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Title: History of Scotland
Author: Macarthur, Margaret
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of Scotland" ***

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  _FREEMAN'S HISTORICAL COURSE FOR SCHOOLS._

                   HISTORY
                      OF
                   SCOTLAND

                      BY
                MARGARET MACARTHUR.

                   EDITED BY
              EDWARD A. FREEMAN, D.C.L.

    _Edition Adapted for American Students._

                 [Illustration]

                    NEW YORK
             HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
                      1874

  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the Year 1874, by
                       HENRY HOLT,
  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


[ Transcriber Notes:
    1. Obvious misspellings and omissions were corrected.
    2. Uncertain misspellings or ancient words were not corrected.
    3. "_" indicates italics, "=" indicates bold. ]



                   CONTENTS.
                                              PAGE
          CHAPTER I.
  THE GAELIC PERIOD                             1

          CHAPTER II.
  THE ENGLISH PERIOD                           19

          CHAPTER III.
  THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE                35

          CHAPTER IV.
  THE INDEPENDENT KINGDOM                      52

          CHAPTER V.
  THE JAMESES                                  67

          CHAPTER VI.
  THE REFORMATION                              96

          CHAPTER VII.
  THE UNION OF THE CROWNS                     125

          CHAPTER VIII.
  AFTER THE UNION                             167



          CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

          THE GAELIC PERIOD.
  Agricola's Invasion                                             80
  Severus' Invasion                                              208
  Founding of Northumberland by Ida                              547
  Founding of Dalriada by the Scots                        about 503
  Union of Picts and Scots                                       843
  Commendation to Eadward                                        924
  Battle of Brunanburh                                           937
  Battle of Carham                                              1018
  Cnut's Invasion                                               1031
  Malcolm Canmore King                                          1057
  William's Invasion                                            1073
  Malcolm slain                                                 1093

          THE ENGLISH PERIOD, 1097-1286.
  Eadgar                                                        1097
  Alexander I.                                                  1107
  David                                                         1124
  Battle of the Standard                                        1138
  Malcolm IV                                                    1153
  William the Lion                                              1165
  Capture at Alnwick                                            1174
  Treaty of Falaise                                             1174
  Council of Northampton                                        1176
  Treaty with Richard I.                                        1189
  Alexander II.                                                 1214
  Border-line fixed                                             1222
  Council at York                                               1237
  Alexander III.                                                1249
  Battle of Largs                                               1263
  Man and the Sudereys annexed                                  1266
  Death of Alexander III.                                       1286

          THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE, to 1314.
  Queen Margaret                                                1286
  Treaty of Brigham                                             1290
  Margaret dies                                                 1290
  Council meets at Norham, 3rd June                             1291
  Judgment given at Berwick, 11th November                      1292
  John crowned King                                             1292
  Edward's first Conquest                                       1296
  Rising of Wallace                                             1297
  Surrender at Irvine                                           1297
  Battle of Stirling, 11th September                            1297
  Battle of Falkirk                                             1298
  Edward's second Conquest                                      1303
  Capture of Wallace                                            1305
  Robert Bruce crowned King, 27th March                         1306
  Death of Edward                                               1307
  Battle of Bannockburn, 24th June                              1314

          THE INDEPENDENT KINGDOM, 1314-1424.
  Parliament at Cambuskenneth                                   1326
  Peace of Northampton                                          1328
  David II.                                                     1329
  Edward Balliol's Invasion                                     1332
  Battle of Halidon Hill                                        1333
  Capture of David                                              1346
  His release                                                   1347
  Invasion of Edward III.                                       1356
  Robert II.                                                    1370
  Raid of Otterburn                                             1388
  Robert III.                                                   1390
  Fight on North Inch                                           1396
  Invasion of Henry IV.                                         1400
  Battle of Homildon Hill                                       1402
  Capture of the Earl of Carrick                                1405
  Robert III. dies                                              1406
  Burning of Reseby                                             1408
  St. Andrews University founded                                1408
  Battle of Harlaw, 24th July                                   1411
  Albany the Regent dies                                        1419

          THE JAMESES, 1424-1557.
  James I. crowned King                                         1424
  Parliament at Inverness                                       1427
  Murder of the King                                            1436
  James II.                                                     1436
  Murder of the Douglases                                       1439
  Murder of William, Earl of Douglas                            1452
  Battle of Arkinholm                                           1454
  The King slain at Roxburgh                                    1460
  James III.                                                    1460
  Orkney and Shetland annexed                                   1469
  St. Andrews raised to an Archbishopric                        1471
  Revolt of Lauder Bridge                                       1482
  Battle of Sauchieburn                                         1488
  James IV                                                      1488
  Marriage of James to Margaret Tudor                           1502
  Lordship of the Isles broken up                               1504
  Battle of Flodden, 9th September                              1513
  James V.                                                      1513
  "Erection" of the King                                        1524
  Fall of Angus                                                 1528
  Rout at Solway Moss                                           1542
  Mary                                                          1542
  Hertford's first Invasion                                     1544
  Hertford's second Invasion                                    1545
  Burning of George Wishart                                     1545
  Murder of Beaton                                              1545
  Battle of Pinkie                                              1547
  Mary sails for France                                         1548
  First marriage of Mary, 24th April                            1558

          THE REFORMATION PERIOD, 1557-1603.
  The "First Covenant" signed                                   1557
  Burning of Walter Mill                                        1558
  Religious riots                                               1559
  Treaty of Berwick                                             1560
  Reformation Statutes passed                                   1560
  Return of the Queen                                           1561
  Battle of Corrichie                                           1562
  Second marriage of Mary, 29th July                            1565
  Murder of Rizzio                                              1566
  Murder of Darnley, 9th February                               1567
  Third Marriage of Mary, 15th May                              1567
  Surrender at Carberry, 15th June                              1567
  Abdication of Mary                                            1567
  James VI. crowned                                             1567
  Battle of Langside, 13th May                                  1568
  Conference at York begins, October                            1568
  Murder of Murray the Regent                                   1570
  Taking of Dunbarton, 2nd April                                1571
  Parliament at Stirling, 4th September                         1571
  Lennox the Regent slain                                       1571
  Episcopacy revived                                            1572
  Death of John Knox, 24th November                             1572
  Death of Mar the Regent, 24th November                        1572
  Surrender of Edinburgh Castle                                 1573
  The King rules alone, 4th March                               1578
  Raid of Ruthven                                               1581
  Death of Mary Stuart, 8th February                            1587
  Marriage of the King                                          1590
  Abolition of Episcopacy                                       1592
  The Gowrie Plot, 5th August                                   1600
  James becomes King of England                                 1603

          THE UNION OF THE CROWNS, 1603-1707.
  Fight in Glen Fruin                                           1604
  Restoration of Episcopacy                                     1606
  Visit of the King                                             1616
  Articles of Perth passed                                      1618
  Nova Scotia founded                                           1621
  King James dies                                               1625
  Charles I.                                                    1625
  Charles crowned in Scotland                                   1633
  Liturgy Riots                                                 1637
  The Covenant renewed                                          1638
  Assembly at Glasgow                                           1638
  Episcopacy abolished                                          1638
  "Trot of Turriff," May                                        1639
  Pacification of Berwick, June                                 1639
  Invasion of England by the Scots                              1640
  Treaty of Ripon, begun 1st October                            1640
     "    "    "   ended 7th August                             1641
  Battle of Tippermuir, September                               1644
  Charles comes to the Scots Camp, 5th May                      1645
  Battle of Philiphaugh, September                              1645
  The Scots give up Charles, 8th January                        1647
  The Surrender at Uttoxeter, 25th August                       1648
  "Whiggamore's Raid"                                           1648
  Charles I. beheaded, 30th January                             1649
  Charles II. proclaimed                                        1649
  Rising and beheading of Montrose                              1650
  Charles II. arrives in Scotland                               1650
  Battle of Dunbar, 3rd September                               1650
  Battle of Worcester, 3rd September                            1651
  Legislative Union with England                                1654
  Restoration of Charles II.                                    1660
  Act "Rescissory" passed                                       1661
  Episcopacy re-established                                     1661
  The "Ejection"                                                1662
  The Westland Rising                                           1666
  The Indulgence, June                                          1669
  Murder of Sharp, May                                          1679
  Fight at Drumclog, May                                        1679
  Fight at Bothwell Bridge, June                                1679
  Sanquhar Declaration, June                                    1680
  Test Act passed                                               1681
  James VII.                                                    1685
  Argyle's Rising                                               1685
  Full Indulgence                                               1688
  James VII. deposed                                            1688
  William and Mary proclaimed                                   1689
  Battle of Killiecrankie, 27th July                            1689
  Episcopacy abolished                                          1690
  Massacre of Glencoe, 13th February                            1691
  Charter granted to the Darien Company                         1695
  Education Act passed                                          1696
  Anne                                                          1701
  The Union of the Parliaments                                  1707

          AFTER THE UNION.
  George I.                                                     1714
  Jacobite Rising                                               1715
  Malt-tax Riots                                                1724
  Porteous Riot                                                 1736
  Jacobite Rising                                               1745
  Battle of Preston-pans, 20th September                        1745
  Battle of Culloden, 16th April                                1746
  Highland Society founded                                      1784
  First Steamboat tried                                         1788
  Penal laws against Romanists repealed                         1793
  Colliers and Salters freed                                    1799
  Reform Bill passed                                            1832
  The Disruption                                                1843



HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.


CHAPTER I.

THE GAELIC PERIOD.

  _The country_ (1)--_the people_ (2)--_Roman occupation_
     (3)--_English invasion_ (4)--_the Scots_ (5)--_introduction
     of Christianity_ (6)--_conversion of the Picts_
     (7)--_conversion of the English_ (8)--_English
     conquests_ (9)--_union of Picts and Scots_ (10)--_the
     Northmen_ (11)--_the Commendation_ (12)--_annexation of
     Strathclyde_ (13)--_acquisition of Lothian_ (14)--_Cnut's
     invasion_ (15)--_Macbeth_ (16)--_English immigration_
     (17)--_William's invasion_ (18)--_Margaret's reforms_
     (19)--_disputed succession_ (20)--_Gaelic period ends_
     (21)--_summary_ (22).


=1. The Country.=--The northern part of Great Britain is now called
_Scotland_, but it was not called so till the _Scots_, a _Celtic_
people, came over from _Ireland_ and gave their name to it. The Romans
who first mention it in history speak of it as _Caledonia_. There are
two points in which the history of this country and of the people who
live in it is unlike the history of most of the other countries and
nations of Europe. Firstly, it never was taken into the great Roman
Empire; and secondly in it we find a _Celtic_ people who, instead of
disappearing before the _Teutons_, held their ground against them so
well that in the end the _Teutons_ were called by the name of the
_Celtic_ people, were ruled by the _Celtic_ kings, and fought for
the independence of the Celtic kingdom as fiercely as if they had
themselves been of the Celtic race. But the whole of the country is
not of the same nature. The northern part is so nearly cut off from
the rest of Britain by the two great _Firths_ of Forth and Clyde as
to form almost a separate island, and this peninsula is again divided
into _Highlands_ and _Lowlands_. Speaking roughly, we may say that
all the west is Highland and the east Lowland. A range of mountains
sweeping in a semicircle from the Firth of Clyde to the mouth of the
Dee, known as _Drumalbyn_ or the _Mount_, may be taken as the line of
separation, though the _Lowlands_ extend still further north along
the eastern coast. The marked differences between these two districts
have had a very decided influence on the character of the inhabitants,
and consequently on the national development. The _Lowlands_ are well
watered and fertile, and the people who lived there were peaceable and
industrious, and both on the seaboard and inland there is early notice
of the existence of populous and thriving towns. The _Highlands_, on
the contrary, are made up of lakes, moors, and barren hills, whose
rocky summits are well-nigh inaccessible, and whose heath-clad sides
are of little use even as pasture. Even in the glens between the
mountains, where alone any arable land is to be found, the crops are
poor, the harvest late and uncertain, and vegetation of any kind very
scanty. The western coast is cut up into numberless islets, and the
coast-line is constantly broken by steep jagged promontories jutting
out seaward, or cut by long lochs, up which the sea runs far into
the land between hills rising almost as bare and straight as walls
on either side. In the Highlands even in the present day there are
no towns of any importance, for the difficulty of access by land and
the dangers of the coast have made commerce well-nigh impossible.
The _Highlanders_, who were discouraged by the barrenness of their
native mountains, where even untiring industry could only secure a bare
maintenance, and tempted by the sight of prosperity so near them, found
it a lighter task to lift the crops and cattle of their neighbour than
to rear their own, and have at all times been much given to pillaging
the more fortunate _Lowlanders_, of whom they were the justly dreaded
scourge.

=2. The People.=--As the country is thus naturally divided into two
parts distinctly opposite in character, so the people are made up
of two distinct branches of the great _Aryan_ family, the _Celtic_
and the _Teutonic_. The Celts were the first comers, and were in
possession when the country became historically known; that is, at the
first invasion of the Romans. In later times we find three _Celtic_
peoples in North Britain; to wit, the _Picts_, the _Scots_, and the
_Welsh_. The _Picts_ were those _Celts_ who dwelt north of the Firths
in _Alba_ or _Alban_, as the earliest traditions call it; and if we
judge from the names of places and contemporary accounts and notices,
there is every reason to believe that they were more akin to the
_Gaelic_ than to the _British_ branch of the Celtic race. The _Scots_,
the other _Gaelic_ people, were, when we first hear of them, settled
in _Ireland_, from whence at different times bands of them came over
to the western coast of Britain. They were friends and allies of the
_Picts_, and are early mentioned as fighting on their side against the
Romans. After a time, when many more Scots had settled in Alba, their
name became common to all the Celts north of the Firths, and from
them the whole country was called Scotland. The Celts south of the
Firths were partly Christianized and civilized by the Romans, and thus
became very different from the rest. They got their name of _Welsh_
from the Teutonic tribes who came from the land between the _Elbe_
and the _Eyder_, and, settling along the eastern coast, finally took
possession of a great tract of country, and called the Celts whom
they displaced _Welshmen_ or foreigners. The Celts called all these
new comers _Saxons_, though this was really only the name of one of
the first tribes that came over; and as they gradually spread over
the _Lowlands_, the word _Saxon_ came to mean simply _Lowlander_. In
course of time the original proportions of these two races have been
nearly reversed, so that the modern Scottish nation, though it keeps
its _Celtic_ name, instead of being made up of three _Celts_ to one
_Saxon_, is much more nearly three _Saxons_ to one _Celt_.

=3. Roman Occupation.=--The _Romans_, who had already made themselves
masters of South Britain, were led into the northern part of the
island by _Julius Agricola_, A.D. 80. But the _Celts_ whom they found
there, and whom they called _Caledonians_, were so well able to defend
themselves among their mountains that the Romans, though they defeated
them in a great battle on the Highland border, gave up the idea of
conquering the country, and retreated again south of the Firths of
_Forth_ and _Clyde_. Across the isthmus between the two, which is about
thirty miles wide, they built a line of forts, joined by a rampart
of earth. This rampart was intended to serve as a defence to their
colonists, and as a boundary to mark the limit of their empire; though,
as many Roman remains have been found north of the isthmus, they must
have had settlements without as well as within the fortifications. But
the Caledonians, who were too high-spirited to look on quietly and
see their country thus taken possession of, harassed the colonists by
getting over the wall and seizing or destroying everything they could
lay their hands on. At length (A.D. 120) the Roman Emperor _Hadrian_
built a second rampart across the lower isthmus, between the rivers
_Tyne_ and _Solway_, leaving the district between the two pretty much
at the mercy of the fierce Picts, as the Romans now began to call
the Caledonians. Twenty years later, in the reign of the Emperor
_Antoninus Pius_, one of his generals, _Lollius Urbicus_, again drove
them back beyond the first wall, and repaired and strengthened the
defences of _Agricola_. But, before half a century had passed, the
Picts again burst the barrier, and killed the Roman commander. In
208 the Emperor _Severus_ cut his way through Caledonia with a large
army. He reached the northern coast, but had no chance of fighting a
battle, and lost many of his men. He repaired and strengthened the
rampart of Hadrian. In time the Picts got over the second rampart too,
and came south as far as _Kent_, where, in the latter part of the
fourth century, _Theodosius_ the Roman general, father of the famous
Emperor of the same name, had to fight his way to London through their
plundering hordes. Theodosius drove them back with great vigour,
restored the Empire to its former boundary, and made the district
between the walls into a Roman province, which he called _Valentia_,
in honour of _Valentinian_, who was then Emperor. It was probably
about this time that the great stone wall was built across the lower
isthmus. The dangers which threatened the capital of the Empire in the
beginning of the next century forced the Romans to forsake this as well
as all their other provinces in Britain, and the withdrawal of their
troops left the Romanized Britons of Valentia a helpless prey to their
merciless enemies the Picts. At the end of the three centuries of Roman
occupation, the _Britons_ south of the Firths had so little in common
with the wild _Picts_, who in _Alba_ and in _Galloway_ still maintained
their independence, that they were like people of a different race.
The one sect, though still savage and heathen, were as brave and
fierce as ever; the other, though Christianized and civilized, were
so degenerated from the vigour of the original stock that they were
powerless to resist their more warlike kinsmen.

=4. English Invasion.=--In the sixth century the _Angles_ came in
great force and settled on the eastern coast of Valentia, and drove
the _Britons_, or as they called them _Welshmen_, back to the Westland
Hills. This district then between the Roman walls was thus divided
between two kingdoms. The English kingdom of _Northumberland_, founded
by _Ida_ in 547, took in all the eastern part of the country south of
the _Forth_; while the Welsh kingdom, called _Strathclyde_ from the
river that watered it, stretched from the _Firth of Clyde_ southwards
towards the _Dee_.

=5. The Scots.=--About the same time that the _English_ were pouring
in on the east, the _Scots_ were settling all along the western
coast. As the strait which separates _Britain_ from _Ireland_ is only
twelve miles broad, the Scots could easily come over from _Scotia_,
as _Ireland_ was formerly called, to seek their fortune in the larger
island. It is impossible to fix the date of their first coming, but it
was not till the beginning of the sixth century that there came over
a swarm numerous and united enough to found a separate state. This is
one of the few _Celtic_ migrations on record from west to east, and
forms an exception to the general displacement that was going on, by
which the _Celts_ were being driven further and further west before the
_Teutons_. The leaders of the Scots were _Fergus MacErc_, and _Lorn_,
of the family of the _Dalriads_, the ruling dynasty in the north of
Ireland, and from them this new state founded on the western coast of
what is now called _Argyle_ got the name of _Dalriada_.

=6. Introduction of Christianity.=--These Scots were not pagans
like the Picts of Alba, for Ireland had already been Christianized.
The new comers brought the new faith to their adopted country, and
through them it spread among the Picts, and also among the English of
Northumberland. The great apostle of the Scots was _Columba_. He was
Abbot of Durrow in Ireland, but was obliged to leave his own country,
because he had been engaged in a feud with some of his kinsfolk, in
which his side was worsted. He came over to the new colony on the coast
of Alba, and _Conal_, who was then King of the Dalriads, welcomed him,
and gave him _I_, or _Iona_, an islet about a mile and a half long and
a mile broad, lying west of the large island of Mull. Here Columba
settled with the twelve monks who had come with him, and here they
built for the service of God a little wooden church after their simple
fashion, and for their own dwelling a few rude huts of wattle, which
in after-times was called a monastery, where they passed their days
in prayer and study. But their missionary zeal was as great as their
piety, and from their head-quarters on Iona they went cruising about
among the adjacent islands, extending their circuit to the _Orkneys_,
and even, it is said, as far as _Iceland_.

=7. Conversion of the Picts.=--Columba himself undertook the conversion
of the Picts. About two years after his arrival at Iona he set out on
this important mission, crossed Drumalbyn, sought the court of _Brud_,
the Pictish king, converted him, and founded religious communities on
the same plan as that on Iona, on lands granted to him by the king or
his dependent chiefs. The Church thus set up was perfectly independent
of the _Bishop of Rome_ or of any other See, but it inherited all the
peculiarities of the Church of the _Irish Scots_. The monks had a way
of their own of reckoning the time for keeping Easter and of shaving
their heads, trifles which were considered important enough to become
the subject of a very long quarrel, and it was not till 716 that they
agreed to yield to the Roman custom in both matters. According to
their system of Church government, the abbots of the monasteries were
the chief dignitaries, and had all the power which in the rest of
Christendom was held to belong to bishops, while the bishops were held
of no account except for ordaining priests, for which purpose there
was one at least attached to each monastery. Columba, who was himself
of the royal race, had so much influence among the Dalriads that his
authority was called in to settle a dispute about the succession to
the throne. The abbots of Iona after him continued supreme in all the
ecclesiastical affairs of Alba till the middle of the ninth century,
while the well-earned reputation for piety and learning enjoyed by
the monks of his foundation was widely spread in continental Europe.
About this time _Kentigern_ revived among the Welshmen of Strathclyde
the dying Christianity which had been planted there in the time of the
Roman occupation.

=8. Conversion of the English.=--The English of Northumberland were
still heathens, and, as they were ever fighting with and growing
greater at the expense of their neighbours, their state bade fair to
become the most powerful in Britain. In the beginning of the seventh
century their king _Eadwine_ was supreme over all Britain south of
the Forth. But though _Eadwine_ was converted by the preaching of
_Paullinus_, the first Bishop of York, the new doctrine does not seem
to have spread much among his people; for one of his successors,
_Oswald_, who in his youth had been an exile at the court of his
kinsman the Pictish king, prayed the monks of Iona to send him one of
their number to help to make his people Christian. _Conan_, the first
missionary who went, was so much disgusted with the manners of the
English that he very soon came back to his brethren. Then _Aidan_,
another of their number, devoted his life to the task which Conan had
found so distasteful. He taught and toiled among them with a zeal that
was seconded by Oswald, the king, who himself acted as interpreter,
making the sermons of the monk intelligible to his English hearers.
From _Lindisfarne_, where the little church of Aidan was founded, like
that of Iona, on an islet, Christianity spread to the neighbouring
state of _Mercia_, and many monasteries and schools were founded after
the Columban model.

=9. English Conquests.=--Oswald and his successor _Oswiu_ extended
their dominions beyond the Firths, and it is said that they made the
Scots and Picts pay tribute to them. The next king, _Ecgfrith_, marched
north and crossed the _Tay_ with a mighty host, but he was routed and
slain in a great battle at a place called _Nectansmere_, the exact
position of which is uncertain. From that time the English seem to
have kept more to the country south of the Forth, and the Picts were
more independent of them. This is about the only event of moment that
we know of in the history of that people, of whom no records remain,
except a long list of their kings down to 843, at which date they
became united with the Scots under one king.

=10. Union of Picts and Scots.=--This union took place under _Kenneth
MacAlpin_, who was king of the Scots. That he was king of the Picts
also is certain: how he came to be so can only be guessed. It is more
probable that it was by inheritance than by conquest, though he and the
kings after him kept his original title of King of Scots. Over how much
land he reigned, and what degree of power he had over his subjects, is
not known. It is thought that among the Celts the king was only the
head of the dominant tribe among many other tribes or clans, each of
which was bound to follow its own chief, and the king's control over
those chiefs seems to have been more in name than in fact. The northern
districts seem to have been ruled by powerful chiefs called _Maers_
or _Mormaers_. These chiefs, who it has been supposed were nominally
subject to the King of Scots, acted as if they were quite independent
of him. They were indeed his most troublesome enemies, and several
of the kings lost their lives in battle against them. _Moray_ was the
greatest of the Mormaerships. It lay north of the Spey and of the
mountains of Argyle, and stretched across the country from the Moray
Firth to the opposite ocean.

=11. Coming of the Northmen.=--Kenneth was followed in turn by
_Donald_, his brother, and _Constantine_, his son. Their reigns were
mainly taken up in fighting with the _Northmen_, a heathen people
of Teutonic race, who infested the seas and plundered the seaboard.
From the eighth century downwards they were the scourge alike of
English and Celtic Britain, swooping down on the coasts, harrying the
lands, and making off with their booty; or, at other times, seizing
and settling on great tracts of country. Three countries of modern
Europe--_Denmark_, _Norway_, and _Sweden_ were peopled by the Northmen.
But while it was those from _Denmark_ who chiefly harassed and finally
conquered the _English_, the _Norwegians_ seem to have looked upon
Scotland as their own especial prey, attracted doubtless by the
likeness between its many isles and inlets and the jagged outline of
the larger Scandinavian peninsula. The long narrow lochs of the western
coast, like the fiords of Norway, proved convenient harbours for the
ships of these pirates. It is towards the close of the eighth century
that we first hear of the descents of the Northmen on the Pictish
kingdom. It is told how they ravaged all the coast, destroyed the
Pictish capital, and haunted the Irish Sea. Their fury was specially
directed against churches and religious communities, and Iona did not
escape. Again and again it was wasted by fire and sword, its churches
plundered, the brethren slain, till at length the abbot was compelled
to seek on the mainland a refuge for himself and the relics of the
saintly founder. Under Kenneth MacAlpin the supremacy over the Scottish
Church was transferred to the monastery of _Dunkeld_. Under Kenneth's
son, _Constantine I._, a fresh spirit was given to these invasions by
the formation of the kingdom of _Norway_ by _Harold Harfagra_. The
petty chiefs displaced by him, who were called _Vikings_ or dwellers
on the bays, sought a settlement elsewhere. Several of them founded
settlements in Ireland, whence they went to plunder the western
shores of Britain. Others took up their quarters in the _Orkneys_,
and the _Sudereys_ or _Southern Isles_, as the Northmen called those
isles that are now known as the _Hebrides_. Those in the Orkneys were
subdued by Harold, who made the islands into an _Earldom_ and gave
it to _Sigurd_, one of his allies. _Thorstein_, Sigurd's successor,
proved a formidable foe to the King of Scots, made himself master of
all the north country, pretty nearly answering to the modern counties
of Caithness and Sutherland, to which last the Northmen gave its name
because it lay south of their island possessions. On Thorstein's death
his great earldom fell to pieces. About this time one _Cyric_ or Grig,
who is supposed to have been one of the Northern chiefs, seized on the
throne and reigned about eighteen years, leaving his name on record as
the liberator of the Scottish Church.

=12. The Commendation.=--_Constantine II._ (900-943), grandson of
Kenneth, who came after Grig, _commended_ himself and his kingdom
to _Eadward_, king of the English, in 924. Constantine chose him as
"father and lord," that is, he placed himself under his protection, and
acknowledged Eadward as mightier than himself. On this compact were
based the subsequent claims of the English to the over-lordship of
the Scots. This _commendation_ was renewed to _Æthelstan_, Eadward's
successor. But Constantine soon repented of his submission, and a few
years later he and the Welshmen of Strathclyde joined the Danes in
their attempt to get back Northumberland, from which Æthelstan had
expelled them. The allies were utterly routed in the great battle of
_Brunanburh_, in which Constantine's son was slain, in 937. Six years
later Constantine exchanged civil for spiritual rule, and retired as
abbot to the _Monastery of St. Andrews_.

=13. Annexation of Strathclyde.=--_Malcolm I._ (943-954) succeeded
Constantine, though not his son, but his kinsman, for the Scots did
not adhere strictly to the order of succession which is now customary:
though they kept to the royal family, they generally preferred the
brother to the son of the last king. The great event of this reign
was the annexation of _Strathclyde_, which had been conquered by the
English king _Eadmund_, and was now granted by him to _Malcolm_ as a
territorial fief, held on condition of doing military service by land
and sea whenever it should be required. Thus Strathclyde became an
appanage of the heir apparent to the Scottish crown. Of the six kings
after Malcolm, _Induff_, _Duff_, _Colin_, _Kenneth II._, _Constantine
III._, and _Kenneth III._, little is known. They passed their lives and
met their deaths in struggles with the Welsh or with their own northern
subjects. Under Induff the Scots got _Edinburgh_, which had been
founded by Eadwine of Northumberland.

=14. Acquisition of Lothian.=--_Malcolm II._, grandson of the first
of the name, was the last of the direct line of Kenneth MacAlpin.
His reign, which lasted thirty years, is notable from the fact
that he managed to get hold of _Lothian_, the northern part of
Northumberland. One of Malcolm's first acts was an invasion of this
earldom. _Waltheof_, the earl, being old and feeble, shut himself up
in his castle of _Bamborough_ and let Malcolm advance unresisted.
He got as far as _Durham_, but there he was met and defeated by
_Uhtred_, the vigorous son of the old Earl. Some years later, when his
old enemy Uhtred was dead, Malcolm made a second invasion, and took
ample revenge for his defeat at Durham in the brilliant victory at
_Carham_, on the banks of the Tweed, in 1018. After this victory the
Scots were in possession of Lothian, which _Eadulf Cutel_, now Earl
of Northumberland, was not strong enough to take from them. It has
been said that Lothian had been already granted by Eadgar of England
to Kenneth III., who petitioned for it on plea of ancient hereditary
right. If so, the Scots must have lost it again; but after the victory
of Carham they had it and kept it, though their king held it as an
English earldom, and did homage for it to the king of the English.

=15. Cnut's Invasion.=--In 1031 _Cnut_, the mighty Dane who reigned
over Denmark, Norway, and England, came north, and Malcolm met him,
acknowledged him as his over-lord, and renewed the agreement which
had been made between Constantine and Eadward. Three years after his
submission to Cnut, Malcolm died, leaving as his heir _Duncan_, the son
of one of his daughters who had married _Crinan_, Abbot of Dunkeld.
There is a tradition that, to secure Duncan's succession, Malcolm had
caused the grandson of Kenneth III. to be murdered. If he did so,
this crime defeated its own end, for _Gruach_, sister of the murdered
man, was now the wife of Macbeth, the Mormaer of Moray, one of the
most powerful chiefs. Duncan came north to make war on some of these
turbulent Maers, and Macbeth seized the opportunity thus offered by
the presence of the king in his province, attacked and defeated him in
battle, and afterwards slew him in a place called _Bothgowan_, which it
is thought means a smith's hut.

=16. Macbeth, 1040-1057.=--_Macbeth_ must not be looked on as an
usurper and murderer. He was the natural supporter of the claims of his
wife and _Lulach_, her son by a former marriage, who, according to the
received rule of Gaelic succession, had a better right to the throne
than Duncan himself; and no doubt he justified the murder of the young
king as lawful revenge for that of his wife's brother. At all events,
after he had got the kingdom, he ruled it well and wisely, so that his
reign was a time of great national plenty and prosperity, and he and
his wife were benefactors of the Church and of the poor, not only at
home, but abroad, for it stands on record that they sent alms to the
poor at Rome. But he was not left long in peaceable possession, for
the father of Duncan, Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld, got up a rising in
favour of his two grandsons, _Malcolm_ and _Donald_. About the same
time _Siward_, Earl of Northumberland, brought an army against Macbeth,
and drove him from the throne, though he got it back as soon as Siward
went away. Some years later Siward, whose kinswoman Duncan had married,
again took up the cause of his cousin Malcolm, invaded the kingdom and
defeated the king in a great battle; and though Macbeth held out for
four years longer, he was at last slain at _Lumphanan_ in Aberdeen.
_Lulach_, son of Gruach, died soon after; and though he left a son,
called _Malsnecte_, whose claim was brought up again long afterwards,
there was no attempt made at that time to prolong the struggle.

=17. English Immigration. Malcolm III., 1057-1093.=--The reign of this
_Malcolm_, surnamed _Canmore_ or the _great head_, is a turning-point
in Scottish history, which henceforth ceases to be essentially
_Scottish_; the Celtic manners, language, laws, and customs being
changed by the strong _English_ influence brought to bear on them in
this and the following reigns. This change was in great measure due to
the conquest of England in 1066 by the _Normans_ under _William the
Conqueror_. The Scottish court was the nearest and most natural refuge
for those Englishmen who would not yield to the strangers. Thither
they flocked in great numbers, and there they found a hearty welcome.
Among these exiles came _Eadgar the Ætheling_, the representative of
the _West-Saxon kings_, and with him his mother and his two sisters
_Margaret_ and _Christina_. Malcolm received them very kindly, and they
stayed with him all the winter. In the beginning of his reign Malcolm
had invaded England, where _Edward the Confessor_ was then king, and
had wasted the shires of York and Northumberland, while _Tostig_ the
earl was gone on a pilgrimage to Rome. He now made a second raid of
the same sort, although, when William held his court at York two years
before, he had sent in his nominal homage to him by the Bishop of
Durham. This time he went on behalf of the Ætheling, and harried the
districts of _Cleveland_ and _Durham_, which had already been wasted by
William. His progress was marked by every species of cruelty, neither
churches nor children were spared, and the Scots brought back so many
captives that English slaves were to be found even in the very poorest
households. Meanwhile Eadgar, who had taken part in two or three
risings in England, again sought the protection of the Scottish court,
and shortly after Malcolm succeeded in persuading Margaret to become
his wife. He had before this been married to _Ingebiorg_, widow of
_Earl Thorfin_ of Orkney, and had one son, _Duncan_.

=18. William's Invasion.=--In 1072 William came north with a fleet and
an army to avenge Malcolm's raid. He went as far as _Abernethy_ on
the _Tay_, the former Pictish capital, and there Malcolm met him and
acknowledged William as over-lord, by becoming his man or vassal, giving
hostages, among whom was his own son _Duncan_, as warrants for his good
faith. But some years later Malcolm took advantage of William's absence
in Normandy to harry his kingdom again as far as the _Tyne_, bringing
back both spoil and captives. The Conqueror's eldest son, _Robert_,
came north to avenge this invasion, but happily he and Malcolm came to
terms without any more bloodshed. This peace was not broken till 1092,
when Malcolm again invaded England. The excuse for this was that his
brother-in-law, the Ætheling, had been turned out of the retreat in
Normandy granted to him by the Conqueror. _William Rufus_, who now sat
on his father's throne, marched into _Lothian_, where peace was again
made by the mediation of Robert and Eadgar. Malcolm renewed his homage,
and William renewed the grant made by his father of certain manors and
a yearly payment of twelve marks. But William did not keep to the terms
of the treaty, and when Malcolm complained of this breach of good faith
he was summoned to appear before the English court at _Gloucester_. He
went, but soon came away again, justly incensed at the insulting way
in which he was treated by being put on the same level as the Norman
barons. For the fifth time Malcolm entered England at the head of an
army, but from this expedition there was no triumphant return, for the
king and his son were slain on the banks of the _Alne_, and the host
that had followed them fled in great confusion.

=19. Margaret's Reforms.=--The disaster did not end with the death of
the king, for the good _Queen Margaret_, who was then at _Edinburgh_,
died of grief almost immediately after hearing the sad tidings. This
good woman, whose many merits have won for her the title of saint, was
the chief worker in the revolution which was being silently wrought
in the manners of the court, and of the people, and in the government
of the Church and of the State. The influence which her piety and
learning gave her over her husband and his people was used to soften
their fierceness, and to win them from their own half-savage ways to
the customs of more civilized countries. She is said to have introduced
silver plate at court, and many other luxuries of which the Scots had
hitherto been ignorant; she encouraged literature and commerce, but
she chiefly busied herself in reviving the state of religion, which
had sunk to a very low ebb. The Church had fallen from its ancient
purity and zeal, and had become a prey to many singular abuses. The
abbotships were hereditary in the great families, and were often held
by laymen, and the religious foundations were in the hands of a body
of irregular clergy called _Culdees_, from two Latin words meaning
'servants of God.' Margaret called a council of the clergy and spoke
to them herself, her husband acting as her interpreter, and did her
best to make them give up their peculiarities and give in to the usages
of the rest of Christendom. She rebuilt the church of Iona, which had
suffered so terribly at the hands of the Northmen, and founded a new
church at _Dunfermline_, in which she and her husband were buried.

=20. Disputed Succession. Donald, 1093-1097.=--The death of the King
and of his son _Eadward_, who had been recognized as heir-apparent,
threw the kingdom into confusion; and the Gaelic party, who had looked
on with disgust and jealousy at the changes of the last reign and
at the displacement of the Gaelic chiefs by the English immigrants,
elected _Donald Bane_, Malcolm's brother, to the vacant throne.
Meanwhile _Duncan_, the son of Malcolm and Ingebiorg, his first wife,
prayed William of England to aid him in recovering his father's
kingdom, which he promised to hold as an English fief. His suit was
granted, and with the help of an English and Norman army he drove
out his uncle and reigned a few months. But _Donald_, with the help
of _Eadmund_, the eldest surviving son of Malcolm and Margaret, once
more got the upper hand, murdered _Duncan_, exiled the rest of the
family, and kept possession of the throne for three years. At the end
of that time Eadgar the Ætheling was sent north with an English army,
and placed his nephew Eadgar on the throne on the same terms as those
which had been granted to Duncan. Donald Bane was taken, and, after the
cruel custom of the time, his eyes were put out before he was cast into
prison. Eadmund died a penitent in an English monastery.

=21. End of the Gaelic Period.=--With _Donald_ ends the _Gaelic_ or
_Celtic_ period. The sons of Margaret carried out the reforms begun
by their mother, and the _Celtic_ customs gave way more and more to
the _Saxon_ influence both in the court and in the country. The King
identified himself with his new nobles and with his English earldom,
so that Lothian, as it was the richest, became the most prominent part
of his dominions, and the true Scots of the North came to be looked on
as savages and aliens, the natural enemies and perpetual disturbers
of all peace and prosperity. The records of this period are so very
scanty that any ideas of the state of the country or of the habits of
the people are extremely misty, and are chiefly drawn from incidental
notices of Scottish matters in the chronicles of other lands. The
chief architectural fragments which remain to bear witness to its
Christianity are the round bell-towers in the Irish style at _Brechin_
and at _Abernethy_. The church at Brechin was founded by _Kenneth the
Third_.

=22. Summary.=--The most noteworthy events in this the first period of
Scottish history are the repulses which the Romans met with from the
Picts; the coming of the Scots from Ireland; their union with the Picts
under Kenneth MacAlpin; the introduction of Christianity by Columba;
the conversion of the Picts and of the English, and the joining on of
Strathclyde and Lothian to the Scottish Crown. We must also notice the
strong feeling of hereditary right which kept the succession for so
long in one family, and the remarkable revolution brought about by the
English exiles, which completely turned the current of the national
life, and led to much strife and bitterness between the two races of
which the nation was made up.


CHAPTER II.

THE ENGLISH PERIOD.

  _Eadgar; invasion of Magnus_ (1)--_English marriage_
     (2)--_Alexander I.; rising in Moray_ (3)--_Church reforms_
     (4)--_David I._ (5)--_English war_ (6)--_Battle of the
     Standard_ (7)--_peace with England_ (8)--_internal
     improvements_ (9)--_Malcolm IV._ (10)--_subjection of
     Galloway_ (11)--_William the Lion_ (12)--_Convention of
     Falaise_ (13)--_homage at Lincoln_ (14)--_independence
     of the Church_ (15)--_internal troubles_ (16)--_social
     progress_ (17)--_Alexander II._ (18)--_settling of the
     border line_ (19)--_state of the North_ (20)--_Alexander
     III._ (21)--_his marriage and homage to England_
     (22)--_last invasion of the Northmen_ (23)--_literature and
     architecture_ (24)--_state of the kingdom_ (25).

=1. Eadgar, 1097-1107. Invasion of Magnus.=--In the beginning of this
reign, _Magnus Barefoot_, King of Norway, made good his right to the
_Orkneys_ and the Scandinavian Earldom on the mainland. He seized the
two earls, and placed his own son _Sigurd_ in their stead. He then
sailed for the _Sudereys_, at that time dependencies of the _Kingdom
of Man_, wasted them with fire and sword, marked his claim by sailing
round each island, and, by way of proving his right to _Kintyre_, is
said to have had himself dragged across the isthmus that joins it to
the mainland in his ship, with his hand on the tiller. On his death
the islands fell back into the hands of the former owners, and their
descendants, the _Lords of the Isles_, were afterwards wont to declare
themselves vassals of _Norway_, whenever it suited their convenience.
In one respect only did this expedition differ from the former
piratical descents of the Northmen. This time the sacred island of Iona
was respected, and the church, so lately rebuilt, was left uninjured
by the special order of the King.

=2. English Marriage.=--The friendly relations with England were
maintained and strengthened by the marriage of Eadgar's sister
_Eadgyth_, who took the name of _Matilda_, with _Henry the First_, the
youngest son of William the Conqueror. She proved nearly as great a
blessing to the English as her English mother had been to the Scots,
for she taught the King to "love his folk," and was affectionately
remembered by them as "_Maud_ the good Queen." On his death-bed Eadgar
separated _Strathclyde_ from the rest of the kingdom, and conferred it
on his brother _David_ as a return for the wise counsel with which that
brother had helped him through his very uneventful reign.

=3. Alexander I., 1107-1124. Northern Rising.=--This King, unlike
his easy-tempered brother, had a strong will and unyielding spirit.
His reign was consequently a troubled one, as always happened when
the Scots King tried to rule instead of being ruled by his turbulent
subjects. His first difficulties were of course in the north. The men
of _Merne_ and _Moray_ came forth secretly and swiftly, hoping to
surprise and murder him; but their tactics, which had proved fatal to
Duncan, were upset by Alexander's discovery of the plot and rapid march
to meet them. They were thus forced to fight, and thoroughly beaten on
the northern shore of the _Moray Firth_, and the signal vengeance taken
by the King after his victory, won for him the title of "the _Fierce_."
To commemorate his success he founded the monastery of _Scone_.

=4. Church Reforms.=--Alexander deserves to be remembered for the
spirit and wisdom with which he upheld the independence of the national
church. Anxious to carry out in the same spirit the reforms already
begun by his mother, he appointed her confessor _Turgot_, Prior of
Durham, to the See of St. Andrews, and asked the _Archbishop of
York_ to consecrate him. The Archbishop on this claimed the canonical
obedience of all the Scottish bishops, declaring that the whole country
was in his province. This demand was clearly unjust; for, though
_Lothian_ was undoubtedly so, the Scottish Church was older than his
own, and had never been dependent on any foreign See. This difficulty
was got over by the consecration of the new bishop by the _Bishop of
London_, and Turgot was installed as head of the Church from which
his own priory of _Durham_ had originally branched off. Instead of
identifying himself with the interests of his new charge, he did all
he could to bring the Scottish Church under the authority of the
Archbishop of York, so that he and the King soon quarrelled; and as
the King refused to let the Bishop go to _Rome_ to lay his case before
the _Pope_, he resigned, and went back to Durham, where he shortly
afterwards died. To evade the claims of York, the King resolved that
his next bishop should be chosen from the southern province. _Eadmer_,
a monk of _Canterbury_, the friend and biographer of _Anselm_ the
Archbishop, accepted the bishopric. But he proved no better than
Turgot, for he persisted in considering himself and his bishopric as
dependent on Canterbury; and as the King would on no account agree to
this, he too resigned and went away. Though he afterwards repented, and
proposed to return, it was then too late, for _Robert, Prior of Scone_,
had been appointed in his stead. As Alexander left no children, his
brother _David_ succeeded him, so that _Strathclyde_ or _Cumbria_ was
re-united to the kingdom.

