=

=1st.= Battery B, =C.=4114, =C.=4139.

                    =Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery.=

=2d.= Company I in Fort Slemmer, =C.=4532.

=3d.= Col. Joseph Roberts, =C.=4721.
      Field and staff officers, =L.=7486.
      On parade, =L.=7058, =L.=7423.

                  =Pennsylvania Battery E (Knapp's).=

At Antietam, Md., September, 1862, =S.=577.
Capt. J. M. Knapp, =S.=1790.

                        =Pennsylvania Infantry.=

=11th.= Col. Richard Coulter, =C.=4724.

=29th.= Lieut.-Col. C. Parham, =S.=1342.

=30th.= Col. W. C. Talley, =S.=1539.
        View of camp, =C.=4150.
        Company A, =C.=4485.
        Company B, =C.=4459.
        Company --, =C.=4466.
        Company --, =C.=4484.
        Company --, =C.=4493.
        Drum Corps, =C.=4491.

=31st.= Camp on Queen's farm, near Fort Slocum, Va., =S.=2409, =S.=2410,
          =S.=2411, =S.=2412.
        Camp scenes, =S.=2404, =S.=2405, =S.=2406.
        Group of officers, =S.=2407.
        Captain and First Sergeant of Company --, =S.=2408.
        Lieut.-Col. G. A. Woodward, =S.=1405.

=32d.= Adjt. A. H. Jameson, =S.=1837.

=33d.= Company B, =S.=2418.

=34th.= Maj. G. Dare, =S.=2159.

=35th.= Col. W. H. Ent, =S.=3266.
        Col. W. Sinclair, =S.=1540.

=36th.= Company H, =C.=4534.
        Camp, =C.=4549.

=37th.= Col. S. M. Bailey, =S.=1854.
        Flag of regiment, =C.=4436.

=39th.= Col. J. S. McCalmont, =S.=1899.

=40th.= Col. S. M. Jackson, =S.=3728.

=45th.= Col. J. J. Curtin, =S.=2038.

=46th.= Col. J. L. Selfridge, =S.=1461.

=48th.= Col. G. W. Gowan, =S.=2624.
        Col. J. K. Sigfried, =S.=2621.
        Lieut.-Col. H. Pleasants, =S.=2622.

=50th.= Lieut.-Col. S. K. Schwenk, =L.=7668.
        Maj. G. W. Brumm, =L.=7271.
        Lieut. L. Carter, =L.=7410.
        Lieut. J. I. Eckel, =L.=7359.
        Regiment on parade, at Beaufort, S. C., 1862, =S.=156.
        Regiment on parade, at Gettysburg, Pa., July, 1865,
          =L.=7025, =L.=7027.
        Officers of regiment, at Gettysburg, Pa., July, 1865,
          =L.=7225, =L.=7230.

=51st.= Lieut.-Col. T. S. Bell, =S.=3737.

=52d.= Col. Henry M. Hoyt, =C.=4722.

=53d.= Col. W. M. Mintzer, =S.=3229.

=56th.= Col. J. W. Hoffman, =C.=5154.

=58th.= Lieut.-Col. C. Clay, =S.=3000.

=61st.= Col. G. F. Smith, =S.=1369.

=62d.= Lieut,-Col. J. B. Sweitzer, =S.=1721.

=63d.= Surg. W. H. Worthington, =S.=3841.

=69th.= Field and staff officers, =L.=7267.
        Maj. James O'Reilly, =S.=2197.

=71st.= Col. E. D. Baker, =S.=1459.

=72d.= Col. D. C. Baxter, =S.=3014.

=73d.= Col. J. A. Koltes, =S.=1734.

=75th.= Col. F. Mahler, =S.=1789, =S.=3743.
        Col. John S. Littell, =C.=4718.

=79th.= Col. H. A. Hambright, =S.=3204.

=82d.= Lieut.-Col. Frank Vallee, =S.=2146.

=83d.= Col. S. Vincent, =S.=3188.

=84th.= Col. S. M. Bowman, =S.=1513.

