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Title: Braddock Road
Author: Lacock, John Kennedy
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Braddock Road" ***

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[Illustration: Map of





_Compiled by John Kennedy Lacock 1912._]



On September 24, 1754, Major-General Edward Braddock was appointed by
the Duke of Cumberland, captain-general of the British army, to the
command of the British troops to be sent to Virginia, with the rank of
generalissimo of all his Britannic Majesty's forces on the American
continent. Before the expedition could start, however, many weeks had to
be spent in extensive preparations, a delay which became so irksome to
Braddock that he determined to wait no longer on the tardy movement of
the transports. Accordingly, on December 21, 1754, accompanied by
Captain Robert Orme, one of his aides, and William Shirley, his military
secretary, he set sail for Virginia with Commodore Augustus Keppel, and
on February 20, 1755, anchored in Hampton Roads. It was not till January
14, 1755, that the rest of the ships were actually under sail, and not
till about March 15 that the entire fleet arrived at Alexandria,
Virginia, where the troops were disembarked and temporarily

[Illustration: ROBERT ORME


Meanwhile General Braddock had been busy making the necessary
preparations for the expedition against Fort Duquesne. As a matter of
first importance, he had written to the governors of the several
provinces asking them to meet him in council at Alexandria; and to the
five who responded to his invitation on April 14 he submitted various
proposals, to which they in turn made formal answer.[3]

Already, however, two days prior to the conference with the governors,
the advance column of the army, after much delay caused by the lack of
horses and wagons, had set out from Alexandria. The first objective
point was Wills Creek,[4] to which the two regiments of the army
proceeded by different routes, Sir Peter Halket's through Virginia via
Rock Creek and Winchester, Colonel Thomas Dunbar's through Maryland via
Fredericktown and thence across the Conogogee and into a road five miles
north of Winchester. From this point both divisions seem to have marched
over the same road to Fort Cumberland.[5] Still further delays were
occasioned by the want of wagons and horses for transportation, as well
as by the lack of provisions; but by the 19th of May practically all the
forces were encamped at the fort, a total of some 2100 men. It had thus
taken twenty-seven days to march from Alexandria to Fort Cumberland, a
distance of 180 miles; and, one may remark in passing, all the delays up
to this point had been occasioned by circumstances over which Braddock
had practically no control. He did not reach Fort Cumberland himself
till May 10.[6] Then he lost no time in giving his attention to the
three matters which were of greatest significance to the success of his
expedition,--(1) the Indian question, (2) the arrangements about wagons
and provisions, (3) the construction of a road through Pennsylvania to
serve as a means of connection with the base of supplies.

Of Braddock's relations with the Indians there are many conflicting
stories; but a careful examination of the most trustworthy accounts will
convince an impartial investigator that there is no basis in fact for
the charge, often made, that his conduct toward them was impolitic and
unjust. On the contrary, it is difficult to find a single fair criticism
that can be made against him on this score. However one may account for
the circumstance that but eight of them accompanied the expedition, it
seems to be practically certain that this small number was not due to
the fact that the Indians had not received every reasonable
consideration from the English general.

In providing the horses, wagons, and supplies necessary for the
undertaking, Braddock was ably assisted by Benjamin Franklin, whose
extraordinary efforts, tact, and courage called forth his warm
appreciation. "I desired Mr. B. Franklin, postmaster of Pennsylvania,
who has great credit in that province," he wrote on June 5, "to hire me
one hundred and fifty wagons and the number of horses necessary, which
he did with so much goodness and readiness that it is almost the first
instance of integrity, address, and ability that I have seen in all
these provinces."[7]

In the solution of his third problem, that of constructing a road
through Pennsylvania in order to have an adequate avenue for securing
supplies, Braddock was less successful. He quickly recognized the
importance of having the road cut west of the Susquehanna in order to
intersect with the route of the army at a place called indifferently
Turkey Foot, Crow Foot, or the three forks of the Youghiogheny (at what
is now Confluence[8]); and he had the satisfaction of seeing the work of
building this road prosecuted with great diligence by Governor Morris of
Pennsylvania. Unfortunately for Braddock, however, it proved to be
impossible to complete the road in time for it to be of any service to
him in the expedition.[9]

From Fort Cumberland westward Braddock had to make a road for his
troops across mountains divided by ravines and torrents, over a rugged,
desolate, unknown, and uninhabited country. The history of the
construction of this road and a description of its course it is the
purpose of this paper to set forth; for the growing interest with which
the routes of celebrated expeditions are coming to be regarded, and the
confusion that attends the tracing of such routes after a lapse of
years, make it altogether fitting that the road by which the unfortunate
Braddock marched to his disastrous field should be surveyed, mapped, and
suitably marked while it is yet possible to trace its course with
reasonable definiteness.

In any discussion of this subject three things should be borne clearly
in mind: (1) the irregular topography and mountainous nature of the
country through which the road had to be built, for there were as many
as six ranges of the Alleghanies to be crossed, besides other mountain
elevations and passes that presented as great and serious difficulties;
(2) the wooded character of the country; (3) the fact that the road had
to be constructed by the soldiers of the army. It is noteworthy that the
road which Braddock made followed very closely the course of the
so-called Nemacolin Indian trail,[10] and that it was used as a pioneer
road as far west as Jumonville until late in the first quarter of the
nineteenth century.

On May 30 a detachment of six hundred men commanded by Major Russell
Chapman set out to clear a road twelve feet wide from Fort Cumberland to
Little Meadows, twenty miles away; but in spite of some work previously
done on Wills Mountain, just west of the fort, they had so great
difficulty in passing the elevation that on the first day they got but
two miles from the starting-place. In the process, moreover, three of
their wagons were entirely destroyed and many more shattered.[11]

Of the road from old Fort Cumberland to the foot of Wills Mountain no
trace can be found today, but it seems probable that its course lay
along what is now Green Street in Cumberland. There is, however, just as
good and as direct a route from the camp by way of Sulphur Spring
Hollow, past the present Rose Hill cemetery, with an easy, ascending
grade to the ridge of the spur of Wills Mountain, and so on to a point
at or near the intersection of the Sulphur Spring, Cresaptown, and
Cumberland roads.[12] Something might be said in support of this route.
Nevertheless, the former was the direct way to reach the fording at
Wills Creek, the old trading-post at this point; and it was the way best
known to the Indians.

At the foot of the mountain the road proceeds westerly, parallel to the
Cumberland Road but ninety feet north of it, to a point opposite the old
Steel House.[13] At this spot the first depression or scar of the
Braddock Road can be seen today.

A short distance farther on, the road enters the wooded part of Wills
Mountain. At a distance of about four hundred feet westward it veers
away to the north from the old Cumberland Road, following to the top of
the mountain a succession of absolutely straight lines, no one of which
varies more than five degrees from the preceding line. Thence the course
bears to the south and joins the Cumberland Road opposite the old
Steiner House (now owned by Frederick Lang) in Sandy Gap,[14] about a
mile and a half from the junction with the Cresaptown road. To this
point the route may be traced with very little difficulty. From Sandy
Gap it follows the present course of the old Cumberland Road for about
seven-tenths of a mile,[15] crossing the George's Creek and Cumberland
Railroad and the Eckhart branch of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania
Railroad, to the house now occupied by Edward Kaylor, 380 feet from the
latter railroad crossing. Here the line leaves the old Cumberland Road
and runs due west four-tenths of a mile, passing under the front or
southwest corner of the new house recently built by William Hendrickson,
then fording Braddock Run in Alleghany Grove south of Lake View Cottage,
thence running through Alleghany Grove to the Vocke road 440 feet south
of its intersection with the National turnpike and 700 feet north of the
now abandoned part of the old Cumberland Road, and keeping on still in
the same straight line 1100 feet westward to the turnpike.

So great was the difficulty experienced by the advance party in passing
this mountain that General Braddock himself reconnoitered it, and had
determined to put 300 more men at work upon it when he was informed by
Mr. Spendelow, lieutenant of the seamen,[16] that he had discovered a
pass by way of the Narrows through a valley which led round the foot of
the mountain.[17] Thereupon Braddock ordered a survey of this route to
be made, with the result that a good road was built in less than three
days, over which all troops and supplies for Fort Cumberland were
subsequently transported.[18]

Every endeavor of the writer and his party to locate this new road
through the Narrows and round Wills Mountain proved fruitless. Of
approaches from Fort Cumberland to the Narrows over which an army with
baggage trains could pass, four, and only four, were possible.[19] (1)
One could cross Wills Creek at the ford or bridge near its mouth;[20]
and then go up the left or eastern bank of the stream;[21] (2) one could
pass down the decline back of the present Alleghany Academy to the
creek, and then follow the shore on either side, fording at the most
convenient point; (3) one could go down the sloping ground northward
from the fort, reaching the creek about where the cement mill now
stands, and then go up the creek as in the second route;[22] (4) one
could follow Fayette street and Sulphur Spring valley to the cemetery,
and thence turning abruptly to the right go down a little valley to the
Narrows, where a crossing of the creek would be immediately necessary. A
high bluff, or "stratum," running down to the very water's edge of the
creek on the right bank of the stream at the eastern entrance to this
gap makes it almost unquestionable that the beginning of the pathway
through the Narrows was on the left, or eastern, bank of Wills
Creek.[23] The question is, did this pathway follow the left bank of the
stream through the entire length of the gap, recrossing the creek near
the month of Braddock Run; or did it recross it in the Narrows near the
present location of the bridge over Wills Creek on the National
turnpike, and thence follow the course of the turnpike to the western
terminus of the Narrows? Judged by present conditions, the latter view
seems the more probable; but it is impossible to do more than make a
shrewd guess, for the construction of three separate railroads through
this narrow valley has completely altered the banks of the creek and
obliterated all traces of the road. In favor of the former contention it
should be said that, within the memory of some of the older and more
trustworthy citizens of Cumberland, there has been opportunity for the
easy construction of a road on the left, or eastern, bank of Wills
Creek.[24] Furthermore, at the entrance of the Narrows from the western
end the stratum of hard white sandstone formerly extended to the waters
of the creek.