=5. David I., 1124-1153. Rising in Moray.=--The usual rising in _Moray_
took place in the early part of this reign. The Moray men seized the
opportunity for revolt afforded them by David's absence in England,
whither he had gone on some business connected with the _Honour of
Huntingdon_, an _English_ fief which he had got by his marriage with
_Matilda_, daughter and heiress of _Waltheof, Earl of Northhumberland_,
who had been put to death by _William the Conqueror_. _Angus_ and
_Malcolm_, the representatives of the old _Moray Mormaers_, were
descended in the female line from _Lulach_, the son of Gruach, and
the northern party wished to place one of them on the throne. The
_Constable_ of the kingdom, the first on record, defeated them; but as
the rebellion still continued, David in alarm asked and obtained the
aid of the barons of the north of England. He was preparing for his
northern march, when the Celts took fright, and gave up their chief,
who was imprisoned in _Roxburgh Castle_. The district of _Moray_ was
declared forfeited, and was divided among the _Norman_ knights whom
David had drawn round him when Prince of Strathclyde.

=6. English War.=--In 1135 _Henry the First of England_ died, and
David, who had been among the first to swear fealty, for the lands he
held in England, to his own niece _Matilda_, daughter and heiress of
_Henry_, was now the first to take up arms in defence of her right
against _Stephen_. David at once marched into _England_, received the
homage of the northern barons, and took possession of all the northern
strongholds, except _Bamborough_, in Matilda's name. Stephen came
north, but peace was made between them; for though David would not
break his oath to Matilda by himself holding any fiefs of Stephen,
this difficulty was got rid of by investing David's son Henry with
the _Honour of Huntingdon_, which had been hitherto held by David.
_Carlisle_ and _Doncaster_ were also conferred on Henry; and though
his request to be put in possession of his mother's inheritance of
_Northumberland_ was not granted, Stephen promised to take his claim to
it into consideration. Henry went south with Stephen, at whose court
he took precedence of the English barons. This roused their jealousy,
and they straightway left the court in a body. David, highly indignant
at this insult, recalled his son, and the next year prepared to invade
England again, nor would he agree to any terms of peace, unless Henry
were put in immediate possession of Northumberland. In 1138 his army
ravaged the northern counties, reduced to ashes the castle of _Norham_,
and routed a body of the men of _Lancashire_ who had mustered to resist
the invaders at _Clitheroe_ on the _Ribble_. After this success, the
victors committed greater outrages than ever.

=7. Battle of the Standard.=--But their excesses, and the fear that
David, as the representative of the English line, was trying to win the
English crown for himself, at length roused the chivalry of northern
England, who, forgetting party feeling, made common cause against the
common foe, and assembled round the banner raised by _Walter Espec_, a
doughty and gigantic warrior. A few years before they had prepared to
help David in suppressing those very _Celts_ whom he was now leading
against themselves. Against such men, inspired by such righteous
indignation, the mixed multitude of _Scots_, _Picts_ of _Galloway_,
_Welshmen_ from _Strathclyde_, _Northmen_ from the _Orkneys_, and
_English_ from the _Lothians_, who with a body of _Norman_ knights made
up the so-called _Scottish_ host, had but small chance of success.
This chance was made still smaller by what proved fatal to the cause
of Scotland in many an after fight, the inevitable squabbles between
the rival races. The _Celts_ were jealous of the _Norman_ strangers,
and clamoured so loudly for their right of leading the van, that David
at last gave in to them. His own better judgment would have led him
to give the task of breaking the hostile ranks to his well-armed,
well-mounted horsemen, leaving it to the infantry to follow up their
advantage. The two armies met on a moor, near _Northallerton_, where
the English were drawn up round their _Standard_, which was so singular
that from it the battle took its name. It was the consecrated wafer
hoisted on a ship's mast, with the banners of _St. Peter of York_,
_St. John of Beverley_, and _St. Wilfrith of Ripon_, floating round
it. Before the battle commenced, a last attempt for peace was made
by two Norman barons, whose descendants afterwards played a great
part in Scottish history. These were _Robert de Brus_ and _Bernard de
Bailleul_. They were friends of David and held lands from him, and
they begged him not to fight with the old friends who had formerly
stood by him. As he was unmoved by all their entreaties, they renounced
their allegiance, and the battle began. The Galloway men made a fierce
onslaught on the English, but were driven back and beaten down by the
English arrows. They fled, and by their flight spread confusion through
the army. The panic was made greater by a cry that the King was slain;
and though David did all he could to rally the fugitives round his
banner, the ancient dragon of Wessex, he was forced to retire upon
_Carlisle_, where his son Henry joined him a few days after. But this
defeat did not drive the Scots out of England. David still continued
the siege of _Werk_, a strong castle, which at last surrendered.

=8. Peace with England.=--Next year, peace was made at _Durham_.
Earl Henry was invested with the earldom of _Northumberland_, though
Stephen kept _Bamborough_ and _Newcastle_, and David continued to
administer the affairs of the northern counties till his death. Two
years after this peace he again took up arms in favour of Matilda, and
narrowly escaped being taken prisoner when her forces were routed at
_Winchester_; and it was by David at his court at Carlisle that her son
_Henry of Anjou_ was knighted. The close of David's life was embittered
by the death of his only son _Henry_, a just man and a brave soldier,
whose loss was universally lamented. He had married _Ada de Warenne_,
daughter of the _Earl of Surrey_, and left three sons, _Malcolm_,
_William_, and _David_, the two eldest of whom reigned in succession.
His eldest daughter _Ada_ married _Florence Count of Holland_, and got
the promise of _Ross_, a great tract of the Highlands, as her dowry.
After the death of his son David sent his eldest grandson through the
provinces to be acknowledged as his successor, and within a few months
he died at Carlisle, and was buried beside his parents at Dunfermline.

=9. Internal Improvements.=--David was both a good man and a great
king. He upheld the honour of his kingdom abroad, and did so much
for the welfare of his people at home, that most of the social and
political institutions of the later kingdom were afterwards ascribed
to him. It is true that he introduced a foreign baronage, for he
encouraged many Norman barons to come to his court, and by the lands
which he gave them induced them to settle in the country. He thus
gave great offence to the native chiefs; but he did not forget the
interests of the Commons, for he increased the number of the royal
burghs and granted many privileges and immunities to the burghers. The
life of David has been written by his friend and admirer, _Æthelred_
the _Abbot of Rievaulx_. He has drawn an attractive picture of an able
and virtuous prince, kindly and courteous alike to high and low; ever
ready to listen to the complaints of all his subjects and to set wrong
right, and never turning his face away from any poor man. He tells us
how the King himself dealt out justice to his subjects, and in his
progress through the several districts of his kingdom, used, on set
days, in person to hear the suits and to redress the wrongs of the poor
and oppressed among his people. Six bishoprics--_Dunblane_, _Brechin_,
_Aberdeen_, _Ross_, _Caithness_, and _Glasgow_--were either founded or
restored by him; and many abbeys date their foundation from his reign.
He carried on the work of church reform by inducing the Culdees to
conform to more regular ways, on pain of being turned out of their
monasteries. His reign lasted twenty-nine years, during which time
the country continued to advance steadily in wealth, fertility, and
civilization. There is little doubt that, had his successor possessed
the same abilities, the future boundary of the kingdom would have been
the _Tees_ instead of the _Tweed_.

=10. Malcolm IV., 1153-1165.=--Malcolm was not quite twelve years old
when he came to the throne: the fact that he retained possession of it
proves that the principle of hereditary succession was gaining ground,
and that his grandfather David had put down the unruly spirit of the
northern clans and had more firmly established a regular government.

=11. Subjection of Galloway.=--The principal event of Malcolm's reign
was the subjection of _Galloway_, which was now reduced to direct
dependence on the Crown. A rising, the object of which was to dethrone
Malcolm and to set up his brother _William_ in his stead, had been
planned by some of the nobles while Malcolm was in _Aquitaine_, helping
_Henry the Second_ of England in his war with France. Soon after his
return in 1160, they surrounded the city of Perth where he was holding
his court, and tried to take him prisoner. But they were dispersed and
routed, and though the chiefs fled to _Galloway_, Malcolm followed
them and reduced the district. _Fergus_, the _Lord of Galloway_, ended
his days in the monastery of _Holyrood_. A few years later another
dangerous enemy rose against Malcolm. This was _Somerled_, the Lord of
Argyle, who ruled the western coast with the power, though without the
title, of King. He landed near _Renfrew_ on the _Clyde_, with a large
force, but was almost immediately slain by treachery, and after his
death his followers dispersed and returned to their several islands
without doing any serious mischief. An increase of power was thus won
for the Crown within the limits of the kingdom, but on the other hand
the northern counties of England, which had been held by David, were
lost, for Henry of England obliged Malcolm to give up all claim to them
at _Chester_, where the two Kings met in 1157. At the same time Malcolm
was invested with the _Honour of Huntingdon_ on the same terms as those
on which it had been held by David.

=12. William the Lion, 1165-1214.=--_William_ surnamed _the Lion_
succeeded his brother Malcolm. He was eager to regain the earldom of
_Northumberland_, which his father had held and which his brother had
lost. As Henry of England refused it to him, he aided the sons of that
monarch in their rebellion against their father, and, when Henry was
absent in France, he invaded his kingdom and took several strongholds.
But by his own imprudence he was surprised and captured, with the
best of his nobles, while tilting in a meadow close by the walls of
_Alnwick_, and was sent for greater security to _Falaise_, in Normandy,
July 1174.

=13. Convention of Falaise.=--In the end of the year William regained
his freedom by signing a treaty called the "_Convention of Falaise_,"
the hard terms of which were most humiliating, both to him and to
Scotland. He was in future to hold his kingdom on the same terms of
vassalage as those by which he now held Lothian, and as a token of
further dependence his barons and clergy were also to do homage to
the English King, who was to be put in possession of the principal
strongholds. His brother _David, Earl of Huntingdon_, and twenty-one
other barons were to remain as hostages till the strongholds were
given up, and on their release each was to leave his son or next heir
as a warrant of good faith. The homage was performed in the following
year, when William met Henry at _York_; and the King of Scots, with his
earls, barons, free-tenants, and clergy, became the liegemen of the
_King of England_ in St. Peter's Minster. The clergy swore to lay the
kingdom under an interdict, and the laity to hold by their English
over-lord, should William prove unfaithful to him. This treaty remained
in force till the death of _Henry_ in 1189, when _Richard_ of England,
who was in want of money for his crusade, released William, for the
sum of 10,000 marks, from these extorted obligations and restored the
strongholds, though he refused to give up to him the coveted earldom.

=14. Homage at Lincoln.=--When _John_ succeeded his brother on the
throne of England, William did such homage to him as the King of Scots
had been wont to render to the King of England before the treaty
of Falaise. He met John at _Lincoln_, whither he was escorted by a
brilliant retinue of English barons. But there was no kindly feeling
between the two Kings. John tried to build a castle at _Tweedmouth_
in order to spoil the trade of _Berwick_, the largest trading city
in Scotland, but the Scots drove away the builders and levelled the
castle, and for some time both Kings kept threatening armies on the
Border.

=15. Independence of the Church.=--At a great Council held at
_Northampton_ in 1176, the _Archbishop of York_ claimed Scotland as a
part of his province, and called on the Scottish clergy to acknowledge
their dependence. They protested and appealed to the Pope, who forbade
the Archbishop to press his claim. _Clement III._ in 1188 confirmed
their claim of independence, on the ground that the Church of Scotland
was in immediate dependence on the _Holy See_.

=16. Internal Troubles.=--During William's captivity, Galloway
revolted. All the King's officers were either slain or expelled, and
as, after the submission at Falaise, _Gilbert_ the chief of Galloway
considered himself a vassal of England, he let the Lothians have no
peace till his death in 1185. William's nephew _Roland_ then seized
Galloway, drove out his opponents, and rebuilt the Royal castles.
William used his influence to induce Henry to confirm Roland in
possession, and thereby gained a devoted and faithful ally. It was
mainly by his aid that William was enabled to put down a formidable
rising in the north.

=17. Social Progress.=--During this reign the free towns began to rise
into notice. Their privilege of trade and right to govern themselves
was recognized by a charter granted to the city of Aberdeen, in which
William confirmed his burghers north of the _Mount_, in their right of
holding their own court or "free anse," as they had done in the time
of his grandfather David. Thus we see that the towns of the north of
Scotland were united for mutual support a century before the rise of
the great continental Hansa, which bound together by a similar league
the trading cities of the Baltic. Some of the most important towns
date their charters from William, and he extended the influence of
civilization in the north by holding his court in such remote places
as _Elgin_, _Nairn_, and _Inverness_. The only religious foundation of
this reign was the abbey of _Arbroath_. It was dedicated to the newest
saint in the calendar, _Thomas of Canterbury_. William died at Stirling
in 1214, leaving one son, _Alexander_, who succeeded him.

=18. Alexander II., 1214-1249.=--_Alexander's_ accession was the signal
for one of the usual risings in Moray; but as the power of the Crown in
that district was now stronger than it had been in earlier times, this
rising was more easily put down than any former one had been. The great
struggle between despotism and freedom had just at this time set _John_
of England and his barons at variance. Alexander joined the barons
in hopes of getting back Northumberland. He crossed the Border and
received the homage of the northern barons, and the following year he
joined his force to those of the confederates, and marched to _Dover_,
where he did homage to Louis of France, who, at the invitation of the
barons, had come over to take the crown. The death of John and the
victory of his son, _Henry the Third_, at _Lincoln_, changed the whole
state of affairs, and in 1217 Alexander did the usual homage to Henry
and was invested with the _Honour of Huntingdon_. Four years later
the bond between them was drawn closer by the marriage of _Alexander_
to _Joanna_, Henry's sister. This alliance was followed by a lasting
peace, though Alexander still claimed Northumberland, and Henry upheld
the right of the Archbishop of York to supremacy over the Scottish
Church. In a council held at York in 1237, Alexander agreed to compound
his claim to the earldom for a grant of the lands of _Penrith_ and
_Tynedale_, and, when Henry went to France, he left the Border under
the care of the King of Scots.

=19. Settling of the Border Line.=--In 1222 an attempt was made to lay
down a definite boundary between the two countries. Six commissioners
on either side were appointed, and though the exact course of the line
was disputed, from that time it continued pretty much what it is now,
though a wide tract on either side was claimed alternately by both
nations and belonged in reality to neither.

=20. State of the North.=--A disturbance which happened during this
reign shows us something of the lawless state of the northern part
of the kingdom. _Adam_, bishop of _Caithness_, tried to enforce the
payment of tithes in his diocese, but his people came together to
consider the best way of resisting this exaction. While they were thus
holding council, it is said that a voice cried out, "Short rede good
rede; slay we the bishop." On this advice they acted, for without more
waste of words they attacked the bishop, and burned him and his house
to ashes. Shortly before this a former bishop of Caithness had been
seized and had his tongue cut out by the Earl of Orkney. Alexander died
on an expedition to the Western Isles, at _Kerrara_, a small islet off
the coast of Argyle. By his second wife, _Mary of Coucy_, he left a
son, who succeeded him.

=21. Alexander III., 1249-1266.=--_Alexander_, a child of eight years,
was crowned with great pomp at _Scone_, the ancient crowning place,
where the famous stone of _Destiny_ was kept. The tradition was that no
one who had not been enthroned on this stone was lawful King of Scots.
The most striking part of the coronation ceremony was the appearance of
a Sennachy or Celtic bard, who greeted Alexander as King by virtue of
his descent from the ancient Celtic Kings, and recited the whole list
of the King's ancestors, carrying them back to the most remote ages.
This might serve to remind him that after all his title of King came
solely from those very Celts whom his more immediate forefathers had
slighted and despised.

=22. Alexander's Marriage and Homage to England.=--On Christmas day,
1251, Alexander was married at _York_, to _Margaret_, daughter of
_Henry the Third_, and at the same time he did homage for the lands he
held in England, but evaded Henry's claim of homage for _Scotland_,
pleading the necessity of consulting his advisers before giving an
answer on so difficult a matter. This question was brought up again in
1278, when Alexander went to _Westminster_ to acknowledge and to do
homage to _Edward the First_, and he gave for answer that he did homage
for his English fiefs alone and not for his kingdom. Edward asserted
his right as over-lord of the kingdom, but he did not then attempt to
enforce it.

=23. Last Invasion of the Northmen.=--In 1262 _Hakon_ of _Norway_ came
with a great fleet to visit the _Orkneys_ and the _Western Isles_,
_Sudereys_ or _Southern Isles_ as the Northmen called them. The fleet
sailed down the _Western Coast_, levying black mail on the islands and
making divers inland raids. Among other exploits the Northmen dragged a
number of their ships across the narrow neck of land that parts _Loch
Long_ from _Loch Lomond_, sailed down _Loch Lomond_, and harried the
_Lennox_, as the fertile tract which stretches along its lower end is
called. Hakon sailed up the _Firth of Clyde_, and an attempt was made
at a peaceable agreement between him and the King, who was at first
willing to give up all claim to the _Hebrides_, but wished to keep the
_Cumbraes_, _Bute_, and _Arran_. But the Scots purposely delayed coming
to terms, as they expected that the autumn storms would soon help them
to get rid of their enemy. Nor were their hopes disappointed, for, in
the beginning of October, a violent tempest rose, separated the ships
of the invaders, sunk some, and stranded others. On the following day
the Northmen who had landed were easily beaten, near _Largs_, by a
Scottish army hastily got together on the coast of _Ayr_, in 1263.
Hakon died in one of the _Orkneys_ on his way home, and his son, in
1266, agreed to give up _Man_ and the _Isles_ for 1,000 marks down, and
the promise of 100 yearly. An amnesty was granted to the Islesmen, and
it was settled that the bishopric should continue in the province of
_Drontheim_. In 1281 the King's daughter, _Margaret_, married _Eric_,
the heir to the throne of _Norway_. She died in 1283, leaving an infant
daughter, who, a few months after, by the death of _Alexander_, the
King's only son, became heir to the Scottish crown. Three years later,
in 1286, the King himself was killed by a fall from his horse while
riding by night along the coast of _Fife_, near _Kinghorn_.

=24. Literature and Architecture.=--No chronicles of this period,
written by natives of Scotland, have come down to us. But there was
one poet who was held in great repute, not only for his verses, but
for his prophecies. This was _Thomas Learmouth of Ercildoun_, called
"Thomas the Rhymer," and "True Thomas," from the general belief in
the truth of his predictions. He is said to have foretold that great
national calamity, the King's death, under the figure of a great storm
that should blow "so stark and strang, that all Scotland sall reu
efter rycht lang." Another Scotsman of note was _Michael Scot_, the
famous wizard. He travelled much in foreign lands, and was greatly
renowned in them, as in his own country, as a scholar, an astrologer,
and magician. The buildings of this period were chiefly the churches
and abbeys founded by Margaret and her descendants. They were all in
the same style as contemporary buildings in England. There were as yet
very few castles, that is fortified buildings of solid masonry, in the
kingdom. The great strongholds, such as _Edinburgh_, _Stirling_, and
_Dunbarton_, were steep rocks, made so inaccessible by nature that they
needed but little strengthening from art. Dwelling-houses seem to have
been generally built of wood.

=25. State of the Kingdom.=--The second period of the national history
breaks off abruptly with the death of _Alexander_. It had begun with
the dethronement of Donald Bane, the last Celtic King, nearly two
hundred years before, and during that time the boundary of Scotland
had been extended by the annexation of _Argyle_ and of the _Isles_,
while her two dependencies of _Lothian_ and _Galloway_ had been drawn
more closely to her, though they still remained separate and distinct.
Throughout this period the influence of England, though peaceable, had
been stronger than it was ever to be again. English laws and English
customs had been brought in, and had, in many cases, taken the place of
the old Celtic usages. The Celtic _maers_ had been removed to make way
for the _sheriffs_ of the Crown. But, as Scotland was not divided like
England into shires, the sheriffs were not, as in England, the reeves
of the already existing shires, but officers who were placed by the
King over certain districts. These districts or sheriffdoms became the
counties of later times. _Feudalism_ after the _Norman_ model, with all
its burthensome exactions and oppressions, had been brought in and had
taken firmer root in Scotland than it ever did in England. The native
chiefs had been displaced by foreign nobles, so that a purely Norman
baronage held the lands, whether peopled by a _Celtic_ or a _Saxon_
peasantry. In some cases the new owners founded families afterwards
known under Celtic names; for, while the Celts gave their own names
to the lands on which they settled, the Normans took the names of the
lands conferred upon them and bore them as their own. The long peace
with England, which had lasted unbroken for nearly a century, had been
marked by great social progress. The large proportion of land that was
now under the plough proves that during this untroubled time husbandry
must have thriven, roads and bridges were many and in good repair, and
the trading towns had made great advances in riches and power. Hitherto
no one town had distinctly taken its place as the capital. _Saint
John's Town_, or _Perth_, had, from its connexion with _Scone_, some
claim to the first place, but the King held his court or his assize
indifferently at any of the royal burghs. These burghs were of great
importance in the state, and, as the burgesses of the royal burghs were
all vassals holding direct from the Crown, they acted in some sort as
a check on the growing power of the nobles. The burghers had the right
of governing themselves by their own laws, and were divided into two
groups. Those north of the _Scots water_ or Firth of Forth were bound
together by a league like the great continental Hansa, and known by the
same name; while those in Lothian, represented by the four principal
among them--_Roxburgh_, _Stirling_, _Edinburgh_, and _Berwick_--held
their "court of the four burghs," which is still represented by the
"Convention of Royal Burghs" which meets once a year in Edinburgh. Nor
were the Scottish towns of this period in any way behind the cities of
the Continent. _Berwick_, the richest and the greatest, was said by a
writer of the time to rival London. _Inverness_ had a great reputation
for shipbuilding. A ship which was built there called forth the envy
and wonder of the French nobles of that time. But this happy state of
things was brought to an end by the death of the King, and the long
years of war and misery that followed went far to sweep away all traces
of the high state of civilization and prosperity that had been reached
by the country in this, the golden age of Scottish history.


CHAPTER III.

STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE.

  _The Regency_ (1)--_the Interregnum_ (2)--_Council at
     Norham_ (3)--_Edward's decision_ (4)--_John_ (5)--_his
     coronation_ (6)--_French alliance_ (7)--_Edward's first
     conquest_ (8)--_English government_ (9)--_Wallace's
     revolt_ (10)--_surrender at Irvine_ (11)--_battle of
     Stirling_ (12)--_battle of Falkirk_ (13)--_capture of
     Wallace_ (14)--_attempted union_ (15)--_Bruce's revolt_
     (16)--_his coronation_ (17)--_Edward's proposed revenge_
     (18)--_Bruce's struggles_ (19)--_battle of Bannockburn_
     (20)--_results of the victory_ (21)--_Bruce's comrades_
     (22)--_summary_ (23).


=1. Margaret, 1286-90. The Regency.=--Within a month from _Alexander's_
death the _Estates_ met at _Scone_, and appointed six regents to govern
the kingdom for _Margaret_, the _Maiden of Norway_, a child of three
years old, who, on the death of her grandfather Alexander, succeeded to
the throne. Three of these regents were for the old kingdom, the land
north of the _Scots Water_, and three for Lothian with Galloway. This
division seems to show that the different tenure of these provinces
was still understood and acted on. The _Scots_ of the original Celtic
kingdom and the _Englishmen_ of _Lothian_ still kept aloof from one
another. In the meantime _Robert Bruce_, a _Norman_ baron whose
forefathers had settled in _Annandale_ in the twelfth century, made
an attempt to seize the crown by force. He laid claim to it by right
of his descent from _Isabella_, the second daughter of _David_ Earl of
Huntingdon, brother of _William the Lion_, and appealed to _Edward the
First_ of England as over-lord to support him in his supposed right.
At the same time other appeals against him were made by the seven
_Earls of Scotland_, by _Fraser_ bishop of St. Andrews, and by the
_Community_. Edward did not encourage Bruce, but on the contrary he
agreed to the proposal of the Estates that the _Lady Margaret_ should
be married to his eldest son _Edward_. By the treaty of _Brigham_,
in 1290, this agreement was accepted by the Clergy, Nobility, and
Community of Scotland. This treaty provided that the rights and
liberties of Scotland should remain untouched; that no native of
Scotland was to be called on to do homage or to answer for any crime
beyond the Border; in short, that Scotland was to keep all the rights
and liberties which belong to a distinct national life. This union, if
it had been carried out, would have been the best possible settlement
for both kingdoms, but it was prevented by the death of the _Maid of
Norway_ on her way to _Scotland_, in one of the _Orkneys_, September
1290. Edward had himself sent a ship handsomely fitted out to fetch
home the Maid.

=2. Interregnum, 1290-92.=--_Margaret_ was the last of the legitimate
descendants of William the Lion. The new King had to be sought among
the heirs of William's brother _David, Earl of Huntingdon_. David had
left three daughters, _Margaret_, _Isabella_, and _Ada_, and they
being dead were represented by their nearest heirs,--Margaret by her
grandson _John Balliol_, Isabella by her son _Robert Bruce_, and Ada
by her son _John Hastings_. Besides these there were a host of smaller
claimants whose pretensions were quite untenable; but there was one
other who, though his claim was very shadowy, was first in power and
position among the claimants. This was _Florence, Count of Holland_,
the great-great-grandson of _Ada_, the daughter of David's son Henry,
who was to have had Ross as her dowry. _Bruce_, supported by his son,
by _James the Steward_ and by other nobles, made a bond with Florence
by which each pledged himself, in case he got the kingdom, to give
the other a third of it. Edward, as over-lord, was appealed to to
settle the matter, as it was feared by the regents that _Robert Bruce_
would seize the crown by force, and all the competitors seem to have
acknowledged Edward's right of superiority.

=3. Council at Norham.=--Edward accordingly summoned his barons,
amongst whom most of the claimants could be reckoned, to meet him in a
council at _Norham_, on the northern side of the _Tweed_, in June 1291,
to decide this important case. The real contest lay between _Bruce_
and _Balliol_. Bruce, Balliol, and indeed nearly all the claimants,
were Norman barons holding lands of Edward. The family of Bruce came
originally from the _Côtentin_ and had been settled in _Yorkshire_ by
William the Conqueror, towards the end of his reign. David, who had
granted to them the great tract of _Annandale_, had also granted to the
_Balliols_ a manor in _Berwick_. Bruce's plea was that, though he was
the child of a younger sister, still his right was better than that of
Balliol, as he was one degree nearer their common forefather, and he
brought forward many precedents to prove that in such a case nearness
in degree was to be preferred to seniority.

=4. Edward's Decision.=--Edward decided with perfect justice, according
to the ideas of modern law, that _Balliol_, as the grandson of the
eldest daughter, had the best right to the throne. In early times in
Scotland no one would have thought of doubting Bruce's claim as next
in degree. As Edward refused to divide the dominions among the heirs
of the three daughters, it is clear that he looked on Scotland as a
dependent kingdom, and not as an ordinary fief, which would have
been shared among the three rivals. Judgment was given at _Berwick_,
November 1292, eighteen months after the first meeting of the council.
During this time the government had been nominally in the hands of the
guardians of the kingdom; but Edward had the strongholds, twenty-three
in number, in his own hands, and seems to have looked upon the two
countries as really united. At the end of the suit he gave up the
strongholds, and by so doing showed that he meant to act fairly.

=5. John, 1292-96. Policy of Edward.=--The great scheme of Edward's
life was to unite Britain under one government, of which he himself
was to be the head. He had already added to England the dependent
principality of Wales. Hitherto his actions towards Scotland had been
perfectly fair and upright. In placing John Balliol, the rightful
heir, on the throne, he was doing no more than had been done by the
King of England, acting as over-lord, in the cases of Malcolm Canmore
and Eadgar: but his way of placing him there was not strictly just;
the conditions which he required were such as he had no right to
exact, nor John to accept. He made him do homage for his kingdom as
though it had been an English fief. Now, though this was true as far
as concerned Lothian, and partly true as concerned Strathclyde, as
concerned Scotland it was untrue. Although Scotland had, since 924,
been in some degree subject to the King of England, this dependence
was no more than was implied by the "commendation," the very natural
relation of the weaker to the stronger. But it must be remembered that
three centuries had passed since that first commendation, and in that
time the original simplicity of the feudal tenure had been altogether
changed and in great measure forgotten. Edward looked on the three
parts of Scotland as fiefs, and therefore subject to the same burthens
as his other fiefs; the Scots knew that they were not thus subject,
and they therefore argued that their kingdom was in no way dependent
on England: thus both parties were partly right and partly wrong. Even
the amount of dependence implied in the original commendation had, in
the last reign, been refused by the Scottish King, and had not been
insisted on by the English one. But John Balliol was weak and foolish,
while Edward was wise, strong, and determined to rule the whole country
indirectly through his submissive vassal.

=6. Coronation of John.=--John was duly crowned and enthroned on the
Stone of Destiny, after which he renewed his homage to Edward, in
1292. He then summoned the Estates at _Scone_. This was the first
meeting of the Estates which was called a _parliament_. John was not
popular with his subjects, who looked on him as a tool in the hands of
Edward. Before many months had passed _Roger Bartholomew_, a burgess
of Berwick, being dissatisfied with a decision given against him in
Scotland, appealed to Edward, who named a council at _Newcastle_ to
hear the case. This was a direct violation of the treaty of Brigham,
and Edward obliged John to sign a discharge and renunciation of this
treaty and of any other document then in existence which might call
in question his superiority. Another appeal was made a few months
afterwards against the decision of the Estates by a Scot of the old
kingdom, _Macduff_, the grand-uncle of the Earl of Fife, and this was
followed by appeals respecting the lands of the houses of _Bruce_
and _Douglas_. John was summoned to appear before the Parliament of
England, was voted a contumacious vassal, and commanded to give up
the three principal strongholds of his kingdom into the hands of his
over-lord till he should give satisfaction.

=7. French Alliance.=--In 1294 war broke out between France and
England, and John, with the nobles and commons of his kingdom,
entered into an alliance for mutual defence with _Eric of Norway_ and
_Philip of France_ against Edward. This was the beginning of the
foreign policy maintained in Scotland for several centuries, until
the _Reformation_, when religious sympathy got the better of national
hatred, and Roman Catholic France became more dreaded than Protestant
England. In compliance with this treaty a Scottish army crossed the
Border and swept and wasted the northern counties.

=8. Edward's first Conquest.=--Edward's dealings with Scotland now
became those of a conqueror instead of a protector. The Scots had,
without gainsaying, acknowledged his supremacy. It was the appeal of
Scottish subjects which had tempted him to extend the incidents of
that supremacy beyond legal limits, and now it was the Scots who began
the war, and thus gave Edward the excuse, for which he was waiting,
for conquering their country. He at once marched northwards with a
great army, and besieged and took _Berwick_, a large and wealthy
trading town. Provoked by the resistance and insults of the citizens,
the King wreaked a fearful vengeance on them, and Berwick was reduced
to the rank of a common market-town. While he was at Berwick, John's
renunciation of fealty was sent to him by the party of independence,
who were keeping their King in custody lest he should repent and
submit. When Edward had secured Berwick, he marched to _Dunbar_, took
the castle, and then went on to _Edinburgh_. He there took up his
quarters in _Holyrood_, laid siege to the castle, took it, seized
the crown jewels, and then passed on to _Perth_, taking possession
of _Stirling_ on the way. To crush out all idea of an independent
kingdom, and to let the people see that they were conquered, he
carried off from _Scone_ the _Stone of Destiny_, with which the fate
of the Scottish monarchy was supposed to be mystically joined. This
stone was removed to _Westminster_, and was placed under the seat of
the coronation-chair. He also took with him the _Holy Rood_ of Queen
Margaret, and obliged all the nobles who submitted to him to swear
allegiance on this much valued relic. Edward did not go further north
than _Elgin_, and he returned to Berwick in 1296, having marched all
through Scotland in twenty-one weeks. All the nobles and prelates did
personal homage to him. John submitted himself to Edward's pleasure,
and was degraded and dispossessed. He was then sent as a prisoner to
England, was afterwards made over to the keeping of the Bishop of
Vicenza, the Pope's representative, and at last he retired to his
own estates in _Picardy_, where he died in 1315. Edward treated his
kingdom as a fief forfeited by the treason of the vassal who held it.
This notion of the thirteenth century, that the fief was forfeited by
treason, would not have occurred to anyone in the tenth century, when
probably John would only have been deposed, and some one else set up in
his stead. The seizure of Normandy from John of England by Philip of
France was a case of the same kind, and quite as unprecedented.

=9. English Government.=--Edward at once took measures for joining
Scotland on as an integral part of the English kingdom. He took care
that the strongholds should be commanded and garrisoned by persons
without any Scottish connexion. He appointed _John, Earl of Warrenne
and Surrey_, Guardian, _Hugh of Cressingham_, Treasurer, and _Ormsby_,
Justiciar of the kingdom; sent them forms of writs to be used in the
re-granting of lands; took measures for the establishment of _Courts
of Chancery_ and _Exchequer_ at _Berwick_, and summoned a council of
merchants to consider the best measures for the future conduct of the
trade and commerce of the country. Cressingham was enjoined to raise
all the money he could, for the maintenance of internal peace and
order, and to put down the wicked rebels, homicides, and disturbers of
the peace, who swarmed all over the land.

=10. Wallace's Revolt.=--The Celts in the North looked on this change
in the government with apathy. To them it probably made little
difference who sat on the Scottish throne, and Edward had not entered
their district. The Norman nobles quietly agreed to it, for they were
afraid of losing their estates in England. But it roused a spirit
of defiance and opposition where resistance was least to be looked
for, among the Lowlanders. They were the descendants of the earliest
Teutonic settlers, and had remained more purely English in blood and
speech than their kinsfolk on the southern side of the Border. This
latent feeling of discontent gradually ripened into rebellion, and
the standard of revolt was raised by _William Wallace_, a native
of Clydesdale, who, unlike most of his countrymen, had not sworn
allegiance to Edward. He surprised and cut to pieces the English
garrison at _Lanark_, and slew _William Haselrig_, the newly appointed
sheriff of _Ayr_. This outbreak was followed by similar attacks on
detached bodies of the troops in occupation. His little band of
followers gradually attracted more, and at length they surprised the
_Justiciar Ormsby_, while holding a court at _Scone_, and, though he
escaped out of their hands, they secured both prisoners and booty.
_Anthony Beck_, Bishop of Durham, was next attacked in _Glasgow_, and
forced to flee. After these successes Wallace was joined by _William of
Douglas_, a renowned soldier, and by _Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick_,
grandson of the original claimant of the crown.

=11. Surrender at Irvine.=--But there was a want of system and of unity
of purpose in the nation, and this noble effort on the part of the
people was not seconded by the nobles. A large army under Henry, Lord
Percy, was sent by Edward to put down the rising; those of the nobles
who had joined the popular movement deserted it, and renewed their
allegiance to Edward at _Irvine_, July 1297. But when Edward, who
believed the revolt to be completely crushed, was absent in Flanders,
Wallace mustered the people of the Lowlands north of the Tay and made
himself master of the strongholds in that district.

=12. Battle of Stirling.=--The English army was now hastening northward
under Cressingham and Warrenne, Earl of Surrey. Wallace resolved to
give them battle on the Carse of Stirling, a level plain, across which
the river Forth winds in and out among the meadows like the links of a
silver chain. Wallace showed his skill as a general by the choice of
the ground on which he posted his men. He drew them up within one of
the links of the river, which swept round in front between them and
the English, while a steep rocky hill, called the Abbey Craig, rose
right behind them and protected the rear. The English had to cross the
river by a narrow bridge. Wallace waited till half of them were over,
and then attacked them. Taken thus at a disadvantage, they were easily
routed. The panic spread to those on the opposite bank, who fled in
disorder. In this action, called the _Battle of Stirling_, which was
fought September 11, 1297, Cressingham was slain, and Surrey was forced
to retreat to Berwick. After this victory the Scots recovered the
strongholds south of the Forth, and Wallace acted as _Guardian_ of the
kingdom in the name of King John, and with the consent of the commons.
Unhappily the Scots were not content with driving out the invaders, but
carried the war over the Border, and wasted the northern counties of
England with all the fierceness and cruelty of brigands.

=13. Battle of Falkirk.=--Edward returned from Flanders and raised a
large army for the subjection of Scotland, promising pardon to all
vagrants and malefactors who would enlist in it. The King himself led
the army. The Scots wasted the country and retreated before him through
the Lothians; and Wallace, who knew well the weakness of his own
force, tried to avoid a battle till the great army of Edward should be
exhausted from want of food. But tidings were brought to Edward that
Wallace was near Falkirk, and he marched northward in haste and forced
his enemy to give battle. At Stirling Wallace had won the day by his
happy choice of the ground; he now showed still greater skill by the
way in which he drew up his little army. It was made up for the most
part of footmen, who at that time were held of no account as soldiers.
The genius of Wallace found out how they might be made even more
formidable than the mounted men-at-arms, in whom at that time it was
supposed that the strength of an army lay. He drew them up in circular
masses; the spearmen without and the bowmen within. The spearmen with
lances fixed knelt down in ranks, so that the archers within could
shoot over their heads. When his men were thus placed, Wallace said
to them, "I have brought ye to the ring--hop gif ye can;" that is,
show how well you can fight. But, though they fought well and held
their ground bravely, and the English horse were driven back by the
spear-points, the Scots were at last beaten down by force of numbers,
and the English won the day, 1298. After this victory Edward returned
to _Carlisle_, and Wallace resigned the _Guardianship_. Edward held
the country south of the Forth, but the northern Lowlands seem to have
maintained their independence until the spring of 1303, when Edward
marched north at the head of a great army and again subdued the whole
country. He made _Dunfermline_, the favourite seat of the Scottish
court, his head-quarters. _Stirling Castle_ alone, under _Olifant_ the
valiant governor, held out for three months, but when it was taken the
lives of the garrison were spared. All the leaders in the late rising
were left unharmed in life, liberty, or estate, with the exception of
_William Wallace_. He was required to submit unconditionally to the
King's grace.

=14. Capture of Wallace.=--Wallace had been on the Continent ever
since the battle of Falkirk. He now came back and was betrayed by his
servant _Jack Short_ to Sir John Menteith, governor for Edward in
_Dunbarton Castle_, and was sent by him to London. He was there tried,
by a special commission, for treason and rebellion against Edward. He
pleaded in his own defence that he had never sworn fealty to Edward.
In spite of this he was found guilty, condemned to death, and hanged,
drawn, and quartered according to the barbarous practice which was then
coming into use in England. His head was stuck up on _London Bridge_,
and the four parts of his body were sent to _Newcastle_, _Berwick_,
_Stirling_, and _Perth_, by way of frightening the people from such
attempts in future.

=15. Attempted Union.=--Edward then set to work to complete the union
of the two kingdoms. In the meantime Scotland was to be governed by
a _Lieutenant_ aided by a council of barons and churchmen. It was to
be represented in the English parliament by _ten deputies_,--_four
churchmen_, _four barons_, and _two_ members of the _commons_, _one_
for the country _north_ of the _Firths_, _one_ for the _south_. These
members attended one parliament at Westminster, and an ordinance was
issued for the government of Scotland. _John of Bretayne_ was named
_Lieutenant_ for the King; justices and sheriffs were appointed; the
strongholds were put under governors for the King, and an inquiry was
ordered into the state of the laws in order to take measures for their
amendment. Edward's policy in all this was to win favour with the
people and the members of the council, although many of them, such as
_Bruce_ and _Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow_, had taken part in the last
rising. The King's peace was now offered to all rebels who would profit
by it. But the great difficulty in dealing with the Scots was that they
never knew when they were conquered, and, just when Edward hoped that
his scheme for union was carried out, they rose in arms once more.

=16. Bruce's Revolt.=--The leader this time was _Robert Bruce, Lord of
Annandale, Earl of Carrick_ in right of his mother, and the grandson
and heir of the rival of Balliol. He had joined Wallace, but had again
sworn fealty to Edward at the Convention of Irvine, and had since then
received many favours from the English king. Bruce signed a _bond_
with _William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews_, who had also been
one of Wallace's supporters. In this bond each party swore to stand
by the other in all his undertakings, no matter what, and not to act
without the knowledge of the other. The signing of such bonds became
a prominent and distinctive feature in the after-history of Scotland.
This bond became known to Edward; and Bruce, afraid of his anger, fled
from London to _Dumfries_. There in the Church of the _Grey Friars_ he
had an interview with _John Comyn of Badenoch_, called the _Red Comyn_,
who, after _Balliol_ and his sons, was the next heir to the throne.
He was the grandson of a younger sister of Balliol's mother, and the
son of Balliol's sister. He had also a strong claim to the favour of
the people in his alleged descent, through _Donald Bane_, from their
ancient Celtic kings. What passed between them cannot be certainly
known, as they met alone, but Bruce came out of the church saying he
feared he had slain the Red Comyn. _Kirkpatrick_, one of his followers,
then said, he would "mak sicker," and ran in and slew the wounded man.
By this murder and sacrilege Bruce put himself at once out of the pale
of the law and of the Church, but by it he became the nearest heir
to the crown, after the Balliols. This gave him a great hold on the
people, whose faith in the virtue of hereditary succession was strong,
and on whom the English yoke weighed heavily.

=17. Coronation at Scone.=--On March 27, 1306, Bruce was crowned with
as near an imitation of the old ceremonies as could be compassed on
such short notice. The actual crowning was done by _Isabella, Countess
of Buchan_, who, though her husband was a Comyn, and, as such, a sworn
foe of Bruce, came secretly to uphold the right of her own family, the
_Macduffs_, to place the crown on the head of the King of Scots.

