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Title: Explanatory Notes of a Pack of Playing Cards, Temp Charles II. - Forming a Complete Political Satire of the Commonwealth
Author: Goldsmid, Edmund
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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      A carat character is used to denote superscription: a single
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       *       *       *       *       *



EXPLANATORY NOTES

OF

A PACK OF

Cavalier Playing Cards

TEMP. CHARLES II.


FORMING

A COMPLETE POLITICAL SATIRE

OF

THE COMMONWEALTH.

BY

EDMUND GOLDSMID, F.R.H.S.,

F.S.A. (SCOT).



Edinburgh:

E. & G. GOLDSMID.

1886.



Introduction.



Through the courtesy of Lord Nelson, the very curious Pack of Cards here
presented in _facsimile_ was placed at the disposal of the AUNGERVYLE
SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. The Committee of this Society were very anxious to
reproduce these extremely quaint memorials of a by-gone age, but on enquiry
it was found that the cost of re-engraving the fifty-two cards on copper,
the only really satisfactory method, would be far beyond the means of a
Society then barely numbering 120 members.   Being Honorary Secretary both
the Aungervyle and Clarendon Historical Societies, I suggested that the
work should be undertaken at the joint expense of the two Societies. This
was rather outside the plans of the Clarendon, but the Committee at length
agreed to provide a portion of the necessary funds on condition that after
the fifty-two cards had been re-produced in thirteen plates, accompanied by
a small explanatory pamphlet, a second series of the Cards, the precise
_fac-simile_ of the originals, should be presented to each member of the
two Societies. There still remained, however, a considerable sum to be
raised. I thereupon proposed, after satisfying the above conditions, to
purchase the plates from the Societies. These are now in my possession. The
work, executed by the firm of Murdoch and Son, of this City, is perfect in
every detail, and heavy though the cost has been, I feel sure that in this
case at any rate, the object aimed at has been fully attained. Not a line,
not a stroke of the original, but appears in exact counterpart in the
reprint.

Lord Nelson, unfortunately, had lost, or never had in his possession, two
Cards, the ace and three of hearts. After much trouble, these have been
supplied from another source, and, with the exception that the figures of
Cromwell and Fairfax in the latter are on a somewhat smaller scale than
those on the threes of the other suits, it would be difficult to suspect
that they did not belong to the original pack.

In the following notes, I have merely attempted to explain the allusions
contained in the Cards. A few however remain riddles to me.

EDMUND GOLDSMID.

  EDINBURGH, _12th October 1885_.

A PACK OF CAVALIER PLAYING CARDS.

(_Circa 1660._)


[Illustration: Ace of Hearts. Cromwell, Ireton, and Hudson, all in y^e same
Boate.]

[Illustration: Ace of Clubs. A Free state or a tolleration for all sort of
Villany.]

[Illustration: Ace of Spades. Bradsha^w, the Iaylor and y^e Hangman keepers
of the Liberty of England.]

[Illustration: Ace of Diamonds. The High Court of Iustice or Olivers
slaughter house.]


1. Ace of Hearts

_Cromwell, Ireton and Hudson all in y^e same boate._

In 1650, Cromwell was named Commander-in-Chief in Ireland; Ireton, his
son-in-law, his deputy; and Hewson or Huson (here misprinted Hudson)
governor of Dublin. In the plate they are sailing away from the sun of
loyalty towards the night of treason. The portrait of Cromwell at the stern
is not to be mistaken. Next to him is Hewson distinguished from Ireton by
his older features.


2. Ace of Clubs

_A Free State or a Toleration for all sorts of Villany._

In the _Mystery of the Good Old Cause_* (London 1660) a Royalist attack on
the leading members of the Long Parliament, the author says of the
Roundheads, "Their pretences were no doubt the most specious and plausible
that could be imagined,... but, alas! never were these things more
pretended to, and less in reality designed; greatness, wealth and command
were the inducements of the most hypocritical persons in the world to
profane the name of God ... to murder many innocent persons ... to ruin
many noble families, etc., ... but let destruction be the reward of our
destroyers, let the prey be torn out of their teeth, let the blood they
have shed fall upon their own heads, and let their names be detested and
infamous to all posterity!"

