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Title: Holinshed Chronicles, Volume I, Complete
Author: Hooker, John, Holinshed, Raphael, -1580?, Harrison, William, 1534-1593
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Holinshed Chronicles, Volume I, Complete" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.







   VOL. I.







   NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003



   [_Original Title._]






   1 =The description and historie of England=,
   2 =The description and historie of Ireland=,
   3 =The description and historie of Scotland=:





   _Now newlie augmented and continued (with manifold matters of
       singular note and worthie memorie)_

   TO THE YEARE 1586,

   By JOHN HOOKER aliàs VOWELL Gent.





 THE CHRONICLES of HOLINSHED having become exceedingly scarce, and,
 from their Rarity and Value, having always brought a high Price
 whenever they have appeared for Sale, the Publishers have thought they
 should perform an acceptable Service to the Public by reprinting them
 in a uniform, handsome, and modern Form.

 It cannot now be necessary to state the Importance and interesting
 Nature of this Work. The high Price for which it has always sold, is a
 sufficient Testimony of the Esteem in which it has been held.
 Holinshed's Description of Britain is allowed to contain the most
 curious and authentic Account of the Manners and Customs of our Island
 in the Reign of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, in which it was written.
 His History of the Transactions of the British Isles, during these
 Periods, possesses all the Force and Value of contemporary Evidence,
 collected by a most skilful Observer; and the peculiar Style and
 Orthography in which the Work is written, furnish a very interesting
 Document to illustrate the History of the English Language.

 The original Edition of the Chronicles of Holinshed, it is well known,
 was published by their Author in a mutilated State. A Number of Pages,
 which had obviously been printed with the rest of the Work, were found
 to be omitted, except in a few Copies obtained by some favoured
 Persons. In the present Edition, these Castrations are faithfully
 restored; and in order that the Purchaser may depend upon finding an
 exact as well as a perfect Copy, it has been a Law with the
 Publishers, not to alter a single Letter, but to print the Work with
 the utmost Fidelity from the best preceding Edition, with the Author's
 own Orthography, and with his marginal Notes. The only Liberty taken,
 has been to use the Types of the present Day, instead of the old
 English Letter of the Time of Elizabeth.

 The Publishers submit to the Public this Edition of a curious and
 valuable Chronicle of our History, with a confident Hope, that it will
 gratify both the Historical Student and the General Reader. If it meet
 with the Reception which they anticipate, they will be encouraged to
 select some others of the rarest and most important of our ancient
 Chronicles, and reprint them, in like Manner, for the Convenience and
 Gratification of the Public.





 Hauing had iust occasion, Right Honorable, to remaine in London,
 during the time of Trinitie terme last passed, and being earnestlie
 required of diuers my freends, to set downe some breefe discourse of
 parcell of those things, which I had obserued in the reading of such
 manifold antiquities as I had perused toward the furniture of a
 Chronologie, which I haue yet in hand; I was at the first verie loth
 to yeeld to their desires: first, for that I thought my selfe vnable
 for want of skill and iudgment, so suddenlie & with so hastie speed to
 take such a charge vpon me: secondlie, bicause the dealing therein
 might prooue an hinderance and impechment vnto mine owne Treatise: and
 finallie, for that I had giuen ouer all earnest studie of histories,
 as iudging the time spent about the same, to be an hinderance vnto my
 more necessarie dealings in that vocation & function wherevnto I am
 called in the ministerie. But when they were so importunate with me,
 that no reasonable excuse could serue to put by this trauell, I
 condescended at the length vnto their yrkesome sute, promising that I
 would spend such void time as I had to spare, whilest I should be
 inforced to tarie in the citie, vpon some thing or other that should
 satisfie their request; and stand in lieu of a description of my
 Countrie. For their parts also they assured me of such helps as they
 could purchase: and thus with hope of good, although no gaie successe,
 I went in hand withall, then almost as one leaning altogither vnto
 memorie, sith my books and I were parted by fourtie miles in sunder.
 In this order also I spent a part of Michaelmas and Hilarie termes
 insuing, being inforced thereto I say by other businesses which
 compelled me to keepe in the citie, and absent my selfe from my
 charge, though in the meane season I had some repaire vnto my poore
 librarie, but not so great as the dignitie of the matter required, and
 yet far greater than the Printers hast would suffer. One helpe, and
 none of the smallest that I obtained herein, was by such commentaries
 as _Leland_ had somtime collected of the state of Britaine, books
 vtterlie mangled, defaced with wet and weather, and finallie vnperfect
 through want of sundrie volumes: secondlie, I gat some knowledge of
 things by letters and pamphlets, from sundrie places & shires of
 England, but so discordant now and then amongst themselues,
 especiallie in the names and courses of riuers and situation of
 townes, that I had oft greater trouble to reconcile them one with an
 other, than orderlie to pen the whole discourse of such points as they
 contained: the third aid did grow by conference with diuers, either at
 the table or secretlie alone, wherein I marked in what things the
 talkers did agree, and wherin they impugned ech other, choosing in the
 end the former, and reiecting the later, as one desirous to set foorth
 the truth absolutelie, or such things in deed as were most likelie to
 be true. The last comfort arose by mine owne reading of such writers
 as haue heretofore made mention of the condition of our countrie, in
 speaking wherof, if I should make account of the successe, &
 extraordinarie c[=o]ming by sundrie treatises not supposed to be
 extant, I should but seeme to pronounce more than may well be said
 with modestie, & say farder of my selfe than this Treatise can beare
 witnes of. Howbeit, I refer not this successe wholie vnto my purpose
 about this Description, but rather giue notice thereof to come to
 passe in the penning of my Chronologie, whose crums as it were fell
 out verie well in the framing of this Pamphlet. In the processe
 therefore of this Booke, if your Honor regard the substance of that
 which is here declared, I must needs confesse that it is none of mine
 owne: but if your Lordship haue consideration of the barbarous
 composition shewed herein, that I may boldlie claime and challenge for
 mine owne, sith there is no man of any so slender skill, that will
 defraud me of that reproch, which is due vnto me for the meere
 negligence, disorder, and euill disposition of matter comprehended in
 the same. Certes I protest before God and your Honour, that I neuer
 made any choise of stile, or words, neither regarded to handle this
 Treatise in such precise order and method as manie other would haue
 done, thinking it sufficient, truelie and plainelie to set foorth such
 things as I minded to intreat of, rather than with vaine affectation
 of eloquence to paint out a rotten sepulchre; a thing neither
 commendable in a writer, nor profitable to the reader. How other
 affaires troubled me in the writing hereof manie know, and
 peraduenture the slacknesse shewed herein can better testifie: but
 howsoeuer it be done, & whatsoeuer I haue done, I haue had an
 especiall eye vnto the truth of things, and for the rest, I hope that
 this foule frizeled Treatise of mine will prooue a spur to others
 better learned, more skilfull in Chorographie, and of greater
 iudgement in choise of matter to handle the selfe same argument, if in
 my life time I doo not peruse it againe. It is possible also that your
 Honour will mislike hereof, for that I haue not by mine owne trauell
 and eysight viewed such things as I doo here intreat of. In deed I
 must needs confesse, that vntill now of late, except it were from the
 parish where I dwell, vnto your Honour in Kent; or out of London where
 I was borne, vnto Oxford & Cambridge where I haue bene brought vp, I
 neuer trauelled 40. miles foorthright and at one iourney in all my
 life; neuerthelesse in my report of these things, I vse their
 authorities, who either haue performed in their persons, or left in
 writing vpon sufficient ground (as I said before) whatsoeuer is
 wanting in mine. It may be in like sort that your Honour will take
 offense at my rash and retchlesse behauiour vsed in the composition of
 this volume, and much more that being scambled vp after this maner, I
 dare presume to make tendour of the protection therof vnto your
 Lordships hands. But when I consider the singular affection that your
 Honour dooth beare to those that in any wise will trauell to set
 foorth such profitable things as lie hidden, and therevnto doo weigh
 on mine owne behalfe my bounden dutie and gratefull mind to such a one
 as hath so manie and sundrie waies benefited me that otherwise can
 make no recompense, I can not but cut off all such occasion of doubt,
 and therevpon exhibit it, such as it is, and so penned as it is, vnto
 your Lordships tuition, vnto whome if it may seeme in anie wise
 acceptable, I haue my whole desire. And as I am the first that
 (notwithstanding the great repugnancie to be seene among our writers)
 hath taken vpon him so particularlie to describe this Ile of Britaine;
 so I hope the learned and godlie will beare withall, & reforme with
 charitie where I doo tread amisse. As for the curious, and such as can
 rather euill fauouredlie espie than skilfullie correct an error, and
 sooner carpe at another mans dooings than publish any thing of their
 owne, (keeping themselues close with an obscure admiration of learning
 & knowledge among the common sort) I force not what they saie hereof:
 for whether it doo please or displease them, all is one to me, sith I
 referre my whole trauell in the gratification of your Honour, and such
 as are of experience to consider of my trauell, and the large scope of
 things purposed in this Treatise, of whome my seruice in this behalfe
 may be taken in good part, that I will repute for my full recompense,
 and large guerdon of my labours. The Almightie God preserue your
 Lordship in continuall health, wealth, and prosperitie, with my good
 Ladie your wife, your Honours children, (whom God hath indued with a
 singular towardnesse vnto all vertue and learning) and the rest of
 your reformed familie, vnto whom I wish farder increase of his holie
 spirit, vnderstanding of his word, augmentation of honor, and
 continuance of zeale to follow his commandements.

   _Your Lordships humble seruant
   and houshold Chaplein._

   W. H.






   Aelius Spartianus.

   Aelius Lampridius.

   Asserius Meneuensis.

   Alfridus Beuerlacensis.

   Aeneas Syluius Senensis.


   Adam Merimouth with additions.

   Antoninus Archiepiscopus Florentinus.

   Albertus Crantz.

   Alexander Neuill.

   Arnoldus Ferronius.

   Annius Viterbiensis.

   Amianus Marcellinus.

   Alliances genealogiques des Roys & Princes de France.

   Annales D. Aquitaine per Iean Bouchet.

   Annales de Bourgoigne per Guilamme Paradin.

   Annales de France per Nicol Giles.

   Annales rerum Flandricarum per Jacobum Meir.

   Antonius Sabellicus.

   Antonius Nebricensis.

   Aurea Historia.


   Biblia Sacra.

   Beda venerabilis.


   Brian Tuke knight.

   Blondus Forliuiensis.

   Berdmondsey, a Register booke belonging to that house.


   Cæsars Commentaries.

   Cornelius Tacitus.

   Chronica Chronicorum.

   Chronica de Dunstable, a booke of Annales belonging to the Abbey

   Chronicon Io. Tilij.

   Chronica de Eyton, an historie belonging to that colledge, although
       compiled by some Northernman, as some suppose named Otherborne.

   Chronicles of S. Albon.

   Chronica de Abingdon, a booke of Annales belonging to that house.

   Chronica de Teukesburie.


   Chronicon Genebrard.

   Chroniques de Normandie.

   Chroniques de Britaine.

   Chroniques de Flanders published by Denis Sauage.

   Continuation de Historie and Chroniques de Flanders by the same



   Chronica Sancti Albani.

   Caxtons Chronicles.

   Carion with additions.

   Crockesden, a Register booke belonging to an house of that name in


   Diodorus Siculus.

   Dion Cassius.

   Dominicus Marius Niger.





   Encomium Emmæ, an old Pamphlet written to hir, conteining much good
       matter for the vnderstanding of the state of this realme in hir
       time, wherein hir praise is not pretermitted, and so hath
       obteined by reason thereof that title.

   Enguerant de Monstrellet.


   Edmund Campian.




   Franciscus Tarapha.

   Franciscus Petrarcha.

   Flauius Vopiscus Siracusanus.

   Floriacensis Vigorinensis.


   Gviciardini Francisco.

   Guiciardini Ludouico.

   Gildas Sapiens.

   Galfridus Monemutensis, aliàs Geffrey of Monmouth.

   Giraldus Cambrensis.

   Guilielmus Malmesburiensis.

   Galfridus Vinsauf.

   Guilielmus Nouoburgensis.

   Guilielmus Thorne.

   Gualterus Hemmingford, aliàs Gisburnensis.

   Geruasius Dorobernensis.

   Geruasius Tilberiensis.

   Guilielmus Gemeticensis de ducibus Normaniæ.

   Guilielmus Rishanger.

   Guilielmus Lambert.

   Georgius Lillie.

   Guilamme Paradin.



   Henricus Huntingtonensis.

   Henricus Leicestrensis.

   Hector Boece.

   Historie Daniou.

   Historia Ecclesiastica Magdeburgensis.

   Henricus Mutius.

   Historia quadripartita seu quadrilogium.

   Hardings Chronicle.

   Halles Chronicle.

   Henricus Bradshaw.

   Henricus Marleburgensis.


   Humfrey Luyd.


   Iohannes Bale.

   Iohannes Leland.

   Iacobus Philippus Bergomas.

   Iulius Capitolinus.

   Iulius Solinus.

   Iohannes Pike with additions.

   Iohannes Functius.

   Iohn Price knight.

   Iohannes Textor.

   Iohannes Bodinus.

   Iohannes Sleidan.

   Iohannes Euersden a Monke of Berry.

   Iohannes or rather Giouan villani a Florentine.

   Iohannes Baptista Egnatius.

   Iohannes Capgraue.

   Iohannes Fourden.

   Iohannes Caius.

   Iacob de Voragine Bishop of Nebio.

   Iean de Bauge a Frenchman wrote a pamphlet of the warres in
       Scotland, during the time that Monsieur de Desse remained

   Iohn Fox.

   Iohannes Maior.

   Iohn Stow, by whose diligent collected summarie, I haue beene not
       onelie aided, but also by diuers rare monuments, ancient
       writers, and necessarie register bookes of his, which he hath
       lent me out of his own Librarie.



   Liber constitutionum London.


   Lælius Giraldus.


   Marianus Scotus.

   Matthæus Paris.

   Matthaeus Westmonaster.    aliàs Flores historiarum.

   Martin du Bellay, aliàs Mons. de Langey.

   Mamertinus in Panegyricis.

   Memoires de la Marche.




   Nicholaus Treuet with additions.


   Orosius Dorobernensis.

   Osbernus Dorobernensis.

   Otho Phrisingensis.



   Paulus Diaconus.

   Paulus Aemilius.

   Ponticus Virunius.

   Pomponius Lætus.

   Philip de Cumeins, aliàs M. de Argenton.

   Polydor Virgil.

   Paulus Iouius.


   Philippus Melancthon.


   Pomponius Mela.


   Rogerus Houeden.

   Ranulfus Higeden, aliàs Cestrensis the author of Polychronicon.

   Radulfus Cogheshall.

   Radulfus Niger.

   Register of the Garter.

   Records of Battell Abbey.

   Richardus Southwell.

   Robert Greene.

   Radulfus de Diceto.

   Robert Gaguin.

   Rodericus Archiepiscopus Toletanus.

   Records and rolles diuerse.




   Sigebertus Gemblacensis.

   Sidon Appollinaris.

   Simon Dunelmensis.

   Sextus Aurelius Victor.


   Trebellius Pollio.

   Thomas More knight.

   Thomas Spot.

   Thomas Walsingham.

   Titus Liuius de Foroliuisijs de vita Henrici. 5.

   Titus Liuius Patauiensis.

   Thomas Lanquet.

   Thomas Couper.

   Taxtor a Monke of Berry.


   Thomas de la More.

   Tripartita Historia.


   Vvlcatius Gallicanus.

   Volfgangus Lazius.


   Whethamsted, a learned man, sometime Abbat of Saint Albons a

   William Harrison.

   William Patten of the expedition into Scotland. 1574.

   William Proctor of Wiats rebellion.

 Besides these, diuers other bookes and treatises of historicall matter
 I haue seene and perused, the names of the authors being vtterlie



 [Sidenote: Wil. Conqu.]
 [Sidenote: Wil. Rufus.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Stephanus.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Ioannes.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 4.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 5.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 6.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 4.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 5.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 7.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 8.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 6.]
 [Sidenote: Phil. & Mar.]
 [Sidenote: Elisabeth.]

   Conquestor, Rufus, prior Henricus, Stephanúsque,
   Alter & Henricus, Leonino corde Richardus,
   Rex & Ioannes, Henricus tertius inde:
   Eduardus primus, Gnatúsque, Nepósque sequuntur:
   His inf[oe]licem Richardum iunge secundum:
   Henricus quartus soboles Gandaui Ioannis,
   Præcedit Gnato quinto, sextóque Nepoti:
   Eduardus quartus, quintus, homicida Richardus,
   Septimi & Henricus octauus clara propago:
   Eduardus sextus, regina Maria, Philippus:
   Elisabeth longos regnet victura per annos,
   Seráque promisso f[oe]lix potiatur olympo.



 [Sidenote: Loydus.]
 [Sidenote: Lelandus.]
 [Sidenote: Prisius.]
 [Sidenote: Stous.]
 [Sidenote: Holinshedius.]
 [Sidenote: Lambardus.]
 [Sidenote: Morus.]
 [Sidenote: Camdenus.]
 [Sidenote: Thinnius.]
 [Sidenote: Hallus.]
 [Sidenote: Vocalis aliàs Hookerus.]
 [Sidenote: Graftonus.]
 [Sidenote: Foxius.]
 [Sidenote: Harrisonus.]
 [Sidenote: Hardingus.]
 [Sidenote: Gildas.]
 [Sidenote: Staniherstus.]
 [Sidenote: Beda.]
 [Sidenote: Neuillus.]
 [Sidenote: Flemingus.]
 [Sidenote: Parkerus.]

   Gramine, fluminibus, grege, principe, fruge, metallis,
     Lacte, feris, armis, vrbibus, arte, foris,
   Quæ viget ac floret generosa Britannia, quæque,
     Obruta puluereo squalluit ante situ:
   Exerit ecce caput, genuinum nacta nitorem,
     Et rutilum emittit cum grauitate iubar.
   Et quod blæsa hominum mutilarat tempore lingua,
     Illud habet rectum pumice tersa nouo.
   Loydus in hac pridem gnauus prolusit arena,
     Lelandus, Prisius, Stous, Holinshedius,
   Lambardus, Morus, Camdenus, Thinnius, Hallus,
     Vocalis, Grafton, Foxius, Harrisonus,
   Hardingus, Gildas, Staniherstus, Beda, Neuillus,
     Doctáque Flemingi lima poliuit opus:
   Nec te cane senex, magne ô Parkere, silebo,
     Cui decus attulerat pontificalis apex.
   Omnibus his meritò est laus debita & optima merces,
     Quòd patriæ accendant lumina clara suæ.
   Longa dies opus hoc peperit, longæua senectus,
     Et libri authores perbeet, atque librum.











    1 _Of the diuision of the whole earth._
    2 _Of the position, circuit, forme, and quantitie of the Ile of
    3 _Of the ancient denominations of this Iland._
    4 _What sundrie nations haue dwelled in Albion._
    5 _Whether it be likelie that anie giants were, and whether they
        inhabited in this Ile or not._
    6 _Of the languages spoken in this Iland._
    7 _Into how manie kingdoms this Iland hath beene diuided._
    8 _The names of such kings and princes as haue reigned in this
    9 _Of the ancient religion vsed in Albion._
   10 _Of such Ilands as are to be seene vpon the coasts of Britaine._
   11 _Of riuers, and first of the Thames, and such riuers as fall into
   12 _Of such streames as fall into the sea, betweene the Thames and
        the mouth of Sauerne._
   13 _The description of the Sauerne, and such waters as discharge
        themselues into the same._
   14 _Of such waters as fall into the sea in compasse of the Iland,
        betweene the Sauerne and the Humber._
   15 _The description of the Humber or Isis, and such water-courses as
        doo increase hir chanell._
   16 _Of such fals of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Humber
        and the Thames._
   17 _Of such ports and creeks as our sea-faring men doo note for
        their benefit vpon the coasts of England._
   18 _Of the aire, soile, and commodities of this Iland._
   19 _Of the foure high waies sometime made in Britaine by the princes
        of this Iland._
   20 _Of the generall constitution of the bodies of the Britons._
   21 _How Britaine at the first grew to be diuided into three
   22 _After what maner the souereigntie of this Ile dooth remaine to
        the princes of Lhoegres or kings of England._
   23 _Of the wall sometime builded for a partition betweene England
        and the Picts and Scots._
   24 _Of the maruels of England._



 [Sidenote: Noah first diuided the earth among his sonnes.]
 We read that the earth hath beene diuided into thrée parts, euen
 sithens the generall floud. And the common opinion is, that Noah
 limited and bestowed it vpon his three sons, Japhet, Cham, and Sem,
 preserued with him in the Arke, giuing vnto each of them such portions
 thereof as to him séemed good, and neuerthelesse reteining the
 souereigntie of the whole still vnto himselfe: albeit as yet it be
 left vncertaine how those seuerall parts were bounded, and from whome
 they tooke such names as in our times are attributed to each of them.
 Certes the words, Asia, Europa, and Africa, are denominations giuen
 but of late (to speake of) vnto them, and it is to be doubted, whether
 sithens the time of Noah, the sea hath in sundrie places wonne or
 lost, added or diminished to and from each of them; or whether Europa,
 and Lybia were but one portion; and the same westerlie regions of late
 discouered (and now called America,) was the third part (counting Asia
 for the second) or the selfe region of the Atlantides, which Plato and
 others, for want of traffike thither in their times, supposed to be
 dissolued and sunke into the sea: as by their writings appeereth.

 [Sidenote: The diuision of the earth not yet certeinlie knowne.]
 Not long before my time, we reckoned Asia, Europa, and Africa, for a
 full and perfect diuision of the whole earth, which are parcels onelie
 of that huge Iland that lieth east of the Atlantike sea, and whereof
 the first is diuided from the second by Tanais (which riseth in the
 rocks of Caucasus, and hideth it selfe in the Meotine moores) and the
 Ocean sea; and the last from them both by the Mediterrane and red sea,
 otherwise called Mare Erythræum. But now all men, especially the
 learned, begin to doubt of the soundnes of that partition; bicause a
 no lesse part than the greatest of the thrée ioined with those Ilands
 and maine which lie vnder the north and Southpoles, if not double in
 quantitie vnto the same, are found out and discouered by the diligence
 of our trauellers. Hereby it appeereth, that either the earth was not
 exactlie diuided in time past by antiquitie; or els, that the true
 diuision thereof came not to the hands and notice of their posteritie,
 so that our ancestors haue hitherto as it were laboured in the
 Cimmerian darkenesse, and were vtterlie ignorant of the truth of that
 whereabout they indeuoured to shew their trauels and knowledge in
 their writings. Some peece of this confusion also is to be found
 amongst the ancient and Romane writers, who (notwithstanding their
 large conquests) did sticke in the same mire with their successors,
 not being able (as appeereth by their treatises) to deliuer and set
 [Sidenote: Variance among the writers
 about the diuision of the earth.]
 downe the veritie. For Salust in his booke De bello Iugurthino cannot
 tell whether Africa be parcell of Asia or not. And with the same
 scruple Varro in his booke De lingua Lat. is not a litle incumbred,
 who in the end concludeth, that the whole earth is diuided into Asia
 and Europa: so that Africa is excluded and driuen out of his place.
 Silius also writeth of Africa, (as one not yet resolued wherevnto to
 leane,) that it is;

   Aut ingens Asiæ latus, aut pars tertia rerum.

 Wherein Lucane lib. 9. sheweth himselfe to be far of another
 iudgement, in that he ascribeth it to Europa, saieng after this maner:

   Tertia pars rerum Lybia: si credere famæ
   Cuncta velis, si ventos c[oe]lúmque sequaris,
   Pars erit Europæ, nec enim plus littora Nili
   Quàm Scythicus Tanais primis à gradibus absunt.

 Whereby (I saie) we may well vnderstand, that in the time of Augustus
 Tiberius, Claudius & Nero, the Romanes were not yet resolued of the
 diuision of the earth. For my part, as I indeuour not to remooue the
 credit of that which antiquitie hath deliuered (and yet loth to
 continue and maintaine any corruption that may be redressed) so I
 [Sidenote: The earth diuided into fiue parts, whereas _Belforest_
 hath but foure, in _Prefat. lib._ 4.]
 thinke good to giue foorth a new diuision more probable, & better
 agreeing with a truth. And therefore I diuide the whole into fiue
 seuerall parcels, reteining the common diuision in the first three, as
 before; and vnto the fourth allowing not onelie all that portion that
 lieth by north of the Magellan streicts, and those Hyperborean Ilands
 which lie west of the line of longitude, of late discouered by
 Frobisher, and called by hir Maiestie Meta incognita: but likewise so
 manie Ilands as are within 180. degrees Westwards from our beginning
 or common line of longitude, whereby they are parted from those, which
 by this diuision are allotted vnto Asia, and the portion it selfe made
 equipollent with the same for greatnes, and far excéeding either
 Europa or Africa, if it be not fullie so much in quantitie as they
 both vnited and laid togither. The fift & last part is the Antartike
 portion with hir Ilands annexed, that region (I meane) which lieth
 vnder the South pole, cut off from America, or the fourth part by the
 Magellan streicts; & from Africa by the sea which passeth by the Cape
 [Sidenote: Cape di bona Speranza.]
 of good hope; a countrie no lesse large for limits and bounds than
 Africa or America, and therefore right worthie to be called the fift:
 howsoeuer it shall please the curious to mislike of this diuision.
 This also I will adde, that albeit the continent hereof doo not extend
 [Sidenote: The forme of the fift part.]
 it selfe vnto the verie Antartike point, but lieth as it were a long
 table betwéene two seas, of which the later is vnder the South poole,
 and as I may call it a maine sea vnder the aforesaid pricke, yet is it
 not without sundrie Ilands also adjoining vnto it, and the inner most
 sea not destitute of manie, as by experience hath béene of late
 confirmed. Furthermore, whereas our describers of the earth haue made
 it such in their descriptions, as hath reached litle or nothing into
 the peaceable sea without the Antartike circle: it is now found by
 Theuet and others, that it extendeth it selfe northwards into that
 trace, by no small number of leagues, euen in maner to the Equator, in
 so much that the westerlie part thereof from America, is supposed to
 reach northward so far from the Antartike article, as Africa dooth
 southwards from the tropike of Cancer, which is no small portion of
 ground; & I maruell why not obserued by such as heretofore haue
 written of the same. But they excuse themselues by the ingratitude of
 the Portingals and Spaniards, who haue of purpose concealed manie
 things found out in their trauell, least they should séeme to open a
 gap by dooing otherwise, for strangers to enter into their conquests.
 As for those Ilands also which lie in the peaceable sea, scattered
 here and there, as Iaua the greater, the lesser Sumatra, Iapan,
 Burneo, &c: with a number of other, I refer them still unto Asia, as
 before, so as they be without the compasse of 90. degrees eastward
 from the line of longitude, & not aboue 180. as I doo the Ile of S.
 Laurence, and a number of other vnto Africa within the said
 proportion, wishing so little alteration as I may: and yet not
 yeelding vnto any confusion, whereby the truth of the diuision should
 hereafter be impeached.

 And whereas by Virgil (speaking of our Iland) saith;

   Et penitùs toto diuisos orbe Britannos,

 [Sidenote: Unto what portion Britaine is referred.]
 And some other authors not vnworthie to be read and perused, it is not
 certeine vnto which portion of the earth our Ilands, and Thule, with
 sundrie the like scattered in the north seas should be ascribed,
 bicause they excluded them (as you sée) from the rest of the whole
 earth: I have thought good, for facilitie sake of diuision, to refer
 them all which lie within the first minute of longitude, set downe by
 Ptolome, to Europa, and that as reason requireth: so that the
 aforesaid line shall henceforth be their Meta & partition from such as
 are to be ascribed to America; albeit they come verie neere vnto the
 aforesaid portion, & may otherwise (without prejudice) be numbred with
 the same. It may be that some will thinke this my dealing either to be
 superfluous, or to procéed from (I wot not what) foolish curiositie:
 for the world is now growne to be very apt and readie to iudge the
 hardest of euerie attempt. But forsomuch as my purpose is to leaue a
 plaine report of such matter as I doo write of, and deliuer such
 things as I intreat of in distinct and vpright order; though method
 now and then doo faile, I will go forward with my indeuour, referring
 the examination of my dooings to the indifferent and learned eare,
 without regard what the other doo conceiue and imagine of me. In the
 meane season therefore it shall suffice to say at this time, that
 Albion as the mother, and the rest of the Ilands as hir daughters,
 lieng east of the line of longitude, be still ascribed vnto Europa:
 wherevnto some good authours heretofore in their writings, & their
 owne proper or naturall situations also haue not amisse referred them.



 [Sidenote: How Britaine lieth from the maine.]
 Britannia or Britain, as we now terme it in our English toong, or
 Brutania as some pronounce it (by reason of the letter y in the first
 syllable of the word, as antiquitie did sometime deliuer it) is an Ile
 lieng in the Ocean sea, directlie ouer against that part of France
 which conteineth Picardie, Normandie, and thereto the greatest part of
 little Britaine, which later region was called in time past Armorica,
 of the situation thereof vpon the sea coast, vntill such time as a
 companie of Britons (either led ouer by some of the Romane Emperours,
 or flieng thither from the tyrannie of such as oppressed them here in
 this Iland) did setle themselues there, and called it Britaine, after
 the name of their owne countrie, from whence they aduentured thither.
 It hath Ireland vpon the west side, on the north the maine sea, euen
 to Thule and the Hyperboreans; and on the east side also the Germane
 Ocean, by which we passe dailie through the trade of merchandize, not
 onlie into the low countries of Belgie, now miserablie afflicted
 betwéene the Spanish power and popish inquisition (as spice betweene
 the morter and the pestell) but also into Germanie, Friezeland,
 Denmarke, and Norwaie, carrieng from hence thither, and bringing from
 thence hither, all such necessarie commodities as the seuerall
 countries doo yeeld: through which meanes, and besides common amitie
 conserued, traffike is mainteined, and the necessitie of each partie
 abundantlie reléeued.

 [Sidenote: The longitude and latitude of this Ile.]
 It conteineth in longitude taken by the middest of the region 19.
 degrees exactlie: and in latitude 53. degrées, and thirtie min. after
 the opinions of those that haue diligentlie obserued the same in our
 daies, and the faithfull report of such writers as haue left notice
 thereof vnto vs, in their learned treatises to be perpetuallie
 remembred. Howbeit, whereas some in setting downe of these two lines,
 haue seemed to varie about the placing of the same, each of them
 diuerslie remembring the names of sundrie cities and townes, whereby
 they affirme them to haue their seuerall courses: for my part I haue
 thought good to procéed somewhat after another sort; that is, by
 diuiding the latest and best chards each way into two equall parts (so
 neere as I can possiblie bring the same to passe) wherby for the
 [Sidenote: Longest day.]
 middle of latitude, I product Caerlile and Newcastell vpon Tine,
 (whose longest day consisteth of sixteene houres, 48. minuts) and for
 the longitude, Newberie, Warwike, Sheffield, Skipton, &c: which
 dealing, in mine opinion, is most easie and indifferent, and likeliest
 meane to come by the certeine standing and situation of our Iland.

 [Sidenote: The compasse of Britaine.]
 Touching the length and bredth of the same, I find some variance
 amongst writers: for after some, there are from the Piere or point of
 Douer, vnto the farthest part of Cornewall westwards 320. miles: from
 thence againe to the point of Cathnesse by the Irish sea 800. Wherby
 Polydore and other doo gather, that the circuit of the whole Iland of
 Britaine is 1720. miles, which is full 280. lesse than Cæsar dooth set
 downe, except there be some difference betwéene the Romane and British
 miles, as there is indeed; wherof hereafter I may make some farther

 Martianus writing of the bredth of Britaine, hath onlie 300. miles,
 but Orosius hath 1200. in the whole compasse. Ethicus also agreeing
 with Plinie, Martianus, and Solinus, hath 800. miles of length, but in
 the breadth he commeth short of their account by 120. miles. In like
 maner Dion in Seuero maketh the one of 891. miles: but the other; to
 wit, where it is broadest, of 289. and where it is narrowest, of 37.
 Finally, Diodorus Siculus affirmeth the south coast to conteine 7000.
 furlongs, the second; to wit, à Carione ad Promontorium 15000. the
 third 20000. and the whole circuit to consist of 42000. But in our
 time we reckon the breadth from Douer to Cornewall, not to be aboue
 300. miles, and the length from Douer to Cathnesse, no more than 500.
 which neuerthelesse must be measured by a right line, for otherwise I
 see not how the said diuision can hold.

 [Sidenote: The forme.]
 The forme and fashion of this Ile is thrée-cornered, as some have
 deuised, like vnto a triangle, bastard sword, wedge, or partesant,
 being broadest in the south part, and gathering still narrower and
 narrower, till it come to the farthest point of Cathnesse northward,
 where it is narrowest of all, & there endeth in maner of a promontorie
 called Caledonium & Orchas in British Morwerydh, which is not aboue
 30. miles ouer, as dailie experience by actuall trauell dooth

 [Sidenote: Promontories of Britaine.]
 The old writers giue vnto the thrée principall corners, crags, points,
 and promontories of this Iland, thrée seuerall names. As vnto that of
 Kent, Cantium, that of Cornewall, Hellenes, and of Scotland,
 Caledonium, and Orchas; and these are called principall, in respect of
 the other, which are Taruisium, Nonantum, Epidium, Gangacum,
 Octapites, Herculeum, Antiuesteum, Ocrinum, Berubium, Taizalum,
 Acantium, &c: of which I thought good also to leaue this notice, to
 the end that such as shall come after, may thereby take occasion to
 seeke out their true places, wherof as yet I am in maner ignorant, I
 meane for the most part; bicause I haue no sound author that dooth
 leade mée to their knowledge.

 [Sidenote: The distance from the maine.]
 Furthermore, the shortest and most vsuall cut that we haue out of our
 Iland to the maine, is from Douer (the farthest part of Kent eastward)
 unto Calice a towne in Picardie 1300. miles from Rome, in old time
 called Petressa and Scalas, though some like better of blacknesse
 where the breadth of the sea is not aboue thirtie miles. Which course,
 as it is now frequented and vsed for the most common and safe passage
 of such as come into our countrie out of France and diuers other
 realms, so it hath not beene vnknowne of old time vnto the Romans, who
 for the most part vsed these two hauens for their passage and
 repassage to and fro; although we finde, that now and then diuerse of
 them came also from Bullen, and landed at Sandwich, or some other
 places of the coast more toward the west, or betweene Hide and Lid; to
 wit, Romneie marsh, (which in old time was called Romania or Romanorum
 insula) as to auoid the force of the wind & weather, that often
 molesteth seafaringmen in these narrowe seas, best liked them for
 their safegards. Betweene the part of Holland also, which lieth néere
 the mouth of the Rhene and this our Iland, are 900. furlongs, as
 Sosimus saith; and besides him, diuers other writers, which being
 conuerted into English miles, doo yeeld 112. and foure od furlongs,
 whereby the iust distance of the neerest part of Britaine, from that
 part of the maine also, dooth certeinlie appéere to be much lesse than
 the common maps of our countrie haue hitherto set downe.



 [Sidenote: Dis, Samothes.]
 In the diligent perusall of their treatises, who haue written of the
 state of this our Iland, I find that at the first it séemed to be a
 parcell of the Celtike kingdome, whereof Dis otherwise called
 Samothes, one of the sonnes of Japhet was the Saturne or originall
 beginner, and of him thencefoorth for a long while called Samothea.
 Afterward in processe of time, when desire of rule began to take hold
 in the minds of men, and ech prince endeuoured to enlarge his owne
 [Sidenote: Neptunus Marioticus.]
 dominions: Albion the sonne of Neptune, Amphitrite surnamed Marioticus
 (bicause his dominions laie among the ilands of the Mediterran sea, as
 those of Plutus did on the lower grounds neere vnto shore, as
 contrariwise his father Jupiter dwelled on the high hils néerer to
 heauen) hearing of the commodities of the countrie, and plentifulnesse
 [Sidenote: The first conquest of Britaine.]
 of soile here, made a voiage ouer, and finding the thing not onelie
 correspondent vnto, but also farre surmounting the report that went of
 this Iland, it was not long after yer he inuaded the same by force of
 armes, brought it to his subiection in the 29. yeare after his
 grandfathers decease, and finallie changed the name thereof into
 Albion, whereby the former denomination after Samothes did grow out of
 mind, and fall into vtter forgetfulnesse. And thus was this Iland
 bereft at on time both of hir ancient name, and also of hir lawfull
 succession of princes descended of the line of Japhet, vnder whom it
 [Sidenote: Britaine under the Celts 341. yeares.]
 had continued by the space of 341. yeres and nine princes, as by the
 Chronologie following shall easilie appeere.

 Goropius our neighbor being verie nice in the denomination of our
 Iland, as in most other points of his huge volume of the originall of
 Antwarpe lib. 6. (whom Buchanan also followeth in part) is brought
 into great doubt, whether Britaine was called Albion of the word Alb,
 white; or Alp an hill; as Bodinus is no lesse troubled with fetching
 the same ab Oibijs, or as he wresteth it, ab Albijs gallis. But here
 his inconstancie appeareth, in that in his Gotthadamca liber. 7. he
 taketh no lesse paines to bring the Britaines out of Denmarke, whereby
 the name of the Iland should be called Vridania, Freedania, Brithania,
 or Bridania, tanquam libera Dania, as another also dooth to fetch the
 originall out of Spaine, where Breta signifieth soile or earth. But as
 such as walke in darkenesse doo often straie, bicause they wot not
 whither they go: euen so doo these men, whilest they séeke to
 extenuate the certeintie of our histories, and bring vs altogither to
 uncerteinties & their coniectures. They in like maner, which will haue
 the Welshmen come from the French with this one question, vnde Walli
 nisi a Gallis, or from some Spanish colonie, doo greatlie bewraie
 their oversights; but most of all they erre that endeuour to fetch it
 from Albine the imagined daughter of a forged Dioclesian, wherewith
 our ignorant writers haue of late not a little stained our historie,
 and brought the sound part thereof into some discredit and mistrust:
 but more of this hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Neptune God of the sea.]
 Now to speake somewhat also of Neptune as by the waie (sith I haue
 made mention of him in this place) it shall not be altogither
 impertinent. Wherfore you shall vnderstand, that for his excellent
 knowledge in the art of nauigation (as nauigation then went) he was
 reputed the most skilfull prince that liued in his time. And therfore,
 and likewise for his courage & boldnesse in aduenturing to and fro, he
 was after his decease honoured as a god, and the protection of such as
 [Sidenote: The maner of dressing of ships in old time.]
 trauelled by sea committed to his charge. So rude also was the making
 of ships wherewith to saile in his time (which were for the most part
 flat bottomed and broad) that for lacke of better experience to calke
 and trim the same after they were builded, they vsed to naile them
 ouer with rawe hides of bulles, buffles, and such like, and with such
 a kind of nauie (as they say) first Samothes, & then Albion arriued in
 this Iland, which vnto me doth not séeme a thing impossible. The
 northerlie or artike regions, doo not naile their ships with iron,
 which they vtterly want, but with wooden pins, or els they bind the
 planks togither verie artificiallie with bast ropes, osiers, rinds of
 trées, or twigs of popler, the substance of those vessels being either
 of fir or pine, sith oke is verie deintie & hard to be had amongst
 them. Of their wooden anchors I speake not (which neuerthelesse are
 common to them, and to the Gothlanders) more than of ships wrought of
 wickers, sometime vsed in our Britaine, and couered with leather euen
 in the time of Plinie, lib. 7. cap. 56. as also botes made of rushes
 and réeds, &c. Neither haue I iust occasion to speake of ships made of
 canes, of which sort Staurobates, king of India fighting against
 Semiramis, brought 4000. with him and fought with hir the first
 battell on the water that euer I read of, and vpon the riuer Indus,
 but to his losse, for he was ouercome by hir power, & his nauie either
 drowned or burned by the furie of hir souldiers.

 But to proceed, when the said Albion had gouerned here in this
 countrie by the space of seauen yeares, it came to passe that both he
 and his brother Bergion were killed by Hercules at the mouth of
 Rhodanus, as the said Hercules passed out of Spaine by the Celtes to
 go ouer into Italie, and vpon this occasion (as I gather among the
 writers) not vnworthie to be remembred. It happened in time of Lucus
 [Sidenote: Lestrigo.]
 king of the Celts, that Lestrigo and his issue (whom Osyris his
 [Sidenote: Janigenes were the posteritie of Noah in Italie.]
 grandfather had placed ouer the Janigenes) did exercise great
 tyrannie, not onelie ouer his owne kingdome, but also in molestation
 of such princes as inhabited round about him in most intollerable
 maner. Moreouer he was not a little incouraged in these his dooings by
 [Sidenote: Neptune had xxxiii. sonnes.]
 Neptune his father, who thirsted greatly to leaue his xxxiii. sonnes
 settled in the mightiest kingdoms of the world, as men of whom he had
 alreadie conceiued this opinion, that if they had once gotten foot
 into any region whatsoeuer, it would not be long yer they did by some
 meanes or other, not onelie establish their seats, but also increase
 their limits to the better maintenance of themselues and their
 posteritie for euermore. To be short therefore, after the giants, and
 great princes, or mightie men of the world had conspired and slaine
 the aforsaid Osyris, onlie for that he was an obstacle vnto them in
 their tyrannous dealing; Hercules his sonne, surnamed Laabin, Lubim,
 or Libius, in the reuenge of his fathers death, proclaimed open warres
 against them all, and going from place to place, he ceased not to
 spoile their kingdomes, and therewithall to kill them with great
 courage that fell into his hands. Finallie, hauing among sundrie other
 [Sidenote: Lomnimi. Geriones.]
 ouercome the Lomnimi or Geriones in Spaine, and vnderstanding that
 Lestrigo and his sonnes did yet remaine in Italie, he directed his
 viage into those parts, and taking the kingdome of the Celts in his
 waie, he remained for a season with Lucus the king of that countrie,
 [Sidenote: Galathea. Galates, or Kelts.]
 where he also maried his daughter Galathea, and begat a sonne by hir,
 calling him after his mothers name Galates, of whom in my said
 Chronologie I haue spoken more at large.

 In the meane time Albion vnderstanding how Hercules intended to make
 warres against his brother Lestrigo, he thought good if it were
 possible to stop him that tide, and therefore sending for his brother
 [Sidenote: Bergion.]
 Bergion out of the Orchades (where he also reigned as supreame lord
 and gouernour) they ioined their powers, and sailed ouer into France.
 [Sidenote: _Pomponius Mela cap. de Gallia._]
 Being arriued there, it was not long yer they met with Hercules and
 his armie, neare vnto the mouth of the riuer called Roen (or the
 Rhodanus) where happened a cruell conflict betwéene them, in which
 Hercules and his men were like to haue lost the day, for that they
 were in maner wearied with long warres, and their munition sore wasted
 in the last viage that he had made for Spaine. Herevpon Hercules
 perceiuing the courages of his souldiours somewhat to abate, and
 seeing the want of artillerie like to be the cause of his fatall daie
 and present ouerthrowe at hand, it came suddenlie into his mind to
 will each of them to defend himselfe by throwing stones at his enimie,
 whereof there laie great store then scattered in the place. The
 [Sidenote: _Strabo, lib._ 4.]
 policie was no sooner published than hearkened vnto and put in
 execution, whereby they so preuailed in the end, that Hercules wan the
 field, their enimies were put to flight, and Albion and his brother
 both slaine, and buried in that plot. Thus was Britaine rid of a
 tyrant, Lucus king of the Celts deliuered from an vsurper (that dailie
 incroched vpon him, building sundrie cities and holds, of which some
 were placed among the Alps & called after his owne name, and other
 also euen in his owne kingdome on that side) and Lestrigo greatlie
 weakened by the slaughter of his brethren. Of this inuention of
 Hercules in like sort it commeth, that Jupiter father vnto Hercules
 (who indeed was none other but Osyris) is feigned to throw downe
 stones from heauen vpon Albion and Bergion, in the defense of his
 sonne: which came so thicke vpon them, as if great drops of raine or
 haile should haue descended from aboue, no man well knowing which waie
 to turne him from their force, they came so fast and with so great a

 But to go forward, albeit that Albion and his power were thus
 discomfited and slaine, yet the name that he gaue unto this Iland died
 not, but still remained vnto the time of Brute, who arriuing héere in
 the 1116. before Christ, and 2850. after the creation of the world,
 not onelie changed it into Britaine (after it had beene called Albion,
 by the space of about 600. yeares) but to declare his souereigntie
 ouer the rest of the Ilands also that lie scattered round about it, he
 called them all after the same maner, so that Albion was said in time
 to be Britanniarum insula maxima, that is, The greatest of those Iles
 that beare the name of Britaine, which Plinie also confirmeth, and
 Strabo in his first and second bookes denieth not. There are some,
 which vtterlie denieng that this Iland tooke hir name of Brute, doo
 affirme it rather to be so called of the rich mettals sometime carried
 from the mines there into all the world as growing in the same. Vibius
 Sequester also saith that Calabria was sometime called Britannia, Ob
 immensam affluentiam totius delitiæ atque vbertatis, that was to be
 found heerein. Other contend that it should be written with P
 (Pritannia.) All which opinions as I absolutelie denie not, so I
 willinglie leane vnto none of them in peremptorie maner, sith the
 antiquitie of our historie carrieth me withall vnto the former
 iudgements. And for the same cause I reiect them also, which deriue
 the aforesaid denomination from Britona the nymph, in following Textor
 (or Prutus or Prytus the sonne of Araxa) which Britona was borne in
 Creta daughter to Mars, and fled by sea from thence onelie to escape
 the villanie of Minos, who attempted to rauish and make hir one of his
 paramours: but if I should forsake the authoritie of Galfride, I would
 rather leane to the report of Parthenius, whereof elsewhere I haue
 made a more large rehersall.

 It is altogither impertinent, to discusse whether Hercules came into
 this Iland after the death of Albion, or not, although that by an
 ancient monument seene of late, as I heare, and the cape of Hartland
 or Harcland in the West countrie (called Promontorium Herculis in old
 time) diuers of our British antiquaries doo gather great likelihood
 that he should also be here. But sith his presence or absence maketh
 nothing with the alteration of the name of this our region and
 countrie, and to search out whether the said monument was but some
 token erected in his honour of later times (as some haue beene
 elsewhere, among the Celts framed, & those like an old criple with a
 bow bent in one hand & a club in the other, a rough skin on his backe,
 the haire of his head all to be matted like that of the Irishmens, and
 drawing manie men captiue after him in chaines) is but smallie
 auailable, and therefore I passe it ouer as not incident to my
 purpose. Neither will I spend any time in the determination, whether
 Britaine had beene sometime a parcell of the maine, although it should
 well séeme so to haue beene, bicause that before the generall floud of
 Noah, we doo not read of Ilands, more than of hils and vallies.
 Wherfore as Wilden Arguis also noteth in his philosophie and
 tractation of meteors, it is verie likelie that they were onelie
 caused by the violent motion and working of the sea, in the time of
 the floud, which if S. Augustine had well considered, he would neuer
 haue asked how such creatures as liued in Ilands far distant from the
 maine could come into the arke, De ciuit. lib. 16. cap. 7. howbeit in
 the end he concludeth with another matter more profitable than his

 As for the speedie and timelie inhabitation thereof, this is mine
 opinion, to wit, that it was inhabited shortlie after the diuision of
 the earth. For I read that when each capteine and his companie had
 their portions assigned vnto them by Noah in the partition that he
 made of the whole among his posteritie, they neuer ceased to trauell
 and search out the vttermost parts of the same, vntill they found out
 their bounds allotted, and had seene and vewed their limits, euen vnto
 the verie poles. It shall suffice therefore onelie to haue touched
 these things in this manner a farre off, and in returning to our
 purpose, to proceed with the rest concerning the denomination of our
 [Sidenote: Yet _Timeus_, _Ephorus_, and some of the Grecians,
 know the name Britannia, as appeareth also by _Diodorus_, &c.
 before the comming of Cesar.]
 Iland, which was knowne vnto most of the Gréekes for a long time, by
 none other name than Albion, and to saie the truth, euen vnto
 Alexanders daies, as appeareth by the words of Aristotle in his De
 mundo, and to the time of Ptolomie: notwithstanding that Brute, as I
 haue said, had changed the same into Britaine, manie hundred yeares

 After Brutus I doo not find that anie men attempted to change it
 againe, vntill the time that Theodosius, in the daies of Valentinianus
 and Valens endeuoured, in the remembrance of the two aforesaid
 Emperours, to call it Valentia, as Marcellinus saith. But as this
 deuise tooke no hold among the common sort, so it retained still the
 name of Britaine, vntill the reigne of Ecbert, who about the 800.
 yeare of Grace, and first of his reigne, gaue foorth an especiall
 edict, dated at Winchester, that it should be called Angles land, or
 Angel-landt, for which in our time we doo pronounce it England. And
 this is all (right honorable) that I haue to say, touching the
 seuerall names of this Iland, vtterlie misliking in the meane season
 their deuises, which make Hengist the onlie parent of the later
 denomination, whereas Ecbert, bicause his ancestours descended from
 the Angles one of the sixe nations that came with the Saxons into
 Britaine (for they were not all of one, but of diuers countries, as
 Angles, Saxons, Germans, Switzers, Norwegiens, Jutes otherwise called
 Jutons, Vites, Gothes or Getes, and Vandals, and all comprehended
 vnder the name of Saxons, bicause of Hengist the Saxon and his
 companie that first arriued here before anie of the other) and therto
 hauing now the monarchie and preheminence in maner of this whole
 [Sidenote: Of this opinion is _Belforest, lib._ 3. _cap._ 44.]
 Iland, called the same after the name of the countrie from whence he
 derived his originall, neither Hengist, neither anie Queene named
 Angla, neither whatsoeuer deriuation ab Angulo, as from a corner of
 the world bearing swaie, or hauing ought to doo at all in that



 As few or no nations can iustlie boast themselues to haue continued
 sithence their countrie was first replenished, without any mixture,
 more or lesse, of forreine inhabitants; no more can this our Iland,
 whose manifold commodities haue oft allured sundrie princes and famous
 capteines of the world to conquer and subdue the same vnto their owne
 subiection. Manie sorts of people therfore haue come in hither and
 settled themselues here in this Ile, and first of all other, a parcell
 [Sidenote: Samotheans.]
 of the linage and posteritie of Japhet, brought in by Samothes in the
 1910. after the creation of Adam. Howbeit in processe of time, and
 after they had indifferentlie replenished and furnished this Iland
 with people (which was doone in the space of 335. yeares) Albion the
 giant afore mentioned, repaired hither with a companie of his owne
 race procéeding from Cham, and not onelie annexed the same to his owne
 dominion, but brought all such in like sort as he found here of the
 line of Japhet, into miserable seruitude and most extreame thraldome.
 After him also, and within lesse than sixe hundred and two yeares,
 [Sidenote: Britains.]
 [Sidenote: Chemminits.]
 came Brute the sonne of Syluius with a great traine of the posteritie
 of the dispersed Troians in 324. ships: who rendering the like
 courtesie vnto the Chemminits as they had doone before unto the séed
 of Japhet, brought them also wholie vnder his rule and gouernance, and
 dispossessing the peeres & inferior owners of their lands and
 possessions, he diuided the countrie among such princes and capteines
 as he in his arriuall here had led out of Grecia with him.

 [Sidenote: Romans.]
 From hencefoorth I doo not find any sound report of other nation
 whatsoeuer, that should aduenture hither to dwell, and alter the state
 of the land, vntill the Romane emperours subdued it to their dominion,
 sauing of a few Galles, (and those peraduenture of Belgie) who first
 comming ouer to rob and pilfer vpon the coasts, did afterward plant
 themselues for altogither neere vnto the shore, and there builded
 sundrie cities and townes which they named after those of the maine,
 from whence they came vnto vs. And this is not onelie to be gathered
 out of Cesar where he writeth of Britaine of set purpose, but also
 elsewhere, as in his second booke a little after the beginning: for
 speaking of Deuiaticus king of the Swessions liuing in his time, he
 affirmeth him not onelie to be the mightiest prince of all the Galles,
 but also to hold vnder his subiection the Ile of Britaine, of which
 his sonne Galba was afterward dispossessed. But after the comming of
 the Romans, it is hard to say with how manie sorts of people we were
 dailie pestered, almost in euery steed. For as they planted their
 forworne legions in the most fertile places of the realme, and where
 they might best lie for the safegard of their conquests: so their
 armies did commonlie consist of manie sorts of people, and were (as I
 may call them) a confused mixture of all other countries and nations
 then liuing in the world. Howbeit, I thinke it best, bicause they did
 all beare the title of Romans, to reteine onelie that name for them
 all, albeit they were wofull ghests to this our Iland: sith that with
 them came all maner of vice and vicious liuing, all riot and excesse
 of behauiour into our countrie, which their legions brought hither
 from each corner of their dominions; for there was no prouince vnder
 them from whence they had not seruitours.

 [Sidenote: Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Picts.]
 How and when the Scots, a people mixed of the Scithian and Spanish
 blood, should arriue here out of Ireland, & when the Picts should come
 vnto vs out of Sarmatia, or from further toward the north & the
 Scithian Hyperboreans, as yet it is vncerteine. For though the Scotish
 histories doo carrie great countenance of their antiquitie in this
 Iland: yet (to saie fréelie what I thinke) I iudge them rather to haue
 stolne in hither within the space of 100. yeares before Christ, than
 to haue continued here so long as they themselues pretend, if my
 coniecture be any thing. Yet I denie not, but that as the Picts were
 long planted in this Iland before the Scots aduentured to settle
 themselues also in Britaine; so the Scots did often aduenture hither
 to rob and steale out of Ireland, and were finallie called in by the
 Meats or Picts (as the Romans named them, because they painted their
 bodies) to helpe them against the Britains, after the which they so
 planted themselues in these parts, that vnto our time that portion of
 the land cannot be cleansed of them. I find also that as these Scots
 were reputed for the most Scithian-like and barbarous nation, and
 longest without letters; so they vsed commonlie to steale ouer into
 Britaine in leather skewes, and began to helpe the Picts about or not
 long before the beginning of Cesars time. For both Diodorus lib. 6.
 and Strabo lib. 4. doo seeme to speake of a parcell of the Irish
 nation that should inhabit Britaine in their time, which were giuen to
 the eating of mans flesh, and therefore called Anthropophagi.
 Mamertinus in like sort dooth note the Redshanks and the Irish (which
 are properlie the Scots) to be the onelie enimies of our nation,
 before the comming of Cæsar, as appeareth in his panegyricall oration,
 so that hereby it is found that they are no new ghestes in Britaine.
 Wherefore all the controuersie dooth rest in the time of their first
 attempt to inhabit in this Iland. Certeinlie I maruell much whie they
 trauell not to come in with Cantaber and Partholonus: but I see
 perfectlie that this shift should be too grosse for the maintenance of
 their desired antiquitie. Now, as concerning their name, the Saxons
 translated the word Scotus for Irish: whereby it appeareth that those
 Irish, of whom Strabo and Diodorus doo speake, are none other than
 those Scots, of whom Ierome speaketh Aduersus Iouinianum, lib. 2. who
 vsed to feed on the buttocks of boies and womens paps, as delicate
 dishes. Aethicus writing of the Ile of Man, affirmeth it to be
 inhabited with Scots so well as Ireland euen in his time. Which is
 another proofe that the Scots and Irish are all one people. They were
 also called Scoti by the Romans, bicause their Iland & originall
 inhabitation thereof were vnknowne, and they themselues an obscure
 [Sidenote: Of the Picts.]
 nation in the sight of all the world. Now as concerning the Picts,
 whatsoeuer Ranulphus Hygden imagineth to the contrarie of their latter
 enterance, it is easie to find by Herodian and Mamertinus (of which
 the one calleth them Meates, the other Redshankes and Pictones) that
 they were setled in this Ile long before the time of Seuerus, yea of
 Cæsar, and comming of the Scots. Which is proofe sufficient, if no
 further authoritie remained extant for the same. So that the
 controuersie lieth not in their comming also, but in the true time of
 their repaire and aduenture into this Iland out of the Orchades (out
 of which they gat ouer into the North parts of our countrie, as the
 writers doo report) and from whence they came at the first into the
 aforsaid Ilands. For my part I suppose with other, that they came
 hither out of Sarmatia or Scythia: for that nation hauing had alwaies
 an eie vnto the commodities of our countrie, hath sent out manie
 companies to inuade and spoile the same. It may be that some will
 gather, those to be the Picts, of whom Cæsar saith that they stained
 their faces with wad and madder, to the end they might appeare
 terrible and feareful to their enimies; and so inferre that the Picts
 were naturall Britans. But it is one thing to staine the face onelie
 as the Britans did, of whom Propertius saith,

   Nunc etiam infectos demum mutare Britannos,

 And to paint the images and portraitures of beasts, fish and foules
 ouer the whole bodie, as the Picts did, of whom Martial saith,

   Barbara depictis veni Bascauda Britannis.