=85th.= Surg. J. B. Laidley, =S.=3844.

=90th.= Col. P. Lyle, =S.=3018.

=93d.= Lieut.-Col. J. W. Johnston, =S.=2183.

=96th.= Col. H. Cake, =S.=1817.
        Group of officers, =C.=4633.

=97th.= Col. Henry R. Guss, =C.=4703.

=98th.= Col. J. F. Ballier, =S.=2027.

=100th.= Col. David Leasure, =C.=4714.

=101st.= Surg. D. G. Rush, =S.=2244.

=103d.= Col. T. F. Lehmann, =S.=3814.
        Lieut.-Col. W. C. Maxwell, =S.=1365.

=104th.= Col. W. W. H. Davis, =C.=4723.

=105th.= Maj. M. M. Dick, =S.=1725.

=106th.= Col. T. G. Morehead, =S.=586.

=110th.= Company C, after the battle of Fredericksburg, =C.=4195.

=114th.= _At Brandy Station, March, 1864_:
         --View of camp, =L.=7308, =L.=7612.
         --Guard mounting, =L.=7613, =L.=7944, =S.=134.
         --Officers of regiment, =L.=7137, =L.=7138, =L.=7316, =S.=7602.
         --Officers of Company --, =L.=7144, =L.=7146, =L.=7173.
         --Band, =L.=7346, =L.=7611.
         --Company F, =L.=7003, =L.=7038, =L.=7143, =L.=7175, =L.=7447.
         --Company G, =L.=7198, =L.=7348.
         --Company H, =L.=7077, =L.=7262, =L.=7263.
         _At Headquarters Army of Potomac, August, 1864_:
         --Officers, =L.=7137, =L.=7138, =L.=7316 =L.=7602.
         --Officers of Company --, =L.=7144, =L.=7145.
         --Capt. J. =S.= Crawford, =L.=7037, =L.=7073.

=119th.= Lieut.-Col. Gideon Clark, =C.=4720.
         Officers of regiment, =C.=4290.
         Officers and non-commissioned officers, =C.=4428.
         Company --, =C.=4334.
         Company --, =C.=4375.

=123d.= Surg. H. F. Martin, =S.=1392.

=132d.= Col. V. M. Wilcox, =S.=1409.
        Major J. E. Shreve, =S.=1440.

=139th.= Officers of regiment, =C.=4288, =C.=4346.
         Field and staff officers, =C.=4328.
         Regiment on parade, =C.=4306.
         Company --, =C.=4302.
         Company --, =C.=4339.
         Company --, =C.=4341.
         Company --, =C.=4367.
         Company --, =C.=4368.
         Company --, =C.=4371.
         Company --, =C.=4173.

=143d.= Col. E. L. Dana, =S.=3748.

=145th.= Col. H. L. Brown, =S.=3107.

=148th.= Col. J. A. Beaver, =C.=4715.

=149th.= Col. Roy Stone, =S.=3103.
         Company D, in front of Petersburg, November, 1864, =L.=7047,
          =L.=7388.

=150th.= Camp, March, 1863, =S.=297.

=155th.= Col. A. L. Pearson, =S.=3210.

=195th.= Col. J. W. Fisher, =S.=3040.

=198th.= Col. H. G. Sickel, =C.=4706.

=207th.= Col. Robert C. Cox, =C.=4713.

=208th.= Col. A. B. McCalmont, =S.=1356.

                        =Rhode Island Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. R. B. Lawton, =S.=3727.

                    =Rhode Island Light Artillery.=

=1st.= Officers of regiment, July, 1862, =S.=649.
       Chaplain T. Quinn, =S.=1780.

                    =Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.=

=3d.= Col. W. Ames, =C.=4666.

                        =Rhode Island Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. A. E. Burnside and officers, =C.=4100.
       Chaplain A. Woodbury, =S.=1639.
       Group of Company D, =C.=4128.

=2d.= Col. Horatio Rogers, =C.=4682.
      Officers of regiment, =C.=4537.
      Capt. C. G. Dyer, =S.=1686.
      Camp near Washington, D. C., in 1861, =C.=4113.