=18. Edward's proposed Revenge.=--Edward determined this time to put
down the Scots with rigour. _Aymer of Valence, Earl of Pembroke_,
succeeded John of Bretayne as Governor. All who had taken any part in
the murder of the Red Comyn were denounced as traitors, and death was
to be the fate of all persons taken in arms. Bruce was excommunicated
by a special bull from the Pope. The _Countess of Buchan_ was confined
in a room, made like a cage, in one of the towers of _Berwick Castle_.
One of King Robert's sisters was condemned to a like punishment. His
brother _Nigel_, his brother-in-law _Christopher Seton_, and three
other nobles were taken prisoners, and were put to death as traitors.
This, the first noble blood that had been shed in the popular cause,
did much to unite the sympathy of the nobles with the commons, who had
hitherto been the only sufferers from the oppression of the conquerors.
Edward this time made greater preparations than ever. All classes of
his subjects from all parts of his dominions were invited to join
the army, and he exhorted his son, _Edward Prince of Wales_, and 300
newly-created knights, to win their spurs worthily in the reduction of
contumacious Scotland. It was well for Scotland that he did not live to
carry out his vows of vengeance. He died at _Burgh-on-the-Sands_, July
30th. His death proved a turning-point in the history of Scotland, for,
though the English still remained in possession of the strongholds,
Edward the Second took no effective steps to crush the rebels. He
only brought the army raised by his father as far as _Cumnock_ in
_Ayrshire_, and retreated without doing anything.

=19. Bruce's Struggles.=--For several years King Robert was an outlaw
and a fugitive, with but a handful of followers. Their lives were in
constant danger. Whenever an opportunity offered, they made daring
attacks on the English in possession; at other times they saved their
lives by hairbreadth escapes from their pursuit. The Celts of the west
and of _Galloway_, who had been won over to the English interest,
were against them, and the _Earl of Buchan_, husband of the patriotic
Countess, and his kinsman, _Macdougal of Lorn_, were Bruce's most
deadly enemies. At one time Bruce had met with so many defeats that
he left Scotland and thought of giving up the struggle and going to
the Holy Land. Tradition says that the example of a spider stirred
him up to fresh courage and endurance. He was in hiding in the island
of Rachrin, off the north coast of Ireland. As he lay one morning in
bed in the wretched hut in which he had taken refuge, he saw a spider
trying in vain to throw its web across from beam to beam of the roof
above his head. The insect tried six times and failed. Bruce reckoned
that he had been beaten just six times by the English. He watched
eagerly to see if the spider would try again. "If it does," thought
he, "so will I." Once more the spider made the attempt, and this time
it was successful. Bruce took it as a happy omen, and went back to
Scotland. He joined some of his followers in the _Isle of Arran_. From
the island they went to the mainland, and from that time the tide of
fortune seemed to turn, and to bring him good luck instead of bad.
Still he had to go through many perils. The story of his exploits has
been handed down to us by _John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aberdeen_. As
he was born soon after Bruce's death, there may be some truth in the
tales which he tells, though it must be borne in mind that they are
but tales. He describes Bruce as a strong, tall man, so cheerful and
good-humoured that he kept up the spirits of his followers no matter
what mishaps befell them, always first in danger, and often owing his
life to his own wit and daring. One of his best known feats happened
in the country of John of Lorn. Three Highlanders, who had sworn to
take his life, set upon him when he was quite alone. One seized his
horse's bridle; another tried to take his foot out of the stirrup;
the third, leaping on him from behind, tried to unhorse him. Bruce
cut them all down and rode off triumphant. His brooch had come loose
in the struggle, and was ever afterwards kept as a precious relic in
the family of his enemy Macdougal of Lorn. The first decided success
of Bruce was the defeat of his old enemy, the Earl of Buchan, who
with his followers joined the English, and forced Bruce to right near
_Inverary_. Bruce won the day, and his followers so spoiled the lands
of the Comyn that this fray was long remembered as the "_Herrying of
Buchan_." At length the clergy recognized Bruce as their King, and
this virtual taking off the excommunication had a great effect upon
the people. The little band of patriots increased by degrees. The
strongholds were won back, till at last only _Stirling_ was left to the
English, and it was so sorely pressed that the governor agreed to give
it up to the Scots if he were not relieved before St. John Baptist's
Day, 1314. Roused by the fear of losing this, the most prized of all
Edward the First's conquests, the English gathered in great force, and
marched 100,000 strong to the relief of the garrison.

=20. Battle of Bannockburn, June 24, 1314.=--The Scots were posted so
as to command the plain or carse of Stirling, which the English must
cross to reach the Castle. They were greatly inferior to the English
in numbers, and had scarcely any cavalry, in which the chief strength
of the English force lay. Robert divided them into four battles or
divisions. Their leaders were _Sir James Douglas_; _Randolf_, his
nephew; _James the Stewart_, and Bruce's own brother _Edward_. Bruce
himself commanded the fourth division, which was placed behind the
others, as in it were the men he least trusted, and a small body of
cavalry. One flank of the army rested on the _Bannock_, a small stream
or burn, from which the battle took its name. Before the battle joined,
as King Robert was reviewing his line, he was challenged to single
combat by _Henry of Bohun_, an English knight, and raised the spirit
of his followers by cleaving his adversary's skull. The English began
the fight by a volley of arrows, but their archers were dispersed
by the small body of the Scottish horsemen whom King Robert sent to
charge them. The English cavalry then charged the Scots, but they
tried in vain to break the compact bristling masses of the Scottish
spearmen, and themselves fell into confusion. Some Highland gillies
and camp-followers just then appeared on the brow of a neighbouring
hill. The English took them for a reserve of the enemy, were seized
with terror, fled in wild disorder, and the defeat became a total and
shameful rout. The horsemen in their flight fell into the pitfalls
which the Scots had cunningly sunk in the plain. King Edward and 500
knights never drew rein till they reached Dunbar, whence they took ship
for Berwick. Great spoil and many noble captives fell that day to the
share of the victors.

=21. Results of the Victory=.--By this battle, won against tremendous
odds, the _Saxons_ of the _Lowlands_ decided their own fate and that
of the _Celtic_ people by whose name they were called, and to whose
kingdom they chose to belong. On the field of Bannockburn they gave
the English a convincing proof that they preferred sharing the poverty
and turbulent independence of that half-civilized Celtic kingdom to
rejoining the more wealthy, prosperous, and settled country from
which three centuries before they had been severed. Three more
centuries were still to pass before Edward the First's great idea
of a Union could be carried out. _Bannockburn_ is noteworthy among
battles as being one of the first to prove the value of Wallace's
great discovery that footmen, when rightly understood and skilfully
handled, were, after all, better than the mounted men-at-arms hitherto
deemed invincible. Like _Morgarten_ and _Courtray_, the fields on
which the _Flemings_ and the _Swiss_ about the same time overthrew
their oppressors, this victory of the Scots stands forth as a bright
example, showing how, even in that age of feudal tyranny, a few men of
set purpose, fighting for their common liberty, could withstand a great
mass of feudal retainers fighting simply at the bidding of their lords.

=22. Bruce's Comrades.=--The faithful friends of Bruce, those who had
shared his dangers and helped him to win his crown, were no way behind
their leader in courage and heroism. The most famous of them all was
_James of Douglas_, son of that _Douglas_ who had been the friend and
supporter of _Wallace_. His own _Castle of Douglas_ was the scene of
one of his most daring deeds, hence called the _Douglas Larder_. The
English held his castle, but on Palm Sunday, when the garrison were
gone to church, Douglas attacked them suddenly, killed some, and took
the rest prisoners. He and his men then went up to the castle, where
they feasted merrily on the fare that was being made ready for the
English. When they had dined, Douglas bade them bring forth all the
provision of food and fuel and pile it up in the castle hall. He then
killed the English prisoners and flung their bodies on the heap. Over
them he poured their store of wine, which mingled with the blood that
still streamed from their gaping wounds. The Scots then set fire to the
whole and went off to the woods again, for the free vault of heaven was
more to their minds than the constraint of castle walls. All these
stories are only tales; but, whether true or not, they show the spirit
of the time.

=23. Summary.=--In this chapter we have seen how Scotland lost her
independence by the selfish quarrels of her nobles and the weakness
of her King John Balliol; how the rising of Wallace, the first effort
for regaining her ancient freedom, was confined solely to the people
without the nobles; how it came to nothing from the want of unity of
purpose in the nation; how Scotland, after the failure of this attempt,
had lost her separate national life and had been united to England;
how, when all hope seemed lost, the people rose under a leader who was
really a Norman baron, and therefore as much a foreigner to them as
any of the governors placed over them by Edward; and how by one great
effort they shook off the yoke of the invaders and drove them from the
soil.


CHAPTER IV.

THE INDEPENDENT KINGDOM.

  _Robert I._ (1)--_Chapter of Mitton_ (2)--_Peace of
     Northampton_ (3)--_Robert's parliaments_ (4)--_his
     death_ (5)--_David II._ (6)--_Edward Balliol's invasion_
     (7)--_battle of Halidon Hill_ (8)--_capture of the King_
     (9)--_Robert II._ (10)--_the French allies_ (11)--_Raid
     of Otterburn_ (12)--Robert III. (13)--_Clan battle on the
     North Inch_ (14)--_relations with England_ (15)--_Albany's
     regency_ (16)--_battle of Harlaw_ (17)--_Scots in France_
     (18)--_death of Albany_ (19)--_summary_ (20).

=1. Robert I., 1314-1329.=--The independence which Scotland had lost
was won back on the field of Bannockburn. She was to live on as an
independent kingdom, not to sink into a mere province of England; but,
as the English refused to acknowledge her independence, the war was
carried on by repeated invasions and cruel wastings of the northern
counties. _Douglas_, who was so popular that he was called the _Good
Lord James_, and _Randolf_, whom Bruce created _Earl of Moray_, were
the chief heroes of these raids. Edward was attacked too in another
quarter, in _Ireland_, whither, at the call of the Celtic chiefs,
_Edward Bruce_ had gone, like his brother Robert, to win himself a
crown by valour and popularity. King Robert himself took over troops to
help him. Edward was crowned King of Ireland, but he was killed soon
after. Meanwhile the war on the Border still went on. Each side was
struggling for _Berwick_. The Scots won it back, and the English did
all they could to retake it, but in vain.

=2. Chapter of Mitton.=--While the siege went on, the _Border_ counties
were so sorely harried by the Scots that at last the _Archbishop of
York_ and the clergy took up arms in their defence. But they were
thoroughly beaten, and this battle was called the _Chapter of Mitton_,
from the number of clerks left dead on the field. Edward could have
ended all this by acknowledging Robert as King, but he would not. A two
years' truce was made in 1319, but, as soon as it was ended, he once
more invaded Scotland with a large army. He found nothing but a wasted
country, for the Scots had carried both provisions and cattle to the
hills, nor would they come out to fight, though they harassed the rear
of the retreating army. At last the people of the northern counties of
England grew weary of the constant struggle. They had suffered so much
loss from the inroads of the Scots that they at last resolved that, if
the King would not make peace for them, they must come to terms with
the enemy on their own account. Edward, who feared that he might thus
lose a part of his kingdom, agreed to a thirteen years' truce, which
was concluded in 1323. In this treaty Robert was allowed to take his
title of King, though the English would not give it him. But when a few
years later Edward was deposed and his son Edward _the Third_ placed in
his stead, his government would not confirm the truce in the form at
first agreed on. The Scots upon this made another raid upon England,
swept the country, and carried off their spoil before the eyes of a
large English army. The Scots had in their plundering expeditions a
great advantage over the English in the greater simplicity of their
habits. They were mounted on small light horses, which at night were
turned out to graze. They carried no provisions, except a small bag of
oatmeal, which each man bore at his saddle, together with a thin iron
plate on which he baked his meal into cakes. For the rest of their food
they trusted to plunder. They burned and destroyed everything as they
passed, and, when they seized more cattle than they could use, they
slew them and left them behind on the place where their camp had been.

=3. Peace of Northampton=.--As by this time Robert's title had, after
much strife, been recognized by the Pope and other foreign powers, the
English saw that they must acknowledge it too. Therefore a treaty was
confirmed at _Northampton_ in 1328 between _Robert, King of Scots_, and
the English King. The terms of this treaty were, that Scotland as far
as the old boundary lines should be perfectly independent; that the
two Kings should be faithful allies, and that neither should stir up
the troublesome _Celtic_ subjects of the other, either in _Ireland_ or
in the _Highlands_. As a further proof of good will, _Joan_, Edward's
sister, was betrothed to Robert's infant son. By this treaty the
original Commendation of 924, and all the subsequent submissions to
England, whether real or pretended, were done away with. It placed the
kingdom on quite a new footing, for now _Lothian_ and _Strathclyde_
were as independent of England as the real _Scotland_ had originally
been. The long time of common suffering and common struggles had done
for the nation what the good time before it had failed to do. It had
knit together the three strands of the different races into one cord
of national unity too strong for any outer influence again to sever.
But during the long war there had also arisen that intense hatred of
everything English which warped the future growth of the nation. This
hatred drove Scotland to seek in France the model and ally that she
had hitherto found in England, and the influence of France can from
this period be distinctly traced in the laws, the architecture, and the
manners of the people. Robert's treaty with France was the beginning of
the future foreign policy of Scotland. This was to make common cause
with France against England, which country Scotland pledged herself to
invade whenever France declared war against it.

=4. Robert's Parliaments.=--Two of the meetings of the Estates or
Parliaments of this reign deserve notice. That of 1318 settled the
succession to the crown: first, on the direct male heirs in order
of seniority; next on the direct female heirs; failing both, on the
next of kin. An Act was also passed by this parliament forbidding all
holders of estates in Scotland from taking the produce or revenues
of these lands out of the kingdom. This law acted as a sentence of
forfeiture on the so-called Scottish barons who had larger estates
in England than in Scotland, and who preferred living in the richer
country. In the parliament of 1326, held at _Cambuskenneth_, the _third
Estate_, that is, the members from the _burghs_, was first recognized
as an essential part of the _National Assembly_.

=5. His Death.=--King Robert owed his crown to the people and to
the clergy; of the nobles but few were with him. His reign made a
great change in the baronage, for with the forfeited estates of his
opponents he laid the foundation of other families, the _Douglases_
for instance, who in after-times proved the dangerous rivals of his
own descendants. This was partly owing to his mistaken policy in
granting royalties or royal powers within their own domains to certain
of his own kindred and supporters. This practice, though at the time
it strengthened his own hands, in the end weakened the power of the
Crown. He died at _Cardross_ in 1329, leaving one son. He was greatly
mourned by the people, for he had won their sympathy by the struggles
of his early career, and had become their pride by his final victories.
They were justly proud of having a king who was no mere puppet in the
hands of others, fit only to wear a crown and to spend money, but a
brave, wise man, who had shown himself as able to suffer want and to
fight against ill-fortune as the best and bravest among themselves.
After King Robert's death, Douglas, to fulfil his last wish, set out
with his heart for Spain with a gallant following of the best gentlemen
in Scotland. In a skirmish with the Moors, he was surrounded by the
enemy, while hastening to the help of a brother knight. When he saw
his danger, he took from his neck the silken cord from which hung the
Bruce's heart, cast it on before him into the thickest of the fight,
crying out, "Pass first in fight as thou art wont to do, and Douglas
will follow thee or die." True to his word, he fell fighting valiantly,
and his body was found near the casket, which held the heart of the
friend and leader whom in life he had loved so well. Douglas was tall
and strong, and his dark skin and black hair won him the nickname of
the "_Black Douglas_." The English hated and feared him, but his own
people loved him well and remembered him long after his death.

=6. David II., 1320-1370.=--_David_, who was only eight years old
when his father died, was crowned at _Scone_ and _anointed_ which
no King of Scots had ever before been, as this was considered the
special right of independent sovereigns only. The government was in
the hands of _Randolf_, who had been appointed _Regent_ by the Estates
before the death of the late king. In the early part of the reign the
country was torn by a struggle which, as it was really a civil war, was
more dangerous to its independence and more hurtful to the national
character than the long war with the English had been. This war was
caused by those barons who, holding large estates in England, had, by
marriage or by inheritance, become possessed of lands in Scotland,
which they lost by the Act of the last reign against absentees.
Hitherto the so-called Scottish nobles had been Norman barons, with
equal interests in both kingdoms, but this act forced them to decide
for one or the other. Hence it was the mere chance of the respective
value of their lands that decided whether such names as Percy and
Douglas should be feared north or south of the Border.

=7. Edward Balliol's Invasion.=--These disinherited barons gathered
round _Edward Balliol_, the son of _King John_, and determined on an
invasion of Scotland on their own account, giving out that they came
to win back the crown for him. Just at this time of threatened danger
the Regent died, and was succeeded in his trust by _Donald, Earl of
Mar_, another nephew of King Robert. The invaders landed on the coast
of _Fife_, and at _Duplin_ in _Strathearn_ they defeated a large
army under the command of the Regent, who was slain. They then took
possession of _Perth_, and crowned Balliol at _Scone_, September 24th,
1332. He acknowledged himself the vassal of Edward of England; but the
latter did not openly take a part in the war, until the Scots, by their
frequent raids across the Border, could be said to have broken the
Peace of Northampton.

=8. Battle of Halidon Hill.=--In the spring of 1333, Edward the Third
invested Berwick, and the governor agreed to give it up if it were not
relieved by the Scots within a given time. The new Regent, _Archibald
Douglas_, brother to the Good Lord James, marched to raise the siege.
It was very much the case of Bannockburn reversed, for now the English
had the advantage of being posted on _Halidon Hill_, close by the town,
while the Scots, the assailants, had to struggle through a marsh.
The English archers won the day; the Regent was killed; _Berwick_
was forced to yield; and _Balliol_ gave it over to the English, and
placed all the strongholds south of the Forth in their hands. For three
years longer there was much fighting on the Border with pretty equal
success, until the French wars drew the attention of Edward the Third
from Scotland, and then the national party began to get the upper hand.
David, Earl of Athole, Balliol's chief supporter, was defeated and
slain at Culbleen, in the Highlands; and when Robert the High Steward
became Regent in 1338, he won back the strongholds. Soon after, Balliol
left the kingdom, and in 1341 David and his Queen _Joan of England_
came home from France, where he had been sent to be out of the way of
the troubles. Five years of comparative peace followed. A succession of
truces were made with England, but they were not strictly kept on the
Border.

=9. Capture of the King.=--While Edward was busy with the siege of
Calais, David, to keep up the spirit of the alliance with France,
broke the truce between England and Scotland by invading England. He
was defeated and captured by the Archbishop of York at the head of
the force of the northern counties in 1346. The battle in which he
was taken was called the battle of _Neville's Cross_, from a cross
afterwards put up to mark the field by _Sir Ralph Neville_. For eleven
years David remained a captive, and Scotland was governed by the
former _Regent_, the _Steward_. During that time Berwick was won and
lost again. Edward, to whom Balliol had handed over his claim to the
kingdom for a pension of two thousand pounds, brought an English army
as far as the Forth. As they could neither find provisions to sustain
them nor an enemy to fight with, they were forced to return; but they
had left such traces of their progress on churches and dwelling-houses
that their inroad was remembered as the "burnt Candlemas." In 1347
David was released, the ransom being fixed at 100,000 marks. He made
many after-visits to England, and proposed to the Estates, that
_Lionel_, the second son of _Edward_, should succeed him, but to this
they would not agree. He died in 1370, and left no children. After the
death of Joan he had married Margaret Logie, a woman of obscure birth.

=10. Robert II., 1370-1390.=--David was succeeded by his sister's son,
_Robert_, the _Steward_ of the kingdom. This office was hereditary,
and it gradually passed into the surname of the family who held it and
became common to the different branches. The stewardship was first
granted to _Walter Fitz-Alan_, a Breton baron, by David. Robert was
allowed to mount the throne unopposed. It had been feared that _William
Lord Douglas_, who through his mother, a sister of the _Red Comyn_,
represented the claim that had been resigned by the _Balliols_, would
have disputed his right to the throne, but he did not. Robert was twice
married. His first wife was _Elizabeth More_, by whom he had four
sons and several daughters. After her death he married _Euphemia_,
daughter of the _Earl of Ross_, and had two sons and four daughters.
The descendants of this second marriage claimed the crown on the ground
that the dispensation from Rome had not been obtained, which, as Robert
and Elizabeth were near of kin, was needful to make the marriage valid,
and the children legitimate. Dispensations for each marriage have since
been discovered, which decide the right of Robert's first family.

=11. The French Allies.=--At the end of the truce with England, in
1385, war broke out again. The French sent a body of 2,000 men, 1,000
stands of armour, and 50,000 gold pieces to the aid of their allies
the Scots. _Sir John de Vienne_, Admiral of France, was the leader
of the French auxiliaries. _Richard the Second_ of England, with an
army of 70,000 men, invaded Scotland, and marched as far north as the
_Forth_. But the country had been wasted before him, so that the only
harm he could do was to destroy _Melrose Abbey_. Meanwhile the Scots
had harried the northern counties of his own kingdom with their French
allies. The French afterwards said that in the dioceses of Carlisle
and Durham they had burned more than the value of all the towns in
Scotland. But the Frenchmen despised the poverty of the Scots, and were
disgusted with their way of fighting; and as the Scots in return were
uncivil and inhospitable to them, they went away before long, and were
as glad to get back to their own land as the Scots were to get rid of
them.

=12. Raid of Otterburn.=--A few years later the Scots barons made
another raid on the north of England. An army 5,000 strong mustered
at Jedburgh. By the capture of an English spy, they learned that
the English meant to keep out of their way, and, while they entered
England, to make a counter-raid on the south of Scotland. To defeat
this plan the Scots parted their force into two bands, one of which
was to enter England on the east, the other on the west. The eastern
division, under the Earls of _Douglas_, _Dunbar_, and _Moray_, swept
the country as far as _Durham_. As they were returning laden with
spoil, they tarried three days near _Newcastle_, where were gathered
the English barons under _Ralph_ and _Henry Percy_, sons of the _Earl
of Northumberland_, the Warden of the Marches. Many skirmishes then
took place between the two forces. In one of these Douglas took the
pennon of Sir Henry Percy, surnamed _Hotspur_, and challenged him to
come to his tent and win it back. The next day the Scots moved off and
encamped near _Otterburn Tower_. Percy hurried after them and attacked
them in the night. The Scots, though fewer in number, had the advantage
of being in a well-defended camp. They won the day, but the victory
was dearly bought, for Douglas was slain in the fight. This battle, in
which many lives were lost without any real cause, and without doing
any good whatever, was reckoned one of the best fought battles of that
warlike time. It was all hand to hand fighting, and all the knights
engaged in it on both sides showed great valour. Their feats of arms
have been commemorated in the spirit-stirring ballad of _Chevy Chase_.
The Scots came back to their own land, bringing with them Hotspur and
more than forty English knights whom they had taken prisoners. This
fight, which was called the Raid of Otterburn, took place in August
1388.

Robert died in 1390. He left the country at peace; for a truce between
England and France, taking in Scotland as an ally of the latter, had
been made the year before.

=13. Robert III., 1390-1406.=--The eldest son of the late King was
_John_, but, as Balliol had made this name odious to the people,
he changed it at his coronation to _Robert_. The country was in a
miserable state. The nobles had been so long used to war with England
that they could not bear to be at peace. They fought with one another,
and preyed on the peasants and burghers. As the King was too weak both
in mind and body to restrain them, the Estates placed the sovereign
power in the hands of his son _David_, who was created _Duke of
Rothesay_. This is the first time the title of Duke appears in Scottish
history. Rothesay was to act as the King's Lieutenant for three years,
with the advice of a council chosen by the Estates. Meanwhile the
real rulers were the King's two brothers, _Robert, Duke of Albany_,
and _Alexander, Earl of Buchan_, who was master of the country north
of the Firths, where his ferocity won him the surname of the _Wolf
of Badenoch_. Albany, anxious, as he gave out, to restrain the wild
follies of his nephew _Rothesay_, seized him and confined him in
_Falkland Castle_. There he died. Albany said that he had died from
natural causes, but the people believed that he had been starved by his
uncle. After his death, Albany, with his associate _Archibald, Earl of
Douglas_, was cleared of suspicion by an act of the Estates. He was
afterwards appointed Governor.

=14. Clan Battle near Perth.=--During this reign there was a deadly
combat between two bands of _Highlanders_ on a meadow by the _Tay_,
called the _North Inch of Perth_. The King and his nobles, and a vast
crowd of persons of all ranks, gathered to see them fight. There were
thirty chosen men on each side, and they fought as was their wont, with
axes, swords, or bows, and wore no armour. Before the fight began one
man left the ranks, swam the Tay, and fled. One _Henry Wynd_, called
"_Gow Chrom_," or the "Crooked Smith," was hired to fill his place.
They fought with fury, and did not leave off till ten men, all wounded,
were left on the one side, and one only upon the other. Gow Chrom did
such good service that he is said to have won the victory for the clan
that had enlisted his services, though it is said he knew so little
about the matter that he was quite uncertain which side he was fighting
for. Like Otterburn, this slaughter simply showed the skill of the
combatants in killing one another. The name of the clans engaged, and
their cause of quarrel, if they had any, have been alike forgotten.

=15. Relations with England.=--In 1400, soon after the end of the
truce, _Henry the Fourth_, who by a revolution had been placed on his
cousin Richard's throne, revived the old claim over Scotland in order
to make himself popular with the English. He announced his intention
of coming to _Edinburgh_ to receive the homage of the King and of
the nobles, and to enforce his demand he marched as far as Leith at
the head of an army. This was the most harmless invasion on record,
for, as usual, the Scots had got out of the way, and the English had
to retreat without finding an enemy to fight with. About this time
_George of Dunbar, Earl of March_, shifted his allegiance to _Henry_.
He was offended because _Rothesay_ married a daughter of his great
rival _Douglas_, instead of his own daughter _Elizabeth_, to whom he
was betrothed. In 1402 he joined Sir Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, and
defeated an invading body of the Scots under Douglas at _Homildon_.
This was much such an affair as _Otterburn_, only this time the English
won and Douglas was taken prisoner. He afterwards joined the Percies
in their rebellion against Henry and fought with them at _Shrewsbury_.
Albany had an army on the Border ready to help the rebels, but their
defeat and dispersion brought his plan to nothing. But Albany hit
on another way of threatening Henry. He entertained at the Scottish
court a person whom he received as the dethroned _Richard_, who had
been discovered in disguise, so the story ran, a fugitive in the
_Western Isles_. In 1405, however, chance threw into Henry's hands an
important prize. This was _James, Earl of Carrick_, second son of the
King, and heir to the throne. He was captured by the English, in time
of truce, while on his way to France, whither he was sent, nominally
to be educated, but really to be out of the reach of his dangerous
uncle. Thus, as the head of each government had a hostage for the good
behaviour of the other, there was no open war between the two nations.
In 1406 Robert died.

=16. Albany's Regency.=--The death of Robert made no change in the
government, though the young King was acknowledged as _James the
First_. There was nominal peace with England, but the work of winning
back the Border strongholds still went on. Jedburgh was retaken and
destroyed, as the best means of securing it against foreign occupation
in future.

=17. Battle of Harlaw.=--The kingdom was now threatened on the other
border, the northern march which parted the Saxons of the north-eastern
Lowlands from the Celtic clans of the mountains. The hatred between the
hostile races had been growing more and more bitter, and was fostered
by constant inroads on the one hand and cruel laws upon the other. The
time seemed now to have come when there must be a trial of strength
between them. The head of the Celts was _Donald, Lord of the Isles_,
who, though he had sworn fealty to David the Second, again claimed
sovereign power over all the clans of the West, and entered into
treaties with England as though he had been an independent monarch. He
claimed the _Earldom of Ross_ in right of his wife, as her niece, the
heiress, had taken the veil. By getting this earldom, the Lord of the
Isles became lord over half the kingdom, and he resolved to invade the
territory of the King, whom he looked on as a rival. Now the district
that lay nearest him, the Lowlands north of the Forth, as it had not
been touched by the Border wars, was at this time at once the richest
part of the kingdom and the part least accustomed to self-defence.
Great therefore was the terror of the burghers and husbandmen at the
news that a horde of plundering savages would soon be let loose upon
them. They took up arms in their own defence, and they were fortunate
in finding a leader whose experience, gained in similar warfare on
his own account, well fitted him to withstand the ambitious Donald.
This was _Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar_, the illegitimate son of
the Wolf of Badenoch. He had won his reputation by valour in the
French wars, and his earldom by carrying off and marrying an heiress,
who was Countess of Mar in her own right. The rival races met at
_Harlaw_, in Aberdeenshire, July 24, 1411. Here, as at Bannockburn,
the determination and stedfastness of each man in the smaller force
decided the fortune of the day. For, though the Highlanders, reckless
of life, charged again and again, they made no impression on the small
compact mass that kept the way against them, and they were at last
forced to retreat. This battle was justly looked on as a great national
deliverance, greater even than the victory at Bannockburn, and many
privileges and immunities were granted to the heirs of those who had
fallen.

=18. The Scots in France.=--During the Regency the Scots did good
service to their old allies of France, who were sorely pressed by the
English. Henry the Fifth of England had conquered nearly all France,
and had been proclaimed heir of the French king. A company of 700
Scots, led by _John Stewart, Earl of Buchan_, second son of Albany,
went to the help of the French. They arrived safely in France, in spite
of the careful watch upon the seas kept up by the English in order to
prevent them. By their aid the French gained their first victory in
this war at the battle of _Beaugé_ in 1421. Buchan was made _Constable_
of France. He was then sent back to Scotland on an embassy to seek the
help of _Douglas_ on the part of the King of France. An alliance was
made between them in 1423, and Douglas came to France, where the rich
_Duchy of Touraine_ and many other lands were conferred upon him. But
Douglas was slain not long after at the battle of _Verneuil_ in 1424.
Most of the Scots fell with him, for the English refused them quarter,
as Henry had James of Scotland in his camp, and he gave orders that
all the Scots bearing arms on the French side should be looked upon as
traitors fighting against their King. The remnant that were left were
formed into a royal bodyguard, the beginning of the famous _Scots_
_Guard_ of the French kings. Archibald, Earl of Douglas, who fell at
Verneuil, was called "_Tine-man_," or lose-man, because in every battle
in which he took part he fought on the losing side.

=19. Death of Albany.=--Albany died in 1419. His son _Murdoch_
succeeded him as Governor, but there is no record of his being
confirmed in that office by the Estates. As he had not the talents
of his father, he had no control over the barons. Every man was his
own master, and the land was filled with violence. The obvious remedy
was to bring home the King, and Douglas and some of the other nobles
treated with the English government for his release.

=20. Summary.=--Under the immediate successors of Robert the First,
Scotland nearly lost all the advantages which he had won for her. The
country was torn by civil strife; the kings were weak and useless;
the nobles became so strong and overbearing that their power more
than equalled that of the Crown, and they set at nought the King's
authority. All social improvement was at a standstill. Still we find
during this period the first stirrings of a desire for increase of
knowledge and greater liberty of religious thought. Two events mark
this: the burning of _John Reseby_, with his books, on a charge of
heresy, at _Perth_ in 1408; and the opening of the first University in
Scotland, founded at _St. Andrews_ by _Henry Wardlaw_, the bishop, in
1410. The history of Scotland was now first written by two natives of
the country; _John of Fordun_, who wrote the "_Scotichronicon_," and
_Andrew Wyntoun_, who wrote a metrical chronicle.


CHAPTER V.

THE JAMESES.

  _Return of the King_ (1)--_state of the Highlands_
     (2)--_murder of James_ (3)--_judicial reforms_ (4)--_James
     II._ (5)--_Crichton and Livingstone_ (6)--_the Douglases_
     (7)--_majority of James_; _fall of Douglas_ (8)--_siege of
     Roxburgh_ (9)--_James III._ (10)--_Orkney and Shetland_
     (11)--_relations with England_ (12)--_revolt of the nobles_
     (13)--_battle of Sauchieburn_ (14)--_Church matters_
     (15)--_James IV._ (16)--_English intrigues_ (17)--_state
     of the Highlands_ (18)--_differences with England_
     (19)--_battle of Flodden_ (20)--_state of the Church_
     (21)--_James V._ (22)--_Albany's regency_ (23)--_English
     interference_ (24)--_the "Erection"_ (25)--_fall of Angus_
     (26)--_internal affairs_ (27)--_English war_ (28)--_death
     of James_; _his character_ (29)--_Mary_ (30)--_treaties
     with England_ (31)--_first English invasion_ (32)--_second
     English invasion_ (33)--_third English invasion_; _fight at
     Pinkie_ (34)--_internal affairs_ (35)--_Regency of Mary of
     Lorraine_; _first marriage of Mary Stewart_ (36)--_social
     progress_ (37)--_state of education and literature_
     (38)--_summary_ (39).


=1. James I., 1424-1436. Return of the King.=--In 1424 James came home
and brought with him his English wife, _Joan_, daughter of the _Earl of
Somerset_. As he had been taken in time of peace, a ransom could not
decently be demanded, but the Scots were required to pay forty thousand
pounds to defray the expenses of his eighteen years' maintenance and
education. The King, now at last restored to his kingdom, let eight
months pass quietly before taking vengeance on those who had so long
kept him out of it. He spent this time in winning the confidence of
the people and of the lesser barons. He then seized _Albany_, his two
sons, and twenty-six other nobles at _Perth_, whither they had come
to attend the Parliament. _Albany_ and his two sons were tried before
a jury of twenty-one peers, many of whom sat only to secure their
own safety. They were found guilty of treason and put to death at
_Stirling_. James himself presided at the trial, thereby reviving the
ancient practice of the King's personal administration of justice.

=2. The Highlands.=--When James had thus got rid of his dangerous
cousins, he turned his attention to the _Highlands_ and _Western
Isles_, which presented a strange mixture of Celtic and of feudal
manners. They were ruled partly by Norman barons, and partly by native
chiefs, and these barons or chiefs were both alike upheld by that
personal devotion of their vassals which was the strong point of Celtic
clanship. James summoned the chiefs to a parliament at _Inverness_ in
1427. They obeyed the summons, and were at once seized and imprisoned.
Three of them were hanged at that time. Several others shared the same
fate at a later date. Others were imprisoned, and a small remnant only
allowed to go away unhurt. _Alexander, Lord of the Isles_, was among
these last, and the first use he made of his recovered liberty was
to bring his islemen down on Inverness, which they destroyed. James
hurried northward again and defeated him in _Lochaber_. Alexander gave
himself up to the King's grace, and was confined in _Tantalion Castle_.
But his kinsman, _Donald Balloch_, set himself at the head of the clans
and they defeated the royal army. James determined to crush the Celts
once and for ever. An additional tax was levied for the purpose, and
James set out once more for the north. But the chiefs, who saw that the
King was just then too strong for them, met him with proffers of homage
and submission. Such submissions were, however, practically worthless.
In the eyes of the Celts they were just as little binding as the
parchment title-deeds by which the government sought to change their
chiefs into feudal barons.

=3. Murder of James.=--The policy of James was to reduce the power
of the baronage, and to balance it by strengthening the clergy and
encouraging the commons. He made strict search into the titles by
which the several nobles held their lands, and more especially into
the actual state of the estates which had been held by the Crown
in the time of Robert the First. He deprived the Earl of March of
his earldom, on the ground that Albany, who had restored it to him,
had not the power to confer upon him the estates which he had once
forfeited by the transfer of his allegiance to England. James also
took from _Malise Grahame_ his earldom of _Strathearn_, which he had
inherited through his mother, on the ground that it was a male fief.
He therefore transferred it to the next male heir, _Walter Stewart,
Earl of Athole_, grand-uncle of Grahame, the only surviving son of
Robert the Second. These measures roused the dislike and distrust of
the class they were aimed at, and a conspiracy was formed against the
King. At its head was _Sir Robert Grahame_, uncle of Malise, who had
been banished for denouncing the King's doings in Parliament. Through
the connivance of the Earl of Athole, the High Chamberlain, the
conspirators got entrance to the King's quarters, when he was keeping
his Christmas in the monastery of the _Black Friars_ at _Perth_, and
there they treacherously murdered him, 1436. James left one son and
five daughters. _Margaret_, the eldest, was married to the _Dauphin_,
afterwards _Louis the Eleventh of France_.

=4. Judicial Reforms.=--James held many parliaments, and pretty nearly
all are noteworthy for passing wise measures for the common good. In
his first parliament, the "_Committee of the Articles_," which dated
from the reign of David the Second, was acknowledged as an established
part of the parliament. This committee was elected by the parliament
at the beginning of its session, and nearly the whole power of the
Estates was made over to the persons chosen to form it, who were called
the _Lords of the Articles_. They consulted together and considered
the Articles presented to them in parliament, which were then passed
by the vote of the Estates and became law. This custom, by which the
business of the whole parliament was left in the hands of a committee,
was afterwards found to be the weakest point of the legislature, and
paved the way for a great deal of bribery and corruption. Statute law
in Scotland dates from this reign, as it was James who first caused a
collection of statutes to be made, and separated those that were still
in force from those that had fallen out of use. He also regulated
weights and measures, and fixed a standard for the coinage, so that
it should be of the same weight and fineness as the money in England.
From his reign also dates the appointment of the office of _Treasurer_;
the publication of the acts of parliament in the language spoken by
the people; the first effort towards the representation of the lesser
barons by commissaries; and an attempt to establish a supreme court
of civil jurisdiction, which was to consist of the _Chancellor_ and
three other persons chosen by the Estates, and to sit three times a
year. In order that the Scottish people might learn to compete with the
English bowmen, James established schools in the different parishes for
the practice of archery. In short, he strove in every way to make his
people profit by what he had learnt and observed during his long exile
in England. He was a patron of learning, and was himself a scholar and
one of the earliest and best English poets. The longest of his poems is
called the "_King's Quhair_" or book. In it he sang his love for his
fair English bride in strains that prove him to have been a true poet.
It is written in stanzas of seven lines each, a very favourite measure
in those days, which was afterwards called the "roial rime" in memory
of this poet-king.

=5. James II., 1436-1460.=--The young King, who was only six years old
when his father was killed, was crowned at _Holyrood_, as _Scone_,
the customary crowning-place, was too near the Highlands, where the
conspirators had taken refuge, to be safe. He was then taken by his
mother for greater security to _Edinburgh Castle_. The object of the
murderers was to place on the throne the Earl of Athole, who, as being
the son of the second marriage of Robert the Second, was looked on as
the true heir by the party who held that the first marriage of that
king was not valid. If this were their design, it was not seconded by
the people, who were filled with sorrow and anger at the death of the
King, who had made himself popular by all the good he had done for
them. A hue-and-cry was raised after the murderers, who were taken and
put to death with cruel tortures.

=6. Crichton and Livingstone.=--The first part of the reign was a
struggle for the wardship of the King's person, which gave nearly
royal power to whoever held it. The rivals for this honour were
_William Crichton_, the _Chancellor_ and governor of Edinburgh Castle;
_Alexander Livingstone_, the governor of _Stirling_, the other great
stronghold; and the _Queen-mother_. The Queen, who feared that
Crichton would try to separate the young King from her if she stayed
in Edinburgh, succeeded in getting herself and her child out of his
hands by a stealthy flight to _Stirling_. But she soon found that they
had only changed jailers, for Livingstone kept as strict a guard over
the King as Crichton had done. A few years later she married _Stewart,
Lord of Lorn_, after which she took no further part in public affairs.
Her flight to Stirling gave Livingstone for a time the advantage in
the possession of the King, till Crichton contrived to kidnap him
back to Edinburgh. But as the rivals found that it would be more for
the interest of each to act in concert with the other, they made an
agreement, by which James was sent back to the custody of Livingstone.

=7. The House of Douglas.=--_Archibald, Earl of Douglas_, was at this
time the most powerful baron in Scotland. Besides holding _Galloway_,
_Annandale_, and other great estates in Scotland, he had inherited
the _Duchy of Touraine_, which had been conferred on his father by
the King of France for good service done against the English, and in
his foreign duchy he possessed wealth and splendour beyond anything
that the Scottish king could boast. The family still had a hold on the
popular favour won for them by the Good Lord James. They had also some
pretensions to the crown of Scotland, for _Archibald_, brother and heir
of the Good Lord James, had married a sister of the _Red Comyn_, who
was slain by Bruce. The Douglases therefore represented the claim of
the _Comyns_, which, as we have seen, was better than that of _Bruce_.
They were also descendants of _Robert the Second_, through _Euphemia_,
one of the children of his second marriage, to whom those who looked
on his first family as illegitimate held that the crown ought to have
gone. _Douglas_ had been chosen _Lieutenant-Governor_ of the kingdom,
and had ample power to quiet the rival parties had he chosen to
exercise it. But he did not, and his nominal government was ended by
his death in 1439. _William_, his son, who at seventeen succeeded to
all this pride and power, kept up a state and retinue almost royal,
and much violence and oppression were laid to his charge. Crichton
and Livingstone agreed to compass his downfall, and for this end they
invited him and his brother _David_ to visit the King at Edinburgh.
They came, were seized, and, after the form of a trial, were beheaded
in the Castle-yard. The power of their house was thus broken for a
time. The estates were divided; part went with the title to their
grand-uncle _James_, the male heir, while _Galloway_ went to their
sister _Margaret_. But on the death of James they were re-united, for
his son _William_ married _Margaret of Galloway_, his cousin. He then
went to court, to do his duty, as he said, to his sovereign, pretended
that the King had chosen him _Lieutenant-General_ of the kingdom, and
got most of the power into his own hands. He and Livingstone joined,
and tried to make Crichton give up the seals by besieging him in
Edinburgh Castle; but he held out so well that they were forced to make
terms with him. Douglas grew more proud and powerful every year. He
was already lord of nearly all the southern country, and he joined in
a bond with the great chiefs of the north,--the _Lord of the Isles_,
who was now _Earl of Ross_, and _Alexander, Earl of Crawford_, the
head of the house of _Lindsay_ and representative of the fallen _Earls
of March_. He held meetings of his vassals, to which he summoned all
those who either were or, as he thought, ought to be his dependants.
Nor did he scruple to put to death any who opposed him, in direct
defiance of the King's commands. But as the Earl's retainers numbered
5,000, while the King had not so much as a bodyguard, his commands were
not easily enforced. On one occasion the King sent _Sir Patrick Gray_
to demand the release of his nephew, _M'Lellan_, tutor or guardian of
the young _Laird of Bunby_, or Bomby, whom Douglas had put in ward
because he failed to appear at one of the gatherings of his vassals.
Douglas received him courteously, but said he could on no account hear
the King's message till his visitor had dined. Meanwhile he had the
prisoner brought out and beheaded. When he heard the King's order he
feigned great respect for it, and, showing the body, said, "There lies
your sister's son; he wants the head, but the body is at your service."
Sir Patrick had to hide his anger as best he might till he had got safe
out of his hands.