 Certes the times of Samothes and Albion, haue some likelie limitation;
 and so we may gather of the comming in of Brute, of Cæsar, the Saxons,
 the Danes, the Normans, and finallie of the Flemmings, (who had the
 Rosse in Wales assigned vnto them 1066. after the drowning of their
 countrie.) But when first the Picts, & then the Scots should come ouer
 into our Iland, as they were obscure people, so the time of their
 arriuall is as far to me vnknowne. Wherefore the resolution of this
 point must still remaine In tenebris. This neuerthelesse is certeine,
 that Maximus first Legate of Britaine, and afterward emperour, draue
 the Scots out of Britaine, and compelled them to get habitation in
 Ireland, the out Iles, and the North part of the maine, and finallie
 diuided their region betwéene the Britaines and the Picts. He
 denounced warre also against the Irishmen, for receiuing them into
 their land: but they crauing the peace, yéelded to subscribe, that
 from thence-foorth they would not receiue any Scot into their
 dominions; and so much the more, for that they were pronounced enimies
 to the Romans, and disturbers of the common peace and quietnesse of
 their prouinces here in England.

 The Saxons became first acquainted with this Ile, by meanes of the
 piracie which they dailie practised vpon our coastes (after they had
 once begun to aduenture themselues also vpon the seas, thereby to
 seeke out more wealth than was now to be gotten in the West parts of
 the maine, which they and their neighbours had alreadie spoiled in
 most lamentable and barbarous maner) howbeit they neuer durst presume
 [Sidenote: The hurt by forren aid.]
 to inhabit in this Iland, vntill they were sent for by Vortiger to
 serue him in his warres against the Picts and Scots, after that the
 Romans had giuen vs ouer, and left vs wholie to our owne defense and
 regiment. Being therefore come vnder Hengist in three bottoms or
 kéeles, and in short time espieng the idle and negligent behauiour of
 the Britaines, and fertilitie of our soile, they were not a little
 inflamed to make a full conquest of such as at the first they came to
 aid and succour. Herevpon also they fell by little and little to the
 winding in of greater numbers of their countrimen and neighbours, with
 their wiues and children into this region, so that within a while
 these new comlings began to molest the homelings, and ceased not from
 time to time to continue their purpose, vntill they had gotten
 possession of the whole, or at the leastwise the greatest part of our
 countrie; the Britons in the meane season being driuen either into
 Wales and Cornewall, or altogither out of the Iland to séeke new

 [Sidenote: Danes.]
 In like maner the Danes (the next nation that succéeded) came at the
 first onelie to pilfer and robbe vpon the frontiers of our Iland, till
 that in the end, being let in by the Welshmen or Britons through an
 earnest desire to be reuenged vpon the Saxons, they no lesse plagued
 the one than the other, their fréends than their aduersaries, seeking
 by all meanes possible to establish themselues also in the sure
 possession of Britaine. But such was their successe, that they
 prospered not long in their deuise: for so great was their
 lordlinesse, crueltie, and insatiable desire of riches, beside their
 detestable abusing of chast matrons, and yoong virgins (whose husbands
 and parents were dailie inforced to become their drudges and slaues,
 whilest they sat at home and fed like drone bées of the sweet of their
 trauell and labours) that God I say would not suffer them to continue
 any while ouer vs, but when he saw his time he remooued their yoke,
 and gaue vs liberty as it were to breath vs, thereby to see whether
 this his sharpe scourge could haue mooued vs to repentance and
 amendment of our lewd and sinfull liues, or not. But when no signe
 thereof appeared in our hearts, he called in an other nation to vex
 [Sidenote: The Normans.]
 vs, I meane the Normans, a people mixed with Danes, and of whom it is
 worthilie doubted, whether they were more hard and cruell to our
 countrimen than the Danes, or more heauie and intollerable to our
 Iland than the Saxons or the Romans. This nation came out of Newstria,
 the people thereof were called Normans by the French, bicause the
 Danes which subdued that region, came out of the North parts of the
 world: neuerthelesse, I suppose that the ancient word Newstria, is
 corrupted from West-rijc, bicause that if you marke the situation, it
 lieth opposite from Austria or Ost-rijc, which is called the East
 region, as Newstria is the Weast: for Rijc in the old Scithian toong
 dooth signifie a region or kingdome, as in Franc-rijc, or Franc-reich,
 Westsaxon-reich, Ost saxon-reich, Su-rijc, Angel-rijc, &c, is else to
 be séene. But howsoeuer this falleth out, these Normans or Danish
 French, were dedlie aduersaries to the English Saxons, first by meane
 of a quarell that grew betwéene them in the daies of Edward the
 Confessour, at such time as the Earle of Bullen, and William Duke of
 Normandie, arriued in this land to visit him, & their freends; such
 Normans (I meane) as came ouer with him and Emma his mother before
 him, in the time of Canutus and Ethelred. For the first footing that
 euer the French did set in this Iland, sithence the time of Ethelbert
 & Sigebert, was with Emma, which Ladie brought ouer a traine of French
 Gentlemen and Ladies with hir into England.

 [Sidenote: The cause of the conquest by the Normans.]
 After hir also no small numbers of attendants came in with Edward the
 Confessour, whome he preferred to the greatest offices in the realme,
 in so much that one Robert a Norman, became Archbishop of Canturburie,
 whose preferment so much enhanced the minds of the French, on the one
 side, as their lordlie and outragious demeanour kindled the stomachs
 of the English nobilitie against them on the other: insomuch that not
 long before the death of Emma the kings mother, and vpon occasion of
 the brall hapning at Douer (whereof I haue made sufficient mention in
 my Chronologie, not regarding the report of the French authors in this
 behalfe, who write altogither in the fauour of their Archbishop
 Robert, but following the authoritie of an English préest then liuing
 in the court) the English Peeres began to shew their disliking in
 manifest maner. Neuerthelesse, the Normans so bewitched the king with
 their lieng and bosting, Robert the Archbishop being the chéefe
 instrument of their practise, that he beléeued them, and therevpon
 vexed sundrie of the nobilitie, amongst whom Earle Goodwijn of Kent
 was the chéefe, a noble Gentleman and father in law to king Edward by
 the mariage of his daughter. The matter also came to such issue
 against him, that he was exiled, and fiue of his sonnes with him,
 wherevpon he goeth ouer the sea, and soone after returning with his
 said sonnes, they inuaded the land in sundrie places, the father
 himselfe comming to London, where when the kings power was readie to
 ioine with him in battell, it vtterlie refused so to doo: affirming
 plainelie, that it should be méere follie for one Englishman to fight
 against another, in the reuenge of Frenchmens quarels: which answer
 entred so déeplie into the kings mind, that he was contented to haue
 the matter heard, and appointing commissioners for that purpose; they
 concluded at the vpshot, that all the French should depart out of
 England by a day, few excepted, whom the king should appoint and
 [Sidenote: Archbishop of Can. exiled, and the rest of the French.]
 nominate. By this means therfore Robert the Archbishop, & of secret
 counsell with the king, was first exiled as principall abuser &
 seducer of the king, who goeth to Rome, & there complaineth to the
 Pope of his iniurie receiued by the English. Howbeit as he returned
 home againe with no small hope of the readeption of his See, he died
 in Normandie, whereby he saued a killing. Certes he was the first that
 euer tendered complaint out of England vnto Rome, & with him went
 William Bishop of London (afterward reuoked) and Vlfo of Lincolne, who
 hardlie escaped the furie of the English nobilitie. Some also went
 into Scotland, and there held themselues, expecting a better time. And
 this is the true historie of the originall cause of the conquest of
 England by the French: for after they were well beaten at Douer,
 bicause of their insolent demeanour there shewed, their harts neuer
 ceased to boile with a desire of reuenge that brake out into a flame,
 so soone as their Robert possessed the primacie, which being once
 obteined, and to set his mischéefe intended abroch withall, a
 contention was quicklie procured about certeine Kentish lands, and
 controuersie kindled, whether he or the Earle should haue most right
 vnto them. The king held with the priest as with the church, the
 [Sidenote: Erle Goodwine slandered by the French writers.]
 nobilitie with the Earle. In processe also of this businesse, the
 Archbishop accused the Earle of high treason, burdening him with the
 slaughter of Alfred the kings brother, which was altogither false: as
 appeareth by a treatise yet extant of that matter, written by a
 chaplaine to king Edward the Confessour, in the hands of Iohn Stow my
 verie fréend, wherein he saith thus, "Alfredus incautè agens in
 aduentu suo in Angliam a Danis circumuentus occiditur." He addeth
 moreouer, that giuing out as he came through the countrie accompanied
 with his few proud Normans, how his meaning was to recouer his right
 vnto the kingdome, and supposing that all men would haue yéelded vnto
 him, he fell into their hands, whome Harald then king did send to
 apprehend him, vpon the fame onelie of this report brought vnto his
 eares. So that (to be short) after the king had made his pacification
 with the Earle, the French (I say) were exiled, the Quéene restored to
 his fauour (whom he at the beginning of this broile had imprisoned at
 Wilton, allowing hir but one onlie maid to wait upon hir) and the land
 reduced to hir former quietnesse, which continued vntill the death of
 the king. After which the Normans not forgetting their old grudge,
 remembred still their quarell, that in the end turned to their
 conquest of this Iland. After which obteined, they were so cruellie
 [Sidenote: The miserie of the English vnder the French.]
 bent to our vtter subuersion and ouerthrow, that in the beginning it
 was lesse reproch to be accounted a slaue than an Englishman, or a
 drudge in anie filthie businesse than a Britaine: insomuch that euerie
 French page was superiour to the greatest Peere; and the losse of an
 Englishmans life but a pastime to such of them as contended in their
 brauerie, who should giue the greatest strokes or wounds vnto their
 bodies, when their toiling and drudgerie could not please them, or
 satisfie their gréedie humors. Yet such was our lot in those daies by
 the diuine appointed order, that we must needs obey such as the Lord
 did set ouer vs, and so much the rather, for that all power to resist
 was vtterlie taken from vs, and our armes made so weake and feeble
 that they were not now able to remooue the importable load of the
 [Sidenote: The cause of our miserie.]
 enimie from our surburdened shoulders. And this onelie I saie againe,
 bicause we refused grace offered in time, and would not heare when God
 by his Preachers did call vs so fauourablie vnto him. Oh how miserable
 was the estate of our countrie vnder the French and Normans, wherein
 the Brittish and English that remained, could not be called to any
 function in the commonwealth, no not so much as to be constables and
 headburowes in small villages, except they could bring 2. or 3.
 Normans for suerties to the Lords of the soile for their good
 behauiour in their offices! Oh what numbers of all degrées of English
 and Brittish were made slaues and bondmen, and bought and sold as oxen
 in open market! In so much that at the first comming, the French bond
 were set free; and those that afterward became bond, were of our owne
 countrie and nation, so that few or rather none of vs remained free
 without some note of bondage and seruitude to the French. Hereby then
 we perceiue, how from time to time this Iland hath not onelie béene a
 prey, but as it were a common receptacle for strangers, the naturall
 homelings or Britons being still cut shorter and shorter, as I said
 [Sidenote: In this voiage the said Harald builded Portaschith,
 which Caradoch ap Griffin afterward ouerthrew, and killed the
 garrison that Harald left therein.]
 before, till in the end they came not onelie to be driuen into a
 corner of this region, but in time also verie like vtterlie to haue
 beene extinguished. For had not king Edward, surnamed the saint, in
 his time, after greeuous wars made vpon them 1063. (wherein Harald
 latelie made Earle of Oxenford, sonne to Goodwin Earle of Kent, and
 after king of England, was his generall) permitted the remnant of
 their women to ioine in mariage with the Englishmen (when the most
 part of their husbands and male children were slaine with the sword)
 it could not haue béene otherwise chosen, but their whole race must
 néeds haue susteined the vttermost confusion, and thereby the memorie
 of the Britons vtterlie haue perished among vs.

 Thus we see how England hath six times beene subiect to the reproch of
 conquest. And wheras the Scots séeme to challenge manie famous
 victories also ouer us, beside gréeuous impositions, tributs, &
 dishonorable compositions: it shall suffice for answer, that they
 deale in this as in the most part of their historie, which is to seeke
 great honor by lieng, & great renowme by prating and craking. Indeed
 they haue doone great mischéefe in this Iland, & with extreme
 crueltie; but as for any conquest the first is yet to heare of. Diuers
 other conquests also haue béene pretended by sundrie princes sithence
 the conquest, onelie to the end that all pristinate lawes and tenures
 of possession might cease, and they make a new disposition of all
 things at their owne pleasure. As one by king Edw. the 3. but it tooke
 none effect. Another by Henrie the 4. who neuerthelesse was at the
 last though hardlie drawne from the challenge by William Thorington,
 then cheefe Justice of England. The third by Henrie the 7. who had
 some better shew of right, but yet without effect. And the last of all
 by Q. Marie, as some of the papists gaue out, and also would haue had
 hir to haue obteined, but God also staied their malices, and hir
 challenge. But beside the six afore mentioned, Huntingdon the old
 historiographer speaketh of a seuenth, likelie (as he saith) to come
 one daie out of the North, which is a wind that bloweth no man to
 good, sith nothing is to be had in those parts, but hunger & much
 cold. Sée more hereof in the historie of S. Albons, and aforsaid
 author which lieth on the left side of the librarie belonging now to
 Paules: for I regard no prophesies as one that doubteth from what
 spirit they doo procéed, or who should be the author of them.


 CAP. V.

 Besides these aforesaid nations, which haue crept (as you haue heard)
 into our Iland, we read of sundrie giants that should inhabit here.
 Which report as it is not altogither incredible, sith the posterities
 of diuers princes were called by the name: so vnto some mens eares it
 seemeth so strange a rehersall, that for the same onelie cause they
 suspect the credit of our whole historie, & reiect it as a fable,
 vnworthie to be read. They also condemne the like in all other
 histories, especiallie of the North, where men are naturallie of
 greatest stature, imagining all to be but fables that is written of
 Starcater, Hartben, Angrine, Aruerode, &c: of whom Saxo, Johannes
 Magnus and Olaus doo make mention, & whose bones doo yet remaine to be
 seene as rare miracles in nature. Of these also some in their life
 time were able to lift vp (as they write) a vessell of liquor of 1000.
 weight, or an horsse, or an oxe, & cast it on their shoulders (wherein
 their verie women haue beene likewise knowne to come néere vnto them)
 and of the race of those men, some were séene of no lesse strength in
 the 1500. of Grace, wherein Olaus liued, and wrote the same of his
 owne experience and knowledge. Of the giant of Spaine that died of
 late yeares by a fall vpon the Alpes, as he either went or came fro
 Rome, about the purchase of a dispensation to marrie with his
 kinswoman (a woman also of much more than common stature) there be men
 yet liuing, and may liue long for age, that can saie verie much euen
 by their owne knowledge. Wherfore it appeareth by present experience,
 that all is not absolutelie vntrue which is remembred of men of such
 giants. For this cause therfore I haue now taken vpon me to make this
 breefe discourse insuing, as indeuouring therby to prooue, that the
 opinion of giants is not altogither grounded vpon vaine and fabulous
 narrations, inuented onelie to delight the eares of the hearers with
 the report of maruellous things: but that there haue beene such men in
 [Sidenote: * _Esay._ 30. _vers._ 25.]
 deed, as for their hugenesse of person haue resembled rather[*] high
 towers than mortall men, although their posterities are now consumed,
 and their monstruous races vtterlie worne out of knowledge.

 I doo not meane herein to dispute, whether this name Gigas or Nephilim
 was giuen vnto them, rather for their tyrannie and oppression of the
 people, than for their greatnesse of bodie, or large steps, as
 Goropius would haue it (for he denieth that euer men were greater than
 at this present) or bicause their parents were not knowne, for such in
 old time were called Terræ filij; or whether the word Gigas dooth
 onlie signifie Indigenas, or homelings, borne in the land or not;
 neither whether all men were of like quantitie in stature, and farre
 more greater in old time, than now they be: and yet absolutelie I
 denie neither of these, sith verie probable reasons may be brought for
 ech of them, but especiallie the last rehearsed, whose confirmation
 dependeth vpon the authorities of sundrie ancient writers, who make
 diuers of noble race, equall to the giants in strength and manhood,
 and yet doo not giue the same name vnto them, bicause their quarels
 were iust, and commonlie taken in hand for defense of the oppressed.
 [Sidenote: Antheus.]
 [Sidenote: _Lucane lib._ 4 _in fine._]
 Examples hereof we may take of Hercules and Antheus, whose wrestling
 declareth that they were equall in stature & stomach. Such also was
 the courage of Antheus, that being often ouercome, and as it were
 vtterlie vanquished by the said Hercules, yet if he did eftsoones
 returne againe into his kingdome, he forthwith recouered his force,
 returned and held Hercules tacke, till he gat at the last betwéene him
 and home, so cutting off the farther hope of the restitution of his
 armie, and killing finallie his aduersarie in the field, of which
 victorie Politian writeth thus:

   Incaluere animis dura certare palæstra,
     Neptuni quondàm filius atque Iouis:
   Non certamen erant operoso ex ære lebetes,
     Sed qui vel vitam vel ferat interitum:
   Occidit Antæus Ioue natum viuere fas est,
     Estq; magistra Pales Græcia, non Lybia.

 [Sidenote: Corineus.]
 [Sidenote: Gomagot.]
 The like doo our histories report of Corineus and Gomagot,
 peraduenture king of this Ile, who fought a combat hand to hand, till
 one of them was slaine, and yet for all this no man reputeth Hercules
 or Corineus for giants, albeit that Hanuile in his Architrenion make
 the later to be 12. cubits in height, which is full 18. foot, if
 poeticall licence doo not take place in his report and assertion. But
 sith (I say againe) it is not my purpose to stand vpon these points, I
 passe ouer to speake any more of them. And whereas also I might haue
 proceeded in such order, that I should first set downe by manie
 circumstances, whether any giants were, then whether they were of such
 huge and incredible stature as the authours doo remember, and finallie
 whether any of them haue beene in this our Iland or not, I protest
 plainlie, that my mind is not here bent to deale in any such maner,
 but rather generallie to confirme and by sufficient authoritie, that
 there haue beene such mightie men of stature, and some of them also in
 Britaine, which I will set downe onelie by sundrie examples, whereby
 it shall fall out, that neither our Iland, nor any part of the maine,
 haue at one time or other béen altogither without them. First of all
 therfore, & to begin with the scriptures, the most sure & certeine
 ground of all knowledge: you shall haue out of them such notable
 examples set downe, as I haue obserued in reading the same, which vnto
 the godlie may suffice for sufficient proofe of my position.
 Neuerthelesse, after the scriptures I will resort to the writings of
 our learned Diuines, and finallie of the infidell and pagane authors,
 whereby nothing shall seeme to want that may confute Goropius, and all
 his cauillations.

 [Sidenote: _Cap._ 6. _vers._ 5.]
 Moses the prophet of the Lord, writing of the estate of things before
 the floud, hath these words in his booke of generations. In these
 [Sidenote: _Anti. li._ 1.]
 daies saith he, there were giants vpon the earth. Berosus also the
 Chalde writeth, that néere vnto Libanus there was a citie called Oenon
 (which I take to be Hanoch, builded sometime by Cham) wherein giants
 did inhabit, who trusting to the strength and hugenesse of their
 bodies, did verie great oppression and mischeefe in the world. The
 Hebrues called them generallie Enach, of Hanach the Chebronite, father
 to Achimam, Scheschai and Talma, although their first originall was
 deriued from Henoch the sonne of Caine, of whome that pestilent race
 descended, as I read. The Moabits named them Emims, and the Ammonites
 Zamsummims, and it should seeme by the second of Deut. cap. 19, 20.
 that Ammon and Moab were greatlie replenished with such men, when
 Moses wrote that treatise. For of these monsters some families
 remained of greater stature than other vnto his daies, in comparison
 [Sidenote: _Nu. cap._ 13. _verse_ 33, & 34.]
 of whome the children of Israell confessed themselues to be but
 grashoppers. Which is one noble testimonie that the word Gigas or
 Enach is so well taken for a man of huge stature, as for an homeborne
 child, wicked tyrant, or oppressour of the people.

 [Sidenote: _Deut._ 3. _vers._ 11.]
 [Sidenote: Og of Basan.]
 Furthermore, there is mention made also in the scriptures of Og,
 sometime king of Basan, who was the last of the race of the giants,
 that was left in the land of promise to be ouercome by the Israelits,
 & whose iron bed was afterward shewed for a woonder at Rabbath (a
 citie of the Ammonites) conteining 9. cubits in length, and 4. in
 bredth, which cubits I take not to be geometricall, (that is, each one
 so great as six of the smaller, as those were wherof the Arke was
 made, as our Diuines affirme, especiallie Augustine: whereas Origen,
 hom. 2. in Gen. out of whom he seemeth to borrow it, appeareth to haue
 no such meaning directlie) but rather of the arme of a meane man,
 which oftentimes dooth varie & differ from the standard. Oh how
 Goropius dalieth about the historie of this Og, of the breaking of his
 pate against the beds head, & of hurting his ribs against the sides,
 and all to prooue, that Og was not bigger than other men, and so he
 leaueth the matter as sufficientlie answered with a French countenance
 of truth. But see August. de ciuit. lib. 15. cap. 25. & ad Faustum
 Manich. lib. 12. Ambros. &c. and Johannes Buteo that excellent
 geometrician, who hath written of purpose of the capacitie of the

 [Sidenote: _Cap._ 17. _ver._ 4, 5, 6.]
 [Sidenote: Goliah.]
 In the first of Samuel you shall read of Goliah a Philistine, the
 weight of whose brigandine or shirt of maile was of 5000. sicles, or
 1250. ounces of brasse, which amounteth to 104. pound of Troie weight
 after 4. common sicles to the ounce. The head of his speare came vnto
 ten pound English or 600. sicles of that metall. His height also was
 measured at six cubits and an hand bredth. All which doo import that
 he was a notable giant, and a man of great stature & strength to weare
 such an armour, and beweld so heauie a lance. But Goropius thinking
 himselfe still to haue Og in hand, and indeuouring to extenuate the
 fulnesse of the letter to his vttermost power, dooth neuerthelesse
 earnestlie affirme, that he was not aboue three foot more than the
 common sort of men, or two foot higher than Saule: and so he leaueth
 it as determined.

 [Sidenote: _Cap._ 21. _ver._ 16, 17, &c.]
 In the second of Samuel, I find report of foure giants borne in Geth;
 of which Ishbenob the first, that would haue killed Dauid, had a
 speare, whose head weighed the iust halfe of that of Goliath: the
 second called Siphai, Sippai or Saph, 1. Par. 20. was nothing
 inferiour to the first: the third hight also Goliah, the staffe of
 whose speare was like vnto the beame of a weauers loome, neuerthelesse
 he was slaine in the second battell in Gob by Elhanan, as the first
 was by Abisai Ioabs brother, and the second by Elhanan. The fourth
 brother (for they were all brethren) was slaine at Gath by Ionathan
 nephew to Dauid, and he was not onlie huge of personage, but also of
 disfigured forme, for he had 24. fingers and toes. Wherby it is
 euident, that the generation of giants was not extinguished in
 Palestine, vntill the time of Dauid, which was 2890. after the floud,
 nor vtterlie consumed in Og, as some of our expositors would haue it.

 Now to come vnto our christian writers. For though the authorities
 alreadie alleged out of the word, are sufficient to confirme my
 purpose at the full; yet will I not let to set downe such other notes
 as experience hath reuealed, onelie to the end that the reader shall
 not thinke the name of giants, with their quantities, and other
 circumstances, mentioned in the scriptures, rather to haue some
 mysticall interpretation depending vpon them, than that the sense of
 the text in this behalfe is to be taken simplie as it speaketh. And
 first of all to omit that which Tertullian Lib. 2. de resurrect.
 [Sidenote: _De ciuitate Dei lib._ 15. _cap._ 9.]
 saith; S. Augustine noteth, how he with other saw the tooth of a man,
 wherof he tooke good aduisement, and pronounced in the end that it
 would haue made 100. of his owne, or anie other mans that liued in his
 [Sidenote: _Iohannes Boccacius._]
 time. The like hereof also dooth Iohn Boccace set downe, in the 68.
 chapter of his 4. booke, saieng that in the caue of a mountaine, not
 far from Drepanum (a towne of Sicilia called Eryx as he gesseth) the
 bodie of an exceeding high giant was discouered, thrée of whose teeth
 did weigh 100. ounces, which being conuerted into English poise, doth
 yeeld eight pound and foure ounces, after twelue ounces to the pound,
 that is 33. ounces euerie tooth.

 He addeth farther, that the forepart of his scull was able to conteine
 manie bushels of wheat, and by the proportion of the bone of his
 [Sidenote: A carcase discouered of 200. cubits.]
 thigh, the Symmetricians iudged his bodie to be aboue 200. cubits.
 Those teeth, scull, and bones, were (and as I thinke yet are, for
 ought I know to the contrarie) to be seene in the church of Drepanum
 in perpetuall memorie of his greatnesse, whose bodie was found vpon
 this occasion. As some digged in the earth to laie the foundation of
 an house, the miners happened vpon a great vault, not farre from
 Drepanum: whereinto when they were entred, they saw the huge bodie of
 a man sitting in the caue, of whose greatnesse they were so afraid,
 that they ranne awaie, and made an outcrie in the citie, how there sat
 a man in such a place, so great as an hill: the people hearing the
 newes, ran out with clubs and weapons, as if they should haue gone
 vnto a foughten field, and 300. of them entring into the caue, they
 foorthwith saw that he was dead, and yet sat as if he had been aliue,
 hauing a staffe in his hand, compared by mine author vnto the mast of
 a tall ship, which being touched fell by and by to dust, sauing the
 nether end betwéene his hand and the ground, whose hollownesse was
 filled with 1500. pound weight of lead, to beare vp his arme that it
 should not fall in péeces: neuerthelesse, his bodie also being touched
 fell likewise into dust, sauing three of his aforesaid teeth, the
 forepart of his scull, and one of his thigh bones, which are reserued
 to be séene of such as will hardlie beleeue these reports.

 In the histories of Brabant I read of a giant found, whose bones were
 17. or 18. cubits in length, but Goropius, as his maner is, denieth
 them to be the bones of a man, affirming rather that they were the
 bones of an elephant, because they somwhat resembled those of two such
 beasts which were found at the making of the famous ditch betwéene
 Bruxels and Machlin. As though there were anie precise resemblance
 betwéene the bones of a man and of an elephant, or that there had euer
 béene any elephant of 27. foot in length. But sée his demeanour. In
 the end he granteth that another bodie was found vpon the shore of
 Rhodanus, of thirtie foot in length. Which somewhat staieth his
 iudgement, but not altogither remooueth his error.

 [Sidenote: _Mat. Westmon._]
 The bodie of Pallas was found in Italie, in the yeare of Grace 1038.
 and being measured it conteined twentie foot in length, this Pallas
 was companion with Æneas.

 [Sidenote: _Iohannes Leland._]
 There was a carcase also laid bare 1170. in England vpon the shore
 (where the beating of the sea had washed awaie the earth from the
 stone wherein it laie) and when it was taken vp it conteined 50. foot
 [Sidenote: _Mafieus, lib. 14. Triuet._]
 in measure, as our histories doo report. The like was seene before in
 [Sidenote: _Mat. West._]
 Wales, in the yeare 1087. of another of 14. foot.

 In Perth moreouer a village in Scotland another was taken vp, which to
 this daie they shew in a church, vnder the name of little John (per
 Antiphrasin) being also 14. foot in length, as diuerse doo affirme
 [Sidenote: _Hector Boet._]
 which haue beholden the same, and whereof Hector Boetius dooth saie,
 that he did put his whole arme into one of the hanch bones: which is
 worthie to be remembred.

 In the yeare of Grace 1475. the bodie of Tulliola the daughter of
 Cicero was taken vp, & found higher by not a few foot than the common
 sort of women liuing in those daies.

 [Sidenote: _Geruasius Tilberiensis._]
 Geruasius Tilberiensis, head Marshall to the king of Arles writeth in
 his Chronicle dedicated to Otho 4. how that at Isoretum, in the
 suburbes of Paris, he saw the bodie of a man that was twentie foot
 long, beside the head and the necke, which was missing & not found,
 the owner hauing peraduenture béene beheaded for some notable
 trespasse committed in times past, or (as he saith) killed by S.

 The Greeke writers make mention of Andronicus their emperour, who
 liued 1183. of Grace, and was ten foot in height, that is, thrée foot
 higher than the Dutch man that shewed himselfe in manie places of
 England, 1582. this man maried Anna daughter to Lewis of France
 (before assured to Alexius, whome he strangled, dismembred and drowned
 in the sea) the ladie not being aboue eleuen yeares of age, whereas he
 was an old dotard, and beside hir he kept Marpaca a fine harlot, who
 ruled him as she listed.

 Zonaras speaketh of a woman that liued in the daies of Justine, who
 being borne in Cilicia, and of verie comelie personage, was
 neuerthelesse almost two foot taller than the tallest woman of hir

 [Sidenote: _Sir Thomas Eliot._]
 A carcase was taken vp at Iuie church neere Salisburie but of late
 yeares to speake of, almost fourtéene foot long, in Dictionario

 [Sidenote: _Leland in Combrit._]
 In Gillesland in Come Whitton paroche not far from the chappell of the
 Moore, six miles by east from Carleill, a coffin of stone was found,
 and therein the bones of a man, of more than incredible greatnes. In
 like sort Leland speaketh of another found in the Ile called Alderney,
 whereof you shall read more in the chapiter of our Ilands.

 [Sidenote: _Richard Grafton._]
 Richard Grafton in his Manuell telleth of one whose shinbone conteined
 six foot, and thereto his scull so great that it was able to receiue
 fiue pecks of wheat. Wherefore by coniecturall symmetrie of these
 parts, his bodie must needs be of 24. foot, or rather more, if it were
 [Sidenote: The Symmetrie or proportion of the bodie of a comelie man.]
 diligentlie measured. For the proportion of a comelie and well
 featured bodie, answereth 9. times to the length of the face, taken at
 large from the pitch of the crowne to the chin, as the whole length is
 from the same place vnto the sole of the foot, measured by an imagined
 line, and seuered into so manie parts by like ouerthwart draughts, as
 Drurerus in his lineall description of mans bodie doth deliuer.
 Neuertheles, this symmetrie is not taken by other than the well
 proportioned face, for Recta, orbiculata (or fornicata) prona,
 resupinata, and lacunata (or repanda) doo so far degenerate from the
 true proportion as from the forme and beautie of the comelie. Hereby
 also they make the face taken in strict maner, to be the tenth part of
 the whole bodie, that is, fr[=o] the highest part of the forehead to
 the pitch of the chin, so that in the vse of the word face there is a
 difference, wherby the 9. part is taken (I say) from the crowne
 (called Vertex, because the haire there turneth into a circle) so that
 if the space by a rule were truelie taken, I meane from the crowne or
 highest part of the head to the pitch of the nether chap, and
 multiplied by nine, the length of the whole bodie would easilie
 appeare, & shew it selfe at the full. In like maner I find, that from
 the elbow to the top of the midle finger is the 4. part of the whole
 length, called a cubit: from the wrist to the top of the same finger,
 a tenth part: the length of the shinbone to the ancle a fourth part
 (and all one with the cubit:) from the top of the finger to the third
 ioint, two third parts of the face from the top of the forehead. Which
 obseruations I willinglie remember in this place, to the end that if
 anie such carcases happen to be found hereafter, it shall not be hard
 by some of these bones here mentioned, to come by the stature of the
 whole bodie, in certeine & exact maner. As for the rest of the bones,
 ioints, parts, &c: you may resort to Drurerus, Cardan, and other
 writers, sith the farther deliuerie of them concerneth not my purpose.
 [Sidenote: _Sylvester Gyraldus._]
 To proceed therefore with other examples, I read that the bodie of
 king Arthur being found in the yeare 1189. was two foot higher than
 anie man that came to behold the same. Finallie the carcase of William
 Conqueror was séene not manie yeares since (to wit, 1542.) in the
 [Sidenote: _Constans fama Gallorum._]
 citie of Cane, twelue inches longer, by the iudgment of such as saw
 it, than anie man which dwelled in the countrie. All which testimonies
 I note togither, bicause they proceed from christian writers, from
 whome nothing should be farther or more distant, than of set purpose
 to lie, and feed the world with fables.

 In our times also, and whilest Francis the first reigned ouer France,
 there was a man séene in Aquiteine, whome the king being in those
 parties made of his gard, whose height was such, that a man of common
 heigth might easilie go vnder his twist without stooping, a stature
 [Sidenote: Briat.]
 incredible. Moreouer Casanion, a writer of our time, telleth of the
 bones of Briat a giant found of late in Delphinois, of 15. cubits, the
 diameter of whose scull was two cubits, and the breadth of his
 shoulders foure, as he himselfe beheld in the late second wars of
 France, & wherevnto the report of Ioan Marius made in his bookes De
 Galliarum illustrationibus, where he writeth of the carcase of the
 same giant found not farre from the Rhodanus, which was 22. foot long,
 from the scull to the sole of the feet, dooth yéeld sufficient
 testimonie. Also Calameus in his commentaries De Biturigibus,
 confirmeth no lesse, adding that he was found 1556. & so dooth
 Baptista Fulgosus, lib. 1. cap. 6. saieng farther, that his graue was
 seene not farre from Valentia, and discouered by the violence and
 current of the Rhodanus. The said Casanion in like sort speaketh of
 the bones of a man which he beheld, one of whose téeth was a foot
 long, and eight pound in weight. Also of the sepulchre of another
 neere vnto Charmes castell, which was nine paces in length, things
 incredible to vs, if eiesight did not confirme it in our owne times,
 and these carcases were not reserued by the verie prouidence of God,
 to the end we might behold his works, and by these relikes vnderstand,
 that such men were in old time in deed, of whose statures we now begin
 to doubt. Now to say somwhat also of mine owne knowledge, there is the
 thighbone of a man to be séene in the church of S. Laurence néere
 Guildhall in London, which in time past was 26. inches in length, but
 now it beginneth to decaie, so that it is shorter by foure inches than
 it was in the time of king Edward. Another also is to be seene in
 Aldermarie burie, of some called Aldermanburie, of 32. inches and
 rather more, whereof the symmetrie hath beene taken by some skilfull
 in that practise, and an image made according to that proportion,
 which is fixt in the east end of the cloister of the same church, not
 farre from the said bone, and sheweth the person of a man full ten or
 eleuen foot high, which as some say was found in the cloister of
 Poules, that was neere to the librarie, at such time as the Duke of
 Somerset did pull it downe to the verie foundation, and carried the
 stones thereof to the Strand, where he did build his house. These two
 bones haue I séene, beside other, whereof at the beholding I tooke no
 great heed, bicause I minded not as then to haue had any such vse of
 their proportions, and therefore I will speake no more of them: this
 is sufficient for my purpose that is deliuered out of the christian

 Now it resteth furthermore that I set downe, what I haue read therof
 in Pagane writers, who had alwaies great regard of their credit, and
 so ought all men that dedicate any thing vnto posteritie, least in
 going about otherwise to reape renowme and praise, they doo procure
 vnto themselues in the end nothing else but meere contempt and
 infamie. For my part I will touch rare things, and such as to my selfe
 doo séeme almost incredible: howbeit as I find them, so I note them,
 requiring your Honour in reading hereof, to let euerie Author beare
 his owne burden, and euerie oxe his bundle.

 [Sidenote: _In vita Sertorij de Antheo._]
 Plutarch telleth how Sertorius being in Lybia, néere to the streicts
 of Maroco, to wit, at Tingi (or Tanger in Mauritania, as it is now
 called) caused the sepulchre of Antheus, afore remembred to be opened:
 for hearing by common report that the said giant laie buried there,
 whose corps was fiftie cubits long at the least, he was so far off
 from crediting the same, that he would not beleeue it, vntill he saw
 the coffin open wherein the bones of the aforesaid prince did rest. To
 be short therefore, he caused his souldiers to cast downe the hill
 made sometime ouer the tombe, and finding the bodie in the bottome
 coffined in stone, after the measure therof taken, he saw it
 manifestlie to be 60. cubits in length, which were ten more than the
 people made accompt of, which Strabo also confirmeth.

 Pausanias reporteth out of one Miso, that when the bodie of Aiax was
 found, the whirlebone of his knée was adiudged so broad as a pretie
 dish: also that the bodie of Asterius somtime king of Creta was ten
 cubits long, and that of Hyllus or Gerion no lesse maruelous than the
 rest, all which Goropius still condemneth to be the bones of monsters
 of the sea (notwithstanding the manifest formes of their bones,
 epitaphes, and inscriptions found ingrauen in brasse and lead with
 them in their sepulchres) so far is he from being persuaded and led
 from his opinion.

 [Sidenote: _Philostrate._]
 Philostrate in Heroicis saith, how he saw the bodie of a giant thirtie
 cubits in length, also the carcase of another of two and twentie, and
 the third of twelue.

 Liuie in the seauenth of his first decade, speaketh of an huge person
 which made a challenge as he stood at the end of the Anien bridge,
 against any Romane that would come out and fight with him, whose
 stature was not much inferiour to that of Golias, of Artaches (of
 whome Herodot speaketh in the historie of Xerxes) who was sixe common
 cubits of stature, which make but fiue of the kings standard, bicause
 this is longer by thrée fingers than the other. Of Pusio, Secundilla,
 & Cabaras, of which the first two liuing vnder Augustus were aboue ten
 foot, and the later vnder Claudius of full nine, and all remembred by
 Plinie; of Eleazar a Jew, of whome Iosephus saith, that he was sent to
 Tiberius, and a person of heigth fiue cubits; of another of whom
 Nicephorus maketh mention lib. 12. cap. 13. Hist. eccles. of fiue
 cubits and an handfull, I say nothing, bicause Casanion of Mutterell
 hath alredie sufficientlie discoursed vpon these examples in his De
 gigantibus, which as I gesse he hath written of set purpose against
 Goropius, who in his Gigantomachia, supposeth himselfe to haue killed
 all the giants in the world, and like a new Iupiter Alterum carcasse
 Herculem, as the said Casanion dooth merilie charge and vpbraid him.

 [Sidenote: _Lib._ 7.]
 Plinie telleth of an earthquake at Creta, which discouered the body of
 a giant, that was 46. cubits in length after the Romane standard, and
 by diuerse supposed to be the bodie of Orion or Ætion. Neuerthelesse I
 read, that Lucius Flaccus and Metellus did sweare Per sua capita, that
 it was either the carcase of some monster of the sea, or a forged
 deuise to bleare the peoples eies withall, wherein it is wonderfull to
 see, how they please Goropius as one that first deriued his
 fantasticall imagination from their asseueration & oth. The said
 Plinie also addeth that the bodie of Orestes was seuen cubits in
 length, one Gabbara of Arabia nine foot nine inches, and two reserued
 In conditorio Sallustianorum halfe a foot longer than Gabbara was, for
 which I neuer read that anie man was driuen to sweare.

 [Sidenote: _Trallianus._]
 Trallianus writeth how the Athenienses digging on a time in the
 ground, to laie the foundation of a new wall to be made in a certeine
 Iland in the daies of an emperour, did find the bones of Macrosyris in
 a coffin of hard stone, of 100. cubits in length after the accompt of
 the Romane cubit, which was then either a foot and a halfe, or not
 much in difference from halfe a yard of our measure now in England.
 These verses also, as they are now translated out of Gréeke were found

   Sepultus ego Macrosyris in longa insula
   Vitæ peractis annis mille quinquies:

 which amounteth to 81. yeares foure moneths, after the Aegyptian

 In the time of Hadrian the emperour, the bodie of the giant Ida was
 taken vp at Messana, conteining 20. foot in length, and hauing a
 double row of teeth, yet standing whole in his chaps. Eumachus also in
 Perigesi, telleth that when the Carthaginenses went about to dich in
 their prouince, they found two bodies in seuerall coffins of stone,
 the one was 23. the other 24. cubits in length, such another was found
 in Bosphoro Cymmerio after an earthquake, but the inhabitants did cast
 those bones into the Meotidan marris. In Dalmatia, manie graues were
 shaken open with an earthquake, in diuers of which certeine carcases
 were found, whose ribs conteined 16. els, after the Romane measure,
 whereby the whole bodies were iudged to be 64. sith the longest rib is
 commonlie about the fourth part of a man, as some rouing symmetricians

 Arrhianus saith, that in the time of Alexander the bodies of the
 Asianes were generallie of huge stature, and commonlie of fiue cubits,
 and such was the heigth of Porus of Inde, whom the said Alexander
 vanquished and ouerthrew in battell.

 Suidas speaketh of Ganges, killed also by the said prince, who farre
 exceeded Porus; for he was ten cubits long. What should I speake of
 Artaceas a capitaine in the host of Xerxes, afore remembred, whose
 heigth was within 4. fingers bredth of fiue cubits, & the tallest man
 in the armie except the king himselfe. Herod. lib. 7. Of Athanatus
 whom Plinie remembreth I saie nothing. But of all these, this one
 example shall passe, which I doo read of in Trallianus, and he setteth
 downe in forme and manner following.

 In the daies of Tiberius th'emperor saith he, a corps was left bare or
 laid open after an earthquake, of which ech tooth (taken one with
 another) conteined 12. inches ouer at the least. Now forsomuch as in
 [Sidenote: A mouth of sixteene foot wide.]
 such as be full mouthed, ech chap hath commonlie 16. teeth at the
 least, which amount vnto 32. in the whole, needs must the widenesse of
 this mans chaps be welneere of 16. foot, and the opening of his lips
 fiue at the least. A large mouth in mine opinion, and not to eat
 peason with Ladies of my time, besides that if occasion serued, it was
 able to receiue the whole bodies of mo than one of the greatest men, I
 meane of such as we be in our daies. When this carcase was thus found,
 euerie man maruelled at it, & good cause why. A messenger was sent to
 [Sidenote: A counterfect made of a monstrous carcase
 by one tooth taken out of the head.]
 Tiberius the emperour also to know his pleasure, whether he would haue
 the same brought ouer vnto Rome or not, but he forbad them, willing
 his Legate not to remooue the dead out of his resting place, but
 rather somewhat to satisfie his phantasie to send him a tooth out of
 his head, which being done, he gaue it to a cunning workeman,
 commanding him to shape a carcase of light matter, after the
 proportion of the tooth, that at the least by such means he might
 satisfie his curious mind, and the fantasies of such as are delited
 [Sidenote: This man was more fauorable to this monster
 than our papists were to the bodies of the dead who
 tare them in peeces to make money of them.]
 with nouelties. To be short, when the image was once made and set vp
 on end, it appéered rather an huge colossie than the true carcase of a
 man, and when it had stood in Rome vntill the people were wearie &
 throughlie satisfied with the sight thereof, he caused it to be broken
 all to peeces, and the tooth sent againe to the carcase fr[=o] whence
 it came, willing them moreouer to couer it diligentlie, and in anie
 wise not to dismember the corps, nor from thencefoorth to be so hardie
 as to open the sepulchre anie more. Pausan. lib. 8. telleth in like
 maner of Hiplodanus & his fellowes, who liued when Rhea was with child
 of Osyris by Cham, and were called to hir aid at such time as she
 feared to be molested by Hammon hir first husband, whilest she
 [Sidenote: Grandiáque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.]
 remained vpon the Thoumasian hill, "In ipso loco," saith he,
 "spectantur ossa maiora multo quàm vt humana existimari possunt, &c."
 Of Protophanes who had but one great and broad bone in steed of all
 his ribs on ech side I saie nothing, sith it concerneth not his

 I could rehearse manie mo examples of the bodies of such men, out of
 Solinus, Sabellicus, D. Cooper, and others. As of Oetas and Ephialtes,
 who were said to be nine orgies or paces in heigth, and foure in
 bredth, which are taken for so many cubits, bicause there is small
 difference betwéene a mans ordinarie pace and his cubit, and finallie
 of our Richard the first, who is noted to beare an axe in the wars,
 the iron of whose head onelie weighed twentie pound after our greatest
 weight, and whereof an old writer that I haue seene, saith thus:

   This king Richard I vnderstand,
   Yer he went out of England,
   Let make an axe for the nones,
   Therewith to cleaue the Saracens bones,
   The head in sooth was wrought full weele,
   Thereon were twentie pound of steele,
   And when he came in Cyprus land,
   That ilkon axe he tooke in hand, &c.

 I could speake also of Gerards staffe or lance, yet to be seene in
 Gerards hall at London in Basing lane, which is so great and long that
 no man can beweld it, neither go to the top thereof without a ladder,
 which of set purpose and for greater countenance of the wonder is
 fixed by the same. I haue seene a man my selfe of seuen foot in
 heigth, but lame of his legs. The chronicles also of Cogshall speake
 of one in Wales, who was halfe a foot higher, but through infirmitie
 and wounds not able to beweld himselfe. I might (if I thought good)
 speake also of another of no lesse heigth than either of these and
 liuing of late yeares, but these here remembred shall suffice to
 prooue my purpose withall. I might tell you in like sort of the marke
 stone which Turnus threw at Æneas, and was such as that twelue chosen
 and picked men (saith Virgil),

 [Sidenote: Vis vnita fortior est eadem dispersa.]

   (Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora tellus)

 were not able to stur and remooue out of the place: but I passe it
 ouer, and diuerse of the like, concluding that these huge blocks were
 ordeined and created by God: first for a testimonie vnto vs of his
 power and might; and secondlie for a confirmation, that hugenes of
 bodie is not to be accompted of as a part of our felicitie, sith they
 which possessed the same, were not onelie tyrants, doltish, & euill
 men, but also oftentimes ouercome euen by the weake & feeble. Finallie
 they were such indéed as in whom the Lord delited not, according to
 [Sidenote: _Cap._ 3, 36.]
 the saieng of the prophet Baruch; "Ibi fuerunt gigantes nominati, illi
 qui ab initio fuerunt statura magna, scientes bellum, hos non elegit
 Dominus, neque illis viam disciplinæ dedit, propterea perierunt, et
 quoniam non habuerunt sapientiam, interierunt propter suam
 insipientiam, &c." that is, "There were the giants famous from the
 beginning, that were of great stature and expert in warre, those did
 not the Lord choose, neither gaue he the waie of knowledge vnto them,
 but they were destroied, because they had no wisedome, and perished
 through their owne foolishnesse." That the bodies of men also doo
 [Sidenote: 4. _Esd. cap._ 5.]
 dailie decaie in stature, beside Plinie lib. 7. Esdras likewise
 confesseth lib. 4. cap. 5. whose authoritie is so good herein as that
 of Homer or Plinie, who doo affirme so much, whereas Goropius still
 continuing his woonted pertinacitie also in this behalfe, maketh his
 proportion first by the old Romane foot, and then by his owne, &
 therevpon concludeth that men in these daies be fullie so great as
 euer they were, whereby as in the former dealing he thinketh it
 nothing to conclude against the scriptures, chosen writers and
 testimonies of the oldest pagans. But see how he would salue all at
 last in the end of his Gigantomachia, where he saith, I denie not but
 that od huge personages haue bene seene, as a woman of ten, and a man
 of nine foot long, which I my selfe also haue beholden, but as now so
 in old time the common sort did so much woonder at the like as we doo
 at these, because they were seldome séene, and not commonlie to be
 heard of.



 [Sidenote: British.]
 What language came first with Samothes and afterward with Albion, and
 the giants of his companie, it is hard for me to determine, sith
 nothing of sound credit remaineth in writing, which may resolue vs in
 [Sidenote: Small difference betweene the British
 and Celtike languages.]
 the truth hereof. Yet of so much are we certeine, that the speach of
 the ancient Britons, and of the Celts, had great affinitie one with
 another, so that they were either all one, or at leastwise such as
 either nation with small helpe of interpretors might vnderstand other,
 and readilie discerne what the speaker meant. Some are of the opinion
 that the Celts spake Greeke, and how the British toong resembled the
 same, which was spoken in Grecia before Homer did reforme it: but I
 see that these men doo speake without authoritie and therefore I
 reiect them, for if the Celts which were properlie called Galles did
 speake Gréeke, why did Cesar in his letters sent to Rome vse that
 language, because that if they should be intercepted they might not
 vnderstand them, or why did he not vnderstand the Galles, he being so
 skilfull in the language without an interpretor? Yet I denie not but
 that the Celtish and British speaches might haue great affinitie one
 with another, and the British aboue all other with the Greeke, for
 both doo appéere by certeine words, as first in tri for three, march
 for an horsse, & trimarchia, whereof Pausanias speaketh, for both.
 Atheneus also writeth of Bathanasius a capitaine of the Galles, whose
 name is méere British, compounded of Bath & Ynad, & signifieth a noble
 or comelie iudge. And wheras he saith that the reliques of the Galles
 tooke vp their first dwelling about Isther, and afterward diuided
 themselues in such wise, that they which went and dwelled in Hungarie
 were called Sordsai, and the other that inhabited within the dominion
 of Tyroll) Brenni, whose seate was on the mount Brenhere parcell of
 the Alpes, what else signifieth the word Iscaredich in British, from
 whence the word Scordisci commeth, but to be diuided? Hereby then, and
 sundrie other the like testimonies, I gather that the British and the
 Celtish speaches had great affinitie one with another, as I said,
 which Cesar (speaking of the similitude or likenesse of religion in
 both nations) doth also auerre, & Tacitus in vita Agricolæ, in like
 sort plainlie affirmeth, or else it must needs be that the Galles
 which inuaded Italie and Greece were meere Britons, of whose likenes
 of speech with the Gréeke toong I need not make anie triall, sith no
 man (I hope) will readilie denie it. Appianus talking of the Brenni
 calleth them Cymbres, and by this I gather also that the Celts and the
 Britons were indifferentlie called Cymbri in their own language, or
 else that the Britons were the right Cymbri, who vnto this daie doo
 not refuse to be called by that name. Bodinus writing of the means by
 which the originall of euerie kingdome and nation is to be had and
 discerned, setteth downe thrée waies whereby the knowledge thereof is
 to be found, one is (saith he) the infallible testimonie of the sound
 writers, the other the description and site of the region, the third
 the relikes of the ancient speech remaining in the same. Which later
 if it be of any force, then I must conclude, that the spéech of the
 Britons and Celts was sometime either all one or verie like one to
 another, or else it must follow that the Britons ouerflowed the
 continent vnder the name of Cymbres, being peraduenture associat in
 this voiage, or mixed by inuasion with the Danes, and Norwegiens, who
 are called Cymbri and Cymmerij, as most writers doo remember. This
 also is euident (as Plutarch likewise confesseth In vita Marij) that
 no man knew from whence the Cymbres came in his daies, and therfore I
 beleeue that they came out of Britaine, for all the maine was well
 knowne vnto them, I meane euen to the vttermost part of the north, as
 may appeare furthermore by the slaues which were dailie brought from
 thence vnto them, whom of their countries they called Daui for Daci,
 Getæ for Gothes, &c: for of their conquests I need not make
 rehearsall, sith they are commonlie knowne and remembred by the
 writers, both of the Greekes and Latines.

 [Sidenote: British corrupted by the Latine and Saxon speeches.]
 The British toong called Camberaec dooth yet remaine in that part of
 the Iland, which is now called Wales, whither the Britons were driuen
 after the Saxons had made a full conquest of the other, which we now
 call England, although the pristinate integritie thereof be not a
 little diminished by mixture of the Latine and Saxon speaches withall.
 Howbeit, manie poesies and writings (in making whereof that nation
 hath euermore delited) are yet extant in my time, wherby some
 difference betwéene the ancient and present language may easilie be
 discerned, notwithstanding that among all these there is nothing to be
 found, which can set downe anie sound and full testimonie of their
 owne originall, in remembrance whereof, their Bards and cunning men
 haue béene most slacke and negligent. Giraldus in praising the Britons
 affirmeth that there is not one word in all their language, that is
 not either Gréeke or Latine. Which being rightly vnderstanded and
 conferred with the likenesse that was in old time betwéene the Celts &
 the British toongs, will not a little helpe those that thinke the old
 Celtish to haue some sauour of the Gréeke. But how soeuer that matter
 standeth, after the British speach came once ouer into this Iland,
 sure it is, that it could neuer be extinguished for all the attempts
 that the Romans, Saxons, Normans, and Englishmen could make against
 that nation, in anie maner of wise.

 [Sidenote: The Britons diligent in petigrées.]
 Petigrées and genealogies also the Welsh Britons haue plentie in their
 owne toong, insomuch that manie of them can readilie deriue the same,
 either from Brute or some of his band, euen vnto Æneas and other of
 the Troians, and so foorth vnto Noah without anie maner of stop. But
 as I know not what credit is to be giuen vnto them in this behalfe,
 although I must néeds confesse that their ancient Bards were verie
 diligent in there collection, and had also publike allowance or
 salarie for the same; so I dare not absolutelie impugne their
 assertions, sith that in times past all nations (learning it no doubt
 of the Hebrues) did verie solemnelie preserue the catalogs of their
 descents, thereby either to shew themselues of ancient and noble race,
 or else to be descended from some one of the gods. But

   Stemmata quid faciunt? quid prodest Pontice longo
   Sanguine censeri? aut quid auorum ducere turmas? &c.

 [Sidenote: Latine.]
 Next vnto the British speach, the Latine toong was brought in by the
 Romans, and in maner generallie planted through the whole region, as
 the French was after by the Normans. Of this toong I will not say
 much, bicause there are few which be not skilfull in the same.
 Howbeit, as the speach it selfe is easie and delectable, so hath it
 peruerted the names of the ancient riuers, regions, & cities of
 Britaine in such wise, that in these our daies their old British
 denominations are quite growne out of memorie, and yet those of the
 new Latine left as most vncertaine. This remaineth also vnto my time,
 borowed from the Romans, that all our déeds, euidences, charters, &
 writings of record, are set downe in the Latine toong, though now
 verie barbarous, and therevnto the copies and court-rolles, and
 processes of courts and leets registred in the same.

 [Sidenote: The Saxon toong.]
 The third language apparantlie knowne is the Scithian or high Dutch,
 induced at the first by the Saxons (which the Britons call Saysonaec,
 as they doo the speakers Sayson) an hard and rough kind of speach, God
 wot, when our nation was brought first into acquaintance withall, but
 now changed with vs into a farre more fine and easie kind of
 vtterance, and so polished and helped with new and milder words, that
 it is to be aduouched how there is no one speach vnder the sunne
 spoken in our time, that hath or can haue more varietie of words,
 copie of phrases, or figures and floures of eloquence, than hath our
 English toong, although some haue affirmed vs rather to barke as dogs,
 than talke like men, bicause the most of our words (as they doo
 indéed) incline vnto one syllable. This also is to be noted as a
 testimonie remaining still of our language, deriued from the Saxons,
 that the generall name for the most part of euerie skilfull artificer
 in his trade endeth in Here with vs, albeit the H be left out, and er
 onlie inserted, as Scriuenhere, writehere, shiphere, &c: for
 scriuener, writer, and shipper, &c: beside manie other relikes of that
 spéech, neuer to be abolished.