* Reprinted by the Aungervyle Society. Second Series.


3. Ace of Spades.

_Bradshaw, the jaylor and y^e hangman, keepers of the liberty of England._

Bradshaw was appointed president of the High Court of Justice in 1648, a
year "of reproach and infamy above all years which had passed before it; a
year of the highest dissimulation and hypocrisy, of the deepest villany and
most bloody treasons, that any nation was ever cursed with or under: a
year, in which the memory of all transactions ought to be erased from all
records, lest, by the success of it, atheism, infidelity and rebellion,
should be propagated in the world." (_Clarendon's History of the
Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 154, Oxford 1726, folio). He was born in 1586,
died in 1659, and his body exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration.
He was a cousin of Milton, who has written a Eulogy of him in his _Second
Defense of the People of England_.


4. Ace of Diamonds.

_The High Court of Justice or Oliver's Slaughter-House._

"The charge and accusation, upon which they resolved to proceed against the
King, being thus settled and agreed upon, they began to consider in what
manner and form to proceed, that there might be some appearance of
justice.... A new form they did erect never before heard of. They
constituted and erected a Court that should be called the High Court of
Justice. The number of the Judges named was about an hundred and fifty ...
Bradshaw ... was named president ... and with great humility accepted the
office, which he administered with all the pride, impudence, and
superciliousness imaginable."--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_,
vol. iii. p. 138-139).

[Illustration: Two of Hearts. Onsley Father and Sonne]

[Illustration: Two of Clubs. Lenthall Father and Sonn]

[Illustration: Two of Spades. Parry Father and Sonne]

[Illustration: Two of Diamonds. Vane Father and Sonne.]


5. II of Hearts.

_Onsley. Father and Sonne._

This is evidently a misprint for Onslow. Sir Richard Onslow, Kt., "of the
old stamp, a gentleman of Surrey, of good parts and considerable revenue,"
successfully weathered the tempests of the period. He was commander at the
siege of Basing House, was driven from the House of Commons by Pride's
Purge, and was afterwards at the head of a Surrey regiment at Worcester. He
spoke strongly in favour of Cromwell's becoming king. Later he became a
member of the Convention Parliament which restored Charles II.


6. II of Clubs.

_Lenthall. Father and Sonn._

William Lenthall, of Lincoln's Inn, a Counsellor at Law, and Speaker of the
House of Commons. "Oliver (Cromwell) once made a spunge of him, and
squeezed him out of £15,000. Who turning him and his tribe out of doors, he
veered about to save himself and his great offices; and he that had been so
long bell-weather in the Commons House, was thought, for his compliance and
his money, to deserve to be one of the herd of Lords in the Other House,"
(_Mystery of the Good Old Cause._) John Lenthall, son of the speaker, was
knighted by Oliver Cromwell, made a Colonel of foot, and governor of
Windsor Castle.


7. II of Spades.

_Parry. Father and Sonne._

Query, Sir George Parry, one of the Commissioners for Dorsetshire, who with
those of Somerset and Cornwall, met Prince Rupert at Bridgewater shortly
before the Battle of Naseby?--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, vol.
ii. p. 393).


8. II of Diamonds.

_Vane. Father and Sonne._

"Sir Henry Vane was of very ordinary parts by Nature, and had not
cultivated them at all by art, for he was illiterate. But being of a
stirring and boisterous disposition, very industrious and very bold, he
still wrought himself into some employment.... His malice to the Earl of
Strafford transported him to all imaginable thoughts of revenge, ... and
that disposed him to sacrifice his honour and faith and his Master's
interest, that he might ruin the Earl, and was buried himself in the same
ruin; for which, being justly chastised by the King and being turned out of
his service, he was left to his own despair.... He grew into the hatred and
contempt of those who had made most use of him; and dyed in universal
reproach, and not more contemn'd by any of his enemies than by his own son;
who had been his principal conductor to destruction."--(_Clarendon's
History of the Rebellion_, vol. ii., p. 132).