=8. Majority of James.= =Fall of Douglas.=--The King's majority was
soon followed by the ruin of _Livingstone_. _Douglas_ was too strong
to be openly attacked. He was invited to _Stirling_ and received in a
friendly way. James remonstrated with him about the bonds, and urged
him to break them off. Douglas refused. James in a fit of passion cried
out, "If you will not break the bonds, this shall," and stabbed him.
Sir Patrick Gray, who stood by, killed him with his pole-axe. They then
threw the mangled body into the courtyard. This savage deed plunged
the whole country into civil war. _James_, the brother and heir of
the murdered Earl, openly defied the King; that is, he renounced his
allegiance to him as a traitor and a perjured man. His cause was taken
up by the parties to the bond, the _Earls of Ross_ and _Crawford_. The
King, who felt himself too weak to break the confederacy, was forced to
turn to his own advantage the enmity among his nobles, and to pull down
one house by building up another. This policy only changed the name of
the rivals of the Crown, without getting rid of them, and it laid the
foundation of the like troubles in future reigns. In the north James
entrusted the conduct of the war to the head of the house of _Gordon_,
whom he created _Earl of Huntly_, and whose lands lay between those of
the banded Earls. In the south the _Earl of Angus_, the head of the
_Red_ Douglases as they were called, was made use of to overthrow the
_Black_ Douglases, the elder branch of the family. The question whether
James Stewart or James Douglas should wear the crown was settled by
a battle at _Arkinholm_, in _Eskdale_ in 1454. Douglas was forsaken
by many of his followers, and was defeated and fled to England. An
act of forfeiture was passed against him and all his house, and, to
prevent any one family again becoming so formidable, another act was
passed, which made _Galloway_ and certain other lordships and castles
inalienable from the Crown. But, in spite of this, the greater part of
the lands of the fallen Douglas went to his kinsman Angus. Many other
families also, among them the _Hamiltons_, rose from the ruins of the
Black Douglases. Sir James Hamilton, the head of the house, had been
one of the adherents of the Earl, but he deserted to the royal side on
the eve of the battle of Arkinholm.

=9. Siege of Roxburgh.=--As the strife which was at this time going on
between the Yorkists and Lancastrians kept the English busy at home,
there was comparative peace on the Border, broken only by an inroad
from Percy and the banished Douglas. James took the part of Henry VI.,
and raised a large army with the intention of invading England in his
favour. But there was no serious war, and James saw that there was now
a good chance of winning back the towns which the English still held in
Scotland. He therefore laid siege to _Roxburgh_, and was killed there
by the bursting of a large cannon which he was watching with great
interest. After his death the Queen urged on the siege, and Roxburgh
was taken and destroyed. This siege is noteworthy as being among the
first in which we hear of the use of artillery in Scotland. Another
notable feature of it was the presence of the Lord of the Isles with
an auxiliary force, for which service he was made one of the Wardens
of the Border. James had married _Mary_, the daughter of the _Duke of
Gelders_, and left four sons, the eldest only eight years old. The
second university in Scotland was founded in this reign, at _Glasgow_,
by _Bishop Turnbull_.

=10. James III., 1460-1488.=--During the first part of this reign,
_Kennedy, Bishop of St. Andrews_, had the chief part in the government.
He died in 1466, and on his death the _Boyds_ got hold of the King and
of the chief power. These _Boyds_ were originally simple lairds, but
they strengthened themselves by bonds with more powerful families,
won the King's favour and finally got possession of his person, by
making him come with them, partly by persuasion, partly by force, from
_Stirling_ to _Edinburgh_. They then obtained an act of the Estates
declaring that this step had been taken with the full consent and good
pleasure of the King. The _Lord Boyd_ was appointed guardian of his
person and of the royal strongholds, his son _Thomas_ was created _Earl
of Arran_, and with the earldom the King's sister _Mary_ was given him
in marriage.

=11. Annexation of Orkney and Shetland.=--For many years the rent of
the _Western Isles_ had not been paid to the _King of Norway_. There
were heavy arrears due to him which had been demanded in the last
reign. It was now agreed to settle the matter peaceably by the marriage
of _James_ with _Margaret_, daughter of _Christian of Norway_, in 1469.
Her dowry was the claim for the arrears and 60,000 florins, in security
for which the _Orkney and Shetland Isles_ were placed as pledges in the
hands of the King of Scotland. These islands have never been redeemed
by payment of the sum agreed on. _Arran_ had been chiefly concerned
in bringing about this marriage. During his absence at the court of
Christian his enemies were busy in compassing his fall. His wife sent
him timely warning of his danger, and he fled first to _Denmark_
and finally to _England_, whither his father had also escaped. But
_Alexander_, the younger son, was made the scapegoat for the sins of
his kindred. He was seized, tried, and put to death for his share in
kidnapping the King, which was now denounced as treason. The family
estates were forfeited, and most of them were declared inalienable from
the Crown.

=12. Relations with England.=--In the beginning of the reign, _Edward
the Fourth_ kept up a seeming show of friendliness, but he was secretly
treating with _Douglas_ and the _Lord of the Isles_ to the effect that
they should hold the two parts of Scotland as principalities dependent
on England. The end of this underhand dealing was that _John_, son of
the Lord of the Isles, invaded and wasted the district that was to
be his principality, all the country north of the Scots Water. This
led to the final breaking up of the lordship of the Isles, for he was
called to account for his rebellion, and was required to resign the
districts of _Knapdale_ and _Kintyre_, the original Scottish kingdom;
the sheriffdoms of _Inverness_ and _Nairn_, and the earldom of _Ross_,
which was vested in the Crown. In exchange for his proud but doubtful
title of Lord of the Isles, he was made a peer of parliament. In 1474
a marriage was arranged between Edward's daughter _Cecily_ and _James_
the Prince of Scotland. It was broken off owing to a quarrel between
the King and his brothers, _Alexander Duke of Albany_, and _John
Earl of Mar_. They were much more popular than James, and, when Mar
died suddenly in _Craigmillar Castle_, James was suspected of having
poisoned him. Albany was arrested and confined in Edinburgh Castle on
a charge of treasonable dealings with Edward. He escaped to _France_
in hopes of getting _Louis the Eleventh_ to take his part, but he
found a more willing helper in Edward. An agreement was made that
Edward should place Albany on the throne of Scotland, that he should
hold it, and that he should marry the _Lady Cecily_. After divers
threatening messages had been exchanged between the two governments,
and many threatenings of attack had been made, a great Scottish army
was mustered to invade England in good earnest.

=13. Revolt of the Nobles.=--The King had always been unpopular with
his nobles. His love of money and of peaceable pursuits found little
sympathy with them, and they could neither understand nor tolerate his
fancy for making favourites of men whom they despised. The time had now
come when they could take the law into their own hands. The army raised
for the invasion of England was led by the King in person, and advanced
as far as _Lauder_ in Berwickshire. There the nobles met together, with
old _Angus_ at their head, to devise some way of getting rid of the
most hated of these favourites. This was _Robert Cochrane_, a mason
or architect, to whom the King had given the control of the artillery
in this expedition. He had also conferred on him the revenues of the
earldom of _Mar_, and _Cochrane_, going a step further, had assumed
the title. While they were deliberating, the _Lord Gray_, so the story
goes, quoted the old fable of the mice and the cat, meaning thereby
that all their talk would come to nothing unless one of their number
was bold enough to attack their enemy. On this _Archibald Earl of
Angus_ cried out, "Heed not, I'll bell the cat." This saying won him
the nickname of "Bell the Cat." While they thus sat in council in the
church, Cochrane himself knocked at the door and demanded admittance in
the name of the King. The finery which he wore, the chain of massive
gold thrown round his neck, the jewelled horn that dangled from it, the
gilt helmet borne before him, still further heated the wrath of the
lords. They seized him, and with many insults accused him of misguiding
the King and the government. Meanwhile they had sent a band of armed
men to the King's tent to secure _Rogers_, a musician, and the other
favourites. They then hanged them all over _Lauder Bridge_. _John
Ramsay of Balmain_ was the only one of the favourites who was spared to
the entreaties of the King. The triumphant barons then brought the King
back to Edinburgh, 1482. Soon after this Albany came back, and demanded
the release of his brother, and for a short time they lived together
seemingly on good terms, while Albany really ruled. But before long
he found it most prudent to return to England, and he showed his real
designs by putting _Dunbar Castle_ into the hands of the English.

=14. Battle of Sauchieburn.=--The King, who had not learned wisdom
by the lesson of Lauder Bridge, grew more and more unpopular. A
confederacy was formed, and a large army was raised by the lords south
of the Forth. To give a show of justice to their doings, they placed
_James_ the _Prince of Scotland_ at their head, professing to have
deposed his father, and to have accepted him as their lawful king.
North of the Scots Water the country was true to James, and there he
collected a considerable force. The two armies met at _Sauchieburn_.
The King, who was not brave, turned and fled at the first sign that
the day was going against him. In his flight he was thrown from his
horse and carried to a mill built on the _Bannock Burn_, where he was
murdered by an unknown hand, 1488.

=15. Church Matters.=--In 1471 _St. Andrews_ was raised to an
_Archbishopric_. Pope Sextus the Fourth sent the pallium to _Robert
Graham_ the bishop, but this increase of dignity only proved a source
of torment to him, for his suffragans, out of jealousy, accused him of
all manner of heresies and crimes. He was deposed and degraded, and
ended his days in confinement.

=16. James IV., 1488-1513.=--The first thing to be done after the
affair of Sauchieburn was to find out what had become of the King,
and, when his death was made sure of, an inquiry was set on foot as to
the cause of it. The offices of state were transferred to the party in
power, and an act of amnesty was passed, to take in all persons who had
taken part with the late King in the struggle which the nobles pleased
to call the late rebellion. Two ineffectual risings to avenge the
murder of the King were made by the Lords _Lennox_ and _Forbes_, and
three years later, to pacify the clamours of the people, a reward of
one hundred marks was offered for the discovery of the actual murderers.

=17. English Intrigues.=--Just at this time Henry the Seventh of
England had his hands too busy at home to allow of his making open
war upon Scotland, but he carried on secret schemes with _Angus_,
_Ramsay_, and others for the capture of the King. James, on the other
hand, upheld that _Perkin Warbeck_ was really _Richard, Duke of York_,
received him at his court as the son of King Edward, and gave him in
marriage his kinswoman _Lady Katharine Gordon_. A force of _French_ and
_Burgundians_ came to aid him, and an army crossed the Border, but it
did nothing, as the rising which had been planned, and was to have been
made at the same time in the north of England, did not take place. At
last James got tired of Perkin, sent him off to Ireland, though with
a princely escort, and renewed a truce with Henry, in 1497. The two
kings were drawn still closer by the marriage of _James_ with _Margaret
Tudor_, eldest daughter of Henry, in 1502.

=18. State of the Highlands.=--James paid frequent visits to _Kintyre_,
the _Isles_, and _Inverness_, and took measures for the building
of more castles and the maintenance of garrisons in those already
built. This plan might have been successful in keeping the country
quiet, if the Crown had been strong enough to carry it out. As it
was not, James was forced to fall back on the old policy of turning
the feuds of the chiefs to their own destruction, by empowering one
to act against another. Again the _Gordons_ got a great increase of
power, for their head, the _Earl of Huntly_, was appointed sheriff of
_Inverness_, _Ross_, and _Caithness_, with the condition that he should
finish and maintain a fortress at _Inverness_. In the west the charge
of keeping order was put into the hands of the Earl of Argyle, the
chief of the Campbells. An attempt was also made to break up the Isles
into sheriffdoms, and to impose upon the Highlanders the laws of the
Lowlands. A commission was issued for the banishment of broken men, as
those clansmen were called who had no representative chiefs, and an
Act was passed which made the chiefs responsible for the execution of
legal writs upon their clansmen. But the disaffected chiefs rallied
round _Donald Dhu_, an illegitimate descendant of the last _Lord of
the Isles_, and it took three years' fighting on the part of the King
and of Huntly to reduce them. _Donald_ was at last brought captive to
_Edinburgh_, and the lordship of the Isles was finally broken up in
1504.

=19. Differences with England.=--In this reign Scotland first appears
as a naval power, and this proved a new source of strife with England.
One of the King of Scots' captains, _Andrew Barton_, bore letters
of marque against the _Portuguese_, but the English accused him of
taking _English_ vessels also. He was attacked in time of truce by
the _Howards_. He himself was killed in the action, and his ship, the
_Lion_, was taken, and became the second ship in the English navy.
James had also another cause of complaint against _Henry the Eighth_,
for Henry refused to give up to his sister _Margaret_ a legacy of
jewels left to her by her father. When therefore _England_ and _France_
declared war, _Scotland_ stood by her old ally, the bond between them
was drawn closer, the right of citizenship in France was extended to
the Scots, and _Queen Anne of France_ made an appeal to the chivalrous
feeling of James by choosing him as her knight, and calling on him for
assistance. James therefore fitted out a fleet of twenty-three vessels.
Among them was a very large ship called the _Great Michael_, which was
looked on as a masterpiece of shipbuilding. This fleet was put under
the command of _James Hamilton, Earl of Arran_, with orders to sail for
France. Instead of doing this, he stormed _Carrickfergus_, and what
became of the ships was never clearly made out.

=20. Battle of Flodden.=--James also determined to invade England.
Though the cause was not popular, the King was, and a large army was
soon mustered. The King himself led the host across the Border, and
encamped on the _Till_, but, as he would not take the advice of _Angus_
and others who knew more of border fighting than he did, he mismanaged
the whole affair. He idled away the time till his own army began to
disperse and the English had time to gather; then he let them cross the
river unopposed, and finally left his strong position on the hill to
meet them hand to hand in the plain. The result was an utter defeat,
and the King, who was more eager to display his own valour than to act
the part of the general in command, was slain in the thickest of the
fight. Twelve earls and thirteen barons fell round him, and every noble
house in Scotland left some of its name on the fatal field of _Flodden_
Sept. 9, 1513. The death of _James the Fourth_ was deeply mourned, for
his reign had been peaceable and prosperous. He was popular with the
nobles, because he kept them round him, and freely spent his father's
savings; and with the commons, because of his rigorous maintenance of
justice, his encouragement of commerce and agriculture, and his easy,
kindly manners. James is described as middle-sized, handsome, and
well-made. Besides Latin and several other foreign languages, he could
speak the Irish or Gaelic, which was the native tongue of his western
subjects. During his reign Scotland was more prosperous than it had
been since the days of the last Alexander. Trade was flourishing and
on the increase, and large quantities of wool, hides, and fish were
exported to other countries.

=21. Church Matters.=--In 1492, at the petition of the _Estates_,
the _pallium_ was sent from _Rome_ to _Robert Blackadder_, Bishop of
_Glasgow_, with licence to bear the cross and all other archiepiscopal
insignia. This led to bitter strife between the two Archbishops,
who referred their disputes to the Pope, to the great wrath of the
Estates, who denounced and forbade all such appeals to Rome. The
burning of Reseby had not put a stop to the spreading of Wickliffe's
doctrines, for we find thirty persons accused of the Lollard heresy by
Blackadder. Two great steps towards the advancement of learning were
made in this reign: the one was the foundation of a third University at
Aberdeen, on the model of the University of Paris, by _Elphinstone_,
the good Bishop of _Aberdeen_; the other was the introduction of the
art of printing, by means of which knowledge could be extended to the
people. The first press was set up by _Walter Chapman_, under the
patronage of the King.

=22. James V., 1513-1542.=--The news of the defeat at _Flodden_ spread
grief and terror through the country. The citizens of Edinburgh built a
wall round their city, but its strength was not tried, for the English
army dispersed instead of advancing. The Estates met at _Perth_, and
the Queen-mother was appointed Regent, for the King was an infant only
two years old. But within a year the Queen married _Archibald_, the
young _Earl of Angus_, and the Estates then transferred the regency to
_John, Duke of Albany_, High Admiral of France, son of the brother of
James the Third. Peace was made with England, Scotland being taken in
as the ally of France in a treaty between that country and England.

=23. Albany's Regency.=--Albany's government was at first very
unpopular, for the national jealousy was roused by the number of his
_French_ followers. The Queen at first refused to give up the King,
but she was besieged in _Stirling Castle_ and obliged to yield. The
country was distracted by the brawls of the two great factions, the
_Hamiltons_ and the _Douglases_. The _Earl of Arran_ was the head of
the former, _Angus_ of the latter. The Governor put them down with the
help of the French: _Angus_ was seized and transported to _France_; his
wife fled to _England_, where he contrived to join her before long. The
_Lord Home_ and his brother, two of the few survivors of _Flodden_,
and the most powerful of the Angus faction, were seized at Edinburgh
and beheaded, after the mere form of a trial. But Albany went back
to France after he had been about a year in Scotland; and as he left
a Frenchman, _Anthony de la Bastie_, Warden of the Border, and placed
the strongholds in the hands of the French also, the Scots grew more
jealous and turbulent than before. De la Bastie fell a victim to the
national hatred of foreigners. He was killed in a border raid by one
of the _Homes_, in revenge for the death of his kinsman, the Lord
Home. The Celts in the west re-asserted their independence, and the
feud between the _Hamiltons_ and the _Douglases_ broke out worse than
ever. They brought their brawls into the very streets of the capital.
The Hamiltons laid a plan for attacking the Douglases, and making
Angus prisoner. _Gavin Douglas_, Bishop of _Dunkeld_, fearing that his
kinsmen might get the worst of it, appealed to _James Beaton_, the
primate, to stop it. Beaton solemnly declared on his conscience that
he knew nothing of the matter; and to give weight to his words, laid
his hand on his heart, and in so doing struck the breastplate which
he always wore. On this, Douglas, who heard the ring of the armour,
told him that he heard his conscience "clattering," that is, telling
tales. In the fight that followed, Angus so thoroughly routed his foes
that the fray was called "_Clear the Causeway_," and after it he held
the city with an armed force. Thus five years passed, and the Regent,
who had nominally gone back to France for a few months only, was still
absent, and it took a great deal of urging and threatening from the
Estates to bring him back to his trust.

=24. English Interference.=--It was now nine years since Flodden, and,
as there had been peace with England during that time, the country had
somewhat recovered her strength. When therefore Henry began to meddle
in the affairs of Scotland, to require that Albany should be dismissed,
and that the French connexion should be broken off, the Estates
refused and prepared for war. As the greater part of the English force
was in France, the northern counties of England were comparatively
unprotected, and it was just the time for striking an effective blow
there. Instead of doing this, Albany came to terms with _Lord Dacre_,
the _English Warden_, and the large army that had gathered round him
melted away without doing anything. But the truce was not renewed.
Dacre stormed _Jedburgh_, and the Scots mustered again. This time their
numbers were increased by the presence of some French auxiliaries whom
Albany had brought back from France, to which he had paid a second
visit. Again the army was brought to the Border without being led any
further. By this time the Scots were thoroughly disgusted with Albany,
and he with them; and shortly after this second fruitless expedition,
he sailed for France and took the Frenchmen with him, 1524.

=25. "Erection" of the King.=--No sooner was Albany gone than Henry,
through his subtle chancellor _Wolsey_, tried to make the Scots break
with France. _Margaret_, the Queen-mother, was the great upholder of
the English interest; _James Beaton_, Archbishop of St. Andrews and
Chancellor, was the leader of the French party. Wolsey tried hard to
get hold of Beaton on various pretexts, but Beaton was too cunning for
him, and held himself apart in his own strong castle of _St. Andrews_,
where he kept up dealings with France. But the English party were for
a time the stronger, and, by the advice of Henry, James, who was now
twelve years old, was set up to rule in his own name, and took his
place at the head of the parliament, August 1524. The only change
made by this step, called the _erection_, was that Albany's nominal
government was done away with, and the French influence much weakened.
Still Henry's interference was not liked, and the capture of _Francis
the First_ at _Pavia_ turned the tide of popular feeling back to the
old allies of France. Since the _erection_, Arran had been the nominal
head of the government, but in 1526 the King, who was now fourteen,
was considered old enough to choose his own guardians. He chose the
Earls of _Errol_, _Argyle_, and _Angus_, and an agreement was made that
each in succession was to have the care of the King for three months.
Angus's turn came first, but at the end of it he refused to give up
his charge, and for two years he tyrannized over both the King and his
subjects, and successfully resisted all attempts at a rescue.

=26. Fall of Angus.=--James at last contrived to make his escape by
riding in the night, disguised as a groom, from _Falkland_ to _Stirling
Castle_, 1528. Now that he was at last safely out of the hands of the
Douglases, he set to work to crush them utterly. It was made treason
for any who bore that name to come within six miles of the King,
and an act of forfeiture was passed against them. Angus had many
adherents; but as all those nobles who hoped for a share of his lands
took part with the King, they proved too strong for him, and he was at
last obliged to give in, and to flee for refuge to England. Thus the
overthrow of the _Red Douglases_ was as thorough as had been that of
the elder branch, on whose ruin they had risen.

=27. Internal Affairs.=--James began his reign by executing summary
justice on the lawless and turbulent part of his subjects. The
Borderers were now nearly as troublesome as the Highlanders. They dwelt
in the debateable ground between England and Scotland, and preyed on
either country with the greatest impartiality. Certain families, as the
_Kerrs_, _Armstrongs_, and _Scotts_, had a sort of monopoly of this
wholesale thieving; and as they had taken to the clan system of the
Celts, each robber chief in his peel tower could count, not only on
the unquestioning service, but also on the personal devotion of every
man in his following. _John Armstrong_ had made himself famous among
them by his daring deeds. For this renown James made him pay dear;
for judging that he, the most notorious offender, would make the most
telling example of the force of justice, he had him seized and hanged
like a common thief. New means were tried for quieting the disturbances
in the _Western Highlands_ and _Isles_. _Argyle_ was deprived of his
lieutenancy, and the government was in future to deal directly with
the chiefs for the collection of taxes and of the feudal dues. Three
persons were put to death in this reign for conspiracy and treason,
all of whom were more or less connected with the banished Angus.
These were the _Lady Glammis_, his sister; the _Master of Forbes_,
his brother-in-law; and _James Hamilton_, the illegitimate brother of
Arran, who was accused of being in league with him.

=28. English War.=--Though the need of a reform in the Church was
felt and openly discussed in parliament, and the shortcomings of the
clergy were unsparingly ridiculed by the popular poets, still neither
the King nor the people were inclined to break off from Rome, as Henry
the Eighth had done. But Henry was most anxious that his nephew should
follow his example, and a meeting between them at York was agreed on.
But James, doubtful of Henry's good faith, did not keep tryst. Henry
was furious; he brought up again the old claim of supremacy over
Scotland, and to enforce the claim he sent an army to invade Scotland.
James prepared to avenge this attack; but when his army got as far
as the Border, the nobles refused to go further, and a body of ten
thousand men who had passed the Esk were surprised and scattered by
_Dacre_, while they were contending about the chief command.

=29. Death and Character of James.=--The King meanwhile was waiting in
_Caerlaverock Castle_. At the same time that he heard of the shameful
defeat of his army at _Solway_ _Moss_, the news was brought that a
daughter was born to him. This child was heir to the throne, for his
two sons had died in infancy. James thought that the birth of a girl
at this time was an ill omen for Scotland. He murmured, "It came wi' a
lass, and it'll gang wi' a lass." By this he meant that, as it was by
Marjory Bruce that the crown had first passed into the Stewart family,
so with this infant it would pass from it. Eight days later he died
of grief and disappointment, December 14, 1542. James is the first
King of Scots of whom we have a portrait. He was handsome, but had red
hair, which won him the nickname of the "_Red Tod_," or red fox. He
was not liked by the nobles, but the commons loved him well. His habit
of going about in disguise familiarly among the people, endeared him
to them, and led him into many amusing adventures. James was twice
married, first to _Magdalen_, daughter of _Francis the First, King of
France_; secondly, to _Mary_, daughter of the _Duke of Guise_, widow of
the _Duke of Longueville_. In character and policy James was something
like James the First. Like him, he strove to curb the power of the
nobles, and to win for the Crown something more than mere nominal
power, by making reforms which were much needed in the administration
of justice. He worked out his ancestor's idea of a supreme court of
justice by founding the _Court of Session_, or _College of Justice_.
This court consisted first of thirteen, afterwards of fifteen, members,
half of whom were clerks, and who acted both as judge and jury. As
the members of this court were chosen from the parliament, it had the
power of parliament, and was supreme in all civil cases, there being no
appeal beyond it. James was not only a patron of letters, but himself
a poet, one of the few royal poets whose writings will bear comparison
with those of meaner birth. "Christ's Kirk on the Green," and the
"Gaberlunzie Man," are the titles of two poems that are ascribed to
him, but on no very certain proof. They are both descriptions of
scenes from peasant life. If indeed they were written by him, the
choice of the subjects and the way in which they are treated show how
well he knew the condition of his people. They, in loving remembrance
of the favour he had always shown them, gave him the title of "King of
the Commons, and the People's Poet."

=30. Mary, 1542-1554. Arran's Regency.=--_James Hamilton, Earl of
Arran_, next heir to the throne by his descent from James the Second,
was chosen Regent, but, as it was the Scotch custom that the nearest of
kin on the mother's side should have the care of the minor, the infant
Queen was left in charge of her mother, _Mary of Lorraine_. The defeat
at _Solway Moss_, and the death of the King, had left the people nearly
as dispirited and defenceless as they had been after Flodden, and Henry
the Eighth determined to get the kingdom into his power by marrying
_Mary_ to his son _Edward, Prince of Wales_.

=31. Treaties with England.=--To carry out his plans the better, he
sent Angus back to Scotland, and with him the Lords _Cassilis_ and
_Glencairn_, and several other nobles, all pledged to do their best
to place the Queen and the strongholds in the hands of Henry. These
nobles were called by the English the _Assured Scots_, because Henry
thought he could be sure of their help, but they were either unable
or unwilling to give him the aid for which he had hoped. It was not
till July in the next year that two treaties were drawn up at London:
the one for the English alliance; the other agreeing to the English
marriage of the Queen. But there was a strong national party, much
set against any dealings with England; and, though the treaties were
approved at one meeting of the Estates, it was plain that they would be
thrown out at the next. The Regent tried to break them off, and Henry,
greatly enraged, made ready for war, and seized some Scotch ships
which had been driven by stress of weather into English ports. This
was reason enough for the rejection of the treaties by the Estates.
Shortly after, the "Assured Scots" changed sides and made a bond with
the Regent; but Henry got a new supporter in _Matthew Stewart, Earl
of Lennox_, who, as he wished to marry _Margaret Douglas_, daughter
of _Angus_, Henry's niece and ward, was eager to do anything to win
Henry's favour.

=32. First English Invasion.=--War was declared at Edinburgh by an
English herald, May 1, 1544, and an English army under _Edward Seymour,
Earl of Hertford_, was sent by sea and landed at _Granton_. He was
bidden to destroy _Edinburgh_ and as many other towns and villages as
he conveniently could, and he carried out his orders to the letter.
He sacked and burned _Leith_, a wealthy trading town, set fire to
_Edinburgh_, though no resistance had been made to him there, robbed
the burghs on the coast of _Fife_, and then marched south to the
Border, burning, slaying, spoiling, and leaving a wasted land behind
him. The only resistance he met with was near the Border, where a
division of his army which had been sent to _Melrose_ to break open
the tombs of the ancestors of _Angus_ was routed at _Ancrum_ by Angus
himself and some of the Border lords. At the news of this success six
hundred Borderers from the Scottish side, who had been fighting in the
service of the English Wardens, changed sides and attacked their former
brothers in arms. The rest of the nation then took heart, and a large
force was mustered and brought to the Border, but did nothing.

=33. Second English Invasion.=--Before the traces of his former ravages
had disappeared, just when the next harvest was ready for the sickle,
Hertford appeared again at the head of a motley host, swelled by
half-savage Irish and by foreign hirelings, and repeated the wild work
of the year before. The invaders attacked and plundered the religious
houses. The ruins of _Kelso_, _Melrose_, _Dryburgh_, _Roxburgh_, and
_Coldingham_ still bear witness to their zeal in carrying out the
orders of their master. Towns, manors, churches, and between two and
three hundred villages were left in ashes behind them. All this misery
was wantonly inflicted without winning for Henry a foot of ground or a
single new subject.

=34. Third English Invasion. Battle of Pinkie.=--Two years passed,
and again the sorely scourged country was visited by its old enemy.
_Hertford_, now _Duke of Somerset_ and _Protector of England_ during
the minority of _Edward the Sixth_, thought by one well-aimed blow to
wrest from the people their proud boast, the national independence.
Two armies, the one led by himself and the other sent by sea, met at
_Musselburgh_ and threatened the capital. The Regent had mustered a
large force to resist them, and the two hosts faced each other on
opposite banks of the _Esk_. But the Scots very foolishly left their
strong position and forced the English to a battle, in which they were
again defeated with great slaughter, at _Pinkie_, September 10, 1547.
After the battle Somerset went back to England, and took the greater
part of his army with him. As most of the strongholds were now in the
hands of the English, it was thought best to send the Queen to France
that she might be out of harm's way. The French sent six thousand men
to help in driving out the English, a work that was not ended till
1550, when a short peace followed the nine years of cruel war. If we
consider the difference of the times and the advance of civilization,
the fiercest raids of _Malcolm_ and of _Wallace_ may be favourably
compared with the misery wrought by _Hertford_ in these three savage
and unprovoked attacks.

=35. Internal Affairs.=--The overthrow of the monasteries, the seizure
of their revenues, and the other changes in religious matters carried
out by _Henry the Eighth_ in England, had been approved by a large
party in _Scotland_. They were eager to begin the same work there,
for the Church, by her abuse of power and by her persecution of all
who differed from her, was fast losing her hold upon the people. The
first outbreak of the popular feeling was the murder of _Cardinal David
Beaton_, the _Primate_, the leader of the French party in the state and
the chief mover of religious persecution. In revenge for the burning
of _George Wishart_ in 1545, for preaching what was called heresy,
sixteen of Wishart's followers murdered _Beaton_ in his own _Castle
of St. Andrews_, which they had entered by a stratagem, and which
they held for fourteen months, setting at defiance all the Regent's
efforts to retake it. It was only with the help of the French that they
were at last obliged to give in, and were sent to the French galleys.
Among them was _John Knox_, who twelve years later became famous as
the apostle of the Reformation among his countrymen. On the death of
_Beaton_, _Arran_ made his own ambitious brother _John_ Archbishop
of St. Andrews, in the room of the murdered Cardinal. The castle was
destroyed.

=36. Regency of Mary of Lorraine. First Marriage of Mary Stewart.=--In
1554, Arran, who had been created _Duke of Chatelherault_ by the French
king, went back to France, and _Mary of Lorraine_ became _Regent_.
The league with France was drawn still closer by the marriage of the
Queen with _Francis the Dauphin_. Francis became _King of France_ in
1559. The crown-matrimonial of Scotland was then granted to him, so
that the two countries were for a short time united under one crown.
On the strength of this the French began to give themselves airs of
superiority which the Scots could ill bear from strangers, and before
long they became well-nigh as unpopular as the English had been. The
Regent was unconsciously doing her best to foster this feeling of
dislike by placing foreigners in offices of trust, above all by making
Frenchmen keepers of the strongholds. But there was another influence
now at work, the desire of religious reform, which wrought a change in
the national life greater than any that had been felt since the time of
the first Robert.

=37. Social Progress.=--The intercourse with the French which arose
from the close alliance of Scotland with France, influenced the social
development of the nation throughout this period more strongly than
during any other time either before or after it. The members of the
National Council when they met in parliament were not, as in England,
divided into lords and commons; the representatives of the three
Estates, the _Barons_, the _Clergy_, and the _Commons_, assembled in
one chamber, as was the French custom. All the tenants holding direct
from the Crown were required to present themselves at these assemblies;
but James the First released the lesser barons from this attendance,
which they felt to be rather an irksome duty than a privilege, by
allowing them to send commissaries in their stead. These commissaries,
with the deputies from the cities and burghs, formed the Third Estate.
The supreme court of justice, the _Court of Session_, established
by James the Fifth, was formed on the model of the _Parliament_ of
_Paris_. The Universities were founded in the fifteenth century, at
_St. Andrews_, at _Glasgow_, and at _Aberdeen_. Of these, Aberdeen was
an exact imitation of the University of Paris. The architecture of this
period, both domestic and ecclesiastical, is in many respects like the
French. Melrose Abbey, and the palaces of _Falkland_ and of _Stirling_,
which were very richly ornamented, were built in the time of the
Jameses. The houses of the nobles were also built in imitation of the
French style. There are no remains of burgh domestic architecture older
than the sixteenth century. Many French words also found their way into
the Lowland Scotch, as the language of the Lothians came to be called.
By this time there was so much difference between this dialect and
that spoken at the English court, that the people who spoke the one
could scarcely understand the other. The foreign trade of Scotland was
most prosperous during the reign of James the Fourth. Fish, wools, and
hides were the principal exports. By this time coal, which is first
mentioned towards the end of the thirteenth century, was in general
use. There were also lead and iron mines; and gold was found, though
not in any large quantities. Of this native gold James the Fourth
struck some beautiful coins, which were called bonnet pieces, because
they bore the image of the King wearing a bonnet. The state of the
people at this time was one of almost serf-like dependence on their
lords. But great as the power of the nobles was, there were no forest
or game laws in Scotland, nor did they enjoy any privilege of peerage.
An offender against the law, if he could be brought to justice, had to
"thole an assize," like any peasant, however high his rank might be.

=38. Education and Literature.=--In early times all the education that
was within the reach of the people had been offered to them by the
Church. Schools were founded and maintained in several towns by the
great monasteries, and there was provision made for the education of
the choristers attached to the several cathedral churches. In later
times there were Grammar Schools founded by the burgh corporations.
In 1496 an Act was passed requiring all "barons and freeholders" to
keep their sons at these schools until they should be "competently
founded," and have "perfect Latin," under pain of a fine of twenty
pounds. A book, purporting to be the _History of Scotland_, was written
in Latin by _Hector Boece_, the first Principal of the University of
Aberdeen. The greater part of this book is purely imaginary. The Latin
"_Scotichronicon_" of _Fordun_, was continued by _Walter Bower, Abbot
of Inchcolm_, down to the middle of the fifteenth century. Besides the
two kings James the First and Fifth, there were other notable poets in
Scotland in the middle of the fifteenth century. _Blind Harry_, the
_Minstrel_, then did for Wallace what about a century before Barbour
had done for Bruce, by putting together all the popular stories of his
deeds in a spirit-stirring poem that bears his hero's name. _William
Dunbar_, a friar of the order of St. Francis, wrote a poem called _The
Thistle and the Rose_, to celebrate the marriage of James the Fourth
with Margaret Tudor. This, and the _Golden Terge_, and the _Dance
of the Seven Deadly Sins_, are the best among his writings. _Gawin
Douglas_, afterwards _Bishop of Dunkeld_, the son of that Earl of
Angus who was nicknamed Bell-the-Cat, also wrote several poems in the
beginning of the sixteenth century. Those best known are _King Hart_,
the _Palace of Honour_, and a translation of Virgil's _Æneid_. Some
years after Douglas wrote, _Sir David Lyndesay_, the companion of James
the Fifth's childhood, and the mourner of his untimely death, directed
many clever satires against the abuses in the Church, the vices of the
clergy, and the follies of the court. The _Dreme_, the _Satire of the
Three Estates_, and the _Monarchy_, are his best poems.

=39. Summary.=--During this period, which extends over more than
a century, the country made little progress either socially or
politically. Of the five kings, all bearing the same name, who in turn
wore the crown, four died violent deaths; and of these four, two were
treacherously murdered by their own subjects. Most of them came to
the throne in childhood; not one attained old age. Their reigns were
chiefly passed in struggles to put down their lawless and turbulent
nobles, who in each succeeding minority waxed more powerful and more
independent. In the reigns of James the Second and of James the Fifth,
this contest between the Crown and the Baronage took the form of a
struggle between the House of Stewart and the House of Douglas. In
both cases the King compassed the fall of his rival only by placing a
dangerous amount of power in the hands of the other nobles. The foreign
policy of Scotland under the Jameses was very simple. It consisted in
maintaining a close alliance with France and a constant quarrel with
England. But the French never gave the Scots any real help, and the
English were so much taken up at home with the Civil Wars of the Roses
that they made no serious attacks on the independence of Scotland.
Though during this period there were four long minorities, there was
no attempt made to break the regular line of succession. This was due
partly to the attachment of the people to the royal line, and partly to
the weakness of the royal authority, for the King had so little real
power that the great nobles did not think the crown worth taking. The
reign of James the Fourth was the most peaceful and prosperous, but
James the First did the most for the welfare of the people.


CHAPTER VI.

THE REFORMATION.

  _The Reformation_ (1)--_state of the Church_ (2)--_the
     first Covenant_ (3)--_religious riots_ (4)--_treaties
     with England_ (5)--_Reformation statutes_ (6)--_return
     of the Queen_ (7)--_division of the Church lands_
     (8)--_fall of Huntly_ (9)--_second marriage of the
     Queen_ (10)--_murder of Rizzio_ (11)--_flight to Dunbar_
     (12)--_murder of Darnley_ (13)--_third marriage of the
     Queen_ (14)--_surrender at Carberry_ (15)--_captivity
     of the Queen_ (16)--_James VI._; _Regency of Murray_
     (17)--_escape of Mary_ (18)--_Battle of Langside_; _flight
     of Mary_ (19)--_the Conference_ (20)--_state of parties_
     (21)--_murder of the Regent_ (22)--_Regency of Lennox_
     (23)--_taking of Dunbarton_ (24)--_Parliament at Stirling_
     (25)--_Regency of Mar_ (26)--_Tulchan bishops_ (27)--_death
     of Knox_ (28)--_taking of Edinburgh_ (29)--_Regency of
     Morton_ (30)--_fall of Morton_ (31)--_raid of Ruthven_
     (32)--_fall of Gowrie_ (33)--_fall of Arran_ (34)--_death
     of Mary_--(35) _marriage of the King_ (36)--_abolition of
     episcopacy_ (37)--_the Spanish blanks_ (38)--_religious
     tumults_ (39)--_the Gowrie Plot_ (40)--_union of the
     Crowns_ (41)--_state of the nation_ (42)--_summary_ (43).

=1. The Reformation.=--Five hundred years had gone by since the
_English_, who fled from the _Norman Conqueror_, had brought about
a great social revolution in the Celtic kingdom, where they found a
refuge. We now find another revolution arising from a very similar
cause. But there was a difference in the way in which these great
changes were wrought out characteristic of the two centuries in which
they took place. In the eleventh century it was the influence of the
Court which little by little changed the people; in the sixteenth
century, the people struggled against, and in the end overcame, the
opposition of the Court. When _Mary Tudor_ became Queen of England,
she wished to place the English Church under the authority of the
Pope, even more than it had been before the changes of her father
Henry. All who held the Reformed doctrines were persecuted as heretics.
Many of these so-called heretics sought safety across the Border, in
Scotland, and were welcomed there with a kindness that would have
seemed impossible but a few years before, when the deadly war was
waging. But religious sympathy got the better of national hate, and
thus the religious zeal of Mary Tudor may be said to have hastened the
Reformation in Scotland, which the cruelties of Henry and of Somerset
had for a while delayed. Still the traditional bent of the national
feeling influenced the character of the new movement, and led the
Scottish Reformers to mould anew the polity and form of worship of
their Church after the model of the _French Calvinists_, rather than to
follow the example of the _Church of England_ in her merely doctrinal
reform.

=2. State of the Church.=--In Scotland, as in the other lands of
Western Christendom, the clergy had lost their hold on the commons by
their immorality and irreligion; their greed of money, and their abuse
of their spiritual powers; while they had roused the jealousy of the
nobles by their wealth, and by the influence won by their learning,
which, though it was often but little, secured to them the offices of
state. The hope of getting hold of some of the well-cultivated Church
lands, led many _lairds_, as landholders are called in Scotland, to
join the popular movement of Reform.

=3. The First Covenant.=--The friends of Reform were thus silently
becoming a power in the state, and, as had been the Scottish custom
for centuries, they joined themselves together by a bond, 1557. In
this bond they pledged themselves to support one another, and to do
their utmost for the spread of the new doctrines. This bond is called
the _First Covenant_. By it the authority of the _Pope_ was renounced,
and the use of the _English Bible_ and of the _Prayer Book of Edward
VI._ was enjoined. Thenceforth the barons who had signed it, called
themselves the _Lords of the Congregation_. The burning of _Walter
Mill_, an aged priest of blameless life, who suffered for heresy at
_St. Andrews_ in 1558, roused them to action. They demanded of the
Regent a reformation of religion after the principles of their bond.
Though at first she seemed inclined to grant what they asked, she
afterwards set her face against them, and cited some of the preachers
of the new doctrines before the Privy Council. A great body of their
followers gathered at Perth to come with them; the Regent, in alarm,
begged them to disperse and promised to withdraw the citation. Instead
of doing this, she outlawed the preachers for not coming.

=4. Religious Riots.=--This breach of promise on the Regent's part
provoked their followers to a breach of the peace. The mob attacked,
and tried to pull down, the churches and the religious houses at
_Perth_, May 11, 1559, and this tumult was followed by riots of the
same kind in other towns. _John Knox_ was the spiritual leader of
the movement. But he only wished to destroy the images and ornaments
in the churches, which he looked on as idolatrous, not the churches
themselves. Nor is it to be laid to the charge of the Reformers that
there is but one cathedral church left entire in Scotland; the ruin of
far the greater number of the churches and religious houses is due to
the English invasions, or to the neglect of later times. After this
outbreak the Congregation strengthened themselves in _Perth_, but many
of the Lords, among others the _Lord James Stewart_, illegitimate
son of James the Fifth, joined the Regent, and, had she been true to
her promises, the strife which now broke out between the two parties
might have been prevented. But she led a French force against the
Congregation, who were now in open rebellion. An agreement was made
that the questions at issue between them should be left to be settled
by the Estates, while both armies laid down their arms, and the French
garrison was turned out of Perth. But the Regent did not keep to the
spirit of this treaty, though she avoided breaking the letter of it
by garrisoning Perth with native troops hired with French money. On
this the Congregation flew to arms, seized _St. Andrews_, and occupied
_Edinburgh_. There, in a meeting which they called a Parliament, they
deposed the Regent, though they still professed loyalty to the King and
Queen. But they were too weak to hold the advantage they had won, and
as _Elizabeth_ had now succeeded _Mary_ in _England_, they looked to
her for support.

