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Title: The Boy Mechanic, Book 2
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Boy Mechanic, Book 2" ***

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                       THE BOY MECHANIC
                            BOOK 2

  [Illustration: FOUR-PASSENGER COASTING BOBSLED See Page 24]

                             THE
                        BOY MECHANIC
                           BOOK 2

                 1000 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO

                      HOW TO CONSTRUCT

  DEVICES FOR WINTER SPORTS, MOTION-PICTURE CAMERA, INDOOR
        GAMES, REED FURNITURE, ELECTRICAL NOVELTIES,
             BOATS, FISHING RODS, CAMPS AND CAMP
               APPLIANCES, KITES AND GLIDERS,
                     PUSHMOBILES, ROLLER
                       COASTER, FERRIS
                            WHEEL

                             AND

      HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

                   WITH 995 ILLUSTRATIONS

             COPYRIGHTED, 1915, BY H. H. WINDSOR

                           CHICAGO
                    POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
                         PUBLISHERS



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:

This etext differs from the original as follows. Two minor typographical
errors were found and corrected. In the chapters on making fly-fishing
rods (pages 59-71), several lists of materials or dimensions that were
printed as running text have been reformatted as lists for clarity. The
text is unchanged.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: After the First Station has been Selected, It is Marked by
a Pile of Stones, a Stake, or, If Precise Work is to be Done, a Tack in
the Top of a Stake. The Table is Then Set Up over This Station Point and
Leveled So That the Surface of the Paper will Be Truly Horizontal
(Inset: UNCLE JOHN'S FARM Scale 1/16" = 1' Jimmy Smith--Surveyor) ]

[Illustration: The Boy Surveyor]



Plane-Table Surveying By Harold G. McGee


    [In the training of a boy for a trade or profession there is
    none so profitable for outdoor work as that of a surveyor. This
    article sets forth how to accomplish surveying and the making of
    simple maps with the use of commonplace tools that any boy can
    make.--Editor.]

Surveying and map making have always been two of the most interesting
things a civil engineer has had to do. And, like George Washington, many
of the men we look up to today as successes in different lines worked as
surveyors in their younger days. Surveying takes one out of doors, and is
apt to lead him into the unknown and unexplored byways of the earth.

Though modern surveyors often use precise and expensive instruments,
creditable surveys can be made with simple and inexpensive apparatus. Of
such apparatus, two of the simplest are the plane table and the camera.
Since one must know the principles of plane-table surveying before he
can do camera surveying, this paper will describe the plane table alone,
leaving the camera for another chapter.

A plane table is simply a drawing board mounted on a tripod so that it can
be set up and worked upon in the field. One kind of plane table, which is
used in the army for reconnaissance, does not even have a tripod; it is
simply strapped to the arm of the man who is using it.

Plane-table maps vary greatly in scale and the area they represent.
Landscape artists' plans may show only single city lots, while some
topographic maps cover hundreds of square miles on a single sheet. For
maps of a small farm, a park, or a residence block in the city, a plane
table is almost ideal, since plane-table maps are made with rather simple
apparatus and do not require much actual measuring on the ground. Most
objects are located without ever going to them, or even sending a rod-man
to them.

[Illustration: Just a Few Weeks After George Washington's Sixteenth
Birthday, in 1748, Lord Fairfax, Owner of a Large Estate in Virginia, Took
Him into His Employ as a Surveyor]

Besides the plane table itself and a sheet of paper, only a small
carpenter's level, a tape to measure a few distances with, and some spikes
for markers, a hard lead pencil, a ruler, and a few needles are absolutely
necessary for this sort of a map.

[Illustration: Three Stations are Used for Setting the Plane Table in
Succession to Locate the Various Objects

TABLE AT STA. A - TABLE AT STA. B - TABLE AT STA. C ]

To start a plane-table map, a station must first be selected from which as
many as possible of the objects to be located on the finished map can be
seen. Ordinarily, the objects one would locate are corners of buildings,
fence corners, intersections of roads, corners of lots, banks of streams,
possibly trees, and section and quarter-section corners in the country.
A railroad, a lake, a mountain, or anything which forms a noticeable
landmark in any particular locality, ought to be on the map. In mapping
a territory which has never been surveyed before, the first surveyor may
name the hills and streams.

After the first station has been selected, it is marked by a pile of
stones, a stake, or, if precise work is to be done, a tack in the top of
a stake. The table is then set up over this station point and leveled so
that the surface of the paper will be truly horizontal. Generally, too,
the board is "oriented," that is, placed so that two of its edges point
north and south and two east and west. It is then clamped so that it will
not move while working on it.

To begin the map, a point on the table is chosen to represent the station
on the ground over which the table is set. This point is marked by
sticking a fine needle into the paper, vertically. A small triangle should
be drawn around the needle hole in the paper and labeled "Sta. A," so
that it will not be lost in the maze of points which will soon cover the
sheet. By sighting past this needle toward some object which is wanted
on the map, like the corner of a house, its direction can be marked by
setting another needle on the far side of the table, in line with the
first and the given object. Then, if a ruler or straightedge be placed
against these two needles and a fine line drawn connecting them, this line
will show the exact direction of the object from Sta. A. All the other
objects which are wanted on the finished map and can be seen from Sta. A
are located by direction in the same way.

The first points to have their direction thus marked ought to be the
next stations to be occupied. If all the objects to be located can be
seen from three stations, or even two of three stations, three stations
will be sufficient. The distance to one of them from Sta. A should be
carefully measured and laid off to scale along its direction line on the
map. Its place on the map should be marked exactly as the first station
was, substituting B for A. It is wise, after every few sights at other
objects, to take a sight along the line AB to make sure that the board
has not turned. A good map is impossible if the board twists.

To measure the distance between stations, a 50 or 100-ft. tape, or some
accurate substitute, is necessary. An ordinary piece of iron telegraph
wire, 105 ft. long, is a good substitute. A point, about 2-1/2 ft. from
one end, is marked with a little lump of solder. A chisel dent in this
solder will mark one end of the 100-ft. section. Then, with a borrowed
tape or a good rule, measure off and mark every 10 ft., just as the first
point was marked, until the entire 100 ft. have been laid off. The last
10 ft. should be divided into feet. In all this measuring and marking,
the wire must be stretched out taut and straight. The extra 2-1/2 ft. at
each end are used for making handles. By estimating the tenths of a foot,
measurements can be made with such a tape, or "chain," as an old-time
surveyor might call it, just as accurately as they can be laid off on the
map.

[Illustration: An Alidade, Consisting of Two Sights and a Straightedge,
Takes the Place of the Two Needles]

[Illustration]

Two men are required for measuring, or "chaining," a head and a rear
chainman. The rear chainman holds the 100-ft. end of the tape on the
station point, while the head chainman takes his end forward toward the
station to which they are measuring. When he has gone nearly the length
of the tape, the rear chainman calls "halt." The head chainman stops and
draws the tape up tight, while the rear chainman holds his division end on
the starting point. Then the head chainman sticks a spike into the ground
to mark the place where his division end comes, calls out "stuck," and
starts on toward the object point.

Large spikes make good marking pins, especially if they have little red
or white strips of cloth tied to them. Surveyors use 11 markers. One is
stuck into the ground at the starting point and is carried forward by the
rear chainman, who also picks up the markers at each 100-ft. point as soon
as the head chainman calls "stuck." In this way, the number of markers
which the rear chainman has in his hand is always the same as the number
of hundreds of feet which the last set marker is from the starting point.

In measuring between two points, care must be taken to draw the tape out
taut and straight, its two ends must be level with each other, and it must
be exactly in line with the two points between which the measurement is
being made. In measuring downhill, one end may have to be held up high,
and the point on the ground where the end division would come, found by
dropping a stone from the place where it is in the air and watching for
the spot where the rock strikes the ground. A surer way to do this is to
hold a plumb-bob string on the last division and carefully let the bob
down until it touches the ground. A rod with a red or white flag on it
ought to be placed at or just beyond the point to which the measurement is
to be made so that the rear chainman can easily line in the head chainman.
The latter, before he places his marker, looks back to the rear chainman
to be told whether or not he is "on line" with the object point. If he is
not, and ought to go to the rear chainman's right to get "on," the latter
holds out his right arm and the head chainman moves accordingly. When he
reaches the right point, the rear chainman signals "all right" by holding
out both of his arms and then dropping them to his side; the marker is
stuck, and both move up a hundred feet and repeat the process.

After all the points possible have been located from Sta. A, and
the direction lines labeled lightly in pencil so that they can be
distinguished when the board has been removed from the station, the
plane table is picked up and carried to Sta. B. Here it is again set up,
leveled, and oriented by making the direction of the line AB on the paper
exactly the same as that of the line from Sta. A to Sta. B on the ground.
This is done by placing needles at points A and B on the table and then
turning the board until the two needles and Sta. A are in line. Sights
are taken on the same objects which were "shot" at Sta. A, and to objects
which were not visible from Sta. A. The intersection of the lines of sight
toward a given object from A and from B marks the location on the paper
of that object. If the two ends of a straight fence have been located in
this way, a straight line joining the points will show the location of
the fence on the map. By exactly similar methods, every other object is
located on the paper.

In order to avoid errors, it is an excellent scheme to locate three
stations near the outside edges of the area to be mapped, and locate all
objects possible by sights from each of the three stations. If, instead
of all three crossing each other at a point, the lines of sight from the
three stations form a triangle, something is wrong. If the triangle is
very small, it may be safe to use its center as the correct point; if not,
the work must be repeated and checked. Locating even a few points by this
method may prevent some bad blunders. The three stations ought to form
as nearly as possible, an equilateral triangle; and the distances between
all of them should be measured and laid out accurately on the plane table.

[Illustration: A Rigid Tripod is Made of Strips for Legs, Which are
Fastened to a Large Top]

There are two ways in which the map may be finished, inked, or traced.
By drawing in the "culture," that is, the things built by man, like
the houses, the fences, the roads, and the railroads, in black ink; the
topography, that is, the hills and valleys, in brown; the water, in blue,
and then erasing all the construction lines, a very neat map can be made.
Another way is to get some "onion-skin" paper, or some tracing cloth, tack
it over the penciled map, and trace the lines right through, using black
India ink. This tracing can be blueprinted, just as a photographic film.
A plain, neat title, describing location of map; who made it and when; the
scale used; why it was made, if it was made for a special purpose, and the
direction of the north point, ought to be on every map. The topographic
sheets published by the United States Geological Survey are good samples
to follow. They have been published for a great many places all over the
country, and single copies can be obtained by sending 10 cents to the
Director, United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: From an Original Drawing of a Survey of Mount Vernon, Made
by George Washington at the Age of 14]

Plane tables are almost as easily made as they are bought. If there is no
old drawing board around the house, a new bread board from the ten-cent
store will serve. For ordinary work, a table which is 15 or 20 in.
square will do very well. The board must be mounted on a tripod so that
it will be rigid while it is being worked upon and yet can be unclamped
and oriented. A brass plate, with a hole in it and a nut soldered over
the hole, screwed to the bottom of the board will permit the board and
tripod to be bolted together in good shape. Another method, which is not
nearly as good, is to drill a hole clear through the board, countersink
it on top for a bolt head, and bolt the board and tripod head directly
together. With the brass plate and nut, the camera tripod can be pressed
into service if a nut of the proper size has been used. The camera tripod
is, however, apt to be wabbly with a drawing board on top; a much more
satisfactory tripod can be built as shown in the accompanying drawings.
Each leg is made of two strips of wood, 3/4 by 3/8 in. and 3 ft. long.
These strips are screwed together at their lower ends, gripping a spike
between them which will prevent the legs from slipping on the ground. The
tops of the strips are spread apart and screwed to the opposite ends of
an oak or maple cleat. This cleat is, in turn, screwed to the under side
of the circular tripod head.

In place of the two needles and the ruler described for marking the line
of sight, most plane-table men use an alidade, which is a combination
of two sights and a straightedge. A very simple alidade may be made by
mounting two needles on a ruler. The straight edge of the ruler is placed
against the needle which marks the station at which the plane table is
set up. Then, by swinging the ruler around this needle until its two
sighting needles come in line with some object, the line of sight can be
drawn directly on the paper along the edge of the ruler. A surveyor in
India once made an alidade out of a piece of straightedge and two sights
made of native coins hammered out by a native blacksmith. Two pieces of
cigar box, one with a fine vertical saw slit in it, and the other with a
vertical slot and a piece of fine wire or silk thread stretched down the
center, glued to a well planed, straight, flat piece of wood, make a fine
alidade. A careful worker may be able to put his sights on hinges so that
they will fold down when not in use.

More than anything else, map making rewards care and accuracy, and shows
up slipshod workmanship. If the pencils are sharp, the lines fine, and
if the work is checked often, beautiful maps can be made with very simple
apparatus.

       *       *       *       *       *

    White marks on waxed surfaces may be removed by
    rubbing lightly with a soft rag moistened in alcohol,
    after which rub with raw linseed oil.



Machine for Sketching Pictures


An ordinary drawing board, with the attachments shown, provides an easy
way to sketch pictures, even if one is not proficient in this line of
work. It is only necessary to look through the sight and move the pencil
about so that the knot in the thread follows the outline of the landscape
or object being drawn.

[Illustration: This Machine Aids a Person in Drawing the True Outline of
a Picture]

The size of the machine depends on the one building it, but a fair-sized
drawing board is sufficient for the beginner. A strip of wood is fastened
to the board, near one edge, which has a metal piece on each end, fastened
to the under side and bent up over the end to form an extension for the
rod to support the moving parts. The strip of wood should be 3/4 in. wide
and 1/4 in. thick, and the sliding arm, holding the pencil, 1/2 in. wide
and 1/4 in. thick. A like strip, but much shorter than the one fastened
to the board, is also fitted with metal pieces in an inverted position
so the projections will be downward. A 3/16-in. rod is run through holes
in the metal pieces of the strips at both ends, and soldered to those on
the strip fastened to the board. This will make a hinged joint, as well
as one that will allow the upper strip to slide horizontally.

Centrally located on the upper strip are two more strips, fastened with
screws at right angles to the former, with a space between them of 1/2 in.
for the sliding center piece holding the pencil. These pieces are further
braced with a wire at the back, and crosspieces are screwed both on top
and under side, to make a rigid guide for the sliding pencil holder. An
upright is fastened to the side of one of these pieces over the center of
the upper horizontal sliding piece for a screw eye to hold the thread.
Another screw eye is turned into the crosspiece just under the one on
the support, so that the thread will run perpendicularly between them.
Two more screw eyes are fastened, one into the upper surface of the
rear crosspiece, and the other in the end of the pencil holder, near the
pencil. By connecting these screw eyes, as shown, with a thread, having
a rubber band fastened in the rear end and a knot tied in it near the
screw eye in the upper end of the vertical stick, a means for following
the outlines of the picture is provided.

A vertical stick is fastened to the front edge of the board by means of
a notch and wedge. In the upper end of this stick a very small hole is
bored for a sight, similar to a peep sight on a rifle.

To use the machine, set the board on a table, or tripod, and level it up
in front of the object to be drawn. Look through the sight at the front
of the board and move the pencil about to keep the knot of the thread on
the outlines of the picture to be drawn.--Contributed by Wm. C. Coppess,
Union City, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A walnut filler is made of 3 lb. burnt Turkey umber,
    1 lb. of burnt Italian sienna, both ground in oil,
    then mixed to a paste with 1 qt. of turpentine and 1
    pt. of japan drier.

[Illustration: THE BOY SURVEYOR]



Camera Surveying By Harold G. McGee


    [This article explains the preparation of the camera for
    taking the pictures at each of the three stations, after which the
    plates are developed, printed and kept until a convenient time may
    be had for plotting the ground. The succeeding article will give
    in detail the making of the map from the photographs.--Editor.]

Camera surveying is simply plane-table surveying in which the landscape
has been photographically picked up and carried indoors. It has the
enormous advantage that one can obtain a record of the utmost fidelity in
a small fraction of the time taken to do the field work of even a sketchy
plane-table survey, and that plotting can be done in the comfort and with
the conveniences of a drafting room. When the hours one can work are short
or the periods of clear, dry weather are few and far between, a camera is
an ideal surveying instrument. It sees and records with the click of the
shutter.

Surveying by camera was proposed early in the infant days of photography;
but not until the eighties were photographic surveys commenced in earnest.
With the extensive surveys of the Canadian Rockies by the Canadian
government within the past decade and the topographic surveys of the Alps,
the camera has very recently indeed achieved the dignity of being known as
a "sure-enough" surveying instrument. Even today, few surveyors have ever
used photography for making surveys, even though for mountain topography
or any survey which includes a large number of distinctive, inaccessible
landmarks, the camera asks no odds of either the plane table or the stadia
transit.

A camera survey taken of the summer cottage or the camping ground will be
a source of great delight while it is being plotted up of winter evenings.
There is something weird in watching each tent and dock slip into its
place with naught but a pair of dividers and a few pictures to do the
trick. And when the map is done, there are all the data to tell just where
a tennis court can go or a walk ought to be built.

In making surveys, a plate camera will do more accurate work than will
a film camera; and a fixed focus is a big help in plotting. In spite of
the special and expensive instruments which have been designed solely for
surveying work, a little ingenuity on the part of the owner of most any
kind of a camera, be it big or little, film or plate, box or folding, will
do wonders toward producing good results.

[Illustration: A T-Shaped Level with Adjusting Nuts is Located on the
Camera Box, or on the Bed of the Folding Camera]

To be used for surveying, a camera must be fitted with a spirit level and
some arrangement for cross hairs. A T-shaped level on the bed or the box,
carefully adjusted, will show when the plate is vertical and when the
perpendicular line from the center of the plate to the center of the lens
is horizontal. Actual cross hairs in the camera are not as good as four
tiny points of V's, one projecting from the middle of each side, top, and
bottom of the camera box, just in front of the plate holder. How the level
is to be adjusted so that a line between the upper and lower points will
be truly vertical, and one through the die-side points truly horizontal
and on a level with the center of the lens when the bubbles are in the
center of the spirit level, will be described later.

[Illustration: To Prepare a Camera for Surveying, It is Necessary to
Arrange That the Axial Center Line through Lens to the Plate Shall be
Level

(Inset: The Camera is Set Up, Complete with Thread or Pencil-Line Cross
Hairs and Level, Then Focused on a Stake so That Its Top will Just Come to
the Horizontal Cross Hair at the Center of the Plate When the Level Tube
Parallel with the Center Line of Lens Reads Level) ]


Camera Preparation


To prepare a camera for surveying, it is necessary to arrange that the
axial center line through the lens to the plate shall be level, and
that the location of the horizontal and vertical center lines shall be
indicated on the plate. A spirit level is the best solution of the first
problem, and indicated center points of the second.

The spirit level preferably may be of the T-form, with two level tubes,
or of the "universal" circular form, with which some hand cameras are
equipped. However, ordinary hand-camera levels are generally too rough
and difficult of adjustment to insure accurate work. On a view camera, the
level may be conveniently located on the bed which carries the lens board.
If it is screwed to the under side of the arms it will be convenient for
use and out of the way. The bed is likewise a good location for the level
on a folding hand camera, while the top of the box is about the only
possible location with a box-type instrument.

The cross hairs or center-line indicators should be placed on the back
of the camera, just in front of the plate. If indicators are used,
fine-thread cross hairs or pencil lines drawn on the ground glass must be
used temporarily for making adjustments. Generally, the two cross hairs
will divide the plate vertically and horizontally into four equal parts
and the hairs or indicators will join the center point of the sides and
top and bottom of the opening immediately in front of the plate. But
it is essential that the cross hairs have their intersection in a line
perpendicular to the plate and passing through the center of the lens.
Thus in a camera in which the lens is not placed in the center of the
plate, or in which the rising and sliding front has placed the lens off
center, either or both of the cross hairs may be off center with regard
to the plate.

[Illustration: The Ordinary Round Level may be Used, but It Is Not so Good
as the T-Level]

After the cross-hair indicators and the level have been attached to the
camera, adjustments are necessary. Surveyors distinguish between permanent
and temporary adjustments, permanent adjustments being those for which
the instrument maker is responsible, and temporary adjustments being those
which can be and are made in the field. The principal permanent or maker's
adjustments of the surveying camera are those which insure the center
line through the lens, or axial center line, or line of collimation, being
perpendicular to the plate, the intersection of the cross hairs being on
this line, and that the cross hairs themselves are mutually perpendicular.
Temporary or field adjustments must be so made that one tube of the spirit
level shall be parallel with the axial center line through the lens and
the other parallel with the horizontal cross hair.

[Illustration: The Cross Hairs or Center-Line Indicators should be Placed
on the Back of the Camera]

The first field adjustment is made in the following manner. The camera
is set up, complete with thread or pencil-line cross hairs and level, and
focused on a stake whose top shall just come to the horizontal cross hair
at the center of the plate, when the level tube parallel with the center
line of the lens reads level. This stake may be driven to the required
elevation or a rod may be held on it and the point where, in the image
on the ground glass, it is intersected by the cross hair marked with
pencil on the rod as it is held vertically on the stake. The distance to
this stake is measured from the camera and another similar stake set at
the same elevation by the same method, but in an opposite direction and
at the same distance from the camera. The two stakes or the mark on the
vertical rod which is held on these stakes in turn will be level with each
other, though they may not be level with the camera. The camera is then
moved to a point very much closer to one stake than to the other and again
leveled. The vertical distance from one stake-top or mark on the rod is
measured and the camera then focused on the second stake. If the level
is actually in adjustment, the distance from the second stake top or mark
will be exactly the same as it was on the first. If not, the difference,
or "error," is found between the two vertical distances from the cross
hair to the two stake tops. Half this error is corrected by raising or
lowering one end of the level tube by means of the threaded nuts which are
placed on it for the purpose. The whole process is then repeated until the
vertical distances from the horizontal cross hair at the center to the two
level stakes, one close to and one distant from the camera, are identical.
The axial center line of the lens, or the line of collimation, is then
in adjustment with the level. All that remains is to make the horizontal
cross hair parallel with the cross level.

[Illustration: The Maker's Adjustments Should Insure the Line of
Collimation being Perpendicular to the Plate]

This is done by using one marked stake. The camera is leveled as far as
the "fore-and-aft" level is concerned and the horizontal cross-hair point
at the center marked on the stake. The camera is then swung round until
the stake just shows on one edge of the ground glass, the fore-and-aft
or longitudinal level being checked to make sure its bubble is still
in the center. Then the bubble in the cross or transverse level tube is
brought to the center by means of the threaded adjusting nuts, and the
camera is thrown hard over so that the stake appears along the opposite
edge of the plate. This time, the bubble of the longitudinal level being
kept in the center, half the error introduced by turning from one edge
to the other is corrected. All of the adjustments are then rechecked, and
if they are found correct the instrument is ready for use. If a circular
level be used, the method of adjustment is exactly the same, the swing of
the bubble along the axis of the camera and transverse to it being used
to determine the longitudinal and transverse adjustments. Slips of paper
may be used for lifting one side in place of the adjustment nuts of the
T-level.

A leveling head or ball-and-socket joint on the top of the tripod will be
found of material aid in leveling the instrument.

No great mechanical genius is necessary to prepare a camera for or to make
a successful camera survey. But if a boy have not patience and an infinite
desire for accuracy, camera surveying, or indeed any sort of surveying,
will be a source of neither pleasure, satisfaction, nor profit.



To Make Transparent Paper


Transparent paper of parchmentlike appearance and strength, which can be
dyed with almost all kinds of aniline dyes and assumes much more brilliant
hues than ordinary colored glass, can be made in the following manner:
Procure a white paper, made of cotton or linen rags, and put it to soak in
a saturated solution of camphor in alcohol. When dry, the paper so treated
can be cut up into any forms suitable for parts of lamp shades, etc.



Toasting Bread over an Open Fire


Having experienced some difficulty in obtaining good toast over a gas or
open fire I tried the following plan with good results: An old tin pan
was placed over the flame and the ordinary wire bread toaster clasping
the slice of bread was held about 1/2 in. from the pan. In a few minutes
the toast was crisp and ready to serve.--Contributed by Katy Doherty, New
York City.



Adjustable Stilts


The beginner with stilts always selects short sticks so that he will
not be very far from the ground, but as he becomes more experienced, the
longer the sticks the better. Then, too, the small boy and the large boy
require different lengths of sticks. The device shown makes a pair of
sticks universal for use of beginners or a boy of any age or height.

[Illustration: Stilts Having Stirrups That can be Set at Any Desired
Height]

To make the stilts, procure two long sticks of even length, and smooth up
the edges; then begin at a point 1 ft. from one end and bore 12 holes,
3/8 in. in diameter and 2 in. apart from center to center. If there is
no diestock at hand, have a blacksmith, or mechanic, make a thread on
both ends of a 3/8-in. rod, 12 in. long. Bend the rod in the shape shown,
so that the two threaded ends will be just 2 in. apart from center to
center. The thread on the straight horizontal end should be so long that
a nut can be placed on both sides of the stick. A piece of a garden hose
or small rubber hose, slipped on the rod, will keep the shoe sole from
slipping. The steps can be set in any two adjacent holes to give the
desired height.--Contributed by Walter Veene, San Diego, Cal.



Grape Arbor Built of Poles


In building outdoor structures, such as grape arbors, pergolas, or
arches, it is not necessary to use sawed lumber, as they can be built as
substantial, and frequently more artistic and cheap, of poles. These are
easily obtained, especially in the country or in the smaller cities where
there usually are many trees and gardens.

[Illustration: Arbor Made of Poles Which are Supported by One Row of
Uprights (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

The illustrated grape arbor consists of but one row of uprights. Across
the top of each is placed a horizontal support for the roof poles, as
shown in Fig. 1, which is carried near its outer end by an inclined brace.
The brace should be connected at each end with a toe joint, as shown in
Fig. 2. The upper end of the upright is beveled off on both sides, to form
a double-splayed joint with the crosspiece. In order to securely bind the
roof of the arbor, the long poles, or roof beams, should be notched near
each end to fit over the supports. Similar notches in the poles forming
the side of the arbor are to fit the uprights, thereby binding them
together and preventing toppling over. Each set of long poles connecting
two uprights should have the end notches the same distance apart, one pole
being used as a gauge. All the joints and notches may be cut with a sharp
hatchet.

In setting the arbor, the uprights should first be assembled complete
with braces and roof supports, and placed in the ground a distance apart
corresponding to that of the notches on the long poles. The uprights being
set, the long poles are placed and fastened with nails.--Contributed by
W. E. Crane, Cleveland, Ohio.



Forcing Fruit Blossoms for Decorations


Twigs trimmed from the fruit trees rather late in the season had quite
large buds on them, and we experimented with them in this way: A large box
was filled with wet sand, and the twigs were stuck in it and the box set
in the warmest corner of the yard. The buds soon swelled and burst into
bloom. We then arranged a smaller box of sand and put the blooming twigs
into it, and took it into the house where they remained fresh for several
days.--Contributed by A. Louise Culver, Oakland, Cal.



Corner Cleaner Attached to a Scrubbing Brush


[Illustration]

Dirt will accumulate and harden in the corners of a floor and the
baseboard just because the end of the scrubbing brush will not enter
them. The water gets in with the dirt and leaves a hard crust. This may
be easily cleaned out if a metal point is attached to the end of the brush
handle, as shown in the illustration. It is used as a scraper to break up
the crust and clean it out where the bristles will not enter.--Contributed
by L. E. Turner, New York City.

[Illustration: The Boy Surveyor]



Plotting a Camera Survey By Harold G. McGee


    [The camera records pictures that can be taken in camp or on
    a vacation trip and kept until more leisure may be had in winter
    for plotting the ground.--Editor.]

A previously measured base triangle with "stations" at each corner is
necessary for making a camera survey, just as it is for the plane-table
survey. It is preferable to have each of the three sides measured
independently, though if one side has been accurately chained, the other
two may be less satisfactorily determined by the use of the plane table.
If the camera has a fixed focus, it is possible to make an entire survey
from the two ends of a single base line; but this method has no check and
should be used only when and where the triangle method is impossible. With
an adjustable focus, it will rarely give good results.

[Illustration: Two Fine Hair Lines must be Scratched on Each Plate Before
It is Used to Plot From, or to Make Pictures from Which the Plotting is
Done]

Once the triangle has been laid out, the fieldwork is very simple. The
camera is set up at one station, carefully leveled, and then a series of
pictures is taken, each single plate overlapping the last so as to form
a panorama of the area to be mapped. The focus of the lens must not be
changed during a series, and plotting is facilitated by keeping the focus
constant during all the exposures which make up a survey. To secure good
depth of focus, a small stop is generally used, since it is necessary to
use a tripod to keep the camera level. If contours are to be drawn, the
height of the lens above the ground at the station should be measured and
recorded. After a series has been taken at each station, the fieldwork is
complete. It is an excellent plan to keep a record of the plate numbers,
and the order in which and the station from which the exposures were made,
so that the 10 or 12 plates which a small survey will comprise may not
get hopelessly mixed up. If the camera is turned each time to the right,
clockwise, and the plates are numbered A-1, A-2, B-4, etc., indicating by
A-1, for example, the leftmost plate taken at Sta. A; by A-2, the plate
just to the right of A-1, just as II is to the right of I on the clock
dial, and by B-4, the fourth to the right taken at Sta. B, there ought to
be no difficulty in identifying the plates after the exact details of the
ground are forgotten.

[Illustration: Plot of the Ground as It Should Appear After Locating the
Objects as They are Shown on the Pictures from Each Point of the Triangle]

While the pictures are being taken, "flags" of white wood or with
white-cloth streamers tied to them must be stuck in the ground or held at
the other stations in order that their exact location can be readily and
certainly found on the plates. A few distinctive stakes, some with one and
some with two or three strips of cloth tied to them, placed at important
points on the ground will help immensely in the location of knolls and
shore lines.

In plotting a camera survey, either the original plates, the prints, or
enlargements may be used. The plates are the most accurate if a corrected
lens has been used; and the enlargements made back through the lens will
be best if the images on the plates are distorted. In any case, two fine
hair lines must be scratched on each plate before it is used to plot from,
or to make the prints from which the plotting is to be done. One of these
lines should connect the points at the top and bottom of the plate, and
the other, the points at the sides. The vertical line divides the objects
which were on the right of the center of the camera from those that were
on the left, and the horizontal line connecting the points on the sides
separates the objects that were above the camera from those that were
below.

If the survey has been made with a lens that does not cover the
plate fully or that has considerable uncorrected aberration, causing
distorted shapes near the edges and corners of the picture, results can
be materially improved by plotting from enlargements. In making the
enlargements, the back of the camera should be removed and the light
should be allowed to pass through the plate and the lens in the reverse
order and direction of that in which it passed when the negative was
made. In this way, the errors which were made by the lens originally will
be straightened out, and the resulting enlargements will be free from
distortion. To make successful enlargements for surveying work, the easel
on which the bromide paper is tacked must be square with the camera, and
the paper itself should be flat and smooth. It is just as necessary to
keep the easel at a constant distance from the camera during the enlarging
as it was to keep the same focus while the original negatives were being
made.

[Illustration: In Plotting a Camera Survey the Base Triangle is First
Carefully Laid Out on the Paper to Such a Scale That the Map will be of
Desirable Size]

In plotting a camera survey the base triangle is first carefully laid out
on the paper to such a scale that the map will be of a desirable size.
With the apex of the triangle representing Sta. A, say, as a center, a
circle is drawn with a radius as nearly equal as possible to the distance
between the optical center of the lens and the plate when the picture was
taken. Ordinarily this will be the focal length of the lens; but if the
camera was not focused most sharply on an object a great distance off,
the radius may be greater. This radius is called the "mapping constant."
When an approximate distance for the mapping constant has been determined
by measurements on the camera or by knowing the focal length of the lens,
the circle, or rather the arc, FG between the two lines to stations B and
C, is drawn. The plates taken at Sta. A, and ranged around this circle on
the outside and just touching it, will show the landscape exactly as seen
from A.

In the accompanying diagram showing the method of determining the mapping
constant and of locating the traces of the plates, the letters F, G, H,
J, P, R and S designate points referring to the true mapping constant,
and the construction necessary to locate the traces of the plates. The
primed letters F', F'', G', G'', etc., are used to show similar points
where the trial mapping constant is either too long or too short. The
following description refers equally to the construction necessary with
true or trial-mapping constants.

Next, a line FH is drawn perpendicular to the line AB of the triangle at
the point F where the arc intersects it. On this line is laid off, in
the proper direction, a distance equal to the distance on the plate or
print from Sta. B to the center vertical line. From this point is drawn
a light line, HJ, toward the center of the arc. Where this line crosses
the arc, at J, a tangent, KJM, is drawn, which will show the location
of the plate A-1 on the drawing. This line is called the trace of the
plate. An object which appears both on plate A-1 and A-2 is next picked
out and its location on the trace of plate A-1 determined by measuring
the distance JN equal to the distance on the plate from the image of
the object to the center vertical line. A light line, NO, joining this
last-found point with Sta. A, is then drawn. Where this last line crosses
the arc, at O, a tangent, OP, to the arc is drawn, and the trace of the
plate A-2 is found with the aid of the point which appears on both plates
just as plate A-1 was located from the picture of Sta. B. The traces of
plates A-3 and A-4 are found in exactly the same way as was that of A-2.
If the radius of the arc has been estimated correctly, Sta. C will be
found to be exactly on the point where the trace of the plate showing
the station crosses the line AC on the paper. If it does not fall on the
line AC, which is generally the case, everything must be erased except
the original triangle. First, however, a radial line S'G', or S''G'',
is drawn from the location of Sta. C on the trace of the plate A-2, 3
or 4, as the case may be, to the arc, and the point of intersection of
this line and the arc, G' or G'', is preserved. If this point, G' or G'',
is outside the base triangle, the next trial arc should be drawn with a
larger mapping constant as a radius, or vice versa. If the second mapping
constant is off, find again the point of intersection of the radial line
through the new location of Sta. C on the newly located trace of the
last plate and the new arc. Join this point and the one found previously,
in the same manner, with a straight line, G'G''. The point G where this
last drawn line intersects the line AC of the base triangle, will be the
point through which the arc, with the correct mapping constant as radius,
ought to pass, provided the first two approximations were not too far in
error. This third trial ought to make the location of the traces of the
plates exactly correct. If, however, the focus of the camera was changed
between exposures at one station, the traces of the plates will not all
be at an equal distance from the station point, and their location will
be an almost impossible task. The traces of the plates taken at stations
B and C are found in exactly the same manner as were those for Sta. A.
After the traces have all been located, it is a good plan to ink them in
lightly and erase the pencil construction lines which would otherwise form
an impenetrable maze. The traces located, the difficult and tiresome part
of the plotting is over; the landscape, brought indoors photographically,
is located as with the plane table; all that remains to be done is to take
the sights and find the points on the paper which show where the objects
were on the ground.

[Illustration: From Each Station the Mapping Constant is Laid Out by the
Focal Distance of the Camera or Distance of the Plate from the Lens, and
the Location of Traces of the Plates Determined]

This taking the sights is a simple matter. With a pair of dividers,
the distance from a given object from the center line of the plate is
measured. This distance is laid off on the proper side of the point
marking the center line of the trace of the same plate; a radial line is
drawn through the trace at the given distance from the center-line point
and the station at which the given plate is taken; this is one line of
sight to the object. The same object is located from another station in
the same way; as on the plane table, the intersection of the two lines
to the same object marks the location of the point which represents the
object on the map.

Obtaining elevations for the drawing of contours is a slightly longer
process. Contours are lines joining points of equal elevation; they
represent successive shore lines, if the area mapped were inundated and
the water should rise slowly foot by foot. If the contours are close
together, the ground represented has a steep slope, and vice versa. If, on
a map, a number of points are of known elevation, it is simply a question
of judgment and practice to tell where contour lines go.

Before contours can be drawn the elevations of a considerable number of
points must be known. If the elevation of any one of them is known and
the difference between that one and any other can be found, determining
the elevation of the second point is simply a problem in addition or
subtraction. If it be desired to find, for instance, the difference in
elevation between Sta. C and the corner of the fence, as shown in the
sketch, two solutions are possible, as follows:

First: Perpendicular to the line of sight from Sta. C to the fence corner,
two lines are drawn, one at the intersection of the trace of the plate
by the line of sight, and one at the point on the paper which shows the
location of the fence corner. On the first of these two lines is laid
off the distance Y', equal to the distance of the ground at the fence
post above or below the horizontal center line on the plate. Through this
point, on the first perpendicular on the line of sight, is drawn a line
through the Sta. C and extended to an intersection with the second drawn
perpendicular. The distance from the corner of the fence, on the paper,
to this intersection is the distance Y, the difference in elevation from
the center of the camera at Sta. C to the ground at the fence post. This
solution is longer and less desirable than the second.

Second: In place of perpendicular lines to the line of sight, the trace of
the plate, and a line, through the point representing the object, parallel
with the trace, may be used.

A datum plane, or reference surface, from which all elevations are
measured up to the ground surface must be assumed. The United States
Geological Survey uses mean, or average, sea level for the datum in
all its topographic sheets. Generally, unless there is a United States
Geological Survey "bench mark," a monument of carefully determined
elevation referred to sea level, within the limits of the survey, it is
better to assume the elevation of some point, as Sta. C, at 100 ft., or
greater if necessary to place the datum plane below the ground level at
all points within the area to be mapped. Other elevations are figured
from the assumed elevation of Sta. C. Allowance must be made for the
height of the center of the camera above the ground at Sta. C in computing
elevations above Sta. C. All elevations determined for the purpose of
drawing contours are ground elevations and not the elevation of the top
of objects located on the map. The topographic sheets of the Geological
Survey are good examples to follow, in drawing contours. For many
purposes, contours are not essential, and the refinements necessary for
their drawing may be omitted.



How to Build a Skiff


The following is a description of an easily constructed 12-ft. skiff,
suitable for rowing and paddling. This is the type used by many duck
hunters, as it may be easily pushed through marshes. It is constructed of
3/4-in. dressed pine, or cypress.

[Illustration: The Skiff is Especially Constructed for Use in Shallow
Water and Marshes by Duck Hunters, but with the Addition of a Keel It
Makes a Good Craft for Almost Any Water as a Rowboat (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

The sides consist of planks, 14 in. wide, but 12-in. planks may be used,
the length being 12 ft. 4 in. Two stem pieces are constructed as shown
in Fig. 1, and the plank ends are fastened to them with screws. Nail a
crosspiece on the plank edges in the exact center, so as to space the
planks 34 in. apart, as shown in Fig. 2; then turn it over and nail
another crosspiece in the center of the planks for width, and make the
spacing of the other edges 40 in. Plane the lower edges so that, in
placing a board across them, the surfaces will be level. The floor boards
are 6 in. wide and fastened on crosswise, being careful to apply plenty
of red lead between all joints and using galvanized nails, 2 in. long.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

A deck, 18 in. long, is fastened on each end, as shown in Fig. 3. It is
made of strips fastened to a crosspiece. The seats, or thwarts, consist of
10-in. boards, and are placed on short strips fastened to the side planks
about 5 in. from the bottom. The oarlocks are held in a wedge-shaped piece
of wood, having a piece of gas pipe in them for a bushing, the whole being
fastened at the upper edge of the side planks with screws, as shown in
Fig. 4. The location of these must be determined by the builder.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

Some calking may be required between the bottom, or floor, boards, if they
are not nailed tightly against one another. The calking material may be
loosely woven cotton cord, which is well forced into the seams. The first
coat of paint should be of red lead mixed with raw linseed oil, and when
dry any color may be applied for the second coat.

While, for use in shallow water, these boats are not built with a keel,
one can be attached to prevent the boat from "sliding off" in a side wind
or when turning around. When one is attached, it should be 3/4 in. thick,
3 in. wide, and about 8 ft. long.--Contributed by B. Francis Dashiell,
Baltimore, Md.

       *       *       *       *       *

    An aniline color soluble in alcohol, by adding a
    little carbolic acid, will hold fast on celluloid.



Double-Swing Gate with Common Hinge


[Illustration: The Post and Gate are Cut Away Back of the Hinge to Allow
the Latter to Swing Back]

Ordinary hinges can be easily bent and so placed on posts that a gate
can be swung in either direction. As shown in the illustration, hinges
can be made to fit either round or square posts. The gate half of the
hinge is fastened in the usual way. The post half is bent and so placed
that the hinge pin will approximately be on a line between the centers of
the posts. The gate and post should be beveled off to permit a full-open
gateway.--Contributed by R. R. Schmitz, Birmingham, Ala.



Testing Out Induction Coils


While winding an induction coil, I found it necessary to test the
sections for continuity. Having no galvanometer, I connected a battery
and low-resistance telephone receiver in series with the section and
battery. The battery and telephone receiver may also be used for testing
out the secondary of an induction coil, to determine if it is burnt
out.--Contributed by John M. Wells, Moosomin, Can.



How to Make a Surveyor's Transit By Bennett Blacklidge


[Illustration: Detail of Parts for the Construction of a Transit Which
can be Used, with Fairly Accurate Results, in Doing Amateur Surveying for
Railroad Work, Town Sites and the Laying Out of Maps]

A boy who likes to do the things that "grown ups" do can derive
considerable pleasure from the making of a transit, which will enable him
to start in surveying railroads, laying off town sites, and doing lots
of kindred work. It is necessary to have a compass, and one, 1-3/4 in.
in diameter, can be purchased at a reasonable price. A hole is bored with
an expansive bit into a board, 7/8 in. in thickness, just deep enough to
admit the compass snugly, then a circle, A, 4-1/2 in. in diameter, is
drawn, having the same center as the compass hole, and the disk is cut
out with a compass or scroll saw. A ring, B, is cut in the same manner
from the same material, its inside diameter being such that the ring just
fits around the disk A, and the outside diameter, 6-3/4 in. Another block,
5-1/2 in. in diameter, is glued to the bottom of the small disk A. This
will appear as shown at C. A small hole is bored in the center of the
bottom block on the under side to receive the threaded end of the screw on
a camera tripod. By careful adjustment the threads in the wood will hold
the transit firmly. A plumb bob must be attached exactly in the center of
the tripod head. This can be easily done if the head is wood, but in case
the top is of metal, the line can be attached to the screw with a double
loop, as shown at D, so that the bob will hang centrally. Two standards
are made as shown at E, each about 5 in. high, and fastened to the ring
B in the positions shown in the drawing of the complete instrument. An
arc of a circle is marked on one of the standards, as shown, to designate
angles, the markings being laid out with a bevel protractor. The pointer
is a hand from an old alarm clock.

The telescope arrangement consists of a piece of pasteboard tubing,
about 1-1/4 in. in diameter, one end being covered with a piece of black
paper with a pinhole in the exact center, and the other equipped with
"cross hairs." Four small notches are cut in the latter end of the tube,
exactly quartering it, and two silk threads as fine as can be obtained,
are stretched across in these notches. The tube is fastened to a block of
wood, 5 in. wide and 7 in. long, with small tacks and two pieces of fine
copper wire. This block is pinioned between the standards with two nails.
The hand is secured to the nail in such a position that it will point
straight down when the tube is level.

The instrument is adjusted in the following manner: It is set up where a
lone tree can be seen, about one mile distant, and the center of the cross
hairs is carefully set on the tree. Then a very fine wire is stretched
across the compass, as shown at F, and while keeping it directly over the
center of the compass it is also placed on a direct line pointing to the
tree. Very small brass nails, driven in at G and H, serve to fasten it in
the position thus found. When this adjustment has been made the telescope
can be turned to sight any object, after first placing the instrument so
that the needle points to the N on the dial, and a glance at the wire will
show the exact direction in which the object is located.

The instrument is then taken to a level stretch of road and set up, and
a stick is placed on end and marked at the height of the telescope. The
stick is taken along the road about 200 yd., the telescope sighted on it,
and the hand set. This makes the instrument level enough for all practical
purposes. The plumb bob is then dropped, a distance of 20 ft. measured
from it on the road, and a mark made. The telescope is sighted on this
mark, and a mark is made on the standard at the point of the arc, to which
the hand points. Another 20 ft. is measured, or 40 ft. from the bob, and
another mark made. The telescope is sighted on it, and the location of
the hand again marked. This works well up to about 300 ft., then the marks
begin to come very close together. This method is used for laying out town
sites. The instrument is set up directly over a stake from which to work,
and the telescope is turned down until the 20-ft. mark is indicated, when
the operator looks through the telescope and tells his helper where to set
the stake. Then another is driven at the next point, and so on, until the
limit of the instrument is reached.

When doing railroad surveying several start out together, one with an
ax to cut away brush; one to carry pegs; two to measure, or chain, the
distance between stakes, and one to do the sighting. In this manner a line
can be run that comes very near being perfectly straight for three miles.

A concrete example of how the transit was used to lay out a map of a
ranch will now be given. The start was made on an east and west fence.
The instrument was set 5 ft. from the fence at one point, and at the
other end of the fence the stick was set at a point 5 ft. from the fence.
When the stick was sighted, the wire cut the E and W on the compass, thus
showing that the fence was set on a line, due east and west. The distance
was measured from the fence to the house, which was 1/4 mile, and this
was noted in a book. This operation was repeated on the rear, and the
distance found to be 780 ft. while the compass showed the direction to
be 4 deg. west of south. The next line ran 427 ft. and 1 deg. east of
south. This was kept up all the way around. After these notes had been
obtained, it was an easy matter to take a piece of plain paper and strike
a line representing north and south and lay off the directions. A bevel
protractor was used to find the degrees. The transit was set on the posts
of the corrals and this saved the measuring out from the inclosure. The
creek was surveyed in the same manner. So many feet south-west, so many
feet west, so many feet 5 deg. south of west, and so on, until its length
was run.

The transit can also be used for finding distances without measuring. A
line from A to B is sighted, and F represents a point 1/2 mile distant,
the line from F to G being 100 ft. A line is now sighted from A, through
G to C. A person standing at D is directed to move toward the point E and
he is stopped as soon as sighted in the telescope. He then measures the
distance from D to E. Suppose this distance is 250 ft. As each 100 ft.
means 1/2 mile, and the 50 ft., 1/4 mile, the point E is 1-1/4 miles
from the transit. This method can be used quite extensively and distances
obtained are fairly accurate.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A small whisk broom makes a handy cleaner to brush
    the caked grease and lint from pulleys and gear wheels
    where waste and rags are useless.



To Enlarge or Reduce Plots


Sometimes it is necessary to enlarge or reduce a plot to a different
scale. This can be easily and quickly accomplished without resorting to
the slow process of protracting the angles and scaling the individual
lines.

[Illustration: Enlarging and Reducing Plots by Radial Lines from a Common
Point Located Properly]

Take any point, P, and from it draw light pencil lines through each of
the corners of the plot. On any one of these lines, as AP, lay off with
dividers AC equal to CP. Place a triangle on the line AB and with a
straightedge, or another triangle, laid on the line AP, slide the former
to the point C, then draw line CD parallel with AB until it intersects the
radial line PB. In the same manner draw line DE parallel with BF, and so
on, all about the plot. A test of accuracy will be in striking the point
C with the last line. If the original plot has a scale of 40 ft. to the
inch the reduced plot would be 80 ft. to the inch. If it is required to
enlarge the plot to 20 ft. to the inch, make AG equal to AP, and proceed
as in the first case, using G as the starting point.

The location of the point P is arbitrary and may be outside of the
boundary of the plot or figure to be enlarged or reduced, but should
be so located, if possible, that the radial line to any corner does not
parallel either of the plot lines to that corner. If the point cannot be
so located for all the lines, it may be necessary to scale the lines. A
little practice in picking out the best location for the point will give
gratifying results.--Contributed by Junius D. McCabe, Pittsburgh, Pa.



A Lathe Bench


While working at a bench, or foot-power lathe, it is quite convenient to
have some sort of a seat to sit on while at work, or between operations.
In making such a seat, I used a board, 27 in. long and 12 in. wide, for
the top, and two boards, 19 in. long and 12 in. wide, for the supports.
These boards were 3/4 in. thick. The supports were squared at the ends
and securely fastened to the top with nails, their positions being 3 in.
in from the ends of the top board. These were well braced, as shown, and
a cross board was placed between them, near the lower ends.

[Illustration: The Bench Provides a Seat for the Worker in Doing
Operations on a Small Foot Lathe]

The projecting ends of the top were cut out, and a box, 5 in. deep,
constructed against the supports. A covering was made to fit in each of
the openings in the top board and hinged to the outer edge of the box.
The boxes made a convenient place for the tools used in the turning
work.--Contributed by Harold R. Harvey, Buhl, Idaho.



Cleaning and Polishing Shoes


In using the polishes now on the market for tan shoes, I found that the
leather cracked in an unreasonably short time. The following was suggested
and tried out with good results. Wash the shoes with castile soap and
water by applying the mixture with a dauber. Work up a little lather and
then rub dry with a cloth, without rinsing. The leather will be cleaned
without becoming dark, and it will not crack. A higher polish may be
obtained by using some paste polish in the usual manner.--Contributed by
George Bliss, Washington, D. C.



Shaving Cabinet Mounted on an Adjustable Pedestal


The illustration represents a shaving cabinet mounted on an adjustable
pedestal, whose style and size are such that it may easily be moved about
or set away without requiring much room. The material required for its
construction is as follows:

     1  framed mirror, 8 by 10 in.
     1  square-head bolt and wing nut, 1/2 by 4 in.
     2  cabinet sides, 1/2 by 7 by 15 in.
     2  partitions and shelf, 1/2 by 6 by 6 in.
     1  cabinet top, 1/2 by 7 by 10-1/2 in.
     1  cabinet bottom, 1/2 by 6 by 10-1/2 in.
     2  cabinet backs and doors, 1/2 by 6-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.
     4  cabinet moldings, 1 by 4 by 4 in.
     1  cabinet support, 2 by 2 by 26 in.
     4  pedestal moldings, 1 by 1 by 6 in.
     4  pedestal frames, 1 by 3 by 36 in.
     1  base, 2 by 12 by 12 in.
        Screws, nails, and varnish.

[Illustration: The Mirror and Cabinet are Mounted on a Pedestal That can
be Moved as Desired]

The sidepieces of the cabinet are extended at one corner, thereby forming
the supports for the mirror. The door fits in between the sides and
may be attached either by hinges or two wood screws, one on each side,
holes being bored in the sides forming a loose fit for the screw so they
can freely turn with the door. The pedestal consists of a 4-in. square
box resting on the base block, and secured in place by means of molding
strips. The sliding support for the cabinet consists of a 2-in. square
piece secured to the bottom of the cabinet by means of molding, and
provided with a slot so the support can freely slide over the clamp bolt,
which fastens it in place by clamping it against the pedestal. If it is
desired to conceal the head of the bolt, a recess should be made in the
pedestal frame for it, as shown, so the support will freely slide over it.
Before assembling the pedestal it will be necessary to drill a hole in
the front side in line with the recess of the back side, and insert the
bolt. If this precaution is not taken, it will not be possible to insert
the bolt, unless a hole be made for the head either through the back side
or front side.--Contributed by D. Toppan, Watervliet, N. Y.



Four-Passenger Coasting Bobsled By R. H. Allen


[Illustration: Coasting Is One of the Best Sports a Boy Enjoys during
Winter, and a Sled of Luxury Is Something to Be Proud of among Others on
a Hill or Toboggan Slide]

Coaster bobs usually have about the same form of construction, and only
slight changes from the ordinary are made to satisfy the builder. The
one shown has some distinctive features which make it a sled of luxury,
and the builder will pride himself in the making. A list of the materials
required is given on the opposite page. Any wood may be used for the sled,
except for the runners, which should be made of ash.

Shape the runners all alike by cutting one out and using it as a pattern
to make the others. After cutting them to the proper shape, a groove is
formed on the under edge to admit the curve of a 5/8-in. round iron rod
about 1/4 in. deep. The iron rods are then shaped to fit over the runner
in the groove and extend up the back part of the runner and over the top
at the front end. The extensions should be flattened so that two holes
can be drilled in them for two wood screws at each end. If the builder
does not have the necessary equipment for flattening these ends, a local
blacksmith can do it at a nominal price. After the irons are fitted, they
are fastened in place.

The top edges of the runners are notched for the crosspieces so that the
top surfaces of these pieces will come flush with the upper edges of the
runners. The location of these pieces is not essential, but should be near
the ends of the runners, and the notches of each pair of runners should
coincide. When the notches are cut, fit in the pieces snugly, and fasten
them with long, slim wood screws. Small metal braces are then fastened to
the runners and crosspiece on the inside, to stiffen the joint.

[Illustration: Details Showing the Method of Rear-Sled Oscillation, the
Bracing, and the Steering Wheel]

As the rear sled must oscillate some, means must be provided for this
tilting motion while at the same time preventing sidewise turning. The
construction used for this purpose is a hinged joint. The heavy 2 by 5-in.
crosspiece is cut sloping on the width so that it remains 2 in. thick
at one edge and tapers down to a feather edge at the opposite side. This
makes a wedge-shaped piece, to which surface the three large hinges are
attached. The piece is then solidly fastened to the upper edges of the
runners that are to be used for the rear sled, and so located that the
center of the piece will be 8 in. from the front end of the runners.

The supporting crosspiece on the front sled is fastened on top of the
runners, at a place where its center will be 11 in. from the front end of
the runners.

The top board is prepared by making both ends rounding and planing the
surfaces smooth. On the under side, the two crosspieces are placed, which
should have two 1/2-in. holes bored through the width of each, near the
ends, to receive the eyebolts. They are placed, one with its center 12 in.
from the end to be used for the rear, and the other with its center 8 in.
from the front end, and securely fastened with screws. The shore is placed
in the center of the board, and wires are run over it connecting the
eyebolts. The eyebolts are then drawn up tightly to make the wire taut
over the shore. This will prevent the long board from sagging.

  LIST OF MATERIALS

  1  top. 6-1/2 ft. long, 16 in. wide, and 1-1/4 in. thick.
  4  runners. 22 in, long, 4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
  4  crosspieces, 16 in. long, 3 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
  3  pieces, 16 in, long, 5 in. wide, and 2 in. thick.
  1  piece, 16 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
  1  shore, 16 in. long, 3 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
  4  seat backs. 12 in. long, 16 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
  1  dowel. 3 ft. long, and 1 in. in diameter.
  4  rods. 5/8 in. in diameter, and 30 in. long.
  4  eyebolts, 1/2 in. by 6 in. long.
  3  hinges, 5-in. strap.
  8  hinges, 3-in. strap.

On the upper side of the board and beginning at the rear end, the backs
are fastened at intervals of 18 in. They are first prepared by rounding
the corners on the ends used for the tops, and the opposite ends are cut
slightly on an angle to give the back a slant. They are then fastened with
the small hinges to the top board. On the edges of the top board, 1-in.
holes are bored about 1 in. deep, and pins driven for foot rests. These
are located 18 in. apart, beginning about 5 in. from the front end. The
dowel is used for the pins, which are made 4 in. long.

[Illustration: The Top Board is Well Braced on the Under Side and Fitted
with Four Backs on Top to Make It a Luxurious Riding Sled, and the Runners
are Provided with Metal Shoes for Speed]

The steering device consists of a broom handle, cut to 18 in. in length,
with one end fastened in a hole bored centrally in the 5-in. crosspiece
of the front sled. A hole is bored in the top board through the center
of the crosspiece fastened to the under side for the steering post. The
broomstick is run through this hole after first placing two metal washers
on it. After running the stick through, a collar is fastened to it just
above the top board, so that the top cannot be raised away from the sled.
At the upper end of the broomstick a steering wheel is attached, made from
a nail-keg hoop. A piece of wood is fastened across its diameter, and the
hoop is covered with a piece of garden hose and wrapped with twine. In
the center of the crosspiece, a hole is bored to snugly fit on the broom
handle, which is then fastened with screws.

The rear sled is fastened to the top board with screws through the
extending wings of the hinges and into the crosspiece. Holes are bored in
the front ends of all runners, and a chain or rope is attached in them,
the loop end of the rear one being attached to the under side of the top
board, and the one in the front used for drawing the sled.



To Prevent Drill from Catching As It Passes through Metal


The regular slope of a drill will cause the cutting edge to catch as it
breaks through the metal on the opposite side of the piece being drilled.
But if a twist drill is ground more flat like a flat drill, it will not
"grab" into the metal as it passes through.--Contributed by James H.
Beebee, Rochester, N. Y.

[Illustration]



An Ice Boat and Catamaran By Robert K. Patterson


This combination is produced by using the regular type of ice boat and
substituting boats for the runners, to make the catamaran.

In constructing the ice boat, use two poles, or timbers, one 16 ft. and
the other 10-1/2 ft. long, crossed at a point 2-1/2 ft. from one end of
the longer timber. The crossed pieces are firmly braced with wires, as
shown.

The mast, which should be about 12 ft. long, is set into a mortise cut
in the long timber, 15 in. from the front end, and is further stabilized
by wires, as shown. A jib boom, about 6 ft. long, as well as a main boom,
which is 11-1/2 ft. long, are hung on the mast in the usual manner.

[Illustration: The Ice Boat Provides an Ideal Outing in Winter Where There
Is a Body of Water Large Enough for Sailing]

The front runners consist of band-iron strips, 18 in. long, 3 in. wide,
and 1/8 in. thick, with one edge ground like the edge of a skate, and the
ends rounding, which are fastened with bolts to the sides of wood pieces,
18 in. long, 6 in. wide, and 2 in. thick, allowing the ground edge to
project about 1 inch.

When the ice-boat frame is made of poles, the runners are attached to a
piece of wood, 12 in. long, shaped as shown and fastened at right angles
with bolts running through the shouldered part diagonally. This makes a
surface on which the pole end rests and where it is securely fastened with
bolts. If squared timbers are used, the runners can be fastened directly
to them. The rear, or guiding, runner is fastened between two pieces of
wood, so that its edge projects; then it is clamped in a bicycle fork,
which should be cut down so that about 3 in. of the forks remain. A hole
is bored through the rear end of the long pole to receive the fork head,
the upper end of which is supplied with a lever. The lever is attached to
the fork head by boring a hole through the lever end at a slight angle to
fit the head, allowing sufficient end to be slotted, whereupon a hole is
bored through the width of the handle, and a bolt inserted, to act as a
clamp.

[Illustration: The Ice-Boat Details, Showing Construction with Straight
Poles Having Detachable Runners So the Boats can be Supplied in Their
Stead to Make a Sailing Catamaran for Use in Summer]

A board is fastened on two crosspieces mortised in the upper part of
the pole, for a place to sit on when driving the boat. The sail can be
constructed of any good material to the dimensions given.

To rig up the ice boat for use as a catamaran, place a pole across the
stern, the length of the pole being equal to the one used on the front
part of the ice boat. Two water-tight boats are constructed, 16 ft. long,
12 in. wide, and 10 in. deep at the center. To make these two boats
procure six boards, 16 ft. long, 10 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. Three
boards are used to make each boat. Bend one board so that it will be in an
arc of a circle, then nail on the two side boards, after which the edges
of the sides are cut away to the shape of the bent board. The runners
are removed from the ice boat, and the boats fastened to the pole ends. A
rudder is attached in the place of the rear, or guiding, runner. The tops
of the boats, or floats, can be covered and made water-tight.



Mind-Reading Effect with Cards


Five cards are shown, and some one person is asked to think of two cards
in the lot, after which the performer places the cards behind his back and
removes any two cards, then shows the remaining three and asks if the two
cards in mind have been removed. The answer is always yes, as it cannot
be otherwise.

To prepare the cards, take any 10 cards from the pack and paste the back
of one card to another, making five double cards. Removing any two cards
behind the performer's back reduces the number of cards to three, and when
these are turned over they will not have the same faces so that the ones
first seen cannot be shown the second time even though all five cards were
turned over and shown.



An Air Pencil to Make Embossed Letters


The device illustrated is for making embossed letters on show cards,
signs, post cards, etc. A small bulb, such as used on cameras, is
procured, also the spout from a small oilcan. The bulb is fastened to the
spout as shown.

The material for use in the pencil is quick-drying mucilage thickened
with flake white. If some special color is desired, tint the mixture with
aniline. Fill the spout with the mixture and attach the bulb. Squeeze the
bulb gently while forming the letters, then dust over with bronze, and
allow to dry.

[Illustration: The Oilcan Spout Is the Reservoir to Hold the Paint, and
the Bulb Produces the Air Pressure]



An Endless Dish or Floor Mop


A good way to use up cord that collects about the house, is to make an
endless dish or floor mop of it. Procure a thin board that will make a
good length and wind the cord around it, then remove it from the board
and tie the bunch together in the center.



Combination Tie Rack and Collar Holder


An unusual though simple tie rack can be made by supporting the tie bar
in the center. By this arrangement the ties can be placed on it from
either end, thus avoiding the tedious threading through, required on the
ordinary rack supported at each end. Collars may be hung on a peg placed
above the tie bar. The pieces can be glued together and a good finish
given in the usual way. The rack can be hung up by two screw eyes. The
material required consists of four pieces, dimensioned 5/8 by 5 by 8 in.,
3/8 by 7/8 by 7-1/2 in., 3/8 by 5/8 by 3-1/8 in., and 7/8 by 7/8 by 2 in.
respectively.--Contributed by Arthur C. Vener, Dallas, Texas.

[Illustration: Collar and Tie Rack with Open-End Hangers So That the
Articles can be Slipped On Easily without being Passed behind a Bar as Is
Usually the Case]

[Illustration:]



Skates Made of Wood


Skates that will take the place of the usual steel-runner kind and which
will prevent spraining of the ankles, can be made of a few pieces of
1/2-in. boards.

Four runners are cut out, 2 in. wide at the back and 1-1/2 in. wide at
the front, the length to be 2 in. longer than the shoe. The top edges of
a pair of runners are then nailed to the under side of a board 4 in. wide,
at its edges.

A piece of board, or block, 2 in. wide is fastened between the runners at
the rear, and one 1 in. wide, in front. Two bolts are run through holes
bored in the runners, one just back of the front board, or block, and the
other in front of the rear one.

Four triangular pieces are fastened, one on each corner, so that the heel
and toe of the shoe will fit between them, and, if desired, a crosspiece
can be nailed in front of the heel. Straps are attached to the sides for
attaching the skate to the shoe. Both skates are made alike.--Contributed
by F. E. Kennar, Hennessey, Okla.

[Illustration: Skates Made of Wood to Take the Place of the Steel-Runner
Kind and Prevent Sprained Ankles]

       *       *       *       *       *

    The best paint for paper roofing is asphaltum varnish.

[Illustration:]



An Ice Glider By Mildred E. Thomas


The enthusiastic pushmobilist need not put aside his hobby during the
winter, as an amusement device for use on ice, which will surpass the very
best pushmobile, can be easily made as shown in the illustration.

[Illustration: The Glider is Pushed over the Ice Similarly to a
Pushmobile, and the Speed That can be Attained is Much Greater]

Similar to an ice yacht, only a great deal smaller, the ice glider will
require three ordinary skates, two of which are fastened to the ends of
the front crosspiece, so that their blades will stand at an angle of about
30 deg. with their edges outward. To get this angle, tapering blocks are
fastened to the crosspiece ends, as shown. The skates are then fastened
to these blocks.

[Illustration: Detail of the Parts for the Construction of the Ice Glider,
or Pushmobile]

The crosspiece is 30 in. long and about 8 in. wide. In the center of this
piece an upright is constructed, 26 in. high. The edges of the front
crosspiece are cut on a slant so that a piece nailed to its front and
back edge will stand sloping toward the rear. A handle, 24 in. long, is
fastened between the two uprights at the upper end. The rear part is made
of a board, 8 in. wide and 40 in. long. The remaining skate is fastened in
a perfectly straight position on the rear end. The skates may be attached
with screws run through holes drilled in the top plates, or with straps.
The front end of the rear board has a hole for a bolt to attach it to the
center of the front crosspiece, so that the latter will turn to guide the
glider.

A pusher is prepared from a block of wood, into which nails are driven
with their ends projecting on the under side. The block is strapped to
one shoe, as shown.

[Illustration: The Block of Wood with Protecting Nails to Fasten on the
Shoe That Does the Pushing]

The glider is used in the same manner as a pushmobile.

The pusher can be made in another way by using sole leather instead of the
block. Small slots are cut in the sides for the straps. Nails are driven
through the leather so that the points project. Either kind of pusher is
especially adapted for the pushmobile to prevent wear on the shoe.



Prony Brake for Testing Small Motors


The ordinary prony brake is not, as a rule, sensitive enough to make
an accurate test on small motors, such as those used in driving sewing
machines, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, etc. The arrangement shown in
the accompanying sketch has been used for this purpose with good results
and was very accurate. The operation of the brake is exceedingly simple.

[Illustration: Prony Brake Used in Connection with a Small Balance to Find
the Horsepower]

A pulley without a crown face is attached to the shaft of the motor, which
is fastened to the top of a table or bench, and a balance mounted directly
over the pulley. The support for the balance should be a narrow strip,
which in turn is supported on two upright pieces, as shown. A light rope
is put under the pulley, and the ends are looped over the platforms of the
balance so that it does not interfere with the operation of the balance.
The ends of the rope should be vertical and parallel. The piece upon
which the balance rests is raised by inserting wedges, thus increasing
the tension in the rope. The resulting friction of the rope on the pulley
increases the load.

If the motor is running in the direction indicated by the arrow on the
pulley, the tension in the left-hand end of the rope will be greater
than in the right-hand end and a weight must be placed on the right-hand
platform of the balance. When the weight W is adjusted so that the two
pointers on the platforms are exactly opposite each other, the value of
the weight W, in pounds, will represent the difference in pull, in pounds,
between A and B. If the value of the weight W is known and also the speed
of the machine when the weight was determined, the horsepower output can
be computed by means of the following equation:

        6.2832 × L × W × R.P.M.
  Hp. = -----------------------
             33,000 × 12

In this equation, L is the distance in inches from the center of the
pulley to the center of the rope. Two ordinary spring balances may be
substituted for the beam balance and the difference in their readings
taken for the value W. For best results, the tension in the slack end of
the rope should be as small as possible, and it may be necessary to wrap
the rope one or more times completely around the pulley.



A Mystic Fortune Teller


Fortune telling by means of weights striking glasses or bottles is quite
mysterious if controlled in a manner that cannot be seen by the audience.
The performer can arrange two strikes for "no," and three for "yes" to
answer questions. Any kind of bottles, glass, or cups may be used. In the
bottles the pendulum can be suspended from the cork, and in the glasses
from small tripods set on the table.

[Illustration: The Rocking of the Table is Caused by the Pressure of Air
in the Bulb under the Foot, the Movement Causing the Pendulum to Swing
and Strike the Glass]

The secret of the trick is as follows: A rubber tube with a bulb attached
to each end is placed under a rug, one bulb being located under one table
leg and the other near the chair of the performer set at some distance
from the table where it can be pressed with the foot. Some one selects a
pendulum; the performer gazes intently at it, and presses the bulb under
his foot lightly at first; then, by watching the swaying of the pendulum
selected, he will know when to give the second impulse, and continue until
the weight strikes the glass. As the pendulums are of different lengths
they must necessarily swing at different rates per second. The impulses
must be given at the proper time or else the pendulum will be retarded
instead of increased in amplitude. A table with four legs is best to
use, and the leg diagonally opposite that with the bulb beneath it must
not touch the carpet or floor. This can be arranged by placing pieces of
cardboard under the other two legs.--Contributed by James J. McIntyre.



Holding Prints in a Liquid-Filled Tray


[Illustration: Push Pins on the Under Side of the Board Raise It and
Provide a Space for the Prints in the Liquid]

After having considerable trouble in keeping my paper prints in the hypo
fixing bath from curling, which would force the edges out of the liquid,
I found the plan here illustrated a success. I procured a piece of wood,
the size of a postcard, and stuck four glass push pins into one surface,
one at each corner, and fastened a handle to the center of the upper side.
The papers are first placed in the bath, then the board is set over them
with the pins down. This holds the prints under the liquid but does not
press them tightly together.--Contributed by J. J. Kolar, Maywood, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A piece of an old gunny sack will polish brass work
    very nicely.



Cellar-Door Holder


[Illustration]

A cellar door that opened up against a wall required a catch of some kind
to keep it open at times. As I did not want a catch to show on the wall, I
devised a holder as shown. Three pieces of wood were nailed to the under
side of the door in such positions that they formed a recess in which a
fourth piece, 2 in. wide and 1 in. thick, would slide endways. A knob was
attached to the upper end of the slide, which served the double purpose
of a handle and a stop for the slide. The manner of using the holder is
clearly shown.--Contributed by H. T. Smith, Topeka, Kansas.



An Emergency Pencil Compass


[Illustration]

The need of a compass when none was at hand caused me to quickly devise a
substitute for the work. A piece of stiff wire, about the length of the
pencil, was procured, and several turns were made around the pencil, as
shown. The lower straight end was filed to a point. The wire can be bent
to obtain the radius distance.--Contributed by Preston Ware, Rome, Ga.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A very effective dip for brass and copper articles,
    that will leave a clean and bright finish, is 2 qt.
    of aqua fortis, 1 gal. of sulphuric acid, 1 pt. of
    water and a pinch of salt.



Renewing Carbon Paper


When carbon paper has been used several times, the preparation becomes
almost worn off on some parts, while other parts of the paper are as
good as new. The process of renewing is very simple and it can be done
by anyone without special apparatus. All that is necessary is to hold the
paper in front of a fire or over a radiator a few seconds. The heat will
cause the preparation to dissolve and spread over the paper, so that when
it is dry the paper will have a new coating. This can be repeated, and
in some cases will double the life of the carbon paper.--Contributed by
Chester M. Kearney, Danville, Quebec.



How to Clinch a Finishing Nail


[Illustration]

A wire or finishing nail may be clinched as nicely as a wrought nail, if
a nail punch or piece of iron is placed along the side of it, as shown at
A, and the nail hammered into an arched form, as at B. The punch or rod
is then withdrawn and the arch driven into the wood.--Contributed by James
M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



To Prevent Washbasin Bottom from Wearing Out


The ears from some sirup buckets were removed and three of them soldered,
at equal distances apart, on the bottom of the washbasin near the
outside edge of the lower part. These prevented the wear from coming
on the bottom of the basin, and it lasted several times as long as
ordinarily.--Contributed by A. A. Ashley, Blanket, Texas.

       *       *       *       *       *

    To curl feathers, heat slightly before a fire, then
    stroke with something like the back of a case knife.

[Illustration]



Snowshoes: How to Make and Use Them By Stillman Taylor


Part I--Shapes of Snowshoes


To the inventive mind of the North American Indian we owe the snowshoe,
and its conception was doubtless brought about through that prolific
source of invention--necessity. The first models were crude web-footed
affairs, but improvements in model and manner of filling the frames were
gradually added until the perfected and graceful shoe of the present was
finally reached. The first snowshoes were made by the Indians, and the
Indians of Maine and Canada continue to fashion the finest models today.

The snowshoe is a necessity for the sportsman and trapper whose pleasure
or business leads him out in the open during the winter season, when
roads and trails are heavily blanketed by a deep fall of powdery snow.
But the use of the web shoe is by no means confined to the dweller in the
wilderness, since the charm of wintry wood and plain beckons many lovers
of the outdoors to participate in this invigorating sport, and snowshoe
tramps are fast growing in popularity in and about our cities and towns.

All the modern snowshoes are constructed upon practically the same general
lines, although the types of frames differ considerably in size as well
as in shape, and the filling of hide is often woven in many varied and
intricate patterns. The frame or bow--usually made of ash in order to get
strength with light weight--is bent in many shapes, but the one shown in
the diagram is a typical general-purpose shoe, and may be called standard.
The frame is held in shape by means of two wooden cross braces, neatly
mortised into the frame. These braces are spaced some 15 or 16 in. apart,
and so divide the shoe into three sections, known as the toe, center, and
heel. The filling is woven into a lanyard, which is a light strip of hide
firmly laced to the frame through a double row of holes drilled in the
wood. The center filling is woven of heavy strands of rawhide, in a fairly
coarse mesh, because this part of the shoe must bear the weight of the
body and the brunt of wear. The end fillers for toe and heel are woven of
lighter strands of hide, and the mesh is, of course, smaller.

[Illustration: The Frame of a Snowshoe in Its Usual Construction, Showing
the Crosspieces with Their Laced Fillings of Hide and the Different Parts
Named, for a Ready Reference]

As may be noted by referring to the drawing, a center opening or "toe
hole" is provided, and as the greater strain on the filling lies directly
under the ball of the foot, the shoe is reinforced at this point by the
"toe cord" running across, and the "toe-cord stays," which are tied in on
each side of the toe hole--one end being fastened to the toe cord and the
other lashed over the wooden cross bar of the frame. These reinforcing
cords are formed of several strands of hide, the stays being again wound
with finer strands.

To prevent slipping and to secure a good foothold while walking, the
manner of attaching the foot to the shoe is of importance, and this is
done by making use of a toe strap, which will allow the toe to push down
through the toe opening as the heel of the foot is lifted in the act of
walking. A second strap, or thong, leading from the top around the foot,
above the curve of the heel, is needed to lend additional support in
lifting the snowshoe, to effect the easy shambling stride characteristic
of the snowshoer.

There are, of course, a great number of models or styles, some one style
being popular in one locality, while an altogether different style is
preferred in another part of the country. The most representative types
are well shown in the illustrations, and a brief description will point
out their practical advantages, because each model possesses certain
merits--one model being designed for fast traveling in the open, another
better adapted for brush travel, while others are more convenient for use
in a hilly country where much climbing is done, and so on.

[Illustration: A: Snowshoe Experts Regard This as an Extreme Style, for
It is Long and Narrow]

Style A is regarded by snowshoe experts as an extreme style, for it is
long and narrow. It is designed for fast traveling over smooth and level
country, and over loose, powdery snow. This style is much used by the Cree
Indians, and is usually made 12 in. wide by 60 in. long, with a deeply
upcurved toe. It is a good shoe for cross-country work, but is somewhat
difficult to manage on broken trails, when the snow is packed, and also
affords rather slippery footing when crossing ice. Owing to the stout
construction of the frame and reinforcement needed to retain the high,
curved toe, style A is more difficult to manage than the more conservative
models, and its stiffness of frame makes it more fatiguing to wear, while
its use is a decided handicap in mountainous districts, because a curved
toe always makes hill climbing more difficult.

[Illustration: B: This Snowshoe is Considered the Ordinary Eastern Model
and One Best Adapted for All-Around Use]

Style B may be considered the ordinary eastern model, and a common style
best adapted for all-around use. It is a neat and gracefully designed
frame, about 12 in. wide and 42 in. long, and is usually made with a
slightly upcurving toe, about 2 in. turn at the toe being correct. When
made by the Indians of Maine, this model is fashioned with a rather heavy
heel, which is an advantage for fast walking, while it increases the
difficulty in quick turning.

[Illustration: C: The Style Illustrated Here is Splendid for General
Purposes and is a Favorite among Hunters and Woodsmen]

Style C is a favorite model among the hunters and woodsmen of New England.
This is a splendid style for general purposes in this section of the
country, since the full, round toe keeps the toe up near the surface, and
lets the heel cut down more than the narrow-toe models. Style C is an easy
shoe to wear, and while not so fast as the long, narrow frame, its full
shape is more convenient for use in the woods. It is usually made with
about 1 to 1-1/2-in. turn at the toe.

[Illustration: D: This is the Familiar "Bear's-Paw" Model, Originated by
the Northeastern Trapper for Use on Short Tramps and in Brush]

Style D is the familiar "bear's paw," a model originating with the
northeastern trapper. This model is well adapted for short tramps in
the brush, and having a flat toe, is likewise a good shoe for mountain
climbing. For tramping about in thick brush, a short, full shoe enables
one to take a shorter stride and turn more quickly, but it is a slow shoe
for straight-ahead traveling.

When purchasing a pair of snowshoes, some few important considerations
should be kept in mind, and the size and model will depend upon the man
to some extent, since a large, heavy man will require a larger snowshoe
than would suffice for a person of lighter weight. Height also enters
into the choice, and while a small person can travel faster and with less
fatigue when equipped with a proportionately small shoe, a tall man will
naturally pick out a larger-sized snowshoe for his use. For a country
where deep snows prevail, larger sizes are best, but in localities where
the snow packs solidly and there is considerable ice, and in mountainous
districts, or for rough-country traveling, the smaller sizes will give
more satisfaction and prove more durable also. For a wet-snow locality,
the center filling should be strung in rather coarse mesh, while for soft,
powdery snow, a finer mesh will be the logical choice.

There are snowshoes and snowshoes, and while there are fine models
regularly stocked by a few of the better sporting-goods firms, there is
likewise a deal of poorly made snowshoes on the market. It is well to pay
a fair price and secure a dependable handmade article, for the cheaper
snowshoes--often filled with seine twine and the cheapest hide (commonly
known in the trade as "gut")--will warp and twist in the frame, and the
shoddy filling will soon become loosened up and "bag" after a little use.
The best snowshoes that the writer is acquainted with are made by the
Indians, and the filling is ordinarily made of neat's hide; cowhide for
the center filling, and calfskin for the toe and heel. A first-class pair
of snowshoes may be had for about $6 to $7.50, and when possible to do so,
it is best to have them made to order. This plan is, of course, necessary
in case one wishes to incorporate any little wrinkles of his own into
their making, or desires a flatter toe, lighter heel, or a different mesh
from the usual stock models.

Where but one pair of snowshoes is purchased, style B will probably prove
the best selection, and should be ordered with the flat toe, or a turn not
greater than 1 in. The frame may be in either one or two pieces, depending
upon the size of the shoe and the ideas of the Indian maker, but it is
well to specify white ash for the frames in the order. No Indian maker
would be guilty of using screws or other metal fastenings, but many of
the cheap and poorly fashioned snowshoes are fastened at the heel with
screws, thus making this a decidedly weak point, since the wood is quite
certain to split after a little rough service. In contrast to the poor
workmanship of these low-priced snowshoes, the Indian-made article is
fashioned from sound and properly seasoned wood; the cross bars are snugly
fitted by mortising to the frame; the filling is tightly woven, and the
heel is properly fastened by lacing with a rawhide it is a good idea to
select a filling of good heavy weight and with a firmly woven and open
mesh, say, about 3/4 in. The toe and heel sections will, of course, be
of finer-cut hide and smaller mesh, and it is wise to avoid those shoes
employing seine twine for the end filling. Some factory-made snowshoes
are given a coat or two of varnish, but this, while serving to make them
partly waterproof, makes them rather slippery when crossing logs and ice.
Most woodsmen prefer to leave both frame and filling in their natural
condition.

The Indian-made snowshoe is always thong. However, Indian makers are
likely to make the toe small and leave the wood to form a rather heavy
heel. Some few woodsmen and sportsmen may prefer this model, but the
majority favor a fuller toe and a lighter heel for general use, because
the regulation Indian model, cutting down at toe and heel equally deep,
increases the difficulty of easy traveling over soft snow, although it is
a good shoe when used over broken trails.

When buying snowshoes at the store, see that the frames are stoutly and
well made, and for all-around use, provided with a generously large toe
hole, so that ample foot covering may be used. This point is generally
overlooked in the machine-made product, and the toe cords are also
frequently roughly formed, thus chafing the feet and making them sore.
These details may or may not prove a handicap for short tramps near town,
but for long trips through the woods, they are important considerations.

The Indian manner of tying the snowshoe to the foot by means of a single
twisted and knotted thong is a good method of attachment, in that, if the
thong is properly adjusted to the requisite snugness in the first place,
the shoes may be quickly removed by a simple twist of the ankle. A better
fastening is secured by using a fairly wide (3/4 in.) toe strap and a long
thong. The toe strap is placed over the toes, immediately over the ball
of the foot, and secured against slipping by weaving the ends in and out
between the meshes of the filling until it reaches the frame on either
side. This grips the toe strap firmly and does away with the necessity of
tying a knot. A narrow thong, about 4 ft. long, is now doubled, the center
placed just above the heel of the foot, and the ends passed under the toe
cord, just outside of the toe-cord stays on each side. The thong is then
brought up and across the toes, one end passing over and the other under
the toe strap. Each end of the thong is now looped around the crossed
thong, on either side, and then carried back over the back of the heel and
knotted with a common square or reef knot. Calfskin makes a good flexible
foot binding, or a suitable strip of folded cloth or canvas may be used.

The regulation snowshoe harness, consisting of a leather stirrup for the
toe and an instep and heel strap, will be found more comfortable than the
thong, and when once adjusted snugly to the foot, the shoes may be quickly
taken off and put on again by pushing the heel strap down, when the foot
may be slipped out of the toe stirrup.

The use of heavy leather shoes is of course undesirable, and the only
correct footwear for snowshoeing is a pair of high-cut moccasins, cut
roomy enough to allow one or more pairs of heavy woolen stockings to be
worn. The heavy and long German socks, extending halfway to the knee,
drawn on over the trouser legs, are by far the most comfortable for
cold-weather wear. The feet, thus shod, will not only be warm in the
coldest weather, but the free use of the toes is not interfered with.
Leather shoes are cold and stiff, and the heavy soles and heels, chafing
against the snowshoes, will soon ruin the filling.



Soldering and Riveting By John D. Adams


There are two simple processes that every experimenter should master:
soldering and riveting. The large soldering copper will find only a very
restricted use with the amateur on account not only of its clumsiness,
but of the fact that it requires a fire, which is often impracticable to
obtain. The experimenter should therefore construct a small alcohol lamp,
which, after a little experience, will reveal the following advantages: It
may be brought into instant use at any place; it will make a more perfect
connection; with a small blowpipe places may be reached that are entirely
inaccessible to the large iron; several small pieces may be set in
position and soldered without disturbing them, which is quite impossible
with the large iron.

To make such a lamp, procure a small wide-mouthed bottle so that very
little alcohol will be necessary and the lamp may be tipped at any
desired angle. A short piece of seamless brass tubing should be procured,
or, preferably, one of those capped brass cylinders for holding pencil
leads, the button of which should be sawn off and the cap used to keep
the alcohol from evaporating. A good, sound cork is next in order, and in
cutting the central hole, use the brass tube, which should be sharpened
around the lower end. Proceed with a rotary motion, and a clean core will
be removed. If an ordinary lamp wick is not at hand, soft cotton string
may be bundled up as a substitute. Such a lamp is safe, odorless and will
not blacken the work in the least as in the case of kerosene or gasoline.

[Illustration: (alcohol lamp)]

There are many good soldering fluxes on the market, but that obtained by
dissolving as much scrap of zinc as possible in muriatic acid will solder
practically everything that may be necessary, provided, of course, the
surfaces are filed or scraped bright. Wire solder is usually the most
convenient, as small pieces can be readily cut off and placed directly on
the work where required. A small blowpipe is often a valuable adjunct, as
it makes possible a long, narrow flame that may be directed in almost any
direction.

[Illustration: A Small Torch Made of a Penholder is Handy to Use in
Soldering Electrical Apparatus]

Where numerous small connections are to be made, as is often the case
with electrical apparatus, the small torch illustrated will be found very
convenient. It is simply an old penholder with the wood portion shortened
somewhat and the metal end filed off square and cleaned out. This is then
filled with wicking, and it is only necessary to dip it in alcohol in
order to soak up enough to solder an ordinary connection.

The second simple process, of which many fail to appreciate the usefulness
in experimental work, is that of riveting--particularly when done on a
small scale. Very often the material in hand is tempered steel and cannot,
therefore, be soldered to advantage, or it may be a case where subsequent
heating makes a heat-proof connection imperative. Then, again, the joint
may require the combined strength of both solder and rivet.

When properly set, the strength of the ordinary brass pin, when used as a
rivet, is quite great. Should the work require a particularly soft rivet,
it is only necessary to hold the pin for a moment in the flame of a match.
A somewhat larger and stronger rivet may be made by softening and cutting
to the required length the small flat-headed nails used in making cigar
boxes. The ordinary shingle nail is also of a suitable shape after the
burrs have been filed off under the head.

[Illustration]

In setting these small rivets, it is absolutely necessary that they
closely fit the holes, as at A, otherwise the result will be as indicated
at B in the sketch. Be careful not to leave too great a length for
rounding over on the metal. This extra length should approximately
equal the diameter of the rivet and must be filed flat on the top before
riveting. In case of pins, it will be found easier to cut them off to the
proper length after they are inserted. Use the smallest hammer available,
striking many light blows rather than a few heavy ones.

[Illustration: A Few Joints Where Rivets are Used to Hold the Parts
Solidly Together]



A Whistle


Cut a circular piece of tin any convenient size, preferably 3 in. in
diameter, and bend it across the diameter so that it will be in a narrow
U-shape. Then drill or punch a hole through both parts as shown. Place
it in the mouth with the open edges out, being sure to press the lips on
the metal tightly on both upper and lower pieces outside of the holes and
to rest the tongue against the edge of the tin, even with the holes, and
blow.

[Illustration]

The result of the first attempt may not be a sound, but with a little
practice any familiar tune may be whistled.--Contributed by Chas. C.
Bradley, W. Toledo, O.



Card-and-Coin Trick


If a card is balanced on the finger and a coin placed on the card directly
over the finger, one would not think that the card could be flipped out
leaving the coin on the finger end. This is easily accomplished, if care
is taken to snap the card sharply and squarely.--Contributed by R. Neland,
Minneapolis, Minn.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Costumer


With but little skill, and such tools as are ordinarily found around
a home, a plain but serviceable costumer can be made, as shown in the
sketch. The necessary materials for it are: One main post, 1-1/2 in.
square and about 6-1/2 ft. long; four legs, or foot brackets, 3/4 by 6 by
9 in.; four brass clothes hooks, and the necessary screws and varnish for
assembling and finishing.

[Illustration]

The center post should be chamfered at the top to relieve the abruptness.
The four legs should all be made alike and in some shape that allows
them to be fastened to the post in a simple manner. In the sketch, the
legs are fastened to the post by one visible screw at the top and one
put in on an incline through the bottom edge of the leg. The clothes
hooks are fastened to the post in pairs at different heights, thereby
preventing the screws of adjacent hooks from running into one another.
The finish of the costumer should be such as to match the woodwork of its
surroundings.--Contributed by Harry A. Packard, Norway, Maine.



Window Catch Used for Locking an Extension Table


To prevent the two ends of an extension table from pulling apart when not
desired, an ordinary window catch can be fastened and locked in place
to the under side of the table top with one part on each end of the
table. If but one catch is used and fastened in the center, it is best
to mark it off first, and then pull the table ends apart to fasten the
catch more easily. It may be desired to use two catches for a very heavy
table, in which case it would be best to place one on either side of the
center.--Contributed by F. M. Griswold, New York, N. Y.



Relieving Pressure on Heated Canned Foods for Opening


In opening a can of food that has been heated, the instant the cover is
punctured the steam will force out a part of the contents, which is very
annoying. To avoid this, pour a little cold water on the cover and allow
it to remain a few seconds, then turn it off and immediately puncture the
cover. This will counteract the interior force, and the can may be opened
without trouble.--Contributed by Joseph Kohlbecher, Jr., San Francisco,
Cal.



Clothespin Bag


[Illustration]

Clothespins are usually kept in a bag, and the one our home possessed had
a draw string which would always stick and hold the bag shut. The remedy
for this, and a time saver also, was to remove the draw string and insert
instead a piece of wire, which was afterward shaped to a circle with an
eyelet at the joint. The bag can be hung on a nail and the mouth is always
open to its fullest extent, yet lies flat against the wall.--Contributed
by Jas. A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa.

[Illustration]



Snowshoes: How to Make and Use Them By Stillman Taylor


Part II--Making the Shoe


    [In making the snowshoe it may be necessary to refer to the
    previous chapter to select the style, or to locate the name of
    the parts used in the description.--Editor.]

Snowshoe making is an art, and while few, if any, white men can equal the
Indian in weaving the intricate patterns which they prefer to employ for
filling the frames, it is not very difficult to fashion a good solid frame
and then fill it by making use of a simple and open system of meshing. For
the frames, white ash is much the best wood, but hickory and white birch
are dependable substitutes, if the former cannot be obtained. Birch is
perhaps the best wood to use when the sportsman wishes to cut and split
up his own wood, but as suitable material for the frames may be readily
purchased for a small sum, probably the majority of the readers will
elect to buy the material. Any lumber dealer will be able to supply white
ash, and it is a simple matter to saw out the frames from the board. The
sawed-out frame is inferior to the hand-split bow, but if good, selected
material can be obtained, there will be little, if any, difference for
ordinary use.

When dry and well-seasoned lumber is used, the frame may be made to the
proper dimensions, but when green wood is selected, the frame must be made
somewhat heavier, to allow for the usual shrinkage in seasoning. For a
stout snowshoe frame, the width should be about 1-1/16 in.; thickness at
toe, 7/16 in., and thickness at heel, 9/16 in. The frame should be cut
2 in. longer than the finished length desired, and in working the wood,
remember that the toe of the finished frame will be the center of the
stick; the heel, the end of the stick, and the center of the shoe will
lie halfway between the heel and toe.

[Illustration: The Design of the Snowshoe is Traced on a Board, and Blocks
are Used to Shape the Frame or Bow]

After the frames have been finished, the dry wood must be steamed before
it can be safely bent to the required shape, and before doing this, a
wooden bending form must be made. An easy way to make this form is to
first draw a pattern of the model on a sheet of paper, cut out the pencil
mark, and, placing this pattern on a board, carefully trace the design
on the wooden form. A number of cleats, or blocks, of wood will now be
needed; the inside blocks being nailed in position, but the outside stay
blocks being simply provided with nails in the holes, so they may be
quickly fastened in position when the steamed frame is ready for the form.

To make the frame soft for bending to shape, steaming must be resorted to,
and perhaps the easiest way of doing this is to provide boiling water in
a wash boiler, place the wood over the top, and soak well by mopping with
the boiling water, shifting the stick about until the fibers have become
soft and pliable. After 10 or 15 minutes of the hot-water treatment, wrap
the stick with cloth and bend it back and forth to render it more and more
pliable, then use the hot-water treatment, and repeat the process until
the wood is sufficiently soft to bend easily without splintering. The
toe being the greatest curve, must be well softened before putting on the
form, otherwise the fibers are likely to splinter off at this point. When
the frame is well softened, place it on the bending form while hot, slowly
bend it against the wooden inside blocks, and nail on the outside blocks
to hold it to the proper curve. Begin with the toe, and after fastening
the outside blocks to hold this end, finish one side, then bend the other
half to shape. The bent frame should be allowed to dry on the form for
at least a week; if removed before the wood has become thoroughly dry and
has taken a permanent set, the frame will not retain its shape. The same
bending form may be used for both frames, but if one is in a hurry to
finish the shoes, two forms should be made, and considerable pains must
be taken to make them exactly alike in every way.

[Illustration: Locate the Cross Bars by Balancing the Frame, Then Fit the
Ends in Shallow Mortises]

When the frames are dry, secure the tail end of the frame by boring three
holes about 4 in. from the end, and fasten with rawhide. The work of
fitting the two cross bars may now be undertaken, and the balance of the
snowshoe depends upon fitting these bars in their proper places. Before
cutting the mortise, spring the two bars in the frame about 15 in. apart,
and balance the shoe in the center by holding it in the hands. When the
frame exactly balances, move the bars sufficiently to make the heel about
3 oz. heavier than the toe, and mark the place where the mortises are
to be cut. The cross bars and mortise must be a good tight fit, and a
small, sharp chisel will enable the builder to make a neat job. It is not
necessary to cut the mortise very deep; 1/4 in. is ample to afford a firm
and snug mortised joint.

The lanyard to which the filling is woven is next put in, by boring pairs
of small holes in the toe and heel sections, and lacing a narrow rawhide
thong through the obliquely drilled holes. Three holes are then bored in
the cross bar--one on each side about 1-1/2 in. from the frame, and the
third in the center of the bar; the lanyard being carried through these
holes in the cross bar.

[Illustration: Begin Weaving the Toe Filling at the Corner of Cross Bar
and Frame, Carrying It Around in a Triangle until Complete]

Begin the toe filling first, by making an eye in one end of the thong,
put the end through the lanyard loop and then through the eye, thus
making a slipknot. Start to weave at the corner where the bar and frame
are mortised, carry the strand up and twist it around the lanyards in
the middle of the toe, then carry it down and make a like twist around
the lanyard loop in the opposite corner. The thong is now looped around
the next lanyard (No. 2 from the crossbar lanyard) and fastened with the
twisted loop knot illustrated. Continue the strand across the width of toe
space and make a similar loop knot on No. 2 lanyard on the starting side,
twist it around the strand first made and loop it under the next cross-bar
lanyard loop, then carry it up and twist it around the lanyard loop in the
toe of the frame, continuing in the same manner until the last lanyard
of the toe is reached, when the space is finished by making the twisted
loop knot until the space is entirely filled. It is a difficult matter to
describe by text, but the illustrations will point out the correct way,
and show the manner of making an endless thong by eye-splicing, as well as
illustrating the wooden bodkin or needle used in pulling the woven strands
taut. This bodkin is easily made from a small piece of wood, about 1/4 in.
thick, and about 2 in. long. To simplify matters, the heel may be filled
in the same manner as the toe.

[Illustration: An Endless Thong is Made with Eyes Cut in the Ends of the
Leather, and Each Part is Run through the Eye of the Other]

For the center, which must be woven strong and tight, a heavier strand of
hide must be used. Begin with the toe cord first, and to make this amply
strong, carry the strand across the frame five or six times, finishing
with a half-hitch knot, as shown, then carry it up and twist it around
the cross bar to form the first toe-cord stay.

[Illustration: The Heel Filling is Woven by Making the Connection with
the Lanyard in the Same Manner as for the Toe Filling]

As may be noted, the center section is filled by looping back and twisting
the strands as when filling the toe. However, the filling is looped around
the frame instead of a lanyard, and a clove hitch is used. A toe hole,
4 in. wide, must be provided for, and when enough of the filling has been
woven in to make this opening, the thong is no longer looped around the
cross bar, but woven through the toe cord. As the filling ends in the toe
cord, it should be woven in and out at this point several times, finishing
the toe hole by looping a strand around the cross bar at the side of the
toe hole, then passing it down the toe-cord stay by twisting around it;
then twisted around the toe cord along the filling to the other side of
the toe hole, where it is twisted around the toe-cord stay on the opposite
side, looped around the frame and ended in a clove hitch.

[Illustration: The Center must be Woven Strong and Tight, and for This
Reason a Heavier Strand of Hide must be Used]

At the first reading, it will doubtless appear difficult, but a careful
examination of the illustrations will soon show how the trick is done,
and indeed it is really a very simple matter, being one of those things
which are easier to do than it is to tell how to do them. The method of
filling has been purposely made simple, but the majority of shoes are
filled in practically the same manner, which answers quite as well as the
more intricate Indian design.

The knack of using the snowshoe is quickly mastered, providing the shoes
are properly attached, to allow the toe ample freedom to work down through
the toe hole as each foot is lifted. The shoe is, of course, not actually
lifted in the air, but rather slid along the surface, half the width
of one shoe covering the other when it is lifted in the act of walking.
At first the novice may be inclined to think snowshoes a bit cumbersome
and unwieldy, and doubt his ability to penetrate the brush. However, as
the snowshoer becomes accustomed to their use, he will experience little
if any difficulty in traveling where he wills. When making a trail in a
more or less open country, it is a good plan to blaze it thoroughly, thus
enabling one to return over the same trail, in case a fall of snow should
occur in the meantime, or drifting snow fill up and obliterate the trail
first made. When the trail is first broken by traveling over it once by
snowshoe, the snow is packed well and forms a solid foundation, and even
should a heavy fall of snow cover it, the blaze marks on tree and bush
will point out the trail, which will afford faster and easier traveling
than breaking a new trail each time one journeys in the same direction.

A well-made pair of snowshoes will stand a couple of seasons' hard use,
or last for a year or two longer for general wear. To keep them in good
shape, they should be dried out after use, although it is never advisable
to place them close to a hot fire, or the hide filling will be injured.
Jumping puts severe strain on the frame of the shoe, and while damage
may not occur when so used in deep, soft snow, it is well to avoid the
possibility of breakage. Accidents will now and then happen, to be sure,
and as a thong may snap at some unexpected moment, keep a strand or two
of rawhide on hand, to meet this emergency.



Combination Settee Rocker and Cradle


By fastening a frame with hinges to the front of a settee rocker, a
combination piece of furniture can be made, which may be used either as a
regular settee or as a cradle. For this purpose, a covered frame should
be provided, being sufficiently long to extend across the front between
the arm supports and having such a width that it will easily fit under the
arms when hinged to the seat, as shown in the illustration. To keep the
frame in position while serving as a cradle front, or when turned down for
regular use, screw hooks are placed at each end, so that, in the former
case, the frame, when swung up, can be secured in place by attaching the
hooks to screw eyes fastened under the arm supports; while, for regular
use, the frame is secured in its swung-down position by fastening the
hooks into screw eyes properly placed in the front legs.--Contributed by
Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.

[Illustration: A Settee Rocker with a Front Attachment to Make It into a
Cradle When Desired]

[Illustration]



A Snowball Thrower By Albert Bates, Jr.


The snow fort with its infantry is not complete without the artillery.
A set of mortars, or cannon, placed in the fort to hurl snowballs at the
entrenched enemy makes the battle more real. A device to substitute the
cannon or a mortar can be easily constructed by any boy, and a few of them
set in a snow fort will add greatly to the interest of the conflict.

[Illustration: The Dimensioned Parts and the Detail of the Completed
Snowball Thrower]

The substitute, which is called a snowball thrower, consists of a base, A,
with a standard, B, which stops the arm C, controlled by the bar D, when
the trigger E is released. The tripping of the trigger is accomplished by
the sloping end of D on the slanting end of the upright F. Sides, G, are
fastened on the piece F, with their upper ends extending above the bar D,
to prevent the latter from jumping out when it is released by the trigger.

The trigger E is tripped with the handle H, connected to the piece J, on
which all the working parts are mounted. The upper end of the arm C has
a piece, K, to which is attached a tin can, L, for holding the snowball
to be thrown. A set of door springs, M, furnishes the force to throw the
snowball.

[Illustration: Cannonading a Snow Fort with the Use of a Snowball Thrower]

All the parts are given dimensions, and if cut properly, they will fit
together to make the thrower as illustrated.



Springs on the Chains of a Porch Swing


Two coil springs of medium strength placed in the chains of a porch swing
will make it ride easier and also take up any unpleasant jars and rattles
occasioned when a person sits heavily in the swing. If the swing is
provided with a four-chain suspension, the springs should be used on the
two rear chains to get the best results.--Contributed by E. K. Marshall,
Oak Park, Illinois.



Homemade Water Meter


Where it is necessary to measure water in large quantities the meter
illustrated will serve the purpose as well as an expensive one, and can
be made cheaply. The vessel, or bucket, for measuring the water is made
diamond-shaped, as shown in Fig. 1, with a partition in the center to make
two pockets of a triangular shape, each holding 2 qt., or any amount of
sufficient size to take care of the flow of water.

[Illustration: When a Bucket is Filled to the Proper Amount It is Turned
Out by the Weight (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The part forming the pockets is swung on an axis fastened to the lower
part, which engages into bearings fastened to the sides of the casing, as
shown in Fig. 2. Stops, A, are placed in the casing at the right places
for each pocket to spill when exactly 2 qt. of water has run into it. It
is obvious that when one pocket is filled, the weight will tip it over
and bring the other one up under the flow of water.

The registering device consists of one or more wheels worked with pawls
and ratchets, the first wheel being turned a notch at a time by the pawl
B, Fig. 3. If each pocket holds 2 qt., the wheel is marked as shown,
as each pocket must discharge to cause the wheel to turn one notch. The
second wheel is worked by the lever and pawl C, which is driven with a pin
D located in the first wheel. Any number of wheels can be made to turn in
a like manner.--Contributed by F. A. Porter, Oderville, Utah.



A Snowball Maker


Snowball making is slow when carried on by hand, and where a thrower
is employed in a snow fort it becomes necessary to have a number of
assistants in making the snowballs. The time of making these balls
can be greatly reduced by the use of the snowball maker shown in the
illustration.

[Illustration: A Device for Making Snowballs Quickly and Perfectly
Spherical in Shape]

The base consists of a board, 24 in. long, 6-1/2 in. wide, and 1 in.
thick. A block of wood, A, is hollowed out in the center to make a
depression in the shape of a hemisphere, 2-1/2 in. in diameter and
1-1/4 in. deep. This block is nailed to the base about 1 in. from one end.
To make the dimensions come out right, fasten a block, B, 6 in. high, made
of one or more pieces, at the other end of the base with its back edge
14-1/2 in. from the center of the hemispherical depression. On top of this
block a lever, C, 20 in. long is hinged. Another block, D, is made with a
hemispherical depression like the block A, and fastened to the under side
of the lever, so that the depressions in both blocks will coincide. The
lever end is shaped into a handle.

Two uprights, E, are fastened to the back side of the block A as guides
for the lever C. A piece is fastened across their tops, and a spring
is attached between it and the lever. A curtain-roller spring will be
suitable.

In making the balls a bunch of snow is thrown into the lower depression
and the lever brought down with considerable force.--Contributed by Abbott
W. France, Chester, Pa.



An Inexpensive Bobsled


[Illustration: A Bobsled of Simple Construction Using Ordinary Barrel
Staves for the Runners]

Any boy who can drive a nail and bore a hole can have a bobsled on short
notice. The materials necessary are four good, solid barrel staves; four
blocks of wood, 4 in. long, 4 in. wide, and 2 in. thick; two pieces,
12 in. long, 4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; one piece, 12 in. long, 2 in.
wide, and 1-3/4 in. thick; and a good board, 4 ft. long, 12 in. wide, and
1 in. thick.

The crosspieces and knees are made with the blocks and the 1-in. pieces,
12 in. long, as shown; to which the staves are nailed for runners. One of
these pieces with the runners is fastened to one end of the board, the
other is attached with a bolt in the center. The 1-3/4 by 2-in. piece,
12 in. long, is fastened across the top of the board at the front end.
A rope fastened to the knees of the front runners provides a means of
steering the sled.

The sled can be quickly made, and it will serve the purpose well when an
expensive one cannot be had.--Contributed by H. J. Blacklidge, San Rafael,
Cal.



Motor Made of Candles


[Illustration: Tallow Dripping from the Ends Alternately Lessens the
Weight of the Arms and Causes the Tube to Tip]

A tube of tin, or cardboard, having an inside diameter to receive a candle
snugly, is hung on an axle in the center that turns in bearings made of
wood. The construction of the bearings is simple, and they can be made
from three pieces of wood as shown. The tube should be well balanced.
Pieces of candle are then inserted in the ends, also well balanced. If
one is heavier than the other, light it and allow the tallow to run off
until it rises; then light the other end. The alternate dripping from
the candles will cause the tube to tip back and forth like a walking
beam. It will keep going automatically until the candles are entirely
consumed.--Contributed by Geo. Jaques, Chicago.



Kettle-Handle Support


[Illustration]

The handle of a kettle lying on the kettle rim will become so hot that it
cannot be held in the bare hand. To keep the handle fairly cool it must
be supported in an upright position. To do this, form a piece of spring
wire in the shape shown, and slip it over the kettle rim. The shape of
the extending end will hold the handle upright and away from the heat.



How to Make a Monorail Sled


A monorail sled, having a simple tandem arrangement of the runners, is
very easily constructed as follows: The runners are cut from 1-in. plank
of the size and shape given in the sketch, and are shod with strap iron,
1 in. wide and 1/4 in. thick. Round iron or half-round iron should not be
used, as these are liable to skid. The square, sharp edges of the strap
iron prevent this and grip the surface just as a skate.

[Illustration: An Exhilarating Glide Accompanied by a Buoyant Sense of
Freedom Only Obtained in the Monorail Type]

The top is a board 6 ft. long and 1 in. thick, securely fastened to the
runners as follows: Blocks are nailed, or bolted, on either side of the
upper edge of the rear runner and the top is fastened to them with screws.
The runner is also braced with strap iron, as shown. The same method
applies to the front runner, except that only one pair of blocks are used
at the center and a thin piece of wood fastened to their tops to serve as
the fifth wheel.

[Illustration: The Construction is Much More Simple Than Making a
Double-Runner Bobsled]

The hole for the steering post should be 6 in. from the front end and a
little larger in diameter than the steering post. The latter should be
rounded where it passes through the hole, but square on the upper end to
receive the steering bar, which must be tightly fitted in place.

In coasting, the rider lies full length on the board with his hands on
the steering bar. This makes the center of gravity so low that there is no
necessity for lateral steadying runners, and aside from the exhilarating
glide of the ordinary sled, the rider experiences a buoyant sense of
freedom and a zest peculiar to the monorail type. Then, too, the steering
is effected much more easily. Instead of dragging the feet, a slight
turn of the front runner with a corresponding movement of the body is
sufficient to change the direction or to restore the balance. This latter
is, of course, maintained quite mechanically, as everyone who rides a
bicycle well knows.--Contributed by Harry Hardy, Whitby, Ont.



Binding Magazines


To bind magazines for rough service, proceed as follows: Place the
magazines carefully one on top of the other in order, and space the
upper one, near the back edge, for two rivets, marking off three equal
distances, or, perhaps, the center space longer than the other two. Make
two holes through all the magazines on the marks with an awl, or drill,
then drive nails of the right length through them. Use small washers
on both ends of the nails under the head and at the point, which is cut
off and riveted over. This makes a good, serviceable binding for rough
use.--Contributed by Carl W. Lindgreen, Los Angeles, Cal.

[Illustration]



A Shellac Cement


As shellac is the basis of almost all cements, a good cement can be made
by thickening shellac varnish with dry white lead. The two may be worked
together on a piece of glass with a putty knife.