Although the ground between these two obstructions to the Narrows on
its right bank might have afforded a good roadbed, yet undoubtedly they
proved to be obstacles that Braddock's engineers, with the appliances
which they had at hand, could not easily surmount. It is well known to
the older residents of Cumberland that as late as 1873 the mass of
boulders at the eastern end of the gap, lying along the right bank of
the stream, were in their primitive condition when a wagon road was
constructed by George Henderson, Jr., to join the Cumberland road on
that side of Wills Creek. On the contrary, the left bank presented no
such difficulties in the way of road-building; and a careful examination
of the ground through the entire length of the gap cannot fail to
convince one that in Braddock's day there was opportunity for the easy
construction of a road on that side.

After leaving the gap the road turned into the valley of Braddock Run;
but the difficulty of finding present traces of it at this point seems
almost insuperable on account of the character of the valley itself. The
methods employed by Braddock's engineers in laying out the road indicate
that its course was probably that afterwards followed by the National
turnpike to a point near the northwest corner of the Alleghany Grove
Camp Ground,[25] just beyond which and south of the turnpike is a
distinct hollow or trench. The neighborhood of Alleghany Grove was
unquestionably the place of the first encampment, Spendelow Camp.[26]

From the point of intersection with the National turnpike, one-fourth
mile west of Alleghany Grove, the Braddock Road keeps north of the
turnpike on somewhat higher ground to escape swampy land; thence, in
order to avoid the point of a hill (or perhaps it would be more accurate
to say a spur of Piney Mountain), it crosses the turnpike to the
southward, and after running parallel to it for about 150 yards
recrosses it to the northward at or near the point where the present
trolley line intersects it. Here there is a well-preserved scar for
almost a mile to the point where the road joins the National turnpike
near the six-mile post. The route then follows along the north side of
the turnpike, crossing Braddock Run, a little to the north of the
bridge;[27] thence running westerly north of the Six Mile House, it
recrosses Braddock Run, and a few rods beyond passes between the house
and barn of Charles Laber. On this farm there is a copious spring of
excellent water, locally known as Braddock Spring,[28] situated about
175 feet south of Braddock Road, and according to local tradition
marking the site of Spendelow Camp. That this theory is altogether
unlikely, however, is shown not only by the fact that the tradition does
not harmonize with the best authorities, but also by the topography of
the country and the lack of sufficient and suitable ground for an
encampment. That an advance party may have spent the night at or near
this fine spring is not improbable, but the natural place for the camp
was in the neighborhood of Alleghany Grove Camp Ground.[29]

Less than a quarter of a mile west of Charles Laber's house Braddock
Road again crosses Braddock Run; thence turning almost due south in
order to avoid a rocky ascent over which no road could be built, it
comes into the National turnpike about a mile west of the old
toll-house. From this point it coincides with the turnpike for 225 feet;
then it veers away to the north for some rods and turns west, crossing
the county road known as the Short Gap road about fifty yards north of
its junction with the turnpike, and passing the house now owned by John
Laber. A short distance west of this point it crosses the turnpike and
the Eckhart branch of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad in order
to avoid a very deep hollow, and joins the pike again four hundred feet
farther on. After following the old turnpike for about one hundred feet
it veers away again to the north of it at Spruce Bridge for about
three-quarters of a mile, passing Smith's Big Rocks, and joining the
turnpike again less than quarter of a mile east of Clarysville. From
Alleghany Grove Camp Ground to Clarysville there are only a few short
stretches where traces of the road cannot be distinctly seen, and in
some places the scar is nearly ten feet deep.

At Clarysville the road turns into the valley of Flaggy Run, apparently
following the west bank of the stream,[30] along which there is a deep
depression formed by an old mill race that might easily be mistaken for
the road itself. About half a mile southwest of Clarysville the road
turns almost at a right angle, keeping approximately the course of the
present county road for three-quarters of a mile up Hoffman Hollow.
Here again, running parallel to the present road, is an old tramway
roadbed which might readily be taken for Braddock's path. A short
distance beyond the Hoffman coal mines, on the north side of the road,
is a very deep scar, which is probably a part of Braddock's roadbed. At
the top of the hill the road turns northward at almost a right angle in
order to avoid what was formerly a very wide swamp, and then passes over
the ridge and down through Layman's orchard, where there is a deep scar.
Near the end of this ridge, overlooking Frostburg and about five miles
from Spendelow Camp, is the site of the second encampment, Martin's

From here the road crosses first the headwaters of the eastern branch of
George's Creek, next the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, and then
runs southeast of Frostburg into the premises of James Grose, and on
through the Sheatz, Taylor, and William Tiley properties to Braddock
Park. About 350 feet north of this park is an old milestone, which is
supposed by some writers to have been set up by Braddock.[32] Leaving
Braddock Park the line follows the Midlothian road for about four
hundred feet; but, soon entering a lane, it crosses the western branch
of George's Creek east of an old spring-house standing near the ruins of
the old Musselman farmhouse, and bearing the inscription "C. & S.
Musselman, May 30th, 1806." At this point, one-fourth mile west from
Braddock Park, the ascent of Big Savage Mountain begins. Although there
are some level spots on the western slope of the mountain, the ascent of
more than two miles is very steep and rocky, and the cut is several feet
deep in places.[33] The descent for a half mile or more is also very
rugged and in places extraordinarily steep.[34] On the east and west
slopes the traces of the route are very distinct.

At the foot of the mountain the road unites with a highway a little to
the east of Andrew Jackson Moore's stone house, and continues with it
for nearly half a mile, when it apparently turns into a private or
secondary road for about another mile to a point where there is a
favorable place for fording Savage River, the last water that empties
itself into the Potomac.[35] Near a schoolhouse on the north bank of
Savage River and a short distance west of the mouth of Carey Run the
road begins a very steep ascent of Little Savage Mountain. From this
point to the Henry Blocher farm, a little over a mile westward, the
course of the road follows closely that of a private way, on either side
of which there are for short intervals very clear signs of the location
of Braddock Road. From various indications it seems reasonable to
conclude that the farm of Henry Blocher, with the adjoining one of
George Blocher, marks the location of Braddock's third encampment,
Savage River Camp.[36] There is a local tradition that about five
hundred yards west of the Henry Blocher farm a skirmish with the Indians
took place, and that near a clump of trees east of Blocher's house some
British soldiers were buried.[37]

From the Henry Blocher farm the line follows the general course of a
private road westward for about a mile, crosses Mudlick Run to Read
Anderson's house, and thence leads up a rather formidable hill, on which
Braddock's engineers appear for the first time to have made use of a
winding path as a means of ascent. From this hill the road runs by very
favorable ground in a nearly straight line to the corner of a wood, and
then on through the woods to a township road, which it crosses at a
point about a quarter of a mile from the National turnpike. Proceeding
in the same straight line westward less than quarter of a mile, it
reaches and crosses the turnpike to the north. It was at or near this
intersection that the first brigade probably encamped on June 15.[38]

From this point to some woods less than a quarter of a mile westward
there is no trace of the road, but through these woods there is a
well-marked scar for over half a mile to Two Mile Run. Near this stream
are the renowned "Shades of Death," once a deep forest the tops of whose
towering trees intertwined.[39] From the "Shades of Death" the road
passes up Red Ridge, crossing another road a few rods to the north of a
house now occupied by Henry Meerbach;[40] thence it runs to Wolf Swamp
and Red Run,[41] and on to the foot of Meadow Mountain.[42] On the east
and west slopes of this mountain the cuts, from six to ten feet deep,
are for long distances clearly perceptible. On the western slope the
beautiful estate of Little Meadows, now owned by D. F. Kuykendall, of
Cumberland, marks the location of the fourth encampment.[43]

A short distance from Little Meadows the road crosses Chestnut Ridge.
Thence proceeding westwardly, it intersects the National turnpike about
one mile east of the Little Crossings bridge over the Castleman River,
runs through the farm of Eli Stanton, where there is a very clear scar,
and then crosses the Jennings Brothers' railroad.[44] A quarter of a
mile farther westward it intersects the National turnpike near Stanton's
old mill; but, after following the turnpike very closely for a few rods,
it veers off to the south, crossing the Castleman River about three
hundred yards above the Little Crossings bridge, near a point locally
known as Hickory Hole. On the west side of the river the road veers away
to the southwest, and a few rods from the fording enters some woods, in
which the scar is well marked. Thence turning westward it passes about a
quarter of a mile south of Grantsville, and continues in an
approximately straight line to Shade Hill, which shows a scar as deep as
any on the mountain ranges previously mentioned.[45] At the foot of the
western slope of this hill the road crosses Big Shade Run; and a short
distance westward, near Little Shade Run, it passes the house and barn
now owned by John P. Miller. This was the place of the fifth encampment.