=5. Treaties with England.=--Elizabeth would not treat with subjects in
open rebellion against their Sovereign, though Mary had given her good
reason for offence, by quartering the arms of England on her shield,
as though she were lawful Queen and Elizabeth only a usurper. At last
a treaty was arranged at _Berwick_ in 1560, between Elizabeth and the
rebels. Chatelherault, the next heir to the Scottish crown, acted for
the Congregation, and by this treaty Elizabeth promised to send troops
to prevent the French conquering Scotland. The war that now followed
presented the unwonted sight of the _Scots_ on _Scottish_ ground
fighting side by side with the _English_ against their old allies of
_France_. But, before the year was out, the French were called away by
troubles at home, and by the treaty of _Edinburgh_ it was agreed that
no foreigners should in future be employed in the country without the
consent of the _Estates_. The Estates promised in the name of the King
and Queen that they should acknowledge Elizabeth as lawful Queen of
England, and thenceforth make no pretension to her kingdom.

=6. Reformation Statutes.=--Soon after the conclusion of this treaty,
the Regent died. The Estates then approved the _Geneva Confession of
Faith_, abjured the authority of the _Pope_, and forbade the saying of
the mass, or even assisting at the mass, on pain of forfeiture for the
first offence, banishment for the second, death for the third; 25th
August, 1560. Thus the old ecclesiastical system, with all its rites
and ceremonies, was suddenly overthrown. But this was only in name; in
reality it only died out bit by bit.

=7. Return of the Queen.=--Just a year after this, the Queen came home,
August 1561. She was now a widow, so the Scots were freed from the fear
they had felt of seeing their country sink into a province of France.
The people, who had an almost superstitious reverence for kingship,
which was very inconsistent with their contempt for kingly authority,
welcomed her with open arms, and showed their good will by a greater
display of discordant and grotesque rejoicing than the austere teachers
of the new doctrines could approve. As yet they only saw in her the
representative of that long line of Celtic kings whom they chose to
look on as their own. She was the "child," for whom they had struggled
so long, and had suffered so much from the English. They had yet to
find out that she had come back to them French in all but birth, gifted
with wit, intellect, and beauty, but subtle beyond their power of
searching, and quite as zealous for the old form of religion as they
were for the new one. The Queen, too, who came thus as a stranger among
her own people, had to deal with a state of things unknown in former
reigns. Hitherto the Church had taken the side of the Crown against the
nobles; now both were united against the Crown, whose only hope lay in
the quarrels between these ill-matched allies.

=8. Division of the Church Lands.=--The chief cause of discord between
them was the property of the Church. The Reformed ministers fancied
that they had succeeded, not only to the Pope's right of dictation
in all matters, public and private, but to the lands of the Church
as well. To neither of these claims would the Lords agree. They were
as little inclined to submit to the tyranny of presbyters as to the
tyranny of the Pope. They withstood the ministers who wished to forbid
the Queen and her attendants hearing mass in her private chapel, and
they refused to accept as law the _First Book of Discipline_, a code of
rules drawn up by the ministers for the guidance of the new Church. As
to the land, much of it had already passed into the hands of laymen,
who, with the lands, generally bore the title of the Church dignitary
who had formerly held them. The Privy Council took one-third of what
remained to pay the stipends of the ministers, while the rest was
supposed to remain in the hands of the Churchmen in possession, and,
as they died out, it was to fall in to the Crown.

=9. Fall of Huntly.=--_Lord James Stewart_, Prior of St. Andrews, whom
the Queen created _Earl of Murray_, was the hope of the Protestants,
but in the north the Romanists were still numerous and strong. Their
head was the _Earl of Huntly_, chief of the _Gordons_, who reigned
supreme over most of the north, and whose word was law where decrees
of parliament would have been set at nought. As his great power was
looked on as dangerous to the state, his downfall was resolved on.
Murray and the Queen set out for the north to visit him, as was said,
but with so large a force that he thought it expedient to keep out of
their way. His _Castle of Inverness_ was besieged and taken and the
governor hanged, and his followers were defeated and he himself slain
at _Corrichie_, near _Aberdeen_, in 1562. His body was brought to
Edinburgh, as was the custom in cases of treason, that the sentence of
forfeiture might be passed on it. His son was beheaded at Aberdeen; and
thus the power of the Gordons was broken. Thus Mary during the first
part of her reign showed no favour to the Romanists, but still she did
not confirm the Reformation Statutes.

=10. Second Marriage of the Queen.=--The most interesting question now
for all parties was, whom the Queen would marry. Many foreign princes
were talked of, and Elizabeth suggested her own favourite, the _Earl
of Leicester_, but Mary settled the matter herself by falling in love
with her own cousin, _Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley_. He was son of
_Lennox_ and _Margaret Douglas_, and was therefore the grandson of
_Margaret Tudor_, and was received as first prince of the blood at the
English court. Mary called a special council and announced to them her
intended marriage. She then raised Darnley to the _Earldom of Ross_,
and afterwards created him _Duke of Albany_. They were married with
the rites of the Romish Church, July 29, 1565. Murray had refused
his consent to the marriage. He and some others of the lay Lords now
took up arms. They got into the town of Edinburgh, but were fired at
from the Castle, and, as they were disappointed in their hopes of
recruits, they retreated to _Dumfries_. There they issued a declaration
that their religion was in danger, and that the Queen had acted
unconstitutionally in proclaiming Darnley _King of Scots_ without the
consent of the Estates. The feudal force was summoned, and the King and
Queen led it against them. On this the Lords retreated into England and
disarmed their followers.

=11. Murder of Rizzio.=--Mary soon began to tire of her worthless
husband. She had all the weakness of her family for making favourites,
and no wisdom in the choice of them. At this time she had taken a fancy
to an Italian, _David Rizzio_, who acted as her secretary, and who had
great skill in music to recommend him. The nobles grew jealous of this
foreigner and determined to get rid of him; but, to save themselves
from any ill-consequences of the murder which they had planned,
they persuaded Darnley to sign a bond promising to stand by them in
anything they might do. At the same time he signed another bond for the
recall of Murray and the other banished lords. The Queen summoned a
parliament, which she expected would pronounce sentence of forfeiture
on those banished lords. In order to secure compliance with her wishes,
she interfered with the choosing of the Lords of the Articles, into
whose hands all the real business of the parliament was thrown. One
evening, as she was sitting at supper in the palace at _Holyrood_, the
conspirators, who had secured the gates, burst into the room, headed by
the _Lord Ruthven_. They seized on Rizzio, who clutched at the Queen
for help; they dragged him into the outer room; killed him, and then
threw the body downstairs, March 9, 1566. His fate was not made known
to the Queen till next day. _James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell_, who
already stood high in the Queen's favour, and the _Earl of Huntly_,
who had been restored to the titles and estates which his father had
forfeited, were in the palace when it was thus taken possession of, but
they contrived to escape.

=12. Flight to Dunbar.=--The Queen showed no signs of anger at first.
She pretended to be reconciled to Darnley, and promised pardon to
the banished lords. When they appeared before her the next day, she
received Murray affectionately. But the confederates soon found that
they had been mistaken in their hopes of Darnley, for in the night
following he fled with the Queen to _Dunbar_. Bothwell brought up
a force for her protection, and before the end of the month she
re-entered Edinburgh. Rizzio's body was taken up and buried among
the kings in the palace chapel, and _James Douglas, Earl of Morton,
Ruthven_, and others were cited to answer for the murder of Rizzio,
and, as they did not appear, they were outlawed.

=13. Murder of Darnley.=--A new favourite soon took the place of
Rizzio in the Queen's favour. This was _Bothwell_, who had lately done
such good service in coming to her aid at Dunbar. The abbey-lands of
_Melrose_ and _Haddington_ were given to him. He was made _Lord High
Admiral_, and _Warden of the Borders_, and it was noticed that it was
he and not Darnley who played the principal part at the baptism of her
son, the _Prince of Scotland_. Darnley was hated by everyone; by his
wife, because he had connived at the murder of her favourite, and by
his accomplices for his treachery in deserting them. Shortly after this
he fell ill of the small-pox, and was taken to _Glasgow_, to be tended
by his father, _Lennox_. There, when he was getting better, the Queen
paid him a visit, and proposed that he should be taken to _Craigmillar
Castle_, in order to hasten his recovery; but this plan was afterwards
changed, and he went instead to a house called the _Kirk-o'-Field_,
close to _Edinburgh_. This house was blown up on the night of February
9, 1567, while the Queen was present at a ball at _Holyrood_, and the
bodies of Darnley and of his page were found in a field hard by, as
though they had been killed while trying to make their escape. It was
commonly believed that Bothwell was guilty of the murder, and it was
suspected that he had done it to please the Queen and with her consent.
This suspicion was strengthened by her conduct. She made no effort to
find out the murderer and to bring him to punishment, and on the day
of the funeral she gave Bothwell the feudal superiority over the town
of _Leith_. Lennox now came forward and demanded that Bothwell and the
other persons suspected of the murder should be tried by the Estates.
This was granted, and a day was fixed for the trial. But as Lennox
was forbidden to bring any but his own household when he appeared as
the accuser of the murderer, while Bothwell had a great following, he
thought it more prudent not to appear. As no one came forward to bring
evidence against Bothwell, he was acquitted, and he offered to give
wager of battle to anyone who should still accuse him.

=14. Third Marriage of the Queen.=--Bothwell was now determined on
marrying the Queen, and, after the parliament rose, he got many of the
nobles to sign a bond agreeing to help him to do so. As he was already
married to Huntly's sister, his wife had to be got rid of first.
This was not now such an easy matter as it had been in former times.
The canon law had been done away with along with the old Church; the
Reformers had set up a court of their own to try such cases, while
the Queen had lately restored the old one. To make the matter sure
Bothwell's marriage was dissolved in both these courts. As the Queen
was coming back from _Stirling_, where she had been to visit her
child, Bothwell met her and carried her off to _Dunbar_, and on the day
the divorce was sent they came back to _Edinburgh_ together. He was
created _Duke of Orkney and Shetland_, and they were married by _Adam
Bothwell_, who had been _Bishop of Orkney_, but was now one of the
ministers of the new Church, May 15, 1567.

=15. Surrender at Carberry.=--A fortnight later Mary called out the
feudal force for an attack on the Borderers, but the barons did not
answer to her summons. On this the Queen and Bothwell, alarmed at the
increasing signs of discontent, shut themselves up in his strong castle
of _Borthwick_, but they were scarcely there before an army with the
Lords _Morton_ and _Home_ at its head appeared at its gates, and they
fled to _Dunbar_. The barons then entered _Edinburgh_; the governor
of the Castle gave it up to them. They had the Prince in their hands,
and they took measures for carrying on the government, though they
still professed to act in the Queen's name, and to be only striving
to free her from Bothwell. He meanwhile had mustered his followers,
who, though nearly equal in numbers, were in discipline far inferior
to their opponents. The two armies came in sight near _Musselburgh_,
but there was no battle, for the Queen surrendered to _William
Kirkcaldy_ of _Grange_, who had been sent out with a body of horse
to cut off her retreat to Dunbar, at _Carberry_, June 15, 1567, on
condition that Bothwell should be allowed to return to _Dunbar_ unhurt.
Bothwell escaped first to his own dukedom of Orkney, and afterwards to
_Denmark_, where he died about ten years later.

=16. Captivity of the Queen.=--Just a month after her third marriage
the Queen was brought back to Edinburgh, to be greeted by the railings
of the mob, who now openly accused her as a murderess, and paraded
before her eyes a banner, showing the dead body of her husband; her
infant son on his knees, as though praying for justice against the
murderers of his father, and the words, "Judge and avenge my cause, O
Lord," embroidered upon it. From Edinburgh she was taken to a lonely
castle built on a small island in the centre of _Loch Leven_. A few
days later a casket containing eight letters was produced. These
letters, it was said, Bothwell had left behind him in his flight, and
they seemed to have been written by Mary to him while Darnley was
ill in Glasgow. If she really wrote them, they proved very plainly
that she had planned the murder with Bothwell. They are called the
"casket letters," from the box or casket in which they were found.
The confederate barons acted as if they were really hers. The _Lord
Lindsay_ and _Robert Melville_ were sent to her at _Loch Leven_, and
she there signed the _demission_ of the government to her son, and
desired that Murray should be the first Regent. From that time Mary
ceased to be Queen of Scots. Her beauty, talents, and misfortunes have
won her much pity and many champions, but it was her own folly and sin
that changed the love of her people into hate, and their rejection of
her stands out as one of the facts in their history that does most
honour to the nation.

=17. James VI., 1567-1625. Regency of Murray.=--The infant King who was
now to be set up in the room of his mother was crowned and anointed
at _Stirling_. By his sponsor _Morton_ he took an oath to uphold the
Reformed, or as its supporters called it, the true Church, and to root
out all heretics and enemies of the same. Murray was recalled from
France, whither he had gone soon after the murder of the King. He made
some objection to accepting the regency, and would not do so till he
had had an interview with his sister. At last he agreed to take it, to
comply with her wishes, as he said. As the country was crying out for
vengeance on the murderers of the King, four of Bothwell's creatures
who had aided in his crime were hanged at Edinburgh, but no steps were
taken to punish the lords who had joined themselves by a bond with
Bothwell.

=18. Escape of Mary.=--But there was a large party of the nobles, with
the Hamiltons at their head, who were opposed to the new government and
kept themselves apart at _Hamilton_. Before a year of her captivity
had passed, Mary escaped and joined them there, and again took up
the sceptre which she had so lately laid down. Eighteen lords of
parliament and many lesser barons signed a bond to uphold their Queen,
and she sent a message from her court at Hamilton to Murray, who was
at _Glasgow_ almost unguarded, commanding him to resign the regency.
Instead of obeying, Murray seized the herald who had come to proclaim
the Queen; sent to _Stirling_ for cannon, and called out the feudal
force in the name of King James.

=19. Battle of Langside.=--The Castle of _Dunbarton Rock_, the
strongest fortress in the kingdom, was held for the Queen, and to it
she determined to go for greater safety. To get there she had to pass
close by _Glasgow_, where Murray was. At _Langside_, on the southern
shore of the _Clyde_, her way was barred by the King's army, which,
though not so large as her own, had much better leaders. The fight that
followed settled the fate of Scotland, May 13, 1568. Few lives were
lost, for at the first charge the spears of the front rank got locked
in the jacks of their opponents. They could thus neither go backward
nor forward, and kept those behind from coming within arm's length of
one another. _Grange_ turned the day by charging the Queen's force with
his cavalry. They fled in confusion, and Mary rode with all speed to
the Border; crossed the _Solway_, and going straight to _Carlisle_,
threw herself on the protection of _Elizabeth_. But Elizabeth had
not forgotten how Mary had assumed her arms and had given herself
out as the real Queen of England; and as she knew that Mary, if left
at liberty, would plot with the English Roman Catholics, she put her
in ward in _Bolton Castle_, and refused to see her till she cleared
herself of the suspicion under which she lay of having been concerned
in her husband's death. But at the same time Elizabeth would not
acknowledge the government of Scotland, nor approve the conduct of the
lords who had set up King James, for she did not like the doctrine that
princes, however badly they had acted, might be judged and punished by
their subjects.

=20. The Conference.=--To give both parties a chance of saying what
they could for themselves, it was agreed to hold a conference, to which
Murray came in person, and Mary and Elizabeth each sent commissioners.
The conference met at _York_ in October. On opening it the _Duke of
Norfolk_ required that Murray should do homage in the name of his King
to the Queen of England. On this, _William Maitland_ of _Lethington_,
the _Scottish Secretary of State_, a very subtle man, said that if
England liked to give up again the northern counties, once held by
Scotland, their King would gladly do homage for them; but as for the
kingdom it was as free, or more so, than England itself. This he said
to show that they did not ask Elizabeth to judge between them because
she had any right to interfere, but only because she was their nearest
neighbour. Before the end of the month the conference was removed
to _Hampton Court_, and held before the Queen in Council. The lords
brought forward the "casket letters," as a proof against Mary, and
she refused to vindicate herself, but ordered her commissioners to
withdraw. Thus the conference ended, leaving matters much as they were
before, for Elizabeth decided that nothing had been brought forward
to the dishonour of Murray, nor anything proved against Mary. At the
same time she lent Murray five thousand pounds for the maintenance
of peace and order between the two countries, which was an indirect
acknowledgment of his government.

=21. State of Parties.=--The _Hamiltons_ and _Huntly_ were the chief
upholders of Mary's interest. The Hamiltons wished to keep Mary on the
throne, because they were the next heirs to Mary, and in the event of
her son dying before her, Chatelherault could claim the crown. But as
they were not the next heirs to James, they were naturally opposed to
the revolution which had placed him on the throne, for they feared that
if he died when actually reigning, the crown would pass to his heir,
_Charles Stewart_, his father's brother. _Huntly_ held out, from hatred
of _Murray_ and love of the old Church, which was still strong in his
county. A compromise was at last made between the two parties. Murray
promised a pardon for all past offences and a reversal of forfeitures
if the other party would promise to obey King James. To make matters
more sure, when the Duke of Chatelherault went up to Edinburgh, Murray
put him in ward in the Castle. Just at this time there was a great
rising of the Roman Catholics in the north of England, Murray marched
southward, in order to be ready to put down any disturbance on the
Border. There he seized as his prisoner the _Earl of Northumberland_,
the head of the Romanists in England, who had come to seek a refuge on
the Scottish side among the Borderers, many of whom still clung to the
old Church.

=22. Murder of the Regent.=--The Hamiltons had determined on Murray's
death. Though the Duke was in prison, _John_, the archbishop, the
constant stirrer up of strife, was at liberty, and he was popularly
supposed to be the contriver of a plot against the life of the Regent.
Murray was murdered by _James Hamilton_ of _Bothwellhaugh_, who shot
at him as he was riding in state through that town on his way from
Stirling to Edinburgh, February 23, 1570. This foul murder, the third
which had disgraced Scotland within the last quarter of a century,
was a great misfortune for the country, for Murray had ruled well and
wisely, he had put down the Highlanders and the Borderers, and had
enforced justice and order with a strong hand. In his time the land
was visited by a famine and a plague, evils for which the people are
ever apt to blame their rulers, but, in spite of these calamities, he
was popular during his life, and was remembered after his death as the
_Good Regent_.

=23. Regency of Lennox.=--While the government was thus without a head,
and the country was in confusion, two English armies invaded Scotland
to punish the Borderers for the shelter which they had given to the
leaders of the late rising in England. One of these armies came north
as far as the _Clyde_ and wasted the _Hamilton country_. Hitherto the
Queen's party had been chiefly made up of nobles with but a small
following, but this attack on the part of the English aroused the old
hatred of England and drove a large mass of the people to join them.
The choice of _Lennox_, the King's grandfather, as the new Regent, did
still more to divide the nation, for not only was he the subject of
Elizabeth and recommended by her, but also, when he came to Scotland,
it was as joint leader of one of these invading armies. Now, for the
first time, the nation was truly divided against itself. The war which
followed was the first real civil war in the annals of Scotland. It was
no strife of class against class, or of one chief against another, but
a war in which the commons were severed into two parties by the great
questions of loyalty, national honour, and religion. _Grange_, whom
Murray had made governor of _Edinburgh Castle_, declared for the Queen,
and _Lethington_, who was there in ward on a charge of having had some
part in the King's murder, followed his example.

=24. Taking of Dunbarton.=--This castle, the strongest in the kingdom,
was the chief strength of the Queen's party, and in it was the moving
spirit of the Hamiltons, John, the much hated and feared archbishop.
Both fell during this regency. _Crawford_ of _Jordanhill_, a retainer
of _Lennox_, took the castle by subtlety with but a handful of men. He
scaled the steep rock on which the castle is built under cover of the
night, and when he had gained the highest point he turned the guns on
the garrison below, who had no choice left but to give in, April 2,
1571. Five days later, the archbishop was hanged at _Stirling_, after
the form of a trial had been hurried through, on a charge of having
planned the murder of the King and of the Regent.

=25. Parliament at Stirling.=--The other noteworthy event during the
regency of Lennox was the holding of a parliament, for the first time
since 1567. It met at _Stirling_, and the young King, who lived in the
castle under the care of the _Earl of Mar_, was himself present. While
the Regent and all the leaders of his party were thus gathered in the
town, a body of four hundred men, sent out by the Queen's party in
Edinburgh Castle, came down upon them suddenly, swept the streets, and
captured _Morton_ and the Regent; and though the latter was afterwards
rescued, he had been mortally wounded in the scuffle, and died after
lingering a few hours, September 4, 1571. It was then remembered how
the little King had spied a hole in the cloth with which the board
whereon he sat was covered, and, trying to poke his finger into it, had
said, "There is a hole in this parliament." This was looked on as a
prophecy of the violent death of the Regent, and laid the foundation of
that reputation for wisdom and acuteness which clung to James all his
life.

=26. Mar's Regency.=--_John Erskine, Earl of Mar_, governor of
Stirling, was chosen Regent the very next day. As the Queen's party,
who held Edinburgh, had held a rival parliament in her name in the
Parliament House, it was clear that all efforts must be made to get
the castle out of their hands. Mar therefore began the siege, and open
war broke out. The West, the North, and the Border were for the Queen,
the eastern Lowlands for the King; the latter looked to England for
help, but got none; the former appealed to France with not much better
success. After much useless bloodshed, a truce of two months was agreed
on, August 1, 1572.

=27. Tulchan Bishops.=--Under Mar episcopacy was set up again. At
least it was settled that the titles and dignities of bishops and
archbishops were to stay as they were before the Reformation till the
King's majority, but they were shorn of their old authority, and were
to be subject to the _General Assembly_, which now managed all church
matters. The people thought so little of them that they called them in
mockery "_Tulchan_" bishops: the word "Tulchan" meaning a sham calf
which it was the custom to place before a cow to make her give milk
when the real calf had been taken from her. About this time there came
the news of the massacre of all the _Protestants_ in _Paris_, on _St.
Bartholomew's Day_. This roused a general horror of Romanists and
created a reaction in favour of Presbytery, for the Scots wished to be
more like the French Protestants, who had no bishops. It also made many
of the Queen's party go over to the other side.

_Mar_ died after being little more than a year in office, and _Morton_,
who had latterly directed everything, was chosen Regent in his place,
November 24, 1572.

=28. Death of Knox.=--On the same day died _John Knox_, who for
thirteen years had been the leader of religious reform in Scotland.
He spent his life and his wonderful talents in striving for what he
believed to be truth and sound doctrine. One of the finest traits in
his character was his moral courage, which enabled him to speak the
truth boldly to those who stood highest in rank or power. To this
Morton himself bore witness, saying, as he looked on the dead body
of Knox, "There lies he who never feared the face of man." His zeal
sometimes led him to turn against the Romanists their own weapons of
intolerance and persecution, but he lived in times when men had not
yet found out that it was best to let one another alone in the matter
of religion. In those days any one who had shown himself tolerant of
the errors of others would have been looked on either as a hypocrite
or as an unbeliever. But Knox was not so much opposed to bishops and
to a set form of prayer as his followers afterwards became. He drew
up a prayer-book for daily use called the _Book of Common Order_,
which was pretty nearly a translation of the book of the church at
_Geneva_, and was what he had himself used when ministering to the
_English Protestants_ who in the reign of Mary Tudor had taken refuge
at _Frankfort_.

=29. Taking of Edinburgh.=--With the new year the war began again.
Morton was now in possession of the town of Edinburgh, and he held a
meeting of the Estates there. But the castle still held out, and it
was only by bringing against it an English force of fifteen hundred
men that Elizabeth had at last sent, that its defenders were reduced
to such straits that they were compelled to surrender. Grange gave
himself up to the English general and appealed to the English Queen.
But she either could not or would not protect him. His gallant defence
of the castle for Mary was looked on as treason against the government
of James, which Elizabeth had in a manner acknowledged. He was given up
into the hands of Morton, his bitter enemy, and hanged at Edinburgh,
August 3, 1573, in spite of all the efforts of his many friends to save
him. Brave, gallant, and unselfish, he was distinguished among a greedy
generation by his contempt alike of money and of place. In this he was
a great contrast to his companion, the clever, unprincipled, selfish
Lethington, who died by his own hand.

=30. Morton's Regency.=--Morton had now got all his old enemies out
of the way, but he soon made more; partly by his avarice, partly by
the firmness with which he insisted that the crown property should
be restored. He offended _Argyle_ by making him give back some crown
jewels that had come into his possession by his marriage with Murray's
widow; and, by trying to stop a feud between him and _Athole_, he made
enemies of them both. To make his power complete Morton longed to
get the King into his own hands, but he was kept apart in Stirling,
under the care of Erskine the Governor, and while there Morton had
no more power over him than any of the other nobles. He tried to
persuade James, who was now twelve years old, that he was old enough
to rule alone, but Argyle and Athole, who were both in the castle at
the time, found out his plan and outwitted him. A proclamation was
suddenly issued by them, setting forth that the king would now take
the government into his own hands, and would act by the advice of a
council, March 4, 1578. A time of great confusion followed. Morton, who
at first had seemed to lay down his power with a good grace, before
long was up in arms, got into Stirling Castle, dispersed the new
council, and again directed everything just as he pleased.

=31. Fall of Morton.=--About this time _Esmé Stewart_, Lord of
_Aubigny_, and nephew of the late Earl of Lennox, came from France and
became a great favourite with his cousin the king. Aubigny was stirred
up by _James Stewart of Ochiltree_, another favourite, to do his utmost
to turn the king against Morton, whom he already disliked. At length
Ochiltree accused Morton before the Council of having been a party in
the king's murder, and on this charge he was condemned and beheaded
at Edinburgh. After his death the two favourites rose still higher.
Aubigny was made _Duke of Lennox_, and Keeper of Dunbarton Castle;
and a royal bodyguard was set up in order to give him the dignity of
commander. _Stewart_, whose mother was a _Hamilton_, was raised to
their Earldom of Arran.

=32. Raid of Ruthven.=--Certain of the old nobles, who were displeased
and alarmed by the power exercised by these upstarts, bound themselves
together to displace them both, and to get the King by a bond into
their own power. The time they chose for carrying out their plan was
when the King went on a hunting party into the Highlands. The _Earl of
Gowrie_, one of the confederates, son of that _Ruthven_ who had played
the chief part in the murder of _Rizzio_, invited him to the castle
of Ruthven. James went, and found himself a prisoner in the hands of
the barons, August 22, 1581. They then made him declare that he was
well pleased with what they had done, and was not under any restraint.
Lennox was ordered to leave the kingdom, and after wandering about in
poverty and distress till the end of the year, he went back to France,
where he died before long. But before the Ruthven Lords had been a year
in power, another change came. The king escaped disguised as a groom,
rode to St. Andrews, where the nobles who were not in the bond gathered
round him in such force that the Confederates were obliged to yield.

=33. Fall of Gowrie.=--At first James acted moderately and wisely,
for he promised to pardon all those who had taken part in the Raid of
Ruthven; but when Arran got back his old power over him he turned about
and declared them all traitors, who must submit to his grace. Upon this
most of them fled to England, but Gowrie submitted to the King and was
pardoned. Arran had however determined on his fall, and Gowrie was so
much insulted and slighted at Court that he made up his mind to leave
the country. Just before he sailed, he heard that his old comrades had
contrived another plot, and he delayed his setting out in order to have
a share in it. Before anything was done, news of it got abroad, Gowrie
was seized and, after a very unjust trial, beheaded at Stirling. The
other conspirators made off to England again and were outlawed, and
their estates were forfeited.

=34. Fall of Arran.=--Arran's triumph did not last long. A fray took
place on the Border in which an Englishman, _Lord Russell_, was slain.
Arran was accused of having been the chief cause in this affair, and he
was ordered to withdraw from Court. Then the banished lords, thinking
this a good opportunity for them to return, went northward, joined the
_Hamiltons_ and _Maxwells_ on the Border, came to Stirling and made
their way into the presence of the king, who was forced to seem pleased
to see them, as they had eight thousand men to support them, November
4, 1585. A Parliament was called soon after, in which three important
pieces of business were done. Gowrie's children were restored to the
honours forfeited by the treason of their father; Arran was stripped of
all his dignities, and a new league was made with England.

=35. Death of Mary.=--The captive Queen, whose influence in the affairs
of her own country had ceased with the surrender of _Edinburgh_, had,
during her long imprisonment, been the cause of many plots against
the peace of England and the life of Elizabeth. For her share in
_Babington's_ Plot, the object of which was the assassination of
Elizabeth, she was tried, found guilty, and condemned to death. She
was beheaded at Fotheringhay, February 8, 1587. Though James made some
show of feelings of grief and anger at the news of his mother's death,
no steps were taken to avenge it, and the matter soon seemed to be
forgotten.

=36. Marriage of the King.=--As James was now of age, his counsellors
were looking about for a suitable wife for him. _Frederick the Second
King of Denmark_ had lately sent offering to pay up the money for
which the _Orkney_ and _Shetland Isles_ had been given in pledge, and
as Scotland had no wish to give them back, it was thought that the
difficulty might be got over by choosing one of his daughters, who
would most likely bring the islands as her dowry. This proposal was
agreed to by Frederick. His daughter _Anne_ was betrothed to James, and
_Keith_, the _Earl Marshal_, was sent to Copenhagen to act as proxy for
the King in the marriage ceremony and to bring home the bride. On their
way home the wedding party were storm-stayed and obliged to put into a
Norwegian Port, and the King, to the surprise of every one, suddenly
made up his mind to go himself to fetch his bride. He joined her at
Upslo, but as nothing could make him brave the long sea voyage again
till the winter was over they returned together to Copenhagen, and did
not come to Scotland till the next spring, May 1, 1590.

=37. Abolition of Episcopacy.=--For some time the government and the
church had been at variance about the bishops. The General Assembly of
1581 had declared the episcopal order to be contrary to the Word of
God, and had adopted the _Second Book of Discipline_ as the rule of the
government of the Church. This book was drawn up by _Andrew Melville_,
who had succeeded Knox as the spiritual leader of the reformed Church.
He was a zealous presbyterian, and it was mainly owing to him that the
Scottish Church adopted that form of church government. The Ruthven
lords had been the champions of the presbyterian or no-bishop party,
and, while they were in power, the ministers upheld by them had taken
more and more authority upon themselves. In theory they placed the
church far above the civil power, and they taught that the chief
magistrate, the King, ought to be subject to them in all matters of
conscience and religion. They also claimed the right of the old Church
in interfering with people's private affairs. Each _minister_ looked
on himself as _bishop_ over his own flock, and would not submit to
having any overseer set over him again. But, as the removal of the
bishops as spiritual peers would have been the removal of one of the
three Estates--that one too that had always been on the side of the
crown--and as their existence served as a pretext to the nobles for
drawing their revenues, it was clearly the interest both of the crown
and of the nobles to maintain them. In 1588 _Philip of Spain_ fitted
out a great fleet for the invasion of England. This caused a great
panic throughout Scotland. The people feared that Philip might conquer
England and bring it again under the dominion of the Pope, in which
case the subjection of Scotland must soon follow. The _Covenant_ for
the maintenance of the _Protestant religion_, which had been signed
in 1581, was renewed and signed all over the land. So great was the
dread of the bishop of Rome that the people looked on all bishops with
suspicion, and in 1592 an act was passed by which the whole order was
swept away and the presbyterian polity established. Thenceforth the
church was to be governed by a series of courts, the members of which
were presbyters. The ministers of several parishes formed a presbytery,
these again were grouped together into synods, while supreme over all
was the _General Assembly_, composed of ministers and lay elders from
the several presbyteries, which was to meet once a year at Edinburgh,
and at which the King or his commissioner was to be present.

=38. The Spanish Blanks.=--Still a large party adhered to the old
Church. The chiefs of this party were _Huntly_ in the north and the
_Maxwells_ on the Border. They were always suspected of scheming for
its restoration, and, as the King could not or would not proceed
against them, he was supposed to favour their plans. In 1592 eight
suspicious papers were seized on the person of _George Kerr_, the
_Lord_ _Newbottle's_ brother, who was leaving Scotland by the western
coast. These papers, called the _Spanish blanks_, were signed by
_Huntly_, _Errol_, and _Angus_, but had no other writing on them.
_Kerr_, after being put to the torture, declared that these blank
papers were to be filled up by two Jesuits who were commissioned to
offer the services of the nobles who had signed them to the King of
Spain, to aid him in the re-establishment of the old religion. This
discovery filled every one with horror. _Angus_ was seized; but as
_Huntly_ retreated to his own country in the north, _Argyle_, his rival
in the Highlands, was sent with full power against him. The two armies
met at _Glenlivat_, not far from the scene of the well-remembered fight
of _Harlaw_. Huntly had but two thousand men, raised chiefly in the
northern Lowlands, but they defeated Argyle's swarm of Highlanders,
October 1594. But the Romish party was too weak to follow up the
victory, and in 1597 Huntly and Errol publicly renounced their old
faith, and joined the established Church.

=39. Religious Tumults.=--The King and the Church were not long at
peace. He called certain of their ministers to account before the
council for what they had said in the pulpit. The ministers looked
upon this interference as an attack on their privileges. The people
supported them, and the result was a riot, so serious that the Court
had to flee to Linlithgow. Upon this the King threatened to take away
the courts of justice from Edinburgh. The fear of this damped the
spirit of the mob, and after the return of the Court the ministers who
had withstood the King fled to England. The Estates soon after passed
an act by which the King might confer on any minister the title of
_bishop_ or _abbot_, but only so as to give him a seat in Parliament;
the title was not to imply any lordship over his brethren.

=40. The Gowrie Plot.=--On the morning of the fifth of August, 1600,
as James was setting out hunting from Falkland Palace, he was met
by _Alexander Ruthven_, the younger brother of the _Earl of Gowrie_,
who told him with a great air of mystery that he had discovered a man
burying a pot of money in a field, and that he thought the affair so
suspicious that he had taken him prisoner, and begged the King to
come to _Gowrie House_ in _Perth_ to see him. James went, taking with
him _Mar_, _Lennox_, and about twenty other gentlemen. After dinner
_Alexander_ took the King aside, and, when his attendants missed him,
they were told that he had gone back to _Falkland_. They were preparing
to follow him there when some of them heard cries from a turret. They
recognized the King's voice, and they presently saw his head thrust
out of a window calling for help. They had much ado to make their way
to him, but they found him at last in a small room struggling with
Alexander, while a man dressed in armour was looking on. Alexander
Ruthven and Gowrie were both killed in the scuffle which followed. A
tumult rose in the town, for the Earl had been Provost and was very
popular with the townsfolk, and the King and his followers had to make
their escape by the river. The doom of traitors was passed on the dead
men, and their name was proscribed, but, as no accomplice could be
discovered, it was hard to say what was the extent or object of their
plot. The whole affair was very mysterious, the only witnesses being
the King himself and Henderson the man in armour. Some of the ministers
thought it so suspicious that they refused to return thanks for the
King's safety, as they thought the whole affair an invention of his
own. Eight years later some letters were discovered in the hands of
one _Sprot_, a notary at _Eyemouth_, which threw some more light on
the mystery. They were written by _Logan_ of _Restalrig_, and revealed
a plan between him and the Ruthvens for bringing some prisoner, who
was not named, but might possibly be the King, to _Fast Castle_, a
fortress belonging to Logan, standing on a rock at the entrance to the
_Forth_. Sprot was found guilty of treason, and was put to death for
not revealing all he knew about the plot long before.

=41. Union of the Crowns.=--When Elizabeth died, James was the nearest
heir to the throne of England by right of descent from _Margaret_,
elder daughter of _Henry the Seventh_. But her right had been passed
over by _Henry the Eighth_, who had in the will, which he was empowered
by Parliament to make, settled the succession on the heirs of his
younger sister, _Mary_. As it was politically convenient to the English
Privy Council that James should succeed Elizabeth on her death, they
sent off post haste to summon him to come and take the crown. His
questionable right was made good by the voice of the people in his
first Parliament. He entered London May 6, 1603. Hitherto he had had
less money and less power than almost any other prince in Europe;
he now became suddenly one of the richest and most powerful among
them. This union of the crowns made the third break in the history of
Scotland. The gallant struggle for freedom which had drawn forth all
the energies of the nation during the past three centuries was now
over. It was now to be united to the powerful neighbour that had so
long threatened its independence. The representative of the ancient
royal Celtic line, which the national reverence for hereditary royalty
had upheld unbroken through the strain of seven long minorities, now
became king of the larger and richer kingdom of _England_, which had
been ruled by one foreign dynasty after another ever since the Norman
Conquest.

=42. State of the Nation.=--In Scotland the feudal system was
still unshaken. To it the great barons owed their power, and the
_Reformation_, which in England had strengthened the crown, had in
Scotland only thrown more wealth and more power into the hands of
the nobles. Hitherto the people had been only dependents of the
great feudal barons, whose burthens they bore in return for their
protection. Still they could not have been very badly off, for in
Scotland there were no peasant wars, as in _France_ and _England_. It
was the _Reformation_ which first brought them out as a separate body
in the state. Their condition was now much worse than it had formerly
been. The crown brought its increased power to bear upon the nobles,
who in their turn, slaves and flatterers at the foreign Court and
tyrants at home, used their feudal rights for the oppression of the
people, who could hope for no redress from their absent King.

=43. Summary.=--We have, in this chapter, traced the progress of the
_Reformation_, and noted the changes which it made in the state of
the nation. Though the Reformation did not begin so soon in Scotland
as in _Germany_ and _England_, it made more striking changes and
overthrew the old Church more completely than it did in either of
those countries. It first gave to the people an independent national
life. Until it roused them to separate action, they had been swayed
by no party feelings, but had blindly followed the lead and fought
in the feuds of their feudal superiors, without paying any heed to
the cause for which they laid down their lives. The Reformation also
broke off the alliance with France which had subsisted ever since
the War of Independence. All the events of this period are closely
connected with the change of religion, and it is marked by more civil
war, more bloodshed, more crimes of violence, more party strife, more
treachery and wrong and robbery, than any other period in the history
of Scotland. It was the bad faith of Mary of Lorraine which first drove
the Reformers to take up arms in defence of their opinions. Under their
own native queen they hoped to enjoy liberty of conscience, and as they
looked to her to redress their grievances they welcomed her return
with much loyal feeling. By the craftiness and dissimulation of her
policy in public affairs, and by the scandals of her private life, she
changed their loyal affection into loathing and contempt, and finally
forfeited the crown. During the long minority which followed, the
country was desolated by a civil war, and the crown was impoverished
by the grasping greediness of the nobles. When the King came of age,
he showed himself quite unequal to the task of ruling and uniting the
different rival factions in the church and in the state, and allowed
himself to be governed by one worthless favourite after another. Nor
were the ecclesiastical affairs of this period at all more settled
than the secular. The form of church government was changed four times
before the presbyterian polity was finally established in 1592. The
lands of the old Church had been seized by the most worthless of the
nobles instead of being set apart for the support of the new Church,
so that the ministers could with difficulty secure a bare subsistence.
During such an unhappy state of affairs there could be little social
or intellectual development. There were however among the Reformers
many men distinguished for their learning and brilliant talents. Of
these the most conspicuous were _George Buchanan_, tutor to the young
king, who wrote a fabulous history of Scotland and other books in very
elegant Latin, and _John Knox_, who wrote a History of the Reformation,
remarkable for the vigour, clearness, and simplicity of its style. _Sir
James Melville_, who was also an accomplished courtier, and stood high
in favour both with Mary and with James, gives an excellent picture
of these disturbed times in his very entertaining memoirs. The Prayer
Book of the Reformed Church was also translated into Gaelic. It was
published in 1567, and was the first Celtic book that had ever yet been
printed.


CHAPTER VII.

THE UNION OF THE CROWNS.

  _James VI.; results of the Union_ (1)--_restoration
     of Episcopacy_ (2)--_planting of the Highlands_
     (3)--_Articles of Perth_ (4)--_founding of Nova Scotia_
     (5)--_the King's death_ (6)--_Charles I._; _resumption
     of benefices_ (7)--_King's visit and coronation_
     (8)--_Book of Canons_ (9)--_Liturgy tumults_ (10)--_the
     Tables_ (11)--_renewal of the Covenant_ (12)--_Hamilton
     Commissioner_ (13)--_Glasgow Assembly_ (14)--_war in the
     north_ (15)--_pacification of Berwick_ (16)--_Assembly and
     Parliament_ (17)--_invasion of England_ (18)--_Treaty of
     Ripon_ (19)--_war breaks out_ (20)--_Montrose's campaign_
     (21)--_dealings with the king_ (22)--_the Engagement_;
     _Whiggamores' raid_ (23)--_Directory_; _confession of
     faith_ (24)--_the king's death_ (25)--_Charles II._;
     _fate of Hamilton and Huntly_ (26)--_Montrose's rising_
     (27)--_arrival of Charles_ (28)--_Cromwell's conquest_
     (29)--_the coronation_ (30)--_battle of Worcester_
     (31)--_union with England_ (32)--_Glencairn's expedition_
     (33)--_the Restoration_ (34)--_episcopacy re-established_
     (35)--_fate of Guthrie and Argyle_ (36)--_the Ejection_
     (37)--_western rising_ (38)--_the Persecution_ (39)--_the
     Indulgence_ (40)--_murder of Sharp_ (41)--_Sanquhar
     Declaration_ (42)--_Drumclog_ (43)--_Bothwell Bridge_
     (44)--_Test Act_ (45)--_Argyle's opposition_ (46)--_James
     VII._; _the Killing Time_ (47)--_Argyle's rising_
     (48)--_the Indulgence_ (49)--_deposition of James_
     (50)--_William and Mary_; _the Convention_ (51)--_the
     Rabbling_ (52)--_Dundee's revolt_ (53)--_battle of
     Killiecrankie_ (54)--_attack of Dunkeld_; _Buchan's
     attempt_ (55)--_dealings with the chiefs_ (56)--_Massacre
     of Glencoe_ (57)--_Darien Scheme_ (58)--_William's death_
     (59)--_Education Act_ (60)--_Anne_; _Act of Security_
     (61)--_trial and death of Captain Green_ (62)--_the Union_
     (63)--_literature and art_ (64)--_summary_ (65).