[Illustration]



A Blackboard for Children


Take a wide window shade and attach it to a roller as if hanging it to
a window. Cut it to about 3 ft. in length, hem the lower edge and insert
in the slot in the usual manner. Procure some black slate paint and cover
the shade on one side, giving it two coats. Allow sufficient time for the
first coat to dry before applying the second coat.

A blackboard of this kind is strong, and if attached to the wall
with the shade fixtures, it can be rolled out of the way when not in
use.--Contributed by Elizabeth Motz Rossoter, Colorado Springs, Col.



How to Make a Ski Staff


A ski staff will greatly assist progress over level stretches and is an
aid to the ski runner in preserving his balance. A homemade staff that is
easy to construct is shown in Fig. 1. At the upper end is a narrow leather
loop for the wrist; at the extreme lower end a spike is placed for use on
icy ground, and just above this spike is a disk, or stop, which, in deep
snow, prevents the staff from sinking in too far and gives the necessary
leverage for steering, propelling or righting oneself as needed.

[Illustration: The Staff, being Made of a Bamboo Pole, is Strong as Well
as Light (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The staff is made of a piece of bamboo pole, 1-1/4 or 1-1/2 in. in
diameter, and 4-1/2 ft. long. The leather for the loop can be made from
an old strap, shaved down thinner and cut to a width of about 1/2 in. The
stop is a disk of wood, 1/2 in. thick and 5 in. in diameter. This material
should be well-seasoned white pine or spruce and coated with shellac. A
hole is bored through the center of the disk to let it pass upward on the
staff about 6 in. Here it is fastened with two pieces of heavy wire, A and
B, Fig. 2. In this diagram, C is the staff, and D, the stop or disk. The
wire A passes through the staff below the wire B and at right angles to
it, wherefore the wire B must be bent as shown. Both wires are fastened
to the stop with staples.

The lower end of the staff, as shown in Fig. 3, is plugged with hard wood,
which is bored part way through its center to admit a wire spike. Slight
recesses are made in the sides of this hole to anchor the lead which is
poured in around the spike. The point of the latter is sharpened and then
the bamboo wound with waxed twine, or fine wire, to prevent its splitting.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Fine emery cloth, glued to both sides of a piece of
    bristol board, makes a handy tool for cleaning the
    platinum points of a vibrator.



A Game Played on the Ice


A novel and interesting winter game for young and old, described as a
novelty by a Swedish paper, is played as follows:

[Illustration: A Player in Action Ready to Spear a Ring that Hangs on the
Line between the Poles]

Two poles of convenient height are erected on the ice; if skating on a
shallow pond they may be driven through the ice and into the ground, but
if the water is deep, holes must be bored through the ice and the poles
will soon freeze solidly in them. A rope is stretched between the poles
at such a height as is suited to the size of the players, or as agreed on
to make the game more or less difficult, and on this are strung a number
of pieces of board, A, each having a ring of spring steel, B, attached
to its lower end. The purpose of the game is to run at good speed between
the poles and catch a ring on a spear, each player being entitled to make
a certain number of runs, and the winner being the one who can catch the
most rings.

The spears may be made of broom handles tapered toward one end, and
with a shield made of tin and attached at a suitable distance from the
thicker end (Pattern C). The line is fastened at the top of one pole and
run through a pulley, D, at the top of the other, thence to a weight or
line fastener. Each player should start from the same base line and pass
between the poles at such a speed that he will glide at least 100 ft. on
the other side of the poles without pushing himself forward by the aid
of the skates. Twenty runs are usually allowed each player, or 10 players
may divide into two parties, playing one against the other, etc. An umpire
will be needed to see that fair play is maintained and settle any disputes
that may arise.



An Electric Display for a Show Window


A novel window display that is very attractive, yet simple in construction
and operation, can be made in the following manner: First, make a small
watertight chamber, A, as long as the focal length of the lens to be used,
and having a glass window, B, at one end, and a small round opening, C,
at the other. In this opening is placed a cork through which a glass tube
about 2 in. long is inserted. The tube makes a smooth passage for the
stream of water flowing out of the box. Water from any source of supply
enters the chamber through the tube D, which may be a pipe or hose,
whichever is most convenient. The interior is painted a dull black.

A convenient and compact light is placed at the window end of the box. A
very good light can be made by placing an electric light with a reflector
in a closed box and fastening a biconvex lens, F, in the side facing the
window of the water box. When the electric light and the water are turned
on, the light is focused at the point where the water is issuing from the
box, and follows the course of the stream of water, illuminating it in a
pleasing manner.

[Illustration: The Arrangement of the Boxes Showing the Path of the Light
Rays through the Water]

A still better effect can be obtained by passing colored plates between
the lens F and the window B. A glass disk with sectors of different colors
may be revolved by any source of power, such as a small electric motor or
even a waterwheel turned by the flowing water.

Two or three streams of water flowing in different colors make a very
pretty display and may be produced by using two or more boxes made up in
the same manner. The apparatus should be concealed and nothing but the box
end or tube with the flowing water shown.--Contributed by Grant Linton,
Whitby, Ont.



Strainer for a Milk Pail


[Illustration]

Even though a milker may be careful, small particles of dirt, hairs,
etc., will fall into the milk pail. It is true that the milk is strained
afterward, but a large percentage of the dirt dissolves and passes
through the strainer along with the milk. The best plan to prevent
this dirt from falling into the milk is to put a piece of cheesecloth
over the pail opening, securing it there by slipping an open wire ring,
A, over the rim. The milk will readily pass through the cloth without
spattering.--Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal.



Baking Bread in Hot Sand


A driving crew on the river wanted to move camp, but the cook objected
as he had started to bake. One of the party suggested using a modified
form of the method of baking in vogue more than a century ago, which was
to place the dough in the hot earth where a fire had been burning. So, to
help the cook out, a barrel was sawed in half and the bread, after being
properly protected, was placed in each half barrel and covered with hot
sand. Two of the men carried the half barrels on their backs. When the
new camp was reached the bread was done.--Contributed by F. B. Ripley,
Eau Claire, Wis.



How to Make Small Cams


[Illustration: Channels of the Cams Formed with Strips of Brass Soldered
to the Drum or Disk]

In making models of machinery or toy machines, cams are very often
required. A simple way of making these is to lay out the cam plate, or
drum, and then bend pieces of brass to the correct shape and solder them
in place, whereupon they may be smoothed up with a file or scraper. A cam
of this sort on a drum is shown in the sketch at A, and on a faceplate, at
B. The method is not quite as accurate as milling, but answers the purpose
in most cases.--Contributed by Chas. Hattenberger, Buffalo, N. Y.



Display Holder for Coins


[Illustration: Two Pieces of Glass Inclosing between Them Coins of the
Same Size and Thickness]

If the luster of coins fresh from the mint is to be preserved, they must
be immediately placed so as to be protected against contact with the
hands. A good holder that will display both sides of a coin can be made
of two pieces of glass, BB, between which is placed a cardboard cut as
shown at A. The cardboard should be about the same thickness as the coins.
The glass may be framed by using strips of wood rabbeted to receive the
edges of both pieces; or their edges may be bound with passe-partout
tape. Even when a frame is used, it is best to bind the edges as this will
prevent tarnish from the air. Old negative glass is suitable for making
the holder.--Contributed by R. B. Cole, New Haven, Conn.



Holder for Skates while Sharpening


The base of the holder is cut from a board and should be about 3 in.
longer than the skate. Two clamps are cut as shown at A, from metal of
sufficient thickness to hold the skate firmly, then bent to shape and
attached to the baseboard with bolts having wing nuts, as shown at B and
C.

[Illustration: The Holder Provides a Way to Grind a Slight Curve in the
Edge of a Skate Blade]

One edge of the board is provided with two pins, D and E, solidly
fastened, which are of sufficient height to bring the center of the blade
on a level with the grinder axle. An adjusting screw, F, is provided
for the grinder base to adjust the skate blade accurately. The support
G is for use on baseboards where skates with strap heels, H, are to be
sharpened. The shape of the clamp for this support is shown at J.

When the skate is securely clamped to the base the blade can be easily
"hollow ground" or given a slight curve on the edge.--Contributed by C.
G. Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y.



A Homemade Direct-View Finder for Cameras


Every hand camera and most of the tripod cameras are equipped with finders
of one type or another, and usually one in which the image of the field
is reflected upward on a small ground glass--being, in fact, a miniature
camera obscura. The later and generally more approved style of finder has
a small concave lens conveniently set on the outer edge of the camera.
When this direct-vision type of finder is used, the camera is held so that
the finder is at the height of the eye, a condition that is particularly
desirable. When in a crowd, of course, the professional and many amateurs
are familiar with the method of holding the camera inverted over the head
and looking up into the finder to determine the range of the field. Even
this method is inconvenient, often impractical.

The up-to-date newspaper photographer insists on having his camera
equipped with direct finders, as it saves him much trouble and many
failures. Anyone with a little ingenuity can change one of the old-type
finders into a combination device, either direct or indirect. The sketches
are self-explanatory, but it may be said that Fig. 1 represents a box
camera with a regulation finder set in one corner of the box. To make it
a direct finder, a small brass hinge is used. Cut off part of one wing,
leaving a stub just long enough to be attached to the front of the camera
directly above the lens of the finder and so as not to interfere with it,
and high enough to permit the other wing to be turned down on the ground
glass, with space allowed for the thin glass mirror A, that is to be glued
to the under side of the long wing. The joint of the hinge should work
quite stiffly in order to keep it from jarring out of any position in
which it may be set.

[Illustration: Two Types of Ordinary View Finders and Methods of
Converting Them into Direct-View Finders]

If the wing is turned upward at an angle of 45 deg., the finder can be
used as a direct-vision instrument when held at the height of the eyes.
The image reflected from the small mirror is inverted, but this is no
disadvantage to the photographer. The small pocket mirror given out for
advertising purposes serves very well for making the reflecting mirror.

The finder shown in Fig. 2 is another very common kind, and one that
is readily converted into the direct type by inserting a close-fitting
mirror, B, on the inside of the shield to be used as a reflector of
the finder image. If the mirror is too thick, it may interfere with the
closing of the shield, though in many cases this is not essential, but
if it should be necessary to close down the shield in order to fold the
camera, it can usually be readjusted to accommodate the mirror.



A Non-Rolling Spool


Bend a piece of wire in the shape shown in the illustration and attach
it to a spool of thread. The ends of the wire should clamp the spool
slightly and the loop in the wire will keep it from rolling. Place the
end of the thread through the loop in the wire and it will not become
tangled.--Contributed by J. V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Cartridge Belt


Procure a leather belt, about 2-1/2 in. wide and long enough to reach
about the waist, also a piece of leather, 1 in. wide and twice as long
as the belt. Attach a buckle to one end of the belt and rivet one end of
the narrow piece to the belt near the buckle. Cut two slits in the belt,
a distance apart equal to the diameter of the cartridge. Pass the narrow
leather piece through one slit and back through the other, thus forming a
loop on the belt to receive a cartridge. About 1/4 in. from the first loop
form another by cutting two more slits and passing the leather through
them as described, and so on, until the belt has loops along its whole
length.

[Illustration: Two Pieces of Leather of Different Widths Forming a Belt
for Holding Cartridges]

The end of the narrow leather can be riveted to the belt or used in the
buckle as desired, the latter way providing an adjustment for cartridges
of different sizes.--Contributed by Robert Pound, Lavina, Mont.



Removing Iodine Stains


A good way to chemically remove iodine stains from the hands or linen is
to wash the stains in a strong solution of hyposulphite of sodium, known
as "hypo," which is procurable at any photographic-supply dealer's or drug
store.

There is no danger of using too strong a solution, but the best results
are obtained with a mixture of 1 oz. of hypo to 2 oz. of water.



Bed-Cover Fasteners


The arrangement shown in the sketch is easily made and will keep the bed
covers in place. The covers are provided with eyelets, either sewed, A,
or brass eyelets, B, 6 or 8 in. apart along the edge. A wood strip, C, 3
by 1-1/2 in., is cut as long as the width of the bed and fastened to the
frame with wire, bolts, or wedges. Screwhooks, about 1-1/4 in. long, are
turned into the strip so that they will match with the eyelets placed
in the covers. Thus the covers will be kept in place when the bed is
occupied, and the bed is also easily made up.--Contributed by Warren E.
Crane, Cleveland, O.

[Illustration: The Hooks Prevent the Covers from Slipping Off the Sleeper
and Keep Them Straight on the Bed]



Collar Fasteners


[Illustration]

An excellent fastener to be used on soft collars can be assembled from an
ordinary paper fastener and two shoe buttons of the desired color. This
device keeps the soft collar in good shape at the front, and serves the
purpose just as well as a more expensive collar fastener. The illustration
shows how it is used.--Contributed by B. E. Ahlport, Oakland, Cal.



Operating a Bathroom Light Automatically


A device for automatically turning an electric light on and off when
entering and leaving the room is illustrated in the sketch. A pull-chain
lamp socket is placed upon the wall or ceiling, and is connected to a
screw hook in the door by a cord and several rubber bands, as shown.

[Illustration: Operating the Electric Lamp Switch or Key by the Opening
of the Door]

When the door is opened, the lamp is lit, and when leaving the room the
opening of the door again turns it out. The hook should be placed quite
close to the edge of the door, to reduce the length of the movement, and
even then it is too much for the length of the pull required to operate
the switch, hence the need of the rubber bands.

The lamp chain pulls out just 1 in., and consequently the lamp is lit when
the door is opened part way; and swinging the door farther only stretches
the rubber. This is an advantage, however, because the lamp is sure to
light regardless of the swing of the door. If no rubber were used, the
door would have to open just a certain distance each time.

If the cord is connected to the hook with a loop or a ring, it may be
easily disconnected during the day when not needed. A light coil spring
may be used in place of the rubbers.--Contributed by C. M. Rogers, Ann
Arbor, Michigan.



A Finger-Ring Trick


[Illustration]

A coin soldered to some inexpensive ring, or a piece of brass cut from
tubing, will make an interesting surprise coin for friends. The ring when
placed on the middle finger with the coin in the palm makes the trick
complete. Ask some one if he has ever seen such a coin, or say it is a
very old one, as the date is almost worn away. He will try to pick it up,
but will find it fast to the finger.--Contributed by Wm. Jenkins, New York
City.



Preventing Marks from Basting Threads on Wool


In making up woolen garments it is necessary to press portions of them
before removing the basting threads. Sometimes the marks of the basting
threads show after the pressing. This can be avoided by using silk thread
for basting instead of the usual cotton thread. The silk thread will not
leave any marks.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Gainesville, Ga.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Cranberries will keep fresh for weeks if placed in
    water in a cool place.



Skating Merry-Go-Round By Henry Burich


After once making and using the ice merry-go-round as illustrated, no pond
will be complete unless it has one or more of these devices. To construct
an amusement device of this kind, select a good pole that will reach to
the bottom of the pond. The measurement can be obtained by cutting a hole
in the ice at the desired place and dropping in a line weighted on one
end. A sufficient length of the pole should be driven into the bottom of
the pond to make it solid and allow the upper end to project above the
surface of the ice at least 4 feet.

A turning crosspiece for the upper end of the pole is made as follows:
First prepare the end of the pole by sawing it off level, then cutting
off the bark and making it round for a metal ring which should be driven
on tightly. A pin, about 3/4 in. in diameter, is then driven into a
hole bored in the end of the pole. The crosspiece is made of 2 by 6-in.
material, at least 18 ft. long. A hole is bored in the center to receive
the pin in the pole end.

[Illustration: Skaters Holding the Rope Ends are Drawn Around in a Circle
Rapidly by the Revolving Crosspiece, Turned near the Center by Other
Skaters]

The crosspiece is easily pushed around the pole and the faster it goes
the closer to the center the pushers can travel. Ropes can be tied to the
ends of the crosspiece for the skaters to hold on to as they are propelled
around in a circle.



Relieving Air Pressure When Closing Record Boxes


The ordinary pasteboard boxes for holding phonograph records are very
hard to close, due to the air pressure on the inside. I overcome
this difficulty by making three small holes in the cover with a
pin.--Contributed by Robert Bandul, New Orleans, La.



A Steering Sled


[Illustration: The Extra Runner in Front is Pivoted, and When Turned,
Guides the Sled]

An ordinary hand sled can be easily converted into a sled that can be
guided like a bobsled by the addition of one extra runner. To attach this
runner, a piece of wood is fastened to the under side and in the center
at the front end of the sled top. A runner with a crosspiece on top is
pivoted to the extending wood piece, which should be of a length to make
the position comfortable when the coaster, sitting on the sled top, has
his feet on the ends of the crosspiece. Careful measurements should be
made to have the lower edge of the runner on a level with or a little
lower than the sled runners.



To Hold a Straw Hat on the Head


[Illustration: The Rubber Bands are Linked Like a Lock Stitch and Fastened
in the Band]

On windy days it is almost impossible to make a straw hat stay on the
head. To avoid this trouble, place rubber bands through the sweatband.
Before inserting, make them into loops, as shown, and draw enough to be
comfortable to the head. This device will save a good many steps when the
wind blows.--Contributed by T. D. Hall, Fort Worth, Texas.



Carrying Fishhooks in a Cane Pole


The person using a cane pole for fishing can easily provide a place for
the hooks and sinkers in the first large joint of the pole. Cut the cane
off just above the first large joint, and it will leave a space, 4 or
5 in. long, which can be used for the hooks and sinkers. A cork is fitted
in the end, to hold them in place.--Contributed by Victor E. Carpenter,
South Bend, Ind.



Drying Small Laundered Articles


Where mechanical drying is not in use it takes considerable time to hang
out a number of handkerchiefs, laces, collars, etc., and very often the
wind will blow away many of them. The task of drying these articles is
made light by using a bag of mosquito netting with the articles placed in
it and hung on a line. The air can pass through the netting and when the
articles are dry it does not take long to take them out.--Contributed by
Edward P. Braun, Philadelphia, Pa.



Decorative Wood Panels


Procure an unplaned board that is deeply scored by the teeth of the saw
and mark an outline of the desired figure on its surface. Sandpaper the
background lightly, cut in a moon and smooth down the tree trunks. The
background can be smoothed with a sharp chisel, or large portions planed,
but in all cases leave the foliage rough.

Finish the surfaces with oils or stains, applying colors to suit the
parts; a piece of dried red cedar, oiled, will produce a warm red, and a
green red cedar, oiled, becomes soft yellow, each producing a very pretty
effect. These panels offer unlimited opportunity for originality in design
and color finishing of different woods.--Contributed by Mrs. Wm. Donovan,
Seattle, Wash.

[Illustration: The Designs are Worked into the Unfinished Surface of
Boards with Sandpaper, Sharp Chisels and a Plane, and Then Colored with
Dyes to Produce the Desired Effect]



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling By Stillman Taylor


Part I--A One-Piece Casting Rod


The pleasures of outdoor life are most keenly enjoyed by those sportsmen
who are familiar with all the little tricks--the "ins and outs"--of the
open. It is the active participation in any chosen sport which makes the
sport well worth while, for the enjoyment gleaned from little journeys
to forest and stream largely rests with the outer's own knowledge of his
sport. Not all of the fun of fishing lies in the catching of the fish,
since the satisfaction which comes through handling a well-balanced rod
and tackle must be reckoned the chief contributor to the outing. In other
words, the pleasures of fishing do not depend so much upon the number of
fish caught, as the manner in which the person fishes for them. The rod is
naturally the first and important consideration in the angler's kit, and
it is the purpose of these articles to set forth, at first, a few hints
which my own long experience leads me to think may be of some assistance
to those anglers who enjoy making and repairing their own rods and
tackle, to be followed, later, by some suggestions on the art of angling
generally. The hints given are merely my own methods, and while they may
not be the best way of accomplishing the desired end, a good fishing rod
may be constructed. Like the majority of amateurs, I have achieved the
desired results with a few common tools, namely, a saw, plane, jackknife,
file, and sandpaper. These simple tools are really all that is needed to
turn out a serviceable and well-finished rod of excellent action.


Kind of Material


The great elasticity and durability of the split-cane or split-bamboo rod
cannot be easily disputed. The handmade split bamboo is unquestionably
the best rod for every kind of fishing, but it is also the most expensive
and the most difficult material for the amateur to work. In making the
first rod or two, the beginner will be better satisfied with the results
in making a good solid-wood rod. Of course, glued-up split-bamboo butts,
joints, and tip stock may be purchased, and if the angler is determined
to have only bamboo, it is advisable to purchase these built-up sections
rather than to risk certain failure by attempting to glue the cane.
However, there are several good woods particularly well adapted for rod
making, and while slightly inferior to the finest bamboo in elasticity and
spring, the carefully made solid-wood rod is good enough for any angler
and will probably suit the average fisherman as well as any rod that can
be purchased.

Bethabara, or washaba, a native wood of British Guinea, makes a fine rod,
but it is a heavy wood, very hard, and for this reason is perhaps less
desirable than all other woods. With the single exception of snakewood
it is the heaviest wood for rod making and is only used for short
bait-casting rods. Possessing considerable strength Bethabara can be
worked quite slender, and a 5-ft. casting tip can be safely made of 5 oz.
weight.

Greenheart, a South American wood, is popular alike with manufacturers
and amateur rod makers, and 90 per-cent of the better class of solid-wood
rods are made of this material. It resembles Bethabara in color, but
is lighter in weight, although it apparently possesses about the same
strength and elasticity. In point of fact, there is little, if any, choice
between these woods, and providing sound and well-selected wood is used,
the merits of a rod made of Bethabara or greenheart are more likely to
be due to the careful workmanship of the maker than to the variety of the
wood used.

Dagame, or dagama, a native of the forests of Cuba, is in many respects
the ideal material for rod making, as it has strength and elasticity.
This wood is straight-grained and free from knots, which makes it easily
worked; it polishes well and is durable. While there is always more or
less difficulty about procuring first-class Bethabara and greenheart,
dagame of good quality is easily obtained.

Lancewood is much used in turning out the cheaper grades of fishing
rods, but it is somewhat soft and has a marked tendency to take set under
the strain of fishing and warp out of shape. It is less expensive than
the other woods, and while it has a straight and even grain, there are
numerous small knots present which make this material less satisfactory
to work than the other woods. For heavy sea rods, lancewood may serve the
purpose fairly well, but for the smaller fishing tools this material is
inferior to Bethabara, greenheart, and dagame. Other woods are often used,
and while a good rod may be frequently made from almost any of them, the
three mentioned are held in the highest esteem by the angling fraternity.
For the first rod, the amateur will make no mistake in selecting
dagame, whether the slender fly rod or the more easily constructed short
bait-casting tool is to be made.


The Necessary Tools


The construction of a thoroughly well-made and nicely balanced rod is
more a matter of careful work than outfit, but a few suitable tools will
greatly facilitate the labor. A good firm workbench, or table, 4 ft. or
more in length, will be needed. A regulation bench vise will come in
handy, but one of the small iron vises will do very well. A couple of
iron planes, one of medium size for rough planing-up work, and a small
4-in. block plane for finishing, will be required. As the cutters of
the planes must be kept as sharp as possible to do good work, a small
oilstone--preferably one in a wood case with cover to keep out dust--will
be needed; a coarse single-cut mill file about 16 in. long; a few sheets
of No. 1 and No. 0 sandpaper; a sheet or two of fine emery cloth; a small
thin "back" or other saw, and a steel cabinet scraper.

[Illustration: Two Tools for Gauging the Diameter of the Rods, and a
Homemade Scraper (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

A caliper of some kind is a necessity, and while the best is a micrometer,
Fig. 1, registering to a thousandth part of an inch, as well as indicating
8ths, 16ths, 32ds, and 64ths, this tool is somewhat expensive, but a
very good caliper may be had in the sliding-arm type, Fig. 2, with the
scale graduated to 64ths and taking work up to 2 in. in diameter. Cheaper
measuring gauges are to be had in plenty, but as the brass and boxwood
scales are provided only with coarse graduations, the better quality of
mechanics' tools will give better satisfaction.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

The set of grooved planes used by the professional rod makers are rather
expensive, although they are most convenient for quickly rounding up the
rod to the desired diameter. However, the beginner may dispense with the
planes by making the tool illustrated in Fig. 3. To make this handy little
tool purchase a steel wood scraper, such as cabinetmakers use, and file a
series of grooves along the edges with a round file. File at right angles
to the steel, finishing up with a finer file to give a sharp cutting edge.
The tool thus made is very handy for scraping the rod after it has been
roughly rounded with the plane. Its use will be mentioned later on in the
description.


Five-Foot Bait-Casting Rod


The short one-piece bait-casting rod with but one ferrule is the easiest
rod to make, and for this reason the beginner will do well to select this
popular type for the first attempt. As the total length of the rod is to
measure 5 ft., exclusive of the agate tip, the wood should be 1 or 2 in.
longer to allow for cutting down to 60 inches.

Having selected a good strip of dagame, 5/8 in. square, run the plane
along each side and from both ends. This will determine the direction
in which the grain runs. Drill two holes at the end decided upon for the
butt, spacing them about 1/4 in. from the end, as shown in Fig. 4. Drive
a stout brad in the corner of the bench top and hook the butt end over
the nail. By rigging the stick up in this manner it will be securely held,
and planing may be done with the grain with greater ease and accuracy than
when the end of the stick is butted up against a cleat nailed to the bench
top.

The wood should be planed straight and true from end to end and calipered
until it is 1/2 in. square. It may appear crooked, but this need not
trouble one at this stage of the work, since it may be made perfectly
straight later on. Overlook any kinks, and do not attempt to straighten
the stick by planing more from one side than the other. The chief thing
to be done is to fashion a square stick, and when the caliper shows the
approximate diameter, draw crosslines at the ends to find the center.

The length of the hand grasp should be marked out. If a double grasp
is wanted, allow 12 in. from the butt end. This will afford an 11-in.
hand grasp after sawing off the end in which the holes were drilled.
For a single hand grasp make an allowance of 11 in. However, the double
grasp--with cork above and below the reel seat--is preferred by most
anglers because it affords a better grip for the hand when reeling in the
line. Mark the hand-grasp distance by running a knife mark around the rod
12 in. from the butt end.

[Illustration: Diagram or Layout for a One-Piece Bait-Casting Rod, Showing
Calipered Dimensions for Each Six Inches of Length. A Paper Pattern of Any
Rod may be Drawn Up, Providing the Amateur Rod Maker Has a Rod to Use for
a Pattern, or Possesses the Exact Diameter of the Rod at Intervals of Six
Inches along Its Length (Fig. 5)]

Lay out a diagram showing the full length of the rod by placing a
strip of paper--the unprinted back of a strip of wall paper is just the
thing--on the bench and drawing two lines from the diameter of the butt
to that of the tip. While the caliber of casting rods differs somewhat,
the dimensions given will suit the average angler, and I would advise
the beginner to make the rod to these measurements. For the butt, draw a
line, exactly 1/2 in. long, across the paper and from the center of this
line run a straight pencil mark at right angles to the tip end, or 60 in.
distant, at which point another crossline is drawn, exactly 1/8 in. long,
to represent the diameter. Connect the ends of these two crosslines to
make a long tapering form. Divide this pattern into eight equal parts,
beginning at 12 in. from the butt end, marking a crossline at every 6 in.
This layout is shown exaggerated in Fig. 5. If it is desired to copy a
certain rod, find the diameter at the several 6-in. stations with the
caliper and write them down at the corresponding sections of the paper
diagram. However, if a splendid all-around casting rod is desired, it is
perfectly safe to follow the dimensions given in Fig. 5, which show the
manner of dividing the paper pattern into the equal parts and the final
diameter of the rod at each 6-in. station, or line.

[Illustration: Gauge Made of Sheet Brass Having Slots Corresponding in
Length and Width with the Caliper-Layout Measurements (Fig. 6)]

Procure a small strip of thin brass, or zinc, and file nine slots on one
edge to correspond in diameter with the width of the horizontal lines
which indicate the diameter of the rod on the pattern. This piece is shown
in Fig. 6. By making use of the pattern and the brass gauge, the rod may
be given the desired taper and the work will proceed more quickly than if
the caliper is alone relied upon to repeatedly check up the work.

When a good layout of the work is thus made, the next step is to carefully
plane the stick so that it will be evenly tapered in the square. Plane
with the grain and from the butt toward the tip end, and make frequent
tests with caliper and gauge, noting the diameter every 6 in. Mark all
the thick spots with a pencil, and plane lightly to reduce the wood to
the proper diameter. Reduce the stick in this manner until all sides have
an even taper from the butt to the tip. The stick should now be perfectly
square with a nice, even taper. Test it by resting the tip end on the
floor and bending it from the butt end. Note the arch it takes and see if
it resumes its original shape when the pressure is released. If it does,
the elasticity of the material is as it should be, but if it remains bent
or takes "set," the wood is very likely to be imperfectly seasoned and the
rod should be hung up in a warm closet, or near the kitchen stove, for a
few weeks, to season.

To facilitate the work of planing the stick to shape, a length of pine
board with a groove in one edge will be found handy. A 5-ft. length of
the ordinary tongue-and-groove board, about 1 in. thick, will be just the
thing. As the tip of the rod is smaller than the butt, plane the groove
in the board to make it gradually shallower to correspond to the taper of
the rod. Nail this board, with the groove uppermost, to the edge of the
workbench, and place the rod in the groove with one of the square corners
up, which can be easily taken off with the finely set plane. Plane off the
other three corners in a like manner, transforming the square stick into
one of octagon form. This part of the work should be carefully done, and
the stick frequently calipered at each 6-in. mark, to obtain the proper
taper. It is important to make each of the eight sides as nearly uniform
as the caliper and eye can do it. Set the cutter of the small plane very
fine, lay the strip in the groove and plane off the corner the full length
of the stick, then turn another corner uppermost and plane it off, and so
on, until the stick is almost round and tapering gradually from the mark
of the hand grasp to the tip.

To make the rod perfectly round, use the steel scraper in which the
grooves were filed and scrape the whole rod to remove any flat or uneven
spots, and finish up by sandpapering it down smooth.

The action of the rod differs with the material used, and in trying out
the action, it is well to tie on the tip and guides and affix the reel
by a string in order to try a few casts. If the action seems about right,
give the rod a final smoothing down with No. 0 sandpaper.

[Illustration: The Four Different Types of Hand Grasps Are a Wood Sleeve
Bored to Fit the Butt of the Rod; the Built-Up Cork over a Wood Sleeve;
a Cane-Wound Grasp, and the Double Cord-Wound Grasps with a Reel Seat
between Them (Fig. 7)]

For the hand grasp nothing is so good as solid cork, and while hand grasps
may be purchased assembled, it is a simple matter to make them. In Fig. 7
are shown four kinds of handles, namely, a wood sleeve, or core, A, bored
to fit the butt of the rod and shaped for winding the fishing cord; a
built-up cork grasp, B, made by cementing cork washers over a wood sleeve,
or directly to the butt of the rod; a cane-wound grip, C, mostly used for
salt-water fishing, and the double-wound grip, D, made in one piece, then
sawed apart in the center, the forward grip being glued in place after
the reel seat is in position.

To make a grip, select a number of cork washers, which may be obtained
from dealers in the wholesale drug trade, or from any large fishing-tackle
dealer. Make a tool for cutting a hole in their centers from a piece of
tubing, or an old ferrule of the required diameter, by filing one edge
sharp, then covering the other end with several thicknesses of cloth. Turn
this tube around in the cork like a wad cutter. If the cutter is sharp,
a nice clean cut will result, but the opposite will likely occur if an
attempt is made to hammer the tube through the cork.

Having cut the butt end of the rod off square, about 1 in. from the end,
or enough to remove the holes, smear a little hot glue on the end, drop
a cork washer over the tip of the rod and work it down to the butt. Cut
another cork, give the first one a coat of glue, slip the former over the
tip and press the two together, and so on, until about 10 corks have been
glued together in position. This will give a hand grasp a trifle over
5 in. long.

[Illustration: The Corks Glued in Place on the Butt and the Wood Sleeve,
or Reel-Seat Core, Ready to Slide Down and Glue in Position (Fig. 8)]

A sleeve will be needed for the reel seat to slip over, and a soft-wood
core of this sort can be purchased from any dealer in rod-making
materials, or it can be made at home. For the material procure a piece of
white pine, about 3/4 in. in diameter and 5 in. long. A section sawed from
a discarded curtain roller will serve the purpose well. Bore a 15/32-in.
hole through the piece and plane down the outside until it slips inside
the reel seat. It should be well made and a good fit, and one end tapered
to fit the taper of the reel seat, while the opposite end should be about
1/4 in. shorter than the reel seat. Slide this wood sleeve down the rod,
as shown in Fig. 8, coat the rod and the upper part of the last cork with
glue and force the sleeve tightly in place. A day or two should be allowed
for the glue to set and thoroughly dry, before giving the hand grasp the
final touches.

If a lathe is at hand, the hand grasp may be turned to any desired shape,
but most anglers prefer a cylindrical-shaped grip, leaving the top cork
untrimmed to form a kind of shoulder when the metal reel seat is pressed
into the cork. If corks of 1-1/4-in. diameter are purchased, but little
trimming will be necessary to work the hand grasp down to 1-1/16 in. in
diameter. This size seems to fit the average hand about right. The lower
corks will need a little trimming to fit the taper of the butt cap so that
it may fit snugly in place. Cement the butt cap in place by heating the
cap moderately hot, then rub a little of the melted ferrule cement inside
the cap, and force it over the cork butt. When the cement has hardened,
drive a small brass pin or brad through the cap, and file the ends off
flush with the metal surface. All the guides, ferrules, and reel seat are
shown in Fig. 9.

The regulation metal reel seat is about 4-1/2 in. long, and in fitting it
to the old type of bait rod, the covered hood is affixed to the upper end
of the reel seat. This arrangement is satisfactory enough for the 9-ft.
bait rod, but it is rather awkward in fitting it to the short bait-casting
rod, as with the hood at the upper end the reel is pushed so far forward
that it leaves 1 in. or more of the reel seat exposed, and the hand must
grip this smooth metal instead of the cork. To avoid this, it is best to
cut the reel seat down to 3-7/8 in. and affix the reel seat to the rod
with the hood at the lower end near the hand. For a single hand grasp, a
tapered winding check will be needed to make a neat finish and this should
be ordered of the correct diameter to fit the reel seat at the lower end
and the diameter of the rod at the other. In the double hand grasp the
winding check is used to finish off the upper end of the cork, which is
tapering to fit the rod at this point.

In assembling the reel seat, push it with the hooded end well down and
work it into the cork to make a tight waterproof joint. Push the reel
seat up the rod, coat the sleeve with cement and push the reel seat home.
Drive a small pin through the hooded end and reel seat to make the whole
rigid. This pin should not be driven through the rod or it will weaken it
at this point. Just let it enter the wood a short distance to prevent the
reel seat from turning.

The upper or double grasp is fashioned after the reel seat is in position,
and the corks are cemented on and pushed tightly together in the same
manner as used in forming the lower grasp. The first cork should be
pressed tightly against the upper end of the reel seat and turned about so
that the metal may enter the cork and form a tight joint. As many corks as
are required to form a grip of proper length are in turn cemented to each
other and the rod. After the glue has become dry, the cork may be worked
down and tapered to make a smooth, swelled grasp. The winding check is
now cemented on, to make a neat finish between the upper grip and the rod.

Before affixing the guides, go over the rod with fine sandpaper, then
wet the wood to raise the grain, and repeat this operation, using old
sandpaper. If an extra-fine polish is wanted, rub it down with powdered
pumice and oil, or rottenstone and oil, and finish off with an oiled rag.

To fit the agate tip, file down the end of the rod with a fine-cut file
until it is a good fit in the metal tube. Melt a little of the ferrule
cement and smear a little on the tip of the rod, then push the agate down
in place.

Spar varnish is often used to protect the rod, but extra-light coach
varnish gives a better gloss, and it is as durable and waterproof as any
varnish. It is only necessary to purchase a quarter pint of the varnish,
as a very small quantity is used. The final varnishing is, of course, done
after the rod has been wound and the guides are permanently whipped in
position. However, it is an excellent idea to fill the pores of the wood
by rubbing it over with a cloth saturated in the varnish before the silk
whippings are put on. Merely fill the cells of the wood and wipe off all
surplus, leaving the rod clean and smooth.

The guides may now be fastened in place, and for the 5-ft. rod, but two of
them are necessary. The first guide should be placed 19-1/2 in. from the
metal taper which finishes off the upper hand grasp, and the second guide
spaced 15-1/2 in. from the first. By spacing the guides in this manner,
the line will run through them with the least possible friction.


Winding, or Whipping, the Rod


Before whipping on the guides, take a fine file and round off the sharp
edges of the base to prevent the possibility of the silk being cut.
Measure off the required distances at which the guides are to be affixed,
and fasten them in position by winding with a few turns of common thread.
Ordinary silk of No. A size may be used, but No. 00 is the best for
small rods. Most anglers agree that the size of the silk to use for the
whippings should be in proportion to the size of the rod--heavy silk for
the heavy rod, and fine silk for the small rod. Size A is the finest silk
commonly stocked in the stores, but one or more spools of No. 00 and No.
0 may be ordered from any large dealer in fishing tackle. As a rule, size
0 gives a more workmanlike finish to the butt and joints of fly and bait
rods, while No. 00 is about right to use for winding the tips. In fact,
all rods weighing up to 6 oz. may be whipped with No. 00 size.

[Illustration: The Mountings Used on a Bait-Casting Rod Consist of a Reel
Seat, Butt Cap, Taper Sleeve, Narrow Agate Guide, Agate Offset Top, One
Ring Guide, and a Welted, Shouldered Ferrule (Fig. 9)]

In whipping the rod, the so-called invisible knot is used. Begin the
whipping, as shown at E, Fig. 10, by tucking the end under the first coil
and holding it with the left thumb. The spool of silk is held in the
right hand and the rod is turned to the left, sufficient tension being
kept on the silk so that it can be evenly coiled with each strand tightly
against the other. A loop of silk, some 4 in. long, is well waxed and
placed so that its end will project a short distance beyond the last coil
which finishes the whipping. This detail is shown at F. In whipping on
guides, begin the whipping at the base and work over the pointed end of
the flange, winding on sufficient silk to extend about 1/8 in. beyond the
pointed flange of the guide base. When the last coil is made, cut off the
thread from the spool and tuck the end under the whipping by pulling on
the ends of the waxed loop, as shown at G. Cut off the ends neatly with
a sharp knife.

[Illustration: Both Ends of the Silk Thread are Placed under the Winding
to Form an Invisible Knot (Fig. 10)]

For colors, bright red and a medium shade of apple green are the best,
since these colors keep their original tint after varnishing, and are
less likely to fade than the more delicate shades. Red finished off with a
narrow circle of green always looks well, and red with yellow is likewise
a good combination. Narrow windings look much better than wide whippings,
and a dozen turns make about as wide a winding as the angler desires. For
edgings, three or four turns of silk are about right, and these should
be put on after the wider windings have been whipped on and in the same
manner, although it is best to tuck the ends of the edging beneath the
wider winding when pulling the end through to make the invisible knot.


Varnishing the Rod


After winding the rod, see that all fuzzy ends are neatly clipped off,
then go over the silk windings with a coat of shellac. The shellac can
be made by dissolving a little white shellac in grain alcohol. Warm the
shellac and apply it with a small camel's-hair brush, giving the silk only
two light coats. Allow the rod to stand a couple of days for the shellac
to become thoroughly dry.

A small camel's-hair brush will be required for the varnishing--one about
1/2 in. wide will do. If the varnishing is to be done out of doors, a
clear and warm day should be selected, and the can of coach varnish should
be placed in a pot of hot water for five minutes, so that the varnish will
spread evenly. A temperature of about 75 deg. is best for this work, as
the varnish will not spread if cold or in a cold place. The varnish should
be evenly brushed on, and care taken that no spots are left untouched.
Hang up by the tip to dry in a room free from dust. While the varnish
will set in four or five hours, it is a good plan to allow three days for
drying between coats. Two coats will suffice to protect the rod, but as
coach varnish, properly applied, is rather thin in body, three coats will
give complete protection to the wood.

The materials required for this rod are,

  1 dagame or greenheart stick, 5 ft. long and 5/8 in. square;

  1 reel seat with straight hood, 3/4 in.;

  1 butt cap, 1 in.; 1 taper, small end 15/32 in.;

  1 offset, or angle, agate top, 3/32 in., and 2 narrow agate guides,
    1/2 in., all in German silver;

  2 doz. corks, 1-1/4 by 1-1/8 in.,

  and two 50-yd. spools of silk, red and green, 00 size.



Automatic Watering System for Poultry Yards


Where a large number of poultry is cared for, the annoyance and attention
necessary to furnish a constant water supply can be overcome by using the
system shown in the illustration. For this purpose a storage tank must be
provided. This may be some old toilet flush tank, or any open reservoir
that will hold sufficient water to keep all the drinking pans supplied. A
float is provided and connected with a stop valve, so that when the float
drops below a certain level, the valve will be turned open, and a fresh
supply of water will enter the storage tank, thereby again raising the
float and closing the valve.

[Illustration: Simple Arrangement of a Flush Tank in Connection with a
System of Pipes to Supply One or More Pans of Water for the Poultry Yard]

Each drinking pan should be about 10 in. in diameter by 4 in. deep, and is
drilled for a 7/8-in. hole to fit a 1/2-in. pipe. At the pan end, the pipe
is threaded so that a lock nut and leather washer can be attached on each
side of the pan bottom, to provide a watertight joint; at the other end,
the pipe is screwed into a tee in the 1/2-in. main line which connects
with the storage tank.

In using the system, sufficient water is run into the tank to fill the
pans about three-quarters full. The float may then be adjusted to a
shut-off position for the inlet valve. All pans are automatically kept at
one level, even though several may be used considerably more than others.
When the general water level has dropped sufficiently, the float, dropping
with it, will open the stop valve, and cause the water to enter the tank
and pans until the original level is again restored.--Contributed by D.
E. Hall, Hadlyme, Connecticut.



Changing Pip on a Card


Cut out the center pip on the five-spot of spades with a sharp knife.
Cut a slot centrally in another card, about 3/8 in. wide and 1-1/4 in.
long. Glue the surfaces of both cards together near the edges to form a
pocket for a slide, which is cut from another card and has one-half of
its surface colored black. A drop of sealing wax attached to the back of
the sliding part, so that it projects through the slot, provides a means
of moving the slide in the pocket. A lightning change can be made from a
five-spot to a four-spot while swinging the card.

[Illustration]



To Make a Special Envelope


Any size of envelope for mailing special papers or documents can be made
as follows: All envelopes are of the same shape as shown in Fig. 1; the
size for the papers to be inclosed is represented by the dotted lines in
Fig. 2. The projections A are coated with paste, and the flap B is folded
over them. The envelope is then ready for the inclosure. The flap C is
pasted and folded over as with an ordinary envelope.--Contributed by L.
E. Turner, New York City.

[Illustration: Various Stages in the Forming of an Envelope to Make Any
Size for Special Papers (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]



Automatically Extinguishing a Candle


Candles can be easily fitted with attachments to extinguish the light
at a set time. To determine the length of time, it is necessary to mark
a candle of the size used and time how long a certain length of it will
burn. Then it is sufficient to suspend a small metal dome, or cap, to
which a string is attached, directly over the flame, and run the opposite
end of the string over nails or through screw eyes, so that it can be
tied around the candle such a distance from the flame end, that the part
between the flame and the string will be consumed in the time desired for
the light to burn. When this point is reached, the string slips off the
candle, and the cap drops on the flame.

[Illustration]



Clothespin Newspaper Holder


A simple newspaper holder can be made by cutting away a portion of one
side of an ordinary clothespin, drilling a hole through the thick end for
a screw or nail, and fastening it in place where desired. Another way is
to split off one side of a clothespin and cut the bottom of the remaining
part tapering as shown; then drill a hole to avoid splitting the piece
and fasten in a convenient place.--Contributed by J. P. Rupp, Norwalk, O.

[Illustration: Shaping a Clothespin Head and Fastening It to a Wall
Provides a Holder for Newspapers]



Holder for a Dory Rudder


The rudder of a sailing dory or rowboat often comes off in rough water,
and in order to keep it in place and yet have it easily detachable at
will, the following method is useful: Procure a 10-in. length of soft-iron
rod and bend one end of it into a loop large enough to fit around the
rudder pin after the latter is inserted in the eyelet. Insert screws at
A, B and C, letting them project about 1/2 in. from the surface. Bend
the rod at D and A in the shape shown, and with a little adjustment it
will easily snap into position. It will prevent the rudder from riding up
out of the eyelets, but can be detached instantly. The device should be
applied to the upper pin so as to be within easy reach.--Contributed by
B. A. Thresher, Lakeville, Connecticut.

[Illustration: The Loop on the Iron Rod Holds the Pin of the Rudder in
the Eye]



Trimming Photographs


In trimming small photograph prints I experienced some difficulty in
getting them square, and I did not care to invest in a trimming board. By
following a line drawn around the print with a triangle, it was impossible
to make a perfect rectangle. In the place of a trimming board I now use a
piece of glass cut a little smaller than the desired print. The edges of
the glass are smoothed by filing or grinding them. In making a glass, be
sure to have the corners cut at perfect right angles and the edges ground
straight.

The glass is easily located over the print, and by holding the two
tightly together the edges of the print can be trimmed with a pair of
shears.--Contributed by E. Leslie McFarlane, Nashwaaksis, N. B.



A Metal Polish


A metal polish that is safe to use about the home is composed of 30
parts alcohol, 3 parts ammonia water, 45 parts water, 6-1/2 parts carbon
tetrachloride, 8 parts kieselguhr, 4 parts white bole, and 8 parts of
chalk. These substances can be purchased at a local drug store and should
be mixed in the order named. Any grease on metal will be dissolved by this
solution.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling By Stillman Taylor


Part II--Various Two and Three-Piece Rods


While the action of the one-piece rod is undeniably better than when the
rod is made in two or three pieces, it is less compact to carry. To make
a 5-ft. two-piece bait-casting rod, the same dimensions as given for the
one-piece rod will make a very fine fishing tool. It is well to make two
tips in view of a possible breakage. The rod may consist of two pieces
of equal length, but a rod of better action is secured by making the butt
section somewhat shorter with a relatively longer tip. By making the butt
section about 23 in. long, exclusive of ferrule and butt cap, and the
tip section 32-1/2 in. long, a splendid little rod is obtained which will
fit any of the regulation rod cases of 35-in. length. To make a 6-1/2-oz.
rod of this kind with a cork hand grasp, caliper it in the same manner as
the one-piece rod, making the butt section 32-1/2 in. long, tapering from
15/32 in. at the upper end of the hand grasp to 19/64 in. at the ferrule.
The tip is made 33 in. long, tapering from 17/64 in. to 7/64 in. By making
the tip and butt to these lengths, both parts will be of equal length when
the ferrules and the tops are added. The material list is as follows, the
attachments being made of german silver:

  Dagame or greenheart butt, 5/8 in. by 3 ft. long;

  two tips 3/8 in. by 3 ft. long;

  one 3/4-in. reel seat with straight hood;

  one 1-in. butt cap;

  one taper, 15/32 in. at the small end;

  two 3/32-in. offset agate tops;

  two 1/2-in. narrow agate guides;

  two No. 1 size one-ring casting guides;

  one 17/64-in. welted and shouldered ferrule, with two closed-end
    centers, one for each tip;

  two dozen cork washers, 1-1/4 in. in diameter,

  and two spools of winding silk.

[Illustration: The Making of a Rod Not Only Affords Much Pleasure, but
the Rod can be Constructed as Desired]

The three-piece rod should be made up to 6 ft. in length to secure the
best action, but even if so made, the use of the extra ferrules makes
the rod less resilient and elastic than the rod of one or two-piece
construction. The best action is obtained only when the rod bends to a
uniform curve, and since the ferrules cannot conform to this curve, or
arc, the more joints incorporated in a rod, the less satisfactory it will
be from an angling standpoint. Convenience in packing and carrying are the
sole merits which the many-jointed rod possesses. Complete specifications
for making a three-piece bait-casting rod, together with a material list,
is as follows: A rod, about 5-1/2 ft. long with a single or double hand
grasp made of cork, will weigh about 7 oz. Caliper the butt so that it
will taper from 15/32 in to 11/32 in at the cap of the ferrule, making it
21-1/2 in. long. The middle joint is tapered from 21/64 in. to 15/64 in.,
and is 21-3/4 in. long. The tips are 21 in. long and are tapered from
13/64 in. to 7/64 in. Dagame or greenheart is used for the butt, joint,
and tips, and german silver for the fittings. All pieces are 2 ft. long,
the butt is 5/8 in., the joint and tips, 3/8 in.

  One 3/4-in. reel seat with straight hood;

  one 1-in. butt cap;

  one taper, small end 15/32 in.;

  one 21/64-in. welted and shouldered ferrule;

  one 15/64-in. welted and shouldered ferrule with two closed centers,
    one for each tip;

  two 3/32-in. offset agate tops;

  two 1/2-in. narrow agate guides;

  two No. 1 size one-ring casting guides;

  two dozen cork washers, and winding silk, size 00 or 0.


Fly Rods for Trout and Bass


Having made a good bait-casting rod, the amateur will find little trouble
in making a rod with a number of joints, and no special instructions
need be given, since the work of planing and smoothing up the wood, and
finishing and mounting the rod, is the same as has been described in
detail before. For fly fishing for trout, accuracy and delicacy are of
more importance than length of cast, and the rod best suited to this phase
of angling differs greatly from that used in bait casting. A stiff, heavy
rod is entirely unsuited for fly casting, and while it is, of course,
possible to make a rod too willowy for the sport, the amateur, working by
rule of thumb, is more likely to err on the other side and make the fly
rods of too stout a caliber. The idea is simply to help the amateur over
the hard part by giving a list of dimensions of a representative trout and
a bass fly rod. To make a 9-ft. trout fly rod, with a cork grasp having
a length of 9 in. above the reel seat, caliper the material as follows:
The butt is tapered from


  7/16 in. to 25/64 in. at 1 ft. from the butt end;

  1-1/2 ft., 11/32 in.;

  2 ft, 21/64 in.;

  2-1/2 ft., 5/16 in., and 3 ft., 19/64 in.

  The first 6 in. of the middle joint is calipered to 9/32 in.;

  1 ft, 17/64 in.;

  1-1/2 ft, 15/64 in.;

  2 ft., 7/32 in.;

  2-1/2 ft, 13/64 in., and

  3 ft., 3/16 in.

  The first 6 in. of the tips are calipered to 11/64 in.;

  1 ft, 5/32 in.;

  1-1/2 ft., 1/8 in.;

  2 ft., 7/64 in.;

  2-1/2 ft, 3/32 in., and

  3 ft., 5/64 in.

All joints are made 36-1/2 in. long. The material used is dagame, or
greenheart, the butt being 5/8 in. by 4 ft., the joint 3/8 in. by 4 ft.,
and the tips 3/8 in. by 4 ft. The attachments, of german silver, are:


  One 3/4 in. reel seat, fly-rod type with butt cap;

  one taper, 33/64 in. at the small end;

  one 9/32-in. welted and shouldered ferrule;

  one 11/64-in. welted and shouldered ferrule with two closed-end
    centers, one for each tip;

  two No. 4 snake guides for the butt joint;

  three No. 3 snake guides for the middle joint, and

  six No. 2 snake guides, three for each tip section;

  two No. 7 agate angle fly tops, the kind to wind on;

  one dozen cork washers, and

  two 10-yd. spools of winding silk, 00 size.

A bass fly rod 9-1/2 ft. long, weighing 7-1/2 oz., with a cork grasp,
9-1/2 in. above the reel seat, is calipered as follows:

  The butt is tapered from 13/32 in. to 25/64 in. 1 ft. from the end;

  1-1/2 ft. from butt, 23/64 in.;

  2 ft., 11/32 in.;

  2-1/2 ft., 21/64 in., and

  3 ft., 19/64 in.

  The first 6 in. of the middle joint is 19/64 in.;

  1 ft., 9/32 in.;

  1-1/2 ft., 17/64 in.;

  2 ft., 15/64 in.;

  2-1/2 ft., 7/32 in., and 3 ft., 13/64 in.

  The first 6 in. of the tips, 11/64 in.;

  1 ft., 5/32 in.;

  1-1/2 ft., 9/64 in.;

  2 ft, 1/8 in.;

  2-1/2 ft., 7/64 in., and

  3 ft, 5/64 in.

The joints are 36-1/2 in. long. The mountings are the same as for the
trout fly rod. Dagame, or greenheart, wood is used, the butt being 5/8 in.
by 4 ft., the joint 3/8 in. by 4 ft. and the tips 3/8 in. by 4 feet.

The two-piece salt-water rod with an 18-in. double cork hand grasp,
the whole being 6-1/2 ft. long, is made to weigh about 13 oz., with the
following caliperings:

  A uniform taper of 35/64 in. to 29/64 in., from the cork grasp to
    the ferrule, is given to the butt.

  The first 6 in. of the tips is 13/32 in.;

  1 ft., 25/64 in.;

  1-1/2 ft., 11/32 in.;

  2 ft, 21/64 in.;

  2-1/2 ft., 9/32 in.;

  and to tip, 15/64 in.

The joints are made 36-3/4 in. long. Dagame, or greenheart, is used with
german-silver mountings. Both pieces of wood are 4 ft. long, the butt
being of 3/4-in. and the tip of 1/2-in. material. One 7/8-in. reel seat
with straight hood, one 1-in. butt cap, one 7/16-in. ferrule, one taper
with small end 35/64-in.; one 10/32-in. stirrup-tube agate top; two No. 3
bell guides; two dozen cork washers, and two spools, size A, winding silk.

[Illustration: The Mountings for a Fly Rod Consist of a Reel Seat with
a Straight Hood, a Taper, Snake Guide, Agate Angle Top, and Serrated
Ferrule. The Toothed Ends are Wound with Silk to Afford Additional
Strength]


The Independent-Butt Rod


The independent-butt rod, in which the hand grasp contains the ferrule
and the tip is made in one piece, is a favorite type with many of the best
fishermen. This mode of construction may be used with all classes of rods,
the light fly and bait-casting rods, and the heavier caliber rods used in
salt-water angling. In rods of this type, it is only necessary to use the
same size ferrule to make as many tips as desired to fit the one butt.
Tips of several calibers and weights may thus be fashioned to fit the one
butt, and if the single-piece tip is too long for some special use, one
tip may be made a jointed one for ease in carrying.

The independent butt, or hand grasp, is made by fitting the ferrule
directly on a length of dagame, or greenheart, which has been rounded
so that the seated ferrule will not touch the wood. The ferrule is then
cemented and riveted in place, and a soft-pine sleeve is fitted over the
wood core and the ferrule. The forward end of the sleeve is, of course,
tapered to fit the taper of the reel seat, and when properly fitted, its
lower end will project about 1/4 in. beyond the pine sleeve. Glue the
sleeve on this wood core, cement the reel seat to the sleeve, and rivet
the reel seat in place.

The cork washers are glued in position, working the first one into the
metal edge of the reel seat, to make a nice, tight joint at this point.
The other corks are then glued in place until the hand grasp is of the
desired length. The projecting end of the wood core is then cut off flush
with the last cork, and the rod is mounted in the usual manner.

In making a double hand grasp, the forward grasp may be fitted over the
wood core in the fashion already described in making the hand grasp for
the one-piece bait-casting rod, or the forward grasp may be fitted to
the tip, just above the ferrule, as preferred. Both methods are commonly
used, the only difference being in the manner of finishing up the forward
grasp. If the forward grip is affixed to the ferruled end of the tip, two
tapered thimbles will be required to make a nice finish.

The heavy-surf, or tarpon, rod is made up of an independent, detachable
butt, 20 in. long, having a solid-cork or cord-wound hand grasp, and
a one-piece tip, 5-1/2 ft. long, altogether weighing 23-1/2 oz. It is
uniformly calipered to taper from 29/32 in to 5/16 in. One piece of
dagame, or greenheart, 1 in. by 6-1/2 ft., will be required.

  One 1-in. reel seat for detachable butt, including one 3/4-in. male
    ferrule;

  one 1-1/8-in. butt cap; two No. 11 wide, raised agate guides;

  two No. 1 trumpet guides;

  one 3/8-in. agate stirrup top;

  two spools of winding silk, A-size, and

  two dozen cork washers, or sufficient fishline to cord the butt.

The guides are whipped on double, the first set spaced 10 in. from the
top, and the second, 26 in. from the reel. The core of the independent,
or detachable, butt is constructed of the same material as the rod, which
makes the hand grasp somewhat elastic and very much superior to a stiff
and rigid butt.



Homemade Ball Catch for Cabinet Doors


To make a ball catch, procure a piece of brass, 1 in. long, 1/2 in. wide,
and about 1/16 in. thick, and an old gas burner having a diameter of
3/8 in. As described by Work, London, the threaded part of the burner
is cut off, which forms a contracted end that will hold a steel ball
5/16 in. in diameter and allow it to project 1/8 in. A hole is drilled
in the center of the brass plate, and the barrel soldered in place. A
piece of spiral spring is inserted behind the ball. The stiffness of the
spring will depend on the use of the catch. The barrel is cut to length
and plugged. Another plate of brass is fitted with screw holes and a hole
in the center to receive the projecting ball part, for the strike.

[Illustration]



Combination Needle and Thread Tray


When any attempt is made to keep sewing material, such as needles, spools,
or buttons, separate, each of the articles is usually kept in some special
drawer, or by itself, and when necessary to use one, the others must be
found, frequently necessitating many extra steps or much lost time in
hunting up the various articles. The illustrated combination tray avoids
this difficulty. It consists of two round trays fastened together near
one edge with a wood screw, which is loosely fitted in the lower tray but
screwed into the upper to permit them being swung apart. Extra thickness
and weight should be given the bottom piece so no tipping will result
when the top is swung out to expose the buttons in the lower section. The
thread spools are placed on pegs set in the upper tray, and the cushion
in the center is provided for the pins and needles.--Contributed by J.
Harger, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands.

[Illustration]



Repairing Worn Escapement Wheel of a Clock


When the ordinary clock has served its usefulness and is apparently worn
out, the jeweler's price to overhaul it frequently amounts to almost as
much as the original purchase price. One weak place in the clock is the
escapement wheel. The points soon wear down, thereby producing a greater
escapement and pendulum movement, resulting in an increased strain and
wear of the clock. If the tips of the teeth on the wheel are bent up
slightly with a pair of pliers, the swing of the pendulum will be reduced,
thereby increasing the life of the clock. Many of the grandfather's clocks
can be put in order in this manner so as to serve as a timepiece as well
as a cherished ornament.--Contributed by C. F. Spaulding. Chicago, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A piece of work should never be fingered while filing
    it in a lathe.

[Illustration: If He would Take Full Advantage of Any Sport and Reap the
Greatest Pleasure from a Day Spent in the Open, the Sportsman should Get
Together a Good Outfit]



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling By Stillman Taylor


Part III--Trout Fishing with Fly and Bait


The art of angling is generally viewed as one of the world's greatest
recreations, and while each and every phase of fishing may be said to
possess certain charms of its own, fly fishing for trout is regarded by
most well-informed sportsmen as the alpha and omega of the angler's art.
This is so because the trout family are uncommonly wary and game fish,
and the tackle used for their capture is of finer balance and less clumsy
than any employed in angling for the coarser game fishes. If he would
take full advantage of any sport and reap the greatest pleasure from a
day spent in the open, it is really necessary for the sportsman to get
together a good outfit. It is not essential to have a very expensive one,
but it should be good of its kind, well proportioned for the purpose for
which it is to be used. The beginner, who buys without good knowledge of
the articles required, or fails to use careful discrimination, is almost
certain to accumulate a varied assortment of junk, attractive enough in
appearance, perhaps, but well-nigh useless when it is tested out on the
stream. A good representative outfit, then, is of the first importance;
it means making a good beginning by initiating the novice in the sport
under the most favorable conditions. Let us then consider the selection
of a good fishing kit, a well-balanced rod, the kind of a reel to use with
it, the right sort of a line, flies, and the other few items found in the
kit of the practical and experienced trout fisherman.


Selecting a Good Fly Rod


The ordinary fishing pole may be bought offhand at almost any hardware
store, but a well-balanced rod for fly fishing should be well tested
out beforehand. The requirements call for a rod of comparatively light
weight, a rod that is elastic and resilient, and yet strong enough to
prove durable under the continued strain of much fishing. If the angler
has made his own rod, as suggested in former chapters, he will have a good
dependable fly rod, but the large majority of anglers who are about to
purchase their first fishing kit should carefully consider the selection
of the rod. At the outset it must be understood that good tackle is
simply a matter of price, the finest rods and reels are necessarily high
in price, and the same thing may be said of lines and flies. Providing
the angler has no objection to paying $15, or more, for a rod, the choice
will naturally fall upon the handmade split bamboo. For this amount of
money a fair quality fly rod may be purchased, the finer split bamboos
costing anywhere up to $50, but under $15 it is very doubtful whether the
angler can procure a built-up rod that is in every way satisfactory. The
question may arise, Is a split-bamboo rod necessary? The writer's own long
experience says that it is not, and that a finely made solid-wood rod, of
greenheart or dagame, is quite as satisfactory in the hands of the average
angler as the most expensive split bamboo. A good rod of this sort may be
had for $10, and with reasonable care ought to last a lifetime.

The points to look for in a fly rod, whether the material is split bamboo
or solid wood, is an even taper from the butt to the tip; that is, the rod
should register a uniform curve, or arc, the entire length. For general
fly casting 9 ft. is a handy length, and a rod of 6-1/2 oz. weight will
prove more durable than a lighter tool. A good elastic rod is wanted
for fly casting, but a too willowy or whippy action had best be avoided.
However, for small-brook fishing, where the overgrown banks prohibit long
casts, a somewhat shorter and stiffer rod will be more useful. For casting
in large northern streams, where the current is swift and the trout run to
a larger size, a 9-1/2 or 10-ft. rod of 8 oz. weight is often preferred.
Of course, the veteran angler can safely use a much lighter rod than the
beginner, and one occasionally meets a man on the stream that uses a 5-oz.
rod for pretty heavy fishing. To be on the safe side, the novice will make
no mistake in choosing a rod of fair length and conservative weight.

When selecting a rod in the tackle shop, do not rest content with a mere
examination of the appearance, but have the dealer affix a reel of the
weight and size intended to be used with it. By reeling on a short length
of line and reeving it through the guides and then fastening the end to
a weight lying upon the floor, a very good idea of the rod's behavior
may be gained, since by reeling in the line and putting tension on the
rod its elasticity and curve may be seen and felt as well as in actual
fishing. To give the utmost satisfaction, the rod should fit its owner,
and several rods should be tried until one is found that most fully meets
the angler's idea of what a rod should be. If one happens to have a good
fly reel, by all means take it along and attach it to the rod while making
the tests. It is practically impossible to gauge the balance of a rod
without affixing the reel, and many a finely balanced tool will appear
badly balanced until the proper-weight reel is affixed to it.


The Proper Kind of Reel


For fly fishing nothing is so good as the English style of click
reel, which is made with a one-piece revolving side plate and with the
handle affixed directly to it. Any kind of a balanced-handle reel is
an out-and-out nuisance on the fly rod, because it has no advantage in
quickly recovering the line, and the projecting handle is forever catching
the line while casting. In fly casting, the length of cast is regulated
by the amount of line taken from the reel before the cast is made, and
it is while "pumping" this slack line through the guides, in making the
actual cast, that the balanced or projecting handle is very apt to foul
the line. A good reel that is smooth-running like a watch will cost about
$10, but a very good one may be had for $5, and cheaper ones, while not
so durable, may be used with fair satisfaction. The heavier multiplying
reels, so essential for bait casting from a free reel, are altogether
unsuited for the fly rod, being too heavy when placed below the hand,
which is the only proper position for the reel when fly casting. The
single-action click reel, having a comparatively large diameter, but being
quite narrow between the plates, is the one to use, and hard rubber, or
vulcanite, is a good material for the side plates, while the trimmings
may be of german silver or aluminum. The all-metal reel is of about equal
merit, but whatever the material, the most useful size is one holding
about 40 yd. of No. E size waterproof line. A reel of this capacity will
measure about 3 in. in diameter and have a width of about 7/8 in. between
plates. A narrow-spooled reel of this type enables the fisherman to reel
in the line plenty fast enough. Owing to the fact that the reel is placed
below the grip on fly rods, a rather light-weight instrument is needed to
balance the rod. Of the two extremes, it is better to err on the side of
lightness, because a heavy reel makes a butt-heavy rod and, throwing extra
weight on the wrist and arm, makes casting increasingly difficult after an
hour's fishing. An old hand at the game will appreciate this point better
than the novice.

[Illustration: The English Pattern Is the Best Type of Reel for Trout
Fishing, and a Gun-Metal, or Other Dark Finish, Is Better than Shiny
Nickelplate]

[Illustration: Fly Book with Clips for Holding Snelled Flies, So That the
Gut is Kept Straight between Pads of Felt]

[Illustration: Aluminum Box with Clips for Holding Flies Tied on Eyed
Hooks, Each Clip Having Places for Seven Flies]

[Illustration: A Folding-Handle Landing Net may be Left at Home, but Most
Old Anglers Like to Have It Handy When Needed]

[Illustration: Willow Creel, or Basket, Leather-Bound with a Metal
Fastening, the Number Three Size being About Right]

[Illustration: Leader Box of Black-Finished Aluminum with Felt Pads to
Keep the Leaders Moist and Pliable]

[Illustration: A Three-Joint Fly Rod with Cork Hand Grasp and Extra Tip,
and Rod Case Made of Aluminum Tubing]


The Kind of Line to Use


The fly-casting line used by a veteran is generally of silk, enameled
and having a double taper; that is, the line is thickest in the center
and gradually tapers to a smaller diameter at each end. Single-tapered
lines are likewise extensively used, and while they cost less, they are
tapered at one end only and cannot be reversed to equalize the wear caused
by casting. The level line, which has the same diameter throughout its
entire length, is the line most generally used, but the cast cannot be so
delicately made with it. For the beginner, however, the level line in size
No. E is a good choice. For small-brook fishing, No. F is plenty large
enough. In choosing the size of line, there is a common-sense rule among
fly casters to select a line proportioned to the weight of the rod. For
a light rod a light line is the rule, and for the heavier rod a stouter
line is the logical choice. If the rod is of a too stiff action, use a
comparatively heavy line, and it will limber up considerably; if the rod
is extremely "whippy," use the lightest line that can be purchased, and
used with safety.


A Fine Leader Marks the Expert Caster


The leader for trout is preferably of single gut, and as fine as the
angler's skill will allow. The fly caster's rule is to use a leader whose
breaking strain is less than the line, then, when the tackle parts, it is
simply a question of putting on a new leader and the more expensive line
is saved. Ready-made leaders may be purchased, or the angler can tie them
up as desired. For length, a 3 or 3-1/2-ft. leader is about right for
average fishing. Longer leaders are used, and while they sometimes are of
advantage, the 3-ft. length is more useful. A longer leader is awkward to
handle because the loop is apt to catch in the top of the rod when reeling
in the line to bring the fish close to the landing net. Leaders may be had
with a loop at each end, or with loops tied in, for using a cast of two or
three flies. For all average casting, the two-fly cast is the best, but
the expert angler uses the single-fly very often. For lake fishing, the
single large fly is generally preferred. For using two flies, the leader
is provided with three loops, one at the top, another at the bottom, and
an extra loop tied in about 15 in. from the lower loop. In fly casting,
the first, or upper, fly is known as the "dropper," and the lower one as
the "tail" fly. For the single-fly cast but two loops are required.

Gut used for leaders should be carefully selected, and only those lengths
which are of uniform diameter and well rounded chosen, the lengths which
show flat and rough spots being discarded. Dry gut that is very brittle
should be handled very little, and previous to a day's fishing the leaders
must be soaked in water over night to make them pliable, then coiled in
between felt pads of the leader box to keep them in fishing shape. After
use, put the frayed leaders aside and dry them out between the flannel
leaves of the fly book.

Gut is the product of the silkworm, and the best quality is imported
from Spain. It comes in bundles, or hanks, of 1,000 strands, 10 to 20 in.
long and in different thicknesses, or strengths. The heaviest are known
as "Royal" and "Imperial," for salmon; "Marana," for extra-heavy bass;
"Padron," for bass; "Regular," for heavy trout; "Fina," for light trout,
and "Refina," for extra-light trout. The grades "Fina" and "Refina" are
well suited for all average fly fishing, while the heavier sizes are
useful for heavy large fishing.

To make the leaders, soak the strands of gut in warm water over night
until they are soft and pliable. Select the strands for each leader of
the desired thickness and length so that the finished leader will have
a slight taper to one end only. By using the "Fina" gut for the upper
length and tying in two lengths of "Refina" gut, a nicely tapered leader
of light weight is obtained. Begin the leader by uniting the strands
together to make it the correct length, three 12-in. strands being about
right for average casting. The "single water knot" is the strongest and
neatest to use. Make it by taking the thick end of the strand and doubling
it back enough to tie in a common knot just large enough for the line to
pass through and drawing it up tightly. Tie a single loose knot in the
other end of the strand, about 1/8 in. in diameter and close to the end;
take the next thickest strand of gut, thread the thicker end through the
loose knot and tie a second square knot around the strand, as shown at A.
By pulling on the two long ends the loops can be drawn up tightly, and
the two knots will slide together and make a neat and very strong knot.
Repeat this operation until as many strands of gut are knotted together as
required to make the leader of the desired length. For making the loop at
the ends, a double-bighted knot, tied as shown at B, is used. If a dropper
fly is desired, do not pull the water knot tightly, but first insert a
short length of gut with a common knot at the end and a loop in the other,
then draw the water knot up tightly, and a short snell will be made for
attaching the fly as usually.

[Illustration: (A) The Single Water Knot Used in Tying Leaders; (B) a
Good Knot for Making the Loop at the End of the Leaders; (C) an Angler's
Knot Used for Attaching the Line to the Leader, and (D) a Jam Knot for
Attaching Eyed Flies, or Hooks, to the Leader or Snell]


Flies for Trout Fishing


The standard selection of artificial flies numbers about 60, but the
average fisherman will find about 24 selected patterns to answer every
need. For making up the most "killing" flies for the trout season, the
following can be recommended: Use red ibis, stone fly, cinnamon, red
spinner, and parchmenee belle, for April; turkey brown, yellow dun, iron
blue, spinner, montreal and red fox, for May; spider, black gnat, silver
doctor, gray drake, orange dun, and green drake, for June; July dun,
grizzly king, pale evening dun, red ant, and brown palmer, for July;
Seth green, coachman, shad, governor, August dun, and royal coachman, for
August, and black palmer, willow, whirling dun, queen of the water, and
blue bottle, for September.

To attach a line to the leader the well-known "angler's knot" is mostly
used. This knot is shown at C. The snelled fly is attached by passing
the loop over the loop of the leader and inserting the fly through the
leader loop. When eyed flies are used they are often attached direct to
the leader, or a looped snell may be used as in the ordinary American-tied
fly. To attach the eyed fly direct to the leader, the common "jam knot,"
shown at D, is mostly used, and when the slipknot is drawn up tightly and
the extra end cut off it makes a small, neat knot, not apt to slip.



Catch to Hold Two Joining Doors Open


Where two open doors meet, a catch to keep them open can be made of
a piece of wire, shaped as shown. The hooks at the ends of the wire
are slipped over the shanks of the knobs.--Contributed by W. A. Saul,
Lexington, Mass.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *

    Strips cut from wood dishes used by grocers for
    butter, thoroughly soaked in warm water, will make
    excellent repair pieces for market baskets.



Bicycle Oil Lamp Changed to Electric Light


The desire for an electric light for my bicycle caused me to change a
fine oil lamp, too good to be thrown away, so that an electric globe
could be used in it. The oil cup of the lamp was removed, and a wood push
button fastened in its place with three screws. Before fastening the push
button, a porcelain socket was attached to its bottom, and connections
were made between socket and push button, ends being left protruding for
connection to the battery. A small flash-light battery was fastened to the
lamp bracket. A small rubber washer was placed between the head of the
push button on the switch and the cap, so that in screwing the cap up,
a permanent connection was made. The lamp can be used as a lantern when
removed from the bicycle.--Contributed by Lee Baker, Chicago.

[Illustration: A Push Button with Socket and Miniature Globe Used in an
Oil Lamp for Electric Light]



Lifter for Removing Eggs from Hot Water


An improvement over the customary way of removing eggs from hot water with
a tablespoon, is to use an old-fashioned coffee strainer. This brings
up the eggs without carrying hot water with them.--Contributed by L. E.
Turner, New York, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Genuine oxalic acid may be used for removing stains
    from all woods except mahogany.



Double Top for a Table


The need of two tables in a kitchen where there was space for only one,
was the cause of devising the arrangement shown in the illustration. An
ordinary kitchen table was mounted on trunk casters or domes so that it
could be moved easily, whereupon a zinc top was put on it with raised
edges. The table was then placed against the wall where it was to be used,
and an extra, plain top fitted to it and hinged to the wall.

[Illustration: An Extra Top Covers the Table When It is Placed against
the Wall]

When it was desired to wash dishes on the zinc top, the table was pulled
out without disturbing the articles on the hinged top. After drying the
dishes, they are removed from the zinc top to the hinged part, and the
table is pushed back against the wall.--Contributed by Louis Drummond,
Philadelphia, Pa.

[Illustration: The Table When Drawn Out Uncovers the Zinc Tray, Fastened
on Top]

[Illustration: As a General Thing, the Veteran Fly Fisherman Prefers to
Wade with the Current, and Fishes the Water in Front of Him by Making
Diagonal Casts across the Stream]



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling By Stillman Taylor


Part IV--Trout Fishing with Fly and Bait


How to Cast the Fly


To be able to cast the artificial fly a distance of 50 ft., or more, and
let the feathered lure alight upon the desired bit of water as lightly as
a falling leaf is no small accomplishment, for fly casting is an art, and
to become an expert, much practice is necessary. The personal assistance
of a skillful caster is not often available, but if the angler will follow
the suggestions outlined, a beginner will soon grasp the knack of handling
the fly rod, and the casting will steadily improve with practice. As the
knack of handling a gun is best gained--not in the field, shooting live
game, but through shooting at targets--so may the art of fly casting be
more quickly acquired by intelligent practice conducted away from the
stream, in the back yard, or any other place roomy enough to swing the
rod and a moderately long line. By practicing in this way, the angler's
attention is focused upon the cast and is not partly occupied with the
excitement of fishing. To make a good beginning, let the reel contain
about 25 yd. of common, braided, linen line (size E is about right) and
instead of a fly, or hook, affix a small split shot to the end of the
line. It is well to begin with a cheap rod and save a good outfit, and
if the angler learns how to make a fairly long and accurate cast with
a common rod, he may feel assured that he can even do better with a
first-rate outfit.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--The Proper Way to Take Hold of the Handle with the
Reel on the Under Side]

The first point to observe in making the cast is to grip the rod
correctly, and this is done by grasping the rod at the right point where
it balances best. By shifting the hand about this point of balance is
quickly found, for at no other point will the rod "hang" well in the hand.
In casting, the reel is turned to the under side of the rod with the thumb
extended along the top of the grip, as shown in Fig. 1. Taking up an easy
casting position, with the left foot slightly advanced, pull from the reel
about 25 yd. of line and let this slack line fall in coils upon the ground
in front; bring the rod up slightly above the horizontal, as shown in Fig.
2, and with a quick snap of the wrist, avoiding shoulder or body movement,
throw the tip upward, checking it sharply as soon as the tip is carried
over the shoulder about 25° beyond the vertical plane as in Fig. 3. This
snappy upstroke of the rod makes the "back cast," by projecting the line
high in the air, and carries it well behind the angler. Before the line
has fully straightened out behind, and before it has an opportunity to
fall much below the caster's shoulders, the rod is snapped forward with a
quick wrist-and-forearm movement, which throws the line forward in front
of the fisherman and in the direction he is facing, which finishes the
cast with the rod in the position shown in Fig. 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Begin the Cast with the Rod in a Position Just
above the Horizontal Plane]

Long and accurate fly casting is much more a matter of skill than muscle,
and while some fly fishermen cast directly from the shoulder and upper
arm, and thus use a considerable amount of muscular force in making the
cast, this cannot be regarded as the best method of casting. The great
elasticity of the fly rod ought to be taken full advantage of by the
caster, and if this is done, casting will be naturally accomplished by
the wrist and forearm. To make strenuous efforts to hurl the fly through
the air, using an arm or body movement, is extremely tiring after an hour
or so of fishing, while if the cast is made from the wrist, aided by the
forearm, the snap of the rod may be depended upon to project the fly to
greater length of line and allow it to fall close to the desired spot,
lightly and without splashing.

Timing the back cast is the most difficult detail of fly casting, because
the line is behind the angler and the eye cannot aid the hand. The novice
will soon acquire the knack of casting, however, if he will remember to
keep the elbow close to the side, and to keep the line well up in the
air when making the back cast, and to begin the forward movement before
the line has fully straightened out behind him. After a little practice,
the hand will feel the slight tension communicated to the rod as the
line begins to straighten out, and this should be taken advantage of to
correctly time the forward movement. Counting "one" for the upstroke, "two
and" for the interval required for the line to straighten out in the rear,
and "three" for the forward movement, is also a good way to time the cast.

At the beginning the caster should make no attempt to secure distance.
Accuracy and delicacy in placing the fly on the water is of much more
importance than length of cast in trout fishing, and to attain this end,
it is a good plan to place a newspaper about 25 ft. distant and try to
drop the end of the line on this mark. When the caster can drop the line
on the target lightly and with reasonable accuracy, he may feel justified
in lengthening his cast. Other casts than the overhead cast just described
are occasionally used, as the Spey, switch, wind, and flip casts, but
the overhead cast is mostly used, although it is much more difficult to
master.

To make the Spey cast, the angler requires a rapid stream which will
carry the line downstream until it is straight and taut, the tip of the
rod being held as long as possible to accomplish this end. The rod is
then raised high in the air with a quick wrist movement, which lifts
the line from the water to the extreme end, then without pausing the rod
is carried upstream with just sufficient force to let the fly fall just
above the angler. The line is now on the reverse, or upper, side of the
fisherman, when with a sweep of the rod the line is projected over the
water's surface--not along the surface--in the manner used in making the
overhead cast.

[Illustration: Fig. 3--The Rod is Quickly Checked When It is Carried over
the Shoulder About 25 Degrees]

The switch cast is sometimes useful when trees or rocks are immediately
back of the fisherman, thus preventing the line from extending far enough
backward to make the overhead cast. In making this cast the line is
not lifted from the water, but merely to the surface by raising the tip
of the rod. The line is dragged through the water by carrying the tip
in the direction one is standing until it is as far in the rear as the
obstructions will permit. By a quick downward sweep of the rod the line
is projected with sufficient force to roll it forward in a large coil or
loop, much as a wheel rolls on a track.

The wind cast is a modification of the switch cast, but easier to make.
The caster brings his line almost to his feet, and with a quick downward
motion of the rod the line is thrown in a long loop against the wind.
The underhand and the flip casts are so simple that it seems almost
unnecessary to describe them. Both are short casts and are only used when
the angler is fishing in an overgrown stream. The underhand cast is really
a side cast, inasmuch as the short line is lifted from the water in a loop
and propelled in the desired direction by a side sweep of the rod. The
flip cast is made by holding the fly between the thumb and finger and with
a few coils of line in the right hand. Bend the rod like a bow, release
the fly suddenly, and the snap of the rod will project it in the desired
direction and allow it to drop lightly like a fly.


Handling the Flies in the Water


As a general thing the veteran fly fisherman prefers to wade with the
current and fishes the water in front of him by making diagonal casts
across the stream. A good fisherman will systematically cover every inch
of good water and little will be left to chance. The novice is inclined to
fish his flies in a contrary manner, he casts more or less at random, and
is as likely to splash the flies recklessly about in the most impossible
places as he is to drop them in a favorable riffle or pool. To be able
to pick out fishable water, the angler should know something about the
habits of the trout, their characteristics at the several seasons of the
fishing year, and their habits, which differ greatly in different streams.
A fishing knowledge of the stream to be visited is of much value, but
if the angler knows how to make a fair cast and possesses average skill
in handling flies on water, there should be no question but that he will
creel a fair number of trout even though he casts in strange waters.

[Illustration: Fig. 4--The Cast is Finished by Throwing the Line Forward
with a Quick Wrist-and-Forearm Movement]

To imitate the action of the natural insect is the most successful manner
of fishing the flies, and as the natural fly will struggle more or less
when borne down with the current, the fisherman endeavors to duplicate
this movement by making his artificial fly wriggle about. This motion
must not be overdone, for if the flies are twitched and skipped about, or
pulled against the current, the wary trout will refuse to fall for any
such obvious deceit. A gentle motion of the wrist will cause the fly to
move somewhat as the natural insect will struggle.

In making the cast do not cast directly down or upstream, but across
the current at an angle. Let the flies fall upon the water as lightly as
possible, so that the water will carry them downstream over the likely
places where the trout are hiding. Keep the line as taut as possible by
drawing the slack in with the left hand. The flies should not be allowed
to soak in the water, neither should they be retrieved in haste. The
experienced fly caster will invariably fish with a wet line, that is to
say, with a slightly submerged fly, and will let the flies drag over as
much water as possible before making a second cast. Owing to the fact
that trout lie with their noses pointing upstream awaiting their food
carried down by the current, the caster will naturally take pains to float
his flies downstream with the leader fairly taut. To neglect this detail
and allow the leader to float in a wide loop near or before the flies
is slovenly fishing, and few trout will strike a fly presented in this
amateurish fashion.

Early in the fishing season, and when the stream is flooded and discolored
after a heavy rain, it is a good plan to fish the flies below the surface.
Fishing in this manner makes it more difficult to tell when to strike a
fish, and some little practice is needed to determine the opportune moment
by feeling the slight tension on the line. Many fish will be pricked to
be sure, but some trout will be creeled, and fishing with the submerged
fly is sometimes the only way trout can be taken.

On fair days and in smooth water, better luck may be expected when the fly
is kept upon the surface, and this is easily managed by keeping the tip
of the rod well in the air. Often the fisherman can take advantage of a
bit of floating foam, and if the fly is cast upon it and allowed to float
with it downstream, the ruse will often prove effective.

The trout is a hard striker and it is not unusual to have a trout rush
ahead of the fly in his attempt to mouth it. In rapid water the savage
rush of the fish is sufficient to hook it securely, but when casting in
quiet pools, the hook is imbedded by a snap of the wrist. At what exact
moment to strike, as well as the amount of force to use, depends upon
circumstances. When fishing in small streams and brooks where the trout
run small, much less force is necessary to hook the fish, but in quiet
water and in larger streams where 2 or 3-lb. trout are not uncommon, the
fish may be struck with a smart upward jerk of the forearm and wrist.
So far as my experience goes, the matter of striking is governed by the
temperament as well as the judgment of the angler. The deliberate thinking
man is likely to strike too late, while the nervous individual, striking
too early, is apt to prick the trout and roll him over.

The best time to fish for trout is when they are feeding on the surface;
and in the early days of spring, when there are few flies about, the
warmer part of the day, say, from 10 in the morning to 5 in the afternoon,
will prove to be the most successful time. Later on, when flies are
numerous, good luck may be expected at an early hour in the morning,
and in the hot summer months the cooler hours of the day may be chosen.
Of course, there are many exceptions, since there are many cool days in
summer, as well as exceptionally warm days in spring, and these changes
of weather should be considered. However, extremes are not likely to make
good fishing, and the trout will not rise as freely on cold, windy days,
nor will they fight as gamely. On hot days, too, not so much luck can be
expected during the hours of the greatest heat--12 to 4--but a good basket
of trout may be creeled early in the morning or late in the afternoon of
summer. A bright, clear day is usually the best for fly fishing, because
the sun brings out more flies, but a warm rain, or even a fog, is also
considered good fishing weather.

Among the live baits available for trout fishing are the minnow, white
grub, cricket, grasshopper, and other insects, and last, but by no means
least, the common angle or earthworm. The minnow is beyond a doubt the
most enticing morsel that can be offered to a hungry trout, and a minnow
may be reckoned to secure a rise when other baits fail. The inconvenience
of transporting this bait is a great drawback, and as minnows are delicate
fish, a minnow bucket is necessary for their preservation. This means a
lot of trouble, as the water must be frequently changed or aerated, and
this labor, together with the difficulty of carrying a bulky pail through
the brush, makes this desirable bait almost impossible for stream and
brook fishing. The salt-water minnow, known as a "shiner" or "mummychug,"
is a topnotch trout bait, and being much tougher than the fresh-water
minnow, makes a bait often used by anglers residing near the seacoast.

The white grub, or larvae of the so-called May beetle, is a good bait
available for early-season fishing, and may be obtained in the early
spring months by spading up grass land. The grub is about 1 in. long, and
of a creamy yellow color with a darker head. It may be kept a month, or
more, by putting it in a box with a number of pieces of fresh turf.

Crickets, grasshoppers, and many other insects, make good baits, while
the earthworm is a good all-around bait for trout. A supply dug some days
before and kept by packing in fresh moss and slightly moistening with milk
and water will prove more attractive in appearance and the worms will be
tougher and cleaner to handle than when carried in earth.

Other good baits include the fin of a trout, and if this is used in
combination with the eye of the same fish, it forms an attractive lure. In
using this bait, do not puncture the eyeball, but hook through the thin
flexible skin surrounding the eye. A fat piece of salt pork, cut into
pieces 1 in. long and 1/4 in. wide, makes a fairly good bait. Spoons and
other spinning baits are presumably attractive, but few sportsmen use them
when angling for so fine a fish as trout.

[Illustration:]



Houses Made of Poles By Lola A. Pinchon


    [In this article descriptions are given of several shelters
    suitable for a resort, but the reader may select any one of
    them that answers his needs and build a camp house, or fit up
    a more substantial one to make living quarters for the whole
    year.--Editor.]

[Illustration: Houses Made of Poles]

Being forced to take the open-air treatment to regain health, a person
adopted the plan of building a pole house in the woods, and the scheme was
so successful that it was decided to make a resort grounds, to attract
crowds during holidays, by which an income could be realized for living
expenses. All the pavilions, stands, furniture, and amusement devices
were constructed of straight poles cut from young growth of timber with
the bark remaining on them. Outside of boards for flooring and roofing
material, the entire construction of the buildings and fences consisted
of poles.

[Illustration: The Frame Construction of the House Made Entirely of Rough
Poles, the Verticals being Set in the Ground, Plumbed, and Sighted to Make
a Perfect Rectangle of the Desired Proportions]

A level spot was selected and a house built having three rooms. The
location was in a grove of young timbers, most of it being straight, and
13 trees were easily found that would make posts 12 ft. long, required
for the sides, and two poles 16 ft. long, for the center of the ends, so
that they would reach to the ridge. The plot was laid out rectangular and
marked for the poles, which were set in the ground for a depth of 4 ft.,
at distances of 6 ft. apart. This made the house 8 ft. high at the eaves
with a square pitch roof; that is, the ridge was 3 ft. high in the center
from the plate surfaces for this width of a house. The rule for finding
this height is to take one-quarter of the width of the house for the
height in the center from the plate.

[Illustration: The Steps are Supported on Pairs of Vertical Poles Set in
the Ground to Make Different Levels]

The corner poles were carefully located to make the size 12 by 24 ft.,
with a lean-to 8 by 12 ft., and then plumbed to get them straight
vertically. The plates for the sides, consisting of five poles, were
selected as straight as possible and their ends and centers hewn down to
about one-half their thickness, as shown at A and B, and nailed to the
tops of the vertical poles, the connection for center poles being as shown
at C.

The next step was to secure the vertical poles with crosspieces between
them which were used later for supporting the siding. These poles were
cut about 6 ft. long, their ends being cut concave to fit the curve of the
upright poles, as shown at D. These were spaced evenly, about 2 ft. apart
from center to center, on the sides and ends, as shown in the sketch,
and toenailed in place. The doors and window openings were cut in the
horizontal poles wherever wanted, and casements set in and nailed. The
first row of horizontal poles was placed close to the ground and used both
as support for the lower ends of the siding and to nail the ends of the
flooring boards to, which were fastened in the center to poles laid on
stones, or, better still, placed on top of short blocks, 5 ft. long, set
in the ground. These poles for the floor should be placed not over 2 ft.
apart to make the flooring solid.

[Illustration: Gate Openings were Made in the Fence Where Necessary, and
Gates of Poles Hung in the Ordinary Manner]

A lean-to was built by setting three poles at a distance of 8 ft. from
one side, beginning at the center and extending to the end of the main
building. These poles were about 6 ft. long above the ground. The rafter
poles for this part were about 9-1/2 ft. long, notched at both ends for
the plates, the ends of the house rafters being sawed off even with the
outside of the plate along this edge. The rafter poles for the house were
10 in all, 8 ft. long, and were laid off and cut to fit a ridge made of a
board. These poles were notched about 15 in. from their lower ends to fit
over the rounding edge of the plate pole, and were then placed directly
over each vertical wall pole. They were nailed both to the plate and to
the ridge, also further strengthened by a brace made of a piece of board
or a small pole, placed under the ridge and nailed to both rafters. On
top of the rafters boards were placed horizontally, spaced about 1 ft.
apart, but this is optional with the builder, as other roofing material
can be used. In this instance metal roofing was used, and it only required
fastening at intervals, and to prevent rusting out, it was well painted on
the under side before laying it and coated on the outside when fastened
in place. If a more substantial shelter is wanted, it is best to lay the
roof solid with boards, then cover it with the regular prepared roofing
material.

Some large trees were selected and felled, then cut into 4-ft. lengths
and the bark removed, or if desired, the bark removed in 4-ft. lengths,
and nailed on the outside of the poles, beginning at the bottom in the
same manner as laying shingles, to form the siding of the house. If a more
substantial house is wanted, boards can be nailed on the poles, then the
bark fastened to the boards; also, the interior can be finished in wall
board.

The same general construction is used for the porch, with horizontal
poles latticed, as shown, to form the railing. It is very easy to make
ornamental parts, such as shown, on the eave of the porch, by splitting
sticks and nailing them on closely together to make a frieze. Floors are
laid on the porch and in the house, and doors hung and window sash fitted
in the same manner as in an ordinary house.

[Illustration: All Furniture, Together with the Large Lawn Swings, Took
on the General Appearance of the Woodland, and As the Pieces were Made Up
of the Same Material As the Houses, the Cost Was Only the Labor and a Few
Nails]

A band stand was constructed on sloping ground, and after setting the
poles, the floor horizontals were placed about 2 ft. above the ground,
on the upper side, and 4 ft. on the lower side. The poles used were about
18 ft. long. Instead of having the horizontals 2 ft. apart, the first was
placed 1 ft. above the floor, the next at about one-half the distance
from the lower one to the plate at the top, and the space between was
ornamented with cross poles, as shown. A balcony or bay was constructed
at one end, and a fancy roof was made of poles whose ends rested on a
curved pole attached to the vertical pieces. Steps were formed of several
straight poles, hewn down on their ends to make a level place to rest on
horizontal pieces attached to stakes at the ends. A pair of stakes were
used at each end of a step, and these were fastened to a slanting piece at
the top, their lower ends being set into the ground. The manner of bracing
and crossing with horizontals makes a rigid form of construction, and if
choice poles are selected for the step pieces, they will be comparatively
level and of sufficient strength to hold up all the load put on them.
The roof of this building was made for a sun shade only and consisted of
boards nailed closely together on the rafters.

[Illustration: The Entrance to the Grounds was Given an Inviting
Appearance with Large Posts and Swinging Gates]

An ice-cream parlor was built on the same plan, but without any board
floor; the ground, being level, was used instead. There were five vertical
poles used for each end with a space left between the two poles at the
center, on both sides, for an entrance. This building was covered with
prepared roofing, so that the things kept for sale could be protected in
case of a shower.

A peanut stand was also built without a floor, and to make it with nine
sides, nine poles were set in the ground to form a perfect nonagon and
joined at their tops with latticed horizontals. Then a rafter was run
from the top of each post to the center, and boards were fitted on each
pair of rafters over the V-shaped openings. The boards were then covered
with prepared roofing. A railing was formed of horizontals set in notches,
cut in the posts, and then ornamented in the same manner as for the other
buildings.

Fences were constructed about the grounds, made of pole posts with
horizontals on top, hewn down and fitted as the plates for the house; and
the lower pieces were set in the same as for making the house railing.
Gates were made of two vertical pieces, the height of the posts, and two
horizontals, then braced with a piece running from the lower corner at
the hinge side to the upper opposite corner, the other cross brace being
joined to the sides of the former, whereupon two short horizontals were
fitted in the center. A blacksmith formed some hinges of rods and strap
iron, as shown, and these were fastened in holes bored in the post and
the gate vertical. A latch was made by boring a hole through the gate
vertical and into the end of the short piece. Then a slot was cut in the
side to receive a pin inserted in a shaft made to fit the horizontal hole.
A keeper was made in the post by boring a hole to receive the end of the
latch.

Large posts were constructed at the entrance to the grounds, and on
these double swing gates, made up in the same manner as the small one,
were attached. These large posts were built up of four slender poles and
were considerably higher than the fence poles. The poles were set in a
perfect square, having sides about 18 in. long, and a square top put on
by mitering the corners, whereupon four small rafters were fitted on top.
The gates were swung on hinges made like those for the small gate.

Among the best and most enjoyed amusement devices on the grounds were the
swings. Several of these were built, with and without tables. Four poles,
about 20 ft. long, were set in the ground at an angle, and each pair of
side poles was joined with two horizontals, about 12 ft. long, spreaders
being fastened between the two horizontals to keep the tops of the poles
evenly spaced. The distance apart of the poles will depend on the size of
the swing and the number of persons to be seated. Each pair of side poles
are further strengthened with crossed poles, as shown. If no table is to
be used in the swing, the poles may be set closer together, so that the
top horizontals will be about 8 ft. long. The platform for the swinging
part consists of two poles, 12 ft. long, which are swung on six vertical
poles, about 14 ft. long. These poles are attached to the top horizontals
with long bolts, or rods, running through both, the bottom being attached
in the same manner. Poles are nailed across the platform horizontals at
the bottom for a floor, and a table with seats at the ends is formed of
poles. The construction is obvious.

A short space between two trees can be made into a seat by fastening two
horizontals, one on each tree, with the ends supported by braces. Poles
are nailed on the upper surface for a seat.

Other furniture for the house and grounds was made of poles in the manner
illustrated. Tables were built for picnickers by setting four or six
poles in the ground and making a top of poles or boards. Horizontals were
placed across the legs with extending ends, on which seats were made for
the tables. Chairs and settees were built in the same manner, poles being
used for the entire construction.



An Electric Water Heater


Procure the barrel and cap from a hand bicycle pump and prepare them as
follows: Make a tube of paper, about double the thickness of a postal
card, to fit snugly in the pump barrel and oil it slightly before slipping
it into place. Procure some resistance wire of the proper length and
size to heat quickly. The wire can be tested out by coiling it on some
nonconducting material, such as an earthen jug or glazed tile, and
connecting one end to the current supply and running the other wire of
the supply over the coil until it heats properly. Cut the resistance at
this point and temporarily coil it to fit into the bottom of the pump
barrel, allowing one end to extend up through the space in the center with
sufficient length to make a connection to supply wires.

Mix some dental plaster to the consistency of thick cream and, while
keeping the wire in the center of the pump barrel, pour in the mixture
until it is filled to within 1-1/2 in. of the top. Allow the plaster to
set for about a day, then remove it from the barrel and take off the paper
roll. The coil of wire at the bottom is now straightened out and wound in
a coil over the outside of the plaster core, allowing sufficient end for
connecting to the supply wires.

[Illustration: An Electric Heating Coil Made of Resistance Wire Placed in
a Bicycle-Pump Barrel for Boiling Water]

Cut two or three disks of mica to fit snugly in the bottom of the pump
barrel, also cut a mica sheet to make a covering tube over the coil on the
plaster core and insert the whole into the barrel. The two terminals are
connected to the ends of a flexible cord which has a plug attached to the
opposite end. Be sure to insulate the ends of the wire where they connect
to the flexible cord inside of the pump barrel under the cap. In winding
the resistance wire on the core, be sure that one turn does not touch the
other. The heater when connected to a current supply and placed in 1 qt.
of water will bring it to a boil quickly.--Contributed by A. H. Waychoff,
Lyons, Colo

[Illustration]



Camps By F. S. Charles


A good site, pure water in abundance, and a convenient fuel supply, are
the features of a temporary camp that should be given first consideration
when starting out to enjoy a vacation in the woods. The site should
be high and dry, level enough for the tent and camp fire, and with
surrounding ground sloping enough to insure proper drainage. A sufficient
fuel supply is an important factor, and a spot should be chosen where
great effort is not required to collect it and get it into proper shape
for the fire.

[Illustration: Wall Tent]

[Illustration: Lean-To of Boughs]

[Illustration: Log Cabin]

When locating near streams of water be careful to select a spot above high
water mark so the ground will not be overflowed by a sudden rise of the
stream. Do not select the site of an old camp, as the surroundings are
usually stripped of all fuel, and the grounds are unclean.


Division of Work


Clear the selected spot and lay out the lines for the tent, camp fire,
etc. If the camping party consists of more than two persons, each
one should do the part allotted to him, and the work will be speedily
accomplished. Remember that discipline brings efficiency, and do not be
slack about a camp just because it is pleasure. One of the party should
attend to the camp fire and prepare the meals while another secures the
fuel and water. The tent can be unpacked and the ground cleared by the
other members of the party, and when ready, all should assist in raising
the tent, especially if it is a large one.


Tents


An ordinary A or wedge tent is sufficient for one or two campers. Where
you do not wish to locate permanently, this tent can be set up and taken
down quickly. It should have a ring fastened to the cloth in each peak
through which to pass a rope or line to take the place of a ridge pole.
Such a tent can be pitched between two trees or saplings, and, after tying
the rope to the trees, it can be tightened with a long forked stick,
placed under one end of the rope. If two trees are not conveniently
located, then two poles crossed and tied together will make supports
for one or both ends, the ridge line running over them and staked to the
ground.

[Illustration: Fire between Two Logs]

[Illustration: Fire Built against a Log]

On a chilly night, the A tent is quite advantageous. The stakes can be
pulled on one side and the cloth doubled to make a lean-to, open on the
side away from the wind. A fire can be built in front and the deflected
heat on the sleeper will keep him comfortable and warm.

For larger parties, the wall tent with a fly is recommended. These tents
can be purchased in various sizes. The fly is an extra covering stretched
over the top to make an open air space between the two roofs. It keeps the
interior of the tent delightfully cool in hot summer weather and provides
a better protection from rain. The fly can be made extra long, to extend
over the end of the tent, making a shady retreat which can be used for
lounging or a dining place.


Protection from Insects


Where mosquitoes and other insects are numerous, it is well to make a
second tent of cheesecloth with binding tape along the top to tie it to
the ridge pole of the regular tent. The sides should be made somewhat
longer than the regular tent so that there will be plenty of cloth to
weight it down at the bottom. This second tent should be made without any
opening whatever. The occupant must crawl under the edge to enter. The
cheesecloth tent is used inside of the ordinary tent, and when not in use
it is pushed aside.

[Illustration: Forked Sticks Supporting Cooking Utensils]

Two camps are illustrated showing the construction of a lean-to for a
temporary one-season camp, and a log cabin which makes a permanent place
from year to year. (A more elaborate and more expensive camp was described
in the May issue of this magazine.) The construction of these camps are
very simple. The first is made of poles cut in the woods. A ridge pole is
placed between two trees or held in place with poles of sufficient length,
set in the ground. Poles are placed on this at an angle of about 45 deg.,
forming a lean-to that will be entirely open in front when finished. The
poles are covered, beginning at the bottom, with pine boughs, laid in
layers so as to make a roof that will shed water. A large fire, built a
short distance from the open front will make a warm place to sleep, the
heat being reflected down the same as described for the A tent.


A Permanent Camp


A good permanent camp is a log cabin. This can be constructed of materials
found in the woods. Trees may be felled, cut to length, and notched to
join the ends together at each corner so as to leave little or no space
between the logs. The roof is constructed of long clapboards, split from
blocks of wood. The builder can finish such a camp as elaborately as he
chooses, and for this reason the site should be selected with great care.


Camp Fires


There is no better way to make a camp fire than to have a large log or
two against which to start a fire with small boughs. Larger sticks can be
placed over the logs in such a way as to hold a pot of water or to set
a frying pan. Forked sticks can be laid on the log and weighted on the
lower end with a stone, using the upper end to hang a cooking vessel over
the flames. Two logs placed parallel, with space enough between for the
smaller sticks, make one of the best camp cooking arrangements. Two forked
sticks, one at each end of the logs, may be set in the ground and a pole
placed in the forks lengthwise of the fire. This makes a convenient place
for hanging the cooking utensils with bent wires.


Food Supplies


The conditions in various localities make a difference in the camper's
appetite and in consequence no special list of food can be recommended,
but the amount needed by the average person in a vacation camp for two
weeks, is about as follows:

  Bacon              15  lb.
  Ham                 5  "
  Flour              20  "
  Corn Meal           5  "
  Rice                5  "
  Baking Powder     1/2  "
  Sugar               5  "
  Beans               4  "
  Salt                2  "
  Lard                3  "
  Coffee              3  "

A number of small things must be added to this list, such as pepper, olive
oil, sage, nutmeg and vinegar. If the weight is not to be considered,
canned goods, preserves, jam and marmalade, also vegetables and dried
fruits may be added. Do not forget soap and matches.

Food can be kept cool in a box or a box-like arrangement made of straight
sticks over which burlap is hung and kept wet. This is accomplished by
setting a pan on top of the box and fixing wicks of cloth over the edges.
The wicks will siphon the water out evenly and keep the burlap wet.



A Drinking Tube


When on a walking tour through the woods or country, it might be well
to provide a way to procure water for drinking purposes. Take with you
several feet of small rubber tubing and a few inches of hollow cane of
the size to fit the tube.

In one end insert the cane for a mouthpiece, and allow the other end to
reach into the water. Exhaust the air from the tube and the water will
rush up to your lips.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Augusta, Ga.



Washing Photographic Prints


The usual way of washing photographic prints is to place them in a shallow
tray in which they will become stuck together in bunches, if they are
not often separated. A French magazine suggests that a deep tank be used
instead, and that each print be attached to a cork by means of a pin
stuck through one corner, the cork thus becoming a float which keeps the
print suspended vertically, and at the same time prevents contact with
its nearest neighbor.



Camp Furnishings By Chelsea Curtis Fraser


When on a camping trip nothing should be carried but the necessities, and
the furnishings should be made up from materials found in the woods. A
good spring bed can be made up in the following manner: Cut two stringers
from small, straight trees, about 4 in. in diameter, and make them about
6 ft. long. All branches are trimmed off smooth and a trench is dug in the
ground for each piece, the trenches being 24 in. apart. Small saplings,
about 1 in. in diameter, and as straight as can be found, are cut and
trimmed of all branches, and nailed across the stringers for the springs.
Knots, bulges, etc., should be turned downward as far as possible. The
ends of each piece are flattened as shown at A, Fig. 1, to give it a good
seat on the stringers.

A larger sapling is cut, flattened, and nailed at the head of the bed
across the stringers, and to it a number of head-stay saplings, B, are
nailed. These head-stay pieces are cut about 12 in. long, sharpened on one
end and driven a little way into the ground, after which they are nailed
to the head crosspiece.

[Illustration: A Camp Bed Made of Saplings with Several Layers of Boughs
for the Mattress (Fig. 1)]

In the absence of an empty mattress tick and pillow cover which can be
filled with straw, boughs of fir may be used. These boughs should not be
larger than a match and crooked stems should be turned down. Begin at the
head of the bed and lay a row of boughs with the stems pointing toward the
foot. Over this row, and half-lapping it, place another row so that the
tops of the boughs lie on the line C and their stems on the line D. This
process is continued until the crosspiece springs are entirely covered,
and then another layer is laid in the same manner on top of these, and
so on, until a depth of 6 or 8 in. is obtained. This will make a good
substitute for a mattress. A pillow can be made by filling a meal bag with
boughs or leaves.

[Illustration: A Table Made of Packing-Box Material and a Wash Basin Stand
of Three Stakes (Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

A good and serviceable table can be constructed from a few fence boards,
or boards taken from a packing box. The table and chairs are made in one
piece, the construction being clearly shown in Fig. 2. The height of the
ends should be about 29 in., and the seats about 17 in. from the ground.
The other dimensions will be governed by the material at hand and the
number of campers.

A wash-basin support can be made of three stakes, cut from saplings and
driven in the ground, as shown in Fig. 3. The basin is hung by its rim
between the ends of the stakes.

Wherever a suitable tree is handy, a seat can be constructed as shown in
Fig. 4. Bore two 1-in. holes, 8 in. apart, in the trunk, 15 in. above the
ground, and drive two pins, about 12 in. long, cut from a sapling into
them. The extending ends are supported on legs of the same material. The
seat is made of a slab with the rounding side down.

A clothes hanger for the tent ridge pole can be made as shown in Fig.
5. The hanger consists of a piece, 7 in. long, cut from a 2-in. sapling,
nails being driven into its sides for hooks. The upper end is fitted with
a rope which is tied over the ridge pole of the tent.

[Illustration: A Seat Against the Trunk of a Tree, and a Clothes Hanger
for the Tent Ridge Pole (Fig. 4, Fig. 5)]



A Fruit Stemmer


In the berry season the stemmer shown in the sketch is a very handy
article for the kitchen. It is made of spring steel and tempered, the
length being about 2-1/2 in. The end used for removing the stem is ground
from the outside edge after tempering. A ring large enough to admit the
second finger is soldered at a convenient distance from the end on one
leg.--Contributed by H. F. Reams, Nashville, Tennessee.