=3d.= Col. N. W. Brown, =C.=4669.

=9th.= Lieut.-Col. J. H. Powell, =S.=1343.

=11th.= Headquarters of Company F, Miner's Hill, Va., =C.=4349.

                          =Tennessee Cavalry.=

=1st.= Col. J. P. Brownlow, =S.=3077.

                  =United States Engineer Battalion.=

_At Brandy Station, Va., March, 1864_:
--View of camp, =L.=7310, =L.=7433, =L.=7560.
--Officers' quarters, =L.=7109.
--Quarters of Company D, =L.=7005.
_In front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864_:
--Headquarters, =L.=7065.
--Company A, =L.=7062, =L.=7384, =L.=7386.
--Company B, =L.=7060, =L.=7210, =L.=7513, =L.=7547, =L.=7566, =L.=7570.
--Company C, =L.=7568, =L.=7647.
--Company D, =L.=7054, =L.=7387, =L.=7548.
--Essayon's Dramatic Club, =L.=7836, =L.=7439.
--Detachment in city of Petersburg, April, 1865, =L.=7188, =L.=7434.

                        =United States Cavalry.=

=1st.= Company K, Brandy Station, February, 1864, =L.=7120, =L.=7270.

=2d.= Maj. C. J. Whiting, =S.=1416.
      Capt. G. A. Gordon, =S.=1482.

=6th.= Capt. H. B. Hays, =S.=2067.

                       =United States Artillery.=

=2d.= Capt. J. M. Robertson, =C.=5142.
      Officers of Battery A (Tidball's), near Fair Oaks, Va.,
        June, 1862, =S.=435.
      Officers of Battery B (Robertson's), near Fair Oaks, Va.,
        June, 1862, =S.=440.
      Battery B (Robertson's), near Fair Oaks, Va., June, 1862,
        =S.=439.
      Battery B (Robertson's), at Gettysburg, Pa., =L.=7192.
      Battery D, =C.=4212.
      Flag of Battery D, =C.=4510.
      Battery M (Benson's), near Fair Oaks, Va., June, 1862,
        =S.=433, =S.=641.
      Battery M (Benson's), Culpeper, Va., September, 1863, =L.=7245.

=3d.= Officers of Battery C (Gibson's), near Fair Oaks, Va.,
        June, 1862, =S.=432.
      Battery C (Gibson's), near Fair Oaks, Va., June, 1862, =S.=431.

=4th.= Battery A, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863, =L.=7334.

=5th.= Lieut.-Col. B. H. Kill, =S.=2046.
       Capt. Charles Griffin, =S.=1373.

                       =United States Infantry.=

=1st.= Col. C. A. Waite, =S.=2670.
       Lieut. J. D. De Russy, =S.=1698.

=2d.= Col. S. Burbank, =S.=3101.

=3d.= Officers of regiment, June, 1865, =L.=7366, =L.=7398.
      Col. B. L. E. Bonneville, =S.=1968.

=4th.= Lieut.-Col. T. Morris, =S.=3769.

=5th.= Lieut.-Col. T. L. Alexander, =S.=1381.

=6th.= Col. H. Day, =S.=3793.
       Col. W. Seawell, =S.=1474.
       Capt. J. B. S. Todd, =S.=1336.

=8th.= Provost guard, at headquarters Army of Potomac, Fairfax Court
         House, June, 1863, =L.=7503.
       Col. J. Garland, =S.=1329.
       Col. W. J. Worth, =S.=1316.

=9th.= Lieut. E. Pollock, =S.=2200.

=10th.= Col. H. B. Clitz, =S.=1521.
        Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sidell, =S.=2615.
        Lieut. G. W. Vanderbilt, =S.=2250.

=14th.= Officers of regiment, March, 1862, =L.=7973.
        Col. C. S. Lovell, =S.=3234.
        Capt. J. D. O'Connell, =S.=3270.

=15th.= Maj. J. H. King, =S.=2609.