=1. James VI., 1603-1625. Results of the Union.=--Immediately after
the Union of the Crowns, the _Border laws_ on each side were repealed,
and it was settled that subjects of either country born after the
Union should no longer be looked on as aliens in the other, but should
have the undisputed right of inheriting property in either. A _Lord
High Commissioner_ was appointed to represent the King in Scotland,
and there was some talk of an union of the parliaments, but it was not
carried out.

=2. Restoration of Episcopacy.=--The great desire of the King was
to bring the Church of Scotland into conformity with the Church of
England. To bring this about, he summoned some of the ministers to
England, in the hope that he should be able to persuade them to agree
with him. _Melville_, their leader, spoke out so plainly against
episcopacy before the bishops in the Privy Council that he was sent to
the Tower and finally banished. But the King carried his point, and in
1606 the Estates passed an act for the restoration of the bishops. No
acts of church government were in future to be lawful without their
consent, and though the General Assembly was still to go on, its power
was to be very much lessened. As the old line of Scottish bishops
had died out, John Spottiswood, Andrew Lamb, and Gavin Hamilton were
consecrated by English bishops at London House to the bishoprics of
Glasgow, Brechin, and Galloway. To avoid all dispute about the old
claim of supremacy, neither of the English archbishops was present.
But these bishops had a very hard time of it, for they did not get the
lands of their sees restored to them as had been promised, and many of
them had hard work to get a living at all. In 1610, two _Courts of High
Commission_ were set up. These courts were afterwards united into one,
but, as this court was under the control of the Court of Session, it
could never be so tyrannical as the Court of High Commission in England.

=3. Planting of the Highlands.=--In the early part of his reign James
had tried to do something to improve the state of the _Highlands_. To
this end three new burghs were founded, and the lands of all chiefs
who could not show written titles were declared forfeited. These
lands were given to _Lowland_ colonists, who were however soon glad
to give up any attempt at settling among their lawless neighbours.
The _MacGregors_, whose district lay close on the Lowland border,
had shown themselves the most savage and lawless of all the Highland
clans. _Argyle_ was commissioned to hunt them down, but they beat the
Lowlanders with great slaughter in a battle at _Glen Fruin_ in 1604.
Their chief was afterwards taken and hanged, and the name proscribed,
but that was only breaking the power of one clan, whilst the others
remained as formidable as ever. To prevent such outbreaks in future,
_Argyle_ and _Huntly_ were entrusted with full powers to carry on the
planting of the Highlands. Three conditions were required of those
chiefs who were suffered to stay in possession of their lands. That
they should give sureties for the good order of their clans; promise
to let their land for a fixed rent in money instead of all other
exactions, and agree to send their children to school in the Lowlands.
These changes not only strengthened the Government, but made united
action on the part of the clans more difficult.

=4. Articles of Perth.=--The King only paid one visit to Scotland
after his accession to the throne of England. He then gave great
offence by introducing ceremonial vestments at the service in his own
chapel. These vestments and other ornaments which were customary in
England were hateful to the presbyterians. The passing of the "_Five
Articles_" by a General Assembly held at _Perth_ completed their
dismay, and plainly showed the King's intention to impose upon them the
ceremonies which they so much disliked. By those Articles the private
administration of the sacraments was allowed, all persons were enjoined
to kneel at the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, to bring their children
to the Bishops for confirmation, and to observe the five great
festivals of the Christian Church as holidays.

=5. Founding of Nova Scotia.=--The poverty of their country and the
love of adventure had made the Scots from the earliest times ever
ready to seek their fortunes abroad. They had won themselves renown
as soldiers or traders in nearly all the countries of the Old world,
but they had not as yet any colony of their own in the New one.
Hitherto these emigrants, though they were called Scots, had been
chiefly _Saxons_ from the Lowlands, but in the beginning of this reign
bodies of _Celts_ had gone back to the original _Scotia_, and in
_Ulster_, their old home, they won back settlements from the kindred
Celtic race who now looked on them as intruders. But while some of
the wanderers thus went back to the old country, others were founding
a _New Scotland_ beyond the sea. This, the third land to which the
wandering people gave its name, was called by the _Latin_ form of the
name, _Nova Scotia_. It was granted by a Royal Charter to _Sir William
Alexander_, afterwards _Earl of Stirling_, the projector of this scheme
of emigration in 1621. This new settlement was divided into 1,000
parts, and every adventurer who was willing to brave the hardships of
an uncleared country, and resist the encroachments of the neighbouring
settlers, was rewarded with the rank and title of baronet. About the
same time too the Lowlanders were encouraged to go over to the _North
of Ireland_, and to take up the lands from which the Irish chiefs had
been driven. As the soil there was much better than that which they
had left, they gladly agreed to the change, and passed over in great
numbers, more than ten thousand going in two years.

=6. The King's Death.=--On the twenty-seventh of March, 1625, the King
died. He had governed Scotland during his twenty-two years of absence
with a much firmer hand than in the troubled time of his personal
rule. He had then been quite at the mercy of his ministers and of the
nobles. The wealth and power of his larger kingdom made him now able to
deal with the smaller one pretty much as he liked, and the nobles were
too eagerly seeking favour and place at the richer court to be willing
to risk the loss of them by opposing his will. James was quite unlike
all his forefathers. He had good abilities and an unusual amount of
learning, besides a good deal of common sense and shrewdness, which he
sometimes made use of, but his repulsive appearance and manners, and
his want of self-reliance, exposed him to ridicule and contempt. He had
none of the courage, high spirit, graceful tastes and ready wit that
spread a veil over the faults and vices of his ancestors. Yet he alone
escaped the tragic fate that seemed the doom of all the _Stewart_ line,
and was singled out from among them for an almost fairy-like change and
advance of fortune.

=7. Charles I., 1625-1649. Resumption of Benefices.=--_Charles_, who
succeeded James as King of the two kingdoms, had even more exalted
ideas than his father of the power of the prerogative. It fell to the
lot of the Scots to take the lead and set an example to the English
in resisting his arbitrary measures. Before he had been a year on the
throne, it was clear that he meant to carry out his father's plan of
making the _Scotch Church_ as like the _English Church_ as possible.
He issued a proclamation recalling all the church lands which were in
the hands of laymen, whether they had been granted by the crown or not.
The holders protested against this injustice, and at last a compromise
was made by which they agreed to give up part of the lands they held on
condition of having their claim to the rest made good.

=8. King's Visit and Coronation.=--In 1633 Charles came to Scotland,
and was crowned with great pomp in the Abbey church of Holyrood. The
vestments that were worn on this occasion by the clergy gave great
offence to the people. Their discontent was increased by an order from
the King enjoining their own ministers to wear surplices, and the
bishops to wear rochets and sleeves, instead of the Geneva cloak as
heretofore. While Charles was in Scotland, a meeting of the Estates was
held, in which he met with no opposition, owing to a new arrangement
in choosing the _Lords of the Articles_. Formerly this committee had
consisted of eight members from each _Estate_ chosen by their own
peers; but now the bishops were first chosen, they again chose the
barons, and barons and bishops together chose the commons, so that all
those chosen were really the allies of the bishops. A supplication
was drawn up to remonstrate with the King about this interference,
but, instead of taking it in good part, Charles was very angry,
treated their remonstrance as a political offence, and put the lord
_Balmerinoch_, who had revised the supplication which was presented to
him, in prison. He was afterwards pardoned, but this did not make the
King any more popular, as it was thought that he had only liberated
Balmerinoch from fear and not from goodwill. While in Scotland he
founded a new bishopric at _Edinburgh_, which had formerly formed part
of the diocese of _St. Andrews_.

=9. Book of Canons.=--The discontent and distrust of the people which
had been roused by the introduction of vestments, by the increase in
the number of the bishops, and by the appointment of the primate as
chancellor were now brought to a head by the appearance of a _Book of
Canons_, or rules for the government of the Church. This book they
were called on to accept in place of the Book of Discipline, on the
authority of the King alone, unconfirmed by the _Estates_, and not
long after the King attempted to change their form of worship as well.
Through the influence of _Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury_, a Liturgy
was drawn up on the plan of the first book of _Edward the Sixth_. From
this Liturgy the Scotch clergy were commanded by the King to read
prayers in the churches, instead of from the book of _Common Order_
which was still in general use.

=10. Liturgy Tumults.=--The imposition of this book roused the old
national jealousy. The people thought that to have an English service
book forced upon them would be a mark of subjection; and on the day
named by the King for bringing it into use, July 16, 1637, when
the _Dean of Edinburgh_ tried to read the prayers from it in _St.
Giles' Church_, a riot broke out. Stools and books were thrown at the
_Dean_, the _Archbishop_, and the _Bishop of Edinburgh_, who had great
difficulty in escaping out of the hands of the mob. And this tumult was
but a sign of the common feeling throughout the country. The King was
highly incensed and ordered the offenders to be brought to punishment,
and the use of the liturgy to be enforced. Numberless petitions against
it from all ranks of the people poured in on the _Privy Council_, or
were sent up to _London_ to the King, while _Edinburgh_ was thronged
with the petitioners from all parts of the country waiting for the
answer which they hoped would be favourable. No answer was given to
them, but the King issued a proclamation ordering them all to return
to their homes, and threatening to remove the courts from Edinburgh to
_Linlithgow_ if the disturbance continued, as had been done in the late
reign. But this had no effect. The bishops and the other members of the
Council were mobbed, and the supplicants joined in a common petition to
the King, called the _Great Supplication_.

=11. The Tables.=--The Council finding it impossible to treat with a
turbulent mob which increased instead of diminishing, persuaded the
malcontents to choose representatives to act in their names, four from
each class, _nobles_, _lesser barons_, _clergy_, and _burgesses_.
The rest were to return peaceably to their several homes. But this
committee, known as _The_ _Tables_, gave the Council more trouble
than the unruly mob had done, for they made their way into the Council
chamber, insisted on debating there, and demanded that the bishops
should be turned out.

=12. Renewal of the Covenant, 1638.=--Still the King would not give
in, and he met a less submissive protest on the part of his subjects
by another threatening proclamation. On this the _Tables_ renewed the
_Covenant_, with a clause added to it aimed at the bishops. At the last
renewal of the _Covenant_, only notable persons had put their names to
it, but this time it was signed by every one throughout the land, rich
and poor alike. There was the greatest excitement and enthusiasm about
it all over the country, and from this time the popular party became
known as the _Covenanters_.

=13. Hamilton Commissioner.=--A few months later the _Marquess of
Hamilton_ came to _Scotland_ as _Commissioner_ with full power, it was
said, to settle everything. The demands of the _Covenanters_ were that
the _Court of High Commission_, the _Canons_ and the _Liturgy_ should
all be done away, and that a free Assembly and a free Parliament should
be summoned. But Hamilton, acting on the orders given him, kept putting
them off with promises till the King should be ready to put them down
by force, when suddenly the King turned about, promised all they asked,
and agreed that the Assembly should be called, and that the bishops
should be tried by it.

=14. Glasgow Assembly.=--The Assembly met in the Cathedral Church
at _Glasgow_, November 21, 1638. Hamilton opened it as the Royal
_Commissioner_. But after a few days, when the attack on the bishops
began, he withdrew and ordered the members to disperse. They paid no
heed to this order, but went on with the trial of the bishops, who were
all deposed, and eight of them excommunicated. The _Canons_ and the
_Liturgy_ were then rejected, and all acts of the _Assemblies_ held
since 1606 were annulled.

=15. War in the North.=--In the _North_, where _Huntly_ was the _King's
Lieutenant_, the Covenant had not been received, and the Tables
resolved to enforce it with the sword. Scotland was now full of trained
soldiers just come back from _Germany_, where they had learnt to fight
in the _Thirty Years war_, and as plenty of money had been collected
among the Covenanters, an army was easily raised. Their banner bore the
motto, _For Religion, the Covenant, and the Country_, and their leader
was _James Graham, Earl of Montrose_, one of the most zealous among
the champions of the cause. _Aberdeen_, Huntly's capital, dared make
no resistance, for the soldiers occupied the town and the ministers
the pulpits, and Montrose brought Huntly himself back to _Edinburgh_
in his train. But in the first brush of actual war the _King's party_,
the _Cavaliers_, or _Malignants_ as their opponents called them, had
the advantage, for they surprised and scattered the _Covenanters_ of
the _North_ at the little village of _Turriff_, which they had made
their trysting place. In this action, called the _Trot of Turriff_, the
first blood was shed in the great Civil War. The Cavaliers were the
first to draw the sword. Though Huntly had been taken out of the way by
his removal to Edinburgh, his two sons, the _Lord Aboyne_ and _Lewis
Gordon_, supplied his place and called out the Highlanders. _Aberdeen_
changed hands, and again _Montrose_ was sent to subdue the _North_
before the expected struggle with England should begin. At the _Bridge
of Dee_ he defeated the Malignants, and once more entered Aberdeen in
triumph. Just after this entry the news was brought that peace had been
made between the King and the other army of the Covenant on the Border.
June 1639.

=16. Pacification of Berwick.=--While Montrose had been thus busy for
the Covenant in the North, the King had been making ready to put
down his rebellious Scottish subjects with the sword. Early in _May_
a fleet entered the _Forth_ under the command of _Hamilton_. But the
Tables took possession of the strongholds, and seized the ammunition
which had been laid in for the King. They then raised another army of
twenty-two thousand foot and one thousand two hundred horse, and placed
at its head _Alexander Leslie_, a veteran, trained in the _German_ war.
Their army they sent southwards to meet the English host which the King
was bringing to reduce Scotland. The two armies faced each other on
opposite banks of the Tweed. The Scots were skilfully posted on _Dunse
Law_, a hill commanding the _Northern road_. To pass them without
fighting was impossible, and to fight would have been almost certain
defeat. The King seeing this agreed to treat. By a treaty called the
"_Pacification of Berwick_," it was settled that the questions at issue
between the King and the Covenanters should be put to a free Assembly,
that both armies should be disbanded, and that the strongholds should
be restored to the King. June 9, 1639.

=17. Assembly and Parliament.=--The Assembly which met at Edinburgh
repeated and approved all that had been done at _Glasgow_. When the
Estates met for the first time in the New Parliament-house, June 2,
1640, they went still further, for they not only confirmed the Acts
of the Assemblies, but ordered everyone to sign the Covenant under
pain of civil penalties. Now for the first time they acted in open
defiance of the King, to whom hitherto they had professed the greatest
loyalty and submission. Three times had they been adjourned by the
King, who had also refused to see the Commissioners whom they sent
up to London. Now they met in spite of him, and, as in former times
of troubles and difficulties, they appealed to _France_ for help.
When this intrigue with the French was found out, the _Lord Loudon_,
one of their Commissioners, was sent to the _Tower_, and the English
parliament was summoned to vote supplies for putting down the Scots
by force of arms. But by this time the English were beginning to see
that the cause of the Scots was the cause of freedom. There was much
difficulty in raising an army to march against them, and when raised it
was discontented and mutinous.

=18. Invasion of England.=--As for the Scots they mustered stronger
than before, and, on August 20, 1640, they crossed the _Tweed_, and
entered _England_. At _Newburn_ they defeated a body of English, and
crossing the _Tyne_, marched on to _Newcastle_, which yielded to them
without offering resistance. They then took _Durham_, _Tynemouth_, and
_Shields_ without a struggle. Meanwhile news came from Scotland that
the two great strongholds of the East and of the West, _Edinburgh_ and
_Dunbarton_, had again fallen into their hands.

=19. Treaty of Ripon.=--Once more they sent to the King, who was then
at _York_, a supplication in which they declared that all they wanted
was satisfaction to their just demands. The King laid the matter
before a great council of peers which he had called at York. By their
advice it was decided to treat with the Scots. Eight Commissioners
from their army came to _Ripon_, and the treaty which was begun there
was not ended until nearly a year afterwards at _London_. All that
they asked was granted, and they were promised three hundred thousand
pounds to defray the expenses of this war, into which they said they
had been driven. The armies were then disbanded, and peace seemed to
be restored. The King came to Scotland once more, and a meeting of the
Estates was held in which he let the members have their own way in
everything. He also confirmed the right of the Estates to meet once
every three years, and fixed the next meeting for June, 1644.

=20. Breaking out of the War.=--This seeming peace was but the lull
before the storm, and, before one year had passed, the English had
followed the example set them by the Scots in resisting the unlawful
exactions of the King; the _Long Parliament_ had brought his minister
_Strafford_, the chief agent of his despotism, to the scaffold, and had
called on the people to arm in defence of their rights and liberties.
When the great _Civil War_ began in earnest, each side was eager
to secure the help of the fine army which the _Scots_ had at their
command. Religious opinion decided the matter. The Parliament, which
was as much opposed to episcopacy as the Scots were, adopted the solemn
_League_ and _Covenant_, and ordered every one to sign it, and by so
doing induced the Scots to join them. The army was raised again, and
put under the command of the two _Leslies_, _Alexander_, now _Earl of
Leven_, and his nephew _David_, who soon proved the better soldier
of the two. A second time they entered England, January 19, 1644,
and leaving a part of their force to besiege _Newcastle_ marched on
into _Yorkshire_, and joined the troops of the Parliament in time to
share their victory at _Marston Moor_. _Newcastle_ was taken by storm,
October 19.

=21. Montrose's Campaign.=--Meanwhile Montrose, whose zeal for the
Covenant had now changed into zeal for the King, was taking advantage
of the absence of the Covenanting force in England to win back the
North for Charles with an army of Celts alone. It was the first time
that the Highlanders had been turned to account in regular war.
Hitherto they had been thought only capable of preying upon one
another, but now, under a General who knew how to handle them, they
did wonders. The Lowlanders who had hastily mustered to oppose them
were beaten at _Tippermuir_. _Montrose_ then took _Perth_, marched
northward, again defeated the _Covenanters_, took _Aberdeen_ once more,
and held for the King this town which twice before he had held for the
Covenant. He then turned to the West, wasted the country of his great
enemy _Argyle_, pounced down upon and scattered the force gathered
to oppose his own on the shore of Loch Linnhe; kept his army in the
Highlands during the winter, and early in the spring took _Dundee_. He
twice defeated the Covenanters in the country north of the _Forth_,
and once south of it at _Kilsyth_. Thus in a wonderfully short time he
won back nearly the whole country for the King. But the secret of his
success had lain in the rapid marches and sudden attacks that kept his
men busy. When the fighting was over, the Highlanders, as was their
wont, went off in large numbers to take home their spoil. In this way
his army was diminished. _David Leslie_, who had been summoned home
to oppose him, brought some cavalry from the southern army against
his weakened force, and won a complete victory at _Philiphaugh_, near
_Selkirk_, September 12th, 1645. Montrose retreated with the small
remnant that was left to him, but he found it impossible to reassemble
his scattered force. His campaign had lasted little more than a
year, and a few months later the King, who had thrown himself on the
protection of the Scots army at Newark, ordered him to lay down his
arms. Montrose obeyed and left the country.

=22. Dealings with the King.=--While the Scots army was lying before
_Newark_, Charles, whose cause was now nearly hopeless, secretly left
_Oxford_, where he was besieged by the army of the Parliament, and
sought protection in the camp of the Scots. A few days afterwards
_Newark_ surrendered, and they returned with the King to _Newcastle_.
He stayed in their hands eight months. During this time, though they
behaved towards him with respect and courtesy, he was really their
prisoner, and they were busy treating with the Parliament for the
terms of his surrender. If he had turned Presbyterian and signed the
Covenant, no doubt they would have protected him, but after many
arguments with _Henderson_, a noted divine of their party, he still
remained unconvinced. In the end they agreed to leave England on
payment of 400,000 pounds arrears of pay that were due to them. When
they returned to their own country, they left the King to the mercy of
the English Parliament.

=23. The Engagement.=--A few months later, when Charles was a prisoner
at _Carisbrooke_, he made a secret treaty with the moderate party
in _Scotland_, to the effect that, if they would help him to win
back his power, he would confirm the Covenant and would make a trial
of the presbyterian Church in England. On this the _Committee of
Estates_, in whose hands the government was, raised an army and sent
it into _England_, with _Hamilton_, who had been created a Duke,
at its head. They were defeated at _Preston_ by _Oliver Cromwell_,
lieutenant-general of the parliamentary army. The Duke marched on
to _Uttoxeter_. There he and his army laid down their arms, and
yielded themselves prisoners, August 25, 1648. But the extreme party
in Scotland were very wroth against the _Engagers_, as they called
those who had made this "engagement" with the King. They thought that
the taking of the _Covenant_ by the King was a mere pretence, and
that Hamilton's expedition was a sinful helping of the _Malignants_.
A change in the government was the result. Argyle, the head of the
extreme Covenanters, raised his followers, while from the _Western
Lowlands_, which were just waking to zeal for the Covenant, a body of
men, with _Lord Eglinton_ at their head, marched on Edinburgh. This
was called the _Whiggamores' Raid_, from Whig, a word used in the
Westland for urging on horses. This was the origin of the word _Whig_,
which gradually became the nickname of a political party. Argyle and
his party came to terms with Cromwell, and formed a new Committee of
Estates. Cromwell then marched to Edinburgh, and made them give him an
assurance that none of the Engagers should be allowed to take any part
in the government. By the _Act of Classes_ which was then passed, all
profane persons and enemies of the Covenant were likewise shut out from
holding office.

=24. The Directory and Confession of Faith.=--The Scots now hoped to
see their Church and their Covenant adopted over all three kingdoms.
In this hope they were disappointed, for the most of the parliamentary
party were Independents, who had no idea of exchanging the tyranny
of bishops for that of presbyters. An _Assembly of Divines_ met at
_Westminster_, June 12, 1643, to settle religious matters. They adopted
the Covenant, and the Scots in return accepted their directory of
public worship, and the _Confession of Faith_ drawn up by them in place
of their own _Books of Discipline_ and _Common Order_. But though the
Covenant was thus nominally accepted in England, the different English
sects were allowed far more liberty than the strict Covenanters thought
right.

=25. The King's Death.=--On the thirtieth of January, 1649, the King
was beheaded at Whitehall. With the court of justice which professed
to try him, with the sentence which it passed, and with the execution
of that sentence, the Scots had nothing whatever to do. As they had
no idea of the existence of their kingdom without a king, nor of
having any other king than the hereditary one, no sooner was the news
of the King's death known in _Edinburgh_, than _Charles_ his son was
proclaimed _King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland_.

=26. Charles II., 1649-1685. Fate of Hamilton and Huntly.=--_Hamilton_,
who was a prisoner in England, was brought to trial as an English
subject by his English title of _Earl of Cambridge_; he was found
guilty of treason in invading the country, and was beheaded. _Huntly_
met with a like fate in Scotland. He was also charged with treason in
having made war for the King against the Covenanters.

=27. Montrose's Rising.=--Meanwhile in the north _Montrose_ made one
more effort for the king. With a small army of foreigners which he had
gathered on the _Continent_ he landed in _Orkney_, and from thence
passed over to Scotland early in 1650. But his followers were dispersed
by a detachment from the Covenanting army. He himself wandered for a
while in the Highlands, but was at last taken prisoner, brought to
_Edinburgh_, and hanged there without a trial. He was lying under
sentence of death for treason, which had been passed against him five
years before, when he first took up arms for the King.

=28. Arrival of Charles.=--But while the Estates were thus dealing with
the leaders of the Malignants, they were busy on their own account
treating for the return of Charles. They looked on him as their lawful
King, and they were ready to be faithful to him if he would sign the
Covenant and promise to submit to the dictates of the Assembly. These
promises he made, and, before he landed, he signed the Covenant, in
July, 1650, while the courtiers whom he had brought with him were
nearly all sent away as being either Malignants or Engagers.

=29. Cromwell's Conquest.=--No sooner did the news of these doings
reach London than _Cromwell_ was sent northward with a large army to
put a stop to them. The old hatred of _England_ was rekindled by this
invasion, and numbers of recruits flocked round the banner of the
Covenant. The army thus brought together was made up of good soldiers
who made no pretences to piety, and of would-be saints who knew
nothing of fighting. But the saints drove from their ranks all whom
they suspected of lukewarmness in the cause and therefore looked on as
sinners, and thus weeded out their best soldiers. Those who were left
were put under the command of _Leslie_, and the King was not suffered
to go out with the host. They took up a strong position on the hills
south of the _Firth of Forth_, and for some time Cromwell tried in vain
to bring them to a battle, but at last Leslie was persuaded against
his better judgment to go down into the plain and meet the enemy. A
battle was fought near _Dunbar_, September 3, in which the Scots were
thoroughly beaten.

=30. The Coronation.= --Meanwhile Charles was in _Dunfermline_, in
old times the royal city, under care so strict and watchful that it
was very much like imprisonment. The life which he led there was so
distasteful to him that he made his escape, in hopes of joining the
northern chiefs. But their plans were badly laid. He found no one to
meet him as he had expected, and he was pursued and brought back by
his former guardians. According to the ancient custom, _Charles_ was
crowned at _Scone_ by the hands of the _Marquess of Argyle_.

=31. Battle of Worcester.=--While _Cromwell_ was busy in _Scotland_
the Scots army marched into _England_. This time they took the _King_
with them. But Cromwell hastened after them, came up with them at
_Worcester_, and defeated them there, September 3, 1651, exactly a
year after his victory at Dunbar. This was the last battle fought in
the Civil War. The Scots had been the first to take up the sword, and
they were the last to lay it down. Charles, after wandering about
for some time in danger, and in want, escaped to the Continent.
Meanwhile _General Monk_, who had been left in Scotland with an army
of five thousand men, was reducing the country to subjection. The
public records deposited in Stirling Castle were sent to the Tower of
London. The Regalia, the Honours of Scotland as they were called, the
Crown, the Sword, and the Sceptre, had been taken to Dunnottar, one
of the strong fortresses in Scotland, which stood on a ledge of rock
overhanging the sea. The Castle made a gallant resistance, but was at
last obliged to yield, but the Honours were not found in it. They had
been taken secretly from the Castle by _Mrs. Granger_, the wife of the
minister of the parish. She rode through the camp with the Crown on
her lap hidden in a bundle of lint, and the sceptre in her hand in the
guise of a distaff, with the flax she was spinning wound round it. She
and her husband buried the Honours under the floor of the church, and
they kept their secret so well that no one knew what had become of them.

=32. Union with England.=--Cromwell, now _Lord Protector_ of England,
Scotland, and Ireland, set to work to carry out Edward the First's
idea of a legislative union of England and Scotland. This _Union_ was
ratified by the Council, in 1654. It was then settled that Scotland
should be represented by thirty members in the English Parliament.
Free-trade was established between the two countries. Great changes
were also made in the Church Government. The Assembly was closed, and
the power of the Church-courts was done away with. The country was
divided into five districts, and the care of providing ministers to
the different parishes was laid upon a certain number of ministers to
be chosen from these districts. In order to improve the state of the
people, all feudal dues were taken away. A fixed rent in money was
substituted for all the services and restrictions to which the land had
hitherto been liable. The Highlands were kept in order by the founding
of garrisoned Forts.

=33. Glencairn's Expedition.=--Once only was the peace and order thus
well established broken in favour of the Stewarts. A rising was made
in the Highlands by _William Cunningham, Lord Glencairn_, who acted
under a commission from Charles. More than five thousand men gathered
round him. They were dispersed by a detachment of Monk's troops under
_General Morgan_ at _Loch Garry_ before they had come down from the
Highlands.

=34. The Restoration.=--The _Protector_, whose conquest had made
Scotland prosperous, died September 3, 1658. His son _Richard_
succeeded him in office, but he was not strong enough to keep order, as
his father had done. A time of great confusion followed, which ended
in the recall and Restoration of Charles. This was chiefly the work
of General Monk. He was Commander of the Army in Scotland, during the
Protectorate. Some time after Cromwell's death he called together a
Convention of the Representatives of the Counties. Whether they knew
of his intention of restoring Charles or not is not certain. But they
aided him with a large sum of money. In November, 1659, he set out with
the army for London, and in about six months' time Charles returned
in triumph to England. In Scotland, where Charles had been already
crowned, his return was celebrated with great rejoicings by the people,
who hoped that he would uphold the Covenant which he had signed. Before
long, they found out how much they had been mistaken. In the very
first English Parliament, an Act was passed which took from Scotland
the privilege of free-trade with England, which she had enjoyed under
Cromwell. This was the _Navigation Act_, by which the exporting and
importing of merchandise into England, or any of her colonies, was
forbidden to any but English vessels.

=35. Episcopacy Re-established.=--_John Middleton_, a soldier of
fortune, who had been taken prisoner at _Worcester_, and who had
afterwards taken an active part in Glencairn's expedition, was now made
_Earl of Middleton_, and was sent to Scotland as _Commissioner_. When
the Estates met, an Act called the _Act Rescissory_ was passed. By this
Act, all the Acts passed since 1633 were cut out of the Statutes;
nearly all the concessions wrung from Charles the First were recalled.
The causes of dispute between the King and the people were thus
restored to the state in which they had been before the great struggle
began. In this same year Episcopacy was re-established by the Estates,
and the Covenant was publicly burned by the hangman. As there was but
one of the old bishops still alive, three new ones were consecrated
in England. _James Sharp_ was the Primate. He had gone up to London
to plead the cause of the Covenant and of Presbyters; he came back an
Archbishop, and was thenceforward foremost in persecuting the cause he
had deserted.

=36. Fate of Argyle and of Guthrie.=--The government of Scotland was
entrusted to a Privy Council. Its authority was supported by a standing
lifeguard, the troop that former kings had often asked for in vain.
To this Council were entrusted the supreme powers of the Estates
during the intervals between the Sessions. An _Act of Indemnity_ was
promised, but before it was passed several persons suffered death.
Two of those who thus fell were specially distinguished. The one was
_Argyle_, whose great power made him a dangerous rival to the King.
He was treacherously seized in London, whither he had gone to pay his
court to Charles. He was sent down to _Edinburgh_, where he was tried
for treason, found guilty, and beheaded, May 27, 1661. But the victim
who was most regretted and whose fate called forth the most pity was
_James Guthrie_, a noted divine, the leader of the extreme party among
the Covenanters. This party, who were called the _Remonstrants_, had
prepared a _Remonstrance_ to be presented to the King directly after
his return, praying that no form of worship but their own might be
suffered within the realm. This remonstrance was drawn up by Guthrie.
It was never presented, and those who had projected it were put in
prison. Guthrie was now brought to trial on a charge of spreading
abroad sedition and treason against the Government. He refused any
legal defence, and avowed and justified all that he had done. He was
found guilty and beheaded. He was looked on by the Covenanters as a
martyr for his faith, and his last words were treasured up with special
veneration.

=37. The Ejection.=--The promised Act of Indemnity was not passed till
1662, and it was not a free pardon, as had been looked for. Between
seven and eight hundred persons were heavily fined. In this same year
an Act was passed requiring all persons holding any public office
to sign a _Declaration_ that the Covenant was an unlawful oath; and
lastly a law was passed that all ministers presented to livings since
1639 should be turned out, unless they would agree to be collated or
instituted by the new bishops. The ministers who refused to consent
to episcopal collation were required to remove with their families
out of their parishes within a month from the date of the passing of
this Act. The meeting of the Council in which it was passed was called
the _Drunken Parliament_, from the condition of the members present.
Sooner than submit to this, three hundred and fifty ministers resigned.
Most of their parishioners followed them, and the churches were left
empty, while the people flocked to the open-air services of their
former pastors. To prevent this an Act was passed for levying fines on
all persons who did not go to their parish church on the Lord's Day.
Another Act, called the _Mile Act_, was also passed, which forbade the
recusant or refusing ministers to come within twenty miles of their
former parishes, or within three miles of any royal burgh. The _Court
of High Commission_ was revived, and empowered to proceed against all
dissenters from the Episcopal (now the Established) Church, whether
they were Romanists or Presbyterians. But this tyranny drove the
people to revolt, and a third _Religious War_ began. In the first the
people had taken up arms for a question of doctrine; the second arose
from disputes about a form of prayer; this, the third, was caused by
enforcing a form of Church-government specially disliked by the nation.
In the conduct of public prayer no change was made. As there had been
in James's reign a _Presbyterian Church_ with a _Liturgy_, so now there
was an _Episcopal Church_ without one. But, though the cause of dispute
seemed this time of less importance than in the two former wars, the
zeal on the one side and the persecution on the other were greater than
they had been in the former struggles. Then Edinburgh and the Eastern
Lowlands had borne the brunt of the battle; now it was in the West,
where it was latest kindled, that religious zeal flamed fiercest and
lasted longest.

=38. Western Rising.=--In spite of fines and penalties the churches
still remained empty, while the people went long distances to gather
round their "outed" ministers. On the hill-sides, wherever in short
they were least likely to be dispersed by the dragoons, they met to
hear the sermons of their favourite preachers. But so great was the
danger incurred by thus worshipping God according to their consciences
that sentries were stationed on the hill-tops round to give warning
of the approach of danger, and the men stacked their muskets so that
they could seize and use them on a moment's notice. Such meetings
were called _Conventicles_, and to hunt them down bands of soldiers
scoured the country in all directions. In the south-west the troops
were under the command of _Sir James Turner_, and it was his severity
that drove the people to actual revolt. The immediate cause of the
outbreak was the rescue of an old man from the clutches of a group of
soldiers who were ill-using him. In the scuffle one of the soldiers was
wounded. This affair happened at _Dalry_, in _Ayrshire_. A large body
of peasants soon gathered to protect their conventicles. They seized
Turner at _Dumfries_, and, when their numbers had increased to nearly
three thousand, they set out for _Edinburgh_, expecting the people of
the Eastern Counties to show their former spirit by rising to join
them. _General Thomas Dalziel_, who had made himself a reputation by
fighting for the Czar of Russia against Turks and Tartars, was sent to
bar their way. But they avoided and passed him. He had to come back
after them as far as the _Pentland Hills_, where they were so well
posted that the troops could only break and disperse them by repeated
attacks. But the feeling of this district had changed so much that the
peasantry now turned against these wild Whigs of the Westland, and
treated them nearly as badly as the troopers had done.

=39. The Persecution.=--This rising did no real good, for after the
defeat at _Pentland_ in 1666 the tyranny became even more cruel than
before. The trials which followed were infamous, from the shameful and
constant use of torture. The instruments used for this purpose were
the _thumbkin_, a screw applied to the thumb-joint, and the _boot_, a
cylinder in which the leg of the victim was crushed by hammering in
wedges. Both inflicted the most fearful pain without destroying life.
Twenty men were hanged in different places. The fines and forfeitures
inflicted were given as rewards to soldiers and lawyers who might get
them out of the offenders as they best could. At this time certain
bonds called _law-burrows_ were originated. These were bonds by which
all the principal men in a district pledged themselves to prevent those
beneath them in rank from breaking the peace.

=40. The Indulgence.=--But these measures only increased the disorders
they were intended to quiet, and the Government tried a new system
of greater toleration. An _Indulgence_ was issued, by which those of
the outed ministers who could prove that they had lived peaceably and
had not held conventicles since they had been turned out of their
livings, were allowed to go back to their parishes, provided no one
else had been put in their place. Some few took advantage of it; but
the greater number would not, and looked on their indulged brethren as
nearly as bad as the prelatists. But this semblance of yielding was
more than balanced by new exactions. _Intercommuning_--that is, having
anything to do with any persons who had in any way broken any of the
many laws against conventicles--was denounced as a criminal offence.
_Lauderdale_, who succeeded _Middleton_ as Commissioner in 1669,
brought an army of Celts down on the Lowlands, which they pillaged at
pleasure, carrying back rich spoils to their native mountains.

=41. Murder of Sharp.=--_Sharp_, the Primate, who was looked on as the
originator of all the persecutions, was bitterly hated. He was shot
at in Edinburgh while getting into his carriage, but was not hurt.
Some time after he recognized the man who had thus tried to take his
life. _Mitchell_ the assassin was tried, and being bribed by a promise
of pardon, freely confessed that he had fired the shot. Instead of
receiving the promised pardon, Mitchell was sent to prison, tortured,
and finally put to death in 1678. But the very next year Mitchell's
attempt was repeated with better success. As Sharp was driving with his
daughter across _Magus Moor_, near St. Andrews, he fell into the hands
of a party of men who were lying in wait there for one _Carmichael_,
the Sheriff-substitute, a wretch who had made himself specially hated.
When they heard that the Archbishop's coach was coming that way, they
looked on it as a special act of Providence by which the Lord delivered
him into their hands. They fired into the coach, but did not hit him.
He sheltered himself behind his daughter, but they dragged him out, and
hacked him to death on the heath in a very barbarous way, May 3, 1679.
It had long been believed that Sharp was in league with the Devil.
To find proof of this they had no sooner slain him than they began to
search everything he had with him. At last they opened his snuff-box,
when a bee flew out. This they agreed must have been his familiar
spirit. Every effort was made to track the murderers, among whom were
_Hackston of Rathillet_ and _Balfour of Burley_, but they escaped to
the West.

=42. Sanquhar Declaration.=--The straitest sect of the Covenanters
now put forth a protest called the _Sanquhar Declaration_. Their
leaders were _Donald Cargill_ and _Richard Cameron_, after whom they
were called _Cameronians_. Their openly avowed intention was to
free the country from the tyranny under which it was groaning. They
held that _Charles_ had by his perjury forfeited the crown. They
excommunicated both him and his brother _James, Duke of York_, who
was the Commissioner, and surpassed both Middleton and Lauderdale in
cruelty. To kill either the King or his brother, or both of them, the
_Sanquhar_ men declared would be perfectly justifiable. They joined
themselves together by one of the old bonds for mutual defence and
support. _Hackston of Rathillet_, who had been present at the death of
Sharp, was a chief man among them. With him as their leader they sought
a refuge from the troopers who were out after them in _Airds Moss_, in
Ayrshire. There they were attacked, and, though they fought bravely,
were overcome by the soldiers.

=43. Drumclog.=--The hill-country between _Lanark_ and _Ayr_ was
the favourite haunt of the _Covenanters_. Here they held great
conventicles, to which the men came armed. One of the largest of these
meetings was gathered at _Drumclog_, near Loudon Hill, when they were
attacked by a body of dragoons under _John Graham_, of _Claverhouse_.
But Claverhouse was unaccustomed to this irregular way of fighting, and
he was defeated. The Covenanters, wild with joy, thought that they
saw the special hand of Providence in this success. They gathered in
great numbers, and marched on Glasgow. But they did no harm to either
the city or the citizens; they only took down from the gates the heads
and limbs of their friends who had suffered for their faith, and buried
them.

=44. Bothwell Bridge.=--To put down this revolt, Charles sent his
illegitimate son, _James_, Duke of _Buccleuch_ and _Monmouth_, with an
army of fifteen thousand men. The zeal of the Covenanters was great,
but their resources were few, and their leaders unskilful. It was
therefore an easy matter for a well-trained army to defeat them, and
at the _Bridge_ over the _Clyde_ at _Bothwell_ they were beaten with
great slaughter. Twelve hundred fell into the hands of the victors.
Seven of these were put to death, some were released on giving sureties
for their future good conduct, and the rest were shipped off to the
plantations. _Cameron_ fell in this fray. _Hackston_ and _Cargill_ were
taken, and brought to trial at Edinburgh, found guilty, and put to
death afterwards.

=45. Test Act.=--While the Duke of York was Commissioner, an Act was
passed to the effect that all persons taking office, whether under
Government or from the Corporation of Burghs, should take the Test,
an oath for the maintenance of the Protestant Faith as it had been
established in the first Parliament of _James the Sixth_. At the
same time the King was declared supreme in Church and State, and the
hereditary succession was declared to be unchangeable. Now, as it was
well known that James, the King's brother and the heir to the throne,
was a Romanist, it was clear that the Test gave no security to the
Protestant Faith, if James, when King, could make what changes he
pleased in the Church.

=46. Argyle's Opposition.=--_Archibald_, Earl of Argyle, who had been
restored to his father's earldom, was the most powerful chief in
the kingdom. His father had lost his life for his attachment to the
Covenant, but he himself had hitherto upheld the Government, and had
even offered to bring his Highlanders to its support. Now, however, he
showed signs of opposition, for he would only take the Test with the
protest that he did so only in so far as it was consistent with itself
and with the safety of the _Protestant_ Faith. For this reservation he
was accused of _leasing-making_, that is, of making mischief between
the King and his people. This offence had, by a most unjust law passed
in the reign of James the Sixth, been made treason. By this law Argyle
was condemned to death. He escaped and fled to _Holland_, where he
became the centre of a party of his fellow-countrymen who had also left
their country because of their political opinions. After this unjust
attack on Argyle no one could be sure of his liberty, and a scheme
was got up for emigration to _Carolina_. One _Robert Ferguson_ was
connected with this scheme. As this man was concerned in an _English_
plot against the life of the _King_, called the _Rye House Plot_, all
who had any dealings with him were suspected of being art and part
in that too, and were called to account before the Council. Baillie
of Jerviswood, a man much beloved and respected, was tried on an
accusation of conspiracy, was found guilty, and put to death. His death
greatly increased the popular discontent.

=47. James VII. 1685-1688. The Killing Time.=--The death of _Charles_
and the accession of _James_ rather made matters worse than better
for the people. Another defiance from the _Cameronians_, called the
_Apologetical Declaration_, was met by an Act which gave the soldiers
power at once to put to death anyone who would not take the _Abjuration
Oath_; that is, swear that they abhorred and renounced this treasonable
_Declaration_. A time of cruel slaughter followed, in which Claverhouse
was the chief persecutor. Many heartrending tales are told of the
sufferings of the poor creatures whose fanaticism led them to persist
in refusing to take this oath. There is a story told that one _John
Brown_, known as the "Christian Carrier," a man of great repute among
them, was shot dead by Claverhouse himself, almost without warning,
before the eyes of his wife. At another time two women, _Margaret
Maclauchlan_ and _Margaret Wilson_--one old, the other young--were,
it is said, tied to stakes on the _Solway shore_, that they might be
drowned by inches by the flowing tide. These tales and others of a
like sort, bear witness to the brutality of the one side and to the
constancy of the other. Early in James's reign an Act was passed by
which attending a _Conventicle_ became a capital crime.