Sir Harry Vane, the younger, "was a man of extraordinary parts.... He was
chosen to cozen a whole nation which was thought to excel in craft and
cunning,* which he did with notable pregnancy and
dexterity."--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, vol. ii., p. 233).
"He totally ousted Sir William Russel. He was a discontent during all
Oliver's and Richard's government. He is, no doubt, a man of much religion,
and would have become one of the rulers in Israel, if the intended match
between his son and Lambert's daughter had not been spoiled by the
restitution of the Rump."--(_Mystery of the Good Old Cause._)


* The Scots.

[Illustration: Three of Hearts. Cromwell pypeth unto Fairfax.]

[Illustration: Three of Clubs. Bulstrod and Whitlock present to Oliver the
Instruments of Governm^t.]

[Illustration: Three of Spades. H. Martin defend^s Ralph who design'd to
kill the King.]

[Illustration: Three of Diamonds. Simonias slandring y^e High Preist to get
his Place.]


9. III of Hearts.

"_Cromwell pypeth unto Fairfax._"

Cromwell is here represented playing the pipe and tabor to Fairfax, who is
performing a Morris dance. This dance was brought to England in the reign
of Edward III., it is said by John of Gaunt. It was originally a military
dance, in which bells were jingled, and swords clashed. The word _Morris_
is a corruption of _Moorish_. In ancient times it used to be danced by five
men and a boy, but in the reign of Elizabeth, we have an instance of Kempe,
one of Shakespeare's colleagues at the Globe Theatre, having danced alone
all the way from London to Norwich.--(_Kemp's nine daies wonder_, reprinted
in Goldsmid's _Collectanea Adamantæa_, No. 29). Thomas, Lord Fairfax,
warmly espoused the cause of the Parliament when the rupture with the King
took place. He was, however, opposed to the execution of the King, and
became a warm advocate of the Restoration. He died in 1671.


10. III of Clubs.

"_Bulstrod and Whitlock present to Oliver the instrument of Government._"

On the 26th of June, 1657, the ceremony of conferring the protectorate on
Cromwell took place. "After a short speech, ... Withrington, the Speaker,
with the Earl of Warwick and Whitlock. vested him with a rich purple velvet
robe lined with ermines; ... then the Speaker presented him with a fair
Bible of the largest edition, richly bound; then he, in the name of all the
people, girded a sword about him; and lastly, presented him with a sceptre
of gold, which he put in his hand, and made him a large discourse of those
emblems of government and authority. Upon the close of which, there being
little wanting to a perfect formal Coronation but a crown and an
Archbishop, he took his oath, administered to him by the
Speaker."--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, Vol. III., page 343.)
Bulstrode and Whitlock spoken of as two men on the Card, are one and the
same. "Bulstrode Whitlocke, ... before the troubles was an intimate friend
to Sir Richard Lane, who, going to Oxford, entrusted him with his chambers
in the Temple; of which, with all the goods and an excellent library, he
hath kept possession ever since; and would not own that ever he knew such a
man, when Sir Richard's son was brought to wait upon him in his
greatness.... Under Dick he was made Commissioner of the Seal; and, he
being discarded, wheeled about and worshipped the Rump.... He hath a good
fleece, and heir to Lilly the Astrologer."--(_Mystery of the Good Old
Cause_).


11. III of Spades.

"_H. Martin defends Ralph, who design'd to kill the King._"

"Henry Martin, colonel of a regiment of horse and a regiment of whores. He
had given him £3000 at one time, to put him upon the Holy Sisters, and take
off from the Levellers. He had the reputation of a precious saint from his
youth, in reference to all kinds of debauchery, uncleanness, and fraud,
having sold his estate three times over."--(_Mystery of the Good Old
Cause_).


12. III of Diamonds.

"_Simonias sland'ring y^e High Priest to get his place._"

One of the riddles I have spoken of in the Introduction, unless it refers
to Cromwell having urged the trial of the King.