[Illustration]



A Homemade Fountain Pen


A very serviceable fountain pen can be made from two 38-72 rifle
cartridges and a steel pen. Clean out the cartridges, fit a plug tightly
in the end of one shell, and cut it off smooth with the end of the metal.
Drill a 3/16 in. hole in the center of the wood plug and fit another plug
into this hole with sufficient end projecting to be shaped for the length
of the steel pen to be used. The shank of the pen and the plug must enter
the hole together. One side of the projecting end of the plug should be
shaped to fit the inside surface of the pen and then cut off at a point
a little farther out than the eye in the pen. On the surface that is to
lie against the pen a groove is cut in the plug extending from near the
point to the back end where it is to enter the hole in the first plug.
The under side of the plug is shaped about as shown.

[Illustration: One Cartridge Shell Makes the Fountain Part of the Pen,
and the Other the Cap]

The other cartridge is cut off at such a point that it will fit on the
tapering end of the first one, and is used for a cap. The cartridge being
filled with ink and the plug inserted, the ink will flow down the small
groove in the feeder plug and supply the pen with ink. Care must be taken
that the surface of the smaller plug fits the pen snugly and that the
groove is not cut through to the point end. This will keep the ink from
flooding, and only that which is used for writing will be able to get
through or leak out.--Contributed by Edwin N. Harnish, Ceylon, Canada.



Destroying Caterpillars on Grapevines


The grapes in my back yard were being destroyed by caterpillars which
could be found under all the large leaves. The vine was almost dead when I
began to cut off all the large leaves and those eaten by the caterpillars,
which allowed the sun's rays to reach the grapes. This destroyed all the
caterpillars and the light and heat ripened the grapes.--Contributed by
Wm. Singer, Rahway, N. J.

       *       *       *       *       *

    It will require 1 gal. of ordinary mixed calcimine to
    cover 270 sq. ft. of plastered surface, 180 sq. ft.
    of brickwork and 225 sq. ft. of average woodwork.



A Camp Provision Box


While on a camping-and canoeing trip recently, I used a device which added
a touch of completeness to our outfit and made camp life really enjoyable.
This useful device is none other than a provision or "grub" box.

[Illustration: The Provision Box Ready for Use in Camp, the Cover Turned
Back on the Brackets and the Legs Extended]

From experience campers know that the first important factor in having
a successful trip is compactness of outfit. When undertaking an outing
of this kind it is most desirable to have as few bundles to carry as
possible, especially if one is going to be on the move part of the time.
This device eliminates an unnecessary amount of bundles, thus making the
trip easier for the campers, and doubly so if they intend canoeing part
of the time; and, apart from its usefulness as a provision container, it
affords a general repository for the small articles which mean so much to
the camper's welfare.

The box proper may be made of any convenient size, so long as it is not
too cumbersome for two people to handle. The dimensions given are for a
box I used on a canoe trip of several hundred miles; and from experience
I know it to be of a suitable size for canoeists. If the camper is going
to have a fixed camp and have his luggage hauled, a larger box is much to
be preferred. A glance at the figures will show the general proportions
of the box. It may be possible, in some cases, to secure a strong packing
box near the required dimensions, thus doing away with the trouble of
constructing it. The distinguishing features of this box are the hinged
cover, the folding legs, and the folding brackets. The brackets, upon
which the top rests when open, fold in against the back of the box when
not in use. The same may be said of the legs. They fold up alongside the
box and are held there by spring-brass clips.

[Illustration: The Brackets for the Cover as Well as Each of the Four Legs
Fold Against the Sides of the Box in Such a Manner as to be Out of the
Way, Making the Box Easy to Carry and Store Away in a Small Space]

On our trips we carry an alcohol stove on which we do all of our cooking.
The inner side of the top is covered with a sheet of asbestos, this side
being uppermost when the hinged top is opened and resting on the folding
brackets. The stove rested on this asbestos, thus making everything safe.
The cover is large enough to do all the cooking on, and the box is so high
that the cooking can be attended to without stooping over, which is much
more pleasant than squatting before a camp fire getting the eyes full of
smoke. The legs are hinged to the box in such a manner that all of the
weight of the box rests on the legs rather than on the hinges, and are
kept from spreading apart by wire turnbuckles. These, being just bolts
and wire, may be tucked inside the box when on the move. The top is fitted
with unexposed hinges and with a lock to make it a safe place for storing
valuables.

[Illustration: Detail of the Turnbuckle, Button to Hold the Brackets, and
the Spring Clip for Holding the Legs on the Side of the Box]

In constructing the cover it is well to make it so that it covers the
joints of the sides, thus making the box waterproof from the top, if rain
should fall on it. A partition can be made in one end to hold odds and
ends. A tray could be installed, like the tray in a trunk, to hold knives,
forks, spoons, etc., while the perishable supplies are kept underneath
the tray. Give the box two coats of lead paint, and shellac the inside.

The wire braces for the legs are made as follows. Procure four machine
bolts, about 1/4 in. in diameter and 2 in. long--any thread will do--with
wing nuts and washers to fit. Saw or file off the heads and drill a small
hole in one end of each bolt, large enough to receive a No. 16 galvanized
iron wire. Two inches from the bottom of each leg drill a hole to take
the bolt loosely. Determine the exact distance between the outside edges
of the legs when the box is resting on them. Make the wire braces 1 in.
longer than this distance so that the bolts will protrude through the
holes in the legs and allow for putting on the nuts and washers. Screwing
up on the nuts draws the wire taut, thus holding the legs firm.

The size of the top determines the dimensions of the folding brackets
which support it when open. These brackets may be solid blocks of wood,
but a lighter and more serviceable bracket is constructed as follows. If
the top is 20 in. wide and 30 in. long, make the brackets 10 by 13 in.
Constructing the brackets so that their combined length is 4 in. shorter
than the total length of the box, facilitates their folding against
the back of the box when not in use. This point is clearly shown in the
drawing. Our brackets were made of 1/2-in. oak, 1-1/2 in. wide, and the
joints halved together. They are hinged to the back of the box as shown;
and when folded are held in place by a simple catch. The weight of the lid
is sufficient to hold the brackets in place when open, but to make sure
they will not creep when in use insert a 1/4-in. dowel in the end of each
so that it protrudes 1/4 in. Drill two holes in the top to the depth of
1/4 in., so that when the top rests on the brackets, these holes engage
with the dowels. In hinging the brackets to the back see that they are
high enough to support the lid at right angles to the box.

The box here shown is made of 7/8 in. white pine throughout. The legs are
7/8 by 2-1/2 by 18 in. They are fastened to the box with ordinary strap
hinges. When folded up against the box they do not come quite to the top
so that the box should be at least 19 in. high for 18-in. legs. About
2 in. from the bottom of the legs drive in a brad so it protrudes 1/8 in.
as shown. This brad engages in a hole in the spring-brass clip when folded
up as shown in the illustration.

If in a fixed camp, it is a good idea to stand the legs in tomato cans
partly full of water. This prevents ants from crawling up the legs into
the box, but it necessitates placing the wire braces higher on the legs.

Our box cost us nothing but the hardware, as we knocked some old packing
boxes to pieces and planed up enough boards to make the sides. Of course,
the builder need not adhere to these dimensions, for he can make the size
to suit his requirements, while the finish is a matter of personal taste.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A blue writing ink is easily made of 1 oz. Prussian
    blue, 1-1/2 oz. oxalic acid and 1 pt. of soft water.
    Shake and allow it to stand until dissolved.



Wall Pockets in a Tent


When camping I find a few wall pockets sewed to the tent walls at the back
end provide a convenient means to hold the soap, mirror, razor and other
small articles liable to be lost. The pockets can be made of the same
material as the tent and sewed on as a patch pocket.--Contributed by A.
M. Barnes, Atlanta, Ga.



Camp Stoves


The camp stoves illustrated are different forms of the same idea. Both can
be taken apart and laid flat for packing. Iron rods, 1/2 in. in diameter,
are used for the legs. They are sharpened at the lower end so that they
may be easily driven into the ground. The rods of the one shown in the
first illustration are bent in the form of a hook at the upper end, and
two pieces of light tire iron, with holes in either end, are hung on these
hooks. Across these supports are laid other pieces of the tire iron. In
the other stove, the rods have a large head and are slipped through holes
in the four corners of the piece of heavy sheet iron used for the top.
A cotter is slipped through a hole in each rod just below the top, to
hold the latter in place.--Contributed by Mrs. Lelia Munsell, Herington,
Kansas.

[Illustration: Camp-Stove Top, Either Solid or Pieced, Supported on Rods
at the Corners]



Attractor for Game Fish


A piece of light wood, shaped as shown and with four small screweyes
attached, makes a practical attractor for game fish, such as bass, etc.,
by its action when drawn through the water or carried by the flow of a
stream. Hooks are attached to three of the screweyes and the fourth one,
on the sloping surface, is used for the line.--Contributed by Arthur
Vogel, Indianapolis, Ind.

[Illustration: A Device for Attracting Game Fish Which is Used in Place
of Bait]



Simple Photographic-Print Washer


The ordinary washbowl supplied with a faucet may be easily converted
into a washing tray for photographic prints or film negatives. Procure a
medicine dropper from a druggist, and attach it to the faucet end with a
short piece of rubber tubing. Be sure to procure a dropper that has the
point turned at right angles to the body.

[Illustration: The Whirling Motion Set Up by the Forced Stream at an Angle
Thoroughly Washes Prints]

When the water is turned on it is forced through the small opening in the
dropper in such a manner that the water in the bowl is kept in a constant
whirling motion. This will keep the prints on the move, which is necessary
for a thorough washing.



How to Make an Electric Fishing Signal


A unique electric fishing signal, which may be rigged up on a wharf or
pier, and the electric circuit so arranged as to operate an electric bell
or buzzer, located in the fisherman's cottage, or any other convenient
place, may be constructed as follows: Obtain two pieces of 1/16-in. spring
brass, one 6 in. long and 3/4 in. wide, and the other 7 in. long and
1/2 in. wide. Mount a 2-in. brass wood screw, A, in one end of the 6-in.
piece as shown.

[Illustration: Construction of the Parts to Make the Contact Points and
the Electric Connections]

Place over the end of the 6-in. piece a thin sheet of insulating fiber, B,
allowing it to extend down on each side about 1 in. Then bend a piece of
1/16-in. brass, C, over the insulating fiber, allowing it to extend down
on each side the same distance as the insulating fiber. Drill a small hole
through the lower ends of the U-shaped piece of brass, C, the insulation,
B, and the 6-in. piece, while they are all in place. Remove the insulation
and the U-shaped brass piece, and tap the holes in the brass for a machine
screw, D. Enlarge the hole in the 6-in piece, and provide an insulating
bushing for it with an opening of the same diameter as the brass machine
screw. Mount a small binding post, E, on one side of the U-shaped piece of
brass, and the parts may then be put together and held in place by means
of the brass screw.

Drill two holes in the other end of the 6-in piece, also two holes in one
end of the 7-in piece, and rivet them together with two small rivets. The
7-in. piece should project beyond the end of the 6-in. piece. A piece
of thin spring brass should be made into the form of a spiral, F, and
fastened to the upper end of the 7-in. piece. Provision should be made
for attaching the fishline to the inside end of the brass spiral. A small
binding post should be soldered to either the 6-in. or 7-in. piece, at
the bottom.

If the device is set up with the head of the brass adjusting screw in the
top of the 6-in. piece, pointing in the direction the line to the fishing
hook is to run, and if a fish pulls upon the line, the 7-in. piece is
pulled over and touches the point of the adjusting screw. If a battery
and bell, or buzzer, is connected as shown, the circuit will be completed
when the 7-in. piece comes in contact with the adjusting screw, and the
bell will ring.



A Chair Swing


A comfortable porch or lawn swing can be easily and quickly made with a
chair as a seat, as follows. Procure some rope of sufficient strength to
bear the weight of the person, and fasten one end securely to one of the
front legs of the chair and the other end to the same side of the back as
shown in the illustration, allowing enough slack to form a right angle.
Another piece of rope, of the same length, is then attached to the other
side of the chair. The supporting ropes are tied to these ropes and to
the joist or holding piece overhead.--Contributed by Wm. A. Robinson,
Waynesboro, Pa.

[Illustration: The Ropes are Tied to the Chair so That It will be Held in
a Reclining Position]



Another Broom Holder


Of the many homemade devices for holding a broom this is one of the
simplest, and one that any handy boy can make.

[Illustration]

It consists of a string, about 1 ft. long, with a knot at one end and
the other tied to a nail or staple driven into the wall. To hang up the
broom simply turn the string around the handle as shown, and the broom
will be held securely, because its weight will pull the string taut
and the knot at the end will prevent the string from running off the
handle.--Contributed by Jef De Vries, Antwerp, Belgium.



Squaring Wood Stock


The device shown in the sketch is a great help to the maker of mission
furniture as a guide on short cuts. It consists of two pieces of wood, A
and B, preferably of oak, fastened together at right angles by two large
flat-head screws. The pieces should be placed exactly at right angles.

[Illustration: The Saw Teeth Edge can be Run through Both Pieces, the
Stock being in the Corner]

A cut is then made through both pieces. The cut on B should be exactly
at right angles to the surface of piece A. This device can be either
clamped on a board or merely held by hand, and will insure a true
cut.--Contributed by F. W. Pumphrey, Owensboro, Ky.



A Wind Vane


A novelty in wind vanes is shown in the accompanying sketch. The vane can
be made of sheet metal or carved from light wood. The wings are so set on
the body as to cause the dragon to rise when the wind strikes them. The
dragon is pivoted on a shaft running through its center of gravity, so it
will readily turn with the wind. The tail part may also be made to revolve
as the propeller of an aeroplane.

[Illustration]

The length and size of the shaft will depend on the dimensions of the
dragon, and similarly, the location of the weights on the chains will
be determined by its size and weight. Upon these circumstances and the
varying velocities of the wind will depend how high the dragon will rise
on its shaft, and the height reached by it will thus serve to indicate--in
a relative manner only--the velocity of the wind, but it is also possible
to arrange the weights at such distances apart that the dragon will rise
to A in a 20-mile wind, to B in a 30-mile wind, to C in a 40-mile gale,
and so on, with as many weights as desired. This can be done with the aid
of an anemometer, if one can be borrowed for some time, or the device may
be taken to the nearest weather bureau to be set.--Contributed by H. J.
Holden, Ontario, Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Never rock a file--push it straight on filing work.



How to Make a Flutter Ring


The flutter ring is for inclosing in an envelope and to surprise the
person opening it by the revolving of the ring. The main part is made of
a piece of wire, A, bent so that the depth will be about 2 in. and the
length 4 in. Procure or make a ring, 2 in. in diameter. The ring should
be open like a key ring. Use two rubber bands, BB, in connecting the ring
to the wire.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Wire and Manner of Attaching the Rubber
Bands to the Ring]

To use it, turn the ring over repeatedly, until the rubber bands are
twisted tightly, then lay it flat in a paper folded like a letter. Hand
it to someone in this shape or after first putting it into an envelope.
When the paper is opened up, the ring will do the rest.--Contributed by
D. Andrew McComb, Toledo, O.



A Kitchen Utensil Hanger


Every cook knows how troublesome it is to have several things hanging on
one nail. When one of the articles is wanted it is usually at the back,
and the others must be removed to secure it. A revolving rack for hanging
a can opener, egg beater and cooking spoons, etc., takes up less space
than several nails, and places every article within easy reach as well as
providing individual hooks for all the pieces.

[Illustration: The Hook Support Revolves so as to Make Each One Readily
Accessible for Hanging Utensils]

The rack is easily made of a block of wood, 2-1/2 in. in diameter and
1 in. thick; an arm, 3/4 in. wide, 1/4 in. thick and 6 in. long, and a
metal bracket. The arm is fastened to the bracket and the bracket to the
wall. A screw is turned through a loose-fitting hole bored in the end of
the arm and into the disk. Screw hooks are placed around the edge of the
disk as hangers.--Contributed by A. R. Moore, Toronto, Can.



Homemade Hinges for Boxes


A very simple form of hinge can be made as shown in the sketch. It is
merely a matter of cutting out two pieces of flat steel, A, punching holes
in them for screws or nails, and fastening them to the box corners, one on
each side. When the box is open, the lid swings back clear and is out of
the way. A hinge of this kind is very strong. For a light box, the parts
can be cut from tin.--Contributed by Chas. Homewood, Waterloo, Iowa.

[Illustration: Hinge Parts Made of Sheet Metal and Their Use on a Box
Cover]



To Remove Odors from Ice Boxes


An easy way to prevent odors in an ice box is to place a can of coke in
the box. This will take up all gases and prevent milk from tasting of
onions or vegetables which may be kept in the box.

In factories where bad odors are apt to spoil the men's lunches put up in
pails or baskets, a box can be constructed to hold these receptacles and
a large pail of coke placed in it. Anything placed in this box will remain
free from odors, and fresh.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



Preventing Window Sash from Freezing to the Sill


When it is cold enough to cause the window sash to freeze fast in the
bathroom and bedrooms not having double sash, much discomfort will be
experienced and the health may even be menaced. I have discovered a
simple method to overcome this difficulty. Lay on the outside sill, close
up against the window frame, a thin, narrow strip of wood, on which the
window can rest when down. This gives a continual current of fresh air
between the sashes at the center, but no unpleasant draft below, and
no amount of dripping and freezing will fasten the window sash upon
it.--Contributed by Mary Murry, Amherst, Nova Scotia.



A Hanger for the Camp


[Illustration]

A garment, or utensil, hanger can be easily made for the camp in the
following manner: Procure a long strap, about 1-1/4 in. wide, and attach
hooks made of wire to it. Each hook should be about 4 in. long and of
about No. 9 gauge wire. Bend a ring on one end of the wire and stick the
other end through a hole punched in the center of the belt. The ring will
prevent the wire from passing through the leather, and it should be bent
in such a manner that the hook end of the wire will hang downward when the
width of the belt is vertical. These hooks are placed about 2 in. apart
for the length of the belt, allowing sufficient ends for a buckle and
holes. The strap can be buckled around a tree or tent pole.--Contributed
by W. C. Loy, Rochester, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Never stand in a direct line of a swiftly revolving
    object, such as an emery wheel.



Locking Several Drawers with One Lock


[Illustration]

A lock for a number of drawers in a bench or cabinet may be applied with
a strip of wood hinged to the cabinet edge so that it will overlap the
drawer fronts, as shown. A hasp and staple complete the arrangement for
use with a padlock.--Contributed by H. W. Hahn, Chicago.



A Lightning-Calculation Trick


By means of a simple arrangement of numbers, a calculation can be made
which will easily puzzle any unsuspecting person. If the two numbers
41,096 and 83 be written out in multiplication form, very few will
endeavor to write down the answer directly without first going through
the regular work. By placing the 3 in front of the 4 and the 8 back of
the 6, the answer is obtained at once, thus: 41,096 × 83 = 3,410,968.
A larger number which can be treated in the same way is the following:
4,109,589,041,096 × 83 = 341,095,890,410,968.



An Adjustable Nutcracker


[Illustration]

The advantage of the nutcracker shown in the illustration is that it
can be adjusted to various-sized nuts. The handles are similar to those
usually found on nutcrackers except that they are slotted at the cracking
end to receive a special bar. This bar is 2 in. long, 1/2 in. wide, and
1/8 in. thick, with 1/8-in. holes drilled in it at intervals to allow for
adjustment. Cotters are used in the holes as pins.



Substitute for a Rubber Stamp


A large number of coupons had to be marked, and having no suitable rubber
stamp at hand, I selected a cork with a smooth end and cut the initials
in it. I found that it worked as well, not to say better, than a rubber
stamp. An ordinary rubber-stamp pad was used for inking. Angular letters
will cut better than curved ones, as the cork quickly dulls the edge of
any cutting tool.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: Initials Cut in a Cork Served the Purpose in the Absence
of a Rubber Stamp]



A Furniture Polish


A good pastelike furniture polish, which is very cheap and keeps
indefinitely, can be made as follows: Mix 3 oz. of white wax, 2 oz. of
pearlash, commonly known as potassium carbonate, and 6 oz. of water. Heat
the mixture until it becomes dissolved, then add 4 oz. of boiled linseed
oil and 5 oz. of turpentine. Stir well and pour into cans to cool. Apply
with a cloth and rub to a polish. The paste is nonpoisonous.



A Hanging Vase


[Illustration]

A very neat and attractive hanging corner vase can be made of a colored
bottle. The bottom is broken out or cut off as desired and a wire
hanger attached as shown. The opening in the neck of the bottle is well
corked. Rectangular shaped bottles fitted with hangers can be used on
walls.--Contributed by A. D. Tanaka, Jujiya, Kioto, Japan.



Filing Soft Metals


It is well known to mechanics that when lead, tin, soft solder or aluminum
are filed, the file is soon filled with the metal and it will not cut.
It cannot be cleaned like the wood rasp by dipping it into hot water or
pouring boiling water over it, but if the file and the work are kept wet
with water, there will be no trouble whatever. Both file and work must be
kept thoroughly wet at all times.--Contributed by J. H. Beebee, Rochester,
N. Y.



Locking Screws in Door Hinges


When screws once work loose in hinges of doors they will never again hold
firmly in the same hole. This trouble can be avoided if the screws are
securely locked when they are first put on the door. The sketch shows
a very successful way to lock the screws. The hole in the hinge for the
screw is filed to produce a notch, as shown at A, deep enough to receive
a small wire nail or brad, which is driven through the slot in the screw
head at one side, as shown at B.

[Illustration: The Screw is Permanently Locked with a Small Nail Driven
into the Slot Prepared for It]



To Remove Grease from Clothing


Equal parts of ether, ammonia and alcohol make a solution that will
readily remove grease from clothing. The solution must be kept away from
fire, and should be contained in corked bottles as it evaporates quickly,
but can be used without danger. It removes grease spots from the finest
fabrics and is harmless to the texture.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Jeweler's rouge rubbed well into chamois skin is handy
    to polish gold and silver articles with.

[Illustration: Stove Made of an Old Oilcan with Extending Sides and
Weighted with Sand for Use on a Fishing Boat Holds the Cooking Vessel
Safely in a Sea]



A Canoe Stove By F. V. Williams


Limited space and the rocking motion of salmon-fishing boats in a heavy
sea on the Pacific coast brought about the construction of the canoe stove
shown in the illustration. It is made of a discarded kerosene can whose
form is square. A draft hole is cut in one side of the can, 4 or 5 in.
from the bottom, and a layer of sand placed on the bottom. Two holes are
punched through opposite sides, parallel with the draft hole and about
3 in. from the top edge. Rods are run through these holes to provide a
support for the cooking utensil. The smoke from the fire passes out at
the corners around the vessel.

[Illustration]

The main reason for making the stove in this manner is to hold the cooking
vessel within the sides extending above the rods. No amount of rocking can
cause the vessel to slide from the stove top, and as the stove is weighted
with the sand, it cannot be easily moved from the place where it is set
in the canoe.

The use of such a stove in a canoe has the advantage that the stove can
be cleaned quickly, as the ashes and fire can be dumped into the water and
the stove used for a storage box. The whole thing may be tossed overboard
and a new one made for another trip.



To Prevent Washboard from Slipping in Tub


The modern stationary washtubs are box-shaped, with one side set at an
outward angle or slope. The washboard, when used in these tubs, will slide
up and down against the sloping part of the tub while the clothes are
rubbed against them. This annoying trouble can be avoided by tacking, on
the top edge of the board, strips of rubber cut from a discarded bicycle
tire, placing the rubber side out. The friction of the rubber prevents
any motion of the board.--Contributed by Jas. A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

    To print on celluloid, use a good gloss ink and old
    rollers.



Clips to Hold Magazine Pages Together


[Illustration]

When a magazine is placed in a bookcase the outer pages are liable to
turn back if it is inserted with the back on the outside. To overcome this
difficulty I made clips for each magazine to hold the open pages together.
Each clip was made of wire, about 8 in. long, shaped as shown. The
width of the clip is made equal to the thickness of the magazine and the
extending ends are slightly pressed together so that they will spring and
grip the pages.--Contributed by W. A. Saul, E. Lexington, Massachusetts.



Slide-Opening Cover for a Plate Holder


The length of time required for the slide of a plate holder to be removed
on a reflecting camera spoiled many of my plates, because strong light
would enter the unprotected slot when the camera was in certain positions.
To protect this slot so that the slide could be left out indefinitely,
I made a cover of a piece of sheet metal having three slots, to admit
screws turned into the camera. A knob was attached at the center. The
illustration shows the application of this cover. In Fig. 1 the plate
holder is shown slipped in with the cover back, and Fig. 2 shows the slide
drawn and the cover over the slot opening.--Contributed by B. J. Weeber,
New York City.

[Illustration: The Two Positions Occupied by the Slide-Opening Cover as
It is Used on a Camera (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



Magnetic-Suspension Pendulum


When a pendulum is not periodically supplied with energy its amplitude
grows smaller and finally the motion ceases, due to the resistance of the
air and the friction at the point of suspension. Usually the suspension
is in the form of a knife edge bearing against plates of agate; sometimes
the pendulum rod is simply attached to a very slender and flexible spring
without any bearings. But the minimum of friction is obtained by means of
magnetic suspension, as the following experiment will prove.

If the rod of a pendulum about 12 in. long, beating half seconds, is
sharpened to a needle point and suspended from one of the poles of a
magnet, it will be found that, if set into motion, it will continue to
swing 15 times as long as the ordinary knife-edge suspended pendulum, and
it will not stop until after about 16 hours, while one working on agate
plates will stop in from 50 to 60 minutes. Similarly a top, provided with
a fine-pointed axis of iron, will spin much longer when suspended from a
magnet.

Magnetic suspension is used in precision instruments; for example, the
minute mirrors which are used in certain telegraph systems to register
writing photographically at the receiving end.



Use for Pencil Stubs


[Illustration]

In mechanical drawings cast iron is indicated by a series of straight
lines across the parts made of this material. These lines can be quickly
made with the usually discarded pencil stubs, if these are saved and
sharpened in the following manner: The point is filed flat, as shown at
A; then a slot is filed in the center of the lead with a knife file, as
shown at B, and the points sharpened as in C. In this way two lines are
drawn at one stroke neatly and in half the time.--Contributed by J. Kolar,
Maywood, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *

    To sharpen a carving knife draw the edge through and
    against the open edge of a pair of shears.

[Illustration]



How to Build a Paddle-Wheel Boat By P. A. Baumeister


The paddle-wheel boat, illustrated herewith, was built in the spare time I
had on rainy afternoons and Saturdays, and the enjoyment I derived from it
at my summer camp more than repaid me for the time spent in the building.
The materials used in its construction were:

     2  side boards, 14 ft. long, 10 in. wide and 7/8 in. thick.

     2  side boards, 14 ft. long, 5 in. wide and 7/8 in. thick.

     1  outside keel board, 14 ft. long, 8 in. wide and 7/8 in. thick.

     1  inside keel board, 14 ft. long. 10 in. wide and 7/8 in. thick.

   120  sq. ft. of tongue-and-groove boards, 3/4 in. thick, for bottom
        and wheel boxes.

     1  piece, 2 in. square and 18 in. long.

     4  washers.

     2  iron cranks.

    10  screweyes.

    30  ft. of rope.

        Nails.

The dimensions given in the drawing will be found satisfactory, but these
may be altered to suit the conditions. The first step will be to cut and
make the sides. Nail the two pieces forming each side together and then
cut the end boards and nail them to the sides. Lay this framework, bottom
side up, on a level surface and proceed to nail on the bottom boards
across the sides. The ends of these boards are sawed off flush with the
outside surface of the sides after they are nailed in place. The material
list calls for tongue-and-groove boards for the bottom, but plain boards
can be used, although it is then difficult to make the joint water-tight.
When the tongue-and-groove boards are used a piece of string, well soaked
in white lead or paint and placed in the groove of each board, will be
sufficient to make a tight joint.

Having finished the sides and bottom, the next step will be to fasten
on the bottom keel. Adjust the board to its position and nail it in the
center part where it lies flat on the bottom boards, then work toward
the ends, gradually drawing it down over the turn and nailing it down. If
the keel board cannot be bent easily, it is best to soak it in hot water
where the bend takes place and the wood can then be nailed down without
the fibers breaking. The inside keel is put on in the same manner, but
reversed.

[Illustration: The Boat As It Appears without the Spring and Running Board
and Used as a Pleasure Craft or for Carrying Freight, the Operator Facing
in the Direction of the Boat's Travel]

The next procedure is to make the paddle wheels. The hub for each wheel is
made of a 2-in. square piece of timber, 9 in. long. Trim off the corners
to make 8 sides to the piece, then bore a 3/4-in. hole through its center.
The 8 blades of each wheel, 16 in all, are 17 in. long, 6 in. wide and
3/4 in. thick. One end of each blade is nailed to one side of the hub,
then it is braced as shown to strengthen the wheel.

[Illustration: Detail Drawing of the Boat and One of the Paddle Wheels.
All the Material Required for the Construction is Such That can be Cut
and Shaped with Ordinary Tools Found in the Home Workshop]

The cranks are made of round iron, 3/4 in. in diameter, and they are keyed
to the wheels with large nails in the manner shown. I had a blacksmith
shape the cranks for me, but if one has a forge, the work can be done at
home without that expense. The bearings for the crankshafts consist of
wood, although it is preferable to use for this purpose two large iron
washers, having a hole slightly larger than the diameter of the shaft,
and drill holes in their rims so that they can be screwed to the wheel-box
upright as shown. The bearings thus made are lubricated with a little lard
or grease.

[Illustration: Detail of Paddle-Wheel Fastening, the Springboard
Construction and the Fastening for the Rudder Control]

The paddle-wheel boxes are built over the wheels with the dimensions given
in the drawing, to prevent the splashing of water on the occupants of the
boat.

The trimmings for the boat consist of three seats, a running board and a
springboard. The drawings show the location of the seats. The springboard
is built up of 4 boards, 3/4 in. thick, as shown, only nailing them
together at the back end. This construction allows the boards to slide
over each other when a person's weight is on the outer end. The action of
the boards is the same as of a spring on a vehicle.

It is necessary to have a good brace across the boat for the back end of
the springboard to catch on--a 2 by 4-in. timber being none too large. At
the point where the springboard rests on the front seat there should be
another good-sized crosspiece. The board can be held in place by a cleat
and a few short pieces of rope, the cleat being placed across the board
back of the brace. A little diving platform is attached on the outer end
of the springboard and a strip of old carpet or gunny sack placed on it
to prevent slivers from running into the flesh. In making the spring and
running board, it is advisable to make them removable so that the boat
can be used for other purposes.

The boat is steered with a foot-operated lever, the construction of which
is clearly shown. For the tiller-rope guides, large screweyes are used
and also for the rudder hinges, the pin of the hinge being a large nail.
The hull can be further strengthened by putting a few angle-iron braces
either on the in or outside.

To make the boat water-tight will require calking by filling the cracks
with twine and white lead or thick paint. The necessary tools are a broad,
dull chisel and a mallet. A couple of coats of good paint, well brushed
into the cracks, will help to make it watertight as well as shipshape.
The boat may leak a little when it is first put into the water, but after
a few hours of soaking, the boards will swell and close the openings.

This boat was used for carrying trunks, firewood, rocks, sand, and for
fishing, and last, but not least, for swimming. The boat is capable of
carrying a load of three-quarters of a ton. It draws very little water,
thereby allowing its use in shallow water. It has the further advantage
that the operator faces in the direction the boat is going, furnishing
the power with his hands and steering with his feet.



A Camp Loom


[Illustration: Loom Constructed of Sticks for Weaving Grass or Moss into
a Camp Mattress]

The camper who desires to "rough it" as much as possible and to carry only
the necessities will find it quite a comfort to construct the bedding from
grass or moss by weaving it in the manner of making a rag carpet, using
heavy twine or small rope as the warp. Two stakes are set the width of the
bed or mattress to be made, and a cross stick is attached to their tops.
Several stakes are set parallel with the cross stick and at a distance to
make the length of the mattress. The warp is tied between the tops of the
stakes and the cross stick. An equal number of cords are then attached
to the cross stick and to another loose cross stick which is used to move
the cords up and down while the grass or moss is placed in for the woof.
The ends of the warp are then tied to hold it together. When breaking up
camp the cords can be removed and carried to the next camp.--Contributed
by W. P. Shaw, Bloor West, Can.



A Milk-Bottle Carrier


Carrying a milk bottle by the rim is tiresome work for the fingers, so I
constructed a handle, as shown in the sketch, from a piece of wire. The
carrier can be easily placed in the pocket.

[Illustration: A Carrier Made of Wire to Quickly Attach on a Milk-Bottle
Neck]

The part fitting under the rim of the bottle neck is bent to form two
semicircles, one hooking permanently at A, while the other is hooked at B
after it is sprung around the neck of the bottle.--Contributed by Lawrence
B. Robbins, Harwich, Mass.



How to Make a War Kite By Park Snyder


The material required for the making of a war kite is three pine sticks,
each 60 in. long, one stick 54 in. long, one stick 18 in. long, all
1/2 in. square; 4 yd. of cambric; a box of tacks; some linen thread, and
16 ft. of stout twine.

Place two 60-in. sticks parallel with each other and 18 in. apart, then
lay the 54-in. piece across at right angles to them 18 in. from the upper
ends, as shown in Fig. 1, and fasten the joints with brads. At a point
21 in. below this crosspiece, attach the 18-in. crosspiece.

[Illustration: The Line should be a Very Strong One, Then Banners can be
Flown on It]

The extending ends of all the three long pieces are notched, Fig. 2, and
the line is stretched taut around them, as shown by the dotted lines.

[Illustration: The Sticks are Fastened Solidly with Brads, and the Cloth
Sewed to the String around Their Ends (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]

If the cambric is not of sufficient size to cover the frame, two pieces
must be sewed together, then a piece cut out to the shape of the string,
allowing 1 in. to project all around for a lap. The cambric is sewn fast
to the string with the linen thread. Fasten the cloth to the frame part
with the tacks, spacing them 1 in. apart. The space in the center, between
the sticks, is cut out. Make two pieces of the remaining goods, one 36 in.
by 18 in., and the other 36 in. by 21 in. The remaining 60-in. stick is
fastened to these pieces of cambric, as shown in Fig. 3, and the whole is
fastened to the main frame so as to make a V-shaped projection. The bridle
strings, for giving the proper distribution of pull on the line to the
kite, are fastened, one to the upper end of the long stick in the V-shaped
piece attached to the kite, and the other to the lower end, as shown in
Fig. 4. The inclination can be varied to suit the builder by changing the
point of attachment of the kite line to the bridle. If it is desired to
fly the kite directly overhead, attach the line above the regular point
and for low flying make the connection below this point. The regular
point is found by trial flights with the line fastened temporarily to the
bridle, after which the fastening is made permanent.



Paper Glider That Loops the Loop By C. A. Thompson


The usual paper glider shaped as shown in Fig. 1 can be made to loop
the loop and make corkscrew flights if prepared according to sketches
herewith. It should be carefully made in the first place so that in its
regular form it flies perfectly straight.

[Illustration: Ordinary Paper Glider and the Manner of Throwing It to Make
the Different Flights (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6,
Fig. 7, Fig. 8)]

To make the glider loop, the rear corners of the wings should be turned up
at right angles, as in Fig. 2, and the glider launched with a great deal
of force with the nose pointed slightly upward. This will require some
practice, but one soon learns the trick. After looping once, as shown in
Fig. 3, the glider descends in volplane. This form of glider will also
right itself, if dropped from a height, nose downward, as shown in Fig. 4.

For a corkscrew flight the glider is prepared as in Fig. 5; one
rear corner being bent up and the other down. In this form it flies
horizontally, or downward, while rapidly rotating around its longitudinal
axis, as shown in Fig. 6.

To make a spiral descent, the rear corners of the wings are bent up as in
Fig. 2, and, further, the rear corner of the keel is bent at right angles,
Fig. 7, whereupon it is thrown in the ordinary manner. It then takes the
course shown in Fig. 8.



A Water Filter


A cheap and very effective water filter can be made of a flower pot by
plugging the hole in the bottom with a piece of sponge and fitting it
as follows: Place powdered charcoal on top of the sponge to a depth of
1 in., then 1 in. of clean silver sand, and lastly 2 in. of small stones
and gravel. It is hung with a bail at the top.



A Combination Electrically Operated Door Lock


The illustration shows a very useful application of an ordinary electric
door lock in the construction of a combination lock and alarm to be
operated from the outside of the building.

[Illustration: The Brass-Tack Heads Holding the Numerals in Place
Constitute the Combination Points]

The three numerals, 1, 2, and 4, or any other combination of numbers
constituting the house number on a door, are made of some kind of
insulating material and fastened in place on a base of insulating fiber,
or wood, about 1/4 in. thick, by means of ordinary brass-headed tacks,
as indicated by the black dots. The tacks will extend through the base
a short distance so the electrical connections may be made by soldering
wires to them, as shown by the diagram, alternate tacks being connected
together with the exception of three; for instance, A, B, and C.

The terminals of the leads that are connected to alternate tacks are in
turn connected to the terminals of a circuit composed of an ordinary
vibrating bell, D, and battery, E. If any two adjacent tack heads be
connected together, except tacks A, B, and C, the bell circuit will be
completed and the bell ring, which will serve as an indication that some
one is tampering with the circuit. The person knowing the combination,
connects the tack heads A and B, and at the same time connects the tack
head C with F or G, or any other tack head that is connected to the plus
side of the battery, whereby a circuit will be completed through the lock
H and the door is opened. Any metallic substance, such as a knife, key,
or finger ring, may be used in making the above indicated connection, and
there will be no need of carrying a key for this particular door so long
as the combination is known.

The base upon which the numbers are mounted and through which the points
of the tacks protrude, should be mounted on a second base that has a
recess cut in its surface to accommodate the wires and points of the
tacks.

The combination may be made more or less complicated, as desired, by
connecting the tacks in different ways, and by using a separate battery
for the bell and lock. The circuit leading to the door lock, if there is
one already installed, may be used and then no extra circuit is needed.

Such a device has been used on a private-desk drawer with entire
satisfaction. The battery was placed in the back end of the drawer, and
if it happened to fail, a new one could be connected to the points B and
J so that the drawer could be opened and a new battery put in.



Lock for a Fancy Hairpin


[Illustration: The Bend in the Pin will Hold in the Hair and Prevent the
Loss of the Pin]

To avoid losing a fancy hairpin, bend one leg of the pin as shown in the
illustration. The hair caught in the notch formed by the bend will prevent
the pin from dropping out.--Contributed by W. C. Loy, Rochester, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A metal surface polished with oil will keep clean
    longer than when polished dry.

[Illustration]



An Aeroplane Kite By W. A. Reich


After building a number of kites from a recent description in Amateur
Mechanics I branched out and constructed the aeroplane kite shown in the
illustration, which has excited considerable comment in the neighborhood
on account of its appearance and behavior in the air.

[Illustration]

The main frame consists of a center-stick, A, 31 in. long, and two
cross-sticks, of which one, B, is 31 in. long and the other, C, 15-1/2 in.
long. The location of the crosspieces on the centerpiece A is shown in the
sketch, the front piece B being 1-3/4 in. from the end, and the rear piece
C, 2-1/4 in. from the other end. The ends of the sticks have small notches
cut to receive a string, D, which is run around the outside to make the
outline of the frame and to brace the parts. Two cross-strings are placed
at E and F, 7 in. from either end of the centerpiece A, other brace
strings being crossed, as shown at G, and then tied to the cross-string
F on both sides, as at H.

[Illustration: The Kite Being Tailless Rides the Air Waves Like an
Aeroplane in a Steady Breeze]

The long crosspiece B is curved upward to form a bow, the center of which
should be 3-1/4 in. above the string by which its ends are tied together.
The shorter crosspiece is bent and tied in the same manner to make the
curve 2-1/2 in., and the centerpiece to curve 1-3/4 in., both upward. The
front and rear parts, between the end and the cross-strings E and F, are
covered with yellow tissue paper, which is pasted to the crosspieces and
strings. The small wings L are purple tissue paper, 4 in. wide at M and
tapering to a point at N.

The bridle string is attached on the centerpiece A at the junction of the
crosspieces B and C, and must be adjusted for the size and weight of the
kite. The kite is tailless and requires a steady breeze to make it float
in the air currents like an aeroplane.

The bridle string and the bending of the sticks must be adjusted until
the desired results are obtained. The bridle string should be tied so that
it will about center under the cross-stick B for the best results, but a
slight change from this location may be necessary to make the kite ride
the air currents properly. The center of gravity will not be the same in
the construction of each kite and the string can be located only by trial,
after which it is permanently fastened.

[Illustration: General Plan and Outline of the Kite, Which may be Built
in Any Size, If the Proportions are Kept, and Its Appearance in the Air
on a Steady Breeze]



Distilling Apparatus for Water


[Illustration: Homemade Still for Removing the Impurities in Water That
is Used in Mixing Chemicals]

Pure water, free from all foreign substances, is frequently wanted for
making up photographic solutions and many other purposes. An apparatus for
distilling water can be very easily made from galvanized pipe fittings.
The outer cooling jacket A is a piece of 1-in. pipe, 2 ft. long, threaded
on both ends, and bored and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe at B and C. A hole
is bored and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe in each of the two caps used on the
ends of the pipe A, and a piece of 1/2-in. pipe, D, 2 ft. 8 in. long,
is run through the holes as shown. The joints are soldered to make them
water-tight. Two 1/2-in. nipples, 4 in. long, are screwed in at B and
C. The retort, or boiler, E, in which the impure water is boiled may be
made of any suitable vessel and heated with a Bunsen or gas burner. A
beaker, or other vessel, F, is placed below the lower end of the small
pipe. The cold water from the faucet, which flows into the outer jacket
at C and out at B, condenses the steam in the small pipe D, turning it
into water which falls into the beaker in large drops. The water is often
distilled a second time to remove any impurities which it might still
contain.--Contributed by O. E. Tronnes, Evanston, Ill.



Telephone Stand for a Sloping Desk


Having a sloping-top desk and being compelled to use the telephone quite
frequently, I devised a support for the telephone so that it might stand
level and not fall off. The sides of the stand were cut on the same slope
as the desk top, and their under edges were provided with rubber strips
to prevent slipping.--Contributed by J. M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: Stand with a Level Surface for a Desk Telephone to be Used
on a Sloping Desk Top]

[Illustration]



Tandem Monoplane Glider By George F. Mace


The monoplane glider illustrated has better fore-and-aft stability than
the biplane, is lighter in proportion to the supporting surface, simpler
to build, and requires very little time to assemble or take apart. The
material list is as follows:

  FRAME

   4  pieces of bamboo, 14 ft. long, tapering from 1-1/2 to 1 in.
   8  pieces of spruce, 1/2 in. thick, 1 in. wide, and 3 ft. long.
   8  pieces of spruce, 1/2 in. thick, 1 in. wide, and 2 ft. long.

  WINGS

   4  main-wing bars, spruce, 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide, and 18
       ft. long.
   8  wing crosspieces, spruce, 3/4 in. square, and 4 ft. long.
  38  wing ribs, poplar or spruce, 1/4 in. thick, 3/4 in. wide, and
       64 in. long.

The first thing to do is to make the main frame which is composed of the
four bamboo poles. The poles take the corners of a 2-ft. square space and
are supported with the pieces of spruce that are 2 ft. and 3 ft. long,
the shorter lengths running horizontally and the longer upright, so that
each upright piece extends 1 ft. above the two upper poles. All joints
should be fastened with 3/16-in. stove bolts. The wire used to truss the
glider is No. 16 gauge piano wire. The trussing is done in all directions,
crossing the wires between the frame parts, except in the center or space
between the four poles.

[Illustration: The Start of the Glide should be Made from the Top of a
Hill, Then a Little Run will Carry the Airman Several Hundred Feet through
the Air]

The framework of the main wings is put together by bolting one of the
crosspieces at each end of two wing bars, then another 4 ft. from each
end, whereupon the wing bars are bolted to the main frame. The frame is
then braced diagonally between these pieces. The ribs, spaced 1 ft. apart,
are fastened to this frame with 1-in. brads. The ribs are so bent that the
highest part will be 5 or 6 in. above the horizontal. The bending must be
uniform and is done when fastening them in place.

The material used to cover the wings and rudders is strong muslin. The
cloth is first tacked to the front wing bar, then to the ribs, and sewed
to a wire which is fastened between the ends of the ribs. Large brass-head
tacks should be used through a strip of tape to fasten the cloth to the
ribs. The rear wings are constructed in a similar manner. After the cloth
is in place it is coated with starch or varnish.

[Illustration: Details of Tandem Monoplane Glider, Showing the Main Frame
and Wing Construction, and the Manner of Placing the Crossed Bracing Wires
Between the Parts and to the Wing Ends]

[Illustration]

The two vertical rectangular spaces in the main frame, just under the
rear wings, are covered with cloth to act as a rudder. The upper and lower
bracing wires for the wings are attached with snaps and rings so that the
glider can be easily taken apart.

It is best not to use the glider in a wind greater than 30 miles an hour.
It is started from the top of a hill in the usual manner. Glides can be
made running from 60 to several hundred feet.



Carrier for a Suitcase


Where it is necessary to carry a well filled and heavy suitcase the
light truck shown in the sketch will be a great assistance. The truck is
constructed on the folding plan, similar to a go-cart, and can be carried
on the side of the case. The wheels are those used on a go-cart, with
rubber tires and about 6 in. in diameter. These are fitted to standards
carrying a hinged top piece, the upper ends of the standards being hinged
in a like manner. The standards should be cut to the proper length for the
person carrying the suitcase.--Contributed by Mrs. Harriet M. S. Kerbaugh,
Allentown, Pa.

[Illustration: The Small Truck will Greatly Assist the Carrying of a
Heavily Loaded Suitcase]



Light in a Keyhole


Remove the lock and cut the mortise deep enough to admit a 3-volt battery
lamp with a suitable socket attached. The lamp is then connected to
wires which are concealed and run to a battery of three dry cells in the
basement or other convenient place. A small push button is attached in
the line and placed near the knob on the door. A small recess must be cut
in the mortise so that the light from the lamp will shine directly on the
inside of the plate over the keyhole.--Contributed by Armand F. Lamarre,
St. Remi, Can.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Monoplane Glider By William Grotzinger


A simple glider of the monoplane type can be easily constructed in a small
workshop; the cost of materials is not great and the building does not
require skilled workmen. Select the material with care and see that the
wood is straight-grained and free from knots. The following list of spruce
pieces is required:

   4  main wing spars, 3/4 by 1-1/4 in. by 17 ft.
   2  rudder spars, 3/4 by 1 in. by 8 ft.
   8  wing crosspieces, 3/4 by 3/4 in. by 4 ft.
   4  rudder crosspieces, 1/2 by 1/2 in. by 2 ft.
   1  piece for main-frame crosspieces, 1/2 by 1 in. by 12 ft.
   2  arm pieces, 1-1/2 by 2 in. by 3-1/2 ft.

The following list of poplar pieces is required in making the supports
for the cloth covering on the wings and rudders.

  34  main-wing ribs, 1/4 by 3/4 by 64 in.
   8  rudder ribs, 1/4 by 1/2 by 36 in.
   5  rudder ribs, 1/4 by 3/4 by 48 in.

The following list of oak pieces is needed:

   1  piece, 5/8 by 1-1/4 in. by 12 ft.
   1  piece, 5/8 by 1-1/4 in. by 6 ft.
   1  piece, 3/4 by 3/4 in. by 3-1/2 ft.
   2  pieces, 5/8 by 1-1/2 in. by 5 ft.
   4  pieces, 3/4 by 1 by 28 in.

In addition to the lists given, four pieces of bamboo, 16 ft. long,
tapering from 1 or 1-1/4 in. at the large end to 3/4 in. at the small end,
are used for the main frame.

[Illustration: Monoplane Glider in Flight]


Construction


The first part to make is the main frame A which is constructed of the
four bamboo poles. They are made into a rectangular frame with crossbars
marked B cut to the right length from the 12-ft. piece of spruce, 1/2 in.
by 1 in. The bars C and D are of oak cut from the 6-ft. piece, 5/8 in. by
1-1/4 in. All of these crossbars are fastened together in rectangular form
by means of stove bolts. The bamboo poles are then bolted to the inner
corners of the frames with 3/16-in. bolts. Place the bolts through the
bamboo close to a joint to prevent splitting. The frame is then rigidly
trussed by diagonal wires marked E crossing all rectangles. The wire used
for trussing all the parts throughout the glider is piano wire, 16 gauge.
The arm pieces are bolted to the sides of the rectangular frames beneath
the wings.

[Illustration: Plan View]

[Illustration: Side Elevation]

[Illustration: Front Elevation]

[Illustration: Wing Bar]

The framework of the main wings or planes should be put together by
bolting the cross struts F at regular intervals on the under side of the
main spars G. Brace the frame diagonally with the piano wire. The ribs
are nailed to the main spars by using 1-in. brads. The ribs are spaced
1 ft. apart, and curved so that the highest part will be 5 in. from the
horizontal. Each rib extends 15 in. back of the rear spar. The rudder is
made in the same manner.

The vertical rudder is made to fold. A small pocket arrangement H is made
from which the rigs of the vertical rudder diverge.

The covering of the wings and rudders should be a good quality of muslin
or some light aeronautical goods. The cloth should be tacked to the front
spar, to the ribs, and then sewn to a wire which connects the ends of the
ribs.

Construct the triangular arrangement marked J to which the wings are
braced. The wing bar supports are shown in the illustration. The bottom
wires are braced to the crossbar K shown in the front elevation.

The bracing wires are all fastened to a snaphook which can be snapped
into the rings at the places marked L. This method will allow one quickly
to assemble or take apart the plane and store it in a small place. The
vertical rudder should be braced from each rib to the front spar of the
horizontal rudder and then braced by the wires M to hold the rudder from
falling back. The rudder is then braced to the main frame and the main
frame is braced by the wires N to the wings. This will hold the plane
rigid. Use snaphooks and eyebolts wherever possible so that the plane can
be quickly assembled.


Assembling


The triangular arrangement J is bolted to the wings and the top wires put
in place. The wings are then put on the main frame and bolted to the bars
marked C and D, after which the bottom wires are fixed in place.


Gliding


Take the glider to the top of a hill, step into the center of the main
frame just a little back of the center of the wings. Put your arms around
the arm pieces, face the wind and run a few steps. You will be lifted off
the ground and carried down the slope. The balancing is done by shifting
the legs. The glides should be short at first, but by daily practice, and,
as the operator gains skill, glides can be made up to a length of several
hundred feet. Do not attempt to fly in a wind having a velocity of more
than 15 miles an hour.



Exerciser for a Chained Dog


The exerciser consists of a disk, 5 ft. in diameter, pivoted in the ground
near the kennel. The disk revolves on a 5/8-in. pin set in a post made of
a 4 by 4-in. piece of timber. The disk is made of common lumber fastened
together with battens on the under side. Our dog seems to enjoy this kind
of exercise.--Contributed by Hazel Duncan, Denver, Colo.

[Illustration: Revolving Disk Exerciser]



A Laboratory Gas Generator


The sketch illustrates a gas generator designed for laboratories where
gases are needed in large quantities and frequently. The shelf holding
the large inverted bottle is of thick wood, and to reinforce the whole
apparatus, a 1-in. copper strip is placed around the bottle tightly and
fastened with screws turned into the woodwork. The shelf above is attached
last, and upon it rests the bottle of commercial acid required in the gas
generation. The pump shown is for use in starting the siphon.

[Illustration: Gas Generator of Large Capacity That will Work
Automatically as the Gas is Removed]

The large bottle used as a generator may be either a 3 or 5-gal. size, and
after it is placed in the position shown, a sufficient amount of the solid
reagent needed in gas generating is placed in the mouth before the exit
tube, leading away below, is fixed in position. If sulphureted hydrogen
is required, ferrous sulphide is used; if hydrogen is required, zinc is
placed within; and to make a carbon dioxide, marble, or its equivalent,
is inserted. Whatever gas is required, a sufficient quantity of the solid
material is put in to last for some time in order not to disturb the
fastenings.

When all is ready, the pump is used gently to start the acid over the
siphon and into the generator from below. The gas generated by the action
of the acid on the solid soon fills the bottle. The screw clamp on the
exit tube is loosened and the gas passes into the bottle of water and
charges it, in the case when sulphureted hydrogen is required. In the
other cases, when sufficient gas has been generated, the screw clamp is
tightened, and the gas soon attains considerable pressure which forces the
acid back out of the generator and into the acid bottle above. The whole
apparatus now comes to an equilibrium, and the gas in the generator is
ready for another use.--Contributed by W. M. Mills, Bakersfield, Cal.



Holding Small Armatures for Winding


Procure a strip of sheet metal, 6 in. long, 1 in. wide, or as wide as
the armature core is long, and 3/32 in. thick. Bend this into a U-shape,
as shown, and file each end similar to the barb on a fishhook. Drill
two holes for a bolt to pass through the sheet-metal ends. Fasten a
screw or bolt in the center of the bend, to be used for gripping in a
chuck or polishing head. Core segments can be quickly wound with this
device.--Contributed by Geo. B. Schulz, Austin, Illinois.

[Illustration: Armature Cores are Easily Revolved to Fill the Core
Openings with Insulated Wire]

[Illustration]



Footstool for Cement Floors


A clerk finding the cement floor of the office uncomfortably cold to
the feet, devised a footstool in the following manner: A shallow box
was procured, and four small truck casters were fastened to the bottom.
A piece of carpet was laid on the inside of the bottom and some old
newspapers placed on top of it. When seated at the desk, he placed his
feet inside the box on the papers. The casters elevated the box from the
cement, just high enough to avoid dampness and cold, and permitted an easy
change of position.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Gainesville, Ga.



Homemade Telegraph Sounder


The material required to construct a telegraph sounder, like the one shown
in the sketch, consists of two binding posts, magnets, a piece of sheet
metal, and a rubber band. These are arranged as shown, on a wood base
or, better still, on a metal box. In using a metal-box base, be sure to
insulate the connections at the magnet coils and binding posts.

[Illustration: An Inexpensive and Homemade Sounder for Use in Learning
the Telegraph Codes]

This instrument will be found by those studying the telegraph codes to
give good results, equal to any of the expensive outfits sold for this
purpose.--Contributed by Chas. J. La Prille, Flushing, N. Y.



Laboratory Force Filter


The sketch represents a force filter which is well adapted for use in
small laboratories. The water is turned on at the faucet and draws the air
through the side tube by suction, which in turn draws the air in a steady
stream through the Wolff bottles. The tubes may be attached to a filter
inserted in a filter bottle and filtering thus greatly facilitated. The
connection to the faucet can be made, as shown in the detailed sketch,
out of a long cork, by boring a hole large enough to fit the faucet
through the cork and another slanting hole, joining the central hole, on
the side for a pipe or tube. At the lower end of the cork a tube is also
fitted, which may be drawn out to increase the suction. The inclined tube
should be slightly bent at the lower end.--Contributed by W. M. Mills,
Bakersfield, Cal.

[Illustration: A Slight Vacuum is Formed by the Water Flowing through the
Cork, Which Forces the Filter]



Beginner's Helper for Roller Skating


One of the most amusing as well as useful devices for a beginner on roller
skates is shown in the sketch. The device is made of 3/4-in. pipe and
pipe fittings, with a strip of sheet metal 1 in. wide fastened about half
way down on the legs. On the bottom of each leg is fastened an ordinary
furniture caster which allows the machine to roll easily on the floor.
The rear is left open to allow the beginner to enter, then by grasping
the top rail he is able to move about on the floor at ease, without fear
of falling.--Contributed by J. H. Harris, Berkeley, Cal.

[Illustration: Beginner Cannot Fall]



Atmospheric Thermo-Engine


The device illustrated has for its object the production of power in
small quantities with little attention and no expense. All that is
needed to produce the power is common ordinary water, and the device will
continue to operate until the amount of water placed in the receptacle
has evaporated.

[Illustration: Details of the Engine]

The device consists of a rectangular vessel provided with legs and a
cover. Each end of the vessel is provided with an opening, A, adapted to
receive and hold in place plaster-of-paris cups, B. The part extending
into the tank is provided with a wick, C, which reaches to the bottom
of the vessel. A glass tube, D, is provided with a bulb on each end and
partly filled with alcohol, the remaining space being exhausted of air.
The glass tube is secured to a hanger which is pivoted to the bottom of
the vessel.

After a quantity of water has been poured into the vessel and the device
allowed to stand undisturbed for a few minutes, the tube will begin to
move with an oscillating motion. Some of the water in the vessel has
been conducted by means of the wicks C to the bent plaster cups, from the
surface of which it evaporates, thus absorbing latent heat and producing
a lower temperature in the cups than that of the surrounding atmosphere.
The bulb in contact with the cup thus acquires a lower temperature than
the one at the end D, which will result in condensation of the alcohol
vapor within the former. The pressure of the vapor in the lower bulb will
then force the alcohol up the inclined tube into the higher bulb, the
evaporation in the lower bulb maintaining the pressure therein.

When a sufficient quantity of alcohol has been forced into the upper
bulb, it will descend, and thus elevate the other bulb into its cup.
The phenomena just described will be repeated in this bulb and the
oscillation will continue until the water in the vessel has been absorbed
and evaporated.--Contributed by E. W. Davis, Chicago.



A Mirror an Aid in Rowing a Boat


The young oarsman is apt to experience difficulty in keeping a straight
course until he has had some practice. Rowing a boat in a narrow channel
calls for considerable skill to hold a course in mid-stream. A variation
of force in pulling the oars almost instantly results in the rowboat
making a landfall on one or the other of the banks.

[Illustration: The Mirror Attached to a Boat]

The skilled oarsman does not need an appliance that the beginner might
welcome. With the aid of a mirror conveniently supported at a suitable
angle and height before the oarsman's face, the water, the shores and
approaching boats may be seen with distinctness. The mirror may be
set directly in front or a little distance to one side as shown in the
sketch.--Contributed by Thaleon Blake, Sidney, O.



Developing Tray Made of a Tin Can


Obtain a tomato or other can, 5 or 6 in. long and 4 in. in diameter, which
should be secured before it has been opened, says Camera Craft. Cut both
ends exactly half way around, keeping close to the edge, as shown in the
first sketch, and slit it lengthwise to open the side. Trim off the end
pieces to within 1 in. of the center and cut off the surplus tin of the
sides of the can, leaving enough to bend over and form the ends of the
tank as shown in the second sketch.

[Illustration: For Developing Roll Films]

The support, as shown in the last sketch, is made by screwing together
three pieces of wood, the base piece being 6-1/2 in. square and thick
enough to make the tank solid and heavy. Bend the sides of the can over
the edges of the two uprights and tack them firmly to the sides, bending
the tin so as to have a rounded surface that will not scratch the films.
The ends of the can are bent over sharply to form the sides of the tank.
Procure a round wood stick, the length of the tank, place in position,
and fasten with a screw through the tin at both ends. Give the whole tank
two coats of black asphaltum varnish to protect it from the action of the
developer.



White Rubber on Croquet Arches


[Illustration]

A white cloth is usually tied to croquet arches when the game is played
late in the evening. A much better plan is to slip a piece of white rubber
tubing about 1 ft. long on the arch. This tubing can be purchased at any
local drug store. This makes the top part of the arch conspicuous so that
it may be plainly seen in the dark, and, when the tubing becomes soiled
it can be cleaned off with a damp cloth.--Contributed by John Blake,
Franklyn, Mass.



Illuminating an Outside Thermometer


During the season of furnace fires the thermometer outside the north
window becomes of added interest and usefulness in helping one to judge
the proper draft adjustments of the furnace for the night. A pocket
electric flashlamp is convenient for examining the thermometer after dark,
but it is not always at hand, matches are dangerous when lace curtains
are at the window, and besides, the reflection from the glass of both
matches and flashlamp on the inside makes it very difficult to read the
thermometer.

[Illustration]

To avoid these difficulties I attached to my thermometer the device shown
herewith, which consists of a miniature battery lamp placed at the back
of the translucent-glass thermometer and operated by a battery within
the house, the light being turned on by an ordinary push button placed
conveniently inside of the window.

A strip of brass, A, 3/8 in. wide by 1/16 in. thick, was riveted
(soldering will do) to the lower support of the thermometer. The free end
of this brass strip was bent around a disk of hardwood, B, and fastened
to it by three or four small screws in such a manner that the disk made
a circular platform just behind the thermometer scale. This disk was
slightly larger than the mouth of a small, thin tumbler. On the upper
surface of this disk was fastened with shellac and small nails close to
the periphery, a disk of cork, 1/4 in. thick, this cork disk being a close
fit for the mouth of the tumbler. A miniature porcelain electric-lamp
socket was fastened with screws on the cork of the base. Wires were
then run from the lamp socket through the cork and wood disks and the
whole painted with melted paraffin to close all apertures and keep out
moisture. Good rubber-covered electric-light wire will do nicely for the
wiring outside the house, although, if it can be obtained, a piece of
lead-covered paired wire is preferable. These wires must be only long
enough to reach inside the house, where they may be joined to the ordinary
sort of wire used in electric-bell work for connecting with push button
and battery.

A 4-volt lamp of about 2 cp. will be sufficient to illuminate the
thermometer and allow the scale and mercury column to be distinctly seen.
It may be found necessary to make some adjustment by bending the brass
strip in order to bring the lamp centrally behind the scale and at the
proper height to give the best lighting on the range of from 10 to 40
deg. Over the lamp is placed the tumbler for protection from the weather,
and, if desired, half of the tumbler may be painted as a reflector on the
inside with white enamel paint, although, in practice, I have not found
this necessary.

Within the house the push button should be placed at the window where
it can be most conveniently reached when viewing the thermometer, and
connections may be made to the battery regularly used for ringing the
house bells, or to a separate battery of, say, 4 dry cells, placed in
some location, as a closet, near the thermometer.--Contributed by C. F.
A. Siedhof, Winchester, Mass.



How to Make an Automobile Robe


When driving an automobile in cold weather, it is impossible to have
a robe come down over the feet without being in the way so that it is
inconvenient in working the pedals. Procure a common heavy robe and cut
two holes in it about 5 in. from the bottom just large enough for the
toe of the shoes to slip through and bind the edges with cloth or fur.
The 5 in. of robe below the holes should come back under the feet so that
no wind can enter. Make the holes far enough apart so that both outside
pedals can be reached easily and you will have no trouble with your feet.
This robe, with the use of overshoes, will insure comfort in driving a
car.--Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt.



Locating a Droplight in the Dark


It is very hard to locate an electric-light globe in a dark room. Anyone
trying to find one by striking the air in its vicinity with one hand,
usually finds that the globe is not there, although the hand may have
passed within 1/2 in. of the globe.

[Illustration: Covering a Wide Range]

The best way to locate a globe is to approach the proximity of the drop
with thumbs touching and fingers extended as shown in the sketch, in which
manner the hands will cover a radius of about 14 in. and offer a better
chance of locating the light quickly than if one groped about with one
hand extended.--Contributed by Victor Labadie, Dallas, Tex.



Lighting a Room for Making Photographs


When it becomes too cold for the amateur photographer to take pictures
outdoors, he generally lays aside his camera and thinks no more about it
until the coming of another spring or summer. While some winter scenes
would make up an interesting part of anyone's collection, it is not always
pleasant to go out to take them.

Some derive pleasure from making groups and portraits, but this is very
difficult, if the room is not well lighted. Overhead light is the best
for this work and few residences are constructed to furnish this kind of
light.

[Illustration: Light Reflected on Ceiling]

I find a very good way to get a light overhead is to take a large
mirror--one from an ordinary dresser will do--and place it in the window
in such a position that the reflection will strike the ceiling just
above the subject. The result will be a soft but very strong light,
almost equal to a north skylight. Splendid portraits can be made in this
way.--Contributed by Chas. Piper, Kokomo, Ind.



Detachable Hinged Cover for Kettles


A kettle cover equipped with the hinge shown in Fig. 1 will not fall off
when in place, and can be raised or removed entirely when desired.

[Illustration: Wire Clasps on Hinge (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

One wing of an ordinary hinge is soldered or riveted to the cover and wire
clasps soldered to the other wing. It is slipped on the kettle as shown
in Fig. 2. The cover is interchangeable and can be placed on almost any
kettle.



A Use for Discarded Wafer Razor Blades


A paper trimmer and mat cutter can be made from a wafer razor blade. As a
paper trimmer, place the blade C over the part A of the razor, as shown,
with only two of the holes engaging in one post and the center screw.
Then place the part B in position and clamp with the handle. This will
allow about 1/2 in. of the blade to project at one end. If a part of the
extending blade is cut or broken off, it will be more easily handled. The
cutter is guided along the straightedge as shown in Fig. 1.

[Illustration: (Fig. 1)]

If it is desired to make a more permanent form of instrument, or if no
holder is at hand and only a castoff wafer blade, a handle, C, may be cut
from a piece of wood and fitted with two or three binding-posts, A, taken
from an old battery, to hold the blade B in place, as shown in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: Blade Attached to Handle (Fig. 2)]



Armatures for Small Motors


Without the proper tools and material, the amateur electrician will find
it quite difficult to construct a small armature for a battery motor that
will run true, without vibration and have a neat appearance. Ordinary
cast-iron gears or pinions, as shown in Fig. 1, make excellent cores for
armatures on small motors. A gear of any number of teeth can be used for
an armature with a smaller number of coils by cutting out a certain number
of teeth. For example, a gear with 12 teeth will take 12 coils, but if
every other tooth is cut out, it will take only 6 coils, etc. The teeth
can be easily chipped out with a cold chisel.

[Illustration: Gear Used as a Core (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

Larger armatures can be made from gears with spokes, the spokes being cut
out, if a ring armature is desired. The gear, when wound, can be mounted
on a hub made of empty thread spools. The spool can be turned at one end
to insert it in the armature, and if too long, one end will serve for the
core of the commutator, as shown in Fig. 2. This combination will make a
neat, efficient little armature, which will run quite free from vibration.
Only simple tools, such as a hammer, cold chisel, file, jackknife and a
vise, are required.--Contributed by R. J. Nault, Hartford, Conn.



Ice Creeper for Shoe Heels


Many persons, young and old, have falls every winter on the ice or snow
which can be avoided if their shoes are fitted with ice creepers. A very
efficient device of this kind, which any boy can make at home in a short
time, is shown in the sketch. These ice creepers need not be removed from
the shoes or boots until the winter is past, for they may be worn indoors
without injuring the finest floor.

The two plates A may be made from either iron or steel--preferably the
latter. An all-steel scraper, or a piece of a saw blade, makes good
creepers. Draw the temper by heating the steel to a cherry red and then
letting it cool slowly. It may then be sawn with a hacksaw, cut with a
cold chisel, or filed into plates of the proper shape, as shown. The teeth
are filed to points. The two L-shaped slots are made by drilling 3/16-in.
holes through the plates, and then sawing, filing or chiseling out the
metal between the holes. The projections at the ends are then bent out at
right angles with heavy pliers or the claws of a hammer, and finally the
plates bent to fit the curve of the heel.

[Illustration: Creeper Attached to Heel]

The creepers are attached by means of round-head wood screws turned into
the leather. In this operation place the teeth of the plates just below
the bottom of the heel and turn the screws into the ends of the upright
slots until the heads just bind. The plate as set when indoors or else not
needed is shown at B. To place the plate so it will grip the ice, slide
it to the right, which will bring the screws into the horizontal slots,
as shown at C.--Contributed by Chelsea C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich.



Opening Screw-Top Fruit Jars


[Illustration]

Screw-top fruit jars may be easily opened in the following manner: Secure
a strap with a buckle and place it around the top as if it were to be
buckled, but instead draw the loose end back and hold it with the thumb
as shown. Turn cover and strap while held in this position and it will
easily turn from the jar.--Contributed by Chas. A. Bickert, Clinton, Iowa.



Lamp-Chimney Cleaner


Lamp chimneys of various makes are very difficult to clean quickly and
thoroughly. The simple device shown in the sketch makes the cleaning
process a simple matter. The cleaner is made of a round rubber ball with
slits cut in it as shown and then fastened to the end of a stick. When
a cloth is placed over the ball it presses evenly against the curved
surfaces of the glass. There is no danger of breaking a chimney with this
cleaner.

[Illustration: Rubber Ball on Stick]



A Pop-Corn Popper


[Illustration]

The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a pop-corn popper for
thoroughly flavoring the corn with the hot butter or lard, and at the same
time mixing it with the necessary amount of salt. Procure a metal bucket
that just fits the bottom of the frying pan. The stirring device is made
of heavy wire bent as shown and provided with an empty spool for a handle.
A brace is made of tin bent in the shape shown and riveted to the bottom
of the bucket.--Contributed by F. A. Wirth, Farwell, Texas.



A Homemade Floor Polisher


An efficient and cheap floor polisher may be readily constructed in the
following manner: Make a box about 4 by 6 by 12 in., or the exact size
may be determined by building it around the household flatirons as these
are used to give weight and pressure. The handle, which is attached as
shown, should be at least 2-1/2 in wide at the hinged end and should
be sandpapered where it is grasped by the hands. A half-strap hinge is
preferable, with the strap part fastened to the handle. The bottom of the
polisher is covered with a piece of Brussels carpet.

[Illustration: Flatirons in the Box]

In use, it is well to set the polisher on a soft piece of cotton or
flannel cloth, which may be readily renewed when badly soiled.

A more sightly polisher may be made by filling the box with pieces of old
iron or lead, tightly packed with paper to prevent rattling, and attaching
a cover over the top. The handle may be hinged directly to this cover by
means of a full-strap hinge.--Contributed by B. O. Longyear, Ft. Collins,
Colo.



Simple Way to Mark Poison Bottles


[Illustration]

A way to prevent any possible mistake of taking bottles containing poisons
is to mark them as shown in the sketch. This method provides a way to
designate a poison bottle in the dark.

The marker is made of a circle of heavy cardboard with a hole in the
center so as to fit tightly over the neck of the bottle. No matter how
dark it may be or how much of a hurry a person may be in, one cannot
fail to note the character of the contents of the bottle as soon as the
hand touches the cardboard marker.--Contributed by Katharine D. Morse,
Syracuse, N. Y.



Removing Varnish


A good and easy way to remove varnish from old furniture is to wash the
surface thoroughly with 95-per-cent alcohol. This dissolves the varnish
and the wood can then be cleaned with a strong solution of soap, or weak
lye. If lye is used, it should be washed off quickly and the wood dried
with flannel cloth. When the wood is thoroughly dry it will take a fine
finish.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



Curling-Iron Heater


The curling-iron holder shown in the sketch can be made of metal tubing
having the size to fit both iron and gas jet. One-half of the tubing for
a portion of its length is removed, as shown in Fig. 1. The remaining part
is bent as in Fig. 2 and set on the burner of the gas jet.

[Illustration: Heater on Gas Jet (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

The tube prevents the curling iron from becoming black with soot. The
position on the jet may be changed. The tube can be placed on the jet and
removed with the curling iron.--Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond,
Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A whisk broom is the best cleaner for a gas stove. It
    will clean dirt from nickel parts as well as from the
    burner, grates, ovens and sheet-metal bottoms.



Preserving Flowers in Color and Form


One of the most distressing sides of botanical study is the short life of
the colors in flowers. Those who have found the usual method of preserving
plants by pressure between paper unsatisfactory will be interested to
learn of a treatment whereby many kinds of flowers may be dried so that
they retain a great deal of their natural form and color.

The flowers should be gathered as soon as the blossoms have fully opened.
It is important that they should be quite dry, and in order to free them
of drops of rain or dew, they may be suspended with heads downward for a
few hours in a warm place. It is well to begin with some simple form of
flower.

[Illustration: Placing the Flowers on the Steel Pins...]

A large, strongly made wooden box--one of tin is better--will be
necessary, together with a sufficient amount of sand to fill it. If
possible, the sand should be of the kind known as "silver sand," which is
very fine. The best that can be procured will be found far from clean, and
it must, therefore, be thoroughly washed. The sand should be poured into
a bowl of clean water. Much of the dirt will float on the surface. This
is skimmed off and thrown away, and clean water added. The sand should be
washed in this manner at least a dozen times, or until nothing remains
but pure white grains of sand. The clean sand is spread out to dry on a
cloth in a thin layer. When thoroughly dry, it should be placed in a heavy
earthenware vessel and further dried in a hot oven. Allow it to remain in
the oven for some time until it is completely warmed through so that one
can scarcely hold the bare hands in it.

[Illustration: ...and Pouring the Dry Sand around Them]

Obtain a piece of heavy cardboard and cut it to fit easily in the bottom
of the box. Through the bottom of the cardboard insert a number of steel
pins, one for each of the flowers to be preserved. Take the dry blossoms
and press the stalk of each on a steel pin so that it is held in an
upright position. When the cardboard is thus filled, place it in the box.

[Illustration: The Dried Flowers]

The warm sand is put in a bag or some other receptacle from which it
can be easily poured. Pour the sand into the box gently, allowing it to
trickle slowly in so that it spreads evenly. Keep on pouring sand until
the heads of the flowers are reached, taking care that all of them stand
in a vertical position. The utmost care must be taken, when the heads are
reached, to see that all the petals are in their right order. Remember
that any crumpled flowers will be pressed into any position they may
assume by the weight of the sand. When the box is filled it should be
covered and set aside in a dry place.

The box should be allowed to stand at least 48 hours. After the first day,
if only a small amount of sand has been used, the material may have cooled
off to some extent, and the box must be set in a moderately heated oven
for a short time, but no great amount of warmth is advisable. After 48
hours the box may be uncovered and the sand carefully poured off. As the
flowers are now in a very brittle condition, any rough handling will cause
serious damage. When all the sand has been emptied, the cardboard should
be removed from the box and each blossom taken from its pin. In the case
of succulent specimens, the stems will have shrunk considerably, but the
thinner petals will be in an almost natural condition. The colors will be
bright and attractive. Some tints will have kept better than others, but
most of the results will be surprisingly good. Whatever state the flowers
are in when they are taken from the box, if the drying process has been
thorough, they will keep almost indefinitely.

Flowers preserved in this manner are admirable for the decoration of
homes. If they are exposed to light, care should be taken to see that the
direct sunshine does not strike them, as it will fade the colors. Sprigs
with leaves attached may be dried in this way, but it has been found that
much of the intensity of the green is lost in the process.



Reading Pulse Beats with the Sun's Rays


The pulse beats may be counted by this unusual method. On a clear day,
when the sun is shining brightly, darken a room and select one window
toward the sunlight, which should be prepared as follows: Draw the curtain
part way down and cover the rest of the window with a heavy cardboard.
Cut a small hole in the cardboard to admit a beam of light. Set a bowl
of water on a table in the path of the beam so as to deflect it to the
ceiling as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.

[Illustration: Sun's Rays Deflected to the Ceiling]

It is now a simple matter to show the pulse beats. Place the wrist against
the edge of the bowl as shown, and the beam of light directed to the
ceiling will record every beat of the pulse by short, abrupt movements.



Artistic Wood Turning


Some very odd and beautiful effects can be obtained in lathe work by
making up the stock from several pieces of various kinds of wood glued
together. The pieces can be arranged in many pleasing combinations, and if
good joints are made and a good quality of glue used, the built-up stock
is just as durable as a solid piece.

Candlesticks turned from built-up stock are especially attractive, parts
of the various light and dark woods appearing here and there in all manner
of odd shapes and proportions. If the stock is placed off center in the
lathe, a still greater variety of effects will be produced.

The application of a potassium-bichromate solution to the finished work
turns each piece a different color. This solution can be made in any depth
of color by varying the amounts of potassium salt and water. Maple or
birch treated with this solution are colored to a rich Osage orange which
cannot be surpassed in beauty. Mahogany is turned a deep reddish brown,
and walnut is darkened a great deal. The solution is applied as evenly as
possible with a camel's-hair brush while the wood is turning in the lathe.
The grain of the wood is somewhat roughened by this process, but it can
be dressed down again with very fine sandpaper.

[Illustration: Vase Made of Different Woods]

In polishing the work, only the best shellac should be used, and several
thin coats applied rather than one or two heavy ones. Each coat, with the
exception of the last, should be sandpapered slightly. Powdered pumice
stone on a cloth held in the palm of the hand can be used to apply a
beautiful luster. Some suggestions as to the manner of combining various
woods, and a simple candlestick of mahogany and maple are shown in the
sketch.--Contributed by Olaf Tronnes, Wilmette, Ill.



A Variable Condenser


A simple variable condenser for receiving in wireless, which will give
good results, was made by a correspondent of Modern Electrics as follows:
Each clip on the switch was made of ribbon brass or copper in the shape
shown at A, the first one from the joint of the knife switch being
the longest and each succeeding one shorter. The handle was taken from
a single-pole switch. The case was made of oak and varnished and the
condenser was made of tinfoil and thin sheets of mica, 2 by 3 in. in size.
After placing the condenser in the case, hot paraffin was poured around
it.

[Illustration: Lever and Clips]



Adjustable Baking-Pan Shoes


At times bread, meat, or other food, placed in ordinary baking pans in the
oven becomes burned on the bottom. If the detachable metal strips shown
in the sketch are placed on the pan, this will not happen, as the pan does
not come in direct contact with the oven floor.

[Illustration: Shoe and How It is Attached to the Pan]

The attachment can be placed on agate ware or sheet-iron pans of any
length. The shoes are made from light V-shaped metal strips and in two
parts, as shown, with the edges of one part lapped over so that the other
strip will slide in it.

[Illustration: Cars Lined Up Ready for the Start and the Course Patrolled
by the Boy Scouts, All Traffic being Halted for the Race and the Roadway
Made Clear for the Entire Half Mile of Track]



A Pushmobile Race


Pending the time set for a 500-mile international automobile race that was
scheduled to take place several weeks later, a number of boys in the sixth
and seventh grades of a public school were enthusiastic over the idea of
building for themselves, in the school shops, pushmobiles and having a
race meet similar to the large one advertised.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: The Cars Winning the First, Second and Third Prizes
Respectively, the "Hoosier" being Penalized 10 Yards at the Starting Tape
for Having Larger and Better-Grade Wheels]

The pushmobiles were made and the race run as an opening feature of a
field meet held in the city. The course was about a half mile long, and
was chosen to give the contestants plenty of curves, a part of the run
being over brick streets and the final quarter on the regular track where
the field meet was held.

Interest was added to the event by petitioning the mayor of the city for
a permit to run the race, and the Boy Scouts patrolled the route, while
the city policemen cleared the streets, and during the race all traffic
was halted.

Two of the requirements for entering the race were that the car had to be
made in the school shops and that it must have a certain kind of a wheel,
which in this case was one condemned by a local factory, thus making the
wheels and wheel base of all cars alike. Two boys to a car constituted a
racing team, and during the race they could exchange positions at their
pleasure. The necessity of "nursing" their cars down the steep grades and
around difficult corners developed into an important factor. All cars were
named and numbered.

The car that finished first was disqualified for the reason that it took
on a fresh pusher along the course.

The cars were constructed under the supervision of the regular shop
instructor, and a drawing was furnished each boy making a car. The design
of the hood and the arrangement of the seat and steering gear was left
for each boy to settle as he desired. The matter of expense was watched
closely by each one. Most of the hoods and seats were constructed of empty
dry-goods boxes.

[Illustration: The Entire Chassis was Made of Cypress Wood, All Cars
of the Same Length and Width, the Hoods and Seats Being the Only Parts
Optional in Size and Shape for the Builder]

With the aid of the sketch any boy can make a car as strong as the
"Peugeot" that won the race. The side rails of the main frame were made
of cypress, 58 in. long and 2 in. square. The location of the crossbars A
and B is very important, as they give rigidity to the frame and reinforce
the two bolsters C and D. The size of the hood and the location of
the seat determine where they should be set into the rail, after which
they are fastened with large wood screws. The three bolsters C, D, and
E are cut from regular 2 by 4-in. stock. Be careful to get a uniform
distance between the rails when they are framed together. If desired, the
dimensions can be increased, but do not reduce them, as this will narrow
the tread too much. The bolt connecting the bolsters C and E is a common
carriage bolt, 5 in. long and 1/2 in. in diameter. A washer is placed
between the pieces C and E, to make the turning easy.

Two pieces of 1/2-in. soft-steel rod were used for the axles, a hole being
drilled near each end for a cotter, to hold the wheels in place, and also
holes through the diameter between the wheels, for 1-1/2-in. screws to
fasten the axles to the bolsters.

The steering wheel is constructed of a broom handle with a small wheel
fastened to its upper end, and the lower end supported by a crossbar, F,
and the back end of the hood. Before fastening the crossbar F in place,
adjust the steering wheel to the proper height for the seat; then it is
fastened with nails driven through the sides of the hood.

The construction of the steering device is very simple. The crossarm G is
a piece of timber, 7 in. long, 2 in. wide and 1 in. thick, rounded on the
ends and provided with a large screw eye near each end on the under side
to which are fastened the ends of two small-linked chains. The chains are
then crossed and fastened to the bottom bolster in front and as near the
wheels as practical. The connection is made with a screw eye similar to
the one used in the crossarm. Another type of steering device may be made
by building on the rod a 5-in. drum which takes the place of the steering
arm. It is a more positive appliance, but is somewhat harder to make and
adjust.

The making of the hood and the seat completes the car. Decide upon the
shape and size of the hood, but, in any case and irrespective of the
size, it will require a front and back end. These are made first and then
secured at the proper distance apart with two side rails. These two ends
are nailed on the ends of the connecting rails. It is then well to fasten
the hood skeleton to the car frame and cover it after the steering device
is in place.

The seat bottom is cut the shape desired, and fastened to the rear bolster
and crosspiece, first placing a piece of the proper thickness under the
front edge, to give it the desired slant backward. The back curved part
can be formed of a piece of sheet metal and lined on the inside with wood
pieces, or with cloth or leather, padded to resemble the regular cushion.



Pencil Rack


The simple pencil rack shown in the sketch can be easily made from any
suitable strip of metal, preferably brass of about No. 15 gauge. Mark
off a number of rectangles corresponding to the number of pencil holders
desired. With a sharp chisel, cut through the metal on three sides of
each rectangle, leaving one of the short sides untouched. The loose
laps can then be bent to a shape suited to hold a pencil. The rack can
be fastened in place with nails or screws through holes pierced at each
end.--Contributed by Mark Gluckman, Jersey City, N. J.

[Illustration: A Strip of Sheet Metal Cut and Clips Formed to Make a
Pencil Rack]

       *       *       *       *       *

    Indistinct but not entirely worn-off dates on coins
    may be read by heating slightly.



Reducing Size of a Hat Sweatband


Very often a hat has been worn for some time and it becomes too loose
on the head, then paper is used in the sweatband to reduce the size. A
better, easier, and neater method, as well as one that will be cooler for
the head, is to insert a flat lamp wick inside of the sweatband. Wicks of
all thicknesses and widths are easily obtained.--Contributed by Maurice
Bandier, New Orleans, La.



A Catapult


The catapult shown in the sketch is one I constructed some time ago and
found to be amusing and very inexpensive. The catapult consists of a small
piece of dowel or pine, whittled into the shape of a handle, a screweye,
an elastic band and an arrow. It is surprising how a well-balanced
arrow will fly into the sky until lost to sight when propelled through
the eye of the screw with a medium-strong elastic. A number of forms of
this simple gun were made, but the one shown is the simplest and most
effective.--Contributed by C. A. Needham, New York, N. Y.

[Illustration: The Eye of the Screw Serves as a Guide for the Arrow]



Growing Clean Strawberries


A very good method of growing individual strawberry plants that will
produce large clean berries is to provide a covering constructed from a
board 10 in. square with a 3-in. hole bored in the center. This covering
is placed over the plant, as shown in the sketch, to keep down weeds,
retain moisture, and to make a base for the ripening berries. A shower
cannot spatter dirt and sand on the growing fruit. The rays of the sun
beating on the surface of the board will aid in the ripening.

[Illustration: Growing Strawberries on the Surface of a Board Where They
will Ripen Fast and Keep Clean]

If a log can be obtained, the boards can be made better and more quickly.
Disks about 1 in. thick are sawed from the log and holes in their centers
either cut with a chisel or bored, as desired. The grain of the wood
will be vertical and no warping will take place--Contributed by Johnny
Banholster, Gresham, Oregon



A Magic Change Card


Procure two cards, the "5" of diamonds and the "5" of spades, for example.
Bend each exactly in the center, with the face of the cards in, and then
paste any card on the back, with its face against the two ends of the
bent cards. The two opposite ends will then have their backs together, and
these are also pasted. The illustration clearly shows this arrangement.

[Illustration: A Card Having Two Faces, Either of Which can be Shown to
the Audience Instantly]

To perform the trick pick up this card, which is placed in the pack
beforehand, and show to the audience both the front and back of the
card, being sure to keep the center part flat against one end or the
other, then pass the hand over the card, and in doing so catch the center
part and turn it over. The card can be changed back again in the same
manner.--Contributed by R. Bennett, Pittsburgh, Pa.



Cleaning Pearl Articles


A good way to clean pearl articles or ornaments is to moisten them with
alcohol and then dry in magnesia powder or French chalk. These last two
articles may be purchased at any drug store and the process of cleaning
is absolutely harmless. It also polishes the pearl and will not bleach
delicate colors.



Bed for a Camp


A quickly made bed for a camp is shown in the illustration. The corner
posts consist of four forked stakes driven in the earth so that the
crotches are on a level and about 1 ft. from the ground. Poles are laid
in the crotches, lengthwise of the bed, and canvas covering double-lapped
over them. If desired, the canvas can be stitched along the inside of the
poles.--Contributed by Thomas Simpson, Pawtucket, R. I.

[Illustration: Canvas Bed Made on Two Poles Laid in the Crotches of Forked
Stakes]



Sail for a Boy's Wagon


Every boy, who loves a boat and has only a wagon, can make a combination
affair in which he can sail even though there is no water for miles
around. One boy accomplished this as shown in the illustration, and the
only assistance he had was in making the sails.

[Illustration: The Sail Wagon will Travel at a Good Speed in a Stiff
Breeze]

The box of the wagon is removed and the boat deck bolted in its place.
The deck is 14 in. wide and 5 ft. long. The mast consists of an old rake
handle, 6 ft. long; the boom and gaff are broomsticks, and the tiller is
connected with wire to the front axle, which gives perfect control of the
steering. The sails are made of drilling.

On a brick pavement the sail wagon can draw two other wagons with two boys
in each, making in all five boys. Of course a good wind must be blowing.
With two boys it has made a mile in five minutes on pavement.--Contributed
by Arthur Carruthers, Oberlin, Ohio.



Extracting a Broken Screw


A screw will often break off in a piece of work in such a manner that it
is quite impossible to remove it by using a pair of pliers or a wrench.
In this case the following method is very efficient and expedient.

Drill a small hole in the screw as near the center as possible. Roughen
the edges on the tang of a file with a cold chisel, and drive the tang
into the hole with a mallet. The roughened edges of the tang exert enough
friction on the metal to remove the screw by turning the file in the
proper direction.



Keeping Out Dampness


A good way to keep a bed from becoming damp, if left for any length of
time, is to place a blanket on the top after it is made up. Take the
blanket off before using and the bed covers will be quite dry, as the
blanket absorbs the moisture.--Contributed by G. Nordyke, Lexington, Ore.



A Double-Claw Hammer for Pulling Nails Straight


A nail pulled with an ordinary claw hammer will be bent in the operation,
and for this reason the double claw is used to draw the nail straight
out of the wood. An ordinary claw hammer can be easily converted into
a double-claw by filing out one of the claws as shown. The notch is
filed only large enough to slip under the head of an average-size
nail. After drawing the nail a short distance in the usual manner the
small notch is set under the head of the nail which is then pulled out
straight.--Contributed by J. V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind.

[Illustration: The Small Notch on the End of the Claw Makes It Easy to
Pull a Nail Straight]

[Illustration]



A Cyclemobile By Frank Pfefferle


The cyclemobile is of the three-wheeled type and can be easily constructed
in the home workshop with ordinary tools. The main frame is built up
of two sidepieces, AA, Fig. 1, each 2 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 7 ft.
long, joined together at the front end with a crosspiece, B, of the same
material, 17 in. long. The sides are placed slightly tapering so that the
rear ends are 11 in. apart at the point where they are joined together
with the blocks and rear-wheel attachments. A crosspiece, C, 13 in. long,
is fastened in the center of the frame.

[Illustration: Three-Wheeled Cyclemobile Propelled Like a Bicycle and
Steered as an Automobile]

The place for the seat is cut out of each sidepiece, as shown by the
notches at D, which are 2 ft. from the rear ends. Two strips of wood, E,
1/2 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 22 in. long, are fastened with nails to the
rear ends of the sides, as shown. The rear wheel is a bicycle wheel, which
can be taken from an old bicycle, or a wheel may be purchased cheaply at
a bicycle store. It is held in place with two pieces of strap iron, F,
shaped similar to the rear forks on a bicycle, and each piece is bolted to
a block of wood 3 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 6 in. long, which is fastened
to the sidepiece with the same bolts that hold the strap iron in place.
The blocks are located 20 in. from the rear ends of the sidepieces.

[Illustration: Detail of the Parts for Constructing an Automobile-Type
Foot-Power Car (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

The pedal arrangement, Fig. 2, consists of an ordinary bicycle hanger,
with cranks and sprocket wheel set into the end of a piece of wood, 2 in.
thick, 4 in. wide and 33 in. long, at a point 4 in. from one end. The
pieces GG are nailed on across the frame at the front end of the car,
to hold the hanger piece in the center between the sidepieces, as shown
in Fig. 1. A small pulley, H, is made to run loosely on a shaft fastened
between the sidepieces. This is used as an idler to keep the upper part
of the chain below the seat.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

The front axle is 30 in. long, pivoted as shown at J, Fig. 3, 6 in. from
the front end of the main frame. Two small brass plates, KK, are fastened
with screws on the under edge of each sidepiece, as shown, to provide a
bearing for the axle. The front wheels are taken from a discarded baby
carriage and are about 21 in. in diameter.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

A good imitation radiator can be made by cutting a board to the dimensions
given in Fig. 4. A large-mesh screen is fastened to the rear side to
imitate the water cells.

[Illustration: (Fig. 5)]

The steering gear L, Fig. 5, is made of a broom handle, one end of which
passes through the support M and fits into a hole bored into the lower
part of the imitation radiator board. A steering wheel, N, is attached
to the upper end of the broom handle. The center part of a rope, O, is
given a few turns around the broom handle, and the ends are passed through
the openings in screweyes, PP, turned into the inner surfaces of the
sidepieces AA, and tied to the front axle.

[Illustration: (Fig. 6)]

The seat is constructed of 1/2-in. lumber and is built in the notches cut
in the main frame shown at D, Fig. 1. The body frame is made of lath, or
other thin strips of wood, that can be bent in the shape of the radiator
and nailed to the sidepieces, as shown in Fig. 6. These are braced at the
top with a longitudinal strip. The frame is then covered with canvas and
painted as desired.



How to Make a Humidor


The humidor is an ideal gift for any person who smokes. The wood for
making one, as shown in the illustration, may be of Spanish cedar,
mahogany, or quartered oak, as the builder desires. The box and cover
are made and glued together in one piece, then the cover is sawed off to
insure a perfect fit. A strong corner connection is shown at A. A piece of
a strawberry box or peach basket makes a good key to glue in the grooves.
Care must be taken to run the grain with the width and not with the length
of the strip.

[Illustration: The Amount of Moisture within the Box is Shown on the Dial
in the Cover]

Finish the outside of the box with two coats of the desired stain, then
cover with a coat of wax, shellac, or varnish. The inside should be
finished with one coat of white lead and two or three coats of white
enamel, to make the wood impervious to moisture.

In the center of the cover top is set a piece of glass and to the under
side of the latter a hygrometer is attached with a little glue. This
instrument tells the relative humidity, or the amount of moisture, in
the air within. The moisture may be regulated by adding a few drops of
water, as needed, to a piece of ordinary blotting paper placed on the
inside.--Contributed by James T. Gaffney, Chicago.



Telephoto Attachment for a Hand Camera


It is not necessary to purchase an expensive telephoto lens for a box or
hand camera if the owner has a pair of opera or field glasses. First focus
the glasses on the distant object to be photographed and then set the
camera. One of the glasses is placed directly in line with and in front of
the camera lens, as shown in the sketch. If the camera is of the focusing
type, it is focused in the ordinary manner. Box and other cameras are set
as usual.

[Illustration: A Field Glass Placed in Front of a Camera Lens will
Increase the Diameter of the Photograph]

The glasses should be well supported in front of the camera lens, as any
slight move will be quite perceptible on the ground glass. As the light
rays are largely reduced in passing through the field glass and camera
lens, it is necessary to give a much longer exposure. This can only be
determined by trying it out, as lenses have different speeds.--Contributed
by Charles Leonard, St. John, Can.



A Turn Feeding Table for Birds


Never in the past has the public at large taken so great an interest
in protecting and furthering the well-being of birds as at present. In
addition to protective legislation, clubs everywhere are organizing to
promote bird life and many citizens, old and young, are making bird houses
and feeding tables.

One of the best forms of feeding tables which I have ever seen is shown
in the sketch. It possesses a great advantage over the average table in
being turned automatically, whirling about by the action of the winds and
always keeping its open front on the lee or protected quarter. This is a
good feature especially in the fall and winter, the very time when birds
need and seek protection from storms and cold winds.

To make such a feed table almost any kind of boards can be utilized. The
shelter may be of any shape or size to suit the tastes of the maker, but
one constructed to the dimensions given will be found to work well in most
localities. Along the center of the roof is attached a wing, A, which is
an active aid in causing the wind to keep the open front turned away. The
shelter turns upon a wood or iron rod which passes from the end of a post
up through the central bottom and central roof of the structure. If wood
is used for the rod, it should be about 1 in. in diameter and of hard
stock. An iron rod may be somewhat smaller. Keep the holes well greased.

[Illustration: A Feeding Table for Birds That will Keep Its Open Side
Protected from the Storms]

The house should be given a couple of coats of white, red, or green paint,
and the post painted to correspond. Feed and water are placed in shallow
dishes on the floor and they should be blocked to keep them from sliding
out.--Contributed by C. C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich.



A Sack Holder


An old granite kettle or tin pail with the bottom cut out and three
8-penny wire nails bent and fastened on with rivets, as shown at A, makes
as good a sack holder as one could desire. A chain attached to the handle
makes it conveniently adjustable to the proper height for the sack.

[Illustration: A Granite Kettle Forms a Holder That Makes It Easy to Fill
the Sack]



Time Indicator for Medicine Bottles


[Illustration]

The time to give a patient the next dose of medicine can be set on the
indicator, as shown in the sketch, and retained without fear of its being
changed until the dose is again given. The indicator consists of a strip
of paper which will reach around the bottle neck and is divided into 24
equal parts representing hours and half hours. The paper is then pasted to
the bottle neck. An ordinary pin is then pushed into the cork as shown.
After a dose of medicine is given to the patient the cork is replaced so
that the head of the pin will indicate the time for the next dose. By this
method, an accidental shifting of the indicator is almost impossible.



A Washtub Stand


Usually two old chairs or an old box makes the stand for the washtub,
and these are not always the right height. A stand, like that shown in
the illustration and having the proper height for the one who does the
washing, can be easily made of 2 by 4-in. material and a few boards. As
it is shown, the wringer is fastened on top of the back and may remain
there all the time, it being out of the way, always in its proper place,
and held very firmly.

[Illustration: Stand Provides a Place for the Washing Utensils and It is
Always the Proper Height]

A light bracket, on which to set the clothes basket, can be made and
fastened on the back of the stand, connected with two hinges and supported
by a leg hinged to the bracket, the lower end of the leg resting on the
floor back of the stand.

A small drawer may also be provided in the front, in which to put away the
soap and brushes, and the wash boiler can be set underneath. When one is
through washing, the bracket at the back is let down, the washstand set
up against the wall out of the way, and everything is then in its place,
ready for the next wash day.--Contributed by Chas. Homewood, Waterloo, Ia.



Pipe Used as a Leather Punch


[Illustration]

The sketch shows how a very cheap and serviceable leather punch can be
made of an old pipe nipple. Pieces of pipe of almost any size can be found
around a shop, and it is, therefore, usually possible to quickly make
a punch of the required size. The cutter end can be ground very thin to
prevent an over-cut, while a small slot cut a little above it will allow
the removal of the leather slugs. For its purpose, this homemade tool is
all that can be desired in cheapness and utility.



To Prevent Oilcloth from Cracking


A good method to prevent oilcloth from cracking, when it is used on shop
tables or counters, is to first cut a paper cover for the table on which
to place the oilcloth and prepare it as follows: The paper should be
well oiled with common machine oil and placed smoothly on the table to
be covered. The oilcloth is then smoothed out on top of the paper and
stretched tightly. The oiled paper tends to keep the under side of the
cloth moist, which prevents cracking. The cloth wears much longer because
the paper acts as a pad.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Flymobile By Edward Sieja


The boy owning a pushmobile, or even a power-driven auto car, is often
very much disappointed because motion soon stops when the power is
not applied. The car illustrated is of a little different type, being
equipped with a flywheel that will propel the car and carry the rider a
considerable distance after stopping the pedaling. The flywheel also aids
the operator, as it will steady the motion and help him over a rough place
or a bump in the road.

[Illustration: The Flymobile is a Miniature Automobile in Appearance and
is Propelled by Foot Power]

The main frame of the flymobile is made up of a few pieces of 2 by 4-in.
timbers. The pieces A are 6 ft. 4 in. long, and the end crosspieces B,
24 in. long. These are jointed, glued and screwed together, as shown in
Fig. 1. The frame that supports the driving parts consists of a piece, C,
6 ft. 2 in. long, and a piece D, 2 ft. 11 in. long. These are fitted in
the main frame and securely fastened to the end crosspieces B. Two other
crosspieces, E and F, are used to strengthen the driving-parts frame.

[Illustration: Plan and Elevation of the Flymobile, Showing the Location
of the Working Parts, to Which, with a Few Changes, a Motorcycle Engine
can be Attached to Make It a Cyclecar; also Details of the Brakes, Belt
Tightener and Coaster-Brake Hub (Fig. 1)]

The entire hanger G, with its bearings, cranks and pedals, can be procured
from a discarded bicycle and fastened to the piece C; the barrel holding
the bearings being snugly fitted into a hole bored in the piece with
an expansive bit. The location will depend on the builder and should be
marked as follows: Place the hanger on top of the piece C, then put a box
or board on the frame where the seat is to be and set the hanger where
it will be in a comfortable position for pedaling. Mark this location and
bore the hole.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

The transmission H consists of a bicycle coaster-brake hub, shown in
detail in Fig. 2. A split pulley, J, 6 in. in diameter, is bored out to
fit over the center of the hub between the spoke flanges. The halves
of the pulley are then clamped on the hub with two bolts, run through
the holes in opposite directions. Their heads and nuts are let into
countersunk holes so that no part will extend above the surface of the
pulley. The supports for the hub axle consist of two pieces of bar iron,
4 in. long, drilled to admit the axle ends, and screws for fastening them
to the frame pieces C and D. This construction is clearly shown in Fig. 2.

The arrangement of the coaster-brake hub produces the same effect as a
coaster brake on a bicycle. The one propelling the flymobile may stop the
foot-power work without interfering with the travel of the machine, and,
besides, a little back pressure on the pedals will apply the brake in the
same manner.

The flywheel K should be about 18 in. in diameter with a 2-in. rim, or
face. Such a wheel can be purchased cheaply from any junk dealer. The
flywheel is set on a shaft, turning between the pieces C and D and back
of the coaster-brake wheel H. Two pulleys, L, about 3 in. in diameter,
are fastened to turn with the flywheel on the shaft and are fitted with
flanges to separate the belts. The ends of the shaft should run in good
bearings, well oiled.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

Another pulley, M, 6 in. in diameter, is made of wood and fastened to
the rear axle. An idler wheel, shown in Fig. 3, is constructed of a small
pulley, or a large spool, attached to an L-shaped piece of metal, which
in turn is fastened on the end of a shaft controlled by the lever N.
The function of this idler is to tighten up the belt or release it, thus
changing the speed in the same manner as on a motorcycle.

The elevation of the flymobile is given in Fig. 4, which shows the
arrangement of the belting. The size of the pulleys on the flywheel shaft
causes it to turn rapidly, and, for this reason, the weight of the wheel
will run the car a considerable distance when the coaster hub is released.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

The rear axle revolves in bearings, half of which is recessed in the
under edges of the pieces A while the other half is fastened to a block,
screwed on over the axle. A simple brake is made as shown in Fig. 5. Two
metal pieces, O, preferably brass, are shaped to fit over the shaft with
extending ends for fastening them to the pieces P and Q, as shown. These
pieces are hinged with strap iron, R, at one end, the other end of the
piece P being fastened to the crosspiece F, Fig. 1, of the main frame. The
lower piece Q is worked by the lever S and side bars, T. A small spring,
U, keeps the ends of the pieces apart and allows the free turning of the
axle until the brake lever is drawn. The lever S is connected by a long
bar to the hand lever V.

[Illustration: (Fig. 5)]

The steering apparatus W, Figs. 1 and 4, is constructed of a piece of
gas pipe, 3 ft. 4 in. long, with a wheel at one end and a cord, X, at the
other. The center part of the cord is wound several times around the pipe
and the ends are passed through screweyes in the main frame pieces A and
attached to the front axle, which is pivoted in the center under the block
Y. The lower end of the pipe turns in a hole bored slanting in the block.
A turn of the steering wheel causes one end of the cord to wind and the
other to unwind, which turns the axle on the center pivot.

The wheels are bicycle wheels, and the ends of the front axle are turned
to receive the cones and nuts, instead of using the regular hub axles.
The ends of the rear axle are turned to closely fit the hubs after the
ball cups have been removed. A large washer and nut clamp each wheel to
the axle so that it will turn with it.

The body can be made up as desired, from sheet metal, wood, or cloth
stretched over ribs of wood, and painted in the manner of an automobile. A
tank and tires can be placed on the back to add to the appearance. Fenders
and a running board can be attached to the main frame.

With the addition of some crosspieces in the main frame at the front and
a motorcycle engine fastened to them so that the driving sprocket will
be in line with the sprocket on the coaster hub, the builder will have a
real cyclecar.



The Die-and-Box Trick


The die-and-box trick, so often performed on the stage, is a very
interesting and mystifying one. The apparatus, however, is simple,
consisting of a box, die, a piece of tin in the form of three adjacent
sides of the die, and a hat. The die and box are constructed entirely of
wood, 1/8 in. thick, and the piece of tin can be cut from any large coffee
can. The box is closed by four doors, as shown in Fig. 1, two of which
are 2-3/4 in. square, and the others, 3-1/8 in. by 3-1/4 in. The first
two are the front doors and are preferably hinged with cloth to the two
uprights A and B. Small pieces of tin are fastened on the doors at C and
D, to provide a means to open them. The other doors are placed on top and
are hinged to the back, as shown.

[Illustration: With the False Die in Place It Appears as If the Box Were
Empty]

The die is 3 in. square on all sides, and is constructed of two pieces,
3 in. square; two pieces, 2-3/4 in. by 3 in., and two pieces, 2-3/4 in.
square. These are fastened together with 1/2-in. brads. The tin, forming
the false die, is cut out as shown in Fig. 2, and is then bent on the
dotted lines and soldered together on the joint formed by the two edges
E and F. All parts should be painted a dull black with white spots on the
die and false die.

[Illustration: The Box with Doors on One Side and the Top, (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: ...and the False-Die pattern (Fig. 2)]

The trick is performed as follows: Procure a hat from some one in the
audience and place in it the die with the tin false die covering three
sides of the block, at the same time telling the audience that the block
will be caused to pass from the hat into the box, the latter being placed
some distance away. Inform the audience that it would be more difficult
for the die to pass from the box into the hat. Remove the tin piece from
the hat and leave the die, holding the surfaces of the false die toward
the audience. This will give the impression that the die has been removed.
Set the hat on the table above the level of the eyes of the audience. With
the back of the box toward the audience, open one top door and insert
the tin piece in the right-hand compartment so that one side touches
the back, another the side and the other the bottom of the box. Close
the door and open the two doors of the opposite compartment which, when
shown, will appear to be empty. Tilt the box to this side and open the
doors of the side opposite to the one just opened, which, of course, will
be empty. This should be done several times until some one asks that all
doors be opened at the same time. After a few more reversals and openings
as given, open all doors and show it empty, then take the die from the
hat.--Contributed by Harold L. Groesbeck, Salt Lake City, Utah.



Homemade Pantograph


The pantograph consists of four pieces of wood, the dimensions depending
somewhat on the size of the work to be drawn. A convenient size for
ordinary drawing and enlarging is constructed of four pieces of hardwood,
preferably maple, 3/16 in. thick and 5/8 in. wide, two of them 20-3/4 in.
in length and the other two, 18-3/4 in. long. These are planed and
sandpapered and the ends cut round.

[Illustration: A Picture can be Enlarged or Reduced by Setting the
Screweyes in the Holes Designated]

All four pieces are laid flat on a level board or bench top with their
edges together so that the edges of the two longer pieces make right
angles with a line drawn tangent to their ends. One end of one short
piece is placed flush with the lower ends of the two long pieces, and one
end of the other short piece flush with the upper ends, as shown. They
should be clamped down solidly to keep them from moving while laying off
the divisions. Light lines are drawn across their faces as designated by
the dimensions. On these lines and exactly in the center of the pieces
make small marks with a pencil point. Through the pieces A and B holes
are drilled to snugly receive the body of a small screweye. The other
two pieces are drilled with a smaller drill so that the threads of the
screweye will take hold in the wood.