=16th.= Capt. F. M. Bache, =S.=2439.
        Capt. R. P. Barry, =S.=3871.

=17th.= Maj. W. H. Wood, =S.=3830.
        Lieut. N. Prine, =S.=2199.

                     =United States Sharpshooters.=

=1st.= Col. H. Berdan, =S.=3771.

=2d.= Col. H. A. V. Post, =S.=3731.
      Lieut.-Col. H. R. Stoughton, =S.=1620.
      Adjt. L. C. Parmalee, =S.=1825.

                 =United States Veteran Reserve Corps.=

=3d.= Col. F. D. Sewall, =S.=3753.

=7th.= Lieut.-Col. J. B. Callis, =C.=4740.

=9th.= _In Washington, D. C., May, 1865_:
       --On parade, =L.=7686, =L.=7881.
       --Band, =L.=7807, =L.=7808.
       --Band quarters, =L.=7854, =L.=7868.
       --Company A, =L.=7670.

=10th.= _In Washington, D. C., May, 1865_:
        --Band, =L.=7865, =L.=7879.
        --Drum Corps, =L.=7688.
        --Company A, =L.=7742.
        --Company B, =L.=7677, =L.=7892.
        --Company C, =L.=7896, =L.=7898.
        --Company D, =L.=7905.
        --Company E, =L.=7810.
        --Company F, =L.=7910.
        --Company H, =L.=7809, =L.=7911.
        --Company I, =L.=7804, =L.=7806.
        --Company K, =L.=7805.
        --Non-commissioned officers of Company H, =L.=7802.

=14th.= Col. S. D. Oliphant, =S.=3796.

=19th.= Col. O. V. Dayton, =S.=1777, =S.=2065.

=22d.= Maj. J. R. O'Beirne, =S.=3269.

=26th.= Lieut.-Col. B. P. Runkle, =S.=1762.

                  =United States Veteran Volunteers.=

=8th.= Parade of regiment, Washington, D. C., March, 1864, =L.=7813.

                    =United States Colored Cavalry.=

=4th.= Col. J. G. Wilson, =S.=1815, =S.=1868.

                   =United States Colored Infantry.=

=1st.= Camp and regiment, =L.=7013.

=4th.= Officers of regiment, Fort Slocum, near Washington, D. C.,
         =L.=7689, =L.=7851.
       Company E, Fort Lincoln, near Washington, D. C., =L.=7890.

=7th.= Col. James Shaw, =C.=4730.

=8th.= Col. S. C. Armstrong, =S.=1920.

=14th.= Col. H. C. Corbin, =S.=2617.

=17th.= Col. W. R. Shafter, =S.=2604.

=24th.= Col. O. Brown, =C.=4984.

=27th.= Col. A. M. Blackman, =S.=2042.

=28th.= Col. C. S. Russell, =S.=3211.

=35th.= Col. J. C. Beecher, =S.=1466.

=37th.= Col. N. Goff, =S.=3035.

=39th.= Field and staff officers, in front of Petersburg, Va.,
  September, 1864, =L.=7051, =L.=7052.

=43d.= Col. S. B. Yeoman, =S.=2669.

=45th.= Col. U. Doubleday, =S.=3213.

=79th.= Col. J. M. Williams, =C.=4596.

=83d.= Col. S. J. Crawford, =C.=4784.

=100th.= Col. R. D. Mussey, =S.=2606.

=103d.= Col. S. L. Woodford, =C.=5098.

=107th.= _At Fort Corcoran, near Washington, D. C., November, 1865_:
         --Officers of regiment, =L.=7684.
         --Guard and guard-house, =L.=7841.
         --Band, =L.=7861.

=109th.= Col. O. A. Bartholomew, =S.=2614.

=119th.= Col. C. G. Bartlett, =S.=3091.

                  =United States Treasury Battalion.=

Officers of battalion, Washington, D. C., April, 1865, =L.=7850.

                           =Vermont Cavalry.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. A. W. Preston, =S.=1751.