=48. Argyle's Rising.=--_Monmouth_ was in _Holland_ when his father
died, and many refugees from England and Scotland were there with him.
Among them they got up a scheme for placing him on the throne in place
of his uncle James, who was hated, while Monmouth was very popular. To
carry this out they planned a rising, which was to have taken place
at the same time in both kingdoms. _Argyle_ was to take the lead in
_Scotland_, but he was subject to the interference of a _Committee_
chosen from among the others. The Government was informed of this
intended outbreak, and all the clans that were known to be hostile to
Argyle were roused against him. Early in May he landed in _Kintyre_,
and sent out the fiery cross to summon his clansmen, who mustered to
the number of 1800. But the quarrels and the jealousy of the Committee
placed over him overthrew all his plans. By their advice he marched
into the Lowlands, where the people were little disposed to join him.
The fort where he had stored his arms and ammunition was seized by the
King's men. His men were starving. They deserted in large numbers,
and were at last dispersed by a false alarm as they were marching on
Glasgow. Argyle himself was taken while trying to escape. He was still
lying under the old sentence of death, which had been passed against
him for leasing-making. This sentence was executed without any further
trial, and with a repetition of all the indignities which had been
heaped upon Montrose. After his death the vengeance of the Government
fell on his clansmen. The country round _Inverary_ was wasted, while
great numbers of the clan were transported to the plantations, many of
them having been first cruelly mutilated. At the first alarm of the
invasion a large body of prisoners for religious opinion, of all ages
and both sexes, had been sent to _Dunnottar_, a strong castle on the
coast of Kincardine, where they were so closely crowded together in one
dungeon that many died there. Most of the survivors were also sent to
the plantations.

=49. The Indulgence.=--Up to this time the _Council_ had blindly
followed in the lead of the King. They would now do so no longer, as
they feared that he meant to restore the Roman Catholic Faith. The
_Duke_ of _Queensberry_, the Commissioner, was deprived of his office,
and _James Drummond, Earl_ of _Perth_, a convert to Romanism, was
placed in his stead. James next tried to get a Bill passed by which all
the penalties against the Roman Catholics should be done away, while
those against the Covenanters should remain in force. To this Bill
even the bishops objected, and James saw that there was nothing for it
but to treat all sects alike. He published several Indulgences, but it
was only the last, in 1688, that was full and complete. It extended
toleration to all, even to the Quakers, who had up to this time been as
much despised and persecuted as the Covenanters.

=50. Deposition of James.=--This change of policy on the part of the
King had come too late. His attack on the liberties of the Church in
England had been resisted by seven of her bishops; and before long his
English subjects resolved to bear his tyranny no longer. They invited
his nephew and son-in-law, _William, Prince of Orange_, to come to
their aid. He came, and was by common consent invited to mount the
throne abdicated by James. When the news of William's entry into London
reached Edinburgh, a deputation, headed by _Hamilton_, was sent to him,
to pray him to call a _Convention_ of the Estates, and, till it met, to
take the government of Scotland into his own hands, Jan. 7th, 1689.

=51. William and Mary, 1689-1702. The Convention.=--When the
_Convention_ met there was a large Whig majority. They passed a
resolution that James by his misgovernment had forfeited the throne;
they therefore deposed him, and offered the crown to _William_ and his
wife _Mary_, the daughter of James, on the same terms as had been made
in England. The _Convention_ then turned itself into a _Parliament_,
which went on to the end of the reign. The members went in procession
to the Cross of Edinburgh, where their vote was read. William and Mary
were then proclaimed; and the ministers of parishes were ordered to
pray publicly for the King and Queen, on pain of being turned out of
their livings. To the _Claim of Right_, which was much the same as
the English one, a special clause was added, declaring prelacy to be
an intolerable burthen which had long been hateful to the people, and
which ought to be swept away. Three _Commissioners_ were sent with
the _Instrument of Government_ to London. _Argyle_ administered the
coronation oath; but William, while taking it, declared that he would
not become a persecutor in support of any sect.

=52. The Rabbling.=--The fall of James was followed by the fall of
the Episcopal Church, which had made itself hateful to the greater
number of the people. They took the law into their own hands, and on
_Christmas Day_, 1688, a general attack was made on the curates or
parish priests in the _Western Lowlands_. About two hundred curates
with their families were at once driven out of their houses with every
sort of insult and abuse. William did not approve of these excesses,
but he had no means of putting a stop to them, for there was no
regiment north of the _Tweed_. He put forth a proclamation ordering
all persons to lay down their arms, but it was little heeded. The
rabbling and turning out went on much as before. If the bishops would
have taken the oaths, William would most likely have protected them;
but they remained true to their old master, and shared his fall. For a
time all was disorder. In some parishes the curates went on ministering
as heretofore, while in others the Presbyterian divines held services
in tents, or illegally occupied the pulpits. It was not till June
1690 that the Presbyterian Church was re-established by law. Sixty of
the ministers who had been turned out at the Restoration were still
living, and to them was given authority to visit all the parishes, and
to turn out all those curates whom they thought wanting in abilities,
scandalous in morals, or unsound in faith. Those livings from which the
curates had been rabbled and driven away were declared vacant. This way
of dealing with the Church gave offence both to the Episcopalians and
to the extreme Presbyterians, who did not approve of the interference
of the King in Church matters. Both these parties continued to look on
_William_ and _Mary_ as usurpers.

=53. Dundee's Revolt.=--When the Convention first met, each party,
_Whigs_ and _Jacobites_ alike, had dreaded an outbreak on the part of
the other. In the cellars of the city were hidden large numbers of
_Covenanters_, who had been brought up from the West to overawe the
_Jacobites_, while the _Duke of Gordon_ held the Castle for James, and
he could, if he had so chosen, have turned the guns upon the city. But
the Jacobites, finding themselves in the minority, determined to leave
_Edinburgh_, and to hold a rival _Convention_ at _Stirling_; while it
was agreed that the _Marquess of Athole_ should bring a body of his
Highlanders to protect them. But this plan was so ill concerted that
_Claverhouse_, now _Viscount_ _Dundee_, left hastily before the others
were ready, an alarm was given, and they were all secured. Dundee
withdrew to his own house in the _Highlands_, and stayed there quietly
for some time. But a few months later certain letters written to him
by James fell into the hands of the Government, and an order was sent
out for his arrest. Thus roused to action, he summoned the clans for
_King James_. Many of them joined him, more from hatred of Argyle than
from love for James. _General Mackay_, who had come North with three
regiments, was sent against him; but he was not used to the _Highland_
way of fighting, and wasted some weeks in running about after an enemy
who always kept out of his way. Dundee had no regular troops, but,
as Montrose had done before him, he showed what good soldiers the
Celts can make with a good leader. As both Dundee and Montrose were
Lowlanders, they could not excite the jealousy of the chiefs, and were
all the better fitted for the supreme command of a Celtic army. Each
clan in such an army formed a regiment bound together by a tie of
common brotherhood, and all bound to live or die for the colonel their
chief; and so long as the clans could be kept from quarrelling all went
well. Dundee wrote to James, who was now in Ireland, for help; but he
only sent three hundred miserably-equipped foot, under an officer named
_Canon_. The hopes of the Whigs were placed in _Argyle_ and the western
_Covenanters_, but neither of these did all that was expected of them.
_Argyle_ could not, because his country had been so lately wasted; and
the _Covenanters_ would not, because the more part of them thought it a
sin to fight for a King who had not signed the Covenant. Some of them
however thought otherwise, and of these a regiment was raised, and
placed under the command of the Earl of Angus. This regiment was called
the Cameronians.

=54. Battle of Killiecrankie.=--The war now broke out again. It was
the great aim of each party to win over the adherents of Athole. The
Marquess himself, to keep out of harm's way, had gone to England, and
of those whom he had left to act for him some were for James, others
for the King and Queen. It was of importance to both sides to secure
the castle of _Blair_, which belonged to _Athole_, and near there the
two armies met, at _Killiecrankie_, a pass leading into the Highlands.
Here the Celts won a brilliant and decided victory. The clansmen
charged sword in hand down the pass with such fury that they swept
their foes before them; and Mackay, with a few hundred men, all he
could gather of his scattered army, was forced to flee to Stirling,
July 27, 1689. But this success had been dearly bought by the death of
Dundee. Thus left without a leader, the victors thought more of plunder
than pursuit; nor was there anyone among them fitted to fill Dundee's
place, and to follow up the advantage he had won. Recruits came in,
their numbers increased, but this only made the disorder greater.

=55. Attack on Dunkeld. Buchan's Attempt.=--A month later they attacked
the _Cameronian_ regiment stationed at Dunkeld. They took the town at
the first attack, but the soldiers defended themselves in the church
and in a house belonging to _Athole_ in the town with such spirit,
that the Highlanders were driven back. They blamed the _Irish_ for
the defeat, and the _Irish_ blamed them, and the end of it was that
the clans dispersed, and _Canon_ and his Irish withdrew to _Mull_.
In the spring of the next year the clans gathered again, under an
officer named _Buchan_, who came from James with a commission to act
as his commander-in-chief in Scotland. But they were surprised and
scattered in the strath of the _Spey_, by _Sir William Livingstone_,
who held _Inverness_ for _William_. This action ended the _Civil War_
in _Scotland_, for _Gordon_ had long since given up Edinburgh Castle.
To keep the western clans in order, _Mackay_ built a fort in the west
of _Invernesshire_, which was called _Fort William_, in honour of the
King. The castle on the _Bass_, a rock in the _Firth of Forth_, was the
last place which held out for _James_, but the garrison were at last
obliged to give in, from want of food.

=56. Reduction of the Highlands.=--Still the chiefs did not take the
oaths to William, and were clearly only waiting for the appearance of
a new leader to break out again. To win them over to the Government a
large sum of money was put into the hands of _John Campbell, Earl of
Breadalbane_. He was accused of cheating both the clans and the King by
keeping a part of this sum himself, and he never gave any clear account
of what he had done with it. At the same time a proclamation was put
forth which offered pardon to all the rebels who should take the oaths
to _William and Mary_ before or on December 31, 1691. All who did not
take advantage of this offer were after that day to be dealt with as
enemies and traitors, and warlike preparations were made for carrying
out the threat.

=57. Massacre of Glencoe.=--By the day named the clans had all come
in, except _MacIan_, chief of a tribe of _MacDonalds_, who lived
in _Glencoe_, a wild mountain valley in the northwestern corner of
_Argyleshire_. On the last day, December 31, _MacIan_ and his principal
clansmen went to _Fort William_ to take the oaths, but found that
there was no one there who had authority to administer them. There was
no magistrate nearer than _Inverary_, and, as the ground was deeply
covered with snow, it was some days before MacIan got there. But the
sheriff, in consideration of his goodwill and of the delay that he had
met with, administered the oaths, (January 6,) and sent an account of
the whole affair to the Privy Council at Edinburgh. Unfortunately for
Glencoe, _Breadalbane_ was his bitter personal enemy, and along with
_Sir John Dalrymple_, the _Master of Stair_, he determined on his
destruction. An order for the extirpation of the whole tribe was drawn
up and presented to _William_, who signed it, and it was carried out
with cold-blooded treachery. A party of soldiers, under the command of
_Campbell of Glenlyon_, appeared in the Glen. They gave out that they
came as friends, and as such they were kindly welcomed, and shared the
hospitality of the MacDonalds for a fortnight. Without any warning
they turned on their hosts, and before dawn of a winter's morning slew
nearly all the dwellers in the valley, old and young together, February
13, 1691. They then burnt the houses, and drove off the cattle, so that
nothing was left for the few wretched beings who had escaped death but
to perish miserably of cold and hunger. Whether William knew the whole
state of the case or not when he signed the warrant is not certain, but
he did not punish those who had dared to commit this wholesale murder
in his name. And though four years after, when a stir was made about
it, he did grant a commission to the _Privy Council_ to inquire into
the matter, he did not bring to judgment the _Master of Stair_, who was
very clearly pointed out as the guilty person.

=58. Darien Scheme.=--Just at this time the public attention was taken
up with a scheme for founding a new colony on the _Isthmus of Darien_,
and people's minds were so full of it that nothing else was thought
of. It was got up by _William Paterson_, who is to be remembered as
the originator of the _Bank of England_. He fancied that he had found,
what _Columbus_ and the other navigators of his day had sought in vain,
a short cut to the _Indies_. His plan was to plant a colony on the
isthmus which unites _North_ and _South America_, and to make it the
route by which the merchandise of the East should be brought to Europe,
thereby shortening the long sea-voyage. He drew glowing pictures of
the untold wealth that would thus fall to the lot of those who were
clear-sighted enough to join in the venture. A charter was granted to
the new Company, which gave them a monopoly of the trade with Asia,
Africa, and America for a term of thirty-one years, with leave to
import all goods duty free, except foreign sugar and tobacco. Never had
project been so popular. Every one was anxious to take shares. Half
the capital of Scotland was invested in it, and poor and rich alike,
deceived by _Paterson's_ lying stories of the healthiness and fertility
of the soil and climate, were eager to hasten to the new colony. A
few vessels were bought at _Hamburg_ and _Amsterdam_. In these twelve
hundred emigrants set sail on the 25th July, 1698, and arrived safely
on the shore of the Gulf of _Darien_. They named the settlement which
they founded there _New Caledonia_, and built a town and a fort, to
which they gave the names of _New Edinburgh_ and _St. Andrews_. But,
to set up such a trading market with any hopes of success, they ought
to have had the good will and help of the great trading countries of
Europe. Instead of this, _England_ and _Holland_ were much opposed to
the scheme, as being an interference with their trading rights. The
_East India Company_ looked on the bringing in of Eastern merchandise
to Scotland as an infringement of their privileges. _Spain_ too claimed
the Isthmus as her own, and seized one of the Scottish ships; while
the Governor of the English colonies in North America refused to let
them have supplies. In addition to these difficulties from without,
the climate was wretchedly unhealthy. Disease quickly thinned their
ranks, till at last the miserable remnant whom it spared were glad to
flee from almost certain death. They deserted the new settlement, and
set sail for _New York_. Meanwhile such glowing reports of the success
of the venture had been spread abroad at home, that a second body of
thirteen hundred emigrants, ignorant of the fate of those who had gone
before them, set sail in _August_ of the next year. They found the
colony deserted, and the colonists gone. They themselves fared no
better than the first settlers, and were in a few months driven out
by the Spaniards. The Scottish people were deeply mortified and much
enraged by the failure of this scheme. They blamed William for all the
disasters of the colonists, because he had done nothing to help them,
nor to prevent the interference of Spain. The Charter had been granted
by the Government of Scotland without the King's knowledge when he
was in Holland; and though he could not recall it, it would have been
unjust to his English subjects to show any favour to a scheme which,
had it succeeded, might have proved the ruin of their East Indian
trade. So much bad feeling arose out of this unfortunate affair between
the two nations, that it was plain that if there was not a closer union
between them there would be a breach before long.

=59. William's Death.=--Just as the project of an Union was about to
be considered in the English Parliament, William died, March 8, 1702.
Since the death of Mary, in 1690, he had reigned alone. Both crowns now
passed to Anne, the younger daughter of James VII.

=60. Education Act.=--It was in this reign that the system of national
education which has made the Scotch, as a people, so intelligent and
well-informed, was re-cast. An Act was passed, in 1696, by which every
parish was required to provide a suitable schoolhouse, and to pay a
properly qualified schoolmaster for the instruction of the children of
the parish.

=61. Anne, 1702-1714. Act of Security.=--_James VII._ had died in
France a few months before his nephew, and his son had been proclaimed
there as _James VIII._ This made the Whigs anxious to have an _Act_
passed in _Scotland_ similar to the _English Act of Settlement_. By
this Act the Parliament of England had settled that, if Anne died
without heirs, the crown should pass to the nearest Protestant heir,
_Sophia_, Electress of Hanover, grand-daughter of James the Sixth, or
to her descendants. But the Estates still felt injured and angry about
the late differences with England, and passed an _Act of Security_,
which made express conditions that the same person should not succeed
to the throne of both kingdoms, unless, during Queen Anne's reign,
measures had been taken for securing the honour and independence of the
Scottish nation against English influence. The right of declaring war
against England at any time was to remain with the Scottish Parliament.

=62. Trial and Death of Captain Green.=--Just at this time an event
happened which tended to increase the bad feeling between the two
countries. An English ship, the _Worcester_, was driven by stress
of weather into the _Firth of Forth_. It was seized by the Scots,
because the _East India Company_ had some time before detained a
Scotch ship. From the talk of some of the crew it was suspected that
they had murdered the captain and crew of one of the _Darien_ vessels
which was missing. On this charge _Captain Green_ of the _Worcester_,
his mate and crew, were brought to trial before the High Court of
Admiralty. On the evidence of a black slave they were found guilty and
condemned, and Green, his mate, and one of the crew were hanged. It was
afterwards found out that the crime for which they had suffered had
never been committed. The missing ship had gone ashore on the island of
_Madagascar_, where _Drummond_, the captain, was then living. Whatever
wrongs the Scots had suffered, the English had now, after this unlawful
deed, a very reasonable cause of complaint against them.

=63. The Union.=--It was clear that, if the two kingdoms were to go
on together in peace, it could only be by joining their Parliaments
and their commercial interests into one. Commissioners from both
sides were appointed to consider the best way of effecting this
union. _Godolphin_, the _Treasurer of England_, and the _Duke of
Queensberry_, the _Royal Commissioner in Scotland_, were its chief
promoters. The Commissioners drew up a _Treaty of Union_, which was
approved by the Parliaments of both countries. By the _Articles of
Union_ the succession to both crowns was settled in the Protestant
heirs of _Sophia_; and each country was secured in the possession of
her national Church as then established. Scotland was to send sixteen
Representative Peers, elected from the whole body of Peers, and
forty-five members from the Commons, to the Parliament at Westminster,
henceforth to be called the _Parliament of Great Britain_. It was
further settled that one seal, with the arms of both kingdoms quartered
upon it, should serve for both countries, that both should be subject
to the same _Excise duties_ and _Customs_, and should have the same
privileges of trade. The same coins, weights, and measures were to be
used throughout the island. The law-courts of Scotland, the _Court of
Justiciary_ and the _Court of Session_, were to remain unchanged, only
there was now a right of appeal from the _Court of Session_, which had
hitherto been supreme in all civil cases, to the _House of Lords_.
In addition to the twenty-five Articles of Union, a special Act was
passed for securing the liberty of the _Church of Scotland_ as it then
stood in all time coming, and declaring that the Presbyterian should be
the only Church government in Scotland. The first Parliament of Great
Britain met October 23, 1707.

=64. Results of the Union.=--Twice before this time the Legislature of
the two kingdoms had been thus joined together into one, under _Edward
I._ and under _Cromwell_. But these two unions, each the result of
conquest, had lasted but a little while. This Union was destined to be
more enduring, and to lead to increased prosperity in both kingdoms.
For Scotland it was the beginning of quite a new state of things.
Hitherto the struggle for national life had left her no leisure for
internal development, and at the time of the Union she was without
manufactures, shipping, or commerce. With the end of her independent
nationality a new social life began, and a spirit of industry and
enterprise was awakened, which has since raised her people to their
present eminence in trade, manufactures, and agriculture. The Union
struck the last blow at the power of the Scottish nobles. They were
not placed by any means on the same level with the Peers of the sister
kingdom. It brought to the Commons, who during this period had been
much despised and oppressed, an increase in dignity and independence,
by admitting them to a share in the liberty and privileges which the
Commons of England had won for themselves with the sword. But what
did even more for the prosperity of Scotland was the removal of all
restrictions on her trade, which was now placed on the same footing as
that of the larger kingdom. For half a century after the union of the
crowns she had enjoyed free trade with England and her colonies; but
that was brought to an end by the Navigation Act, passed soon after
the Restoration, which forbade the importing of any foreign goods into
England except in English vessels, and which was, as the Scots justly
complained, the ruin of their rising commerce.

=65. Literature and Art.=--Between the union of the Crowns and the
union of the Parliaments there was but little advance in literature
or art. This was in great part owing to the fact that, just when
all other nations had taken to writing in their own tongues in
place of _Latin_, the Scottish Court migrated to London. There the
_Northumbrian English_, which was the common speech of the _Lowlands_
of Scotland, was despised as a provincial dialect, in which no
educated man would write if he wished his writings to be read. During
this period, the talent that was to be found in the country was
enlisted in the religious struggle, which occupied all men's minds,
and it produced many divines eminent for eloquence and learning. The
literature of the times was, like the fighting, the tyranny, and the
persecutions, chiefly of a religious character. There were many men
of learning and talent, renowned either for their writings or from
their eloquence, to be found among the leaders of the different sects.
Among the _Presbyterians_ the most eminent were _John Welch_, the
son-in-law of _Knox_; _Alexander Henderson_; _Guthrie_, the martyr of
the _Remonstrants_, and _George Gillespie_, who, from his gift for
argument, was called the "_Hammer of the Malignants_." The _Episcopal
Church_ could boast of some scholarly divines, such as _John_ and
_Patrick Forbes_, and _Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow_. Of poets there
were but few; none who could bear comparison with those of an earlier
time. _Drummond_ of _Hawthornden_ is chief among them, but his genius
is obscured by an imitation of the dialect and style then prevalent
in England. Many of the beautiful ballads and songs of which Scotland
may justly be proud, must have been composed about this time, but the
authors are unknown. Unknown also, or forgotten, are the musicians to
whom Scotland owes the wild, sweet strains to which those songs were
sung, those pathetic melodies which make the national music so peculiar
and characteristic in its exquisite beauty. The oldest collection of
these airs is in a manuscript which seems to date from the sixteenth
century. To _George Jameson_, the earliest Scottish painter of note,
we owe the life-like portraits of the heroes of these times. He was
born at Aberdeen and in 1620 he settled in his native town as a
portrait-painter. But the spirit of the Covenant was opposed to art.
Though it inspired to heroic deeds, there were no songs made about
them. Architecture fared even worse than poetry, for while churches,
the work of former ages, were pulled down, any new ones that were put
up were as ugly and tasteless as it was possible to make them. _Napier
of Merchiston_, a zealous reformer, the writer of an _Explanation of
the Apocalypse_, is known in the world of science as the inventor of
_Logarithms_, a clever and easy way of shortening difficult numerical
calculations.

=66. Summary.=--The union of the crowns of England and Scotland put a
stop to the constant skirmishing on the Border and to the devastating
inroads which had for centuries embittered the two countries against
one another. It might therefore have been expected that Scotland,
during the century which passed between the union of the Crowns and
the union of the Parliaments, would have made great social advances.
This was prevented by the ceaseless party strife which disgraced the
century, and made this period one of the most disastrous and oppressive
to the people in the whole history of the nation. James the Sixth had
found the strict discipline and constant interference of the ministers
so irksome, and the turbulent independence of his nobles so little
to his mind, that he was delighted to escape from both to the richer
kingdom to which his good fortune called him. The severe training
of his childhood had made him hate the Presbyterian polity with all
his heart. As soon as he had the power, he changed the government of
the Church, and introduced various observances which were hateful to
the people. His son Charles went a step further, and by his attempt
to substitute an English for a Scottish Liturgy, drove the people to
revolt. The war thus begun, by an effort to force on the hereditary
kingdom of his race the customs of the larger kingdom which his father
had acquired, ended in his losing both. Scotland enjoyed a short gleam
of prosperity from the conquest of Cromwell till his death. Under the
next Stewart, Charles the Second, the King to whom she had always been
loyal, the government was entrusted to a council, which exercised a
cold-blooded tyranny against which the people had no redress. This
reign of terror only rooted their religious prejudices the more firmly
in their minds. When the tyrant James was deposed, the reaction of
popular feeling fell heavily on the clergy of the Established Church,
who individually were no way accountable for the crimes which had
been committed under the mask of zeal for Episcopacy. Under William
the Presbyterian polity was re-established, and the Episcopal clergy
had in their turn to suffer many hardships from severe laws and the
intolerance of party feeling, though nothing to compare with the bloody
persecution under the form of law which had disgraced the reigns of
Charles and James.


CHAPTER VIII.

AFTER THE UNION.

  _Discontent with the Union_ (1)--_change of dynasty_
     (2)--_Jacobite rising_ (3)--_measures of the Government_
     (4)--_rising in the North of England_ (5)--_battle of
     Sheriffmuir_ (6)--_arrival of James_ (7)--_trials and
     penalties_ (8)--_malt-tax riots_ (9)--_Porteous riots_
     (10)--_the Forty-five_ (11)--_taking of Edinburgh_
     (12)--_battle of Preston-pans_ (13)--_battle of Falkirk_
     (14)--_battle of Culloden_ (15)--_Charles's wanderings_
     (16)--_penalties after the Forty-five_ (17)--_abolition of
     slavery_ (18)--_attacks on the Romanists_ (19)--_trials
     for sedition_ (20)--_Reform Bill_ (21)--_religious
     sects_ (22)--_the Disruption_ (23)--_social progress_
     (24)--_literature and art_ (25)--_summary_ (26).

=1. Discontent with the Union.=--Though the _Union_ was such a good
thing for Scotland, the people were a long time in finding this out.
The old national jealousy was roused; they thought that their dearly
loved independence was being sacrificed. There were riots in different
places; and though the people were quieted by the assurance that
the insignia of loyalty, the regalia or crown jewels, should not be
carried out of the kingdom, for long afterwards the Union was very
unpopular, and had to bear the blame of everything that went wrong.
There was still too a large party, chiefly in the Highlands, attached
to _James Stewart_, known as the _Chevalier de St. George_ or the
_Old Pretender_, as the Whigs called him. _Jacobitism_, which was in
England a mere empty word used to express any sort of discontent with
the existing state of things, meant something more in Scotland. There
it was the traditionary feeling of loyalty and love towards the ancient
line of kings; and for _James_, their representative, there were many
who were ready to venture their lands, or their life if need were. As
long as _Anne_ lived there was no excuse for an outbreak, for she too
was a _Stewart_, and it was hoped that her brother might succeed her.

=2. Change of Dynasty.=--When _Anne_ died, the son of _Sophia_,
_George, Elector of Hanover_, succeeded without opposition, according
to the _Act of Settlement_. Before long, he and his _German_ favourites
became very unpopular. This gave the _Jacobites_ hopes that, if they
raised the standard for _James_, all the discontented in both kingdoms
would join them in an attempt to restore him to the throne of his
fathers.

=3. Jacobite Rising.=--To give to such an attempt the least chance of
success, three conditions were necessary. Firstly, that the rising
should take place at the same time in both kingdoms; secondly, that it
should be helped by _France_; and thirdly, that the prince for whom
it was made should come among his people, and lead them in person.
All three were wanting in this unfortunate rebellion. _James_ made no
personal effort to get the crown on the death of his sister, though
six weeks passed before _George_ came over from _Hanover_. During this
interval James issued a manifesto from _Plombières_, August 29, 1714.
In this manifesto he asserted his right to the crown, and explained
that he had remained quiet while his sister lived, because he had no
doubt of her good intentions towards him. A year, however, was allowed
to pass before any active steps were taken. Just when the plans for
the rising were all made, _Louis XIV._ of France, who was the best
friend the _Chevalier_ had, died, and was succeeded by the next heir,
his great-grandson, an infant. The _Duke of Orleans_, who became
_Regent_, was disposed to be friendly to the Government of England;
indeed his regency was one of the few times when there was any real
friendliness between the two countries. By his order some ships lying
at Havre, which had been fitted out for _James_, were unloaded, and
the arms stored in the royal magazines. These ships were intended for
the succour of the rebels in _Scotland_, where the standard was raised
for _James_ by John Erskine, Earl of Mar, at the junction of the Clung
and the Dee, September 6, 1715. Mar had begun life as a Whig, but had
changed sides so often that he was nicknamed _"Bobbing John_." He had
addressed a loyal letter to _King George_ on his accession, but as,
by the change of ministry, he lost his office of _Secretary of State_
for _Scotland_ and saw no hope of getting it back again, he became an
ardent _Jacobite_, and the leader of the party in Scotland. The very
day before he set off to raise the _Highlands_ for _James_ he attended
a levee of the _King_. Before his coming north he sent letters to the
principal _Jacobites_, inviting them to a hunting-match. This meeting
was attended by the _Marquesses of Huntly_ and _Tullibardine_, the
eldest sons of the _Dukes of Gordon_ and _Athole_, by the _Earl of
Southesk_, by _Glengarry_, the chief of the _MacDonalds_, and many
others. They all swore to be true to one another, and to _Mar_, as
James's general, and then returned to their several districts to
raise their followers. Only sixty men gathered at the raising of the
standard, but before the end of the month the northern clans had risen.
James was proclaimed at _Aberdeen_, _Brechin_, and _Dundee_, and nearly
all the country north of the Tay was soon in the hands of the rebels.
They laid a plan for seizing _Edinburgh Castle_, but this was found out
and defeated.

=4. Measures of the Government.=--There were at this time not more than
between eight and nine thousand troops in the whole island. Of these
not more than fifteen hundred were in Scotland; and no more were sent
there, for an expected rising in the south-western counties of England
was then thought much more dangerous than the rising in the North. In
_Scotland_ the chief command was given to the _Duke of Argyle_, whose
family were deadly enemies of the _Stewarts_, and whose almost princely
power over a large tract of country made him the most likely person to
counteract their influence. The _Earl of Sutherland_, who was also a
friend of the Government, was sent to raise his followers in the North.
The _Habeas Corpus Act_ was suspended by Act of Parliament, a reward of
100,000_l._ was offered for seizing the Pretender, dead or alive, and
the King was empowered to seize all suspected persons. A great number
of suspected persons were summoned to Edinburgh to give security for
their good conduct, but none of them came; indeed some were by this
summons induced to take arms for James. Several noted Jacobites were
put in ward in Edinburgh Castle.

=5. Rising in the North of England.=--The active measures taken by the
Government had put down the intended rising in the _West_ of England,
but in the _North_ they had only hurried it on. An order was sent
down for the arrest of _Mr. Forster_, member for Northumberland, and
_James Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater_. On hearing this, Forster and
Derwentwater took up arms at once, and soon mustered three hundred
horse. About the same time _Lord Kenmure_ proclaimed James at _Moffat_,
and was joined by the Earls of _Nithsdale_, _Wintoun_, and _Carnwath_,
and several other persons of note. He joined his force, about two
hundred horsemen, with that of Forster, and they marched to Kelso, to
wait there for the arrival of _Brigadier MacIntosh_, who was marching
southward with a detachment of about fourteen hundred men, from Mar's
army, which he brought over the _Firth of Forth_ in safety, in the face
of three English men-of-war. The combined force, about two thousand
strong, marched along the _Border_. After much debate and hesitation,
their leaders at last decided to enter Lancashire, where they expected
the Roman Catholic gentry to rise and join them. The _posse comitatus_,
or general muster, which had been raised by the _Bishop of Carlisle_
and _Lord Lonsdale_, fled before them at _Penrith_, leaving a number
of horses in their hands. After this success the rebels marched
on, proclaiming _James_ as they went, and levying money. On the
9th November they reached _Preston_, where they were joined by an
ill-armed, undisciplined rabble of recruits. But on the appearance of
the King's troops Forster made no effort to defend the town. He was
seized with a panic, and surrendered with his followers, to the number
of fourteen hundred, November 12.

=6. Battle of Sheriffmuir.=--Meanwhile Mar was managing the affairs
of James almost as badly in Scotland. He entered _Perth_ September 28
with a force of 5,000. On the 2nd of October a detachment of eighty
horse captured a vessel with 300 stand of arms, which were intended
for the _Earl of Sutherland_ in the North. The vessel had been driven
by stress of weather to seek shelter at Burntisland, on the coast of
Fife. Instead of pushing on while his followers were inspirited by
this success, _Mar_ stayed at _Perth_ doing nothing. The _Duke of
Argyle_, who was sent to oppose him, arrived in Scotland and marched
to Stirling in the middle of September. He had then only 1500 men at
his command, but before Mar made any attempt to engage him his army had
been more than doubled by reinforcements from Ireland. It was not till
November 10 that Mar left Perth. He marched south as far as Ardoch.
Argyle brought his troops forward to Dunblane. On Sunday the 13th, the
two armies advanced to meet each other, and a battle was fought at
_Sheriffmuir_, a moor on the slope of a spur of the Ochils. The result
was doubtful. Each army defeated and put to flight the left wing of the
other and then drew off the field, the rebels to _Ardoch_, _Argyle_
to _Dunblane_, and both lost about the same number of men. Each side
claimed the victory, but _Argyle_ took possession of the field the next
day. After the battle _Argyle_ went back to _Stirling_ and _Mar_ to
_Perth_. There the clans began to desert him, going home as usual with
their plunder, while _Argyle's_ force was increased by six thousand
_Dutch_ troops.

=7. Arrival of James.=--James at last made his appearance, but not
till his followers had been taken prisoners in the one country and had
lost their spirit in the other. He landed at _Peterhead_, December
22, attended by only six persons. He was met by _Mar_, and went on to
_Scone_, whence he issued six proclamations, and fixed his coronation
for January 23. The news of his landing had somewhat revived the spirit
of his followers, but, when they met, both parties were disappointed;
James with their scanty numbers, and they with his heaviness and
stupidity. Soon after, a vessel coming from France with gold for the
rebels was stranded and the money lost. At last _Argyle_ began to
advance against _James_, who retreated from _Perth_, greatly to the
disgust of the clans. From _Perth_ they went to _Dundee_, and from
thence to _Montrose_. Twelve hours after they had left Perth Argyle
entered it, but he was so slack in his pursuit of the rebels as to
give rise to suspicions of his own loyalty. A few days later, February
4, James set sail secretly for _France_ with _Mar_ and several other
nobles. He left a letter for _Argyle_, and all the money he had with
him for the benefit of the poor people in the villages round Perth,
which had been burnt by his order. His men, grieved and disappointed
to find that their leader had deserted them, went back to their native
glens. Most of the officers escaped to the _Orkneys_, and from thence
to the _Continent_.

=8. Trials and Penalties.=--Few prisoners had been made in Scotland.
Of those taken at _Preston_, the half-pay officers were at once
shot as deserters, the common soldiers were imprisoned in _Chester_
and _Liverpool_, while their leaders were taken up to London, which
they entered with their hands tied behind them and their horses led.
Six nobles, the _Earls of Nithsdale_, _Wintoun_, and _Carnwath_,
_Viscount Kenmure_, and the _Lords Widdrington_ and _Nairn_, were
arraigned before the House of Lords on a charge of treason. All except
Wintoun pleaded guilty, and threw themselves on the _King's_ grace;
but they were all condemned to death. This sentence was executed
on _Derwentwater_ only. _Kenmure_ and _Nairn_ and _Carnwath_ were
reprieved, while _Nithsdale_ escaped by the help of his wife the night
before the day on which he was condemned to die; and _Wintoun_, though
found guilty on his trial, escaped also. _Forster_, _MacIntosh_, and
several others, had the same good fortune. Of those lower in rank,
twenty-two were hanged in _Lancashire_ and four in _London_. An _Act of
Grace_, passed in 1717, released _Carnwath_, _Widdrington_, _Nairn_,
and all others who were still in prison; but it did not restore the
estates which they had forfeited by their treason. The following year
another Jacobite conspiracy was got up. In this both Spain and Sweden
were concerned; Spain promised to help with money, while _Charles
the Twelfth of Sweden_ was to invade _Scotland_ with twelve thousand
soldiers. It was discovered, and prevented by the arrest of the persons
suspected of sharing in it.

=9. Malt-tax Riots.=--In 1713 it was proposed to extend the malt-tax
which was paid in England, to Scotland. But this measure met with
such strong opposition on the part of the Scotch members as almost to
threaten a dissolution of the Union. At length, in 1724, a duty of
threepence on every barrel of ale was laid on instead of the malt-tax.
But though this time the members agreed to the new tax, the people
would not, and a serious riot broke out at _Glasgow_. Two companies
of foot were sent from _Edinburgh_ to put down the tumult, under the
command of _Captain Bushell_, who ordered his men to fire, whereby
nine persons were killed and many more wounded. This only made the
rioters more furious. _Bushell_ narrowly escaped being torn in pieces
by the mob, and had to seek refuge in _Dunbarton Castle_. The tumult
was not put down till _General Wade_ brought up a force large enough to
overawe the mob, and sent the magistrates prisoners to Edinburgh. There
they were tried and acquitted. To avoid paying the tax, the brewers
of Edinburgh made a compact to brew no more beer if the duty were not
taken off. In consequence of these disorders the office of _Secretary
of State_ for Scotland was done away with, because the _Duke of
Roxburgh_, who held it, was suspected of encouraging the discontent. At
length the _Earl of Islay_ was sent down to Edinburgh, and succeeded in
restoring quietness. _Bushell_ was tried for murder and found guilty,
but was afterwards pardoned and promoted.

=10. Porteous Riots: 1736.=--Twelve years later the peace was again
broken by a tumult at Edinburgh. One _Wilson_, a smuggler, lying
under sentence of death for having taken part in a fray in which a
Custom-house officer was killed, had won the sympathy of the people by
the clever way in which he had managed the escape of a fellow-prisoner.
When he was hanged at the Grass Market, the mob pelted the guard with
stones. On this _Porteous_, _Captain_ of the _City Guard_, ordered his
men to fire, and several innocent persons in the crowd were killed and
wounded. _Porteous_ was tried, and condemned to death as a murderer,
but a reprieve was sent down from London. Then the people, remembering
the case of _Bushell_, determined to take the law into their own hands.
On the evening before the day which had been fixed for the execution of
the sentence, while Porteous was feasting with his friends to celebrate
his escape from danger, they gathered in great numbers. To ensure
against surprise they disarmed the city guard, took their weapons,
and themselves guarded the gates, so as to prevent any tidings being
carried to the regiment quartered in the suburbs. They then marched to
the Tolbooth, formerly the Parliament-house, but now used as a prison.
The door was so strong that it defied all their efforts to burst it
open. They set fire to it, upon which the jailer threw out the keys.
Leaving the doors open to let the other prisoners escape, they then
went straight to Porteous' cell, dragged him out of the chimney where
he was hiding, and carried him to the Grass Market, the place of public
execution. There they hanged him to a dyer's pole, with a rope which
they had taken from a dealer's stall on the way, and in payment for
which they had left a guinea. They then dispersed, without noise or
further violence. The ringleaders were never discovered, though all
ministers of parishes were required to read from their pulpits once a
month for a year a proclamation calling on their congregations to give
them up. The Government brought in a Bill for disgracing the city by
the loss of the charter and the razing of the gates. But this measure
was not carried, and the only penalties inflicted were that _Wilson_,
the Provost, was declared incapable of holding office in future, and
that the city was fined 2,000_l._ for the benefit of Porteous' widow.

=11. The "Forty-five."=--In 1719 there was a small attempt made to
get up another Jacobite rising. This attempt was favoured by Spain,
which, just at this time, under the guidance of _Cardinal Alberoni_,
minister of _Philip the Fifth_, once more began to take an active
part in European affairs. England had joined the _Quadruple Alliance_
against Spain, which was therefore ready to help in an attempt to
overthrow the English Government. The _Marquess of Tullibardine_ landed
on the _Lewis_ with a body of three hundred Spanish soldiers. But
the stores and arms which were to have been sent to him were lost on
the way, and, though about two thousand _Highlanders_ mustered, they
were defeated at _Glenshiels_ by the regular troops. The Highlanders
fled to the hills, while the _Spaniards_ surrendered, and thus the
attempt came to nothing. But the clans were still unsubdued, and were
ready to break out again at any time. _General Wade_, who had been
commander-in-chief since the 1715, made excellent roads in many places
where there had been none before, and an Act was passed for disarming
the _Highlanders_. But this did more harm than good. The clans that
were faithful to the Government gave up their arms; but this only
made them unable to resist the rebels, who kept theirs hidden and
ready for use when occasion should come. England was now engaged in a
continental war; most of the troops were out of the kingdom, and the
time seemed favourable for another effort. France too promised help.
Early in 1744 an army of 1,500 men under the command of Marshal Saxe,
one of the most skilful generals in the French service, was collected
at _Dunkirk_, and embarked in French transports for the invasion of
England. But the fleet was dispersed by a storm, and the French were
unwilling to give any further help. The next year _Charles Edward_, son
of the _Old Pretender_, called the _Young Chevalier,_ who was to have
led this expedition, determined to make a venture on his own account.
Without money, without arms, with only seven followers, he landed at
_Moidart_, on the west coast of _Inverness_, and called on the Jacobite
clans to muster and follow him: July 25, 1745. In vain their chiefs,
headed by _Cameron of Lochiel_, pointed out to him the rash folly of
such an enterprise, he persisted, and they, letting loyalty get the
better of common sense, took up the cause and summoned their clansmen.
The standard of James was raised at _Glenfillan_, August 19, and the
commission, naming Charles _Regent_ in his stead, was read to about a
hundred motley but enthusiastic followers. Already a small band of them
had had a foretaste of victory. On their way to the muster they had
compelled two companies of regular troops, which they had intercepted
on their way to relieve the garrison of _Fort William_, to lay down
their arms. This was followed by a series of successes as unlooked for
as they were extraordinary. _Sir John Cope_ was sent to oppose the
rebels with all the troops that the Government could raise. But he
mismanaged matters, and, instead of bringing the enemy to a battle,
he let the Highland army, which was gathering like a snowball on its
way, pass him. While he went northward, it came down unopposed upon
the Lowlands, entered _Perth_, and advanced towards _Edinburgh_, where
James was proclaimed.