The end C of the piece A has a metal stand made of brass as shown at D.
This is fastened to the end of the wood with a small bolt. The hole should
be a snug fit over the body of the bolt. The lower ends of the brass are
drilled to admit thumb tacks for holding it to the drawing board.

The joint at E is made of a suitable binding post that can be procured at
an electrical shop, the shank below the two joined pieces to be the same
length as the height of the metal stand D. The end should be filed round
and polished so that it will slip over the board or paper easily.

The stylus or tracing point F is made of another binding post, in the
same manner, but instead of a rounding end a slightly blunt, pointed end
is filed on it. The end of the piece G is strengthened by gluing a small
block of the same material on both upper and under side. A hole is then
made through them to receive a pencil rather tightly.

The holes, as will be seen, are numbered from 1 to 34. At the crossing of
each pair, H and J, the screweyes must be set in the holes numbered alike
on both pieces of each pair. This will insure the proper working of the
parts. The other numbers designate how much the instrument will enlarge a
picture or reduce it. On the pair not numbered in the sketch the numbers
run in the opposite direction.

The end C is fastened to the left side of the drawing board, the picture
to be enlarged is placed under the stylus or tracer point, and the paper
under the pencil point G. Move the tracing point over the general outline
of the picture without making any line before starting, so as to make sure
that the paper and picture are located right. It is then only necessary
to take hold of the pencil and move it over the paper while watching the
tracer point to keep it following the lines of the picture. To make a
reduced picture, the original is placed under G, the tracer point changed
to G and the pencil to F.



Trapping Mosquitoes


[Illustration]

Mosquitoes that light on the ceiling may be easily destroyed with the
instrument shown in the sketch. It consists of a cover, such as used on
jelly glasses, nailed to the end of an old broom handle. A little kerosene
oil is placed in the cover and the device is passed closely beneath the
location of the mosquitoes. They will be overcome by the fumes and drop
into the fluid as soon as it comes under them.--Contributed by J. J.
Kolar, Maywood, Ill.



Pen Rack on an Ink Bottle


[Illustration]

A piece of wire, about 1 ft. long, is bent into the shape shown and
slipped over the neck of the ink bottle. The ends forming the loop around
the neck should fit tightly. The upper part of the wire is shaped to hold
the penholder.--Contributed by W. A. Saul, E. Lexington, Mass.



Substitute for a Broken Bench-Vise Nut


[Illustration: Two Pieces of Strap Iron Shaped to Fit the Square Thread
Make a Good Substitute Nut]

It is frequently the case that the nut on a bench-vise screw breaks from
being subjected to a too violent strain. If one is working in a place
where a new nut cannot be obtained, the broken part may be replaced by the
substitute shown in the sketch. Any piece of strap iron may be used, and
with a round file and a drill the two pieces can soon be made and attached
to the bench with screws or bolts. A slight twist of the shaped ends is
necessary to make them fit the angle of the thread.--Contributed by Oscar
M. Waddell, Lamedeer, Mont.



Scissors Sharpener


[Illustration: In Attempting to Cut the Hardened Steel Pin the Edge is
Drawn Sharp]

Procure an ordinary wood clothespin and drill a 1/8-in. hole through its
blades, then insert a piece of hardened 1/8-in. drill rod, which should
be a driving fit. In using this device, take the scissors and attempt to
cut the steel rod. Do this three or four times and a good cutting edge
will be obtained.--Contributed by Wm. J. Tolson, Lyons, Iowa.

       *       *       *       *       *

    An imitation-gold color may be made with flake
    white, ground in varnish and tinted with a touch of
    vermilion. When striping or lettering is done with
    this, it will have the appearance of real gilding
    work.



Floor Push Button


An ordinary electric push button can be used for a floor push button by
placing it on a bracket or shelf attached to a joist, as shown, and using
a nail for the extension push. A 1/4-in. hole is bored through the floor,
also through a small piece of wood fastened beneath the floor, at the
right place to direct the nail so that it will strike directly upon the
small black knob of the push button. The nail should be just long enough
to rest lightly on the knob.--Contributed by Reginald R. Insole, Hamilton,
Can.

[Illustration: Push Button on Joist]



A Wrist Brace


To strengthen a weak wrist, take a piece of leather, preferably white
oak tanned, 2 in. wide and 14 in. long, and carefully shave it down with
a sharp knife, until it is 1/16 in. thick. Then cut it as shown in Fig.
1, the wide part or body being 7 in. long, and the narrow part or neck,
6 in. long and 1 in. wide. Cut a semicircular hole, 1 in. from the extreme
end of the body, 1/2 in. wide and 1-1/4 in. long, to allow the neck to
slip through, then punch three holes in each end and lace with rawhide or
shoestring, or, better still, if you happen to have a small buckle, sew
it neatly to the body. It looks better and saves time in adjusting. When
complete and on the wrist, it will appear as in Fig. 2.--Contributed by
J. H. Harris, Berkeley, Cal.

[Illustration: Brace Made of Leather]



Protecting a Kettle Handle from Heat


[Illustration]

The wood handle of a kettle or cooking utensil when not in use usually
comes in contact with the side of the vessel and it will absorb enough
heat each time to finally char and crack the wood. The heat of the handle
at times is so intense that it often results in a burned hand. The spiral
metal handle provides a way for cooling by exposing a considerable surface
to the air, yet the metal retains the heat so that many times it is too
hot to handle. If a wood handle is provided with a coil of wire as shown
in the accompanying sketch, the wood cannot come in contact with the side
of the heated vessel and the air encircling the wood prevents it from
getting too hot to handle. The spiral can be attached to a metal handle
with solder.



Tin Can Used for Watering Chickens


[Illustration]

An ordinary discarded tomato can makes a good watering vessel for young
chickens. Care must be taken in opening the can to cut the tin so the
cover will hinge. Cut the tin about 1-1/2 in. from the bottom so that it
will form a U-shaped piece as shown in the sketch and push the hanging
portion in the can. Fill the can up to the opening with water, close the
cover and set it in the coop.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Augusta,
Ga.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Hurdle


The hurdle consists of two standards, a reach, and a swing. The swing
is first made in the shape of a rectangle of four pieces of wood, about
7/8 in. thick and 1-1/2 in. wide, of which two are 36 in. and the others
18 in. long. These pieces are nailed together in the manner shown.

[Illustration: The Swing of the Hurdle will Turn When Slightly Touched
and Right Itself Again]

Each standard is made of three pieces of wood, 7/8 in. thick, 3 in. wide,
and 18 in. long. Nail the pieces firmly together, as shown, and connect
their bases with another piece of the same material, 36 in. long. When
this is finished, connect the swing to the standards with long nails,
A, at the ends slightly off center. Before inserting the nails, make the
holes in each standard to receive them large enough to permit the nails
to turn freely without allowing the heads to pass through. Thus the frame
will swing freely at the slightest touch of the jumper's foot, and right
itself immediately.--Contributed by C. C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich.



Oil Burner for a Cook Stove


The parts of the burner consist of ordinary gas pipe and fittings.
The pipe in which the kerosene oil is converted into gas is 1/2 in. in
diameter and is connected to a supply tank of oil with 1/4-in. pipe. The
burner part is also constructed of 1/4-in. pipe having three 1/16-in.
holes drilled in each end for the gas to escape where it burns. These
burners are located just beneath the large pipe so that the flames will
heat it and convert the oil into gas. A needle valve, A, is used to
control the flow of oil. The burner is placed in the fire box of the
stove, and the pipes connected through a hole drilled in the stove door,
at B.

[Illustration: A Very Cheap Grade of Kerosene Oil can be Used in This
Burner with Success]

The tank may be rectangular or round and should be of sufficient strength
to withstand 5 or 10 lb. of pressure. The top of the tank has a pet cock
where a connecting hose from an air pump may be attached. The tank is
filled about half full and just a little pressure of air is put on the
oil. To start the burner, run a little oil in a pan or fire shovel and
light it so that the flames will convert the oil into gas in the large
pipe, then turn the valve A and regulate the flame.--Contributed by Robert
Hays, Siloam Springs, Ark.



A Fish Stringer


The illustration shows a very simple and inexpensive device for the angler
to string and carry fish. It is made of a pail handle through which is
passed a piece of soft wire, having sufficient length for bends or loops
at each end, and a piece of chain. A chain 18 in. long is sufficient. One
end of the chain is fastened in the loop at one end of the handle, and
the other has a piece of wire attached for pushing through the gills of
the fish. The other end of the wire through the handle is arranged in a
hook to catch into the links of the chain.--Contributed by G. O. Reed,
Stratford, Canada.

[Illustration: Inexpensive Stringer Made of a Pail Handle and Small Chain]



Substitutes for Drawing Instruments


Three of the most used draftsman's instruments are the compass, ruler and
square or triangle. When it is necessary to make a rough drawing and no
instruments are at hand, common and easily obtainable things can be used
as substitutes.

[Illustration: A Compass, Ruler and Square Made of Ordinary Things at Hand]

A sheet of heavy paper folded as shown at A will serve as a ruler, and
the same sheet given another fold will make the square B. If given
another fold diagonally, a 45-deg. triangle is formed. A substitute
compass is readily made of a short pencil and a pocket knife, as shown at
C.--Contributed by Jas. J. Joyce, Olongopo, Philippine Islands.



How to Make an Aspirator


A simple aspirator that may be used for a number of different purposes,
such as accelerating the process of filtering, emptying water from tubs,
producing a partial vacuum in vessels in which coils are being boiled in
paraffin, etc., may be constructed as follows: Obtain two pieces of brass
tubing of the following dimensions: one 7 in. long and 3/4 in. outside
diameter, and the other, 3 in. long and 1/4 in. outside diameter. Drill
a hole in one side of the large tube, about 3 in. from one end, of such
a diameter that the small brass tube will fit it very tightly. Take an
ordinary hacksaw and cut a slot in the side of the large piece, as shown
at A. This slot is sawed diagonally across the tube and extends from one
side to the center. Obtain a piece of sheet brass that will fit into this
slot tightly, and then solder it and the small tube into the large tube.
The slot and hole for the small tube should be so located with respect
to each other that the small tube will empty into the larger one directly
against the piece of sheet brass soldered in the slot.

[Illustration: Detail of the Aspirator and Its Connections to a Faucet,
for Increasing the Speed of Filtration]

The upper end of the large tube should be threaded inside to fit over the
threads on the faucet, or an attachment soldered to it similar to those on
the end of an ordinary garden hose. A rubber hose should be attached to
the small tube and connected, as shown, to a piece of glass tubing that
is sealed in the cork in the top of the large bottle. The funnel holding
the filter paper is also sealed into the cork. Melted paraffin may be used
in sealing the glass tube, funnel and cork in place, the object being to
make them airtight. The filter paper should be folded so that it sticks
tightly against the sides of the funnel when the liquid is poured in, thus
preventing any air from entering the bottle between the paper and the
funnel. Turn on the faucet, and it will be found that the time required
to filter any liquid will be greatly reduced. Be careful, however, not
to turn on too much water, as the suction may then be too strong and the
filter paper become punctured.



A Key-Holder Hook


[Illustration]

A good hook for hanging keys, toothbrushes and other small articles can be
made from ordinary wire staples, as shown at A. One leg of the staple is
cut away as shown at B and the other leg driven into the board as shown
at C. These will answer the purpose as well as screwhooks.--Contributed
by W. C. Heidt, Chicago.



A Hand Hoe


A hand hoe, especially adapted for weeding or cultivating small truck,
particularly onions, can be made of a piece of hard wood, 7/8 by
1-3/4 in. by 4 ft. long, and a piece of old bucksaw blade. A blade,
18 in. long and 2 in. wide, bent into a loop is attached with bolts to
the handle.--Contributed by Geo. H. Miller, Iowa City, Iowa.

[Illustration: Bucksaw Blade Attached to a Hardwood Handle]



Seed Receptacle for Bird-Cages


A handy seed and water container for a bird-cage can be made of a common
spice tin. The receptacle can be filled without removal by simply taking
off the cover. Thus the seed will not be scattered.

[Illustration: Spice Tin Attached to the Wires of a Bird-Cage for a Water
or Seed Receptacle]

The tin is attached by cutting a hole in the back as shown, and bending
the side edges to fit over the wires to hold it in place. The bottom strip
is a support which rests on the floor of the cage and prevents the tin
from slipping down on the wires.



Kitchen-Utensil Scraper



A flexible utensil scraper is one of the most useful articles I have in my
kitchen. It covers such a large surface in scraping pans, kettles, etc.,
that this most disagreeable part of the kitchen work is quickly and easily
accomplished.

[Illustration: The Blade is Flexible so It can Readily Shape Itself to
the Curves of a Kettle]

The flexible blade is attached to the tin handles with small rivets.
The blade should be thin and narrow enough to allow it to bend. When
the handles are pressed together, the blade curves to the shape of the
utensil's surface.--Contributed by Mrs. Della Schempp, Brodhead, Wis.



Anchor Posts for a Lawn Swing


A very substantial and convenient base for a lawn swing can be made by
using four anchor posts of cement, as shown in Fig. 1. The posts are made
with a recess, A, to receive the legs of the swing, and of any suitable
size. They may be placed with the upper face on a level with the lawn, or
higher if desired.

[Illustration: Ar. Anchor Post of Cement and a Mold Box for Shaping Four
Posts at a Time (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

A rough mold box, Fig. 2, lined with paper, will do for making the posts.
The box does not require any top or bottom; it is simply placed on a board
and lifted away when the blocks are thoroughly dried. If the blocks are
leveled when placed in the earth, the swing may be taken down and erected
again without the usual leveling and bracing.--Contributed by James M.
Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



Automatic Filter


[Illustration]

This funnel-filling filter automatically prevents the solution from
running over if the filtering is slow or the filter substance becomes
clogged. The upper inverted bottle holds the solution to be filtered, the
cork being fitted with a glass tube as shown, and when in use the cork
is forced into the neck of the bottle so that no air can enter between it
and the glass. The support for holding the bottles has two brackets, one
to fit the neck of the upper bottle and the other used as a shelf for the
receiving bottle. In operation, the solution runs from the upper bottle
into the funnel, holding the filter paper, but it cannot fill the funnel
completely, because the end of the glass tube is lower than the edge of
the funnel, and as soon as the liquid in the funnel covers the end of the
tube, all inflow of air into the upper bottle is stopped, and, thereby,
further flow of the solution into the funnel prevented, until enough has
filtered through to uncover the end of the tube and thus permit air to
again enter the upper bottle.--Contributed by G. Simons, Chicago.



Grinding Scissors


Whether a pair of scissors be ground or filed, the marks or scratches left
from the contact with the abrasive should all extend across the bevel
in the direction of the line ED, Fig. 1, and never in the direction of
the line GF. If the cutting edge be examined under a magnifying glass,
the tool marks or scratches left by the sharpening process will be very
plainly seen, and where these scratches intersect with the face HI, Fig.
2, of the blade, they will appear as teeth along the cutting edge IK.

[Illustration: The Direction of the Grinding Tool should be Slightly
Sloping Toward the Handles]

As a pair of scissors close, the natural tendency is to thrust the
material to be cut out of the angle ABC, Fig. 1, but if these small teeth
formed on the cutting edge point in the direction of the line ED, this
slipping action is prevented or retarded because the fibrous material
adheres to the fine teeth on the cutting edge of the blades.

Wet paper, silks, mohair cloths, etc., can be sheared with perfect
ease and dispatch, when scissors are sharpened in this manner. The same
principle holds good for metal snips.

The angle HIJ, Fig. 2, varies according to the material to be cut, and the
type of shear. A greater angle is required on metal shears than on shears
for domestic uses.--Contributed by A. Clifton, Chicago.



To Repair a Leak in a Canoe


After striking some rocks with our canoe, it sprung three very bad leaks.
These were effectively patched with pieces of cheesecloth, well soaked
in liquid shellac, which were pasted on the outside of the leak. After
allowing this to set for a few hours, it will be almost impossible to
remove the patch. This is an inexpensive and almost invariably a sure
remedy for leaks. When the cloth is dry, paint it over with the same color
as the boat, and the repair can scarcely be seen.--Contributed by William
B. Smith, New York City.



Holder for Loose Window Glass


[Illustration]

When the putty becomes loose and the glazing points work out on window
glass, temporary repairs may be made by using a small piece of tin or
sheet iron bent as shown in the sketch. The clip is inserted under the
edge of the glass and hooked over the back of the sash parts. This will
hold the glass firmly in place and also prevent rattling.



A Homemade Bench Vise


A form of a bench vise that can be easily made and attached to a workbench
is shown in the illustration. This vise requires no screw, and the parts
can be made from scrap material.

[Illustration: The Vise Jaw as It is Attached to the Bench and the
Substitute Screw Arrangement]

The substitute A for the screw is a rectangular piece of wood and is
fastened with a tenon in a mortise cut in the vise jaw B. The clamping
arrangement consists of a strap, C, attached to the piece A, then run
over a pulley, D, and fastened to a foot pedal, E. The foot pedal is
fulcrumed on a crosspiece of the bench and has a ratchet so as to hold
it when the vise is set. The lower end of the vise is fitted with the
usual form of device for parallel adjustment. A coil spring is located
in the center for use in quickly opening the vise when the foot pedal is
released.--Contributed by A. C. Westby, Porter, Minn.



A Cover Strainer


Quite frequently the cook or housewife wishes to pour the hot water or
liquid from boiling vegetables or other foods without removing the solids
from the kettle. This is easily accomplished, if small holes are drilled
in the cover as shown in the sketch. The saucepan or kettle can be tilted
and the liquid drains through the holes. Further, the steam from cooking
food can readily escape through the holes, thus preventing the cover from
vibrating, or the liquids from boiling over.

[Illustration: A Sufficient Number of Holes are Drilled in the Edge of
the Cover to Make a Strainer]



Homemade Corn Sheller


Where there is but a small quantity of corn to be shelled a sheller can
be made of a few scraps of wood usually found on a farm. A block of wood
having a sloping notch cut from one end is mounted on three legs as shown.
The notched part as well as the lever is thickly filled with spikes driven
in so that their heads protrude about 1/2 in.

[Illustration: The Projecting Nail Heads in the Block and Lever, as They
Pass, Shell the Corn]

The ear of corn is placed in the notched part and the lever pressed down.
Two or three strokes of the lever will remove all the kernels from the
cob. A box is provided and conveniently located on one leg to catch the
shelled corn.--Contributed by A. S. Thomas, Gordon, Ont.



An Ornamental Metal Flatiron Holder


This antique iron holder or stand can be easily constructed by the amateur
bent-iron worker. A strip of iron is bent over at the ends to form the
side legs, and the front leg is formed of another piece, welded in the
center.

[Illustration: Ornamental Stand Made of Either Strap Iron or Sheet Metal
to Hold a Flatiron]

Openings for the crosspieces are then cut, the legs bent into a scroll
shape, and the crosspieces inserted and fastened by spreading or upsetting
the ends.

Instead of using strap iron, the stand can be cut from good sheet metal.
This would save the trouble of welding on the front leg.



How to Make a Watch Demagnetizer


A watch demagnetizer that will give excellent satisfaction may be made as
follows:

[Illustration: Dimensioned Parts for the Construction of the Core over
Which the Insulated Wire is Wound]

Procure a sheet of 1/16 in. brass, 3-1/4 in. by 7 in. Bend this piece of
brass around a piece of hard wood having a rectangular cross section of
2-1/2 in. by 1 in. The joint between the two ends should be made on one
side, and the edges should lack about 1/8 in. of touching. Next obtain
two pieces of 1/8 in. brass, 3-3/4 in. by 3 in., and cut an opening in
each of these, 2-5/8 in. by 1-1/8 in., as shown in the sketch. Bend one
edge of each of these pieces over at right angles to the main portion of
the piece. Solder these two pieces on the ends of the rectangular tube
of brass and cut a slot in each of them to correspond to the one in the
rectangular tube. Place the rectangular piece of wood back in the tube
and you are ready for the winding. Use No. 18 gauge single cotton-covered
copper wire and fill the winding space. Several layers of paper should be
placed on the brass tube and between the layers of wire, to serve as an
insulation. Holes may be drilled in the projecting portions on the ends
and the coil can then be mounted on a wooden base. Mount two binding posts
on this base and connect the terminals of the winding to them.

To use the demagnetizer, connect it to a 110-volt alternating-current
circuit with a rheostat in circuit of such a form that the current will
not exceed three amperes and that it may be reduced to practically zero
in value by increasing the resistance of the rheostat. The magnetic field
inside the coil is rapidly changing in direction and will tend to destroy
any permanent magnetism that may be possessed by an object placed inside
of it. The full current of three amperes should be allowed to pass through
the winding for a few minutes after the object to be demagnetized is
inserted, and then gradually reduced, and the object removed.



Remodeling a Talking Machine


Having a talking machine of an old model with a tapered horn I decided to
change it into a more modern type, and this was accomplished as follows:
An auxiliary base was constructed of 1/2 in. wood on which to set the
part which revolves the disks. The inside of this base is so constructed
as to form a horn or sounding box. The two sides and sloping bottom of
the horn-part are made of 1/4 in. wood. The form of this box is shown in
Fig. 1. The dimensions should be determined according to the size of the
talking machine.

[Illustration: The Horn or Sounding Box Is Constructed in the Auxiliary
Base... (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: ...and the Part for Connecting the Sounding Tube to the Box
Consists of Ordinary Gas Pipe Fastened with a Clip at the Back (Fig. 2)]

The connecting parts to the original horn were turned downward, as shown
at A, Fig. 2, with the opening entering a piece of ordinary gas pipe of
sufficient length to allow an elbow with a nipple to enter the auxiliary
base. The pivot-holding device for connection A is shown at D. The
parts are attached to the box with a clasp, E, and with three screws in
the nipple C, the end view of which is shown at F. The talking machine
is placed on the auxiliary base as shown in Fig. 3. This construction
produces a talking machine on the order of a cabinet machine without the
tapering horn.--Contributed by H. W. J. Lomglatz, Harrisburg, Pa.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]



Needle for Sewing Burlap


A needle for sewing burlap can be easily made of the ordinary opener
that comes with sardine cans. All that is necessary to convert this tool
into a needle is to grind the blunt end to a sharp point, as shown in the
sketch.--Contributed by G. C. Beven, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.

[Illustration: The Can Opener is Provided with an Eye and to Make a Needle
the End is Sharpened]



A Mysterious Revolving Wheel


The mystery of this wheel is that it seems to revolve automatically
without any visible external power. It is at the same time an amusing
trick and an instructive experiment. The apparatus required is very simple
and can be made at home.

[Illustration: The Wheel as It is Mounted on a Needle, and Lamp and Box
Containing Magnet to Make It Turn]

A glass bottle is half filled with sand and water, so that it will stand
securely, and a cork placed in the neck. Into this cork a needle should be
inserted so that it projects perpendicularly, which is most easily done
by heating one end of the needle to a red heat and then pushing it into
the cork as deeply as possible. Into a disk of cork of suitable thickness
and at four points on its side, at equal distances apart, are inserted
four pieces of copper wire of the same length, each bent at the outer end
to form a hook--these copper wires thus forming the spokes of the wheel.
The rim is made of a small iron wire bent in a circular shape and held
in the hooks on the ends of the copper wires. The now completed wheel is
balanced on the free point on the needle, so that it can turn easily.

Place an alcohol lamp in such a position that when it is lighted the tip
of the flame will just reach the rim of the wheel. (Any other flame that
will not soot the rim may be used.) In the box A, placed with its bottom
level with the wheel, put a horseshoe magnet so that the flame is opposite
one of its poles. After the lamp has been lighted for a few seconds, the
wheel will begin to revolve, seemingly without cause. Why does it do so?
Because the magnet magnetizes or attracts the part of the ring nearest
it while cold, but not when it is glowing. Instead, it will attract the
cooler part of the ring nearest behind the flame and so on, the wheel thus
spinning round, faster in the same proportion as the magnet is stronger
and the iron rim smaller.

If this experiment is shown before spectators as a trick, the performer
may say to the audience that he alone can make the wheel spin around
without touching it. Should some one accept his challenge, he may, in a
careless way, move the box containing the magnet away or turn it around
so that it will not influence the iron ring and then, of course, the wheel
will remain immovable.



How to Make a Rabbet Plane


A rabbet plane is very little used by mechanics, but when it is wanted for
a piece of work, it is wanted badly. While doing an unusual piece of work
I needed a rabbet plane, and having none, I made a plane as shown in the
sketch in less time than it would have taken to go out and borrow one.

[Illustration: A Plane Made of a Piece of 2 by 4-In. Pine, a Chisel and
a Large Wood Screw]

The body of the plane was made of a piece of 2 by 4-in. pine, 1 ft. long.
A 1-in. chisel was used for the bit. A place was marked on one side of the
wood to be cut out for the chisel, and a 1-in. hole bored through, the
narrow way, so that one edge of the bit cut through the bottom, forming
a slit for the edge of the chisel. After cutting a groove for the chisel
blade and turning in a long wood screw as shown, to hold the chisel in
place, I had as good a rabbet plane as could be purchased.--Contributed
by W. H. Young, Thompson, Ga.



Eye Shield for a Microscope


The difficulty and discomfort amateurs experience in learning to use a
microscope with both eyes open, or in trying to keep one eye shut, can
be easily overcome by attaching a piece of cardboard, similar in shape to
the one shown in the sketch, to the barrel of the microscope. The hole A
should be of sufficient diameter to allow the cardboard to slide freely up
and down on the barrel to the proper adjustment. This simple arrangement
will relieve a great deal of the eye strain and will be of assistance to
the most experienced users of microscopes.--Contributed by G. B. Fenton,
Charleston, W. Virginia.

[Illustration: Shield to Cover the Eye That is Not Used When Looking into
a Microscope]



Transferring Magazine Pictures


Select pictures from newly printed papers and magazines. Rub wax from a
paraffin candle over a sheet of clean white paper, covering a space as
large as the picture to be copied. Place the paper, waxed side down, on
the picture and while holding it firmly with the fingers of one hand,
rub the back thoroughly with some hard substance until all parts of the
picture have been gone over. Remove the paper and a perfect copy of the
picture will be found upon the waxed side.--Contributed by Kenneth G.
Merlin, Brooklyn, N. Y.



A Homemade Egg Separator


Secure some small wire and a very large can. Cut the wire into several
pieces and bend them as shown at A, cut the can and bend the side down
as shown and punch holes to receive the upper ends of the wires. Make the
holes so that the wires will be about 5/16 in. apart.

[Illustration: The Contents of the Egg is Placed on the Wires Which will
Separate the Yolk from the White]



A Glue-Spreader Holder


[Illustration]

The spreader that is supplied with bottles of liquid glue should not be
placed on any surface, as it will soon stick to it. A holder that will
keep the spreader in a safe place can be made of a piece of wire which
is twisted about the neck of the bottle, as shown in the sketch, and the
ends bent up to receive the spreader.



Stop on a Chair Rocker for a Baby


For a baby, too small to rock without tipping the chair over, a small
willow or other suitable rocking chair may be made safe in the following
manner:

[Illustration: The Strip on the Rocker Prevents the Child Tipping the
Chair Too Far Either Way]

A strip, A, is fastened on the outside of the rocker with small screws so
that it may be removed without injuring the chair. A rubber-covered tack
driven in on the under side at each end of the strip modifies the shock
and the baby can rock to its heart's content without danger of turning
over.--Contributed by Mrs. G. W. Coplin, Bay City, Mich.



Homemade Countersink for Wood


A round or flat-head bolt can be made into a good rosebit or reamer for
countersinking holes for screw heads. In the illustration, Fig. 1 shows a
reamer made of a round-head bolt, and Fig. 2, one made of a square-head
bolt. The round-head makes the best reamer as more cutters can be filed
in the surface and less work is required to file it into shape.

[Illustration: Round and Square Heads of Bolts Shaped and Notched to Make
Countersinks (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



To Maintain a Constant Level of Liquids in Vessels


It is frequently desirable in laboratory experiments, and in practical
work as well, to maintain a constant level in a tank without allowing it
to become full. In many cases an outlet pipe at a certain height in the
side of the tank is not desirable, and in laboratory experiments with
beakers or crocks is, of course, impossible.

[Illustration]

The diagram shows a simple but effective constant-level device. The outer
end of the inverted U-tube is curved upward so that it never empties. If
desired, the upward curve may be omitted and the straight end immersed
in a small vessel of water. All that is necessary now for the successful
working of the device is that the inner or tank end, A, of the tube be
lower than the outer end--in other words, below the level of the end
B--and the inner end below the level of the fluid. Of course, the U-tube
must be first filled with liquid and will then act as an intermittent,
never-breaking siphon. Should the tank fill above the end B, the siphon
drains the fluid down to that level and no lower, even if the inner leg
of the tube reach the bottom. To maintain this level against loss by
evaporation some slight inflow is necessary.

It will be noted that if the inner end of the siphon were above the outer
end, the siphon would break as soon as the liquid in the tank fell to the
inner mouth.--Contributed by Harry N. Holmes, Richmond, Ind.



Homemade Electric Bed Warmer


The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow
its use as a heating element of, for instance, a bed warmer. There are a
number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps
form very suitable heating elements, but the bed warmer is probably the
best example. All that is required is a tin covering which can be made of
an old can about 3-1/2 in. in diameter. The top is cut out and the edge
filed smooth. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the
can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. A small lamp of about
five candlepower will do the heating.

A flannel bag, large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with
a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord, gives the heater a
more finished appearance, as well as making it more pleasant to the touch.



[Illustration]



A Flash-Light Telegraph on a Kite Line


[Illustration: The Flash of the Light on the String may be Read as Far as
It can be Seen]

An ordinary pocket flash lamp is prepared in the following manner: A brass
spring, as shown in the sketch, is bound tightly to the flash lamp with a
cord, and two wires, one at each end, are twisted around the lamp's body,
forming two loops at the top. The kite string is run through the loops
and over the spring. The lamp is then placed near the kite. The ordinary
pull on the kite string does not close the spring, but a sharp jerk will
pull the string in contact with the push button and its slight pressure
causes an instant flash of the light. By this method words may be spelled
out in the telegraph code.--Contributed by Joe V. Romig, Allentown, Pa.



Hangers for Barn Tools


Means should be provided to have a place for all the tools used in and
about a barn. The forks and shovels are usually stood up in a corner, but
they can be more conveniently taken care of by making a hanger for them.
The illustration shows how a hanger can be easily made and screwed to the
wall of a barn. The hanger is cut from a piece of board and has a hole
bored into it the size of the handle on the fork or shovel, then a notch
is sawn into the hole to pass the handle through. The board may contain
one or as many notches as there are forks and shovels to be hung on it.
The implements are hung with the fork or shovel end upward.--Contributed
by R. Snyder, Glidden, Ia.

[Illustration: A Notched Board Provides a Way to Hang All the Tools Used
about a Barn]



Guide Ropes on a Bobsled


The sketch shows the front end of a bobsled or double runner made of a
plank bolted upon two sleds. The front sled is so pivoted on the bolt A
that it may be turned to steer the bob, and to accomplish this result the
steersman ordinarily sits with his feet braced against the projecting ends
of the crosspiece and passes the steering ropes outside of his feet, with
the ropes crossed as shown. The crossing of the ropes is supposed to add
leverage, but that is quite wrong.

[Illustration: The Most Efficient Way of Attaching Ropes to the Guiding
Runners of a Bobsled]

The rope, running from B to C, has a lever arm from A to E. If the ropes
were not crossed, the rope would lie along the dotted line BD, whose lever
arm is the distance AF, which is always greater than AE, therefore the
uncrossed ropes have more leverage.

Observe what takes place when the sled is steered to the left: The
distance AE decreases much more rapidly than AF, and when the crossed
ropes have lost all their power, the uncrossed ropes are still useful.
Many a spill has been caused by turning the sled to a position from which
the crossed ropes were unable to restore it to a central position, and
most of such spills would have been avoided if the ropes had not been
crossed.--Contributed by R. R. Raymond, Wilmington, Del.



Brush Hanger for a Dark Room


[Illustration]

Necessity may be the mother of invention, but it is also the grandmother
of application, and application is the practical side of invention.
Both the amateur and the professional photographer have been bothered
by spotting and unequal development of negatives and prints in tray
development, due to various causes, and sometimes by the presence of dirt
particles or the unequal or incomplete flowing of the developer over the
surface of the sensitive emulsion.

Most professionals and many amateurs are familiar with the use of the
camel's-hair brush to avoid failures of this character, and many of them
use a brush for local development in certain cases where it is necessary
or desirable. Usually the brush is kept in a small glass cup, somewhere
close at hand, but it is often in the way when not wanted and misplaced
when most needed. The brush can be kept within reach and handy for the
operator by arranging a light counterweight and pulley with a string
attached to the brush, so that, normally, the brush will hang from the
ceiling directly over the developing tray and can be obtained for use when
desired.

The detail of this brush-string and counterweight combination was
deliberately appropriated from the old plan of suspending the piece of
chalk over a billiard table, so that the players could easily reach it,
when needed, while, when released, it would be pulled out of the way by
the counterweight. The developing brush thus suspended is always ready,
never misplaced, nor in the way for other operations. This arrangement is
particularly convenient where a bathroom is used as a dark room, and the
shelf space is limited.

This same manner of counterweighting chalk on the billiard table may
be applied to a stove-lid lifter, to keep it within easy reach and
always cool enough to handle. The simplest and most inexpensive way of
making this apparatus is to cut off a small piece of lead pipe for a
counterweight, and, in the absence of a suitable pulley, use an ordinary
screweye fastened in the ceiling. The latter is really better than a
pulley because the string cannot run off the screweye. The arrangement is
better understood by referring to the sketch.



Lighting a Basement Light


There was no switch at the basement door and it was difficult to find
the droplight in the dark. Instead of going to the expense of placing a
switch, the contrivance illustrated and described was rigged up and proved
equal to the requirements.

A 7/8-in. piece of wood was cut about 6 in. long by 2 in. wide and a
recess made at one end for the socket, as shown. A 1/8-in. hole was
drilled in the center, about 2 in. from one end, and another, large enough
to receive the projection from a pull socket, about 2 in. from the other
end, or the end to be used as the bottom of the block. A clamp made of
spring brass, as shown, was screwed securely to the board, to clamp the
socket firmly. A wire was passed through the small hole and stretched
across the room from the door at a height to bring the light about 6 ft.
from the floor. Then the socket was clamped to the strip with the chain
passed through the hole cut for it. The cord attached to the chain was run
to the door casing, passed through a screweye and weighted with a nut or
some light object, to keep it taut. To light the lamp or put it out only
a pull on the string was necessary.

[Illustration: Socket Attachment to Turn a Basement Light On or Off from
a Distance]

The light can be slid along on the wire from one end of the room to
the other, or can be detached from the strip when desired by unhooking
the cord from the chain and taking the socket from the clamp. If more
desirable, the block can be fastened permanently to some object instead
of being on the wire.--Contributed by L. M. Eifel, Chicago.



Projecting Protractor Readings


A simple and efficient means of projecting protractor readings to a larger
size is shown in Fig. 1. One point of the compass is placed at the center
of the protractor and an elastic band is looped between the points. Then
the points are spread to the radius desired, and the protractor is read
where the elastic band crosses its scale. A light band should be used,
and looped as shown in Fig. 2. In this way a circle of any size may be
quickly divided, if a pencil mark is made each time the band comes over
the proper figure.--Contributed by Thos. L. Parker, Wibaux, Mont.

[Illustration: The Extension Marks can be Easily Read on the Protractor
under the Elastic Band (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]



Removing Grease from Paint


When removing grease from paint by using ordinary cleaners, the paint is
liable to come off in the washing. A good and cheaply applied method is to
rub the painted surface with a paste of ordinary whiting. This is allowed
to dry and when it is rubbed off with a cloth the dirt and grease is taken
away with it. The whiting is cheap and can be purchased at any drug store.



A Door Stop


[Illustration]

A very good door stop can be easily made of a piece of metal as shown
in the sketch. The metal is bent and fastened with screws to the wall
against which the door swings. The extending end fits under the door knob
and prevents it from striking the wall.--Contributed by C. R. Poole, Los
Angeles, California.



Stretching a Curtain without a Frame


A good way to avoid using the ordinary four-pole curtain stretcher is
to make use of the following method. Take the lace curtain and fold it
once lengthwise; then pin it up on a tightly stretched line with a large
number of clothespins, and slip a clean pole between the two sides to keep
it taut. This method not only stretches the curtain satisfactorily, but
saves considerable time otherwise required in pinning the curtain to the
four-sided frame.--Contributed by H. Wynning, Chicago, Ill.

[Illustration: A Lace Curtain Hung Double on a Line with a Pole Inserted
in the Fold]



Welding Small Resistance-Wire Connections


In making connections, especially in electrical heating devices subject
to high temperatures, it is out of the question to use solder, since the
temperature reached in the device would cause the solder to melt and run
out. A convenient arrangement for welding the connections of flatirons,
or any other fine wires, is shown in the illustration. The ends of the
wires to be welded are twisted together, and the weld is completed by
forming an arc, one electrode of which is the twisted connection and the
other a piece of carbon. The resistance of the heating unit in the iron is
sufficient to limit the amount of the current flow so that a short circuit
does not result.--Contributed by G. Irving Davis, Albany, N. Y.

[Illustration: An Arc is Formed with a Piece of Carbon, to Weld the
Twisted Ends of Wire Together]



Bench with Folding Seats


To provide a bench with seats, or shelves, which cannot easily be taken
away unless the table is brought along, hinged brackets are attached to
stationary crosspieces, which are fastened on the extended end braces of
the table. When in use, the brackets are turned down, thereby providing a
rigid support for anything that may be put on them. If it is desirable to
have the brackets out of the way, as when carrying the bench, it is only
necessary to fold them up.--Contributed by J. M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: Bench, or Table, with a Seat on Each Side That can be
Folded for Carrying Purposes]



Rim of Wire Wastebasket Wrapped with Felt


In offices where wire wastebaskets are used, the finish of the desks is
often marred by the top rim of the baskets rubbing against them. This
can be overcome by wrapping strips of felt around the rim to form a
buffer.--Contributed by Miss F. D. Schweiger, Kansas City, Mo.

[Illustration]



A Homemade Roller Coaster By J. H. Sanford


The popular roller coaster that furnishes untold amusement for the
multitudes that patronize amusement parks during the summer can be easily
duplicated in a smaller way on a vacant lot or back yard for the children
of the home; or the boys of a neighborhood could contribute to a fund and
construct quite an elaborate affair, on the same lines as described, for
the combined use of the owners. The one described was built with a track,
90 ft. long, 5 ft. high at one end and 3 ft. at the other, the track
between being placed on the ground. In coasting from the high end to the
low one, the coaster will run up on the incline, then drift back to within
24 ft. of the starting end. The car was built to seat four children or
two adults. The cost of all the materials for building this roller coaster
did not exceed $10.

[Illustration: Inexpensive Back-Yard Roller Coaster, Suitable for the
Enjoyment of the Young as Well as the Older Persons]

The track is of simple construction and requires but little description.
It is necessary to have it straight and nailed firmly to the crossties on
the ground and to the trestles where it is elevated. The ties and trestles
are placed about 6 ft. apart. The two trestles for the starting platform
should be set so that there is a slant to the track of about 6 in. for
starting the car without pushing it. The car can be carried back for
starting by adults, but for children a small rope can be used over the
platform to draw it back on the track, or a small windlass may be arranged
for the purpose.

[Illustration: Detail of the Car, Wheels and the Trestle, Which is
Attached to a Tie]

The main frame of the car is 3 ft. long and about 13 in. wide, firmly
fastened at the corners. The axles for the wheels are machine steel,
19 in. long, turned up on the ends and threaded in the manner of a bicycle
axle to fit parts of bicycle hubs, attached to the main frame as shown at
A. The wheels are solid, 4 in. in diameter and 1 in. thick, and are set
on the bicycle cone of the ball cup, after they are properly adjusted, and
securely fastened between washers with a nut on the end of the axle. Guide
wheels, B, are placed on the sides in the manner shown. These wheels are
ordinary truck casters, not the revolving kind, 2 in. in diameter.

About 1/2-in. clearance should be provided between the guide wheels B
and the guard rail C, on the track. When the car is made in this manner
it runs close to the track and there is no place where a child can get a
foot or hand injured under or at the sides of the car. The one described
has been used by all the children, large and small, for a year without
accident.



Door-Bell Alarm


A simple door-bell alarm for informing one when the door of a shop or
dwelling is opened is shown in the accompanying sketch. It consists of a
piece of spring brass, A, bent into a circle in the center so that it may
be clamped on the doorknob bar by means of a small bolt or screw. The two
ends of this piece should be separated as shown and a second piece, B,
mounted on the door so that its outwardly projecting end is between the
ends of the piece A. One terminal of an ordinary vibrating bell circuit is
then connected under the head of the clamp screw, and the other terminal
under one of the screws holding the piece B in place on the door. It is
now obvious that the bell circuit will be completed and the alarm sounded
when the knob is turned. Make sure that the piece A is bent so that the
circuit is completed before the latch has moved a sufficient amount to
allow the door to open.

[Illustration: Wiring Diagram and Connections to an Electric Bell That
Rings When a Door Knob is Turned]

The circuit leading to and from the switch may be completed through the
hinges of the door, but it would be better to use small coil springs as
shown. There would then be no likelihood of the circuit being open at any
time, which might occur if the hinges were used.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Discolored coffee and teapots may be restored to their
    original brightness by boiling them a few minutes in
    a solution of borax water.

[Illustration]



A Playground Ferris Wheel


The whole wheel is carried on two uprights, each 3 by 4 in., by 10 ft.
long. In the upper ends of these pieces, A, a half circle is cut out to
receive the main shaft B. The end of the uprights are sunk 3 ft. into
the earth and about 4 ft. apart, then braced as shown. They are further
braced by wires attached to rings which are secured with staples near the
top. The bearings should each have a cap to keep the shaft in place. These
can be made of blocks of wood with a semicircle cut out, the blocks being
nailed over the shaft, while it is in place, the nails entering the ends
of the uprights.

[Illustration: Detail of the Uprights, Axle and Spokes, and the End and
Side Elevations of the Completed Wheel, Showing Braces and Cars Attached]

The main shaft C is made of a 2-1/2-in. square piece of good material,
4 ft. long. The ends are made round to serve as bearings, and the square
part is fitted with the spokes or car carriers. These consist of 4 pieces,
each 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 13 ft. long. In the center of each piece
cut a notch one-half the thickness so that when each pair of pieces is
crossed they will fit together with the surfaces smooth, as shown at D. A
square hole is cut through the pieces as shown to fit on the square part
of the main axle. While it is not shown in the illustration, it is best to
strengthen this joint with another piece of wood, cut to fit on the axle
and securely attached to the spokes.

The cars or carriers are made of two sugar barrels cut in half. The hoops
are then securely nailed, both inside and outside; a block of wood, E,
securely attached to the half barrel on the outside, and another block
on the inside opposite the outside block. Holes are bored 2-1/2 ft. from
the ends of the spokes and a bolt run through them and through the blocks
on the edges of the half barrels. The extending ends of the spokes are
used to propel the wheel. Four children can ride in the wheel at one
time.--Contributed by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.



A Merry-Go-Round Pole


An inexpensive merry-go-round can be made of a single pole set in the
ground where there is sufficient vacant space for the turning of the
ropes. The pole may be of gas pipe or wood, long enough to extend about
12 ft. above the ground. An iron wheel is attached on the upper end so
that it will revolve easily on an axle, which may be an iron pin driven
into the post. A few iron washers placed on the pin under the wheel will
reduce the friction.

[Illustration: The Ropes being Tied to the Wheel Rim will Easily Turn
around the Pole]

Ropes of varying lengths are tied to the rim of the wheel. The rider
takes hold of a rope and runs around the pole to start the wheel in
motion, then he swings clear of the ground. Streamers of different
colors and flowers for special occasions may be attached to make a pretty
display.--Contributed by J. Bert Mitchell, Wichita, Kans.



A Theatrical Night Scene with the Appearance of Fireflies


Use small shining Christmas-tree balls, about the size of a hickory nut,
strung on strong black linen threads. The thread is put loosely over a
hook at the back of the stage among the evergreens that are used for the
background. The ends of the threads are brought, like a pair of reins, to
the front of the stage, diagonally, and there manipulated by some one in
a wing near the front, standing high enough to prevent the threads from
touching the heads of the actors. These bright little particles darting
back and forth among the trees appear very lifelike, and with the addition
of a crescent moon just peeping through the trees, the likeness to a
summer night is quite striking.

The moon effect is made by using a piece of dark cardboard, about
2 ft. square, covered thickly with small green boughs, and by cutting
a crescent-shaped opening in the center, covering it with yellow tissue
paper. This cardboard is placed well back in the trees and a lantern hung
behind it.--Contributed by Miss S. E. Jocelyn, New Haven, Conn.



Hulling Walnuts


Procure a barrel that is water-tight and mount it on a shaft so that it
runs between standards like a barrel churn. Fill the barrel about half
full of walnuts, cover them with water and throw in a small quantity
of gravel as grinding material. Close the opening tightly and turn the
barrel for about 20 minutes. The walnuts will come out clean and smooth
as glass.--Contributed by Arthur Seufert, The Dalles, Oregon.



Stick for Lowering Top Sash of a Window


To make it easy to raise and lower the upper sash of a bathroom window
which is behind the bathtub I devised the following: Procuring two
screweyes I opened one sufficiently to slip it into the other as shown at
A. Then one was screwed into the top rail of the sash and the other into
the end of a light stick a little longer than the length of upper sash.

[Illustration: The Stick is Fastened to the Window Sash with Screweyes
and is Always Ready for Use]

The device is left on the window permanently and affords a ready means of
handling the sash without stepping into the bathtub, which would otherwise
be necessary.--Contributed by W. E. Morey, Chicago.



An Adjustable Hacksaw Frame


The frame is constructed of cold-rolled steel, 1/4 in. in diameter and
17-1/2 in. long, bent into the shape shown and then cut in two parts at A.
Starting at a point about 5/16 in. from the ends made by the cut, drill
1/8-in. holes, then space three other holes 1 in. between centers and
drill them 1/8 in. in diameter.

[Illustration: The Frame is Shaped of Cold-Rolled Steel and Made
Adjustable with a Piece of Steel Tubing]

A piece of steel tubing, 1/4 in. in inside diameter and 6-3/4 in. long, is
notched on the ends to receive the pins B and C. Slots are cut in the ends
D and E, to admit the blade of a saw, and half-round notches filed on the
outside surface for holding pins used in the hole of the saw blade. The
spring of the steel will be sufficient to keep the saw blade in place. The
1/8-in. holes in the frame will permit adjustment for different lengths
of blades.--Contributed by Clarence B. Hanson, Fitchburg, Mass.



A Bedroom Cabinet


The cabinet shown in the illustration can be made an ornament with a
little care in workmanship and a choice selection of materials. The
cabinet may be either fastened to the head or foot of the bed, facing in
either of two directions.

[Illustration: The Cabinet Makes a Handy Place to Keep Necessary Articles
for a Sick Person]

The size of the cabinet will depend on the choice of the maker, and if the
bed is brass, the wood can be finished natural and fitted with brass bands
for brackets and holding clips.--Contributed by W. E. Crane, Cleveland, O.



A Dull Black for Cameras


Such parts of a camera that are apt to reflect light must be covered with
a dull black. A mixture for this purpose is made of lampblack, about
a teaspoonful, and enough gold size to make a paste as thick as putty.
Add about twice the volume of turpentine and apply to the parts with a
camel's-hair brush.

As the turpentine fumes are detrimental to the sensitive plate, the camera
should be left open until these fumes have entirely disappeared.



A Door Fastener


[Illustration]

Sometimes it is necessary to fasten a door in a manner to prevent children
from opening it, yet so that it is easily opened from either side. This
can be done by putting a screw or curtain hook on the inside of the door
frame and using a piece of cord long enough to loop over both hooks. A
person coming in or out can remove the loop from either side.--Contributed
by John A. Cohalan, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A floor wax can be made by melting 1 lb. of yellow
    beeswax in 1/2 pt. of hot, raw linseed oil; then
    adding 1 pt. of turpentine.



Umbrella Used as a Flower Trellis


Procure a discarded umbrella and remove the cloth, leaving only the steel
frame. Join the ends of the ribs by running a fine wire through the tip
of each rib and giving it one turn around to hold them at equal distances
apart. The handle is then inserted in the ground and some climbing vine
planted beneath it. The plant will climb all over the steel frame and
make a very attractive lawn piece.--Contributed by John F. Campbell, N.
Somerville, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Frame Supporting a Vine]



Combined Shade and Awning


An ordinary window shade makes a good awning as well as a shade, if
it is attached to the outside of the window with the device shown in
the illustration. The shade and spring roller are put into a box for
protection from the weather and the box is fastened in the window casing
at the top. A narrow slit on the under side of the box permits the shade
to be drawn out. The stick at the end is removed and a U-shaped wire
inserted in the hem in its stead. The wire is bent so the ends may be
inserted in holes in the window casing. As the shade is drawn out, it is
extended outward by the wire in the position of an awning.--Contributed
by Arthur Kesl, Chicago, Ill.

[Illustration: Shade Attachments]



Vaulting-Pole Attachments


Some means must be provided on vaulting-pole standards to allow for the
free release of the pole should the vaulter strike it in going over. One
of the simplest of the many devices that can be used for this purpose
is shown in Fig. 1. It is made of heavy wire, bent and slipped over the
standard as shown in Fig. 2. The projection on the inside of the link is
used similar to the tongue of a buckle in adjusting the height of the pole
on the standards.

[Illustration: Pole Adjuster on Standard (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

Each standard has a series of holes on its front side. These holes
may be numbered for convenience. The pole in place is shown in Fig.
3.--Contributed by John Dunlap, Craghead, Tollcross, England.



Separating Drinking Glasses


When two thin glasses are put one into the other they often become stuck
and cannot be removed. To separate them with ease, set the lower glass in
warm (not hot) water and pour cold water in the upper one. The expansion
of the lower and the contraction of the upper will make release an easy
matter.--Contributed by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Bronze striping, when thoroughly dry, should be
    covered with a thin coat of white shellac to keep it
    from tarnishing.



A Magic String


Procure a few pieces of cotton string, each about 1-1/2 ft. long, and fill
them well with soap. Prepare a brine by dissolving three tablespoonfuls
of salt in a cup of water. Place the strings in the brine and allow them
to soak for two hours, or longer. It is necessary that they be thoroughly
saturated with the brine.

When taken out of the brine and thoroughly dried, suspend one of them
from a nail on a ledge, and hang a finger ring on its lower end. Apply a
lighted match to the string and allow it to burn. The ring will not fall,
but will hang by the ash.--Contributed by C. Frank Carber, Dorchester,
Mass.



Edging Flower Beds


To improve the appearance of a flower bed, it must be edged evenly and
quite often. As this became a tiresome task, I constructed an edger, as
shown in the sketch. It consists of a wheel on a 4-ft. length of material,
2 by 4 in. in size, made tapering and having a cross handle, 18 in. long,
attached to its end. The wheel is 8 in. in diameter, and the cutter is
attached, as shown, across the center of the wheel axle, to make the
edger turn easily on curves and corners. The cutter is 12 in. long and
turned under 1-1/2 in. It is pushed along in the same manner as a garden
cultivator.--Contributed by A. S. Thomas, Amherstburg, Can.

[Illustration: An Edger, Similar to a Garden Plow, for Quickly Trimming
the Sod around a Flower Bed]



An Electric Stirring Machine


Desiring a stirring machine for mixing photographic chemicals, I set about
to design the one shown in the illustration. The base and upright are made
of pine, 1 in. thick, the former 8 in. wide and 10 in. long, the latter
8 in. wide and 16 in. long. A 3/8 in. slot, 12 in. long, is cut in the
center of the upright, and two pieces of sheet metal or tin, 2 in. wide
and 12 in. long, bent at right angles along the center of their length,
are placed at equal distances, on each side of the slot, and fastened with
screws. The distance between these pieces depends on the motor used, as
its base should fit snugly between them.

[Illustration: A Self-Contained Electric Stirring Machine for Use in
Mixing Photographic Chemicals]

A small battery motor is purchased, and its shaft is removed and replaced
with one measuring 10 in. in length. To the end of the shaft is soldered
a piece of wire, bent as shown in the sketch. A bolt is attached to the
center of the motor base, so that its threaded end will pass through the
slot in the upright, where it is held with a wing nut. The battery cells
may be placed on the back of the upright and a small switch mounted at
the top and in front.--Contributed by Ray F. Yates, Niagara Falls, N. Y.



A Clothes Rack


The rack is constructed of hard wood throughout, and as each piece is
made, it should be sandpapered and varnished or otherwise finished. The
plan view is shown in Fig. 1; the construction of an arm, in Fig. 2; and
the pin, in Fig. 3.

[Illustration: Any Number of Arms Up to Its Limit may be Used at a Time
(Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

The base is 7/8 in. thick and of the dimensions shown in Fig. 4. The
projection on each side, measuring 6-1/2 in. long and 1 in. wide, is made
separately and glued to the main part after dressing and beveling the
edges.

The shelf consists of material 2 in. thick and made in a semicircular form
on a radius of 5-3/4 in. On this arc, lay off chords, as shown in Fig.
1; the first ones on each side being one-half the length of the others.
Carefully square up the edges for appearance. To lay off the post holes,
scribe an arc of a circle on a 4-7/8-in. radius. Start at the edge on this
arc and lay off eight chords of equal lengths, and bore 1/2-in. holes on
the marks.

The posts are turned up, as shown by the detail, Fig. 3. This will require
seven posts and two half posts. The half posts are secured to the base
with small brads. The round part at the end is turned slightly tapering,
so as to make a tight fit in the hole of the shelf. After stringing the
posts on a piece of brass wire, 1/8 in. in diameter, and bending it in
the proper shape, the posts are glued in the holes.

A T-shaped slot with a long top and a short leg is cut out with a scroll
saw in one end of each arm. Make sure to have each slot exactly 1/2 in.
from the upper side of each arm. All edges should be well rounded to
prevent tearing of the clothes.

Make a semicircular platform for the arms to bear upon when extended. This
may be either half of a turned disk or built up in the three segments,
each fastened with screws to the base. If the brass wire is exactly 1 in.
from the shelf and the thickness of the wood between the T-slot and the
upper edge of the arm 1/2 in., the thickness of the platform should be
slightly under 1/2 in. to make the arms rest horizontally when they are
extended.

The shelf is fastened to the base with three or four 2-in. screws, and the
ends of the brass wire are run through holes in the base and clinched on
the back side. The rack may be fastened in place on the kitchen wall with
two large wood screws, or, if the wall is brick, with expansion bolts.
The fastening in either case must be secure to hold the heavy weight of
wet clothes.--Contributed by D. A. Price, Wilmington, Del.



How to Make a Pair of Foot Boats


On ponds or small lakes not deep enough for a boat one can use the foot
boats, as illustrated, for walking on the water. The boats are made of
white wood, known as basswood, as this wood is easily bent when steamed,
and the curved part should be shaped neatly.

[Illustration: Foot Boats for Walking on Shallow Water Where a Boat cannot
be Used]

Two sides are cut out, as shown, and the boards are nailed or, better
still, screwed to them. Each straight part may consist of one piece, in
which case there will be no joints to make waterproof, but if boards of
sufficient size cannot be had, pieces can be used. In this instance the
edges should be planed smooth, so that a good joint may be had, which can
be made watertight with white lead.

It is best to make the bottom of one piece if possible, at least for the
length of the curve. The wood is thoroughly steamed, then fastened in
place on the curved part.

A strap of suitable length is fastened on the top for the toe, so that
the boats can be controlled with the feet.

To propel the boats along easily, a web or wing should be attached to the
under side, so that it will catch the water on the back thrust while it
will fold up when the boat is slid forward.--Contributed by Waldo Saul,
Lexington, Mass.



A Green-Corn Holder


Neat and attractive green-corn holders for table use can be made of
small-sized glass drawer knobs, having a bolt 1 in. in length. The bolt
head is cut off with a hacksaw, and its body is filed to make four sides
running to a taper, leaving enough threads to secure it in the knob. The
threads are smeared with white lead, then it is screwed into the knob and
sufficient time allowed for the lead to set before using it.

[Illustration: The Glass Knobs Make a Clean and Sanitary Holder for the
Ear of Corn]

A pair of knobs are required for each ear of corn served. The square
bolt end will hold the ear securely while the kernels are eaten from the
cob.--Contributed by Victor Labadie, Dallas, Texas.



Inflating Toy Balloons


The inflation of rubber balloons may be accomplished with manufactured gas
by using the simple pipe arrangement shown in the sketch. The connection A
is for the gas hose, which is similar to those used for a table lamp. The
gas bag B is a football or punching bag connected to the pipe as shown.
This receives the gas as it is let in by the valve A. The toy balloon
C is connected to the pipe in the same manner and the valve D used to
regulate the flow of gas. The gas is easily pressed out of the ball into
the balloon.

[Illustration: Pipe Arrangement, Punching Bag and Valves to Admit Gas to
a Toy Rubber Balloon]

As hydrogen gas is much better than the manufactured gas, it is best to
use and can be put in the balloon in the same manner.



Electric-Light Mystery


A novel attraction for a window display can be made of a piece of plate
glass neatly mounted on a wood base, and an electric light which is
placed on the top edge and may be lighted apparently without any wire
connections.

[Illustration: Electric Light Mounted on Top of a Plate Glass with Hidden
Connections on the Glass Edge]

The method of concealing the connections is to paint the edges of the
glass green, then, before the paint is quite dry, lay on a thin strip of
copper, making the connections at the base on both sides, and to the lamp
in the same manner. Another coat of paint is applied to cover the strip.
The color should be an imitation of the greenish tint of glass edges. Any
desired lettering can be put on the glass.--Contributed by O. Simonson,
Brooklyn, N. Y.



An Oar Holder


Persons rowing boats, particularly beginners, find that the oars will slip
out of the oarlocks, turn or fall into the water. This may be avoided by
turning a screweye of sufficient size to prevent binding on the lock into
the oar and placing it over the lock as shown at A, so that the pull will
be against the metal. The oars will never slip or jump out, will always
be in the right position, and it is not necessary to pull them into the
boat to prevent loss when not rowing. The locks will not wear the oars, as
the pull is on the metal eye. Place the eye so it will have a horizontal
position on the side of the oar when the blade is in its right position.

[Illustration: The Screweye in Position on the Oar and over One Prong of
the Oarlock]



Cooking Food in Paper


A flat piece of paper is much more convenient to use than a paper sack
in cooking, as it can be better fitted to the size of the article to be
cooked. Wrap the article as a grocer wraps sugar, folding and refolding
the two edges together until the package is of the proper size, then
fasten with clips and proceed to close the ends in the same way. This
avoids all pasted seams and makes the package airtight.--Contributed by
J. J. A. Parker, Metamora, O.



Washing Photograph Prints


Photographic prints may be washed in a stationary washbowl with just
as good results as if washed in a high-priced wash box, by cutting off
the upper end of the rubber nipple on a bent glass medicine dropper and
placing it on the faucet as shown in the illustration. This arrangement
causes the water to whirl around in the bowl, which keeps the prints in
constant motion, thus insuring a thorough washing.--Contributed by L. O.
D. Sturgess, Arlington, Oregon.

[Illustration: A Medicine Dropper on a Faucet Produces a Whirling Motion
of the Water in the Bowl]



Combination Lock for a Drawer


The principal parts of the combination lock are the five disks shown in
Fig. 1. These are best made of sheet brass, about 1/16 in. thick and
1-1/2 in. in diameter. The pins for turning the disks are each made a
driving fit for a hole drilled through the metal at a point 15/32 in. from
the center. Notches are cut in the disks C, D and E, Fig. 1, to receive
the latch end, and the disk B is made like a cam, its use being to raise
the latch into its keeper when the handle is turned backward. The disk A
is without a notch and has only a pin for turning the other disks.

[Illustration: The Parts as They are Attached to a Drawer Front to Make
a Combination Lock (Fig. 1)]

The disks are mounted on the inside of the drawer front in a U-shaped
piece of metal, F, Fig. 2, which carries a 1/4-in. pin, G, as their
bearing. The disks are placed on this pin with rubber washers, H, J, K,
L and M, between them. These serve the purpose of preventing the disks
from turning too freely. The disk A is fastened tightly to the end of the
rod N, which is 1/4 in. in diameter. The outer end of this rod is fitted
with a handle or turning head as desired. That shown at O is made of two
pieces of wood screwed together, with a pointer, P, placed between them.
A washer, R, is placed between the drawer end and the handle to take up
any looseness and to allow the free turning of the rod.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

A dial, S, is made of paper and the division marks and numbers placed
upon it. The latch T is fitted in a U-shaped piece of metal, U, which is
fastened to the inside of the drawer end where its heel will rest on the
edges of the disks. When the right combination is made by turning the
handle first one way and then the other, the latch will drop into the
notches of the disks as they will be all in one place.

When the drawer is to be locked, turn the handle back from the last turn
made for the combination and the latch will be driven upward into its
keeper and the notches scattered so that the latch will not drop until
the combination is again set.

The numbers for the combination can be found after the disks are in place
and by turning the handle until the notch comes up to the place for the
heel of the latch. The number beneath the pointer is noted; then the next
turned up in a like manner, all being done while the drawer is open and
the disks in plain sight. The combination can be changed only by changing
the location of the pins in the disks.--Contributed by C. B. Hanson,
Fitchburg, Massachusetts.



How to Start Small Machine Screws


[Illustration]

Small machine screws are sometimes very difficult to start, especially
when used in parts of a machine that cannot be easily reached with
the fingers. A good way to start them is by means of a piece of fine
wire wound snugly around the screw under its head. They can be placed
and started by means of the wire and when the first threads have
caught the screw it can be held by the screwdriver while the wire is
withdrawn.--Contributed by F. W. Bently, Huron, S. D.



An Umbrella Holder for Display Purposes


[Illustration]

A holder that is especially adapted for use in hanging umbrellas for
display in a store can be easily made of a piece of wire wound in a
coil, as shown in the sketch, to fit over the end on the umbrella stick.
The coil at one end of the spring is formed into a hook so that the
umbrellas may be hung in screweyes or on a line, as the case may be. The
end of the umbrella is stuck into the spring, as shown, which grips it
tightly.--Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dartmouth, Mass.



Holder for a Milk Card


[Illustration]

It is the general practice of milkmen to furnish a monthly card on which
the housewife marks the needs of the day and then hangs it outside of the
door for the information of the driver. This card also serves as a record
for checking the accounts of the milk delivered during the month, and
therefore it is desirable to protect it from snow and sleet.

In order to furnish this protection and at the same time make it
unnecessary for any one to go outside of the door to hang up the card on
stormy days, one of our readers has submitted the following plan which he
has used for some time.

On the outside of the kitchen door, where the milkman is to deliver his
bottles, this man has fastened an ordinary picture frame with glass but no
backing except the door. Through the door and just below the upper edge
of the glass is cut a thin slot inclining downward and outward so that
the milk card can be easily pushed through the slot and thus be displayed
behind the glass in the frame. By this protection it is kept free from
mud, snow and ice. It is not necessary to step outside to place the card
in the frame.



Frame for Printing Post Cards from Negatives


As I desired to print only a portion of some of my 5 by 7-in. plates on
post cards and the part wanted was near the edge of the plate, I cut out
the printing frame, as shown at A in the sketch, to accommodate that part
of the card I reserved for a margin. This permitted the card to be placed
in the frame without making a bend.--Contributed by J. H. Maysilles,
Rochelle, Ill.

[Illustration: Slots Cut in the Frame to Receive the Post Cards without
Bending Them]



Finger Protection on Laboratory Vessels


A simple way of protecting the fingers against being burned by laboratory
vessels in which liquids are boiling or chemical reactions producing great
heat are going on, is shown in the sketch. A rather thick cord or yarn is
wrapped around the neck of the vessel in the manner shown, the upper end
being drawn through the loop at the top and cut off, and the lower end
then pulled out and a knot tied in it close to the windings of the yarn.

[Illustration: The Ends of the Cord are Held Tightly and the Winding
Protects the Hands]



Inlaying Metals by Electroplating


Very pretty and artistic effects of silver or nickel inlay on bronze,
copper, etc., or copper on dark oxidized metals, may be obtained by means
of etching and electroplating.

The metal on which the inlay is to be used is first covered with a thin
coating of wax and the design scratched through to the metal with a sharp,
hard point of some kind. The design is then etched in slowly with well
diluted nitric acid, allowing the etching to penetrate quite deeply. The
metal is then taken out and after a thorough rinsing in water is hung in
the plating bath.

As the wax has been left on, the plating will fill the lines of the
design only, and will not touch the covered surface. When the etched
lines are filled, the object is taken out of the bath and the wax
removed.--Contributed by S. V. Cooke, Hamilton, Can.



A Novel Show-Window Attraction


This moving show-window attraction can be simply and cheaply made. The
things necessary are a small battery motor, a large horseshoe magnet and
a large polished steel ball, perfectly true and round, such as used in
bearings. The other materials usually can be found in any store. Procure
some thick cardboard and cut two disks, 8 in. in diameter, and two disks,
7-1/2 in. in diameter. Glue these together to make the wheel A, the larger
disks forming the flanges. Make a smaller wheel, B, the size of which will
be governed by the speed of the motor used. The wheel A is mounted in a
box to run with its surface close to the under side of the cover, which
should be of a thin, stiff cardboard. The wheel B is mounted on an axle
that runs in metal bearings. The magnet D is placed on the wheel A. The
steel ball E is put on the thin cover of the box, and the magnet causes
it to roll around as the wheel turns. The box inclosing the mechanical
parts should be placed out of sight when used in a window.--Contributed
by Clarence Guse, Spokane, Wash.

[Illustration: The Steel Ball is Caused to Roll Around on the Cover by
the Moving Magnet]



How to Make a Mop Wringer


A mop wringer may be made and attached to an ordinary pail in the
following manner: Two pieces of metal, A, are attached securely at
opposite sides of the edge of the pail, holes being drilled in their upper
ends to serve as bearings for the roller B. The piece of metal C, which is
duplicated at the opposite side of the pail, is pivoted on a bolt. These
pieces also carry a roller, E, at their upper ends, and have a crosspiece,
F, at their lower ends. Discarded wringer rollers can be used for B and E.
A coil spring is attached as shown, to keep the rollers separate and in a
position to receive the mop. When the mop is placed between the rollers
they are brought together by a pressure of the foot on the crosspiece
F.--Contributed by J. Dennis McKennon, New Britain, Conn.

[Illustration: The Parts may be Either Attached to a Metal or Wood Pail
with Bolts or Screws]



A Vise Used as a Caliper Gauge


Not infrequently it is desired to know the distance from one side to
another of some part that cannot be directly measured with a rule, and
when no calipers are at hand. But with a vise handy, the measurement
can be made with ease and with sufficient accuracy for all practical
purposes if the vise is not too worn. This trick is particularly adapted
for calipering threaded parts, as threads cannot be measured readily
with ordinary calipers. How this may be done is shown in the sketch,
which illustrates the method as applied to a screw. The work is gripped
between the jaws of the vise and the opening then measured with a
rule.--Contributed by Donald A. Hampson, Middletown, New York.

[Illustration: The Jaws of a Vise, If They Are True, Will Make a Caliper
Gauge Giving a Perfect Measurement]



Homemade Tack Puller


A very handy tack puller can be made of a round-head bolt. On one side of
the head file a V-shaped notch and screw a wood handle on the threads.
This makes a very powerful puller that will remove large tacks from
hardwood easily.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Head Permits a Leverage Action That Lifts
the Tack Easily]



How to Make a Radium Photograph


The radium rays, like the X-rays, affect the photographic plate, as is
well known, but it would naturally be supposed that the enormous cost of
radium would prevent the making of such a photograph by the amateur.

It is a fact, however, that a radium photograph can be made at home at
practically no cost at all, provided the amateur has patience enough
to gather the necessary material, which is nothing else but broken
incandescent gas mantles. These (especially Welsbach mantles) contain
a salt of the rare metal thorium, which is slightly radioactive. The
thing to do, then, is to collect a sufficient quantity of broken mantles
to cover the bottom of a small cardboard box--a dryplate box, for
instance--with a layer of powdered mantle substance. Upon this layer
and pressed tightly against it is placed a piece of cardboard; then some
metal objects, a button, hairpin, a buckle, or the like, are laid on the
cardboard and covered with a sensitized paper. This is again covered with
a piece of cardboard and the box filled with crumpled paper to the top.
The cover is then put on, the box tied up with a piece of string and set
in some place where it is sure to be left undisturbed.

The radium rays from the powdered mantles readily penetrate the cardboard
and paper, but not the metal articles. Being very weak, the rays must be
given four weeks to accomplish their work. After that time, however, if
the sensitive paper is taken out, pictures of the metal objects in white
on a dark background will be found on it. These pictures will not be so
sharp as ordinary photographs, because the rays are not focused, but they
fairly represent the originals and the experiment is an interesting one.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A good imitation mahogany stain consists of 1 part
    Venetian red and 2 parts yellow lead, mixed with thin
    glue size, and is laid on with a woolen cloth.



Fountain for an Ordinary Pen


Fill the hollow end of an ordinary penholder with cotton--not too
tightly--and one dip of the pen will hold enough ink to write a full
page. The cotton should be changed each day. A small piece of sponge will
answer the same purpose. It is necessary to dip the pen deeply into the
ink.--Contributed by J. E. Noble, London Junction, Ontario.



Pulling Wire through Curved Electric Fixtures


To facilitate the running of electric wires through curved fixtures,
nick a heavy shot, A, and fasten it on a cord, B, in the same manner
as a fishline is weighted. The shot will roll through the fixture tube,
carrying the cord with it. A cord strong enough to pull the wires through
can be easily drawn through the opening in this manner. The shot should,
of course, not be so large that it can possibly bind in the tube.

[Illustration: A Shot That will Pass through the Fixture Arm will Carry
a Cord for Pulling in the Wires]



An Automatically Closing Drawer


A very ingenious way to have a drawer close automatically is to attach a
weight so that the rope or cord will pull on the rear end of the drawer.
The sketch clearly shows the device which is an attachment similar to that
used for closing gates. This can be applied to drawers that are frequently
drawn out and in places where a person is liable to have the hands full.

[Illustration: The Rope and Weight Attached to the Back End of the Drawer
Pulls It Closed]



A Cork Puller


[Illustration]

The stopper of any ordinary bottle can be easily removed with a puller
such as shown in the sketch. The puller is inserted between the stopper
and the neck of the bottle until the hook end will pass under the bottom
of the stopper, then given a quarter turn and pulled upward.

The construction of the puller vents the cork as it enters and thus no
vacuum is created. The cork is pulled more easily than with an ordinary
corkscrew, and there is no danger of tearing the cork to pieces.



Uses for a Bamboo Pole


Select a good bamboo pole, about 18 ft. long, and cut it into three
lengths as follows: A piece from the top, 2-1/2 ft. long; the next length,
5-1/2 ft. long, and the remaining end of the pole, about 10 ft. long.
The 2-1/2-ft. length is equipped with a screw hook in the smaller end,
as shown in Fig. 1. This stick is useful in lowering window shades that
have a ring or screw eye attached to the lower part of the shade. When
the stick is not in use, it is hung on the edge of the window casing.

[Illustration: A Bamboo Pole Cut in Three Pieces Makes a Window-Shade
Stick, Duster Holder and Clothesline Pole (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The 5-1/2-ft. length makes the long handle for a duster. Procure an
old-style lamp-chimney cleaner, wind a cord around the wires a few inches
below the point where they begin to spread to keep them from coming apart,
then cut or file the wires off 2 in. below the winding. This leaves a
straight shank, over which a ferrule is slipped before it is inserted into
the small end of the pole. Fill the remaining space in the pole end with
plaster of Paris, and when it has set, slip the ferrule into place on the
pole end. If a ferrule is not at hand, a fine wire can be wound around
the end to prevent the pole from splitting. When using this pole to dust
hardwood floors, tops of doors, window casings and picture frames, put a
dusting cloth into the claws and slide the ring into place, as shown in
Fig. 2.

The longer and larger end of the pole is used as a clothesline pole. One
end of this pole is fitted with a yoke made of No. 6 gauge galvanized
wire, as shown in Fig. 3. The wire for the yoke is 10 in. long, and after
bending it in shape, the two upper ends should be 2 in. wide at the top
and 2 in. deep. Insert the straight end of the wire into the smaller
end of the pole and set it in firmly with plaster of Paris. The end
of the pole should be securely wound with wire to keep the bamboo from
splitting.--Contributed by Gertrude M. Bender, Utica, N. Y.



Making Common Lock Less Pickable


The ordinary lock can be readily changed so that it will be quite
impossible to pick it with a common key. The way to do this is to cut
off the small hollow portion of the key that fits over the pin. This part
is placed on the pin of the lock and soldered, or fastened by any other
means, so it cannot come out of the lock. This will prevent any ordinary
key from entering the keyhole.--Contributed by A. J. Hamilton, Benton,
Ark.

[Illustration: The Small End Cut from the Key is Fastened on the Pin of
the Lock]



To Color Tan Leather Black


An inexpensive and effective way to blacken tan leather is as follows:
The leather is first rubbed with a 10-per-cent solution of tannic acid,
which may be purchased at any drug store. This treatment should be applied
and the leather well dried. It should be rubbed with a cloth hard enough
to produce a polish, then apply a 10-per-cent solution of iron sulphate.
A chemical reaction takes place as the last solution is rubbed into the
leather, making it black. After this is dry, the leather can be polished
in the usual way.



To Prevent Corks Sticking in Bottle Necks


[Illustration]

Corks will always adhere to the necks of bottles containing glue or
other sticky liquids, with the result that it becomes necessary to cut or
dig the cork into small pieces in order to remove the contents from the
bottle.

A simple and effective way to prevent a cork from sticking is to place a
small piece of waxed paper on the bottle opening so that when the cork is
pressed in, the paper will be between the cork and glass, as shown.



To Remove Rust Stains from Clothing


Many times when working around machinery, the clothes will come in contact
with iron and get rust stains. These may be removed by using a weak
solution of oxalic acid which must be applied carefully as it is highly
poisonous. Sometimes the stain can be removed by washing the spot in
buttermilk, in which case rubbing is necessary.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Small bits of onion placed in a room will absorb the
    disagreeable odors of paint and turpentine.



Eraser Holder


Any small piece of steel with a point, similar to that shown in the
sketch, will make a good eraser holder. The saving of erasers is nothing
compared to the convenience of having a small eraser with a chisel edge
or point when delicate erasing is required. It is not clumsy as the usual
chunk of rubber with a blunt point, for the person erasing can see what
he is doing. I use a leg of an old pair of dividers and cut my erasers
in four parts in shapes similar to that shown in the sketch by the dotted
lines, and can use them easily until they are about the size of a pea. The
friction between the rubber and steel, after the point has been inserted
into the rubber, holds the two together nicely.--Contributed by James F.
Burke, Lakewood, O.

[Illustration: A Very Small Eraser can be Held on the Point and Used for
Delicate Erasures]



Bleaching Ivory


A good method to bleach ivory ornaments is to rub on a solution made of
a small quantity of unslaked lime, bran and water. The mixture should
be wiped off after the ivory has become sufficiently bleached, and the
surface then rubbed with sawdust or magnesia, which gives it a brilliant
polish.



A Soap Shake


[Illustration]

To utilize scraps of soap, make a soap shake of a medium-size
baking-powder can, as shown in the sketch. Punch holes in the can with
an ice pick or some other sharp-pointed instrument, and attach a large
wire to the center, twisting the ends to form a handle.--Contributed by
Elizabeth P. Grant, Winchester, Virginia.



Ear Repair on a Bucket


[Illustration]

A broken ear for a bail on a metal pail or bucket can be replaced with a
window-shade fastener, such as shown at A in the sketch. The base of the
fastener is turned down flat and attached with screw bolts or rivets, as
shown at B.--Contributed by Harold Robinson, Suffern, N. Y.



Cleaning Dirt from Tufts in Upholstering


[Illustration: (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

A handy device for cleaning furniture upholstering and vehicle-seat
tuftings may be easily made as follows: Take an ordinary round paintbrush
and cut the handle off, leaving it about 1-1/2 in. long, then saw a
V-shaped notch in it, as shown in Fig. 1. Attach the brush to the ratchet
screwdriver, Fig. 2, by inserting the screwdriver blade in the notch
of the brush handle, and secure it by wrapping a strong cord around the
handle. Place the brush in the tuft and work the screwdriver handle, as
in turning a screw. A few quick turns of the brush will throw out the dirt
which is impossible to remove with a straight brush.



Painting Lead Pipe


The paint applied to lead pipes will chip and peel off, and to prevent
this I first cover the lead surface with a thin coat of varnish, then
apply the paint on the varnish. A lead pipe painted in this way will
retain its coating.--Contributed by F. Schumacher, Brooklyn, N. Y.



Attaching a Vise Jaw to a Bench


Procure a toothed metal rail or rack, A, such as is used for small ladder
tracks, and mount it on the lower edge of the guide rail for the lower
end of the vise jaw. Provide a slot, B, in the leg of the bench, through
which the rail can run with plenty of play room. A beveled plate, C, is
attached to the face of the bench leg at the bottom of the slot, so that
it will engage the teeth of the rack.

[Illustration: The Rack on the Lower Guide Rail Provides a Means to Keep
the Vise Jaws Parallel]

In use, when opening the vise by means of the screw, the rack will drag
along the plate, and stop and engage a notch when the opening operation
ceases. When it is desired to reduce the opening, it is only necessary
to lift the rail by means of the string D. A button is tied to the upper
end of the string on top of the bench, to keep it handy for changing the
jaw.--Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, District of Columbia.



Removing Vegetable Stains


To remove stains of vegetables or fruits of any kind from cloth or wood,
the following method is very good: The stained piece is first moistened
with water and then placed in a jar or pail that can be covered. A lump
of sulphur is ignited and dropped into the jar. Place the sulphur on a
fire shovel when lighting it to avoid burns. The burning sulphur should
be placed in the receptacle on the side where the stain will be exposed
to the fumes. The sulphur burns slowly so that the articles will not be
harmed.

After the sulphur has burned away, the jar should be kept closed for a
few minutes and when the articles are removed, the stains will be gone.
This is harmless to try, and the cloth will not be injured if it is in
a dry condition. The articles should be washed and dried as soon as they
are taken out of the jar.



Picture-Frame Corner Joints


Very often the amateur craftsman comes across a picture which he would
like to have framed, but the difficulty and insecurity of the ordinary
miter joint for the corners discourage him from trying to make the frame.
A very easy way to construct a rigid frame is shown in the illustration.
The size of the frame must be determined by the picture to be framed. The
width, A, of the pieces depends upon one's own taste.

Four pieces, the desired length and width and 1/2 in. thick, should be
dressed out of the material intended for the frame. Four other pieces,
3/8 in. thick and 1/2 in. narrower than the first four pieces, are next
made ready and fastened with glue and flat-head screws to the back of
the first pieces, as shown. This allows 3/8 in. for glass, picture and
backing, and 1/2 in. to lap over the front of the picture on all edges.

[Illustration: Square and Mitered Lap Joints for Making Rigid Picture
Frames in Natural or Stained Woods (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

By arranging the pieces as shown in Fig. 1, a strong corner lap is
secured. A miter lap joint which is not so strong is shown in Fig. 2. The
latter gives a mitered-joint effect. This method does away with the use
of the rabbeting plane and miter box, both of which are difficult to use
with accuracy. Two screws should be used in each joint to reinforce the
glue.--Contributed by James Gaffney, Chicago, Ill.



Hunting-Knife Handles


Very artistic handles for hunting knives and carving sets can be made
by using disks of horn. Procure some cowhorns from a slaughter house and
split them with a saw, using only the large portion of the horn. The split
horn is then heated by dry heat--an oven is best--then pressed between two
cold plates to a flat piece. If well heated, it is surprising how easily
this can be done. The piece is then cut into squares of suitable size
which are marked and perforated in the center, the hole being a trifle
smaller than the tang of the blade. The tang should be flat and a little
longer than the desired handle, with the end made round and threaded for
a nut.

[Illustration: The Finished Handle, If the Work is Well Done, is Easily
Mistaken for Agate]

A suitable washer is placed on the tang, which is then heated sufficiently
to burn its way through the pieces of horn as they are put on the metal.
When a sufficient number of disks are on the tang a washer should be
slipped on and followed by a round nut. Pressure is applied by turning the
nut and repeated heatings of the disks will force them together to make
perfect joints. Only a moderate pressure should be applied at a time.

The handle is now to be finished to the shape desired. If black and
colored pieces of horn are interspersed, the finished handle will have
the appearance of agate. The blade and handle can be lacquered and the
ferrules nickelplated.--Contributed by James H. Beebee, Rochester, N. Y.



Holding Wood in a Sawbuck


Anyone who has used a sawbuck knows how inconvenient it is to have a stick
roll or lift up as the saw blade is pulled back for the next cut. With the
supplementary device, shown in the sketch, which can be easily attached
to the sawbuck, these troubles will be eliminated. It consists of two
crosspieces hinged to the back uprights of the sawbuck and a foot-pressure
stirrup fastened to their front ends as shown. Spikes are driven through
the crosspieces so that their protruding ends will gouge into the stick
of wood being sawed. The stirrup is easily thrown back for laying a piece
of wood in the crotch.

[Illustration: The Holding Attachment Easily Adjusts Itself to the Stick
of Wood Placed in the Crotch]



A New Pail-Cover Handle


The handle of the cover, instead of being attached to the center, is
placed near the edge and bail of the pail. On the bail and just above the
handle of the cover there is formed a loop large enough to accommodate
the thumb. With this arrangement, the cover may be removed with the use
of but one hand.

[Illustration: The Bail Loop and the Handle Make It Easy to Remove the
Cover with One Hand]



Drip-Pan Alarm


The trouble caused by overflowing of the drip pan for an ice box or
refrigerator can be overcome by attaching a device that will sound an
alarm when the water reaches a level safely below the overflow point.
A device of this kind may be attached to the back of the refrigerator
as shown in the sketch. A float, A, is attached to the lower end of a
rod, B, which slides through staples CC. At the upper end of the rod, a
V-shaped copper sheet, D, is soldered. This makes the contact points in
the electric wiring. The battery E can be placed under or back of the
refrigerator as desired. The method of wiring is clearly shown.

[Illustration: The Float in the Pan, and Contacts for Closing the Circuit
to Ring the Bell]



A Live-Bait Pail


[Illustration]

Every fisherman knows that live bait will soon die if they do not
receive sufficient air. I have succeeded in keeping bait alive and
healthy by using a pail of my own construction, which is provided with
a compressed-air space to force air to the surface of the water. The air
space A takes up one-fifth of the interior at the bottom of the pail, and
an ordinary hand bicycle pump is used to fill it through a bicycle-tire
valve, B. The pipe C from the air space extends up along the side of the
pail and the upper end is bent so that it just touches the surface of the
water. The pipe contains a valve to regulate the flow of air.

After the pail has been standing for an hour or more, the bait will rise
to the top. The valve is then opened for a few minutes, and the minnows
will soon swim around in the water as when this was fresh.--Contributed
by T. Whelan, Paterson, N. J.



A Mouse Trap


[Illustration]

After using various means to catch the mice in my pantry, I finally
decided I could not catch them in the ordinary manner. Knowing that mice
are not afraid of dishes but will run all over them, while they will stay
away from other things, I took a dinner plate, a bowl that held about 1
qt., a thimble, filled with toasted cheese, and arranged the articles as
shown in the sketch, balancing the bowl on the thimble. When the mouse
nibbled the cheese, the bowl came down on it, making it a prisoner. The
whole was then dropped in a pail of water. Scald the dish and bowl before
using them again to remove all traces of the mouse.



Quickly Made Rheostat


A short time ago I found it necessary to melt some silver, and in setting
up an arc light to obtain the heat I made a rheostat by winding wire
around a large earthenware jar. As the jar is a conductor and would not
burn, it served the purpose perfectly. In winding the wire, be careful to
keep the coils from touching each other.--Contributed by P. D. Merrill,
Chicago, Ill.

[Illustration]



Sunlight Flasher for the Garden By Claude L. Woolley


The following apparatus is likely to be novel, and certainly very striking
when erected on country estates, particularly on high lands, hillsides,
and along the seashore, where the flashes may be seen for many miles out
at sea.

It is not unusual in country gardens to see a large hollow glass globe
silvered on the inside, mounted on a pedestal, brilliantly reflecting
the sunlight. The apparatus described is an elaboration of the idea. The
drawing shows in diagram the general construction, exact measurements
not being given. However, a convenient height is 3-1/2 to 4 ft., and the
circular frame, carrying the mirrors, may be 10 to 14 in. in diameter.

[Illustration: The Flasher as It Appears on the Stand and the Details of
Its Construction]

The supporting frame, of galvanized sheet iron or sheet copper, may be
either circular or hexagonal in shape. Mounted upon a vertical shaft is
a skeleton circular frame, carrying a double row of small mirrors, or
ordinary flat mirror glass, mounted in grooves provided for them; the
upper row inclined slightly upward, and the lower row slightly downward.
If a greater number of angles of reflection are desired, the mirrors may
be smaller, and arranged in four circular rows instead of two, each row
being inclined at a slightly different angle.

The shaft is pointed at the lower end and rests in a bearing drilled
with a V-shaped depression, the bearing being supported by soldering or
riveting at each end to the inner sides of the pedestal shell. The upper
portion of the shaft passes through a bearing which is also soldered or
riveted at the ends, to the inner surfaces of the pedestal shell.

The mirrors, mounted on the shaft, thus are free to revolve vertically
with very little friction. Upon the lower end of the shaft is fastened a
light gear wheel of rather large diameter, and this in turn is geared to a
smaller gear mounted on the end of the armature shaft of a small electric
motor of the type that may be driven with a few dry cells; the relation
of the sizes of the gears being such as will cause the mirrors to revolve
slowly, when the motor is running at normal speed.

Connected to the motor are two or more dry, or other suitable batteries,
a small door being provided on the side of the lower part of the pedestal
to enable the batteries to be replaced, or turned off, and to give access
to the motor. A circular shield is erected over the mirror carrier,
surmounted by an ornamental ball, to protect from the weather and to
provide a more finished appearance. A waterproof canvas cover may be
slipped over the whole in rainy weather.

As new mirror faces at varying angles are constantly being presented to
the sun, vivid flashes are constantly occurring when viewed from almost
any angle or position on the side where the sun is shining. The circular
shield on top is supported in position by four metal strips secured by
soldering to the shield and the supporting pedestal.

Such a device may be constructed without much expense, producing a most
brilliant effect over miles of territory. The small driving motor may
be replaced with a suitable spring or weight-driven clockwork; or four
hollow hemispherical metal cups may be mounted on arms, or placed at right
angles, and the arms in turn mounted upon a vertical shaft and arranged
above the mirror carrier and geared in such manner that the mirrors will
revolve slowly, while the cups are revolving with comparatively high speed
by the force of the wind.

The mounted revolving cups are similar in form to the apparatus used by
the U. S. Weather Bureau for measuring the speed of the wind. They will
respond to a good breeze from any point of the compass.



An Automatic Blowpipe


A fine-pointed flame can be used to advantage for certain work, and the
alcohol flame and blowpipe have become a necessity, but these may be
improved upon so as to make the apparatus automatic in action and more
efficient in its work. A bottle or receptacle, A, having a large bottom to
provide a sufficient heating surface, is supplied with a cork and a tube,
B, bent at right angles. The receptacle, A, is supported on a stand so
that it may be heated with a small lamp, C. The light D may be a candle,
alcohol lamp, or any flame set at the right distance from the end of the
tube B.

[Illustration]

The receptacle A is partly filled with alcohol, and the heating lamp lit.
The heat will turn the alcohol into gas and cause a pressure, driving it
through the tube B, so that it is ignited by the flame from D. The flame
will have a fine point with sufficient heat to melt glass.--Contributed
by W. R. Sears, St. Paul, Minn.



Homemade Steam-Turbine Engine


Select a tomato can, or any can in which vegetables or fruit is sold, and
carefully unsolder the small cap on the end when removing the contents.
When the can is empty, clean it well and solder the cap in place again.
Procure a strip of brass, bend it as shown at A and solder it to the can
top in the center. Cut a piece of about No. 14 gauge wire, the length
equal to the opening between the uprights of the U-shaped piece of brass,
with about 1/2 in. added for a small pulley wheel. The uprights are
punched or drilled at their upper ends to admit the wire which is then
adjusted in place.

[Illustration: The Boiler is Made of a Fruit or Vegetable Can and the
Turbine of Thin Metal Strips]

Two strips of tin are cut to fit in between the standards and are notched
in the center, as shown at B, and slightly bent to fit over the wire
shaft. These are soldered to the wire between the uprights. A small hole
is punched on one side in the top of the can so that it will center the
paddle of the wheel. On the opposite side of the top another larger hole
is punched and tightly fitted with a wood plug. This is the opening for
filling the boiler with water. The can should be filled about two-thirds
full and set on a stove. The steam, coming under pressure from the small
hole, strikes the paddles of the wheel with considerable force and causes
it to revolve rapidly. Be careful not to set the boiler on too hot a fire.



Electric Switch for Exposing Photographic Printing Papers


The proper time to expose a printing paper under a negative should be
determined and the negative marked for future printing. When this time has
been found some means should be provided for making the exposure exactly
the same, then the prints will be perfect and of a good tone at all times.
For this purpose the instrument shown in the illustration was designed
and used with entire satisfaction.

[Illustration: Time Switch for Operating an Electric Light in Printing
Photographic Developing Papers]

The device consists of an ordinary cheap watch, a standard, or support,
for an adjusting screw, a small coil, a movable armature, a knife switch,
and a trip arrangement. A neat box or case, about 5 in. square and 3 in.
high, is first constructed. A round recess, 1/8 in. deep, is cut in the
center of the top, to admit the watch. The standard A is made of brass,
1/8 in. thick and 1/2 in. wide, bent as shown, and a 3/16-in. hole is
drilled in the end of the long arm where it will exactly center over the
pivot holding the watch hands. A 3/16-in. rod, B, is closely fitted in
the hole and supplied with a knurled wheel, C, on the upper end, and an
L-shaped arm, D, is fastened to the lower end. The end of this arm should
be filed to a point, or a very thin piece of brass soldered to it, so that
the end will just touch the minute hand of the watch. The tip end of the
point should be bent slightly from the perpendicular toward the direction
in which the watch hands are moving, so that, when it is set, the moving
hand will easily break the contact.

The magnetic arrangement consists of a 3-ohm coil, E, mounted, as shown,
to one side of the case, where it operates the trip levers. The armature
parts consist of an L-shaped piece of brass, F, pivoted at G, to which a
square piece of soft iron, H, is attached. Two small parts, K, are bent
and attached as shown, to furnish a limit stop for the piece F and a
support for a spiral spring which holds the armature H away from the coil.

The knife switch L is fastened to the bottom of the case so that the
handle will project through a slot in one side of the box. A trip piece,
M, and a small eye for attaching a spiral spring, N, are soldered to the
knife switch. These two attachments for the switch are insulated from the
other parts.

Two binding posts are mounted on top, one being connected to one terminal
of the coil E and the other to the watch case. The other terminal of the
coil is connected to the standard A. The two binding posts are connected
in series with one or two dry cells, and the switch L is connected in
series with the lamp used for printing.

The operation is as follows: The arm D, being set for a certain time, the
lever of the switch L is set and the light remains lit until the minute
hand strikes the point on the arm D, when the battery circuit is closed
causing the coil to draw the armature H and allowing the spring N to open
the switch L. The lamp is then extinguished.--Contributed by James P.
Lewis, Golden, Colorado.



How to Make a Wing Nut


[Illustration]

Finding that I needed some wing nuts and not being able to purchase them
in the size I wanted, I made them from the ordinary nuts. A hole was
drilled through opposite corners of each nut and a staple made of wire
riveted in the holes as shown in the sketch. The staple should be long
enough to admit the end of the bolt.--Contributed by Clarence L. Orcutt,
Buffalo, N. Y.



Cork-Covered Clothes Peg


[Illustration]

When screws or nails are used to hang clothes or other articles on, run
the nail or screw through a bottle cork as shown. The cork will prevent
the nail or screw from tearing the article and also insure the cloth
against rust marks, should the article be wet.



Shaping an Old Broom


A broom, having the straws bent and out of shape, yet not worn out, can be
fixed up like new in the following manner: Slightly dampen the straw with
water and wrap with heavy paper, then place a weight on it. After standing
under pressure for several days the straw will be restored to the shape
of a new broom. Paint brushes can be treated in the same manner, but in
that case linseed oil should be used instead of water.

[Illustration: Method of Straightening the Straws]



How to Make a Bolster


[Illustration]

The sketch shows a simple bed bolster which I have made and which can be
constructed at very little cost. Three circular pieces of poplar or pine,
10-1/2 in. in diameter, are required. These may be made in one cut by
nailing the pieces together. Then nail on ten 3/8 by 2-in. strips, 52 in.
long, or as long as the width of the bed, leaving about 1/2 in. space
between the strips. These strips will thus go about two-thirds of the
way around the circle, leaving room to insert the pillows when the bed is
not in use. Cover the bolster with building paper or any other suitable
material, and it is ready for the pillow shams.--Contributed by C. Martin,
Jr., Chicago.



A Fish-Scaling Knife


A useful fish-scaling and skinning knife can be made of an old broken
hacksaw blade. This must be at least 6 in. long and will make a knife with
a 3-in. blade. Grind the blade to the shape shown and make a handle for
it by using two strips of maple, 1/4 in. thick and 4 in. long. These are
riveted together with 3 in. of the blade between them.--Contributed by
John L. Waite, Cambridge, Mass.

[Illustration: Scaling Knife]



To Prevent Moles from Damaging Growing Seeds


The food most liked by the ground mole is the sprouts of peas and corn. A
way to protect these growing seeds is to dip them in kerosene just before
planting. The mole will not touch the oil-covered seed, and the seeds are
not injured in the least.--Contributed by J. W. Bauholster, Gresham, O.

[Illustration: The Heliograph as It is Used by Neighboring Boys to Send
Messages on a Clear Day by Flashing the Sun's Rays from One to the Other,
Which can be Read as Far as the Eye can See the Light]



How to Make a Heliograph By R. B. Huey


The heliograph which is used in the army provides a good method of sending
messages by the reflection of the sun's rays. In the mountains there
are stations from which messages are sent by the heliograph for great
distances, and guides carry them for use in case of trouble or accident.
The wireless telegraph delivers messages by electricity through the air,
but the heliograph sends them by flashes of light.

The main part of the instrument is the mirror, which should be about 4 in.
square, set in a wood frame and swung on trunnions made of two square-head
bolts, each 1/4 in. in diameter, and 1 in. long, which are firmly held to
the frame with brass strips, 1/2 in. wide, and 3 in. long. The strips are
drilled centrally to admit the bolts, and then drilled at each end for a
screw to fasten them to the frame. This construction is clearly shown in
Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Detail of the Parts for Making the Mirror and Sight Rod
Which are Placed on a Base Set on a Tripod Top, the Whole being Adjusted
to Reflect the Sun's Rays in Any Direction Desired (Fig. 1)]

A hole is cut centrally through the backing of the frame and a small hole,
not over 1/8 in. in diameter, is scratched through the silvering on the
glass. If the trunnions are centered properly, the small hole should be
exactly in line with them and in the center.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

A U-shaped support is made of wood strips, 3/8 in. thick and 1 in. wide,
the length of the uprights being 3-1/2 in. and the crosspiece connecting
their lower ends a trifle longer than the width of the frame. These are
put together, as shown in Fig. 2, with small brackets at the corners. A
slot, 1/2 in. deep and 1/4 in. wide, is cut into the upper end of each
upright to receive the trunnions on the mirror frame. Nuts are turned
on the bolt ends tightly, to clamp the standard tops against the brass
strips on the mirror frame. The cross strip at the bottom is clamped to
the base by means of a bolt, 1-1/2 in. long. The hole for this bolt should
be exactly below the peephole in the mirror and run through one end of
the baseboard, which is 3/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 10 in. long.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

At the opposite end of the base, place a sighting rod, which is made as
follows: The rod is 1/2 in. in diameter and 8 in. long. The upper end is
fitted with a piece of thick, white cardboard, cut 1/4 in. in diameter
and having a projecting shank 1 in. long, as shown in Fig. 3. The rod is
placed in a 1/2-in. hole bored in the end of the baseboard, as shown in
Fig. 2. To keep the rod from slipping through the hole a setscrew is made
of a small bolt with the nut set in the edge of the baseboard, as shown
in Fig. 4.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

[Illustration: The Parts in Detail for Making the Tripods... (Fig. 5, Fig.
6)]

The tripod head is formed of a wood disk, 5 in. in diameter, with a hole
in the center, and three small blocks of wood, 1 in. square and 2 in.
long, nailed to the under side, as shown in Fig. 5. The tripod legs are
made of light strips of wood, 3/8 in. thick, 1 in. wide and 5 ft. long.
Two of these strips, nailed securely together to within 20 in. of the
top, constitute one leg. The upper unnailed ends are spread to slip over
the blocks on the tripod top. These ends are bored to loosely fit over
the headless nails driven part way into the block ends. One tripod leg is
shown in Fig. 6.

[Illustration: ...and the Shutter for Flashing the Light,... (Fig. 7, Fig.
8)]

The screen, or shutter, is mounted on a separate tripod and is shown in
Fig. 7. Cut out two slats, 3/8 in. thick, 2-1/2 in. wide and 6 in. long,
from hard wood, and taper both edges of these slats down to 3/16 in. Small
nails are driven into the ends of the slats and the heads are filed off
so that the projecting ends will form trunnions for the slats to turn
on. Make a frame of wood pieces, 3/4 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. wide, the
opening in the frame being 6 in. square. Before nailing the frame together
bore holes in the side uprights for the trunnions of the slats to turn
in. These holes are 1-3/4 in. apart. The frame is then nailed together
and also nailed to the tripod top. The shutter is operated with a key
very similar to a telegraph key. The construction of this key is shown in
Fig. 7. A part of a spool is fastened to a stick that is pivoted on the
opposite side of the frame. The key is connected to the slats in the frame
with a bar and rod, to which a coil spring is attached, as shown in Fig.
8. Figure 9 shows the positions of the tripods when the instrument is set
to flash the sunlight through the shutter. The regular telegraph code is
used in flashing the light.

[Illustration: ...and Diagram Showing the Location of the Tripods to
Direct the Light through the Shutter (Fig. 9)]

To set the instrument, first turn the cardboard disk down to uncover the
point of the sight rod, then sight through the hole in the mirror and
adjust the sight rod so that the tip end comes squarely in line with the
receiving station. When the instrument is properly sighted, the shutter
is set up directly in front of it and the cardboard disk is turned up
to cover the end of the sight rod. The mirror is then turned so that it
reflects a beam of light with a small shadow spot showing in the center
made by the peephole in the mirror, which is directed to fall on the
center of the cardboard sighting disk. It will be quite easy to direct
this shadow spot to the disk by holding a sheet of paper 6 or 8 in. in
front of the mirror and following the spot on the paper until it reaches
the disk. The flashes are made by manipulating the key operating the
shutter in the same manner as a telegraph key.



Twine Cutter for Use at a Wrapping Counter


[Illustration]

A cutter for use at the wrapping counter in a drug or confectionery store
may be easily made from a double-edged razor blade and a piece of thin
board--a piece of cigar box will do. Cut the wood in the shape shown, with
a protecting piece over the edge of the razor. Screws are turned through
the holes in the blade and into a support on the paper holder or any other
convenient place.--Contributed by T. F. Managhan, Philadelphia, Pa.



Frosting Brass


A very fine ornamental finish, resembling brushed work, may be applied
to brass articles by boiling them in a caustic-potash solution, then
rinsing in clear water, whereupon they are dipped into dilute nitric acid
until the oxide is removed, then rinsed quickly and dried in sawdust. The
surface should be lacquered while the metal is hot.



A Cupboard-Door Spice-Box Shelf


To keep the spice boxes in a handy place where they would be together
and not behind larger articles on the cupboard shelves, I made a special
spice-box shelf, as shown, to hang on the inside of the cupboard door.
The shelf swings out with the door as it opens, and is made of two
bracket ends to which a bottom board and front crosspiece is nailed. The
size of the shelf and its capacity are only limited by the space on the
door.--Contributed by Austin Miller, Santa Barbara, California.

[Illustration: The Shelf will Hold All the Spice Boxes and Keep Them Handy]



Starting a Siphon


[Illustration]

It is often necessary in a laboratory to siphon acids and poisonous
liquids. If a pump is used there is always danger of the liquid entering
the pump and damaging it, and, besides, a pump is not handy for this
purpose. To fill a siphon by suction from the mouth, great care must be
taken to keep from drawing the liquid into the mouth. One of the best ways
to fill a siphon is to procure a large dropper and having pressed all the
air out of the bulb insert the end in the siphon. Releasing the pressure
on the bulb will cause it to draw the liquid into the siphon.--Contributed
by Bedell M. Neubert, Newtown, Conn.



A Window-Seat Sewing Box


The combined window seat and sewing box shown was made by using a
shoe-packing box for the foundation. This was covered with matting and the
edges and corners finished with wood strips, 1/2 in. thick and stained a
dark red. Three trays were provided on the inside at the top part of the
box, each of the two upper ones occupying one-fourth of the box opening
and sliding on a pair of guides fastened to the sides of the box while the
lower tray is one-half the length of the box and slides on guides placed
far enough below the upper trays to allow it to pass beneath these. The
three trays were used for keeping sewing materials, such as buttons, hooks
and eyes, etc. When the trays are all moved to one end it gives access to
the lower part of the box where the work or mending is kept out of sight.

[Illustration: A Window-Seat Workbox for Sewing Materials, Made of an
Ordinary Shoe-Packing Box]

The inside of the cover is 1-1/2 in. deep and shelves are arranged for
thread and silk spools on either side, the center space being used for
the shears, thimbles and scissors. The little shelves are made of two
pieces each half as wide as the depth of the box cover. The first half of
the shelf is fastened in place, then a row of cotters attached with wood
screws whereupon the other half of the shelf is put in place. The edges
of the cover are rounded on the outside to make an attractive seat.

[Illustration: The Spindles for the Spools are Made of Cotters Fastened
with Screws in the Shelves]

While no dimensions are necessary, as the box can be of any size to suit
the maker it may be mentioned that the one shown is 28 in. long, 12 in
wide and 16 in. deep.--Contributed by R. B. Thomas, Lowell, Mass.



Cutting a Glass Bottle


[Illustration]

It is sometimes necessary to cut a heavy glass bottle or cylinder. Four
methods are in use. A carborundum disk having a thin edge, if kept wet
and rotated at a high speed, will cut heavy glass, but the cylinder must
be fed against the wheel very gently. A better way is to make a file
mark--clean, but not very deep--around the cylinder and heat it with a
long slender flame while slowly rotating the cylinder all the time. It
is very important that the gas flame should not spread over the surface
of the glass, for it is only the file mark that should be heated. A mere
glancing touch is sufficient. Usually the glass will crack off in a very
clean cut.

Sometimes a fine platinum wire is wound around in the file mark and heated
by an electric current. Less common is the trick of wrapping a strand of
yarn soaked in turpentine around the mark and burning it. The principle
is the same in each case. The unequal heating of the glass causes it to
break.--Contributed by Harry H. Holmes, Richmond, Ind.



To Clean Painted or Frescoed Walls


Use a paste made of vinegar and baking soda with a small amount of salt
added. The ingredients should be mixed in a large dish and applied to
the wall with a cloth. The grease and fly specks as well as the carbon
deposits from kitchen smoke are quickly removed. The mixture is harmless.
After the wall is thoroughly cleaned, it should be washed with warm water
and soap, then dried with a cloth. The mixture works equally well on
enameled baths and glass or white porcelain.



Securing Papers in a Mailing Tube


The illustrations show two methods of securing papers or photographs in a
mailing tube. In Fig. 1 the mailing tube A is shown in cross section and
the manner of running the string through the pasteboard walls illustrated.
The ends of the string are drawn up and tied over or under the label. If
the label is pasted over the string or string ends as they are tied, it
makes a sealed package which is rated as first-class matter.

[Illustration: The String in Either Case Prevents the Papers from Slipping
Out of the Mailing Tube (Fig. 1)]

The second way is to run the cords in a cross form through holes near the
ends, as in Fig. 2, then tie the knots as at BB. In each instance even
if the papers fit the tube loosely, they will be held securely and can be
easily extracted when the knots are untied.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]



Cooling Tube for a Laboratory Still


A simple and very effective device to replace the cumbersome cooling or
condensation coil of a still for the amateur's laboratory can be easily
made as follows:

Procure an ordinary straight glass tube of fairly large diameter and heat
it in the flame of an alcohol lamp with the use of a blowpipe or in a
Bunsen burner with a very reduced flame so that only a small spot of the
tube is brought to a red heat at one time Then, with a previously pointed
and charred stick of wood--a penholder for instance--produce a small
recess in the wall by pushing the charred end gently into the glowing
part of the tube. This procedure is repeated until the whole tube is thus
provided with small recesses. The indentations should be made in spiral
lines around the tube, thus increasing the surface that is in contact with
the cooling water. The operation of making the recesses is shown in Fig.
1. The walls of the recesses should have a regular and uniform slant.