                       =Vermont Heavy Artillery.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. R. C. Benton, =S.=1355.
       Lieut.-Col. G. E. Chamberlain, =S.=3735.

                          =Vermont Infantry.=

=3d.= Col. B. N. Hyde, =S.=3770.

=5th.= Col. H. A. Smalley, =S.=3729.

=6th.= Col. E. L. Barney, =S.=1683.
       Col. N. Lord, =S.=1731.
       Col. O. L. Tuttle, =S.=1802.
       Lieut.-Col. A. P. Blunt, =S.=1813.
       Surg. C. M. Chandler, =S.=2148.
       Views of Camp Griffin, near Washington, D. C., in 1861,
         =C.=4787, =C.=4117, =C.=4118.
       Company A, =C.=4119.
       Company D, =C.=4120.
       Company E, =C.=4121.
       Company F, =C.=4122.
       Company G, =C.=4123.
       Company H, =C.=4124.
       Company I, =C.=4125.
       Company K, =C.=4126.

=9th.= Col. E. H. Ripley, =S.=3113, =S.=3114.

=10th.= Col. A. B. Jewett, =S.=2165.

=12th.= Col. A. P. Blunt, =S.=1813.

=13th.= Col. F. V. Randall, =S.=1445.
        Lieut.-Col. A. C. Brown, =S.=1463.

=15th.= Lieut.-Col. R. Farnham, =S.=1479.
        Maj. C. F. Spaulding, =S.=1396.
        Surg. C. P. Frost, =S.=1447.

=17th.= Col. F. V. Randall, =S.=1445.
        Lieut.-Col. C. Cummings, =S.=1468.

                        =West Virginia Cavalry.=

=1st.= Lieut.-Col. C. E. Capehart, =S.=1623.

=3d.= Col. D. H. Strother, =S.=3723.

=4th.= Lieut.-Col. S. W. Snider, =S.=1455.

                       =West Virginia Infantry.=

=12th.= Col. W. B. Curtis, =S.=3224.

                         =Wisconsin Infantry.=

=2d.= Col. E. O'Connor, =S.=3863.
      Camp in front of Petersburg, Va., February, 1865, =L.=7543.

=5th.= Col. Amasa Cobb, =C.=4739.
       Maj. C. H. Larrabee, =S.=2186.

=6th.= Lieut.-Col. F. S. Bragg, =S.=1367.
       Surg. A. W. Preston, =S.=3854.

=16th.= Col. C. Fairchild, =S.=3202.

=18th.= Surg. E. J. Buck, =S.=3798.

=21st.= Col. H. C. Hobart, =S.=3205.

=24th.= Col. C. H. Larrabee, =S.=2186.

=25th.= Lieut.-Col. J. M. Rusk, =C.=4732.


                       PORTRAITS OF NAVY OFFICERS.