[Illustration: Four of Hearts. The Rump roasted salt it well it stinks
exceedingly.]

[Illustration: Four of Clubs. A Covenanting Scot & an English Independent
differ about y^e things of this world.]

[Illustration: Four of Spades. Argyle a muckle Scotch Knaue in gude faith
Sir.]

[Illustration: Four of Diamonds. Laird of Warreston an arrant Knaue Au my
Saul man.]


13. IV of Hearts.

"_The Rump roasted salt it well it stinks exceedingly._"

The long parliament, not proving itself sufficiently complacent, Colonel
Pride entered the House with two regiments of soldiers, imprisoned 60
members, drove 160 into the streets, and left only 60. These were called
the Rump. The name was revived in the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell, and
to distinguish the two, the former was called the _Bloody Rump_, and the
latter the _Rump of a Rump_.

                                  "The few,
  Because they're wasted to the stumps,
  Are represented best by rumps."
          (Butler's _Hudibras_, Part iii).


14. IV of Clubs.

"_A Covenanting Scot and an English Independent differ about y^e things of
this world._"

"There was a wonderful difference,  throughout their whole proceedings,
between the heads of those who were thought to sway the Presbyterian
Counsels, and those who govern'd the Independents, though they were equally
masters of dissimulation, and had equally malice and wickedness in their
intentions, though not of the same kind.... The Presbyterians submitted to
their senseless and wretched clergy; whose infectious breath corrupted, and
govern'd the People, and whose authority was prevalent upon their own
wives, and in their domestic affairs in order to corrupt and seduce them
... whereas Cromwell and the Independents ... considered what was necessary
to their main end; and then, whether it were right or wrong, made all other
means subservient to it; couzen'd and deceiv'd men as long as they could
induce them to contribute to what they desired; and when they would keep
company with them no longer, compelled them by force to submit to what they
should not be able to oppose: and so the one resolv'd, only to do what they
believ'd the People would like and approve; and the other, that the People
should like and approve what they had resolv'd." (_Clarendon's History of
the Rebellion_, vol. iii., pp. 63-64).


15. IV of Spades.

"_Argyle a muckle Scotch knaue in gude faith Sir._"

Archibald Campbell, Marquis of Argyle, a zealous partisan of the
Covenanters, and the opponent of Montrose. Born in 1598 he succeeded to his
fathers titles in 1638. In the same year he was called to London with other
Scotch Nobles, and advised the abolition of Episcopacy in Scotland. In 1641
he was created Marquis. He acquiesced in the Protectorate of Cromwell, and
for this at the restoration he was committed to the Tower. In 1661 he was
sent to Scotland, tried for high treason and beheaded.


16. IV of Diamonds.

"_Laird of Warriston an arrant knaue An my Soul man._"

"It was agreed that the committee of safety should consist of
three-and-twenty persons, ... men try'd, and faithful to the public
interest ... besides three or four others who had been the kings judges,
with Warreston, Vane, Steel, and Whitlock."--(_Clarendon's History of the
Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 402).

[Illustration: Five of Hearts. The E. of Pem. in y^e H. of Com. thanks y^e
Speaker for his Admission.]

[Illustration: Five of Clubs. S^r H. Mildmay beaten by a footboy a great
breach of Priviledg]

[Illustration: Five of Spades. Nye and Godwin Olivers Confessors.]

[Illustration: Five of Diamonds. S^r. W. Waller looses two Armys yet getts
by y^e bargaine.]


17. V of Hearts.

"_The E. of Pem.: in y^e H. of Com. thanks y^e Speaker for his Admission._"

On the 29th of January 1643, a letter was addressed by Members of both
Houses at Oxford to the Earl of Essex. Clarendon observes "This letter was
subscribed by His Highness the Prince, the Duke of York, and
three-and-forty Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons, and 118
Members of the House of Commons; ... so that the numbers at London were
very thin; for there were not above two-and-twenty peers, who either sat in
the Parliament, or were engaged in their party; that is to say, the Earls
of Northumberland, Pembroke, Essex, etc."--(_Clarendon's History of the
Rebellion_, vol. ii. p. 274).