[Illustration: Method of Indenting the Walls of the Glass Tube and Its
Application as a Still (Fig. 1)]

The tube thus produced can either be used as a rectifier (Fig. 2)
above a vessel, for fractional distillation because it will allow the
most volatile parts to pass out first, or as a condenser (Fig. 3), the
arrangement of which needs no explanation. The amateur will find it much
easier to make this tube than to coil a very long one.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]



A Comb Cleaner


[Illustration]

A good comb cleaner that does the work easily and quickly can be made
from a worn-out varnish brush. The brush selected should not be over
2 in. wide; it should be thoroughly cleaned with benzine and the bristles
cut to a bevel, as shown in the sketch. In use, brush across the comb
parallel with the teeth, and the dirt between them will be easily
removed.--Contributed by John V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind.



Scraping Off Surplus Water on a Grindstone


When using a grindstone, an ample flow of water is desirable in order
to insure good cutting, and the objectionable spattering may be overcome
by fastening a piece of leather to the grindstone frame so that its edge
will bear lightly upon the stone just below the point where the work is
held. This will scrape off all surplus water from the grinding surface
and prevent spattering.--Contributed by Thos. L. Parker, Wibaux, Mont.



A Paper Drinking Cup


The cup is readily made of a piece of paper 8 in. square. Lay the paper
on a flat surface, turn the point A over to meet the point B and crease on
the dotted line CD, Fig. 1, then turn the corner D up to meet the line BC,
Fig. 2, making sure that the new edge DE is parallel with the lower edge
and crease. Turn the corner C in the same manner, that is, fold it over
to the point E and crease. Fold the two corners at B outward and down,
and crease, and the cup is complete as shown in Fig. 3.--Contributed by
W. Douglas Matthews, Chappaqua, New York.

[Illustration: Several Cups can be Nested Together and Carried in the
Pocket or Hand Bag (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]



Homemade Brush for Cleaning Upholstered Furniture


A durable brush for cleaning upholstered furniture can be made in the
following manner: Procure a piece of haircloth, which is made of horsehair
woof and linen warp. Strips of haircloth, cut lengthwise and 1-3/4 in.
wide, are laid out smooth on a table and a strip of wrapping paper,
1/2 in. wide, is firmly glued to one edge. When this has dried, take out
the warp that is not covered by the paper. Brush the fringe of horsehair
until it is straight and even, and before commencing to wind, measure
6 in. from one end and glue this portion to the side of a strip of soft
wood, 6 in. long, 5/8 in. wide and 1/16 in. thick. When dry, wind the
glued length of haircloth and paper around the wood strip, applying glue
to each separate turn of winding. The turns should be kept flush on the
side that has been glued and the fringed part brushed and straight.

[Illustration: Brush Made of Strip of Upholsterers' Haircloth with the
Warp Removed and Fastened to a Handle]

The part to be glued to the handle must be perfectly even in its windings
and held firmly in place while the glue is hardening. The winding should
be continued until the brush is 1-1/2 in. thick.

The handle is made of a piece of wood, 14 in. long, 1-3/4 in. wide and
1/2 in. thick. Wood that takes a cherry or mahogany stain is preferable.
Shape it about as shown in the sketch and round off the edges. The
part to which the brush is to be attached must be given a light coat of
glue. When that has dried, glue the back of the brush to it, and after
the glue has hardened, glue a piece of gimp around the brush part, then
drive upholsterers' tacks into the gimp and wood, 3/4 in. apart. Stain
and varnish the handle. The back of the handle can be used as a beater,
and the brush for removing the dust.--Contributed by Gertrude M. Bender,
Utica, N. Y.



Removing Calcium Deposits on Glass


A good way to clean glass vessels in which hard water is boiled is to use
the following mixture to remove not only the calcium deposits, but also
rust or sulphur stains that may be present. The solution is a mixture of
ammonia water and a few ounces of salt. This should be placed in the glass
vessel and boiled until the deposits disappear. The ammonia water may be
made of any strength by diluting if necessary.



A Cold-Chisel Guide


When making long cuts with a cold chisel, it is almost impossible to guide
the chisel edge along a line made with a scriber or pencil and have a
straight cut. I find that it is much easier to use a guide, as shown in
the sketch. The guide is made of a piece of wood, about 1 ft. long and
1-1/2 in. wide. A slot is cut in the center, wide enough to receive the
chisel edge snugly, and about 9 in. long. The guide is clamped to the
work, and the cold chisel slipped along in the slot as it is successively
hit with a hammer.--Contributed by G. H. Holter, Jasper, Minn.

[Illustration: The Guide Makes It Easy to Follow along a Straight Line
When Cutting with a Cold Chisel]



Care of Paintbrushes


[Illustration]

When laying aside paintbrushes, the usual custom is to place them in
water and then forget all about them until needed again, with the result
that the water usually is found more or less evaporated and the brushes
hardened. If a quantity of oil, A, is poured on the water B, it will
prevent this evaporation and keep the brushes in good shape.



Filter in a Pump Spout


[Illustration]

The sketch shows how to place an ordinary sponge in a pump spout, to
filter out sand and dirt particles that may come up with the water as
it is pumped. A wire is fastened in the sponge so that it can be easily
taken out for washing. When washing the sponge give the pump handle a few
strokes so that the dirt collected in the spout will be washed out. Do not
press the sponge too tightly into the spout, as this will stop the flow
of water.--Contributed by Chas. Homewood, Waterloo, Iowa.



Brown Stain for Wood


Bichromate of potassium gives a lustrous, rich, light to dark brown stain
on woods. The crystals are first dissolved into a saturated solution,
which is then diluted with water. The stained surface needs no rubbing,
as the stain leaves the wood perfectly clear for any desired finish. The
satinlike appearance of wood treated by this stain cannot be produced with
any of the pigment stains.--Contributed by August Meyer.



An Egg Boiler


In boiling eggs the usual method of dropping the eggs from a spoon into
the boiling water often results in a burn, as well as in cracking of the
eggs by the fall. In removing the eggs from the hot water and taking one
out at a time, no two will be cooked alike. To overcome these difficulties
I constructed an egg boiler as illustrated.

[Illustration: The Eggs are Prevented from Becoming Cracked and All are
Easily Handled in One Operation]

A pan was procured--tin or aluminum as desired--about 1 in. deep and
5-1/2 in. in diameter, and holes were drilled in the bottom having
dimensions as shown. A handle was attached to the center with washers and
nuts. The small ends of the eggs are set in the 1-3/8-in. holes and the
whole pan set in a vessel of boiling water. When the boiling is completed,
the entire lot of eggs are removed at the same time. As the device with
its load of cooked eggs is quite pleasing in appearance, it may be set on
a plate and the eggs served from it on the table.--Contributed by W. E.
Crane, Cleveland, O.



Removing Black Deposit an Bathtubs


A good way to remove the black deposit left on bathtubs by the water is
to use a strong solution of sulphuric acid. The acid should be poured
on the discolored enameled surface and washed around with a cloth. The
acid should not touch the hands so it is best to use a stick to move the
cloth. Neither should it be allowed to touch the metal parts, but if this
happens, no harm will result if it is quickly rubbed off with a cloth and
water then applied.

In using this acid never pour water into the acid, but always pour the
acid into the water.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



A Stocking-Stretcher Form


A simple as well as inexpensive device for preventing the shrinking of
stockings, more particularly those of children, after they have been
washed, thus saving great wear and tear on the fabrics and increasing
their length of life, is shown in the illustration. The stretcher can
be made by anyone, a knowledge of woodcraft or art being unnecessary. If
used, the device will prove to effect quite a saving in money, labor and
worry in the course of a year.

[Illustration: The Spring of the Two Parts Tends to Hold the Yarn and Keep
It from Shrinking]

Place a new and unused stocking, that properly fits the foot, flat on
a heavy piece of cardboard or a wood board, if desired, and mark an
outline of the stocking on the board with a pencil. Cut out the design
with a penknife or heavy pair of scissors and smooth the edges. A design
having the same shape and size as the stocking results. Duplicate boards
can be easily made. Place a spool, such as used to hold the finest silk
thread, near the upper end of the first form and on top of this place
the second. Then drive a nail through the boards and spool and clinch
it, or better still, use a small bolt. When the stockings are washed and
the dampness wrung out as well as possible, stretch them over the boards
and hang them up to dry. They will retain their shape and are easily
ironed.--Contributed by Wm. P. Kennedy, Washington, D. C.



Stick Holder for a Chopping Block


Having a lot of branch wood, from 1/2 in. to 1 in. in diameter, to saw,
and not wishing to bother with a sawbuck, I rigged up a chopping block,
as shown in the sketch, by fastening a piece of board to one side of
the block with small lag screws. The piece to be sawed was laid across
the block in the notch. If the piece is held down on the block with one
foot, the wood is very easily sawn.--Contributed by Wilfred B. Sylvester,
Reading, Mass.

[Illustration: The Notched Board Fastened to the Chopping Block Turns It
into a Sawbuck]



Cleaning Gold and Platinum


A good way to clean gold or platinum jewelry is to first brush with
soapsuds, then dust magnesia powder over the article and allow it to dry.
A few rubs with a cloth makes the article shine with great luster. As
magnesia powder is highly inflammable, it must be kept away from fire.



A Twine Spool


The pieces of twine used in tying parcels delivered to a residence are
either thrown away or tied together and wound into a ball for future use.
The method I use for keeping the pieces of twine is to wind them over a
discarded photographic-film spool. The spool was slipped on a finishing
nail driven into the wall. The crank for turning the spool was made of a
piece of wire, bent as shown and slipped into the slot end of the spool.
One end of the first piece of string was tied to the core and then wound
around it, the next piece tied to the first and wound up, and so on, as
the strings were taken from the packages from time to time. When a string
is needed for any purpose I always know where to find it, and it is easier
to take it from the spool than from a ball.--Contributed by W. Resseguie,
Susquehanna, Pa.

[Illustration: The Film Spool as It is Attached to a Wall, and the Crank
for Turning It]



Reinforcing Chair Bottoms


Embossed-leather-board chair bottoms can be made as serviceable as leather
in the following manner: Turn the chair upside down and fill the hollow
beneath the seat with excelsior, soft rags or fine shavings, then nail a
1/4-in. wood bottom over the filling with brads. Make the wood bottom 1/2
or 3/4 in. larger than the opening. It will thus not be seen, and the seat
will last as long as the chair.--Contributed by J. H. Sanford, Pasadena,
California.



A Novelty Chain


An inexpensive chain for hanging painted glass panels, transparencies or
photographs can be made by joining paper clips together to form the links.
A box of 100 clips will make a chain about 10 ft. long. Such a chain can
be made in a few minutes and a length of 10 ft. will hold about 4 lb.

[Illustration: The Paper-Clip Links may be Joined to Make a Chain of Any
Desired Length]

If the chain is to be used for holding photographs, each inner loop end
is bent out slightly.



Closet Holders for Linen


A combination drawer and shelf for a linen closet is much better than a
shelf or a drawer. It is constructed in the manner of a drawer with sides
and a back, the front being open and the ends of the sides cut rounding.
A clip is attached to the under side of the bottom, near the front edge,
to provide a means for pulling out the holder.

[Illustration: The Holder can be Pulled Out Like a Drawer and is as
Accessible as a Shelf]

Sheets, towels, table cloths, napkins, etc., can be neatly piled on
the holder and can be seen without digging down to the bottom. It has
the advantage over the shelf that it can be pulled out without anything
falling off, and the linen on the back part can be easily reached as well
as that in front. The closet may contain as many holders as is necessary
and should be provided with a door for keeping out dust.--Contributed by
H. A. Sullwold, St. Paul, Minn.



Preserving Dry Batteries


The life of dry batteries, which are to be used in wet or damp places,
may be considerably lengthened by being treated in the following manner:

The batteries are placed in glass jars a little wider and higher than
themselves. A layer of dry sawdust is placed in the bottom, for the
battery to rest on, and the sides are packed with sawdust to within
1/2 in. of the top. Waterproof wires are connected to the binding posts
and melted paraffin poured over the battery to the top of the jar.
The carbon and zinc terminals should be marked to avoid trouble when
connecting several cells together. Batteries treated in this manner are
waterproof and can be submerged in water if necessary.--Contributed by
Olaf Tronnes, Evanston, Ill.



A Cleaner for Brass


In some recent laboratory experiments the following solution was found
to cleanse brass very quickly without harm to the hands or the metal. An
ounce of alum was put into a pint of boiling water and the solution rubbed
on the brass with a cloth. Stains as well as tarnish were quickly removed.
The solution is inexpensive and easily prepared.--Contributed by Loren
Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



Homemade Graduate


[Illustration]

If a certain quantity of liquid is to be frequently measured out, it is
best to have a graduate marked for this amount without any other markings
upon it. To make a graduate for this purpose, procure a pickle or olive
bottle of the type shown in the drawing and file a vertical line, A, on
each side. These lines should be at least 1/8 in. wide. Place the bottle
on a level surface and pour in the amount desired to be measured. Mark on
each vertical line with a lead pencil and connect this mark or marks with
lines, filed as shown at BB.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown,
Pa.



Mending a Break in Felt


A good way to mend partially broken felt or a felt hat is to hold a
lighted match under the break and smooth out the crevice with the hand.
The shellac in the felt is melted by the heat and runs together, mending
the felt in such a way that the break is hardly noticeable. This method
may also be used to mend felt articles in the laboratory.



Imitating Ebony on Oak


The wood is immersed for 48 hours in a warm solution of alum and sprinkled
several times with the following mixture: One part of logwood of the best
quality is boiled with 10 parts of water, then it is filtered through
linen and the liquid evaporated at a low temperature until its volume is
reduced by one-half. To every quart of this bath are added 10 to 15 drops
of a saturate of soluble indigo entirely neutral in reaction.

Smaller pieces may be steeped for a time in this solution, then the wood
is rubbed with a saturated and filtered solution of verdigris in warm,
concentrated acetic acid, and this operation continued until a black color
of the desired intensity is obtained. The oak wood dyed in this manner is
very similar to real ebony.



Tongue Holder for a Boy's Wagon


To prevent any mishap when coasting in a boy's play wagon fasten the
tongue with a coil spring so that it will be kept in a vertical position.
The tongue is always out of the way when it is not used for drawing the
wagon. The spring is only strong enough to hold the tongue, so that when
this is used for pulling there is little or no tendency of the spring
to draw the tongue upward. The coil spring is fastened with one screweye
in the tongue and one in the front axle.--Contributed by Wm. F. Benson,
Brockton, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Holder for the Wagon Tongue to Keep It in a Vertical
Position When Not in Use]



Gluing Small Mitered Frames


The mechanic who attempts to fasten a mitered frame in the home workshop
usually comes to grief. This is due to lack of proper facilities for
holding the frame straight and out of wind, and for clamping or drawing
the miter joint together after the glue has been applied. The little
device shown in the sketch, if properly made and used, does away with the
usual difficulties and annoyances. It consists of a triangular block of
wood with raised strips on the two edges that make the right angle, and
the clamping piece with the wood screw through the center on the long
side. The raised strips are made somewhat thinner than the frame to be
fastened, as the clamping piece should bear on the frame and not on the
strips; the function of the strips being to hold the frame square. The
triangular block should be large enough to take the corner of the frame
and leave room enough for the wood screw that holds it in place on the
block. Four of these blocks will be necessary and they should be used in
conjunction with pinch dogs. These dogs come in different sizes and may
be purchased at supply stores or made as shown. The outside of the legs
should be straight and parallel and the inside tapered so as to draw the
joint together.

[Illustration: Clamp for Holding the Corner of a Frame While Gluing and
Fastening the Mitered Joint]

When a joint is ready to be glued, a piece of paper is placed on the block
under the joint to keep it from sticking. Apply the glue and push the two
sides into the corner formed by the raised strips, the dog is then driven
in lightly and the clamping piece screwed down tightly, and if the miter
has been properly cut, a nice close-jointed and square corner will be the
result.--Contributed by J. Shelly, Brooklyn, New York.



Handle Attachment for a Sickle


For cutting around flower beds or bushes and in close places I find that
an extension handle for a sickle is quite an assistance. The auxiliary
handle is bound to the sickle handle with wire at the ends and is further
fastened with a screw in the center. The arrows show the directions in
which the hands should be moved in working the sickle.--Contributed by A.
S. Thomas, Gordon, Can.

[Illustration: The Extension Handle Makes It Much Easier to Control the
Sickle in Cutting around Obstacles]



A Clothesline for Small Goods


Handkerchiefs and small pieces included in the week's laundry are usually
quite troublesome to hang with the larger pieces, and for this reason
I constructed a special line for the small goods. A line was cut to fit
between two porch posts and a hook made of galvanized wire tied to each
end, staples being driven into the posts to receive them. Three or four
wire grips were formed and attached to the line. It was only necessary
to draw the corner of a handkerchief into the grip as it was wrung out,
placing several in each grip. The line with its load was then carried out
and attached between the porch posts. This made it unnecessary to look
through the clothes for the small articles. It also prevented chilling
the fingers and no pins were needed.--Contributed by R. D. Livingston,
Hopkinton, Iowa.

[Illustration: Line and Holders are Always Together and can be Washed as
the Clothes]



Automatically Controlled Ice-Box Lights


Often the ice box is placed in a dark closet or some out-of-the-way
place, and it is almost impossible to locate articles already in the box
or put others away without considerable inconvenience on account of the
lack of proper light. This difficulty can be easily overcome by mounting
a small electric lamp in each of the different compartments of the box,
which will be automatically lighted when the lid of the box is raised or
the door opened. The circuit through the lamp is controlled by a special
switch mounted in such a way that its contacts are open when the doors
and lid of the box are closed. A diagram of the circuit is given in
Fig. 1, which shows three lamps, each controlled by a separate switch,
connected in parallel to a battery of several dry cells. The lamps should
be of low voltage and need not be very high in candlepower. The number of
cells needed in the battery will depend upon the voltage of the lamps.
The voltage of the battery and the rated voltage of the lamps should be
approximately the same.

[Illustration: The Lamps will be Automatically Lighted When the Door of
the Ice Box is Opened (Fig. 1)]

A special switch that will serve the above purpose is shown in Fig. 2.
It consists of two pieces of spring brass, A and B, about 3/8 in. wide,
bent into the forms shown. These pieces are mounted in a recess cut in
the jamb of the door or lid in such a way that the free end of the piece
A is held away from the piece B when the door or lid is closed. When the
lid of the box or the door is open the two springs come in contact and
the lamp lights; upon closing the lid or door the contact is broken and
the lamp goes out.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

A good quality of rubber-insulated copper wire should be used in making
the connections, and all parts should be as well protected from moisture
and the possibilities of mechanical abuse as possible. It would be best
to tape the lamps in the sockets with a piece of friction tape so as to
prevent moisture getting into the socket and, perhaps, shortening the
lamp. A short piece of brass tubing can be mounted around the lamp to
protect it mechanically. Be sure to place the batteries where they will
be kept dry.



A Bottle-Cap Lifter


[Illustration]

To remove the crimped bottle cover so extensively used requires a special
lifter, the corkscrew being of little use for this purpose. When a
cap-cover remover is not at hand, prepare a pocketknife in the manner
shown, and it makes an excellent substitute. It only requires a small
notch filed in the heel of the blade, which does not interfere with the
ordinary use of the knife in the least.--Contributed by John V. Loeffler,
Evansville, Indiana.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Ants may be effectively destroyed by placing a coop
    with a chicken in it over the hill.



A Mechanical Bicycle Horn


The body of the horn A is made of metal, about 3 in. in diameter, with a
screw cover. The shaft B, to which is attached a driving pulley, C, and a
ratchet wheel, D, is fitted in holes drilled through the diameter of the
body. The diaphragm E is clamped, between the edge of the body and the
cover, on a seat made of rubber rings, F, and carries a contact device,
G, that is riveted to its center. The diaphragm should be set so that the
contact will touch the ends of the ratchets.

[Illustration: The Horn is Sounded by Making Connections with the Moving
Surface of the Tire]

A metal cone is fastened in an opening cut in the center of the cover,
over the diaphragm. The back of the body is fitted with a bracket for
attaching it to the front fork on a bicycle. The lever H carries an idler
pulley which is forced against the bicycle tire and the pulley C by means
of a cord, J.

Adjusting the diaphragm contact on the ratchet wheel will change the tone
of the horn.--Contributed by P. Mertz, Jamaica, L. I.



Retarder for Plaster of Paris


When it is desired to lengthen the time of setting after preparing plaster
of Paris, dissolve 1 oz. of citric acid in water used for mixing 100 lb.
of plaster, and it will retard the setting for about three hours.



An Inkwell Stopper


[Illustration]

A good way to keep an inkwell of the type shown in the sketch clean
is to place a marble over the opening. The marble keeps out flies and
dust, is easily rolled aside and is no obstacle to the pen entering the
well.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.



A Grass Rake


This adaptation of an ordinary iron rake for use on a lawn was the outcome
of not having a lawn rake at hand. Two spools, each 1-1/2 in. in diameter,
were procured and one forced on each end tooth of the rake. The spools
were forced on the teeth just far enough to allow the rake to slide on the
ground and prevent the other teeth from digging out the grass. The end of
the spools may be rounded and smoothed so that they will slide easily on
the ground.--Contributed by H. E. Gray, Montclair, N. J.

[Illustration: The Spools Prevent the Teeth from Injuring the Grass Roots
as the Rake Passes over the Ground]



A Staple Puller


[Illustration]

A very simple way to pull a staple is to use the claws of an ordinary
carpenter's hammer and a nail, as shown in the sketch. The staple can be
removed quickly without being bent, and no damage to the material into
which it was driven will result.



To Remove Acid Stains from Cloth


Apply pearlash directly to the stain, allowing it to set a minute or two,
then boil the article in soap water for several minutes. The method is
harmless and inexpensive, and can be used by anyone.



Repairing Rocker on a Chair


[Illustration]

The tenons on the posts of a rocking chair being broken off so close
to the rocker that it was impossible to make the ordinary repairs, four
window-shade-roller brackets were used in the following manner: The metal
was straightened so that it would lie flat and two brackets were used on
the end of each post. This made a neat and strong repair.--Contributed by
Chas. Schmidt, Baltimore, Md.



Electric-Lamp Reflector for a Target


[Illustration]

An ordinary 1-lb. coffee can may be quickly fashioned into a most
effective reflector for an electric bulb. The light is projected upon the
target while the marksman's eyes are shielded. Of course, this device can
be used for other purposes.

The can is shaped into a reflector by cutting it open along one side
with a pair of snips, then following the circumference of the bottom
halfway around on each side. Bend the flaps outward as far as desired
and cut a hole in the bottom just large enough to insert the bulb, as
shown.--Contributed by Burke Jenkins, Port Washington, L. I.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Linoleum may be renewed by applying floor wax in
    liquid form.



Making Small Taps

The owner of a private workshop has need for taps and occasionally wishes
to make them, not because they are cheaper, but for the sake of experience
or to get some special thread. In cutting the flutes, whether it be by
hand or in a shaper, it is a good plan to give the flutes an angle, that
is, to cut them, not parallel with the axis of the tap, but at an angle of
5 to 15 deg. with the center line. This makes the tap cut easier, giving
it a wedge action instead of just simply pushing the metal off. The same
method applies to counterbores and countersinks, which, when so made, take
less power to drive.



Sink a Substitute for a Dishpan


[Illustration]

On special occasions when company is entertained or in large families,
it is almost impossible to wash all the dishes in an ordinary dishpan; in
fact, the large platters will not go in at all, so I devised the following
method as a substitute for a larger pan. A tin disk was cut from the top
of a tomato can with a can opener so as to be as round as possible, then
a piece of cheesecloth was folded into an even square, the disk placed
in the center and all four corners of the cloth drawn over to the center
of the disk. A nail was driven through the center of the disk, to make
a hole, through which a string was drawn with the nail and tied to it to
form a loop on the head. This is used to stop the sink drain.

When this is put over the drain outlet the sink may be used as a dishpan.
The same result could be obtained a little better with a piece of an old
rubber boot or rubber coat, but usually this material is not at hand, and
the cheesecloth will do almost as well.--Contributed by Hannah Jennings,
Chicago.



How to Make Small Coil Springs


Procure a nut, having a small thread that will admit the size of the wire
to be used in making the spring. Cut a small notch to the depth of the
thread where the thread starts, and procure a smooth rod that will pass
snugly through the threads of the nut. Shape one end of the rod to fit a
carpenter's brace, if there is no drill chuck at hand, and drill a hole
in the other end to admit one end of the spring wire.

[Illustration: The Threads in the Nut Will Guide as Well as Coil the
Spring Evenly]

Bend the wire at right angles and insert the end in the hole. Place the
end of the rod in the nut, which should be gripped in a vise, and turn
the rod, at the same time seeing that the wire is guided into the notch
cut at the start of the thread. The wire will follow the thread of the
nut and make a perfect spring of an even opening throughout its length.
Closed or open coils can be made by using a nut having the proper number
of threads.--Contributed by A. Spencer, Kinston, N. C.



A Pruning-Saw Guard


The double-edged pruning saw with coarse teeth on one side and fine on the
other would be far more widely used, if it were not for the fact that the
unused edge so often injures the bark of the trunk when the saw is being
used. A very satisfactory guard may be quickly made of a brass curtain
rod by prying it apart slightly at the seam and cutting a suitable length
to fit over the edge, as shown in the sketch. This will cling to the saw
blade by its own tension.--Contributed by James H. Brundage, Katonah, N.
Y.

[Illustration: The Teeth on the Unused Edge are Covered with a Piece of
Brass Curtain Rod]

[Illustration]



Home-Made Motion-Picture Camera and Projector By Charles Frank In Three
Parts--Part I


[Illustration: (Fig. 1)]

Motion pictures are made and reproduced by means of a camera and
projector, each having a similar mechanism that would seem entirely
too complicated for the average person to construct at home, yet a
correspondent of the Nickelodeon has devised a simple rotary cylinder
shutter that can be substituted for the complicated parts. While this
simple cylinder shutter is not claimed to be infringing on existing
patents, yet, as it has no commercial value, there would be no objection
on this score. The instruments described are nothing more than toys,
and if the amateur photographer can secure a few dozen feet of animated
photographs about the home that are dear to his heart, and reproduce them
on a screen, it will have served its purpose. The camera and projector
described uses standard film, 1-3/8 in. wide, with perforations every
3/16 in.


The Camera


The ordinary hand camera for making still pictures consists of a
light-tight box with a lens at one end and a sensitized plate or film at
the other. The motion-picture camera (Fig. 1) is nothing more than a hand
camera with a mechanical device for stepping a long roll of film through
a space in the focal plane of the lens at a speed of about 16 pictures a
second, and stopping the film long enough to make the requisite exposure
on each division. The first thing to consider is the lens. A lens having
ordinary speed for a hand camera, and one with about 3 in. focal length
will give satisfactory results. If one does not care to purchase a lens,
a small 1-1/2 in. or 2 in. reading glass can be used, if it is stopped
down, or a lens may be taken from a hand camera. The width of the camera
from front to back (W, Fig. 2) must be determined by the focal length of
the lens. The dimensions given in the drawing are only approximate, and
they can be changed if the camera is to be used in making an extra long
film negative.

The roll of unexposed film (A, Fig. 2) is placed on a small shaft between
U-shaped bearings, made of sheet metal and screwed to the top board of
the camera. The lens B is set in the front board at a point 4 in. below
the top. If a large roll of film is to be used, this distance must be
greater to allow room for the film roll in the top of the camera. The
cylinder C, which acts as a shutter and intermittent movement, revolves
directly behind and in the path of the light passing through the lens.
Partitions, DD, are set in grooves cut in the boards, forming the sides of
the camera. These partitions are to keep the light, which may be diffused
from the lens, from striking the film at either side of the shutter, and
at the same time acting as guides for the film at the rear end of the
camera. Their edges at the back are covered with black velvet. The back
of the box is a hinged door, rabbeted on all edges, and opening at the
side to allow the insertion and removal of the film, and also acting as
a guide for the film when closed. A strip of black velvet, E, a little
wider than the film, is pasted to the inside surface of the door, so that
it bears lightly against the back edges of the partitions DD. The film
passes between the edges of the partitions and the velvet on the door
with some friction, which keeps it from moving except when pulled through
with the roller shutter. A wire-staple guide, F, is fastened in the lower
partition, through which the end of the film is passed before closing the
door. The film as it is run through drops in folds in the bottom of the
box.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Details of Camera]

The rotary cylinder shutter is the heart of the machine and should be
made well and strictly according to the dimensions. The detail of this
part is shown in Fig. 3. A rectangular opening is mortised through one
of its diameters to admit light on the film when in certain positions.
The cylinder is of wood with a 1/4 in. steel rod inserted in the center
of each end for axles. A small grooved pulley (G, Fig. 2), about 1 in.
in diameter, is fastened to the outer end of one of these rods. The
cylinder is revolved by a round belt from a drive wheel, H, 3 or 3-1/2 in.
in diameter and turned by the aid of a crankpin. Owing to the backward
rotation of the cylinder, the belt must be crossed between the drive
wheel H, and the pulley G. The projections or sprockets, Fig. 3, must be
accurately set at a distance of 3/8 in. from the 90 deg. point, using the
center of the mortised hole as a base. These projections can be pins or
small staples, but they must not be over 1/16 in. in size. The base of the
sprockets must fit the hole in the film snugly, but the points should be
slightly rounding, so that they will easily enter the perforations. When
the upper sprocket, which is approaching the film, engages a perforation,
just below the upper partition, it will carry the film downward until
the sprocket disengages from the perforation at the lower partition. The
distance of travel must be exactly 3/4 in., as that is the height of each
picture. The cylinder requires some adjustment to meet this condition;
therefore the axles are made to revolve in holes bored in two strips of
wood, JJ, which can be moved forward or backward to obtain the proper
distance from the film. To allow for this movement, the axles pass through
slots cut in the sides of the camera box instead of round holes. The
strips JJ are fastened temporarily and when the correct position for the
cylinder is found, they are permanently fastened to the box. Grooves, K,
are cut through the black velvet and into the back of the door to allow
a space for the sprockets to pass through freely. The inside of the box
should be painted a dead black, and black paper pasted on all corners
and joints. Black velvet is pasted in the rabbet of the door to insure a
light-tight joint when the door is closed. The cylinder shutter is also
painted a dead black inside and out.

[Illustration: Fig. 3--Details of Shutter]

The cylinder in revolving exposes the film immediately behind it through
the mortised hole. The sprockets or cylinder does not touch the film while
the exposure is being made, but as the hole turns toward a perpendicular
position, the sprockets catch the perforations of the film and it moves
down 3/4 in. Just as soon as the sprockets disengage the film, the shutter
exposes the next section of film, and so on as rapidly as the cylinder
is turned, but the average should be about 16 pictures per second. A
view finder must be supplied so the field covered by the lens can be
determined. Such a finder is made of two pieces of metal, L and M, bent
L-shaped and fastened to the top of the camera box. One of the pieces (L)
has a rectangular opening 1 in. wide and 3/4 in. high, and the other (M)
is drilled with a 1/8 in. drill, the distance between the two pieces being
the focal length of the lens. One eye applied to the 1/8 in. hole in the
piece M will see through the rectangular hole in the piece L about the
same field as covered by the lens. The pieces should be accurately placed
and fastened on the box when the camera is set, so that the lens will
throw the same portion of the picture on the space where the film passes
as will be seen through the finder.



A Swimming Raft


Swimming is learned only by experience and to get this experience one
must not be afraid to trust himself in the water. This is sometimes
accomplished by the use of a swimming raft or water wings. As the water
wings need to be inflated frequently, I made a swimming raft instead, in
the following manner: Two logs, about 6 or 7 ft. long and about 8 in.
in diameter, were fastened together with large nails, as shown in the
illustration, and a piece of burlap or other strong material was nailed
across the center with slack enough for it to be partially submerged.

[Illustration: Plan of Raft]

The middle of the band, its depth, etc., can be adjusted to suit the user.
Be sure to remove all the roughness of the logs and boards with a rasp
and sandpaper.--Contributed by W. P. Johnston, Sumner, Ill.



Removing Finger Marks on Books


Dampen a piece of wash leather and use it to rub pumice on the spot to
be cleaned. Brush off the pumice and rub again with a piece of dry wash
leather.



Tightening a Tennis Net


Anyone who has ever played tennis will readily see the advantage of the
net-tightening device shown, in preference to the old method of pulling
the net tight by hand. All that is necessary to make the device is 1 ft.
of ordinary gas or water pipe, 8 or 10 in. of 1/2-in. iron bar, and two
twenty-penny nails. The posts generally used are 6 by 6 in. About 4 in.
from the top of the post bore a 1-in. hole, parallel with the direction
the rope is to run. On the inside surface of the post bore four 1/4-in.
holes.

[Illustration: Tightener on Post]

Drill a 1/2-in. hole 1 in. from one end of the pipe, and a 1/4-in. hole
1 in. from the other end. Put the iron bar in the 1/2-in. hole, tie the
rope around the pipe and bar at A and wind. With the leverage of the iron
bar one can readily pull the net to any desired tightness. After the net
is drawn in position, put one of the nails through the 1/4-in. hole in the
pipe and the other in one of the 1/4-in. holes in the post.--Contributed
by Wm. S. Looper, Gainesville, Ga.



Holding Fishing-Rod Joints Together


The addition of two or three screweyes properly placed in a jointed
fishing rod of the ordinary type will prove decidedly worth while, as the
joints will often pull out easily when they should not and stick tightly
when they should pull apart.

Assemble the rod and bore small holes through the brass sockets into the
joints as shown in Fig. 1 and place some screweyes into the holes. Mark
the joints so that the holes in the joints and holes in the brass sockets
will always be in the same position.

[Illustration: Screweye in Joint (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

The screweyes prevent the joints from pulling out when an effort is made
to free the line from some object in which it has become entangled. They
also act as guides for the line. Should the joints fit too tightly, scrape
the ends until they slip easily into the sockets, as the screweyes will
hold them properly, even if they fit a little loose after the scraping.



Roller Skate on a Bicycle Wheel


[Illustration]

When the front tire on a bicycle will not hold and needs to be taken
to a repair shop, strap or tie a roller skate to the rim of the wheel,
as shown, and no trouble will be experienced in wheeling or riding the
bicycle to the shop.--Contributed by K. Chase Winslow, Elizabeth, N. J.



Rope Oarlocks


Having considerable trouble because of breaking of oarlocks, I devised
a successful way by which the difficulty was overcome. The device is
extremely simple and is nothing more than a piece of rope fastened to the
gunwale as shown in the sketch.--Contributed by Arthur L. Chetlain, Rogers
Park, Illinois.

[Illustration: Piece of Rope in Place]



Home-Made Motion-Picture Camera and Projector In Three Parts--Part II


Developing


After having exposed the film in the camera, the next steps are to develop
and make a positive film from the negative. The developing and exposing
of the film for the positive are the same as in ordinary photography
for making negatives and lantern slides, the only difference being in
the apparatus for handling the long films. One of the simplest ways of
developing a long film is to use a large tray in connection with a cross
arm having upright pins around which the film is wrapped in a continuous
spiral. A film 100 ft. long would require a tray 18 by 22 in., with pins
set in the cross arm about 3/8 in. apart. This method of developing is
shown in Fig. 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 4--Cross Arms with Pins]

A long film can be developed in a small tray by using two flanged wheels
or spools mounted on a frame (Fig. 5) that holds them directly above the
liquid in the tray. The spools have a wood core or center with metal sides
of sufficient diameter to take in the length of film to be developed.
One end of the undeveloped film is attached to one spool and then wound
upon it, then the other end is passed through the guides, gelatine side
down, and fastened to the other spool. The film is first run slowly
through a water bath until it is thoroughly saturated, then it is passed
through the developing solution again and again until the proper density
is secured. The trays can be easily removed and others substituted for
fixing, washing, hardening and soaking, the film being passed through each
solution in the same manner. Before developing either negative or positive
film, small test strips should be run through the solution so that the
proper timing and treating of the full-length strip will correspond to
the test strip.

[Illustration: Fig. 5--Developing Long Films]

A reel should be prepared for drying the film. This can be made of small
slats placed around two disks to form a drum (Fig. 6) about 1-1/2 ft. in
diameter and 2-1/2 ft. long. After the film has been passed through the
various solutions and is ready for drying, it is wound spirally around on
the slats with the gelatine side out, and the whole hung up to dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 6--Drying Reel]


Printing


The printing to make the transparency is accomplished by a very simple
arrangement. The negative and positive films must be drawn through a
space admitting light while their gelatine surfaces are in close contact.
A box may be constructed in several ways, but the one shown in Fig. 7
illustrates the necessary parts and their relative positions.

[Illustration: Fig. 7--Printing Machine]

The sprocket A is placed directly back of the opening B which may be
regulated to admit the proper light. The sprocket can be purchased from
a moving-picture stock house cheaply, but if the builder so desires,
one can be made from wood turned up about 1 in. in diameter, or so that
the circumference will receive sprockets at points 3/16 in. apart. The
sprockets are made of metal pins driven into the wood. Two rows of them
are placed around the wood cylinder about 1-1/8 in. apart.

The cylinder is provided with a small metal shaft at each end which turns
in round holes or bearings in the sides of the box. One of the shafts
should project through the side of the box and have a grooved wheel, C,
attached. The sprocket cylinder is driven by a smaller grooved wheel or
pulley, D, to which a crank is attached for turning. The relative sizes of
these wheels are determined by the speed of the exposure and the kind of
light used. A 3-in. or 4-in. wheel on the cylinder sprocket shaft, driven
by a pulley about 1 in. in diameter, will be suitable under ordinary
circumstances. The opening B may be adjusted by two metal slides which fit
tightly in metal grooves fastened to the wood front. The metal grooves
and slides can be made of tin and painted a dead black. The films after
passing over the sprocket, fall into the bottom of the box, or, if very
long films are to be made, the instrument can be used in the dark room
and the light admitted only to the opening B, then the ends can be dropped
into a basket or other receptacle at the bottom and the unprinted portions
carried on reels above the box.

The speed of the exposure and the width of the opening B can be determined
by making test strips. This can be done by setting the opening B to a
certain width and turning the crank for 10 or 15 seconds and counting the
number of revolutions. The proper exposure can be easily attained by this
method.



An Emergency Clamp


[Illustration]

While making an extra large guitar I did not have clamps large enough to
hold the top and bottom onto the sides while gluing, so I fastened three
pieces of wood together, each piece being about 1 by 2 in., as shown in
the sketch. Then I bored holes in both top and bottom pieces and inserted
a piece of soft wire in the form of a loop, which, when twisted, drew the
ends of the clamp together.--Contributed by Geo. E. Walsh, Buffalo, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

    While camping, remember a hot stone wrapped up makes
    an excellent substitute for a hot-water bag.



Home-Made Motion-Picture Camera and Projector In Three Parts--Part III


The Projector


The film positives are projected on a screen with the same kind of a
lantern as is used for lantern slides, with the addition of the device for
stepping the film through, one picture at a time, and flashing light on
each picture as it remains stationary for an instant. The projector (Fig.
8) is composed of a lamp house, a condensing lens to make the beam of
light converge upon the film for illuminating it evenly, a film-stepping
device, and a projecting lens for throwing the enlarged picture of the
illuminated film upon a screen.

[Illustration: Fig. 8--Projector Complete]

The lamp house is made of ordinary stovepipe metal and the dimensions
given in the sketch are for a size suitable to use an acetylene or gas
burner. The metal is laid out as shown by the pattern (Fig. 9) and bent
on the dotted lines to form the sides and ends of the house. The joint
may be riveted, or, if taken to a tinshop, lock-seamed. The cover is cut
out as shown, the sides and ends having bent holes which are covered on
the inside with perforated sheet metal, A. In order to deflect the light,
a small angular strip, B, is riveted on so that its upper portion will
cover the holes and allow a space for the heat to pass out. The cover may
be hinged or set on like a cover on a can. The lamp house is attached to
a sliding wood base for adjusting its position on the baseboard.

[Illustration: Fig. 9--Details of the Lamp House]

The condensing lenses are fixed into a metal barrel having a tapering end.
This can be made of the same material as used in the lamp house. The parts
can be rolled and a lock joint made at a local tinshop, or the pieces
shaped over a wood form and riveted. Small L-shaped pieces are riveted
to the inner surfaces to hold each lens in place. A rim is turned up on
the back end of the metal tube for attaching the lens barrel to the lamp
house.

[Illustration: Fig. 10--Details of the Lamp, Stepping Device and Base]

An ordinary mantle or acetylene burner is attached to a gas pipe that has
for its base a drop elbow fastened to a sliding board similar to the slide
of the lamp house on the baseboard. A good reflector should be attached to
a standard just back of the burner. The standard is also fastened to the
sliding board. The proper distance of the light from the condensing lens
can be easily set by this adjusting device. This arrangement is shown in
Fig. 10 in the diagram entitled "lamp parts."

The device for stepping the film is a duplicate of the one used in the
camera as described in Part I, with the exception of the lens. The lens
should be about 2 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give
a picture of the required size, or a lens of 12-in. focus enlarging a
1-in. film to about 6 ft. at a distance of 24 ft. A regular lens fitted
in a metal tube can be purchased from a moving-picture stock house at a
reasonable price. The box is made up similar to the camera box, but with
a metal back instead of the wood. The intense heat from the light would
quickly burn the wood and for this reason the light should be kept from
the film while it is not in motion. The projecting lens barrel should be
fitted snugly, yet loose enough for focusing.

The baseboard is cut as shown and the film-stepping device is firmly
attached to the small end. The sides extend over the baseboard and are
fastened with screws and braced with metal brackets. The slot in the small
end of the baseboard is for the film to pass through. The film should have
a tension the same as in the camera with velvet placed on the edges of the
partitions. It is well to have a guide below the roller shutter to keep
the film from encircling the roller as it turns.



Homemade Graining Tools


Desiring to do some fancy graining and having no tools at hand, I hastily
made two of them from pieces of garden hose, as shown in the sketch. Two
pieces were cut from the hose, each 5 in. long, and the first one made
as follows: A small hole, about 1/4 in. in diameter, was cut through the
outside layer of rubber with a sharp knife at two points on opposite sides
of the hose and exactly in the center for length. Around these holes rings
of the rubber were cut out, or rather peeled off from the canvas part,
the rings being 3/16 in. wide, and the grooves, or parts removed, also
3/16 in. wide. The hose will then appear as shown in the upper left-hand
corner of the sketch.

[Illustration: Tools Cut from Pieces of Garden Hose for Making Grains of
Wood in Painted Surfaces]

To use this grainer, first paint the ground color, using a buff tint for
imitation light oak, and allow it to dry, then put on a light coat of raw
sienna, and while wet, take the prepared hose and draw it slowly over the
length of wood, at the same time revolving the grainer slowly.

The other piece of hose, at the other corner, is made to take the place
of a steel graining comb. The rubber is cut away lengthwise, leaving four
segments, about 4 in. wide, on four sides of the hose. These segments
are then notched out, like threads on a tap, each segment having a
different number to the inch. These are used in the same manner as steel
combs.--Contributed by A. H. Waychoff, Koenig, Colo.



Needle for Repairing Screens


In attaching patches to window or door screens, the work requires a
continual shifting from one side to the other, or two persons, one on
each side, must be present to pass the threaded needle back and forth. The
operation can be easily simplified by using a bent needle, which has been
heated and suitably shaped. The point of this needle can always be made
to return to the side from which it entered, thereby avoiding the need of
an assistant or the tiresome shifting back and forth.--Contributed by G.
Jaques, Chicago, Ill.



An Emergency Tourniquet


[Illustration]

A valuable addition to any shop medicine cabinet is the tourniquet. A
device that will answer the purpose of the tourniquet can be made from an
ordinary clothespin and a piece of binding tape, about 3/4 in. wide and
14 in. long. To stop the bleeding from a wound on a limb, pass the tape
around the injured member between the wound and the blood supply. Pass
the tape through the slot in the pin, wind the ends around the pin two
or three times to prevent slipping, then turn the pin to draw up the tape
tightly until the flow of blood is stopped.



Mechanical Aid to Singers


Procure a large cigar box, of the square variety, and three ordinary
drinking glasses with very thin walls and of different sizes, and place
them in the box, as follows: Space them evenly, and drive three brads
close to the circumference of each glass bottom, so that the glasses will
have to be forced in between them. To prevent the glasses from touching
the wood place a one-cent piece under each one.

A fourth glass is used, but from this the bottom must be removed. This
can be done by saturating a string, or piece of yarn, in kerosene oil,
wrapping it once around the glass near the bottom, then lighting it and
allowing the string to burn out. The glass is then quickly dropped into
cold water, which will remove the bottom.

A hole is cut in the cover of the box to receive the bottomless glass
from the upper side, so that its lower edge will be flush with the under
surface. Cut a slot, 3 in. long and 1/8 in. wide, in the cover near the
back side.

To use, close the cover and at a distance of about 1/2 in. from the glass
in the cover, or mouthpiece, sing into it. The glasses will impart to the
voice a peculiar tone delightful to hear.--Contributed by J. B. Murphy,
Plainfield, New Jersey.



Model Boat with Aerial Propeller


Procure or make a small model boat, 12 or 18 in. long, and place in the
hold one or two cells of dry battery. Make a small platform in the stern
and mount on it a small battery motor with the shaft parallel with the
length of the boat and in the center. Directly above and parallel with
the motor shaft run a shaft--a hatpin will do--in bearings fastened to
the deck. Attach a drive pulley directly over the pulley on the motor and
belt it up with a cord or rubber band. Purchase or make a propeller blade
and attach it to the rear end of the shaft. A switch can be located on the
deck for controlling the motor.--Contributed by Geo. B. Riker, Ft. Wayne,
Ind.

[Illustration: The Aerial Propeller is Driven by a Small Battery Motor
Placed in the Boat]



Lantern-Slide Binding Machine


The machine shown in the illustration is very simple to make and when
complete is one of the greatest time savers that a photographer can
possess. The base is made of a piece of board, 9 in. long, 2 in. wide,
and 7/8 in. thick. The uprights support a small bar upon which the roll
of binding revolves. An old ink bottle filled with water and with some
cotton stuffed in the neck serves as a moistener for the binding. The
use of this machine insures a neat job in a very short space of time. The
slide is always in the center of the binding. The end of the slide should
run a little over the end of the base so that the binding may be fixed
to the edge with the fingers, using a downward motion. The slide is then
turned over on the other edge with a rolling motion and the operation
repeated.--Contributed by Alvin G. Steier, Union Hill, N. Y.

[Illustration: A Machine That will Help to Bind Lantern Slides Quickly
and Neatly]



Adjustable Film-Developing Machine


The simple homemade developing machine, shown in the illustration, can be
easily made with three film spools, some strong wire, and odd pieces of
wood. It consists of an open frame, having two side pieces provided with
slots down the center, sufficiently wide to allow an ordinary wood screw,
of suitable size, to slide up or down freely. The two end-connecting
pieces act as supports for the developing tray and should be made of
sufficient length so the tray can pass freely between the sliding upright
frame, made to fit in between the side pieces of the base. This frame
can be adjusted to suit the length of film and is clamped in place at the
desired position by wood screws, fitting in the long notches and screwed
into the uprights. The two bottom rollers consist of film spools which are
fastened in place by being slipped over a suitable wire, bent so the spool
can enter the developing tray and the wire pass over the sides. Another
bend at the outer end provides for the adjustment of the spools and for
securing the wire in place by staples. The top spool is secured to a wire
fitted with a crank at the outer end, so that in turning the wire, the
spool will also turn, thereby driving the film. When placing the film on
the machine, the sensitive side should face outward so it will not rub
against the spools. The ends of the film may be connected with pins or
ordinary paper fasteners.--Contributed by H. R. F. Richardson, Ottawa,
Ont.

[Illustration: Developing a Roll Film in a Tray with a Machine That Drives
the Film around Rollers and through the Developing Liquid by Turning a
Crank]



Preventing Loss of Fish from Covered Baskets


In the cover of fish baskets an opening is frequently made permitting
the fish to be put in without lifting the cover. In traveling over
rough places, or when the basket is full, some of the fish are likely
to be shaken out, or may wiggle out of the basket. To guard against
this, a leather flap can be provided covering the hole on the inside.
At one end of the flap, four holes should be punched. It can then be
placed in position and securely laced to the cover. The flap acts as
a valve, allowing fish to be put into the basket, but preventing their
escape.--Contributed by A. W. Cook, Kamela, Ore.



Repair for a Broken Lock Keeper


[Illustration]

Having broken the recess half of a common cupboard lock, or latch, which
was used to fasten a hinged storm window, I used a round-head wood screw
as shown. The screw was easily placed, and it serves the purpose as well
as the regular keeper.--Contributed by R. F. Pohle, Lynn, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

    When using glue contained in screw-stoppered vessels
    it is advisable to smear a little vaseline on the
    thread to prevent the stopper from adhering to the
    container.

[Illustration: Throwing a Spot Light with the Lantern on Individuals of a
Home Play, Which can be Given Brilliant Effects by the Use of the Tinted
Celluloid in the Openings of the Revolving Wheel]



Lantern for Spot and Colored Lights


The school play in pantomime is not complete unless the different parts of
the play are illuminated in different colors, especially if the performers
are clad in glittering garments. A spot light is also a feature not to
be forgotten in singling out the star player or the one singing a song.
The cost of a light for this purpose is entirely out of the reach of
the average schoolboy, but if he has any ingenuity and a little time, a
lantern for throwing those colored lights can be made at home, and the
necessary parts will not cost much.

[Illustration: Pattern for Cutting the Metal to Form the Entire Lantern,
or Lamp House, Also the Pattern for the Top and the Metal Bracket That
Makes a Bearing for the Revolving Wheel, Having Openings Covered with
Tinted Celluloid]

The metal necessary can be the ordinary stovepipe material, but if it is
desired to have a fine-appearing lantern, procure what is called Russian
iron. This metal has a gloss, and if used, it should be gone over from
time to time with a rag soaked in oil, then wiped dry, to keep it from
rusting. The pattern for the body of the lantern, or lamp house, is shown
with dimensions.

If metal, long enough for the whole length, cannot be procured, then make
it in two pieces, being sure to allow 1/2-in. end also on the second
part, as shown on the first, for a riveted joint. The metal is bent on the
dotted lines and cut out on the full ones. The distance between the lines
A to be bent is equal to the radius B. The part A forms the sloping side
of the top, and the 2-in. part at the top of the side extends vertically
on the upper or vertical part, it being 1/2 in. narrower to provide an
outlet for the heat.

An opening is cut in the rear end, as shown, also a hole, 5 in. in
diameter, in the front end. The size of the round hole is optional, as it
should be cut to suit the condensing lens provided. If a lens 5 1/2 in.
in diameter is used, then a 5-in. hole should be cut. This is enough
difference in size to hold the lens from dropping through, while clips
riveted on the inside of the lamp-house end will hold it in place. The
lens is set in the hole with the curved side outward from the inside of
the lamp house.

The top, or covering, is cut out of the same material as used in making
the lamp house, the length being 12 in., and the sides are cut to extend
1/2 in. on each side of the ventilator. The edges, being turned down on
the dotted lines, provide a covering to prevent any great amount of light
from passing out through the 1/2-in. ventilating opening mentioned in
connection with the side construction of the lantern. The 1-in. parts of
the cover ends are turned down and riveted to the ends of the lamp house.
The little extensions on the ends provide a means of riveting the side,
to make a solid joint.

The arm C is made of a piece of 1/8 or 3/16-in. metal, shaped as shown, to
fit on the corner of the lamp house, where it is riveted. This provides
a support and a place for an axis for the large revolving wheel holding
the colored-celluloid disks.

[Illustration: The Base of the Lantern is Provided with a Sliding Part
Carrying the Light for Adjustment]

The metal forming the lamp house is fastened on a baseboard, cut to
snugly fit on the inside. The base has two cleats, nailed lengthwise to
form a runway, 4 in. wide, into which another board is fitted to carry
the burner. While the illustration shows an acetylene burner, any kind of
light may be used so long as it is of a high candlepower. If manufactured
gas is at hand, a gas burner with a mantle can be fitted, or a large
tungsten electric light will give good results.

[Illustration: Pattern for the Revolving Wheel in Which Six Holes are Cut
and Covered with Tinted Celluloid]

The wheel, carrying the colored disks, is made of the same kind of metal
as used for the lamp house. The edges should be trimmed smooth, or, better
still, turned over and hammered down to prevent injury to the hands while
turning it. A washer should be used between this wheel and the arm C on a
bolt used for the shaft, to make the wheel turn freely. The colored disks
of celluloid are fastened to the outside of the wheel over the openings.

A yoke to support the lantern and provide a way for throwing the light in
any direction, is made as shown. A line along which the lantern balances
is determined by placing it on something round, as a broom stick, and the
upper ends of the yoke are fastened on this line with loosely fitted bolts
for pivots.

[Illustration: Yoke for Supporting the Lantern]

The lantern is set in front of the stage at the back of the room and the
light is directed on the players, the colors being changed by turning the
wheel. Sometimes good effects can be obtained by using the lantern in the
wings, or for a fire dance, by placing it under the stage, throwing the
light upward through grating or a heavy plate glass.



Homemade Palette Knife


A corset steel makes a good substitute for a palette knife because of its
flexibility. It gives better satisfaction if cut in the shape shown than
if left straight. Should a handle be desired, one can be easily made by
gluing two pieces of thin wood on the sides.--Contributed by James M.
Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: A Palette Knife Made of a Corset Steel and a Wood Handle
Attached]

       *       *       *       *       *

    To remove a white mark on wood having a wax surface,
    rub it lightly with a rag moistened in alcohol; then
    rub with a little raw linseed oil.



Self-Closing Gate


This gate is suspended from a horizontal bar by chains, and swings freely
about a 1-in. gas pipe, placed vertically in the center of the gate. The
chains are of the same length, being fastened equidistant from the pipe,
the upper ends farther out than the lower. The distance depends on the
weight of the gate and the desired force with which it should close. Any
of the numerous styles of latches can be used, if desired.--Contributed
by Kenneth Osborn, Loveland, Colo.

[Illustration: The Gate will Swing in Either Direction and Come to a Rest
Where It Closes the Opening]



A Poultry Shade


If a poultry yard is in an open space where the sun's rays will strike it
squarely, a shade can be put up as follows: A piece of old carpet, rug, or
canvas, fastened to the wire mesh with clothespins, will produce a shade
at any place desired.--Contributed by Walter L. Kaufmann, Santa Ana, Cal.



Reflector for Viewing Scenery from a Car Window


Construct a box of pasteboard or thin wood, about 9 in. long, 3 in. wide
and 2 in. thick, and fasten two pieces of mirror in the ends at an angle
of 45 deg., both sloping in the same direction with their reflecting
surfaces toward each other. An opening as large as the mirror is cut,
facing it, in the box at the end A, and a small hole bored through at
the end B so that it will center the mirror. Both of these apertures are
covered with plain pieces of glass.

[Illustration: The Reflecting Device as It is Used in a Car Window for
Viewing the Scenery Ahead]

In use, the end A is placed outside of the car window and the user places
an eye to the small hole B. It is impossible to be struck in the eye with
a cinder or flying object.--Contributed by Mildred E. Thomas, Gordon, Can.



A Muskrat Trap


It is difficult to catch muskrats in an ordinary steel trap, as a broken
bone allows them to sever the flesh and escape. During the summer these
rats build a shelter for the winter constructed of moss and sticks placed
on the river or lake bed, the top extending above the water level and
the entrance being through a hole in the bottom near one side, while the
passage itself is under water. It, therefore, only remains for the trapper
to make one of these houses over into a huge wire trap so that the animal
may be caught alive.

[Illustration: A Trap for Catching Muskrats Alive in One of Their Mounds
Built of Moss and Sticks]

The house A is prepared by removing the top and building the trap from
heavy mesh wire which can be easily shaped, the joints being held together
by binding the edges with wire. The passage is then fitted with a double
trapdoor, the first, B, provided with sharp points on the swinging end,
while the other is a falling cover. These two doors are placed in an
entrance way, C, made of wire mesh and fastened over the passageway.

The muskrat comes up through the passage, pushing a bunch of moss or
sticks and does not notice passing the trapdoors. The upper door is to
keep the animals caught from getting at the first door.--Contributed by
Vance Garrison, Bemidji, Minn.



A Casein Glue


Casein glues are splendid in woodworking, making cardboard articles, and
when the composition is varied somewhat, make excellent cements for china
and metals. Casein is made from the curd of soured milk after removal of
the fat, and is put on the market in the form of a dry powder.

To make the glue, soak the casein powder two hours in an equal weight
of hot water. To this gummy mass add about one-seventh the weight of the
casein in borax which has been dissolved in very little hot water. Stir
until all is dissolved after mixing borax and casein. This can be thinned
with water to suit and is a good glue, but it can be made more adhesive
by the addition of a little sodium arsenate. Any alkali, such as soda or
ammonia, could be substituted for the borax.

To make a china cement, lime or water glass should be substituted for the
borax. Addition of burnt magnesia increases the speed of hardening.

[Illustration]



The Mile-O-View Camera By T. B. Lambert


Many have tried, but heretofore no one has succeeded in taking panoramic
views from the side of fast-moving trains or street cars. Motion pictures
are easily obtained from the front or rear of moving trains, but none with
the camera lens pointing at right angles, or nearly so, to the track. A
complete apparatus for taking continuous and perfect panoramic pictures
of any desired length as one travels through a country is too complicated
to be described in detail within the limits of this article, but a simple
arrangement, invented and constructed by the writer, will enable anyone
to perform the experiment at practically no cost except for the film.

[Illustration: The Board Used Instead of a Tripod is Placed across the
Backs of Two Car Seats]

Some form of a roll-film camera is essential, and simply as a working
basis, it will be assumed an ordinary camera is used, post-card camera
in size, for which the following things will be required: A piece of thin
black card, or hard rubber; a small board, and a piece of wire to be used
as a crank.

[Illustration: These Two Articles Constitute the Only Parts Necessary to
Change a Camera into a Mile-O-View]

Prepare the paper, or hard rubber, by cutting it to a size that will
exactly cover the rear camera opening when the back of the camera is
removed, which, in the case of a post-card size, is 6 in. long and
3-3/4 in. wide; then cut a narrow slot, about 3/64 in. wide crosswise
through the center of the material. This slot should extend to within
about 1/2 in. of each edge, and the edges must be perfectly smooth and
straight. If paper is used, glue it to the opening in the camera. If hard
rubber is used, it can be made up as shown and set in the camera opening.
This will bring the slot directly back of the lens center and at right
angles to the direction in which the film moves when being rolled.

[Illustration: The Two Parts as They are Applied to an Ordinary Roll-Film
Camera]

A board is prepared, about 4 ft. long, 10 in. wide and 3/4 in. thick.
This is to take the place of a tripod, and it must have a small hole and
suitable wing nut to attach the camera near the center. This length of
board will reach from the back of one seat to another when it is placed
to support the camera during the exposure.

A wire, about 1/8 in. in diameter, is bent, as shown, with a short hook on
one end, and the other turned up at right angles, to serve as a handle.
This wire, when hooked into the wing nut, will enable one to wind up
the film at a fairly uniform speed. This completes all the necessary
apparatus.

To take pictures with this panoramic outfit, load the camera in the usual
way, but do not wind it up to exposure No. 1; stop at a point where the
beginning of the film will be nearly opposite the narrow slot in the black
paper, or rubber. This would be to stop the turning at about the time the
hand pointer appears in the small back window. Attach the camera firmly to
the board and brace up the lens end so that it will not easily shake with
the movement of the car. Place the board across the backs of two adjacent
seats, so that the camera will point out of the window at exactly right
angles to the car.

When ready to expose, open the shutter wide, turn the crank that is hooked
into the wing nut, and slowly wind up the film while the train is running.
This will give a panoramic picture, continuous in character, and if the
speed of turning is well judged, some very splendid views can be made.

The speed of turning the crank will be governed by the focal length of
the lens and the speed of the train. For an average lens, the crank should
be given one turn per second when the car is traveling about 15 miles an
hour, or the average speed of a street car, A train traveling 30 miles
an hour will require two turns of the crank per second. A good method
of trying this out is to use one film as a test and turn the crank a
few times and note its speed by the second, then stop and begin again at
another speed for a few turns and so on, until the entire film is exposed,
always noting the turns and time for each change, also the speed of the
train. When the film is developed the one that shows best will give the
proper number of turns per second.

The following points must be considered: The track should not be rough,
and the camera must be perfectly steady and not twisted out of position
by turning the crank, otherwise the resulting picture will be wavy. If
the slot in the back board is not smooth and true, the picture will be
streaked. Turning the film too fast will make the picture elongated, and
too slowly, condensed. Should the camera be pointed otherwise than at
right angles the picture will be distorted. This arrangement cannot be
used to take moving objects except under special conditions. A picture of
a passing train of cars can be made if the camera is stationary, but the
wheels and drive rods will appear twisted out of shape. It is best for
the experimenter to confine himself to scenery at the beginning, avoiding
architectural objects, because a variation in speed of turning the crank
to wind the film naturally distorts the architecture, which variation is
not so noticeable in a scenic view.

[Illustration]



A Photographic Worktable for Small Quarters By K. V. Reed


Flat dwellers have no space at their disposal for a person to work at
photography, and the bathroom must take the place of a dark room. As this
was very inconvenient in my case, I constructed a table, that from all
appearances was nothing more than a large-size kitchen worktable, and such
a table can be used in case the builder does not care to construct it.

The table is turned upside down and the top removed by taking out the
screws. The top is made of several pieces glued together and will remain
in one piece. It is then hinged at one side to the top edge of the rail,
so that it can be turned back like a trunk, or box, cover.

Boards are then nailed to the under edge of the rails. If a very neat job
is required, these boards should be set inside on strips nailed to the
inside surfaces of the rails, at the proper place to make the boards come
flush with the under edges of the rails.

At the back side and in the center of the new bottom, a hole is cut, 6
or 7 in. square, and a box fastened beneath it, to form a bottom several
inches below the main bottom. In this space bottles filled with solutions
are kept. The main bottom should be painted with an acid-proof varnish.

[Illustration: An Ordinary Kitchen Worktable Fitted Up as a Handy Workshop
for the Amateur Photographer Who Has a Limited Space in a Flat, and Where
a Table can be Used to Advantage in a Room]

The space in the table is then divided, and partitions set up, which can
be arranged to suit the builder.

Another attachment, which comes in exceedingly handy, is the ruby light.
This consists of a box, large enough to receive a printing frame at the
bottom. Two holes are cut in the table top, at the right places to make
a window for the light and a slit for the printing frame. When the table
top is raised, the box with the light is fastened over the openings with
hooks, the arrangement of which will depend on the size and shape of the
box. In closing, the lamp box is removed, and pieces of board are set in
the holes. This can be easily arranged, if the holes and blocks are cut
on a slight slope, so that the latter when set in will not fall through
the openings.



Back Thrust Prevented on Skis


To overcome the difficulty of skis slipping back when walking uphill
either of the two devices shown is good, if the attachments are fastened
to the rear end of the skis.

[Illustration: Two Methods of Making an Attachment to Prevent the Backward
Thrust of a Ski]

The first represents a piece of horse-hide, about 4 in. square, tacked on
the ski and with the hair slanting backward. This will not interfere with
going forward, but will retard any movement backward.

The other consists of a hinged portion that will enter the snow on a back
thrust. As the ski end is thin, a block of wood must be attached to it on
the upper side, and the projecting piece hinged to the block. The bevel
at the end allows it to dig into the snow when the ski starts back. In
going forward, it will swing out of the way freely.



Crystallization Shown on a Screen


The formation of chemical crystals can be shown in an interesting manner
as follows: Spread a saturated solution of salt on a glass slide, or
projection-lantern glass, and allow it to evaporate in the lantern's light
or beneath a magnifying glass. The best substances to use are solutions
of alum or sodium, alum being preferable. Ordinary table salt gives
brilliant crystals which reflect the light to a marked degree. For regular
formation, where the shape of the crystal is being studied, use a solution
of hyposulphite of soda.

Many startling facts may be learned from the study of crystals in
this manner, and watching them "grow" is great sport even to the
chemist.--Contributed by L. T. Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



Furniture Polish for Fine Woods


Boiled olive oil, to which a few drops of vinegar has been added, makes an
excellent furniture polish for very fine woods. It will be found to work
nicely on highly polished surfaces, and also for automobile bodies. It
is applied in moderate quantities, and rubbed to a luster with a flannel
cloth.

[Illustration]



Enlarging Photographs By A. E. Swoyer


When the photographer wishes to make an enlarged print from a small
negative, he arranges a suitable light and condensers back of the negative
and by means of a lens projects the resultant image upon a sheet of
sensitive paper. Owing to the comparative weakness of the light, however,
it is necessary either to use bromide paper or some of the faster brands
of developing-out paper. If a more artistic medium is desired, a glass
positive must first be made and enlarged to produce a negative from which
the final prints will be made by contact. This process is somewhat clumsy
and expensive, for if any retouching or doctoring is to be done, it
must be upon a glass surface, either that of the two negatives or of the
intermediate positive. As all of this work is done by transmitted light,
there is the loss of fine detail common to all enlargements.

The difficulties incident to this process may be done away with by the
use of a modification of the popular post-card projector; the alteration
consisting simply in the substitution of a better lens for the cheap plate
glass with which such instruments are usually fitted.

A contact print, preferably on glossy paper, ferrotyped, is made from
the original negative by contact in the usual way; this is then placed in
the modified projector and the image thrown upon a sensitive plate of the
desired size. After a brief exposure, development will show an enlarged
negative having every quality of the original.

The advantages of this process are obvious. In the first place, the
comparative cheapness of the apparatus is a factor; in the second, the
intermediate glass positive is eliminated, the print which is substituted
for it providing a much better medium for retouching, faking or printing
in. Transparent water colors in the less actinic shades may be used upon
this print to control the final result, and if spoiled, it may be replaced
at a negligible cost.

[Illustration: An Ordinary Post-Card Projector Used Back of a Camera to
Illuminate a Photograph Which is Enlarged on a Plate to Make a Negative
Instead of a Print (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

At first glance, it would appear as if this method were simply a form of
photographic copying; it is, in fact, the reverse. For in copying any
object with a camera, the sensitive medium is behind the lens and the
object to be copied is in front, and the size of the copy is therefore
limited both by that of the camera and by its bellows draw. In the
reflection process, the object to be copied is back of the lens and the
sensitive medium is in front; as large a copy can be made with a small
camera as with an eight by ten. It is really more convenient to work with
a short-focus lens and a camera of limited bellows extension; the nearer
the lens is to the back of the camera the larger will be the projected
image.

The diagram (Fig. 1) shows that the size of the object to be enlarged
does not depend upon the focal length of the lens used, as in ordinary
enlarging, but simply upon the size of the opening in the front of the
projector. The dotted lines are drawn from the edges of the card to be
projected through the lens. Figure 2 is a sketch of a projector with the
lens tube removed, so that it may be used with a camera as shown in Fig.
3.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]



Homemade Screen-Door Spring


[Illustration]

A screen or storm-door spring can be easily made of spring-steel wire.
The wire is bent to the shape shown in the sketch and two turns given to
the coil as shown at A. The ends of the wire are fastened to the casing
and door with staples. Two or three of these springs can be attached to
one door where it is necessary to have more strength.--Contributed by Wm.
Rosenberg, Watertown, Mass.



A Surprise Water Bottle


The performer produces a bottle and gives it with a glass to anyone in the
audience, asking the person selected to take a drink of a very delicious
concoction. When the person attempts to pour out the solution it is found
to be frozen.

To perform this trick, the fluid must be previously made with a saturated
solution of sulphate of soda and hot water. Fill a clean white bottle
with the solution, taking care to cork the bottle while the liquid is
hot. The liquid remains in a fluid state as long as the bottle is corked.
When the bottle is shown, it appears to contain a liquid, and in handing
it to a person the performer must be careful to take out the cork in time
to allow it to solidify. In order to gain the proper time, pretend to be
looking for a glass, make some remark about a sudden chill or feel the
hand holding the bottle and say it is very cold. In the meantime, the air
acting upon the solution has caused it to become fixed and immovable, and
when the person attempts to pour it out, he finds it is impossible.



A Graduate Holder


A simple and easily constructed graduate holder in the form of a bracket
placed in the corner of a dark room is shown in the sketch. The bracket
not only holds the graduates securely, but allows them to drain perfectly
and prevents dust settling on the inside, as they are suspended by the
base. Holes of different size are cut in the board to accommodate large,
medium and small graduates.

[Illustration: The Graduate Holder is Permanently Fastened in a Corner of
the Dark Room]



Homemade Enlarging Camera


The ordinary hand camera of the focusing type can be used to enlarge
pictures from negatives of its own make. The requirement is a device to
hold the negative rigid in a position in front of the camera lens, and at
such a distance that the rays of light passing through the negative and
lens will enter a box of sufficient size for the desired enlargement and
focus plainly on a sheet of sensitive paper attached to the end of the
box.

The first thing to do is to find the distance that is required from
the camera lens to the paper enlargement to make the proper size, and
the distance from the lens to the negative. A correspondent of Camera
Craft gives the following rule for finding these dimensions: To find the
distance between the lens and paper enlargement, add 1 to the number of
times the picture is to be enlarged and multiply the result by the focus
of the lens in inches. The example given is for a 6-in. focus lens. An
example: A 4 by 5-in. negative enlarged to 8 by 10 in. is a two-time
enlargement (four times in area); 2+1 = 3, and 3×6 = 18, the distance in
inches of the lens from the sensitive paper. To find the distance of the
lens to the negative, divide the above result, 18 in., by the number of
times desired to enlarge, 18×2 = 9, the distance in inches from the lens
to the negative.

With these figures as a working basis, the box can be made in any size
to use any focusing camera. The dimensions given in the drawing are for a
4 by 5-in. camera having a 6-in. focus lens, and to enlarge the pictures
from a 4 by 5-in. negative to 8 by 10 in. In the first place make a box
8-1/2 in. wide, 10-1/2 in. deep and 14 in. long, inside measurement, using
3/4-in. material, as shown in the sectional drawing A. One end is left
open and in the center of the other a hole is cut 5 in. square.

[Illustration: Details of Construction and Camera Complete]

The back end of the camera is placed over this hole as shown at B and
1/4-in. strips nailed to the box end around the camera back to exclude
all light. The camera must be centrally located.

The next to be made is the end board or easel, consisting of two pieces
of 3/4-in. material, one 8-1/2 by 10-1/2 in., which should fit easily into
the end of the box, and a larger one, 10 by 12 in., the outside dimensions
of the box, as shown at C. Nail the smaller piece to the center of the
large one, crossing the grain of wood in so doing. The end board is the
easel upon which the sensitive paper is fastened with push pins, and
should be covered with a sheet of white paper, pasting it on the 8-1/2 by
10-1/2-in. board with a thin coat of glue. The slide D is a piece of wood
3/4 in. thick, 3-1/2 in. wide and 26 in. long. This is fastened to the
under side of the box with four screws, placing it exactly in the center
and parallel with the sides of the box. Be careful to have the slide
parallel or the holder will not freely slide upon it.

The negative holder E is made of a piece of 3/4-in. board, 8 in. wide and
10 in. long. A hole 5-1/2 by 7-1/2 in. is cut in its center, leaving a
margin of 1-1/4 in. on all sides. This holder is set in a groove cut in
a block of wood having a mortise cut 3/4 by 3-1/2 in. to fit on the slide
easily. A thumb screw is fitted in the center of the bottom of the block
of wood. This is used for fastening the negative holder rigidly to the
slide when the focus is secured.

A 1-in. hole is bored in the upper corner of the box end, as shown, to
serve as a peephole for seeing the image on the end board or easel. This
is covered before putting the sensitive paper in the box. The end board is
held in position with two flat brass hooks. The camera is held in place
with two buttons placed on blocks of wood the height of the camera back,
as shown at F. Two pieces of clear glass, 6 by 8 in. in size, are held
in place in the negative holder by means of buttons, the film negative
being placed between them. All the joints in the box must be carefully
puttied and the inside of the box blackened, which is done with a mixture
of lampblack and alcohol, to which is added a small quantity of shellac
to give it body.

A darkroom is not essential, a bathroom with the window covered over
with orange paper will do, or even a large room with the shades drawn and
pinned close to the window casing. It is best to leave a space in one of
the windows to be covered with orange paper, doing the developing about
10 ft. from the source of light.

To operate the camera place it on the enlarging box, hook the easel in
place, put a negative in the holder with the film side toward the lens.
Take the outfit to a shady place outdoors, point the holder end at an
unobstructed portion of the sky and look through the peephole. Rack the
lens in and out to focus the picture. The easel should have heavy black
lines drawn upon it inclosing parallelograms from 5 by 7 in. to 8 by
10 in., so that one can readily see the size of the enlargement to be
made. When the focus is obtained take the outfit into the darkroom, remove
the easel and fasten the sensitive paper with push pins. Replace the easel
and take the outfit outdoors again, point it toward the clear sky and
make the exposure, which should be at least 5 seconds with a 16 stop. It
is best to make a trial exposure on a small strip of paper to find the
proper time. Directions for the use of bromide papers will be found in
each package.



An Easy Way to Make a Shelf


Procure an ordinary packing box and mark a line from corner to corner on
both ends, as shown, from A to B in Fig. 1. Pull out all the nails from
the corners that may cross the line. Nail the top to the box and saw it on
the lines marked and two shelves will be formed which may be used as shown
in Fig. 2. Boxes dovetailed at the corners will make excellent shelves
and look neat if painted.

[Illustration: Two Shelves Made of One Box (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

[Illustration]



Multiplying Attachment for a Camera By J. C. Moore


The hand camera suitable for this work is the kind commonly known as the
reversible back, which is a detachable part that carries a ground glass
for focusing and a place to insert the plate holders. When this part
is removed, it will be seen that the back of the camera is mortised to
prevent light from entering. Construct a frame to take the place of the
back, but make it about 5/8 in. larger all around, and make one surface
to fit the mortise of the camera box.

[Illustration: The Attachment as It is Fitted to the Camera and the
Reversible Back in the Frame]

A back is now made and attached to the frame, to carry the ground-glass
reversible back, so that it can be shifted over the center of focus
for each small portion of the plate on which the picture is to be made.
Measure the outside of the plate holder and, doubling the dimensions both
ways, lay out a diagram on a piece of paper. Lay the plate holder on the
paper and move it to the extreme left, then to the right, to see if the
center of the plate will coincide with the center of the back. In the
same manner locate the center in a vertical position. If the center lines
do not coincide, increase the dimensions until this occurs. Mark, in the
exact center, an opening the size of the plate and cut out the wood. It is
best to use a three-ply wood for making the back, but if this cannot be
obtained, procure a dry piece of wood and mortise and glue strips to the
ends to keep the wood from warping. Glue the frame to this back, over the
opening, and make attachments to hold it to the camera in the same manner
as the reversible back was attached.

[Illustration: Manner of Laying Out the Pattern for the Back and Locating
the Exact Center]

If pictures of two or three different sizes are to be made, the opening
in the new back should be fitted with as many new pieces as there are
sizes of pictures, each to have an opening of corresponding size. For a
5 by 7-in. plate, 1-1/8 by 1-1/4-in. pictures is a good size, as there
will be room for 24 pictures on the plate with a small margin left for
notes. The piece to fill the opening should be made of the same material
as the back so that a smooth joint will result. As a board cannot be
made smooth enough for a perfectly light-tight joint, the surface on the
new back, over which the reversible back travels, must be covered with
cloth--a piece of black velvet is suitable--to exclude all light as the
plate holder is shifted over the back.

A frame is now made to carry the reversible back of the camera, the size
of which will depend on the size of the other parts, as well as on the
size of the camera to be used. This frame consists of two horizontal
strips joined at the ends with grooved pieces, fitting the edge of
the new back, so that it may be slid up and down in the grooves. The
crosspieces are also rabbeted to receive the reversible back and allow
it to be moved back and forth horizontally. The rabbet in the horizontal
strips should not be so deep as to permit the extending edge to overlap
the ground-glass frame, thus preventing it from moving back as the plate
holder is inserted.

If the frame on the back and the reversible back fit tightly, they
will remain in any position, but if they are loosely fitted, it will be
necessary to provide some means to hold them. Small springs with pins may
be fitted to the vertically moving frame to hold it in the position for
the horizontal rows of pictures.

The ground glass should be marked for the size picture to be taken. The
positions of the frame and plate carrier should also be marked so that the
plate holder need not be taken out to find the location and focus for the
next picture.



Connecting a Pipe to Sheet Metal


In the absence of a waste nut, an iron pipe can be easily fastened to
sheet-metal work as shown in the sketch. The end of the pipe, Fig. 1, is
slotted with a hacksaw to form four projections, which are turned outward
and their ends rounded as shown in Fig. 2. The face of the projections are
tinned and then riveted to the sheet-metal surface, as shown in Fig. 3.
After soldering the joint, it will be as good or better than if a waste
nut had been used.--Contributed by Lorin A. Brown, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: The End of the Pipe as It is Prepared to be Riveted on the
Sheet Metal (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]



An Acid Siphon


When siphoning off acids or other disagreeable or poisonous liquids, it
is very important that none of it touch the flesh or mouth. It is almost
impossible to do this when starting the ordinary siphon. A siphon that
does away with this inconvenience and danger can be made as follows:

Procure a good Bunsen burner and two pieces of 1/4 in. glass tube, one
2 ft. and the other 18 in. long. Heat the 2 ft. length at a point 8 in.
from one end in the flame until it can be bent as shown at A. The other
piece should be plugged at one end and then slowly and evenly heated
at a point 10 in. from one end. When the glass is soft, blow slowly and
steadily into the open end, at the same time turning the tube around in
the flame. This will form a bulb, B. The ends of the glass tube are heated
and bent as shown, at C and D, and then fused onto the piece A, as shown
at E. This can be accomplished by heating the piece A at a point 4 in.
from the unbent end. When the glass becomes soft, place one end of a short
piece of tube in it and pull out into a thread. Break this off as close
to the tube as possible, to make a hole in the tube. Heat the end of the
tube D and also the glass around the hole, and when both become soft, they
can be fused together.

[Illustration: When Starting This Siphon It is Difficult for the Liquid
to Touch the Mouth or Flesh]

In use, close the end not in the liquid and, placing the mouth at F,
exhaust the tube, thus filling it with the liquid. When the closed end is
opened, the siphon will flow. The liquid collects in the bulb, and if a
little care is used, none of it can reach the mouth.--Contributed by O.
F. Tronnes, Evanston, Ill.



Bottle-Opening Trick


A local junk dealer, who was also known as the "strongest man in town,"
used to mystify the folks by opening a bottle, apparently with a stroke of
his index finger. His audience saw his index finger strike the stopper,
but did not see the knuckle of his second finger strike the eccentric at
the point A, as shown in the sketch, causing it to fly up while his index
finger B assisted the stopper out of the bottle mouth.

[Illustration: In Striking the Bottle Cork, the Knuckle of the Second
Finger Loosens the Wire Lock]

When trying the trick, it is best to select a bottle with a loose
stopper, or else wear a glove, as the gentleman who demonstrated the
trick had hands of the hard and horny type.--Contributed by James M. Kane,
Doylestown, Pa.



Setting Colors in Fabrics


The colors of fabrics or other materials of any kind may be set by boiling
the articles in the following solution: To 1 gal. of soft water add 1 oz.
of ox gall. This solution should be boiling when the articles are dropped
into it. A chemical reaction results and the colors are set or made
nonfading. The process is harmless. Colors in wood may be treated in the
same manner.



Towel-Roller Brackets


Very serviceable brackets for a towel roller can be made by using
ordinary wire clothes hooks, as shown in the illustration. The roller is
made of wood and two nails with their heads cut off, one in each end,
form bearings to turn in the ends of the hooks. When it is desired to
remove the roller, the hooks are sprung apart enough to allow it to drop
out.--Contributed by Hugh Carmichael, West Lorne, Ont.

[Illustration: The Roller Brackets are Easily Adjusted in Any Location
and Serve the Purpose Admirably]



A Developing-Tray Rocker


The tank method of photographic development is acknowledged as the best,
yet there are many who, for various reasons, still use the old-style tray
method. For those who use the tray, a splendid and simple method that
combines the good qualities of both the tank and tray is the tray-rocking
device shown in the illustration.

[Illustration: Developing-Tray Rocker to Keep the Liquid in Motion over
the Plate Automatically]

The rocker consists of a wood box, 13 in. long, 9 in. wide and 1-1/2 in.
deep, made of 3/8-in. material, together with a similar box 1-1/2 in.
deep, that fits over the other as a light-proof cover. Both are given a
coat of black paint.

At the center on the under side of the tray part, a right angle made of
strap iron is fastened with screws. On the part projecting down, a hole
is drilled to receive a sleeve made of a brass tube which is soldered in
place. An ordinary shelf bracket is procured, one end of which is filed
and fitted with a strip of metal having both ends turned up slightly.
Small-pointed pins are fastened in holes drilled near the turned-up part.
The points of the pins serve as a knife-edge for the rocker. The extending
end of the strap iron is fitted with a pendulum rod having a weight at
the bottom.

The rocker is attached to the wall in a convenient place in the dark
room. The tray with the developer and plate is placed in the box, which
is light-tight, and the pendulum is started swinging.--Contributed by T.
B. Lambert, Chicago.



An Adjustable Bookholder


A very satisfactory adjustable holder for books or letters can be
constructed of ordinary materials. A board is used for the base, and two
pieces, C, cut from the grooved edges of flooring boards, are fastened
on top as shown. A permanent end, A, is fastened to one end of the base.
A good-size holder is 19 in. long, 6 in. wide, made of material 3/4 in.
thick.

[Illustration: The Holder may be Used for Books or Letters and Papers as
a File]

The movable slide B has two pieces attached to its under side, which
are cut from the tongued edges of flooring boards. The piece D answers
the double purpose of a handle and brace. A lock, E, is made of a bolt,
having a long thread and a square head. A hole is bored from the under
side through the brace, and a portion of the wood is cut out to admit
the nut. A square place is cut out to admit the square bolt head in the
bottom pieces. To lock the slide, simply screw the nut upward so that it
will push the bolt head against the base.--Contributed by James M. Kane,
Doylestown, Pa.



An Old-Oak Stain


To make old oak of ash, elm, box alder, chestnut, maple, yew, and sycamore
wood use a solution of copper acetate, or iron acetate. Either of these
can be made by allowing a strong acid to come in contact with copper or
iron. Acetic acid, or vinegar, will do for the acid. The chemical can be
obtained from a local druggist if it is not desired to make the stain. By
varying the strength of the solution, several shades may be obtained. A
weak solution of iron acetate gives various brown hues. As the strength
of the salt increases by concentration, the shades of brown darken.



Tablespoon End Used as Lemon Squeezer


In an emergency, the ordinary tablespoon can be used as a lemon squeezer
by turning the lemon around the end of the spoon. This produces the
same result as obtained with the regular squeezers, which act on the
principle of extracting the juice by turning and crushing the lemon
over a rough projection which approximately matches the shape of a half
lemon.--Contributed by L. E. Turner, New York, N. Y.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Spoon Bowl Produces the Same Effect as
the Lemon Squeezer]



A Back Stop for a Workbench


In planing small pieces on a bench, they usually have a tendency to tip
up or slide around. This difficulty can be easily overcome by providing
the bench with an extra back stop. For this purpose a discarded plane
iron will do very well. Its edge should be notched so that it will easily
enter the wood. The edges of its central slot should be beveled off, if an
ordinary wood screw is used to fasten it to the bench. A series of holes,
several inches apart and in line with the regular back stop, should be
bored in the bench so the screw and iron can be readily changed, to fit
varying lengths.--Contributed by C. S. Rice, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: A Plane Bit Fastened to the Top of a Bench to Hold Blocks
While Planing Them]



Croquet Mallets Protected by Metal Rings


[Illustration]

Due to the severe service they are subjected to, croquet mallets very
frequently split off at the ends, which spoils them for further use
in accurate driving. To prevent this, metal bands may be placed around
the ends of the mallets. Thin sheet iron, or tin, can be used for this
purpose. One end is bent up at right angles, the opposite end is provided
with a loop to fit over the upright portion of the first end, and then the
loop is closed up and hammered down to draw the metal tightly around the
mallet. The ring is secured in place with several tacks, or short nails,
driven through the seam.--Contributed by H. E. Stratmeyer, Rockville, Md.



Distance Marker for Printing Photographs


A convenient homemade printing device, or distance marker, for printing
photographs by artificial light consists of a smooth board on which twelve
1-in. marks are drawn, as shown. A wall-base electric socket is attached
on the first line and the others are numbered up to 12. A trial test of a
negative marks the distance and time of exposure which should be recorded
on the negative. Such a device makes uniform prints possible and provides
a means of recording time on negative-storage envelopes.--Contributed by
Harold Davis, Altoona, Pa.

[Illustration: The Same Distance with the Same Exposure will Always
Produce Uniform Prints]



Mantel Picture Frames Made in Plaster


Procure a small oval or rectangular frame of a suitable size and use it as
a pattern in making a mold. If it is not necessary to select an expensive
frame, one that is straight without any floral designs is the best to use.
Ordinary molding made into a frame will do as well, or a pattern, whittled
out of wood in oval shape, will produce good results.

Make a flask out of any small box, and fill it with clay instead of
molding sand. Make an impression of the frame in the clay, and the mold
is ready for the plaster.

Procure four 8-oz. bottles, fill them with water, and tint the water in
three of them red, green, and blue, with dyes. When purchasing the plaster
of paris--2 lb. will do--also get some brass filings from a machine shop,
and mix it with the plaster while in a dry state; then divide the lot into
four parts of 1/2 lb. each, or equal parts.

Use the tinted water to mix the plaster and pour it into the mold. This
will give the combinations red, green, blue, and white.

Picture frames made in this manner will stand enough polishing to keep
the brass filings on the surface bright and shining, which gives a pretty
effect.--Contributed by J. B. Murphy, Plainfield, N. J.



A Five-Pointed Star


There are many ways of making a five-pointed star, but the one illustrated
is new and easy to apply. A long strip of paper, which should be
transparent, is tied into a knot. When the ends A and B are drawn tightly,
the paper strip takes the position shown in C. The end A is folded
forward, or in front of the knot; then the whole is turned over and it
will take the position shown in D. Hold the paper to a good light and
a perfect five-pointed star will be seen.--Contributed by J. J. Kolar,
Maywood, Ill.

[Illustration: Holding the Knot to the Light a Star will be Seen, Shown
by the Dotted Lines]



Fastening Portière Pole in a Doorway


A pole can be fastened between two supports, posts, or in a door casing
neatly and without fixtures in the following manner: The pole is cut
1/8 in. shorter than the space between the casings, and a 5/16 in. hole
is drilled in each end, one to a depth of 1-1/2 in. and the other 3/8 in.
deep, a coil spring being placed in the deepest hole.

Screws are turned into the center of the location for the pole in the door
jambs, allowing one screw head to project 1/8 in., and the other at least
1/4 inch.

[Illustration: No Fixtures That will Show are Required with This Fastening
of a Portière Pole]

To place the pole in position, put the end with the spring in the hole
on the screw head projecting 1/4 in. and push the pole against the jamb,
allowing the other end to pass over the other projecting screw head until
it slips into the hole by pressure from the spring. The spring will keep
the pole in position.--Contributed by Ernest F. Dexter, Hartford, Conn.



Trick with Knives and Glasses


An interesting trick may be performed with three tumblers and three table
knives. Place the tumblers in an equilateral triangle on a table so the
knife ends, when the knives are laid between them, as shown in the plan
sketch, are about 1 in. away from the tumblers. The trick is to arrange
the knives so that they are supported by the tops of the three tumblers
and nothing else. Most observers will say that it is impossible; some will
try it and in most cases fail. It can be done, and the illustration shows
how simply it may be accomplished.--Contributed by R. Neland, Minneapolis,
Minn.

[Illustration: Knives Placed in Such a Manner as to be Supported by the
Three Glasses]



A Scraper Handle


In using the ordinary steel-plate scraper, much inconvenience and cramping
of the hands is experienced unless some suitable handle is attached. If a
piece of scrap wood is taken and cut to a convenient shape, with a groove
tightly fitting the scraper steel, greater pressure can be exerted and
more effective work produced, without cramping the hands or tiring out
the operator as readily.--Contributed by A. P. Nevin, Hancock, Mich.

[Illustration: An Ordinary Piece of Board Shaped for a Handle and Notched
for the Scraper Blade]



Photographic Tray-Rocking Stand


Films develop better if the tray holding the solution is kept in motion
or rocked. This is inconvenient and tiresome where a great many films are
to be developed. The trouble may be overcome by the use of the rocking
device shown in the sketch. It may be made of any light wood, the right
size to suit the photographer's needs.

[Illustration: Tray Rocked Automatically by a Weight]

The tray holder A is pivoted on the uprights C with pins EE. The uprights
are fastened to a base, B. Two braces, D, one on each side of the upright
C, limits the tip of the tray holder A. The weight F works as a pendulum,
which automatically rocks the tray when set in motion.--Contributed by
Abner B. Shaw, No. Dartmouth, Mass.



Kite-Line Traveler


The amusement of kite flying can be broadened by adding the kite-line
traveler shown in the sketch. The frame of the traveler is made of poplar,
spruce or soft pine, 1/4 in. square. The horizontal piece is 24 in. long
and the piece to which the wings are fastened is 8 in. long. This piece
is cut so it will have a slight slant. The brace is a mitered piece,
13 in. long. The frame is fastened together with small brads, giving it
the appearance shown in Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Traveler Details (Fig. 1)]

After the frame is finished, the traveler wheels are made and attached.
They should be 1/4 in. thick, about 1-1/4 in. in diameter, and have a
groove cut 3/16 in. into their faces. The pattern for cutting the bearings
is shown in Fig. 4. These are bent at the places shown by the dotted lines
and attached to the main frame stick as shown by BB in Fig. 3. The end
view of the bearing is shown in Fig. 5. The metal is bent in as shown by
AA, so that the wheel will rotate without much friction.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5)]

In Fig. 6 is shown the method of attaching the wings to the slanting frame
part. The wings are made of light cardboard and each fastened with tacks
to a wood arm, cut as shown. The large end of each arm is made to hinge
in a piece of tin with brads AA.

[Illustration: (Fig. 6)]

Fasten a string to the ends of the arm pieces, as shown in Fig. 1, and
attach a wire loop to the middle of the string, as shown in Fig. 3. The
wire shown at L in Fig. 3 is bent and attached to the main frame so it
will slide easily. The trip for dropping the wings, as shown in Fig. 2, is
a small block of wood about 2 in. square and 1/4 in. thick with a 1/2-in.
hole in the center. Slip the kite line through the hole before tying it
to the kite. Place the trip about 100 ft. from the kite and wedge it to
the string with a small piece of wood. The eyelets SS are necessary, as
they make it impossible for the pulley to run off the string.

The traveler is first put on the kite string with the end having the loop
L (Fig. 3) up, then, after letting out 100 ft. of string, the trip block
is fastened in place and the kite tied to the end of the string. Hook the
wire loop on the string attached to the ends of the wings in place in the
wire catch of L, and it is ready for the flight. When the traveler reaches
the trip, the loop L is pushed back, thus causing the end of the wire to
slip out of wire loop and the wings to fall back as shown in Fig. 2, when
the traveler descends ready to be set for another flight.--Contributed by
Stanley C. Funk, Bellefontaine, Ohio.



A Mouse Trap


[Illustration]

A simple mouse trap can be made of two lengths of steel wire. The spiral
wire is 1/16 in. in diameter and the center wire is of larger size. The
trap is set by pulling out the spring and catching the ends on the bends
A and B. The bait is tied on at C. When the mouse puts his head through
the coils and pulls the bait, the springs are released and his head is
caught between the coils.



How to Make a Small Electric Furnace


The furnace consists of a large flower pot containing an ordinary
clay crucible about 6 in. in height, the space between the two being
packed with fireclay. Two 3/4-in. holes are bored through the sides
of the crucible about half way between the top and the bottom. Holes
corresponding to these holes are molded in the fireclay, which should
extend several inches above the top of the flower pot. A smaller crucible
is placed inside of the large one for use in melting such metals as
copper, brass and aluminum. With metals that will melt at a low degree
of heat, such as tin, lead or zinc, the large crucible can be used alone.
Each crucible should be provided with a cover to confine the heat and keep
out the air. The electrodes are ordinary arc-light carbons.

[Illustration: Electric Connections to Furnace]

The furnace is run on an ordinary 110-volt lighting circuit and it is
necessary to have a rheostat connected in series with it. A water rheostat
as shown in the sketch will serve to regulate the current for this
furnace. Small quantities of brass or aluminum can be melted in about 10
minutes in the furnace.--Contributed by Leonard Stebbins, Denver, Colo.



Repairing a Broken Knife Handle


A piece was broken from the pearl handle of my knife and I repaired
it in the following manner: After cleaning both the edges of the pearl
and the brass beneath, I run in enough solder to fill the place of the
piece of pearl broken out. The solder was then filed, sandpapered and
polished. The broken part cannot be felt and it appears to be only an end
decoration.--Contributed by W. A. Humphrey, Columbus, O.

[Illustration: Repairing with Solder (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



Picture-Frame and Triangle Clamp


A picture frame or triangle is quite difficult to hold together when
fitting the corners. It is still more difficult to hold them together
while the glue dries. The clamp illustrated will be found quite
satisfactory in solving this problem, and at the same time is very simple
to construct and easy to manipulate. The material list for making the
clamps and corner blocks is as follows:

  Picture frame clamp:

    4 pieces, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 15 in.

    2 pieces, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 5 in.

  Triangle clamp:

    3 pieces, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 10 in.

    1 piece, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 4 in.

  Corner blocks:

    4 pieces, 7/8 by 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in.

    8 pieces, 7/8 by 1 by 2 in.

  The pieces mentioned are of oak, S-4-S.

    1 piece 3/8-in. maple for dowels

  Hardware:

    10 bolts, 1/4 by 2 in.

    4 bolts, 1/4 by 3 in.

    2 bolts, 3/8 by 6 in.


The picture-frame clamp consists of the four arms A, B, C and D, Fig. 1.
A 1/4-in. hole is bored in one end of each piece, 1/2 in. from the end. A
series of 3/8-in. holes, 1 in. apart, are bored along the center in each
piece. The two short pieces, E and F, have two 1/4-in. holes bored in
their centers, 1/2 in. from each end. These pieces are bolted to the four
arms with 1/4-in. bolts as shown in the sketch. A 3/8-in. hole is bored
in the middle of each piece E and F for one of the 6-in. bolts K.

[Illustration: The Corner Blocks on Both Picture Frame and Triangle Clamps
are so Constructed That They Hold the Molding together While Fitting the
Corners and also Hold Them Securely While the Glue is Hardening (Fig. 1)]

The four corner blocks G, H, I and J, Fig. 1, have a 3/8-in. hole bored
in the center of each and a dowel glued into it with the end projecting
1-1/4 in. on the under side and level with the surface on the upper side.
Each of the corner blocks is fitted with two pieces like X, Fig. 2. Each
of these pieces has one end round or a semicircle, and in its center a
1/4-in. hole is bored. The other end has a 3/8-in. hole bored 1/2 in. from
the end.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

After making the small pieces, take the four corner blocks G, H, I and
J and draw a line on the upper side in the center, with the grain of the
wood, and mark the angles as follows, so that one-half the angle will be
on each side of the center line: On one end of the pieces G and H mark a
90-deg. angle, on the other end a 45-deg. angle, on the piece I mark a
90-deg. and 30-deg. angle and on J mark a 90-deg. and 60-deg. angle. Mark
the number of degrees of each between the sides of the angle. Place two of
the pieces marked X, Fig. 2, on each of the corner blocks, one piece on
each side between the different angle lines, so their round ends will be
toward the center and toward each other with a space of 1/4 in. between
them. Clamp the pieces to the corner blocks and bore the 1/4-in. holes
through them to secure perfect alinement. Put the bolts in and turn the
pieces first to one angle and then the other, and while in the respective
positions, bore the 3/8-in. holes 3/8 in. deep in the corner blocks. Glue
a dowel in each 3/8-in. hole of the small pieces, allowing it to project
1/4 in. on the under side so it will fit in the 3/8-in. hole in the corner
block. Be sure to countersink the holes for the heads of the bolts. All
bolts should be fitted with wing nuts. All that is necessary to change
from one angle to another is to loosen the nuts and swing the small pieces
around so the dowel pins will drop into the other holes, then tighten the
nuts.

The triangle clamp is made in the same manner as the picture-frame clamp,
except that the arms L and M, Figs. 2 and 3, are half-lapped into the
crosspiece P. The bolt O is 3/8 in. and the head is cut off. Drill a
1/8-in. hole in the bolt, 1/4 in. from the end, and bore a 3/8-in. hole in
the end of the arm N. Insert the headless bolt O in this hole and drive
a nail through the side of the arm N, so it will pass through the hole
drilled in the bolt. This keys the bolt in the end of the arm N.

To clamp a picture frame, set the corner blocks G, H, I and J to the
90-deg. angles and adjust them on the arms A, B, C and D to accommodate
the size frame to be made, as shown in Fig. 1. Tighten the thumbnut on
the bolt K, and this will draw all four corners together with the same
pressure. The corners can then be examined to see if they fit properly.
If they do not, saw in the joints with a backsaw until they do fit.

The triangles are clamped in the same way. The corner blocks are set to
take the proper angles. The ends of the bolts should be slightly burred
over so that the thumbnuts cannot be turned off.--Contributed by Chas. A.
Pettit, Baltimore, Md.



Exterior Sliding Fly Screen


The method shown for fitting fly screens on the outside of the upper and
lower sash permits the screen to be raised and held at different heights.
Screweyes are turned into the outer strips, as shown in Fig. 1. The sides
of the screen frame are grooved, Fig. 2, to allow it to slide up and down
on the screweyes.

[Illustration: The Heads of the Screweyes in the Window-Frame Stop Slide
in a Groove Cut in the Screen Frame (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The screen can be raised and two of the screweyes turned from the
normal vertical position, A, Fig. 3, to a horizontal position, B,
to hold the frame at that point. By the use of a greater number of
screweyes more places can be provided to support the screen at different
heights.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



Bushing a Stovepipe in a Chimney Hole


When a stovepipe is too small for the hole in the chimney, a bushing can
be made of the kind of metal tobacco boxes that are curved to fit in a
pocket. Remove the tops and bottoms of the boxes and shove them in around
the pipe. If such tobacco boxes are not at hand, tin cans of any kind
can be used by melting off the tops and bottoms and bending the remaining
cylindrical shells into proper shape.--Contributed by Elmer McConaughy,
Dayton, O.



A Screweye Driver


[Illustration]

An ordinary wire nail, 3 in. long, bent as shown and with its head filed
square, makes a good tool for turning in screweyes. The square head is
readily held in the chuck on most braces. The screweye can be turned in
with greater speed than by the ordinary method.--Contributed by Robert T.
Johnston, Buffalo, New York.



Copying Stand for Photographic Enlarging and Reducing


A camera stand or table, which can be put to many uses, is easily made
and, when made, will be of particular service, says Work, London, for
enlarging, reducing, copying, and, with a slight modification, for making
lantern slides by reduction.

Copying with a camera on a tripod is always a more or less complicated
job, because of the ease with which a picture, being focused, may be
thrown out of focus, and even out of the field of view, the camera not
being attached to the same support as the picture. With the stand shown
in the illustration, the picture is attached to the same support as the
camera. This makes it possible to place the apparatus on a table, out in
the open, or in any other suitable position, where the light may be best
for the work. When used for enlarging with artificial light it will also
be found convenient, as it may be placed in any position in a darkened
room.

[Illustration: Camera Stand for Use in Copying and Enlarging, as Well as
for Making Lantern Slides (Fig. 1)]

The size of the stand will depend on the sizes of pictures to be made,
but it is better to have it too large than too small, as a small camera
can be used on a large stand while a small stand would be of only limited
use. The general appearance of the stand is shown in Fig. 1. The material
list is as follows:

  2  Sides, 1/2 in. by 9-1/2 in. by 5 ft., S-2-S.
  4  Crosspieces, 1/2 in. by 3 in. by 1 ft. 7 in., S-2-S.
  4  Guides, 3/4 in. by 1-1/4 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., S-2-S.
  2  Bottom Pieces, 1 in. by 9 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., S-2-S.
  1  Easel, 3/4 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft., S-2-S.
  2  Cleats, 1/2 in. by 1-1/2 in. by 1 ft. 4 in., S-2-S.

Straight-grained soft pine or poplar is the best material to use. The
side pieces should be narrowed at one end or to a point about halfway
of their length. The extent of this narrowing will depend somewhat on
circumstances. The guide pieces are then attached with screws, the two
upper pieces so that they have their upper edges flush with the edges of
the side boards.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The bottom piece, on which the camera is to be set, is made of the two
pieces, cut as shown in Fig. 2, and joined with cleats, as in Fig. 3. The
space left after part of one side of each board has been cut away, should
be sufficient to make a slot which, when the boards are joined together,
will admit the screw to hold the camera in place. A rod is run through
holes bored in the sides, just below the two pairs of guides, and fitted
with a wing nut for clamping the sliding bottom when a focus and the size
of the picture is found.

In copying, the camera is attached to the bottom board and the picture is
tacked to the easel. The camera is then focused roughly by means of the
rack and pinion, the final, fine focusing being done by moving the sliding
bottom board. For enlarging, the lantern is placed on the sliding bottom
and the bromide paper tacked to the easel.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

For lantern-slide work, which is reducing, it is necessary to cut an
aperture in the easel, after the manner shown in Fig. 4. The edges of
the opening have a rabbet to receive first a ground glass and then the
negative, both being held in place with turn buttons. It is not necessary
to have two easels, as this opening can be fitted with a piece to make a
level surface when the apparatus is used for copying or enlarging.



To Make Whitewash Stick to Surfaces Coated


In using whitewash much difficulty is experienced in making it stick to
the substance covered. A good way to prevent the coating from cracking
and peeling off is to add 2 oz. of pure sodium chloride to every 1 gal.
of whitewash mixture. This is not expensive, but should be secured at
a drug store because some salts of sodium are not pure and will darken
the whitewash. The sodium chloride should be added after the whitewash
solution is made up. When this mixture is used in buildings it will
destroy all vermin which it touches.



A Mechanical Camera


[Illustration]

The young person who likes to draw will find the device illustrated of
great assistance for outlining a portrait or a bit of scenery which can
be filled in to make the picture. The camera consists of a box without
a cover, about 12 in. long, 6 in. wide and 4 in. deep. An oblong hole
is cut in one end, a small hole bored in the other, and a piece cut out
of the lower edge so that one eye can be placed close to the hole. The
oblong hole, shown by the dotted lines, is covered with a fine perforated
cardboard, the kind used for working in mottoes with yarn. Supports are
nailed in the corners of the box, their length being calculated to allow
the operator to sit or stand, as desired.

[Illustration: Outlining a Portrait on the Perforated Paper Placed over
the Oblong Hole in the Camera]

The camera is used in the manner illustrated. If a portrait is to be
drawn, then the one sitting for it must be quiet until the outlines are
completed. The operator, looking through the hole, traces the lines on
the cardboard between the perforations. When the outlines are drawn in
this manner, the cardboard is removed and placed on the paper or cardboard
used for the picture. The outline is then transferred by marking with a
sharp-pointed pencil through the perforations on the outlines as drawn.
After separating the two pieces, the markings can be connected with a
continuous line and an exact outline will be obtained which can be filled
in as desired. The outline picture is a sample of work done with the
camera.--Contributed by Florence Thomas, Gordon, Ont.



Gauge Attachment for a Pocket Rule


[Illustration]

The base of the gauge A is cut from a block of hard wood, about 2-1/2 in.
long, 1 in. wide and 3/8 in. thick. A notch is cut in one side to admit
the rule and the wedge B, which has a slot that slides on a pin in the
base. A small metal clip keeps the wedge in place. The gauge can be
readily set on the rule at any mark.



Plate Hangers


In hanging old china plates for decorative purposes use three large white
dress hooks, placed at equal distances apart on the edge of the plate. The
hanging wire or cord is run through them from the back side and drawn up
tightly. These hooks are much better than the ordinary plate hanger, as
they are small and will not show much on the plate.



An Electrically Operated Camera Shutter


[Illustration: The Electromagnet Trips a Spring Plunger That Forces a
Piston on the Camera Air Bulb]

It is often quite desirable to operate the shutter of a camera from a
distance, especially in photographing birds and animals. The device shown
in the accompanying sketch serves the above purpose very nicely, and its
construction and operation are exceedingly simple. In brief, the operation
is as follows: The switch A is mounted on the limb of a tree, in such a
manner that it is not conspicuous, and connected in series with a magnet,
B, and a battery by means of a piece of flexible conductor, such as lamp
cord. The magnet B is energized when the switch is closed and attracts the
iron armature C, which is mounted on an arm, pivoted at D. The lower end
of this arm is in the form of a latch, which supports the rod E when it
is raised to its upper position. The rod E when it is raised compresses
the coiled spring F, which is held between the gauge G and the washer H
mounted on the rod. A small coil spring holds the armature C away from
the core of the magnet B. The lower end of the rod E is in the form of
a piston operating in a wooden cylinder J. The rubber bulb at the end of
the tube leading to the camera shutter is located in the lower end of the
cylinder J. When the rod E is released by the latch K, it moves downward
in the cylinder J, due to the action of the spring F, and compresses
the bulb L, causing the shutter of the camera to be operated. A small
handle, M, may be mounted on the rod to be used in raising it to the upper
position. The component parts of this device may be mounted on a small
wooden base by means of brass straps, and the terminals of the electric
circuit connected to the binding posts N and O, as shown. The switch A
may be dispensed with and a push button used in its place, as the operator
may station himself several hundred feet away. It may be necessary to use
a battery of more than one cell in such cases.