 [Sidenote: The French toong.]
 After the Saxon toong, came the Norman or French language ouer into
 our countrie, and therein were our lawes written for a long time. Our
 children also were by an especiall decrée taught first to speake the
 same, and therevnto inforced to learne their constructions in the
 French, whensoeuer they were set to the Grammar schoole. In like sort
 few bishops, abbats, or other clergie men, were admitted vnto anie
 ecclesiasticall function here among vs, but such as came out of
 religious houses from beyond the seas, to the end they should not vse
 the English toong in their sermons to the people. In the court also it
 grew into such contempt, that most men thought it no small dishonor to
 speake any English there. Which brauerie tooke his hold at the last
 likewise in the countrie with euerie plowman, that euen the verie
 carters began to wax wearie of there mother toong, & laboured to
 speake French, which as then was counted no small token of gentilitie.
 And no maruell, for euerie French rascall, when he came once hither,
 was taken for a gentleman, onelie bicause he was proud, and could vse
 his owne language, and all this (I say) to exile the English and
 British speaches quite out of the countrie. But in vaine, for in the
 time of king Edward the first, to wit, toward the latter end of his
 reigne, the French it selfe ceased to be spoken generallie, but most
 of all and by law in the midst of Edward the third, and then began the
 English to recouer and grow in more estimation than before;
 notwithstanding that among our artificers, the most part of their
 implements, tooles and words of art reteine still their French
 denominations euen to these our daies, as the language it selfe is
 vsed likewise in sundrie courts, bookes of record, and matters of law;
 whereof here is no place to make any particular rehearsall. Afterward
 [Sidenote: The helpers of our English toong.]
 also, by diligent trauell of Geffray Chaucer, and Iohn Gowre, in the
 time of Richard the second, and after them of Iohn Scogan, and Iohn
 Lydgate monke of Berrie, our said toong was brought to an excellent
 passe, notwithstanding that it neuer came vnto the type of perfection,
 vntill the time of Quéene Elizabeth, wherein Iohn Iewell B. of Sarum,
 Iohn Fox, and sundrie learned & excellent writers haue fullie
 accomplished the ornature of the same, to their great praise and
 immortall commendation; although not a few other doo greatlie séeke to
 staine the same, by fond affectation of forren and strange words,
 presuming that to be the best English, which is most corrupted with
 externall termes of eloquence, and sound of manie syllables. But as
 this excellencie of the English toong is found in one, and the south
 part of this Iland; so in Wales the greatest number (as I said)
 retaine still their owne ancient language, that of the north part of
 the said countrie being lesse corrupted than the other, and therefore
 reputed for the better in their owne estimation and iudgement. This
 [Sidenote: Englishmen apt to learne any forren toong.]
 also is proper to vs Englishmen, that sith ours is a meane language,
 and neither too rough nor too smooth in vtterance, we may with much
 facilitie learne any other language, beside Hebrue, Gréeke & Latine,
 and speake it naturallie, as if we were home-borne in those countries;
 & yet on the other side it falleth out, I wot not by what other
 meanes, that few forren nations can rightlie pronounce ours, without
 some and that great note of imperfection, especiallie the French men,
 who also seldome write any thing that sauoreth of English trulie. It
 is a pastime to read how Natalis Comes in like maner, speaking of our
 affaires, dooth clip the names of our English lords. But this of all
 the rest dooth bréed most admiration with me, that if any stranger doo
 hit vpon some likelie pronuntiation of our toong, yet in age he
 swarueth so much from the same, that he is woorse therein than euer he
 was, and thereto peraduenture halteth not a litle also in his owne, as
 I haue séene by experience in Reginald Wolfe, and other, whereof I
 haue iustlie maruelled.

 [Sidenote: The Cornish toong.]
 The Cornish and Deuonshire men, whose countrie the Britons call
 Cerniw, haue a speach in like sort of their owne, and such as hath in
 déed more affinitie with the Armoricane toong than I can well discusse
 of. Yet in mine opinion, they are both but a corrupted kind of
 Brittish, albeit so far degenerating in these daies from the old, that
 if either of them doo méete with a Welshman, they are not able at the
 first to vnderstand one an other, except here and there in some od
 words, without the helpe of interpretors. And no maruell in mine
 opinion that the British of Cornewall is thus corrupted, sith the
 Welsh toong that is spoken in the north & south part of Wales, doth
 differ so much in it selfe, as the English vsed in Scotland dooth from
 that which is spoken among vs here in this side of the Iland, as I
 haue said alreadie.

 [Sidenote: Scottish english.]
 The Scottish english hath beene much broader and lesse pleasant in
 vtterance than ours, because that nation hath not till of late
 indeuored to bring the same to any perfect order, and yet it was such
 in maner, as Englishmen themselues did speake for the most part beyond
 the Trent, whither any great amendement of our language had not as
 then extended it selfe. Howbeit in our time the Scottish language
 endeuoreth to come neere, if not altogither to match our toong in
 finenesse of phrase, and copie of words, and this may in part appeare
 by an historie of the Apocripha translated into Scottish verse by
 Hudson, dedicated to the king of that countrie, and conteining sixe
 books, except my memorie doo faile me.

 Thus we sée how that vnder the dominion of the king of England, and in
 the south parts of the realme, we haue thrée seuerall toongs, that is
 to saie, English, British, and Cornish, and euen so manie are in
 Scotland, if you accompt the English speach for one: notwithstanding
 that for bredth and quantitie of the region, I meane onelie of the
 soile of the maine Iland, it be somewhat lesse to see to than the
 [Sidenote: The wild Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Redshanks.]
 [Sidenote: Rough footed Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Irish Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Irish speech.]
 other. For in the north part of the region, where the wild Scots,
 otherwise called the Redshanks, or rough footed Scots (because they go
 bare footed and clad in mantels ouer their saffron shirts after the
 Irish maner) doo inhabit, they speake good Irish which they call
 Gachtlet, as they saie of one Gathelus, whereby they shew their
 originall to haue in times past béene fetched out of Ireland: as I
 noted also in the chapiter precedent, and wherevnto Vincentius cap. de
 insulis Oceani dooth yéeld his assent, saieng that Ireland was in time
 past called Scotia; "Scotia eadem (saith he) & Hibernia, proxima
 Britanniæ insula, spatio terrarum angustior, sed situ f[oe]cundior;
 Scotia autem à Scotorum gentibus traditur appellata, &c." Out of the
 14. booke of Isidorus intituled Originum, where he also addeth that it
 is called Hybernia, because it bendeth toward Iberia. But I find
 elsewhere that it is so called by certeine Spaniards which came to
 seeke and plant their inhabitation in the same, wherof in my
 Chronologie I haue spoken more at large.

 In the Iles of the Orchades, or Orkeney, as we now call them, & such
 coasts of Britaine as doo abbut vpon the same, the Gottish or Danish
 speach is altogither in vse, and also in Shetland, by reason (as I
 take it) that the princes of Norwaie held those Ilands so long vnder
 their subiection, albeit they were otherwise reputed as rather to
 belong to Ireland, bicause that the verie soile of them is enimie to
 poison, as some write, although for my part I had neuer any sound
 experience of the truth hereof. And thus much haue I thought good to
 speake of our old speaches, and those fiue languages now vsuallie
 spoken within the limits of our Iland.



 [Sidenote: Britaine at the first one entire kingdome.]
 It is not to be doubted, but that at the first, the whole Iland was
 ruled by one onelie prince, and so continued from time to time, vntill
 ciuill discord, grounded vp[=o] ambitious desire to reigne, caused the
 same to be gouerned by diuerse. And this I meane so well of the time
 before the comming of Brute, as after the extinction of his whole race
 & posteritie. Howbeit, as it is vncerteine into how manie regions it
 was seuered, after the first partition; so it is most sure that this
 latter disturbed estate of regiment, continued in the same, not onelie
 vntill the time of Cæsar, but also in maner vnto the daies of Lucius,
 with whome the whole race of the Britons had an end, and the Romans
 full possession of this Iland, who gouerned it by Legats after the
 maner of a prouince. It should séeme also that within a while after
 the time of Dunwallon (who rather brought those foure princes that
 vsurped in his time to obedience, than extinguished their titles, &
 such partition as they had made of the Iland among themselues) each
 great citie had hir fréedome and seuerall kind of regiment, proper
 vnto hir selfe, beside a large circuit of the countrie appertinent
 vnto the same, wherein were sundrie other cities also of lesse name,
 which owght homage and all subiection vnto the greater sort. And to
 saie truth, hereof it came to passe, that each of these regions,
 whereinto this Iland was then diuided, tooke his name of some one of
 these cities; although Ciuitas after Cæsar doth sometime signifie an
 whole continent or kingdome, whereby there were in old time Tot
 ciuitates quot regna, and contrariwise as may appeare by that of the
 Trinobantes, which was so called of Trinobantum the chiefe citie of
 that portion, whose territories conteined all Essex, Middlesex, and
 part of Hertfordshire, euen as the iurisdiction of the bishop of
 London is now extended, for the ouersight of such things as belong
 vnto the church. Ech of the gouernors also of these regions, called
 themselues kings, and therevnto either of them dailie made warre vpon
 other, for the inlarging of their limits. But for somuch as I am not
 able to saie how manie did challenge this authoritie at once, and how
 long they reigned ouer their seuerall portions, I will passe ouer
 these ancient times, and come néerer vnto our owne, I meane the 600.
 yéere of Christ, whereof we haue more certeine notice, & at which
 season there is euident proofe, that there were twelue or thirtéene
 kings reigning in this Iland.

 [Sidenote: Wales diuided into three kingdomes.]
 We find therefore for the first, how that Wales had hir thrée seuerall
 kingdomes, which being accompted togither conteined (as Giraldus
 saith) 49. cantreds or cantons (whereof thrée were in his time
 possessed by the French and English) although that whole portion of
 the Iland extended in those daies no farder than about 200. miles in
 length, and one hundred in bredth, and was cut from Lhoegres by the
 riuers Sauerne and Dee, of which two streames this dooth fall into the
 Irish sea at Westchester, the other into the maine Ocean, betwixt
 Somersetshire and Southwales, as their seuerall courses shall witnesse
 more at large.

 [Sidenote: Gwinhed.]
 In the begining it was diuided into two kingdoms onelie, that is to
 saie, Venedotia or Gwynhedh (otherwise called Dehenbarth) and Demetia,
 for which we now vse most c[=o]monlie the names of South & Northwales.
 But in a short processe of time a third sprung vp in the verie middest
 betwéene them both, which from thence-foorth was called Powisy, as
 shalbe shewed hereafter. For Roderijc the great, who flourished 850.
 of Christ, and was king of all Wales (which then conteined onlie six
 regions) leauing thrée sons behind him, by his last will & testament
 diuided the countrie into thrée portions, according to the number of
 his children, of which he assigned one vnto either of them, wherby
 Morwing or Morwinner had Gwynhedh or Northwales, Cadelh Demetia or
 Southwales, and Anaralt Powisy, as Giraldus and other doo remember.
 Howbeit it came to passe that after this diuision, Cadelh suruiued all
 his brethren, and thereby became lord of both their portions, and his
 successors after him vntill the time of Teuther or Theodor (all is
 one) after which they were contented to kéepe themselues within the
 compasse of Demetia, which (as I said) conteined 29. of those 49.
 cantreds before mentioned, as Powisy did six, and Gwinhedh fourtéene,
 except my memorie doo faile me.

 [Sidenote: Venedotia.]
 The first of these thrée, being called (as I said) Northwales or
 Venedotia (or as Paulus Iouius saith Malfabrene, for he diuideth Wales
 also into thrée regions, of which he calleth the first Dumbera, the
 second Berfrona, and the third Malfabrene) lieth directlie ouer
 [Sidenote: Anglesei.]
 against the Ile of Anglesei, the chiefe citie whereof stood in the Ile
 of Anglesei and was called Aberfraw. It conteineth 4. regions, of
 which the said Iland is the first, and whereof in the chapter insuing
 [Sidenote: Arfon.]
 I wille intreat more at large. The second is called Arfon, and situate
 [Sidenote: Merioneth.]
 betweene two riuers, the Segwy and the Conwy. The third is Merioneth,
 and as it is seuered from Arfon by the Conwy, so is it separated from
 [Sidenote: Stradcluyd or Tegenia.]
 Tegenia (otherwise called Stradcluyd and Igenia the fourth region) by
 the riuer Cluda. Finallie, the limits of this latter are extended also
 euen vnto the Dée it selfe, and of these foure regions consisteth the
 kingdome of Venedotia, whereof in times past the region of the Canges
 was not the smallest portion.

 [Sidenote: Powisy.]
 The kingdome of Powisy, last of all erected, as I said, hath on the
 north side Gwinhedh, on the east (from Chester to Hereford, or rather
 to Deane forest) England, on the south and west the riuer Wy and verie
 high hilles, whereby it is notablie seuered from Southwales, the
 chiefe citie thereof being at the first Salopsburg, in old time
 Pengwerne, and Ynwithig, but now Shrowesburie, a citie or towne raised
 out of the ruines of Vricouium, which (standing 4. miles from thence,
 and by the Saxons called Wrekencester and Wrokecester, before they
 ouerthrew it) is now inhabited with méere English, and where in old
 time the kings of Powisy did dwell and hold their palaces, till
 Englishmen draue them from thence to Matrauall in the same prouince,
 where they from thencefoorth aboad. Vpon the limits of this kingdome,
 and not far from Holt castell, vpon ech side of the riuer, as the
 [Sidenote: Bangor.]
 chanell now runneth, stood sometime the famous monasterie of Bangor,
 whilest the abated glorie of the Britons yet remained vnextinguished,
 and herein were 2100. monkes, of which, the learned sort did preach
 the Gospell, and the vnlearned labored with their hands, thereby to
 mainteine themselues, and to sustaine their preachers. This region was
 in like sort diuided afterward in twaine, of which, the one was called
 [Sidenote: Mailrosse.]
 Mailor or Mailrosse, the other reteined still hir old denomination,
 and of these the first laie by south, & the latter by north of the

 [Sidenote: Fowkes de Warren.]
 As touching Mailrosse, I read moreouer in the gests of Fowkes de
 Warren, how that one William sonne to a certeine ladie sister to Paine
 Peuerell, the first lord of Whittington, after the conquest did win a
 part of the same, and the hundred of Ellesmore from the Welshmen, in
 which enterprise he was so desperatlie wounded, that no man hight him
 life; yet at the last by eating of the shield of a wild bore, he got
 an appetite and recouered his health. This William had issue two
 [Sidenote: Helene.]
 [Sidenote: Mellent.]
 daughters, to wit, Helene maried to the heir of the Alans, and Mellent
 which refused mariage with anie man, except he were first tried to be
 a knight of prowesse. Herevpon hir father made proclamation, that
 against such a daie & at such a place, whatsoeuer Gentleman could shew
 himselfe most valiant in the field, should marrie Mellent his
 daughter, & haue with hir his castell of Whittington with sufficient
 liueliehood to mainteine their estates for euer. This report being
 spred, Fowkes de Warren came thither all in red, with a shield of
 siluer and pecocke for his crest, whereof he was called the red
 knight, and there ouercomming the kings sonne of Scotland, and a Baron
 of Burgundie, he maried the maid, and by hir had issue as in the
 treatise appeareth. There is yet great mention of the red knight in
 the countrie there about; and much like vnto this Mellent was the
 daughter sometime of one of the lord Rosses, called Kudall, who bare
 [Sidenote: The originall of Fitz Henries.]
 such good will to Fitz-Henrie clarke of hir fathers kitchen, that she
 made him carie hir awaie on horssebacke behind him, onlie for his
 manhood sake, which presentlie was tried. For being pursued & ouer
 taken, she made him light, & held his cloke whilest he killed and
 draue hir fathers men to flight: and then awaie they go, till hir
 father conceiuing a good opinion of Fitz-Henrie for this act, receiued
 him to his fauour, whereby that familie came vp. And thus much (by the
 waie) of Mailrosse, whereof this may suffice, sith mine intent is not
 as now to make anie precise description of the particulars of Wales;
 but onelie to shew how those regions laie, which sometime were knowne
 [Sidenote: Demetia.]
 to be gouerned in that countrie. The third kingdome is Demetia, or
 Southwales, sometime knowne for the region of the Syllures, wherevnto
 I also am persuaded, that the Ordolukes laie in the east part thereof,
 and extended their region euen vnto the Sauerne: but howsoeuer that
 matter falleth out, Demetia hath the Sauerne on hir south, the Irish
 sea on hir west parts, on the east the Sauerne onelie, and by north
 the land of Powisy, whereof I spake of late.

 [Sidenote: Cair Maridunum.]
 Of this region also Caermarden, which the old writers call Maridunum,
 was the chéefe citie and palace belonging to the kings of Southwales,
 vntill at the last through forren and ciuill inuasions of enimies, the
 princes thereof were constrained to remooue their courts to Dinefar
 (which is in Cantermawr, and situate neuerthelesse vpon the same riuer
 Tewy, wheron Caermarden standeth) in which place it is far better
 defended with high hils, thicke woods, craggie rocks, and déepe
 marises. In this region also lieth Pembroke aliàs Penmoroc shire,
 whose fawcons haue béene in old time very much regarded, and therein
 likewise is Milford hauen, whereof the Welsh wisards doo yet dreame
 strange toies, which they beleeue shall one daie come to passe. For
 they are a nation much giuen to fortelling of things to come, but more
 to beléeue such blind prophesies as haue béene made of old time, and
 no man is accompted for learned in Wales that is not supposed to haue
 the spirit of prophesie.

 [Sidenote: Pictland.]
 [Sidenote: Scotland.]
 [Sidenote: Picts.]
 [Sidenote: Scots.]
 That Scotland had in those daies two kingdoms, (besides that of the
 Orchades) whereof the one consisted of the Picts, and was called
 Pightland or Pictland, the other of the Irish race, and named
 Scotland: I hope no wise man will readilie denie. The whole region or
 portion of the Ile beyond the Scotish sea also was so diuided, that
 the Picts laie on the east side, and the Scots on the west, ech of
 them being seuered from other, either by huge hils or great lakes and
 riuers, that ran out of the south into the north betwéene them. It
 séemeth also that at the first these two kingdoms were diuided from
 the rest of those of the Britons by the riuers Cluda and Forth, till
 both of them desirous to inlarge their dominions, draue the Britons
 ouer the Solue and the Twede, which then became march betweene both
 the nations. Wherefore the case being so plaine, I will saie no more
 of these two, but procéed in order with the rehersall of the rest of
 the particular kingdoms of this our south part of the Ile, limiting
 out the same by shires as they now lie, so néere as I can, for
 otherwise it shall be vnpossible for me to leaue certaine notice of
 the likeliest quantities of these their seuerall portions.

 [Sidenote: Kent Henghist.]
 The first of these kingdoms therefore was begunne in Kent by Henghist
 in the 456. of Christ, and thereof called the kingdome of Kent or
 Cantwarland, and as the limits thereof extended it selfe no farther
 than the said countie (the cheefe citie whereof was Dorobernia or
 Cantwarbyry now Canturburie) so it indured well néere by the space of
 400. yeares, before it was made an earledome or Heretochie, and vnited
 by Inas vnto that of the West Saxons, Athelstane his sonne, being the
 first Earle or Heretoch of the same. Maister Lambert in his historie
 of Kent dooth gather, by verie probable coniectures, that this part of
 the Iland was first inhabited by Samothes, and afterward by Albion.
 But howsoeuer that case standeth, sure it is that it hath béen the
 onelie doore, whereby the Romans and Saxons made their entrie vnto the
 conquest of the region, but first of all Cæsar, who entred into this
 Iland vpon the eightéenth Cal. or 14. of September, which was foure
 daies before the full of the moone, as he himselfe confesseth, and
 then fell out about the 17. or 18. of that moneth, twelue daies before
 the equinoctiall (apparant) so that he did not tarrie at that time
 aboue eight or ten daies in Britaine. And as this platforme cannot be
 denied for his entrance, so the said region and east part of Kent, was
 the onelie place by which the knowledge of Christ was first brought
 ouer vnto vs, whereby we became partakers of saluation, and from the
 darkenesse of mistie errour, true conuerts vnto the light and bright
 beames of the shining truth, to our eternall benefit and euerlasting

 [Sidenote: Southsax.]
 [Sidenote: Ella.]
 The second kingdome conteined onelie Sussex, and a part of (or as some
 saie all) Surrie, which Ella the Saxon first held: who also erected
 his chéefe palace at Chichester, when he had destroied Andredswald in
 the 492. of Christ. And after it had continued by the space of 232.
 years, it ceased, being the verie least kingdome of all the rest,
 which were founded in this Ile after the comming of the Saxons (for to
 saie truth, it conteined little aboue 7000. families) & within a while
 after the erection of the kingdome of the Gewisses or Westsaxons,
 notwithstanding that before the kings of Sussex pretended and made
 claime to all that which laie west of Kent, and south of the Thames,
 vnto the point of Corinwall, as I haue often read.

 [Sidenote: Eastsax.]
 [Sidenote: Erkenwiin.]
 The third regiment was of the East Saxons, or Tribonantes. This
 kingdome began vnder Erkenwijn, whose chéefe seat was in London (or
 rather Colchester) and conteined whole Essex, Middlesex, and part of
 Herfordshire. It indured also much about the pricke of 303. yeares,
 and was diuided from that of the East Angles onlie by the riuer
 Stoure, as Houeden and others doo report, & so it continueth separated
 from Suffolke euen vnto our times, although the said riuer be now
 growne verie small, and not of such greatnesse as it hath béene in
 times past, by reason that our countriemen make small accompt of
 riuers, thinking carriage made by horsse and cart to be the lesse
 chargeable waie. But herin how far they are deceiued, I will
 else-where make manifest declaration.

 [Sidenote: Westsax.]
 The fourth kingdome was of the West Saxons, and so called, bicause it
 laie in the west part of the realme, as that of Essex did in the east,
 [Sidenote: Cerdiic.]
 and of Sussex in the south. It began in the yeare of Grace 519. vnder
 Cerdijc, and indured vntill the comming of the Normans, including at
 the last all Wiltshire, Barkeshire, Dorset, Southampton,
 Somersetshire, Glocestershire, some part of Deuonshire (which the
 Britons occupied not) Cornewall, and the rest of Surrie, as the best
 authors doo set downe. At the first it conteined onelie Wiltshire,
 Dorcetshire, and Barkeshire, but yer long the princes thereof
 conquered whatsoeuer the kings of Sussex and the Britons held vnto the
 point of Cornewall, and then became first Dorchester (vntill the time
 of Kinigils) then Winchester the chéefe citie of that kingdome. For
 when Birinus the moonke came into England, the said Kinigils gaue him
 Dorchester, and all the land within seauen miles about, toward the
 maintenance of his cathedrall sea, by meanes whereof he himselfe
 remooued his palace to Winchester.

 [Sidenote: Brennicia, aliàs Northumberland.]
 The fift kingdome began vnder Ida, in the 548. of Christ, and was
 called Northumberland, bicause it laie by north of the riuer Humber.
 [Sidenote: Ida.]
 And from the comming of Henghist to this Ida, it was onlie gouerned by
 earls or Heretoches as an Heretochy, till the said Ida conuerted it
 into a kingdome. It conteined all that region which (as it should
 séeme) was in time past either wholie apperteining to the Brigants, or
 whereof the said Brigants did possesse the greater part. The cheefe
 citie of the same in like maner was Yorke, as Beda, Capgraue, Leyland,
 and others doo set downe, who ad thereto that it extended from the
 Humber vnto the Scotish sea, vntill the slaughter of Egfride of the
 Northumbers, after which time the Picts gat hold of all, betweene the
 Forth and the Twede, which afterward descending to the Scots by meanes
 of the vtter destruction of the Picts, hath not béene sithens vnited
 to the crowne of England, nor in possession of the meere English, as
 before time it had béene. Such was the crueltie of these Picts also in
 their recouerie of the same, that at a certeine houre they made a
 Sicilien euensong, and slew euerie English man, woman and child, that
 they could laie hold vpon within the aforesaid region, but some
 escaped narrowlie, and saued themselues by flight.

 [Sidenote: Deira.]
 Afterward in the yeare of Grace 560. it was parted in twaine, vnder
 Adda, that yeelded vp all his portion, which lay betweene Humber and
 [Sidenote: Ella.]
 the Tine vnto his brother Ella (according to their fathers
 appointment) who called it Deira, or Southumberland, but reteining the
 rest still vnto his owne vse, he diminished not his title, but wrote
 himselfe as before king of all Northumberland. Howbeit after 91.
 yeares, it was revnited againe, and so continued vntill Alfred annexed
 the whole to his kingdome, in the 331. after Ida, or 878. of the birth
 of Jesus Christ our Sauiour.

 [Sidenote: Eastangles Offa, à quo Offlingæ.]
 The seauenth kingdome, called of the East-Angles, began at Norwich in
 the 561. after Christ, vnder Offa, of whom the people of that region
 were long time called Offlings. This included all Norfolke, Suffolke,
 Cambridgeshire, and Elie, and continuing 228. yeares, it flourished
 onelie 35. yeares in perfect estate of liberte, the rest being
 consumed vnder the tribut and vassallage of the Mercians, who had the
 souereigntie thereof, and held it with great honour, till the Danes
 gat hold of it, who spoiled it verie sore, so that it became more
 miserable than any of the other, and so remained till the kings of the
 West-saxons vnited it to their crownes. Some saie that Grantcester,
 but now Cambridge (a towne erected out of hir ruines) was the chéefe
 citie of this kingdome, and not Norwich. Wherein I may well shew the
 discord of writers, but I cannot resolue the scruple. Some take this
 region also to be all one with that of the Icenes, but as yet for my
 part I cannot yeeld to their assertions, I meane it of Leland
 himselfe, whose helpe I vse chéefelie in these collections, albeit in
 this behalfe I am not resolued that he doth iudge aright.

 The 8. & last was that of Mertia, which indured 291. yeares, and for
 greatnesse exceeded all the rest. It tooke the name either of Mearc
 the Saxon word, bicause it was march to the rest (and trulie, the
 limits of most of the other kingdomes abutted vpon the same) or else
 [Sidenote: Mertia.]
 for that the lawes of Martia the Queene were first vsed in that part
 of the Iland. But as this later is but a méere coniecture of some, so
 [Sidenote: Creodda.]
 the said kingdome began vnder Creodda, in the 585. of Christ, &
 indured well néere 300. yeares before it was vnited to that of the
 West-saxons by Alfred, then reigning in this Ile. Before him the Danes
 had gotten hold thereof, and placed one Ceolulph an idiot in the same;
 but as he was soone reiected for his follie, so it was not long after
 yer the said Alfred (I saie) annexed it to his kingdome by his
 [Sidenote: Limits of Mertia.]
 manhood. The limits of the Mertian dominions included Lincolne,
 Northampton, Chester, Darbie, Nottingham, Stafford, Huntington,
 Rutland, Oxford, Buckingham, Worcester, Bedford shires, and the
 greatest part of Shropshire (which the Welsh occupied not) Lancaster,
 Glocester, Hereford (alias Hurchford) Warwijc and Hertford shires: the
 rest of whose territories were holden by such princes of other
 kingdomes through force as bordered vpon the same. Moreouer, this
 kingdome was at one time diuided into south and north Mertia, whereof
 this laie beyond and the other on this side of the Trent, which later
 also Oswald of Northumberland did giue to Weada the sonne of Penda for
 kindred sake, though he not long inioied it. This also is worthie to
 be noted, that in these eight kingdomes of the Saxons, there were
 twelue princes reputed in the popish Catalog for saints or martyrs, of
 which Alcimund, Edwine, Oswald, Oswijn and Aldwold reigned in
 Northumberland; Sigebert, Ethelbert, Edmond, and another Sigebert
 among the Estangels; Kenelme and Wistan in Mertia; and Saint Edward
 the confessor, ouer all; but how worthilie, I referre me to the
 iudgement of the learned. Thus much haue I thought good to leaue in
 memorie of the aforesaid kingdomes: and now will I speake somewhat of
 the diuision of this Iland also into prouinces, as the Romanes seuered
 it whiles they remained in these parts. Which being done, I hope that
 I haue discharged whatsoeuer is promised in the title of this chapter.

 The Romans therefore hauing obteined the possession of this Iland,
 diuided the same at the last into fiue prouinces, as Vibius Sequester
 [Sidenote: Britannia prima.]
 saith. The first whereof was named Britannia prima, and conteined the
 east part of England (as some doo gather) from the Trent vnto the
 [Sidenote: Valentia.]
 Twede. The second was called Valentia or Valentiana, and included the
 west side, as they note it, from Lirpoole vnto Cokermouth. The third
 [Sidenote: Britannia secunda.]
 hight Britannia secunda, and was that portion of the Ile which laie
 [Sidenote: Flauia Cæsariensis.]
 southwards, betwéene the Trent and the Thames. The fourth was surnamed
 Flauia Cæsariensis, and conteined all the countrie which remained
 betweene Douer and the Sauerne, I meane by south of the Thames, and
 wherevnto (in like sort) Cornewall and Wales were orderlie assigned.
 [Sidenote: Maxima Cæsariensis.]
 The fift and last part was then named Maxima Cæsariensis, now
 Scotland, the most barren of all the rest, and yet not vnsought out of
 the gréedie Romanes, bicause of the great plentie of fish and foule,
 fine alabaster and hard marble that are ingendred and to be had in the
 same, for furniture of houshold and curious building, wherein they
 much delited. More hereof in Sextus Rufus, who liued in the daies of
 Valentine, and wrate Notitiam prouinciarum now extant to be read.

     _A Catalog of the kings and princes of this Iland, first from
     Samothes vnto the birth of our sauiour Christ, or rather the
     comming of the Romans: secondlie of their Legates: thirdlie
     of the Saxon princes according to their seuerall kingdomes:
     fourthlie of the Danes, and lastlie of the Normans and English
     princes, according to the truth conteined in our Histories._


   Bardus Iunior.
   Celtes after Albion slaine.
   Galates. 2.

     After whom Brute entreth into the Iland, either neglected by the
     Celts, or otherwise by conquest, and reigned therein with
     his posteritie by the space of 636. yeares, in such order as

   Gwendolena his widow.
   Brutus Iunior.
   Cordeil his daughter.
   Cunedach and Morgan.
   Ferres and Porrex.

     These 2. being slaine, the princes of the land straue for the
     superioritie and regiment of the same, by the space of 50.
     yéeres (after the race of Brute was decaied) vntill Dunwallon
     king of Cornwall subdued them all, & brought the whole to his
     subiection, notwithstanding that the aforesaid number of kings
     remained still, which were but as vassals & inferiours to him,
     he being their chéefe and onelie souereigne.

   Dunwallon reigneth.
   Belinus his sonne, in whose time Brennus vsurpeth.
   Owan aliàs Ellan.
   Morwich aliàs Morindus.
   Grandobodian aliàs Gorbonian.
   Elidurus aliàs Hesidor.
   Arcigallon againe.
   Elidurus againe.
   Vigen aliàs Higanius, & Petitur aliàs Peridurus.
   Elidurus the third time.
   Gorbodia aliàs Gorbonian.
   Meriones aliàs Eighuans.
   Rhimo Rohugo.
   Geruntius Voghen.
   Pyrrho aliàs Porrex.
   Fulganius aliàs Sulgenis.
   Dedantius Eldagan.
   Clotenis Claten.
   Bledunus Bledagh.
   Owinus aliàs Oghwen.
   Sisillus or Sitsiltus.
   Arcimalus Archiuall.
   Ruthenis thrée moneths.
   Rodingarus aliàs Rodericus.
   Samulius Penysell.
   Pyrrho 2.
   Carporis aliàs Capporis.
   Dynellus aliàs Dygnellus.
   Hellindus a few moneths.

     Hitherto I haue set foorth the catalog of the kings of Britaine,
     in such sort as it is to be collected out of the most ancient
     histories, monuments and records of the land. Now I will
     set foorth the order and succession of the Romane legates or
     deputies, as I haue borowed them first out of Tacitus, then
     Dion, and others: howbeit I cannot warrant the iust course of
     them from Iulius Agricola forward, bicause there is no man that
     reherseth them orderlie. Yet by this my dooing herein, I hope
     some better table may be framed hereafter by other, wherof I
     would be glad to vnderstand when soeuer it shall please God that
     it may come to passe.

   Aulus Plautius.
   Ostorius Scapula.
   Didius Gallus.
   Veranius a few moneths.
   Petronius Turpilianus.
   Trebellius Maximus.
   Vectius Volanus.
   Petilius Cerealis.
   Iulius Frontinus.
   Iulius Agricola.

     Hitherto Cornelius Tacitus reherseth these vicegerents or
     deputies in order.

   Salustius Lucullus.
   Cneius Trebellius.
   Suetonius Paulinus.
   Calphurnius Agricola.
   Publius Trebellius.
   Pertinax Helrius.
   Vlpius Marcellus.
   Clodius Albinas.
   Carus Tyrannus.
   Iunius Seuerus, aliàs Iulius Seuerus.
   Linius Gallus.
   Lollius Vrbicus.

     Other Legates whose names are taken out of the Scotish historie
     but in incertein order.

   Fronto sub Antonino.
   Publius Trebellius.
   Aulus Victorinus.
   Lucius Antinoris.
   Quintus Bassianus.



     ¶ The Romans not regarding the gouernance of this Iland, the
     Britons ordeine a king in the 447. after the incarnation of

   Aurelius Ambrosius.
   Aurelius Conanus.

     ¶ The kingdome of Wales ceaseth, and the gouernance of the
     countrie is translated to the Westsaxons by Inas, whose second
     wife was Denwalline the daughter of Cadwallader: & with hir
     he not onlie obteined the principalitie of Wales but also of
     Corinwall & Armorica now called little Britaine, which then was
     a colonie of the Britons, and vnder the kingdome of Wales.



     ¶ Hengist in the 9. of the recouerie of Britaine proclaimeth
     himselfe king of Kent, which is the 456. of the birth of our
     Lord & sauior Jesus Christ.

   Osrijc aliàs Osca.
   Osca his brother.

     The seat void.

   Adelbert Iunior.

     ¶ As the kingdome of Wales was vnited vnto that of the
     Westsaxons by Inas, so is the kingdom of Kent, at this present
     by Ecbert in the 827. of Christ, who putteth out Aldred and
     maketh Adelstane his owne base sonne Hertoch of the same,
     so that whereas it was before a kingdome, now it becometh an
     Hertochie or Dukedome, and so continueth for a long time after.



     ¶ Ella in the 46. after Britaine giuen ouer by the Romanes
     erecteth a kingdom in Southsex, to wit, in the 492. of Christ
     whose race succeedeth in this order.


     ¶ This kingdome endured not verie long as ye may sée, for it was
     vnited to that of the Westsaxons by Inas, in the 4689. of the
     world, which was the 723. of Christ, according to the vsuall
     supputation of the church, and 232. after Ella had erected the
     same, as is aforesaid.



     ¶ Erkenwijn in the 527. after our sauiour Christ beginneth to
     reigne ouer Estsex, and in the 81. after the returne of Britaine
     from the Romaine obedience.

   Sepredus and Sywardus.
   Sigebert fil. Syward.
   Sijgar and Sebba.
   Sebba alone.

     ¶ In the 303. after Erkenwijn, Ecbert of the Westsaxons vnited
     the kingdome of Estsex vnto his owne, which was in the 828.
     after the birth of our sauiour Christ. I cannot as yet find the
     exact yéeres of the later princes of this realme, and therefore
     I am constrained to omit them altogither, as I haue done before
     in the kings of the Britons, vntill such time as I may come by
     such monuments as may restore the defect.



     ¶ Cerdijc entreth the kingdome of the Westsaxons, in the 519.
     of the birth of Christ, & 73. of the abiection of the Romaine

   Cerdijc aliàs Cercit.
   Kilriic aliàs Celrijc.

     The seat void.

   Edward I.
   Edward 2.
   Edmund 2.
   Canutus 2.
   Edward 3.
   Harald 2.

     ¶ The Saxons hauing reigned hitherto in this land, and brought
     the same into a perfect monarchie, are now dispossessed by the
     Normans, & put out of their hold.



     ¶ Ida erecteth a kingdome in the North, which he extended from
     the Humber mouth to S. Johns towne in Scotland, & called it of
     the Northumbers. This was in the 547. after the birth of our
     sauiour Christ.

   Edelred againe.
   Ricisiuus a Dane.
   Ecbert againe.

     ¶ Alfride king of the Westsaxons subdueth this kingdome in the
     878. after our sauiour Christ, and 33. after Ida.



     ¶ Ella brother to Adda is ouer the south Humbers, whose
     kingdome reched from Humber to the These, in the 590. after the
     incarnation of Jesus Christ our sauiour.

   Edwijn againe.

     ¶ Of all the kingdomes of the Saxons, this of Deira which grew
     by the diuision of the kingdome of the Northumbers betwéene the
     sons of Ida was of the smallest continuance, & it was vnited
     to the Northumbers (wherof it had bene I saie in time past
     a member) by Oswijn in the 91. after Ella, when he had most
     traitorouslie slaine his brother Oswijn in the yéer of the
     world, 4618. (or 651. after the comming of Christ) and conteined
     that countrie which we now call the bishoprike.



     ¶ Offa or Vffa erecteth a kingdome ouer the Estangles or
     Offlings in the 561. after the natiuitie of Christ, and 114.
     after the deliuerie of Britaine.


     The seat void.


     ¶ Offa of Mercia killeth Ethelbert, and vniteth Estanglia vnto
     his owne kingdome, in the 793. of Christ, after it had continued
     in the posteritie of Offa, by the space of 228. yéers and yet
     of that short space, it enioyed onelie 35. in libertie, the rest
     being vnder the tribute of the king of Mercia aforesaid.



     ¶ Creodda beginneth his kingdome of Mercia, in the 585. of our
     sauiour Christ, and 138. after the captiuitie of Britaine ended.

   Kinred or Kindred.

     The seat void.

   Willaf againe.

     ¶ Alfride vniteth the kingdome of Mercia, to that of the
     Westsaxons, in the 291. after Creodda, before Alfred the Dane
     had gotten hold thereof, and placed one Cleolulphus therein,
     but he was soone expelled, and the kingdome ioyned to the other
     afore rehearsed.

     [*] _The Succession of the kings of England from_ WILLIAM
     _bastard, unto the first of Queene_ ELIZABETH.

   William the first.
   William his sonne.
   Henrie 1.
   Henrie 2.
   Richard 1.
   Henrie 3.
   Edward 1. aliàs 4.
   Edward 2.
   Edward 3.
   Richard 2.
     Henrie 4.
     Henrie 5.
     Henrie 6.
   Edward 4. aliàs 7.
   Edward 5.
     Richard 3.
   Henrie 7.
   Henrie 8.
   Edward 6.
   Marie his sister.

     ¶ Thus haue I brought the Catalog of the Princes of Britaine
     vnto an end, & that in more plaine and certeine order than hath
     béene done hertofore by anie. For though in their regions since
     the conquest few men haue erred that haue vsed any diligence,
     yet in the times before the same, fewer haue gone any thing
     néere the truth, through great ouersight & negligence. Their
     seuerall yéeres also doo appéere in my Chronologie insuing.



 It is not to be doubted, but at the first, and so long as the
 posteritie of Iaphet onelie reigned in this Iland, that the true
 [Sidenote: Samothes.]
 knowledge and forme of religion brought in by Samothes, and published
 with his lawes in the second of his arriuall, was exercised among the
 Britans. And although peraduenture in proces of time, either through
 curiositie, or negligence (the onelie corruptors of true pietie and
 godlinesse) it might a little decaie, yet when it was at the woorst,
 it farre excéeded the best of that which afterward came in with Albion
 and his Chemminites, as may be gathered by view of the superstitious
 rites, which Cham and his successours did plant in other countries,
 yet to be found in authors.

 What other learning Magus the sonne of Samothes taught after his
 fathers death, when he also came to the kingdome, beside this which
 concerned the true honoring of God, I cannot easilie say, but that it
 should be naturall philosophie, and astrologie (whereby his disciples
 gathered a kind of foreknowledge of things to come) the verie vse of
 the word Magus (or Magusæus) among the Persians dooth yéeld no
 vncerteine testimonie.

 [Sidenote: Sarron.]
 In like maner, it should seeme that Sarron sonne vnto the said Magus,
 diligentlie followed the steps of his father, and thereto beside his
 owne practise of teaching, opened schooles of learning in sundrie
 places, both among the Celts and Britans, whereby such as were his
 auditors, grew to be called Sarronides, notwithstanding, that as well
 the Sarronides as the Magi, and Druiydes, were generallie called
 [Sidenote: Samothei.]
 [Sidenote: Semnothei.]
 Samothei, or Semnothei, of Samothes still among the Grecians, as
 Aristotle in his De magia dooth confesse; and furthermore calling them
 Galles, he addeth therevnto, that they first brought the knowledge of
 letters and good learning vnto the Gréekes.

 [Sidenote: Druiyus.]
 Druiyus the son of Sarron (as a scholer of his fathers owne teaching)
 séemed to be exquisit in all things, that perteined vnto the diuine
 and humane knowledge: and therefore I may safelie pronounce, that he
 excelled not onlie in the skill of philosophie and the quadriuials,
 but also in the true Theologie, whereby the right seruice of God was
 kept and preserued in puritie. He wrote moreouer sundrie precepts and
 rules of religious doctrine, which among the Celts were reserued verie
 religiouslie, and had in great estimation of such as sought vnto them.

 [Sidenote: Corruptors of religion.]
 How and in what order this prince left the state of religion, I meane
 touching publike orders in administration of particular rites and
 ceremonies, as yet I doo not read: howbeit this is most certeine, that
 after he died, the puritie of his doctrine began somewhat to decaie.
 For such is mans nature, that it will not suffer any good thing long
 to remaine as it is left, but (either by addition or subtraction of
 this or that, to or from the same) so to chop and change withall from
 time to time, that in the end there is nothing of more difficultie,
 for such as doo come after them, than to find out the puritie of the
 originall, and restore the same againe vnto the former perfection.

 [Sidenote: _Cæsar._]
 In the beginning this Druiyus did preach vnto his hearers, that the
 soule of man is immortall, that God is omnipotent, mercifull as a
 father in shewing fauor vnto the godlie, and iust as an vpright iudge
 in punishing the wicked; that the secrets of mans hart are not
 vnknowne, and onelie knowne to him; and that as the world and all that
 is therein had their beginning by him, at his owne will, so shall all
 things likewise haue an end, when he shall see his time. He taught
 [Sidenote: _Strabo. li._ 4.]
 [Sidenote: _Socion. lib. success._]
 them also with more facilitie, how to obserue the courses of the
 heauens and motions of the planets by arithmeticall industrie, to find
 [Sidenote: _Cicero diuinat._ 1.]
 out the true quantities of the celestiall bodies by geometricall
 demonstration, and thereto the compasse of the earth, and hidden
 natures of things contained in the same by philosophicall
 contemplation. But alas, this integritie continued not long among his
 successors, for vnto the immortalitie of the soule, they added, that
 after death it went into another bodie, (of which translation Ouid

   Morte carent animæ, sempérque priore relicta
   Sede, nouis domibus viuunt habitántque receptæ.)

 The second or succedent, being alwaies either more noble, or more vile
 than the former, as the partie deserued by his merits, whilest he
 liued here vpon earth. And therefore it is said by Plato and other,
 that Orpheus after his death had his soule thrust into the bodie of a
 swanne, that of Agamemnon conueied into an egle, of Aiax into a lion,
 of Atlas into a certeine wrestler, of Thersites into an ape, of
 Deiphobus into Pythagoras, and Empedocles dieng a child, after sundrie
 changes into a man, whereof he himselfe saith;

   Ipse ego námq; fui puer olim, deinde puella,
   Arbustum & volucris, mutus quóq; in æquore piscis.

 [Sidenote: _Plinius, lib._ 16. _cap. ultimo._]
 For said they (of whom Pythagoras also had, and taught this errour) if
 the soule apperteined at the first to a king, and he in this estate
 did not leade his life worthie his calling, it should after his
 [Sidenote: Metempsuchôsis.]
 decease be shut vp in the bodie of a slaue, begger, cocke, owle, dog,
 ape, horsse, asse, worme, or monster, there to remaine as in a place
 of purgation and punishment, for a certeine period of time. Beside
 this, it should peraduenture susteine often translation from one bodie
 vnto another, according to the quantitie and qualitie of his dooings
 here on earth, till it should finallie be purified, and restored
 againe to an other humane bodie, wherein if it behaued it selfe more
 orderlie than at the first: after the next death, it should be
 preferred, either to the bodie of a king againe, or other great
 estate. And thus they made a perpetuall circulation or reuolution of
 our soules, much like vnto the continuall motion of the heauens, which
 neuer stand still, nor long yeeld one representation and figure. For
 this cause also, as Diodorus saith, they vsed to cast certeine letters
 into the fire, wherein the dead were burned, to be deliuered vnto
 their deceased fréends, whereby they might vnderstand of the estate of
 such as trauelled here on earth in their purgations (as the Moscouits
 doo write vnto S. Nicholas to be a speach-man for him that is buried,
 in whose hand they bind a letter, and send him with a new paire of
 shooes on his feet into the graue) and to the end that after their
 next death they should deale with them accordinglie, and as their
 merits required. They brought in also the worshipping of manie gods,
 and their seuerall euen to this daie sacrifices: they honoured
 [Sidenote: Oke honored whereon mistle did grow,
 and so doo our sorcerers thinking some spirits
 to deale about ye same, for hidden treasure.]
 likewise the oke, whereon the mistle groweth, and dailie deuised
 infinit other toies (for errour is neuer assured of hir owne dooings)
 whereof neither Samothes, nor Sarron, Magus, nor Druiyus did leaue
 them anie prescription.

 These things are partlie touched by Cicero, Strabo, Plinie, Sotion,
 Laertius, Theophrast, Aristotle, and partlie also by Cæsar, Mela, Val.
 Max. lib. 2. and other authors of later time, who for the most part
 doo confesse, that the cheefe schoole of the Druiydes was holden here
 in Britaine, where that religion (saith Plinie) was so hotlie
 professed and followed, "Vt dedisse Persis videri possit," lib. 30.
 cap. 1. and whither the Druiydes also themselues, that dwelt among the
 Galles, would often resort to come by the more skill, and sure
 vnderstanding of the mysteries of that doctrine. And as the Galles
 receiued their religion from the Britons, so we likewise had from them
 [Sidenote: Logike and Rhetorike out of Gallia.]
 some vse of Logike & Rhetorike, such as it was which our lawiers
 practised in their plees and common causes. For although the Greeks
 were not vnknowne vnto vs, nor we to them, euen from the verie comming
 of Brute, yet by reason of distance betwéene our countries, we had no
 great familiaritie and common accesse one vnto another, till the time
 of Gurguntius, after whose entrance manie of that nation trauelled
 hither in more securitie, as diuers of our countriemen did vnto them
 without all danger, to be offered vp in sacrifice to their gods. That
 we had the maner of our plees also out of France, Iuuenal is a
 witnesse, who saith;

   Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos.

 Howbeit as they taught vs Logike and Rhetorike, so we had also some
 Sophistrie from them; but in the worst sense: for from France is all
 kind of forgerie, corruption of maners, and craftie behauiour not so
 soone as often transported into England. And albeit the Druiydes were
 thus honored and of so great authoritie in Britaine, yet were there
 great numbers of them also in the Iles of Wight, Anglesey, and the
 Orchades, in which they held open schooles of their profession, aloofe
 as it were from the resort of people, wherein they studied and learned
 their songs by heart. Howbeit the cheefe college of all I say,
 remained still in Albion, whither the Druiydes of other nations also
 (beside the Galles) would of custome repaire, when soeuer anie
 controuersie among them in matters of religion did happen to be
 mooued. At such times also the rest were called out of the former
 Ilands, whereby it appeareth that in such cases they had their synods
 and publike meetings, and therevnto it grew finallie into custome, and
 after that a prouerbe, euen in variances falling out among the
 princes, great men, and common sorts of people liuing in these weast
 parts of Europe, to yeeld to be tried by Britaine and hir thrée
 Ilands, bicause they honoured hir préests (the Druiydes) as the
 Athenians did their Areopagites.

 [Sidenote: Estimation of the Druiydes or Druiysh preests.]
 Furthermore, in Britaine, and among the Galles, and to say the truth,
 generallie in all places where the Druiysh religion was frequented,
 such was the estimation of the préests of this profession, that there
 was little or nothing doone without their skilfull aduise, no not in
 ciuil causes, perteining to the regiment of the common-wealth and
 countrie. They had the charge also of all sacrifices, publike and
 priuate, they interpreted oracles, preached of religion, and were
 neuer without great numbers of yoong men that heard them with
 diligence, as they taught from time to time.

 [Sidenote: Immunitie of the cleargie greater vnder idolatrie
 than vnder the gospell.]
 Touching their persons also they were exempt from all temporall
 seruices, impositions, tributes, and exercises of the wars: which
 immunitie caused the greater companies of scholers to flocke vnto them
 from all places, & to learne their trades. Of these likewise, some
 remained with them seuen, eight, ten, or twelue years, still learning
 the secrets of those unwritten mysteries by heart, which were to be
 had amongst them, and commonlie pronounced in verse. And this policie,
 as I take it, they vsed onelie to preserue their religion from
 contempt, whereinto it might easilie haue fallen, if any books thereof
 had happened into the hands of the common sort. It helped also not a
 little in the exercise of their memories, wherevnto bookes are vtter
 enimies, insomuch as he that was skilfull in the Druiysh religion,
 would not let readilie to rehearse manie hundreds of verses togither,
 and not to faile in one tittle, in the whole processe of this his
 laborious repetition. But as they dealt in this order for matters of
 their religion, so in ciuill affairs, historicall treatises, and
 setting downe of lawes, they vsed like order and letters almost with
 the Grecians. Whereby it is easie to be séene, that they reteined this
 kind of writing from Druiyus (the originall founder of their religion)
 and that this Iland hath not béene void of letters and learned men,
 euen sith it was first inhabited. I would ad some thing in particular
 also of their apparell, but sith the dealing withall is nothing
 profitable to the reader, I passe it ouer, signifieng neuerthelesse,
 that it was distinguished by sundrie deuises from that of the common
 sort, and of such estimation among the people, that whosoeuer ware the
 Druiysh weed, might walke where he would without any harme or
 annoiance. This honour was giuen also vnto the préests in Rome,
 insomuch that when Volusius was exiled by the Triumuirate, and saw
 himselfe in such danger, as that he could not escape the hardest, he
 gat the wéed of a preest upon his backe, and begged his almes therein,
 euen in the high waies as he trauelled, and so escaped the danger and
 the furie of his aduersaries: but to proceed with other things.

 [Sidenote: Bardus.]
 After the death of Druiyus, Bardus his sonne, and fift king of the
 Celts, succéeded not onelie ouer the said kingdome, but also in his
 fathers vertues, whereby it is verie likelie, that the winding and
 wrapping vp of the said religion, after the afore remembred sort into
 verse, was first deuised by him, for he was an excellent poet, and no
 lesse indued with a singular skill in the practise and speculation of
 musicke, of which two many suppose him to be the verie author and
 [Sidenote: _Gen._ 4. 21.]
 beginner, although vniustlie, sith both poetrie and song were in vse
 before the flood, as was also the harpe and pipe, which Iubal
 inuented, and could neuer be performed without great skill in musicke.
 But to procéed, as the cheefe estimation of the Druiydes remained in
 the end among the Britons onelie, for their knowledge in religion, so
 did the fame of the Bardes (which were so called of this Bardus for
 their excellent skill in musicke, poetrie, and the heroicall kind of
 song, which at the first conteined onelie the high mysteries and
 secret points of their religion. There was little difference also
 [Sidenote: The Bards degenerate.]
 betwéene them and the Druiydes, till they so farre degenerated from
 their first institution, that they became to be minstrels at feasts,
 droonken meetings, and abhominable sacrifices of the idols: where they
 sang most commonlie no diuinitie as before, but the puissant acts of
 valiant princes, and fabulous narrations of the adulteries of the
 gods. Certes in my time this fond vsage, and thereto the verie name of
 the Bardes, are not yet extinguished among the Britons of Wales, where
 they call their poets and musicians Barthes, as they doo also in
 Ireland: which Sulpitius also writing to Lucane remembreth, where he
 saith that the word Bardus is meere Celtike, and signifieth a singer.
 Howbeit the Romans iudging all nations beside themselues to be but
 rude and barbarous, and thereto misliking vtterlie the rough musicke
 of the Bardes, entred so farre into the contemptuous mockage of their
 melodie, that they ascribed the word Bardus vnto their fooles and
 idiots, whereas contrariwise the Scythians and such as dwell within
 the northweast part of Europe, did vse the same word in verie
 honourable maner, calling their best poets and heroicall singers,
 Singebardos; their couragious singers and capiteins that delited in
 musicke, Albardos, Dagobardos, Rodtbardos, & one lame musician Lambard
 aboue all other, of whose skilfull ditties Germanie is not
 vnfurnished, as I heare vnto this daie. In Quizqueia or new Spaine, an
 Iland of the Indies, they call such men Boitios, their rimes Arcitos,
 and in steed of harps they sing vnto timbrels made of shels such
 sonnets and ditties as either perteine vnto religion, prophane loue,
 commendation of ancestrie, and inflammation of the mind vnto Mars,
 whereby there appeareth to be small difference betwéene their Boitios
 and our Bardes. Finallie of our sort, Lucane in his first booke
 writeth thus, among other like saiengs well toward the latter end;

 [Sidenote: _Lucani. li._ 1.]

   Vos quóq; qui fortes animas, bellóq; peremptas
   Laudibus in longum vates dimittitis æuum,
   Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi.
   Et vos barbaricos ritus, morémque sinistrum
   Sacrorum Druiydæ, positis recepistis ab armis.
   Solis nosse Deos, & c[oe]li numina vobis,
   Aut solis nescire datum: nemora alta remotis
   Incolitis lucis. Vobis authoribus, vmbræ
   Non tacitas Erebi sedes, Ditisque profundi
   Pallida regna petunt, regit idem spiritus artus
   Orbe alio. Longæ canitis si cognita, vitæ
   Mors media est, certe populi, quos despicit arctos,
   F[oe]lices errore suo, quos ille timorum
   Maximus haud vrget leti metus: inde ruendi
   In ferrum mens prona viris, animæque capaces
   Mortis: & ignauum est redituræ parcere vitæ.

 Thus we sée as in a glasse the state of religion, for a time, after
 the first inhabitation of this Iland: but how long it continued in
 such soundnesse, as the originall authors left it, in good sooth I
 cannot say, yet this is most certeine, that after a time, when Albion
 arriued here, the religion earst imbraced fell into great decaie. For
 whereas Iaphet & Samothes with their children taught nothing else than
 such doctrine as they had learned of Noah: Cham the great grandfather
 of this our Albion, and his disciples vtterlie renouncing to follow
 their steps, gaue their minds wholie to seduce and lead their hearers
 headlong vnto all error. Whereby his posteritie not onelie corrupted
 this our Iland, with most filthie trades and practises; but also all
 mankind, generallie where they became, with vicious life, and most
 [Sidenote: What doctrine Cham and his disciples taught.]
 vngodlie conuersation. For from Cham and his successours procéeded at
 the first all sorcerie, witchcraft, and the execution of vnlawful
 lust, without respect of sex, age, consanguinitie, or kind: as
 branches from an odious and abhominable root, or streames deriued from
 a most filthie and horrible stinking puddle. Howbeit, &
 notwithstanding all these his manifold lewdnesses, such was the follie
 of his Ægyptians (where he first reigned and taught) that whilest he
 liued they alone had him in great estimation (whereas other nations
 contemned and abhorred him for his wickednesse, calling him
 [Sidenote: Chemesenua.]
 Chemesenua, that is, the impudent, infamous and wicked Cham) and not
 [Sidenote: Chem Min.]
 [Sidenote: Cham made a god.]
 onelie builded a citie vnto him which they called Chem Min, but also
 after his death reputed him for a god, calling the highest of the
 seuen planets after his name, as they did the next beneath it after
 Osyris his sonne, whom they likewise honored vnder the name of

 [Sidenote: Translation of mortall men into heauen how it began.]
 Certes it was a custome begonne in Ægypt of old time, and generallie
 in vse almost in euerie place in processe of time (when any of their
 famous worthie princes died) to ascribe some forme or other of the
 stars vnto his person, to the end his name might neuer weare out of
 memorie. And this they called their translation in heauen, so that he
 which had any starres or forme of starres dedicated vnto him, was
 properlie said to haue a seat among the gods. A toie much like to the
 catalog of Romish saints, (although the one was written in the
 celestiall or immateriall orbes, the other in sheeps skins, and verie
 brickle paper) but yet so estéemed, that euerie prince would oft
 hazard and attempt the vttermost aduentures, thereby to win such fame
 in his life, that after his death he might by merit haue such place in
 heauen, among the shining starres. Howbeit, euerie of those that were
 called gods, could not obteine that benefit, for then should there not
 haue béene stars enow in heauen to haue serued all their turnes,
 wherfore another place was in time imagined, where they reigned that
 were of a second calling, as the Semones who were gods by grace and
 [Sidenote: _Cyril, aduersus Iul. lib. 6. sect. 8._]
 fauour of the people. "Semones dici voluerunt (saith Fulgentius In
 vocibus antiquis) quos c[oe]lo nec dignos ascriberent, ob meriti
 paupertatem; sicut Priapus Hyppo. Vortumnus, &c. nec terrenos eos
 deputare vellent per gratiæ venerationem," as also a third place that
 is to say an earth, where those gods dwelled which were noble men,
 officers, good gouernours and lawgiuers to the people, and yet not
 thought worthie to be of the second or first companie, which was a
 iollie diuision.