According to Clarendon, vol. ii. pp. 127-128, the Earl of Pembroke was a
weak man with a great sense of his own importance, whom disappointed
ambition "Got into actual rebellion, which he never intended to do."


18. V of Clubs.

"_Sir H. Mildmay beaten by a foot boy, a great breach of privilege._"

It is said that in the year 1642, Sir H. Mildmay got mixed up in a brawl in
Fleet Street. Whether this Card alludes to that fact or not, I cannot tell.
Clarendon states that Sir John Danvers and Sir H. Mildmay were the only two
members of the High Court of Justice, whom the King knew besides the
officers in the army.--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, vol. iii,
p. 144).


19. V of Spades.

"_Nye and Godwin, Oliver's Confessors._"

In "_an ordinance appointing Commissioners for approbation of Publique
Preachers_," printed by "William Du Gard and Henry Hills printers to His
Highness the Lord Protector" 1653, appear the names of Dr. Thomas Goodwin
and Mr. Philip Ny as Commissioners for such approbation. A copy of the
pamphlet is in my possession, and it will be reprinted by the Clarendon
Historical Society at an early date.


20. V of Diamonds.

"_Sir W. Waller looses two armys yet getts by ye bargaine._"

Sir William Waller was defeated at the battle of Roundway Down by Lord
Wilmot, losing 600 killed, 900 prisoners, all their cannon, arms,
ammunition and baggage. He was again defeated at Cropredy Bridge, by the
army under the King in person, when he again lost all his artillery. He was
however, subsequently named Lieutenant of Ireland.--(_Clarendon's History
of the Rebellion_, vol. ii. p. 179; p. 311; and vol. iii. p. 70).

[Illustration: Six of Hearts. Worsley an Inckle Weaver a man of Personal
Valor.]

[Illustration: Six of Clubs. Desbrow Olivers Champion haueing a Cannon in
each Pocket.]

[Illustration: Six of Spades. Skippon a Waggoner to S^r. F. Vere one of
Oliuers Hectors.]

[Illustration: Six of Diamonds. Kelsey a sneaking Bodice maker a Gifted
Brother]


21. VI of Hearts.

"_Worsley an Inckle Weaver A man of personal valor._"

Worsley, one of Cromwell's Major-Generals, and a most dear friend of his,
was the first M.P. for Manchester, and his statue is in the Town Hall....
The _incles_ were tapes; and the word comes into Shakespeare's _Winter's
Tale_. The word is now very little known, except in a proverb, "As thick
(_i.e._ as intimate) as Incle-weavers." I do not see this pack mentioned in
the History of Playing Cards. Can the date of publication be proved? It
looks as if they were intended to keep up the spirit of the Cavaliers in
depressed times.--_Communicated by John Bailey, Esq., F.S.A., Manchester._


22. VI of Clubs.

"_Desbrow Olivers Champion haueing a cannon in each pocket._"

With reference to the proposal in Parliament to elect Cromwell King,
Clarendon observes: "That which put an end to the present debate was that
some of his own family who had grown up under him, and had their whole
dependance upon him, as Desborough, Fleetwood, Whaley, and others,
passionately contradicted the motion."--(_Clarendon's History of the
Rebellion_, vol. iii., page 339.)


23. VI of Spades.

"_Skippon a waggoner to S^{r.} F. Vere one of Olivers Hectors._"

Major-General Skippon was left in charge of the Army by the Earl of Essex,
when the latter fled from Fowey to Plymouth. Skippon surrendered all his
Artillery, 100 barrels of powder, and about 6000 arms (muskets) on
condition that the officers should be convoyed in safety to Poole or
Southampton. Skippon was originally a waggoner, as stated in the
Card.--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, vol. ii., page 327.)