Electroplating without a Tank


Electroplating without a plating tank is made possible with the following
easily homemade apparatus described in a German scientific magazine.
It consists of a rubber ball, A, fitted at one end with a glass tube,
B, which carries at the opposite end a small sponge. A rod, D, passes
through the rubber ball, which is tightly corked at both ends, into the
glass tube B and carries at that end the anode E. A small glass tube,
F, also connects the rubber ball with the larger tube B. The connections
from the battery to the cathode, G, the object to be plated, and to the
projecting end of the anode-carrying rod, D, are made as shown. The rubber
ball is filled with the electrolyte, and is squeezed so as to force the
fluid through the small tube F, into the larger tube, B, filling it and
soaking the sponge C. The current is then turned on, and by moving the wet
sponge over the cathode G, the latter will be plated. Not only is this an
interesting accessory for the amateur's laboratory, but it can be used in
the industry where only parts of some object are to be plated, and where
it is desired to remedy bad spots without putting the articles back into
the bath.

[Illustration: A Hand Tool for Applying a Plate Electrically to the
Surface of Metal]



A Milk-Bottle Tray


Bottled milk is difficult to deliver without knocking the bottles together
when carrying them or while in a wagon. There are several kinds of wire
baskets for carrying the bottles, but they all have the disadvantage of
allowing the bottles to strike one another. A carrier not having this
fault can be made very cheaply as follows: Procure a board 1 in. thick,
8 in. wide and 2 ft. long, plane and make it smooth, and use ordinary
tin fruit or vegetable cans for the bottle holders. Cut each can off
2-1/2 in. from the bottom and smooth off the jagged edges with a file.
Nail these in two rows on the board, starting 1 in. from each end. Attach
a segment of a barrel hoop for a handle. The carrier can be painted as
desired.--Contributed by G. H. Clemmons, Storm Lake, Iowa.

[Illustration: Parts of Tin Cans Fastened to a Board for Holding Milk
Bottles]



A Springboard


Select straight-grained hickory or ash for the springboards. These can
be of any width to make up the board to 18 in. wide. The frame part may
be of any material of the dimensions given in the sketch. The butt ends
of the springboard should be well fastened to the crosspiece with screws,
or, better still, small carriage bolts with the nuts on the under side.

[Illustration: A Springboard for Use in Connection with a Vaulting Pole
or for Turning Acts]

The crosspiece at the rear is cut on the angle of the springboard.
The front crosspiece is mortised into the frame, and the one near the
center is laid on top of the two side rails. The rear crosspiece is
either fastened with large dowels or mortised into the sidepieces. This
springboard will be of use in connection with a back-yard gymnasium for
vaulting and doing turning acts.



Planing Rough-Grain Boards


The surface of a board having a grain that runs both ways is very hard
to smooth with a plane. By sharpening the plane iron to a keen edge,
then placing it in the plane with the cap reversed and set about 1/32 in.
from the cutting edge, I find that with a light cut the plane will smooth
regardless of the direction of the grain.--Contributed by William Rollins,
Wichita, Kansas.



Braces for Aeroplane Frames


In making model aeroplanes or gliders the brace shown will serve the
purpose admirably. The size and strength of the metal used will depend
on where it is to be used. The metal is bent into the shape shown
with the use of a vise. The manner of attaching the braces is clearly
shown.--Contributed by Francis Chetlain, Chicago.

[Illustration: The Braces are Cut from Stake Iron or Sheet Metal According
to the Size Machine being Built]



A Puzzle Purse


The puzzle purse is made of four pieces of chamois, two of the pieces
being merely flaps, one on each side at the upper edge. One of the pieces
forming one side of the purse extends upward for about twice the height of
the purse part. The part above the purse has a number of slits cut in it
to make the width of each strip 1/8 in. These slits should be accurately
cut in order that the purse may be opened easily. The other half is only
the size of the purse proper. The upper edge of the latter piece and the
flap on that side are stitched together to the flap on the opposite side,
the threads of the stitches running between the strips of the long piece.
These stitches are made on the line AB and around the edge.

[Illustration: The Strips of Leather Sliding through the Stitches Make
the Puzzle Part of the Purse]

To open the purse, take hold of each side on the purse part and draw the
pieces apart. In doing so, the strips are drawn through the stitches so
that they may be separated and a coin taken from the purse. A pull on each
end will close the purse.--Contributed by Chas. Motton, Toronto, Ont.



An Emergency Sandpapering Machine


While doing some work I had several small pieces to be finished with
sandpaper. They were so small and of such a shape that it was impossible
to do the work by hand. Not having a sanding machine, I used a disk
talking machine for the purpose. I placed a sheet of sandpaper over the
disk and fastened it to the felt at the corners with pins. The machine
was then set going at its highest rate of speed, and the articles were
smoothed by holding them on the disk.--Contributed by Fred S. Barnard,
Los Angeles, Cal.



A Developing Machine


The base of the developing machine consists of a wood tray with sloping
ends and high sides, which is placed at the center and provides bearings
for the wheel axle. The dimensions given in the sketch are for making a
machine to develop a film about 29 in. long. The disk, or wheel, is cut
from a board, 7/8 in. thick, and the attached crosspieces are cut from
1/4 in. dowels to make them 2-1/2 in. long. These are placed about 1 in.
apart on the circumference of the disk.

An axle, fastened solidly in the wheel and adjusted in the bearings,
is kept from slipping sideways by bushings made of a spool. A crank is
attached to one end of the axle. Hot paraffin is applied to the inside of
the tank part, to make it liquid-tight. Two pins or hooks are attached to
one of the crosspieces to catch into the film end. If the wheel is the
correct size, the same pins can be used for fastening the other end of
the film.

[Illustration: The Entire Length of Film is Placed on the Wheel Where It
is Run through the Developer]

The film is first attached to the wheel; then, while turning slowly, the
developer is poured into the tray. Keep on turning the wheel until full
development is obtained, then pour out the liquid and turn in fresh, clear
water, and turn the wheel to wash out the developer. Remove the film and
place it in the hypo bath.--Contributed by Raymond M. Bealer, Baltimore,
Md.



A Stove-Wood Carrier


A handy wood carrier, for bringing wood and kindling from the basement or
yard to the wood box in the house, may be made from a grain sack, as shown
in the sketch. Use a complete sack and make rope handles at each end. When
used, place only sufficient wood or kindling in it to permit the handles
to come together over the top of the load. This will make a comfortable
grip and it is no harder to carry than a medium-weight suitcase. When the
wood is removed the carrier can be taken to the back yard and shaken out,
thus doing away with the dirt that usually results from other methods of
filling wood boxes.--Contributed by Walter Nelson Kidston, Seattle, Wash.

[Illustration: The Ropes at the Ends of the Sack Make a Handle to Carry
It Like a Grip]



A Pencil Sharpener


A pencil sharpened with the device shown will have a better point and one
that will not break easily while being sharpened. The lower arm A is made
from a strip of sheet steel, 1/16 in. thick. An extension, 1/4 in. wide,
is cut and bent in a circle to form the lower finger hold. The upper arm B
forms the cutter, which is made from a piece of hacksaw blade. The teeth
are ground off and the temper is drawn from the extension that forms the
upper circle. A portion of the arm A is bent over, as shown at C, to form
a support for the pencil point to rest upon. A hole, large enough for a
pencil to turn in, is bored through a stick of hardwood, D, and tapered
so that the center of the hole meets the inner edge of C. It is fastened
to the lower arm with screws. A sharp cutting edge is ground on the blade
which is then attached to the arm A with a rivet loosely enough to swing
freely.--Contributed by J. V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind.

[Illustration: A Pencil Sharpener That will Make a Point without Breaking
the Lead]



Cleaning an Oilstone


Use kerosene oil and a sprinkling of emery flour and proceed to sharpen
tools. It is not necessary to clean a stone thus treated before placing
the tool on it, as the emery and kerosene will make a good surface
on the stone as well as assisting in producing a sharp edge on the
tool.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



Landing for Small Boats


Not having a landing for my small boat, I made a series of sectional
platforms, rising 2 ft. above the bottom, which served the purpose well
and were inexpensive. Each section is about 15 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and
2 ft. high. The frame is made of material 2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, and
on top is a floor made of boards, while the bottom consists of 2 by 4-in.
crosspieces, nailed on 6 in. apart. Stones are laid on these crosspieces
to moor it down in place. The whole landing is simple to make and it
lasts a long time, as the sections can be drawn out and stored during the
winter.--Contributed by Henry Briggs, Lexington, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: The Series of Platforms Make a Good Small-Boat Landing on
a Slanting Beach]



Bearings for Model Work


For experimental work I use hangers or bearings made of sheet brass or
copper, bent at right angles for strength and capped with a box. The main
part of the bearing A is shaped as shown, and the box B consists of a
small piece cut from a brass rod and drilled for the size of the shaft.
The box is soldered to the top end of A and the base C to the bottom
end. When a large metal base is used for a certain model, the part A is
attached directly to that base and the part C need not be used.

[Illustration: Sheet-Copper Support with a Base and a Shaft Bearing
Soldered to the Ends]

The bearings can be made in different heights, each of which will demand
a corresponding size and thickness of the parts. Sheet brass or copper,
1/32 in. thick, is about right for a bearing 3 in. high.--Contributed by
W. E. Day, Pittsfield, Mass.



Holding the Tongue of a Shoe in Place


The tongue in a shoe will often slip down or over to one side or the other
and expose the hose. To overcome this and have the tongue fit snugly in
the right place, fasten a common lace clasp or hook near the top of the
tongue, as shown in the illustration, so that in lacing the shoe the laces
are passed under the hook to hold the tongue in place.

[Illustration: The Hook on the Tongue of the Shoe and Manner of Lacing to
Hold the Tongue]



A Photo Vignetter


Procure a piece of heavy wire, one that is fairly stiff, says Camera
Craft, and a pair of pliers and bend the wire with the pliers as shown
in the illustration. After the loop is made to fit around the lens barrel
the wire is bent at right angles at a point 6 in. below the circle. At a
distance of 8 in. on the extending part of the wire it is bent as shown
to form a clip for holding a sheet of cardboard.

[Illustration: The Arm for Holding the Vignette Cardboard is Made of a
Heavy Piece of Wire]

The cardboard should be about 7 in. wide and of dark color, with one
edge cut semicircular and notched. The size of the wire and the other
measurements will depend upon the size and focal length of the lens. If a
heavy vignetting card is required, it may be necessary to make the portion
that encircles the lens double in length, bending it back upon itself to
secure a firmer hold. This is a cheap and efficient vignetter that anyone
can make in a few moments of spare time.



Pocket for the Inside of a Book Cover


Students or anyone wishing to retain notes on a subject will find it
quite handy to have a large envelope pasted in the back of each textbook.
Instead of having notes all through the book, they can be arranged in
order and slipped into the envelope. If the book is accidentally dropped,
the notes will not be lost.--Contributed by Harold Mynning, Chicago, Ill.



Cleaning Steel of Grease and Stains


Grease and stains can be easily removed from steel with a mixture of
unslaked lime and chalk powder, by rubbing it on the steel with a dry
cloth. The best proportion for the mixture, which is easily prepared,
is 1 part of lime to 1 part of chalk powder. The powder should be used
dry. It is kept in cans for future use and can be used over and over
again.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



An Electrically Ignited Flash Light for Making Photographs


The results obtained in a great many cases in trying to take pictures by
flash-light are exceedingly unsatisfactory, as the expression on the faces
of the people in the picture usually is strained or unnatural, due to the
suspense in waiting for the flash. The following simple device avoids this
difficulty because the flash is set off by means of electricity, so that
the operator can control the flash from a distant point and thus be able
to take the picture quite unawares to his subjects.

The construction of the device is as follows: Obtain a piece of rather
heavy sheet iron, about 6 in. wide and 10 in. long. Bend this piece of
iron into the form shown in the sketch, and fasten a wooden handle to
it with a wood screw. Obtain a sheet of 1/8-in. sheet asbestos, the same
size as the piece of sheet iron, and glue it to the inside surface of the
curved piece of iron. It is best to fasten the four corners down by means
of some small rivets with rather large washers under the heads next to
the asbestos.

Now mount two pieces of sheet copper, 1/2 in. wide and 6 in. long,
parallel with each other on the surface of the asbestos and 1-1/2 in.
apart, so that their ends are even with the end of the piece of asbestos.
These pieces of copper should be insulated from the piece of sheet iron,
and there should be a small screw in one end of each and a small binding
post mounted on the other end.

[Illustration: The Asbestos-Lined Tray and the Wiring Connections for
Attaching to the Electric-Light Wires]

Procure a piece of lamp cord, 15 or 20 ft. in length. Fasten an ordinary
plug to one end of this cord and the other end to the two binding posts.
Open one of the conductors in the cord at some point and introduce a
single-pole switch, as shown in the sketch. Close the gap between the two
pieces of copper by means of a piece of No. 32 gauge copper wire. Place
the flash-light powder in position, but do not cover up the wire or have
it in actual contact with the powder, and close the circuit. The operator
may include himself in the picture by having a sufficiently long piece of
lamp cord and the switch properly arranged.



A Simple Twine-Ball Holder


[Illustration]

In looking for a place to put a twine ball I happened to see a tin funnel
and it gave me the idea which I put into practice. I punched three holes
at equal distances apart in its upper edge and attached three strings
which were run to an apex and tied to a screweye in the ceiling. The end
of the twine from the center of the ball was run through the funnel stem
and allowed to hang as in an ordinary ball holder.--Contributed by W. C.
Loy, Rochester, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A filler for birch, red gum and beech can be made of
    1 lb. of bleached shellac to each gallon of water.



A Toy Popgun


A toy popgun can be easily made of two blocks of hard wood, 1/2 in. thick;
a joint of bamboo, about 7/8 in. in diameter and 6 in. long; a small
hinge, a piece of spring steel, 1/2 in. wide and 1 in. long, and a piece
of soft wood for the plunger.

The plunger A is cut to fit snugly, yet so it will move easily in the
piece of bamboo B. One of the blocks of hard wood, C, is bored to fit one
end of the bamboo, the other block has a 1/4-in. hole bored, to center the
hole in the first block. The two blocks are hinged and the spring latch
attached as shown in the sketch. The spring has a hole drilled so it can
be fastened with a screw to the outer block, and a slot cut in the other
end to slip over a staple driven into the block C.

[Illustration: Detail of Popgun, Showing the Parts Assembled and Position
of the Paper]

A piece of paper, D, is placed in between the blocks while the plunger A
is out at the end of the bamboo. A quick pressure on the plunger A will
cause the paper D to break out through the small opening with a loud
pop.--Contributed by Paul H. Burkhart, Blue Island, Ill.



A Non-Rolling Thread Spool


[Illustration]

A spool of thread may be kept from rolling by gluing squares of cardboard
to the ends. The squares should be a little larger than the spool. This
will save many a step and much bending over to pick up the spool. The
spool, when it falls, will stop where it landed.--Contributed by Katharine
D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y.



Shoe-Shining Stand


To anyone who finds it tiresome to shine his shoes while putting the foot
on the rim of a bathtub, on a cook-stove or chair with a newspaper on it,
the stand here described will afford relief and at the same time he will
always have the shining outfit ready for use.

[Illustration: Dimensioned Parts and Completed Stand Which has a Box to
Hold the Shining Outfit]

The whole is of pine, the foot rest being made of a piece 2 by 4 in.; the
legs, of 1 by 2 in., and the bottom of the box, of 1/2 by 4-1/4 in. All
other dimensions are given in the sketch. After the legs are attached and
the bottom of the box in place, the sides are fitted and fastened with
nails.--Contributed by Samuel Hughs, Berkeley, Cal.



Cutter Made of a Wafer Razor Blade


A useful instrument for seamstresses and makers of paper patterns and
stencils can be made of a piece of steel or iron and a wafer razor blade.
The end of the metal is flattened and two holes drilled to match the holes
of the razor blade. Small screw bolts are used to attach the blade to
the handle. Place a cork on one edge as a protection for the hand of the
user.--Contributed by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.

[Illustration: The Wafer Blade Attached to the Handle, the Top Edge being
Protected with a Cork]

[Illustration]



To Hold a Negative in a Printing Frame


When printing postal cards and working fast, it always bothered me to hold
the negative in the printing frame while removing the card. To overcome
this trouble I decided to contrive some arrangement to hold the negative
in the frame when the back was removed. The device I made consists of
a thin, flat spring, about 1/8 in. wide and as long as the width of the
frame opening. Two lugs are formed and soldered to the ends, as shown in
Fig. 1, for holding the plate, and a central lug is soldered on to provide
a means of fastening the spring in position. A groove, about 1/16 in.
deep, was cut in the opposite end of the frame to receive one end of the
negative.

[Illustration: The Spring with Its Clips and Manner of Holding a Negative
in a Printing Frame (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

In use, slide the plate into the frame and into the lugs on the spring,
and push the spring upward until the plate can be slipped into the slot
at the opposite end of the frame. The pressure of the spring, as shown
in Fig. 2, will hold the plate securely. The frame can be handled quite
roughly and as fast as desired without any danger of the plate falling
out.--Contributed by Thos. L. Parker, Wibaux, Montana.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A number of bright tin disks tied to the limbs of a
    fruit tree will prove an efficient means of driving
    away infesting birds.



How to Make an Electrolytic Interrupter


[Illustration]

Obtain a glass jar or wide-mouth bottle about one-quart size. An ordinary
round bottle will serve very nicely by having the top cut off, thus
forming a glass jar. Make a top for the jar from a piece of 1/2-in. pine
similar to the one shown in the illustration. The lower portion extends
down inside the jar and serves to hold the top in place. Cut a slot in
this top, 1/8 in. wide and 2 in. long. This slot should be cut at right
angles to a diameter of the top and extend 1 in. on either side of the
diameter. It should be about 1/2 in. from the center of the top. Directly
opposite the center of the slot drill a 3/8-in hole, 1/2 in. from the
center of the top. Drill a 1/4-in. hole in the center of the top to give
ventilation to the jar. Boil the completed top in paraffin for a few
minutes.

Obtain a piece of 1/8-in. sheet lead, 2 in. wide and about 1/2 in. longer
than the depth of the jar. Mount a small binding post on one end of this
piece of lead and then support it in the slot in the wooden top by means
of two metal pins. The lower end of the piece of lead should be at least
1/2 in. from the bottom of the jar. Next get a piece of 3/8-in. glass tube
and fuse a piece of platinum wire into one end. Make sure the inside end
of the platinum wire is not covered with the glass, and that the outside
end protrudes a short distance beyond the end of the glass tube. Now bend
about 3/4 in. of the end of the glass tube which has the platinum in it
over at right angles to the remainder of the tube. The tube should then be
placed in the opening on the wooden top provided for it and a rubber band
placed around it to prevent it dropping through the opening. The lower end
of the tube should be a little higher than the lower end of the sheet of
lead. A small quantity of mercury should be placed in the tube and a bare
copper wire run down inside. The mercury affords a connection between the
piece of platinum in the end of the tube and the copper wire. Connect the
outside end of the copper wire under a binding post and the interrupter
is complete with the exception of the solution.

The solution for the interrupter is dilute sulphuric acid made by mixing
about four parts of water and one part of acid. In preparing this mixture,
be sure to pour the acid into the water, not the water into the acid. The
jar should be about two-thirds filled. At least 40 volts will be required
for the satisfactory operation of the interrupter. The distance between
the platinum point and the lead sheet may be adjusted by simply turning
the glass tube.

No condenser will be required in operating an inductor coil with an
interrupter of this kind. The make-and-break interrupter, if there is
one in circuit, should of course be made inoperative by screwing up the
contact point against the spring.



A Homemade Hand Drill Press


The little use I had for a drill press did not make it advisable to
purchase one, so I constructed a device for drilling iron and brass which
answered all purposes. A broken carpenter's brace furnished the chuck,
which was fastened to a 1/2-in. shaft having a detachable crank. The shaft
turns in a brass tube which is fitted tightly in a hole bored in the
upright. The sliding part or table is forced up against the drill with
a 1/2-in. machine bolt. The bolt turns in a square nut fastened in the
opposite post. The end of the screw bears on a plate fastened on the under
side of the table to prevent wear. A crank could be attached to this bolt
so that it may be turned more easily.

[Illustration: A Very Inexpensive Drill Press Frame Which Answers the
Purpose Admirably]

The sliding or table part is made of a post similar to the end posts, but
with guides attached so as to keep it in place. The holes for the chuck
shaft and bolt should be bored on a line and exactly in the center of the
posts.--Contributed by L. R. Kelley, Philadelphia, Pa.



A Hose Nozzle


The nozzle shown in the accompanying sketch was made from an empty tobacco
can having an oval shape. I cut the can in two near the center and punched
small holes in the bottom. I then cut a piece of 1/2-in. board to fit
tightly in the end of the can and turned the edges of the tin down to
hold it in place. A hole was bored in the center of the wood and a 1/2-in.
hose coupling fitted in it. The water will swell the wood enough to make
an absolutely watertight joint, but by using a little care in fitting it,
the joint will be watertight without the swelling.

[Illustration: The Oval Form of the Box Makes It Possible to Sprinkle
Close Up to Walks]

The holes being punched in straight lines, the nozzle throws a rectangular
section of fine streams, which makes it possible to sprinkle close up to
walks without wetting them. The friction is much less than in the ordinary
hose nozzle, and consequently this nozzle delivers more water and also
materially reduces the strain on the hose.--Contributed by J. B. Downer,
Seattle, Washington.



An Electric Water Heater


A simple electric water heater may be made as follows: Procure two
sheets of copper, each 4 by 6 in., and place pieces of wood or other
insulating material at the corners to keep them about 3/4 in. apart. Bind
them with cords, or, if the wood pieces are large enough, use screws so
that there will be no contact between the plates. Attach wires to the
plates with solder as shown, and make connections to a plug. Pour water
in an earthenware jar, place the plates in it and turn the plug in a
lamp socket. Do not use a metal vessel.--Contributed by G. Henry Jones,
Sylacauga, Ala.

[Illustration: An Inexpensive Electric Water Heater Made of Two Copper
Plates]



Frosting Glass


Procure a piece of flat iron similar to an iron hoop, bend it, as shown
in the sketch, to make a piece 3 in. long and 1-1/4 in. wide and file one
edge smooth. Sprinkle some fine lake sand over the glass, dampen the sand
and rub the smooth edge of the iron band over the glass. It requires only
a short time of rubbing to produce a beautiful frosted surface on the
glass.--Contributed by M. E. Duggan, Kenosha, Wis.

[Illustration: The Filed Edge on the Coiled Metal Retains the Sand
Particles as It is Rubbed over the Glass Surface]



Long Handle for a Dustpan


[Illustration]

The dustpan is a rather unhandy utensil to use, especially for stout
persons. One porter overcame this difficulty by attaching a long handle
to the pan as shown in the illustration. The handle was taken from a
discarded broom and a yoke of heavy wire was attached to it, the ends
being bent to enter holes punched in the upturned edge of the pan. A stout
cord, fastened to the handle and tied into the ring of the dustpan handle,
keeps the pan from turning backward, and it is thus possible to push it
or carry it with the long handle.



To Fasten Chair Legs


Chair legs often become loose when chairs are handled roughly, so that
the glue is broken up. A small device made from a piece of pointed metal,
A, which is securely fastened to the end of the chair leg by means of a
screw, will hold the legs more firmly than wire or glue. When the leg is
driven into the hole, the points are pushed into the wood B as the metal
flattens.

[Illustration: The Metal on the End of the Leg Fastens It Solidly in Place]



Disk-Throwing Pistol


A pistol for throwing small disks of paper or metal balls, can be easily
made at almost no expense as shown in the sketch. Two pieces of board,
one of which is shaped to the form of a pistol, are hinged together and
a fairly strong spiral spring is fastened at the front end of the movable
piece and the middle of the other. A slot is sawed in the movable piece to
hold the disk, or a small round depression may be formed in it to receive
a bean, pea, or shot. The movable arm is folded back and held in position
by means of a stirrup of wire fastened on the other part. When the movable
part is disengaged by pulling the stirrup away with the finger, the disk
will be thrown with considerable force, depending on the strength of the
spring.

[Illustration: Disks of Paper or Metal as Well as Shot may be Thrown with
This Pistol]



Displaying Dye Colors


A certain druggist utilized old electric bulbs for displaying dye colors.
Water was colored with a dye and the end of a bulb dipped into the liquid.
Then the tip end was broken off, and the bulb being a vacuum, the colored
water was drawn into it, and filled the globe. The point was then sealed
with paraffin.

[Illustration: Globes Filled with Colored Water, Representing the
Different Colors of Dyes Carried in Stock]

A ring-shaped piece, 15 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. wide, was cut from
a piece of board, and 1-in. holes bored, 2-1/2 in. apart, in one-half of
the ring, The globes holding the colored water were set in these holes
and a light with a round shade placed in the center. It proved to be an
attractive display and a good method of showing the colors.--Contributed
by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.



A Homemade Bench Vise


A serviceable and inexpensive bench vise can be made in the following
manner: Procure a piece of hard wood, 1 in. thick, and shape it into an
eccentric with an extending handle, as shown at A. The jaws B are made
of material 2 in. thick, and the drawbar C is a 2 by 3-in. piece of
hickory. The outer end of the bar is slotted to receive the eccentric
handle, through which a bolt, D, passes to form a bearing. Holes are
bored into the opposite end of the bar, 2 in. apart, into which a peg is
inserted to come against the back side of the rear jaw. This provides an
adjustment for a range of various thicknesses of material. Another bar is
located at the bottom of the jaws to provide a means of keeping the jaws
parallel. This bar is made in a similar manner to the bar C. The rear jaw
can be fastened to the side of a bench, post, or any support that may be
handy.--Contributed by Wm. S. Thompson, Columbia, Tenn.

[Illustration: A Vise That can be Quickly Constructed Where No Bench Vise
is at Hand]

[Illustration]



Timing Photo Printing


Having hundreds of postals of a single subject to print, I made a perfect
timing apparatus for exposing the prints from an old metronome and an old
gong magnet. A disk, B, 20 in. in diameter, was made of heavy tin with two
apertures, C C, each cut 7 in. in diameter, on a line with the center of
the disk, and 2 in. from the edge. A large spool, F, was used to serve as
a hub and also as a reel on which strong twine was wound, with a weight,
E, attached to the free end.

[Illustration: Details of Timing Apparatus]

The disk was bolted to the partition P of the darkroom, the partition
having a hole, G, to coincide with the holes in the disk as it revolved.
Four catch pins were fastened on the rim of the disk to engage a catch pin
on the armature of the magnet. The gong and commutator were removed and
the magnet placed in the position shown in the sketch. A strip of wood
was fastened across the face of the metronome H, about 1 in. above the
pendulum shaft or axle. On the inside of the center of the strip a small
piece of wood was projected, with copper wire on one side only, to form a
contact with a piece of flexible copper on the pendulum. Wiring was made
as shown in the sketch and a switch used to stop the disk from revolving.

An ordinary postal-card printing frame, D, with a hinged back was used
and placed on the shelf A, as shown. A hinge was made from heavy elastic
bands to allow for two dozen cards in the frame at one time. As each card
was printed it was taken out and dropped into the developer. The reel
and metronome should be wound up after printing two dozen cards. The
stops can be varied for any length of time by regulating the weight on
the metronome. The disk and all woodwork must be painted a dull black.
The circuit is completed on the return stroke of the pendulum, causing
the magnet to attract the armature, which releases the catch, allowing a
quarter turn of the disk.--Contributed by Frank W. Preston, Paterson, N.
J.



Pail Hook for a Pitcher Pump


[Illustration]

When pumping water from the ordinary pitcher pump, the bucket must
either be held to the spout or placed on the ground. The accompanying
sketch shows how I arranged a hook, fastened over the collar of the
pump, to take the bail of the bucket. The hook is made of 1/4-in. round
iron.--Contributed by Laurence B. Robbins, Harwich, Mass.



Shade Roller Attached to Upper Window Sash


Free circulation of air cannot be obtained through a window when the shade
is attached to the window casing, as it partly fills the opening caused
by lowering the upper sash. If the shade roller is attached to the top of
the upper sash, the shade can perform its function without obstructing the
opening when the sash is lowered. It only requires a shorter roller and
a narrower shade. The roller brackets are attached in the usual manner,
but, in order to have the shade hang vertically, a block, as wide as the
lower sash frame, must be fastened under each bracket.

[Illustration: When the Upper Sash is Lowered the Shade is Out of the Way
of the Opening]

This arrangement also makes it much easier to put up a curtain, as the
sash can be let down until the roller can be reached while standing on a
chair.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



Flashing Hook


[Illustration]

Having occasion to do a large amount of counter-flashing in a new wall
where the mortar was soft and the joint too large to use an ordinary nail
or the regular flashing hook, I made hooks from No. 24 gauge galvanized
iron, having hooks of extra size and strength, as shown in the sketch. The
size of the hook is 1-3/4 by 3-1/8 in. On each side edge, 1-1/8 in. from
one end, I cut teeth, A A, and clipped the corners of the opposite end
at an angle. The end at B was turned down at right angles and the points
A A bent in the opposite direction. I placed the counter-flashing in the
usual manner, with the projection B hanging down and the pointed end of
the hook in the joint, and drove or pushed it in tightly. The points A A
will catch on the under side of the brick and hold solidly.--Contributed
by Ralph M. Chatham, Orleans, Indiana.



A Homemade Dibble


A dibble made of a round and sharp-pointed stick is the usual tool for
making holes when setting tomato and other plants. I found by experience
that a dibble made of a flat board would work much better and leave a
cleaner hole if worked into the earth with a horizontal swinging motion.
The hole produced is just right for the plant. The illustration shows its
construction.

[Illustration: A Dibble Used for Making Holes in the Soil to Transplant
Tomato and Other Plants]



Liquid Court-Plaster


A good liquid preparation for cuts and bruises that forms a covering like
liquid court-plaster is made by mixing 3/4 oz. of flexible collodion with
1/4 oz. of ether. When this solution is applied to cuts it will not wash
off. As the ether evaporates, add more to keep the mixture liquid.



A Substitute for Candles


One evening our electric light was cut off by a storm, and having no
gas, candles, or oil lamps, a very good light was made in the following
manner: A tablespoonful of lard was melted and poured in the top of a
baking-powder can, and four strands of ordinary white wrapping twine were
put into it, allowing one end to stand up for about 1/2 in. above the edge
of the can. The end was lighted the same as a candle.--Contributed by B.
E. Cole, Eureka, California.



A Poultry Coop


[Illustration]

A barrel makes a good protection for a hen with a brood of chicks, if it
is arranged as shown in the sketch. Procure a good barrel with a bottom
and cut off each alternate stave at both ends close up to the first
hoop. The lower openings thus formed make entrances for the chickens
and the upper ones admit air and light.--Contributed by Wm. R. Konnan,
Neillsville, Wis.



Preventing Mildew on Canvas


To prevent mildew on canvas, soak it in bluestone water, or if the mildew
is already present, coat the parts well with ordinary soap and rub on
powdered chalk, or whiting. A solution of corrosive sublimate, well
weakened with water, will also prevent mildew, but owing to its poisonous
nature it is best to use the former method.--Contributed by A. Ashmund
Kelly, Malvern, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

    When the steel point of a compass is lost, a
    phonograph needle makes a good substitute.



Holder for Books in a Case


Very often it is found, after arranging the books in a case, that the rows
are not complete and the books at the end are continually sliding down on
the shelf. The sketch shows a very useful type of wire bracket to support
the last book.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Wire Makes It Easily Applicable to Any
Open Bookshelf]

A brass wire, 26 in. long and about 1/8 in. in diameter, is bent, with
the use of a vise or pliers, to the shape and dimensions shown at A. When
the wire is placed on the bookshelf, as shown at B, it prevents the end
book from falling. Its location can be changed as books are added to the
shelf.--Contributed by John Y. Dunlop, Craighead, Scotland.



Laying Out a Dovetail Joint


[Illustration]

With dividers and compass lay off the width of the board into twice as
many parts as the dovetails wanted. Draw a light line, AB, across the
board as far from the end as half the thickness of the board. On this line
step off the divisions with the dividers, beginning with a half space
or division. With the bevel square, set to a bevel of 1 in. in 3, draw
lines through the division dots. This method will save much time and give
accurate results.--Contributed by Joseph F. Parks, Wichita, Kan.



Oiling Bright Parts of Machinery


It is my duty to go over the bright parts on the machinery in my father's
shop and give them a coat of oil late in the afternoon to prevent any
rust accumulating over night. As the work took considerable time from
my playing I thought of a plan that not only reduced the amount of work
but applied the grease much better than with a brush or rag. I procured
a sprayer, as shown in the sketch, and sprayed the oil on the bright
parts.--Contributed by Waller Kaufman, Santa Ana, California.

[Illustration: A Sprayer Filled with Oil Makes a Good Device for Coating
the Bright Parts of Machinery]



Window Ventilator to Prevent Drafts


The ventilator consists of a piece of wood, about 8 in. wide, 3 in. thick
and as long as the window is wide. Holes, 1-3/4 in. in diameter, are
bored at regular intervals into one edge and these are connected with
openings from one side as shown. The piece is set under the lower sash
with the long openings toward the outside. This will direct the incoming
air currents upward into the room.

[Illustration: The Ventilator Prevents the Air from Entering a Room in a
Straight Line]



A Chisel Rack


Turn two large screweyes into the under side of a shelf, as far apart
as is necessary, and slip a rod into the eyes. The rod may be kept from
slipping out by threading each end and turning on a nut after it is in
place. Hooks are made from heavy wire, in the shape of the letter "S," and
placed on the rod. A screweye is turned into the end of each chisel handle
and used for hanging the tool on an S-hook. As many hooks are provided as
there are tools in use. This method of hanging tools is especially adapted
for the wood turner.--Contributed by Wallace E. Fisher, New York, N. Y.

[Illustration: The Chisels are Kept Close at Hand and the Right Tool may
be Quickly Found]



Homemade Snap Hooks


[Illustration]

Having had occasion to use several snap hooks of various sizes and being
unable to find anything suitable for my purpose on the market, I procured
several cotters of the desired sizes and by bending them over, as shown
at A, and cutting them off, as at B, I had snap hooks which, besides
answering my original purpose, have also found use as key rings and
tool-chuck holders.--Contributed by Jos. J. Kolar, Maywood, Ill.



A Dropper and Cork for Medicine Bottles


[Illustration]

A convenient way to accurately drop medicine and liquids without any other
appliance than the cork is the following: Simply burn or puncture a smooth
hole in the cork as shown. Pull the cork out slightly when the liquid is
to be dropped, and when this is done, push the cork in and the bottle is
sealed.



Repairing a Broken Oilstone


A broken oilstone can be repaired and made as good as new in the following
manner: Warm the pieces by heating them on the top of a stove or gas
heater, with a piece of heavy sheet metal placed on it so as to protect
the stone from the direct heat of the flame. The heating should be done
somewhat slowly or the stone will crack.

When the stone is warm wipe off the oil which the heat has driven out and
apply a couple of coats of shellac to the broken ends. When the shellac
is thoroughly dry, warm the stone again to melt the shellac, and clamp
the pieces together. After cooling, the pieces will be found firmly stuck
together.--Contributed by F. L. Sylvester, Reading, Mass.



Homemade Towel Roller


[Illustration]

The towel roller is made of a piece of broom handle, 16 in. long, squared
on both ends and a nail driven in the center of each end. Procure two
small pieces of tin--disks about 1 in. in diameter will do--and drive a
hole through the center of each with a wire nail. Cut from one edge of
the disk down to the hole taking out a narrow V-shaped section.

Fasten each disk to a block and nail these to any convenient wall at such
a distance apart that the nail heads in the broomstick will slip down in
the slots and rest in the holes in the centers of the disks, which form
the bearings for the nail heads resting beyond the tin and next to the
block.

With a little care the tin can be made to bulge outwardly in the center
making room for the nail heads.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell,
Augusta, Ga.



Clothesline Reel


The usual method of reeling up a clothesline and taking it in is quite a
task and many times the lines are left out in the open from one wash day
to another, due to neglect or forgetfulness. I made the arrangement shown
in the sketch to take care of the line without any effort to the user.

[Illustration: Reel in the Basement]

All that is necessary with this arrangement is to take the end of the
line and run it over the hooks or sheaves on the posts and make it secure
around an awning fastener. When loosed, the weight in the basement will
wind up the line.

A knot can be tied in the line near the reel to catch at a hole in the
sill, which will prevent the strain on the reel. If the reel is made
to wind up 4 ft. of line to each revolution and the sash-cord shaft is
3/4 in. in diameter, about 100 ft. of line can be taken up in a basement
7 ft. high.--Contributed by A. E. Little, Akron, O.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Black-heart malleable iron derives its name from the
    fact that in annealing only the outer layers of carbon
    are oxidized, the carbon of the interior being simply
    changed to a black amorphous state.



A Candle-Shade Holder


A holder for either round or square shades can be easily constructed from
a piece of heavy copper wire to fit on a candlestick. One end of the wire
is looped around the upper end of the candlestick, then bent so that the
main part will be vertical. The top end is shaped into a circle 2 in. in
diameter or a square having sides 2 in. long, as desired.--Contributed by
Harry Slosower, Pittsburgh, Pa.

[Illustration: Two Forms of Shade Holder Made of Copper Wire for a
Candlestick]



Wire Mesh Used as a Shelf


In covering a window back of my lathe with wire mesh as a protection I
also made a shelf for the tools between the window sill and the lathe bed
of the same material. The mesh used was 1/4-in. The shelf is always clean,
as the shavings and dirt fall through, and the tools may be readily picked
up.--Contributed by J. H. Sanford, Pasadena, California.



Heel Plates


A good heel or toe plate can be made by driving ordinary thumb tacks into
the leather of the shoe heel or sole. The shape can be varied by using
tacks having different-sized heads.--Contributed by James T. Gaffney,
Chicago, Ill.

[Illustration: The Heads of the Tacks Form a Wearing Surface Equal to an
Ordinary Heel Plate]



A Bright Dip for Metal


Articles of brass, copper and bronze may be given a bright luster by
dipping them into a solution composed of 50 oz. of nitric acid, 25 oz.
of sulphuric acid, liquid measure, and 1/2 oz. of soot and 1/2 oz. of
salt, by weight. After the articles are dipped into the solution they are
removed and thoroughly washed, then dried in sawdust to prevent streaks.



An Interesting Vacuum Experiment


[Illustration]

A very interesting experiment may be performed with two drinking glasses,
a small candle end and a piece of blotting paper, says the Pathfinder.
The glasses must be the same size and of the thin-glass kind. The candle
end is lighted and set in one glass; the blotting paper is well dampened
and placed on top of the glass, and the other glass inverted and its rim
placed exactly over the lower one and pressed down tightly. The candle
will burn up all the oxygen in the glass and go out.

The air in the glass being heated will expand and some of it will be
forced out from under the moist paper, and then, as the portion remaining
cools, it will contract and draw the upper glass on the paper and make an
air-tight joint. The upper glass can then be taken up and the lower one
will cling to it.



A Sliver Extractor


If a clipper for the finger nails becomes dull do not throw it away, but
keep it in the tool box in a handy place. It is very useful for extracting
slivers from the flesh.--Contributed by G. Wokenfuss, McCook, Neb.



Night Croquet Playing


Croquet playing became so interesting to us that we could not find time to
do all our playing during the day. So at night we attach a candle to each
of the wickets and also use one at each corner of the grounds. These light
the grounds so that the game can be played nicely. The candles may be
attached by wiring them to the wickets or by using small pasteboard boxes,
similar to a pill box of sufficient size, and running a wire through
the center or down the sides, which is hooked over the top to hold them
upright on top of the ground. The latter way is the better as the candles
may be pulled up in the day time and taken out of the way.--Contributed
by Geo. Goodbrod, Union, Ore.



A Nursing-Bottle Holder


The ordinary nursing bottle with nipple necessitates holding the bottle in
a certain position, and when the valve nipples are used, the bottle should
be held far enough away to allow this valve free action. To accomplish
this I constructed a very simple wire holder for the bottle as shown in
the illustration. Ordinary telephone wire will hold any bottle. The wire
is bent to hook on the side of the crib, cradle or cab.--Contributed by
W. A. Humphrey, Columbus, O.

[Illustration: Nursing Bottle in Holder]



Milk-Ticket Holder


An ordinary spring mousetrap makes a good bread or milk-ticket holder. The
wood part of the trap can be easily nailed or screwed to a door or window
casing. The way the tickets are held is clearly shown in the sketch.

[Illustration: Trap Used as Ticket Holder]



Joint for Cabinet Work


In making a cabinet containing 56 drawers of various sizes, I used the
method shown in the sketch for making the frame. The horizontal strips
A should be all fastened together when sawing the notches to fit over
the uprights. The uprights B should be sawn in the same manner. It is
best to round the front of the rear uprights slightly and also any other
places where the drawers might strike when pushing them into place. The
length of the runners C should be 1-1/2 in. less than the length of the
drawer.--Contributed by J. H. Dickson, Polk, Pa.

[Illustration: Details of Joint Construction]

       *       *       *       *       *

    Do not expect accurate work unless you have accurate
    tools.



Starting a Saw Cut


A fine piece of woodwork is often spoiled by the amateur craftsman when
starting a cut with a saw. As the first stroke of the saw on the edge of
the board is made, the teeth often break a splinter from the edge or the
saw jumps to one side of the line, thereby making a rough and uneven cut.
This can be avoided in a very simple way.

[Illustration: Starting a Saw on a Knife Cut will Prevent Roughing or
Splintering the Edge]

After marking the line, take a sharp knife and make a cut across the edge,
as shown, and draw the knife down well over the corners of the board for
about 1/8 in. Place the saw on the cut and start it slowly. The saw blade
will follow the cut of the knife blade.



A Substitute Penholder


One evening when my wife was using the only penholder in the house
I desired to do some writing and being in a hurry, I hastily made a
substitute holder of a pencil. Two cuts were made in the butt end, as
shown; the pen was then slipped in, the outside wound with a rubber band,
and my penholder was complete.--Contributed by H. A. Sullwold, St. Paul,
Minn.

[Illustration: The End of the Pencil as It is Prepared to Receive the Pen]



Protecting Binding Posts on Wet Batteries from Corrosion


When recharging the cells of a wet battery it is best to procure the
best grade of sal ammoniac, the kind that is put up in boxes having a
sufficient amount for one cell. Then, before putting the solution into the
cell, melt some paraffin used for preserving purposes and dip the upper
end of the carbons, zinc, and the glass jar in it. This will apply a coat
of insulating wax that will prevent any white deposit from working up on
the parts and corroding the binding posts, or terminals.

The cells are then filled in the ordinary manner, after which the carbons
and zincs are raised just far enough to admit a layer of common machine
oil, about 3/8 in. thick. The oil not only prevents evaporation but aids
greatly to keep the uncovered parts from corrosion.--Contributed by L. R.
Kelley, Philadelphia, Pa.



A Cork Puller


[Illustration]

A very simple and easy way to remove a stopper from a bottle, when a cork
puller is not at hand, is to press two nails into the cork, as shown in
the sketch, and, taking a firm hold on both nails, draw the cork out.
Brads may be used on smaller corks. Large and tightly fitted corks may be
drawn by gripping the nails with a pair of pliers.--Contributed by W. A.
Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal.



Holder for a Garden-Hose Nozzle


[Illustration]

When sprinkling a lawn with an automatic spraying device on a hose
nozzle it is necessary to have some kind of an arrangement to tilt the
end at the proper angle. I find that a holder made of a heavy piece of
galvanized wire bent in the shape shown can be used to set the nozzle at
any angle. The wire is easily pushed into the earth and does no harm to
the lawn.--Contributed by T. J. Ingram, Jr., Lynchburg, Va.



Alarm to Designate a Filled Storage Battery


When a storage battery is recharged, the completion of the recharging
is marked by the development of gas in the cell. This fact is the basis
of a simple electrical device which will ring a bell when the battery is
fully charged. A glass tube bent as shown and having a small bulb near its
upper end is inserted in the top of the cell, a small quantity of mercury
being first introduced in the bend below the bulb. Wires extend down the
upper tubing to within a short distance of the mercury. These wires are
connected with binding posts so mounted that they can rest on top of the
tube, whereupon the bell circuit is completed as shown. Small quantities
of gas may develop during the charging of the cell, but if a small hole
is pierced in the tube between the mercury and the cell, this gas will
not exert pressure enough on the mercury to push it up and connect it with
the wires, which will take place first when the development of gas becomes
very active at the completion of the recharging.

[Illustration: The Gas Generated by a Filled Storage Battery will Make
Electric Connections and Sound an Alarm]



Stretching Poultry Fencing


The woven-wire poultry fencing is an unusually difficult thing to handle
and fasten on posts so that it will be taut and evenly stretched. The
best method I have ever seen for drawing this fencing and holding it
for nailing to a post is the use of the device shown in the sketch. It
consists of a board, as long as the fencing is wide, with screw hooks set
far enough apart to catch into the meshes of the wire, and a crosspiece
attached to the board by pieces of rope at the ends and provided with a
pulling loop in the center.--Contributed by Joseph C. Laackman, Meadow
Brook, Pa.

[Illustration: Board Fitted with Screw Hooks and a Pulling Device for
Stretching Poultry Fencing on Posts]



A Centering Gauge


The centering gauge consists of a piece of celluloid on which several
circles are drawn having different diameters, but all drawn from the same
center. A small hole is made at the center to admit the point of a center
punch. Two sets of circles may be drawn on one piece as shown, but the
lines should be spaced far enough apart to allow the metal to be clearly
seen through the celluloid. The sheet is placed on the end of a shaft and
adjusted so that a ring will match the circumference of the shaft, then
the center punch is set in the center hole and struck with a hammer. The
center punch for marking is shown in the sketch.--Contributed by Harry
Holst, San Francisco, Cal.

[Illustration: Circles Drawn on Celluloid to Adjust It on the End of a
Shaft in Finding the Center]



Homemade Letters for Marking Bags


[Illustration]

An initial marker for bags can be made of a beet or potato. Cut off enough
of the vegetable to provide a flat surface of sufficient size and then
cut out the letter as shown in the sketch, and use shoe blacking as ink.
In cutting, remember that most of the letters must be made reversed in
order to print right. For example, in making a B, draw it out on paper
and cut it out, then lay the face of the pattern on the flat surface of
the vegetable and cut around it.



To Keep a Crease in a Soft Hat


The crease in a soft hat can be kept in proper shape with the aid of a
paper clip. The clip is slipped over the fold inside of the hat which
forms the bottom part of the crease.--Contributed by Jas. M. Kane,
Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

[Illustration: Paper Clip on the Fold, Holding It in the Right Shape for
the Outside Crease]



A Shoe Scraper


[Illustration]

A good boot and shoe scraper for a step can be made of a worn-out and
discarded broom. Cut off the straws and strings as shown in the sketch,
allowing one string to hold them together, and make the notch the width
of the shoe. Tie the extending ends together, and mount the whole on a
suitable block, or, if desired, a hole can be bored in the step to receive
the handle, and the scraper thus securely attached.

This makes an effective scraper for the bottom as well as the sides of
shoes of almost any size.--Contributed by Jno. V. Loeffler, Evansville,
Ind.



A Vegetable Slicer


[Illustration]

A tin bucket or can makes a good slicer for vegetables when no other
slicer is at hand. A number of slots are cut across one side of the can,
and the lower edge of each slot slightly turned out to form a cutting
edge. The vegetable is placed against the top of the can and pushed down
over the slots. Each slot will cut off a slice which falls inside of the
can.



Bench Stop for Planing Thin Boards


[Illustration]

A bench stop for planing thin boards with a hand plane may be made in the
following manner: Procure a piece of strap iron about 1/4 in. thick, 1-1/2
or 2 in. wide, and about 6 in. long. File or grind one edge sharp on top
and drill a 1/4-in. hole through the center. Cut a slot in a board or in
the workbench large enough to receive the stop A flat. Place enough strips
of rubber or fit two coil springs, B, to raise the sharp edge out of the
slot. Insert a screw in the hole of the stop and adjust it to the desired
height by turning the screw up or down.

       *       *       *       *       *

    In a case of emergency, lemon juice may be used as
    soldering flux.



A Jardinière Pedestal


The pedestal may be made of any close-grained wood, such as basswood
or maple, if the stain is to be walnut or mahogany, but it can also
be constructed of quarter-sawed oak and finished in a waxed mission or
varnished surface. The material required is as follows:

  1  top, 12 by 12 by 7/8 in., S-2-S.
  2  caps, 6 by 6 by 7/8 in., S-2-S.
  1  upright, 18 by 4 by 4 in., S-4-S.
  1  base, 8 by 8 by 7/8 in., S-2-S.

The top is centered and a circle, 11-1/2 in. in diameter, is drawn upon
it, and sawn out. The caps are also centered and circles drawn upon them,
5-1/2 in. and 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Saw them out on the larger circles
and center them in a wood lathe and turn out the wood in the smaller
circles to a depth of 1/2 in. The upright is then centered in the lathe
and turned to 3-1/2 in. in diameter for its full length.

[Illustration: The Pedestal can be Made of a Wood Suitable for Finishing
to Match Other Furniture]

The base and foot pieces are cut out as shown, fitted together and
fastened with screws from the under side. One of the caps is mounted in
the center on the base and the other cap in the center on the under side
of the top. The upright is then placed in the turned-out parts of the caps
and either glued or fastened with screws.

If light wood is used, the finish can be walnut or mahogany. A very pretty
finish can be worked out in pyrography, if one is familiar with that
work.--Contributed by Russell T. Westbrook, Dover, N. J.



A Lawn-Tennis Marker


The liquid receptacle is a metal biscuit box, about 9 in. square
and mounted on a wheel with a handle, the whole being similar to a
wheelbarrow. The wheel is 7 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. thick. The wheel
and box are bolted between two pieces of strap iron in the manner shown,
and the handle is attached back of the box. If the box is of very thin
metal, boards should be placed within on the sides where it is fastened to
the strap iron. A roller is pivoted in the box at the lower back corner
and a canvas tape or band run over the roller and wheel in the manner of
a belt. The tape should run through a slot cut in the front part of the
box, about midway between the top and the bottom. The edges of the tin in
the slot must be turned over and hammered down to make a smooth surface
for the tape to run over.--Contributed by George N. Bertram, Toronto, Can.

[Illustration: A Marker That will Make a Clear, White Line on the Ground
for a Tennis Court]



Removing Tannin Stains from Teacups


A small portion of hyposulphite of soda mixed with vinegar will make
a good cleaner for teacups having tannin stains. This process does not
injure the finest china and is inexpensive. The same solution works quite
well on clothes that are accidentally stained with tea. They should be
washed out and dried quickly after its application in order to make this
method most effective.--Contributed by Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.

[Illustration: Weaving the Top of the Stool by Using a Wet Weaver of Reed]



Woven-Top Stool


The material necessary for this stool is as follows:

  4  legs, 1-3/4 by 1-3/4 by 16 in.
  4  bottom rails, 7/8 by 1-3/4 by 16 in.
  4  top rails, 7/8 by 2 by 16-1/2 in.
  4  diagonal braces, 7/8 by 1-3/4 by 6 in.

[Illustration: Construction of the Frame and Manner of Laying the Weavers
for the Top]

The legs are mortised so the top rails come level. The upper rails are
tenoned on the sides only and beveled at the ends. For the bottom rails,
the mortises are made one above the other, the rails being tenoned on all
sides. The braces are cut at 45 on each end and glued into place.

In weaving the top, proceed as follows: Use a wet weaver and wrap one
layer over the entire top, the strips being placed close together and
tightly wound. Start the second layer at right angles to the first by
going under one strip, then over three strips, under three, and so on,
by threes, until that strip is finished. Start the second by going under
two strips, then over three, under three, and so on, as before. The third
strip should start by going under three, then over and under three, etc.
Start the fourth by going over one, then under three, and over three, as
in the preceding; the fifth, start over two, then under and over three,
repeatedly. The sixth, and last of the series, begin over three and then
continue, by threes, as before. Having finished one series, the remainder
of the top should be completed in similar order. Good white shellac
makes the best finish for the seat; the stool itself may be finished to
suit.--Contributed by Russel Dodsworth, Erie, Pa.



Preserving Shafting from Rust and Corrosion


In a laboratory it was very difficult to keep the line shaft and
countershafts bright and free from rust, owing to the fumes and gases
issuing from the several fume closets within the same room. The following
method was tried, and proved very satisfactory. The shafting was covered
with two coats of flat white paint and allowed to dry, after which a coat
of white enamel was applied, giving it a clean, glossy, and sanitary
appearance. This eliminated all the trouble of cleaning it with emery
cloth, and it also made it appear in harmony with the other furnishings
of the laboratory.--Contributed by Geo. F. Stark, Norwich, N. Y.

[Illustration: Reed Furniture By Chas. M. Miller]



Reed Furniture By Chas. M. Miller


A Reed Basket


Inasmuch as there is a great demand for reed furniture and since good
weavers are comparatively few in number, it would be well to learn the
process of reed weaving. The weaving operations can be learned much
better through the construction of some small article, such as a basket
or jardinière cover. The center is the most difficult part of the basket
making, and it is best to begin with wood bottoms, as the whole basket
can be kept in a much better form due to the stiffness furnished by such
a bottom. It is also an approach to the reed furniture which is woven on
framework. The objectionable feature of the wood bottoms is the unfinished
appearance of the wood edge showing through, but this can be overcome by
the use of the roll shown in the illustration.

[Illustration]

While the wood bottoms have been used for this class of work for a number
of years, the roll is new and is very popular with those who have seen and
used it. The roll can be placed in many ways on different-shaped baskets,
and other reed pieces, so that it is best to master this piece of work
thoroughly before attempting the other, or larger, pieces that will be
described later, in other articles.

[Illustration]

The description is for a basket 5 in. in diameter and 3 in. high, as
shown in the illustration. A disk of wood, 1/4 in. thick and 5 in. in
diameter, is required. Basswood makes the best bottom, but pine, or cedar,
will do. Cut a board about 6 in. square, and draw diagonal lines on it
intersecting at the center, then draw a circle, 5 in. in diameter, as
shown in Fig. 1; also another circle, using the same center, 4-3/4 in. in
diameter. Set compass points about 5/8 in. apart, and step off spaces on
the inner circle to make 24 points. This will have to be tried out more
than once, to get the spaces to come out evenly and just have the right
number of points. Holes are bored with a 1/8-in. bit, just inside of the
inner circle, back of the places marked by the compass points, as shown in
Fig. 2. Cut the board on the outside circle with a coping, or turn, saw,
to make the circle, as in Fig. 3. Do not saw out the circle before boring
the holes, as otherwise the disk might split out in places.

[Illustration: The Bottom is Cut from a Piece of Wood to Give Strength
and to Avoid the Most Difficult Part of the Weaving (Fig. 1)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

The reeds placed vertically are called spokes, and the horizontal ones are
the weavers. For the spokes, what is called a No. 4 reed is used. Do not
wet the spokes before putting them through the wood. Allow the ends to
project about 5-1/2 in. below the bottom, as shown in Fig. 4. Place the
bottom, with the spokes, in water, and soak them thoroughly, especially
the part below the bottom. About 15 minutes of soaking will be sufficient
to make them pliable enough to bend over at right angles. It will not
injure the wood bottom to soak it with the reeds. As shown at A, Figs. 4
and 5, each spoke below the wood bottom is bent, down and back of the two
nearest spokes, B and C, then out between the third and fourth spokes, C
and D, and so on. The last two spokes, Y and Z, Fig. 6, are forced under
the spokes A and B, respectively. In this illustration the spoke Y is
shown as it is being inserted under the spoke A. When this operation is
completed, the bottom will have the appearance of a fireworks pinwheel.

[Illustration: (Fig. 4)]

[Illustration: The Reeds are Attached to the Bottom and Their Lower Ends
Bent as Shown (Fig. 5)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 6)]

Continue the bending of the spokes, in the same direction, up and across
the thickness of the wood in front of three other spokes and behind the
fourth, as shown in Fig. 7. This would not cover the edge of the wood
entirely, and, for this reason, other short spokes must be inserted in
front of each of the first ones before it is brought up across the edge
of the wood. These supplementary spokes should be about 4 in. long. The
manner of inserting these spokes before making the bend is shown at G and
T, Fig. 6. The double spokes must be pressed down flat, when brought up
in place, without riding one on the other. If the ends are too long and
interfere with the next pair, they can be cut off a little with a flat
chisel, or knife, being careful not to make them too short, or the pieces
will not stay in place. If there is still an open space, an extra, short
spoke can be inserted to crowd the pieces together and fill up the space.

[Illustration: The Lower Ends of the Spokes are Turned to Cover the Edge
of the Bottom... (Fig. 7)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 8)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 9)]

When the roll is completed, insert three weavers, of No. 3 reed that
has been soaked about 15 minutes, placing them between the spokes A and
B, B and C, and C and D, as shown in Fig. 8. Pass weaver L in front of
the spokes B and C, then back of D and out between D and E. Weaver M is
passed in front of C and D, back of E and out in front of E and F. These
operations are clearly shown in Fig. 9. The weaver N is placed in front
of D and E, back of F and then in front of G and H. At this point the
weaver L is used again. The weaver farthest behind each time is brought
in front of the two spokes nearest to it, then behind the third and out
in front of the next two spokes. Do not try to use weavers longer than
8 ft., which is about half the length of a reed. When a weaver is used up,
press it back to the side a little, push in a new reed about 1-1/2 in.,
and continue the weaving. This is clearly shown in Fig. 10. This weaving
is known as the triple weave, which cinches down well and holds tightly.
The first round should be carefully worked, so as to get the ends of the
roll properly pressed down flat in place. Each throw of the weaver should
be well pressed down.

[Illustration: (Fig. 10)]

[Illustration: ...Then the Reeds are Woven into the Upright Spokes to the
Right Height, Where They are Broken Down and Woven into a Top Border (Fig.
11)]

[Illustration: (Fig. 12)]

The break-down-tight border is used for the finish at the top. The first
operation in making this border is shown in Fig. 11. The spoke A is bent
over back of spoke B and out between spokes B and C. The spoke B is bent
over back of the spoke C and out between C and D, and so on, until the
spoke E is turned down. Then take the end of the spoke A, Fig. 12, and
lay it over B, C, D, and E, in front of F, back of G, and out between G
and H. The end of spoke F is then brought down, also between G and H, but
back of the end of A. The end of B takes a similar leap, passes behind H
and out between H and J; then G is brought down behind the end of B, in
the same manner as F was brought down back of A. The last four or five
spokes are the most difficult to handle, as they must be forced through
the first ones to correspond with those already in place. It is best not
to pull the ends of A, B, C, and D down too tightly at first, keeping in
mind that the last ones must be inserted under the first ones. The last
standing spokes are represented by the full and shaded lines.

If the roll illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12 is too difficult, a simple
break-down can be used, such as shown in Fig. 13. To make this finish,
spoke A is turned back of spoke B, in front of spoke C and back of spoke
D, but not out again. Spoke B is bent back of C, in front of D, and back
of E. The others are turned down the same way. The manner in which the
two last spokes are turned down and inserted is shown by the double dotted
lines.

[Illustration: A Simple Break-Down Roll for the Top... (Fig. 13, Fig. 14)]

The remainder of the illustrations show the method of forming a roll
between the first and second spokes, where only three spokes are turned
down before the throwing-across process begins. The first three spokes
turned down are shown in Fig. 14, and the throwing over, in Fig. 15. The
second beginning is shown in Fig. 16. The finishing of this top is shown
in Figs. 17 and 18. The full, heavy lines represent the final insertions,
and the reed must be in quite a sharp loop to make the end enter the right
place. It is then drawn down and forced in front of the other reed that
passes out between the same spokes.

[Illustration: ...Also a Method of Forming a Roll between the First
and Second Spokes Where Only Three Spokes are Turned Down Before the
Throwing-Across Process Begins (Fig. 15, Fig. 16, Fig. 17, Fig. 18)]

When the basket is dry, the long ends can be cut off close up with a
knife, being careful not to cut a weaver. If there are hairy fibers
sticking out they can be singed off over a gas, or other, flame that will
not smut. If it requires bleaching, brush some chloride of lime, mixed in
a little water, over the reeds and set in the sunlight for a short time.
It is better to leave the finish a little dark rather than use too much
bleaching, as the latter will give an objectionable whitish appearance
that looks like a poor job of painting.

In working the reeds, do not leave them in the water longer than
necessary, as this will turn them dark. A bleached reed will stand the
water much longer than in the natural state. Dampen the reed frequently
while weaving it, as the weavers pack down much closer when wet. The
dampening process is also required to remedy the drying out caused by
whisking the reeds through the air in weaving operations. A great variety
of baskets can be made from this form, viz., low, tall, tapering vase
forms, bowl shapes, etc., in plain or dark weaves.



Wireless-Lighted Lamp Deception


Window displays of puzzling nature usually draw crowds. A lighted globe
lying on its side in full view, yet apparently not connected to any source
of electricity, could easily be arranged as a window display, deceiving
the closest observer. A mirror, or window glass, backed with some opaque
material, should be used for the foundation of the device. For the display
lamp, it is best to use a 25 or 40-watt tungsten, as these will lie
flatter on the glass than the larger sizes, and the deception will not be
as easily discovered. The place where the brass cap of the lamp touches
the glass should be marked and a small hole drilled through to the wire
connecting the tungsten filament to the plug on the top of the lamp. At
any suitable place, a hole should be drilled in the glass plate, no larger
than is necessary, to permit two small cotton-covered magnet wires to pass
through. One of the wires should be looped, passed through the hole in
the cap and hooked onto the bare wire connecting with the plug on top of
lamp. The other wire should be fastened to the brass cap, near the drilled
hole, after which the lamp may be placed in position and the two wires
connected to a source of electricity. If proper care has been taken and
no crosses occur, the lamp will light, and if the display is placed in
the proper surroundings, it will prove very deceiving. To protect against
a fuse blow-out from a short circuit, it is advisable to run another lamp
in series with the display lamp, as shown.--Contributed by Clyde W. Epps,
Mineola, Tex.

[Illustration: An Electric Globe Lighted on a Piece of Glass Makes a Good
Window Attraction]



Live Bait Used in Fishing


With the simple device illustrated, no fisherman need worry over running
short of bait or even regarding the usual repeated baiting of the hook.
A small clear-glass bottle should be procured, and several hooks wired to
it about the neck, or at each end, as desired or found best after several
trials. After filling the bottle with water a live minnow is placed in it,
and the bottle is sealed with a cork, which is notched around the edge to
permit water to enter or leave the bottle without losing the bait. If live
grasshoppers, or similar bait, is desired the cork can be used unnotched
to form a watertight stopper. As illuminated bait for night fishing,
several fireflies can be put in the bottle.--Contributed by L. Wahrer,
Tiffin, Ohio.

[Illustration: The Bait is Kept Alive and Unharmed in a Bottle Surrounded
with Hooks]



Bookrack


The material necessary for the illustrated bookrack is as follows:

  2  end pieces, 5/8 by 5-1/4 by 6 in.
  1  shelf 5/8 by 5-1/4 by 13 in.

The shelf is cut rectangular, 5-1/4 in. wide by 14-1/2 in. long. Its two
ends should then be provided with tenons 3/8 in. thick by 4-1/4 in. wide,
and extending out 1/4 inch.

[Illustration: A Bookrack That can be Made in Any Wood to Match Other
Furniture]

The end pieces, after being cut to the given dimensions, are marked off
and cut out for mortises to fit the shelf tenons.

In assembling the parts, they are glued in place, and clamped with hand
screws until the glue has set. Any of the good mission stains, properly
applied, will give a finished appearance to the bookrack.



A Paper Gas Pipe


When one fits up an attic or a back room as a workshop, it is seldom that
a gas connection is available on about the same level as the workbench
so that a Bunsen burner and soldering apparatus may be operated. To
install the standard gas pipe, it would be necessary either to alter
the chandelier connection or to tear up some of the plaster, the former
plan resulting in a rather conspicuous display of pipe and the latter in
considerable expense. The following method permits the rolling of a pipe,
about the size of a lead pencil, from paper that becomes so stiff that it
is almost impossible to crush it between the thumb and fingers. This small
inconspicuous pipe may be run directly from the side of the valve on the
chandelier to the wall, as shown in the sketch, thence down some corner
formed by a door jamb or window frame, which protects it and renders it
almost unnoticeable.

[Illustration: The Tube is Run Out Horizontally from the Chandelier to
the Wall Where the Drop is Connected]

A good grade of tough Manila paper should be procured and cut into strips,
about 18 in. long and wide enough to build up a tube at least 1/32 in. in
diameter. This will require from 4 to 6 in., according to the thickness
of the paper. A piece of 1/4-in. round iron or hard wood, 20 in. long,
is procured and carefully oiled or greased. Apply a coat of strong fish
glue to one of these pieces of paper, omitting a strip along one edge,
about 1 in. wide. Using the outspread fingers of each hand, begin with the
unglued edge and roll the paper around the wood. As it is impossible to
get the paper uniformly tight with the fingers, select a smooth place on
the table and then roll the newly formed tube forward by means of a piece
of board, as shown in the illustration. On the return stroke lift the
board. In this way it is possible to get a tight, smooth tube. Immediately
withdraw the core, twisting it slightly in a reverse direction if it tends
to stick. Before using the core again, make sure it is free from glue
and regrease it. When a sufficient number of tubes have been made and
hardened, neatly trim the ends off squarely, and then form an equal number
of short tubes, about 2 in. long, by winding a strip of glued paper on
a large wire nail until a diameter is reached that will fit snugly into
the pipes already made. The joints may then be set up with strong glue
and finally wrapped with two thicknesses of paper on the outside. The
construction of these joints is shown in the cross section.

The connection with the chandelier can be made by means of a metal tube
soldered in at a point where the regular valve will cut off all connection
with the paper piping when it is not in use. This metal tube should be
coated with thick shellac, and the paper tube slipped over it for 1 in.
or more, after which the joint should be given several additional coats
on the outside. A small regulating gas cock can be attached to the lower
end of the piping, and if this is rigidly fastened to the wall, or casing,
the connecting and disconnecting of the rubber tubing will not disturb
the piping in any way.--Contributed by John D. Adams.



Rubbing Slats for a Washing Board


In an emergency, and to substitute something for a broken glass rubbing
plate on an ordinary washing board, I fitted a series of 3/8-in. dowels
horizontally across the board, closely together. This proved to be better
than glass or zinc, as fabrics adhered to the wood dowels and caused them
to revolve, making a more desirable rubbing surface and accomplishing
the work of loosening the dirt in the fabric with far less effort than
that necessary on the metal or glass board.--Contributed by H. M. Spamer,
Vineland, N. J.



Catching Bugs Attracted by Light


[Illustration]

Bugs, moths, and insects attracted by lights on summer evenings can be
caught by means of sticky fly paper, suspended as shades around the lamps.
Cuts in the shade allow the greater portion of the light to pass through
and attract the bugs, which will surely be caught as they travel about
the light onto the sticky paper. It is advisable to make two shades at
the same time from a double sheet of the sticky paper, pasted, as when
bought, with the sticky faces together so that the shades may be cut and
handled easier.--Contributed by John J. Kolar, Maywood, Illinois.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Oilcans should be marked to indicate the kind of oil
    in them.



Needle Box for Talking Machines


An empty cigarette box can be easily changed to a useful container for
talking-machine needles, as shown in the sketch. Take a fairly heavy
card, trim it to the same length as the box, then bend and crease it, as
shown at A, and glue the short, upright side to the inside of the box.
Cut another card to the shape B, so that the depth C equals the inside
depth of the box, and the side D is as long as its width. The side E
should equal the inclined length of the card A, and is glued upon it
when B is in position. The three compartments may be suitably labeled as
indicated.--Contributed by V. A. Rettich, New York, N. Y.

[Illustration: Three Compartments are Provided with Sloping Bottoms in a
Neat Box for the Needles]



Trick of Taking Dollar Bill from Apple


A rather pleasing, yet puzzling, deception is to pass a dollar bill into
the interior of an examined lemon or apple. This can be accomplished
in several ways, either mechanically or purely by sleight of hand.
The mechanical method, of course, is the easier and really just as
effective. In performing, a plate with three apples is first exhibited,
and the audience is given choice of any one for use in the experiment.
The selected one is tossed out for examination and then returned to the
performer, who places it in full view of the spectators while he makes
the dollar bill vanish. Taking the knife he cuts the apple into two
pieces, requesting the audience to select one of them. Squeezing this
piece he extracts the dollar bill therefrom. The entire secret is in the
unsuspected article--the table knife.

[Illustration: The Dollar Bill is Hidden in the Knife Handle That Cuts
the Apple]

The knife is prepared by boring out the wooden handle to make it hollow.
Enough space must be made to hold a dollar bill. The knife lies on the
plate with the fruit, the open end facing the performer. After the
bill has been made to vanish and the examined apple returned to the
entertainer, he takes it and cuts it in half. One of the halves is chosen,
the performer impaling it on the end of the knife blade and holding it
out to view. While still holding the knife he turns the blade downward
and grasps the half apple and crushes it with a slight pass toward the
knife-handle end where the bill is grasped along with the apple, which
makes a perfect illusion of taking the bill out of the apple.

As to the disappearance of the dollar bill, there are many ways in which
this may be accomplished. Perhaps the method requiring the least practice
is to place the bill in the trousers pocket, and then show the audience
that the latter is empty. This can be done by rolling the bill to small
compass, and pushing it into the extreme upper corner of the pocket where
it will remain undetected while the pocket is pulled out for inspection.
Other combinations can be arranged with the use of the knife, which is
simple to make and very inexpensive.



Guide for Making Buttonholes


It is almost impossible to make a perfect buttonhole in the ordinary
manner by hand without a guide. The illustration shows a very simple
guide that can be easily made by anyone. Procure two pieces of tin, or
sheet brass, cut them as shown, and drill holes in them large enough for a
needle, so that it will be easy to fasten them to the cloth with basting
thread. Cut the buttonhole slot, then punch a hole at the end with an
ordinary belt punch. Such a punch can be purchased from a local hardware
dealer in any size. In making the buttonhole stitch, keep the needle
close against the metal edge of the guide, as shown.--Contributed by A.
L. Kerbaugh, Allentown, Pa.

[Illustration: The Form of the Buttonhole is Cut in the Edges of the Two
Pieces of Metal]

       *       *       *       *       *

    An easy way to put varnish in the grooves of a tennis
    racket is to use a medicine dropper.

[Illustration]



A Child's Playhouse


The child's playhouse is an expensive luxury, if it is purchased ready
to set up, but by following the instructions given herewith a large and
inexpensive one may be constructed.

[Illustration: The Covered Framework can be Used In or Outdoors, as
Desired, and When Set Up and the Wings Swung Back, It Presents the
Appearance of a House]

Procure about 100 ft. of 1-3/4 by 1-1/2-in. boards, and saw out pieces, as
shown. With the use of iron brackets instead of nails, it will be found
much easier to construct than if the corners are mortised and nailed or
glued. The frame will also be much stronger.

[Illustration: The Entire Framework is Held Together with Brackets, and
is Hinged at the Joints, so That It can be Folded Up and Put into a Small
Space, the Sections being Covered with Colored Burlap to Make Them Appear
Solid... (Fig. 1)]

When the frame is completed, burlap is tacked on to make the covering.
The burlap can be purchased cheaply, and the best color to use is either
green, red or brown. This material should be fastened on the different
sections before they are hinged together. To prevent the burlap from
unraveling, turn the edges under before tacking them down.

A piece of wire screen is used for the door. An old piece will do, if it
is well coated with black or dark-green paint. It is then tacked on the
inside of the door. Fasten the different parts together with the hinges.
The hinges are fastened on the inside of the side wings, and on the
outside of the two front pieces. With the hinges placed in this manner,
the house can be folded into a small space.

For the one built by the writer, green burlap was used, and by trimming
the door and window frames along the edges with white paint a very pretty
effect was produced.

[Illustration: ...On the Right is Shown the Awning-Frame Construction
(Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

A small awning was made over the window, which improved the appearance
very much. Roller shades on the door and window and an electric door bell
completed a very neat and practical playhouse.



Removing Basketball from Closed-Bottom Receptacle


The closed-bottom basket used in the game of basketball is so high that
it is difficult to remove the ball after a goal is made. Generally a long
stick is used for this purpose, but I desired to have a better way, and
the device shown in the illustration was the outcome. A light iron rod was
hinged to the edge of the basket and bent to its inner shape, the lower
end resting at about the center of the basket. A rope was attached to
the lower end and run up and over a sheave pulley attached to the basket
support, then down so it could be easily grasped. When a goal is made, it
is only necessary to give a pull on the rope for throwing the ball out of
the basket.--Contributed by Annie B. Currine, San Diego, Cal.

[Illustration: The Iron Rod in the Basket Throws the Ball Out When the
Rope is Pulled]



Testing Dry Batteries


For testing dry batteries or any low-voltage current, take an ordinary
thermometer and wind around the mercury bulb enough wire to make about 10
ohms resistance. This will make a good tester. A dry cell of about 2 volts
attached to the ends of the wire should generate enough heat to expand
the mercury about four degrees in one-half minute.

This tester is not as fast as a voltmeter, nor has it as wide a range,
but it is reasonably accurate, and by using a battery of known voltage,
the winding can be increased or diminished to allow the mercury to expand
as many degrees as desired per volt.--Contributed by E. H. Kimbrough,
Bartlett, Kan.



A Wall-Paper Cleaner


To 1 qt. of flour add about 2 oz. of 90-per-cent ammonia and enough
lukewarm water to make a dough. Wipe the paper with this preparation while
turning and kneading it as in making dough. This will take up the dirt
and a clean side is always presented to the paper.--Contributed by F. C.
Myer, Tacoma, Wash.

[Illustration]



A Trunk Mystery


Doubtless every person has seen the trunk mystery, the effect of which is
as follows: A trunk, mounted upon four legs, is brought out on the stage
and proven to be empty by turning it all the way around to show that there
is nothing on the back, whereupon pieces of plate glass are placed along
the back, sides, and front, the trunk is closed and given a swift turn and
then opened, when to the amazement of all, a lady steps out appearing to
come from nowhere. The secret of this trick is very simple, and the trunk
can be made up very cheaply.

[Illustration: A Shelf and Panel Set at Right Angles to Form a Place at
the Back for the Assistant to Conceal Herself, No Matter Which Way the
Trunk is Turned to Face the Audience]

In the back of the trunk there is a movable panel with a shelf exactly
the same size as the panel attached to its bottom, forming a right angle,
the corner of which is hinged to the bottom of the trunk. The back panel
can be turned in until it rests on the bottom of the trunk and, when this
is done, the shelf part rises and takes its place, making the back of the
trunk appear solid.

[Illustration]

When the trunk is brought out upon the stage, the assistant is crouching
on the shelf. The trunk can then be shown empty. This is all very simple
until the trunk is turned around when it takes skill not to give the
trick away. As soon as the performer starts to turn the trunk around, the
assistant shifts her weight on the panel, thus causing it to fall inward
and bring the shelf up to make the back appear solid. The assistant is
now in the trunk, and the back can be shown clear of any apparatus. When
the trunk is turned to the front again, the lady repeats the previous
operation in the opposite direction, thus bringing her body to the back
of the trunk again.

To make the trick appear more difficult, glass plates are made to insert
in the ends, front and back of the trunk. In making the trunk, have the
back the same size as the bottom. Fit the piece of glass for the back
into a light frame, similar to a window frame. This frame is hinged to
the bottom of the trunk and is 1/2 in. smaller all around than the back
of the trunk, so that the two pieces of glass can be put in the ends and
also allow the back frame and glass to fall flush in the bottom of the
trunk. A few rubber bumpers are fastened in the bottom of the trunk to
catch the glass without noise as it falls. The best way to work this is
for the performer to let the frame down with his right hand while he is
closing up the front with his left.

As soon as the trunk is closed, the assistant again shifts her weight to
cause the panel to fall in and then the trunk can be turned to show the
back, or whirled around and turned to the front again, then opened up,
whereupon the assistant steps out, bows to the audience, and leaves the
stage.



How to Make a Candy-Floss Machine


Every person is familiar with candy floss, made at stands on fair grounds,
or carnivals, in an expensive whirling machine. It is not necessary to
wait for a fair or a carnival to have a bunch of candy floss, as it can
be made at home much quicker than making taffy candy.

[Illustration]

The device for making the candy floss consists of ordinary things that
can be had in any home, and usually a boy has a battery motor of some kind
that will furnish the power.

[Illustration: The Disk is Driven by a Small Battery Motor and Melted
Sugar is Spun Out into Floss]

Procure a tin pan, the shape of an ordinary dish pan and of medium size;
cut a hole about one-half the diameter of the pan in the bottom and solder
in a conical-shaped piece similar to a cake pan, allowing it to extend
up inside about half the height of the pan. Fasten supports to the pan so
that a Bunsen burner can be set under it where the flame will pass through
the conical center opening.

Mount a small battery motor with its shaft vertical, pulley end up, and
centering the conical hole, on a base, which supports the pan. Procure a
can cover, similar to that used on coffee cans, and fasten it with solder
to the pulley on the motor shaft, being careful to locate it centrally so
that it will run smoothly.

Close to the bottom and in the rim of the can cover, make a number of
small holes with a prickpunch, or other sharp-pointed tool. Wire the motor
to the battery, and the candy-floss machine is ready for use.

Light the burner, start the motor, and pour a little granulated sugar in
the revolving can cover. As the sugar is melted, it will be spun out in
floss form through the small holes into the pan receiver.--Contributed by
Herbert Hahn, Chicago, Ill.



Enlarging Pictures


A very simple and sufficiently accurate way of enlarging pictures by
means of a pencil holder and elastic is shown in the illustration. The
picture to be enlarged is fastened to a table top or drawing board, and
the paper on which it is to be drawn is placed directly below it. A small
brad or tack is driven into the board at A, the location depending on the
desired size of the enlarged picture, and the elastic is attached to it.
The pencil holder B is fastened to the other end of the elastic over the
drawing paper. A pointer, or a knot, is placed in the elastic at C. The
pencil holder consists of a stick of wood turned into a handle with a hole
bored centrally for a pencil.

[Illustration: The Size of the Enlarged Picture Depends on the Length of
the Elastic and the Spacing of Pencil and Pointer]

In use, the pencil is moved over the drawing paper while the knot or
pointer is watched, to keep it following the lines of the original
drawing. The stretch of the elastic is sufficient to enlarge the
parts equally, as well vertically as horizontally.--Contributed by Wm.
Weitzsacker, Buffalo, N. Y.



Distance Chart for Wireless Stations


The amateur wireless telegrapher may be troubled more or less regarding
distances from other stations. The difficulty can be overcome by following
a plan similar to that of a parcel-post map. A map should be selected
covering the desired territory. With the home station as center, circles
should be drawn to diameters corresponding in length to the scale used
on the map. By measuring the distance other stations may be from any of
these circles, their cross-country distance from the home station can be
determined at a glance.--Contributed by E. L. Hartlett, Wausau, Wis.

[Illustration: Circles on a Map the Same as for Parcel Post to Designate
Wireless Distances]



A Carrier for Fishhooks


Hooks that are attached to gut or short strings are difficult to carry and
to keep in good shape for use on a line. I made a carrier that overcame
this trouble, from a block of wood. The block is 1/2 in. in thickness with
brads driven into one end, for engaging the loops on the gut or string,
while the hook is caught on the opposite end, the block being just long
enough for the short line. The hooks will be held securely, and the block
can be carried in the pocket.--Contributed by Victor E. Carpenter, South
Bend, Ind.

[Illustration: The String is Drawn Taut over the Block, and the Hooks are
Caught in the Block End]



A Substitute for a Pen


Recently I was hard pressed for a pen, and as none could be found and the
hour was late it was necessary to find a substitute. I fashioned a pen
from a piece of boxwood, and was agreeably surprised at the excellent
results obtained with it. The wood was sharpened like a lead pencil
at one end, and a groove was cut out of the tapered part to hold the
ink.--Contributed by Richard F. Pohle, Lynn, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: A Notch Cut in the Tapered Part of a Wood Stick Forms a
Substitute Pen]

       *       *       *       *       *

    A very convenient method of keeping shipping tags at
    hand is to slip them on a desk spindle.



A Bucket-Ball Game


This is a new indoor game which follows out in principle the regular
baseball play. It is an exciting and interesting pastime, and while a
certain amount of skill is required to score runs, a person who cannot
play the regular game can score as many runs, and as often, as the best
players in the national leagues.

[Illustration: The Frame is Made Up without a Back, to Hold the Buckets
at an Angle That Makes It Difficult to Toss the Ball So That It will Stay
in Any One of Them (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]

Anyone that is just a little handy with tools can make the necessary
parts for this game. The tools required are a hammer and a saw, and the
materials consist of some finishing nails; three strips of wood, 6 ft.
long, 2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; two strips, 18 in. long, 4 in. wide,
and 1 in. thick; four strips, 24 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick;
two strips, 18 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; two blocks, 4 in.
square, and 1 in. thick, and four wood buckets.

A frame is built up as shown, 6 ft. long, 18 in. wide, and 24 in. high,
without a back. One of the long pieces is fastened to the bottoms of the
buckets as shown, spacing the latter equally on the length of the piece.
This piece is then set in notches cut in the blocks of wood at an angle
of 45. These blocks are fastened to the upper crosspieces at the ends of
the frame. The upper part of the buckets rest on the upper front piece of
the frame.

[Illustration: The Player must Throw the Ball So That It will Enter and
Stay in One of the Buckets, Which Designates the Base Hits by the Number
in Its Bottom]

The rules for playing the game are as follows: Three baseballs are used.
The players stand about 10 ft. distant and in front of the buckets.
Each player, or side, is only permitted to throw three balls an inning,
irrespective of the number of runs scored. Any kind of delivery is
permitted, but an underhand throw will be found most successful. The
buckets are numbered from 1 to 4, and represent, respectively, one,
two, and three-base hits, and home runs. The one in which the ball stays
designates the run.

Plays are figured as in a regular ball game. For instance, if a ball
should stay in bucket No. 2 and the next in bucket No. 3, the first man
would be forced home, counting one run, and leaving one man on third base.

If the next ball stays in bucket No. 4, the man on third base is forced
home, as well as the one who scored the home run, making three runs for
that inning. The runs should be scored as made, to guard against confusion
and argument.--Contributed by Walter Talley, Pottsville, Pa.



A Staple Puller


[Illustration]

With nothing but ordinary tools the removing of staples is tedious and
difficult work. If a suitable-sized wire nail is bent like a fishhook
and the hook part driven under the staple, the latter can be easily
pulled out by grasping and pulling the nail with a hammer in the usual
way.--Contributed by R. Neland, Minneapolis, Minn.



A Dissolving Coin Trick


This is a very simple and effective trick. The articles required to
perform the trick are, a glass of water, a silver dollar, a handkerchief
and a watch crystal, or round piece of glass, the size of a silver dollar.
Conceal the crystal in the palm of the hand and show the audience the
dollar. Hold the handkerchief in one hand and place the hand holding the
silver dollar and crystal under it so that the crystal can be grasped by
the hand holding the handkerchief. Remove the dollar by holding it in the
palm of the hand and slip it, unobserved, into a pocket.

Ask some one in the audience to hold the handkerchief with the inclosed
crystal and ask him to let it drop into the glass of water as the
handkerchief covers both. The falling glass can be heard, but upon
removing the handkerchief nothing can be seen of the dollar or watch
crystal. The circular glass disk cannot be seen in the water.--Contributed
by Albert Biery, Spokane, Wash.



A Fruit-Jar Opener


The accompanying sketch shows a handy device for turning up and unscrewing
the covers on glass fruit jars. The loop is slipped over the cover and
the handle turned in the direction of the arrow. To unscrew the cover,
the tool is turned over and the handle turned in the opposite direction.

[Illustration: The Loop in the Leather Grips the Cap Tightly When the
Handle is Turned as the Arrow Indicates]

The loop should be just large enough to slip over the cover easily. It is
made of leather and fastened to the wood handle with screws.--Contributed
by J. B. Downer, Seattle, Wash.



Anti-Tangle Safety Pin


A small disk of rubber or leather, placed on a safety pin as shown in
Fig. 1, will prevent the fabric which is fastened by the pin from becoming
tangled in the spring loop. The manner of using the pin is shown in Fig.
2.

[Illustration: The Small Disk on the Pin Prevents the Goods from Becoming
Tangled in the Coil]



How to Nickel or Silverplate Iron by Friction


The following methods of plating iron with nickel and silver appeared in
a recent issue of a German paper. In nickelplating iron, a thin coating
of copper is first produced on it by rubbing on a solution of 20 parts
sulphate of copper, 5 parts sulphuric acid and 100 parts of water. After
the copper plate has been formed rub over it, with a rag, a solution of
3 parts tin, 6 parts nickel and 1 part iron in 100 parts of hydrochloric
acid and 3 parts of sulphuric acid. If finally the object is rubbed with
a rag that has been dipped in finely pulverized zinc, a nickel deposit
will be formed on the copper. The thickness of the deposit of nickel can
be increased by repeating the two last operations.

According to a recent patent, a silver coating can be produced by
dissolving freshly precipitated chloride of silver in a solution of
hyposulphite of soda, 1.1 parts to 10 parts of water, and adding to this
solution 180 parts spirits of sal ammoniac and then stirring in 800 parts
of finely washed chalk. This mixture is applied and rubbed until it dries
on the object being silvered, and the result is a brilliant deposit of
pure silver.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A good filling for cracks in old furniture is made of
    shellac, either melted by heat or dissolved in alcohol
    to make a thick paste.



A Homemade Cradle


The cradle shown in the sketch can be made quickly and easily at home and
will be found far more serviceable than, and possessing several advantages
over, the ones purchased. It is made of a clothes basket, an iron rod and
two ordinary chairs. It can be taken down and the parts used for other
purposes. The upper portion of the rod prevents the chairs from slipping.
A light cloth can be placed over the rod, in tent fashion, to keep flies
out, while at the same time permitting air for ventilation.--Contributed
by Bert Verne, San Diego, Cal.

[Illustration: A Clothes Basket Supported with a Rod between Two Chairs
Makes a Good Cradle]



A Removable Post


[Illustration]

It is often desirable to have football and baseball grounds in public
parks roped in during the game, but after the game the ropes and stakes
must be removed. To drive in iron stakes and then remove them is hard
work and requires considerable time. The sketch shows a much better way. A
piece of 2-in. pipe, about 18 in. long, is sunk level with the ground in
the right location for a post. The post is made of 1-1/2-in. pipe of the
length desired. This will just fit inside of the 2-in. pipe. A wood plug
is fitted in the upper end of the pipe in the ground to keep out dirt when
the post is removed.--Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dartmouth, Mass.



String-and-Ball Trick


[Illustration]

The stopping of a ball on a string at any desired point is understood
by almost every person, but to make one that can be worked only when the
operator so desires is a mysterious trick. Procure a wooden ball, about
2 in. in diameter, and cut it into two equal parts. Insert a small peg
in the flat surface of one half, a little to one side of the center, as
shown, and allow the end to project about 3/16 in. The flat surface of the
other half is cut out concave, as shown, to make it 1/2 in. deep. The two
halves are then glued together, and a hole is drilled centrally on the
division line for a string to pass through.

To do the trick, hold an end of the string in each hand tightly and draw
it taut with the ball at the top, then slacken the string enough to allow
the ball to slide down the string. To stop the ball at any point, pull
the string taut.

Before handing the ball and string out for inspection, push the string
from each side of the ball and turn it slightly to throw it off the
peg. This will allow the string to pass freely through the ball,
and it cannot be stopped at will. To replace the string reverse the
operation.--Contributed by Wm. O. Swett, Chicago.



Wall-Paper Cleaner


The following mixture I have used with the best results for years.
Thoroughly mix together 3 pt. of wheat flour and 1 pt. of powdered
whiting, then add sufficient water to make a dough. To clean a dirty
papered wall, take a piece of the dough that can be easily grasped in
the hand, press it against the surface and make a long stroke downward.
During the process of cleaning, keep kneading the dirt into the dough. The
preparation can be mixed in any amount desired by using the proportions
named.--Contributed by C. W. Bause, Jr., E. Troy, Wis.



Revolving Shaft without Power


The device illustrated seems paradoxical for it apparently works without
any power being applied to it, making from two to three revolutions per
hour, which, though slow, is nevertheless motion, requiring energy.

[Illustration: The Expansion and Contraction of the Ropes Keep the Disk
Up and to One Side of the Center]

The shaft A is supported on the edges, in the bearings B and C, of a
tank, D. A disk, E, having a central hole larger in diameter than the
shaft, is located at the middle of the latter. The disk is supported by
12 or more cotton ropes, F. The tank is filled to the level G with water.
The lower ropes, being immersed in the water, shrink and lift the disk
slightly above the center in the position of an eccentric, as shown by
the dotted lines in the sketch. The center of gravity of the disk in this
position, being higher and slightly to one side of the shaft, the disk
has a tendency to turn around. The motion drives the next rope into the
water where it becomes soaked and shrinkage takes place again, lifting
the disk to a higher position, while the rope coming out of the water
dries out. The ropes emerging from the water but not yet thoroughly dry
cause the upper part of the disk to be in an eccentric position laterally
with reference to the center of the shaft, thus causing the center of
gravity to be not only above but also slightly to one side.--Contributed
by Charles Roberts, Brooklyn, N. Y.



A Paper-Bag Holder


[Illustration]

A holder, to accommodate the different-sized bags used in a store, can
be easily made of a board, 6 in. wide and 30 in. long. One edge of the
board is cut with notches similar to the teeth of a ripsaw and their
back-sloping edges are drilled to admit a nail point. A sufficient
quantity of bags is placed in a pile and a nail is driven through the edge
near their upper ends, and the projecting point of the nail is stuck into
one of the holes. Proceed in the same manner with bags of other sizes. To
remove a bag, take hold of the lower end of the outermost one and tear it
from the nail. Be sure to drive the nails through the bags close to the
top.--Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dartmouth, Mass.



Covering for Chalk Trays


The chalk trays fitted at the lower edge of blackboards soon collect
considerable chalk dust and the chalk sticks dropped into it are,
therefore, disagreeable to handle. A simple way of keeping the sticks
clean is to cover the trays with wire mesh which is shaped like a tray
but not so deep as the chalk tray. Thus the chalk dust will fall through
this screen and be out of the way of the sticks.



A Curtain Hanger


A close-coiled spring, about 1/4 in. in diameter, makes a much better
hanger for a short curtain than a small rod. The spring should be about
1 in. shorter than the width of the window and fastened with screwhooks.
The spring is preferable not only because it is less apt to tear the
fabric, as it will give some if the curtain is pulled, but also for
the reason that it is much easier to put it through the hem than the
rod.--Contributed by Walter Ramm, New York City.

[Illustration]



Joints for Model Aeroplane


In constructing model or toy aeroplanes the strips used are so slender
that it is difficult to join them at the ends with brads without splitting
them. If glue is used, there is danger of breaking two or more ribs,
should it be necessary to remove a broken or defective rib.

[Illustration: Cartridge Shells Used for Joints (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3,
Fig. 4)]

An empty 22-gauge long cartridge can be formed into an elbow that will
connect the framework accurately, give more strength than glue or brads,
and allow a broken section to be removed without spoiling the other part
of the framework. File off the end A, Fig. 1, so that the shell will
form a straight tube, and file as shown in Fig. 2 with a three-cornered
file. Then bend the two sections into the form shown in Fig. 3 and solder
the adjacent edges. File off the rough spots and drill small holes, as
shown, for the insertion of pins to hold the wood strips. Much time in
the building of model aeroplanes can be saved by keeping a supply of these
elbows on hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A deep rust on tools may be removed by soaking them
    in a strong, hot bath of potash and water for a half
    hour, then dipping them into a solution of 1 part
    muriatic acid in 2 parts cold water.



An Indoor Baseball Game


An indoor game of baseball may be played on a board 5 ft. long and 3 ft.
wide. A diamond is laid off at one end of the board and pins representing
the hits are attached to the board so they will project above the surface.
The locations of the players are designated by holes bored part way in the
wood with an expansive bit. These holes should be large enough to receive
the rings easily. The rings may be gaskets or they may be made of rope,
and should have an inside diameter of about 3 in.

[Illustration: Baseball Diamond on a Board]

Only two persons can play at this game. The distance from the board to
the thrower may be from 10 to 100 ft., according to the size of the room.
This distance should be marked and each thrower stand at the same place.

If the ring is thrown over one of the "base-hit" or "two-bagger" pegs,
it shows the number of bases secured. Throwing a ring over one of the
"home-run" pegs means a score, of course. The "infield hit" secures
a base. If the ring slips into a hole, that counts one out. A player
must throw until he has three outs. The score is kept for the runs
made.--Contributed by Francis P. Hobart, Willoughby, O.



A Lantern for the Camp


[Illustration]

A very desirable lantern for camp use is one that utilizes a candle
instead of a lamp. Such a lantern can be made of an ordinary oil-lantern
globe, a block of wood, some galvanized wire, a few nails, a metal collar,
and a hood of zinc or tin. The block of wood is cut octagonally and the
metal collar is fastened to it as shown. Four headless nails are driven
into the center of the block, spaced so as to hold an ordinary candle
securely. The wire is formed into a U-shape and the ends fastened into the
block of wood outside of the candle socket, and within the globe circle.
A conical piece of tin or zinc is formed to fit over the top of the globe
as shown. As the candle does not require much draft there is no opening
provided.--Contributed by Addison W. Baird, M. D., New York City.



Electric Lights Controlled from Two or More Switches


Many times it is quite an advantage to have a lamp or group of lamps
so connected that the current may be turned on or off by any one of a
number of different switches. For example, the lights in a long hall or
passage-way can be lighted or extinguished by operating a switch at either
end of the hall; the lights in the upper and lower halls of a residence,
turned on or off by operating a switch upstairs or downstairs as the case
might demand; the lights in the garage, controlled by switches at both
the inside and outside door, etc.

[Illustration: Lamps Controlled from Two Switches (Fig. 1)]

The method of connecting a number of lamps to a circuit so that they
can be controlled from either of two switches is shown in Fig. 1. The
switches, as illustrated in this drawing, are in such a position that the
lamps will burn. If either of the switches be thrown to its other position
(there are two positions for each switch), the circuit will be opened.
The operation then of either switch will again close the circuit.

[Illustration: Lamps Controlled by Any Number of Switches (Fig. 2)]

The method of connecting a number of lamps to a circuit so that they can
be controlled by any number of switches is shown in Fig. 2. The switches
are all in such a position that the lamps will burn. If any one of the
switches be turned to its second position (all the switches have two
positions), the circuit will be open. The dotted lines at switch C show
the connections through switch C after it has been operated. Operating
switch D then will again close the circuit, by using the dotted lines
in switches C and D. The wiring for the control of lamps, as just
indicated, must comply with the underwriters' requirements, and also city
requirements, if the work be done in a place having city regulations for
electric wiring.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Wire netting may be cut by laying it on the side edge
    of a spade and striking it with a hammer.

[Illustration]



Electric Score Board for Indoor Games


A very satisfactory electric score board, for use in scoring basketball
and other games played indoors, is shown in the illustration. It is
constructed entirely of wood, but should be lined with asbestos board
or sheathing. The dimensions are a matter of choice, but one 4 ft. long,
2 ft. wide and 18 in. deep is a good size. The back of the box is provided
with two cleats, each 2-1/2 ft. long, fastened at each end. This allows a
projection of 3 in. at the top and bottom, for fastening the score board
to the wall. The manner of construction is shown in Fig. 1, and a cross
section of the box, in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: Electric Indoor Score Board, Showing Its Construction and
Manner of Cutting Out the Letters and Numbers (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3,
Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7)]

The front of the box should be fastened with screws so as to make its
removal easy in case of repairs. This part of the box carries the frame
for inserting the numbers and the words "Home Team" and "Visitors," as
shown in Fig. 3. As the words are a permanent fixture, the cards carrying
them are fastened to the front. At the end of these words a frame is
constructed as shown in Fig. 4, in which the cards having the numbers are
inserted in slides.

Numerals and letters can be cut out of heavy cardboard or tin. The design
of a letter having sharp angles and straight edges, as shown in Fig. 5,
is very easily cut out with a chisel. The method of cutting is shown in
Fig. 6.

As portions of the letters and numerals, such as the center in an O, would
fall out if cut entirely around, some way must be provided to hold the
parts in place. The way to prepare stencils is to leave a portion uncut,
which is known as a tie, and the letter will appear as shown in Fig. 7.

The best method for making these letters and figures is to cut out the
letter entirely, then to paste thin paper over the back and replace the
parts removed by the cutting in their original position.--Contributed by
James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



A Mission Frame for an Alarm Clock


The old nickelplated alarm clock which usually adorns the kitchen mantel
is, to say the least, not ornamental, and I improved the appearance of
mine without lessening its usefulness by making a small case in mission
style for it.

[Illustration: An Alarm Clock with a Wood Covering Ornamented and Finished
in Mission Style]

The sketch shows a design which is neat and easily made. Accurate
dimensions cannot be given as these will vary with the size of the clock.
Quarter-sawed oak, 1/4 in. thick, is the best material to use. The front
and back can be cut on a jigsaw, the opening for the clock face being cut
slightly smaller than the metal of the clock so that only the face shows.
An opening in the back piece should be cut a little smaller than the one
in front, to provide a free opening for winding the clock. Fasten the
parts together with small round-head brass brads or screws and finish to
match the furniture. A small desk clock can be made in a similar manner,
using a cheap watch instead of the alarm clock.--Contributed by C. E.
Hamann, Somerville, Mass.



Mixing Sulphuric Acid


One of the first lessons given a student in chemistry is how to mix
sulphuric acid with water. This would naturally be supposed to be very
easy, yet, if it is not done right, it will surely result in injury to
the person doing the mixing.

The specific gravity of sulphuric acid is 1.849 and, on account of its
chemical attraction to water, great heat is set up or generated when the
two are being mixed. If the acid is put into a jar and the water poured
onto it, they will be temporarily separated, as the heavy acid will remain
at the bottom, the chemical reaction taking place on the dividing line
only. This soon generates heat which rapidly increases until steam is
formed. Then the water boils over and finally becomes a bubbling volcano
which readily ejects the contents of the jar. As the mixture at this
moment is very hot, bad burns will be the result, which are aggravated by
the biting of the acid; and clothing or anything that it comes in contact
with will be ruined or badly damaged. Always remember this caution: add
the acid to the water.

The following is the proper way to proceed in mixing sulphuric acid as
well as other acids of lighter weight. Place the water in a jar and pour
the acid in, a little at a time, stirring the mixture with a wooden stick.
The mixing process will always heat the solution, which in many instances,
must be allowed to cool before using.



A Chinese Pagoda


Fold the end of a long and narrow strip of paper over several times as
shown in Fig. 1 and roll the entire length over a stick, then remove the
roll and crease, or make it flat, as shown in Fig. 2. Make two cuts with
a sharp knife centrally so that they reach to the several folds first made
on the inner end of the paper, then cut the fold in the paper between the
cuts as shown in Fig. 3, and bend the ends over to form the shape in Fig.
4. Insert the knife blade under the first fold and draw it out until the
paper takes the form in Fig. 5.

[Illustration: Stages in Making the Strip of Paper into the Finished
Pagoda (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5)]

These pagodas can be made large or small, as desired, and also varied in
several ways. Large ones can be formed and used as small tree ornaments.
All that is necessary to make them high is to roll up one strip of paper
on another in the rolling process.

In rolling up several strips, one on top of the other successively,
various colored papers may be used and the appearance is greatly
enhanced.--Contributed by Chas. C. Bradley, W. Toledo, O.



A Cuspidor Carrier


[Illustration]

The task of handling cuspidors under all conditions is anything but
pleasant, but the carrier shown in the sketch makes quite an improvement
over ordinary methods. The carrier consists of an iron rod, 1/4 in. in
diameter and 3 ft. long. One end is bent to fit around the neck of the
cuspidor and the other is shaped into a handle.



Guide for Grinding a Plane Iron


When a plane iron has been sharpened a number of times, it often becomes
so out of square that the edge cannot be made parallel with the bottom of
the plane block, even by using the lateral adjustment. Where this happens,
the plane iron must be reground. If an emery wheel mounted in a polishing
head or lathe is at hand, this can be easily accomplished. Loosen the
plane-iron cap and screw it down at right angles to the plane iron, also
reverse the tool rest as shown in the sketch. In this way the work can be
done better and more quickly than by the usual method.--Contributed by L.
S. Uphoff, Schenectady, N. Y.

[Illustration: The Plane-Iron Cap Turned at Right Angles, Provides a Guide
to Grind the Edge Straight]



To Prevent Torch Lights from Smoking


In the shop or factory oil torches are sometimes used and much trouble is
experienced by the excessive smoking of the flame. This occurs because
too much carbon remains unburned, and can be remedied by first soaking
the wick in a weak solution of acetic acid. A 5-per-cent solution can be
purchased for a few cents at any drug store and will soak a great number
of wicks. The acid is not poisonous unless taken internally.



A Lard and Fruit Presser


A very simple but handy device for pressing out lard, juices for jelly, or
fruit for marmalade, is made from two boards, each 18 in. long, 3 in. wide
and 1/2 in. thick, formed into the shape of paddles and hinged together.
The hinge is made by running a wire through holes bored in one end of the
paddles and twisting the ends together as shown. This presser will save
the hands from stains and other effects of the juices.--Contributed by
Julia A. White, Glenburg, Pa.

[Illustration: Two Paddles Hinged Together with a Piece of Wire Make a
Presser for Lard and Fruits]



An Electric-Light Bulb as Barometer


To use a discarded electric bulb as a fairly reliable barometer the point
is broken off with a pair of pliers while holding the bulb under water.
As the bulb is a vacuum, it completely fills with water. If the bulb is
now suspended from a wire or thread fastened at the socket end, the water
will not run out of it in fair weather when the atmospheric pressure is
normal or high, but if the pressure falls, as happens when bad weather
is approaching, the water will begin to bulge out of the small opening
and sometimes a small drop may even fall off. When, with returning fair
weather, the atmospheric pressure increases, the water can no longer bulge
or drop out of the bulb.



A Swinging-Pendulum Trick


To swing a pendulum, picked out from a number of them at random, without
touching it is a very puzzling trick. The articles necessary are a
medium-sized table and a number of pendulums, some of which are suspended
from a rod with their lower weighted ends inside of water and wine glasses
placed on the table, and others attached to corks so that they will hang
inside of bottles.

The spectators gather around the table which can be in full light. The
performer sits at one side of the table with his hands flat on the top.
A person may pick out any pendulum and ask him to swing it, which he will
proceed to do without touching it, also making it strike the glass while
it swings. Another pendulum may be pointed out and he will start that one
apparently by looking at it, while the other one stops.

[Illustration: Any One Pendulum can be Made to Swing at Will by Moving
the Table Slightly]

This may seem to be impossible, yet it is very easy. It will be seen
that no two pendulums have the same length. A pendulum makes a certain
number of swings in a given time, depending on its length. A long pendulum
requires more time to complete its swing and will, therefore, make a less
number of swings than a short one in the same time. It is only necessary
to move the table slightly and watch the pendulum picked out until it
begins to swing independently of the others, which soon happens. To
make the longer pendulums swing, longer movements of the table top must
be made. With a little practice anyone can become a skilled medium in
pendulum swinging.--Contributed by James A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa.



Applying a Strap Hinge


An ordinary strap hinge can be applied to a door or box cover in such a
way that only one wing will show. Ordinarily the hinge opens as at A, and,
on reversing it, the hinge will open to the limit as shown at B. If one
wing is bent toward the other, as shown at C, the hinge may be applied,
as shown at D. As this process reverses the hinge, the screw holes must
be countersunk on the opposite side.

[Illustration: Reversing a Strap Hinge So That When It is Applied Only
One Wing will Show]



Tricks Performed with Thumbs Tied Together


To have one's thumbs securely tied together by any person in an audience
and examined by the spectators, then have some one throw a hoop or bicycle
rim on one of the performer's arms as if the thumbs were not tied, seems
impossible, yet this trick can be done, and its simplicity is its own
protection, even though performed close to a committee selected from the
audience. A stick can be held perpendicularly by anyone with one hand at
each end and the performer can thrust his arms at the stick which passes
between them with the thumbs apparently tied tightly together. The same
effect is produced on the arm of any person, while the hands are tightly
clasped, and before and after each movement the tied thumbs are examined
by the committee.

The two cords used for the trick are made as follows: The first should
be about 17 in. long, 1/4 in. in diameter at its center and tapering
to points at the ends. The other cord is about 13 in. long, 1/8 in. in
diameter in the center and also tapering at the ends. They are constructed
of Chinese or Japanese paper, which is a soft, but very tough, fibrous
texture. Cut the paper into strips, 1 in. wide, taking care that the
grain, or rather the fiber, runs lengthwise. Beginning at one end, twist
the paper on itself at an angle as in rolling the old-fashioned paper
lamp lighter. Each turn should lap over the former about half of its
width. When within 3 in. of the end of the first strip apply another by
moistening the joining ends and continue the twisting. When the length
given is reached, break off the strip and start back over the first in the
opposite direction. Lay on enough layers to secure the diameter given.
When finished, the cords should be strong enough to resist the pressure
applied by the hands.