At this point, in plain view of the National turnpike, the road begins
the ascent of Negro Mountain. Following a distinct trace for about a
mile, the traveller reaches the farm now owned by G. W. Shaw. The road
passes north of his house; and, at a point a quarter of a mile to the
westward and about the same distance south of the National turnpike, it
intersects a country road which extends northward to the turnpike.
Continuing from this point in the same straight line, it crosses the
turnpike one-fourth of a mile west of a milestone which bears the
inscription "104 to Wheeling To Frostburg 16." Up the mountain for a
distance of less than a mile the scar of the road is clearly seen, as
far as the north fork of Spiker Run on the eastern slope. From this
point, again, the line is easily followed westward for more than half a
mile, until it passes immediately south of the Oak Grove or Mennonite
church; but from here to the place at which it intersects the National
road on the eastern slope of Negro Mountain, at a lane east of the house
of H. C. Butler, there are but slight traces.

Along this lane for half a mile through slightly rolling depressions the
road runs on to Puzzley Run, and after fording the run passes with a
distinct scar north of a vacant log house over a very difficult pass to
a lane east of William Augustine's house, and thence along this lane for
several rods to the house, which is built on the very roadbed itself and
less than one hundred yards from the National turnpike. From Augustine's
house the line runs parallel to the turnpike, but a few rods south of
it, for over two miles to Coon Spiker's house, showing here and there
traces of the road that are more or less distinct. Apparently passing
south of this house and on through a lane to the south of Stephen
Spiker's house, it presently, a little to the westward, enters a stretch
of woods, through which it proceeds over Keyser Ridge, where, although
there is a very luxuriant growth of underbrush, the trace of the road
for a little over two miles is so distinct as to leave no doubt in
regard to its course over this rocky and very difficult pass. From the
woods it emerges into the bottom of the north fork of Mill Run, less
than half a mile from the Pennsylvania and Maryland boundary line at
Oakton, Maryland.[46] Here, in one of the most picturesque places for an
encampment along the entire route, was Bear Camp.[47]

Leaving Bear Camp, the road, after crossing Mill Run, intercepts the
Pennsylvania boundary line, and a few rods farther on crosses the
National turnpike less than one-fourth of a mile west of Oakton. It then
continues its course over Winding Ridge, on which the traces of it are
especially well marked. On the west side of this ridge the line passes
north of an old milk house and of a stone house owned by William Miller.
About half a mile westward it joins the National turnpike, which it
follows for nearly six hundred feet, and then veers away in a northerly
direction through some woods, crossing the headwaters of Laurel Run near
an old chestnut tree, two hundred yards east of Edward J. Augustine's
house. From this point to Addison, a little over a mile distant, the
road parallels the turnpike less than quarter of a mile to the north of

From Addison the course westward for nearly two miles to John
Augustine's house is well defined, though only here and there does one
find noticeable scars of the road. Before reaching John Augustine's
house one comes to Jasper Augustine's estate, where there was formerly
on Braddock Road an old hotel known as the Old Granny Welsh House, of
which nothing now remains but a few foundation stones. The exact
location of the point at which Braddock Road crosses the National
turnpike west of John Augustine's house is not quite clear; but the line
seems to turn almost due south less than three hundred yards west of his
house, winding round a hill and then passing through a lane to Jacob
Miller's house.[48] A short distance southwest of this house it strikes
north of the north branch of Braddock Run, and about half a mile beyond
comes to the forks of the run. Between these forks, and possibly a short
distance westward, is the ground which formed the seventh encampment,
called Squaw's Fort.[49]

From this point the road follows Braddock Run to its mouth, fording
(without bridging) the Big Crossings of the Youghiogheny at or near the
mouth of Braddock Run, about half a mile above where the National road
now crosses the river.[50] Keeping on down the west bank of the stream,
it begins a sharp ascent of Wolf, or Turkey Garden Hill, at a point
opposite Somerfield, and follows the northern side of this hill for some
distance before entering Jockey Hollow. The slope of the hill is very
steep and the scar distinctly marked; but from Jockey Hollow onward
through the valley of Potter Run there are almost no traces of the road.
After keeping a little way up this run through the valley of Stuck
Hollow, the line turns at almost a right angle to follow the course of a
small run leading to Second River Hill, which is less than two hundred
yards south of the National road. At the beginning of the ascent on the
eastern slope of this hill, just at the entrance to some woods, are
three distinct scars that eventually converge into one road, which runs
down the western slope and a little farther on passes less than ten rods
south of the house of Isaac M. Thomas.[51] A short distance westward
from his house the line runs to the north of the house of A. M. Thomas,
thence into a township road, then on past Charles Umble's residence to
that of B. F. Miller, and a little way from this place enters the woods
on Division Ridge. No other part of the old Braddock Road presents such
difficulties as this section of it over Division Ridge, for the
underbrush is so thick in places that one is compelled to crawl on hands
and knees in order to keep the road. The slopes are very rocky and the
passes are exceedingly difficult, but with plainly marked scars. At the
western foot of this ridge was situated the camp of the Twelve Springs,
which Orme designated as "the camp on the east side the Great

From this point the road, after passing through some woods for over a
mile and a half, crosses the Haydentown road near the house of Isaac
Savage. About a quarter of a mile west of this place there is a large
bog or swamp, a hundred or more yards across, which, if one may judge
from present conditions, the expedition probably skirted to the north,
and then went on westward in almost a straight line for about a mile and
a half till it came to the present township road. From the camp of the
Twelve Springs to this place one has very little difficulty in following
the old road; but from this point onward for a little over a mile no
distinct traces can be found. The most probable inferences, however,
support the local tradition that the line coincides with the township
road for a few rods, then crosses it north of an old burying-ground, to
the east of which formerly stood an old hotel, and then, immediately
rejoining it, coincides or closely parallels it for a distance of less
than half a mile. At this point the road enters the farm of W. H.
Hansel, and, proceeding in a northwesterly direction, presently enters a
strip of woods, passes the old Bishop house (unoccupied), and then runs
down Hager Hill south of James Bishop's, a quarter of a mile south of
Fort Necessity.[53] For a mile and a half from the James Bishop house
the road can be very accurately followed to the point at which it
intersects the National turnpike,--a point, it may be noted, about a
stone's throw south of the spot where lie the mortal remains of General
Braddock.[54] At this intersection the road leaves the turnpike never
again to rejoin it, and turns somewhat to the northwest in order to gain
a favorable pass over Chestnut Ridge, the last mountain ridge to be
crossed. About a quarter of a mile northward from Braddock's grave was
"the camp on the west side of the Great Meadows," the Orchard Camp.[55]



A short distance from this camp the road runs south of Nemacolin's
Wigwam,[56] and a few rods northward near a schoolhouse enters the
wooded part of Chestnut Ridge, on the eastern slope of which it passes
the spot called Peddler's Rocks. On the western slope a sort of
transverse road, the traces of which are easily followed except for
about a quarter of a mile, was cut to join a township road near the
house of John Henry Rankin, three miles and a half from Braddock's
grave. A few rods distant on the west side of the township road are the
Half King's Rocks, better known as the Great Rock, where the old camp of
the Half King was located; and close by these rocks and south of the
road is "Washington Springs," the place of Braddock's tenth encampment,
called Rock Fort,[57] two miles south of Dunbar's camp.

From Washington Springs the line follows the course of the present road
for about a mile, with distinct marks at intervals along the sides; it
then continues in a northerly direction eastward of the present road to
a point east of Jumonville and of Jumonville's grave.[58] From here it
keeps its northerly course along a very narrow crest of the mountain,
past the Honey Comb Rock, and thereafter in the main follows the
dividing line between North Union and Dunbar townships to a point about
one mile south of the old Meason house on the Gist Plantation, when by a
slight deflection northwestward it crosses Cove Run and the Pennsylvania
Railroad to Gist's Plantation, the place of the eleventh encampment.[59]
Between the tenth and eleventh encampments the traces of the road are so
plain that one does not have to rely on inference.