 Thus we sée in generall maner, how idolatrie, honoring of the starres,
 and brood of inferiour gods were hatched at the first, which follies
 in processe of time came also into Britaine, as did the names of
 Saturne & Iupiter, &c: as shall appeare hereafter. And here sith I
 haue alreadie somewhat digressed from my matter, I will go yet a
 little farder, and shew foorth the originall vse of the word Saturne,
 Iupiter, Hercules, &c: whereby your Honor shall sée a little more into
 the errours of the Gentils, and not onelie that, but one point also
 [Sidenote: Which were Saturni, Ioues, Iunones, and Hercules.]
 properlie called of the root of all the confusion that is to be found
 among the ancient histories. Certes it was vsed for a few yéeres after
 the partition of the earth (which was made by Noah, in the 133. yeere
 after the floud) that the beginners of such kingdoms as were then
 erected should be called Saturni, whereby it came to passe that
 Nimbrote was the Saturne of Babylon: Cham of Ægypt: and so foorth
 other of sundrie other countries. Their eldest sonnes also that
 succeeded them, were called Ioues; and their nephewes or sonnes
 sonnes, which reigned in the third place Hercules, by which meanes it
 followed that euerie kingdome had a Saturne, Iupiter and Hercules of
 hir owne, and not from anie other.

 In like sort they had such another order among their daughters, whom
 they married as yet commonlie vnto their brethren (God himselfe
 permitting the same vnto them for a time) as before the floud, to the
 end the earth might be thoroughlie replenished, and the sooner
 furnished with inhabitants in euerie part therof. The sister therefore
 [Sidenote: Isis, Io and Iuno all one.]
 and wife of euerie Saturne was called Rhea, but of Iupiter, Iuno,
 Isis, or Io. Beyond these also there was no latter Harold that would
 indeuour to deriue the petigree of any prince, or potentate, but
 supposed his dutie to be sufficientlie performed, when he had brought
 it orderlie vnto some Saturne or other, wherat he might cease, and
 shut vp all his trauell. They had likewise this opinion grounded
 amongst them, that heauen & earth were onlie parents vnto Saturne and
 [Sidenote: C[oe]lum or C[oe]lus.]
 [Sidenote: Ogyges.]
 [Sidenote: Sol.]
 [Sidenote: Pater deorum.]
 Rhea, not knowing out of doubt, what they themselues did meane, sith
 these denominations, Heauen, Ogyges, the Sunne, Pater Deorum, and such
 [Sidenote: * Tydea.]
 [Sidenote: Vesta.]
 [Sidenote: Terra.]
 [Sidenote: Luna.]
 [Sidenote: Aretia.]
 [Sidenote: Deorum mater.]
 like, were onelie ascribed vnto Noah: as [*]Terra, (the Earth) Vesta,
 Aretia, the Moone, Mater deorum, and other the like were vnto Tydea
 his wife. So that hereby we sée, how Saturne is reputed in euerie
 nation for their oldest god, or first prince, Iupiter for the next,
 and Hercules for the third. And therefore sith these names were
 dispersed in the beginning ouer all, it is no maruell that there is
 such confusion in ancient histories, and the dooings of one of them so
 mixed with those of another, that it is now impossible to distinguish
 them in sunder. This haue I spoken, to the end that all men may see
 what gods the Pagans honored, & thereby what religion the posteritie
 of Cham did bring ouer into Britaine. For vntill their comming, it is
 not likelie that anie grosse idolatrie or superstition did enter in
 among vs, as deifieng of mortall men, honoring of the starres, and
 erection of huge images, beside sorcerie, witchcraft, and such like,
 whereof the Chemminites are worthilie called the autors. Neither were
 [Sidenote: Fr[=o] whence Brute did learne his religion.]
 these errors anie thing amended, by the comming in of Brute, who no
 doubt added such deuises vnto the same, as he and his companie had
 learned before in Græcia, from whence also he brought Helenus the
 sonne of Priamus, (a man of excéeding age) & made him his préest and
 bishop thorough out the new conquest, that he had atchieued in

 After Brute, idolatrie and superstition still increased more and more
 among vs, insomuch that beside the Druiysh and Bardike ceremonies, and
 those also that came in with Albion and Brute himselfe: our
 countriemen either brought hither from abroad, or dailie inuented at
 home new religion and rites, whereby it came to passe that in the
 [Sidenote: Dis or Samothes made a god.]
 stead of the onelie and immortall God (of whom Samothes and his
 posteritie did preach in times past) now they honored the said
 Samothes himselfe vnder the name of Dis and Saturne: also Iupiter,
 Mars, Minerua, Mercurie, Apollo, Diana; and finallie Hercules, vnto
 whome they dedicated the gates and porches of their temples, entrances
 into their regions, cities, townes and houses, with their limits and
 bounds (as the papists did the gates of their cities and ports vnto
 Botulph & Giles) bicause fortitude and wisedome are the cheefe
 vpholders and bearers vp of common-wealths and kingdoms, both which
 they ascribed to Hercules (forgetting God) and diuers other idols
 [Sidenote: _Mela. Diodorus, Strab._ 4. _Plin. Cæsar._ 5.]
 whose names I now remember not. In lieu moreouer of sheepe and oxen,
 they offred mankind also vnto some of them, killing their offendors,
 prisoners, and oft such strangers as came from farre vnto them, by
 shutting vp great numbers of them togither in huge images made of
 wicker, réed, haie, or other light matter: and then setting all on
 fire togither, they not onelie consumed the miserable creatures to
 ashes (sometimes adding other beasts vnto them) but also reputed it to
 be the most acceptable sacrifice that could be made vnto their idols.
 From whence they had this horrible custome, trulie I cannot tell, but
 that it was common to most nations, not onlie to consume their
 strangers, captiues, &c; but also their owne children with fire, in
 such maner of sacrifice: beside the text of the Bible, the prophane
 histories doo generallie leaue it euident, as a thing either of
 custome or of particular necessitie, of which later Virgil saith;

   Sanguine placastis ventos & virgine cæsa, &c.

 As Silius dooth of the first, where he telleth of the vsuall maner of
 the Carthaginenses, saieng after this maner;

   Vrna reducebat miserandos annua casus, &c.

 But to procéed with our owne gods and idols, more pertinent to my
 purpose than the rehersall of forreine demeanours: I find that huge
 temples in like sort were builded vnto them, so that in the time of
 Lucius, when the light of saluation began stronglie to shine in
 [Sidenote: _Ptol. Lucensis._]
 Britaine, thorough the preaching of the gospell, the christians
 discouered 25. Flamines or idol-churches beside three Archflamines,
 whose préests were then as our Archbishops are now, in that they had
 superior charge of all the rest, the other being reputed as
 inferiours, and subiect to their iurisdiction in cases of religion,
 and superstitious ceremonies.

 [Sidenote: Monstrous proportions of idols.]
 Of the quantities of their idols I speake not, sith it is inough to
 saie, that they were monstrous, and that each nation contended which
 should honour the greater blocks, and yet all pretending to haue the
 iust heigth of the god or goddesse whom they did represent. Apollo
 Capitolinus that stood at Rome, was thirtie cubits high at the least;
 Tarentinus Iupiter of 40.; the idoll of the sonne in the Rhodes, of 70
 (whose toe few men could fadam;) Tuscanus Apollo that stood in the
 librarie of the temple of Augustus, of 50. foot; another made vnder
 Nero of 110. foot; but one in France passed all, which Zenoduris made
 vnto Mercurie at Aruernum in ten years space, of 400. foot. Wherby it
 appeareth, that as they were void of moderation in number of gods, so
 without measure were they also in their proportions, and happie was he
 which might haue the greatest idoll, and lay most cost thereon.

 Hitherto yee haue heard of the time, wherein idolatrie reigned and
 blinded the harts of such as dwelled in this Iland. Now let vs sée the
 successe of the gospell, after the death and passion of Iesus Christ
 our sauiour. And euen here would I begin with an allegation of
 [Sidenote: _Theodoret._]
 Theodoret, wherevpon some repose great assurance (conceiuing yet more
 [Sidenote: _Sophronius._]
 hope therein by the words of Sophronius) that Paule the Apostle should
 preach the word of saluation here, after his deliuerie out of
 captiuitie, which fell as I doo read in the 57. of Christ. But sith I
 cannot verifie the same by the words of Theodoret, to be spoken more
 of Paule than Peter, or the rest, I will passe ouer this coniecture
 (so far as it is grounded vpon Theodoret) and deale with other
 authorities, whereof we haue more certeintie. First of all therfore
 let vs see what Fortunatus hath written of Pauls comming into
 Britaine, and afterward what is to be found of other by-writers in
 other points of more assurance. Certes for the presence of Paule I
 read thus much:

   Quid sacer ille simul Paulus tuba gentibus ampla,
   Per mare per terras Christi præconia fundens,
   Europam & Asiam, Lybiam, sale dogmata complens,
   Arctos, meridies, hic plenus vesper & ortus,
   Transit & Oceanum, vel qua facit insula portum,
   Quásq; Britannus habet terras atque vltima Thule, &c.

 [Sidenote: Iosephus.]
 That one Iosephus preached here in England, in the time of the
 Apostles, his sepulchre yet in Aualon, now called Glessenburg or
 Glastenburie, an epitaph affixed therevnto is proofe sufficient.
 Howbeit, sith these things are not of competent force to persuade all
 men, I will ad in few, what I haue read elsewhere of his arriuall
 here. First of all therefore you shall note that he came ouer into
 Britaine, about the 64. after Christ, when the persecution began vnder
 Nero, at which time Philip and diuers of the godlie being in France
 (whether he came with other christians, after they had sowed the word
 of God in Scythia, by the space of 9. yeares) seuered themselues in
 sunder, to make the better shift for their owne safegard, and yet not
 otherwise than by their flight, the gospell might haue due
 [Sidenote: _Philip. Freculphus. To._ 2., _lib._ 2. _cap._ 4.]
 [Sidenote: _Nennius. Nicephorus lib._ 2. _cap._ 40.]
 [Sidenote: _Isidorus lib. de vita & obit. dict. patrum._]
 [Sidenote: _W. Malmes. de antiq. Glasconici monast._]
 furtherance. Hereby then it came to passe, that the said Philip vpon
 good deliberation did send Iosephus ouer, and with him Simon Zelotes
 to preach vnto the Britons, and minister the sacraments there
 according to the rites of the churches of Asia and Greece, from whence
 they came not long before vnto the countrie of the Galles. Which was
 saith Malmesburie 103. before Faganus and Dinaw did set foorth the
 gospell amongst them. Of the c[=o]ming of Zelotes you may read more in
 the second booke of Niceph. Cal. where he writeth thereof in this
 maner: "Operæpretium etiam fuerit Simonem Cana Galileæ ortum, qui
 propter flagrantem in magistrum suum ardorem, summámq; euangelicæ rei
 per omnia curam Zelotes cognominatus est hîc referre, accepit enim is
 c[oe]litùs adueniente spiritu sancto, Aegyptium Cyrenem & Africam,
 deinde Mauritaniam & Lybiam omnem euangelium deprædicans percurrit,
 eandemque doctrinam etiam ad occidentalem Oceanum insulásque
 Britannicas perfert." And this is the effect in a little roome, of
 that which I haue read at large in sundrie writers, beside these two
 here alledged, although it may well be gathered that diuers Britains
 were conuerted to the faith, before this sixtie foure of Christ.
 Howbeit, whereas some write that they liued, and dwelled in Britaine,
 it cannot as yet take any absolute hold in my iudgement, but rather
 that they were baptised and remained, either in Rome, or else-where.
 [Sidenote: Claudia Rufina a British ladie.]
 And of this sort I suppose Claudia Rufina the wife of Pudens to be
 one, who was a British ladie indeed, and not onelie excellentlie séene
 in the Gréeke and Latine toongs, but also with hir husband highlie
 [Sidenote: 1. _Tim._ 4.]
 commended by S. Paule, as one hauing had conuersation and conference
 with them at Rome, from whence he did write his second epistle vnto
 Timothie, as I read. Of this ladie moreouer Martial speaketh, in
 reioising that his poesies were read also in Britaine, and onelie by
 hir meanes, who vsed to cull out the finest & honestest of his
 epigrams and send them to hir fréends for tokens, saieng after this
 maner, as himselfe dooth set it downe:

   Dicitur & nostros cantare Britannia versus.

 Furthermore making mention of hir and hir issue, he addeth these

 [Sidenote: _Li._ 11. _Epig._ 54.]

   Claudia c[oe]ruleis cùm sit Rufina Britannis
     Edita, cur Latiæ pectora plebis habet?
   Quale decus formæ? Romanam credere matres
     Italides possunt, Atthides esse suam.
   Dij bene, quod sancto peperit fæcunda marito,
     Quot sperat, generos, quótque puella nurus.
   Sic placeat superis, vt coniuge gaudeat vno,
     Et semper natis gaudeat illa tribus.

 The names of hir thrée children were Prudentiana, Praxedes, both
 virgins, and Nouatus, who after the death of Pudens their father
 (which befell him in Cappadocia) dwelled with their mother in Vmbria,
 where they ceased not from time to time to minister vnto the saints.
 But to leaue this impertinent discourse, and proceed with my purpose.

 I find in the Chronicles of Burton (vnder the yeare of Grace 141. and
 time of Hadrian the emperour) that nine scholers or clerkes of Grantha
 or Granta (now Cambridge) were baptised in Britaine, and became
 preachers of the gospell there, but whether Taurinus bishop or elder
 ouer the congregation at Yorke (who as Vincentius saith, was executed
 [Sidenote: _Lib._ 10. _cap._ 17.]
 [Sidenote: Taurinus.]
 about this time for his faith) were one of them or not, as yet I do
 not certeinlie find; but rather the contrarie, which is that he was no
 Britaine at all, but Episcopus Ebroicensis, for which such as perceiue
 not the easie corruption of the word, may soone write Eboracensis as
 certeinlie mine author out of whom I alledge this authoritie hath done
 before me. For Vincentius saith flat otherwise, and therefore the
 Chronologie if it speake of anie Taurinus bishop of Yorke is to be
 reformed in that behalfe. Diuers other also imbraced the religion of
 Christ verie zealouslie before these men. Howbeit, all this
 notwithstanding, the glad tidings of the gospell had neuer free and
 open passage here, vntill the time of Lucius, in which the verie
 enimies of the word became the apparent meanes (contrarie to their
 owne minds) to haue it set foorth amongst vs. For when Antoninus the
 emperour had giuen out a decrée, that the Druiysh religion should
 euerie where be abolished, Lucius the king (whose surname is now
 perished) tooke aduise of his councell what was best to be doone, &
 wrote in this behalfe. And this did Lucius, bicause he knew it
 [*]impossible for man to liue long without any religion at all:
 [Sidenote: * This is contrarie to the common talke of our
 Atheists who say, Let vs liue here in wealth, credit and
 authoritie vpon earth, and let God take heauen and his
 religion to himselfe to doo withall what he listeth.]
 finallie finding his Nobilitie & subiects vtter enemies to the Romane
 deuoti[=o] (for that they made so many gods as they listed, & some to
 haue the regiment euen of their dirt & dung) and thervnto being
 pricked forwards by such christians as were conuersant about him, to
 choose the seruice of the true God that liueth for euer, rather than
 the slauish seruitude of any pagan idoll: he fullie resolued with
 himselfe in the end, to receiue and imbrace the gospell of Christ.
 [Sidenote: Lucius openeth his ears to good counsell,
 as one desirous to serue God & not prefer the world.]
 He sent also two of his best learned and greatest philosophers to
 Rome, vnto Eleutherus then bishop there in the 177. of Christ, not to
 promise any subiection to his sea, which then was not required, but to
 say with such as were pricked in mind, Acts. 2. verse. 37. "Quid
 faciemus viri fratres?" I meane that they were sent to be perfectlie
 instructed, and with farther commission, to make earnest request vnto
 him and the congregation there, that a competent number of preachers
 might be sent ouer from thence, by whose diligent aduise and trauell,
 the foundation of the gospell might surelie be laid ouer all the
 portion of the Ile, which conteined his kingdome, according to his

 [Sidenote: The purpose of Lucius opened vnto the
 congregation at Rome by Eleutherus.]
 When Eleutherus vnderstood these things, he reioiced not a little for
 the great goodnesse, which the Lord had shewed vpon this our Ile and
 countrie. Afterwards calling the brethren togither, they agréed to
 ordeine, euen those two for bishops, whom Lucius as you haue heard,
 had directed ouer vnto them. Finallie after they had thoroughlie
 catechized them, making generall praier vnto God and earnest
 supplication for the good successe of these men, they sent them home
 againe with no small charge, that they should be diligent in their
 function, and carefull ouer the flocke committed to their custodie.

 The first of these was called Eluanus Aualonius, a man borne in the
 Ile of Aualon, and brought up there vnder those godlie pastours and
 their disciples, whom Philip sent ouer at the first for the conuersion
 of the Britons. The other hight Medguinus, and was thereto surnamed
 Belga, bicause he was of the towne of Welles, which then was called
 Belga. This man was trained vp also in one schoole with Eluanus, both
 of them being ornaments to their horie ages, and men of such grauitie
 and godlinesse, that Eleutherus supposed none more worthie to support
 this charge, than they: after whose comming home also, it was not long
 [Sidenote: A zealous prince maketh feruent subiects.]
 yer Lucius and all his houshold with diuers of the Nobilitie were
 baptised, beside infinit numbers of the common people, which dailie
 resorted vnto them, and voluntarilie renounced all their idolatrie and

 In the meane time, Eleutherus vnderstanding the successe of these
 learned doctours, and supposing with himselfe, that they two onlie
 could not suffice to support so great a charge as should concerne the
 conuersion of the whole Iland; he directed ouer vnto them in the yeare
 [Sidenote: Faganus.]
 [Sidenote: Dinauus.]
 [Sidenote: Aaron.]
 insuing Faganus, Dinaw (or Dinauus) Aaron, and diuerse other godlie
 preachers, as fellow-labourers to trauell with them in the vineyard of
 [Sidenote: _Radulphus de la noir aliàs Niger._]
 the Lord. These men therefore after their comming hither, consulted
 with the other, and foorthwith wholie consented to make a diuision of
 [Sidenote: 3. Cheefe Bishops in Britaine.]
 this Iland amongst themselues, appointing what parcell each preacher
 should take, that with the more profit and ease of the people, and
 somewhat lesse trauell also for themselues, the doctrine of the
 Gospell might be preached and receiued. In this distribution, they
 ordeined that there should be one congregation at London, where they
 [Sidenote: Theonus.]
 [Sidenote: Theodosius.]
 [Sidenote: London.]
 [Sidenote: Yorke.]
 [Sidenote: Caerlheon.]
 placed Theonus as chéefe elder and bishop, for that present time,
 worthilie called Theonus. 1. for there was another of that name who
 fled into Wales with Thadiocus of Yorke, at the first comming of the
 Saxons; and also Guthelmus, who went (as I read) into Armorica, there
 to craue aid against the Scots and Vandals that plagued this Ile, from
 the Twede vnto the Humber. After this Theonus also Eluanus succéeded,
 who conuerted manie of the Druiydes, and builded the first librarie
 neere vnto the bishops palace. The said Lucius also placed another at
 Yorke, whither they appointed Theodosius: and the third at Caerlheon
 vpon the riuer Vske, builded sometimes by Belinus, and called
 Glamorgantia, but now Chester (in which three cities there had before
 time beene thrée Archflamines erected vnto Apollo, Mars, and Minerua,
 but now raced to the ground, and three other churches builded in their
 steeds by Lucius) to the end that the countries round about might haue
 indifferent accesse vnto those places, and therewithall vnderstand for
 certeintie, whither to resort for resolution, if after their
 conuersion they should happen to doubt of any thing. In like sort also
 the rest of the idoll-temples standing in other places were either
 ouerthrowne, or conuerted into churches for christian congregations to
 assemble in, as our writers doo remember. In the report whereof giue
 me leaue gentle reader, of London my natiue citie to speake a little:
 for although it may and dooth seeme impertinent to my purpose, yet it
 shall not be much, and therefore I will soone make an end. There is a
 controuersie moued among our historiographers, whether the church that
 Lucius builded at London stood at Westminster, or in Cornehill. For
 there is some cause, why the metropolitane church should be thought to
 stand where S. Peters now doth, by the space of 400. & od yéeres
 before it was remoued to Canturburie by Austine the monke, if a man
 should leane to one side without anie conference of the asseuerations
 of the other. But herin (as I take it) there lurketh some scruple, for
 beside that S. Peters church stood in the east end of the citie, and
 that of Apollo in the west, the word Cornehill (a denomination giuen
 of late to speake of to one street) may easilie be mistaken for
 Thorney. For as the word Thorney proceedeth from the Saxons, who
 called the west end of the citie by that name, where Westminster now
 standeth, bicause of the wildnesse and bushinesse of the soile; so I
 doo not read of anie stréete in London called Cornehill before the
 conquest of the Normans. Wherfore I hold with them, which make
 Westminster to be the place where Lucius builded his church vpon the
 ruines of that Flamine 264. yeeres, as Malmesburie saith, before the
 comming of the Saxons, and 411. before the arriuall of Augustine. Read
 also his appendix in lib. 4. Pontif. where he noteth the time of the
 Saxons, in the 449. of Grace, and of Augustine in the 596. of Christ;
 which is a manifest accompt, though some copies haue 499. for the one,
 but not without manifest corruption and error.

 [Sidenote: Britaine the first prouince that receiued
 the Gospell generallie.]
 Thus became Britaine the first prouince that generallie receiued the
 faith, and where the gospell was freelie preached without inhibition
 of hir prince. Howbeit, although that Lucius and his princes and great
 numbers of his people imbraced the word with gréedinesse, yet was not
 the successe thereof either so vniuersall, that all men beleeued at
 the first; the securitie so great, as that no persecution was to be
 feared from the Romane empire after his decease; or the procéeding of
 the king so seuere, as that he inforced any man by publike authoritie
 to forsake and relinquish his paganisme: but onelie this fréedome was
 enioied, that who so would become a christian in his time, might
 without feare of his lawes professe the Gospell, in whose testimonie,
 if néed had béene, I doubt not to affirme, but that he would haue shed
 [Sidenote: Emerita neece vnto Lucius.]
 also his bloud, as did his neece Emerita, who being constant aboue the
 common sort of women, refused not after his decease by fire, to yeeld
 hir selfe to death, as a swéet smelling sacrifice in the nostrels of
 the Lord, beyond the sea in France.

 [Sidenote: Lucius sendeth againe to Rome.]
 The faith of Christ being thus planted in this Iland in the 177. after
 Christ, and Faganus and Dinaw with the rest sent ouer from Rome, in
 the 178. as you haue heard: it came to passe in the third yeare of the
 Gospell receiued, that Lucius did send againe to Eleutherus the
 bishop, requiring that he might haue some breefe epitome of the order
 of discipline then vsed in the church. For he well considered, that as
 it auaileth litle to plant a costlie vineyard, except it afterward be
 cherished, kept in good order, and such things as annoie, dailie
 remooued from the same: so after baptisme and entrance into religion,
 it profiteth little to beare the name of christians, except we doo
 [Sidenote: _Ro._ 3. _ver._ 1.]
 walke in the spirit, and haue such things as offend apparentlie,
 corrected by seuere discipline. For otherwise it will come to passe,
 that the wéedes of vice, and vicious liuing, will so quicklie abound
 in vs, that they will in the end choke vp the good séed sowne in our
 minds, and either inforce vs to returne vnto our former wickednesse
 with déeper securitie than before, or else to become meere Atheists,
 which is a great deale woorse.

 For this cause therefore did Lucius send to Rome, the second time, for
 a copie of such politike orders as were then vsed there, in their
 [Sidenote: The wisedome of Eleutherus.]
 regiment of the church. But Eleutherus considering with himselfe, how
 that all nations are not of like condition, and therefore those
 constitutions that are beneficiall to one, may now and then be
 preiudiciall to another: and séeing also that beside the word no rites
 and orders can long continue, or be so perfect in all points, but that
 as time serueth, they will require alteration: he thought it best not
 to laie any more vpon the necks of the new conuerts of Britaine as
 yet, than Christ and his apostles had alreadie set downe vnto all men.
 In returning therefore his messengers, he sent letters by them vnto
 Lucius and his Nobilitie, dated in the consulships of Commodus and
 Vespronius, wherein he told them that Christ had left sufficient order
 in the Scriptures for the gouernment of his church alreadie in his
 word, and not for that onlie, but also for the regiment of his whole
 [Sidenote: * Though most princes canot heare on that side.]
 [*]kingdome, if he would submit himselfe, to yéeld and follow that
 rule. The epistle it selfe is partlie extant, and partlie perished,
 yet such as it is, and as I haue faithfullie translated it out of
 sundrie verie ancient copies, I doo deliuer it here, to the end I will
 not defraud the reader of anie thing that may turne to the glorie of
 God, and his commoditie, in the historie of our nation.

 [Sidenote: Epistle of Eleutherus vnto Lucius.]
 "You require of vs the Romane ordinances, and thereto the statutes of
 the emperours to be sent ouer vnto you, and which you desire to
 practise and put in vre within your realme and kingdome. The Romane
 lawes and those of emperours we may eftsoones reprooue, but those of
 God can neuer be found fault withall. You haue receiued of late
 through Gods mercie in the realme of Britaine the law and faith of
 Christ, you haue with you both volumes of the scriptures: out of them
 therefore by Gods grace, and the councell of your realme take you a
 law, and by that law through Gods sufferance rule your kingdome, for
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 24._]
 you are Gods vicar in your owne realme, as the roiall prophet saith;
 The earth is the Lords and all that is therein, the compasse of the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 45._]
 world, and they that dwell therein. Againe, Thou hast loued truth and
 hated iniquitie, wherefore God, euen thy God hath annointed thee with
 oile of gladnesse aboue thy fellowes. And againe, according to the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 71._]
 saieng of the same prophet; Oh God giue thy iudgement vnto the king, &
 thy iustice vnto the kings sonne. The kings sons are the christian
 people & flocke of the realme, which are vnder your gouernance, and
 [Sidenote: * Here wanteth.]
 liue & continue in peace within your kingdome. [*] The gospell saith;
 As the hen gathereth hir chickens vnder hir wings, so dooth the king
 his people. Such as dwell in the kingdome of Britaine are yours, whom
 if they be diuided, you ought to gather into concord and vnitie, to
 call them to the faith and law of Christ, and to his sacred church: to
 chearish and mainteine, to rule also and gouerne them, defending each
 of them from such as would doo them wrong, and keeping them from the
 malice of such as be their enimies. [*]Wo vnto the nation whose king
 is a child, and whose princes rise vp earlie to banket and féed, which
 is spoken not of a prince that is within age, but of a prince that is
 become a child, through follie, sinne & vnstedfastnesse, of whom the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 55._]
 prophet saith; The bloudthirstie and deceitfull men shall not liue
 foorth halfe their daies. [*]By féeding I vnderstand gluttonie; by
 gluttonie, lust; & by lust all wickednesse & sinne, according to the
 saieng of Salomon the king; Wisedome entreth not into a wicked mind,
 nor dwelleth with a man that is subiect vnto sinne. A king hath his
 name of ruling, and not of the possession of his realme. You shalbe a
 king whilest you rule well, but if you doo otherwise, the name of a
 king shall not remaine with you, but you shall vtterlie forgo it,
 which God forbid. The almightie God grant you so to rule the kingdome
 of Britaine, that you may reigne with him for euer, whose vicar (or
 vicegerent) you are within your aforesaid kingdome. Who with the Sonne
 and the Holie-ghost, &c."

 Hitherto out of the epistle that Eleutherus sent vnto Lucius, wherein
 manie pretie obseruations are to be collected, if time and place would
 serue to stand vpon them. After these daies also the number of such as
 were ordeined to saluation, increased dailie more and more, whereby
 (as in other places of the world) the word of God had good successe in
 Britaine, in time of peace; and in heat of persecution, there were no
 [Sidenote: Albane.]
 [Sidenote: Amphibalus.]
 [Sidenote: Iulius.]
 [Sidenote: Aaron.]
 small number of martyrs that suffered for the same, of which Albane,
 Amphibalus, Iulius, and Aaron, are reputed to be the chiefe, bicause
 of their noble parentage, which is a great matter in the sight of
 worldlie men.

 There are which affirme our Lucius to renounce his kingdome, and
 afterward to become first a bishop, then a preacher of the gospell,
 and afterward a pope: but to the end such as hold this opinion may
 once vnderstand the botome of their errors, I will set downe the
 matter at large, whereby they shall sée (if they list to looke) how
 far they haue béene deceiued.

 [Sidenote: Chlorus had three sons, & a daughter by Helena.]
 I find that Chlorus had issue by his second wife, two sonnes,
 Dalmatius (who had a sonne called also Dalmatius and slaine by the
 souldiors.) Constantius father to Gallus, and Iulian the apostata;
 besides foure other whose names as yet I find not. But being at the
 first matched with Helena, and before she was put from him by the
 roiall power of Dioclesian, he had by hir three sonnes (beside one
 daughter named Emerita) of which the name of the first is perished,
 the second was called Lucius, & the third Constantine, that afterward
 was emperour of Rome, by election of the armies in Britaine. Now it
 happened that Lucius, whome the French call Lucion, by means of a
 quarell growne betwéene him and his elder brother, did kill his said
 brother, either by a fraie or by some other meanes, wherevpon his
 father exiled him out of Britaine, and appointed him from thenceforth
 to remaine in Aquitane in France. This Lucion brought thus into
 worldlie sorow, had now good leasure to meditate vpon heauen, who
 before in his prosperitie had peraduenture neuer regard of hell.
 [Sidenote: Lucion becommeth a christian.]
 [Sidenote: Lucion a bishop.]
 Finallie he fell so far into the consideration of his estate, that at
 the last he renounced his paganisme, and first became a christian,
 then an elder, and last of all a bishop in the church of Christ. He
 erected also a place of praier wherein to serue the liuing God, which
 after sundrie alterations came in processe of time to be an Abbaie,
 and is still called euen to our time after Lucion or Lucius: the first
 founder therof, and the originall beginner of anie such house in those

 In this also he and diuers other of his freends continued their times,
 in great contemplation and praier, and from hence were translated as
 occasion serued, vnto sundrie ecclesiasticall promotions in the time
 of Constant. his brother. So that euen by this short narration it is
 now easie to sée, that Lucius the king, and Lucius or Lucion the sonne
 [Sidenote: _Hermannus Schedelius._]
 [Sidenote: _Bruschius cap._ 3.]
 of Chlorus, were distinct persons. Herevnto Hermannus Schedelius
 addeth also how he went into Rhetia with Emerita his sister, and néere
 vnto the citie Augusta conuerted the Curienses vnto the faith of
 Christ, and there likewise (being put to death in Castro Martis) lieth
 buried in the same towne, where his feast is holden vpon the third
 daie of December, as may readilie be confirmed, whereas the bones of
 our Lucius were to be séene at Glocester. That Schedelius erreth not
 herein also, the ancient monuments of the said Abbaie, whereof he was
 the originall beginner, as I said, doo yeeld sufficient testimonie,
 beside an hymne made in his commendation, intituled Gaude Lucionum,
 [Sidenote: _Festum Lucionis. Iohn Bouchet._]
 &c. But for more of this you may resort vnto Bouchet in his first
 booke, and fift chapter of the Annales of Aquitane, who neuertheles
 maketh the king of Britaine grandfather to this Lucion. The said
 [Sidenote: Emerita martyred in Rhetia.]
 Schedelius furthermore setteth downe, that his sister was martyred in
 Trinecastell, néere vnto the place where the said Lucion dwelled,
 whereby it appéereth in like sort, that she was not sister to Lucius
 king of Britaine, of which prince Alexander Neccham in his most
 excellent treatise De sapientia diuina, setteth downe this Distichon:

   Prima Britannorum fidei lux Lucius esse
     Fertur, qui rexit m[oe]nia Brute tua.

 Neither could Lucion or Lucius be fellow and of kinred vnto Paule the
 apostle, as Auentine inferreth, except he meane it of some other
 Lucius, as of one whome he nameth Cyrinensis. But then will not the
 historie agree with the conuersion of the Rhetians and Vindelicians,
 whereof Schedelius and other doo make mention. But as each riuer the
 farder it runneth from the head, the more it is increased by small
 riuelets, and corrupted with filthie puddels, and stinking gutters,
 [Sidenote: Heresie and monastical life brought into
 Britaine at one time by _Pelagius_.]
 that descend into the same: so the puritie of the gospell, preached
 here in Britaine, in processe of time became first of all to be
 corrupted with a new order of religion, and most execrable heresie,
 both of them being brought in at once by Pelagius, of Wales, who
 hauing trauelled through France, Italie, Aegypt, Syria, & the
 easterlie regions of the world, was there at the last made an elder or
 bishop, by some of the monkes, vnto whose profession he had not long
 before wholie addicted himselfe. Finallie returning home againe with
 an augmentation of fame and countenance of greater holinesse than he
 bare out of the land with him, he did not onelie erect an house of his
 [Sidenote: Bangor.]
 owne order at Bangor in Wales, vpon the riuer Dee, but also sowed the
 pestiferous séed of his hereticall prauities ouer all this Iland,
 whereby he seduced great numbers of Britons, teaching them to preferre
 their owne merits, before the free mercie of God, in Jesus Christ his
 sonne. By this means therefore he brought assurance of saluation into
 question, and taught all such as had a diligent respect vnto their
 workes to be doubtfull of the same, whereas to such as regard this
 latter, there can be no quietnesse of mind, but alwaies an vnstedfast
 opinion of themselues, whereby they cannot discerne, neither by
 prosperitie nor aduersitie of this life, whether they be worthie loue
 or hatred. Neuertheles it behooueth the godlie to repose their hope in
 that grace which is freelie granted through Jesu Christ, and to flee
 vnto the mercies of God which are offered vnto vs in with and by his
 son, to the end that we may at the last find the testimonie of his
 spirit working with ours, that we are his chosen children, whereby
 commeth peace of conscience to such as doo beléeue.

 Thus we sée how new deuises or orders of religion and heresie came in
 together. I could shew also what Comets, and strange signes appeared
 in Britaine, much about the same time, the like of which with diuers
 other haue beene perceiued also from time to time, sithence the death
 of Pelagius, at the entrance of anie new kind of religion into this
 Ile of Britaine. But I passe them ouer, onelie for that I would not
 seeme in my tractation of antiquities, to trouble my reader with the
 rehersall of anie new inconueniences.

 [Sidenote: Anachorites. Heremites. Cyrillines. Benedictines.]
 To procéed therefore with my purpose, after these, there followed in
 like sort sundrie other kinds of monasticall life, as Anachorites,
 Heremits, Cyrilline and Benedictine monkes, albeit that the
 heremeticall profession was onelie allowed of in Britaine, vntill the
 comming of Augustine the monke, who brought in the Benedictine sect,
 framed after the order of the house which Benedict surnamed Nursinus
 did first erect in Monte Cassino, about the 524. of Christ, & was
 finallie so well liked of all men, that we had few or (as I suppose)
 no blacke monkes in England that were not of his order. In processe of
 time how Benedict Biscop also our countrieman restored the said
 Benedictine profession greatlie decaied in England, our histories are
 verie plentifull, which Biscop went off into Italie, and at one time
 for a speciall confirmation of his two monasteries which he had
 [Sidenote: Monkes and Heremites onelie allowed of in Britaine.]
 builded at other mens costs vnto Paule and Peter vpon the bankes of
 the Were, as Beda dooth remember. So fast also did these and other
 like humane deuises prosper after his time, that at their suppression
 in England and Wales onelie, there were found 440. religious houses at
 the least, of which 373. might dispend 200. li. by the yéere at the
 least, as appeareth by the record of their suppression, which also
 noteth the totall summe of their reuenues to amount vnto 32000.
 pounds, their moueables 100000. li. and the number of religious men
 [Sidenote: The number of religious houses in England
 at their dissolution.]
 conteined in the same, to be 10000. which would make a pretie armie,
 wherevnto if you adde those 45. of late standing in Scotland, you
 shall soone see what numbers of these dens of spirituall robbers were
 mainteined here in Britaine. What number of saincts also haue béene
 hatched in them I could easilie remember, and beside those 160. which
 Capgraue setteth downe, & other likewise remembred in the golden
 Legend, and Legendarie of Excester, I might bring a rable out of
 Scotland able to furnish vp a calendar, though the yere were twise as

 As touching Pelagius the first heretike that euer was bred in this
 realme (notablie knowne) and parent of Monachisme, it is certeine,
 that before his corruption and fall, he was taken for a man of
 singular learning, deepe iudgement, and such a one, as vpon whome for
 his great gifts in teaching and strictnesse of life, no small péece of
 the hope and expectation of the people did depend. But what is
 wisedome of the flesh, without the feare and true knowledge of God?
 and what is learning except it be handmaid to veritie and sound
 iudgement? Wherefore euen of this man, we may see it verified, that
 [Sidenote: Roger Bakon his saieng of the preachers of his
 time who were the best lawyers and the worst Diuines.]
 one Roger Bakon pronounced long after of the corruption of his time,
 when all things were measured by wit and worldlie policie, rather than
 by the scriptures or guidance of the spirit; Better it is saith he, to
 heare a rude and simple idiot preach the truth, without apparance of
 skill and learned eloquence, than a profound clearke to set foorth
 error, with great shew of learning, and boast of filed vtterance.
 Gerson in like sort hath said fullie asmuch. These follies of Pelagius
 were blased abroad about the 400. of Christ, and from thencefoorth how
 his number of monkes increased on the one side, and his doctrine on
 the other, there is almost no reader that is vnskilfull and ignorant.

 This also is certeine, that within the space of 200. yeares and odde,
 [Sidenote: More than 2100 monkes in the College or Abbaie of
 Bangor in whose territories the parish of Ouerton standeth.]
 there were manie more than 2100. monkes gathered togither in his
 house, whose trades notwithstanding the errors or their founder, (who
 taught such an estimation of merits and bodilie exercise (as Paule
 calleth it) that therby he sought not onlie to impugne, but also
 preuent grace, which was in deed the originall occasion of the
 erection of his house) were yet farre better and more godlie than all
 those religious orders, that were inuented of later time, wherein the
 professours liued to themselues, their wombs and the licentious
 fruition of those parts, that are beneath the bellie. For these
 [Sidenote: _Niceph. lib._ II. _cap._ 34.]
 laboured continuallie  for their owne liuings, at vacant times from
 praier (as did Serapions monkes, which were 10000. ouer whome he
 himselfe was Abbat) and likewise for the better maintenance of such
 learned men as were their appointed preachers. Their liues also were
 correspondent to their doctrine, so that herein onelie they seemed
 intollerable, in that they had confidence in their déeds, and no
 warrant out of the word for their succor & defense, but were such a
 plant as the heauenlie father had not planted, and therefore no
 maruell, though afterward they were raised by the roots.

 But as Pelagius and his adherents had a time to infect the church of
 Christ in Britaine, so the liuing God hath had a season also to purge
 and cleanse the same, though not by a full reformation of doctrine,
 [Sidenote: Germanus, Lupus, Palladius, Patricius.]
 sith Germanus, Lupus, Palladius, Patricius, and such like leaning for
 the most part vnto the monasticall trades, did not so much condemne
 the generall errors of Pelagius one waie, as mainteine the same, or as
 euill opinions another. For as Patricke séemed to like well of the
 honoring of the dead, so Germanus being in Britaine repaired an old
 [Sidenote: _Seuerus Sulpitius in vita Patricij._]
 chapell to S. Albane, wherein Lupus also praied, as Palladius vpheld
 the strictnesse of life, in monasticall profession to the vttermost of
 his power. Wherefore God wrought this purgation of his house at the
 first, rather by taking awaie the wicked and pompous schoolemaisters
 of errour out of this life: hoping that by such meanes, his people
 would haue giuen eare to the godlie that remained. But in processe of
 time, when this his mercifull dealing was forgotten and our
 countriemen returned to their former disorders, he brought in the
 Saxons, who left no idoll vnhonored, no not their filthie Priapus,
 vnto whom the women builded temples, and made a beastlie image (Cum
 pene intenso, and as if he had beene circumcised) whome they called
 Ithypallus, Verpus, and as Goropius Atvatic. pag. 26. addeth, Ters:
 calling vpon him in maner at euerie word, yea at the verie fall of a
 knife out of their hands, and not counted anie shame vnto the most
 ancient and sober matrone of them all. Howbeit when this procéeding of
 the Lord could also take no place, and the shéepe of his pasture would
 receiue no wholesome fodder, it pleased his maiestie, to let them run
 on headlong from one iniquitie to another, in somuch that after the
 doctrine of Pelagius, it receiued that of Rome also, brought in by
 [Sidenote: Augustine the monke.]
 Augustine and his monkes, whereby it was to be seene, how they fell
 from the truth into heresie, and from one heresie still into another,
 till at the last they were drowned altogither in the pits of error
 digged vp by Antichrist, wels in deed that hold no water, which
 notwithstanding to their followers séemed to be most sound doctrine,
 and cisterns of liuing water to such as imbraced the same.

 [Sidenote: Augustine.]
 This Augustine, after his arriuall, conuerted the Saxons in déed from
 paganisme, but as the prouerbe saith, bringing them out of Gods
 blessing into the warme sunne, he also imbued them with no lesse
 hurtfull superstition, than they did know before: for beside the
 onelie name of Christ, and externall contempt of their pristinate
 idolatrie, he taught them nothing at all, but rather (I saie) made an
 exchange from grosse to subtill treacherie, from open to secret
 idolatrie, & from the name of pagans, to the bare title of christians,
 thinking this sufficient for their soules health, and the stablishment
 of his monachisme, of which kind of profession, the holie scriptures
 of God can in no wise like or allow. But what cared he? sith he got
 the great fish for which he did cast his hooke, and so great was the
 fish that he caught in déed, that within the space of 1000. yeares,
 and lesse, it deuoured the fourth part & more of the best soile of the
 Iland, which was wholie bestowed vpon his monkes, & other religious
 broodes that were hatched since his time, as may hereafter appéere in
 the booke following, where I intreate of cities, townes, &c. In the
 [Sidenote: Monks of Canturburie plagued.]
 meane season what successe his monkes had at Canturburie, how oft they
 were spoiled by enimies, their houses burned by casualtie, and
 brethren consumed with pestilence, I refer me to Gotcellius, Houeden,
 Geruase, and the rest of their owne historiographers. And so sore did
 the pestilence rage among them in the time of Celnothus (in whose
 daies the preests, clerks and monkes sang their seruice togither in
 the quire, that (of I wote not how manie) there remained onelie fiue
 aliue, which was a notable token of the furie and wrath of God
 conceiued and executed against that malignant generation. It came also
 to passe at the last that men vsed to praie for helpe at the said
 Augustines tumbe (although afterward Thomas Becket a newer saint did
 not a little deface his glorie) among which king Athelstane was one,
 whome Elnothus the abbat staied so long in the place, when he came
 thither to praie, that his soldiours waiting for his comming, and
 supposing the monkes to haue murdered him, began to giue an assault
 and set fire vpon the house.

 [Sidenote: Meates.]
 [Sidenote: Pictes.]
 [Sidenote: Caledoniens.]
 Whilest these things were thus in hand, in the south part of Albion,
 the Meates, Picts, and Caledoniens, which lie beyond the Scotish sea,
 receiued also the faith, by preaching of such christian elders as
 aduentured thither dailie, who trauelled not without great successe
 and increase of perfect godlines in that part of the Ile. Certes this
 prosperous attempt passed all mens expectation, for that these nations
 were in those daies reputed wild, sauage, and more vnfaithfull and
 craftie than well-minded people (as the wild Irish are in my time) and
 such were they (to saie the truth) in déed, as neither the sugred
 courtesie, nor sharpe swords of the Romans could mollifie or restraine
 from their naturall furie, or bring to anie good order. For this cause
 also in the end, the Romane emperours did vtterlie cast them off as an
 vnprofitable, brutish, & vntameable nation, and by an huge wall
 herafter to be described, separated that rude companie from the more
 mild and ciuill portion.

 [Sidenote: Scotland conuerted to the faith of Christ.]
 This conuersion of the north parts fell out in the sixt yeare before
 the warres that Seuerus had in those quarters, and 170. after the
 death of our sauiour Jesus Christ. From thenceforth also the christian
 religion continued still among them, by the diligent care of their
 pastors and bishops (after the vse of the churches of the south part
 of this Iland) till the Romane shéepheard sought them out, and found
 the meanes to pull them vnto him in like sort with his long staffe as
 he had done our countriemen, whereby in the end he abolished the rites
 of the churches of Asia there also, as Augustine had done alreadie in
 England: and in stéed of the same did furnish it vp with those of his
 pontificall see, although there was great contention, and no lesse
 bloodshed made amongst them, before it could be brought to passe, as
 by the histories of both nations yet extant may be séene.

 [Sidenote: Paladius.]
 In the time of C[oe]lestine bishop of Rome, who sate in the 423. of
 Christ, one Paladius a Grecian borne (to whome Cyrill wrote his dialog
 De adoratione in spiritu) and sometime disciple to Iohn 24. bishop of
 [Sidenote: The first attempt of the bishop of Rome
 to bring Scotland vnder his obedience.]
 Ierusalem, came ouer from Rome into Britaine, there to suppresse the
 Pelagian heresie, which not a little molested the orthodoxes of that
 Iland. And hauing doone much good in the extinguishing of the
 aforesaid opinion there, he went at the last also into Scotland,
 supposing no lesse, but after he had trauelled somwhat in confutation
 of the Pelagians in those parts, he should easilie persuade that
 crooked nation to admit and receiue the rites of the church of Rome,
 as he would faine haue doone beforehand in the south. But as
 [Sidenote: Fastidius bishop of London.]
 Fastidius Priscus archbishop of London, and his Suffragans resisted
 him here; so did the Scotish prelates withstand him there also in this
 behalfe: howbeit, bicause of the authoritie of his commission,
 grauitie of personage, and the great gift which he had in the veine of
 pleasant persuasion (whereby he drew the people after him, as Orpheus
 did the stones with his harpe, and Hercules such as heard him by his
 toong) they had him not onelie then in great admiration, but their
 successors also from time to time, and euen now are contented (and the
 rather also for that he came from Rome) to take him for their chéefe
 [Sidenote: Paladius accompted for the apostle of the Scots.]
 apostle, reckoning from his comming as from the faith receiued, which
 was in the 431. yeare of Christ, as the truth of their historie dooth
 verie well confirme.

 Thus we see what religion hath from time to time beene receiued in
 this Iland, & how and when the faith of Christ came first into our
 countrie. Howbeit as in processe of time it was ouershadowed, and
 corrupted with the dreames and fantasticall imaginations of man, so it
 dailie waxed woorse & woorse, till that it pleased God to restore the
 preaching of his gospell in our daies, whereby the man of sinne is now
 openlie reuealed, and the puritie of the word once againe brought to
 light, to the finall ouerthrow of the Romish sathan, and his popish
 adherents that honour him daie and night to the vttermost of their
 power, yeelding vp their harts as temples for him to dwell in, which
 rather ought to be the temples of God and habitations of the
 Holy-ghost. But such is their peruerse ignorance (notwithstanding that
 Paule hath giuen warning of him alreadie 2. Thes. 2. calling him (as I
 said) the man of sinne, and saieng that he sitteth as God in the
 temple of God, shewing himselfe in his chalenge of power, as if he
 were God, vnder pretense of zeale vnto true religion) that they will
 not giue eare vnto the truth, but rather shut their eares and their
 eies from hearing and reading of the scriptures, bicause they will not
 be drawne out of his snares and bondage.


 There is a certeine period of kingdomes, of 430. yeares, in which
 commonlie they suffer some notable alteration. And as in the aforesaid
 season there is set a time of increase and decaie, so we find that
 before the execution of Gods purpose dooth come to passe, in changing
 the estate of things, sundrie tokens are sent, whereby warning is
 giuen, that without repentance he will come and visit our offenses.
 This is partlie verified by Ioachimus Camerarius, who in his first
 booke De ostentis intreating of the same argument, telleth of a
 strange earthquake felt in Delus, which was neuer touched with any
 such plague before or after the ouerthrow of the Persians, giuen vnto
 them by the Grecians; also of the beard that suddenlie grew out of the
 face of the Pedacien prophetesse, so often as the citie was to be
 touched with any alteration and change. "Nam (saith he) descriptas
 esse diuinitùs ætates quibus idem humanarum rerum status duraret,
 quibus finitis, prædici prius quàm existeret nouationem in deterius
 euenturam rerum, quæque indies minùs ac minùs numini cordi essent.
 Emittuntur igitur cometæ diuinitus, & reuocantur dum supra nos
 conspecti quamdiu placuit Deo inferuntur, &c." Plato referreth such
 changes as happen in common-wealths to a certeine diuine force that
 resteth hidden in sundrie od numbers, whereof their periods do
 consist. True it is that God created all things in number, weight &
 measure, & that after an incomprehensible maner vnto our fraile &
 humane capacitie. Neuerthelesse, he appointed not these three to haue
 the rule of his works, wherefore we must not ascribe these changes to
 the force of number with Plato, much lesse then vnto destinie with the
 Peripatetiks, but vnto the diuine prouidence and appointment of God,
 which onelie may be called destinie as S. Augustine saith, for of
 other destinie it is impietie to dreame. Aristotle ascribing all
 euents vnto manifest causes precedent, dooth scoffe at Plato and his
 numbers in his booke of common-wealths, and bringeth in sundrie causes
 of the alteration of the state of things, which we may referre vnto
 principals, as iniurie, oppression, ambition, treason, rebellion,
 contempt of religion and lawes, and therevnto abundance of wealth in
 few, and great necessitie and miserie in manie. But whatsoeuer
 Aristotle gesseth at these things by humane reason as at the first
 causes, yet we acknowledge other beyond them, as sinne, which being
 suffered and come to the full, is cut downe by the iustice of the high
 God, the cheefe cause of all, who foreseeing the wickednesse of such
 as dwell on earth, dooth constitute such a reuolution of things in
 their beginnings, as best standeth with the execution of his purpose,
 and correction of our errors. The causes therefore that Aristotle
 dooth deliuer, are nothing else but the meanes which God vseth to
 bring his purposes to passe; and yet they deserue the name of causes,
 in that they preceed those effects which follow them immediatlie. But
 in truth other than secondarie or third causes no man can iustlie call
 them. Bodinus in his historicall method, cap. 6. making a large
 discourse of the conuersions of commonwealths, dooth séeme at the
 first to denie the force of number, but after a while he maruelleth
 that no Grecian or Latine Academike, hath hitherto made any discourse
 of the excellencie of such numbers as apperteine to the estate of
 empires and kingdomes by exemplification in any one citie or other.
 Hereby he sheweth himselfe vpon the sudden to alter his iudgement, so
 [Sidenote: Fatal numbers.]
 that he setteth downe certeine numbers as fatall; to wit, sixe vnto
 women, and seauen and nine vnto men, which (saith he) haue "Magnam in
 tota rerum natura potestatem," meaning as well in common-wealths and
 kingdomes from their first erections, as in particular ages of bodies,
 for sickenesse, health, change of habitation, wealth, and losse, &c:
 and for the confirmation of the same, he setteth downe sundrie
 examples of apparent likelihood, either by multiplication of one by
 the other, or diuision of greater numbers by either of them, or their
 concurrence one with another, calling the aforesaid three his
 criticall or iudiciall numbers, whereby he bringeth or rather
 restoreth an old kind of arithmancie (fathered on Pythagoras, yet
 neuer inuented by him) againe into the world. But we christians, in
 respecting of causes, haue to looke vnto the originall and great cause
 of all, and therefore we haue not to leane vnto these points in any
 wise as causes: for we know and confesse that all things depend vpon
 his prouidence, who humbleth and exalteth whom it pleaseth him.
 Neuerthelesse, I hope we may without offense examine how these
 assertions hold, so long as we vse them rather as Indices than Causas
 mutationum. And therefore haue I attempted to practise at this present
 the example of Bodinus, first in the alterations of our ciuill estate
 passed; and secondlie, of the like in cases of religion; from the
 flood generallie, and then after the first comming in of Samothes into
 our Ile, thereby somewhat to satisfie my selfe, and recreate the
 readers; but still protesting in the meane season that I vtterlie
 denie them to be any causes, or of themselues to worke any effect at
 all in these things, as Bodinus would seeme to vphold. As for those of
 other countries, I referre you to Aristotles politikes, and the eight
 of the common-wealth which Plato hath left vnto vs, therby to be
 farther resolued, if you be desirous to looke on them. In beginning
 therefore with my purpose; First bicause the flood of Noah was
 generall, and therefore appertinent vnto all, it shall not be amisse
 to begin with that, which was in the yeare 1656. after the creation of
 Adam, so that if you diuide the same by nine, you shall find the
 quotient to fall out exactlie with the 184. reuolution of the same
 number. Secondlie, for so much as the confusion of toongs was the
 originall cause of the dispersion of the people ouer the face of the
 whole earth, it shall not be amisse also to examine the same. Certes
 it fell out in the 133. after the flood: if we diuide therefore the
 said 133. by seauen, you shall find the quotient 19. without any ods
 remaining. From hence also vnto the comming of Samothes into Britaine,
 or rather his lawes giuen vnto the Celts, and with them vnto the
 Britons, in the second of his arriuall in this land, we find by exact
 supputation 126. yeares, which being parted by nine or seauen sheweth
 such a conclusion as maketh much for this purpose. Doubtlesse I am the
 more willing to touch the time of his lawes than his entrance, sith
 alteration of ordinances is the cheefe and principall token of change
 in rule and regiment; although at this present the circumstances hold
 not, sith he dispossessed none, neither incroched vpon any. From
 Samothes vnto the tyrannie of Albion, are 335. yeares complet, so that
 he arriued here in the 335. or 48. septenarie, which also concurreth
 with the 590 after the flood. In like sort the regiment of Albion
 continued but seauen yeares, and then was the souereingtie of this Ile
 restored againe by Hercules vnto the Celts. The next alteration of our
 estate openlie knowne, happened by Brute, betweene whose time and
 death of Albion there passed full 601. yeares (for he spent much time
 after his departure out of Grecia, before he came into Albion) so that
 if you accompt him to come hither in the 602. you shall haue 86.
 septenaries exactlie. From Brute to the extinction of his posteritie
 in Ferrex and Porrex, and pentarchie of Britaine, are 630. yeares, or
 70. nouenaries, than the which where shall a man find a more precise
 period after this method or prescription, for manie and diuers
 considerations. The time of the pentarchie indured likewise 49.
 yeares, or seauen septenaries, which being expired Dunwallo brought
 all the princes vnder his subiection, and ruled ouer them as monarch
 of this Ile. After the pentarchie ended, we find againe, that in the
 98. yeare, Brennus rebelled against Beline his brother, wherevpon
 insued cruell bloodshed betwéene them. So that here you haue 14.
 septenaries, as you haue from those warres ended, which indured a full
 yeare & more before Brennus was reconciled to his brother, to the
 comming of Cæsar into this Iland (whereat our seruitude and miserable
 thraldome to the Romans may worthilie take his entrance) 48. or 336.
 yeares, than the which concurrences I know not how a man should
 imagine a more exact.