[Illustration: Manner of Crossing the Thumbs to Receive the Double Tie of
the Cord]

With all fingers pressed together spread both thumbs away from the hands,
as shown at A. Lay the right thumb across the left, as at B, the large
knuckle bone of one lying directly over that of the other. The largest
cord is laid over the crossing and both ends brought down, crossed under
the thumbs, then up again, and tied in two knots on top of the right
thumb, as at C. The trick in the tying is at this point. Just as the tie
is being made pull the left thumb until the smallest-diameter joints reach
the cord and pull down with the left hand. Push the right thumb so that
the fleshy part enters as far as possible into the cords. Insist on the
tie being made tightly.

[Illustration: The Cords as They are Placed around the Thumbs and Tied in
a Double Knot]

The second and smaller cord is laid below the right thumb as shown at D,
and on top of the left against the first cord, crossed, brought back and
tied twice. When this is being done reverse the pushing and pulling as
described, pushing the left thumb and pulling out on the right. Secure all
the slack on the left thumb, the right being pushed into the cords at its
smallest diameter and the second cord being tied high up and as near the
right thumb as possible, with knots tightly drawn. If this second knot is
not tight it will give trouble in performing the trick.

The release is made by bringing the tips of the fingers together and
placing the thumbs into the palms. If the ties have been carefully made
there will be no trouble to withdraw the left thumb as it is masked by
the hands. The peculiar nature of the paper cord causes the loop from
which the thumb was removed to remain open and rigid as a wire loop, and
if the last tie was tightly drawn, the second cord will not slip down to
close the loop. In approaching the hoop, stick, or arm, touch the thing
to be passed with the finger tips and withdraw them, swaying backward a
few times and, in the last swing before making the pass, remove the thumb
from the loop. After passing, replace the thumb in the loop. In passing
the object, open the finger tips, then close them and open the palms, and
push the left thumb back into the loop, close the palms and apply a strain
on both thumbs, then show the tie. Be careful to press both thumbs closely
into the palms in passing so that they will not strike the object.

Always exhibit the tie from the back of the hands with the palms spread
out. If there is any difficulty in drawing out or replacing the thumb in
the loop, it is because the ties have not been properly made or tied when
the thumbs were in the right place. It requires some practice to do the
trick quickly.--Fayette.



A Way to Keep Home Accounts


An easy way to keep track of all the home expenses is by the popular card
system. The index cards can be had at any stationery-supply house. Place
the cards in a box on end and have a good supply of blanks back of them
ready for use. Under, or back of, each letter place as many blanks as is
necessary, and almost instantly any item of expense in the home may be
found, such as the cost of coal for the year, drugs, meat, the cost of
clothing for a child, and the account of the head of the family. The boy's
account might read as follows under the letter J:

       Johnnie

   Jan.   3  Shoes          $3.50
   Jan.  15  Book             .45
   Jan.  29  Hair cut         .25
   Feb.   1  Stockings        .75

and so on through the year. The mother can see at a glance just when the
last shoes were bought, and how much it cost for books and paper.

Everything pertaining to the home keeping can be so recorded and each
year compared. Once given a trial no other bookkeeping will be required
in the home where time counts. Children can be taught to keep account of
their expenses in this way, and thus thrift and good business methods are
encouraged.--Contributed by Harriette I. Lockwood, Philadelphia, Pa.



How to Make a Blowgun


Either a 12-in. length of a small curtain-rod tubing or a straight piece
of small bamboo pole, cut off between the joints, can be used for the gun
part of this simple device. If bamboo is used, see that it is cleaned out
smoothly on the inside.

The dart used in the gun is shown at A in the illustration. It is made
by threading the eye of a darning needle full of yarn, clipping all the
strands off to a uniform length of about 3/4 in., and then picking out
the fibers into a brushlike mass above the needle's eye. Another needle
or pin can be used for fuzzing the threads. The point to observe is that
the brush is of somewhat larger diameter than the bore of the gun, so that
when the needle is pushed into the mouth end the brush will be compressed
and make an air-tight plug.

[Illustration: The Blowgun is Made of a Piece of Tubing, and the Dart of
a Darning Needle]

After thus inserting the dart, hold it as shown and give a quick, sharp
blast of the breath into the gun. The dart will travel with great speed
and accuracy for 20 ft. or more, and stick wherever it strikes. The point
being so small, it can be used in the house for shooting at a paper target
pinned to the wall without injury to the plaster or woodwork.--Contributed
by C. C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich.



A Brush for Applying Soldering Acid


A good brush for applying acid to articles for soldering can be made of
a piece of small copper pipe for the handle, and fine copper wire for the
brush. To make the brush part, take a piece of cardboard, about 1-1/4 in.
wide, and wind several turns of No. 28 gauge copper wire around it, then
remove the coil, insert about 1/2 in. of it in the pipe, and flatten the
latter to hold the wire. Clip the ends of the wire, and a brush will be
had that ordinary acids will not affect. If only a short piece of pipe
is available, it can be used as a ferrule and a handle made of wire or
wood.--Contributed by A. R. Cunning, W. New Brighton, N. Y.



Inkwell and Penholder


[Illustration]

An empty paste pot with a water well in the center makes an excellent
inkwell and penholder. Fill the exterior well A with cement or plaster of
paris, push the number of penholders to be held into the cement before it
sets, moving them about occasionally to prevent the cement from sticking
to them and to make the hole a little larger than the holder. The part B
is for the ink.--Contributed by R. F. Pinkney, Lazareto del Mariel, Cuba.



A Homemade Loose-Leaf Pocket Memorandum


The little memorandum illustrated herewith is very handy to carry in the
coat or vest pocket for taking notes, etc. Loose leaves may be supplied
with very little trouble. It consists of a fold of paper, cut as shown and
pasted at the ends. The pocket thus formed will easily hold 2 doz. sheets
and the slits cut on the outside will admit 8 sheets.--Contributed by C.
B. Hanson, Fitchburg, Mass.

[Illustration: The Holder is Made of Heavy Manila Paper and will Stand
Considerable Wear]

       *       *       *       *       *

    An ideal cleaner for kid gloves is carbon
    tetrachloride.



Rubber-Band-Change Trick


The trick of changing a rubber band from the first and second fingers to
the third and fourth, if done quickly, can be performed without detection
by any one. The band on the first two fingers is shown to the spectator
as in Fig. 1, with the back of the hand up. The hand is then turned over
and the band drawn out quickly, as shown in Fig. 2, in a manner as to
give the impression that the band is whole and on the two fingers. While
doing this, quickly fold all the fingers so that their ends enter the
band, and turn the hand over and let go the band, then show the back with
the fingers doubled up. In reality the fingers will be in the band, as in
Fig. 3, and the back will still show the band on the first two fingers.
Quickly straighten out all the fingers, and the band will snap over the
last two fingers, as shown in Fig. 4.--Contributed by E. K. Marshall, Oak
Park, Ill.

[Illustration: Transferring Rubber Band from the First Two Fingers to the
Last Pair, Like Magic (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]



A Swinging Electric-Light Bracket


The light bracket shown is both ornamental and useful and can be swung
from one side of the room to the other in an instant, a feature that is
of great value in a dimly lighted kitchen. It can be made of either brass
or soft iron, but, for the sake of convenience, the description will be
for one made of brass.

Procure four pieces of brass, 1 in wide, 1/8 in. thick and 7 in. long, and
bend them to the shape shown at A. These are to form the ceiling bracket.
A 3/16-in. hole is drilled in the end of each piece to be against the
ceiling. The other end is bent slightly concave and soldered to a brass
collar, B, which is threaded on the inside. This collar must be of such
a size that it will screw on the end of a brass pipe, C, 1 in. in outside
diameter. The length of this pipe should be 18 or 20 inches.

The base D of the bracket is made of a brass bar, 1/8 in. thick, 1/2 in.
wide and 45 in. long, a scroll being turned on 6 in. of its length at
the globe end, and 3 in. of the other end turned up at right angles and
soldered to a ring made of 1/16-in. brass that acts as a bearing around
the pipe.

[Illustration: A Bracket Forming a Pendant and Swinging Arm to Change the
Location of the Electric Light]

The upper brace E is made of 1/16-in. brass, the same width as the base
piece and about 48 in. in length. Each end is turned into a scroll and
then riveted or soldered to the base D and to the upper brass ring. The
space between the base D, the brace E, and the pipe C is filled with any
style of scroll or other brace that may suit the taste of the maker, but
the base D must be at right angles to the pipe C before the scroll is
fastened in place.

A cap, F, is screwed to the lower end of the pipe, to keep the bracket in
place. Ordinary flexible light cord is used to connect to the light which
is swung to the scroll end of the base.--Contributed by F. L. Matter,
Portland, Oregon.



Match Safe to Deliver One Match at a Time


A match safe that will deliver only one match at a time is constructed
of two parts, the box or holder and the base, with slider. The box is
diamond-shaped and of the size shown by the dimensions. The base, with
slider, consists of two pieces, the baseboard and a standard which
runs through the box diagonally on the longest dimension in a vertical
position. A thumbtack is inserted in the standard near the top to prevent
the box from being lifted entirely from the base.

[Illustration: The Box Delivers Only One Match When It is Raised and
Lowered on the Standard]

The matches are filled into the box on both sides of the standard. When
a match is wanted, lift the box up and let it down again, and one match
will be caught in the notch and raised out of the box. To prevent the box
from tipping sideways when it is raised up, small pieces can be glued to
the box ends on the inside and on both sides of the standard.--Contributed
by A. S. Barrows, New Britain, Conn.



Cartridge Shells Used for Electrical Contacts


In making small switchboards, rheostats, and other electrical devices,
I found a good use for old center-fire cartridge shells as shown in the
sketch. A hole a little smaller than the diameter of the shell is made in
the board and the shell is forced in. The proper wires are then soldered
to the metal on the inside, or the wire may be placed inside of the shell
and held in contact by driving a wood plug in as indicated.--Contributed
by W. O. Nettleton, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: The Heads of the Cartridge Shells Make Good Contacts for
a Switch Lever]



A Dowel-Turning Tool


The owner of a wood or metal lathe can easily construct a tool that
will turn dowels of any size quickly. This tool, as described by a
correspondent of Work, London, consists of a block of wood, shaped as
shown at A, and a plane bit, B, attached with a wood screw. The hole
in the collet C must be of such size that it will admit the rough stock
freely but also prevent it from wabbling as the stick turns. The stock is
chucked in the ordinary manner and the tool is run on the outer end.

[Illustration: The Tool is Very Similar to a Plane and is Used with a
Lathe for Turning Dowels]



To Tie a Hammock


[Illustration]

A method not generally known to quickly and securely hitch up a hammock
between two trees, in camp or elsewhere, is shown in the sketch. Each end
rope is given one or more turns around a tree trunk and then tucked under,
as shown. The pull on the rope will draw it tightly against the rough bark
on the tree. The harder the pull, the tighter the rope binds against the
tree trunk. In this manner a hammock can be put up in a few moments and
it is as readily taken down.--Contributed by Bert Morehouse, Des Moines,
Iowa.



An Inexpensive File


Envelopes make a very inexpensive as well as a neat file for papers and
letters if they are arranged and fastened together so that they can be
kept in one packet. In making such a file procure as many envelopes as
there will be headings in the file, also a number of strips of gummed
tape, about 1-1/2 in. long. There must be twice as many of these strips
as there are envelopes.

[Illustration: The File is Built Up of Envelopes Joined Together with
Small Strips of Tape]

Bind the backs of two envelopes, A and B, together leaving a space of
1/8 in. between the envelopes. Bind a third envelope, C, to B, and so on.
The strips of tape from A to B and from B to C are on opposite sides of
the envelope B. Continue binding until the required number of envelopes
have been joined together. Assign a heading to each of the envelopes, and
the file is ready for use. When completed it should appear as shown in
D.--Contributed by Alfred Rice, Syracuse, N. Y.



Window-Shade Guides


The annoyance of a shade that will not run true on the roller and flops
in the wind coming through an open window can be overcome by using guide
wires as follows:

[Illustration: Two Parallel Guide Wires Hold the Stick of the Shade in
Its Proper Place]

The stick in the hem on the lower edge of the shade is supplied with a
screweye, A, at each end. A wire is run through the screweye and fastened
in a vertical position on the casing with screweyes as shown by B, B.
A second wire is similarly attached on the other side of the shade,
taking care to have both wires parallel and true with the ends of the
roller.--Contributed by George Lue, San Francisco, California.



Watering Plants at the Roots


An effective way to water rose bushes, shrubs or plants is to place an
old cowhorn in the earth so that the small end will be near the roots of
the plant and the large end level with the surface of the ground, and fill
the horn with water. The small end of the horn should be cut off at such a
point that the hole will be about the size of a lead pencil.--Contributed
by Chas. L. Richards, Philadelphia, Pa.



How to Clean Jewelry


To cleanse articles of silver, gold, bronze and brass use a saturated
solution of cyanide of potassium. To clean small articles, dip each one
into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water; then dry and polish
with a linen cloth. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface
with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As cyanide of
potassium is a deadly poison, care must be taken not to have it touch any
sore spot on the flesh.--Contributed by G. A. Koerbis, U. S. S. "Vermont."



Runner for a Go-Cart


As the wheels of a go-cart do not push through the snow very easily and
the cart, therefore, does not run in a straight direction, and as I did
not care to purchase a sled, I instead fitted the go-cart wheels with
runners as shown in the sketch. I purchased a piece of machine steel of
a diameter to fit the grooves in the wheels after the rubber tires were
removed. This I cut and bent to the shape shown at A, making two runners,
and applied one to each pair of wheels, front and rear, as shown at B.
The runners kept the wheels immovable and caused the cart to glide over
the snow as a sleigh. This runner will not interfere with the folding of
a collapsible cart.--Contributed by Roy B. Hanaford, Detroit, Mich.

[Illustration: The Runners are Easily Applied to the Wheels of a Go-Cart
and Hold Them Solidly]



A Ring-Throwing Game


The board for this game is made of a cover from an old candy or lard pail,
washed and painted black. When the paint is dry, place 50 pegs on the
surface as shown and number them with white paint or by fastening numbers
cut from paper below them. The numbering of the pegs is not consecutive,
but low and high numbers distributed with the object in view of making it
difficult to secure a high score.

Each player has a set of five rings, which are nothing else but rubber
fruit-jar rings. These can be purchased at a grocery store. The board is
hung on a wall or post, and the player stands about 5 or 6 ft. away and
throws the rings, one at a time, trying to ring pegs having the highest
numbers. The sum of the numbers corresponding to the pegs ringed counts
toward the final score. Turns are taken by each player, and each time
five rings are thrown. The score can be set at any amount, 500 being about
right.--Contributed by Francis P. Hobart, Willoughby, O.

[Illustration: The Candy-Pail Cover with Pegs Numbered and a Set of Rings
for Each Player]



A Pen and Brush Holder


A sheet of corrugated paper is a handy thing to have on the writing desk,
for the purpose of placing wet pens or brushes in its grooves. The paper
absorbs the liquid, and the corrugations hold the pens or brushes in handy
positions. A sheet of this paper is almost as useful a desk accessory as
a blotter.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: The Depressions in the Paper Hold the Pens or Brushes and
Also Absorb the Excess Fluid]



Supporter for a Double Clothesline


[Illustration]

A double clothesline of any length should have a supporter in the center
to keep the line from sagging when the clothes are hung on the lower one.
The supporter shown in the sketch saves the wear from the strain on the
lines. It also keeps the clothes in a higher current of air so that they
dry quicker.

The supporter is made of two nickelplated rings measuring 2 in. in
diameter. They are bound together as shown. The rings being nickelplated,
the supporter will not rust the clothes. The clothes should be arranged on
the lower line so that the supporter will rest in the center.--Contributed
by Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, New York.



Pincushion for the Arm


Those that have trouble in keeping the pincushion within reach while
sewing, can remedy the trouble by making one to fit the wrist or arm.
An ordinary pincushion is attached to a piece of cardboard and an
elastic sewed to the cardboard edges so that it will fit on the arm.
The pincushion is not in the way and is readily worn so that the pins
are easier to reach than if pinned to the dress.--Contributed by Frank
Sterrett, Portland, O.



Electric Test for Fixtures


A very useful device for testing out fixtures before they are connected
up can be easily made as follows: Two wires are run from a plug, A, one
to a socket, B, and the other to terminate at C. The line from the other
side of the socket B terminates at D.

In testing a fixture, the plug A is turned into a socket of some source of
current, and a lamp is turned into the socket B. The terminal C is held
to the metal covering of the fixture, while the end D is held to one of
the wires. If there is a leak of current, the lamp at B and those of the
fixture will light up.--Contributed by Fred Schumacher, Brooklyn, N. Y.

[Illustration: One Line of the Two Connecting Wires is Broken and the Ends
Used as Terminals on the Fixture]



Opening for Steam in a Utensil Cover


When cooking certain foods the ordinary cover on a vessel confines too
much steam, while if no cover at all is used, too much will escape,
hence a cover which is provided with a vent is very desirable. The cover
attachment shown in the illustration is evidently well adapted for service
on such occasions and can be easily made as follows:

[Illustration: The Small Triangular Surface Provided with Holes for
Releasing Surplus Steam is Covered with a Cap]

Lay out a small triangle on some level part of the cover and punch several
holes inside of the lines. Cut a cap, A, from a piece of tin to cover the
holes. A small projection on the edge of the cap serves to swing it one
way or the other, as needed, and it is fastened loosely to the cover with
a soft-copper rivet, so that it may be easily opened.



Drying Seeds


A good way to dry tomato, cantaloupe, and other seeds is to put them on
blotters. They will quickly dry in this manner and will not become moldy,
as the blotter soaks up the moisture.--Contributed by Theodore Becker,
Kansas City, Mo.



Cleaning Clothes by Boiling Them


When cleaning clothes by boiling them in a boiler over a fire, fit in
a false bottom to keep the clothes from touching the bottom. The false
bottom should be perforated with holes, 3/8-in. in diameter and 1 in.
apart, over the entire piece. Fasten four legs, each about 2 in. long, to
the under side to make a space between the bottoms. In washing, all that
is necessary is to place the clothes in the boiler and boil them. The dirt
will come loose and settle through the holes and on the boiler bottom.



An Emergency Tack Puller


One day I had to pull some tacks but had no tack puller at hand. An idea
came to me to use the kitchen spoon, and I found that it worked even
better than a regular tack puller. The ordinary kitchen spoon usually has
an edge sharp enough to get under any tack.--Contributed by H. D. Harkins,
St. Louis, Mo.

[Illustration: The Point of a Spoon will Easily Pull a Tack from Soft Wood]



A Puzzle with Figures


This puzzle is to arrange all the figures or digits, from 1 to
9 inclusively, in two rows, each containing all the digits, so that the
sum in addition as well as the remainder in subtraction will have nine
figures, in which all the digits are represented. There are several
solutions to the puzzle, and the following is one of them:

    371294568 216397845

The sum of the foregoing numbers and the remainder, when the lower row
is subtracted from the upper, will both have nine figures and include all
the digits from 1 to 9.--Contributed by Walter Bennett, Detroit, Mich.



To Fasten Loose Table Legs


When legs of an ordinary table become loose and unsteady they may be
easily repaired as shown in the sketch. Nails do not hold well in such
places and glue will not stand much washing.

[Illustration: A Piece of Wire Bent around the Leg of a Table will Make
It Rigid]

The method of making the repair is to drill 1/8-in. holes through the
rails on each side of the leg and insert pieces of galvanized wire of
a size to fit the holes. After the wire is inserted, the ends are bent
over. The illustration clearly shows the repair.--Contributed by Edwin C.
Wright, Newport, Ky.



Washbasin Holder


[Illustration]

A piece of wire formed into the shape shown in the sketch makes a handy
hook to hold a washbasin when it is not in use. This keeps it out of the
way and out of the dirty water which might be thrown into the kitchen
sink.--Contributed by F. C. Althen, Anamosa, Iowa.



A Cleaner for Canvas Shoes


One of the most economical cleansers for canvas shoes is oxide of zinc.
Mix a small quantity of the powder with water, to the consistency of
thin paste, and apply it to the canvas with an old toothbrush, rubbing
it in thoroughly. Then set the shoes aside to dry before wearing
them.--Contributed by Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A good substitute currycomb can be made of corncobs
    tied together tightly.



Ruling Blank Books


A special ruling for a blank book can be drawn by using a thin piece of
sheet metal or cardboard, cut as shown in Fig. 1, for a template. The
pencil is drawn along one edge of the cutout so that it will make lines
as shown in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: A Template Having Slots Cut for Drawing Special Vertical
and Horizontal Lines on Pages (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

If horizontal lines are required, cut notches on the edge for the location
of each line as shown. When the vertical lines are drawn, these notches
will mark the places for the horizontal lines.



How to Demagnetize a Watch


Quite often the attendants or a visitor to an electric-light plant
discovers after a few days that his watch is losing a half hour or more
a day by having become magnetized by the dynamos. In stations where the
old types of machines are still in use there is a great deal more danger
from what is called "stray" magnetic fields than in those where modern
machines are installed.

The jeweler demagnetizes a watch in the following way: He has a piece of
soft iron with an opening cut in its center of such shape and size as to
receive the watch, and with a fine wire wound about it. After the watch
has been placed in position, an alternating current, that is, one whose
direction is changing at regular intervals, is sent through the winding,
and thus a magnetic field is produced that also changes in direction
as the current reverses. The current is gradually reduced in value and
the magnetism originally possessed by the watch is removed. When an
alternating current is not available, a direct current may be used, its
direction being rapidly reversed by what is known as a "polarity changer."

Anyone can demagnetize his own watch, however, with very little trouble
and no expense by a much simpler method. Procure a piece of heavy linen
thread about 3 ft. long, attach one end of it to the ring of the watch,
hold the other end and turn the watch around until the thread is twisted
at least one hundred times. Now allow the thread to unwind, and as the
watch revolves, pass it back and forth near a powerful electromagnet.
The field magnet of a good-sized generator or motor will answer. The
machine should be in operation, or at least there should be a current
in the windings about the fields, when you attempt to demagnetize the
watch. While the thread is unwinding, and the watch moved in the magnetic
field, gradually withdraw from the magnet so that when the watch ceases
to revolve, it is just outside of the field.

Always be sure to keep the watch revolving while it is in the magnetic
field, otherwise the results will be very unsatisfactory, and more harm
than good may result.



A Pencil Holder


Procure a piece of paper, 7 in. long and 4 in. wide, and roll it one time
around a lead pencil, then coat the remaining surface of the paper with
glue. Roll this around the pencil and a tube is formed, which will hold
a pencil or even pieces of pencil down to 1/2 in. in length.--Contributed
by W. D. Brooks, Paterson, N. J.

[Illustration: A Stub of a Pencil can be Easily Held in the Tube for
Writing]



A Poultry-Food Chopper


The illustration shows a handy device for cutting roots for food, and for
chopping and mixing stale bread, potatoes, peelings, refuse fruit, etc.,
for poultry. Any blacksmith can make the chopper at little cost. For the
cutting blades use two pieces of steel a little heavier than oil-barrel
hoops, each 1-1/2 in. wide and 8 in. long. Procure a 1/2-in. iron rod,
about 3 ft. long, bend one end in the shape of a spade handle and split
the other end for a distance of about 2-1/2 in.

[Illustration: The Chopper Consists of a Rod Handle to Which Blades are
Attached by Riveting or Welding]

Sharpen one edge of each blade and curve the metal slightly. Lay the two
blades together with the convex sides touching in the center and insert
them in the slit in the handle end. They are riveted or welded in place.
Heat and bend the blades at right angles.

Many of the materials mentioned for poultry foods may be chopped in an
ordinary pail having a strong bottom, but it is best to make a box, about
1-1/2 ft. square and with a plank bottom, for use with the chopper.



A Small Spring Hinge


Box covers or small doors that are seldom used can be supplied with a
small spring hinge as shown in the illustration. The hinge is made of a
piece of spring wire which is formed similar to a staple with a coil or
complete turn given to the wire in the center. It is attached by driving
the points, one into the door and the other into the casing.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Hinge, and the Manner of Attaching It to
a Cover or Door]



Shoestring End


When the tips slip from shoelaces, new ones may be readily made of fine
wire. The wire is run through the end of the lace, Fig. 1, and the two
ends are twisted tightly together as shown in Fig. 2. This covers the end
of the lace and makes, a tip that is easily passed through the eyelets.

[Illustration: The Wire Prevents the Lace from Raveling and Makes a Tip
for Easily Entering the Eyelets (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



Threads on Wood Shafts


In model making it is quite necessary at times to have threads on a wood
shaft. These can be made quite satisfactorily by coiling a wire around the
shaft where the threads are wanted, and driving the ends into the wood.

[Illustration: The Wire Forms a Thread That in Many Instances is Quite
Serviceable for Model Making]



A Glass Breaker


After cutting glass, and especially where a small strip is to be removed,
the part must be broken away in small pieces. The accompanying sketch
shows a very useful tool for this purpose. The tool is made of a piece of
metal having a bolt fastened to it at one end whose nut can be adjusted
to the thickness of the glass.

[Illustration: The Nut is Set to the Thickness of the Glass and Used to
Break Pieces Away]

       *       *       *       *       *

    Old discarded blueprints can be made white and used
    for sketching by dipping them in a solution of soda
    and water, in the proportions of 4 oz. of soda to each
    gallon of water.



Wood Postal Cards


The card consists of three pieces, or three-ply, veneer. The grain of
the outside veneer runs lengthwise, while that of the inside piece runs
crosswise. This makes the card straight and keeps it from breaking.
For the inner section, walnut, which may be had as thin as 1/64 in.,
or any thin straight-grained veneer may be used. Two pieces of veneer,
about 3-3/4 in. wide and 6 in. long; one piece, 6 in. wide and 3-3/4 in.
long,--the length being with the grain of the wood--and two blocks of
wood, known as cauls, of the same size or a little larger, and about
7/8 in. thick, are required.

The veneer is laid flat on a board and cut with a sharp knife or fine
saw along the edge of a ruler. The three pieces are glued together in the
following manner. Use ordinary hot glue, not too thin, but thin enough to
run freely from the brush. The glue is applied evenly on both sides of the
inner piece only, and this is then stood on edge until the glue chills.
Then the cauls are heated. This is best done on a stove, or on stove lids
over a gas fire. While the blocks are being heated, put one veneer on
either side of the middle piece, and a piece of thin paper on each side
to keep the glue from the cauls. A hand screw or vise should be opened
to almost the distance required. One of the cauls is now laid flat, the
veneers upon it and the other caul on top. This should be done quickly.
Then clamp the whole firmly together. While the full pressure is only
needed for about two hours, the pieces should be allowed to dry between
the cauls for, say, a day or two, so that they will keep straight. The
size of the finished card is 3-3/8 in. by 5-1/2 in. It is cut and planed
to size while lying flat on a board, the plane being pushed along on its
side on the bench top. To dress or clean, clamp one side to the bench.
While a scraper blade may be used to advantage, it is not essential, as a
block of wood and sandpaper will do. The thinner it is dressed the better.
The sharp edges should be removed with sandpaper. The writing on a wood
card is not done in the ordinary manner, as the ink would run. The surface
must be prepared, which also gives a finish to the wood. Melt some wax or
paraffin in a suitable vessel and cover the surface of the wood, using
a brush or rag. The lines for the address on one side are then drawn,
and the writing is done with a hard lead pencil. When through writing on
one side, cover it with some strong aniline stain. (Aniline, dissolved
in hot water, commonly known as water stain and used especially to stain
mahogany, is the right kind.) Do not remove the wax that was raised by the
pencil point. Brush the stain over until the whole side is covered. When
dry, repeat on the other side. In about an hour the wax may be scraped off
with a dull scraper or some other dull instrument. After every particle
of wax has been removed, the card is given a good rubbing with a clean,
soft rag. It is well to protect the hands as well as the table during the
process.--Contributed by Chas. Schapmeier, Baltimore, Md.



Fastening Screws in Tile and Brick Walls


A simple way to fasten screws in tile or brick walls is to drill holes,
not too large, for the screws, then tear up some paper, wet it and make
a pulp. Pack this pulp tightly in the hole and turn in the screws. The
screws will stand a great deal of strain.--Contributed by John Thomas,
Brantford, Ont.



Shoe Pull Made of an Eyelet


The pulling-on strap at the back of a shoe often comes loose, or pulls
out, and even if it does not, the trousers will sometimes catch on it
if the strap is not tucked inside of the shoe. A very simple way to
overcome these troubles is to remove the straps and substitute eyelets.
A buttonhook will then serve admirably in pulling the shoe onto the foot.



Holder for a Set of Sadirons


A very attractive holder for a set of sadirons and their handle can be
made as shown in the illustration, although the design may be changed if
desired. The holder consists of a shield-shaped back, which is fastened to
the wall in a convenient place and has a shelf with openings for the irons
attached to it. The shelf is made in two pieces, the bottom part being
covered with a heavy piece of tin while the upper is cut out to receive
the irons.

The irons are placed on the upper piece in such positions that they will
be attractively displayed and evenly located, and then a lead-pencil mark
is drawn around their base. Openings are cut in the wood on these marks
and the board fastened on top of the tin-covered shelf. An ordinary brass
bracket is used in the center beneath the shelf, to keep it from sagging.

[Illustration: An Ornamented Bracket Shelf for Holding a Complete Set of
Sadirons and Their Handle]

The shield is fastened to the wall with two screws, over which two
brushed-brass, diamond-shaped pieces are fastened with large brass tacks,
to cover the screw heads. The corners of the shield may be ornamented
with brushed-brass designs, and the wood finished as desired. The irons
can be set in the holder while hot without fear of burning any part, and
they will present a very neat appearance.--Contributed by G. E. Martin,
Hastings, Nebraska.



A Garden Roller


A garden roller for digging the earth and crushing clods is easily made
of the following material: One round piece of wood, 10 in. in diameter
and 18 in. long; two pieces of wood, each 56 in. long, 2-1/2 in. wide and
1-1/4 in. thick; one piece, 21 in. long, 2 in. wide and 1 in. thick; two
1/2-in. lag screws, 6 in. long, and a quantity of 8-penny nails.

[Illustration: A Roller for Crushing Clods and Digging the Earth in Garden
Making]

The short piece of wood is fitted between the two long pieces with
tenon-and-mortise joints to serve as a handle at one end and the roller is
fastened between the side pieces at the opposite end to revolve on the lag
screws. The nails are driven into the roller so that they project about
1 in.



A Substitute for Glaziers' Points


Ordinary small staples make good substitutes for glaziers' tacks. The
points of the staples should be drawn apart slightly, as shown at A, to
give them a greater holding area and at the same time make them easier
to drive. These points seem to hold the glass better than the regular
glaziers' points, consequently the putty will not crack and loosen, and
renewing is avoided.--Contributed by Edward Sieja, Chicago.

[Illustration: Double-Pointed Tacks, or Staples, with the Points Spread,
Used as Substitutes for Glaziers' Points]



Water-Heating Coil in a Furnace Pipe


[Illustration]

The accompanying sketch shows a plan I adopted for conserving the waste
heat from my furnace. I found that I was able to put a coil into the smoke
pipe, which was about 8 in. in diameter, and thus heat water for domestic
purposes. It will be seen that the coil is spiral in shape rather than
cylindrical, as the latter would leave a free passage up the center and
therefore would not bring enough gases into contact with the coil.

In addition to this coil I have a gas heater near the tank which is used
only in case the demand for hot water exceeds the capacity of the coil,
which is naturally not as efficient per unit of length as one directly
within the firepot would be. It has the advantage of not absorbing heat
which should go to make steam, but only that which would otherwise be
wasted. The heating surface of the coil is much greater than would be
possible within the firepot, which in a measure compensates for its lower
efficiency.--Contributed by W. E. Morey, Chicago.



A Homemade Marking Gauge


[Illustration]

A 3/8-in. bushing is turned into the side outlet of a 3/8-in. tee. The
bushing is then tapped to receive a 7/16-in. wing bolt. A tight-fitting
wood plug is driven into the throughway of the tee and the ends ground off
flush on the emery wheel. A slot, 5/16-in. square, is then cut through the
wood plug just under the bushing. Two pieces of flat steel, each 1/4 in.
wide by 1/8 in. thick and 1/8 in. longer than the tee, are fitted in the
slot cut in the plug as shown in the sketch. The outer end of each piece
is bent at right angles and sharpened. After the points have been drawn
out to the right distance, the wing bolt is turned to hold them in that
position.--Contributed by C. Molloy, Philadelphia, Pa.



Protecting Brush Handles from Paint


A very efficient method to prevent paint from running down on a paintbrush
handle and on the hand is to cut a hollow rubber ball in half, Fig. 1,
make a hole in the center to fit the brush handle and attach it as shown
in Fig. 2. One ball will fit up two brushes. The cup shape catches the
paint and prevents it from getting on the handle.--Contributed by O. H.
Meyer, Churdon, Iowa.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Ball Forms a Cup to Catch the Paint from
the Brush (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



A Tie-Pin Holder


[Illustration]

Having lost several tie pins by theft or by their falling out I made a
little device to securely hold the pin in the tie. This device makes it
almost impossible to pull the pin out and it cannot be lost accidentally.
The device is made of a small safety pin, bent as shown, with one arm, A,
longer than the other, B. The arm A is put on the pin first or upward, and
attached as shown at C. When pulling on the tie pin the arms of the holder
tend to draw together and clamp it on the pin.--Contributed by Robert C.
Knox, Colorado Springs, Colo.



Hulling Walnuts


When gathering my winter supply of walnuts, I found that they could not
be hulled readily by hand. Not knowing of any machine designed for the
purpose, I tried running them through a corn sheller and found it to do
the work nicely. The sheller not only hulled them, but separated the nuts
from the hulls, the nuts being carried out through the cob opening and
the hulls dropping through the grain spout.--Contributed by Irl R. Hicks,
Hallsville, Mo.



How to Make a Small Vise Screw


Procure an ordinary lag screw, as shown in Fig. 1, cut off the pointed
end and file the threads into the shape shown in Fig. 2. A hole is
drilled through the head and a handle put in, as shown in Fig. 3. This
makes a good substitute screw when the original screw for a small vise is
broken.--Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown. Pa.

[Illustration: A Vise Screw Formed of an Ordinary Lag Screw, the Threads
being Made Square and a Handle Attached (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]



A Medicine-Spoon Holder


When a dropper is not at hand it is difficult to drop medicine in a spoon
while holding it, and the shape of the spoon will not permit its being set
down. A shoe horn used as shown in the sketch will hold the spoon right
side up and in a position to hold the liquid.--Contributed by Maurice
Baudier, New Orleans, La.

[Illustration: A Shoe Horn is the Right Shape to Hold the Spoon Right Side
Up and Level]



Knife Holder on a Frying Pan


Instead of laying a knife on the stove or carrying it to a table or
elsewhere while frying anything in a pan, make a clip to fit the edge of
the pan for holding the knife when it is not in use. The clip is easily
made of brass wire and when attached to a frying pan it will save many
steps.--Contributed by John C. Harlacker, Jr., Cumberland, B. C.

[Illustration: The Shape of the Clip and Manner of Attaching It to a
Frying Pan]



A Broom for Sweeping Out Corners in Steps


[Illustration]

Sweeping the corners of steps is one of the greatest difficulties of
the housewife, or others who have a number of stairs to sweep. I have
made this task easy in a very simple manner. I secured a used broom, the
longer and newer the better, and cut the straws off diagonally across the
sweeping edge. The pointed part will easily clean out the corners in steps
or in a room.--Contributed by W. A. Stamaman, Berlin, Ontario.



Removing a Cork from a Bottle


A cork that has been pushed into a bottle accidentally or otherwise can
be easily removed in the following manner: Tie several knots in one end
of a string to form a large cluster and drop it into the bottle, holding
on to the other end of the string. Turn the bottle over so that the cork
will fall to the opening in the neck, then pull on the string. The cluster
formed by the knots at the end of the string will easily draw out the
cork.--Contributed by Frank Hart, Chicago, Ill.



Filing Flat Surfaces


Anyone who has used a file knows what skill is required to produce flat
surfaces. A fixture which is nothing more than a mirror properly placed
enables the operator to sight along the file and see at all times just
how the file is running.--Contributed by A. F. Stearns, Madison, Wis.

[Illustration: The File can be Seen in the Mirror and Its Direction
Controlled for Filing Flat Surfaces]



Tacking a Screen on a Frame


[Illustration]

Screen wire is very difficult material to fasten on a frame so that it
becomes taut. To make it taut and even drive the tacks as follows: First
tack the screen on one side of the frame, taking care to leave no slack
between the tacks, which should be about 1 ft. apart. Fasten the opposite
side by stretching the screen with one hand and with the other place the
tack through the meshes and push the point as far as possible toward the
outer edge of the screen frame as shown in the sketch. Drive the tack so
that it will enter the wood straight, which will draw the screen taut.
After having thus fastened the screen to two opposite sides of the frame
with tacks 1 ft. apart, other tacks are driven in midway between the first
ones, stretching the screen and driving the tacks as before described,
until a sufficient number of tacks are driven into either side. Then both
ends are attached in the same manner.--Contributed by Bertram S. Barnes,
Santa Barbara, Cal.



Safety Tips on Chair Rockers


Some rocking chairs are so constructed that when the person occupying it
gives a hard tilt backward, the chair tips over or dangerously near it.
A rubber-tipped screw turned into the under side of each rocker, near the
rear end, will prevent the chair from tipping too far back.



Portable and Folding Bookcase or Closet


Two packing boxes hinged as shown and fitted with casters make a very
convenient portable closet. It can be folded flat against a wall or fitted
into a corner. If furnished with shelves, it can be used as a bookcase or
tool closet, and when fully opened, it makes a handy workbench.

Two projecting strips are fitted on the inside of one box so as to fit
tightly against the inner top and bottom surfaces of the other box, to
increase the rigidity of the box when closed. The addition of casters
makes the opening, closing and pushing about very easy. An ornamental hasp
or lock can be fitted if desired.

[Illustration: The Two Boxes are Joined on One Edge with Hinges and with
a Hasp, if Desired, on the Other]



A Curtain Stop


A small screweye turned into the bottom part or wood strip inclosed in
the lower end of the curtain will prevent this end from winding over
the top roller when the curtain is quickly released and rolls to the
top.--Contributed by D. O. C. Kersten, Detroit, Michigan.



An Alarm for a Sleepwalker


A little girl in our family would walk in her sleep and it caused us
no little worry lest she might leave the house without our knowing it.
I therefore rigged up an alarm device to ring a bell should she leave
the room. The device consisted of a bell and battery in a circuit, and
a switch which was attached to one door casing. A string was stretched
across the doorway and attached to the switch lever in such a manner
as to pull it closed when the string was pushed through the doorway
opening.--Contributed by J. Woodburn, Toronto, Canada.



A Kraut and Root Grinder


The grinder is intended mainly for chopping cabbage when making
sauerkraut, but it is also of much service in grinding vegetables and
roots to be cooked for poultry.

[Illustration: The Grinder will Easily Reduce Cabbage Heads to Bits
Suitable for Sauerkraut]

The base A is made of a plank, at least 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. long, with a
9-1/4 by 9-1/2-in. hole cut in the center. The grinding part, or cylinder,
is made of wood, 3 in. in diameter and 9 in. long, with 8-penny nails,
spaced 3/16 in. apart, driven partly into it and then cut off so as to
leave 1/4 in. projecting. The cylinder is turned by means of a crank
attached to the end of the shaft.

A hopper, B, is constructed, 4 by 9-1/2 in. inside measurement at the
bottom, and as large as necessary at the top. A space is provided at
the bottom as shown to receive the concave C, which consists of a 1-in.
board, 3 to 4 in. wide and 9 in. long, with nails driven in and cut off
as described for the cylinder.

The hopper is securely fastened on top of the baseboard and over the
cylinder. The concave is slipped into place and held with wedges or by
driving two nails in just far enough to fasten it temporarily. The concave
can be adjusted for grinding the different vegetable products, or replaced
at any time with a new one.

The ends of the base are supported on boxes, or legs may be provided if
desired. When grinding cabbage, cut the heads into quarters and remove the
hearts. Press the cabbage on the cylinder and turn the crank. Fine bits
of cabbage, suitable for sauerkraut, will be the result.--Contributed by
J. G. Allshouse, Avonmore, Pa.



Opening for Air at the Top of a Shade


Procure an extra long shade and cut two openings in the end to be used at
the top. The openings may be cut square or ornamental as desired, leaving
a strip at each side and one in the center. These strips are reinforced
by gluing on some of the same material as the shade or pieces of tape.

[Illustration: When the Shade is Pulled Down the Openings Coincide with
the Opening over the Upper Sash]

A shade made in this manner permits the air to enter the room unhindered
when the top sash is lowered and at the same time obstructs the view of
passers-by.--Contributed by Warren E. Crane, Cleveland, O.



Hose Attachment for Watering Window Plants


The window garden of the house has its watering difficulties which one
owner overcame in a neat and handy manner. A hose on a weighted reel was
attached to the joists in the basement under the floor near the window
flower pots. The weight on the reel kept the hose wound on it and the
nozzle end which projects through the floor is large enough to hold it
from passing through the hole bored for the hose. A long stem valve was
provided with the wheel attached above the floor for turning the water on
and off.

[Illustration: The Hose is Automatically Run on a Reel by a Weight beneath
the Floor]

When the plants need a shower all that is necessary is to draw the hose
nozzle up and turn on the water. The hole for the hose and the valve wheel
can be located close to the wall under the flower tray where they will
scarcely be seen.



Removing Paint from Glass


Paint may be easily cleaned from glass by using a 50-per-cent solution of
acetic acid. The acid should be heated and applied with a cloth. The hot
acid will not hurt the hands or fabrics, nor the glass, but should be kept
from children who might drink of it. The solution is made of commercial
acetic acid and heated by adding hot water. The acid is inexpensive and
can be purchased at any local drug store.



To Prevent Baking Ovens from Scorching


A good method to prevent baking ovens from scorching or burning pastry
is to sprinkle a mixture of sand and salt on the bottom where the pans
are placed. This affords a way of radiating the heat evenly. The mixture
also absorbs fruit juices, which may be spilled in the course of cooking.
The covering is easily changed, which keeps the oven clean. The best
proportion is half salt and half sand.



Horn Candle Sconce


The person who cares for things unusual will find the candle sconce made
of a cowhorn a suitable fixture for the den. A well shaped and not too
large cowhorn is selected, and prepared by first partly filling it with
paper, packed in tightly, then filling it to the top with plaster of
Paris, in which a candle socket is formed.

The bracket is made of strips of metal, formed as shown and riveted
together where they touch each other, the back piece being fastened with
screws to a wall board. The metal may be brass or copper and finished in
nickel, antique, bronze, or given a brush finish. The wooden wall piece
can be finished in any style desired.

[Illustration: The Cowhorn with Bracket and Wall Board, Making an Unusual
Candle Sconce for the Den]

       *       *       *       *       *

    White spots on furniture can be removed by rubbing
    the wood with ammonia.



How to Make a Copper Stencil for Marking Laundry


A stencil suitable for marking laundry may be easily made as follows:

First procure a small sheet of "stencil sheet copper," about 1 in. wide
and 4 in. long. Dip this sheet of copper in a vessel containing some
melted beeswax, so that both sides will be evenly covered with a thin
coat of the wax when it cools. The design--name, monogram or figure--that
is wanted in the stencil should now be drawn upon a piece of thin white
paper, the reverse side of the paper blackened with graphite, and then
laid on the stencil plate with the design in the center of the plate,
whereupon the design is lightly traced with a blunt point on the thin wax
coating. After the paper is removed, trace the design on the wax surface
with a pointed instrument, but not completely, the lines being broken at
more or less regular intervals, to form "holders" so that, after etching,
the design cannot fall out.

Next lay the stencil in a small shallow dish and pour a small quantity of
fresh nitric acid over it. Keep the air bubbles removed from the surface
by means of a piece of soft feather. The design will be eaten away in a
very short time, where the wax has been removed, and this may be readily
observed by holding the stencil plate up to the light. The acid should
then be rinsed off with water, and the wax removed by heating and wiping
it off with a cloth. The stencil may be given a final cleaning in a dish
of benzine or gasoline, which will remove any remaining wax.



A Brass Pin Tray


A novelty pin tray can be easily made of a piece of No. 24 gauge sheet
brass or copper, 5 in. in diameter. The metal is annealed and polished
with fine emery cloth, which is given a circular motion to produce a
frosted effect. The necessary tools are a 1-in. hardwood board with a
2-1/2-in. hole bored in it, and a round piece of hard wood, 1-7/8 or 2 in.
in diameter, with the ends sawn off square.

[Illustration: The Former and Method of Using It to Produce a Wrinkled
Edge on the Tray]

Place the sheet metal centrally over the hole in the board and set one
end of the round stick in the center of the metal. Drive the stick with a
hammer until a recess about 1 in. deep is made in the center. The edge of
the metal will wrinkle up as shown in the sketch. It is scarcely possible
to make two trays alike, as the edge almost invariably will buckle in a
different manner.--Contributed by F. Van Eps, Plainfield, N. J.



A Homemade Exerciser


A weight machine for exercising the muscles of the arms is easily
constructed by using two screw hooks, 5 in. long, and two small pulleys,
2-1/2 in. in diameter. An awning pulley can be used for this purpose.
The hole at the top of the hanger will allow the pulley to freely turn
at almost any angle. A paving brick or a piece of metal can be used as a
weight for each rope.--Contributed by Sterling R. Speirs, St. Louis, Mo.

[Illustration: The Yoke of the Pulley is so Arranged as to Make It Move
in All Positions on the Hook]



A Book Covering


New books can be quickly and neatly covered to keep them clean by cutting
a paper large enough to cover the back and sides when the book is closed,
allowing 1 in. extra at each end to be turned over the front and back
edges, then pasting on corners cut from used envelopes. The paper jacket
can be slipped on or off easily when the book is opened, and it will keep
a new cover clean while the book is being handled.--Contributed by Dr.
John A. Cohalan, Philadelphia.

[Illustration: Paper Covering Kept in Place with Corners Cut from Old
Envelopes and Pasted on the Paper]



A Tilting Inkstand


An ink-bottle stand, that can be tilted or adjusted so that the pen will
always be filled with a sufficient quantity of ink even when little of
it remains in the bottle, as shown in the sketch, can be easily made by
the amateur. The base may consist of a square piece of sheet brass, which
has soldered or riveted to its center two pieces of spring brass, placed
crosswise and bent upward so as to form clips to hold the bottle firmly.
The legs are made of two lengths of wire, of sufficient stiffness, and
are shaped to form holders for lead pencils and penholders. One pair of
the legs may be soldered to the brass plate and the opposite side of the
latter rolled over the other pair so as to allow them either to stand
upright or be depressed in order to tilt the stand, when the ink supply
in the bottle gets low.

[Illustration: Tilting Stand for an Ordinary Ink Bottle to Give Access
for a Small Supply of Ink]



A Ring Trick


The trick to be described is one of the simplest and at the same time
one of the most effective, and but little "make-ready" is required to
perform it. The magician, while sitting in a chair, allows his hands to
be tied together behind the back of the chair. A ring is placed between
his lips which he claims to be able to slip on his finger without untying
his hands. This, to the audience, seems practically impossible, but it is
easily accomplished.

A screen is placed in front of the performer before the trick is started,
so that the audience will not see how it is done. As soon as he is hidden
from view, he tilts his head forward and drops the ring in his lap. He
then allows the ring to drop to the seat of the chair between his legs.
The chair is tilted backward slightly, and he raises himself to allow the
ring to slip to the back part of the chair seat, where he catches it in
his hands and slips it on the finger. Any one finger may be mentioned, as
he can slip the ring as readily on one as on another. Use a leather-bottom
chair, if possible, as the least noise will then be made when the ring is
dropped.--Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts.



Removing Old Putty


A very effective way to remove old putty from window panes or other
articles is to apply a red-hot iron, as follows: The iron should be made
of a broken file or cold chisel and the point heated quite hot. This
is run over the surface of the putty, which will crack and fall off. Be
careful not to let the hot iron touch the glass, as the heat may cause
the latter to break.

[Illustration]



How to Make a Water Wheel


The materials used in the construction of this water wheel are such as
the average amateur mechanic may pick up or secure from a junk pile. The
drawings in Fig. 1 clearly show the way the wheel is built. The nozzle,
Fig. 2, is made of pipe and fittings and is adjustable to concentrate
the stream so as to get the full efficiency of the weight and velocity of
the water. The cap on the end of the nipple is drilled to receive the pin
point filed on the end of the 1/4-in. rod. The parts of this nozzle are
a 1/2-in. tee, connected to the source of water supply; a plug, drilled
to snugly fit the 1/4-in. rod, and fitted into one end of the straight
part of the tee; and a 1/2-in. nipple of sufficient length to make the
dimension shown in the sketch. The nipple has a long thread to receive two
1/2-in. locknuts, which clamp the nozzle to the sheet-metal covering, as
shown in Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Details of the Water Wheel (Fig. 1)]

The buckets, Fig. 3, are formed of some easily melted, but not too soft
metal alloy which can be cast in plaster molds. They are attached with
rivets to the circumference of 1/16-in. thick sheet-metal disk of the
diameter given in Fig. 1. This disk is fastened to a 1/4-in. shaft, 6 in.
long, with two collars, one on each side of the disk, both being riveted
to the disk and pinned to the shaft. The bearings AA are made of 3/4-in.
pipe, each 2-1/4 in. long. Long threads are cut on these to turn through
the two 3/4-in. waste nuts BB, which provides a way to adjust the buckets
centrally with the stream of water, and to take up any side motion. The
pipe is babbitted and drilled for oil holes. The runner or wheel must
be well balanced, as the speed will be from 2,000 to 2,500 revolutions
per minute with ordinary city pressure. In balancing the wheel, instead
of adding an extra weight, a part of the disk is filed out on one edge.
The inclosing sides are made of wood--cypress preferred--having the
dimensions given, and two 7/8 by 1-1/2-in. pieces are attached to the
bottom outside surfaces for mounting the wheel. The curved part is covered
with galvanized sheet metal.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The drawing shows a wheel of small diameter, but having considerable
power. Greater power may be obtained by increasing the size of the jet
and the diameter of the wheel, but the use of too many buckets results in
decrease of power. One bucket should be just entering the stream of water,
when the working bucket is at a point at right angles to the stream. The
water should divide equally exactly on the center of the bucket and get
out of the way as soon as possible. Any stagnant water in the case, or
dead water in the bucket, is detrimental to the power. A free exit for
the water is made at the bottom of the case, as shown.

[Illustration: Metal Casing Instead of Wood (Fig. 4)]

The construction of the case may be varied and, instead of wood, metal
sides and frame may be used. Where the builder cares to make a more
substantial wheel and has access to a foundry, the metal parts can be made
as shown in Fig. 4. The parts are in this instance fastened together with
machine screws. Patterns are made and taken to a foundry for the castings,
which are then machined to have close fitting joints.--Contributed by R.
H. Franklin, Unnatosa, Wis.



An Interesting Experiment


Take an ordinary board, 2 or 3 ft. long, such as a bread board, and place
it on the table so that about one-third of its length will project over
the edge. Unfold a newspaper and lay it on the table over the board as
shown in the sketch. Anyone not familiar with the experiment would suppose
the board could be knocked off by hitting it on the outer end. It would
appear to be easy to do, but try it. Unless you are prepared to break the
board you will probably not be able to knock the board off.

[Illustration: Striking the Board]

The reason is that when the board is struck it forces the other end up
and the newspaper along with it. This causes a momentary vacuum to be
formed under the paper, and the pressure of the air above, which is about
15 lb. to the square inch, prevents the board from coming up. This is an
entertaining trick to play at an evening party, and also makes a simple
and interesting school experiment.



Ironing-Board Holder


An ironing board that had been used on two chairs was cut off square on
one end and a piece of heavy sheet metal cut and bent into the shape shown
in Fig. 1. The square end of the board was fitted into the socket formed
by the sheet metal. After attaching the socket to the wall with screws the
board was easily put in place as shown in Fig. 2. The brace is hinged to
the under side of the board.--Contributed by L. G. Swett, Rochester, N. Y.

[Illustration: Socket and Manner of Holding Board (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]



How to Make a Water Motor By Edward Silja


After making several different styles of water motors I found the one
illustrated to be the most powerful as well as the simplest and most
inexpensive to make. It can be constructed in the following manner: A
disk, as shown in Fig. 1, cut from sheet iron or brass, 1/16 in. thick
and 9-3/4 in. in diameter, constitutes the main part of the wheel. The
circumference is divided into 24 equal parts, and a depth line marked
which is 8-1/4 in. in diameter. Notches are cut to the depth line, similar
to the teeth of a rip saw, one edge being on a line with the center of
the wheel and the other running from the top of one tooth to the base of
the preceding tooth.

[Illustration: Metal Disk with a Saw-Tooth Circumference That Constitutes
the Main Body of the Wheel (Fig. 1)]

A 1/4-in. hole is drilled in the center of the disk and the metal
strengthened with a flange, placed on each side of the disk and fastened
with screws or rivets. A 1/4-in. steel rod is used for the shaft.

The cups, or buckets, are shaped in a die which can be cast or built up
of two pieces, as desired. Both of these dies are shown in Fig. 2. The
one at A is made of two pieces riveted together.

[Illustration: Two Ways of Making the Dies to Shape the Sheet-Metal Water
Cups (Fig. 2)]

If a foundry is near, a pattern can be made for a casting, as shown at B.
The die is used in the manner shown in Fig. 3. A strip of galvanized metal
is placed over the depressions in the die and a ball-peen hammer used to
drive the metal into the die. Cups, or buckets, are thus formed which are
soldered to the edge of the teeth on a line with the center of the disk,
as shown in Fig. 4. As there are 24 notches in the disk, 24 cups will be
necessary to fill them.

[Illustration: The Sheet Metal is Placed on the Die and Then Hammered into
Shape (Fig. 3)]

The cups are made in pairs or in two sections, which is a better
construction than the single cup. The water from the nozzle first strikes
the center between the cups, then divides and produces a double force.

[Illustration: The Water Cups are Fastened to the Teeth on the Metal Disk
with Solder (Fig. 4)]

When this part of the work is finished it is well to balance the wheel,
which can be done by filing off some of the metal on the heavy side
or adding a little solder to the light side. This will be necessary to
provide an easy-running wheel that will not cause any unnecessary wear on
the bearings.

The housing for the wheel consists of two wood pieces, about 3/4-in. thick
and cut to the shape shown in Fig. 5. Grooves are cut in one surface of
each piece, to receive the edges of a strip of galvanized metal, as shown
at A. The grooves are cut with a specially constructed saw, shown in Fig.
6. It consists of a piece of wood, 6 in. long, 1-1/2 in. wide and 1/2 in.
thick, the end being cut on an arc of a circle whose diameter is 10 in. A
piece of a broken hacksaw blade is fastened with screws to the curved end.
A nail is used as a center pivot, forming a 5-in. and a 5-3/4-in. radius
to swing the saw on in cutting the groove. After inserting the strip of
galvanized metal, A, Fig. 5, the sides are clamped together with bolts
about 3-1/4 in. long.

[Illustration: The Housing for the Wheel with a Connection to Attach the
Motor on an Ordinary Faucet (Fig. 5)]

[Illustration: Construction of the Saw for Making the Groove to Receive
the Metal Strip in the Sides (Fig. 6)]

A piece of pipe, B, Fig. 5, having an opening 3/8-in. in diameter, is
soldered onto the metal strip A. An ordinary garden-hose coupling, C, is
soldered to the end of the pipe.

A bearing, D, shaped as shown, is fastened to one of the wood sides with
screws, the wheel shaft is run into it, and the parts assembled. A wheel,
either grooved or flat, 2-1/2 or 3 in. in diameter, is placed on the
shaft. The hose coupling makes it easy to connect the motor directly to
the water faucet.



An Application for Small Wounds


Pure wintergreen oil makes a good local application for all small wounds,
bites, scratches, abrasions, etc. There is no germ or microbe, animal or
vegetable, dead or living, that can withstand this oil, and at the same
time it is not injurious to living tissues. A few drops gently rubbed in
where there is apt to be any infection is sufficient.

An infection always follows the wound of a bullet or the scratch of a
brass pin, with irritation extending up the limb or part threatening
tetanus or lockjaw. These symptoms are manifested by spasmodic pains which
shoot upward, but are quickly subdued, if the oil is applied along the
track of the pain or infection. This oil is equally effective when locally
applied to tendons or ligaments which have been unduly strained.

An ounce of the pure oil does not cost much, and it should be kept in
every shop and household. If 5 or 10 per cent of olive oil is added to it,
the oil will have more body and will last longer.--Contributed by Dr. E.
R. Ellis, Detroit, Mich.



Cores for Use in Babbitt Metal


It is often necessary in making things of babbitt metal to core out some
of the parts. A very good core is made of common salt and glue. Mix just
enough of the glue into the salt to make a stiff paste, which is then
formed into the desired shape or molded in a core box and allowed to
harden. This kind of a core can be removed from the casting by soaking
it in warm water, which will dissolve the salt and leave the desired
hole.--Contributed by H. F. Hopkins, N. Girard, Pa.



How to Build a Wind Vane with an Electric Indicator


Quite often it is practically impossible to ascertain the direction of
the wind by observing an ordinary wind vane on account of the necessity
of locating the vane at such a height that it may give a true indication.
By means of the device shown in Fig. 2, the position of the vane may be
determined without actually looking at the vane itself and the indicating
device may be located almost anywhere and independently of the position
of the wind vane.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--The Diagram of a Wheatstone Bridge Which Shows the
Points of Contact So Placed That a Balance is Obtained]

The principle upon which the device operates is that of the Wheatstone
bridge. The position of the moving contact A, Fig. 1, is controlled by
the wind vane. This contact is made to move over a specially constructed
resistance R, Fig. 2. A second movable contact, B, is controlled by the
observer and moves over a second resistance, identical with that over
which the contact A moves. These two resistances are connected so as to
form the two main branches of a Wheatstone bridge; the points A and B are
connected to the current-detecting device, which may be a galvanometer or
telephone receiver, and current is supplied by a number of dry cells.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--The Weather Vane with Resistance Coil, and Diagram
of Indicator Which is Identical with That of the Vane]

In order to obtain a balance--that is, no current through the
receiver--the points A and B must occupy corresponding positions on their
respective resistances. If the two resistances over which the points A
and B move are mounted in the same position with respect to the cardinal
points of the compass, then the points themselves will always be in
the same position with respect to the cardinal points when a balance
is obtained. The arrow head on the wind vane and the point A are made
to occupy corresponding positions, and hence the position of the point
B, when no current passes through the receiver, is an indication of the
direction in which the wind vane is pointing.

The principal parts in the construction of the device are shown in the
illustration, and the following description of their construction may be
of interest to those who contemplate building the indicator.

Procure two pieces of 1/16-in. hard rubber, 1-1/2 in. wide by 24 in.
long. Clamp these, side by side, between two boards and smooth down their
edges and ends, and then file small slots in the edges with the edge of
a three-cornered file. These slots should all be equally spaced about
3/32 in. apart. Have the pieces clamped together while filing the slots
and mark one edge top and one end right so that the pieces may be mounted
alike. Now procure a small quantity of No. 20 gauge bare manganin wire.
Fasten one end of this wire to one end of the pieces of rubber by winding
it in and out through three or four small holes and then wind it around
the piece, placing the various turns in the small slots that were filed
in the edges. After completing the winding, fasten the end just as the
starting end was attached. Wind the second piece of rubber in a similar
manner and make sure to have the length of the free ends in each case
the same. Obtain a cylinder of some kind, about 8 in. in diameter, warm
the pieces of rubber by dipping them in hot water, bend them around the
cylinder and allow them to cool.

A containing case, similar to that shown in cross section in the upper
portion of Fig. 2 should now be constructed from a good quality of tin or
copper. The inside diameter of this case should be about 1 in. more than
the outside diameter of the resistance ring R, and it should be about
3 in. deep. The top C may be made curved as shown in the illustration, and
should be fastened to the case proper by a number of small machine screws.
The base of this case may be made so that the whole device can be mounted
on the top of a pole.

Mount a piece of 1/4-in. steel rod, about 1/2 in. long, with a conical
hole in one end, in the center of the bottom of the case as shown by M.
A number of supports, similar to the one shown, should be made from some
1/4-in. hard rubber and fastened to the sides of the case, to support the
resistance ring. The dimensions of these supports should be such that the
ends of the piece of rubber, forming the ring, are against each other when
it is in place. The upper edge of the ring should be about 2 in. above
the bottom of the case.

Next, mount a piece of brass tube, D, in the exact center of the top and
perpendicular to it. A washer, E, may also be soldered to the top so as
to aid in holding the tube. Procure a piece of steel rod, F, that will
fit in the tube D and turn freely. Sharpen one end of this rod and mount
a brass wind vane on the other end. A small metal cup, G, may be soldered
to a washer, H, and the whole mounted on the steel rod F in an inverted
position as shown, which will prevent water from getting down inside the
case along the rod. The cup G may be soldered directly to the rod. Make a
small arm, J, of brass, and fasten a piece of light spring, K, to one side
of it, near the outer end, then mount the arm on the steel rod so that it
is parallel to the vane and its outer end points in the same direction
as the arrow on the vane. The free end of the light spring on the arm J
should be broad enough to bridge the gap between adjacent turns of wire on
the resistance ring. Four bindings should then be mounted on the inside
of the case and all insulated from it with the exception of number 1.
Numbers 2 and 3 are connected to the ends of the winding and number 4 is
connected to number 3.

A second outfit should now be constructed, identical with the one just
described except that it should have a flat top with a circular scale
mounted on it, and the arm L should be controlled by a small handle in
the center of the scale. The position of the contact B may be indicated
on the scale by a slender pointer, attached to the handle controlling the
arm L.

Four leads of equal resistance should be used in connecting the two
devices and the connections made as shown. An ordinary buzzer placed in
the battery circuit will produce an interrupted current through the bridge
circuit and a balance will be obtained by adjusting the contact point B
until a minimum hum is heard in the telephone receiver.

[Illustration]



Planting Seeds in Egg Shells


When growing flower plants from seeds, start them in halves of shells
from hard-boiled eggs. When the time comes to transplant them, they can be
easily removed by allowing the dirt in the shell to become hard and then
breaking off the shell, whereupon the plant is placed in the ground.

A pasteboard box provided with holes large enough to support the egg
shells can be used to hold them, unless egg crates are at hand. Two large
seeds such as nasturtiums and sweet peas can be planted in one shell, and
four seeds of the smaller varieties.--Contributed by Katharine D. Morse,
Syracuse, N. Y.



Locating Drip Pan under a Refrigerator


In replacing the drip pan of an ice box or refrigerator it is often
necessary to bend over in locating it under the drip pipe. This trouble
may be done away with by fastening two strips of wood in a V-shape to the
floor beneath the refrigerator. When the pan is shoved under, it will
strike one strip and slide along until it strikes the other. Then the
pan is sure to be under the drip pipe.--Contributed by Lloyd A. Phelan,
Beachmont, Mass.

[Illustration: Strips on Floor under Refrigerator]



Windmill for Light Power


The windmill shown in the sketch is one that will always face the wind,
and it never requires adjustment. It consists of a vertical shaft, A,
provided with a number of arms, B, on which are hinged square sails, C.
These sails are preferably made of wood frames covered with canvas. They
are provided with hinges, D, attached to the ends of the arms in such
a way that they offer resistance to the wind on one side of the wheel,
while they move edgewise against the wind on the other side, as shown. The
shaft of the mill can either be run in bearings set on an upright post,
the lower end of the shaft turning on a conical bearing, or collars may be
used on the bearings to keep it in position. The power can be transmitted
with gears or by a flat belt over a pulley.

[Illustration: Frames Hinged to the Arms]

A wheel of this kind is not adapted for high speed, but direct-connected
to a pump or other slow-working machinery will prove very
efficient.--Contributed by Edward Hanson, Kane, Pennsylvania.



A Small Bunsen Burner


[Illustration]

An excellent bunsen burner for small work can be made as follows: Draw
a glass tube to the shape shown, to produce a fine hollow point. Mark
carefully with a file and break at A and then at B. Bore or burn a hole
in a cork to fit the tube. Cut a V-shaped notch in the side of the cork
extending to the hole. Bend the lower tube at right angles and insert
it in a wood block, previously slotted with a saw to make a snug fit. A
little glue will hold the glass tubes, cork and base together. The air
mixture can be adjusted by sliding the upper tube before the glue sets.

The burner is especially adapted to continuous work, such as sealing
packages, etc. The flame will not discolor the wax.--Contributed by E. P.
Fert, Spokane, Wash.



The Hindoo Sand Trick


This is one of the many tricks for which the Hindoos are famous, and
was long kept a secret by them. It consists of placing ordinary sand
in a basin full of water, stirring the water and taking out the sand in
handfuls perfectly dry. It need scarcely be said that without previous
preparation, it is impossible to do so.

Take 2 lb. of fine silver sand, place it in a frying pan and heat well
over a clear fire. When the sand is thoroughly heated, place a small piece
of grease or wax--the composition of a paraffin candle preferred--in the
sand, stirring it well to get it thoroughly mixed, then allow the sand to
cool. When this sand is placed in a basin of water, it will be apparently
dry when taken out. It is very important that only a small portion of the
adherent be used so that it cannot be detected when the sand is examined
by the audience. The explanation is that the grease or wax coating on each
sand particle repels the water.--Contributed by Mighty Oaks, Oshkosh, Wis.



A Kite-Line Cutaway for Toy Parachutes


The cutaway is made of a small piece of board, a cigar-box lid, an old
yardstick or a piece of lath, which should be about 6 in. long. Common
carpet wire staples are used to hold it on the string. The under side has
a wire bent into such a shape as to form a loop at the forward end over
the kite string, then running back through the two staples at the one side
and through two staples at the other side.

[Illustration: Wires Attached to the Traveler]

The parachute should have a small wire ring fastened at the weight end
so as to fasten in the carrier, and should be put between the two staples
that are closest together on the under side of the carrier. A small nail
or button--anything larger than the loop in the wire--should be attached
to the kite string a few feet from the kite. When the parachute is
carried up the kite string, the knob on the string will strike the loop
of the wire on the carrier, which releases the parachute and allows it to
drop. The carrier will return of its own weight to the lower end of the
string.--Contributed by I. O. Lansing, Lincoln, Neb.



A Cherry Pitter


Procure an ordinary quill feather and cut the tip off to form a small
hole. Do not remove so much of the end that the cherry stone can stick
in it. The hole must be slightly smaller than the cherry stone. Push
the quill through the center of the cherry and the stone will come out
easily.--Contributed by Harold Wynning, Chicago, Ill.



To Hold a Fish while Removing the Scales


Insert a screwdriver or ice pick in a fish as shown, and the scales can be
removed much better and quicker than in any other way. The handle of the
screwdriver affords an efficient grip so that the fish can be held firmly
on the board and every scale can be removed.

[Illustration: Holding Fish for Scaling]



Carrying Stone Jars


The handholds on stone jars are usually not large enough to carry the
jars safely when they are full. If the handles of an old galvanized tub
are riveted to a leather strap long enough to reach under the bottom and
almost to the top on each side, the jar can be handled without danger of
being dropped. The fingers are placed in the handles to carry the weight,
while the thumbs are used to keep the jar from tipping. By placing a
buckle near one end, the strap may be used for carrying a jar of any
size.--Contributed by C. H. Floyd, Elwood, Ind.



Vibrator for a Spark Coil


If you do not have the time to make a vibrator or electrolytic interrupter
for a spark coil, a common electric door-bell makes a good substitute.
Connect one of the primary wires to the binding-post of the bell that is
not insulated from the frame, and the other primary wire to the adjusting
screw on the make-and-break contact of the bell, as shown in the sketch.
The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual
manner.--Contributed by Ralph Tarshis, Brooklyn, N. Y.

[Illustration: Bell Used as Vibrator]



Head Rest for a Chair


While seated in a chair a person very often desires to lay the head back
in resting. A support for the head is lacking in the low-back rockers and
ordinary chairs. A detachable, padded support can be easily made at home
for placing on any low-back chair and used as a head rest.

[Illustration: Rest on Chair Back]

The support standards can be made of wood or metal as desired. If metal
is used, the rest will have some springiness, which combined with the
pad will insure much greater comfort than the hard rigid back. A cloth
or paper is placed over the back of the chair to prevent marring of the
varnish or wood.



Lighting a Lawn Mower for Use at Night


[Illustration]

Those who desire to do so, or must, for lack of time during the day, may
use their lawn mower at night and light the front of their machine with
an ordinary bicycle lamp. The arm to hold the lamp can be attached with
screws to the handle as shown in the sketch. It is easily made from a
piece of hoop or bar iron.--Contributed by Samuel F. Reid, Minneapolis,
Minn.



Tying a Rosette in a Couch-Cover Corner


In the accompanying illustration is shown a very simple method of tying
a rosette in the corner of a couch cover. The use of the average couch
cover as a throw-over leaves a large corner which drags upon the floor. To
dispose of this extra length and at the same time make an artistic corner,
the Upholsterer suggests the following method:

[Illustration: Different Stages in Tying the Rosette (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

Spread the couch cover on the couch so that the surplus is evenly divided
between the sides and ends, and pass a pin through the cover to show each
corner as in Fig. 1. Measure the distance from each corner of the couch
to the floor, Fig. 2, and measuring from the point of the corner, mark
the same distance by the insertion of another pin, repeating in all four
corners. The distance between the two pins at each corner now defines the
amount of surplus that is to be taken up. Chalk a circle to include the
portion between these two pins, as shown in Fig. 3, and with a circular
needle and stout stitching twine run a shirring thread around the circle,
and when this is drawn tightly and tied, the surplus is formed into a
rosette, while the corner may be draped into an artistic cascade, as shown
in Fig. 4.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]



Driving Screws


[Illustration]

A wood screw having the threads hammered flat on two sides can be easily
driven in with the flattened sides parallel to the grain of the wood. When
the screw is turned a quarter turn the remaining threads cross the grain
and hold as well as if they had been turned in all the way. This is an
especial advantage where something is wanted which is easily inserted and
will hold better than a nail.--Contributed by P. D. Merrill, Chicago.

[Illustration]



A Power Windmill


The windmill shown is somewhat different from the ordinary kind. It is
not a toy, nor does it approach in size the ordinary farm windmill, but
is a compromise between the two, and in a good strong wind, will supply
power enough to run a washing machine, a small dynamo, an emery wheel, or
any other device used in the home workshop. The wheel is about 5 ft. in
diameter, with eight blades. The over-all length is about 6 feet.

The windmill is easily made and the cost is within the means of the
average boy. There is not a part used in its construction that cannot be
found about an ordinary manual-training shop. The most difficult parts
of the construction will be described in detail. Symmetry and smoothness
of design should be preserved and the parts made as light as possible
consistent with strength and durability.

[Illustration: The Hub Consists of Two Parts, Each Having Four Arms for
Holding the Blades (Fig. 1)]


The Wheel


As shown in the drawings, the wheel has eight blades. Ordinarily the
use of eight blades makes it difficult to construct a hub of sufficient
strength to carry them. Where so many blades radiate from a common center
it is almost impossible to provide an anchorage for each blade. To provide
a maximum of strength coupled with simplicity of design, the plan of using
two hubs of four arms each was adopted in the construction of this mill.
The ordinary hub of four arms is simple to make and quite strong. Four
pieces of straight-grained oak, each 16 in. long and 1-7/8 in. square, are
used in constructing the hubs. The manner of notching each pair of pieces
together is shown in Fig. 1. The slope for the blades is made to run in
opposite directions on the ends of each crosspiece. The slope is formed
by cutting out a triangular piece, as shown.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

The two hubs, thus formed, are mounted on the shaft, one behind the other,
in such positions that the arms will be evenly divided for space in the
wheel circle. These details are shown in Fig. 2. The blades, Fig. 3, are
made of thin basswood or hard maple, and each is fastened in its place by
means of two 3/8-in. bolts, in addition to which a few brads are driven
in to prevent the thin blades from warping.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]


The Gears


This windmill was designed to transmit power by means of shafts and gear
wheels, rather than with cranks and reciprocating pump rods, such as
are used on ordinary farm mills. To obtain this result, an old sewing
machine head was used. Such a part can be obtained from a junk dealer or
a sewing-machine agent. The head is stripped of its base plate with the
shuttle gearing; likewise the needle rod, presser foot, etc., are taken
from the front end of the head along with the faceplate. The horizontal
shaft and gear wheel are taken out and the bearings reamed out for a
1/2-in. shaft, which is substituted. The shaft should be 2 ft. in length,
and 8 or 10 in. of its outer end threaded for the clamping nuts which hold
the two hubs in place, as shown at A and B, Fig. 2. The gear wheel is also
bored out and remounted on the new shaft.

[Illustration: The Supporting Standard Holds the Machine Head with the
Wheel and the Vane on an Axis (Fig. 4)]

The supporting standard is constructed of oak, with mortise-and-tenon
joints, as shown in Fig. 4. The width of the pieces will depend on the
kind of sewing-machine head used. It may be necessary also to slightly
change the dimensions. The machine head is fastened on the support with
bolts. A sleeve and thrust spring are mounted on the shaft, as shown. The
sleeve is made of brass tubing, of a size to fit snugly on the shaft.
A cotter will keep it in place. The sleeve serves as a collar for the
thrust spring, which is placed between the sleeve and the standard. This
arrangement acts as a buffer to take up the end thrust on the shaft caused
by the varying pressure of the wind on the wheel.

[Illustration: (Fig. 5)]


The Vane


To keep the wheel facing the wind at all times, a vane must be provided.
It is made of basswood or hard maple, as shown in Fig. 5. It is not built
up solid, air spaces being left between the slats to reduce the wind
resistance. Unless built in this manner, the vane is liable to twist off
in a gale. The horizontal slats are 1/4 in. thick, and the upright and
cross braces 3/8 in. thick, while the long arm connecting the vane to the
supporting standard is 1/2 in. thick.

The supporting standard, carrying the wheel and the vane, must revolve
about a vertical axis with the changes in the wind, and this vertical
axis is supplied in the form of a piece of gas pipe which runs through
the supporting standard at the points marked C and D, Fig. 4. Ordinary
pipe fittings, called flanges, are bolted to the frame at these points.
The coupling in the gas pipe beneath the supporting standard serves as a
stationary collar to support the weight of the whole mill. The vane should
be placed correctly to balance the weight of the wheel.

The shaft passes through the framework of the mill on the inside of
the pipe, as shown at E. A 3/8-in. soft-steel or wrought-iron rod is
satisfactory for the shaft, as no weight is supported by it and only a
twisting force is transmitted. The use of a larger rod makes the mill
cumbersome and unwieldy. The upper end of the shaft is fastened to the
shaft that projects from the under side of the machine head by means of
a sleeve made of a piece of 3/8-in. pipe. Two cotters hold the shafts and
sleeve together.

[Illustration: The Lower End of the Shaft has a Horizontal Shaft Geared
to It for the Drive Pulleys (Fig. 6)]

At the lower end of the shaft, inside the workshop, the device shown
in Fig. 6 is installed. The purpose of this appliance is to provide a
horizontal shaft upon which pulleys or driving gears may be mounted.
The device is constructed of another sewing-machine head similar to the
one already described. The head is cut in two and the separate parts
mounted on suitable supports. The gap between the sawed portions permits a
pulley to be fastened on the shaft to serve as the main drive. The wheel
propelled by the treadle of the sewing machine will make a good drive
wheel. The small handwheel, originally mounted on the machine-head shaft,
is left intact. This arrangement gives two sizes of drive wheels. Heavy
sewing-machine belts will serve to transmit the power.


The Tower


The tower can be built up in any manner to suit the conditions. Ordinarily
sticks, 2 in. square, are suitable. These are well braced with wire and
fastened securely to the roof of the shop. The arrangement of the tower
with the mill is shown in Fig. 7.

[Illustration: the Manner of Building the Tower on Which the Supporting
Standard Revolves (Fig. 7)]



Telegraph Code on Typewriter Keys


A very simple and practical method of transcribing wireless time and
other messages on the typewriter without having such perfect knowledge
of the Morse system as to be able to immediately translate it into the
common alphabet is the following: The characters of the Morse system
are inscribed on small slips of paper--thus, three dots (...), for the
letter S; two dashes (--), for the letter M, etc.--and these slips are
pasted on the corresponding keys of the typewriter. The operator puts on
his receiver, and the proper key is struck as he hears the corresponding
Morse letter. As there are no capitals, spacing between words, or even
punctuation, the manipulation of the typewriter is much simplified, and
it is easily learned to record the signals as fast as they are heard.



An Aid in Sketching Profiles


The means usually employed by most beginners to obtain the correct outline
of an object, such as tracing or a pantograph, make them dependent on
mechanical help rather than train the eye to form and proportion a drawing
correctly. The device shown not only greatly assists the beginner, but
actually trains him toward a point where he can dispense with any such
device and correctly sketch by free hand. It also has the effect of
encouraging the beginner, because his first efforts will not be complete
failures, as is usually the case.

[Illustration: The Fine Wire is Bent as Near as Possible to the Outline
of the Object]

The device consists of a rather fine wire bent in the shape of a human
profile and supported on a stand or base. The stand may be dispensed with,
however, and the wire held in the hand. In use, it is placed near the
model or person whose profile is to be drawn; then, after closing one eye,
it is set at a position where it will correspond to the features of the
model. This enables one to note the variations between the wire and the
model's features. For instance, the forehead may recede from the wire at
the top, or the nose may have a different slant or shape.

The paper on which the drawing is to be made should have a faint outline
drawn by laying the wire upon it and marking around it with a soft pencil.
Having noted the variations between the wire and the features, proceed
to draw the profile, observing the same variations, and when the sketch
is completed, erase the faint outlines. Then compare the drawing with the
model without using the wire, and make final corrections. The dotted line
indicates the outline to be erased.

The drawing may be made larger or smaller than the bent wire, but the
outline on the paper must be kept in exactly the same proportion. It
is not necessary that the wire be bent so that it represents perfect
features. With the use of this device one forms a habit of comparing
and proportioning, which applies to the correct sketching of all
objects.--Contributed by Will L. Burner, Columbus, Ohio.



A Small Hydroelectric-Power Plant


Wherever a water pressure of over 30 lb. is available a small
hydroelectric-power plant will produce sufficient electric current for
any light work, such as charging storage batteries, operating sewing and
washing machines, toys, etc. The design is for a 6-in. hydraulic motor
of the Pelton type, which will operate well on almost all city-water
pressures, and at 80 lb. will drive a 100-watt generator to its full
output.

The castings may be procured from any foundry cheaply, so that these parts
need not trouble the builder. The patterns can be constructed easily and
are not so complicated that they will tear the molds when being removed.
They are made from well seasoned white pine, 1/4 in. thick. Fill in all
sharp corners with small fillets. All the patterns should taper slightly
from the parting line.

[Illustration: Layout for the Casing, Cover and Wheel for the Construction
of a Hydraulic Motor That will Drive a Small Dynamo, to Produce Current
for Experimental Purposes, to Charge Storage Cells or to Run Electric Toys
(Fig. 1)]

The motor casing is shown in Fig. 1. It is made with a wide flange so
that the cover plate can be bolted to it. The lug A is to give additional
strength and thickness to the side so that it may be drilled and tapped
for the nozzle. The legs B and C are for bolting the case to a base or
support. The outlet pipe is of lead, 1-3/4 in. outside diameter, and the
hole for it in the case can be either drilled or cored. Solder the pipe
flush with the inside of the casing. Drill and tap the holes around the
flange for 8,32 bolts. The shaft hole must be drilled very carefully.
Drill 1/4-in. holes in the feet. The oil holes are 1/8 in. in diameter.
File the surface of the flange smooth and also the inside shoulder of the
bearing lug. Drill and tap the nozzle hole for a 3/4-in. pipe thread.

[Illustration: (Fig. 2)]

The cover plate is shown in Fig. 2, This is bolted to the casing with
8,32 brass bolts, 1/2 in. long. The holes for them are drilled 3/16 in. in
diameter. A shallow hole, for the end of the shaft to fit in, is drilled
in the lug, as shown. It does not pass all the way through the plate. File
the inside face of the lug smooth and also the edge of the plate where it
joins the casing.

[Illustration: (Fig. 3)]

The wheel, with brackets attached, is shown in Fig. 3. This style of wheel
need not be followed out closely. Bore the hub centrally for a 1/4-in.
shaft and fit in two setscrews. Drill and tap the rim for the buckets with
a 1/4-in. standard tap. The buckets must be evenly spaced and bolted on
to make the wheel balance.

[Illustration: The Best Shape of the Buckets to Take Up the Force of the
Water (Fig. 4)]

The buckets are shown in Fig. 4. They may be cast from iron or babbitt.
The sharp ridge in the center provides for a deviation of the water jet
as it flows on the bucket. The ridge divides the bucket into two equal
lobes which turn each division of the jet through almost 180 deg., using
all the kinetic energy in the jet. This is shown at D. The dividing ridge
must lie in the plane of the revolution, so that each bucket will enter
the center of the jet. The buckets being evenly spaced on the periphery
of the wheel, only one at a time receives the force of the jet, the one
in front and the one behind clearing the jet.

[Illustration: (Fig. 5)]

The nozzle is shown in Fig. 5. It can be made of iron or brass. The inside
gradually tapers from 3/4 to 3/16 in. It has a 3/4-in. pipe thread and is
screwed into the hole in the case from the inside and is secured with a
lock nut. Enough additional threaded portion is left protruding to allow
the supply pipe to be connected.

When assembling the motor, fasten the wheel to the shaft with the two
setscrews, and place a metal washer, E, on each side of the wheel. Place
the wheel in the casing and screw the cover plate in place. A thin rubber
gasket should be placed between the cover and the casing to provide a
water-tight joint.

[Illustration: The Motor as It is Coupled to Drive the Dynamo, and the
Water Connections (Fig. 6)]

The general arrangement of the plant is shown in Fig. 6. The motor and
dynamo are mounted on a heavy wood base, which in turn is firmly bolted
to a concrete foundation. Level up the two machines by the use of thin
washers on the bolts between the base and machine. A heavy sleeve and
setscrews are used to connect the two shafts. The connection to the water
supply is made with 3/4-in. pipe, with a globe valve in it to regulate
the flow of water. Any dynamo of about 100-watt output can be used.



Paper Shades for Electric-Light Globes


The appearance of an electric-light globe can be very prettily improved
by making a shade of crêpe paper of any desired color for each one.
Canary-colored crêpe produces a soft, mellow effect. Pale blue, yellow,
red and, in fact, all the colors can be used, making a very pleasing
variety.

[Illustration: Two Pieces of Crêpe Paper Stitched Together and Ruffled,
to Make a Fancy Electric-Light Shade]

The body of the shade is made of a piece of paper about 5-1/2 in. wide
and 3-1/2 ft. long. The width will vary with the length of the globe to
be covered, and it is best to have it full, as the edge can be trimmed
even with the lower end of the globe afterward. Another piece of the same
color is cut 2-1/2 in. wide and of the same length. This piece makes the
ruffle.

The smaller piece is placed on the larger centrally, and both are stitched
together with a running stitch, using a needle and cotton thread. A plain
running stitch is also made 1/4 in. from one edge of the larger strip. The
material is gathered along both threads. This operation makes the material
shrink in length. Wrap it around the globe, pulling the threads taut so
that the ends of the paper will just meet. Tie the threads and clip off
the extending ends. If the paper extends beyond the end of the globe,
trim it off with the shears. Ruffle the two edges of the narrow strip and
the lower edge of the larger one. This operation is simply stretching the
edge of the crêpe to cause it to stand out.--Contributed by Jas. A. Hart,
Philadelphia, Pa.



Renewing the Markings on Graduates


Graduates that have been in use a long time, especially for measuring
alkalies, become unreadable. The graduations are easily restored in
the following manner: Moisten a small piece of absorbent cotton with a
solution of white shellac, cut in alcohol. Rub this well into all the
etched parts and allow to dry for about two minutes, then rub in a fine
whiting or litharge with an old toothbrush. If red is desired, use rouge;
if black is preferred, use lampblack or powdered graphite. When dry, wipe
off the excess pigment with a cloth moistened in alcohol.--Contributed by
A. C. Norris, Rockford, Ill.



Repairing a Broken Ball-Clasp Purse


[Illustration]

Having occasion to repair a purse of the ordinary ball-clasp kind where
one of the stems was broken off and lost, I first had some trouble in
finding a way to repair it. I started to take off the remaining stem in
an attempt to replace the locking device with another kind, and in bending
it down toward the opposite side, I happened to close the purse and found
that it locked just as well as if there had been two balls on it. I have
since repaired two other purses in the same manner and found that they
worked well.

The idea is to bend the remaining clasp over until it is low enough to
come in contact with and to spring over the other side, thus giving the
same snap and holding qualities as before.--Contributed by W. C. Loy,
Rochester, Ind.



Automatic Valve for a Funnel


[Illustration]

Where liquid is run through a funnel into an opaque bottle or earthen jug,
the filling cannot be watched, and if not watched constantly, the vessel
will overflow. This can be obviated by applying the automatic valve to the
funnel stem, as shown. A washer support is soldered or otherwise fastened
in the upper end of the stem, or at the base of the sloping part, and a
crossbar is fastened to its upper surface across the hole. The crossbar
is centrally drilled to receive a small rod or wire, to which is attached
a valve that will cover the hole in the washer. A cork is stuck on the
lower end of the rod. The location of the cork on the rod should be at
a point a little below the level to which the bottle or vessel is to be
filled.--Contributed by H. W. Hilton, Hopington, B. C.



Chisel Holder for Whetting


To obtain the proper slope and apply a fine cutting edge, the plane
iron or chisel must be held at the proper slope while grinding, and
especially so when whetting. The illustration shows a holder to keep the
iron or chisel at the proper slope. It consists of a block of wood with
a sloping cut at the right angle to make two pieces. One of these pieces
is permanently fastened to the strip at the back, while the other is
held with a bolt passing through a notch in the strip for adjusting or
clamping. The rear end of the back piece is fitted with a large screw hook
or L-hook to provide a slide to keep the rear end of the holder at the
right height. The iron or chisel is inserted between the sloping edges of
the blocks and clamped in place, then the L-screw is adjusted for height
to secure the proper angle on the stone. It is then only necessary to move
the block and tool back and forth over the stone.

[Illustration: The Tool Edge is Kept at the Proper Angle While It is Run
over the Stone]



A Large Hole in a Small Piece of Paper


It would seem impossible to cut a hole in a piece of paper, 2 in. wide
and 3 in. long, large enough to allow a person's body to pass through it,
but if carefully cut as shown by the lines in the sketch, one will find
with surprise that the paper can be extended so that the feat is easily
accomplished. Make the cuts about 1/8 in. apart and these will allow the
paper to expand several times its size.--Contributed by H. Martine Warner,
E. Orange, N. J.

[Illustration: The Slits Cut in the Paper Allow It to Expand Several Times
the Size of the Original]



Homemade Bunsen Burner


The amateur craftsman, at some time or other, needs a hot flame for
certain kinds of work, and a Bunsen or alcohol flame is brought into
service. The gasoline and alcohol flames have their drawbacks, one of
which is the starting of the burner and the waiting for the heat. They are
also unhandy in directing the flame on parts of the work. As I desired a
burner for quick work and one whose flame I could direct at any angle,
for repoussé and chasing on copper and silversmith's work, I made the
one shown in the sketch to attach to a hose and connected it with the
gas pipe of the illuminating system in the house. It consists of a hose
connection into which a piece of pipe, 5 in. long, is fitted. The hose
connection is also fitted with a small nozzle, A, for the gas, and the
pipe has an opening through it at the end of the nozzle.--Contributed by
John Koestner, Brooklyn, N. Y.

[Illustration: Bunsen-Burner Attachment for Use with Illuminating Gas
Taken from the House Mains]



Cane-Seat Cleaner


A rapid and practical method of removing stains and discolorations from
the cane seats of chairs, wickerwork, etc., is to use oxalic acid and
powdered pumice.

Dissolve oxalic-acid crystals in hot water and saturate a small stiff
brush in it, then dip the brush in the powdered pumice and rub the
discolored cane briskly with the brush.--Contributed by W. F. Jaquythe,
Richmond, California.



Shade-Roller and Curtain-Pole Bracket


The main advantage of this shade bracket is that a person can lower it
for adjusting the shade or in changing curtains while standing on the
floor, thus eliminating the use of a step ladder and the danger possibly
attending such use.

[Illustration: The Brackets as They are Attached to a Window Casing for
Lowering the Curtain Pole (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

The front elevation of a window with bracket attachment in position
is shown in Fig. 1, and a cross section in Fig. 2. The position of the
curtain pole when the brackets are lowered is shown by the dotted lines.
A detail sketch of the support end is given in Fig. 3 and one bracket is
shown in Fig. 4.

[Illustration: The Attachments, Supports and Brackets for Holding both
Curtain Pole and Shade Roller (Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]

The curtain pole A is fastened to the brackets B with 1/4-in. dowel pins,
C. These pins and the pole keep the brackets from spreading at the top,
so that a shade roller, D, may have its attachments fastened to the inner
sides of the brackets. A small pulley, E, is attached to the window casing
above the right bracket and a double pulley is located above the left,
cords being passed through them, down along the casing to a point within
easy reach, and fastened in any manner desired.

All that is necessary to change the curtains or fix a shade is to loosen
the cord and allow the brackets to drop down until they may be easily
reached.--Contributed by James F. Napier, Montreal, Can.



Planing Arrow Sticks


While making some bows one day I discovered I had no suitable dowel
sticks for the arrows, so I started to make them out of 1/4-in. square
stock. I found it rather difficult to plane these pieces until I hit
upon the scheme shown in the sketch. I procured a piece of ordinary
tongue-and-groove flooring and clamped it in the bench vise, then drove
a nail in the groove to act as a stop, and in no time I had the sticks
planed into arrows.--Contributed by J. F. Culverwell, Washington, District
of Columbia.

[Illustration: Planing the Corners from Square Stock by Placing Them in
the Groove of a Flooring Board]



To Clean Shellac from a Brush


Put the brush in a strong, warm solution of borax and water, and then wash
in clean, warm water. If the bristles have become hard, allow the brush
to remain in the solution until soft, keeping the solution warm in the
meantime; then wash it out in warm water.--Contributed by N. J. Shattuck,
Woburn, Mass.



Lathe Dogs


In the absence of a full equipment of lathe dogs the amateur can make them
cheaply from pieces of iron pipe. One of these is shown in the sketch. A
section of pipe, 1-1/2 in. to 3 in. long, is partly cut away, as shown,
leaving a projection of metal 1 in. wide. One or more setscrews are fitted
in the round part, and the dog is complete.

[Illustration: Two Forms of Lathe Dogs That are Quickly and Cheaply
Constructed]

A dog, or driver, may also be made of two U-clamps and two bolts as shown.
This is especially useful for large work, where the cost of a dog would be
prohibitive. After these two clamps are bolted on the work to be turned
a bolt is attached in the faceplate that bears against the clamp, thus
turning the work.



To Remove a Splinter from the Flesh


Quite frequently small particles of steel, splinters, or thorns are
run into the flesh and cannot be removed with the fingers. These can be
readily removed in the following manner: Press the eye of an ordinary
needle over the protruding end, then turn the needle until the edges bind
or clinch. While in this position, raise the needle and out comes the
splinter.

[Illustration: The Eye of a Needle Slipped over a Thorn for Removing It
from the Flesh]

       *       *       *       *       *

    A fine luster can be given to zinc by rubbing it with
    kerosene or a weak solution of sulphuric acid.



Holders for Displaying Magazines


[Illustration]

Papers and magazines often are sold in drug stores where the display
space usually is limited, especially in the window. The method used by one
druggist gave space for the magazines in the window without interfering
with the other goods.

The back of the window was arranged with rows of hooks, three hooks
for each magazine, two at the top edges and one in the center at the
bottom. The magazine is easily slipped into these holders, and the whole
presents a tidy appearance. The hooks are the ordinary screwhooks that
can be obtained from a hardware or furniture store.--Contributed by T. F.
Monaghan, Philadelphia, Pa.



Waste-Paper Basket


[Illustration]

The covering of a broken demijohn was used in the manner shown as a
waste-paper basket. The glass was broken out and the covering soaked in
water, after which the splints were turned down and tied with a cord. This
I found to make a first-class waste-paper basket.--Contributed by A. S.
Thomas, Gordon, Canada.



Lettering Photographs


Amateur photographers often write, or print, the names of the subjects on
the mounts, or in the albums, with white ink or scratch it on the negative
so that it will print in the picture.

A very good method is to take ordinary black ink and do the lettering on
the sensitive paper before it is printed under the negative, being careful
not to scratch the paper. After printing the paper to the proper shade the
toning and fixing baths will wash away the ink and leave the lettering in
white.

The lettering is easily accomplished and a post card can be sent with
any message desired on any negative, the inscription being printed on the
paper so that the negative is unharmed for other printing.--Contributed
by Henry J. Marion, Pontiac, Mich.



A Stamp Moistener


[Illustration]

A handy stamp moistener and envelope sealer can be made by procuring a
small medicine bottle or glass vial and inserting a piece of felt or other
wicking material in the place of the stopper, and filling it with water.

This moistener will be found handy for a small office where the mail
is quite heavy, but not big enough to warrant the purchasing of a
sealing machine. This moistener is sanitary and replaces the wet
sponge.--Contributed by Theo. J. Becker, Kansas City, Mo.



A Window Lock


[Illustration]

A very neat window lock can be made of sheet steel, 1/2 in. wide. One
piece, shaped like a saw tooth, is fastened to the sash, and the other,
which is bent to form a catch over the tooth projection and ends in
a curved top for a finger hold, is attached to the window casing. The
illustration clearly shows how the lock is attached.--Contributed by Lee
B. Green, Cleveland, O.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Georgia pine should be filled with white shellac.



Varnished Candles Burn Longer


The heated tallow or wax of a candle runs down the sides and this results
in a considerable waste. This waste can be stopped by coating the new
candles with white varnish and laying them aside for a few days to harden.
The varnish will keep the melted tallow or wax from running away and it
is used in the wick.



Guides for a Mill File


Having a large number of wires to file true on the end I devised a way
to do this with the use of some old worn-out and discarded files that had
good cutting edges. A piece of sheet copper, about the same length as the
files, was bent to fit over one edge and both sides of the file, allowing
both edges to project about 1/4 in. This made a guide that prevented the
edge of the file from slipping off the end of the wire. The guide was
held in place on the file by cutting a slit in the projecting edges, about
1/4 in. from the end, and turning these separated parts back on the file.

[Illustration: Guide for Using the Edge of Worn-Out Files on Small Round
or Square Stock]

If such a guide is fitted tightly on a file, the edges of worn-out files
can be used for such work, and the file cannot slip off and mar the sides
of the work.--Contributed by A. R. Drury, Hampton, Ill.



A Simple Motion-Picture Machine


The drum A is a piece of wood, 1-3/4 in. long and 1-3/16 in. in diameter,
supported on the end of a round stick, B, which can be made in one piece
with the drum, if a wood lathe is at hand, but a piece cut from a curtain
pole and a lead pencil inserted in a hole bored in the end will answer
the purpose. Be sure to have the diameter of the drum 1-3/16 inches.

[Illustration: The Parts for Making the Revolving Drum for Holding the
Strip of Pictures]

Provide a base piece, C, 1/2 in. thick and 2 in. square, and fasten a
piece of cardboard having a slit E, as shown. The cardboard should be
2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. high, the slit being cut 1/2 in. in width,
1/4 in. from the top and 3/4 in. from the bottom. A hole is bored in the
center of the block to admit the standard B easily.

The next step is to provide the picture and attach it to the drum. A
picture of a boy pounding cobblestones is shown in the sketch, at F,
which should be made on a strip of paper 4-3/8 in. long. This is glued
or attached with rubber bands to the drum. The drawing can be enlarged in
pen and ink, or can be reproduced as it is, if a hand camera is at hand,
and a print used on the drum.

[Illustration: The Different Positions of the Picture will Appear in
Action When Turning with the Drum]

It is only necessary to put the parts together, grasp the base in one hand
and turn the support B with the other, when, looking through the slot E,
the boy is seen pounding the stones. Various pictures can be made and the
strips changed.--Contributed by C. C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich.



Substitute for Cleats on Boards


The necessity for using more than one cleat for fastening two boards
together may be done away with by using the device shown in the sketch.
The center cleat prevents the boards from buckling while the sides are
tightly held by these simple flat fasteners. The fasteners are made of tin
cut as indicated, slipped between the edges of the boards and the parts
bent over and tacked. Where the strain is not too great the holders may
be used without a cleat, making an effective flat fastening.--Contributed
by W. O. Nettleton, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: The Metal Clips Hold the Edges of the Boards Together
Closely and Quite Rigidly]



Attaching Door Knobs to Locks


When putting a lock on a door it is often difficult to press the two knobs
together tightly enough to prevent them from rattling and still be able to
insert the screw into the shank. By using a piece of board, 1 in. thick,
6 in. wide and 1 ft. or more in length, with a V-shaped piece cut out of
one side, the knobs can be easily forced and held together while the screw
is inserted.--Contributed by H. Musgrave, Sidney, British Columbia.

[Illustration: The Sloping Edges in the Notch Forces the Knobs Together
and Holds Them While Inserting the Screws]



A Finger-Nail Buffer


The flywheel on a sewing machine is usually turned with a semicircular
face and this makes a good base on which to apply a piece of chamois skin
for use in buffing nails. A strip of the chamois is cut the length of the
wheel's circumference and small holes pierced in its edges, through which
strings are run to hold it to the rim of the wheel. The chamois can then
be removed or left on the wheel as desired. Run the machine and hold the
nail on the buffer. When there is a free wheel on the machine this makes
an excellent buffing device.

[Illustration: A Strip of Chamois Skin Attached to the Flywheel of a
Sewing Machine for a Buffer]



Grinding Chisel Edges


[Illustration]

A cold chisel ground with a rounding edge, as shown, will last twice as
long and do better work than one that is ground straight, because it will
not wedge, and the cutting edge, having a better support, will not chip
off.--Contributed by F. G. Marbach, Cleveland, O.



Reducing Amperage of a Fuse Wire


It is sometimes necessary to use an electrical fuse of smaller amperage
than those at hand, and for experimental work this is often the case. A
smaller amperage may be readily made from a larger-size wire by making
a nick in it with the cutting edge of pliers, or with a knife. The
illustration shows how to reduce the size of a 10-ampere fuse to make it
five amperes.--Contributed by Louis Litsky, Brooklyn, N. Y.

[Illustration: The Amperes of a Fuse Reduced by Making a Nick in the Lead
Wire]



Dip-Plating Process


The various ways of doing dip plating are practically the same method,
the coating fluid consisting of essentially the same materials.

The tank or crucible, as it may be called, consists of a piece of 3-in.
gas pipe, 9 in. long, threaded at both ends, one end being fitted with
a screw cap and the other with a pipe flange. This part is shown in Fig.
1. A piece of sheet metal is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2 and bent to
form a cone, so that the smaller end will fit snugly around the pipe and
the base be 9 in. in diameter. The joined edges are riveted together. The
assembled parts will appear as shown in Fig. 3.

The metal used for plating consists of bismuth, 4 oz.; antimony, 4 oz.,
and pure block tin, 10 lb. Place the antimony in the crucible and melt
it, then add the tin and bismuth. A flame from an ordinary gasoline burner
will be sufficient to heat the crucible.

Clean the article to be coated by rinsing it in strong caustic potash,
which will remove all grime and grease, then dip it in a strong solution
of sal ammoniac and water. Dry it and then dip it in the melted metal,
allowing it to remain there about 1 minute, then remove and plunge it in
a bath made of 1 lb. of sal ammoniac and 1 gal. of water. The article is
then dried in sawdust.

[Illustration: The Parts to Make the Crucible Consist of Pipe and Fittings
and a Piece of Sheet Metal (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The coating put on in this manner is a nice, shiny plate that will stand
a lot of wear. No polishing or grinding is necessary.--Contributed by A.
H. Waychoff, Lyons, Colo.



A Model Steam-Turbine Boat


A piece of thin board, or shingle, is cut to the shape of a boat and two
standards are fastened to it. The standards have notches cut in them to
hold an ordinary baking-powder can which is used for the boiler. The lid
of the can is soldered on, and a small hole punched in one side with an
awl. Two candles are used to heat the water.

[Illustration: Model Turbine Boat Using a Baking-Powder Can for a Boiler
with Candles as Fuel]

The turbine is constructed on an axle made of a hatpin which runs
through the top of the standards for bearings. The paddles are made of
cardboard, or better still, pieces of thin sheet tin, cut and bent as
shown at A, and three of these are attached to a three-cornered block
of wood fastened to the shaft, as shown at B. The manner of attaching
the shaft for the propeller is shown at C. The propeller consists of a
piece of tin, slightly twisted and attached to the shaft with solder.
The pulleys are located as shown and connected with a string band. The
hole made in the can should be pointed to one side of the turbine shaft
so that the escaping steam will strike one side of the paddles on the
turbine.--Contributed by McKinley Wood, Ava, N. Y.



Plant Shelf for a Window


An ingenious and simple method of putting up window shelves for winter
plants so that the window casing and facing are not marred is shown in the
sketch. The materials required are one shelf, about 8 in. wide, 1-1/2 yd.
of picture wire, two screweyes, two fence staples, and two strips of wood,
to raise the shelf slightly from the window sill. The board for the shelf
is cut to fit the window frame and casing. The picture wire, screweyes and
staples are attached as shown. When cleaning the window the shelf can be
drawn out of the way.--Contributed by H. C. Dixon, Johnstown, Pa.

[Illustration: The Shelf is Hung on Wires Attached to Screweyes Placed in
the Facing Edge]



A Camera Support


A device which, in many instances, will take the place of a tripod, can
be made of a brass wood screw and can be carried in the pocket as easily
as a pencil. The screw should be 3 or 4 in. long and 1/4 in. in diameter.
Cut off the head and thread the end about 1/2 in. to fit the socket in
the camera. Drill a 1/8-in. hole through the metal just below the threaded
part and insert a short piece of 1/8-in. wire. Slip a washer over the end,
down to the wire, and fasten it with solder.

[Illustration: Substitute for a Camera Tripod That can be Carried in the
Pocket Like a Pencil]

The device can be turned into a tree, post or a stick thrust into
the ground, and the camera screwed onto it and adjusted to any
angle.--Contributed by O. D. Turner, Seattle, Wash.



Combination Tool for Amateur Draftsmen


A common 6-in. mill file can be converted into a very useful tool for an
amateur draftsman. Grind the end of the file as shown in the sketch and
use it for prying out thumbtacks that are driven in too tightly. Grind
the base of the tang into a knife blade for sharpening pencils, shaving
chalk, opening envelopes, etc. Shape, by careful grinding, the part A for
cutting and trimming sheets. Grind one edge of the file round and polish
it for smoothing and burnishing purposes. Grind a sharp point on the tang
for perforating sheets. A piece of rubber stuck on the tang end answers
the double purpose of a protector and eraser. The file part is used for
finishing points on pencils.

[Illustration: A Tool Made of a File Combining Several Tools Which are
Used by a Draftsman]



Varnishing Bases for Electric Apparatus


It is quite difficult to keep from making finger marks on freshly
varnished boards used as bases on electric devices. It is easily avoided,
however, by procuring a large spool and fastening it to the bottom of
the base with a wood screw. The spool will serve as a handle while the
varnish is applied, and also makes a stand for the board while the varnish
dries.--Contributed by Jacob Laudan, Louisville, Ky.



Waterproof Shoe Dressing


Melt some tallow and, while it is hot, put in some scraps of rubber from
old rubber shoes or boots. Be careful to select rubber that is free from
cloth. Put in as much of the rubber as the tallow will absorb. Stir freely
while it is melting, and keep it away from any flames. Allow it to cool
and set away for future use. Take enough for immediate use and warm it
sufficiently so that it may be applied with a brush.--Contributed by F.
S. Cummings, Detroit, Mich.



An Adjustable Bench Stop


A simple adjustable bench stop for light work may be made from a piece
of 1-in. broom handle and a piece of piano wire. Plane a flat surface on
the broom stick and drill two 1/16-in. holes, about 1/4 in. deep, 1/4 in.
from each end. Bend the ends of the wire to enter the holes and have the
wire of such length as to give it a slight curve between the ends when it
is in place on the stick.

[Illustration: The Spring Wire will Hold the Stop at Any Desired Position
for Height]

Bore a 1-in. hole through the bench top where it is desired to use the
stop and cut several grooves, as shown, in the walls of the hole with a
compass saw. The spring wire will slide into a groove and hold the stick
wherever it is set. The position of the face can be changed by inserting
the stick so that the wire will enter the right groove.--Contributed by
Alan H. Andrews, Fall River, Mass.



A Crochet Hook


In making some kinds of lace work different-sized hooks must be used
as the work proceeds. Considerable time will be lost in changing from
one hook to another, if they are separate. The best way is to mount all
the hooks necessary on one handle, as shown in the sketch. The handle
part is made of a large wire or small rod, bent to the shape shown and
with holes drilled through the ends for a small rivet. The ends of the
hooks are drilled or bent to fit on the rivet. A small tin ferrule is
made to slip over the handle and the hooks not in use. All hooks but the
one in use are turned back into the handle and the ferrule slipped into
place.--Contributed by Miss Nita S. Ingle, W. Toledo, O.

[Illustration: A Crochet-Hook Handle for Holding Several Hooks That are
Required for Some Lace Work]



Writing Board for Children


A writing desk for a child can be easily made as shown in the sketch.
The materials necessary are a board of suitable size, two screwhooks,
four screweyes and a pair of rods for braces. The hooks are screwed into
the back of a chair and the screweyes into the board, as shown. This
desk is instantly attached or taken down when desired. If the chair is
light and apt to tip over, make the rods long-enough to reach to the
floor.--Contributed by John V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind.