The last mountain barrier had now been passed. Along this narrow road,
cut but twelve feet wide and with the line of march often extending four
miles at a time, the army had toiled on day after day, crossing ridge
after ridge of the Alleghany Mountains, now plunging down into a deep
and often narrow ravine, now climbing a difficult and rocky ascent, but
always in the deep shadow of the forest. On such a thoroughfare, running
between heavily-wooded forests on either side of the road and made still
narrower and often several feet deep by usage, it was of course
impossible for a vehicle coming in the opposite direction to pass; but
on nearly all the mountain ranges, and especially in the low grounds,
there were wider places where by some kind of signals or by some
preconcerted understanding the packtrains and wagons, which frequently
moved in caravans, could meet and pass one another. Thenceforward,
however, the character and general aspect of the country were noticeably
different. The land of active coal developments, including coke ovens,
had been reached. For many miles to the northward the traveller passes
over a vast extent of country from under which the coal has been taken,
and from which the props have given way in many places, leaving deep and
treacherous holes. Such crevices are especially frequent from Prittstown
to a point east of Mount Pleasant, a circumstance which in some places
materially interferes with the relocation of Braddock Road.

Leaving Gist's Plantation the line runs abruptly to the northward,
evidently keeping the higher ground to a point about a quarter of a mile
east of Leisenring, where it turns into the valley of Opossum Run and
follows the stream to its mouth in the Youghiogheny. On the west side of
the Youghiogheny, near Robinson's Falls, was the place of the twelfth
encampment.[60] Although no trustworthy scars of the road from Gist's
Plantation to this point are discernible, there can be little doubt that
this was the line of march.[61]

Braddock forded the Youghiogheny at Stewart's Crossing, below the mouth
of Opossum Creek, to a point on the opposite side of the river above the
mouth of Mounts Creek, half a mile below Connellsville.[62] His next
encampment, which was on the east side of the fording, a mile north of
the mouth of Mounts Creek, cannot be definitely fixed; but most probably
it was on Davidson's land, southeast of the Narrows.[63] Between this
point and the battleground there were still some highlands to be
crossed, which, though trivial in comparison with the mountains already
traversed, were yet rugged enough to present serious difficulties to the
troops, already worn out with previous labors and exertions.

From the camp the road passes through the Narrows, evidently along the
present township road, until it strikes the boundary line between
Bullskin and Upper Tyrone townships. This it follows in a northeasterly
direction for a distance of some mile and a half, with a few noticeable
deflections from the present township road, to a point about half a mile
east of Valley Works. Here the course veers away to the northeast in
almost a straight line to Prittstown, either paralleling or coinciding
with the line between Bullskin and Upper Tyrone for the last mile or so.
Then, continuing in the same direction beyond Prittstown for a mile and
a half, it reaches the John W. Truxell farm (recently purchased by Elmer
E. Lauffer[64]), where on the night of July 1 the army seems to have
bivouacked in order that a swamp which extended for a considerable
distance on either side of Jacob's Creek might be made passable. From
the Truxell farm the line turns almost due north through the swamp,
crossing Green Lick Run, and thence keeping a straight line west of the
Fairview church to a point a short distance west of Hammondville. Here,
at a place called Jacob's Cabin, still on the east side of Jacob's
Creek, the army encamped. It must be admitted that very few reliable
traces of the road from Connellsville to this point were found by the
exploring party; but the topography of the country, the course of the
road as shown on the earlier maps, the testimony of Orme's journal and
of local tradition, all lead the writer to believe that the route
between these two points as here laid down is correct in the main.[65]

Braddock appears to have crossed Jacob's Creek a short distance west of
Pershing Station, on the Scottdale branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad
near the spot where Welshonse's mill formerly stood.[66] On this side of
the creek the road follows the township line a distance of one and
one-half miles to Eagle Street in Mount Pleasant, and while still within
the limits of the town crosses the Pittsburg and Mount Pleasant pike.
From Mount Pleasant the course for the next few miles is quite evidently
that of the township line between Mount Pleasant and Hempfield townships
on the east and north and East Huntingdon and South Huntingdon townships
on the west and south respectively. A portion of this line coincides
with the road now in use. About a mile north of Mount Pleasant is a very
deep scar in an old orchard on the John McAdam farm, a trace which
continues to be visible for some rods farther north on the same farm. A
little way beyond the point where the Braddock Road leaves the McAdam
farm there is also a marked depression for over five hundred yards on
the property of the Warden heirs. Extending a mile westward from the
intersection of the Mount Pleasant, Hempfield, and East Huntingdon
township lines is a great swamp of several hundred acres,[67] which the
road skirts to the eastward and then keeps on to the Edwin S. Stoner
farm, near Belson's Run, a tributary of Sewickley Creek. According to
local tradition, this farm is the site of the Salt Lick Camp, a view in
support of which there is much to be said.[68]

About a quarter of a mile from the Stoner farm the line crosses Belson's
Run southeast of Combato's store to a private or secondary road known as
Braddock's Lane, which it follows for three-quarters of a mile till it
meets a township road. From this point it keeps the present township
line to Sewickley Creek, at the point of intersection between Hempfield
and South and East Huntingdon townships, half a mile southwest of
Hunkers.[69] After crossing Sewickley Creek[70] the road veers away
northwest, showing a slight depression a little farther on, south of
David Beck's house. Continuing in practically the same straight line, it
apparently joins the boundary line between Sewickley and Hempfield
townships, and thence runs westward along this line to the D. F.
Knappenberger farm,[71] which offers all the requirements favorable for
a camp, and is probably the place of the sixteenth encampment, Thicketty

From this place, which is about a mile southeast of old Madison, the
road seems to follow the township line northwestward; for southwest of
Madison there are some well-marked scars, and a short distance beyond
the town, near the fording of a run on the higher ground approaching the
Little Sewickley, there are more traces. After fording the Little
Sewickley it passes, still northwestward, through the John Leisure
farm,[73] showing on the top of the hill beyond and westward toward the
John C. Fox farm some trustworthy scars. At this point, about a mile
northwest of the Little Sewickley, it crosses a township road over some
falls between John C. Fox's house and barn, and thence with very
perceptible traces keeps on in the same straight line to the William B.
Howell farm. From a point one-fourth of a mile southeast of the Howell
house it follows the present clay road to a point as far beyond, and
thence continues westward to the Hezekiah Gongaware farm.[74] After
leaving this place the line is unquestionably that of the present
township road for about a quarter of a mile; then, going on in the same
direction, it passes about a quarter of a mile south of Byerly's
schoolhouse. At less than half a mile beyond the schoolhouse it joins
the present township road again, and thus continues to Circleville,
except for one short stretch of a few rods to the east of the road,
where there is a very clear depression. In Circleville the road seems to
pass east of Long Run church, and a few rods northwest of it crosses the
Pittsburg and Philadelphia turnpike. Here, in the neighborhood of
Circleville and Stewartsville, the army encamped again.



At this point General Braddock, after causing an examination of the
country between the camp and Fort Duquesne to be made, abandoned his
design of approaching the fort by the ridge route, being deterred by the
deep and rugged ravines of the streams and by the steep and almost
perpendicular precipices to the eastward of Circleville and
Stewartsville.[75] Turning westward, therefore, at almost a right
angle at or near Stewartsville, possibly at Charles Larimer's barn, the
route strikes out in a shorter line coincident with the present county
road, undoubtedly following the course of this road for about a mile;
thence continuing in the same direction for a little over a mile along a
ridge on either side of which is a narrow valley, it intersects the
White Oak Level road about half a mile east of the boundary line between
Alleghany and Westmoreland counties. From this point it follows
naturally down the valley of Long Run, past what was Samson's old
mill,[76] and across Long Run at or near the present bridge to a point
about two and a half miles westward, where the army encamped at a very
favorable depression now known as McKeesport, two miles north of the
Monongahela River and about four miles from the battlefield. A
magnificent spring of water marks the site of this encampment, which was
called Monongahela Camp.[77]

On the morning of July 9 the army turned into the valley of Crooked Run
down what is now known as Riverton Avenue, fording the Monongahela to
the north of the mouth of the run in order to avoid the narrow pass on
the east side of the river.[78] The route follows down the western bank
of the Monongahela through what is now Duquesne, fording the river a
second time a short distance west of Turtle Creek. Here, on the eastern
bank of the Monongahela, the battle took place.