 After the comming of Cæsar we haue 54. or sixe nouenaries to Christ,
 whose death and passion redoundeth generallie to all that by firme and
 sure faith take hold of the same, and applie it vnto their comfort.
 From the birth of Christ to our countrie deliuered from the Romane
 yoke, are 446. yeares, at which time the Britains chose them a king,
 and betooke themselues to his obedience. But neither they nor their
 king being then able to hold out the Scots and Picts, which dailie
 made hauocke of their countrie; the said Vortiger in the third yeare
 of his reigne (which was the 63. septenarie after Christ) did send for
 the Saxons, who arriued here in the 449. and 450. yeares of Grace, in
 great companies, for our aid and succour, although that in the end
 their entrances turned to our vtter decaie and ruine, in that they
 made a conquest of the whole Ile, and draue vs out of our liuings.
 Hereby we sée therefore how the preparatiue began in the 449. but how
 it was finished in the tenth nouenarie, the sequele is too too plaine.
 In like sort in the 43. nouenarie or 387. after the comming of the
 Saxons, the Danes entred, who miserablie afflicted this Ile by the
 space of 182. yeares or 46. septenaries, which being expired, they
 established themselues in the kingdome by Canutus. But their time
 lasting not long, the Normans followed in the end of the 49. yeare,
 and thus you sée how these numbers do hold exactlie vnto the conquest.
 The like also we find of the continuance of the Normans or succession
 of the Conquerour, which indured but 89. yeares, being extinguished in
 Stephen, and that of the Saxons restored in Henrie the second,
 although it lacke one whole yeare of ten nouenaries, which is a small
 thing, sith vpon diuers occasions the time of the execution of any
 accident may be preuented or proroged, as in direction and progression
 astronomicall is oftentimes perceiued. From hence to the infamous
 excommunication of England in king Iohns daies, wherevpon insued the
 resignation of his crownes and dominions to the pope, are eight
 septenaries or 56. yeares. Thence againe to the deposition of Richard.
 2. and vsurpation of Henrie 4. are 77. yeares or 11. septenaries. From
 hence to the conspiracie made against Edward. 2. after which he was
 deposed & murdered are 117. yeares, or 13. nouenaries. From hence to
 the beginning of the quarell betwéene the houses of Yorke and
 Lancaster (wherein foure score and od persons of the blood roiall were
 slaine and made awaie first and last, and which warres begunne in the
 1448. and the yeare after the death of the Duke of Glocester, whose
 murther séemed to make frée passage to the said broile) are 72. yeares
 or eight nouenaries. From hence to the translation of the crowne from
 the house of Lancaster to that of Yorke, in Edward the 4. are 14.
 yeares or two septenaries, and last of all to the vnion of the said
 houses in Henrie the eight, is an exact quadrat of seuen multiplied in
 it selfe, or 49. yeares, whereof I hope this may in part suffice.

 Now as concerning religion, we haue from Christ to the faith first
 preached in Britaine (by Iosephus ab Aramathia, and Simon Zelotes) as
 some write 70. yeares or 10. septenaries. Thence also to the baptisme
 of Lucius, and his nobilitie in the yeare after their conuersion, 12.
 nouenaries or 108. yeares. After these the Saxons entred and changed
 the state of religion for the most part into paganisme, in the yeare
 449. 39. nouenarie, and 273. yeare after Lucius had beene baptised,
 which is 39. septenaries, if I be not deceiued. In the 147. or 21.
 septenarie, Augustine came, who brought in poperie, which increased
 and continued till Wicklif with more boldnesse than anie other began
 to preach the gospell, which was Anno. 1361. or 765. yeares after the
 comming of Augustine, and yeeld 85. nouenaries exactlie. From hence
 [Sidenote: Henrie 8.]
 againe to the expulsion of the pope 175. yeares, or 25. septenaries,
 [Sidenote: Marie.]
 thence to the receiuing of the pope and popish doctrine 21. yeares or
 3. septenaries, wherevnto I would ad the time of restoring the gospell
 by Quéene Elizabeth, were it not that it wanteth one full yeare of 7.
 Whereby we may well gather, that if there be anie hidden mysterie or
 thing conteined in these numbers, yet the same extendeth not vnto the
 diuine disposition of things, touching the gift of grace and frée
 mercie vnto the penitent, vnto which neither number weight nor measure
 shall be able to aspire.


 CAP. 10.

 There are néere vnto, or not verie farre from the coasts of Britaine
 many faire Ilands, wherof Ireland with hir neighbors (not here
 handled) séeme to be the cheefe. But of the rest, some are much larger
 or lesse than other, diuers in like sort enuironed continuallie with
 the salt sea (whereof I purpose onelie to intreat, although not a few
 of them be Ilands but at the floud) and other finallie be clipped
 partlie by the fresh and partlie by the salt water, or by the fresh
 alone, whereof I may speake afterward.

 Of these salt Ilands (for so I call them that are enuironed with the
 Ocean waues) some are fruitfull in wood, corne, wild foule, and
 pasture ground for cattell, albeit that manie of them be accounted
 barren, bicause they are onelie replenished with conies, and those of
 sundrie colours (cherished of purpose by the owners, for their skins
 or carcases in their prouision of household) without either man or
 woman otherwise inhabiting in them. Furthermore, the greatest number
 of these Ilands haue townes and parish-churches, within their seuerall
 precincts, some mo, some lesse: and beside all this, are so inriched
 with commodities, that they haue pleasant hauens, fresh springs, great
 store of fish, and plentie of cattell, wherby the inhabitants doo
 reape no small aduantage. How manie they are in number I cannot as yet
 determine, bicause mine informations are not so fullie set downe, as
 the promises of some on the one side, & mine expectation on the other
 did extend vnto. Howbeit, first of all that there are certeine which
 lie neere togither, as it were by heapes and clusters, I hope none
 [Sidenote: Nesiadæ.]
 [Sidenote: Insulæ Scylurum.]
 [Sidenote: Sileustræ.]
 [Sidenote: Syllanæ.]
 [Sidenote: Sorlingæ.]
 [Sidenote: Sylley.]
 [Sidenote: Hebrides.]
 [Sidenote: Hebudes.]
 [Sidenote: Meuaniæ.]
 [Sidenote: Orchades.]
 will readilie denie. Of these also those called the Nesiadæ, Insulæ
 Scylurum, Sileustræ, Syllanæ, now the Sorlings, and Iles of Silley,
 lieng beyond Cornwall are one, and conteineth in number one hundreth
 fourtie and seauen (each of them bearing grasse) besides shelfes and
 shallowes. In like sort the companie of the Hebrides in old time
 subject vnto Ireland are another, which are said to be 43. situat vpon
 the west side of this Iland, betweene Ireland & Scotland, and of which
 there are some that repute Anglesei, Mona Cæsaris, and other lieng
 betweene them to be parcell, in their corrupted iudgement. The third
 cluster or bunch consisteth of those that are called the Orchades, and
 these lie vpon the northwest point of Scotland, being 31. aliàs 28. in
 number, as for the rest they lie scattered here and there, and yet not
 to be vntouched as their courses shall come about. There are also the
 18. Shetland Iles, and other yet farther distant from them, of which
 Iohn Frobuser I doubt not touched vpon some in his voiage to Meta
 Incognita: but for somuch as I must speake of the Shetlands hereafter,
 I doo not meane to spend anie time about them as yet.

 There haue beene diuers that haue written of purpose, De insulis
 Britanniæ, as Cæsar doth confesse. The like also may be seene by
 Plutarch, who nameth one Demetrius a Britaine, that should set foorth
 an exact treatise of each of them in order, and among other tell of
 certeine desert Iles beyond Scotland dedicated to sundrie gods and
 goddesses, but of one especiallie, where Briareus should hold Saturne
 and manie other spirits fast bound with the chaines of an heauie
 sléepe, as he heard, of which some die now and then, by meane wherof
 the aire becommeth maruellouslie troubled, &c: as you may sée in
 Plutarch De cessatione oraculorum, &c. But sith those bookes are now
 perished, and the most of the said Ilands remaine vtterlie vnknowen,
 euen to our owne selues (for who is able in our time to say where is
 Glota, Hiucrion, Etta, Iduna, Armia, Æsarea, Barsa, Isiandium,
 Icdelis, Xantisma, Indelis, Siata, Ga. Andros or Edros, Siambis,
 Xanthos, Ricnea, Menapia, &c? whose names onelie are left in memorie
 by ancient writers, but I saie their places not so much as heard of in
 our daies) I meane (God willing) to set downe so manie of them with
 their commodities, as I doo either know by Leland, or am otherwise
 instructed of by such as are of credit. Herein also I will touch at
 large those that are most famous, and breeflie passe ouer such as are
 obscure and vnknowen, making mine entrance at the Thames mouth, and
 directing this imagined course (for I neuer sailed it) by the south
 part of the Iland into the west. From thence in like sort I will
 proceed into the north, & come about againe by the east side into the
 fall of the aforesaid streame, where I will strike saile, and safelie
 be set ashore, that haue often in this voiage wanted water, but
 oftener béene set a ground, especiallie on the Scotish side.

 In beginning therefore, with such as lie in the mouth of the aforesaid
 [Sidenote: Hoo.]
 riuer, I must néeds passe by the How, which is not an Iland, and
 therefore not within the compasse of my description at this time, but
 almost an Iland, which parcels the Latins call Peninsulas, and I doo
 english a Byland, vsing the word for such as a man may go into
 drie-footed at the full sea, or on horssebacke at the low water
 without anie boat or vessell: and such a one almost is Rochford
 hundred in Essex also, yet not at this time to be spoken of, bicause
 not the sea onelie but the fresh water also doth in maner enuiron it,
 and is the cheefe occasion wherfore it is called an Iland. This How
 lieth between Cliffe (in old time called Clouesho, to wit, Cliffe in
 How or in the hundred of How) & the midwaie that goeth along by
 Rochester, of which hundred there goeth an old prouerbe in rime after
 this maner:

   He that rideth into the hundred of How,
   Beside pilfering sea-men shall find durt ynow.

 [Sidenote: Greane.]
 Next vnto this we haue the Greane, wherein is a towne of the same
 denomination, an Ile supposed to be foure miles in length, and two in
 [Sidenote: Shepey.]
 bredth. Then come we to Shepey, which Ptolomie calleth Connos,
 conteining seauen miles in length, and three in bredth, wherein is a
 castell called Quinborow, and a parke, beside foure townes, of which
 one is named Minster, another Eastchurch, the third Warden, and the
 fourth Leyden: the whole soile being throughlie fed with shéepe, verie
 well woodded, and (as I heare) belongeth to the Lord Cheyney, as
 parcell of his inheritance. It lieth thirtéene miles by water from
 Rochester, but the castell is fiftéene, and by south thereof are two
 [Sidenote: Elmesie.]
 [Sidenote: Hertesie.]
 small Ilands, wherof the one is called Elmesie, and the more easterlie
 Hertesie. In this also is a towne called Hertie, or Hartie, and all in
 the Lath of Scraie, notwithstanding that Hartie lieth in the hundred
 of Feuersham, and Shepey reteineth one especiall Bailie of hir owne.

 From hence we passe by the Reculuers (or territorie belonging in time
 past to one Raculphus, who erected an house of religion, or some such
 thing there) vnto a little Iland in the Stoure mouth. Herevpon also
 [Sidenote: Stureev.]
 [Sidenote: Thanet.]
 the Thanet abutteth, which Ptolomie calleth Toliapis, other Athanatos,
 bicause serpents are supposed not to liue in the same, howbeit sith it
 is not enuironed with the sea, it is not to be dealt withall as an
 Iland in this place, albeit I will not let to borow of my
 determination, and describe it as I go, bicause it is so fruitfull.
 Beda noteth it in times past to haue conteined 600. families, which
 are all one with Hidelands, [*]Ploughlands, Carrucates, or Temewares.
 [Sidenote: * In Lincolneshire the word Hide or hideland,
 was neuer in vse in old time as in other places, but for
 Hide they vsed the word Carucate or cartware, or Teme,
 and these were of no lesse compasse than an Hideland.
 _Ex Hugone le blanc Monacho Petrolurgensi._]
 He addeth also that it is diuided from our continent, by the riuer
 called Wantsume, which is about thrée furlongs broad, and to be passed
 ouer in two places onelie. But whereas Polydore saieth, the Thanet is
 nine miles in length & not much lesse in bredth, it is now reckoned
 that it hath not much aboue seauen miles from Nordtmuth to Sandwich,
 and foure in bredth, from the Stoure to Margate, or from the south to
 the north, the circuit of the whole being 17. or 18. as Leland also
 noteth. This Iland hath no wood growing in it except it be forced, and
 yet otherwise it is verie fruitfull, and beside that it wanteth few
 other commodities, the finest chalke is said to be found there. Herein
 also did Augustine the moonke first arriue, when he came to conuert
 the Saxons, and afterward in processe of time, sundry religious houses
 were erected there, as in a soile much bettered (as the supersticious
 supposed) by the steps of that holy man, & such as came ouer with him.
 There are at this time 10. parish churches at the least in the Ile of
 Thanet, as S. Nicholas, Birchington, S. Iohns, Wood or Woodchurch, S.
 Peters, S. Laurence, Mownton or Monkeron, Minster, S. Gyles and all
 Saincts, whereof M. Lambert hath written at large in his description
 of Kent, and placed the same in the Lath of sainct Augustine and
 hundred of Kingslow, as may easilie be séene to him that will peruse

 [Sidenote: Rutupium.]
 Sometime Rutupium or (as Beda calleth it) Reptacester, stood also in
 this Iland, but now thorough alteration of the chanell of the Dour, it
 is shut quite out, and annexed to the maine. It is called in these
 daies Richborow, and as it should seeme builded vpon an indifferent
 soile or high ground. The large brickes also yet to be seene there, in
 the ruinous walles, declare either the Romane or the old British
 workemanship. But as time decaieth all things, so Rutupium named
 Ruptimuth is now become desolate, and out of the dust thereof Sandwich
 producted, which standeth a full mile from the place where Reptacester
 stood. The old writers affirme, how Arthur & Mordred fought one
 notable battell here, wherin Gwallon or Gawan was slaine; at which
 time the said rebell came against his souereigne with 70000. Picts,
 Scots, Irish, Norwegians, &c: and with Ethelbert the first christian
 king of Kent did hold his palace in this towne, and yet none of his
 coine hath hitherto béene found there, as is dailie that of the
 Romanes, whereof manie péeces of siluer and gold, so well as of
 brasse, copper, and other mettall haue often beene shewed vnto me. It
 should appéere in like sort, that of this place, all the whole coast
 of Kent therabout was called Littus Rutupinum, which some doo not a
 little confirme by these words of Lucane, to be read in his sixt booke
 soone after the beginning:

 [Sidenote: The last verse of one couple and first of an other.]

   Aut vaga cum Tethis, Rutupináq; littora feruent,
   Vnda Calidonios fallit turbata Britannos.

   Or when the wandering seas
     and Kentish coasts doo worke,
   And Calidons of British bloud,
     the troubled waues beguile.

 Meaning in like sort by the latter, the coast néere Andredeswald,
 which in time past was called Littus Calidonium of that wood or
 forrest, as Leland also confirmeth. But as it is not my mind to deale
 anie thing curiouslie in these by-matters, so in returning againe to
 my purpose, and taking my iourney toward the Wight, I must needs passe
 [Sidenote: Seolesey of Seles there taken.]
 by Selesey, which sometime (as it should séeme) hath béene a noble
 Iland, but now in maner a Byland or Peninsula, wherin the chéefe sée
 of the bishop of Chichester was holden by the space of thrée hundred
 twentie nine yeares, and vnder twentie bishops.

 Next vnto this, we come vnto those that lie betweene the Wight and the
 [Sidenote: Thorne.]
 maine land, of which the most easterlie is called Thorne, and to saie
 truth, the verie least of all that are to be found in that knot. Being
 [Sidenote: Haling.]
 past the Thorne, we touched vpon the Haling, which is bigger than the
 Thorne, and wherein one towne is situat of the same denomination
 [Sidenote: Port.]
 beside another, whose name I remember not. By west also of the Haling
 lieth the Port (the greatest of the three alreadie mentioned) and in
 this standeth Portsmouth and Ringstéed) whereof also our Leland,
 saieth thus: "Port Ile is cut from the shore by an arme of the maine
 hauen, which breaketh out about thrée miles aboue Portsmouth, and
 goeth vp two miles or more by morish ground to a place called
 Portbridge, which is two miles from Portsmouth." Then breaketh there
 out another créeke from the maine sea, about Auant hauen, which
 gulleth vp almost to Portbridge, and thence is the ground disseuered,
 so that Portsmouth standeth in a corner of this Ile, which Iland is in
 length six miles, and three miles in bredth, verie good for grasse and
 corne, not without some wood, and here and there inclosure. Beside
 this, there is also another Iland north northwest of Port Ile, which
 is now so worne and washed awaie with the working of the sea, that at
 the spring tides it is wholie couered with water, and thereby made
 vnprofitable. Finallie being past all these, and in compassing this
 gulfe, we come by an other, which lieth north of Hirst castell, &
 southeast of Kaie hauen, whereof I find nothing worthie to be noted,
 sauing that it wanteth wood, as Ptolomie affirmeth in his
 Geographicall tables of all those Ilands which enuiron our Albion.

 [Sidenote: Wight.]
 [Sidenote: Guidh.]
 The Wight is called in Latine Vectis, but in the British speach Guidh,
 that is to saie, Eefe or easie to be séene, or (as D. Caius saith)
 separate, bicause that by a breach of the sea, it was once diuided
 from the maine, as Sicilia was also from Italie, Anglesei from Wales,
 Foulenesse from Essex, & Quinborow from Kent. It lieth distant from
 the south shore of Britaine (where it is fardest off) by fiue miles &
 a halfe, but where it commeth neerest, not passing a thousand paces,
 and this at the cut ouer betwéene Hirst castell and a place called
 Whetwell chine, as the inhabitants doo report. It conteineth in length
 twentie miles, and in bredth ten, it hath also the north pole eleuated
 by 50. degrées and 27. minutes, and is onelie 18. degrees in distance,
 and 50. od minuts from the west point, as experience hath confirmed,
 contrarie to the description of Ptolomie, and such as folow his
 assertions in the same. In forme, it representeth almost an eg, and so
 well is it inhabited with meere English at this present, that there
 are thirtie six townes, villages and castels to be found therein,
 beside 27. parish-churches, of which 15. or 16. haue their Parsons,
 the rest either such poore Vicars or Curats, as the liuings left are
 able to sustaine. The names of the parishes in the Wight are these.

 [Sidenote: P signifieth parsonages, V. vicarages.]

    1 Newport, a chap.
    2 Cairsbrosie.      v.
    3 Northwood.
    4 Arriun.           v.
    5 Goddeshill.       v.
    6 Whitwell.
    7 S. Laurence.      p.
    8 Nighton.          p.
    9 Brading.          v.
   10 Newchurch.        v.
   11 S. Helene.        v.
   12 Yauerland.        p.
   13 Calborne.         p.
   14 Bonechurch.       p.
   15 Mottesson.        p.
   16 Yarmouth.         p.
   17 Thorley.          v.
   18 Shalflete.        v.
   19 Whippingham.      p.
   20 Wootton.          p.
   21 Chale.            p.
   22 Kingston.         p.
   23 Shorwell.         p.
   24 Gatrombe.         p.
   25 Brosie.
   26 Brixston.         p.
   27 Bensted.          p.

 It belongeth for temporall iurisdiction to the countie of Hamshire,
 but in spirituall cases it yéeldeth obedience to the sée of
 Winchester, wherof it is a Deanerie. As for the soile of the whole
 Iland, it is verie fruitfull, for notwithstanding the shore of it
 selfe be verie full of rocks and craggie cliffes, yet there wanteth no
 plentie of cattell, corne, pasture, medow ground, wild foule, fish,
 fresh riuers, and pleasant woods, whereby the inhabitants may liue in
 ease and welfare. It was first ruled by a seuerall king, and
 afterwards wonne from the Britons by Vespasian the legat, at such time
 as he made a voiage into the west countrie. In processe of time also
 it was gotten from the Romans by the kings of Sussex, who held the
 souereigntie of the same, and kept the king thereof vnder tribute,
 till it was wonne also from them, in the time of Athelwold, the eight
 king of the said south region, by Ceadwalla, who killed Aruald that
 reigned there, and reserued the souereigntie of that Ile to himselfe
 and his successors for euermore. At this time also there were 1200.
 families in that Iland, whereof the said Ceadwalla gaue 300 to
 Wilfride sometime bishop of Yorke, exhorting him to erect a church
 there, and preach the gospell also to the inhabitants thereof, which
 he in like maner performed, but according to the prescriptions of the
 church of Rome, wherevnto he yéelded himselfe vassall and feudarie: so
 that this Ile by Wilfride was first conuerted to the faith, though the
 last of all other that hearkened vnto the word. After Ceadwalla,
 Woolfride the parricide was the first Saxon prince that aduentured to
 flie into the Wight for his safegard, whither he was driuen by
 Kenwalch of the Westsaxons, who made great warres vpon him, and in the
 end compelled him to go into this place for succour, as did also king
 Iohn, in the rebellious stir of his Barons, practised by the clergie:
 the said Iland being as then in possession of the Forts, as some doo
 write that haue handled it of purpose. The first Earle of this Iland
 that I doo read of, was one Baldwijne de Betoun, who married for his
 second wife, the daughter of William le Grosse Earle of Awmarle; but
 he dieng without issue by this ladie, she was maried the second time
 to Earle Maundeuille, and thirdlie to William de Fortes, who finished
 Skipton castell, which his wiues father had begun about the time of
 king Richard the first. Hereby it came to passe also, that the Forts
 were Earls of Awmarle, Wight, and Deuonshire a long time, till the
 ladie Elizabeth Fortes, sole heire to all those possessions came to
 age, with whom king Edward the third so preuailed through monie &
 faire words, that he gat the possession of the Wight wholie into his
 hands, & held it to himselfe & his successors, vntill Henrie the sixt,
 about the twentieth of his reigne, crowned Henrie Beauchamp sonne to
 the lord Richard Earle of Warwike king thereof and of Iardesey and
 Gardesey with his owne hands, and therevnto gaue him a commendation of
 the Dutchie of Warwike with the titles of Comes comitum Angliæ, lord
 Spenser of Aburgauenie, and of the castell of Bristow (which castell
 was sometime taken from his ancestors by king Iohn) albeit he did not
 long enioy these great honors, sith he died 1446. without issue, and
 seuen yéeres after his father.

 After we be past the Wight, we go forward and come vnto Poole hauen,
 [Sidenote: Brunt Keysy.]
 wherein is an Ile, called Brunt Keysy, in which was sometime a
 parish-church, and but a chapell at this present, as I heare. There
 are also two other Iles, but as yet I know not their names.

 We haue (after we are passed by these) another Ile, or rather Byland
 [Sidenote: Portland.]
 also vpon the coast named Portland not far from Waymouth or the Gowy,
 a prettie fertile peece though without wood, of ten miles in circuit,
 now well inhabited, but much better heretofore, and yet are there
 about foure score housholds in it. There is but one street of houses
 therein, the rest are dispersed, howbeit they belong all to one
 parish-church, whereas in time past there were two within the compasse
 of the same. There is also a castell of the kings, who is lord of the
 Ile, although the bishop of Winchester be patrone of the church, the
 parsonage whereof is the fairest house in all the péece. The people
 there are no lesse excellent slingers of stones than were the
 Baleares, who would neuer giue their children their dinners till they
 had gotten the same with their slings, and therefore their parents
 vsed to hang their meate verie high vpon some bough, to the end that
 he which strake it downe might onlie haue it, whereas such as missed
 were sure to go without it, Florus lib. 3. cap. 8. Which feat the
 Portlands vse for the defense of their Iland, and yet otherwise are
 verie couetous. And wheras in time past they liued onlie by fishing,
 now they fall to tillage. Their fire bote is brought out of the Wight,
 and other places, yet doo they burne much cow doong dried in the
 sunne, for there is I saie no wood in the Ile, except a few elmes that
 be about the church. There would some grow there, no doubt, if they
 were willing to plant it, although the soile lie verie bleake and
 open. It is not long since this was vnited to the maine, and likelie
 yer long to be cut off againe.

 Being past this we raise another, also in the mouth of the Gowy,
 betweene Colsford and Lime, of which for the smalnesse thereof I make
 no great account. Wherefore giuing ouer to intreat any farther of it,
 [Sidenote: Iardsey.]
 [Sidenote: Gardesey.]
 I cast about to Iardsey, and Gardesey, which Iles with their
 appurtenances apperteined in times past to the Dukes of Normandie, but
 now they remaine to our Quéene, as parcell of Hamshire and
 iurisdiction of Winchester, & belonging to hir crowne, by meanes of a
 composition made betwéene K. Iohn of England and the K. of France,
 when the dominions of the said prince began so fast to decrease, as
 Thomas Sulmo saith.

 [Sidenote: Iardsey.]
 Of these two, Iardsey is the greatest, an Iland hauing thirtie miles
 in compasse, as most men doo coniecture. There are likewise in the
 same twelue parish-churches, with a colledge, which hath a Deane and
 Prebends. It is distant from Gardsey full 21. miles, or thereabouts,
 and made notable, by meanes of a bloudie fact doone there in Queene
 Maries daies, whereby a woman called Perotine Massie wife vnto an
 honest minister or préest, being great with childe by hir husband, was
 burned to ashes: through the excéeding crueltie of the Deane and
 Chapiter, then contending manifestlie against God for the mainteinance
 of their popish and antichristian kingdome. In this hir execution, and
 at such time as the fire caught holde of hir wombe, hir bellie brake,
 and there issued a goodly manchilde from hir, with such force that it
 fell vpon the cold ground quite beyond the heate and furie of the
 [Sidenote: Horrible murther.]
 flame, which quicklie was taken vp and giuen from one tormentor and
 aduersarie to an other to looke vpon, whose eies being after a while
 satisfied with the beholding thereof, they threw it vnto the carcase
 of the mother which burned in the fire, whereby the poore innocent was
 [Sidenote: Gardsey.]
 consumed to ashes, whom that furious element would gladlie haue left
 vntouched, & wherevnto it ministred (as you heare) an hurtlesse
 passage. In this latter also, there haue béene in times past, fine
 religious houses, and nine castels, howbeit in these daies there is
 but one parish-church left standing in the same. There are also
 certeine other small Ilands, which Henrie the second in his donation
 calleth Insulettas, beside verie manie rocks, whereof one called
 [Sidenote: S. Hilaries.]
 S. Hilaries (wherein sometime was a monasterie) is fast vpon Iardsey,
 [Sidenote: Cornet. Serke.]
 another is named the Cornet, which hath a castel not passing an arrow
 shot from Gardsey. The Serke also is betwéene both, which is six miles
 about, and hath another annexed to it by an Isthmus or Strictland,
 wherein was a religious house, & therwithall great store of conies.

 [Sidenote: Brehoc.]
 [Sidenote: Gytho.]
 [Sidenote: Herme.]
 There is also the Brehoc, the Gytho, and the Herme, which latter is
 foure miles in compasse, and therein was sometime a Canonrie, that
 afterward was conuerted into a house of Franciscanes. There are two
 other likewise neere vnto that of S. Hilarie, of whose names I haue no
 [Sidenote: Burhoo, aliàs the Ile of rats.]
 notice. There is also the rockie Ile of Burhoo, but now the Ile of
 rats, so called of the huge plentie of rats that are found there,
 [Sidenote: Turkie conies.]
 though otherwise it be replenished with infinit store of conies,
 betwéene whome and the rats, as I coniecture, the same which we call
 Turkie conies, are oftentimes produced among those few houses that are
 to be seene in this Iland. Some are of the opinion that there hath
 béene more store of building in this Ile than is at this present to be
 seene, & that it became abandoned through multitudes of rats, but
 hereof I find no perfect warrantise that I may safelie trust vnto, yet
 in other places I read of the like thing to haue happened, as in Gyara
 of the Cyclades, where the rats increased so fast that they draue away
 the people. Varro speaketh of a towne in Spaine that was ouerthrowne
 by conies. The Abderits were driuen out of Thracia by the increase of
 mice & frogs; and so manie conies were there on a time in the Iles
 Maiorca and Minorca (now perteining to Spaine) that the people began
 to starue for want of bread, and their cattell for lacke of grasse.
 And bicause the Ilanders were not able to ouercome them, Augustus was
 constreined to send an armie of men to destroie that needlesse brood.
 [Sidenote: Causes of the desolation of sundrie cities and townes.]
 Plin. lib. 8. cap. 55. A towne also in France sometime became desolate
 onelie by frogs and todes. Another in Africa by locustes and also by
 grashoppers, as Amicla was by snakes and adders. Theophrast telleth of
 an whole countrie consumed by the palmer-worme, which is like vnto an
 huge caterpiller. Plinie writeth of a prouince vpon the borders of
 Æthiopia made void of people by ants and scorpions, and how the
 citizens of Megara in Grecia were faine to leaue that citie through
 multitudes of bées, as waspes had almost driuen the Ephesians out of
 Ephesus. But this of all other (whereof Ælianus intreateth) is most
 woonderfull, that when the Cretenses were chased out of a famous citie
 of their Iland by infinit numbers of bees, the said bees conuerted
 their houses into hiues, and made large combes in them which reached
 from wall to wall, wherein they reserued their honie. Which things
 being dulie considered, I doo not denie the possibilitie of the
 expulsion of the inhabitants out of the Ile of Burhoo by rats,
 although I say that I doo not warrant the effect, bicause I find it
 not set downe directlie in plaine words.

 [Sidenote: Alderney.]
 Beside this there is moreouer the Ile of Alderney a verie pretie plot,
 about seuen miles in compasse, wherin a préest not long since did find
 [Sidenote: _Comment. Brit._]
 a coffin of stone, in which lay the bodie of an huge giant, whose fore
 téeth were so big as a mans fist, as Leland dooth report. Certes this
 to me is no maruell at all, sith I haue read of greater, and mentioned
 them alreadie in the beginning of this booke. Such a tooth also haue
 they in Spaine wherevnto they go in pilgrimage as vnto S. Christophers
 tooth, but it was one of his eie teeth, if Ludouicus Viues say true,
 who went thither to offer vnto the same. S. August. de ciuit. lib. 15.
 cap. 9. writeth in like sort, of such another found vpon the coast of
 Vtica, and thereby gathereth that all men in time past were not onlie
 far greater than they be now, but also the giants farre exceeding the
 [Sidenote: _Iliad._ 6.]
 huge stature and height of the highest of them all. Homer complaineth
 that men in his time were but dwarfes in comparison of such as liued
 [Sidenote: _Iliad._ 5. & 7.]
 in the wars of Troy. See his fift Iliad, where he speaketh of
 Diomedes, and how he threw a stone at Æneas, (which 14. men of his
 [Sidenote: _Vergilius Aen._ 12.]
 time were not able to stirre) and therewith did hit him on the thigh
 and ouerthrew him. Virgil also noteth no lesse in his owne deuise, but
 Iuvenal bréefelie comprehendeth all this in his 15. Satyra, where he

   Saxa inclinatis per humum quæsita lacertis
   Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditione
   Tela, nec hunc lapidem, quali se Turnus, & Aiax,
   Et quo Tytides percussit pondere coxam
   Aeneæ: sed quem valeant emittere dextræ
   Illis dissimiles, & nostro tempore nata.
   Nam genus hoc viuo iam decrescebat Homero,
   Terra malos homines nunc educat, atque pusillos,
   Ergo Deus quicunque aspexit, ridet, & odit.

 But to returne againe vnto the Ile of Alderney, from whence I haue
 digressed. Herein also is a prettie towne with a parish-church, great
 plentie of corne, cattell, conies, and wilde foule, whereby the
 inhabitants doo reape much gaine and commoditie: onelie wood is their
 want, which they otherwise supplie. The language also of such as dwell
 in these Iles, is French; but the wearing of their haire long, & the
 attire of those that liued in Gardsey and Iardsey, vntill the time of
 king Henrie the eight, was all after the Irish guise. The Ile of
 Gardsey also was sore spoiled by the French 1371. and left so
 desolate, that onlie one castell remained therein vntouched.

 Beyond this, and neerer unto the coast of England (for these doo lie
 about the verie middest of the British sea) we haue one Iland called
 [Sidenote: Bruchsey.]
 the Bruch or the Bruchsey, lieng about two miles from Poole, whither
 men saile from the Fromouth, and wherein is nought else, but an old
 chapell, without any other housing.

 Next to this also are certeine rocks, which some take for Iles, as
 Illeston rocke néere vnto Peritorie, Horestan Ile a mile from
 Peritorie by south, Blacke rocke Ile southeast from Peritorie toward
 Teygnemouth, and also Chester, otherwise called Plegimundham: but how
 (to saie truth) or where this latter lieth, I cannot make report as
 yet, neuerthelesse sith Leland noteth them togither, I thinke it not
 my part to make separation of them.

 [Sidenote: Mount Iland.]
 From hence the next Ile is called Mount Iland, otherwise Mowtland,
 situate ouer against Lough, about two miles from the shore, and well
 néere thrée miles in compasse. This Iland hath no inhabitants, but
 onelie the warrenner and his dog, who looketh vnto the conies there:
 notwithstanding that vpon the coast thereof in time of the yeere,
 great store of pilchards is taken, and carried from thence into manie
 places of our countrie. It hath also a fresh well comming out of the
 rocks, which is worthie to be noted in so small a compasse of ground.
 Moreouer in the mouth of the créeke that leadeth vnto Lough, or Loow,
 as some call it, there is another little Iland of about eight acres of
 [Sidenote: S. Nicholas Iland.]
 ground called S. Nicholas Ile, and midwaie betweene Falmouth and
 [Sidenote: Greefe.]
 Dudman (a certeine Promontorie) is such another named the Gréefe,
 [Sidenote: Inis Prynin.]
 wherein is great store of gulles & sea foule. As for Inis Prynin, it
 lieth within the Baie, about three miles from Lizards, and containeth
 not aboue two acres of ground, from which Newltjn is not far distant,
 and wherein is a poore fisher-towne and a faire wel-spring, wherof as
 yet no writer hath made mention. After these (omitting Pendinant in
 [Sidenote: S. Michaels mount.]
 the point of Falmouth hauen) we came at last to saint Michaels mount,
 whereof I find this description readie to my hand in Leland.

 The compasse of the root of the mount of saint Michael is not much
 more than halfe a mile, and of this the south part is pasturable and
 bréedeth conies, the residue high and rockie soile. In the north side
 thereof also is a garden, with certeine houses and shops for
 fishermen. Furthermore, the waie to the mountaine lieth at the north
 side, and is frequented from halfe eb to halfe floud, the entrance
 beginning at the foot of the hill, and so ascending by steps and
 greeces westward, first; and then eastward to the vtter ward of the
 church. Within the same ward also is a court stronglie walled, wherein
 on the south side is a chapell of S. Michaell, and in the east side
 another of our ladie. Manie times a man may come to the hill on foot.
 On the north northwest side hereof also, is a Piere for botes and
 ships, and in the Baie betwixt the mount and Pensardz are seene at the
 lowe water marke, diuers roots and stubs of trées, beside hewen stone,
 sometimes of doores & windowes, which are perceiued in the inner part
 of the Baie, and import that there hath not onelie beene building, but
 also firme ground, whereas the salt water doth now rule and beare the
 [Sidenote: S. Clements Ile.]
 maisterie. Beyond this is an other little Ile, called S. Clements Ile,
 of a chapell there dedicated to that saint. It hath a little from it
 also the Ile called Mowshole, which is not touched in any Chard. As
 for Mowshole it selfe, it is a towne of the maine, called in Cornish
 Port Enis, that is, Portus insulæ, whereof the said Ile taketh
 denomination, and in tin workes néere vnto the same there hath beene
 found of late, speare heds, battell axes, and swords of copper wrapped
 vp in linnen, and scarselie hurt with rust or other hinderance. Certes
 the sea hath won verie much in this corner of our Iland, but chéefelie
 betwéene Mowshole and Pensardz.

 Hauing thus passed ouer verie neere all such Iles, as lie vpon the
 south coast of Britaine, and now being come vnto the west part of our
 countrie, a sudden Pirie catcheth hold of vs (as it did before, when
 we went to Iardsey) and carrieth vs yet more westerlie among the flats
 [Sidenote: Sylley Iles or Syl.]
 of Sylley. Such force dooth the southeast wind often shewe vpon poore
 trauellers in those parts, as the south and southwest dooth vpon
 strangers against the British coast, that are not skilfull of our
 rodes and harborowes. Howbeit such was our successe in this voiage,
 that we feared no rocks, more than did king Athelstane, when he
 subdued them (and soone after builded a colledge of preests at S.
 Burien, in performance of his vow made when he enterprised this voiage
 for his safe returne) nor anie tempest of weather in those parts that
 could annoie our passage. Perusing therefore the perils whereinto we
 were pitifullie plunged, we found the Syllane Ilands (places often
 robbed by the Frenchmen and Spaniards) to lie distant from the point
 of Cornewall, about three or foure hours sailing, or twentie English
 miles, as some men doo account it. There are of these (as I said) to
 the number of one hundreth fortie seauen in sight, whereof each one is
 greater or lesse than other, and most of them sometime inhabited:
 howbeit, there are twentie of them, which for their greatnesse and
 commodities excéed all the rest. Thereto (if you respect their
 position) they are situat in maner of a circle or ring, hauing an huge
 lake or portion of the sea in the middest of them, which is not
 without perill to such as with small aduisement enter into the same.
 Certes it passeth my cunning, either to name or to describe all these
 one hundreth fourtie seauen, according to their estate; neither haue I
 had anie information of them, more than I haue gathered by Leland, or
 gotten out of a map of their description, which I had sometime of
 Reginald Woolfe: wherfore omitting as it were all the rags, and such
 as are not worthie to haue anie time spent about their particular
 descriptions, I will onelie touch the greatest, and those that lie
 togither (as I said) in maner of a roundle.

 [Sidenote: S. Maries Ile.]
 The first and greatest of these therefore, called S. Maries Ile, is
 about fiue miles ouer, or nine miles in compasse. Therein also is a
 parish-church, and a poore towne belonging thereto, of threescore
 housholds, beside a castell, plentie of corne, conies, wild swans,
 puffens, gulles, cranes, & other kinds of foule in great abundance.
 This fertile Iland being thus viewed, we sailed southwards by the
 [Sidenote: Agnus Ile.]
 Norman rocke, and S. Maries sound vnto Agnus Ile, which is six miles
 ouer, and hath in like sort one towne or parish within the same of
 fiue or six housholds, beside no small store of hogs & conies of
 sundrie colours, verie profitable to their owners. It is not long
 since this Ile was left desolate, for when the inhabitants thereof
 returned from a feast holden in S. Maries Ile, they were all drowned,
 and not one person left aliue. There are also two other small Ilands,
 [Sidenote: Annot.]
 betwéene this and the Annot, whereof I find nothing worthie relation:
 for as both of them ioind togither are not comparable to the said
 Annot for greatnesse and circuit, so they want both hogs and conies,
 [Sidenote: Minwisand.]
 [Sidenote: Smithy sound.]
 [Sidenote: Suartigan.]
 [Sidenote: Rousuian.]
 [Sidenote: Rousuiar.]
 [Sidenote: Cregwin.]
 wherof Annot hath great plentie. There is moreouer the Minwisand, from
 whence we passe by the Smithy sound (leauing thrée little Ilands on
 the left hand, vnto the Suartigan Iland, then to Rousuian, Rousuiar,
 and the Cregwin, which seauen are (for the most part) replenished with
 conies onelie, and wild garlike, but void of wood & other commodities,
 sauing of a short kind of grasse, or here & there some firzes wheron
 their conies doo féed.

 Leauing therefore these desert peeces, we incline a little toward the
 [Sidenote: Moncarthat.]
 [Sidenote: Inis Welseck.]
 [Sidenote: Suethiall.]
 [Sidenote: Rat Iland.]
 northwest, where we stumble or run vpon Moncarthat, Inis Welseck, &
 Suethiall. We came in like sort vnto Rat Iland, wherein are so manie
 monstrous rats, that if anie horsses, or other beasts, happen to come
 thither, or be left there by negligence but one night, they are sure
 to be deuoured & eaten vp, without all hope of recouerie. There is
 [Sidenote: Anwall. Brier.]
 moreouer the Anwall and the Brier, Ilands in like sort void of all
 good furniture, conies onelie excepted, and the Brier (wherein is a
 village, castell, and parish-church) bringeth foorth no lesse store of
 hogs, and wild foule, than Rat Iland doth of rats, whereof I greatlie

 [Sidenote: Rusco.]
 [Sidenote: Inis widd[=o].]
 By north of the Brier, lieth the Rusco, which hath a Labell or Byland
 stretching out toward the southwest, called Inis widdon. This Rusco is
 verie neere so great as that of S. Maries. It hath moreouer an hold,
 and a parish within it, beside great store of conies and wild foule,
 whereof they make much gaine in due time of the yeare. Next vnto this
 [Sidenote: Round Iland. S. Lides.]
 we come to the Round Iland, which is about a mile ouer, then to S.
 Lides Iland, (wherein is a parish-church dedicated to that Saint,
 beside conies, wood, and wild foule, of which two later there is some
 [Sidenote: Notho. Auing.]
 indifferent store) the Notho, the Auing, (one of them being situat by
 south of another, and the Auing halfe a mile ouer, which is a iust
 [Sidenote: Tyan.]
 halfe lesse than the Notho) and the Tyan, which later is a great
 Iland, furnished with a parish-church, and no small plentie of conies
 [Sidenote: S. Martines.]
 as I heare. After the Tyan we come to S. Martines Ile, wherein is a
 faire towne, the Ile it selfe being next vnto the Rusco for
 greatnesse, and verie well furnished with conies & fresh springs. Also
 betwixt this and S. Maries, are ten other, smaller, which reach out of
 [Sidenote: Knolworth.]
 [Sidenote: Sniuilliuer.]
 [Sidenote: Menweth[=a].]
 [Sidenote: Vollis. 1.]
 [Sidenote: Surwihe.]
 [Sidenote: Vollis. 2.]
 [Sidenote: Arthurs Ile.]
 [Sidenote: Guiniliuer.]
 [Sidenote: Nenech.]
 [Sidenote: Gothrois.]
 the northeast into the southwest, as Knolworth, Sniuilliuer,
 Menwetham, Vollis. 1. Surwihe, Vollis. 2. Arthurs Iland, Guiniliuer,
 Nenech and Gothrois, whose estates are diuers: howbeit as no one of
 these is to be accounted great in comparison of the other, so they all
 yéeld a short grasse méet for sheepe and conies, as doo also the rest.
 In the greater Iles likewise (whose names are commonlie such as those
 of the townes or churches standing in the same) there are (as I here)
 sundry lakes, and those neuer without great plentie of wild foule, so
 that the Iles of Sylley, are supposed to be no lesse beneficiall to
 their lords, than anie other whatsoeuer, within the compasse of our
 [Sidenote: Wild swine in Sylley.]
 Ile, or neere vnto our coasts. In some of them also are wild swine.
 And as these Iles are supposed to be a notable safegard to the coast
 of Cornewall, so in diuerse of them great store of tin is likewise to
 be found. There is in like maner such plentie of fish taken among
 these same, that beside the feeding of their swine withall, a man
 shall haue more there for a penie, than in London for ten grotes.
 Howbeit their cheefe commoditie is made by Keigh, which they drie, cut
 in peeces, and carie ouer into little Britaine, where they exchange it
 there, for salt, canuas, readie monie, or other merchandize which they
 doo stand in need of. A like trade haue some of them also, with
 Buckhorne or dried whiting, as I heare. But sith the author of this
 report did not flatlie auouch it, I passe ouer that fish as not in
 season at this time. Thus haue we viewed the richest and most wealthie
 Iles of Sylley, from whence we must direct our course eastwards, vnto
 the mouth of the Sauerne, and then go backe againe vnto the west point
 of Wales, continuing still our voiage along vpon the west coast of
 Britaine, till we come to the Soluey whereat the kingdomes part, &
 from which foorth on we must touch such Ilands as lie vpon the west
 and north shore, till we be come againe vnto the Scotish sea, and to
 our owne dominions.

 [Sidenote: Helenus. Priamus.]
 From the point of Cornewall therefore, or promontorie of Helenus (so
 called, as some thinke, bicause Helenus the son of Priamus who arriued
 here with Brute lieth buried there, except the sea haue washed awaie
 his sepulchre) vntill we come vnto the mouth of Sauerne, we haue none
 Ilands at all that I doo know or heare of, but one litle Byland, Cape
 or Peninsula, which is not to be counted of in this place. And yet
 [Sidenote: Pendinas.]
 sith I haue spoken of it, you shall vnderstand, that it is called
 Pendinas, and beside that the compasse thereof is not aboue a mile,
 this is to be remembered farder thereof, how there standeth a Pharos
 or light therein, for ships which saile by those coasts in the night.
 There is also at the verie point of the said Pendinas, a chappell of
 saint Nicholas, beside the church of saint Ia, an Irish woman saint.
 It belonged of late to the Lord Brooke, but now (as I gesse) the Lord
 Mountioy enioieth it. There is also a blockhouse, and a péere in the
 eastside thereof, but the péere is sore choked with sand, as is the
 whole shore furthermore from S. Ies vnto S. Carantokes, insomuch that
 the greatest part of this Byland is now couered with sands, which the
 sea casteth vp, and this calamitie hath indured little aboue fiftie
 yeares, as the inhabitants doo affirme.

 There are also two rocks neere vnto Tredwy, and another not farre from
 Tintagell, all which many of the common sort doo repute and take for
 Iles: wherefore as one desirous to note all, I thinke it not best that
 these should be omitted: but to proceed. When we be come further, I
 meane vnto the Sauerne mouth, we meet the two Holmes, of which one is
 called Stepholme, and the other Flatholme, of their formes béeing in
 déed parcels of ground and low soiles fit for little else than to
 beare grasse for cattell, whereof they take those names. For Holme is
 an old Saxon word, applied to all such places. Of these also Stepholme
 lieth south of the Flatholme, about foure or fiue miles; the first
 also a mile and an halfe, the other two miles or thereabout in length;
 but neither of them a mile and an halfe in breadth, where they doo
 seeme to be the broadest.

 It should séeme by some that they are not worthie to be placed among
 Ilands: yet othersome are of opinion, that they are not altogither so
 base, as to be reputed amongst flats or rocks: but whatsoeuer they be,
 this is sure, that they oft annoie such passengers and merchants as
 passe and repasse vpon that riuer. Neither doo I read of any other
 [Sidenote: Barri.]
 Iles which lie by east of these, saue onelie the Barri, and Dunwen:
 [Sidenote: Barri is a flight shot from the shore.]
 the first of which is so called of one Barroc, a religious man (as
 Gyraldus saith) and is about a flight shot from the shore. Herin also
 is a rocke standing at the verie entrance of the cliffe, which hath a
 little rift or chine vpon the side, wherevnto if a man doo laie his
 eare, he shall heare a noise, as if smithes did worke at the forge,
 sometimes blowing with their bellowes, and sometimes striking and
 clinking with hammers, whereof manie men haue great wonder; and no
 maruell. It is about a mile in compasse, situat ouer against
 Aberbarry, and hath a chappell in it.

 [Sidenote: Dunwen.]
 Dunwen is so called of a church (dedicated to a Welsh woman saint,
 called Dunwen) that standeth there. It lieth more than two miles from
 Henrosser, right against Neuen, and hath within it two faire mils, &
 great store of conies. Certes if the sand increase so fast hereafter
 as it hath done of late about it, it will be vnited to the maine
 within a short season. Beyond these and toward the coast of southwales
 lie two other Ilands, larger in quantitie than the Holmes, of which
 [Sidenote: Caldee.]
 the one is called Caldee or Inis Pyr. It hath a parish-church with a
 spire steeple, and a pretie towne belonging to the countie of
 Pembroke, and iurisdiction of one Dauid in Wales. Leland supposeth the
 ruines that are found therein to haue béene of an old priorie
 sometimes called Lille, which was a cell belonging to the monasterie
 [Sidenote: Londy.]
 of S. Dogmael, but of this I can saie nothing. The other hight Londy,
 wherein is also a village or towne, and of this Iland the parson of
 the said towne is not onelie the captaine, but hath thereto weife,
 distresse, and all other commodities belonging to the same. It is
 little aboue sixteene miles from the coast of Wales, though it be
 thirtie from Caldée, and yet it serueth (as I am informed) lord and
 king in Deuonshire. Moreouer in this Iland is great plentie of sheepe,
 but more conies, and therewithall of verie fine and short grasse for
 their better food & pasturage; likewise much Sampere vpon the shore,
 which is carried from thence in barrels. And albeit that there be not
 scarslie fourtie housholds in the whole, yet the inhabitants there
 with huge stones (alredie prouided) may kéepe off thousands of their
 enimies, bicause it is not possible for anie aduersaries to assaile
 them, but onelie at one place, and with a most dangerous entrance. In
 this voiage also we met with two other Ilands, one of them called
 Shepes Ile, the other Rat Ile; the first is but a little plot lieng at
 the point of the Baie, before we come at the Blockehouse which
 standeth north of the same, at the verie entrie into Milford hauen
 vpon the eastside. By north also of Shepes Ile, and betwéene it &
 Stacke rocke, which lieth in the verie middest of the hauen, at
 another point is Rat Ile yet smaller than the former, but what
 [Sidenote: Schalmey.]
 commodities are to be found in them as yet I cannot tell. Schalmey the
 greater and the lesse lie northwest of Milford hauen a good waie. They
 belong both to the crowne, but are not inhabited, bicause they be so
 [Sidenote: Schoncold.]
 often spoiled with pirates. Schoncold Ile ioineth vnto great Schalmey,
 and is bigger than it, onlie a passage for ships parteth them, whereby
 they are supposed to be one: Leland noteth them to lie in Milford
 hauen. Beside these also we found the Bateholme, Stockeholme, Midland,
 and Gresholme Iles, and then doubling the Wellock point, we came into
 a Baie, where we saw saint Brides Iland, and another in the Sound
 betwéene Ramsey and the point, of all which Iles and such rocks as are
 offensiue to mariners that passe by them, it may be my hap to speake
 more at large hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Limen or Ramsey.]
 Limen (as Ptolomie calleth it) is situat ouer against S. Dauids in
 Wales (wherevnto we must néeds come, after we be past another little
 one, which some men doo call Gresholme) & lieth directlie west of
 Schalmey. In a late map I find this Limen to be called in English
 Ramsey: Leland also confirmeth the same, and I cannot learne more
 thereof, than that it is much greater than anie of the other last
 mentioned (sithens I described the Holmes) and for temporall
 iurisdiction a member of Penbrookeshire, as it is vnto S. Dauids for
 matters concerning the church. Leland in his commentaries of England
 lib. 8. saieth that it contained thrée Ilets, whereof the bishop of S.
 Dauids is owner of the greatest, but the chanter of S. Dauids claimeth
 the second, as the archdeacon of Cairmarden dooth the third. And in
 these is verie excellent pasture for sheepe and horses, but not for
 other horned beasts which lacke their vpper téeth by nature (whose
 substance is conuerted into the nourishment of their hornes) and
 [Sidenote: Mawr.]
 therefore cannot bite so low. Next vnto this Ile we came to Mawr, an
 Iland in the mouth of Mawr, scant a bow shoot ouer, and enuironed at
 the low water with fresh, but at the high with salt, and here also is
 excellent catching of herings.

 After this, procéeding on still with our course, we fetched a
 compasse, going out of the north toward the west, and then turning
 againe (as the coast of the countrie leadeth) vntill we sailed full
 south, leauing the shore still on our right hand, vntill we came vnto
 a couple of Iles, which doo lie vpon the mouth of the Soch, one of
 them being distant (as we gessed) a mile from the other, and neither
 of them of anie greatnesse almost worthie to be remembred. The first
 [Sidenote: Tudfall.]
 that we came vnto is called Tudfall, and therein is a church, but
 without anie parishioners, except they be shéepe and conies. The
 quantitie thereof also is not much aboue six acres of ground, measured
 [Sidenote: Penthlin.]
 by the pole. The next is Penthlin, Myrach, or Mererosse, situat in
 maner betwixt Tudfall or Tuidall and the shore, and herein is verie
 good pasture for horsses, wherof (as I take it) that name is giuen
 [Sidenote: Guelyn.]
 vnto it. Next vnto them, we come vnto Gwelyn, a little Ile which lieth
 southeast of the fall of Daron or Daren, a thing of small quantitie,
 and yet almost parted in the mids by water, and next of all vnto
 Bardsey an Iland lieng ouer against Periuincle the southwest point or
 promontorie of Northwales (where Merlin Syluestris lieth buried) and
 whither the rest of the monks of Bangor did flie to saue themselues,
 when 2100. of their fellowes were slaine by the Saxon princes in the
 quarell of Augustine the monke, & the citie of Caerleon or Chester
 raced to the ground, and not since reedified againe to anie purpose.
 Ptolomie calleth this Iland Lymnos, the Britons Enlhi, and therein
 also is a parish-church, as the report goeth. From hence we cast
 about, gathering still toward the northest, till we came to Caer
 Ierienrhod, a notable rocke situat ouer against the mouth of the
 Leuenni, wherein standeth a strong hold or fortresse, or else some
 towne or village. Certes we could not well discerne whether of both it
 was, bicause the wind blew hard at southwest, the morning was mistie,
 and our mariners doubting some flats to be couched not far from
 thence, hasted awaie vnto Anglesei, whither we went a pace with a
 readie wind euen at our owne desire.