[Illustration: The Writing Board is Easily Attached to, or Detached from,
an Ordinary Chair Back]



Geometric Principle in Line Division


When sketching a plan, if any one of the first few lines drawn is found
to be the proper length, then this line can be made into a scale by the
geometric rule for dividing a given line into equal parts.

[Illustration: A Scale can be Made for Use on Any Sized Sketch or Drawing]

Suppose, for example, the line AB, which is to represent 12 ft., is found
to be 1 ft. long. Draw a line, AC, at any angle from the point A and step
off on it 12 equal parts, beginning at A. The last point, or the one at
C, is connected to the end B, then eleven other lines are drawn parallel
with CB. Thus AB will make a scale of 1 in. to each 1 ft.--Contributed by
James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.



Repairing a Broken Whip


Procure a piece of thin tin--the metal taken from a discarded fruit can
will do--and cut it about 2-1/2 in. long and wide enough to encircle
the break. Notch the ends like saw teeth and remove any sharp edges
with a file. Place the tin on the break and tie temporarily. Wind the
whole from end to end with a waxed linen thread, such as used by harness
makers. The threads lying alternately on the whip and on metal at the
notched ends eliminate any possibility of the parts working loose. A
break near the small and flexible end of a whip is repaired in the same
manner, using a quill instead of the tin. In either case, do not let the
edges of the splicing material meet, and it will clamp tightly on the
whip.--Contributed by W. S. Kingsley, W. Gouldsboro, Me.

[Illustration: The Repair on a Whip Made with a Notched Ferrule and a
Waxed Thread]



Repairing a Worn Thimble


Silver thimbles are easily worn through at the end, and they can be
quickly repaired by soldering from the inside. A very neat repair can be
made with an alcohol lamp and a blowpipe by using a little silver solder.
Borax or resin is used as a flux.



A Small Torch


A small torch, that will give a very fine and hot smokeless flame, can
be made from a piece of glass tube, about 4 in. long, and 4 ft. of rubber
tubing. The glass tube is heated in the center until it is red, then the
ends drawn apart so that the tube will have a small diameter. After the
glass has cooled, make a small scratch with a file on the thin part and
break it. One of the pointed ends is connected to a straight piece of
glass tube with a short piece of the rubber tube, as shown in the sketch.
A small hole is cut in the side of the piece of rubber to admit air to
the gas. The torch is connected to an ordinary gas jet.--Contributed by
E. K. Marshall, Oak Park, Ill.

[Illustration: A Torch Made of Glass and Rubber Tubing, to be Used on an
Ordinary Gas Jet]



Fountain Attachment for an Ordinary Pen


A quite efficient fountain pen may be quickly made by bending an ordinary
pen, as shown at A, and inserting it in the holder opposite to the
regular pen, as shown at B. For best results, the point of the auxiliary
pen should just touch the regular pen.--Contributed by Thos. L. Parker,
Wibaux, Mont.

[Illustration: The Space between the Pens Forms the Fountain, Which is
Sufficient for Considerable Writing]

       *       *       *       *       *

    A little water added to oil paint will make a flat or
    lusterless finish and will do no harm to the paint,
    as the water evaporates in time.

[Illustration]



Homemade Cut Press


The person who has a little ability in making wood cuts with a knife will
find it very interesting to make the press shown in the sketch. A fair
job of printing can be done with the press, using printer's ink spread on
a piece of glass with a hand ink roller, such as can be purchased cheaply
of any dealer in printing supplies.

[Illustration: A Hand Press for Printing from Cuts Made of Wood, Using
Ordinary Printer's Ink]

The press may have a base, A, of any size to suit, but one 1-1/2 in.
thick, 6 in. wide, and 12 in. long will be found to serve best for most
purposes. It must be smooth and level. Hard wood, such as maple, beech,
or birch, is best for all parts. The post B is 1-1/4 in. thick, 2 in.
wide, and 5 in. long. Before setting it, slot the upper end for the end
of the lever. This is done by making a saw cut, 1-3/4 in. deep, 5/8 in.
from either side and cutting out the core to make a slot 3/4 in. wide. A
1/4-in. hole is then bored through the prongs to receive a stove bolt that
connects them with the lever. The post is fastened with screws and glue
in a notch cut in the center of the base end.

The lever C is made of a piece of wood 1/4 in. square and 10 in. long.
At the forward end the sides are pared away to form a tongue, or tenon,
that will pass between the prongs of the upright, and a hole is bored
through it to match those in the prongs. The entire upper surface of the
lever is rounded and the under surface is rounded, beginning 6 in. from
the tenon end. Glue to the under side of the lever a block, D, at the end
of the under, flat surface. The block should be about 1-1/4 in. square by
1-1/2 in. long. If the under side of the base is crowning, either level
it with a plane or nail cleats across the ends for feet. A washer is used
with the stove bolt in connecting the lever and post.

The cuts are made of small blocks of wood, about 3/4 in. thick and of a
size to take the characters desired. These blocks must be level and the
printing side made smooth with very fine sandpaper, or a scraper, before
the characters are laid out. Boxwood is best for cuts, but pearwood,
applewood, birch, or maple will do very well. Mark out the characters
backward, using the pencil very lightly. Then, with the small blade of
a knife, made as sharp as possible, cut around the outlines, holding the
knife slanting, and remove the adjacent wood by cutting in at a reverse
angle to meet the boundary cut. Gradually deepen the cuts around the
characters until they stand in relief about 1/8 in., then score V-shaped
grooves, checkerboard fashion, across the remaining high surface that
is not a part of the design, and chip out the resulting small blocks to
bring the entire secondary surface of the block to a uniform level with
the portions adjoining the characters.

A touch of glue to the back of the cut will set it securely enough to the
bottom of the block D for printing, and allow its removal without injury
when desired. To get a uniform impression in printing, place paper on the
base, as at E, to the thickness required. For controlling the printing
position on the stock paper, pins or tacks can be stuck into the base
and each sheet to be printed laid against these guides.--Contributed by
Chelsea Curtis Frazier, Saginaw, Mich.



An Electrical Testing Instrument for Experimenters


The amateur having an ordinary flash light can make an instrument that
will serve for a variety of purposes. It is only necessary to solder a
piece of lamp cord to the spring of the battery which comes in contact
with the lamp, and pass the end through a hole drilled in the top of the
case. The end can be fitted with a cord tip.

[Illustration: An Instrument Made of an Electrical Pocket Flash Light for
Testing Circuits and Instruments]

To test batteries, take the flash light in the right hand and press the
button, lighting the lamp, then place the bottom of the flash light on one
binding post and the cord on the other. If the light burns brilliantly,
the battery is dead, but if it burns dimly or goes out the battery is
good.

It may happen that the experimenter's telegraph line is out of order
and the trouble cannot be found. The sounder may be tested out by
disconnecting the wires from the instrument and placing the bottom of the
flash light on one binding post and the cord on the other. If the light
goes out, the trouble does not lie in the sounder, but in some other part
of the line. The line may be tested in a similar manner if one end is
short-circuited and the flash light connected to the other.

A tester of this kind cannot be used on long lines, or on instruments of
much resistance, as their resistance will overcome that of the light. Keep
in mind the fact that the lamp will always burn on an open circuit and go
out on a closed circuit.



Softening the Tone of a Talking Machine


[Illustration]

An effective mute, for use on any disk talking machine, can be made by
clamping an ordinary wood clothespin on the head of the setscrew that
holds the needle. Thus the tone will be softened a great deal more than by
the use of a wood needle. The record of a stringed instrument, such as a
violin, will be almost exactly reproduced. It will also eliminate almost
all the scratching sound caused by a steel needle.--Contributed by C. M.
Reeves, Los Angeles, Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *

    An antenna should be made of wire larger than No. 14
    gauge.

[Illustration]



A Musical Doorbell By H. Marcelle


In the construction of this doorbell it is best to purchase a small
instrument known as the "tubaphone." It consists of a rack with several
pieces of brass tubing cut to different lengths to give the proper tones
as they are struck. Such an instrument with eight tubes will play almost
any tune, and can be purchased from 50 cents up, depending on the size.
Brass tubes can be purchased, cut, and toned, but the time taken in doing
this is worth more than the price of the instrument, and no changes are
necessary in it to make the doorbell.

[Illustration: Detail of the Parts for the Construction of a Musical
Doorbell That will Play the Music on Brass Tubes with One Touch of a Push
Button]

Several strips of pine, 2 in. wide and 7/8 in. thick, are procured for
the framework. The tubes are placed on a table top, 1 in. apart and with
their lower ends on a line at right angles to their length. Allow a space
of 1 in. outside the first and last tube, and cut a piece of the wood to
this length, allowing sufficient additional material to fasten on the ends
of two uprights, which are cut long enough to admit the longest tube and
allow sufficient room for a large roller and space at the top to swing
the tubes.

A base is cut from a board, 7/8 in. thick and of sufficient size to admit
the roller and tube rack, together with a small battery motor. The tube
rack is fastened to the back of this base by making a tenon on the lower
end of each upright, and a mortise in the baseboard to receive it.

A roller is turned from a piece of soft pine, large enough to provide
room on its surface for a number of horizontal lines equal to the number
of notes in the composition to be played. These lines should not be too
close together. Supposing the music it is desired to play has 15 notes
in its composition, then 15 horizontal lines must be spaced evenly on the
surface of the roller. The length of the roller should be a free-working
fit between the uprights. A 1/4-in. steel rod is run through its center
for a shaft, allowing sufficient ends for the bearings, and, in addition,
at one end sufficient length for a pulley.

The motor is lined up on the base, so that its pulley wheel will run a
belt on the large wheel of the roller. The current is turned on after
making belt and wiring connections, a lead pencil is held directly
centering the place where each tube hangs, and a line is drawn on the
circumference of the roller.

A 1/8-in. hole is drilled through each tube, near one end, and a piece of
catgut string run into it to make a hanger. A piece of board, long enough
to fit between the uprights when placed on the slope formed by the upper
ends of the tubes after their lower ends are set straight on a line at
right angles to their length, and wide enough to swing the tubes clear
of the frame, is fastened in place, as shown. Small screw eyes are turned
into the under side of this board, at even spacings of 1 in., and used to
swing the tubes by the catgut strings. Another piece of board, the same
width as the former, is placed, perfectly horizontal, between the uprights
a short distance above the lower ends of the hanging tubes. Evenly spaced
holes are bored in this crosspiece to admit the ends of the tubes. The
holes should be of such size that when they are lined with a piece of
felt, the tubes will have a little play without touching the sides at any
point.

The hammers are each made of a strip of sheet brass, having a length that
will extend from the base to a short distance above the lower ends of the
tubes. A hole is drilled in each end of the strip, the lower one being of
a size to fasten it to the base crosspiece with a round-head wood screw.
The hole in the upper end is used to fasten a small block of wood with a
screw, for the hammer head. A small strip of felt is glued to the striking
side of the block. Another piece of brass, used for a trip, is fastened
to the center part of each long piece with rivets, so that its upper end
will be near the center of the roller for height, and strike the end of a
small peg driven into the roller. The length of these pieces, in fact, of
all pieces, will depend on the length of the tubes in the tubaphone and
the size roller required for the music.

The setting of the pegs in the roller requires some patience in order to
get the tune correct, but one mistake will be of more value than an hour's
description. The pegs can be procured from a shoemaker. If the roller is
of pine, they can be driven into the wood of the roller with a hammer.

[Illustration: The Appearance of the Doorbell Is That of a Mission Clock
on a Mantel]

With ordinary connections to the push button and motor, the mechanism
will only run while the push button is being pressed. A device that will
cause the piece of music to be played through to the finish after the
push button is pushed for a short time, consists of a turned piece of
wood fastened to the outside surface of the driving wheel on the roller.
This piece of wood should be carefully set, so that its outside surface
will be true as it revolves. Three brushes, made of copper strips, are
fastened to the base. The length of these brushes will depend on the
size of the roller and height of the block of wood. They should be evenly
spaced and fastened, so that they will be insulated from each other. One
strip of brass, or copper, is fastened around the turned piece of wood.
This strip must be as wide as two brushes, except for a short distance to
make a break in the electrical circuit. The notch in the strip, to make
this break, should be on the outside edge where it will disconnect the
center brush, and its location on the turned piece of wood should be on
a line with the end and the beginning of the pegs for the music. Another
short strip is fastened to the turned piece of wood, where it will make
a contact with the first brush when the second or middle brush is in the
notch, or disconnected, and is connected to the other notched strip with
a piece of wire run beneath the wood.

The wiring shown will make it possible to start the motor with the push
button which will turn the roll far enough to connect the center brush;
then the roller will turn until the music is played, at which point
it will stop and remain in rest until the push button again makes the
contact.

The entire mechanism can be made to set on the mantel or shelf, incased
like a mission clock, and the wires running to it may be concealed.



Replacing Buckle Tongues


[Illustration]

Having several buckles without tongues I tried to repair them with pieces
of wire, but could not get them to bend short enough to fasten around
the buckle frame. Some cotters were at hand and seeing them gave me
the idea of using one leg, with the eye part, as a tongue. By using the
proper-sized cotter, a substantial and quickly made repair will be the
result.--Contributed by Everett Hoar, Bowmanville, Ont.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Bread crumbs thoroughly rubbed over a pencil drawing
    will remove most of the dirt and without disturbing
    the pencil lines.



Drying Towels in Photographer's Dark Room


In doing a large amount of photographic work the towel becomes wet, and
to dry the hands on it is impossible. To obviate this annoyance, I made a
galvanized-iron pipe, about 2 ft. long and 8 in. in diameter, with a disk,
or circular piece, of metal about 10 in. in diameter soldered on each end
to form flanges. One flange was fastened to the wall of the dark room in
a convenient place to support the device. On the inside of the spool, or
towel support, an ordinary incandescent electric globe was placed. The
heat of the lamp would easily dry 12 in. of the towel, and when the dry
part was pulled down for use another wet portion was brought into position
for drying.

[Illustration: An Electric Globe Makes Heat in the Spool for Drying a
Portion of the Towel]

Those who have tried to handle gelatin dry plates with moist hands will
readily appreciate the value of this simple contrivance. The lamp in the
spool is connected on the switch with the ruby light, so that it is not
forgotten, when leaving the room, to turn it out.--Contributed by T. B.
Lambert, Chicago.



An Electric Chime Clock By John E. Mahlmeister


[Illustration: The Alarm Clock in Its Case and the Location of the Contact
Pins and Contact Lever (Fig. 1)]

In the construction of this clock one perfectly good and accurate alarm
clock and the works of an old or discarded one are used. The clock for the
accurate time is set into a frame, or casing, made of thin boards which
have a circular opening cut in them to fit snugly on the outside casing
of the clock. The back of the clock and casing are shown in Fig. 1. A
circular line is drawn on the casing, about 1 in. larger in diameter than
the clock, and brass machine screws with two nuts clamping on the wood
back, as shown at A, are set at intervals so as to be opposite, or just
back of, the hour marks 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12. A contact spring,
B, is shaped as shown and soldered to the knurled knob on the back of the
clock used for setting the hands in a position where it will travel or be
parallel with the minute hand. The end of the contact spring should be
shaped so that it will slide over the points of the screws easily, but
in good contact. The ends of the screws should be filed to a slightly
rounding point. The wiring diagram for this part of the apparatus is
clearly shown, and the terminals are connected to binding posts C and D.
The binding post E is connected to the metal part of the clock.

[Illustration: Location of the Clock Works, Magnets, Binding Posts, Gongs
and Strikers on the Baseboard (Fig. 2)]

The chime part is made entirely separate and can be located at any
reasonable distance from the clock. It is propelled by the works from an
old clock, as shown at F, Fig. 2. The old clock is prepared for use by
removing the hands, balance wheel and escapement so that the wheels will
turn freely. To prevent the works from running too fast, a piece of sheet
brass, G, is soldered to the shaft running at the highest speed. The brass
should be as large as the space will admit. It forms a fan to catch the
air and retard the speed, and also provides a means of stopping the works
by the electric mechanism.

The parts for the gongs and electrical apparatus are supported on a
baseboard, 3/4 in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 18 in. long. The automatic
switch is located at one end of the base, and consists of two sets of
magnets, H and J, with an armature, K, to which is attached a stiff
contact wire, L. This wire is to make contact with the spring M when the
armature is drawn by the magnets J, and with N when drawn by the magnets
H. The springs M and N are made of thin sheet brass, bent as shown, and
mounted on the base.

A piece of wood, O, on which to mount the works of the old clock is
mortised into the base. Another standard, P, of the same height as O,
is also mortised into the base to provide a bearing for the end of the
shaft which carries the wood disk Q, the opposite end of the shaft being
connected by means of a ferrule and soldered to the end of the minute-hand
shaft. The shaft should be well lined up, so that it will turn freely.
The wood disk is 1/4 in. thick and about 6 in. in diameter.

[Illustration: The Pins are Accurately Set in Four Circular Lines and on
Radial Lines (Fig. 3)]

Mark four circles on the face of the disk, near the outside edge and
1/4 in. apart. Step off the outside circle into 150 parts and draw
a radial line from each mark across the four circular lines with the
straight edge on the center of the disk. An arc of the disk is shown in
Fig. 3, where trip pins are driven in for making the electric contacts.
This part of the arc shows the method of locating the pins for the hour
from 3 to 4 o'clock, with the intermediate pins for the quarter, half,
and three-quarter-hour contacts. The intermediate pins are arranged in
the same manner for all hours, but the hour pins, on the second circle,
run from 1 pin to 12 pins consecutively. Ordinary pins, with the heads cut
off, are used and should be driven in accurately on the division lines to
secure proper results.

The arrangement of the springs is shown in Fig. 4. These springs, when
pressed together, will close the circuit for ringing the gongs. They are
made of thin sheet brass, bent as shown at R, and fastened to a piece,
or block, of hard wood with screws, as shown at S. The springs numbered
3, 5, 7, and 9 are the ones made as shown at R for sliding over the pins
in the disk Q, and their ends should clear the face of the disk about
1/8 in. The springs 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 are about 1/2 in. shorter and have
their ends bent up at right angles so that they will almost touch the long
ones. The spring 1 should be a little shorter than 2. When fastening the
springs to the block of wood, be sure that no two springs touch and that
each one is separated from the other to form no contact until the pins
in the wheel force them together. The block is then fastened to the base
under and parallel with the shaft carrying the disk Q, as shown.

The starting and stopping of the clockwork F is accomplished by means
of a set of bell magnets, arranged, as shown at T, Fig. 2, with the wire
attached to the armature bent to touch the brass wing of the fan G. The
armature must not vibrate, but stay against the magnet cores while the
current is flowing through them, thus allowing the clock wheels to turn,
and as soon as the current is cut off, the armature will spring back and
stop the wheels.

[Illustration: The Parts Constructing the Chime are Placed in the Clock
Frame below the Works]

Arrange four gongs, U, V, W, and X, as shown in Fig. 2, and also three
bell magnets with clappers 1, 2 and 3. These gongs should be selected
for tone as in a chime clock. The connections to the bell magnets 1, 2,
and 3 should be direct to the binding posts so that the armature will not
vibrate, but give one stroke. For instance, bell magnet 1 should produce
one stroke on the gong U when the current is on, and one stroke on the
gong V when the current breaks. The magnets 2 should cause the clapper to
strike once on the gong V when the current is on, and to make one stroke
on the gong W when the current is broken. The magnets 3 produce only one
stroke on the gong X at a time, which is used to sound the hours.

[Illustration: The Contact Springs are Operated by the Pins on the Disk
Wheel (Fig. 4)]

The parts are connected up electrically as shown in Fig. 5. The lines
between the clock, Fig. 1, and the bell-ringing part, Fig. 2, are
connected from C to C, D to D, and E, Fig. 1, to the zinc of a battery
and from the carbon to E, Fig. 2. Two dry cells will be sufficient for
the current.

[Illustration: The Wiring Diagram for the Location of the Wires on the
Under Side of the Base (Fig. 5)]

The working of the mechanism is as follows: Suppose the time is 6 minutes
of 3 o'clock and the contact spring on the back is near the 11 pin. As
soon as it touches the pin, the armature K of the switch will be drawn in
contact with the spring N, then when the contact spring touches the 12
pin, the current will flow into the magnets T and release the wheels of
the clockwork F, which turns the disk Q, and the three pins in the second
row will pass over the spring 5 and press it in contact with the spring
4 three times, causing the gong X to toll out 3 o'clock. As the contact
spring B will be on the contact pin 12 for about 1 minute, the wheels
of the clockwork F would continue to turn and the bells ring, if it were
not for the stop pin located on the outside, or first, circle of the disk
Q, which pin is set in line with the last pin in the set of pins for the
hour, or, in this instance, in line with the third pin. When the stop pin
has passed the spring, the connection through the magnets T is broken and
the clockwork F stops instantly. When the spring B strikes the 2 o'clock
pin, or 10 minutes after 3 o'clock, the armature K is drawn over to N, and
at the 3 pin, or 15 minutes after 3 o'clock, the bells U, V, and W will
ring and then the stop pin will break the current, and so on, at every 15
minutes of the 12 hours.



Hinges Used to Substitute Night Bolt


One of the safest devices for bolting, or locking, a door against
intruders is to use two sets of hinges. The extra set is fastened to the
door and frame in the same way but directly opposite the regular hinges.
It may be necessary to file the extra hinges and pins in order to separate
and bring the parts together easily. The usual door lock need not be used
with this arrangement, as the hinges are exposed only on the inside of
the room and cannot be tampered with from without.



Propellers for a Hand Sled


Desiring to propel my hand sled with power transmitted by cranks and
wheels, I set about to procure the necessary materials. Two medium-sized
buggy wheels were found in the back yard of a blacksmith shop, which were
procured for a nominal price. The fellies of these wheels were removed,
the tenons cut from the spokes and nails substituted, which were driven
in their ends so that about 1/2 in. of the body with the head projected.
The heads were then removed and the nail ends sharpened.

The hubs were plugged with pieces of wood, whittled to tightly fit the
holes. A hole was then bored exactly central through each plug for a
1/2-in. rod. This size rod was procured and bent to form a crank, the
bearing end being threaded for a distance equal to the length of the hub.

[Illustration: Sled Propelled by Revolving Wheels Turned by Cranks, the
Pointed Nails Doing the Pushing]

Two pieces or blocks of wood, 2 in. square and 4 in. long, were used as
bearings. These were bored centrally through the long way, to receive the
1/2-in. rod just loose enough to make a good bearing. These bearings were
supported by a pair of braces made of strap iron, about 1/4 in. thick and
3/4 in. wide. The length of the iron will depend on the size of the wheels
and the height of the sled runner. The braces were shaped as shown. The
center of the bearing hole must be as high from the surface of the ground
as the distance the spoke ends are from the center of the hub hole.

The crank is then run through the bearing hole and a nut run on the
threads and a washer placed against the nut. The wheel is then slipped
on the axle, and another washer and nut run on tightly. Both wheels,
bearings, cranks, and brackets are made alike. The brackets are fastened
with small bolts to the sled top.--Contributed by Justin Stewart,
Wallingford, Conn.



A Self-Feeding Match Box


With the addition of the simple device here illustrated, any match box
can be converted into one of the self-feeding type. A piece of tin, or
cardboard, is cut, as shown at A, the exact size depending on the match
box used. The piece cut out is folded on the dotted lines, the cover on
the match box is removed, and the part B pushed into the end of the box
beneath the matches. The part B is twice as long as the depth of the
box, therefore it enters the box as far as the line C. The flaps D rest
against the outside of the box, and are held in place by the box cover.
The matches feed into the box formed of the tin or cardboard as fast as
used, while the burnt ones can be placed in the upper part E.

[Illustration: The Attachment Consists of a Receptacle Fitting into the
End of a Match Box]



Corks-in-a-Box Trick


Procure a pill box and a clean cork. Cut two disks from the cork to fit
in the box, and fasten one of the pieces centrally to the inside bottom
of the pill box with glue.

To perform the trick, put the loose disk in with the one that is fast,
and then open the box to show both corks. Close the box and in doing so
turn it over, then open and only one cork will be seen. Be careful not
to show the inside of the other part of the box with the cork that is
fastened.--Contributed by Fred B. Spoolstra, Yonkers, N. Y.



A Disk-Armature Motor


One of the simplest motors to make is the disk motor, its construction
requiring a wood base, a brass disk, a 3-in. horseshoe magnet, and some
mercury.

[Illustration]

The base is made of hard wood, in the proportions shown in the sketch.
The leading-in wires are connected to the binding posts A and B, and
from these connections are made, on the bottom of the base, from A to the
groove C cut in the upper surface of the base for the mercury, and from B
to one screw, D, of one bearing. The end of the former wire must be clean
and project into the end of the groove, where it will be surrounded with
mercury.

[Illustration: Parts of the Disk Motor Shown in Detail, Also the Location
of the Horseshoe Magnet on the Base, Ends of the Poles being Directly
under the Center of the Shaft]

The bearings consist of thin sheet brass, cut to the dimensions shown,
the bearing part being made with a well-pointed center punch, as at E. The
disk wheel is made of sheet brass, 2 in. in diameter, and a needle, with
the eye broken off and pointed, is used for the shaft. The needle shaft
can be placed in position by springing the bearings apart at the top.

When the current is applied, the disk will revolve in a direction relative
to the position of the poles on the magnet. The reverse can be made by
turning the magnet over.--Contributed by Joseph H. Redshaw, Homestead, Pa.



Repairing Marble


With a little practice any mechanic can repair holes, cracks or chipped
places on marble slabs, so that the patched place cannot be detected
from the natural marble. Use the following mixture as a base for the
filler: Water glass, 10 parts; calcined magnesite, 2 parts, and powdered
marble, 4 parts. These should be mixed thoroughly to a semifluid paste.
Fill the crack or hole and smooth off level, then with a camel's-hair
brush and colors, made of aniline in alcohol, work out the veins, body
colors, etc., as near to the natural marble as possible. It will depend
on the application of the colors whether the repair can be seen or not.
Artificial-marble slabs can be formed from this mixture.--Contributed by
A. E. Soderlund, New York City.



The Construction of a Simple Wireless Telephone Set By A. E. Andrews In
Two Parts--Part I


Among the various methods for the transmission of speech electrically,
without wire, from one point to another, the so-called "inductivity"
system, which utilizes the principles of electromagnetic induction, is
perhaps the simplest, because it requires no special apparatus. Since
this system is so simple in construction, and its operation can be easily
understood by one whose knowledge of electricity is limited, a description
will be given of how to construct and connect the necessary apparatus
required at a station for both transmitting and receiving a message.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--Wire Connected to Galvanometer]

Before taking up the actual construction and proper connection of the
various pieces of apparatus, it will be well to explain the electrical
operation of the system. If a conductor be moved in a magnetic field
in any direction other than parallel to the field, there will be an
electrical pressure induced in the conductor, and this induced electrical
pressure will produce a current in an electrical circuit of which the
conductor is a part, provided the circuit be complete, or closed, just
as the electrical pressure produced in the battery due to the chemical
action in the battery will produce a current in a circuit connected to
the terminals of the battery. A simple experiment to illustrate the fact
that there is an induced electrical pressure set up in a conductor when
it is moved in a magnetic field may be performed as follows: Take a wire,
AB, as shown in Fig. 1, and connect its terminals to a galvanometer, G,
as shown. If no galvanometer can be obtained, a simple one can be made
by supporting a small compass needle inside a coil composed of about
100 turns of small wire. The terminals of the winding on the coil of the
galvanometer should be connected to the terminals of the conductor AB,
as shown in Fig. 1. If now the conductor AB be moved up and down past
the end of the magnet N, there will be an electrical pressure induced
in the conductor, and this electrical pressure will produce a current in
the winding of the galvanometer G, which will cause the magnetic needle
suspended in the center of the coil to be acted upon by a magnetic force
tending to move it from its initial position, or position of rest. It
will be found that this induced electrical pressure will exist only as
long as the conductor AB is moving with respect to the magnetic field of
the magnet N, as there will be no deflection of the galvanometer needle
when the motion of the conductor ceases, indicating there is no current
in the galvanometer winding, and hence no induced electrical pressure.
It will also be found that the direction in which the magnetic needle of
the galvanometer is deflected changes as the direction of motion of the
conductor changes with respect to the magnet, indicating that there is a
change in the direction of the current in the winding of the galvanometer,
and since the direction of this current is dependent upon the direction
in which the induced electrical pressure acts, there must have been a
change in the direction of this pressure due to a change in the direction
of motion of the conductor. The same results can be obtained by moving
the magnet, allowing the conductor AB to remain stationary, the only
requirement being a relative movement of the conductor and the magnetic
field created by the magnet.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Compass Needle Test]

It is not necessary that the magnetic field be created by a permanent
magnet. It can be produced by a current in a conductor. The fact that
there is a magnetic field surrounding a conductor in which there is a
current can be shown by a simple experiment, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
If a wire be placed above a compass needle and parallel to the direction
of the compass needle and a current be sent through the wire in the
direction indicated by the arrow I, there will be a force acting on the
compass needle tending to turn the needle at right angles to the wire.
The amount the needle is turned will depend upon the value of the current
in the wire. There is a definite relation between the direction of the
current in the wire and the direction of the magnetic field surrounding
the wire, because a reversal of current in the conductor will result in
a reversal in the direction in which the compass needle is deflected.
Remembering that the direction of a magnetic field can be determined
by placing a magnetic needle in the field and noting the direction in
which the N-pole of the needle points, this being taken as the positive
direction, if one looks along a conductor in which there is a current and
the current be from the observer, the direction of the magnetic field
about the conductor will be clockwise. Imagine a conductor carrying a
current and that you are looking at a cross-section of this conductor (see
Fig. 3), and the direction of the current in the conductor is from you
(this being indicated in the figure by the cross inside the circle), then
the lines of force of the magnetic field will be concentric circles about
the conductor, they being nearer together near the conductor, indicating
the strength of the field is greatest near the conductor. A compass needle
placed above the conductor would place itself in such a position that the
N-pole would point toward the right and the S-pole toward the left. If
the needle be placed below the conductor, the N-pole would point to the
left and the S-pole to the right, indicating that the direction of the
magnetic field above the conductor is just the reverse of what it is below
the conductor.

[Illustration: Fig. 3--Lines of Force]

[Illustration: Fig. 4--Reversed Lines of Force]

The strength of the magnetic field produced by a current in a conductor
can be greatly increased by forming the conductor into a coil. Figure
4 shows the cross-section of a coil composed of a single turn of wire.
The current in the upper cross-section is just the reverse of what it is
in the lower cross-section, as indicated by the cross and dash inside
the two circles. As a result of the direction of current in the two
cross-sections being different, the direction of the magnetic field about
these two cross-sections will be different, one being clockwise, and the
other counter-clockwise. It will be observed, however, that all the lines
of force pass through the center of the coil in the same direction, or
the magnetic field inside the coil is due to the combined action of the
various parts of the conductor forming the complete turn. This magnetic
field can be increased in value, without increasing the current in the
conductor, by adding more turns to the coil.

[Illustration: Fig. 5--Magnetic Lines Passing through Center]

A cross-section through a coil composed of eight turns placed side by
side is shown in Fig. 5. The greater part of the magnetic lines created by
each turn pass through the remaining turns as shown in the figure, instead
of passing around the conductor in which the current exists that creates
them. This results in the total number of lines passing through the coil
per unit of cross-sectional area being greater than it was for a single
turn, although the value of the current in the conductor has remained
constant, the only change being an increase in the number of turns forming
the coil.

If a conductor be moved by the end of a coil similar to that shown in Fig.
5, when there is a current in the winding of the coil, there will be an
electrical pressure induced in the conductor, just the same as though it
were moved by the end of a permanent magnet. The polarity of the coil is
marked in Fig. 5. The magnetic lines pass from the S-pole to the N-pole
through the coil and from the N-pole to the S-pole outside the coil, just
as they do in a permanent magnet.



How to Lock a Tenoned Joint


A tenon placed in a blind mortise can be permanently fastened, when
putting the joints together, by two wedges driven in the end grain of the
wood. In some cases, where the wood to be used is very dry and brittle,
it is advisable to dip the tenon in warm water before applying the glue.
The glue must be applied immediately after the tenon is removed from the
water, and then inserted in the mortise. The sketch shows the application
of the wedges. The bottom of the mortise drives the wedges as the tenon
is forced in place.

[Illustration: Wedges in Tenon]



Fitting a Large Cork in a Small Bottle


When necessary, a large cork may be made to fit a small bottle, if treated
as shown in the sketch. Two wedge-shaped sections are cut from the cork,
at right angles to each other, as shown in Fig. 1. The points are then
squeezed together (Fig. 2) and the end inserted in the bottle (Fig. 3).
Wet the cork slightly and the operation will be easier.--Contributed by
James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa.

[Illustration: Reducing Size of Cork (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]



A Homemade Wet Battery


[Illustration]

Procure a large water bottle and have a glass cutter cut the top off so
that the lower portion will form a jar about 8-1/2 in. high. Next obtain
two pieces of carbon, about 8 in. long, 4 in. wide and 1/4 in. thick. Melt
up some old scrap zinc and mold a piece having the same dimensions as the
pieces of carbon. The mold for casting the zinc may be made by nailing
some 1/4-in. strips of wood on a piece of dry board, forming a shallow
box, 4 in. wide and 8 in. long. Remove all the impurities from the surface
of the zinc when it is melted, with a metal spoon or piece of tin. Before
filling the mold with the metal, place a piece of No. 14 gauge bare copper
wire through a small hole in one of the end pieces forming the mold,
and allow it to project several inches inside, and make sure the mold is
perfectly level. The zinc will run around the end of the wire, which is
to afford a means of connecting the zinc plate to one of the binding posts
forming the terminals of the cell.

Cut from some hard wood four pieces a little longer than the outside
diameter of the glass jar, two of them 1/2 by 1/2 in., and two, 1/2 by
5/8 in. Drill a 1/8-in. hole in each end of all four pieces, the holes
being perpendicular to the 1/2-in. dimension in each case, and about
3/8 in. from the end. Boil all the pieces for several minutes in paraffin
and stand them up on end to drain. Procure two 1/8-in. brass bolts,
3-1/2 in. long, which are to be used in clamping the elements of the cell
together. The two smaller pieces of wood should be placed on each side of
one end of the zinc, then the carbon pieces and the larger pieces of wood
outside the carbon pieces. The carbon plates should be connected together
and then connected to a binding post which forms the positive terminal of
the cell. If unable to obtain pieces of carbon of the required dimensions,
a number of ordinary electric-light carbons may be used. Get about ten
1/2-in. carbons, without the copper coating, if possible; if not, file all
the copper off. Cut these carbons off, forming 8-in. lengths. File the top
ends of the carbons flat and so that they all become equal in thickness,
and clamp them in place by means of the brass bolts. If rods are used,
they should all be connected together by means of a piece of copper wire
and then to a binding post.

The plates may now be hung in the jar, the wooden pieces resting on the
top of the jar and acting as a support. The solution for this cell is made
by dissolving 1/2 lb. of potassium bichromate in 1/2 gal. of water, and
then adding very slowly 1/2 lb. of strong sulphuric acid. More or less
solution may be made by using the proper proportion of each ingredient.

This cell will have a voltage of two volts, a rather low internal
resistance, and will be capable of delivering a large current. If it
should begin to show signs of exhaustion, a little more acid may be added.

A chemical action goes on in this cell regardless of whether it supplies
current to an external circuit or not, and for this reason the elements
should be removed from the solution and hung directly over the jar
when the cell is not in use. A simple device for this purpose may be
constructed as shown. A cord may be passed through the opening in the
crossbar at the top and its lower end attached to the elements. When the
elements are drawn out of the solution, the upper end of the cord may be
fastened in some manner. This frame can, of course, be made longer, so it
will accommodate a number of cells.



The Construction of a Simple Wireless Telephone Set By A. E. Andrews In
Two Parts--Part II


If two coils of wire be placed parallel to each other as shown in Fig. 6,
and a current be passed through the winding of one of them, say A, a part
of the magnetic lines of force created by this current will pass through
the other coil B. These lines of magnetic force must cut across the turns
of wire of the coil in which there is no current as the magnetic field
is being created, and as a result there will be an electrical pressure
produced in the winding of the coil carrying no current. When the current
in coil A is discontinued, the magnetic field created by this current is
destroyed or it contracts to zero, and the magnetic lines again cut the
various turns composing the winding of coil B. The direction in which
the magnetic lines of force and the winding of coil B move with respect
to each other is just the reverse, when the current in the winding of
coil A is increasing, to what it is when the current in the winding of
the coil A is decreasing. Any change in the value of the current in the
winding of coil A will result in a change in the number of magnetic lines
of force linked with the winding of the coil B, and as a result of this
change in the number of lines linked with the winding of coil B there
will be an induced electrical pressure set up in coil B. The direction
of this induced electrical pressure will depend upon whether the current
in the winding of coil A is increasing or decreasing in value. When the
current in the winding of coil A is increasing in value, the electrical
pressure induced in the winding of coil B will be in such a direction
that the current produced by this induced electrical pressure will pass
around the winding of coil B in the opposite direction to that in which
the current passes around the winding of coil A. Or the current produced
by the induced electrical pressure tends to produce a magnetic field
opposite in direction to the one created by the current in the winding
of coil A. When the current in the winding of A is decreasing in value,
the induced pressure in the winding of the coil B is just the reverse of
what it was in the previous case and the current produced by this induced
pressure passes around the winding of the coil B in the same direction as
the current passes around the winding of coil A. The current produced by
the induced electrical pressure aids the current in the winding of coil A
in producing a magnetic field. In general the current resulting from the
induced pressure always passes around the circuit in such a direction as
to produce a magnetic effect which will oppose a change in the value of
the magnetic field causing the induced electrical pressure.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

There will be an induced pressure in the winding of coil B, due to a
change in the value of the current in the winding of coil A, as long as
the coil B remains in the magnetic field of the coil A and its plane is
not parallel to magnetic lines; or, in other words, coil B must always be
in such a position that some of the magnetic lines created by the current
in coil A will pass through the winding of coil B.

If a telephone transmitter and a battery be connected in series with
the winding of coil A, a fluctuating or varying current can be made to
pass through the winding by causing the diaphragm of the transmitter to
vibrate by speaking into the mouthpiece of the transmitter. This varying
current will set up a varying magnetic field and there will be an induced
electrical pressure set up in coil B, if it be properly placed with
respect to coil A. A receiver connected in series with the winding of
coil B will be subjected to the action of a varying current due to the
induced electrical pressure in the winding of coil B and as a result,
the diaphragm of the receiver will vibrate in unison with that of the
transmitter, and speech can thus be transmitted. The connection just
described should be somewhat modified and a little more equipment used in
order to give the best results.

[Illustration: Fig. 7--Sending and Receiving Equipment]

Figure 7 shows the complete sending and receiving equipment, a complete
outfit of this kind being required for each station. The transmitter T and
the receiver R may be an ordinary local battery transmitter and receiver,
although a high-resistance receiver will give better results. The
induction coil with the windings, marked P and S, may be any commercial
type of induction coil as used in a magneto telephone instrument, but a
coil with a high-wound secondary will give better results. The push button
K is to be used in closing the transmitter circuit when the set is being
used for transmitting, the key being depressed, and for shorting out the
high resistance secondary winding when the set is used in receiving, the
key being in the normal position. Ten dry cells should be connected in
series and used to supply current to the transmitter circuit, as shown
by B in the figure. The receiver R, secondary winding of the induction
coil S, and the winding of coil A used in transmitting and receiving the
magnetic effects, are all connected in series. The winding of the coil A
consists of two parts, D and E, as shown in the figure, with two of their
ends connected together by means of a condenser, C, having a capacity of
about 2 micro-farads. Each of these parts should consist of about 200
turns of No. 22 gauge silk-covered copper wire, wound on an ordinary
bicycle rim. The inside end of one winding should be connected to the
outside of the other by means of the condenser, the two coils being wound
in the same direction. The condenser C can be procured at a small cost
from almost any telephone company.

To talk, two of the instruments are placed 25 or 30 ft. apart, and they
may be placed in different rooms as walls and other ordinary obstructions
that do not interfere with the production of the magnetic field about
the transmitting coil, have no effect upon the operation. Pressing the
button K at the transmitting station, closes the transmitter circuit and
removes the shunt from about the secondary winding of the induction. Any
vibration of the transmitter will cause a varying current to pass through
the primary winding P, which in turn induces an electrical pressure in
the secondary winding S, and this pressure causes a varying current to
pass through the coil A. The varying current in the winding of the coil
A produces a varying magnetic field which acts upon the receiving coil,
inducing an electrical pressure in it and producing a current through the
receiver at the receiving station.

A filing coherer, adapted to close a local relay circuit and ring an
ordinary bell, may be used with the sets just described for signaling
between stations.

[Illustration]



An Electric Incubator


Where electric current is available, it can be used to heat an incubator
much better and cleanlier than the kerosene lamp. The materials are
inexpensive and the cost should be no more than for the ordinary kind of
heater.

First of all the box part must be made of very dry wood, 1/2 in. thick.
The material should be matched, as the cost of the operation depends upon
the construction of the box. The proper size for an 80-egg incubator is
2 ft. square and 1 ft. high. If a larger one is desired, the dimensions
may be varied to suit, but it is not necessary to make it any higher for
a larger one. If it is desired to have a window in the door, care must
be taken to make it a good fit. The top, as shown in the sketch, is made
without hinges so that it can be readily set on and removed. This makes it
handy in case of repairing the heater and cleaning the box. The inside of
the box, with the exception of the bottom, should be covered with asbestos
paper.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--Box Details]

After the box is finished, fit it with a tray, 1-1/2 ft. by 1 ft.
10-3/4 in. A tray having these dimensions will slide easily in the box.
This is an essential feature of the hatching. The frame of the tray D,
Fig. 1, consists of wood, 3/4 by 3/4 in., with a bottom made of wire mesh.
The mesh should be firmly attached, so that it will not give away when
full of eggs. Runners for the tray are placed 4-1/2 in. from the bottom of
the box. When the tray is put in place, it will not touch the back. This
small space is left for the chicks to fall into the nursery below. About
4 in. below the tray four holes are bored, AA, 1/8 in. in diameter, one
on each side of the box. These holes admit fresh air to the eggs.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Heater Details]

The electric heater is just large enough to allow a space about 1/2 in.
on all edges. This makes it 23 in. square. A piece of 1/4-in. asbestos
of the above size should be secured, on which to place the heating wire.
The amount of wire depends on the size and kind. As it is not necessary
to heat the wire very hot, iron or steel wire may be used. The length of
wire may be determined by the following method:

Wind the wire on a long stick, making sure that no one coil touches its
neighbor. Connect one wire of the current supply at one end of the coil
and run the other end of the current supply along the coils, starting at
the extreme opposite end and drawing toward the center until the iron wire
gets too hot to hold with the bare hand. This will be the right length of
wire to use. The length being known, a number of tacks are placed in the
asbestos board to hold the wire, as shown in Fig. 2. Cover the wire with
a sheet of asbestos and attach binding-posts, E and F, at each end.

The asbestos inclosing the heating wires is covered with a thin piece
of sheet iron, which is made to fit tightly over the bottom and sides.
This will spread the heat evenly. Be careful to have the binding-posts
insulated from the sheet metal. In the cross section of the heater, Fig.
2, A represents the 1/4-in. asbestos board; B, the heater wire; C, the
asbestos paper, and D the sheet-metal covering.

The most important part of the incubator is the thermostat which regulates
the current to maintain a steady heat. It is not advisable to make this
instrument, as a good one can be purchased for less than $1. Place the
thermostat in the end of the box at B, Fig. 1. A small door, E, is made
in the box for easy adjustment of the thumbscrews.

Suspend the heater from the cover of the box with bolts 2-3/4 in. long, as
shown in Fig. 1. A base receptacle, G, and a snap switch, H, are fastened
on top of the cover and connected up to the thermostat B, the condenser
C, the heater F, and lamp I, as shown. Another snap switch, J, is used
on the light only. The condenser C is to prevent sparking, thus saving
the platinum points on the screws. Do not use more than a 2-cp. lamp for
lighting purposes, as a brighter light blinds the young chicks.

The incubator should be run for a day or two so that the current may
be well regulated before placing the eggs in the tray. The incubator is
operated the same as with lamp heat.--Contributed by M. Miller, Lansing,
Mich.



A Cover for Magazines


As soon as Popular Mechanics, or any other magazine of similar size,
arrives and before any member of the family looks through it, strip off
the front cover and carefully remove the narrow strip on the back as shown
in Fig. 1. Strengthen the back with a piece of bookbinding tissue, A,
Fig. 2, and then paste a piece of heavy manila paper, B, over the covers
and back. Over this paste a piece of dark blue cambric, Fig. 3, carefully
turning the edges even with the book. The picture from the cover and the
date added to the left corner of the picture are neatly pasted on, Fig.
4, and the narrow strip is glued to the back.

[Illustration: Removing the Cover, and Binding with Heavy Paper (Fig. 1,
Fig. 2)]

The book is put under a heavy weight for several hours. Thus a neat,
strong cover, which looks well in a bookcase, is secured at very little
expense. The eager handling by every member of the family cannot soil or
deface the cover.--Contributed by Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y.

[Illustration: Cloth Cover and Paper Cover Attached (Fig. 3, Fig. 4)]



An Optical Illusion


A very deceiving illusion can be contrived with a bit of wire, a rubber
band and a toothpick. An ordinary straight hairpin will serve instead of
the wire. The hairpin or wire is bent as shown in the illustration, and
the rubber band then placed on the inverted U-shaped part. A toothpick
is inserted through the rubber band and a few turns taken by slipping the
toothpick back and forth so it will pass the wire.

[Illustration: Toothpick in Rubber Band (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

Hold the wire straight in front of the eyes, and, using the forefinger
of the right hand, turn the end of the toothpick A, Fig. 1, down until it
almost reaches the opposite point A, Fig. 2, and let the finger slip off.
It will appear as if the toothpick passed through the wire.--Contributed
by H. H. Windsor, Jr.



Temperature Alarm


The falling temperature of a room during the night may result in a very
bad cold for the occupant. This may be prevented by the use of an alarm to
awaken the sleeper and warn him to close the window. An alarm can be made
as follows: Take a glass tube about 4 in. long and 1/4 in. in diameter and
close one end, used for the bottom, with sealing wax, in which the bare
end of a No. 20 gauge magnet wire is inserted. The tube is almost filled
with mercury. On the mercury a float of wax is placed in which a bare
piece of the same magnet wire is inserted and bent as shown in the sketch.
The tube of mercury is fastened to a base with two clips of metal. At the
upper end of this base the adjustable lever A is attached. The electric
connections are made as shown in the sketch.

[Illustration: The Alarm and Wiring Diagram]

Should the temperature fall during the night, the mercury will contract,
the float descend and the circuit close, so that the bell will ring.
The adjustable lever allows setting the alarm for various differences of
temperature.--Contributed by Klyce Fuzzelle, Rogers, Ark.



Paper Smoother and Penwiper


[Illustration]

A convenient paper smoother and penwiper can be easily made as follows:
Procure a common celluloid harness ring, A, about 1-1/2 in. in diameter
and fasten a penwiper, B, to it. The wiper is made of arts-crafts leather,
doubled and filled with pieces of chamois. They are held in place with a
ribbon or cord tied as shown. The roughened paper caused by erasing can
be easily smoothed with the ring.--Contributed by G. H. Holter, Jasper,
Minn.



Stereoscopic Pictures with an Ordinary Camera


Make a small table as wide as the camera is long and 3 in. longer than
the camera is wide. Sink a screw nut in the center of the under side to
engage the regular tripod screw. Fasten a double or two-way spirit level
on the front left-hand corner. Nail strips on both ends and on the rear
side, to form a shallow box with three sides. The illustration shows
the construction quite plainly. This device was used by a correspondent
of Camera Craft as follows: The table was fastened to the tripod and
carefully leveled. The camera is placed at one side, bringing the back
snugly into the corner on that side. Make the exposure, change the film,
slide the camera over to the other side and make another exposure. The
table being 3 in. longer than the camera is wide, the lens will be moved
exactly 3 in. when the camera is moved over to the other side. Three
inches is the separation of the lenses in stereoscopic cameras and the
negatives made as above will be the same.

[Illustration: Table on Tripod for Camera]

As the negatives must be sized, it is necessary to use films. A camera
using films 3-1/2 by 3-1/2 in. will make negatives that can be trimmed
1/4 in. on each side to make prints 3 by 3-1/4 in. Each two negatives
making a pair are fastened together, properly transposed, by folding a
narrow strip of black paper like a long, V-shaped trough, pasting it,
and putting one on the bottom of the two negatives, as they lie side by
side, and one at the top; saddle fashion. This can be done still easier by
using strips of passe-partout binding, or strips used for binding lantern
slides. If so desired, the use of black paper can be carried farther
by cutting the top strip of binding paper in such a way that it gives
the round corners to the top of the prints. A narrow strip through the
center and a binding of black paper along the two end edges make a mask
unnecessary in printing.



How to Make a Paper Drinking Cup


Every person should understand the simple method of making a paper
drinking cup. It may be necessary at times to make quick use of medicine
and with no cup or spoon convenient, the pyramid-shaped cup shown in the
sketch is a useful emergency utensil.

[Illustration: Folds in the Paper (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5)]

The paper cup is made as follows: Cut the paper into a square and crease
it on the dotted lines, A G, F B, and C D E, as shown in Fig. 1. Fold
the paper in half through the line C D E to form a rectangle, Fig. 2.
Fold points C and E inward until they meet inside the triangle to form
the shape shown in Fig. 3. This makes four distinct corners, F, G, A
and B. Fold the paper over on the dotted line and bring the points A
and B together as in Fig. 4. The extreme edges meet in the central line
indicated. Reverse the paper and fold the points G and F in like manner.
Turn the points A B and F G inward and fold on the dotted line, and you
will have a perfect pyramid-shaped cup as shown in Fig. 5.--Contributed
by Miss Margaret S. Humphreville, Mt. Pleasant, O.



A Hand Corn Sheller


A very handy device for shelling corn, and especially popcorn, can be
made of a 1-in. board on which is fastened a piece of metal lath. The
edges of the metal lath are bound with a strip of wood nailed to the
board.--Contributed by Ulysses Flacy, Long Beach, California.

[Illustration: Metal Lath on a Board]



A Shaft Coupling


In connecting a small 1/8-hp. motor to a small air pump where both shafts
were 3/8 in. in diameter, I quickly made a coupling that would save the
wear on the machines, as follows. The coupling was made of a piece of
3/4-in. brass rod with a 3/8-in. hole drilled through its center. One
end of the hole was enlarged to 7-16 in. for about 7/8 in. The end of the
coupling having the small hole was slipped on the pump shaft and fastened
with two setscrews. The other end was drilled to take a pin loosely, the
pin fitting tightly in a hole drilled in the motor shaft. The pin was bent
at one end so as to keep it from falling out and the other end fitted with
two nuts. The motor shaft being a little loose in the coupling, gave it
a chance to work free without binding.--Contributed by Leo J. Werner, New
York City.

[Illustration: Coupling on the Shafts]



Reading the Date of a Worn Coin


The date and denomination of a coin worn smooth can be determined in the
following manner: Take an ordinary coal shovel, or a piece of sheet metal,
and place it in a hot fire. Allow it to become red hot, then remove, and
place the coin on the hot surface of the metal. Any figures or letters can
be readily seen when heated in this manner. This test seldom fails even
when the inscriptions have been worn so smooth that they are invisible to
the naked eye.



Making a Knife an Easy Opener


The large blade of my knife being so hard to open placed me in constant
risk of breaking my thumbnail. To overcome this difficulty, I ground a
notch in the handle as shown in the sketch. After smoothing it up with a
round file and fine sandpaper, I had just as good a job as if the knife
had been made that way, and it is very easy to open it, as it can be
done with the thumb and forefinger. Anyone can improve his knife in this
way, but be careful not to cut the notch back of the point of the small
blade.--Contributed by C. M. Mahood, Warren, Pa.

[Illustration: Notch in the Handle]



Construction of a Small Bell-Ringing Transformer By A. E. Andrews


Part I--Fundamental Principles


The transformer in its simplest form consists of two separate and
electrically independent coils of wire, usually wound upon an iron core.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--Two Coils on an Iron Ring]

Figure 1 shows two coils, P and S, placed upon an iron ring, R. One
of these coils is connected to some source of energy, such as an
alternating-current generator, or an alternating-current lighting circuit,
receiving its energy therefrom. The other coil is connected to a load to
which it delivers alternating current. The coil of the transformer that
is connected to the source of energy is called the primary coil, and the
one that is connected to the load, the secondary coil.

The electrical pressure (voltage) at which current is supplied by the
secondary bears a definite relation to the electrical pressure at which
current is supplied to the primary. This relation, as will be explained
later, is practically the same as the relation between the number of turns
in the secondary and primary coils. If there are a smaller number of turns
in the secondary coil than there are in the primary, the secondary voltage
is less than the primary, and the transformer is called a step-down
transformer. If, on the other hand, there are a larger number of secondary
turns than of primary, the secondary voltage is greater than the primary
voltage, and the transformer is called a step-up transformer.

The transfer of electrical energy from the primary coil to the secondary
coil of a transformer is based upon the fundamental principles of
electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction, and it will be necessary
to investigate these principles before we can understand the operation of
the transformer.

A magnet is a body, which, when freely suspended, assumes approximately
a north and south position. The end of the magnet that points north is
called the north pole, while the end that points south is called the south
pole. The region surrounding a magnet is called a magnetic field. In this
field the magnetism is supposed to flow along a large number of imaginary
lines, called lines of force, and these lines are all supposed to emanate
from the north pole of the magnet, pass through the medium surrounding
the magnet and enter the south pole. The magnetic field surrounding a bar
magnet is shown in Fig. 2. The strength of any magnetic field depends upon
the number of these lines of force per unit area (square centimeter), the
area being taken perpendicular to the direction of the lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Magnetic Field]

In 1812, Oersted discovered that a compass needle, which is nothing but
a permanent magnet freely suspended or supported, when placed near a
conductor in which there was a direct current, was acted upon by a force
that tended to bring the needle into a position at right angles to the
conductor. This simple experiment proved to Oersted that there was a
magnetic field produced by the current in the conductor. He also found
that there was a definite relation between the direction of the current
in the conductor, and the direction in which the north pole of the
compass needle pointed. If the compass needle is allowed to come to rest
in the earth's magnetic field, and a conductor is placed above it, the
conductor being parallel to the needle, and a current then sent through
the conductor, the needle will be deflected from its position of rest.
Reversing the current in the conductor, reverses the direction in which
the needle is deflected. If the needle be allowed to come to rest while
there is a current in the conductor, and this current is then increased,
it will be found that the deflection of the needle will be increased,
but not in direct proportion to the increase in the current. Hence the
strength of this magnetic field surrounding the conductor depends upon
the value of the current in the conductor, and the direction of the field
depends upon the direction of the current.

[Illustration: Fig. 3--Magnetic Field around Conductor]

If a conductor be passed through a piece of cardboard, as shown in Fig.
3, and a current sent through it in the direction indicated by the arrow
A, a compass needle, moved about the conductor in the path indicated by
the dotted line, will always assume such a position that the north pole
points around the conductor in a clockwise direction as you look down
on the cardboard. If the current be reversed, the direction assumed by
the compass needle will be reversed. Looking along a conductor in the
direction of the current, the magnetic field will consist of magnetic
lines encircling the conductor. These lines will be concentric circles,
as a general rule, except when they are distorted by the presence of other
magnets or magnetic materials, and their direction will be clockwise.

[Illustration: Fig. 4--Magnetic Field Surrounding a Conductor]

[Illustration: Fig. 5--Magnetic Field about a Coil]

[Illustration: Fig. 6--A Coil about a Magnetic Circuit through Iron and
Air]

The strength of the magnetic field at any point near this conductor will
depend upon the value of the current in the conductor, and the distance
the point is from the conductor. The magnetic field surrounding a
conductor is shown in Fig. 4. The plus sign indicates that the direction
of the current is from you. The strength of a magnetic field due to a
current in a conductor can be greatly increased by forming a coil of the
conductor. Each turn of the coil then produces a certain number of lines,
and the greater part of these lines pass through the center of the coil,
as shown in Fig. 5. The field strength inside such a coil is dependent
upon the number of turns in the coil, and the value of the current in
these turns. Increasing the number of turns in the coil increases the
number of magnetic lines passing through the center of the coil, as shown
in Fig. 6. If the current be decreased in value, the field strength is
decreased, and if the current be reversed in direction, the magnetic field
is reversed in direction. The number of magnetic lines passing through the
solenoid depends also upon the kind of material composing the core of the
solenoid, in addition to the number of turns and the value of the current
in these turns. The number of lines per unit area inside a solenoid with
an air core can be multiplied several times by introducing a soft-iron
core. If this core be extended as shown in Fig. 7, the magnetic circuit
(the path through which the magnetic lines pass) may be completed through
it. The larger part of the total number of lines will pass through the
iron, as it is a much better conductor of magnetism than air.

[Illustration: Fig. 7--A Coil about a Magnetic Circuit through Iron]

In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered that there was an electrical pressure
induced in an electrical conductor when it was moved in a magnetic field
so that it cut some of the lines forming the field. If this conductor
be made to form part of a closed electrical circuit, there will be a
current produced in the circuit as a result of the induceds electrical
pressure. The value of this induced electrical pressure depends upon the
number of magnetic lines of force that the conductor cuts in one second.
If 100,000,000 lines are cut in one second, an electrical pressure of one
volt is produced. The direction of the induced pressure depends upon the
direction of the movement of the conductor and the direction of the lines
of force in the magnetic field; reversing either the direction of the
magnetic field or the motion of the conductor, reverses the direction of
the induced pressure. If both the direction of the magnetic field, and the
direction of the motion of the conductor be reversed, there is no change
in the direction of the induced pressure, for there is then no change in
the relative directions of the two. The same results can be obtained by
moving the magnetic field with respect to the conductor in such a way that
the lines of force of the field cut the conductor.

[Illustration: Fig. 8--Two Coils about a Magnetic Circuit through Iron]

If a permanent magnet be thrust into a coil of wire, there will be an
electrical pressure set up in the coil so long as the turns of wire
forming the coil are cutting the lines of force that are produced by the
magnet. When the magnet is withdrawn, the induced electrical pressure will
be reversed in direction, since the direction of cutting is reversed. A
magnetic field may be produced through a coil of wire by winding it on the
magnetic circuit shown in Fig. 8. Now any change of current in the coil P
will cause a change in the number of magnetic lines passing through S and
hence there will be an induced electrical pressure set up in S so long as
the number of lines passing through it is changing. The pressure induced
in each of the turns comprising the coil S depends upon the change in the
number of magnetic lines through it.

Let us now consider a condition of operation when there is no current in
the secondary coil and the primary coil is connected to some source of
electrical energy. When this is the case the current in the primary coil
is not determined by Ohm's law, which states that the current is equal to
the electrical pressure divided by the resistance, but is considerably
less in value, for the following reason. The magnetic lines of force
produced by the current in the primary induces an electrical pressure in
the primary winding itself, the direction of which is always opposite to
the impressed pressure, or the one producing the current. As a result
of this induced pressure being set up in the primary, the effective
pressure acting in the circuit is decreased. At the same time there is an
electrical pressure induced in the secondary winding in the same direction
as that induced in the primary.

If the secondary circuit be connected to a load, there will be a current
in the secondary winding, which will pass around the magnetic circuit
in the opposite direction to the primary current, and as a result will
decrease the number of lines passing through the primary coil. This will
in turn decrease the electrical pressure induced in the primary coil, and
a larger current will exist in the primary winding than there was before
any current was taken from the secondary coil. The decrease in induced
pressure is small, but it is always ample to allow the required increase
in primary current. There is, at the same time, a small decrease in the
secondary pressure.

When the transformer is operating on no load, with no current in the
secondary coil, the induced pressure in the primary coil is practically
equal to the impressed pressure and hence a very small current will be
taken from the source of energy. It is apparent now that if the primary
and secondary coils have the same number of turns, the induced electrical
pressure in each of these coils will be the same, assuming, of course,
that all the magnetic lines that pass through the primary also pass
through the secondary coil, and vice versa, or the secondary pressure
is practically the same as the pressure impressed on the primary. If the
number of turns in the secondary coil is greater or less than the number
of turns in the primary, the magnetic lines will be cut a greater or less
number of times by the secondary coil, and hence the induced pressure will
be greater or less, depending upon the relation of the number of turns in
the two coils.



Spirit Photographs


Print some photographs in the usual way on printing-out paper, then fix
them in a solution of 1 oz. hyposulphite of soda and 8 oz. of water, and
wash them thoroughly. While the prints are still wet, immerse them in a
saturated solution of bichloride of mercury. Be very careful to wash the
hands and trays after using the mercury solution, as it is poisonous.
When the print is placed in the mercury solution, the picture vanishes
completely. Leave the prints in this bath just long enough for the image
to disappear, and then wash and dry them thoroughly. Soak some clean
blotting paper in the hyposulphite-of-soda solution and allow it to dry.
You are now ready to perform the magic-photograph trick.

To cause the spirit photograph to appear, cut a piece of blotting
paper the same size as the prepared print and moisten it, then hold the
apparently blank piece of paper in contact with it. The picture will
come out clear and plain, and if thoroughly washed out it will remain
permanently.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Saturate a small piece of cotton batting in glue
    and wrap it around a nail, then place it in a hole
    previously made in a plaster wall. When the glue
    dries, the nail will remain permanently.



Construction of a Small Bell-Ringing Transformer By A. E. Andrews


Part II--Construction


Transformers may be divided into two main groups, the classification
being made according to the relation between the magnetic circuit of the
transformer and the primary and secondary windings. When the two windings
surround the magnetic circuit of a transformer, as indicated in Fig.
9, the transformer is said to be of core type. If the magnetic circuit
surrounds the windings, as indicated in Fig. 10, the transformer is said
to be of the shell type. The following instructions are for a shell-type
transformer.

[Illustration: Fig. 9--Core-Type Transformer]

Any mass of magnetic material, such as a piece of soft iron, when placed
in a magnetic field that is produced by an alternating current, will be
rapidly magnetized and demagnetized, the rapidity of the change depending
upon the frequency of the current producing the field. When a piece of
iron is magnetized and demagnetized, as just stated, there will be a
certain amount of heat generated in it and this heat represents energy
that must come from the electrical circuit producing the magnetic field
in which the iron is placed.

[Illustration: Fig. 10--Shell-Type Transformer]

The heat that is generated in the iron is due to two causes: First, the
hysteresis loss which is due to a property of the iron that causes the
magnetism in the iron to lag behind the magnetizing influence, or the
changes that are constantly taking place in the field strength due to
the alternating current. This loss cannot be entirely eliminated, but it
may be reduced to a very low value by using a soft grade of iron, or one
having what is called a low hysteretic constant. Second, the eddy-current
loss which is due to the circulation of currents through the mass of
metal. These currents are due to unequal electromotive forces set up in
the different parts of the piece of metal when there is a change in the
strength of the field in which the metal is placed. This loss cannot be
entirely eliminated, but it can be greatly reduced by breaking the mass
of metal up into parts and insulating these parts from each other, which
results in the paths in which the eddy currents originally circulated
being destroyed to a certain extent.

The breaking up of the metal is usually made in such a way that the
joints between the various parts are parallel to the direction of the
magnetic field. When the joints are made in this way, they offer less
opposition to the magnetizing force. This is one of the principal reasons
why induction-coil cores are made up of a bundle of wires instead of a
solid piece. These wires are annealed or softened to reduce the hysteresis
loss that would occur. The combined hysteresis and eddy-current losses,
which are spoken of as the iron losses, will of course be very small in
the transformer you are going to construct, but the above discussion is
given to show why the magnetic circuits of transformers are built up from
sheets of soft iron, called laminations. The core is said to be laminated.

The dimensions of the complete magnetic circuit, of the transformer you
are going to construct, are given in Fig. 11. The primary and secondary
windings are both to be placed about the center portion C, and it is
apparent that the winding of these coils would be very tedious if the
wire had to be passed back and forth through the openings A and B. This
procedure in winding can be prevented by first forming the part of the
magnetic circuit upon which the windings are placed; then wind on the
coils and, after they are completed, finish building up the magnetic
circuit with pieces cut to the proper size and shape.

[Illustration: Fig. 11--Complete Magnetic Circuit]

Procure a small quantity of soft, thin sheet iron and cut out a sufficient
number of rectangular pieces, 3 in. by 4-1/4 in., to make a pile 3/4 in.
in height when firmly pressed together. Now cut a rectangular notch in
each of these pieces, 2 in. wide and 3-5/8 in. long. The sides of this
notch can be cut with a pair of tinner's shears, and the end can be cut
with a sharp cold-chisel. Be careful not to bend either piece any more
than you can help. The outside piece, or the one in which the notch is
cut, should have dimensions corresponding to those given in Fig. 12. When
all of these pieces have been cut, as indicated above, the rectangular
pieces, 2 in. by 3-5/8 in., that were cut out to form the notch in the
larger pieces, should have two of their corners cut away, so as to form
pieces whose dimensions correspond to those given in Fig. 13. These last
pieces are to form the core and part of the end of the transformer. Now
make sure that all the edges of the pieces are perfectly smooth and that
they are all of the same size; then give each one a coat of very thin
shellac.

[Illustration: Fig. 12--Outer Portion of the Magnetic Circuit]

[Illustration: Fig. 13--Inner Portion of the Magnetic Circuit]

Now cut from a piece of insulating fiber, that is about 1/16 in. thick,
two pieces whose dimensions correspond to those given in Fig. 14. When
these pieces are completed, the core of the transformer can be assembled
as follows: Place the T-shaped pieces, whose dimensions correspond to
those given in Fig. 13, through the openings in the pieces of insulation,
alternate pieces being put through the openings from opposite sides. The
distance from outside to outside of the pieces of insulation should be
exactly the same as the length of the vertical portion of the T-shaped
pieces forming the core, or 3 in.

[Illustration: Fig. 14--Insulating Washer]

Cut from some soft wood four pieces having cross sections whose dimensions
correspond to those given in Fig. 15, and of such a length that they
will just slip down between the two pieces of insulation. These pieces
should now be placed on the four sides of the iron core and covered with
several layers of heavy insulating cloth. Each layer of the cloth should
be shellacked as it is put on, which will increase the insulation and
at the same time help in holding the wooden pieces in place. You are now
ready to start winding the transformer.

[Illustration: Fig. 15--Wood Filler]

The secondary, which is the low-voltage side in this case, as you are
using the transformer to reduce or step down the voltage, will have
the smaller number of turns, and larger wire should be used in winding
it than in the primary, as it will carry a larger current. On account
of the secondary being of larger wire, it will be placed on the core
first. For this winding you will need a small quantity of No. 26 B. &
S. gauge, single cotton-covered wire. Drill a small hole through one of
the insulating washers, down close to the cloth covering the core, being
careful at the same time to keep the hole as far from the metal part of
the core as possible. Pass the end of a short piece of No. 18 or 20 B.
& S. gauge, double cotton-covered wire through this opening and solder
it to the end of the No. 26 wire. Insulate the joint with a piece of
paraffin paper or cloth, and bind the piece of heavy wire to the core of
the transformer with a piece of linen thread.

Now wind the No. 26 wire on the core as evenly as possible, to within
about 1/8 in. of the end of the spool. Place over the first layer two
layers of paraffin paper and wind on a second layer of wire. Three layers
should give you the required number of turns in the secondary winding
and a resistance of approximately 3-1/2 ohms. The end of the secondary
winding should be terminated in the same way as the winding was started.
Outside of the completed secondary winding place at least six layers of
paraffin paper, or several layers of insulating cloth. The paraffin paper
used should be approximately five mills in thickness. You can make your
own paraffin paper by taking a good quality of writing paper about two
mills thick and dipping it into some hot paraffin, then hanging it up by
one edge to drain.

The primary winding is to be made from No. 34 B. & S. gauge, single
silk-covered copper wire. The inside end of this winding should be started
in the same way as the secondary, but at the end opposite to the one
where the secondary terminated. Wind about 240 turns on each layer and
place one layer of paraffin paper between each layer of wire. The primary
winding should have at least 12 layers, and the outside end should be
terminated as the inside end. Outside of the completed windings, place
several layers of insulating cloth to serve as an insulation, and at the
same time provide a mechanical protection for the windings.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Upper Clamping Pieces]

The outside part of the magnetic circuit can now be put in place. When
the U-shaped pieces are all in place, the magnetic circuit will have
the form and dimensions shown in Fig. 11. A clamp should now be made
for each end of the transformer, to hold the pieces forming the magnetic
circuit together, and at the same time give an easy means of mounting the
transformer. Cut from a piece of sheet iron, about 1/16 in. in thickness,
two pieces whose dimensions correspond to those given in Fig. 16, and two
pieces whose dimensions correspond to those given in Fig. 17. Drill the
holes in these pieces as indicated, and bend the larger ones into the form
shown in Fig. 18. These pieces can now be clamped across the ends of the
transformer with small bolts, as shown in Fig. 19.

[Illustration: Fig. 17--Lower Clamping Pieces and Mounting Supports]

A box should now be made from sheet iron to hold the transformer. The box
should be of such dimensions that it will be at least 1/8 in. from the
transformer at all points. This box should be provided with a cover that
can be easily removed.

[Illustration: Fig. 18--Shape of Support]

Now mount the transformer in the box by means of small bolts, that pass
through the holes in the supports and holes in the bottom of the box.
Two binding-posts can now be mounted on one end of the box, and insulated
from it, to serve as terminals for the secondary winding. Two pieces of
stranded No. 14 B. & S. gauge, rubber-covered copper wire should now be
soldered to the terminals of the primary circuit and passed out through
insulating bushings mounted in holes cut in the end of the box opposite
to the one upon which the binding-posts were mounted. These heavy wires
should be firmly fastened to the iron part of the transformer inside the
box, so that any outside strain placed upon them will not, in time, break
them loose from the smaller wires. Be sure to insulate all joints and
wires well inside the box.

[Illustration: Fig. 19--Method of Clamping Transformer Together]

A circuit can now be run from a 110-volt lighting or power circuit,
observing the same rules as though you were wiring for lights, and
connected to the heavy wires, or primary circuit. The binding-posts,
or secondary winding should be connected to the bell circuit and the
transformer is complete and ready to operate. You may have to change the
adjustment of the bells, but after a little adjustment they will operate
quite satisfactorily.



Mirror Hinged to Window Casing


[Illustration]

A shaving mirror is usually placed on a window sash to avoid shadows as
much as possible. This is very inconvenient and many times the mirror is
broken by a fall. A good way to avoid shadows and have the mirror handy is
to hinge it to the window casing. This can be done with screweyes, A, and
screwhooks, B. The screweyes are turned into the frame of the mirror and
the screwhooks into the window casing. Two screwhooks can also be turned
into the casing on the opposite side of the window, if desired, so that
the mirror can be used on either side.--Contributed by James D. McKenna,
New Britain, Conn.



A Cleaning Bath for Silverware


A good way to clean silverware of all coloring by eggs or other substances
is to place the silver articles in a kettle of boiling water containing
a few pieces of zinc. An electrolytic action is produced by the zinc,
water and silver which decomposes the sulphides on the silver and leaves
it well cleaned. No silver is taken away by this method.--Contributed by
Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa.



To Prevent Poultry Water from Freezing


The method shown in the sketch is used by me in cold weather to keep
the drinking water for the poultry from freezing. The device consists
of a part of a barrel inverted and set over the fountain, and a tubular
lantern. A small opening is cut in one side of the barrel through which
the fowl can reach the water.--Contributed by P. C. Fish, Kansas City, Mo.

[Illustration: Lantern and Fountain in Half Barrel]



How to Make a Letter Scale


[Illustration]

A reliable letter scale that can be easily made is shown in the sketch. It
consists of a wide-neck bottle filled with water into which the weighing
device is inserted. This latter part is made of a light piece of wood
weighted on the lower end, to keep it in a stable, upright position, and
a piece of cardboard is tacked to the other. The wood is placed in the
water, and known weights are used on the cardboard while calibrating.

The first line is marked at the water level when there is no weight on
the cardboard, and then a known weight placed on the top and another mark
made at the water level, and so on, until a sufficient number of 1/2-oz.
and ounce-divisions have been marked. The wood should be well coated with
shellac varnish before it is placed in the water.--Contributed by Francis
Chetlain, Chicago.



Summer Dish Washing


A labor-saving method in dish washing for a summer day is as follows:
Construct a substantial wood frame and cover it with galvanized wire mesh.
Attach legs and put it in a convenient place on the back porch. Wash the
dishes on one end, and wipe the silverware dry. At the outer end spread a
towel over the wire and place the dishes turned down upon it to dry, and
cover them with another towel.--Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Tifton,
Ga.



Nozzle Angle for Lawn Sprinkling


[Illustration]

Where there is no prop or water sprinkler at hand for tilting the nozzle
of a hose, start to tie a knot in the hose, as shown in the sketch, but
do not draw it up tightly. The hose nozzle can be tilted to any angle in
this manner.--Contributed by S. J. Eddy, Portland, Oregon.



Simple Methods of Connecting Call Bells


[Illustration: Wiring Diagrams for a Single Bell (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

The following diagrams will indicate a few of the various methods that
may be employed in connecting up electric bells for different purposes,
A, B and C representing the push buttons; D, the bells; E, the batteries,
and G, the ground. The simplest possible connection is shown in Fig. 1,
the bell D, battery E, and push button A, are all connected in series.
The operation of the bell is independent of the order in which the bell,
battery, and push button are placed, so long as there is a complete
circuit when the push button is pressed. One of the wires in this circuit
may be done away with by completing the circuit through the ground, as
shown in Fig. 2. Connecting a bell as shown in this diagram often results
in quite a saving of wire. The proper connections for operating one bell
from either of two push buttons, A or B, is shown in Fig. 3. Two bells,
D, operated from a single push button, C, are connected as shown in Fig.
4. The two bells, D, are shown connected in parallel, which requires
more wire than if they were connected in series. If they be connected in
series, one or the other should have its make-and-break contact closed.
The bell whose circuit remains unchanged will intercept the current for
the other bell in series with it. The operating of the bells is more
satisfactory, however, when they are in parallel, and each taking current
from the battery independent of the other.

[Illustration: Wiring Diagram for Two or More Bells (Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig.
6)]

The diagram, Fig. 5, shows the proper connections for operating two bells
from two independent push buttons, each push button operating a particular
bell. Any number of bells operated from any number of push buttons, all of
the bells being rung from any one of the push buttons, are connected as
shown in Fig. 6. Such a circuit can be used as a fire alarm or time call
in a factory, the operation of the circuit being controlled from any one
of a number of different points.

[Illustration: Wiring Diagrams for Return-Call Bells (Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig.
9)]

The proper connections for what is called a return-call circuit is
shown in Fig. 7. The circuit is so arranged that the bell at one end is
controlled by the push button at the other end. Such a circuit can be
used in transmitting signals in either direction. A ground return-call
circuit is shown in Fig. 8. In the circuits shown in Figs. 7 and 8, only
one battery is needed.

The connections of a two-wire metallic return-call circuit are shown
in Fig. 9. A special push button must be used in this circuit, and in
this case two batteries are used instead of one, as in Figs. 7 and 8.
This circuit may be changed to a ground return-call circuit by using
the earth as a conductor instead of either wire. There are, of course,
numerous other methods that may be used in connecting call bells, but the
connections shown in the diagrams are perhaps the most common.



Refrigerator for Dry and Warm Climates


Set a bowl containing butter, cream or fruit in a saucer and cover the
bowl with a moistened napkin, allowing the edges to hang in a larger
saucer filled with water, and place the whole in the air out of the sun's
rays. The article to be kept cool may also be placed in a pan with an
earthenware crock turned over it and covered with a small towel or cloth,
the edges of which extend into another outer pan partly filled with water.

The method can be applied on a larger scale by using a shallow galvanized
pan which will contain many articles and more water. This manner of
cooling is especially adapted to camping parties and will prevent sloppy
butter, sour milk and spoiling fruit. The articles are also kept free from
ants and flies.--Contributed by C. B. Hosford, Swansea, Ariz.



Pencil-Sharpening Guide


[Illustration]

The sketch shows how a guide for making a true point on a lead pencil
may be made of a block of wood. The hole, which should be large enough
to allow the pencil to be turned easily, is bored at the proper angle to
form the desired point on the pencil. The long side of the block serves as
a guide for the knife blade, while the projection at the bottom acts as
a stop. The guide insures an even point and is easily manipulated. It is
held in the palm of the left hand and the pencil is turned with the thumb
and forefinger, while the knife is held against the face of the block,
cutting edge downward, and worked up and down with the right hand.



Homemade Hinges


[Illustration]

When making a chicken house recently I had forgotten to procure hinges.
When searching the "junk" box I found some little metal brackets such as
used for holding spring roller shades. Attaching these as shown, I made
a good substitute hinge. A pair of the brackets having no slots were
selected. A 2-1/2-in. wire nail with a washer was placed in the hole
and driven into the top of the door, 1 in, from its back edge. The other
bracket was placed on the bottom of the door in a similar manner. The door
was placed in an open position and the prongs of the brackets were nailed
to the door post. The bottom bracket may also be nailed to the floor and
the top one to the lintel.--Contributed by Robert Smith, E. Burnaby, B. C.



Skimmer for Bottled Milk


The cream that rises on the milk in an ordinary milk bottle cannot be
removed easily. Where a small family desires to use the cream for coffee,
the skimmer shown in the sketch is very handy.

[Illustration]

The cone is made of metal--tin, brass or copper--which can be
nickelplated, the seam being soldered. The cone is 2 in. deep with a
diameter at the top of 1-3/8 in. A handle can be made of a discarded sugar
or teaspoon, which is soldered to the cone. Insert the cone in the bottle
far enough for the cream to flow into it and then withdraw. Cream will
gather about 3 in. deep on rich milk. The milk can be used for cooking. A
piece of wire can be used for a handle instead of the spoon.--Contributed
by Victor Labadie, Dallas, Texas.



How to Preserve Putty


Having some putty left over after a job of glazing and wishing to keep it
without its becoming dried up, I tried wrapping it in paraffin paper such
as used to wrap butter. I found this method to be a decided success, the
oil being prevented from drying out.--Contributed by Levi R. Markwood,
Fairview, Pa.

[Illustration]



How to Build a Simple Electric Motor By A. G. McClure


An exceedingly simple and inexpensive motor that may be used in operating
small toys can be constructed as follows: First procure a good permanent
magnet, about 5 in. long and about 1-1/2 in. between the inside edges
at the open end. This magnet should be at least 1/2 in. thick, and if it
cannot be had in one piece, two or more may be placed side by side, like
poles being placed together. The writer was unable to procure ready-made
magnets, so one was formed and magnetized. Obtain a piece of tungsten or
some other good-grade steel, 1/2 in. by 1/2 in., and about 11 in. long.
Bend this piece into the form of a U, with the inner edges 1-3/4 in.
apart. Square off both ends and drill two small holes in the outside
surface of each end, at AA, about 3/8 in. from the end. Tap these holes
for small machine screws. Drill the hole B with a small drill, about
1/16 in., in the center of the lower portion of the U and ream it out. The
piece should now be clamped with a good pair of blacksmith's tongs,--a
block of iron being placed between the ends to keep the pressure of the
tongs from drawing them together--heated to a cherry red and then plunged
into a bath of oil. It can then be magnetized by placing it in contact
with a permanent magnet.

[Illustration: Detail of Armature Laminations, and Completed Parts
Assembled, but without Armature Windings]

Next obtain a piece of 1/8-in. brass, about 1/2 in. wide and 5-1/2 in.
long. Drill two holes in each end of the piece to match those drilled in
the ends of the magnet, also one in the center, and tap it for a 1/8-in.
machine screw. Now bend this piece into the form shown. Provide a machine
screw, S, for the hole C and drill a small tapered hole in the end of the
screw.

Obtain a small quantity of soft sheet iron and cut a sufficient number
of pieces similar to that shown at D to make a pile 1/2 in high. Cut two
pieces of the same size from some thin sheet brass. Now place all of these
pieces in a pile, the brass pieces being on the outside, and clamp them
securely, then drill the two small holes, E and F. Place two small copper
rivets in these holes and rivet the heads down before removing the clamp.
Drill a 1/8-in. hole, G, through this piece, the armature, for the shaft
to pass through. Procure a piece of 1/8-in. steel rod, about 6 in. long.
Sharpen one end so that it will enter the hole B, then cut the other end
off and sharpen it so that it will enter the opening made in the end of
the screw S. The armature may now be soldered to this shaft, its left-hand
surface being flush with the ends of the magnet.

A small commutator, H, should now be made as follows: Obtain a piece of
thin brass tubing about 5/8 in. in diameter. Turn down a piece of hard
rubber so that the tube will fit tightly on it. Drill a hole in this
piece of rubber of such a size that it will have to be forced on the steel
shaft. Saw two longitudinal slots in the brass tube diametrically opposite
each other and then bind these two pieces in place on the piece of rubber
with some heavy linen thread wrapped around each end. The armature is now
ready to wind. Get a small quantity of No. 22 gauge cotton-covered wire,
solder one end to one of the segments of the commutator, then wind one end
of the armature full and cross over and wind the other end full, soldering
the end of the wire to the second commutator segment. Make sure to wind
both ends of the armature in the same direction so the current in both
parts of the winding produces magnetizing effects in the same direction.
Insulate the winding from the core and the different layers from each
other with a good quality of thin writing paper.

Two small brushes should now be made from some thin spring brass and
mounted on the brass piece as shown. These brushes should be insulated
from the piece of brass and two small binding posts should be provided for
making connections to them. The position of the commutator and brushes
should be such that the brushes move from one segment to the other
when the ends of the armature are directly in line with the ends of the
permanent magnet.

A small pulley should be mounted upon the shaft to be used in transmitting
the power. The whole device may be mounted in a horizontal position on a
wooden base as shown, and the motor is complete.



How to Make a Humidity Indicator


A simple weather indicator that may be used in determining the condition
of the atmosphere may be made as follows: Dress a small figure, in the
form of a doll, with a piece of cloth, previously dipped in the following
solution: Chloride of cobalt, 30 parts by weight; sodium chloride, 15
parts; gum arabic, 7-1/2 parts; calcium chloride, 4-1/2 parts, and water,
400 parts. This cloth will change color as the amount of moisture in the
atmosphere changes, the change being due to the cobalt salt, which, in
dry air, is lavender blue. As the moisture in the atmosphere increases,
the color changes first to bluish red, then light red and finally pink,
according to the amount of moisture. With a decrease in moisture, the
colors change in the reverse order to that given above, and the blue color
returns when the air becomes dry.



The "Q" Trick


Lay out the form of the capital letter Q with coins on a table and ask
someone in the audience to select a number and then ask that person to
count up from one until the number is reached, beginning at A and stopping
on the circle, for instance at B, then counting back again beginning
with one, but, instead of counting on the tail, pass it and go around
the circle, say, to C. The performer gives these instructions to the
person doing the counting. The one selecting the number must not tell the
performer what the number is, and the latter is to leave the room while
the counting proceeds. The performer, before leaving the room, is to tell
which coin will be the last one counted.

[Illustration]

Take, for example, the number 7. Counting from A to B there are just 7
coins and counting back the last number or 7 will be at C. Try 9 for the
number and the last one counted will also be C. The number of coins in the
tail represents the number of coins in the circle from the intersection of
the tail and circle to the last number counted. For instance, the sketch
shows 4 coins in the tail, therefore the last coin counted in the circle
will be at C or the fourth coin from the intersection of the tail and
circle.

By slipping another coin in the tail the location of the last coin counted
is changed, thereby eliminating any chance of exposing the trick by
locating the same coin in the circle every time. This can be done secretly
without being noticed.



To Keep Ants Away From Food


Suspend a shelf, breadbox or rack with wire around which is tied a piece
of cotton cloth, saturated with a mineral oil. The ants will not cross
the oil-soaked cloth.

Some strong wire hooks attached to the rack or shelf answer well to
hang small articles on, such as bacon, bags of sugar, syrup cans,
etc.--Contributed by C. B. Hosford, Swansea, Ariz.



Vaulting-Pole Holder


An adjusting device for a vaulting pole that can be easily fixed at
any point on a round pole by using a wedge and ring, is shown in the
sketch. The wedge carries a pin on which to place the cross pole. The
manner of using this device as well as its construction is clearly
indicated.--Contributed by Sterling R. Speirs, St. Louis, Mo.

[Illustration: The Ring on the Upright, Held in Position by the Wedge,
Which in Turn Carries the Pole on the Pin]



Flying Model Aeroplane for a Display


A novelty for a window display is made of a model aeroplane flying by its
own power. To control the direction and make the model fly in a circle it
is fastened to a long stick or beam which is pivoted in the center. The
one shown was pivoted to a roller-skate wheel which in turn was fastened
to a metal standard. The beam was attached to the skate wheel with two
small bolts which were insulated and carried two brushes as commutator
contacts.

[Illustration: Detail of Parts Showing Wire Connections and Model in
Flight around the Central Axis]

The commutator rings were made of heavy brass strips, fastened to a round
piece of wood which was attached to the metal standard. The wires from the
current supply were connected to the commutator rings. From the brushes
connecting wires were carried along the beam to the aeroplane motor which
was a small battery motor with propeller.

The opposite end of the beam was weighted to balance it. The first sketch
shows the parts and the manner of making the connections. The aeroplane
is driven in a circular path by its own power in a realistic manner.



An Electric Time Light


Although the modern alarm clock is a wonderfully effective piece of
mechanism, it is, to say the least, very abrupt in its manner. It
seldom confines its efforts to the chamber of its owner, but spreads its
disturbance all over the building. It is very easy for a person to arise
early in the summer and no greater difficulty should be experienced in
winter, if the bedroom is brightly lighted at the proper hour. To do this
simply and automatically became the problem.

[Illustration]

The first thought was to obtain one of those clock-actuated electric-light
switches, such as the stores use, but this would not do, because it meant
some unsightly wiring around the room. It was then remembered how, in the
course of some experiments, an ordinary incandescent light was operated
through a piece of No. 36 gauge wire without any sign of heating. If,
then, a wire only 1/200 in. in diameter were of ample carrying capacity,
surely a dollar watch would be sufficient to make the connection. Such
being the case, the whole mechanism could readily be attached to the drop
cord of a lamp directly above the socket, thus obviating any additional
wiring. This all proved to be true, and the whole was made and attached
in the course of a couple of hours.

While one might feel enthusiastic about this small and easily contrived
affair, it is scarcely to be presumed that it would operate so effectively
on one who had spent the larger part of the night tripping the "light
fantastic," or in undue conviviality. An ordinary 16-cp. globe has thus
far operated perfectly, and a 40-watt tungsten lamp would, if not too far
away, surely awaken the hardest sleeper of sober habits.

The base of the mechanism is a small piece of 1/4-in. hard wood, upon
which is fastened a small brass bracket, A, bent so as to hold the watch
from slipping down. A small clip, B, was then arranged so as to grip the
neck of the watch after its lower edge had been placed against A, and
a small brad at either side prevented lateral movement. In this way the
watch was held firmly, yet in a manner that would permit its being taken
out instantly when necessary. The glass and minute hand were removed. The
brass bolt from an exhausted dry cell was placed at C, so as to clamp a
small copper washer to which was soldered a narrow strip of copper, D,
about 1/16 in. wide and cut from a leaf of an old dynamo brush. This strip
is arranged so as to wipe the hour hand as it travels past, but being so
thin, it has no appreciable effect on the time keeping. As illustrated,
the device is set for six o'clock, but by loosening the nut C an hour's
adjustment either way may be had. It is a very simple matter, however,
to arrange the device so it will operate at any hour. In connecting up,
one end of the drop cord is removed from the socket and attached to A,
which throws the current through the watch, thence along the hand and
down D to C, from where it is carried by a short piece of wire to the
socket again. As there are so many circuits through the watch, the small
current required for one light does not affect it in any way. Thus far,
no trouble has been experienced in making this delicate connection with
110 volts, but if any should develop, the contacts may be tipped with the
small pieces of platinum taken from a burned-out globe.

       *       *       *       *       *

    The meat of a white English walnut may be easily
    removed by heating the nut in an oven or on top of a
    stove, then using a knife to pry the shell open.

[Illustration]



A Small Shocking Machine


[Illustration: The Shocking Coil as It is Used for Amusement, or in the
Manner a Current is Given a Patient]

An amusing as well as instructive shocking machine, usually called
a medical coil, can be easily constructed from a discarded buzzer or
electric bell, four binding posts, some pieces of insulated wire, two
carbon rods, and a rheostat.

[Illustration: The Base upon Which the Buzzer and Rheostat are Fastened,
and the Electrical Connections (Fig. 1, Fig. 2)]

[Illustration: The Rheostat That is Used to Regulate the Flow of Current
in the Carbon Hand Pieces (Fig. 3)]

A base for attaching the parts is made of a piece of poplar, 10 in. long,
5 in. wide, and 1/2 in. thick, which can be finished as desired, but
a good method is to shape the edge like molding and give it a mahogany
stain, and when dry apply a coat of white shellac, which should be allowed
to dry a day, whereupon the surface is rubbed with prepared wax. When the
base is ready, mount the buzzer at one end. This can be easily done by
making an L-shaped piece of metal, A, which is fastened to the base with
a screw, and to the yoke of the magnet coil with a small bolt. If the
armature and its connections are also used from the buzzer, the height
of the coils must be taken in consideration. These parts are fastened in
position as shown, using an L-shaped piece of metal, B, for the spring
end. The screw holding the armature spring to the base, as well as the
vibrator screw, should be of such a length that it will enter the base
far enough to permit a connection for a wire in a countersunk hole bored
in the base from the under side. Binding posts are placed in the corners
of the base in holes countersunk from the under side for the screw heads.

The rheostat is of the miniature-battery type, which has a round base
and a coil of resistance wire with a lever passing over the coil. Such
a rheostat can be purchased from an electrical store, but if the person
constructing the shocking machine desires to make one, it is not difficult
if a lathe is at hand.

To make the rheostat, turn up a disk, about 3 in. in diameter, from a
piece of hard wood, such as oak, maple, or walnut, and form a circular
groove in the upper surface, about 3/8 in. inside of the circumference.
The groove is to admit a circular coil of resistance wire, and in making
it, be sure to have it the proper size to take the coil snugly. The coil
can be of any size, and to make it, resistance wire is wound around a
piece of wire used as a mandrel. If the coil is 1/4 in., or a trifle
smaller, in diameter, it will make a good size. Be sure that the depth
of the groove is such that it will allow a part of the coils of the
resistance wire to project above the surface of the wood disk. The coil
of wire should be just long enough to fit in the groove and allow a 1-in.
space between the ends, one of which is anchored to the base, at C, the
other being attached to the binding post D. Drill a hole through the
center of the disk and fasten a lever, taken from a switch, or one made of
a piece of sheet brass, that will extend from the center to the outside of
the disk, or over the resistance-wire coil. A small handle is attached to
the outer end. A connection is made from the center support of the lever
to the binding post E.

The connections for the buzzer and rheostat are made on the under side
of the base, where grooves are cut to run the wires in, so that they
will be below the surface of the wood. In the diagram, the binding post
F is connected to the binding post D of the rheostat, which in turn is
connected to the screw of the make-and-break point G. The other binding
post H is connected to the bracket B supporting the armature spring. The
binding post E of the rheostat is connected to the base binding post J.
The magnet coils are connected, as shown, from K to L, and from M to B.

The two pieces of carbon, which are used for the hand pieces, are
connected with silk-insulated wire. These connections are made to
the binding posts F and H. The other two binding posts, J and L, are
connected to a battery. The carbons used may be purchased, or taken
from an old battery. Two or more dry cells are used for the current.
The rheostat controls the amount of current passing through the hand
pieces.--Contributed by Gilbert Crossley, Erie, Pa.



Secret Compartment in Ordinary Table Drawer


It is frequently desired to have some handy place for storing valuables
where there is but little chance of discovering them. Secret drawers in
tables usually require special and expensive changes, but with only a
few simple changes on a regular drawer of any ordinary table, a secret
compartment can be made which is as secure as can ordinarily be figured
on, outside of a steel safe. Having chosen the desired table, a partition
should be placed across the entire back part of the drawer, allowing for
necessary space in the secret compartment. This partition should resemble
the real back of the drawer as closely as it is possible to make it. The
compartment must not be too wide, for the resulting small width of the
front part of the drawer might then arouse suspicion. On the lower side
of the secret compartment a strip of wood, A, should be attached with
a screw, as shown in Fig. 1, allowing sufficient looseness so the strip
may be turned end for end when necessary. With the strip set as shown, it
will strike the front side B of the table when the drawer is pulled out,
leaving the secret compartment still hidden. In order to expose this, it
will be necessary to turn the strip, as shown in Fig. 2, when the drawer
can be pulled out to its full length.

[Illustration: Two Positions of the Strip for Holding, or Giving Access
to, the Secret Part, and a Hinged Strip (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)]

It being necessary that the strip A be as long as the secret compartment
is wide, to fully expose this, there may be cases where the drawer is not
wide enough to allow the strip A to turn around. In that case the strip
can be hinged to the back of the drawer as shown in Fig. 3. When it is
hanging down, as shown by the dotted outline, the drawer may be pulled
out to its full extent. When it is desired to lock the secret compartment,
the hinged strip must be swung up in position, and fastened. An ordinary
thumbscrew or eye can be used which, by a turn or two, will either release
it or fasten it in place.--Contributed by Paul Durst, Detroit, Mich.



Inflating Handballs


When handballs become "dead," or no longer bounce freely, they may
frequently be restored by inflating them with air. This can be done
by means of a bulb attached to a hypodermic needle. The needle must be
inserted through the soft plug which every inflated ball has, and which
can be discovered by pressure. After the ball is inflated and the needle
extracted, the soft rubber closes around the fine hole, preventing the
escape of the air. If a leak is found, which allows the air to escape too
rapidly, a repair can be made with a single-tube tire outfit.--Contributed
by A. B. Wegener, Camden. N. J.



A Garden-Bed Scarecrow


A very neat and successful scarecrow for garden beds can be made as
follows: A number of corks are procured, and a feather is stuck in each
end of them, as shown. These are tied to a string, spacing them from
1 to 2 ft. apart, and the string is hung over the beds. The slightest
breeze will keep them fluttering, and no bird will come to rest on the
beds.--Contributed by M. T. Canary, Chicago.

[Illustration: The Fluttering Feathers Attached to the String with Corks
Scare the Birds Away]



Measuring the Length of Wire Wound on a Spool


When winding magnet spools on a lathe, the exact amount of wire used can
be easily determined by means of the device shown in the illustration.
The large reel from which the wire is obtained is conveniently placed
on a loose mandrel, or rod, near the lathe, and in line with the spool
which is to be wound. A grooved idler wheel, the exact diameter of which
is known, is supported between the spool and wire reel so it may freely
revolve; the number of its revolutions should be obtained, automatically,
by a revolution counter. When using the device, the wire from the reel
is placed once around the idler to insure the necessary grip to prevent
it from sliding; then it is led to the spool. The exact diameter of the
idler being known and the number of revolutions indicated, the true length
of the wire wound on the spools can be easily determined by the following
formula: Length of wire on spool in feet equals circumference of idler in
feet times number of revolutions of idler.--Contributed by C. Swayne, St.
Louis, Mo.

[Illustration: Measuring the Length of Wire on a Spool with the Use of an
Idler and Counter]



Homemade Lawn Sprinkler


With a short length of old hose, a serviceable lawn sprinkler can be
quickly and easily made. One end is provided with a regular coupling for
connecting it to the line of good hose. The other end is turned up for
several inches, and securely wired to the main part, thereby shutting off
any flow through it. Several cuts are made into it, about halfway across
and 6 in. apart. If the water is forced in, the only means of escape
will be through the slots, which will produce fine sprays, giving as
good service as a manufactured sprinkler.--Contributed by A. B. Shaw, N.
Dartmouth, Mass.

[Illustration: The Slots Cut in the Hose will Produce a Very Fine Spray
of Water]



Homemade Toy Bank


The little bank illustrated is not exactly burglar-proof, but once put
together it cannot be opened except by the destruction of one of the
units of which it is composed. It requires but little skill to make, and
would be a good problem for manual training, as it offers an excellent
opportunity for teaching certain rudiments of woodworking by the
application method.

[Illustration: Six Pieces of Wood as They are Put Together to Form a Toy
Bank]

In its construction, six pieces of hard wood, of the dimensions shown in
the sketch, are required. White wood will do if there is no hard wood at
hand. The coin slot is 1/8 in. wide by 1-1/4 in. long, and is cut in only
one piece.

No difficulty will be experienced in putting the first five pieces
together, but the sixth, or top, piece, shown in the sketch, will not
go in, because the bottom edge of the raised side will strike the inside
of the piece to the right. By beveling this edge with a chisel from top
to bottom between the dadoes, or grooves, it can be forced down quite a
distance and sprung in place by placing a block of wood on the high side
and striking it a sharp blow with a heavy hammer.--Contributed by J. A.
Shelly, Brooklyn, New York.



An Electric Anemometer By Wm. H. Dettman


The construction of this instrument is so simple that any amateur can
make one and if accurate calibrations are desired, these can be marked by
comparison with a standard anemometer, while both are placed in the wind.


The Indicator


The case of the indicator is built of thin wood--the material of an old
cigar box will do--9 in. long, 6 in. wide and 1-1/2 in. deep. If cigar-box
material is used, it must first be soaked in warm water to remove the
paper. If a cover is to be used on the box, a slot, on an arc of a circle,
must be cut through it to show the scale beneath. The arc is determined by
the length of the needle from a center over the axis on which the needle
swings. When the box is completed, smooth up the outside surface with fine
sandpaper and give it a coat of stain.

The core of the magnet is made by winding several layers of bond paper
around a pencil of sufficient size to make an inside diameter of slightly
over 1/4 in., and a tube 2 in. long. Each layer of the paper is glued to
the preceding layer.

Two flanges or disks are attached to the tube to form a spool for the
wire. The disks are cut from thin wood, 1-1/4 in. square, and a hole bored
through their centers so that each will fit on the tube tightly. One of
them is glued to one end of the tube and the other fastened at a point
1/2 in. from the opposite end. The space between the disks is filled with
seven layers of No. 22 gauge insulated magnet wire, allowing sufficient
ends of the wire to project for connections. The finished coil is located
in the box, as shown at A, Fig. 1.

[Illustration: The Indicator Box with Coil, Needle and Scale, as It is
Used in Connection with the Anemometer (Fig. 1)]

The core for the coil is cut from a piece of 1/4-in. iron rod, 1-1/4 in.
long, and a slot is cut in each end, 1/4 in. deep, into which brass strips
are inserted and soldered, or otherwise fastened. The strips of brass are
3/16 in. wide, one 1-1/2 in. long and the other 3/4 in. Two 1/16 in. holes
are drilled in the end of the long piece, and one 1/16 in. hole in the
end of the short piece. The complete core with the brass ends is shown in
Fig. 2.

[Illustration: The Metal Core for the Coil... (Fig. 2)]

[Illustration: ...and the Bearing Block for the Axis of the Needle (Fig.
3)]

The needle B, Fig. 1, is made of a copper or brass wire, about 6 in. long,
and is mounted on an axis at C. The detail of the bearing for the axis
is shown in Fig. 3. The axis D is a piece of wood fitted in the U-shaped
piece of brass and made to turn on brads as bearings, the center being
pierced to receive the end of the needle. After locating the bearing
for the axis C, Fig. 1, it is fastened in place so that the upper end
or pointer of the needle will travel over the scale. The needle is then
attached to the bearing after having been passed through the inner hole of
the longer brass strip of the core, and the coil is fitted with the core
in the manner shown at D. A light brass coil spring is attached to each
end of the core, as shown at E and F, the latter being held with a string,
G, whose end is tied to a brad on the outside of the box, for adjustment.
A better device could be substituted by attaching the end of the spring F
to a nut and using a knurled-head bolt passed through the box side. One of
the wires from the coil is attached to a push button, H, to be used when
a reading of the instrument is made. The connections for the instrument
consist of one binding post and a push button.

[Illustration: The Anemometer as It is Mounted on a Standard Similar to
a Small Windmill Weather Vane (Fig. 4)]


The Anemometer


The anemometer resembles a miniature windmill and is mounted on top of
a building or support where it is fully exposed to the air currents. It
differs from the windmill in that the revolving wheel is replaced by a
cupped disk, A, Fig. 4, fitted with a sliding metal shaft, B, which is
supported on crosspieces, CC, between the main frame pieces DD. The latter
pieces carry a vane at the opposite end. The frame pieces are 1/2 in.
thick, 2-1/4 in. wide and 36 in. long, and the crosspieces have the same
width and thickness and are 4 in. long.

[Illustration: (Fig. 5)]

A variable-resistance coil, E, is made as follows and fastened in the
main frame. The core of this coil is a piece of wood, 2 in. square and
4 in. long, and wound with No. 18 gauge single-wound cotton-covered
german-silver wire. The winding should begin 1/4 in. from one end of the
core and finish 1/4 in. from the other, making the length of the coil
3-1/2 in. The ends of the wire are secured by winding them around the
heads of brads driven into the core. A small portion of the insulation
is removed from the wire on one side of the coil. This may be done with
a piece of emery cloth or sandpaper. A sliding spring contact, F, is
attached to the sliding shaft B, the end of which is pressed firmly on the
bared portion of the wire coil. One end of a coil spring, which is slipped
on the shaft between the pieces CC, is attached to the end crosspiece, and
the other end is fastened to the sliding shaft so as to keep the shaft and
disk out, and the flange H against the second crosspiece, when there is
no air current applied to the disk A. The insulation of the standard upon
which the anemometer turns is shown in Fig. 5. The standard J is made of
a piece of 1/2-in. pipe, suitably and rigidly attached to the building or
support, and the upper end, around which the anemometer revolves to keep
in the direction of the air currents, is fitted with a plug of wood to
insulate the 1/4-in. brass rod K. A bearing and electric-wire connection
plate, L, is made of brass, 1/8 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 4 in. long. The
bearing and connection plate M are made in a similar manner. The surface
of the holes in these plates, bearing against the pipe J and the brass
rod K, make the two connections for the wires from the variable-resistance
coil E, Fig. 4, located on the main frame, to the wire connections between
the two instruments. These wires should be weather-proof, insulated,
attached as shown, and running to and connecting the indicator with the
anemometer at NN, Fig. 1.

Two or more dry cells must be connected in the line, and when a reading is
desired, the button H, Fig. 1, is pushed, which causes the current to flow
through the lines and draw the magnet core D in the coil, in proportion
to the magnetic force induced by the amount of current passing through
the resistance in the coils on E, Fig. 4, from the contact into which the
spring F is brought by the wind pressure on the disk A.



How to Make Stick Shellac


It is often desired to use shellac in solid or stick form, and to get
it into this shape by melting and molding requires considerable time. A
much quicker method is to place the shellac in a shallow box, spread it
out in a thin layer and play the flame from a Bunsen burner upon it until
the mass is melted and run together. Allow it to stand a few seconds,
then, with moistened fingers, fold it over and over and shape it with the
fingers. It is possible to make a stick 8 or 10 in. long and 5/8 in. in
diameter in about 5 minutes.--Contributed by J. H. Beeber, Rochester, N.
Y.



Substitute for a Hose Reel


Not having the room to spare for the ordinary hose reel, I used as a
substitute a piece of wire bent into the shape of a letter S and with its
aid coiled the hose in a manner to expel the water and leave it in shape
for storing.

[Illustration: A Hook for Coiling a Hose Instead of Turning It on a Reel]

The hook A is sprung around the hose about 5 ft. from the connection joint
and remains there permanently. The end of the hose with the connection C
is then brought around in a circle and forced into the hook B. This forms
the start for the coil and the hose is easily rolled up to the nozzle, the
water being expelled during the operation.--Contributed by F. H. Aldrich,
Toledo, Ohio.



Addressing a Roll of Papers


When addressing rolled-up papers it is difficult to write on the curved
surface. The papers also have a tendency to roll away. By placing the roll
in the hollow on the front edge of a large book, as shown in the sketch,
it will be found easy to write on the wrapper.--Contributed by W. P. Shaw,
Toronto, Canada.

[Illustration: The Roll of Paper is Placed in the Curved Edge of a Book
for Addressing]



Repairing the Bruised Sides of a Motorboat


When the sides of a boat become scored or bruised scrape the parts clean
and fill the depressions with wood cement. The wood cement or stick
cement, as it is called, can be procured from a paint store. Heat the
cement with a blowtorch and apply it to the bruised parts. Use a heated
putty knife to smooth the cement and make the surface level. After
sandpapering the fills and applying a coat of paint the boat sides will
look as good as new. The cement will not chip or fall out.--Contributed
by Henry Beck, Bronx, New York.



How to Make an Electric Lamp Flasher


Procure two pieces of metal, one of brass and the other of sheet iron,
5 in. long, 1/2 in. wide, and 1/32 in., or just a little more, in
thickness. Bend the brass strip into the form shown in Fig. 1, then place
the brass piece on top of the iron and drill the holes A and B indicated
in Fig. 2. After the brass piece has been bent, as shown in Fig. 1, it
will of course be shorter than the iron strip and the iron strip must be
cut off, or a brass strip a little longer than 5 in. can be secured and
cut the same length as the iron strip after it is bent. The holes A and
B should be 3/32 in. in diameter. The next thing to do will be to wind
a heating coil about the brass strip. Wrap a very thin layer of sheet
asbestos about the brass strip