From a point about a mile southeast from Circleville to Braddock's Field
there are no trustworthy scars of the road; but the topography of the
country is such that the line between these two points can be readily
determined. Some of the older citizens pointed out to the writer the
place at which Braddock forded the Monongahela, for marks of the passage
have been visible until within a few years.[79] Recently, however, the
whole complexion of the ground on the west side of the river has been
changed to so great a degree, not only by the erection of steel works
with their large deposits of slag along the banks, but also by the
improved methods of navigation, that all traces of Braddock's movements
are forever obliterated. On the eastern side of the Monongahela and west
of Turtle Creek, at what is now Braddock, where the battle occurred,
encouraging efforts are now on foot that promise to lead to a
satisfactory settlement of the point at which the fording actually
occurred, as well as of the location of the route through the
battlefield and of the ground on which the British and the French troops
took position.[80]

[Illustration: BRADDOCK'S GRAVE


In the hope of finding some signs of the path through the battlefield,
the writer made a somewhat careful examination and study of the place;
but the contour of the ground over which the line of march extended was
found to be so much altered that even the slightest traces of its course
were not perceptible. From a study of the Mackellar maps,[81] however,
it would appear that from a point a few rods west of Turtle Creek,
eastward and northward of Frazer's Cabin, the road veered away to the
northwest,[82] evidently crossing the Pennsylvania Railroad at or near
Thirteenth Street (where there was formerly a hollow way or ravine, it
is said), and thence more than probably following the course of the
railroad to Robinson Street, and on to a point northward of the old
Robinson burying-ground. From here the line would seem to have kept east
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and station until it reached a point about
six hundred yards beyond the station, between Jones Avenue and Sixth
Street. This street may be identified as the second ravine, through
which Frazer's Run flowed and in which the advance column of Braddock's
army was attacked by Captain Beaujeu[83] and his party.[84]


 [1] During the month of August, 1908, the writer conducted the
 following party over the Braddock Road: Charles Francis Abbott of
 Somerville, Mass., a sub-master in the Somerville English High School;
 Henry Temple of Washington, Pa., professor of history at Washington
 and Jefferson College, and his son John, a student at Washington and
 Jefferson Academy; Claude S. Larzelere of Mount Pleasant, Michigan,
 professor of history in the Michigan State Normal School; Ernest
 K. Weller of Washington, Pa., photographer; Edward B. Murdoch,
 Esq., and his brother, John H. Murdock, a senior at Washington and
 Jefferson College. During the months of June and July, 1909, he
 conducted a second party over the road: Andrew Jackson Waychoff,
 professor of history at Waynesburg College; Rev. George P. Donehoo
 of Connellsville, Pa.; Charles P. McCormick of Bentleyville, Pa.,
 principal of the Bentleyville Public School; Edward Westlake of
 Washington, Pa., principal of the Fifth Ward School at Washington,
 Pa.; and Ernest K. Weller of Washington, Pa., photographer.

 For constant interest and the stimulus of frequent discussions,
 for many helpful suggestions in regard to the preparation of this
 paper, and for valuable criticism of the manuscript, the writer is
 under the deepest obligation to Professor Albert Bushnell Hart of
 Harvard University; for helpful criticism of the manuscript he is
 indebted also to Professor Edward Channing and to Professor William
 Bennett Munro of Harvard University; for conscientious and efficient
 service in the preparation of the manuscript for the press he owes
 a peculiar debt of gratitude to Miss Addie F. Rowe of Cambridge;
 and for practical help at every step of the way he again offers his
 hearty thanks to the scores of persons who have given him valued and
 appreciated assistance, some of them at great expense of time and

 The accompanying map, made on the ground, but afterwards drafted under
 the supervision of J. Sutton Wall, chief draughtsman, and William
 A. Moore, assistant-chief draughtsman of the Interior Department,
 Harrisburg, Pa., gives a pretty clear idea of the course of the road
 and the location of the encampments. Of Middleton's map (originally
 published in _Olden Time_, II. op. 528) Lowdermilk says, "The map as
 now given may be confidently accepted as perfectly accurate in every
 respect" (Lowdermilk, _History of Cumberland_, 137). To one who has
 followed the course of the road for himself, however, the fallacy of
 such an assertion is apparent; for, though Middleton's map may fairly
 be regarded as altogether the best yet published, it does not show the
 route through the Narrows of Wills Creek at all, nor does it indicate
 all the deviations from the Cumberland (National) Road. Not that any
 sweeping claim to absolute accuracy is made for the accompanying map.
 The writer may be permitted to say, however, that he has exercised
 great care in laying down the road on the topographic sheets, and that
 from many trustworthy sources he has gained information which has
 helped to fix definitely points long since obliterated.

 [2] Charles C. Coffin, _Old Times in the Colonies_, 377.

 [3] The five governors were William Shirley of Massachusetts, James
 De Lancey of New York, Robert Hunter Morris of Pennsylvania, Robert
 Dinwiddie of Virginia, and Horatio Sharpe of Maryland. The council was
 held at the Carlisle House, often called the Braddock House, which is
 still standing. For the answers of the governors, see _Documentary
 History of New York_, II. 648-651.

 [4] Fort Cumberland, situated on the west side of Wills Creek,
 was erected and garrisoned during the winter of 1754-5 under the
 supervision of Colonel James Innes, who called it Fort Mount Pleasant.
 The name was changed to Fort Cumberland in 1755 by order of General
 Braddock. Today the Emanuel Episcopal church occupies part of the
 ground of the old fort, which was situated on a bluff rising from the

 [5] See Winthrop Sargent, _History of an Expedition against Fort Du
 Quesne_, 366-373. This monograph was published in the United States in
 1855 by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The first 280 pages
 contain an introductory memoir by Sargent; pages 281-358 include the
 journal of Robert Orme, one of Braddock's aides-de-camp (this is
 the only American edition of Orme's record), and pages 359-389 the
 journal of a naval officer which is very frequently referred to as
 the Seaman's Journal. Of this second journal there seem to be two
 texts, one preserved in the Royal Artillery Library at Woolwich,
 England (printed in Hulbert's _Historic Highways of_ _America_, IV.
 83-107), the other in the possession of the Rev. Francis-Orpen Morris
 of Newburnholm Rectory, Yorkshire, to whose father it was given by
 Captain Hewitt. The second text is the one published by Sargent, but
 the variations between the two manuscripts are unimportant for the
 present purpose. This paper will refer to the Sargent edition of the
 second journal under the caption of _Seaman Journal_; and in citing
 the _Orme Journal_ it will also use the pagination of Sargent.

 [6] On this day Washington was appointed an aide-de-camp to Braddock.

 [7] Braddock to Sir Thomas Robinson, _Olden Time_, II. 237. See also
 Hulbert, _Historic Highways_, IV. 68; and Franklin, _Works_ (Bigelow
 ed.), I. 251, 257.

 [8] _Orme Journal_, 315; see also Thomas Balch, _Letters and Papers
 relating to the Provincial History of Pennsylvania_, 34-35.

 [9] See _Burd Papers_ (Mss.) in the library of the Historical Society
 of Pennsylvania. At the time of Braddock's defeat this Pennsylvania
 road was completed to the summit of the Alleghany mountain, some 20
 miles beyond Raystown, now Bedford, Pa. (see _Pennsylvania Colonial
 Records_, VI. 484-485). In 1758 General Forbes constructed a road (now
 commonly known as the Forbes Road) from Bedford to Fort Duquesne. This
 route runs about parallel to the Braddock Road, though many miles
 north of it.

 [10] Hulbert, _Historic Highways_, II. 89-91. In 1753 the Ohio Company
 had opened up this path or trail at great expense; and in 1754
 Washington had repaired the road as far west as Gist's Plantation (Mt.
 Washington). See Washington, _Writings_ (Sparks ed.), II. 51.

 [11] _Orme Journal_, 323-324.

 [12] The construction of the Cumberland Road was authorized by an
 act of Congress, approved March 29, 1806, and entitled "An Act to
 regulate the laying out and making a Road from Cumberland, in the
 State of Maryland, to the State of Ohio" (United States, _Statutes
 at Large_, II. 357). By the provisions of the act the President was
 required to appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,
 three discreet and disinterested citizens to constitute a board of
 commissioners to lay out the road. The men selected were Thomas Moore
 and Eli Williams of Maryland, and Joseph Kerr of Ohio.

 In their second report, under date of January 15, 1808, the
 commissioners show that the new road followed only a very small
 portion of the Braddock Road. "The law," runs the document, "requiring
 the commissioners to report those parts of the route as are laid on
 the old road, as well as those on new grounds, and to state those
 parts which require the most immediate attention and amelioration, the
 probable expense of making the same _passable_ in the most difficult
 parts, and through the whole distance, they have to state that, from
 the crooked and hilly course of the road now traveled, the new route
 could not be made to occupy any part of it (except an intersection
 on Wills Mountain [Sandy Gap], another at Jesse Tomlinson's [Little
 Meadows], and a third near Big Youghioghana [Somerfield], embracing
 not a mile of distance in the whole) without unnecessary sacrifices of
 distance and expense" (_Executive Document_, 10 Cong., 1 sess., Feb.
 19, 1808, 8 pp.).

 On November 11, 1834, the new road through the Narrows was opened
 for travel, the citizens of Cumberland, Frostburg, and the vicinity
 celebrating the occasion in an enthusiastic and elaborate manner
 (Lowdermilk, _History of Cumberland_, 336).