 This Iland (which Tacitus mistaketh no doubt for Mona Cæsaris, and so
 dooth Ptolomie as appeareth by his latitudes) is situat about two
 miles from the shore of Northwales. Paulus Iouius gesseth that it was
 [Sidenote: Anglesei cut from Wales by working of the sea.]
 in time past ioined to the continent, or maine of our Ile, and onelie
 cut off by working of the Ocean, as Sicilia peraduenture was from
 Italie by the violence of the Leuant or practise of some king that
 reigned there. Thereby also (as he saith) the inhabitants were
 constreind at the first to make a bridge ouer into the same, till the
 breach waxed so great, that no such passage could anie longer be
 mainteined. But as these things doo either not touch my purpose at
 all, or make smallie with the present description of this Ile: so (in
 [Sidenote: Anglesei.]
 comming to my matter) Anglesei is found to be full so great as the
 Wight, and nothing inferiour, but rather surmounting it, as that also
 which Cæsar calleth Mona in fruitfulnesse of soile by manie an hundred
 fold. In old time it was reputed and taken for the common granarie to
 Wales, as Sicilia was to Rome and Italie for their prouision of corne.
 In like maner the Welshmen themselues called it the mother of their
 countrie, for giuing their minds wholie to pasturage, as the most
 easie and lesse chargeable trade, they vtterlie neglected tillage, as
 men that leaned onelie to the fertilitie of this Iland for their
 corne, from whence they neuer failed to receiue continuall abundance.
 Gyraldus saith that the Ile of Anglesei was no lesse sufficient to
 minister graine for the sustentation of all the men of Wales, than the
 mountaines called Ereri or Snowdoni in Northwales were to yeeld
 plentie of pasture for all the cattell whatsoeuer within the aforesaid
 compasse, if they were brought togither and left vpon the same. It
 contained moreouer so manie townes welnéere, as there be daies in a
 yeare, which some conuerting into Cantreds haue accompted but for
 three, as Gyraldus saith. Howbeit as there haue beene I say 363.
 townes in Anglesei, so now a great part of that reckoning is vtterlie
 shroonke, and so far gone to decaie, that the verie ruines of them are
 vnneath to be séene & discerned: and yet it séemeth to be méetlie well
 inhabited. Leland noting the smalnesse of our hundreds in comparison
 to that they were in time past, addeth (so far as I remember) that
 there are six of them in Anglesei, as Menay, Maltraith, Liuon,
 Talbellion, Torkalin, and Tindaithin: herevnto Lhoid saith also how it
 belonged in old time vnto the kingdome of Guinhed or Northwales, and
 that therein at a towne called Aberfraw, being on the southwestside of
 the Ile, the kings of Gwinhed held euermore their palaces, whereby it
 came to passe, that the kings of Northwales were for a long time
 called kings of Aberfraw, as the Welshmen named the kings of England
 kings of London, till better instruction did bring them farther

 There are in Anglesei many townes and villages, whose names as yet I
 cannot orderlie atteine vnto: wherefore I will content my selfe with
 the rehearsall of so many as we viewed in sailing about the coasts,
 and otherwise heard report of by such as I haue talked withall.
 Beginning therefore at the mouth of the Gefni (which riseth at
 northeast aboue Gefni or Geuenni, 20. miles at the least into the
 land) we passed first by Hundwyn, then by Newborow, Port-Hayton,
 Beaumarrais, Penmon, Elian, Almwoch, Burric (whereby runneth a rill
 into a creeke) Cornew, Holihed (standing in the promontorie) Gwifen,
 Aberfraw, and Cair Cadwalader, of all which, the two latter stand as
 it were in a nuke betweene the Geuenni water, and the Fraw, wherevpon
 Aberfraw is situate. Within the Iland we heard onelie of Gefni afore
 mentioned, of Gristial standing vpon the same water, of Tefri, of
 Lanerchimedh, Lachtenfarwy and Bodedrin, but of all these the cheefe
 is now Beaumarais, which was builded sometime by king Edward the
 first, and therewithall a strong castell about the yeare 1295. to
 kéepe that land in quiet. There are also as Leland saith 31.
 parish-churches beside 69. chappels, that is, a hundreth in all. But
 héerof I can saie little, for lacke of iust instruction. In time past,
 the people of this Ile vsed not to seuerall their grounds, but now
 they dig stonie hillocks, and with the stones thereof they make rude
 walles, much like to those of Deuonshire, sith they want hedge bote,
 fire bote, and house bote, or (to saie at one word) timber, bushes and
 trees. As for wine, it is so plentifull and good cheape there most
 commonlie as in London, through the great recourse of merchants from
 France, Spaine, and Italie vnto the aforesaid Iland. The flesh
 likewise of such cattell as is bred there, wherof we haue store
 yearelie brought vnto Cole faire in Essex is most delicate, by reason
 of their excellent pasture, and so much was it esteemed by the Romans
 in time past, that Columella did not onelie commend and preferre them
 before those of Liguria, but the emperours themselues being neere hand
 also caused their prouision to be made for nete out of Anglesei, to
 feed vpon at their owne tables as the most excellent beefe. It taketh
 now the name of Angles and Ei, which is to meane the Ile of Englismen,
 bicause they wan it in the Conquerors time, vnder the leading of Hugh
 earle of Chester, and Hugh of Shrewesburie. Howbeit they recouered it
 againe in the time of William Rufus, when they spoiled the citie of
 Glocester, ransacked Shrewesburie, and returned home with great bootie
 and pillage, in which voiage also they were holpen greatlie by the
 Irishmen, who after thrée yeares ioined with them againe, and slue the
 earle of Shrewesburie (which then liued) with great crueltie. The
 Welshmen call it Tiremone and Mon, and herein likewise is a
 [Sidenote: Holie head, or Cair kiby.]
 promontorie or Byland, called Holie head (which hath in time past
 beene named Cair kyby, of Kyby a monke that dwelled there) from whence
 the readiest passage is commonlie had out of Northwales to get ouer
 into Ireland, of which Ile I will not speake at this time, least I
 shuld bereaue another of that trauell. Yet Plinie saith, lib. 4. cap.
 16. that it lieth not farre off from and ouer against the Silures,
 which then dwelled vpon the west coast of our Iland, and euen so farre
 as Dunbritton, and beyond: but to our Cair kybi. The Britons named it
 [Sidenote: Enilsnach, holie Ile.]
 Enylsnach, or holie Ile, of the number of carcases of holie men, which
 they affirme to haue beene buried there. But herein I maruell not a
 little, wherein women had offended, that they might not come thither,
 or at the least wise returne from thence without some notable reproch
 or shame vnto their bodies. By south also of Hilarie point, somewhat
 inclining toward the east, lieth Inis Lygod, a small thing (God wot)
 and therefore not worthie great remembrance: neuertheles not to be
 omitted, though nothing else inforced the memoriall thereof, but
 onelie the number and certeine tale of such Iles as lie about our
 Iland. I might also speake of the Ile Mail Ronyad, which lieth north
 west of Anglesei by sixe miles; but bicause the true name hereof, as
 of manie riuers and streames are to me vnknowne, I am the more willing
 to passe them ouer in silence, least I should be noted to be farther
 corrupter of such words as I haue no skill to deliuer and exhibit in
 their kind. And now to conclude with the description of the whole
 Iland, this I will ad moreouer vnto hir commodities, that as there are
 the best milstones of white, red, blew, and gréene gréets,
 (especiallie in Tindaithin) so there is great gaines to be gotten by
 fishing round about this Ile, if the people there could vse the trade:
 but they want both cunning and diligence to take that matter in hand.
 And as for temporall regiment, it apperteineth to the countie of
 Cairnaruon, so in spirituall cases it belongeth to the bishoprike of
 Bangor. This is finallie to be noted of Anglesei, that sundrie earthen
 [Sidenote: Ancient buriall.]
 pots are often found there of dead mens bones conuerted into ashes,
 set with the mouthes downeward contrarie to the vse of other nations,
 which turned the brims vpwards, whereof let this suffice.

 Hauing thus described Anglesei, it resteth to report furthermore, how
 that in our circuit about the same, we met with other little Ilets, of
 which one lieth northwest thereof almost ouer against Butricke mouth,
 or the fall of the water, that passeth by Butricke. The Britons called
 [Sidenote: Adar.]
 [Sidenote: Moil.]
 [Sidenote: Rhomaid.]
 [Sidenote: Ysterisd.]
 [Sidenote: Adros.]
 [Sidenote: Lygod.]
 it Ynis Ader, that is to say, the Ile of birds in old time, but now it
 hight Ynis Moil, or Ynis Rhomaid, that is the Ile of porpasses. It
 hath to name likewise Ysterisd, and Adros. Being past this, we came to
 the second lieng by north east, ouer against the Hilarie point, called
 Ynis Ligod, that is to saie, the Ile of Mise, and of these two this
 latter is the smallest, neither of them both being of any greatnesse
 [Sidenote: Seriall.]
 [Sidenote: Prestholme.]
 to speake of. Ynis Seriall or Prestholme, lieth ouer against Penmon,
 or the point called the head of Mon, where I found a towne (as I told
 you) of the same denomination. Ptolomie nameth not this Iland, whereof
 I maruell. It is parcell of Flintshire, and of the iurisdiction of S.
 Asaph, and in fertilitie of soile, and breed of cattell, nothing
 inferiour vnto Anglesei hir mother: although that for quantitie of
 ground it come infinitelie short thereof, and be nothing comparable
 vnto it. The last Iland vpon the cost of Wales, hauing now left
 [Sidenote: Credine.]
 Anglesei, is called Credine, and although it lie not properlie within
 the compasse of my description, yet I will not let to touch it by the
 waie, sith the causey thither from Denbighland, is commonlie
 ouerflowne. It is partlie made an Iland by the Conwey, and partlie by
 the sea. But to proceed, when we had viewed this place, we passed
 foorth to S. Antonies Ile, which is about two or thrée miles compasse
 or more, a sandie soile, but yet verie batable for sheepe and cattell,
 it is well replenished also with fresh wels, great plentie of wild
 foule, conies and quarries of hard ruddie stone, which is oft brought
 thence to Westchester, where they make the foundations of their
 buildings withall. There are also two parish churches in the same,
 dedicated to S. Antonie and S. Iohn, but the people are verie poore,
 bicause they be so oft spoiled by pirats, although the lord of the
 same be verie wealthie thorough the exchange made with them of his
 victuals, for their wares, whereof they make good peniworths, as
 théeues commonlie doo of such preies as they get by like escheat,
 notwithstanding their landing there is verie dangerous, and onelie at
 one place. Howbeit they are constreined to vse it, and there to make
 their marts. From hence we went on, vntill we came to the cape of Ile
 [Sidenote: Hilberie.]
 Brée, or Hilberie, and point of Wyrale, from whence is a common
 passage into Ireland, of 18. or 20. houres sailing, if the wether be
 not tedious. This Iland at the full sea is a quarter of a mile from
 the land, and the streame betwéene foure fadams déepe, as ship-boies
 haue oft sounded, but at a lowe water a man may go ouer thither on the
 sand. The Ile of it selfe is verie sandie a mile in compasse, and well
 stored with conies, thither also went a sort of supersticious fooles
 in times past, in pilgrimage, to our ladie of Hilberie, by whose
 offerings a cell of monkes there, which belonged to Chester, was
 cherished and mainteined.

 The next Iland vpon the coast of England is Man or Mona Cæsaris, which
 some name Mana or Manim, but after Ptolomie, Monaoida, as some thinke,
 though other ascribe that name to Anglesei, which the Welshmen doo
 commonlie call Môn, as they doo this Manaw. It is supposed to be the
 first, as Hirtha is the last of the Hebrides. Hector Boetius noteth a
 difference betwéene them of 300. miles. But Plinie saith that Mona is
 200000. miles from Camaldunum, lib. 2. cap. 75. It lieth also vnder
 53. degrées of latitude, and 30. minuts, and hath in longitude 16.
 degrees and 40. minuts, abutting on the north side vpon S. Ninians in
 Scotland, Furnesfels on the east, Prestholme and Anglesei on the
 south, and Vlsther in Ireland on the west. It is greater than Anglesei
 by a third, and there are two riuers in the same, whose heads doo
 ioine so néere, that they doo seeme in maner to part the Ile in
 [Sidenote: Eubonia.]
 [Sidenote: Meuania.]
 twaine. Some of the ancient writers, as Ethicus, &c: call it Eubonia,
 and other following Orosius, Meuana or Mæuania, howbeit after Beda and
 the Scotish histories, the Meuaniæ are all those Iles aforesaid called
 the Hebrides, Eubonides, or Hebudes (whereof William Malmesburie, lib.
 1. de regibus (beside this our Mona) will haue Anglesei also to be
 one. Wherefore it séemeth hereby that a number of our late writers
 ascribing the said name vnto Mona onelie, haue not beene a little
 deceiued. Iornandes lib. de Getis speaketh of a second Meuania; "Habet
 & aliam Meuaniam (saith he) necnon & Orchadas." But which should be
 prima, as yet I do not read, except it should be Anglesei; and then
 saith Malmesburie well. In like sort Propertius speaketh of a Meuania,
 which he called Nebulosa, but he meaneth it euidentlie of a little
 towne in Vmbria where he was borne, lib. 4. eleg. De vrbe Rom.
 Wherfore there néedeth no vse of his authoritie. This in the meane
 time is euident out of Orosius, lib. 1. capite 2. that Scots dwelled
 somtime in this Ile, as also in Ireland, which Ethicus also affirmeth
 of his owne time, and finallie confirmeth that the Scots and Irish
 were sometime one people. It hath in length 24. miles, and 8. in
 bredth, and is in maner of like distance from Galloway in Scotland,
 Ireland and Cumberland in England, as Buchanan reporteth.

 In this Iland also were some time 1300. families, of which 960. were
 in the west halfe, and the rest in the other. But now through ioining
 house to house & land to land (a common plague and canker, which will
 eat vp all, if prouision be not made in time to withstand this
 mischéefe) that number is halfe diminished, and yet many of the rich
 inhabiters want roome, and wote not how and where to bestowe
 themselues, to their quiet contentations. Certes this impediment
 groweth not by reason that men were greater in bodie, than they haue
 béene in time past, but onelie for that their insatiable desire of
 inlarging their priuate possessions increaseth still vpon them, and
 will doo more, except they be restrained: but to returne to our
 purpose. It was once spoiled by the Scots in the time of king
 Athelstane, chéeflie by Anlafus in his flight from the bloudie
 battell, wherein Constantine king of Scotland was ouercome: secondlie
 by the Scots 1388. after it came to the possession of the English, for
 in the beginning the kings of Scotland had this Iland vnder their
 dominion, almost from their first arriuall in this Iland, and as Beda
 saith till Edwine king of the Northumbers wan it from them, and vnited
 it to his kingdome. After the time of Edwine, the Scots gat the
 possession thereof againe, and held it till the Danes & Norwaies wan
 it from them, who also kept it (but with much trouble) almost 370.
 yeares vnder the gouernance of their viceroies, whome the kings of
 Norwaie inuested vnto that honor, till Alexander the third king of
 that name in Scotland recouered it from them, with all the rest of
 those Iles that lie vpon the west coast, called also Sodorenses in the
 daies of Magnus king of Norwaie. And sithens that time the Scotish
 princes haue not ceased to giue lawes to such as dwelled there, but
 also from time to time appointed such bishops as should exercise
 ecclesiasticall iurisdiction in the same, till it was won from them by
 [Sidenote: _Chronica Tinemuthi._]
 our princes, and so vnited vnto the realme of England. Finallie, how
 after sundrie sales bargains and contracts of matrimonie (for I read
 that William Scroope the kings Vicechamberleine, did buy this Ile and
 crowne thereof of the lord William Montacute earle of Sarum) it came
 vnto the ancestours of the earles of Darbie, who haue béene commonlie
 said to be kings of Man, the discourse folowing shall more at large
 declare. Giraldus noteth a contention betwéene the kings of England &
 Ireland for the right of this Iland, but in the end, when by a
 comprimise the triall of the matter was referred to the liues or
 deaths of such venemous wormes as should be brought into the same, and
 it was found that they died not at all, as the like doo in Ireland,
 sentence passed with the king of England, & so he reteined the Iland.
 But howsoeuer this matter standeth, and whether anie such thing was
 done at all or not, sure it is that the people of the said Ile were
 much giuen to witchcraft and sorcerie (which they learned of the Scots
 a nation greatlie bent to that horrible practise) in somuch that their
 women would oftentimes sell wind to the mariners, inclosed vnder
 certeine knots of thred, with this iniunction, that they which bought
 [Sidenote: Tall men in Man.]
 the same, should for a great gale vndoo manie, and for the lesse a
 fewer or smaller number. The stature of the men and also fertilitie of
 this Iland are much commended, and for the latter supposed verie néere
 to be equall with that of Anglesei, in all commodities.

 There are also these townes therein, as they come now to my
 remembrance, Rushen, Dunglasse, Holme towne, S. Brids, Bala cury (the
 bishops house) S. Mich. S. Andrew, kirk Christ, kirk Louel, S.
 Mathees, kirk S. Anne, Pala sala, kirk S. Marie, kirk Concane, kirk
 Malu, and Home. But of all these Rushen with the castell is the
 strongest. It is also in recompense of the common want of wood, indued
 [Sidenote: Riuers.]
 with sundrie pretie waters, as first of al the Burne rising in the
 northside of Warehill botoms, and branching out by southwest of kirk
 S. An, it séemeth to cut off a great part of the eastside thereof,
 from the residue of that Iland. From those hils also (but of the south
 halfe) commeth the Holme and Holmey, by a towne of the same name, in
 the verie mouth whereof lieth the Pile afore mentioned. They haue also
 the Bala passing by Bala cury, on the westside, and the Rame on the
 north, whose fall is named Ramesei hauen, as I doo read in Chronicles.

 [Sidenote: Hilles.]
 There are moreouer sundrie great hils therein, as that wherevpon S.
 Mathees standeth, in the northeast part of the Ile, a parcell whereof
 commeth flat south, betwéene kirk Louell, and kirk Marie, yéelding out
 of their botoms the water Bala, whereof I spake before. Beside these
 and well toward the south part of the Ile, I find the Warehils, which
 are extended almost from the west coast ouertwhart vnto the Burne
 [Sidenote: Hauens.]
 streame. It hath also sundrie hauens, as Ramsei hauen, by north Laxam
 hauen, by east Port Iris, by southwest Port Home, and Port Michell, by
 west. In like sort there are diuers Ilets annexed to the same, as the
 [Sidenote: Calfe of man.]
 [Sidenote: The pile.]
 [Sidenote: S. Michels Ile.]
 Calfe of man on the south, the Pile on the west, and finallie S.
 Michels Ile in the gulfe called Ranoths waie in the east. Moreouer the
 [Sidenote: Sheepe.]
 sheepe of this countrie are excéeding huge, well woolled, and their
 [Sidenote: Hogs.]
 tailes of such greatnesse as is almost incredible. In like sort their
 hogs are in maner monstrous. They haue furthermore great store of
 [Sidenote: Barnacles.]
 barnacles bréeding vpon their coasts, but yet not so great store as in
 Ireland, and those (as there also) of old ships, ores, masts, peeces
 of rotten timber as they saie, and such putrified pitched stuffe, as
 by wrecke hath happened to corrupt vpon that shore. Howbeit neither
 the inhabitants of this Ile, nor yet of Ireland can readilie saie
 [Sidenote: Barnacles neither fish nor flesh.]
 whether they be fish or flesh, for although the religious there vsed
 to eat them as fish, yet elsewhere, some haue beene troubled, for
 eating of them in times prohibited for heretikes and lollards.

 For my part, I haue béene verie desirous to vnderstand the vttermost
 of the bréeding of barnacls, & questioned with diuers persons about
 the same. I haue red also whatsoeuer is written by forren authors
 touching the generation of that foule, & sought out some places where
 I haue béene assured to sée great numbers of them: but in vaine.
 Wherefore I vtterlie despaired to obteine my purpose, till this
 present yeare of Grace 1584. and moneth of Maie, wherein going to the
 court at Gréenewich from London by bote, I saw sundrie ships lieng in
 the Thames newlie come home, either from Barbarie or the Canarie Iles
 (for I doo not well remember now from which of these places) on whose
 sides I perceiued an infinit sort of shells to hang so thicke as could
 be one by another. Drawing néere also, I tooke off ten or twelue of
 the greatest of them, & afterward hauing opened them, I saw the
 proportion of a foule in one of them more perfectlie than in all the
 rest, sauing that the head was not yet formed, bicause the fresh water
 had killed them all (as I take it) and thereby hindered their
 perfection. Certeinelie the feathers of the taile hoeng out of the
 shell at least two inches, the wings (almost perfect touching forme)
 were garded with two shels or shéeldes proportioned like the selfe
 wings, and likewise the brestbone had hir couerture also of like
 shellie substance, and altogither resembling the figure which Lobell
 and Pena doo giue foorth in their description of this foule: so that I
 am now fullie persuaded that it is either the barnacle that is
 ingendred after one maner in these shels, or some other sea-foule to
 vs as yet vnknowen. For by the feathers appearing and forme so
 apparant, it cannot be denied, but that some bird or other must
 proceed of this substance, which by falling from the sides of the
 ships in long voiages, may come to some perfection. But now it is time
 for me to returne againe vnto my former purpose.

 [Sidenote: Bishop of Man.]
 There hath sometime beene, and yet is a bishop of this Ile, who at the
 first was called Episcopus Sodorensis, when the iurisdiction of all
 the Hebrides belonged vnto him. Whereas now he that is bishop there,
 is but a bishops shadow, for albeit that he beare the name of bishop
 of Man, yet haue the earles of Darbie, as it is supposed, the cheefe
 profit of his sée (sauing that they allow him a little somewhat for a
 [Sidenote: Patrone of Man.]
 flourish) notwithstanding that they be his patrons, and haue his
 nomination vnto that liuing. The first bishop of this Ile was called
 Wimundus or Raymundus, and surnamed Monachus Sauinensis, who by reason
 of his extreame and tyrannicall crueltie toward the Ilanders, had
 first his sight taken from him, & then was sent into exile. After him
 succéeded another moonke in king Stephens daies called Iohn, and after
 him one Marcus, &c: other after other in succession, the sée it selfe
 being now also subiect to the archbishop of Yorke for spirituall
 iurisdiction. In time of Henrie the second, this Iland also had a
 [Sidenote: King of Man.]
 king, whose name was Cuthred, vnto whome Vinianus the cardinall came
 as legate 1177. and wherin Houeden erreth not. In the yeare also 1228.
 one Reginald was viceroy or petie king of Man, afterward murthered by
 his subiects. Then Olauus, after him Hosbach the sonne of Osmond
 Hacon, 1290. who being slaine, Olauus and Gotredus parted this
 kingdome of Sodora, in such wise, that this had all the rest of the
 Iles, the other onelie the Ile of Man at the first; but after the
 slaughter of Gotredus, Olauus held all, after whom Olauus his sonne
 succeeded. Then Harald sonne to Olauus, who being entered in Maie, and
 drowned vpon the coastes of Ireland, his brother Reginald reigned
 twentie and seuen daies, and then was killed the first of June,
 whereby Olauus aliàs Harald sonne to Gotred ruled in the Ile one
 yeare. Next vnto him succéeded Magnus the second sonne of Olauus, and
 last of all Iuarus, who held it so long as the Norwaies were lords
 thereof. But being once come into the hands of the Scots, one Godred
 Mac Mares was made lieutenant, then Alane, thirdlie Maurice Okarefer,
 and fourthlie one of the kings chapleines, &c. I would gladlie haue
 set downe the whole catalog of all the viceroyes and lieutenants: but
 sith I can neither come by their names nor successions, I surcesse to
 speake any more of them, and also of the Ile it selfe, whereof this
 may suffice.

 After we haue in this wise described the Ile of Man, with hir
 commodities, we returned eastwards backe againe unto the point of
 Ramshed, where we found to the number of six Ilets of one sort and
 other, whereof the first greatest and most southwesterlie, is named
 [Sidenote: Wauay.]
 the Wauay. It runneth out in length, as we gessed, about fiue miles
 and more from the southeast into the northwest, betwéene which and the
 maine land lie two little ones, whose names are Oldborrow and Fowlney.
 [Sidenote: Fouldra.]
 The fourth is called the Fouldra, and being situate southeast of the
 first, it hath a prettie pile or blockhouse therin, which the
 inhabitants name the pile of Fouldra. By east thereof in like sort lie
 [Sidenote: Fola.]
 [Sidenote: Roa.]
 the Fola and the Roa, plots of no great compasse, and yet of all these
 six, the first and Fouldra are the fairest and most fruitfull. From
 [Sidenote: Rauenglasse.]
 hence we went by Rauenglasse point, where lieth an Iland of the same
 denomination, as Reginald Wolfe hath noted in his great card, not yet
 finished, nor likelie to be published. He noteth also two other Ilets,
 betwéene the same and the maine land; but Leland speaketh nothing of
 them (to my remembrance) neither any other card, as yet set foorth of
 England: and thus much of the Ilands that lie vpon our shore in this
 part of my voiage.

 Hauing so exactlie as to me is possible, set downe the names and
 positions of such Iles, as are to be found vpon the coast of the
 Quéenes Maiesties dominions, now it resteth that we procéed orderlie
 [Sidenote: Iles in Scotland.]
 with those that are séene to lie vpon the coast of Scotland, that is
 to saie, in the Irish, the Deucalidonian & the Germans seas, which I
 will performe in such order as I may, sith I cannot do so much therin
 as I would. Some therefore doo comprehend and diuide all the Iles that
 lie about the north coast of this Ile now called Scotland into thrée
 parts, sauing that they are either occidentals, the west Iles, aliàs
 the Orchades & Zelandine, or the Shetlands. They place the first
 betwéene Ireland and the Orchades, so that they are extended from Man
 and the point of Cantire almost vnto the Orchades in the Deucalidonian
 sea, and after some are called the Hebrides. In this part the old
 [Sidenote: Hemodes of some called Acmodes,
 sée _Plinie, Mela, Martianus, Capella,
 Plutarch. de defect. orac._]
 writers indéed placed the Hebrides or Hemodes, which diuers call the
 Hebudes and the Acmodes; albeit the writers varie in their numbers,
 some speaking of 30 Hebudes and seuen Hemodes; some of fiue Ebudes, as
 Solinus, and such as follow his authoritie. Howbeit the late Scottish
 writers doo product a summe of more than 300 of these Ilands in all,
 which sometime belonged to the Scots, sometime to the Norwegians, and
 sometime to the Danes. The first of these is our Manaw, of which I
 haue before intreated: next vnto this is Alisa a desert Ile, yet
 replenished with conies, soland foule, and a fit harbor for fishermen
 that in time of the yeare lie vpon the coast thereof for herings. Next
 vnto this is the Arran, a verie hillie and craggie soile, yet verie
 plentifull of fish all about the coast, and wherein is a verie good
 hauen: ouer against the mouth whereof lieth the Moll, which is also no
 small defence to such seafaring men as seeke harbor in that part. Then
 came we by the Fladwa or Pladwa, no lesse fruitfull and stored with
 conies than the Bota, Bura, or Botha, of eight miles long & foure
 miles broad, a low ground but yet verie batable, and wherein is good
 store of short and indifferent pasture: it hath also a towne there
 called Rosse, and a castell named the Camps. There is also another
 called the Marnech, an Iland of a mile in length, and halfe a mile in
 breadth, low ground also but yet verie fertile. In the mouth likewise
 of the Glot, lieth the more Cumber and the lesse, not farre in sunder
 one from another, and both fruitfull inough the one for corne, and the
 other for Platyceraton. The Auon another Iland lieth about a mile from
 Cantire, and is verie commodious to ships, wherof it is called Auon,
 that is to saie, Portuosa, or full of harbor: and therefore the Danes
 had in time past great vse of it. Then haue we the Raclind, the
 Kyntar, the Cray, the Gegaw six miles in length and a mile and a halfe
 in breadth; the Dera full of déere, and not otherwise vnfruitfull: and
 therefore some thinke that it was called the Ile of déere in old time.
 [Sidenote: Scarba.]
 Scarba foure miles in length, and one in breadth, verie little
 inhabited, and thereinto the sea betwéene that and the Ile of déere is
 so swift and violent, that except it be at certeine times, it is not
 easilie nauigable. Being past these, we come to certeine Ilands of no
 great fame, which lie scattered here and there, as Bellach, Gyrastell,
 Longaie, both the Fiolas, the thrée Yarues, Culbrenin, Duncomell,
 Lupar, Belnaua, Wikerua, Calfile, Luing, Sele Ile, Sound, of which the
 last thrée are fruitfull, and belong to the earle of Argile. Then haue
 [Sidenote: Slate Ile.]
 we the Slate, so called of the tiles that are made therin. The Nagsey,
 Isdalf, and the Sken (which later is also called Thian, of a wicked
 herbe growing there greatlie hurtfull, and in colour not much vnlike
 the lillie, sauing that it is of a more wan and féeble colour) Vderga,
 kings Ile, Duffa or blacke Ile, Kirke Ile and Triarach. There is also
 the Ile Ard, Humble Ile, Greene Ile, and Heth Ile, Arbor Ile, Gote
 Ile, Conies Ile aliàs idle Ile, Abrid Ile or bird Ile, and Lismor,
 wherein the bishop of Argill sometime held his palace, being eight
 miles in length and two miles in breadth, and not without some mines
 also of good mettall. There is also the Ile Ouilia, Siuna, Trect,
 Shepey, Fladaw, Stone Ile, Gresse, great Ile, Ardis, Musadell, &
 Berner, sometime called the holie sanctuarie, Vghe Ile, Molochasgyr,
 and Drinacha, now ouergrowne with bushes, elders, and vtterlie spoiled
 by the ruines of such great houses as haue heretofore béene found
 therin. There is in like sort the Wijc, the Ranse, and the Caruer.

 [Sidenote: Ila.]
 In this tract also, there are yet thrée to intreat of, as Ila, Mula
 and Iona, of which the first is one of the most, that hath not béene
 least accounted of. It is not much aboue 24 miles in length, and in
 breadth 16 reaching from the south into the north, and yet it is an
 excéeding rich plot of ground verie plentious of corne, cattell,
 déere, and also lead, and other mettals, which were easie to be
 obteined, if either the people were industrious, or the soile
 yéeldable of wood to fine and trie out the same. In this Iland also
 there is a lake of swéet water called the Laie, and also a baie
 wherein are sundrie Ilands; and therevnto another lake of fresh water,
 wherein the Falangam Ile is situate, wherein the souereigne of all the
 [Sidenote: Round Ile.]
 Iles sometime dwelled. Néere vnto this is the round Ile, so called of
 the consultations there had: for there was a court sometime holden,
 wherein 14 of the principall inhabitants did minister iustice vnto the
 rest, and had the whole disposition of things committed vnto them,
 which might rule vnto the benefit of those Ilands. There is also the
 Stoneheape, an other Iland so called of the heape of stones that is
 therein. On the south side also of Ila, we find moreouer the Colurne,
 Mulmor, Osrin, Brigidan, Corkerke, Humble Ile, Imersga, Bethy, Texa,
 Shepeie, Naosig, Rinard, Cane, Tharscher, Aknor, Gret Ile, Man Ile, S.
 Iohns Ile, and Stackbed. On the west side thereof also lieth Ouersey,
 whereby runneth a perilous sea, and not nauigable, but at certeine
 houres, Merchant Ile, Vsabrast, Tanask, Neff, Wauer Ile, Oruans, Hog
 Ile, and Colauanso.

 [Sidenote: Mula.]
 Mula is a right noble Ile, 24 miles in length and so manie in bredth,
 rough of soile, yet fruitfull enough: beside woods, déere, & good
 harbrough for ships, replenished with diuers and sundrie townes and
 castels. Ouer against Columkill also, it hath two riuers, which yeld
 verie great store of salmons, and other riuellets now altogither
 vnfruitfull, beside two lakes, in each of which is an Iland: and
 likewise in euerie of these Ilands a castell. The sea beating vpon
 this Ile, maketh foure notable baies wherein great plentie and verie
 good herrings are taken. It hath also in the northwest side Columbria,
 or the Ile of doues; on the southeast, Era: both verie commodious for
 fishing, cattell, and corne. Moreouer, this is woorth the noting in
 this Ile aboue all the rest, that it hath a plesant spring, arising
 two miles in distance from the shore, wherein are certeine little egs
 found, much like vnto indifferent pearles, both for colour and
 brightnesse, and thereto full of thicke humour, which egs being
 carried by violence of the fresh water vnto the salt, are there within
 the space of twelue houres conuerted into great shels, which I take to
 be mother pearle; except I be deceiued.

 [Sidenote: Iona.]
 Iona was sometime called Columkill, in fame and estimation nothing
 inferiour to anie of the other, although in length it excéed little
 aboue two miles, and in breadth one. Certes it is verie fruitfull of
 all such commodities, as that climat wherein it standeth dooth yeeld,
 and beareth the name of Columbus the abbat, of whome I haue spoken
 more at large in my Chronologie. There were somtimes also two
 monasteries therein, one of moonks builded by Fergus, another of nuns:
 and a parish church, beside many chappels builded by the Scotish
 kings, and such princes as gouerned in the Iles. And when the English
 had once gotten possession of the Ile of Manaw, a bishops see was
 erected in the old monasterie of Columbus, whereby the iurisdiction of
 those Iles was still mainteined and continued. Certes there remaine
 yet in this Iland the old burials apperteining to the most noble
 families that had dwelled in the west Iles; but thrée aboue other are
 accompted the most notable, which haue little houses builded vpon
 [Sidenote: Regum tumuli.]
 them. That in the middest hath a stone, whereon is written, Tumuli
 regum Scotiæ, The burials of the kings of Scotland: for (as they saie)
 fourtie eight of them were there interred. Another is intituled with
 these words, The burials of the kings of Ireland, bicause foure of
 them lie in that place. The third hath these words written thereon,
 The graues of the kings of Norwaie, for there eight of them were
 buried also, and all through a fond suspicion conceiued of the merits
 of Columbus. Howbeit in processe of time, when Malcolme Cammor had
 erected his abbeie at Donfermeling, he gaue occasion to manie of his
 successors to be interred there.

 About this Iland there lie six other Iles dispersed, small in
 quantitie, but not altogither barren, sometimes giuen by the kings of
 Scotland and lords of the Iles vnto the abbeie of saint Columbus, of
 which the Soa, albeit that it yeeld competent pasturage for shéepe,
 yet is it more commodious, by such egs as the great plentie of
 wildfoule there bréeding doo laie within the same. Then is there the
 [Sidenote: The Ile of Shrewes.]
 Ile of Shrewes or of women; as the more sober heads doo call it. Also
 Rudan, & next vnto that, the Rering. There is also the Shen halfe a
 mile from Mula, whose bankes doo swarme with conies: it hath also a
 parish church, but most of the inhabitants doo liue and dwell in Mula.
 There is also the Eorse or the Arse, and all these belong vnto saint
 Columbus abbeie. Two miles from Arse is the Olue, an Iland fiue miles
 in length, and sufficientlie stored with corne and grasse, & not
 without a good hauen for ships to lie and harbor in. There is also the
 Colfans, an iland fruitfull inough, and full of cornell trées. There
 is not far off also the Gomater, Stafa, the two Kerneburgs, and the
 [Sidenote: Mosse Ile.]
 Mosse Ile, in the old Brittish speech called Monad, that is to saie
 Mosse. The soile of it is verie blacke, bicause of the corruption &
 putrefaction of such woods as haue rotted thereon: wherevpon also no
 small plentie of mosse is bred and ingendered. The people in like
 maner make their fire of the said earth, which is fullie so good as
 our English turffe. There is also the Long, & six miles further toward
 the west, Tirreie, which is eight miles in length and thrée in
 breadth, & of all other one of the most plentifull for all kinds of
 commodities: for it beareth corne, cattell, fish, and seafowle
 aboundantlie. It hath also a well of fresh water, a castell, and a
 verie good hauen for great vessels to lie at safegard in. Two miles
 from this also is the Gun, and the Coll two miles also from the Gun.
 Then passed we by the Calfe, a verie wooddie Iland, the foure gréene
 Iles, the two glasse or skie Ilands, the Ardan, the Ile of woolfes, &
 then the great Iland which reacheth from the east into the west, is
 sixteene miles in length, and six in breadth, full of mounteins and
 swelling woods: and for asmuch as it is not much inhabited, the
 seafoules laie great plentie of egs there, whereof such as will, may
 gather what number them listeth. Vpon the high cliffes and rocks also
 the Soland géese are taken verie plentifullie. Beyond this, about
 foure miles also is the Ile of horsses: and a little from that the hog
 Iland, which is not altogither vnfruitfull. There is a falcon which of
 custome bréedeth there, and therevnto it is not without a conuenient
 hauen. Not farre off also is the Canna, and the Egga, little Iles, but
 the later full of Soland géese. Likewise the Sobratill, more apt to
 hunt in than méet for anie other commoditie that is to be reaped

 [Sidenote: Skie.]
 After this we came to the Skie, the greatest Ile about all Scotland:
 for it is two and fortie miles long; and somewhere eight, & in some
 places twelue miles broad: it is moreouer verie hillie, which hilles
 are therevnto loaden with great store of wood, as the woods are with
 pasture, the fields with corne and cattell; and (besides all other
 commodities) with no small heards of mares, whereby they raise great
 aduantage and commoditie. It hath fiue riuers verie much abounding
 with salmons, and other fresh streams not altogither void of that
 prouision. It is inuironed also with manie baies, wherein great
 plentie of herrings is taken in time of the yéere. It hath also a
 noble poole of fresh water; fiue castels and sundrie townes; as Aie,
 S. Iohns, Dunwegen, S. Nicholas, &c. The old Scots called it
 Skianacha, that is, Winged, but now named Skie. There lie certeine
 small Ilands about this also, as Rausa a batable soile for corne &
 gras; Conie Iland full of woods and conies; Paba a theeuish Iland, in
 whose woods théeues do lurke to rob such as passe by them. Scalpe Ile,
 which is full of deere; Crowling, wherein is verie good harbour for
 ships; Rarsa, full of béechen woods and stags, being in length seuen
 miles, and two in breadth. The Ron, a woodie Ile and full of heath:
 yet hath it a good hauen, which hath a little Iland called Gerloch on
 the mouth thereof, and therein lurke manie théeues. There is not farre
 off from this Ron, to wit about six miles also, the Flad, the Tiulmen,
 Oransa, Buie the lesse, and Buie the more and fiue other little
 trifling Iles, of whose names I haue no notice.

 After these we come vnto the Ise, a pretie fertile Iland, to the Oue,
 to the Askoome, to the Lindill. And foure score miles from the Skie
 towards the west, to the Ling, the Gigarmen, the Berner, the Magle,
 the Pable, the Flad, the Scarpe, the Sander, the Vateras, which later
 hath a noble hauen for great ships, beside sundrie other commodities:
 and these nine last rehearsed are vnder the dominion of the bishop of
 [Sidenote: Bar.]
 the Iles. After this we come to the Bar, an Iland seauen miles in
 length, not vnfruitfull for grasse and corne, but the chiefe
 commoditie thereof lieth by taking of herrings, which are there to be
 had abundantlie. In one baie of this Iland there lieth an Islet, and
 therein standeth a strong castell. In the north part hereof also is an
 hill which beareth good grasse from the foot to the top, and out of
 that riseth a spring, which running to the sea, doth carrie withall a
 kind of creature not yet perfectlie formed, which some do liken vnto
 cockels; and vpon the shore where the water falleth into the sea, they
 take vp a kind of shelfish, when the water is gone, which they suppose
 to be ingendred or increased after this manner. Betwéene the Barre and
 the Visse lie also these Ilands, Orbaus, Oue, Hakerset, Warlang, Flad,
 the two Baies, Haie, Helsaie, Gigaie, Lingaie, Fraie, Fudaie, and
 Friskaie. The Visse is thirtie miles long and six miles broad; and
 therein are sundrie fresh waters, but one especiallie of three miles
 in length: neuerthelesse, the sea hath now of late found a waie into
 it, so that it cannot be kept off with a banke of three score foot,
 but now and then it will flowe into the same, and leaue sea-fish
 behind it in the lake. There is also a fish bred therein almost like
 vnto a salmon, sauing that it hath a white bellie, a blacke backe, and
 is altogither without scales: it is likewise a great harbour for
 théeues and pirats.

 Eight miles beyond this lieth the Helscher, appertinent to the nuns of
 Iona: then haue we the Hasker, verie plentifullie benefited by seales,
 which are there taken in time of the yéere. Thrée score miles from
 this also is the Hirth, whose inhabitants are rude in all good science
 and religion; yet is the Iland verie fruitfull in all things, and
 bringeth foorth shéepe farre greater than are else-where to be found,
 for they are as big as our fallow deare, horned like bugles, and haue
 their tailes hanging to the ground. He that is owner of this Ile,
 sendeth ouer his bailiffe into the same at midsummer, to gather in his
 duties, and with him a préest to saie masse, and to baptise all the
 children borne since that time of the yéere precedent: or if none will
 go ouer with him (bicause the voiage is dangerous) then doth each
 [Sidenote: Baptisme without preests.]
 father take paine to baptise his owne at home. Their rents are paid
 commonlie in dried seales and sea foule. All the whole Ile is not
 aboue a mile euerie waie; and except thrée mounteines that lie vpon
 one part of the shore, such as dwell in the other Iles can see no part

 Being past the Visse, we came after to Walaie, the Soa, the Strome, to
 Pabaie, to Barner, Ensaie, Killiger, the two Sagas, the Hermodraie,
 Scarfe, Grie, Ling, Gilling, Heie, Hoie, Farlaie, great So, little So,
 Ise, Sein the more, Sein the lesse, Tarant, Slegan, Tuom, Scarpe,
 Hareie, and the seauen holie Ilands, which are desert and bréed
 [Sidenote: Wild sheepe.]
 nothing but a kind of wild shéepe, which are often hunted, but seldome
 or neuer eaten. For in stéed of flesh they haue nothing but tallow;
 and if anie flesh be, it is so vnsauorie, that few men care to eate of
 it, except great hunger compell them. I suppose, that these be the
 wild sheepe which will not be tamed; and bicause of the horrible
 [Sidenote: Tigers.]
 grenning thereof, is taken for the bastard tiger. Their haire is
 betweene the wooll of a sheepe, and the haire of a goat, resembling
 both, shacked, and yet absolutelie like vnto neither of both: it maie
 be also the same beast which Capitolinus calleth Ouis fera, shewed in
 the time of Gordian the emperour; albeit that some take the same for
 the Camelopardalis: but hereof I make no warrantise.

 There is also not farre off the Garuell, the Lambe, the Flad, the
 Kellas, the two Bernars, the Kirt, the two Buies, the Viraie, the
 [Sidenote: Ile of Pigmeies.]
 Pabaie, the two Sigrams, and the Ile of Pigmeies (which is so called
 vpon some probable coniecture) for manie little sculs and bones are
 dailie there found déepe in the ground, perfectlie resembling the
 bodies of children; & not anie of greater quantities, wherby their
 coniecture (in their opinion) is the more likelie to be true. There is
 also the Fabill Ile, Adams Ile, the Ile of Lambes, Hulmes, Viccoll,
 Haueraie, Car, Era, Columbes Ile, Tor Ile, Iffurd, Scalpe, Flad, and
 the Swet; on whose east side is a certeine vault or caue, arched ouer,
 a flight shoot in length, wherevnto meane ships do vse to runne for
 harbour with full saile when a tempest ouertaketh them, or the raging
 of the sea, in those parts do put them in danger of wrecke. Also we
 passed by the old castell Ile, which is a pretie and verie commodious
 plat for fish, foule, egges, corne, and pasture. There is also the Ile
 Eust or Eu, which is full of wood, and a notable harbour for théeues,
 as is also the Grinort; likewise the preests Ile, which is verie full
 of sea foule and good pasture. The Afull, the two Herbrerts, to wit,
 the greater and the lesse; and the Iles of Horsses, and Mertaika: and
 these 8 lie ouer against the baie which is called the Lake Brian.
 After this, we go toward the north, and come to the Haraie, and the
 Lewis or the Leug, both which make (in truth) but one Iland of thrée
 score miles in length, and sixtéene in breadth, being distinguished by
 no water, but by huge woods, bounds, and limits of the two owners that
 doo possesse those parts. The south part is called Haraie, and the
 whole situate in the Deucalidon sea, ouer against the Rosse, & called
 [Sidenote: Lewis called Thule by Tacitus, with no
 better authoritie than the Angleseie Mona.]
 Thule by Tacitus, wherein are manie lakes, and verie pretie villages,
 as lake Erwijn, lake Vnsalsago: but of townes, S. Clements, Stoie,
 Nois, S. Columbane, Radmach, &c. In like sort, there are two churches,
 whereof one is dedicated to saint Peter, an other to S. Clement,
 beside a monasterie called Roadill. The soile also of this Ile is
 indifferent fruitfull; but they reape more profit vnder the ground
 than aboue, by digging. There is neither woolfe, fox, nor serpent
 séene in this Iland; yet are there great woods therein, which also
 separate one part from the other. Likewise there be plentie of stags,
 but farre lesse in quantitie than ours: and in the north part of the
 Iland also is a riuer which greatlie aboundeth with salmons. That part
 also called Lewisa, which is the north half of the Ile is well
 inhabited toward the sea coasts, and hath riuers no lesse plentifull
 for salmon than the other halfe. There is also great store of herrings
 taken, whereof the fisher men doo raise great gaine and commoditie;
 and no lesse plentie of sheepe, which they doo not sheere, but plucke
 euerie yeere; yet is the ground of this part verie heathie, and full
 of mosse, and the face thereof verie swart and blacke, for the space
 of a foot in depth, through the corruption of such woods as in time
 past haue rotted on the same. And therefore in time of the yeere they
 conuert it into turffe to burne, as néede shall serue; and in the
 yéere after, hauing well doonged it in the meane time with slawke of
 the sea, they sowe barleie in the selfe places where the turffes grew,
 and reape verie good corne, wherewith they liue and féed. Such plentie
 [Sidenote: Tithe whales.]
 of whales also are taken in this coast, that the verie tithe hath
 béene knowne, in some one yéere, to amount vnto seauen and twentie
 whales of one greatnesse and other. This is notable also in this part
 of the Ile, that there is a great caue two yards déepe of water when
 the sea is gone, and not aboue foure when it is at the highest; ouer
 which great numbers doo sit of both sexes and ages, with hooks and
 lines, and catch at all times an infinite deale of fish, wherewith
 they liue, and which maketh them also the more idle.

 Being past this about sixtie miles, we come vnto the Rona, or Ron,
 which some take for the last of the Hebrides, distant (as I said)
 about fortie miles from the Orchades, and one hundreth and thirtie
 from the promontorie of Dungisbe. The inhabitants of this Ile are
 verie rude and irreligious, the lord also of the soile dooth limit
 their number of housholds, & hauing assigned vnto them what numbers of
 the greater and smaller sorts of cattell they shall spend and inioie
 for their owne prouision, they send the ouerplus yéerlie vnto him to
 Lewis. Their cheefe paiments consist of a great quantitie of meale,
 which is verie plentifull among them, sowed vp in shéepes skins. Also
 of mutton and sea foule dried, that resteth ouer and aboue, which they
 themselues do spend. And if it happen that there be more people in the
 Iland than the lords booke or rate dooth come vnto, then they send
 also the ouerplus of them in like maner vnto him: by which means they
 liue alwaies in plentie. They receiue no vices from strange countries,
 neither know or heare of anie things doone else-where than in their
 owne Iland. Manie whales are taken also vpon their coasts, which are
 likewise replenished with seale, and porpasse, and those which are
 either so tame, or so fierce, that they abash not at the sight of such
 as looke vpon them, neither make they anie hast to flie out of their

 [Sidenote: Suilscraie.]
 Beyond this Ile, about 16 miles westward, there is another called
 Suilscraie, of a mile length, void of grasse, and without so much as
 heath growing vpon hir soile: yet are there manie cliffes and rocks
 therein, which are couered with blacke mosse, whereon innumerable
 sorts of foules do bréed and laie their egs. Thither in like sort
 manie doo saile from Lewissa, to take them yoong in time of the yeare,
 before they be able to flie, which they also kill and drie in eight
 daies space, and then returne home againe with them, and great plentie
 of fethers gathered in this voiage. One thing is verie strange and to
 [Sidenote: Colke foule.]
 be noted in this Iland, of the Colke foule, which is little lesse than
 a goose; and this kind commeth thither but once in the yeare, to wit,
 in the spring, to laie hir egs and bring vp hir yoong, till they be
 able to shift for themselues, & then they get them awaie togither to
 the sea, and come no more vntill that time of the yéere which next
 insueth. At the same season also they cast their fethers there, as it
 were answering tribute to nature for the vse of hir mossie soile:
 wherein it is woonderfull to sée, that those fethers haue no stalkes,
 neither anie thing that is hard in them, but are séene to couer their
 bodies as it were wooll or downe, till breeding time (I saie) wherein
 they be left starke naked.

 [Sidenote: Orchades.]
 The Orchades (whose first inhabitants were the Scithians, which came
 from those Iles where the Gothes did inhabit, as some sparks yet
 remaining among them of that language doo declare) lie partlie in the
 Germaine, and partlie in the Calidon seas, ouer against the point of
 Dunghisbie (being in number eight and twentie, or as other saie
 thirtie & one, yet some saie thirtie thrée, as Orosius, but Plinie
 saith fortie) and now belonging to the crowne of Scotland, as are the
 rest whereof héeretofore I haue made report, since we crossed ouer the
 mouth of the Solueie streame, to come into this countrie. Certes the
 people of these Islands reteine much of their old sparing diets, and
 therevnto they are of goodlie stature, tall, verie comelie,
 healthfull, of long life, great strength, whitish colour, as men that
 féed most vpon fish; sith the cold is so extreame in those parts, that
 the ground bringeth foorth but small store of wheate, and in maner
 verie little or no fuell at all, wherewith to warme them in the
 winter, and yet it séemeth that (in times past) some of these Ilands
 also haue béene well replenished with wood, but now they are without
 either trée or shrub, in stéed whereof they haue plentie of heath,
 which is suffered to grow among them, rather thorough their
 negligence, than that the soile of it selfe will not yéeld to bring
 forth trées & bushes. For what store of such hath béene in times past,
 the roots yet found and digged out of the ground doo yéeld sufficient
 triall. Otes they haue verie plentifullie, but greater store of
 barleie, wherof they make a nappie kind of drinke, and such indéed, as
 will verie readilie cause a stranger to ouershoot himselfe. Howbeit
 this may be vnto vs in lieu of a miracle, that although their drinke
 be neuer so strong, & they themselues so vnmeasurable drinkers (as
 [Sidenote: If he speake all in truth.]
 none are more) yet it shall not easilie be séene (saith Hector) that
 there is anie drunkard among them, either frantike, or mad man, dolt,
 or naturall foole, meet to weare a cockescombe.

 This vnmeasurable drinking of theirs is confessed also by Buchanan,
 who noteth, that whensoeuer anie wine is brought vnto them from other
 soiles, they take their parts thereof aboundantlie. He addeth
 moreouer, how they haue an old bole (which they call S. Magnus bole,
 who first preached Christ vnto them) of farre greater quantitie than
 common boles are, and so great, that it may séeme to be reserued since
 the Lapithane banket, onelie to quaffe and drinke in. And when anie
 bishop commeth vnto them, they offer him this bole full of drinke,
 which if he be able to drinke vp quite at one draught; then they
 assure themselues of good lucke, and plentie after it. Neuerthelesse
 this excesse is not often found in the common sort, whom penurie
 maketh to be more frugall; but in their priests, and such as are of
 the richer calling. They succour pirats also, and verie often exchange
 their vittels with their commodities, rather for feare and want of
 power to resist (their Ilands lieng so scattered) than for anie
 necessitie of such gains as they doo get by those men: for in truth,
 they thinke themselues to haue little need of other furniture than
 their owne soiles doo yéeld and offer vnto them. This is also to be
 read of the inhabitants of these Ilands, that ignorance of excesse is
 vnto the most part of them in stéed of physicke; and labour and
 trauell a medicine for such few diseases as they are molested and
 incombred withall.

 In like sort they want venemous beasts, chéefelie such as doo delight
 in hotter soile, and all kinds of ouglie creatures. Their ewes also
 are so full of increase, that some doo vsuallie bring foorth two,
 three, or foure lambes at once, whereby they account our anelings
 (which are such as bring foorth but one at once) rather barren than to
 be kept for anie gaine. As for wild and tame foules, they haue such
 plentie of them, that the people there account them rather a burthen
 to their soile, than a benefit to their tables: they haue also neat
 and gotes, whereby they abound in white meat, as butter and cheese:
 wherein, next vnto fish, the chéefe part of their sustenance dooth
 consist. There is also a bishop of the Orchades, who hath his see in
 Pomona the chéefe of all the Ilands, wherein also are two strong
 castels, and such hath béene the superstition of the people here, that
 there is almost no one of them, that hath not one church at the least
 dedicated to the mother of Christ. Finallie, there is little vse of
 physicke in these quarters, lesse store of éeles, and least of frogs.
 As for the horsses that are bred amongst them, they are commonlie not
 much greater than asses, and yet to labour and trauell, a man shall
 find verie few else-where, able to come neere, much lesse to match
 with them, in holding out their iournies. The seas about these Ilands
 are verie tempestuous, not onelie through strong winds, and the
 influences of the heauens and stars; but by the contrarie méetings and
 workings of the west ocean, which rageth so vehementlie in the
 streicts, that no vessell is able to passe in safetie amongst them.
 Some of these Ilands also are so small and low, that all the
 commoditie which is to be reaped by anie of them, is scarselie
 sufficient to susteine one or two men: and some of them so barren and
 full of rocks, that they are nothing else but mosse or bare shingle.
 Wherefore onelie thirtéene of them are inhabited and made account of,
 the rest being left vnto their sheepe and cattell. Of all these Ilands
 also Pomona is the greatest, and therfore called the continent, which
 conteineth thirtie miles in length, and is well replenished with
 people: for it hath twelue parish churches, and one towne which the
 Danes (sometime lords of that Iland) called Cracouia: but now it hight
 [Sidenote: Kirkwa.]
 Kirkwa. There are also two pretie holds, one belonging to the king,
 the other to the bishop: and also a beautifull church, and much
 building betweene the two holds, and about this church, which being
 taken as it were for two townes, the one is called the kings and the
 other the bishops towne. All the whole Iland is full of cliffes and
 promontories, whereby no small number of baies and some hauens are

 There is also tin and lead to be found in six of these Iles, so good
 and plentifullie as anie where else in Britaine. It lieth foure &
 twentie miles from Cathnesse, being separated from the same by the
 Pictish sea: wherein also lie certeine Ilands, as Stroma, foure miles
 from Cathnesse, which albeit that it be but foure miles from
 Cathnesse, is not reputed for anie of the Orchades. Going therefore
 from hence northward, we come to the first Ile of the Orchades, called
 south Rauals, which is sixtéene miles from Dunghilsbie, aliàs
 Dunachisbie, & that in two houres space, such is the swiftnesse of the
 sea in that tract. This Ile is fiue miles long, and hath a faire port
 called saint Margarets hauen. Then passe we by two desert Iles, which
 lie towards the east, wherein nothing is found but cattell: some call
 them the holmes, bicause they lie low, and are good for nothing but
 grasse. On the northside lieth the Bur, and two other holmes betweene
 the same & Pomona. From Bur, toward the west lie thrée Iles, Sun,
 Flat, and Far: and beyond them Hoie and Vall, which some accompt for
 two, and other but for one; bicause that in March and September, the
 flats that lie betwéene them, doo séeme to ioine them togither, after
 the tide is gone. This neuerthelesse is certeine, that in this single
 or double Ile, which is ten miles in length, the highest hilles are to
 be séene that are in all the Orchades. And as they lie eight miles
 from Rauals, so are they two miles from Pomona, & from saint Donats in
 Scotland full twentie miles, and on the north side of it lieth the
 Brainse, in a narrow streict, as Buchanan dooth remember. And these
 are the Iles which lie betweene Pomona and Cathnesse. As for the west
 side of the continent, I find that it lieth open to the sea, without
 either shelues, Ilands, or rocks appéering néere vnto it: but on the
 east side thereof Cobesa dooth in maner ouershadow it. Siapinsa also
 an Ile of six miles long, lieth within two miles of Cracouia, toward
 the east, on the west side of Pomona lieth the Rouse of six miles in
 length: and by east of that, the Eglisa, wherin (as they saie) their
 patrone S. Magnus lieth interred. From hense southward lie the Vera,
 Gersa, and not far off the Vester (which is fourescore miles from
 Hethland) Papa & Stronza, which is also eightie miles from Hethland as
 is the Vester. In the middest also of this tract lieth Far, or Fara,
 which is to saie, faire Ile, in old English, faire eie: and within
 sight so well of Hethland, as the Orchades (by reason of three
 insuperable rocks which are apparant in the same) a verie poore Iland,
 and yet yearelie robbed of such commodities as it hath by such Flemish
 and English fishermen as passe by the coasts thereof in time of the
 yeare, to catch fish for the prouision of their countries.

 Next vnto this is the greatest of all the Hethlands, an Iland called
 the Maine, sixtie miles in length, and sixteene in bredth, full of
 rocks, and whose coasts are onelie inhabited, the innermost parts
 being left vnto the foules of the aire, bicause of the barrennesse and
 vnfruitfulnesse of the soile: yet of late some haue indeuoured to
 impeople it, but with no successe correspondent to their desire.
 Wherefore they returned to their former trades, making their chéefe
 commoditie and yearelie gaine by fish, as aforetime. Ten miles from
 this toward the north, lieth the Zeale, twentie miles in length, eight
 in bredth, and so wild that it will suffer no creature to liue
 thereof, that is not bred therein. Betwéene this Iland also and the
 Maine, are other smaller Ilands to be found, as the Ling, Orne, Big,
 and Sanferre. And from hense nine miles northward Vsta, twentie miles
 long, & six in bredth, plaine, pleasant, but inuironed with a swift
 and terrible sea. Betwéene this also and the Zeale, are the Vie, the
 Vre, and the Ling: also towards the west, the two Skeues, Chalseie,
 Nordwade, Brase, and Mowse, on the west side lie the west Skeies,
 Rottia, Papa the lesse, Wunned, Papa the more, Valla, Londra, Burra,
 Haura the more, Haura the lesse, & in maner so manie holmes dispersed
 heere and there, whereof I haue no notice. Some call these the
 Shetland, and some the Shotland Iles. Buchanan nameth them in the
 third member of his diuision Zelandine, and toward the end of his
 first booke seemeth to auouch, that they liue in maner as doo the
 inhabitants of the Orchades: although not in so ciuill wise, nor in
 such large measure and aboundance of diet in their houses. He addeth
 moreouer, that their apparrell is after the Germaine cut, comelie, but
 not so chargeable and costlie, and how they raise their gaine by skins
 of beasts, as marterns, sheepe, oxen, and gotes skins, and therevnto a
 kind of cloth which they weaue, and sell to the merchants of Norwaie,
 togither with their butter, fish, either salted or dried, and their
 traine oile, and exercise their trade of fishing also in their
 vncerteine skewes, which they fetch out of Norwaie.