=12. Taking of Edinburgh.=--The citizens were in the greatest alarm
when they heard that the _Highlanders_ had crossed the _Forth_. A
small band of volunteers and a regiment of dragoons under _Colonel
Gardiner_ marched out to meet the rebels as far as _Colt Bridge_. But
when the first shots were fired by a small reconnoitring party from
the Highlanders, they turned and galloped back to _Edinburgh_. This
shameful flight was called the _Canter of Coltbrigg_. Charles summoned
the city to surrender; the perplexed magistrates, not knowing what
to do, tried to win time by sending repeated messages to Charles.
But early the following morning a body of five hundred _Camerons_
under _Lochiel_ surprised and entered one of the city gates. They
then secured the watchmen, opened the other gates, and thus the city
was in the hands of the rebels. At noon of the same day the heralds
and pursuivants were obliged to proclaim _James_ at the _Cross_ as
_King James the Eighth_, and to read his _Royal Declaration_ and
the _Commission of Regency_. Charles entered the city the same day,
_September 17_, and took up his quarters in the Palace of Holyrood.
That night all the Jacobites in the city gathered at a ball to
celebrate his arrival.

=13. Battle of Preston-pans.=--Meanwhile _Cope_ had brought back his
troops by sea and landed them at _Dunbar_. _Charles_ marched out
from _Edinburgh_ to meet him. At a village near _Preston-pans_, so
called from the pans used there for crystallizing the sea-salt, the
_Highlanders_ defeated the regular troops, and came back triumphant
to _Edinburgh_ with the money and the cannon which they had taken,
September 20. In this battle Colonel Gardiner was killed close to his
own park wall. _Charles_ lingered at Edinburgh, holding his court at
_Holyrood_, till November 1, when he began his march towards England,
at the head of an army of five to six thousand men. _Carlisle_
surrendered to Charles, who left a garrison to defend the castle,
and marched on unresisted through Preston and Manchester, as far as
_Derby_, which he reached on December 4. _Charles_ was now two days'
march nearer London than the army under _William Augustus, Duke of
Cumberland_, son of _George the Second_, which had been sent to oppose
him. A panic prevailed in London, where the citizens expected hourly to
see the wild Highlanders enter and spoil the city. Their fears were,
however, unfounded. Jealousies and discord were rife among the rebel
chiefs. At Derby Charles held a council of war. Some of his officers
advised one thing, some another. But as they would not agree to
march on to London without delay, Charles, sorely against his will,
was obliged to give the order for retreat, and to lead his dispirited
followers back again as quickly as they had come. Cumberland followed
close on their rear. At _Clifton Moor_, near _Penrith_, there was a
slight skirmish, in which the rebels had the advantage. But they did
not wait to risk a battle there, but hurried north, passing on their
way through _Dumfries_ and _Glasgow_, where they levied contributions.

=14. Battle of Falkirk.=--When Charles reached _Stirling_, his army
was joined by reinforcements which raised its number to eight or nine
thousand. He prepared to lay siege to the Castle. _General Hawley_
was seat from Edinburgh with a nearly equal force to relieve it. The
two armies met on _Falkirk Moor_, January 17, 1746. Hawley was as
totally and shamefully beaten as _Cope_ had been at Preston. Instead of
following up his advantage by pursuing and destroying the royal army,
Charles remained inactive in the field, and allowed his followers to
plunder the bodies of the slain. The next day he went on with the siege
of Stirling. The _Duke of Cumberland_ was now sent north, with full
power to put down the rebellion as he pleased. He reached _Edinburgh_
January 30, and the very next day set out at the head of an army in
quest of the rebels. Charles raised the siege of Stirling, and hurried
north. He entered _Inverness_, and took _Forts George_ and _Augustus_,
where he found supplies of food, guns, and powder, of which his army
stood in great need.

=15. Battle of Culloden.=--Meanwhile the King's troops were closing
round the rebels, who, cooped up in the barren mountains, were reduced
to the greatest straits. All supplies sent from France were cut off
before they reached them, and for several days they had no food but a
little raw oatmeal. It was plain that the battle that was unavoidable
must be a defeat. _Culloden Moor_ was the scene of this the last
battle fought on British ground. The rebels, who were nearly starving,
and who had been worn out by a long march and an attempted night-attack
that had altogether failed, soon gave way, and were easily routed by
the Duke's well-disciplined and nearly twice as numerous army: April
16, 1746. The _French_ auxiliaries fled towards _Inverness_, where
they laid down their arms. The rebels lost one thousand men, a fifth
of their whole number; the victors only three hundred and ten. About
twelve hundred of the fugitives rallied at Ruthven; but Charles begged
them to disperse, and every man sought his own safety as he best might.
The after measures of the victors were disgraceful to all concerned. No
quarter was given; the wounded were slaughtered in cold blood, or burnt
in the houses to which they had crawled for shelter. For three months
martial law prevailed; the country was wasted, the houses burnt, the
cattle lifted, the people left to perish. It was not till July that the
Duke, who in Scotland was called _the Butcher_, went back to London,
where he was hailed as the deliverer of his country, and rewarded with
a pension of 25,000_l._ a year.

=16. Charles's Wanderings.=--Charles, whose foolhardy ambition had
brought all this misery on his simple followers, passed five months
in perilous wanderings. A great price was set on his head; but, poor
as the Highlanders were, not one of them would stoop to win it by
betraying him. At one time, when he was tracked by the soldiers, he
was saved by a young lady called _Flora MacDonald_, who got a passport
for him under the name of _Betty Burke_, her maid. In this disguise he
escaped to _Skye_. After this he came back to the mainland, and lived
for some time with seven robbers in a cave. They kept him hidden and
supplied his wants as well as they could, and used to go in disguise to
the nearest town to pick up what news they could. One day, as a great
dainty, they brought him back a pennyworth of gingerbread. When he left
them Charles joined two of his adherents, _MacPherson_ of _Cluny_ and
_Lochiel_, and he and they stayed in a strange hiding-place called the
_Cage_ on the side of _Ben-alder_, till two French vessels appeared on
the coast. In one of these he embarked, September 20, at _Lochnannagh_,
the same place where, fourteen months before, he had landed. Thus
Charles escaped to the Continent, but his memory was long cherished
in the country that had suffered so much for him. He was compelled
to leave France after the _Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle_, and ended an
unsettled, discontented, dissipated life at Rome in 1788. His brother
_Henry_, called the _Cardinal of York_, the last of the Stewart line,
survived him nearly twenty years.

=17. Penalties after the "Forty-five."=--There was much greater
severity shown after this rebellion than there had been after that in
1715. The Scottish prisoners were brought for trial to England for fear
that they might meet with too much partiality in their own country.
_John Murray_, of _Broughton_, who had been Charles's secretary, turned
informer. Through him the secrets of this conspiracy which had been
going on ever since 1740 were brought to light. _Charles Radcliffe_,
brother to the _Earl of Derwentwater_, who had been beheaded in 1716,
who had then escaped from prison, was retaken on board a French vessel
carrying supplies to the rebels, and was put to death on his former
sentence. The _Earls of Cromarty_ and _Kilmarnock_ and _Lord Balmerino_
were brought up for trial before the House of Lords. _Cromarty_ and
_Kilmarnock_ pleaded guilty; _Balmerino_ tried to save himself by a
quibble about a flaw in the indictment, but this was overruled, and
they were all three condemned to death. _Cromarty_ was pardoned, but
_Kilmarnock_ and _Balmerino_ were beheaded. Nearly a year after, _Simon
Fraser, Lord Lovat_, was brought up for trial; he was found guilty,
chiefly on the evidence of _Murray_, was condemned, and beheaded. He
had acted a double part throughout, for, though he had taken part in
all the plans of the rebels, he had taken care not to join them in
person. Of those lower in rank about eighty were condemned to death,
and great numbers were sent to the plantations. The last sufferer for
the Jacobite cause was _Dr. Cameron_, brother of _Lochiel_. He escaped
after 1745, but when he returned to England in 1753 he was seized and
suffered death as a traitor, though he protested that he had never
borne arms against the King, and had been with the rebel force only as
a surgeon and not as a soldier. An _Act of Indemnity_ was at length
passed, in 1747, from which, however, eighty persons were excepted.
Though the end of this unjustifiable and unfortunate rebellion was
what every one must have foreseen, its temporary and unlooked-for
success showed how necessary it was to take strong measures for
breaking up the old Highland system. A Bill was passed for disarming
the clans, and to forbid the wearing of the Highland dress, and at the
same time heritable jurisdictions were done away with. The Episcopal
Church, whose attachment to the Stewarts was well known, suffered
severely. The Episcopal churches were destroyed, and the ministrations
of the Episcopal clergy forbidden. _Duncan Forbes_, of _Culloden_,
the President of the Court of Session, though a firm friend of the
Government, distinguished himself throughout the rebellion by his
efforts in the cause of humanity and justice. Before it broke out, he
had done more than any other man to keep the rising down, and, after it
had been crushed, he did all in his power to lessen the sufferings of
the rebels and the severity of the Government. To the discredit of the
ministry and of the country, his services were left unrewarded.

=18. Abolition of Slavery.=--In 1756 the lawfulness of negro slavery
was first questioned in Scotland, and twenty years later it was
settled that negro slavery should exist no longer. There were still,
however, some natives of the soil who were in a state very little
better. The _colliers_ and _salters_ were sold like serfs with the
works in which they toiled. This shameful servitude was not the remains
of ancient villanage, but had simply arisen out of custom. So strong,
however, had the force of custom made it, that Parliament did not
venture at once to sweep it away. It was settled that all the colliers
and salters born after a certain date should be free, and those then
at work after a certain term of service. In 1799 their freedom was
established by law.

=19. Attacks on the Romanists.=--When the penal laws against the
_Roman Catholics_ in _England_ were repealed in 1778, _Henry Dundas_,
the _Lord Advocate_, proposed a similar measure for Scotland. On the
strength of this, riots broke out in _Edinburgh_ and _Glasgow_. In
_Edinburgh_ the mob destroyed the Roman Catholic chapels and the houses
of several persons who were suspected of being Romanists. In _Glasgow_
they destroyed a factory belonging to a Romanist. So great was the
excitement raised throughout the country by the fanatics, who bound
themselves together in _Protestant Associations_, and the property and
persons of the Roman Catholics were treated with such violence, that
they themselves petitioned that the Bill might be dropped. It was not
till 1793 that a Bill was brought in and passed without opposition to
relieve the Roman Catholics in Scotland from the penalties to which
they were liable on account of their religious opinions.

=20. Trials for Sedition.=--The excesses of the _French Revolution_
led to a reaction of feeling in Great Britain against all liberal
opinions, as being likely to bring about a similar revolution in this
country. This led to much injustice and oppression. Persons were
charged with stirring up sedition on the slightest grounds, or on no
grounds at all; were found guilty, and punished on the most scanty
evidence. In Scotland the panic was even greater than in England, and
the proceedings of justice more unjust. In 1793 _Thomas Muir_, an
advocate, and _Fyshe Palmer_, a clergyman, were tried, and sentenced to
transportation, the one for fourteen years, the other for seven, for
no other crime than that of discussing _Parliamentary Reform_. Others
suffered a like fate; and though these cases were brought before the
House of Commons, and though the sympathy of the people was with them,
they met with no redress. _Braxfield_, the _Lord Justice Clerk_, gained
an infamous notoriety by his violent language towards the prisoners,
and by the illegal sentences which he passed against them.

=21. Reform Bill.=--It was not till nearly forty years had passed,
that the reforms, for suggesting which these men had suffered, and
the need of which had long been felt, were at last carried out by the
passing of the _Reform Bill_ in 1832. By it the entire representation
was remodelled. Up to this time the County franchise had depended not
on the possession of land, but on the right of superiority over land
which might be held by others. This right could be bought and sold,
and was quite independent of property or residence in the county, so
that in most cases there were but a handful of electors, in one county
only one, to return the member. The franchise was now extended to all
persons having property in the county to the value of 10_l._ yearly,
and to certain classes of leaseholders. The case of the _Burghs_ was
even worse. Only the royal burghs were represented at all, and these
were grouped together and returned one member only for each group. This
member was elected by delegates chosen from the _Town Council_ of each
burgh, so that the election was really and truly in the hands of the
_Corporations_. By the new Bill, _Edinburgh_ and _Glasgow_ were each
to send two members to Parliament, the five towns next in importance
were each to send one, while some changes were made in the grouping
of the smaller burghs. The members for the burghs were to be elected
by householders in the burghs paying 10_l._ yearly rent. The number of
members was increased from forty-five to fifty-three.

=22. Religious Sects.=--When the Presbyterian polity was re-established
by law in 1690 the _Episcopalians_ took in some degree the place which
had been held by the _Covenanters_. As they would not acknowledge
_William_ and _Mary_ as lawful sovereigns, they were looked on as a
dangerous and obstinate sect of dissenters, just as the _Cameronians_
had been considered in the reign of James. They had been turned out of
the churches, but they were forbidden to have private meeting-houses.
In _Queen Anne's_ reign an Act of Toleration was passed to protect such
of them as would use the _English Liturgy_ and pray for the Queen in
the course of the service. After the Rebellion of 1715 new laws were
passed against them; the validity of orders from Scottish bishops was
called in question, and the ministration of all clergymen who were
not licensed was forbidden. After the Rebellion of 1745 they fared
still worse; many of their meeting-houses were burned or dismantled
by Cumberland's soldiers. An Act was passed forbidding any clergyman
to read the service to more than five persons at once, and no letters
of orders were considered valid unless given by some _Irish_ or
_English_ bishop. In 1755 a clergyman named _Connacher_ was accused
of illegally celebrating marriages, and, by an Act passed against the
Covenanters in the reign of Charles the Second, he was banished, and
forbidden to return on pain of death. Hence it came to pass that,
just after the two kingdoms were politically united, they were more
widely severed in religious opinion than they had ever been before, so
that a conscientious member of the Church established by law in the
one kingdom would have been looked on as a dangerous dissenter in
the other. It was not till 1792 that an Act was passed relieving the
Episcopalians from the penal laws in force against them. In 1784 _Dr.
Samuel Seabury_, from _Connecticut_, was consecrated by three Scottish
bishops, _Petrie_, _Skinner_, and _Kilgour_ the primus, at _Aberdeen_,
so that the Episcopal Church of America is an offshoot from the once
proscribed and persecuted Episcopal Church in Scotland. Besides the
Episcopalians there were many sects of Presbyterians who seceded from
the Establishment chiefly on the question of patronage. At last, in
1843, the Church of Scotland split into two parties. This is called
the _Disruption_. About ten years before this time _Edward Irving_,
Minister of the Scotch Church in London, a very eloquent preacher, was
forced to secede from the Presbyterian Church for holding extravagant
views with regard to the power of speaking in unknown tongues and
working miracles. His followers founded a new sect, which has since won
many adherents in both kingdoms. In its rites and ceremonies it now
resembles much more nearly the Roman than the Presbyterian Church.

=23. The Disruption.=--This division was brought about by a dispute
about the right of patrons to force ministers on parishes, whether the
congregations objected to them or not. The spirit of the _Presbyterian
Church_ had always been opposed to patronage. By the _First Book of
Discipline_ it had been laid down that the people should elect their
own ministers; by the _Second Book of Discipline_, that they should
at least have the right of objecting to any chosen for them by the
heritors or landowners in the parish. After the _Revolution_, an Act
of 1690 confirmed them in this privilege, but after the _Union_ in
1712 the _heritors_, eager to regain what they thought their rights,
obtained a repeal of this Act and the restoration of their former
powers. In spite of the protests of the people and of the Church,
this Act gradually became custom as well as law, and led to several
schisms; for those congregations who did not choose to have ministers
forced on them whom they did not approve, broke off, and founded
separate sects. At length, in 1834, the _Non-intrusion_ party, as
those who were opposed to patronage were called, had a majority in
the Assembly, and passed the _Veto Act_. This Act declared it to be
"a fundamental law of the Church that no pastor shall be intruded on
a congregation contrary to the will of the people," and that, if the
heads of families object to any candidate presented by the patron,
the _Presbytery_ shall reject him. In the same year, _Mr. Young_ was
presented to the parish of _Auchterarder_, in Perthshire. Several
persons objected to him, and the _Presbytery_, acting on the _Veto
Act_, rejected him. The patron, _Lord Kinnoul_, appealed to the _Court
of Session_ for the enforcement of his civil rights and obtained a
verdict in his favour; but the _Presbytery_ appealed to the _House of
Lords_. Here too it was given against them, but they still refused
to make trial of _Mr. Young_. In another parish, _Strathbogie_, the
presentee, _Mr. Edwards_, was objected to by the congregation, and
the Presbytery refused to admit him to the parish. He also obtained a
decree in his favour from the _Court of Session_, when the Presbytery
yielded, and for this they were suspended and deposed by the General
Assembly. From this it was clear that the majority in the Assembly
were determined to go all lengths in resisting the civil power. In the
end the Church had to yield, and to recall the illegal _Veto Act_.
Rather than agree to this, in 1843, more than a third of the clergy
left the Church. Their leaders were _Dr. Chalmers_ and _Dr. Candlish_.
Great numbers of the people went "out," as it was called, with their
ministers, and the _Free Church_ which was thus originated has ever
since been the successful rival of the Establishment.

=24. Social Progress.=--The removal of the Government to London
attracted thither not only all the Scottish nobles, but also all
the wealthy and the ambitious commoners. Thus _Edinburgh_ lost much
of its importance through the _Union_, though it still remained the
intellectual capital, where the members of the Courts of Law and
of the University took the lead in society. Meanwhile _Glasgow_,
the capital of the west, where the manufactures which were first
introduced by _Duncan Forbes_ had taken firm root, gradually rose to
much greater importance in wealth and commerce. During this period two
great elements of civilization, productive industry and intellectual
culture, have done much to improve the _Lowland_ population, among
whom book-learning has always been in advance of material comfort. It
was not till after the _Rebellion_ of 1745 that the spirit of industry
first began to animate the people. But the Highlands remained for some
time in a very bad state. The spirit of the people was broken, and the
severe climate, barren soil, and lack of minerals left them no resource
but the fisheries. The _Highland Society_, founded in 1784, did much to
improve the state of agriculture, by reclaiming the waste districts;
and latterly great numbers of the people have emigrated. At the time
of the Union Scotland was without agriculture, manufactures, or trade;
since then she has risen to excellence in them all, and has produced
some of the most useful inventions of modern times. _James Watt_, who
perfected the invention of the steam-engine, and thus placed a new
power in the hands of man, was born at _Greenock_ in 1736. It was in
Scotland that this power was first put to use for traffic by steam
navigation. A small pleasure-boat, worked by a steam-engine, was tried
on _Dalswinton Loch_ in _Dumfriesshire_ in 1788; another effort was
made on the _Forth_ and _Clyde Canal_ in 1802; but the first steamboat
actually used for traffic was the _Comet_, which began to ply on the
_Clyde_ in 1812. It was projected by _Henry Bell_, a house-carpenter
in _Glasgow_. Many improvements in calico-printing and dyeing, and in
all sorts of machinery, are likewise due to _Scotchmen_. Among others
_Macadam_ is noteworthy for originating that system of road-making
which is now known by his name.

=25. Literature and Art.=--After the Union, the English dialect of
the Lowlands ceased to be the language of literature and of the
upper ranks in society. Thus the national literature of the country
came to an end, and the works of Scotchmen went to swell the mass of
English Literature. But even in this period Scotland has had, besides
many smaller songsters, two poets peculiarly her own, who have sung
in the dialect still spoken by the people. _Allan Ramsay_, born in
_Clydesdale_ in 1685, began life as a barber's boy in _Edinburgh_; he
then turned poet and bookseller, and besides his own poems, which were
very popular, he collected and published the songs and ballads of the
forgotten bards of earlier days. Nearly a century later lived _Robert
Burns_, the peasant poet, a cotter's son, born in _Ayrshire_ in 1759.
His genius overcame the disadvantages of his humble birth, and inspired
innumerable songs, which place him in the first rank among poets of all
nations, and will win for him an abiding place in the hearts of his
fellow-countrymen as long as a Scottish tongue is left to sing them.
_Adam Smith_, who by his "Wealth of Nations," published in 1776, may
be said to have founded the science of _Political Economy_, was born
at _Kirkaldy_, and was Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University
of Glasgow; and about the same time _Dr. Robertson_, Principal of
the University of Edinburgh, wrote several historical works of great
merit. _David Hume_, the infidel philosopher, was born at Edinburgh in
1711. He is best known as the author of a popular but untrustworthy
History of England. _Tobias Smollett_, the humourist, was a native
of Cardross. Besides several very clever novels, the best of which
are "Humphrey Clinker" and "Roderick Random," he wrote a complete
History of England from the first historical mention of Britain down
to the year 1768. The latter part of this history is now generally
added to the History by Hume, who did not carry his work down to later
times than the Revolution. _Hugh Blair_, a Presbyterian divine, wrote
"Lectures on Belles Lettres" and several volumes of sermons which are
still highly esteemed. _Dugald Stewart_, Professor of Moral Philosophy
in the University of Edinburgh, was distinguished as a scholar and
philosopher. His chief works are the "Philosophy of the Human Mind"
and "Outlines of Moral Philosophy." Among Scottish artists who rose to
eminence during this period are _Allan Ramsay_, the son of the poet,
_Runciman_, _Raeburn_ and _Sir David Wilkie_, born in Fifeshire in
1785. He chiefly excelled in painting scenes from rural life, and was
limner to the King for Scotland. Of poets who wrote in the English
of the south, Scotland can lay claim to _James Thomson_, the author
of "The Seasons," "The Castle of Indolence," and some tragedies; to
_Beattie_, the author of "The Minstrel;" and to _Thomas Campbell_,
born at Glasgow in 1777. His imaginative poem, "The Pleasures of
Hope," laid the foundation of his fame. It is written in a graceful
and highly-finished style, but is far surpassed in originality and
spirit by the ballads which he wrote to commemorate the "Battle of the
Baltic" and the other actions of the French war. _John Galt_ deserves
to be remembered as the author of some clever novels, the best of which
are the "Ayrshire Legatees" and "The Entail." Nearer to our own time
_Walter Scott_, the poet and romancist, gave to English literature
its best works of fiction, and at once introduced and perfected the
modern novel. Among writers of fiction _Miss Ferrier_ must not be
forgotten. In her witty, satirical novels, "Marriage," "Destiny,"
"The Inheritance," she has left admirable pictures of Scottish life
and manners. _John Lockhart_, the son-in-law and biographer of
Scott; _John Wilson_, Professor of Moral Philosophy in Edinburgh,
the _Christopher North_ of the "Noctes Ambrosianæ;" his friend and
contemporary _James Hogg_, the poet, better known as the "Ettrick
Shepherd;" the two _Alisons_, father and son, the elder the author
of the "Essay on Taste," the younger of the "History of Europe," may
all be reckoned among Scotchmen who have done honour to their country
by their literary labours. In the world of science Scotland has been
represented by _James Ferguson_, the astronomer, _Hugh Miller_, the
great geologist, who began life as a stonemason; _Sir David Brewster_,
who is famous for his discoveries in optics, and many others. _Mungo
Park_, the _African_ explorer of a past day, and _Dr. Livingstone_,
who in our own time has worked so long in the same field of discovery,
were both also born in Scotland. But now that the two nations have
become so closely united, national jealousy and national pride are both
alike well-nigh forgotten, and Scotchmen are content to throw their
energy and talents at home and in the colonies into the common stock of
British glory.

=26. Summary.=--The separate History of Scotland, which may be
said to have ceased with the Union, is chiefly remarkable from its
unconnected and fragmentary character. Each of the periods into which
it is naturally divided breaks off abruptly, and exercises little or
no influence on the period which comes after it. The Celtic system
comes to an end with the last of the Gaelic kings. During the English
period English laws and English customs are introduced, but this
English influence is suddenly checked by the War of Independence, and
the period which begins with the independent kingdom is no more the
natural result of the second than the second is of the first. During
the third period the Roman Law is introduced, and France takes the
place of England as the model for imitation. The Scottish system of
representation, which became fixed during this period, had much more
in common with the French National Assembly than with the English
Parliament. The Three Estates, which met in one chamber, were the
Church, the barons, that is the tenants holding direct from the Crown,
and the burghers. The Commons as a class were not represented at all.
It is the Reformation which first brings the Commons into notice. The
feudal character of the legislature and of the national representation
drove the energies of the people into the only channel that was left
open to them--that of religious thought. Hence it came that in Scotland
the great struggle for political freedom was fought out under the
cloak of a contest for liberty of conscience. From the Reformation
to the Union the history of the country is little but the record of
a series of religious wars. The history of Scotland also gives us a
picture of pure and unmixed feudalism. The feudal system which was
introduced under the sons of Malcolm and Margaret took much firmer root
in Scotland than it ever did in England; and, as it was here untouched
by the Common Law and the growth of the constitution which acted as
checks upon it in England, it grew to such an excess of power that
it quite overshadowed the power of the Crown. The practice of making
hereditary jurisdictions, and of granting powers of regality, still
further increased the influence of the feudal nobles. Feudalism existed
in Scotland long after it had been overthrown in England. Its power
was first broken by the Act which was passed in 1748 for abolishing
heritable jurisdictions, and even after that Act it continued to
influence the representation. Feudalism in Scotland was not finally
overthrown till the passing of the first Reform Bill in 1832. Nor was
it till after that reform that the Commons of Scotland were represented
at all in Parliament The rebellions in favour of the Stewarts in 1715
and 1745, though they were the cause of much useless bloodshed, led to
very happy results as far as the social prosperity of the country was
concerned. The abolition of the heritable jurisdictions did much good,
for it placed agriculturists in a much freer position, while the money
which was paid to the great proprietors as a compensation for their
feudal rights gave a fresh spring to the circulation of the country. At
the time of the Union Scotland was without agriculture, manufactures,
shipping, or commerce. Since then she has risen to excellence in them
all.



              INDEX.

          A.
  Abjuration Oath, 151.
  Agricola, Julius, invasion of, 4.
  Aidan founds Lindisfarne, 9.
  Albany, Robert, Duke of, 61;
    his regency, 63;
    his death, 66.
  Alexander I., 20;
    defeats the men of Moray, _ib._;
    defends the liberty of the Church, 21.
  Alexander II., invades England, 29;
    his marriage, 30;
    his death, 31.
  Alexander III., his coronation, 31;
    his death, 32.
  Ancrum, rout of the English at, 90.
  Angus, Archibald, Earl of (Bell the Cat), 78.
  Anne, 161;
    her death, 168.
  Arbroath Abbey founded, 29.
  Argyle, Archibald, Earl of, refuses to take the Test, 151;
    his rising, _ib._;
    is beheaded, 152.
  Argyle, Archibald, Marquess of, his government, 138;
    crowns Charles II., 141;
    is beheaded, 144.
  Arkinholm, battle of, 74.
  Armstrong, John, his hanging, 87.
  Arran, James Hamilton, Earl of, 81;
    his power, 83;
    his regency, 89.
  Arran, Ochiltree, created Earl of, 115.
  Auchterarder, case of, 187.

          B.
  Baillie, of Jerviswood, his death, 151.
  Balliol, Edward, his invasion, 57.
  Balliol, John, his claim to the throne, 36;
    his coronation, 39;
    his alliance with France, _ib._;
    his submission to Edward, 41.
  Balmerinoch, John Elphinstone, Lord, his imprisonment, 130.
  Bannockburn, battle of, 50.
  Barbour, John, Archdeacon of Aberdeen, biographer of Bruce, 48.
  Barton, Andrew, his death, 81.
  Bass Castle holds out for James, 158.
  Beaton, Cardinal David, his murder, 92.
  Beaton, James, Archbishop of St. Andrews, his conscience, 84.
  Beaugé, battle of, 65
  Beck, Anthony, his flight, 42.
  Bell, Henry, his steamboat, 188.
  Berwick, importance of, 34;
    siege of, 40;
    treaty of, 100.
  Blackadder, Robert, first Archbishop of Glasgow, 82.
  Blanks, Spanish, 119.
  Boece, Hector, his fabulous history, 94.
  Bothwell, Adam, Bishop of Orkney, 106.
  Bothwell Bridge, battle of, 150.
  Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of, 104;
    marries Queen Mary, 105;
    his flight, 106.
  Boyd, Thomas, created Earl of Arran, 76.
  Boyds, power of, 76.
  Brechin, bell-tower of, 18.
  Brigham, treaty of, 36.
  Brown, John, story of, 152.
  Bruce, grant of Annandale to, 36.
  Bruce, Robert, one of the claimants of the crown, 36.
  Bruce, Robert, Earl of Carrick, his coronation, 47;
    his reverses, 48;
    his victory at Bannockburn, 50;
    his comrades, 51;
    his parliaments, 55;
    his death, 56.
  Brunanburh, battle of, 12.
  Bunby, tutor of, Laird of, slain by Douglas, 73.
  Buchan, Alexander, Earl of, Wolf of Badenoch, 62.
  Buchan, Countess of, crowns Bruce, 47;
    caged by Edward, _ib._
  Buchan, Herrying of, 49.
  Buchan, John Stewart, Earl of, 65.
  Buchanan, George, his works, 124.
  Burns, Robert, the poet, 189.

          C.
  Cambuskenneth, Parliament of, 55.
  Cameron, Richard, leader of the Cameronians, 149.
  Candlemas, burnt, 59.
  Carberry, surrender at, 106.
  Carham, battle of, 12.
  Casket letters, 107, 109.
  Chapman, Walter, sets up first printing press, 83.
  Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender), his landing, 176;
    his Court at Edinburgh, 177;
    his invasion of England, 178;
    his perils, 180.
  Charles I., his resumption of Benefices, 129;
    his visit to Scotland, 130;
    his double dealing, 132;
    his appeal to the Scots, 137;
    his treaty with the Engagers, 138;
    his death, 139.
  Charles II., proclamation of, 139;
    his arrival in Scotland, 140;
    his coronation, 141;
    his defeat at Worcester, _ib._;
    his restoration, 143;
    his misgovernment, 144-151;
    his death, 151.
  Charles XII. of Sweden, his project of invasion, 173.
  Claverhouse, James Graham of, beaten at Drumclog, 149;
    his revolt, 155;
    is beaten at Killiecrankie, 157.
  Cnut, invasion of, 13.
  Colliers and salters, slavery of, 183.
  Cope, Sir John, his flight, 177.
  Coltbrigg, canter of, 177.
  Columba, comes from Ireland, 6;
    founds Iona, 7;
    converts Picts, _ib._
  Committee of Articles, its origin, 69.
  Common Order, Book of, 114.
  Comyn, John, the Red, his murder, 46.
  Constantine I., his reign, 10.
  Constantine II., commendation of, 11.
  Constantine III., reign of, 12.
  Conventicles, 146;
    laws against, 148.
  Court of Session, founding of, 88.
  Covenant, first, 98;
    renewals of, 119, 132.
  Culloden Moor, battle of, 179.
  Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of (the Butcher),
                                   victor at Culloden, 180.

          D.
  Dalriada founded, 6.
  Darien scheme, 159.
  Darnley, Henry Stewart, Lord, 102;
    his murder, 105.
  David I., Prince of Strathclyde, 20;
    encourages Normans, 22;
    invades England, _ib._;
    character of, 25.
  David II., first anointed King of Scots, 56;
    taken prisoner, 58.
  Discipline, books of, 101, 118.
  Disruption, causes of, 186.
  Donald I., King of Scots, 10.
  Donald Bane seizes the throne, 17.
  Donald, Dhu, last Lord of the Isles, 81.
  Douglas, Archibald, Earl of (Tine-man), slain at Verneuil, 66.
  Douglas, Earl of, slain at Otterburn, 61.
  Douglas, Gavin, Bishop of Dunkeld, 84;
    his poems, 95.
  Douglas, James of, his larder, 51;
    his raids into England, 53;
    his death, 56.
  Douglas, James, Earl of, defeated at Arkinholm, 74.
  Douglas, William, Earl of, beheaded, 72.
  Douglas, William, Earl of, his murder, 74.
  Drumclog, Conventicle at, 149.
  Drummond of Hawthornden, his poems, 165.
  Drummond, James, Earl of Perth, 153.
  Drunken Parliament, 145.
  Dunbar, William, his poems, 95.
  Dunbarton, taking of, 111.
  Duncan I., death of, 13.
  Dunfermline Church founded by Margaret, 17.
  Dunkeld, attack on, 157.
  Dunnottar, regalia sent to, 142;
    Covenanters imprisoned in, 153.
  Duplin, battle of, 57.

          E.
  Eadgar, reign of, 19.
  Eadgar the Ætheling, comes to Scotland, 14;
    overthrows Donald Bane, 17.
  Eadmer, Bishop of St. Andrews, 21.
  Eadmund joins Donald Bane, 17.
  Education Act, passing of, 161.
  Edward I., holds a Council at Norham, 37;
    first conquest of Scotland, 40;
    second conquest, 44;
    attempts to unite Scotland to England, 45;
    his death, 47.
  Edward II., his invasion of Scotland, 49;
    his defeat and flight, 50.
  Edward III., his invasion of Scotland, 59.
  Ejection, 145.
  Elphinstone, Bishop, founds University at Aberdeen, 83.

          F.
  Falaise, convention of, 27.
  Falkirk, battle of, 44.
  Falkirk Moor, battle of, 179.
  Flodden, battle of, 81.
  Forbes, Duncan, of Culloden, his philanthropy, 182.
  Fordun, John of, writes Scotichronicon, 66.
  Forster, Thomas, his rebellion, 170.
  Fort William, building of, 158.
  "Forty-five," rebellion of, 175.

          G.
  Galloway, final subjection of, 28.
  George I., 168.
  Glasgow, founding of University at, 75.
  Glencoe, massacre of, 158.
  Glen Fruin, battle at, 127.
  Glenfillan, standard of rebellion raised at, 177.
  Glenlivat, battle of, 120.
  Gordon, rise of the House of, 74.
  Gowrie Plot, 120.
  Grahame Malise, his conspiracy, 69.
  Grange, William Kirkcaldy of, 106;
    declares for the Queen, 111;
    his death, 114.
  Gray, Sir Patrick, wrath of, 73.
  Green, Captain, trial of, 162.
  Grig seizes the throne, 11.
  Gruach, her claims to the throne, 13.
  Guthrie, James, his fate, 144.

          H.
  Hadrian, wall of, 4.
  Halidon Hill, battle of, 58.
  Hamilton, James, of Bothwellhaugh, murderer of the Regent, 110.
  Hamilton, Marquess of, Commissioner, 132;
    his invasion of England, 138;
    his death, 139.
  Harlaw, battle of, 65.
  Hawley, General, his defeat, 179.
  Henry, son of David I., death of, 24;
    his children, 25.
  Hertford, Edward Seymour, Earl of, his invasions, 90, 91.

          I.
  Ida founds Northumberland, 6.
  Indulgence, the passing of, 153.
  Intercommuning, law against, 148.
  Inverness, its importance, 35.
  Irvine, surrender at, 42.
  Irving, Edward, his schism, 186.

          J.
  James I., his capture, 63;
    his return, 67;
    his treatment of the chiefs, 68;
    his murder, 69;
    his judicial reforms, _ib._;
    his poems, 70.
  James II., his accession, 71;
    murders Douglas, 74;
    his death, 75.
  James III., 75;
    his marriage, 76;
    his favourites, 78;
    his death, 79.
  James IV., 79;
    his marriage, 80;
    his fleet, 81;
    his alliance with France, _ib._;
    his invasion of England, 82;
    his character and death, _ib._
  James V., 83;
    his erection, 85;
    war with England, 87;
    his death, 88;
    his judicial reforms, _ib._;
    his poems, 89.
  James VI., his coronation, 107;
    his favourites, 115;
    his imprisonment at Ruthven, 116;
    his marriage, 117;
    his contest with the ministers, 120;
    his accession to England, 122;
    his restoration of episcopacy, 126;
    his visit to Scotland, 127;
    his death, 128.
  James VII., his conduct as Duke of York, 150;
    his persecutions, 151;
    his deposition, 153.
  James Stuart, Chevalier de St. George, Old Pretender, 168;
    his rebellion, 169;
    his landing in Scotland, 172.
  Jameson, George, noted painter, 165.
  Jedburgh, destruction of, 64.
  John of Bretayne, Lieutenant of Scotland, 45.

          K.
  Kentigern, Apostle of Strathclyde, 8.
  Killiecrankie, battle of, 157.
  Kilsyth, battle of, 137.
  Knox, John, first mention of, 92;
    leader of the Reformers, 99;
    his death and character, 113.

           L.
  Langside, battle of, 108.
  Lennox, Matthew Stewart, Earl of, his marriage, 90;
    his regency, 111;
    his death, 112.
  Leslie, David, leader of the Covenanters, 137.
  Lethington, William Maitland of, 109;
    his death, 115.
  Liturgy tumults, 131.
  Lorn, John Macdougal of, Bruce's enemy, 48.
  Lulach, son of Gruach, 14.
  Lyndesay, Sir David, his poems, 95.

          M.
  MacAlpin, Kenneth, first King of Picts and Scots, 9.
  Macbeth, reign of, 13.
  Macduff, appeal of, to Edward I., 39.
  Maclauchlan, Margaret, death of, 152.
  Malcolm I. obtains grant of Strathclyde, 12.
  Malcolm II. gets Lothian, 13.
  Malcolm III., Canmore, marries Margaret, 15;
    meeting with William, _ib._;
    raids into England, _ib._, 16;
    death of, 16.
  Malcolm IV. subdues Galloway, 26;
    meets Henry at Chester, 27.
  Malt-tax riots, 174.
  Mar, Alexander Stewart, Earl of,
                 defeats the Highlanders at Harlaw, 64.
  Mar, John Erskine, Earl of, Regent, 113.
  Mar, John, Earl of (Bobbing John), his rebellion, 169.
  Margaret, the Maid of Norway, her death, 36.
  Margaret, St., her reforms, 16.
  Mary, Princess of Orange, 154.
  Mary Stewart, her birth, 88;
    her removal to France, 91;
    her first marriage, 92;
    her return to Scotland, 100;
    her second marriage, 102;
    her favourites, 103;
    her flight to Dunbar, 104;
    her third marriage, 105;
    her surrender, 106;
    her escape from Loch Leven, 107;
    her flight into England, 109;
    her death, 117.
  Matilda, daughter of Malcolm, marries Henry of England, 20.
  Middleton, Earl of, Commissioner, 143.
  Mile Act, the, 145.
  Milton, chapter of, 53.
  Mitchell, his attempt on the life of Sharp, 148.
  Moidart, landing of the young Chevalier at, 177.
  Monk, General, his reduction of Scotland, 141;
    his share in the Restoration, 143.
  Montrose, James Graham, Earl of, takes up arms for the Covenant, 133;
    joins the King, 136;
    his rising for Charles II., 140;
    his death, _ib._
  Moray, extent of, 10.
  Mormaers, their office, 9.
  Morton, James Douglas, Earl of, his regency, 115.
  Murray, James Stewart, Earl of, 102;
    his regency, 107;
    his murder, 110.

          N.
  Napier, of Merchiston, his writings, 166.
  Nectansmere, battle of, 9.
  Neville's Cross, battle of, 58.
  Norham, Council at, 37.
  Northampton, Council at, 28;
    peace of, 54.
  Northmen, first coming of, 10;
    settle in the Sudereys, 11;
    invasion of under Magnus, 19;
    last invasion of, 31.

          O.
  Olifant, Sir William, defender of Stirling Castle, 44.
  Otterburn, raid of, 60.

          P.
  Penrith, skirmish at, 171.
  Perth, Clan battle at, 62;
    murder of James at, 69;
    Articles of, 127.
  Philiphaugh, battle of, 137.
  Picts united to Scots, 9.
  Pinkie, battle of, 91.
  Porteous riots, 174.
  Preston, battle at, 171.
  Preston-pans, battle of, 178.

          Q.
  Quakers, indulgence to, 153.

          R.
  Rabbling, 154.
  Ramsay, Allan, his poems, 89.
  Ramsay, Allan, the painter, 189.
  Randolf, Earl of, of Moray, 53.
  Reform Bill, passing of, 184.
  Reformation, causes of, 97;
    statutes passed, 100;
    results of, 123.
  Regalia, story of, 142.
  Reseby, John, burning of, 66.
  Rizzio, murder of, 103.
  Robert I., _see_ Bruce.
  Robert II., his marriages, 59;
    his death, 61.
  Robert III., his change of name, 61;
    his imbecility, 61;
    his death, 63.
  Rothesay, David, first Duke of, 61.
  Roxburgh, siege of, 75.
  Ruthven, Lord, his share in the murder of Rizzio, 103.
  Ruthven, raid of, 116.

          S.
  St. Andrews, founding of University at, 66.
  Sanquhar, Declaration of, 149.
  Sauchieburn, battle of, 79.
  Scotia, Nova, founding of, 128.
  Scott, Sir Walter, 190.
  Scots, first coming of, 6.
  Seabury, Dr. Samuel, his consecration, 186.
  Sedition, trials for, 183.
  Severus, invasion of, 5.
  Sharp, James, Archbishop of St. Andrew, his consecration, 144;
    murder of, 148.
  Sheriffmuir, battle at, 171.
  Siward defeats Macbeth, 14.
  Slavery, abolition of, 183.
  Smith, Adam, his "Wealth of Nations," 189.
  Smollett, Tobias, the novelist, 189.
  Solway, Moss, defeated at, 87.
  Spider, Bruce's, 48.
  Standard, battle of, 23.
  Stewart, origin of the name, 59.
  Stirling, battle of, 43.
  Stirling, Earl of, founder of Nova Scotia, 128.
  Supplication, Great, 131.

          T.
  Tables, choosing of, 131.
  Test Act, passing of, 150.
  Theodosius makes Valentia a Roman province, 5.
  Thomas, the Rhymer, his predictions, 32.
  Tippermuir, battle of, 136.
  Toleration, Act of, 185.
  Touraine granted to Douglas, 65.
  Treasurer, first appointment of, 70.
  Tudor, Margaret, marries James IV., 80.
  Tulchan Bishops, 113.
  Turriff, Trot of, 133.

          U.
  Union, 163;
    results of, 164;
    discontent with, 167.
  Uttoxeter, surrender at, 138.

          V.
  Verneuil, battle of, 65.
  Veto Act, passing of, 187.

          W.
  Wallace, William, his rising, 42;
    his victory at Stirling, 43;
    his defeat at Falkirk, 44;
    his military genius, _ib._;
    his betrayal and death, 45.
  Warbeck, Perkin, his reception in Scotland, 80.
  Watt, James, his inventions, 188.
  Whiggamores' Raid, the, 138.
  William of Orange, 154;
    his reduction of the Highlands, 158;
    his death, 161.
  William the Lion, his capture, 27.
  Wilson, Margaret, death of, 152.
  Wyntoun, Andrew, his chronicle, 66.





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