 [13] This was formerly the building of the Mount Nebo School for Young

 [14] This point of intersection may be further verified by reference
 to the first report (of December 30, 1806) made by the commissioners
 who laid out the Cumberland Road: "From a stone at the corner of lot
 No. 1, in Cumberland, near the confluence of Wills Creek and the north
 branch of Potomac River, thence extending along the street westwardly
 to cross the hill lying between Cumberland and Gwynn's Six Mile House,
 at the gap where Braddock's Road passes it" (_Executive Document_, 9
 Cong., 2 sess., Jan. 31, 1807, 16 pp.).

 [15] It probably follows the turnpike here in order to avoid a very
 deep hollow. This conclusion of the writer is confirmed by the
 resurvey of Pleasant Valley patented to Evan Gwynne on October 5,
 1795, which calls for "a water oak standing above the three springs
 that break out in Braddock's Road" (Deed from Evan Gwynne to Joseph
 Everstein, May 27, 1834, recorded in Liber R, folios 95-96, in the
 office of the clerk of Alleghany County, at Cumberland, Maryland).
 These springs are a few rods west of James H. Percy's tenant house,
 which is on the old Cumberland Road.

 [16] The Honorable Augustus Keppel, commodore of the fleet, had
 furnished Braddock with a detachment of thirty sailors and some
 half-dozen officers to assist in the rigging, cordages, etc. These
 seamen proved of valuable aid to the expedition in getting the wagons
 and the artillery down the mountain.

 [17] _Orme Journal_, 324.

 [18] _Orme Journal_, 324; also _Seaman Journal_, 381-382. For reasons
 not easy to understand, the Cumberland Road was laid out along the
 more westerly deflection over Wills Mountain by the way of Sandy
 Gap, instead of by the natural and more favorable route through the
 Narrows of Wills Creek. In 1834, however, it was changed to the latter
 location, and remains the line of the present National turnpike.

 [19] The writer has interviewed many of the reliable and trustworthy
 citizens of Cumberland on this point. To Robert Shriver and J. L.
 Griffith, respectively president and cashier of the First National
 Bank of Cumberland, and to the late Robert H. Gordon, one of the
 leading attorneys of the town, he owes special thanks for their
 painstaking interest, given at the expense of much valuable time,
 in aiding him in his attempt to discover the route of the army out
 of Cumberland. Mr. Shriver, who has made an extensive study of the
 course of the road from Fort Cumberland to the Narrows, thinks that
 the weight of evidence favors a route from Fort Cumberland along the
 gradually sloping ground northwestward to a point on Wills Creek
 about where the cement mill now stands. From here the road would have
 been easy, comparatively short, and almost level for the greater part
 of the distance to the eastern end of the gap, where there would
 evidently have been a favorable opportunity to ford Wills Creek near
 the mouth of one of its tributaries. Much might be said in favor
 of this contention; but, unfortunately, it has thus far failed to
 yield any results that look toward a definite and authoritative
 identification of Braddock's line of march.

 [20] It is worthy of note that the bridge was in course of
 construction at least twelve days before the road through the Narrows
 was completed (_Seaman Journal_, 379).

 [21] See Shippen's manuscript draft of 1759, in the library of the
 Historical Society of Pennsylvania; map in Orme's Journal, op. 282;
 and a map in Hulbert, _Historic Highways_, IV. op. 20. These maps,
 though necessarily drawn on a small scale, give color to the theory of
 this route.

 [22] See Washington's manuscript sketch of Fort Cumberland made in
 1758, in E. M. Avery, _History of the United States_, IV. 207.

 [23] In 1863 Mr. Robert Shriver made a most excellent photograph of
 this point, which shows the stratum in its primitive condition.

 [24] See Lowdermilk, _History of Cumberland_, 137; also Searight, _The
 Old Pike_, 64, 71 ff. G. G. Townsend of Frostburg, road engineer for
 Alleghany County, Maryland, has an old blue print, made before the
 railroads were built, which shows on the left, or eastern, bank of
 Wills Creek a wagon road running through the Narrows and crossing the
 creek near the mouth of Braddock Run.

 [25] The three engineers who accompanied Braddock's expedition
 (_Seaman Journal_, 364) made striking use of a series of absolutely
 straight lines in laying out the road, except where the fording of
 a river required a tortuous route, or where the topography of the
 country was such as to render their plan utterly impracticable. This
 device, which impressed itself upon the writer and his party as they
 were crossing Wills Mountain, afterwards proved of great value to
 them in their efforts to pick up the road where traces of it were
 completely obliterated for rods at a time in cultivated fields.

 [26] _Orme Journal_, 327. In fixing the several encampments the
 writer has been aided to some extent by the maps already published,
 but chiefly by Orme's journal, which records the number of miles of
 each day's march with great accuracy, and by the topographic sheets,
 without the aid of which neither the road nor the encampments could
 have been so definitely located.

 [27] From this point to Clarysville the route is through a gap between
 Dans Mountain and Piney Mountain.

 [28] This spring is about one-third of a mile west of the tollgate on
 the National turnpike.

 [29] Although many misstatements and untenable notions as to the
 location of the road, the places of encampment, etc., are prevalent in
 the country adjacent to the line of march, yet local tradition is in
 many cases surprisingly accurate.

 [30] See Middleton's map.

 [31] _Orme Journal_, 333.

 [32] See Lowdermilk's _History of Cumberland_, 257. This stone,
 sometimes designated Braddock's Stone, bears the following
 inscription: "11 mile To Ft Cumberland 29 Ms To Captn Smyth's
 Inn and Bridge Big Crossings & The Best Road To Redstone Old Fort 64
 M." This is fairly legible. The other side reads, "Our countrys rights
 we will defend." There is no reason for supposing that this stone was
 erected by Braddock's command.

 [33] On the summit of the mountain, a few hundred yards to the north
 of the road, is St. John Rock, 2930 feet above sea level, from which a
 magnificent view of the surrounding country is to be had.

 [34] Three wagons were entirely destroyed in passing this mountain,
 and several more were shattered (_Orme Journal_, 335).

 [35] It is an interesting fact that throughout the route the fording
 of a stream was in every case at or slightly below the mouth of a
 tributary. At such a place there is usually a riffle caused by the
 formation of a bar of sand, gravel, and mud, the crest of which
 offers a very practical opportunity for fording. Some of the apparent
 deviations of the road from what would seem to have been the natural
 course may have been made for the sake of avoiding a depth of water
 which might have rendered the streams impassable except by bridging.
 In other instances a circuitous route may have been the most
 practicable way of passing a swamp or a bog.

 [36] _Orme Journal_, 335.

 [37] Orme mentions no encounter with the Indians at this place of

 [38] According to Orme, the first brigade encamped about three
 miles west of Savage River (_Orme Journal_, 335), a location which
 corresponds with that suggested above. This spot, furthermore, is the
 only advantageous ground in the vicinity.

 [39] Dense forests of white pine formerly covered this region, which,
 from the deep gloom of the summer woods and the favorable shelter
 that the pines gave to the Indian enemy, came to be spoken of as the
 "Shades of Death." The writer's party was told that the old wagoners
 who used to drive from Baltimore to Zanesville dreaded this locality
 as the darkest and gloomiest place along the entire route. Of the
 former gloomy forest, however, nothing now remains except the stumps.
 The trees were cut down years ago, sawed up, and shipped to market.

 [40] From Mrs. Henry Meerbach the writer secured two English pennies
 bearing date of 1724 and 1753 respectively, which, she said, were
 picked up on Braddock Road on the eastern slope of Meadow Mountain.

 [41] This is doubtless the bog to which Orme refers as having "been
 very well repaired by Sir John St. Clair's advanced party with
 infinite labour" (_Orme Journal_, 335).

 [42] This mountain, it may be noted, constitutes the dividing ridge
 between the waters that flow into the Atlantic and those that enter
 the Gulf of Mexico.

 [43] _Orme Journal_, 335. The Little Meadows farm at present consists
 of over 1200 acres. At the time the National turnpike was laid out
 Jesse Tomlinson owned the land at this point and kept a tavern on
 Braddock Road. The Tomlinson estate was, indeed, one of the objective
 points for the turnpike as specified in the first report of the
 commission appointed to lay out the National road, then uniformly
 known under the legal name of Cumberland Road (_Executive Document_, 9
 Cong., 2 sess., Jan. 31. 1807, 16 pp.). On June 15, 1755, the entire
 force had reached Little Meadows, where at a council of war it was
 determined that General Braddock and Colonel Halket, with a detachment
 of the best men of the two regiments (in all about 1400, lightly
 encumbered), should move forward. Colonel Dunbar with the residue
 (about 900), and the heavy baggage, stores, and artillery, was to
 advance by slow and easy marches.

 [44] At this point it may be well to clear up an obscurity likely to
 arise from a confusion of the following names: Little Meadows is at
 the western slope of Meadow Mountain, twenty miles from Cumberland;
 Great Meadows, which marks the site of Fort Necessity, is about
 thirty-one miles farther west; Little Crossings is a ford of the
 Castleman River just east of Grantsville and two miles west of Little
 Meadows; Great Crossings is the passage of the Youghiogheny about half
 a mile above Somerfield and sixteen miles west of Little Crossings.