24. VI of Diamonds.

"_Kelsey, a sneeking Bodice maker a gifted Brother._"

On October 17th, 1645, a "summons to surrender was sent to the Garrison (of
Langford House, near Salisbury) and _fair and equal conditions_ were
speedily agreed upon, Lieutenant Colonel Hewson and Major Kelsey being
deputed to act for Cromwell."--(Godwin's _Civil War in Hampshire_, page
248.) This is probably the individual alluded to.

[Illustration: Seven of Hearts. Nathaniel Fines whereby hangs a tale.]

[Illustration: Seven of Clubs. Harrison the Carpenter cutting down y^e
horne of y^e Beast in Daniel]

[Illustration: Seven of Spades. Feek the Seer.]

[Illustration: Seven of Diamonds. Marshall curseing Mevoz.]


25. VII of Hearts.

"_Nathaniel Fines whereby hangs a tale._"

"Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, brother of Lord Say and Sele, who had been
educated at Winchester College, and had been admitted to a Fellowship at
New College, Oxford, in quality of Founder's kin, surrendered Bristol to
Prince Rupert on 26 July (1643.) and on the last day of the same month
reached Southampton, at the head of 80 horse, each of whom had a woman
riding behind him."--(_Mercurius Aulicus_, August 5th, 1643.) This, I
presume, is the tale alluded to.


26. VII of Clubs.

"_Harrison the Carpenter cutting down ye horne of ye beast in Daniel._"

Harrison was the son of a butcher near Nantwich, in Cheshire, and he it was
who, with Ireton, succeeded in bringing the King before the High Court of
Justice.--(_Clarendon's History of the Rebellion_, vol. iii., page 141.) Of
the beast in Daniel, it is said, "I beheld, and the same horn made war with
the Saints ... but the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his
dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end."--(Daniel, chap. vii.,
verses 21 and 26.)


27. VII of Spades.

"_Feek the seer._"

Feek was one of Cromwell's officers, who at the celebrated meeting at
Windsor, in 1648, declared that in a vision the Almighty had appeared to
him and announced that Monarchy should never more prevail in
England.--(_The Saints Triumph_, 1648, page 3.)


28. VII of Diamonds.

"_Marshall curseing Mevoz._"

At Edgehill, "the reverend and renowned Master Marshall, Master Ask, Master
Mourton, Masters Obadiah and John Sedgwick and Master Wilkins, and divers
others, eminently pious and learned pastors rode up and down the army
through the thickest dangers and in much personal hazard most faithfully
and courageously exhorting and encouraging the soldiers to fight valiantly
and not to fly, but now, if ever, to stand to it and fight for their
religion and laws."--(_Jehovah Jirah_, by John Vicars, p. 200.)

[Illustration: Eight of Hearts. Lambert Kt of y^e Golden Tulip.]

[Illustration: Eight of Clubs. Pride Oliver^s Drayman]

[Illustration: Eight of Spades. Scot Olivers Clerk or Tally man.]

[Illustration: Eight of Diamonds. Don Haselrigg K^t of y^e Codled braine.]


29. VIII of Hearts.

"_Lambert Kt. of y^e golden Tulip._"

When Lambert was cashiered by Parliament, he and eight other officers of
the Army conspired to wrest the power from Parliament. The badge adopted by
the conspirators was a yellow tulip.


30. VIII of Clubs.

"_Pride Oliver's drayman._"

Parliament not proving willing to condemn Charles I., was _purged_ of its
unruly members by Colonel Pride, (who was said to have been originally a
drayman) who entered the house and drove 160 members into the streets,
leaving 60 of the _faithful_ to govern the kingdom and murder their
monarch.--(Imprisonment and death of King Charles I., Aungervyle Society
reprint, p. 58).


31. VIII of Spades.

"_Scot Oliver's clerk or tallyman._"

Scott was one of the members of the long parliament, and with Robinson was
sent to Monk to "give some check to that license of addresses and resort of
malignants."--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 410.)


32. VIII of Diamonds.

"_Don Haselrigg Kt. of y^e codled braine._"

"Haselrigg was of a rude, and stubborn nature, and of a weak
understanding."--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 401).

[Illustration: Nine of Hearts. Huson the Cobler entring London.]