 Their speech is Gothish, and such of them as by their dealing with
 forren merchants doo gather anie wealth, that will they verie often
 bestow vpon the furniture of their houses. Their weights & measures
 are after the Germaine maner, their countrie is verie healthie, and so
 wholesome, that a man was found which had married a wife at one
 hundred yeares of age, and was able to go out a fishing with his bote
 at one hundred and fortie, and of late yéeres died of méere age,
 without anie other disease. Dronkennesse is not heard of among them,
 and yet they meet and make good chéere verie often. Neither doo I read
 of anie great vse of flesh or foule there, although that some of their
 Ilands haue plentie of both. Nor anie mention of corne growing in
 these parts, and therefore in steed of bread they drie a kind of fish,
 which they beat in morters to powder, & bake it in their ouens, vntill
 it be hard and drie. Their fuell also is of such bones as the fish
 yéeldeth, that is taken on their coasts: and yet they liue as
 themselues suppose in much felicitie, thinking it a great péece of
 their happinesse to be so farre distant from the wicked auarice, and
 cruell dealings of the more rich and ciuill part of the world.

 Herein also they are like vnto the Hirthiens, in that at one time of
 the yeare, there commeth a priest vnto them out of the Orchades (vnto
 which iurisdiction they doo belong) who baptiseth all such children,
 as haue béene borne among them, since he last arriued, and hauing
 afterward remained there for a two daies, he taketh his tithes of them
 (which they prouide and paie with great scrupulositie in fish, for of
 other commodities haue they none) and then returneth home againe, not
 without boast of his troublesome voiage, except he watch his time. In
 [Sidenote: Amber.]
 these Iles also is great plentie of fine Amber to be had (as Hector
 saith) which is producted by the working of the sea vpon those coasts:
 but more of this elsewhere. This neuertheles is certeine, that these
 Ilands, with the Orchades, were neuer perfectlie vnited to the crowne
 of Scotland, till the mariage was made betwéene king Iames and the
 ladie Marie daughter to Christierne king of Denmarke 1468, which
 Christierne at the birth of their sonne Iames (afterward king of
 Scotland and called Iames the fourth) resigned all his right and title
 whatsoeuer either he or his ancestors either presently or hertofore
 had, might haue had, or herafter may or should haue, vnto the
 aforesaid péeres, as appéereth by the charter.

 From these Shetland Iles, and vntill we come southwards to the Scarre,
 which lieth in Buquhamnesse, I find no mention of anie Ile situat vpon
 that coast, neither greatlie from thence, vntill we come at the Forth,
 that leadeth vp to Sterling, neither thought we it safetie for vs to
 search so farre as Thule, whence the most excellent brimstone commeth,
 & thereto what store of Ilands lie vnder the more northerlie climats,
 whose secret situations though partlie seene in my time, haue not yet
 bin perfectlie reueled or discouered by anie, bicause of the great
 aboundance of huge Ilands of ice that mooueth to and fro vpon their
 shores, and sundrie perilous gulfes and indraughts of water, and for
 as much as their knowlege doth not concerne our purpose, wherfore
 casting about, we came at the last into the Firth or Forth, which some
 call the Scotish sea, wherein we passe by seuen or eight such as they
 be, of which the first called the Maie, the second Baas, and Garwie
 the third, doo seeme to be inhabited. From these also holding on our
 course toward England, we passe by another Ile, wherein Faux castell
 standeth, and this (so far as my skill serueth) is the last Iland of
 the Scotish side, in compassing whereof I am not able to discerne,
 whether their flats and shallowes, number of Ilands without name,
 confusion of situation, lacke of true description, or mine owne
 ignorance hath troubled me most. No meruell therefore that I haue
 béene so oft on ground among them. But most ioifull am I that am come
 home againe: & although not by the Thames mouth into my natiue citie
 (which taketh his name of Troie) yet into the English dominion, where
 good interteinement is much more franke and copious, and better
 harborough wherein to rest my wearie bones, and refresh at ease our
 wetherbeaten carcasses.

 The first Iland therefore which commeth to our sight, after we passed
 [Sidenote: Lindesfarne or Holie Iland.]
 Berwike, is that which was somtime called Lindesfarne, but now Holie
 Iland, and conteineth eight miles; a place much honored among our
 monasticall writers, bicause diuerse moonks and heremits did spend
 their times therein. There was also the bishops see of Lindesfarne for
 a long season, which afterward was translated to Chester in the
 stréet, & finallie to Duresme, Dunelme, or Durham. It was first
 erected by Oswald, wherein he placed Aidanus the learned Scotish
 moonke, who came hither out of the Ile called Hij, whereof Beda
 speaking in the third chapter of his third booke, noteth, that
 although the said Hij belong to the kings of Northumberland, by reason
 of situation & néerenesse to the coast; yet the Picts appointed the
 bishops of the same, and gaue the Ile with the see it selfe to such
 Scotish moonks as they liked, bicause that by their preaching they
 first receiued the faith. But to returne to Lindesfarne. After Aidan
 departed this life, Finanus finished and builded the whole church with
 sawed timber of oke, after the maner of his countrie, which when
 Theodorus the archbishop of Canturburie had dedicated, Edbert the
 bishop did couer ouer with lead.

 [Sidenote: Farne.]
 Next vnto this is the Ile of Farne, and herein is a place of defense
 so far as I remember, and so great store of egs laid there by diuerse
 kinds of wildfoule in time of the yeare, that a man shall hardlie run
 for a wager on the plaine ground without the breach of manie, before
 his race be finished. About Farne also lie certeine Iles greater than
 Farne it selfe, but void of inhabitants; and in these also is great
 [Sidenote: Puffins.]
 store of puffins, graie as duckes, and without coloured fethers,
 sauing that they haue a white ring round about their necks. There is
 [Sidenote: Saint Cuthberts foules.]
 moreouer another bird, which the people call saint Cuthberts foules, a
 verie tame and gentle creature, and easie to be taken. After this we
 came to the Cocket Iland; so called, bicause it lieth ouer against the
 fall of Cocket water. Herein is a veine of meane seacole, which the
 people dig out of the shore at the low water; and in this Iland
 dwelled one Henrie sometime a famous heremite, who (as his life
 declareth) came of the Danish race. And from thence vntill we came
 vnto the coast of Norffolke I saw no more Ilands.

 Being therfore past S. Edmunds point, we found a litle Ile ouer
 against the fall of the water that commeth from Holkham, & likewise
 another ouer against the Claie, before we came at Waburne hope: the
 third also in Yarmouth riuer ouer against Bradwell, a towne in low or
 little England, whereof also I must néeds saie somewhat, bicause it is
 in maner an Iland, and as I gesse either hath béene or may be one: for
 the brodest place of the strict land that leadeth to the same, is
 little aboue a quarter of a mile, which against the raging waues of
 [Sidenote: Little England.]
 the sea can make but small resistance. Little England or low England
 therefore is about eight miles in length and foure in bredth, verie
 well replenished with townes, as Fristan, Burgh castell, Olton,
 Flixton, Lestoft, Gunton, Blundston, Corton, Lownd, Ashebie, Hoxton,
 Belton, Bradwell, and Gorleston, and beside this it is verie fruitfull
 and indued with all commodities.

 Going forward from hence, by the Estonnesse (almost an Iland) I saw a
 small parcell cut from the maine in Orford hauen, the Langerstone in
 Orwell mouth, & two péeces or Islets at Cattiwade bridge; and then
 [Sidenote: Merseie.]
 casting about vnto the Colne, we beheld Merseie which is a pretie
 Iland, well furnished with wood. It was sometime a great receptacle
 for the Danes when they inuaded England; howbeit at this present it
 hath beside two decaied blockehouses, two parish churches, of which
 one is called east Merseie, the other west Merseie, and both vnder the
 [Sidenote: Foulnesse.]
 archdeacon of Colchester, as parcell of his iurisdiction. Foulenesse
 is an Ile void of wood, and yet well replenished with verie good
 grasse for neat and sheepe, whereof the inhabitants haue great
 plentie: there is also a parish church, and albeit that it stand
 somewhat distant from the shore, yet at a dead low water a man may (as
 they saie) ride thereto if he be skilfull of the causie; it is vnder
 the iurisdiction of London. And at this present master William Tabor
 bacheler of diuinitie and archdeacon of Essex hath it vnder his
 iurisdiction & regiment, by the surrender of maister Iohn Walker
 doctor also of diuinitie, who liued at such time as I first attempted
 to commit this booke to the impression.

 In Maldon water are in like sort thrée Ilands inuironed all with salt
 [Sidenote: Osithe.]
 [Sidenote: Northeie.]
 streames, as saint Osithes, Northeie, and another (after a mersh) that
 beareth no name so far as I remember. On the right hand also as we
 [Sidenote: Ramseie.]
 [Sidenote: Reie.]
 went toward the sea againe, we saw Ramseie Ile, or rather a Peninsula
 or Biland, & likewise the Reie, in which is a chappell of saint Peter.
 And then coasting vpon the mouth of the Bourne, we saw the Wallot Ile
 and his mates, whereof two lie by east Wallot, and the fourth is
 Foulnesse, except I be deceiued, for here my memorie faileth me on the
 one side, and information on the other, I meane concerning the placing
 of Foulenesse. But to procéed. After this, and being entered into the
 Thames mouth, I find no Iland of anie name, except you accompt
 Rochford hundred for one, whereof I haue no mind to intreat, more than
 of Crowland, Mersland, Elie, and the rest, that are framed by the
 ouze. Andredeseie in Trent, so called of a church there dedicated to
 saint Andrew, and Auon (two noble riuers hereafter to be described)
 sith I touch onelie those that are inuironed with the sea or salt
 [Sidenote: Canwaie.]
 water round about, as we may see in the Canwaie Iles, which some call
 marshes onelie, and liken them to an ipocras bag, some to a vice,
 scrue, or wide sléeue, bicause they are verie small at the east end,
 and large at west. The salt rilles also that crosse the same doo so
 separat the one of them from the other, that they resemble the slope
 course of the cutting part of a scrue or gimlet, in verie perfect
 maner, if a man doo imagine himselfe to looke downe from the top of
 the mast vpon them. Betwéene these, moreouer and the Leigh towne lieth
 another litle Ile or Holme, whose name is to me vnknowne. Certes I
 would haue gone to land and viewed these parcels as they laie, or at
 the least haue sailed round about them by the whole hauen, which may
 easilie be doone at an high water: but for as much as a perrie of wind
 (scarse comparable to the makerell gale, whereof Iohn Anele of Calis
 one of the best seamen that England euer bred for his skill in the
 narow seas was woont to talke) caught hold of our sailes, & caried vs
 forth the right waie toward London, I could not tarie to sée what
 things were hereabouts. Thus much therefore of our Ilands, & so much
 may well suffice where more cannot be had.



 Hauing (as you haue séene) attempted to set downe a full discourse of
 all the Ilands, that are situat vpon the coast of Britaine, and
 finding the successe not correspondent to mine intent, it hath caused
 me somewhat to restreine my purpose in this description also of our
 riuers. For whereas I intended at the first to haue written at large,
 of the number, situation, names, quantities, townes, villages,
 castels, mounteines, fresh waters, plashes or lakes, salt waters, and
 other commodities of the aforesaid Iles, mine expectation of
 information from all parts of England, was so deceiued in the end,
 that I was faine at last onelie to leane to that which I knew my selfe
 either by reading, or such other helpe as I had alreadie purchased and
 gotten of the same. And euen so it happeneth in this my tractation of
 waters, of whose heads, courses, length, bredth, depth of chanell (for
 burden) ebs, flowings, and falles, I had thought to haue made a
 perfect description vnder the report also of an imagined course taken
 by them all. But now for want of instruction, which hath béene
 largelie promised, & slacklie perfourmed, and other sudden and
 iniurious deniall of helpe voluntarilie offered, without occasion
 giuen on my part, I must needs content my selfe with such obseruations
 as I haue either obteined by mine owne experience, or gathered from
 time to time out of other mens writings: whereby the full discourse of
 the whole is vtterlie cut off, and in steed of the same a mangled
 rehearsall of the residue set downe and left in memorie.

 Wherefore I beséech your honour to pardon this imperfection and
 rudenesse of my labour, which notwithstanding is not altogither in
 vaine, sith my errors maie prooue a spurre vnto the better skilled,
 either to correct or inlarge where occasion serueth, or at the
 leastwise to take in hand a more absolute péece of worke, as better
 direction shall incourage them thereto. The entrance and beginning of
 euerie thing is the hardest; and he that beginneth well, hath atchiued
 halfe his purpose. The ice (my lord) is broken, and from hencefoorth
 it will be more easie for such as shall come after to wade through
 with the rest, sith "Facile est inuentis addere;" and to continue and
 finish, is not so great a matter in building, as to attempt and laie
 the foundation or platforme of anie noble péece of workmanship, though
 [Sidenote: Thamesis.]
 it be but rudelie handled. But to my purpose. As I began at the Thames
 in my description of Ilands, so will I now doo the like with that of
 famous riuers; making mine entrie at the said riuer it selfe, of whose
 founteine some men make as much adoo, as in time past of the true head
 of Nilus, which, till of late (if it be yet descried) was neuer found:
 or the Tanais, whose originall was neuer knowne, nor shall be: for
 whilest one placeth it here, another there; there are none at all that
 deale with it exactlie. Wherefore leaning to such mens writings as
 haue of set purpose sought out the spring of the Thames; I affirme
 that this famous streame hath his head or beginning out of the side of
 an hill, standing in the plaines of Cotswold, about one mile from
 Tetburie, néere vnto the Fosse (an high waie so called of old) where
 it was sometime named Isis, or the Ouse, although diuerse doo
 ignorantlie call it the Thames euen there, rather of a foolish custome
 than anie skill, bicause they either neglect or vtterlie are ignorant
 how it was named at the first. From hence it runneth directlie toward
 the east (as all good riuers should) and méeteth with the Cirne or
 [Sidenote: Corinium.]
 Churne, (a brooke called in Latine Corinium) whereof Cirncester towne
 (by which it commeth) doth take the denomination.

 From hence it hasteth vnto Créekelade, aliàs Crekanford, Lechlade,
 Radcotebridge, Newbridge, and Eouesham, receiuing by the waie an
 infinit sort of small streames, brookes, beckes, waters, and rundels:
 and here on this side of the towne diuideth it selfe into two courses,
 of which the one goeth straight to Botleie and Hinkseie, the other by
 Godstow, a village not farre off. This latter spreadeth it selfe also
 for a while into sundrie smaller branches, which run not farre yer
 they be reunited, and then beclipping sundrie pleasant meadowes, it
 passeth at length by Oxford, of some supposed rather to be called
 [Sidenote: Charwell.]
 Ouseford of this riuer, where it meeteth with the Charwell, and a
 litle from whence the originall branches doo ioine and go togither by
 Abbandune (aliàs Sensham or Abington as we call it) although no part
 of it at the first came so néere the towne as it doth now, till a
 branch thereof was led thither the maine streame, thorough the
 [Sidenote: Some write, that the maine streame was brought thither
 from which ranne before betweene Andredeseie and Culenham.]
 industrie of the moonks, as (beside the testimonie of old records
 thereof yet extant to be séene) by the decaie of Cair Dour, now
 Dorchester it selfe, sometime the throughfare from Wales and the west
 countrie to London, which insued vpon this fact, is easie to be seene.
 From hence it goeth to Dorchester, and so to Thame, where ioining with
 a riuer of the same denomination, it looseth the name of Isis or Ouse
 (whereof Ouseneie at Oxford is producted) and from thenceforth is
 called Thamesis. From Thame it goeth to Wallingford, and so to Reding,
 which in time past, of the number of bridges there, was called
 [Sidenote: Pontium.]
 [Sidenote: Saint Marie ouer Rhee.]
 Pontium; albeit that the English name doth rather proceed from Rhe, or
 Ree, the Saxon word for a water-course or riuer; which maie be séene
 in Ouerée, or Sutherée, for ouer the Ree, or south of the Rhee, as to
 the skilfull doth readilie appéere; yet some hold (and not altogither
 against probabilitie and likelihood) that the word Sutherée is so
 called of Sudrijc, to wit, the south kingdome, wherevnto in part the
 Thames is a bound. But that holdeth not in denomination, either of the
 said church or name of the foresaid countie. Other affirme likewise,
 that Reding is so called of the Greeke word ([Greek: rheô]) which is
 to ouerflowe. Certes, as neither of these coniectures are to be
 contemned, so the last c[=o]meth most neere to mine aid, who affirme,
 that not onelie the course of euerie water it selfe, but also his
 ouerflowing was in time past called Rhe, by such Saxons as inhabited
 in this Iland: and euen to this daie in Essex I haue oft obserued,
 that when the lower grounds by rage of water haue béene ouerflowen,
 the people beholding the same, haue said; All is on a Rhe, as if they
 should haue said; All is now a riuer, albeit the word Riuer be deriued
 from the French, and borrowed by them from the Latins, but not without
 corruption, as it was brought vnto them. I will not here giue notice
 how farre they are deceiued, which call the aforesaid church by the
 name of S. Marie Auderies, or S. Marie ouer Isis, or Ise: but I will
 procéed with the course of this noble streame, which, howsoeuer these
 matters stand after it hath passed by Reding, & there receiued the
 [Sidenote: Kenet.]
 [Sidenote: Thetis.]
 Kenet, which commeth from the hilles that lie west of Marleborough (&
 then the Thetis, commonlie called the Tide that commeth from
 Thetisford) hieth to Sudlington otherwise called Maidenhead, and so to
 Windleshore (or Windsore) Eaton, and then to Chertseie, where
 Erkenwald bishop of London sometime builded a religious house or cell,
 as I doo read.

 From Chertseie it hasteth directlie vnto Stanes, and receiuing an
 [Sidenote: Cole.]
 other streame by the waie, called the Cole (wherevpon Colbrooke
 standeth) it goeth by Kingstone, Shene, Sion and Brentford or
 [Sidenote: Brene.]
 Bregentford, where it méeteth the Brane or the Brene (another brooke
 descending from Edgworth) whose name signifieth a frog, in the
 Brittish speach. Vpon this also sir John Thin had sometime a statelie
 house, with a maruellous prouision to inclose and reteine such fish as
 should come about the same. From Brentfoord it passeth by Mortlach,
 Putneie, Fulham, Batterseie, Chelseie, Lambeth, and so to London.
 Finallie going from thence vnto the sea, it taketh the Lée with it by
 the waie vpon the coast of Essex, and another that commeth from
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 Abreche not far off, and the Darnt vpon Kent side, which riseth néere
 to Tanrige, and commeth by Shoreham, vnto Derntford, wherevnto the
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 Craie falleth. And last of all the Medwaie a notable riuer (in mine
 opinion) which watereth all the south and southwest part of Kent, and
 whose description shall insue.

 Hauing in this maner bréefelie touched this noble riuer, and such
 brookes as fall into the same; I will now adde a particular
 description of each of these last by themselues, whereby their courses
 also shall be seuerallie described to the satisfaction of the
 studious. But yer I take the same in hand, I will insert a word or two
 of the commodities of the said riuer, which I will performe with so
 much breuitie as is possible. Héereby also finding out his whole tract
 and course from the head to the fall thereof into the sea. It
 appeareth euidentlie that the length thereof is at the least, one
 hundreth and eightie miles, if it be measured by the iourneies of the
 land. And as it is in course, the longest of the thrée famous riuers
 of this Ile, so it is nothing inferiour vnto them in aboundance of all
 kind of fish, whereof it is hard to saie, which of the three haue
 either most plentie, or greatest varietie, if the circumstances be
 duelie weighed. What some other write of the riuers of their countries
 it skilleth not, neither will I (as diuerse doo) inuent strange things
 of this noble streame, therewith to nobilitate and make it more
 honorable: but this will I in plaine termes affirme, that it neither
 swalloweth vp bastards of the Celtish brood, or casteth vp the right
 begotten that are throwne in without hurt into their mothers lap, as
 Politian fableth of the Rhene, Epistolarum lib. 8. epi. 6. nor
 yéeldeth clots of gold as the Tagus dooth: but an infinit plentie of
 excellent, swéet and pleasant fish, wherewith such as inhabit néere
 vnto hir bankes are fed and fullie nourished.

 [Sidenote: Salmons.]
 What should I speake of the fat and swéet salmons, dailie taken in
 this streame, and that in such plentie (after the time of the smelt be
 past) as no riuer in Europa is able to excéed it. What store also of
 barbels, trouts, cheuins, pearches, smelts, breames, roches, daces,
 gudgings, flounders, shrimps, &c: are commonlie to be had therein, I
 refer me to them that know by experience better than I, by reason of
 their dailie trade of fishing in the same. And albeit it seemeth from
 time to time, to be as it were defrauded in sundrie wise of these hir
 large commodities, by the insatiable auarice of the fishermen, yet
 this famous riuer complaineth commonlie of no want, but the more it
 [Sidenote: Carps a fish late brought into England
 and later into the Thames.]
 looseth at one time, the more it yéeldeth at another. Onelie in carps
 it séemeth to be scant, sith it is not long since that kind of fish
 was brought ouer into England, and but of late to speake of into this
 streame, by the violent rage of sundrie landflouds, that brake open
 the heads and dams of diuers gentlemens ponds, by which means it
 became somewhat partaker also of this said commoditie, whereof earst
 it had no portion that I could euer heare. Oh that this riuer might be
 spared but euen one yeare from nets, &c! But alas then should manie a
 poore man be vndoone. In the meane time it is lamentable to see, how
 it is and hath béene choked of late with sands and shelues, through
 the penning and wresting of the course of the water for commodities
 sake. But as this is an inconuenience easilie remedied, if good order
 were taken for the redresse thereof: so now, the fine or prise set
 vpon the ballasse sometime freelie giuen to the merchants by patent,
 euen vnto the lands end (Iusques au poinct) will be another cause of
 harme vnto this noble streame, and all through an aduantage taken at
 the want of an (i) in the word ponct: which grew through an error
 committed by an English notarie vnskilfull in the French toong,
 wherein that patent was granted.

 Furthermore, the said riuer floweth and filleth all his chanels twise
 in the daie and night, that is in euerie twelue houres once; and this
 ebbing & flowing, holdeth on for the space of seauentie miles, within
 the maine land: the streame or tide being alwaies highest at London,
 when the moone dooth exactlie touch the northeast and south or west
 points of the heauens, of which one is visible, the other vnder the
 earth, and not subiect to our sight. These tides also differ in their
 times, each one comming latter than other, by so manie minuts as passe
 yer the reuolution and naturall course of the heauens doo reduce, and
 bring about the said planet vnto those hir former places: whereby the
 [Sidenote: The iust dist[=a]ce betwéene one tide and another.]
 36 common difference betwéene one tide and another, is found to
 consist of twentie foure minuts, which wanteth but twelue of an whole
 houre in foure and twentie, as experience dooth confirme. In like sort
 we sée by dailie triall, that each tide is not of equall heigth and
 greatnesse: for at the full and change of the moone we haue the
 greatest flouds, and such is their ordinarie course, that as they
 diminish from their changes and fuls, vnto the first and last
 quarters; so afterwards they increase againe, vntill they come to the
 full and change. Sometimes also they rise so high (if the wind be at
 the north or northeast, which bringeth in the water with more
 vehemencie, bicause the tide which filleth the chanell, commeth from
 Scotland ward) that the Thames ouerfloweth hir banks néere vnto
 London: which hapneth especiallie in the fuls and changes of Januarie
 and Februarie, wherein the lower grounds are of custome soonest
 drowned. This order of flowing in like sort is perpetuall, so that
 when the moone is vpon the southwest and north of points, then is the
 water by London at the highest: neither doo the tides alter, except
 some rough winds out of the west or southwest doo kéepe backe and
 [Sidenote: The streame oft checked in hir entrance into the land.]
 checke the streame in his entrance, as the east and northeast do
 hasten the comming in thereof, or else some other extraordinarie
 occasion, put by the ordinarie course of the northerne seas, which
 fill the said riuer by their naturall returne and flowing. And that
 both these doo happen eft among, I refer me to such as haue not
 sildome obserued it, as also the sensible chopping in of thrée or
 foure tides in one naturall daie, wherof the vnskilfull doo descant
 manie things.

 But how so euer these small matters doo fall out, and how often soeuer
 this course of the streame doth happen to be disturbed; yet at two
 seuerall times of the age of the moone, the waters returne to their
 naturall course and limits of time exactlie. Polydore saith, that this
 riuer is seldome increased or rather neuer ouerfloweth hir banks by
 landflouds: but he is herein verie much deceiued, as it shalbe more
 apparentlie séene hereafter. For the more that this riuer is put by of
 hir right course, the more the water must of necessitie swell with the
 white waters which run downe from the land: bicause the passage cannot
 be so swift and readie in the winding as in the streight course. These
 landflouds also doo greatlie straine the finesse of the streame, in so
 much that after a great landfloud, you shall take haddocks with your
 hands beneath the bridge, as they flote aloft vpon the water, whose
 eies are so blinded with the thicknesse of that element, that they
 cannot see where to become, and make shift to saue themselues before
 death take hold of them. Otherwise the water of it selfe is verie
 cléere, and in comparison next vnto that of the sea, which is most
 subtile and pure of all other; as that of great riuers is most
 excellent, in comparison of smaller brookes: although Aristotle will
 haue the salt water to be most grosse, bicause a ship will beare a
 greater burden on the sea than on the fresh water; and an eg sinke in
 this that swimmeth on the other. But he may easilie be answered by the
 quantitie of roome and aboundance of waters in the sea; whereby it
 becommeth of more force to susteine such vessels as are committed to
 the same, and whervnto the greatest riuers (God wot) are nothing
 comparable. I would here make mention of sundrie bridges placed ouer
 [Sidenote: London bridge.]
 this noble streame, of which that of London is most chieflie to be
 commended, for it is in maner a c[=o]tinuall street, well replenished
 with large and statelie houses on both sides, and situat vpon twentie
 arches, whereof ech one is made of excellent free squared stone,
 euerie of them being thréescore foot in height, and full twentie in
 distance one from another, as I haue often viewed.

 In like maner I could intreat of the infinit number of swans dailie to
 [Sidenote: 2000 boates vpon the Thames and 3000 poore m[=e]
 mainteined by the same whose gaines come in most
 plentifullie in the tearme time.]
 be séene vpon this riuer, the two thousand wherries and small boats,
 wherby three thousand poore watermen are mainteined, through the
 cariage and recariage of such persons as passe or repasse, from time
 to time vpon the same: beside those huge tideboats, tiltbotes, and
 barges, which either carrie passengers, or bring necessarie prouision
 from all quarters of Oxfordshire, Barkeshire, Buckinghamshire,
 Bedfordshire, Herfordshire, Midlesex, Essex, Surrie, and Kent, vnto
 the citie of London. But for somuch as these things are to be repeated
 againe in the particular description of London, annexed to his card; I
 surceasse at this time to speake anie more of them here, as not
 lingering but hasting to performe my promise made euen now, not yet
 forgotten, and in performance whereof I thinke it best to resume the
 description of this noble riuer againe into my hands, and in adding
 whatsoeuer is before omitted, to deliuer a full and perfect
 demonstration of his course. How and where the said streame ariseth,
 is alreadie & with sufficiencie set downe, noting the place to be
 within a mile of Tetburie, whereof some doo vtterlie mislike, bicause
 that rill in summer drouths is oft so drie, that there is little or no
 water at all séene running aboue ground in the same. For this cause
 [Sidenote: Isis.]
 therefore manie affirme the verie head of Isis to come from the poole
 aboue Kemble. Other confound it with the head of the Cirne or Chirne,
 called in Latine Corinium that riseth aboue Coberleie. For my part I
 follow Leland, as he dooth the moonke of Malmesburie, which wrote the
 historie intituled Eulogium historiarum, who searched the same of set
 purpose, and pronounced with Leland, although at this present that
 course be verie small, and choked vp (as I heare) with grauell and
 sand. Procéeding therefore from the head, it first of all receiueth
 [Sidenote: Couus.]
 the Kemble water called the Coue, which riseth aboue Kemble towne,
 goeth by Kemble it selfe vnto Poole and Somerford, and then
 (accompanieth the Thames) vnto Canes, Ashton, Canes, and Howston,
 holding on in one chanell vntill they méet with the Chirne, the next
 of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Corinium.]
 The Chirne is a faire water arising out of the ground aboue Coberleie,
 from whence it runneth to Cowleie, Cowlesburne, Randcome, and so into
 the Isis on the left side aboue Crekelade. These thrée waters being
 thus vnited and brought into one chanell, within a little space of the
 head of Isis, it runneth on by Crekelade, beneath which towne it
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 receiueth the Rhe, descending from Elcombe, Escot, Redburne, Widhill,
 & at the fall into Isis, or not far off ioineth with another that
 runneth west of Purton by Braden forrest, &c. Next of all our Isis
 [Sidenote: Amneie.]
 méeteth with the Amneie on the left hand, which comming from aboue
 Holie roode Amneie, runneth by Downe Amneie, and finallie into the
 Isis a little aboue Iseie. In like sort I read of another that méeteth
 withall on the right hand aboue Iseie also, which so far as I can call
 to remembrance, commeth from about Drifield and falleth so into our
 Isis, that they run as one vntill they come at the Colne, although not
 so nakedlie and without helpe, but that in this voiage, the maine
 streame dooth crosse one water that descendeth from Swindon, and going
 also by Stratton toward Seuingham, is it selfe increased with two rils
 by the waie, whereof one commeth from Liddenton by Wambreie, as I haue
 béene informed.

 [Sidenote: Colneius, Colineus, or Colunus.]
 The Colne is a faire riuer rising by north neere to Witchington, &
 from thence goeth to Shiptons, Compton Abdale, Wittenton, Parneworth,
 Colne Deanes, and Colne Rogers, Winston, Biberie, Colne Alens,
 Quenington, Faireford, and west of Lachelade into the riuer Isis,
 which hereabout on the southside also taketh in another, whereof I
 find this remembrance. The Isis being once past Seuingham, crosseth a
 brooke from southest that mounteth about Ashbirie, and receiuing a
 rill from bywest (that commeth from Hinton) beneath Shrineham, it
 afterward so diuideth it selfe, that the armes therof include
 Inglesham, and by reason that it falleth into the Isis at two seuerall
 places, there is a plesant Iland producted, whereof let this suffice.

 [Sidenote: Lecusor Leche.]
 Being past Lechelade a mile, it runneth to saint Johns bridge, &
 thereabout méeteth with the Leche on the left hand. This brooke,
 whereof Lechlade taketh the name (a towne wherevnto one péece of an
 old vniuersitie is ascribed, which it did neuer possesse, more than
 Crekelade did the other) riseth east of Hampnet, fr[=o] whence it
 goeth to north Lech, Estenton, Anlesworth, east Lech, south Thorpe,
 Farendon, & so into the Isis. From hence this famous water goeth by
 Kenskot toward Radcote bridge (taking in the rill that riseth in an od
 péece of Barkeshire, and runneth by Langford) and being past the said
 bridge (now notable through a conspiracie made there sometimes by
 sundrie barons against the estate) it is not long yer it crosse two
 other waters, both of them descending from another od parcell of the
 said countie, whereof I haue this note giuen me for my further
 information. There are two fals of water into Isis beneath Radcote
 bridge, wherof the one commeth from Shilton in Barkeshire by Arescote,
 blacke Burton and Clarrefield. The other also riseth in the same
 péece, and runneth by Brisenorton vnto Bampton, and there receiuing an
 armelet from the first that breake off at blacke Burton, it is not
 long yer they fall into Isis, and leaue a pretie Iland. After these
 confluences, the maine course of the streame hasteth by Shifford to
 [Sidenote: Winrush.]
 Newbridge, where it ioineth with the Winrush. The Winrush riseth aboue
 Shieburne in Glocestershire, from whence it goeth to Winrush, &
 c[=o]ming by Barrington, Burford, Widbrooke, Swinbecke castell,
 Witneie, Duckington, Cockthorpe, Stanlake, it méeteth with the Isis
 west by south of Northmore. From hence it goeth beneath Stanton,
 Hartingcourt and Ensham, betwéene which and Cassinton, it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Briwerus.]
 (as Leland calleth it) the Bruerne water.

 It riseth aboue Limington, and going to Norton in the Marsh, and
 through a patch of Worcestershire vnto Euenlode, betweene it and the
 [Sidenote: Comus.]
 foure shirestones, it taketh in a rill called Come, comming by the
 long and the little Comptons. After this also it goeth by Bradwell,
 Odington, and so to Bleddenton, aboue which towne it taketh in the
 [Sidenote: Rolrich.]
 Rolrich water that issueth at two heads, in the hils that lie by west
 of little Rolrich, and ioine aboue Kenkeham, and Church hill. From
 thence also it goeth vnto Bruerne, Shipton vnderwood, Ascot, Short
 hamton, Chorleburie, Corneburie parke, Stonfield, Longcombe, and
 [Sidenote: Enis.]
 southeast of Woodstocke parke, taketh in the Enis, that riseth aboue
 Emstone, and goeth to Ciddington, Glimton, Wotton (where it is
 increased with a rill that runneth thither from stéeple Barton, by the
 Béechin trée) Woodstocke, Blaidon, so that after this confluence, the
 said Enis runneth to Cassinton, and so into the Isis, which goeth from
 hence to Oxford, and there receiueth the Charwell, now presentlie to
 be described.

 [Sidenote: Charwell.]
 The head of Charwell is in Northamptonshire, where it riseth out of a
 little poole, by Charleton village, seuen miles aboue Banberie
 northeast, and there it issueth so fast at the verie surge, that it
 groweth into a pretie streame, in maner out of hand. Soone after also
 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 it taketh in a rillet called the Bure, which falleth into it, about
 Otmere side: but forasmuch as it riseth by Bincester, the whole course
 therof is not aboue foure miles, and therefore cannot be great. A
 friend of mine prosecuting the rest of this description reporteth
 thereof as followeth. Before the Charwell commeth into Oxfordshire, it
 [Sidenote: Culen.]
 receiueth the Culen, which falleth into the same, a little aboue
 Edgcote, and so descending toward Wardington, it méeteth with another
 comming from by north west, betweene Wardington and Cropreadie. At
 [Sidenote: Come.]
 Banberie also it méeteth with the Come (which falleth from fennie
 Conton by Farneboro, and afterwards going by kings Sutton, not far
 from Aine, it receiueth the discharge of diuerse rillets, in one
 bottome before it come at Clifton. The said water therfore ingendred
 of so manie brookelets, consisteth chiefelie of two, whereof the most
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 southerlie called Oke, commeth from Oke Norton, by Witchington or
 Wiggington, and the Berfords; and carieng a few blind rils withall,
 dooth méet with the other that falleth from by northwest into the
 same, within a mile of Charwell.

 That other (as I coniecture) is increased of thrée waters, wherof each
 [Sidenote: Tudo.]
 one hath his seuerall name. The first of them therefore hight Tudo,
 which comming betwéene Epwell and the Lée by Toddington, ioineth about
 [Sidenote: Ornus.]
 Broughton with the second that runneth from Horneton, named Ornus, as
 I gesse. The last falleth into the Tude or Tudelake, beneath
 Broughton; and for that it riseth not far from Sotteswell in
 Warwikeshire, some are of the opinion, that it is to be called
 [Sidenote: Sotbrooke.]
 Sotbrooke. The next water that méeteth without Charwell beneath
 [Sidenote: Souarus.]
 [Sidenote: Sowar.]
 Clifton commeth from about Croughton, and after this is the Sowar or
 Swere, that riseth north of Michaell Tew, and runneth by nether
 [Sidenote: Burus.]
 Wotton. The last of all is the Reie aliàs Bure, whose head is not far
 aboue Burcester, aliàs Bincester, and Burncester: and from whence it
 goeth by Burecester to Merton, Charleton, Fencote, Addington, Noke,
 Islip, and so into Charwell, that holdeth on his course after this
 augmentation of the waters, betwéene Wood and Water Eton, to Marston,
 and the east bridge of Oxford by Magdalene college, and so beneath the
 south bridge into our aforesaid Isis.

 [Sidenote: Middest of England whereabouts.]
 In describing this riuer, this one thing (right honorable) is come
 vnto my mind, touching the center and nauill as it were of England.
 Certes there is an hillie plot of ground in Helledon parish, not far
 from Danberie, where a man maie stand and behold the heads of thrée
 notable riuers, whose waters, and those of such as fall into them, doo
 abundantlie serue the greatest part of England on this side of the
 Humber. The first of these waters is the Charwell, alreadie described.
 The second is the Leme that goeth westward into the fourth Auon. And
 the third is the head of the Nene or fift Auon it selfe, of whose
 courses there is no card but doth make sufficient mention; and
 therefore your honour maie behold in the same how they doo coast the
 countrie, and also measure by compasses how this plot lieth in respect
 of all the rest, contrarie to common iudgement, which maketh
 Northampton to be the middest and center of our countrie.

 But to go forward with my description of the Ouse, which being past
 Oxford goeth to Iflie, Kennington, Sanford, Rodleie, Newnham, and so
 to Abington, som time called Sensham, without increase, where it
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 receiueth the Oche, otherwise called the Coche, a little beneath S.
 Helens, which runneth thither of two brooklets, as I take it, whereof
 one commeth from Compton, out of the vale and west of the hill of the
 White horsse, the other from Kings Letcombe, and Wantage in Barkshire,
 and in one chanell, entreth into the same, vpon the right side of his
 [Sidenote: Arun.]
 course. From Abington likewise (taking the Arun withall southwest of
 Sutton Courtneie) it goeth by Appleford, long Wittenham, Clifton,
 Wittenham the lesse, & beneath Dorchester, taketh in the Thame water,
 from whence the Isis loseth the preheminence of the whole denomination
 of this riuer, and is contented to impart the same with the Thame, so
 that by the coniunction of these two waters Thamesis is producted, and
 that name continued euen vnto the sea.

 [Sidenote: Thame.]
 Thame riuer riseth in the easterlie parts of Chilterne hils, towards
 Penleie parke, at a towne called Tring west of the said parke, which
 is seauen miles from the stone bridge, that is betweene Querendon and
 Ailsburie (after the course of the water) as Leland hath set downe.
 Running therefore by long Merston, and Puttenham, Hucket, and Bearton,
 it receiueth soone after a rill that commeth by Querendon from
 Hardwike, and yer long an other on the other side that riseth aboue
 Windouer in the Chilterne, and passing by Halton, Weston, Turrill,
 Broughton, and Ailsburie, it falleth into the Tame west of the said
 towne (except my memorie doo faile me.) From this confluence the Tame
 goeth by Ethorpe, the Winchingtons, Coddington, Chersleie, Notleie
 abbeie: and comming almost to Tame, it receiueth one water from
 southeast aboue the said towne, and another also from the same quarter
 beneath the towne; so that Tame standeth inuironed vpon thrée sides
 with thrée seuerall waters, as maie be easilie séene. The first of
 these commeth from the Chiltern east of Below or Bledlow, from whence
 it goeth to Hinton, Horsenden, Kingseie, Towseie, and so into the
 Tame. The other descendeth also from the Chilterne, and going by
 Chinner, Crowell, Siddenham, and Tame parke, it falleth in the end
 into Tame water, and then they procéed togither as one by Shabbington,
 Ricot parke, Dracot, Waterstoke, Milton, Cuddesdon, and Chiselton.
 Here also it taketh in another water from by-east, whose head commeth
 from Chilterne hils, not farre from Stocking church, in the waie from
 Oxford to London. From whence it runneth to Weston (and méeting
 beneath Cuxham with Watlington rill) it goeth onto Chalgraue, Stadham,
 and so into the Tame. From hence our streame of Thame runneth to
 Newenton, Draton, Dorchester (sometime a bishops see, and a noble
 citie) and so into the Thames, which hasteth in like sort to
 [Sidenote: Blauius.]
 Bensington, Crowmarsh, or Wallingford, where it receiueth the Blaue,
 descending from Blaueburg, now Blewberie, as I learne.

 Thus haue I brought the Thames vnto Wallingford, situate in the vale
 of White horsse, that runneth a long therby. From hence it goeth by
 Newenham, north Stoke, south Stoke, Goring, Bassilden, Pangburne,
 where it meeteth with a water that commeth from about Hamsted Norris,
 runneth by Frizelham, Buckelburie, Stanford, Bradfeld, Tidmarsh and
 Pangburne. After which confluence it goeth on betweene Mapledorham and
 Purleie, to Cauersham, and Cauersham manour, and a little beneath
 receiueth the Kenet that commeth thereinto from Reading.

 [Sidenote: Cenethus.]
 The Kenet riseth aboue Ouerton 5 or 6 miles west of Marleborow, or
 Marlingsborow, as some call it; & then going by Fifeld, Clatfor,
 Maulon, & Preshute, vnto Marleburie: it holdeth on in like order to
 Ramsburie, and northwest of little Cote, taketh in a water by north
 descending from the hilles aboue Alburne chase west of Alburne town.
 Thence it runneth to little Cote, Charnhamstréet, & beneth
 [Sidenote: Bedwiine.]
 [Sidenote: Chalkeburne.]
 Charnhamstréet it crosseth the Bedwin, which (taking the Chalkburne
 rill withall) commeth from great Bedwijne, & at Hungerford also two
 other in one botom somewhat beneath the towne. From hence it goeth to
 Auington, Kinburie, Hamsted marshall, Euburne, Newberie; and beneath
 [Sidenote: Lamburne.]
 this towne, taketh in the Lamburne water that commeth by Isberie,
 Egerston, the Sheffords, Westford, Boxford, Donington castell, and
 [Sidenote: Alburnus.]
 Shaw. From Newberie it goeth to Thatcham, Wolhampton, Aldermaston, a
 little aboue which village it receiueth the Alburne, another brooke
 increased with sundrie rils: and thus going on to Padworth, Oston, and
 Michaell, it commeth at last to Reading, where (as I said) it ioineth
 with the Thames, and so they go forward as one by Sonning to Shiplake,
 and there on the east side receiue the Loddon that commeth downe
 thither from the south, as by his course appéereth.

 [Sidenote: Lodunus.]
 The Loddon riseth in Hamshire betwéene west Shirburne and Wooton
 toward the southwest, afterward directing his course toward the
 northwest, thorough the Vine, it passeth at the last by Bramlie, and
 thorough a peece of Wiltshire, to Stradfield, Swallowfield,
 Arberfield, Loddon bridge, leauing a patch of Wiltshire on the right
 hand (as I haue béene informed.) This Loddon not far from Turges towne
 receiueth two waters in one bottome, whereof the westerlie called
 Basing water, commeth from Basingstoke, and thorough a parke vnto the
 aforesaid place.

 The other descendeth of two heads from Mapledour well, and goeth by
 Skewes, Newenham, Rotherwijc, and yer it come at Hartlie, ioineth with
 the Basing water, from whence they go togither to Turges, where they
 méet with the Loddon (as I haue said alreadie.) The next streame
 [Sidenote: Ditis vadum.]
 toward the south is called Ditford brooke. It riseth not farre from
 Vpton, goeth by Gruell, and beneath Wharnborow castell receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Ikelus.]
 Ikell (comming from a parke of the same denomination) from whence they
 go togither by Maddingleie vnto Swalowfield, and so into the Loddon.
 [Sidenote: Elueius.]
 In this voiage also the Loddon méeteth with the Elwie or Elueie that
 commeth from Aldershare, not farre by west of Euersleie: and about
 [Sidenote: Ducus.]
 Eluesham likewise with another running from Dogmansfield named the
 [Sidenote: Erin.]
 Douke: and also the third not inferior to the rest comming from Erin,
 whose head is in Surreie, and going by Ash becommeth a limit, first
 betwéene Surreie and Hamshire; then betwéene Hamshire and Barkeshire,
 and passing by Ash, Erinleie, Blacke water, Perleie, and Finchamsted;
 it ioineth at last with the Ditford, before it come at Swalowfield. To
 conclude therefore with our Loddon, hauing receiued all these waters;
 and after the last confluence with them now being come to Loddon
 bridge, it passeth on by a part of Wiltshire to Twiford bridge, then
 to Wargraue, and so into the Thames that now is maruellouslie
 increased and growen vnto triple greatnesse (to that it was at

 Being therefore past Shiplake and Wargraue, it runneth by Horsependon,
 or Harding: then to Henleie vpon Thames, where sometime a great rill
 voideth it selfe in the same. Then to Remenham, Greneland (going all
 this waie from Shiplake iust north, and now turning eastwards againe)
 by Medenham, Hurlie, Bisham, Marlow the greater, Marlow the lesse, it
 meeteth with a brooke soone after that consisteth of the water of two
 [Sidenote: Vsa.]
 rilles, whereof the one called the Vse, riseth about west Wickham, out
 of one of the Chilterne hilles, and goeth from thence to east Wickham
 or high Wickham, a pretie market towne. The other named Higden,
 [Sidenote: Higden.]
 descendeth also from those mounteines but a mile beneath west Wickham,
 and ioining both in one at the last, in the west end of east Wickham
 towne, they go togither to Wooburne, Hedsor, & so into the Thames.
 Some call it the Tide; and that word doo I vse in my former treatise:
 but to procéed. After this confluence our Thames goeth on by Cowkham,
 Topleie, Maidenhead, aliàs Sudlington, Braie, Dorneie, Clure, new
 Windsore (taking in neuerthelesse, at Eaton by the waie, the Burne
 which riseth out of a Moore, & commeth thither by Burnham) old
 Windsor, Wraiborow, and a little by east therof doth crosse the Cole,
 whereof I find this short description insuing.

 [Sidenote: Colus, aliàs Vere and Vertume.]
 The Cole riseth néere vnto Flamsted, from whence it goeth to Redburn,
 S. Michaels, S. Albons, Aldenham, Watford, and so by More to
 Richmansworth, where there is a confluence of three waters, of which
 [Sidenote: Gadus.]
 this Cole is the first. The second called Gadus riseth not farre from
 Ashridge, an house or palace belonging to the prince: from whence it
 runneth to great Gaddesdin, Hemsted, betwéene Kings Langleie, and
 Abbots Langleie, then to Hunters, and Cashew bridges, and so to
 Richmanswoorth, receiuing by the waie a rill comming from Alburie by
 northwest, to Northchurch, Barkehamsted, and beneath Hemsted ioining
 with the same. The last commeth in at northwest from aboue Chesham, by
 Chesham it selfe, then by Chesham Bois, Latimers, Mawdlens, Cheinies,
 Sarret and Richmanswoorth, and so going on all in one chanell vnder
 the name of Cole, it runneth to Vxbridge, where it taketh in the
 Missenden water, from northwest, which rising aboue Missenden the
 greater goeth by Missenden the lesse, Hagmondesham (now Hammersham)
 the Vach, Chalfhunt Giles, Chalfhunt S. Peters, Denham, and then into
 the Cole aboue Vxbridge (as I haue said.) Soone after this our Cole
 doth part it selfe into two branches, neuer to ioine againe before
 they come at the Thames, for the greater of them goeth thorough the
 goodlie medows straight to Colebrooke, the other vnto two milles, a
 mile and a halfe east of Colebrooke, in the waie to London, leauing an
 Iland betwéene them of no small size and quantitie.

 [Sidenote: Vindeles.]
 Being past the Cole, we come to the fall of the Vindeles, which riseth
 by northwest néere vnto Bagshot, from whence it goeth to Windlesham,
 Chobham, and méeting with a brooklet comming westward from Bisleie,
 they run togither toward Cherteseie, where when they haue met with a
 small rill rising north of Sonning hill in Windlesoure great parke, it
 falleth into the Thames on the northeast side of Cherteseie. When we
 were come beyond this water, it was not long yer we came vnto another
 on the same side, that fell into the Thames betweene Shepperton on the
 [Sidenote: Veius.]
 one side, and Oteland on the other, and is called the Waie. The Weie
 or the Waie rising by west, commeth from Olsted, & soone after taking
 the Hedleie brooke withall (which riseth in Wulmere forrest, and goeth
 by Hedleie and Frensham) hasteth by Bentleie, Farnham, Alton,
 Waiberleie, Elsted, and so to Pepper harrow, where it ioineth with the
 [Sidenote: Thuresbie.]
 Thuresbie water, which commeth not farre off from a village of the
 same denomination. From hence also it goeth to Godalming, and then
 toward Shawford, but yer it come there, it crosseth Craulie becke,
 which rising somewhere about the edge of Sussex short of Ridgewijc,
 [Sidenote: Crawleie.]
 goeth by Vacherie parke, Knoll, Craulie, Bramleie, Wonarsh, and so
 into the Waie. From hence then our riuer goeth to Shawford, and soone
 [Sidenote: Abbinger.]
 after (méeting with the Abbinger water that commeth by Shere, Albirie,
 and the chappell on the hill) it proceedeth to Guldeford, thence to
 Stoke, Sutton in the parke, Send, Woking, and at Newarke parke side
 taketh in a brooke that riseth of two heads, whereof one dooth spring
 betwéene two hils north of Pepper harrow, and so runneth through
 Henleie parke, the other aboue Purbright, and afterward ioining in
 one, they go foorth vnto Newarke, and being there vnited, after the
 confluence it goeth to Purford court, to Bifler, Waifred, Oteland, and
 so into the Thames.

 [Sidenote: Molts.]
 From Oteland the Thames goeth by Walton, Sunburie, west Moulseie,
 Hampton, and yer it come at Hampton court on the northside, and east
 Moulseie on the other, it taketh in the Moule water, which giueth name
 vnto the two townes that stand on each side of the place, where it
 falleth into our streame. It riseth in Word forrest, and going by
 Burstow, it méeteth afterward with another gullet, conteining a small
 course from two seuerall heads, whereof one is also in the forrest
 aforenamed, the other runneth from Febush wood, and comming by Iseld,
 méeteth with the first aboue Horleie, and so run on in one chanell, I
 saie, till they ioine with the Moule water, whereof I spake before.

 After this confluence in like sort, it is not long yer the Moule take
 in another from by north, which commeth from about Mesham on the one
 side, and another on the other side, running by Ocleie and Capell, and
 whereinto also a branch or rill commeth from a wood on the northwest
 part. Finallie, being thus increased with these manie rilles, it goeth
 by east Becheworth, west Becheworth, and ouer against the Swalow on
 the side of Drake hill, taking in another that c[=o]meth thither from
 Wootton by Darking and Milton, it runneth to Mickleham, Letherhed,
 Stoke, Cobham, Ashire parke, east Moulseie, and so into the Thames,
 which after this coniunction goeth on to Kingston, and there also
 méeteth with another becke, rising at Ewell south of Nonsuch. Certes,
 this rill goeth from Ewell by the old parke, then to Mauldon, & so to
 Kingston towne. The Thames in like maner being past Kingston, goeth to
 Tuddington, Petersham, Twickenham, Richmond, and Shene, where it
 receiueth a water on the northwest side, which comming from about
 Harrow on the hill, and by west of the same, goeth by Haies,
 Harlington, Felthan, and Thistleworth into the Thames.

 The next fall of water is at Sion, néere vnto new Brainford, so that
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 it issueth into the Thames betwéen them both. This water is called
 Brane, that is in the Brittish toong (as Leland saith) a frog. It
 riseth about Edgeworth, and commeth from thence by Kingesburie,
 Twiford, Periuall, Hanwell, and Austerleie. Thence we followed our
 riuer to old Brentford, Mortlach, Cheswijc, Barnelmes, Fulham, and
 Putneie, beneath which townes it crossed a becke from Wandlesworth,
 that riseth at Woodmans turne, and going by Easthalton, méeteth
 another comming from Croidon by Bedington, and so going on to Mitcham,
 Marton abbeie, and Wandlesworth, it is not long yer it fall into the
 [Sidenote: Mariburne.]
 Thames. Next vnto this is Mariburne rill on the other side, which
 commeth in by S. Iames, so that by this time we haue either brought
 the Thames, or the Thames conueied vs to London, where we rested for a
 season to take view of the seuerall tides there, of which each one
 differeth from other, by foure & twentie minuts, that is fortie eight
 in a whole daie, as I haue noted before, except the wether alter them.
 Being past London, and in the waie toward the sea: the first water
 that it méeteth withall, is the Brome on Kent side, west of
 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 Gréenewich, whose head is Bromis in Bromleie parish, and going from
 thence to Lewsham, it taketh in a water from by east, and so directeth
 his course foorth right vnto the Thames.

 The next water that it méeteth withall, is on Essex side, almost
 [Sidenote: Lée.]
 against Woolwich, and that is the Lée or Luie, whose head riseth short
 of Kempton in Hertfordshire, foure miles southeast of Luton, sometime
 [Sidenote: Logus.]
 called Logodunum or Logrodunum, & going through a péece of Brokehall
 parke (leauing Woodhall parke on the north, and Hatfield on the south,
 with another parke adioining) it goeth toward Hartford towne. But yer
 [Sidenote: Marran.]
 it come there, it receiueth a water (peraduenture the Marran) rising
 at northwest in Brodewater hundred, from aboue Welwin, northeast of
 Digeswell, and going to Hartingfeld burie, where the said confluence
 is within one mile of the towne. Beneath Hatfield also it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Beane.]
 the Beane (as I gesse) comming from Boxwood by Benington, Aston,
 Watton, and Stapleford, and a little lower, the third arme of increase
 from aboue Ware, which descendeth from two heads: whereof the greatest
 commeth from Barkewaie in Edwinster hundred, the other Sandon in
 Oddesey hundred, and after they be met beneath little Hornemeade, they
 go togither by Pulcherchurch, or Puckrich, Stonden, Thunderidge,
 Wadesmill, Benghoo, and so into the Lée, which from hence runneth on
 till it come at Ware, which was drowned by the rage of the same 1408,
 and so to Amwell, where on the north side it receiueth the water that
 commeth from little Hadham, through a péece of Singleshall parke, then
 by great Hadham, and so from Widford to the aforesaid towne. From
 hence also they go as one to old Stansted called Le Veil, branching in
 such wise yer it come there, that it runneth through the towne in
 sundrie places. Thence it goeth foorth to Abbats Stansted, beneath
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 which it méeteth with the Stoure, west (as I remember) of Roidon. This
 Sture riseth at Wenden lootes, from whence it goeth to Langleie,
 Clauering, Berden, Manhuden, & Birchanger (where it taketh a rill
 comming from Elsingham, & Stansted Mountfitchet.) Thence it hieth on
 to Bishops Stourford, Sabrichfoord, and beneath this towne crosseth
 with another from the east side of Elsingham, that goeth to Hatfield,
 Brodocke, Shiring, Harlo, & so into the Stoure, and from whence they
 go togither to Eastwic, Parmedon, and next into the Lée. These things
 being thus performed, the Lée runneth on beneath Hoddesdon, Broxburne,
 and Wormleie, where a water breaketh out by west of the maine streame,
 a mile lower than Wormeleie it selfe, but yet within the paroch, and
 is called Wormeleie locke.

 It runneth also by Cheston nunrie, and out of this a little beneath
 the said house, breaketh an arme called the Shirelake, bicause it
 diuideth Eastsex and Hartford shire in sunder, and in the length of
 one medow called Fritheie. This lake runneth not but at great flouds,
 and méeteth againe with a succor of ditchwater, at a place called
 Hockesditch, halfe a mile from his first breaking out, and halfe a
 mile lower at Marsh point ioineth againe with the streame from whence
 it came before. Thence commeth the first arme to S. Maulie bridge (the
 first bridge westward vpon that riuer) vpon Waltham causie, & halfe a
 mile lower than Maulie bridge, at the corner of Ramnie mead, it
 méeteth with the kings streame & principall course of Luy, or Lee, as
 it is commonlie called. The second arme breaketh out of the kings
 streame at Halifield halfe a mile lower than Cheston nunrie, and so to
 the fulling mill, and two bridges by west of the kings streame,
 wherinto it falleth about a stones cast lower at a place called
 Malkins shelffe, except I was wrong informed. Cheston & Hartfordshire
 men doo saie, that the kings streame at Waltham dooth part
 Hartfordshire and Essex, but the Essex men by forrest charter doo
 plead their liberties to hold vnto S. Maulies bridge. On the east side
 also of the kings streame breaketh out but one principall arme at
 Halifield, three quarters of a mile aboue Waltham, & so goeth to the
 corne mill in Waltham, and then to the K. streame againe a little
 beneath the kings bridge.