Ammen, Commander D., =C.=4635.
Bailey, Commodore T., =S.=2231.
Bankhead, Commander J. P., =S.=2118.
Barrett, Lieut.-Commander E., =S.=1987, =S.=3415.
Beil, Commodore C. H., =S.=2121.
Bennett, --, =S.=2256.
Blodgett, Lieut. G. M., =S.=2201.
Boggs, Capt. C. S., =S.=3764.
Breese, Commodore S. L., =S.=1610.
Bullus, Capt. O., =S.=1632.
Campbell, Acting Ass't Surg., =S.=2204.
Collins, Commander N., =S.=1930.
Conroy, Acting Lieut.-Commander E., =S.=1657.
Cushing, Lieut.-Commander W. B., =S.=1864.
Dahlgren, Rear Admiral J. A., =S.=1862, =S.=3416, =S.=3417, =S.=3418.
Dahlgren, Rear Admiral J. A. and staff, =S.=3413.
Davis, Rear Admiral C. H., =C.=4743.
De Kraftt, Lieut.-Commander J. C. P., =C.=5143.
Drayton, Capt. P., =C.=5112.
Dupont, Rear Admiral S. F., =C.=4636.
Erben, Lieut.-Commander H., =C.=4637.
Farragut, Rear Admiral D. G., =S.=1561.
Faunce, Capt. J. (Revenue Marine), =S.=2134.
Foote, Rear Admiral A. H., =S.=1600.
Freeman, Acting Master, =S.=2202.
Gibson, Purser J. D., =C.=4803.
Gilliss, Capt. J. P., =C.=4809.
Glisson, Capt. O. S., =C.=4808.
Goldsborough, Capt. J. R., =S.=2119.
Goldsborough, Rear Admiral L. M., =C.=4744.
Gregory, Rear Admiral F. H., =S.=1812.
Gregory, Ass't Engineer H. P., =S.=1690.
Gregory, Acting Master S. B., =S.=2003.
Gwin, Lieut.-Commander W., =S.=1408.
Harwood, Commodore A. A., =C.=4801.
Haxtun, Lieut.-Commander M., =S.=2235.
Hoff, Commodore H. K., =C.=5113.
Howard, --, =S.=1603.
Hughes, Commander A. K., =S.=2247.
Hughes, Acting Ensign J. F., =S.=2166.
Hull, Commodore J. B., =S.=1636.
Isherwood, Engineer-in-chief B. F., =S.=1890.
Jenkins, Capt. T. A., =C.=4633.
Jeffers, Lieut.-Commander W. N., =S.=492.
Jones, Surg. S. J., =S.=3860.
Kershner, Ass't Surg. E., =S.=3810.
King, Chief Engineer J. W., =C.=4811.
Lanman, Commodore J., =C.=5186.
Lardner, Commodore J. L., =C.=4807.
Law, Lieut-Commander R. L., =C.=4582.
Levy, Capt. U. P., =C.=4745.
Livingstone, Commodore J. W., =S.=2068.
Luce, Lieut.-Commander S. B., =C.=5075.
Meade, Capt, R. W., =S.=1056.
Meade, Lieut.-Commander R. W., =S.=1579.
Montgomery. Commodore J. B., =S.=2078.
Morris, Lieut.-Commander G. U., =S.=1826.
Morris, Commodore H. W., =S.=1328.
Nichols, Capt. Sylvester, =S.=1701.
Nichols, Lieut. S. W., =S.=3857.
Nones, Capt. H. B. (Revenue Marine), =S.=1545.
Palmer, Commodore J. S., =S.=1571.
Parker, =S.=2240.
Parker, Lieut.-Commander James, =C.=5203.
Pattison, Lieut.-Commander T., =S.=3184.
Paulding, Rear Admiral H., =S.=1324.
Perry, Capt, M. C., =S.=1317.
Porter, Lieut. B. H., =S.=1893.
Porter, Rear Admiral D. D., =L.=7945, =S.=1334.
Porter, Rear Admiral D. D. and staff, =L.=7227, =L.=7244, =L.=7541.
Porter, Acting Master W., =S.=1940.
Porter, Commodore W. D., =S.=2242.
Powell, Commodore L. M., =C.=4631.
Preston, Lieut. S. W., =S.=3836.
Ransom, Commander G. M., =C.=4802.
Ridgely, Capt. D. B., =C.=4806.
Riell, Lieut. R. B., =S.=1689.
Ringgold, Commodore C., =S.=1407.
Rodgers, Commander C. R. P., =S.=1875, =S.=3803.
Rodgers, Commodore J., =S.=1936.
Rowan, Commodore S. C., =S.=1766.
Salstonstall, Acting Lieut.-Commander W. G., =S.=2259.
Schoonmaker, Lieut. C. M., =S.=3415.
Shubrick, Rear Admiral W. B., =S.=1598.
Shufeldt, Commander R. W., =C.=4632.
Skerrett, Lieut.-Commander J. S., =C.=4583.
Smith, Commander A. N., =S.=1822.
Smith, Rear Admiral J., =S.=2176.
Stewart, Rear Admiral C., =S.=1332.
Stockwell, Midshipman N. P., =S.=1370.
Storer, Rear Admiral G. W., =S.=1774.
Stringham, Rear Admiral S. H., =S.=1768.
Thatcher, Commodore H. K., =C.=5187.
Trenchard, Commander S. D., =S.=3865.
Van Brunt, Commodore G., =S.=3085.
Walke, Capt, H., =S.=1576.
Ward, Commander J. H., =S.=2004.
Wheelwright, Surg. C. W., =S.=2258.
Whelan, Surg. W., =S.=5205.
Wilkes, Commodore C., =C.=4656.
Winslow, Commodore J. A., =S.=1788.
Wise, Commander H. A., =S.=1844.
Worden, Capt, J. L., =C.=4634.
Wright, =S.=1587.
Wyatt, 1st Ass't Engineer S. C., =S.=1550.
Wyman, Commander R. H., =S.=1994.