[Illustration: Nine of Clubs. The Army entring the City persuing the
Apprentices.]

[Illustration: Nine of Spades. A Comittee at Derby house to continue the
warr.]

[Illustration: Nine of Diamonds. Lenthall runns away With his Mace to the
Army.]


33. IX of Hearts.

"_Huson the cobler entring London._"

Hewson, who had originally been a cobbler, became Lt.-Col. of Cromwell's
Ironsides.


34. IX of Clubs.

"_The army entring the city persuing the apprentices._"

Parliament had voted that "the militia of the city of London should be put
into such hands as the army should desire.... Many thousands, apprentices
and young citizens, brought petitions to parliament" in opposition.
Parliament "durst not deny concurrence, the apprentices behaving themselves
so insolently, that they would scarce suffer the door of the House of
Commons to be shut."--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 36). The army
assembled at Hounslow Heath, and Colonel Rainsborough having seized in the
night the defences of London Bridge, "the army of horse, foot and cannon
marched next day through the city."--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii. p.
39).


35. IX of Spades.

"_A Committee at Derby House to continue the warr._"

Parliament had appointed a committee "for the raising of men ... and
listing in all places, companies of volunteers" which met at Derby House.


36. IX of Diamonds.

"_Lenthall runs away with his mace to the army._"

The Army having declared against the Committee of Safety, Lenthall the
Speaker recovered his spirit and went into the city uniting with the army
against the committee.--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii., p. 407.)

[Illustration: Ten of Hearts. The Rump and dreggs of the house of Com.
remaining after the good members were purged out.]

[Illustration: Ten of Clubs. Oliver seeking God while the K. is murthered
by his order.]

[Illustration: Ten of Spades. A Comitte at Haberdashers Hall to spoyle the
Caualeers as the Iews did the Egyptians.]

[Illustration: Ten of Diamonds. A Comittee for Plundered Ministers Miles
Corbet in the Chaire]


37. X of Hearts.

"_The Rump and dreggs of the house of Com. remaining after the good Members
were purged out._"

The explanation of this Card will be found above. (See VIII of Clubs.)


38. X of Clubs.

"_Oliver seeking God while the K. is murthered by his order._"

Cromwell who signed the warrant for the Execution of Charles I., is said to
have spent the night of the 29th of January, 1648, in prayer, and to have
taken good care to let his fanatic followers know it.


39. X of Spades.

"_A comitte at Haberdashers hall to spoyle the caualeers, as the Jews did
the Egyptians._"

Parliament, after the battle of Edgehill appointed a committee to sit at
Haberdashers Hall to consider the fines to be imposed upon those of the
King's adherents who had been taken prisoners there.


40. X of Diamonds

"_A comittee for plundered ministers, Miles Corbet in the chaire._"

This card speaks for itself.

[Illustration: Knave of Hearts. Hugh Peters shews the bodkins and thimbles
giuen by the wives of Wappin for the good old cause.]

[Illustration: Knave of Clubs. Ireton holds that Saints may pass through
all formes to obtaine his ends.]

[Illustration: Knave of Spades. S^r. H Vane finds a distinction betwixt a
Legal & an Evangelical Conscience]

[Illustration: Knave of Diamonds. H Martin moues y^e House that y^e King
may take the Couenant.]


41. Knave of Hearts.

"_Hugh Peters shews the bodkins and thimbles gluen by the wives of Wappin
for the good old cause._"

Hugh Peters was born at Fowey, publicly whipped and expelled from the
University of Cambridge, and obliged to leave England for adultery. After
some years spent in Holland and America, he returned in 1641, and became
chaplain to Lord Brooke's regiment. He was a most burlesque preacher, and
actually performed the act stated on the card. He styled the king Barabbas
and compared the army to Christ. He advised the destruction of Stonehenge.
Clarendon calls him the "ungodly confessor" who contrived the tragedy of
the two Hothams (_Rebellion_, vol. ii. p. 383). He is said to have been one
of the masked executioners of Charles I. He was beheaded October 16th 1660,
and certainly deserved his fate if any of the Regicides did.