 [45] This is the only region on the entire route in which pine trees
 in any considerable quantity still remain.

 [46] Orme very accurately and tersely describes this day's march over
 Keyser Ridge: "We could not reach our ground till about 7 of the
 clock, which was three hours later than common, as there was no water,
 nor even earth enough to fix a tent, between the great Mountain and
 this place" (_Orme Journal_, 338).

 [47] At this camp, Washington, prostrated by a violent attack of
 fever, was left under a guard to await the arrival of Dunbar with the
 rest of the army. That it was really here, and not, as is usually
 asserted, at Little Meadows or Little Crossings that Washington was
 left, is clear from his own words. "We set out [from Little Meadows],"
 he wrote to his brother on June 28, "with less than thirty carriages
 including those that transported the ammunition for the howitzers,
 twelve-pounders, and six-pounders, and all of them strongly horsed;
 which was a prospect that conveyed infinite delight to my mind, though
 I was exceedingly ill at the time. But this prospect was soon clouded,
 and my hope brought very low indeed, when I found that, instead of
 pushing on with vigor, without regarding a little rough road, they
 were halting to level every mole-hill, and to erect bridges over every
 brook, by which means we were four days in getting twelve miles.
 At this camp I was left by the Doctor's advice, and the General's
 positive orders" (Washington, _Writings_, Sparks ed., II. 82-83).

 What Washington says about the length of time spent in marching from
 Little Meadows helps to fix the location of the camp; for it agrees
 with Orme's assertion that they left Little Meadows on June 19 and
 marched from the camp on June 23 (_Orme Journal_, 336-340). Even in
 the matter of distance there is a difference of only a mile between
 the two accounts, and this difference may be accounted for by the fact
 that Orme always uses the phrase "we marched _about_" so many miles.
 See also _Pennsylvania Gazette_, July 3, 1755.

 [48] See Shippen's manuscript draft of 1759, in the library of the
 Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

 [49] _Orme Journal_, 340. This camping-ground was reached June 23,
 1755. Shippen's draft would seem to confirm the foregoing statements
 as to the course of the road from Addison to the Youghiogheny. On
 file, however, in the land office of the Interior Department at
 Harrisburg, under date of Oct. 8, 1788 is the survey of a tract (also
 marked Braddock's Old Road) situated near the headwaters of the south
 branch of Braddock's Run, about one mile south of Addison. This
 discovery, recently made, necessitates a further examination of the
 ground in order, if possible, to determine the exact location of the
 road between the state line and the Youghiogheny.

 [50] According to Orme, the Youghiogheny is at this point "about one
 hundred yards wide, about three feet deep, with a very strong current"
 (_Orme Journal_, 340).

 [51] The writer secured from Mr. Thomas an old axe that was found near
 Braddock Road. There is every reason to believe that it was used by
 one of Braddock's wood-choppers.

 [52] _Orme Journal_, 341. This camp was about four miles east of Great
 Meadows, on land now occupied by Albert Landman. Formerly one Job
 Clark kept a hotel at Twelve Springs on Braddock Road, one mile south
 of the National turnpike.

 [53] _Orme Journal_, 341. Although the day was fast waning when
 the cortege passed Fort Necessity,--the place where Washington had
 the previous year capitulated with the honors of war to Coulon de
 Villiers,--no stop was made there. This fort, of which some of the
 outlines still remain, is situated on Meadow Run in Great Meadows, a
 few hundred yards south of the National turnpike. In 1767 Washington
 acquired, under the name of Mt. Washington, a tract of 334 acres
 embracing Fort Necessity. That portion of Great Meadows which includes
 the old fort is now owned by Lewis Fazenbaker. On July 4, 1908, a very
 suitable marker was erected to commemorate the battle there.

 [54] The grave is enclosed by a board fence, within which are a
 number of beautiful pine trees. A marker was erected at this point
 on July 4, 1908. In 1909 a number of spirited citizens of Uniontown,
 Pa., organized an association known as "The General Edward Braddock
 Memorial Park Association." They have purchased twenty-four acres
 of land, including Braddock's grave, and, in order to preserve to
 posterity this historic spot, they propose to erect a suitable
 monument to his memory and otherwise embellish the grounds.

 [55] _Orme Journal_, 343. This orchard, situated about two miles from
 Fort Necessity and referred to by many writers, must have consisted of
 crab apple trees at that time. In this camp Braddock died, July 13,

 [56] Owned by Henry Harrison Wiggins.

 [57] "This Indian camp was in a strong position, being upon a high
 rock with a very narrow and steep ascent to the top. It had a spring
 in the middle, and stood at the termination of the Indian path to the
 Monongahela, at the confluence of Red Stone Creek" (_Orme Journal_,
 343). By the aid of this description the writer was able to identify
 the Half King's Rocks even to the minutest detail.

 [58] Jumonville marks the northernmost point reached by Dunbar's
 regiment. Near the grave is the ledge of rocks on which Washington and
 the Half King took position in their attack on Jumonville, May 28,
 1754, in what proved to be the initial battle of the French and Indian
 War. As Francis Parkman tersely puts it, "This obscure skirmish began
 the war that set the world on fire" (Parkman, _Montcalm and Wolfe_,
 1905, I. 156).

 [59] _Orme Journal_, 344.

 [60] _Orme Journal_, 344. James Veech says in his _Monongahela of
 Old_ (p. 60) that this encampment was "a short half mile below New
 Haven," on land then (1858) owned by Daniel Rogers; but Judge Veech is
 confused by Orme's entry of June 28, which says, "The troops marched
 about five miles to a camp on the east [west] side of Yoxhio Geni"
 (_Orme Journal_, 344). It is worthy of note that Orme uses the term
 "the troops marched" and not his customary phrase "we marched," a
 circumstance from which it seems reasonable to infer that the advance
 column halted a day at this encampment, and that on June 29 the
 officers and the rest of the army at Gist's Plantation joined it here.

 [61] See Shippen's drafts, to which reference has already been made.
 Through the courtesy of J. Sutton Wall, chief draughtsman of the
 Interior Department, Harrisburg, Pa., who has made a draft connecting
 a number of tracts lying southward from Stewart's Crossing along
 the line of Braddock Road to Gist's place and the foot of Laurel
 Ridge, the writer has been greatly aided in the preparation of his
 own sketch. In the connected draft a few of the tracts do not show
 the road; but a sufficient number do show it to corroborate the
 conclusions reached by him relative to the course of the road from
 Gist's place to Stewart's Crossing, and hence to enable him, on the
 accompanying map, to lay down the road between these two points with
 greater accuracy.

 [62] _Olden Time_, II. 543; Veech, _The Monongahela of Old_, 60-61.

 [63] _Orme Journal_, 345; Veech, _The Monongahela of Old_, 61.

 [64] Mr. Truxell writes to me, under date of November 30, 1908, that
 this farm has been owned by the Truxells since 1806, and that in the
 course of his life he has ploughed up at least a quart of bullets,
 sometimes as many as a dozen at a single ploughing.

 [65] In regard to Braddock's movements on July 1st and 2d, the writer
 desires to offer a plausible solution of some statements in Orme's
 journal that have led to no little confusion and inaccurate assertion
 on the part of those who have written on the subject.

 "On the first of July," says Orme, "we marched about five miles, but
 could advance no further by reason of a great swamp which required
 much work to make it passable." This bivouac, as has already been
 said, is undoubtedly on the farm of John Truxell. The army, which was
 close at the heels of the advance or working party, had to halt there
 till a corduroy road could be thrown across the swamp, a process that
 required time.

 "On the 2d July," continues Orme, "we marched to Jacob's Cabin,
 about 6 miles from the camp." Notice the words "from the camp." The
 preceding stop was then a _bivouac, not a camp_. The camp referred
 to was the encampment one mile on the east side of the Youghiogheny,
 at Stewart's Crossing. This day's march would be about one mile, and
 the place of encampment Jacob's Cabin. The two halting places were
 evidently both on the east side of Jacob's Creek. What is commonly
 known as the Great Swamp Camp was only the bivouac to which reference
 has been made.

 This view of the matter seems, however, not to have been taken by any
 of the cartographers: but in estimating the value of maps one must, of
 course, consider whether the author's first-hand knowledge, as well
 as his borrowed data, be trustworthy or not, and must also take into
 account the purpose for which the map was made. Professor Channing
 has pointed out among other things that, while "a lie in print is
 a persistent thing," one on a map is even less eradicable, and for
 three reasons: (1) because the historical evidence on maps is liable
 to error, and an error once made is copied by other cartographers,
 with the result that a false impression frequently continues
 through centuries; (2) because the topography is often wholly
 wrong, especially on the earlier maps, a fact that is too commonly
 overlooked by historians; (3) because, as our own national history has
 abundantly proved, boundaries are frequently delineated imperfectly,
 inaccurately, and without basis in fact. In a word, Professor Channing
 thinks that maps are often taken too seriously, that the historical
 information given by them is liable to error, and that they simply
 raise a presumption.