There are several thousand negatives in the vaults that have not yet
been catalogued. No negative is registered until its authenticity is
proved beyond a doubt. The testimony of hundreds of veterans is secured
in many instances before the locality of the negative is established.
The warriors who participated in these scenes are fast passing away and
the work of identification is progressing as rapidly as absolute
accuracy will allow. At the National Encampment at Saratoga hundreds of
"unknown" negatives were identified by soldiers who saw them taken and
offered their affidavits. Requests have been received from Grand Army
Posts for enlargements of the rare photographs of Lincoln in the tent
with McClellan at Antietam, of the Armies in Camp, and other views, the
existence of which has been hitherto unknown. Mr. Eaton authorizes the
enlargement of any negative for this purpose, providing that it is to be
treasured in the hall of a Grand Army Post. All requests must be sent
direct, accompanied by references, and no enlargement will be allowed
until it bears the written signature of Edward B. Eaton, Hartford,
Connecticut.



                               DEDICATED
                                 TO THE
                            AMERICAN SOLDIER



                                ALBUM OF

                         Civil War Photographs

       from the famous collection of 7,000 photographic negatives
              made by MATHEW BRADY and ALEXANDER GARDNER.

                           TAKES THE VETERAN

                        BACK TO THE BATTLEFIELDS

                   AS IN A PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOUR

                               * * * * *

Tourists travel hundreds of miles and spend hundreds of dollars to look
upon the sites of the famous battlefields of the Civil War, and then
they see the situation only as it appears today, and not as it was when
the famous events were being enacted. How many a veteran would rejoice
to go back once more to those localities where the roar of cannon and
musketry resounded in his ears over forty years ago. =This= Album makes
this well nigh possible, and these famous photographs take the
precedence of a visit today since along with the natural localities one
sees the great actors, the President and the armies as they moved over
these localities. The whole action and movement live once again before
the eye, making the situation

             AS REAL AS THOUGH THE WAR HAD ONLY JUST ENDED

Hundreds of letters of strong commendation from military and educational
authorities have been received, which are of convincing importance to
all who have any interest in the history of the great Civil strife, as
the following

                 POWERFUL TESTIMONY CONCLUSIVELY PROVES

J. W. Cheney, Librarian, War Department, Washington, says: "Your
magnificent album of Civil War photographs is to me both a surprise and
a delight. I am pleased to know that this superb volume has been added
to the available literature of the War for the Union. I congratulate you
on the successful accomplishment of a work that cannot be overestimated
by appreciative students of American History."

Edward S. Holden, Librarian West Point Military Academy, says: "Your
publication 'Original Photographs taken on the battlefields during the
Civil War of the U. S.,' is an original document of the first
importance. I beg to congratulate you on this publication which will
have a very large usefulness, and to hope that you will print other
volumes of the sort."

Admiral George Dewey says: "I believe it will commend itself not only to
all Veterans of the Country, but also to all students of the history of
our Civil War."

Bishop Samuel R. Fallows says: "The superb work of 'Original Photographs
taken on the battlefields during the Civil War' should be in the
possession of every Grand Army Post and of every Grand Army Comrade who
can afford to take it. If I possessed the means, every Comrade who could
not spare the money to purchase it, should have a copy."