42. Knave of Clubs.

"_Ireton holds that saints may pass through all forms to obtain his ends._"

Ireton was born in 1610, and commanded the left wing of the
Parliamentarians at Naseby. He married a daughter of Oliver Cromwell, whom
he succeeded as Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, where he died in 1651.


43. Knave of Spades.

"_Sir H. Vane finds a distinction betwixt a Legal and an Evangelical
Conscience._"

Vane was the principal mover of the Solemn League and Covenant, but did not
sit on the King's trial.


44. Knave of Diamonds.

"_H. Martin moues y^e House that y^e King may take the Covenant._"

Martin, Vane and Hazelrigg were the principal supporters of the
self-denying Ordinance.

[Illustration: Queen of Hearts. The Damnable engagement to be true and
Faithfull.]

[Illustration: Queen of Clubs. Ioane hold my Staff Lady Protectoresse.]

[Illustration: Queen of Spades. The Lady Lambert and Oliver under a strong
Conflict.]

[Illustration: Queen of Diamonds. The takeing of the Holy League and
Covenant.]


45. Queen of Hearts.

"_The damnable engagement to be true and faithfull._"

The taking of the Holy League and Covenant. (See Queen of Diamonds).


46. Queen of Clubs.

"_Joane hold my staff Lady Protectoresse._"

Another riddle. Cromwell's wife's name was Elizabeth. _Query, what was Lady
Lambert's name? (See next card)._


47. Queen of Spades.

"_The lady Lambert and Oliver under a strong conflict._"

It was said that an improper intimacy existed between Cromwell and
Lambert's wife, but although the Protector is known to have been somewhat
profligate in his youth, this charge seems to be mere calumny.


48. Queen of Diamonds.

"_The Takeing of the Holy League and Covenant._"

The Holy League and Covenant between England and Scotland was solemnly
adopted by Parliament on the 16th of November 1643. It was accepted by
Charles II. in 1650, but repudiated by him at his Restoration, and declared
to be illegal by Parliament.--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. ii. p. 229).

[Illustration: King of Hearts. The Saints think it meet that the Rump make
a League w^{th} Oneale]

[Illustration: King of Clubs. Oliver declars himself and the Rebells to be
the Gadly Party]

[Illustration: King of Spades. Bradshaw in y^e High Court of Iustice,
insulting of the King.]

[Illustration: King of Diamonds. S^r H Milmay solicits a Cityzens wife for
w^{ch} his owne Corrects him]


49. King of Hearts.

"_The saints think it meet that the Rump make a league with Oneale._"

Lord Broghill, president of Munster, and Sir Charles Coote, president of
Connaught had shewn enmity to the Rump, who thereupon coquetted with the
Irish party.--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. iii. p. 434).


50. King of Clubs.

"_Oliver declars himself, and the Rebells to be the Gadly party._"

This card needs no explanation.


51. King of Spades.

"_Bradshaw in y^e High Court of Justice insulting of the King._"

"The King demanded by what authority they brought him thither, the
President answered that they derived their authority from an act made by
the Commons.... The King demurred to the jurisdiction of the Court, but the
President overruled this." When the iniquitous sentence was read, "The King
would have spoken something before he was withdrawn, but being accounted
dead in law immediately after sentence was pronounced, it was not
permitted."--(_Ludlow's Imprisonment and Death of Charles I._--_Aungervyle
Soc. Rep._ pp. 62-65).


52. King of Diamonds.

"_Sir H. Mildmay solicits a Cityzen's wife, for which his owne corrects
him._"

On September 9, 1641, the House of Commons appointed Pym, St. John, Sir H.
Mildmay, Sir H. Vane, and others (six to form a quorum), as a Committee,
with extraordinary powers, to act during the recess, "To draw resort and
reverence to them from almost all sorts of men." Mildmay is said to have
used his political power to further his own projects of lust and
greed.--(_Clarendon's Rebellion_, vol. i., pp. 168 _et seq._).



Finis.





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