 It is certainly true that, judged by the exceedingly accurate and
 reliable journal of Orme, the map accompanying Sargent's _History of
 an Expedition against Fort Du Quesne_ (op. 282) is in almost every
 instance wholly inaccurate in regard to the location of Braddock's
 camps, which it represents as scattered promiscuously along the route.
 In scarcely a single respect, indeed, whether as to route or as to
 location of camps, mountains, rivers, or anything else, can it be
 depended upon. To cite a single instance, it puts Camp 6 (Bear Camp)
 on the Youghiogheny, when this, as we have seen, is the location of
 Squaw's Fort (see p. 23). No clue to the authorship of this map or to
 any authority for it can be discovered. Similar fallacies occur in the
 work of one of our latest historians, E. M. Avery, who in his _History
 of the United States and its People_ (Cleveland, 1904, IV. 67) also
 prints a beautifully-colored but inaccurate map. Judge Veech, too (in
 his _Monongahela of Old_, 61), recognizes an apparent inconsistency in
 Orme's journal at this point; but, like the others, he only adds more
 fuel to the flame of confusion.

 [66] Veech, _The Monongahela of Old_, 61. Only a small part of the
 foundation of this mill is now to be seen.

 [67] Jacob's Swamp. This is not to be confused with the swampy land
 along Jacob's Creek.

 [68] It is only fair to say, however, that there is much difference
 of opinion in regard to the location of this camp. On July 3 Orme
 records, "The swamp being repaired, we marched about six miles to the
 Salt Lick Creek." Many of the later maps and later accounts of the
 period identify Jacob's Creek with Salt Lick Creek (see Sargent's
 _History_, 346; Veech's _Monongahela of Old_, 61; Scull's map, 1770,
 etc.); but there is no real authority for holding that the Salt Lick
 Creek mentioned by Orme is Jacob's Creek. A small tributary of the
 Youghiogheny, now known as Indian Creek, was, it is true, formerly
 called Salt Lick Creek, whence came the name of Salt Lick township;
 but the well-known salt licks and Painter's Salt Works were located
 along the banks of Sewickley Creek near Hunkers. Here salt wells used
 to be drilled to a depth of about five hundred feet; and to these
 wells stock was driven from miles around, and people came from far and
 near to boil down the salt water in order to secure salt for domestic
 use. In the absence, therefore, of any authoritative evidence that the
 Salt Lick Creek mentioned by Orme is Jacob's Creek, it seems to the
 writer that the most probable location of Salt Lick Camp is on the
 Edward Stoner farm, about two miles east from the fording of Sewickley
 Creek. Among other indications that point to this farm as a favorable
 place for encampment one notes the fact that a short distance west
 of the Stoner house, under a large oak tree, there was formerly an
 excellent spring (now filled up), and that there is also a run near
 by. Mr. Stoner showed me a one-pound cannon ball which he found in a
 stump less than a quarter of a mile from the road, and said that other
 bullets had been picked up on the farm.

 [69] Eugene Warden, Esq., of Mount Pleasant, Pa., has aided the writer
 very materially in the location of the road through Westmoreland
 County by calling his attention to the following document, which
 establishes definitely the fording of Jacob's Creek and the course of
 the road to Sewickley Creek.

 "The Commissioner of Westmoreland County, pursuant to the directions
 of an Act of Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, entitled
 'An Act for laying out competent Districts for the appointment of
 Justices of the Peace, passed April 4, 1803,' laid out the said county
 into the following districts, to wit:...."

 "Huntingdon South:--Beginning at the mouth of Big Sewickley; thence
 up the river Youghiogheny to the mouth of Jacob's Creek; thence up
 said creek to Braddock's Fording; thence along Braddock's Road to
 Mt. Pleasant District line to a corner of Hempfield District; thence
 along said line to Big Sewickley; thence down said creek to the place
 of beginning." (Court of Common Pleas of Westmoreland County, Pa.,
 _Continuance Docket_ No. 5, p. 443.)

 [70] This fording was called Goudy (or Gowdy) Ford.

 [71] See _Orme Journal_, 346.

 [72] On July 4 Orme writes, "We marched about six miles to Thicketty
 Run." This day they would cross Sewickley Creek a short distance west
 of Hunkers, and their most likely place of encampment would be on the
 D. F. Knappenberger farm, about two miles south of the fording, on
 Little Sewickley Greek or Thicketty Run. This solution, which makes
 Salt Lick Creek the Sewickley Creek and Thicketty Run the Little
 Sewickley Creek, is no mere whim of the writer, but has been reached
 from a knowledge of the country supplemented by the topographic sheets
 and by a reasonable interpretation of Orme's journal. If he is correct
 in his reasoning, there is no inconsistency in Orme's account.

 [73] Now owned by a coal company.

 [74] According to the distance travelled from the preceding camp, the
 seventeenth encampment, or Monacatuca Camp, would be on this farm;
 but, according to local tradition it was on the William B. Howell
 farm, a mile away. This is the one camp as to the location of which
 the writer has been unable to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion.
 Considering the lay of the land, however, he sees no good reason why
 the army should not have made the distance mentioned by Orme.

 [75] Judge Veech is in error when he says that the road "crossed the
 present tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and turnpike west of
 Greensburg" (Veech, _The Monongahela of Old_, 62). The railroad is
 beyond this precipice. On this point see _Orme Journal_, 351.

 [76] Only a millstone is left to mark the location of the old mill.

 [77] The spring is situated on a lot owned by Mrs. Elizabeth Bennett,
 a short distance from the corner of Bennett Avenue and Braddock
 Street. Washington, who had been left at Bear Camp, joined Braddock

 [78] _Orme Journal_, 352. Mr. Wall of Harrisburg communicated to me a
 copy of a draft of a survey made July 29, 1828, on "Application No.
 2169," showing the location of the road down Crooked Run (Braddock
 Run) to the Monongahela and across it to a point a short distance
 beyond. This fording of the river is often designated Braddock's Upper

 [79] On file in the Department of Interior Affairs is a "Map and
 Profile for a slackwater navigation along the Monongahela River from
 the Virginia Line to Pittsburg as examined in 1828 by Edward F. Gay,
 Engineer," which shows Braddock's Upper Riffle at the mouth of Crooked
 Run, and Braddock's Lower Riffle at the mouth of Turtle Creek.

 [80] G. E. F. Gray, chief clerk of the Edgar Thomson Steel Works at
 Braddock, Pa., wrote to me under date of December 9, 1908, that their
 chief engineer, Sydney Dillon, had already done some preliminary
 work toward locating the original banks of Turtle Creek and of the
 Monongahela River, and toward fixing the place of Frazer's Cabin and
 of the road through Braddock. The steel works are located on a part of
 the battlefield, along the river.

 On February 11, 1909, Mr. Dillon communicated to me the results of
 his labors based on a study of the ground in connection with the two
 maps made by Patrick Mackellar, Braddock's chief engineer (Parkman,
 _Montcalm and Wolfe_, 1905, I. op. 214-215), supplemented by the
 plan in Winsor's _Narrative and Critical History of America_, V.
 449, and by the Carnegie McCandless Company's property map of 1873.
 This is by far the most able and careful study of the battlefield
 that has been made in modern times. Mr. Dillon's plans enable one to
 follow the course of the road through the battlefield, and to form
 an idea of the action with a distinctness that has not been possible
 heretofore. In order to comprehend the nature of the fight, however,
 and to understand the conditions that made Braddock's defeat almost
 inevitable, one must see the field for himself.

 [81] On the two plans of the battlefield drawn by Patrick Mackellar,
 see Parkman, _Montcalm and Wolfe_ (1905), I. 229, n. 1.

 [82] See maps, _ibid._, op. 214-215, and in Sargent's _Expedition
 against Fort Du Quesne_, op. 219.

 [83] Hyacinth Mary Liénard de Beaujeu.

 [84] If the course of the road as thus indicated be correct, then
 the thickest of the fight would have been east of the Pennsylvania
 Railroad between Thirteenth and Sixth Streets, the location of
 the Hollow Way and of Frazer's Run respectively. The writer was
 told that when the Pennsylvania Railroad built its roadbed through
 the battlefield it unearthed a great number of human skeletons, a
 circumstance which, if true, would seem to confirm his conclusion as
 to the ground on which the principal fighting took place. Mr. Dillon
 seems to think that the Hollow Way was between Ann and Verona Streets,
 and that the farthest point reached by Braddock's party was across the
 ravine near Corey Avenue. Another view is that the course of the road
 never extended above or east of the Pennsylvania Railroad, but stopped
 a few rods short of it in the Robinson burying-ground.

       *       *       *       *       *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

Gwynn's Six Mile Houe=> Gwynn's Six Mile House {pg 8 n.}

National turnpke=> National turnpike {pg 18 n.}

Crooked run=> Crooked Run {pg 35 n.}

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