Corporal Tanner says: "The volume instantly commanded my most undivided
attention. Why, it is like rolling back the scroll forty-five years. In
every respect, as to faithfulness and fineness of execution, I heartily
endorse the publication."

                               * * * * *

                     OVER TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS

             SHOWING JUST HOW THINGS LOOKED "AT THE FRONT"

         THE MOST VIVID AND REALISTIC WAR VOLUME EVER PUBLISHED

                              Price, $2.50

        The National Tribune One Year and the Album of Civil War
                     Photographs, Both Postpaid, $3

            ADDRESS THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, WASHINGTON, D. C.


Order Blank to be used when Book alone is wanted.

THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, Washington, D. C.:

Inclosed find $2.50 for "Album of Civil War Photographs."

Name ...................................................

P. O. ..................................................

State ..................................................


Order Blank for Book and The National Tribune.

THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, Washington, D. C.:

Inclosed find $3.00 for one year's subscription to The National Tribune
and "Album of Civil War Photographs." Both are to be sent postpaid.

Name ...................................................

P. O. ..................................................

State ..................................................



[Illustration: THE REMARKABLE PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN AT ANTIETAM IN
OCTOBER, 1862, AND SHOWS PRESIDENT LINCOLN IN CENTER, MAJ. ALLAN
PINKERTON ON LEFT AND GEN. JOHN A. McCLERNAND ON RIGHT.]



                           Transcriber Notes:

Passages in italics were indicated by _underscores_.

Passages in bold were indicated by =equal signs=.

Small caps were replaced with ALL CAPS.

Throughout the document, the oe ligature was replaced with "oe".

The illustrations have been moved so that they do not break up
paragraphs and so that they are next to the text they illustrate.

In the original, each of the pages with illustrations was treated like
as separate chapter, so four blank lines are used to indicate breaks
between those pages.

Errors in punctuation and inconsistent hyphenation were not corrected
unless otherwise noted.

On page 5, a period was added after "little or no benefit."

On page 9, "vistage" was replaced with "vestige".

On page 42, "Henry Wager Halleck. who" was replaced with "Henry Wager
Halleck, who".

On page 46, "strategem" was replaced with "stratagem".

On page 60, "reconnoisance" was replaced with "reconnaissance".

On page 69, "James's" was replaced with "James'".

On page 71, "opperations" was replaced with "operations".

On page 75, "Chattanoga" was replaced with "Chattanooga".

On page 75, "Racoon" was replaced with "Raccoon".

On page 76, "breeching" was replaced with "breaching".

On page 78, "to to" was replaced with "to".

On page 84, "5-10" was replaced with "5/10".

On page 91, "occured" was replaced with "occurred".

On page 117, a period was placed after "L.7378".

On page 95, "beleagured" was replaced with "beleaguered".

On page 105, "is" was replaced with "are".

On page 116, a period was placed after "S.2381".

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On page 118, the comma after "S.1097" was replaced with a period.

On page 118, the period after "Southside Railroad" was replaced with a
comma.

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S. M.".

On page 120, a period was placed after "Y" in "Babcock, Lieut. C. B.,
7th N. Y S. M.".

On page 120, "Maj.-Gen. G," was replaced with "Maj.-Gen. G.,".

On page 120, a period was placed after "C.4497".

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On page 121, a period was placed after "Harkins, Maj. D. H., 1st N".

On page 121, a period was placed after "Harney, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W"

On page 121, a period was placed after "Harris, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. T".

On page 121, a period was placed after "Hathaway, Col. S. G., 141st N".

On page 121, a period was placed after "S.1567".

On page 121, a period was placed after "Haws, Lieut. G. T., 7th N. Y".

On page 121, a period was placed after "Johnston, Lieut.-Col. J"

On page 121, a period was placed after "S.1937".

On page 121, a comma was placed after "Jones, Surg. Henry".

On page 122, a period was placed after "S.1445".

On page 122, a period was placed after "S.2197".

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On page 124, a period was placed after "Maj. H. F".

On page 125, a period was placed after "Commissary W".

On the penultimate page, "Natonal" was replaced with "National."





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