 From hence the Lée runneth on by south on Waltonstow till it come to
 Stretford Langthorne, where it brancheth partlie of it selfe, and
 [Sidenote: Alfred.]
 partlie by mans industrie for mils. Howbeit heerein the dealing of
 Alfred (sometimes king of England) was not of smallest force, who
 vnderstanding the Danes to be gotten vp with their ships into the
 countrie, there to kill and slaie his subiects, in the yeere of grace
 896, by the conduct of this riuer: he in the meane time before they
 could returne, did so mightilie weaken the maine chanell, by drawing
 great numbers of trenches from the same; that when they purposed to
 come backe, there was nothing so much water left as the ships did
 draw: wherefore being set on ground, they were soone fired, & the
 aduersaries ouercome. By this policie also much medow ground was
 woone, & made firme land, whereby the countrie about was not a little
 inriched, as was also a part of Assyria by the like practise of Cyrus
 with the Ganges, at such time as he came against Babylon, which riuer
 before time was in maner equall with Euphrates. For he was so
 offended, that one of his knights whom he loued déerlie, was drowned
 and borne awaie with the water in his passage ouer the same, that he
 sware a deepe oth yer long to make it so shallow that it should not
 wet a woman to the knées. Which came to passe, for he caused all his
 armie to dig 46 new draines fr[=o] the same, wherby the vow that he
 had made was at the full performed. Senec. de Tra. li. 3. But to
 conclude with the Lee that somtime ouerflowed all those medowes,
 through which it passeth (as for a great waie not inferior to the
 Thames) and I find that being past Westham, it is not long yer it fall
 into that streame. One thing I read more of this riuer before the
 conquest, that is, how Edward the first, & sonne of Alfred, in the
 yeare of grace 912, builded Hartford towne: at which time also he had
 Wittham a towne in Essex in hand, as his sister called Aelfled
 repaired Oxford & London, and all this foure yeares before the
 building of Maldon; of some called Hertford or Herudford betweene
 three waters, that is, the Lée, the Benefuth, and Memmarran, or rather
 Penmarran: but how these waters are distinguished in these daies, as
 yet I cannot tell. It is possible, that the Bene may be the same which
 commeth by Benington, and Benghoo: which if it be so, then must the
 Memmarran be the same that descendeth from Whitwell, for not farre
 from thence is Branfield, which might in time past right well be
 called Marranfield, for of like inuersion of names I could shew manie

 Being past the Lee (whose chanell is begun to be purged 1576, with
 further hope to bring the same to the north side of London) we come
 [Sidenote: Rodon or Rodunus.]
 vnto the Rodon, vpon Essex side in like maner, and not verie farre
 (for foure miles is the most) from the fall of the Lée. This water
 riseth at little Canfield, from whence it goeth to great Canfield,
 high Roding, Eithorpe Roding, Ledon Roding, White Roding, Beauchampe
 Roding, Fifeld, Shelleie, high Ongar, and Cheping Ongar, where the
 [Sidenote: Lauer.]
 Lauer falleth into it, that ariseth betwixt Matching and high Lauer;
 and taking another rill withall comming from aboue Northweld at
 Cheping Ongar, they ioine (I saie) with the Rodon, after which
 [Sidenote: Iuelus.]
 confluence Leland coniectureth that the streame is called Iuell: for
 my part, I wot not what to say of it. But héerof I am sure, that the
 whole course being past Ongar, it goeth to Stansted riuers, Theidon
 mount, Heibridge, Chigwell, Woodford bridge, Ilford bridge, Barking, &
 so into the Thames.

 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 The Darwent méeteth with our said Thames vpon Kents side, two miles
 and more beneath Erith. It riseth at Tanridge, or there abouts, as I
 haue beene informed by Christopher Saxtons card late made of the same,
 and the like (I hope) he will doo in all the seuerall shires of
 England at the infinit charges of sir Thomas Sackford knight, &
 maister of the requests, whose zeale vnto his countrie héerin I cannot
 but remember, & so much the rather, for that he meaneth to imitate
 Ortelius, & somewhat beside this hath holpen me in the names of the
 townes, by which these riuers for the Kentish part do run. Would to
 God his plats were once finished for the rest! But to procéed. The
 Darwent therefore, rising at Tanridge, goeth on by Titseie toward
 Brasted, and receiuing on ech side of that towne (& seuerall bankes) a
 riuer or rill, it goeth on to Nockhold, Shorham, Kinsford, Horton,
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 Darnhith, Dartford or Derwentford, & there taking in the Craie on the
 left hand that coms from Orpington by Marie Craie, Paules Craie, North
 Craie, and Craiford, it is not long yer it fall into the Thames. But
 after I had once passed the fall of the brooke, it is a world to sée
 what plentie of Serephium groweth vpon the Kentish shore, in whose
 description Fuichsius hath not a little halted; whilest he giueth
 foorth the hearbe Argentaria for Serephium, betwéene which there is no
 maner of likelihood. This neuerthelesse is notable in the said hearbe,
 that being translated into the garden, it receiueth another forme
 cleane different from the first, which it yéelded when it grew vpon
 the shore, and therevnto appeareth of more fat & foggie substance.
 Which maketh me to thinke that our physicians do take it for a
 distinct kind of wormewood, whereof controuersie ariseth among them.
 The next water that falleth into the Thames, is west of the Wauie
 Iles, a rill of no great fame, neither long course, for rising about
 Coringham, it runneth not manie miles east and by south, yer it fall
 into the mouth of this riuer, which I doo now describe.

 I would haue spoken of one créeke that commeth in at Cliffe, and
 another that runneth downe from Haltsto by S. Maries: but sith I
 vnderstand not with what backewaters they be serued, I let them passe
 as not skilfull of their courses. And thus much of the riuers that
 fall into the Thames, wherein I haue doone what I maie, but not what I
 would for mine owne satisfaction, till I came from the head to
 Lechlade, vnto which, as in lieu of a farewell, I will ascribe that
 distichon which Apollonius Rhodius writeth of the Thermodon:

   Huic non est aliud flumen par, nec tot in agros
   Vllum dimittit riuos quot fundit vtrinque.

 [Sidenote: Midwaie.]
 Next vnto the Thames we haue the Midwaie water, whereof I find two
 descriptions, the first beginneth thus. The Midwaie water is called in
 Latine Medeuia (as some write) bicause the course therof is midwaie in
 a manner betwéene London and Dorobernia, or (as we now call it)
 Canturburie. In British it hight Dourbrée: and thereof Rochester was
 sometime called Durobreuum. But in an old charter which I haue seene
 (conteining a donation sometime made to the monasterie of saint
 Andrews there by Ceadwalla) I find that the Saxons called this riuer
 Wedring; and also a towne standing betweene Malling and east Farleie,
 Wedrington; and finallie, a forrest also of the same denomination,
 Wedrington, now Waterdon, wherby the originall name appeareth to be
 fetched from this streame. It ariseth in Waterdon forrest east of
 Whetlin or Wedring, and ioineth with another brooke that descendeth
 from Ward forrest in Sussex: and after this confluence they go on
 togither, as one by Ashhirst, where hauing receiued also the second
 brooke, it hasteth to Pensherst, and there carrieth withall the Eden,
 that commeth from Lingfield parke. After this it goeth to the
 [Sidenote: Frethus.]
 southeast part of Kent, and taketh with it the Frith or Firth, on the
 northwest side, and an other little streame that commeth from the
 hilles betwéene Peuenburie and Horsemon on the southeast. From thence
 [Sidenote: Theise.]
 also, and not farre from Yalling it receiueth the Theise (a pretie
 [Sidenote: Grane aliàs Cranus.]
 streame that ariseth about Theise Hirst) & afterward the Gran or
 Crane, which hauing his head not farre from Cranbrooke, and méeting
 with sundrie other riuelets by the waie, whereof one branch of Theise
 is the last, for it parteth at the Twist, and including a pretie
 Iland, doth ioine with the said Midwaie, a little aboue Yalding, and
 then with the Lowse. Finallie at Maidstone it méeteth with another
 brooke, whose name I know not, and then passeth by Allington, Duton,
 Newhide, Halling, Cuckestane, Rochester, Chattham, Gillingham,
 Vpchurch, Kingsferrie, and falleth into the maine sea betwéene Shepeie
 and the Grane.

 And thus much out of the first authour, who commendeth it also, for
 that in time past it did yéeld such plentie of sturgeon, as beside the
 kings portion, and a due vnto the archbishop of Canturburie out of the
 same, the deane and chapter of Rochester had no small allowance also
 of that commoditie: likewise for the shrimps that are taken therein,
 which are no lesse estéemed of in their kind, than the westerne smelts
 or flounders taken in the Thames, &c. The second authour describeth it
 after this manner, and more copiouslie than the other.

 The cheefe head of this streame riseth in Waterdon forrest, from
 whence after it hath runne a pretie waie still within the same, east
 of Whetlin, it méeteth with a brooke, whose head is in Ward forrest,
 southwest of Greenested, which goeth to Hartfield, and so to Whetlin,
 and yer long ioineth with the Midwaie. After this confluence it is not
 long yer it take in another by west from Cowden ward, and the third
 aboue Pensherst, growing from two heads, whereof one is in Lingfield
 parke, the other west of Crawherst; and ioining aboue Edinbridge, it
 doth fall into the midwaie beneath Heuer towne, and Chiddingston. From
 Pensherst our maine streame hasteth to Ligh, Tunbridge, and Twidleie,
 and beneath the towne, it crosseth a water from North, whereof one
 head is at the Mote, another at Wroteham, the third at west Peckham,
 & likewise another from southest, that runneth east of Capell. Next
 after this it receiueth the These, whose forked head is at Theise
 Hirst, which descending downe toward the north, taketh in not farre
 from Scotnie a brooke out of the northside of Waterden forrest, whose
 name I find not, except it be the Dour. After this confluence our
 riuer goeth to Goldhirst, and comming to the Twist, it brancheth in
 such wise, that one part of it runneth into Midwaie, another into the
 [Sidenote: Garunus, Cranus.]
 Garan, or rather Cranebrooke (if my coniecture be anie thing.) The
 Garan (as Leland calleth it) or the Crane (as I doo take it) riseth
 néere to Cranebrooke, and going by Siffinghirst, it receiueth yer long
 one water that commeth by Fretingdon, and another that runneth from
 great Chard by Smerdon, and Hedcorne, crossing two rilles by the waie
 from by north, Hedcorne it selfe standing betwéene them both.
 Finallie, the Garan or Crane meeting with Midwaie south of Yalling,
 they on the one side, and the These on the other, leaue a pretie Iland
 in the middest, of foure miles in length, and two in breadth, wherein
 is some hillie soile, but neither towne nor village, so farre as I

 From Yalling forward, the Midwaie goeth to west Farlegh, east Farlegh:
 and yer it come at Maidstone, it interteineth a rill that riseth short
 of Ienham, and goeth by Ledes and Otteringden, which is verie
 beneficiall to clothiers in drie yéeres: for thither they conueie
 their clothes to be thicked at the fulling milles, sometimes ten miles
 for the same: there is also at Ledes great plentie of fulling earth,
 which is a necessarie commoditie.

 Being past Maidstone, it runneth by Allington, Snodland, Halling,
 Cuckstane, and Rochester, where it passeth vnder a faire bridge of
 stone, with a verie swift course, which bridge was begun 1388 by the
 lord Iohn Cobham, the ladie Margaret his wife, and the valiant sir
 Robert Knolles, who gaue the first onset vpon that péece of worke, and
 therevnto builded a chappell of the Trinitie at the end therof, in
 testimonie of his pietie. In processe of time also one Iohn Warner of
 Rochester made the new coping thereof; and archbishop Warham of
 Canturburie the iron barres: the bishops also of that see were not
 slacke in their beneuolence and furtherances toward that worke,
 especiallie Walter Merton founder of Merton college in Oxford, who by
 misfortune perished by falling from the same, as he rode to surueie
 the workemen. Being past Rochester, this noble riuer goeth to Chatham,
 Gillingham, Vpchurch, and soone after branching, it imbraceth the
 Greene at his fall, as his two heads doo Ashdon forrest, that lieth
 betwéene them both.



 [Sidenote: Stoure.]
 After the Midwaie we haue the Stoure that riseth at Kingeswood, which
 [Sidenote: Nailburne water also (as I heare) neer to Cantwarbirie,
 but I wote not whereabouts: sée _Marianus Scotus_.]
 is fourtéene or fifteene miles from Canturburie. This riuer passeth by
 Ashford, Wie, Nackington, Canturburie, Fordish, Standish, and
 Sturemouth, where it receiueth another riuer growing of three
 branches. After our Stoure or Sture parteth it self in twaine, & in
 such wise, that one arme therof goeth toward the north, and is called
 (when it commeth at the sea) the north mouth of Stoure; the other
 runneth southeastward vp to Richborow, and so to Sandwich, from whence
 it goeth northeast againe and falleth into the sea. The issue of this
 later tract is called the hauen of Sandwich. And peraduenture the
 streame that commeth downe thither, after the diuision of the Stoure,
 [Sidenote: Wantsome.]
 maie be the same which Beda calleth Wantsome; but as I cannot vndoo
 this knot at will, so this is certeine, that the Stoure on the one
 side, and peraduenture the Wantsome on the other, parteth and cutteth
 the Tenet from the maine land of Kent, whereby it is left for an

 There are other little brookes which fall into the Stoure, whereof
 Leland speaketh, as Fishpoole becke that ariseth in Stonehirst wood,
 and meeteth with it foure miles from Canturburie: another beginneth at
 Chislet, and goeth into the Stoure gut, which sometime inclosed
 Thanet, as Leland saith: the third issueth out of the ground at
 Northburne (where Eadbert of Kent sometime past held his palace) and
 runneth to Sandwich hauen, as the said authour reporteth: and the
 fourth called Bridgewater that riseth by S. Marie Burne church, and
 going by Bishops Burne, meeteth with Canturburie water at Stourmouth:
 also Wiham that riseth aboue Wiham short of Adsam, and falleth into
 Bridgewater at Dudmill, or Wenderton: and the third namelesse, which
 riseth short of Wodensburgh (a towne wherein Hengist & the Saxons
 honored their grand idoll Woden, or Othine) and goeth by Staple to
 Wingam: but sith they are obscure I will not touch them here. From
 hence passing by the Goodwine, a plot verie perilous for sea-faring
 men (sometime firme land, that is, vntill the tenth of the conquerours
 sonne, whose name was William Rufus, and wherein a great part of the
 inheritance of erle Goodwine in time past was knowne to lie) but
 [Sidenote: Dour.]
 escaping it with ease, we came at length to Douer. In all which voiage
 we found no streame, by reason of the cliffes that inuiron the said
 coast. Howbeit vpon the south side of Douer, there is a pretie fresh
 riuer, whose head ariseth at Erwell, not passing foure miles from the
 sea, and of some is called Dour, which in the British toong is a
 common name for waters, as is also the old British word Auon for the
 greatest riuers, into whose mouthes or falles shippes might find safe
 entrance; and therefore such are in my time called hauens, a new word
 growen by an aspiration added to the old: the Scots call it Auen. But
 more of this else-where, sith I am now onelie to speake of Dour,
 wherof it is likelie that the towne & castell of Douer did sometime
 take the name. From hence we go toward the Camber (omitting
 peraduenture here and there sundrie small creeks void of backwater by
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 the waie) whereabouts the Rother a noble riuer falleth into the sea.
 This Rother separateth Sussex from Kent, and hath his head in Sussex,
 not farre from Argas hill néere to Waterden forrest, and from thence
 directeth his course vnto Rotherfield. After this it goeth to
 Ethlingham or Hitchingham, and so foorth by Newendon vnto Mattham
 ferrie, where it diuideth it selfe in such wise, that one branch
 thereof goeth to Appledoure (where is a castell sometime builded by
 the Danes, in the time of Alfred, as they did erect another at
 Middleton, and the third at Beamflete) and at this towne, where it
 [Sidenote: Bilie.]
 méeteth the Bilie that riseth about Bilsington, the other by Iden, so
 that it includeth a fine parcell of ground called Oxneie, which in
 time past was reputed as a parcell of Sussex; but now vpon some
 occasion or other (to me vnknowne) annexed vnto Kent. From hence also
 growing into some greatnesse, it runneth to Rie, where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Becke.]
 finallie with the Becke, which commeth from Beckleie: so that the plot
 wherein Rie standeth, is in manner a by-land or peninsula, as
 experience doth confirme. Leland and most men are of the likeliest
 [Sidenote: Limenus.]
 opinion, that this riuer should be called the Limen, which (as Peter
 of Cornhull saith) doth issue out of Andredeswald, where the head
 thereof is knowne to be. Certes, I am of the opinion, that it is
 called the Rother vnto Appledoure, & from thence the Limen, bicause
 the Danes are noted to enter into these parts by the Limen; and
 sailing on the same to Appledoure, did there begin to fortifie, as I
 haue noted alreadie. Howbeit, in our time it is knowne by none other
 name than the Rother or Appledoure water, whereof let this suffice.

 Being thus crossed ouer to the west side of Rie hauen, & in vewing the
 issues that fall into the same, I meet first of all with a water that
 groweth of two brookes, which come downe by one chanell into the east
 side of the mouth of the said port. The first therfore that falleth
 into it descendeth from Beckleie or thereabouts (as I take it) the
 next runneth along by Pesemarsh, & soone after ioining with all, they
 hold on as one, till they fall into the same at the westerlie side of
 Rie: the third streame commeth from the north, and as it mounteth vp
 not farre from Munfield, so it runneth betweene Sescambe and
 Wacklinton néere vnto Bread, taking another rill withall that riseth
 (as I heare) not verie far from Westfield. There is likewise a fourth
 that groweth of two heads betweene Ielingham and Pet, and going by
 Winchelseie it méeteth with all about Rie hauen, so that Winchelseie
 standeth inuironed on thrée parts with water, and the streames of
 these two that I haue last rehearsed.

 The water that falleth into the Ocean, a mile by southwest of,
 [Sidenote: Aestus.]
 Hastings or therabouts, is called Æstus or Asten: perhaps of Hasten or
 Hasting the Dane, (who in time past was a plague to France and
 England) & rising not far from Penhirst, it meeteth with the sea (as I
 [Sidenote: Buluerhithe.]
 heare) by east of Hollington. Buluerhith is but a creeke (as I
 remember) serued with no backewater; and so I heare of Codding or Old
 hauen, wherefore I meane not to touch them.

 [Sidenote: Peuenseie.]
 Into Peuenseie hauen diuerse waters doo resort, and of these, that
 which entereth into the same on the east side riseth out from two
 [Sidenote: Ash.]
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 heads, whereof the most easterlie is called Ash, the next vnto the
 Burne, and vniting themselues not farre from Ashburne, they continue
 their course vnder the name and tide of Ashburne water, as I read. The
 second that commeth thereinto issueth also of two heads, whereof the
 one is so manie miles from Boreham, the other not far from the Parke
 east of Hellingstowne, and both of them concurring southwest of
 Hirstmowsen, they direct their course toward Peuenseie (beneath which
 they méet with another rising at Foington) and thence go in one
 chanell for a mile or more, till they fall togither into Peuenseie
 [Sidenote: Cucomarus.]
 hauen. The Cuckmer issueth out at seuerall places, and hereof the more
 easterlie branch commeth from Warbleton ward, the other from Bishops
 wood, and méeting beneath Halling, they run one bottome by Micham,
 Arlington, Wellington, old Frithstan, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Isis.]
 [Sidenote: Ni fallor.]
 Vnto the water that commeth out at Newhauen, sundrie brookes and
 riuerets doo resort, but the chiefe head riseth toward the west,
 somewhat betwéene Etchinford and Shepleie, as I heare. The first water
 therefore that falleth into the same on the east side, issueth out of
 the ground about Vertwood, and running from thence by Langhton and
 Ripe, on the west side; it falleth into the aforesaid riuer beneath
 Forle and Glime, or thrée miles lower than Lewis, if the other buttall
 like you not. The next herevnto hath his head in Argas hill, the third
 descendeth from Ashedon forrest, and ioining with the last mentioned,
 they crosse the maine riuer a little beneath Isefield. The fourth
 water commeth from Ashedon forrest by Horstéed Caines (or Ousestate
 Caines) and falleth into the same, likewise east of Linfield. Certes I
 am deceiued if this riuer be not called Isis, after it is past
 [Sidenote: Sturewell.]
 Isefield. The fift riseth about Storuelgate, and meeteth also with the
 maine streame aboue Linfield, and these are knowen to lie vpon the
 right hand as we rowed vp the riuer. On the other side are onelie two,
 whereof the first hath his originall neere vnto Wenefield, and holding
 on his course toward the east, it meeteth with his maister betweene
 Newicke and Isefield (or Ifield) as some read it. The last of all
 [Sidenote: Plimus.]
 commeth from Plimodune or Plumpton, and hauing met in like sort with
 the maine riuer about Barcham, it runneth foorth with it, & they rest
 in one chanell by Barcham, Hamseie, Malling, Lewis, Piddingburne, and
 so foorth into the maine.

 [Sidenote: Soru.]
 The next riuer that we came vnto west of Brighthemston is the Sore,
 which notwithstanding I find to be called Brember water, in the
 ancient map of Marton colledge in Oxford: but in such sort (as I take
 it) as the Rother or Limen is called Appledoure streame, bicause of
 the said towne that standeth thervpon. But to procéed, it is a
 pleasant water, & thereto if you consider the situation of his armes,
 and branches from the higher grounds, verie much resembling a foure
 stringed whip. Whereabout the head of this riuer is, or which of these
 branches may safelie be called Sora from the rising, in good sooth I
 cannot say. For after we had passed nine or ten mils thereon vp into
 the land, suddenlie the crosse waters stopped vs, so that we were
 inforced to turne either east or west, for directlie foorth right we
 had no waie to go. The first arme on the right hand as we went, riseth
 out of a parke by south of Alborne, and going on for a certeine space
 toward the northwest, it turneth southward betwéene Shermonburie and
 [Sidenote: Bimarus.]
 Twinham, and soone after méeteth with the Bimar, not much south from
 Shermonburie, whence they run togither almost two miles, till they
 fall into the Sore. That on the west side descendeth from about
 Billingeshirst, & going toward the east, it crosseth with the fourth
 (which riseth a litle by west of Thacam) east from Pulborow, and so
 they run as one into the Sore, that after this confluence hasteth it
 selfe southward by Brember, Burleis, the Combes, and yer long into the

 [Sidenote: Arunus.]
 The Arun (of which beside Arundell towne the castell and the vallie
 wherin it runneth is called Vallis Aruntina, or Arundale in English)
 is a goodlie water, and thereto increased with no small number of
 excellent & pleasant brookes. It springeth vp of two heads, whereof
 one descendeth from the north not far from Gretham, and going by Lis,
 méeteth with the next streame (as I gesse) about Doursford house. The
 second riseth by west from the hils that lie toward the rising of the
 sunne from East maine, and runneth by Peterfield. The third commeth
 from Beriton ward, and ioineth with the second betwéene Peterfield and
 Doursford, after which confluence they go togither in one chanell
 still toward the east (taking a rill with them that c[=o]mmeth
 betwéene Fernehirst and S. Lukes chappell, southwest of Linchmere, and
 meeting with it east of Loddesworth (as I doo read, and likewise
 sundrie other in one chanell beneath Stopham) to Waltham, Burie,
 Houghton, Stoke, Arundell, Tortington ford, Climping (all on the west
 side) and so into the sea.

 Hauing thus described the west side of Arun, let vs doo the like with
 the other in such sort as we best may. The first riuer that we come
 vnto therfore on the east side, and also the second, rise of sundrie
 places in S. Leonards forrest, & ioining a little aboue Horsham, they
 méet with the third, which commeth from Ifield parke, not verie farre
 from Slinfeld. The fourth hath two heads, whereof one riseth in
 Witleie parke, the other by west, neere vnto Heselméere chappell, and
 meeting by west of Doursfeld, they vnite themselues with the chanell,
 growing by the confluence that I spake of beneath Slinfeld, a little
 aboue Billingshirst. The last water commeth from the hils aboue
 Linchemere, and runneth west and south, and passing betwéene
 Billingshirst and Stopham it commeth vnto the chanell last mentioned,
 and so into the Arun beneath Stopham, without anie further increase,
 at the least that I doo heare of.

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Burne hath his issue in a parke néere Aldingburrie (or rather a little
 aboue the same toward the north, as I haue since beene informed) and
 running by the bottomes toward the south, it falleth betwéene north
 [Sidenote: Elin.]
 Berflete and Flesham. Erin riseth of sundrie heads, by east of
 Erinleie, and directing his course toward the sunne rising, it
 peninsulateth Seleseie towne on the southwest and Pagham at northwest.
 [Sidenote: Del[=u]s.]
 Deel springeth about Benderton, and thence running betwéene middle
 Lauant and east Lauant, it goeth by west of west Hampnet, by east of
 Chichester, or west of Rumbaldesdowne, and afterward by Fishburne,
 where it meeteth with a rill comming north west from Funtingdon (a
 little beneath the towne) & then running thus in one streame toward
 the sea, it méeteth with another rillet comming by north of Bosham,
 and so into Auant gulfe by east of Thorneie Iland.

 [Sidenote: Racunus.]
 The Racon riseth by east of Racton or Racodunum (as Leland calleth it)
 and comming by Chidham, it falleth into the sea, northeast of Thorneie
 [Sidenote: Emill.]
 aforesaid. The Emill commeth first betwéene Racton and Stansted, then
 downe to Emilsworth or Emmesworth, & so vnto the Ocean, separating
 Sussex from Hampshire almost from the very head. Hauing in this maner
 passed along the coasts of Sussex, the next water that I remember,
 riseth by east of the forrest of Estbirie, from whence it goeth by
 Southwike, west Burhunt, Farham, and so into the gulfe almost full
 [Sidenote: Badunus forte.]
 south. Then come we to Bedenham creeke (so called of a village
 standing thereby) the mouth whereof lieth almost directlie against
 Porchester castell, which is situat about three miles by water from
 Portesmouth towne, as Leland dooth report. Then go we within halfe a
 [Sidenote: Forten or Fordon.]
 mile further to Forten creeke, which either giueth or taketh name of a
 [Sidenote: Osterpoole.]
 village hard by. After this we come to Osterpoole lake, a great
 créeke, that goeth vp by west into the land, and lieth not far from a
 round turret of stone, from whence also there goeth a chaine to
 another tower on the east side directlie ouer against it, the like
 whereof is to be séene in diuerse other hauens of the west countrie,
 wherby the entrance of great vessels into that part may be at pleasure

 From hence we go further to Tichefeld water, that riseth about
 [Sidenote: Tichefield.]
 Eastmaine parke, ten or twelue miles by northeast or there abouts from
 Tichefeld. From Eastmaine it goeth (parting the forrests of Waltham,
 and Eastberie by the way) to Wicham or Wicombe, a pretie market towne
 & large throughfare, where also the water separateth it selfe into two
 armelets, and going vnder two bridges of wood commeth yer long againe
 vnto one chanell. From hence it goeth three or foure miles further, to
 a bridge of timber by maister Writhoseleies house (leauing Tichfeld
 towne on the right side) and a little beneath runneth vnder Ware
 bridge, whither the sea floweth as hir naturall course inforceth.
 Finallie, within a mile of this bridge it goeth into the water of
 Hampton hauen, whervnto diuerse streames resort, as you shall heare

 [Sidenote: Hamelrish.]
 After this we come to Hamble hauen, or Hamelrish créeke, whose fall is
 betwéene saint Andrewes castell, and Hoke. It riseth about Shidford in
 Waltham forrest, & when it is past Croke bridge, it méeteth with
 another brooke, which issueth not farre from Bishops Waltham, out of
 sundrie springs in the high waie on Winchester, from whence it passeth
 (as I said) by Bishops Waltham, then to Budeleie or Botleie, and then
 ioining with the Hamble, they run togither by Prowlingsworth, Vpton,
 Brusill, Hamble towne, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Southhampton.]
 Now come we to the hauen of Southhampton, by Ptolomie called Magnus
 portus, which I will briefelie describe so néere as I can possiblie.
 The bredth or entrie of the mouth hereof (as I take it) is by
 estimation two miles from shore to shore. At the west point therof
 also is a strong castell latelie builded, which is rightlie named
 Caldshore, but now Cawshot, I wote not by what occasion. On the east
 side thereof also is a place called Hoke (afore mentioned) or Hamell
 hoke; wherein are not aboue thrée or foure fisher houses, not worthie
 to be remembred. This hauen shooteth vp on the west side by the space
 of seuen miles, vntill it come to Hampton towne, standing on the other
 side, where it is by estimation a mile from land to land. Thence it
 goeth vp further about thrée miles to Redbridge, still ebbing and
 flowing thither, and one mile further, so farre as my memorie dooth
 serue mée. Now it resteth that I describe the Alresford streame, which
 some doo call the Arre or Arle, and I will procéed withall in this
 order following.

 [Sidenote: Alresford.]
 The Alresford beginneth of diuerse faire springs, about a mile or more
 fr[=o] Alresford, or Alford as it is now called, and soone after
 resorting to one bottome, they become a broad lake, which for the most
 part is called Alford pond. Afterward returning againe to a narrow
 chanell, it goeth through a stone bridge at the end of Alford towne
 (leauing the towne it selfe on the left hand) toward Hicthingstocke
 thrée miles off, but yer it commeth there, it receiueth two rils in
 one bottome, whereof one commeth from the Forrest in maner at hand,
 and by northwest of old Alresford, the other fr[=o] Browne Candiuer,
 that goeth by Northenton, Swarewotton, Aberstone, &c: vntill we méet
 with the said water beneath Alford towne. Being past Hichinstocke, it
 commeth by Auington to Eston village, and to Woorthie, where it
 beginneth to branch, and ech arme to part it selfe into other that
 resort to Hide and the lower soiles by east of Winchester, there
 seruing the stréets, the close of S. Maries, Wolueseie, and the new
 college verie plentifullie with their water. But in this meane while,
 the great streame commeth from Worthie to the east bridge, and so to
 saint Elizabeth college, where it dooth also part in twaine,
 enuironing the said house in most delectable maner. After this it
 goeth toward S. Crosses, leauing it a quarter of a mile on the right
 hand: then to Twiford (a mile lower) where it gathereth againe into
 [Sidenote: Otter.]
 one bottome, and goeth six miles further to Woodmill, taking the Otter
 brooke withall on the east side, and so into the salt créeke that
 leadeth downe to the hauen.

 On the other side of Southhampton, there resorteth into this hauen
 [Sidenote: Stocke.]
 also both the Test & the Stockbridge water in one bottome, whereof I
 find this large description insuing. The verie head of the
 Stockewater, is supposed to be somewhere about Basing stoke, or church
 Hockleie, and going from thence betwéene Ouerton and Steuenton, it
 commeth at last by Lauerstocke & Whitchurch, and soone after receiuing
 [Sidenote: Bourne.]
 a brooke by northwest, called the Bourne (descending from S. Marie
 Bourne, southeast from Horsseburne) it procéedeth by Long paroch and
 the wood, till it meet with the Cranburne, on the east side (a pretie
 riuelet rising about Michelneie, and going by Fullington, Barton, and
 to Cramburne) thence to Horwell in one bottome, beneath which it
 meeteth with the Andeuer water, that is increased yer it come there by
 an other brooke, whose name I doo not know. This Andeuer streame
 riseth in Culhamshire forrest, not far by north from Andeuer towne,
 and going to vpper Clatford, yer it touch there it receiueth the rill
 of which I spake before, which rising also néere vnto Anport, goeth to
 Monketon, to Abbatesham, the Andeuer, and both (as I said) vnto the
 Test beneath Horwell, whereof I spake euen now.

 These streames being thus brought into one bottome, it runneth toward
 the south vnder Stockbridge, and soone after diuiding it selfe in
 twaine, one branch thereof goeth by Houghton, & a little beneath
 meeteth with a rill, that commeth from bywest of S. Ans hil, and goeth
 by east of vpper Wallop, west of nether Wallop, by Bucholt forrest,
 [Sidenote: Valopius.]
 Broughton, and called (as I haue béene informed) the Gallop, but now
 it is named Wallop. The other arme runneth through the parke, by north
 west of kings Somburne, and vniting themselues againe, they go forth
 [Sidenote: Test.]
 by Motteshunt, and then receiue the Test, a pretie water rising in
 Clarendun parke, that goeth by west Deane, and east Deane, so to
 Motteshunt, and finallie to the aforesaid water, which from
 thencefoorth is called the Test, euen vnto the sea. But to procéed.
 After this confluence, it taketh the gate to Kimbebridge, then to
 Rumseie, Longbridge, and beneath the same receiueth a concourse of two
 rilles whereof the one commeth from Sherefield, the other from the new
 Forrest, and ioining in Wadeleie parke, they beat vpon the Test, not
 verie farre from Murseling. From thence the Test goeth vnder a pretie
 bridge, before it come at Redbridge, from whence it is not long yer it
 fall into the hauen.

 The next riuer that runneth into this port, springeth in the new
 [Sidenote: Eling.]
 Forrest, and commeth thereinto about Eling, not passing one mile by
 west of the fall of Test. From hence casting about againe into the
 maine sea, and leauing Calde shore castell on the right hand, we
 directed our course toward the southwest, vnto Beaulieu hauen,
 [Sidenote: Mineie.]
 whereinto the Mineie descendeth. The Mineie riseth not far from
 Mineiestéed, a village in the north part of the new Forrest; and going
 by Beaulieu, it falleth into the sea southwest (as I take it) of
 Exburie, a village standing vpon the shore.

 [Sidenote: Limen.]
 Being past the Mineie, we crossed the Limen as it is now called, whose
 head is in the verie hart of the new Forrest (sometime conuerted into
 a place of nourishment for déere by William Rufus, buieng his pleasure
 with the ruine of manie towns and villages, as diuerse haue inclosed
 or inlarged their parks by the spoile of better occupiengs) & running
 southwest of Lindhirst & the parke, it goeth by east of Brokenhirst,
 west of Bulder, & finallie into the sea south and by east of
 Lemington. I take this not to be the proper name of the water, but of
 the hauen, for Limen in Gréeke is an hauen: so that Limendune is
 nothing else, but a downe or higher plot of ground lieng on the hauen:
 neuerthelesse, sith this denomination of the riuer hath now hir frée
 passage, I think it not conuenient to séeke out any other name that
 should be giuen vnto it. The next fall that we passed by is namelesse,
 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 [Sidenote: Milis.]
 except it be called Bure, & as it descendeth from new Forrest, so the
 next vnto it hight Mile, as I haue heard in English. Certes the head
 thereof is also in the southwest part of the said Forrest, & the fall
 not far from Milford bridge, beyond the which I find a narrow going or
 strictland leading fr[=o] the point to Hirst castell which standeth
 into the sea, as if it hoong by a thred, from the maine of the Iland,
 readie to be washed awaie by the continuall working and dailie beating
 of the waues.

 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 The next riuer that we came vnto of anie name is the Auon, which (as
 Leland saith) riseth by northeast, and not far from Woolfehall in
 Wiltshire, supposed to be the same which Ptolomie called Halenus. The
 first notable bridge that it runneth vnto, is at Vphauen, thence foure
 miles further it goeth to little Ambresburie, and there is another
 bridge, from thence to Woodford village, standing at the right hand
 banke, and Newton village on the left. The bishops of Sarum had a
 proper manor place at Woodford, which bishop Sharton pulled downe
 altogither, bicause it was somewhat in ruine. Thence it goeth to
 Fisherton bridge, to Cranebridge, old Salisburie, new Salisburie, and
 finallie to Harnham, which is a statelie bridge of stone, of six
 arches at the least. There is at the west end of the said bridge, a
 little Iland, that lieth betwixt this and another bridge, of foure
 pretie arches, and vnder this later runneth a good round streame,
 which (as I take it) is a branch of Auon, that breaketh out a little
 aboue, & soone after it reuniteth it selfe againe: or else that Wilton
 water hath there his entrie into the Auon, which I cannot yet
 determine. From Harneham bridge it goeth to Dounton, that is about
 foure miles, and so much in like sort from thence to Fordingbridge, to
 Ringwood bridge fiue miles, to Christes church Twinham fiue miles, and
 streight into the sea; and hitherto Leland of this streame, which for
 the worthinesse thereof (in mine opinion) is not sufficientlie
 described. Wherefore I thinke good to deliuer a second receiued of
 another, which in more particular maner dooth exhibit his course vnto

 Certes this Auon is a goodlie riuer, rising (as I said before néere)
 vnto Wolfe hall; although he that will séeke more scrupulouslie for
 the head in déed, must looke for the same about the borders of the
 forrest of Sauernake (that is Soure oke) which lieth as if it were
 imbraced betwéene the first armes thereof, as I haue beene informed.
 These heads also doo make a confluence by east of Martinshall hill,
 and west of Wootton. From whence it goeth to Milton, Powseie,
 Manningfield abbeie, Manningfield crosse, and beneath Newington taketh
 in one rill west from Rudborow, and another a little lower that riseth
 also west of Alcanninges, and runneth into the same by Patneie,
 Merden, Wilford, Charleton, and Rustisall. Being therefore past
 Newington, it goeth to Vphauen (whereof Leland speaketh) to
 Chesilburie, Compton, Ablington, little Almsburie, Darntford,
 Woodford, old Salisburie, and so to new Salisburie, where it receiueth
 one notable riuer from by northwest, & another from north east, which
 two I will first describe, leauing the Auon at Salisburie for a while.
 [Sidenote: Wilugh.]
 The first of these is called the Wilugh, whereof the whole shire dooth
 take hir name, and not of the great plentie of willowes growing
 therein, as some fantasticall heads doo imagine: whereof also there is
 more plentie in that countrie than is to be found in other places. It
 riseth among the Deuerels, and running thence by hill Deuerell, &
 Deuerell long bridge, it goeth toward Bishops straw, taking in one
 rill by west & another from Vpton by Werminster at northwest. From
 Bishops straw it goeth to Norton, Vpton, Badhampton, Steplinford, and
 Stapleford, where it meeteth with the Winterburie water from by north,
 descending from Maddenton by Winterburne. From Stapleford it hasteth
 to Wishford, Newton, Chilhampton, Wilton: and thither commeth a water
 vnto it from southwest, which riseth of two heads aboue Ouerdonet.
 After this it goeth by Wordcastell, to Tisburie, and there receiueth a
 water on ech side, whereof one commeth from Funthill, the other from
 two issues (of which one riseth at Austie, the other at Swalodise) and
 so keeping on still with his course, our Wilugh runneth next of all by
 Sutton. Thence it goeth to Fouant, Boberstocke, Southburcombe, Wilton
 [Sidenote: Nader becke.]
 (where it taketh in the Fomington or Nader water) Westharnam,
 Salisburie, and Eastharnam: and this is the race of Wilugh.

 The other is a naked arme or streame without anie branches. It riseth
 aboue Colingburne Kingston in the hils, and thence it goeth to
 Colingburne, the Tidworths (whereof the more southerlie is in
 Wiltshire) Shipton, Cholterton, Newton, Toneie, Idmerson, Porton, the
 Winterburns, Lauerstocke, and so into Auon east of Salisburie. And
 thus is the confluence made of the aforesaid waters, with this our
 [Sidenote: Becquith brooke.]
 second Auon, whereinto another water falleth (called Becquithes
 brooke) a mile beneath Harneham bridge, whose head is fiue miles from
 Sarum, and thrée miles aboue Becquithes bridge, as Leland doth
 [Sidenote: Chalkeburne.]
 remember, who noteth the Chalkeburne water to haue his due recourse
 also at this place into the aforesaid riuer. Certes it is a pretie
 brooke, and riseth six miles from Shaftesburie, and in the waie toward
 Salisburie in a bottome on the right hand, whence it commeth by
 Knighton and Fennistratford, to Honington, that is about twelue miles
 from the head, and about two miles and an halfe from Honington beneath
 Odstocke, goeth into the Auon, a mile lower than Harnham bridge,
 except he forget himselfe. This Harnham, whereof I now intreat, was
 sometime a pretie village before the erection of new Salisburie, and
 had a church of S. Martine belonging vnto it, but now in stéed of this
 church, there is onelie a barne standing in a verie low mead on the
 northside of S. Michaels hospitall. The cause of the relinquishing of
 it was the moistnesse of the soile, verie oft ouerflowne. And whereas
 the kings high waie laie sometime through Wilton, licence was obteined
 of the king and Richard bishop of Salisburie, to remooue that passage
 vnto new Salisburie in like maner, and vpon this occasion was the
 [Sidenote: Thrée towns decaied by changing one waie.]
 maine bridge made ouer Auon at Harneham. By this exchange of the waie
 also old Salisburie fell into vtter decaie, & Wilton which was before
 the head towne of the shire, and furnished with twelue parish
 churches, grew to be but a poore village, and of small reputation.
 Howbeit, this was not the onelie cause of the ruine of old Salisburie,
 sith I read of two other, whereof the first was a salue vnto the
 latter, as I take it. For whereas it was giuen out, that the townesmen
 wanted water in old Salisburie, it is flat otherwise; sith that hill
 is verie plentifullie serued with springs and wels of verie swéet
 water. The truth of the matter therefore is this.

 [Sidenote: An holie conflict.]
 In the time of ciuill warres, the souldiors of the castell and chanons
 of old Sarum fell at ods, insomuch that after often bralles, they fell
 at last to sad blowes. It happened therefore in a rogation weeke that
 the cleargie going in solemne procession, a controuersie fell betwéene
 them about certeine walkes and limits, which the one side claimed and
 the other denied. Such also was the hot intertainment on ech part,
 that at the last the Castellanes espieng their time, gate betwéene the
 cleargie and the towne, and so coiled them as they returned homeward,
 that they feared anie more to gang about their bounds for the yeare.
 Héerevpon the people missing their bellie cheare (for they were woont
 to haue banketing at euerie station, a thing commonlie practised by
 the religious in old time, wherewith to linke in the commons vnto
 them, whom anie man may lead whither he will by the bellie, or as
 Latimer said, with beefe, bread and beere) they conceiued foorthwith a
 deadlie hatred against the Castellans. But not being able to cope with
 them by force of armes, they consulted with Richard Pore their bishop,
 and he with them so effectuallie, that it was not long yer they, I
 meane the chanons, began a new church vpon a péece of their owne
 ground called Mirifield, pretending to serue God there in better
 safetie, and with far more quietnesse than they could doo before. This
 [Sidenote: New Salisburie begun.]
 church was begun 1219, the nine and twentith of Aprill, and finished
 with the expenses of 42000 marks, in the yeare 1260, and fiue &
 twentith of March, whereby it appeereth that it was aboue fortie yéers
 in hand, although the clearks were translated to the new towne 1220,
 or the third yeere after the fraie. The people also séeing the
 diligence of the chanons, and reputing their harmes for their owne
 inconuenience, were as earnest on the other side to be néere vnto
 these prelats, and therefore euerie man brought his house vnto that
 place, & thus became old Sarum in few yeeres vtterlie desolate, and
 new Salisburie raised vp in stéed thereof, to the great decaie also of
 Harnham and Wilton, whereof I spake of late. Neuerthelesse it should
 séeme to me that this new citie is not altogither void of some great
 hinderances now and then by water: for in the second of Edward the
 second (who held a parlement there) there was a sudden thaw after a
 great frost, which caused the waters so fast to arise, that euen at
 high masse time the water came into the minster, and not onelie
 ouerflowed the nether part of the same, but came vp all to the kings
 pauase where he sate, whereby he became wetshod, and in the end
 inforced to leaue the church, as the executour did his masse, least
 they should all haue béene drowned: and this rage indured there for
 the space of two daies, wherevpon no seruice could be said in the said

 Now to returne againe from whence I thus digressed. Our Auon therefore
 departing from Salisburie, goeth by Burtford, Longford, and taking in
 the waters afore mentioned by the waie, it goeth by Stanleie,
 Dunketon, Craiford, Burgate, Fording bridge, Ringwood, Auon, Christes
 church; and finallie into the sea. But yer it come all there & a litle
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 beneth Christes church, it crosseth the Stoure or Sture, a verie faire
 streame, whose course is such as may not be left vntouched. It riseth
 of six heads, whereof thrée lie on the north side of the parke at
 Sturton within the pale, the other rise without the parke; & of this
 riuer the towne and baronie of Sturton dooth take his name as I gesse,
 for except my memorie do too much faile me, the lord Sturton giueth
 the six heads of the said water in his armes. But to procéed. After
 these branches are conioined in one bottome, it goeth to long Laime
 mill, Stilton, Milton, and beneath Gillingham receiueth a water that
 descendeth from Mere. Thence the Sture goeth to Bugleie, Stoure,
 [Sidenote: Cale.]
 Westouer bridge, Stoure prouost, and yer long it taketh in the Cale
 water, from Pen that commeth downe by Wickhampton to Moreland, & so to
 Stapleford, seuen miles from Wickhampton, passing in the said voiage,
 by Wine Caunton, and the fiue bridges. After this confluence, it
 [Sidenote: Lidden.]
 [Sidenote: Deuilis.]
 runneth to Hinton Maries, and soone after crosseth the Lidden and
 Deuilis waters all in one chanell, whereof the first riseth in
 Blackemore vale, and goeth to the bishops Caundell: the second in the
 hils south of Pulham, and so runneth to Lidlinch; the third water
 [Sidenote: Iber.]
 issueth néere Ibberton, and going by Fifehed to Lidlington, and there
 [Sidenote: Blackewater.]
 méeting with the Lidden, they receiue the Blackewater aboue Bagburne,
 and so go into the Stoure.

 After this the Stoure runneth on to Stoureton minster, Fitleford,
 Hammond, and soone after taking in one water that commeth from
 Hargraue by west Orchard, and a second from Funtmill, it goeth on to
 Chele, Ankeford, Handford, Durweston, Knighton, Brainston, Blandford,
 Charleton: and crossing yer long a rill that riseth about Tarrent, and
 goeth to Launston, Munketon, Caunston, Tarrant, it proceedeth foorth
 by Shepwijc, and by and by receiuing another brooke on the right hand,
 that riseth about Strictland, and goeth by Quarleston, Whitchurch,
 Anderston, and Winterburne, it hasteth forward to Stoureminster,
 Berford lake, Alen bridge, Winburne, aliàs Twinburne minster, whither
 commeth a water called Alen (from Knolton, Wikehampton, Estambridge,
 Hinton, Barnsleie) which hath two heads, whereof one riseth short of
 Woodcotes, and east of Farneham, named Terig, the other at Munketon
 aboue S. Giles Winburne, and going thence to S. Giles Ashleie, it
 taketh in the Horton becke, as the Horton dooth the Cranburne.
 Finallie, meeting with the Terig aboue Knolton, they run on vnder the
 [Sidenote: This Stoure aboundeth with pike, perch, roch,
 dace, gudgeon and éeles.]
 name of Alen to the Stoure, which goeth to the Canfords, Preston,
 Kingston, Perleie, and Yolnest: but yer it come at Yolnest it taketh
 in two brookes in one bottome, whereof one commeth from Woodland parke
 by Holt parke, and Holt, another from aboue vpper Winburne, by
 Edmondesham, Vertwood, and Mannington, and ioining about S. Leonards,
 they go to Hornebridge, and so into Stoure. After which confluence,
 the said Stoure runneth by Iuor bridge, and so into Auon, leauing
 Christs church aboue the méeting of the said waters (as I haue said

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Hauing in this maner passed Christes church head we come to the fall
 of the Burne, which is a little brooke running from Stourefield heath,
 without branches; from whence we proceeded: & the next fall that we
 [Sidenote: Poole.]
 come vnto is Poole, from whose mouth vpon the shore, by southwest in a
 baie of thrée miles off, is a poore fisher towne called Sandwich,
 where we saw a péere and a little fresh brooke. The verie vtter part
 of saint Adelmes point, is fiue miles from Sandwich. In another baie
 lieth west Lilleworth, where (as I heare) is some profitable
 harborough for ships. The towne of Poole is from Winburne about foure
 miles, and it standeth almost as an Ile in the hauen. The hauen it
 selfe also, if a man should measure it by the circuit, wanteth little
 of twentie miles, as I did gesse by the view.

 Going therefore into the same, betwéene the north and the south
 points, to sée what waters were there, we left Brunkeseie Iland, and
 the castell on the left hand within the said points; and passing about
 by Pole, and leauing that créeke, bicause it hath no fresh, we came by
 Holton and Kesworth, where we beheld two falles, of which one was
 called the north, the other the south waters. The north streame hight
 [Sidenote: Piddle.]
 Piddle as I heare. It riseth about Alton, and goeth from thence to
 Piddle trench head, Piddle hinton, Walterstow, and yer it come at
 [Sidenote: Deuils.]
 Birstam, receiueth Deuils brooke that commeth thither from Brugham and
 Melcombe by Deuilish towne. Thence it goeth to Tow piddle, Ashe
 piddle, Turners piddle (taking in yer it come there, a water that
 runneth from Helton by Middleton, Milburne & Biere) then to Hide, and
 so into Pole hauen, and of this water Marianus Scotus speaketh, except
 [Sidenote: Frome.]
 I be deceiued. The south water is properlie called Frome for Frame. It
 riseth néere vnto Euershot, and going downe by Fromequitaine,
 Chelmington, and Catstocke, it receiueth there a rill from beside
 Rowsham, and Wraxehall. After this it goeth on to Chilfrome, and
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 thence to Maden Newton, where it méeteth with the Owke, that riseth
 either two miles aboue Hoke parke at Kenford, or in the great pond
 within Hoke parke, and going by the Tollards, falleth into the Frome
 about Maden Newton, & so go as one from thence to Fromevauchirch,
 Crokewaie, Frampton, and Muckilford, and receiueth néere vnto the same
 a rill from aboue Vpsidling by S. Nicholas Sidling, and Grimston. From
 hence it goeth on by Stratton and Bradford Peuerell, and beneath this
 [Sidenote: Silleie.]
 [Sidenote: Minterne.]
 [Sidenote: Cherne.]
 Bradford, it crosseth the Silleie aliàs Minterne and Cherne brooks
 both in one chanell: whereof the first riseth in vpper Cherne parish,
 the other at Minterne, and méeting aboue middle Cherne, they go by
 nether Cherne, Forston, Godmanston, and aboue Charneminster into
 Frome. In the meane time also our Frome brancheth and leaueth an Iland
 aboue Charneminster, and ioining againe néere Dorchester, it goeth by
 Dorchester, and Forthington; but yer it come at Beckington, it méeteth
 with another Becke that runneth thereinto from Winterburne, Stapleton,
 Martinstow, Heringstow, Caine and Stafford, and from thence goeth
 without anie further increase as yet to Beckington, Knighton,
 Tinkleton, Morton, Wooll, Bindon, Stoke, & beneath Stoke receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Luckford.]
 issue of the Luckford lake, from whence also it passeth by Eastholme,
 [Sidenote: Séeke more for Wilie brooke that goeth by
 West burie to Pole hauen.]
 Warham, and so into the Baie. From this fall we went about the arme
 point by Slepe, where we saw a little créeke, then by Owre, where we
 beheld an other, & then comming againe toward the entrance by saint
 Helens, and Furleie castell, we went abroad into the maine, and found
 ourselues at libertie.

 When we were past Pole hauen, we left the Handfast point, the Peuerell
 point, S. Adelmes chappell, and came at last to Lughport hauen,
 whereby and also the Luckeford lake, all this portion of ground last
 remembred, is left in maner of a byland or peninsula, and called the
 Ile of Burbecke, wherein is good store of alum and hard stone. In like
 sort going still westerlie, we came to Sutton points, where is a
 créeke. Then vnto Waie or Wilemouth, by kings Welcombe, which is
 twentie miles from Pole, and whose head is not full foure miles aboue
 the hauen by northwest at Vphill in the side of a great hill. Hereinto
 when we were entred, we saw three falles, whereof the first and
 greatest commeth from Vpweie by Bradweie, and Radipoole, receiuing
 afterward the second that ran from east Chekerell, and likewise the
 third that maketh the ground betwéene Weimouth and Smalmouth passage
 almost an Iland. There is a little barre of sand at the hauen mouth,
 and a great arme of the sea runneth vp by the right hand; and scant a
 mile aboue the hauen mouth on the shore, is a right goodlie and
 warlike castell made, which hath one open barbicane. This arme runneth
 vp also further by a mile as in a baie, to a point of land where a
 passage is into Portland, by a little course of pibble sand. It goeth
 vp also from the said passage vnto Abbatsbirie about seauen miles off,
 where a litle fresh rondell resorteth to the sea. And somewhat aboue
 [Sidenote: Chesill.]
 this, is the head or point of the Chesill lieng northwest, which
 stretcheth vp from thence about seauen miles, as a maine narrow banke,
 by a right line vnto the southeast, and there abutteth vpon Portland
 scant a quarter of a mile aboue the Newcastle there. The nature of
 this banke is such, that so often as the wind bloweth vehementlie at
 southeast, so often the sea beateth in, and losing the banke soketh
 through it: so that if this wind should blow from that corner anie
 long time togither, Portland should be left an Iland as it hath béene
 before. But as the southwest wind dooth appaire this banke, so a
 northwest dooth barre it vp againe. It is pretie to note of the
 Townelet of Waimouth, which lieth streight against Milton on the other
 side, and of this place where the water of the hauen is but of small
 breadth, that a rope is commonlie tied from one side of the shore to
 another, whereby the ferrie men doo guide their botes without anie
 helpe of Ores. But to procéed with our purpose. Into the mouth of this
 riuer doo ships often come for succour.

 Going by Portland and the point thereof called the Rase, we sailed
 along by the Shingle, till we came by saint Katharins chappell, where
 we saw the fall of a water that came downe from Blackdéene Beaconward,
 by Portsham and Abbatsburie. Thence we went to another that fell into
 the sea, neere Birton, and descended from Litton by Chilcombe, then
 [Sidenote: Bride.]
 vnto the Bride or Brute port, a pretie hauen, and the riuer it selfe
 serued with sundrie waters. It riseth halfe a mile or more aboue
 [Sidenote: Nature hath set the mouth of this riuer in maner betwixt
 two hils, so that a little cost would make an hau[=e] there.]
 Bemister, and so goeth from Bemister to Netherburie by Parneham, then
 to Melplash, and so to Briteport, where it taketh in two waters from
 by east in one chanell, of which one riseth east of Nettlecort, and
 goeth by Porestoke and Milton, the other at Askerwell, and runneth by
 [Sidenote: Simen.]
 Longlether. From hence also our Bride going toward the sea, taketh the
 Simen on the west that commeth by Simensburge into the same, the whole
 streame soone after falling into the sea, and leauing a pretie

 [Sidenote: Chare.]
 The next port is the Chare, serued with two rils in one confluence,
 beneath Charemouth. The cheefe head of this riuer is (as Leland saith)
 in Marshwood parke, and commeth downe by Whitechurch: the other
 runneth by west of Wootton, and méeting beneath Charemouth towne (as I
 said) dooth fall into the sea. Then came we to the Cobbe, and beheld
 [Sidenote: Buddle.]
 the Lime water, which the townesmen call the Buddle, which commeth
 about thrée miles by north of Lime, from the hils, fleting vpon Rockie
 soile, and so falleth into the sea. Certes, there is no hauen héere
 that I could sée, but a quarter of a mile by west southwest of the
 towne, is a great and costlie iuttie in the sea for succour of ships.
 The towne is distant from Coliton, about fiue miles. And heere we
 ended our voiage from the Auon, which conteineth the whole coast of
 Dorcester, or Dorcetshire, so that next we must enter into Summerset
 countie, and sée what waters are there.

 [Sidenote: Axe.]
 The first water that we méet withall in Summersetshire is the Axe,
 which riseth in a place called Axe knoll, longing to sir Giles
 Strangwaie, néere vnto Cheddington in Dorsetshire, from whence it
 runneth to Mosterne, Feborow, Claxton, Weiford bridge, Winsham foord,
 and receiuing one rill from the east by Hawkechurch, and soone after
 another comming from northwest by Churchstoke, from Wainbroke, it
 [Sidenote: Yare aliàs Arte.]
 goeth to Axeminster, beneath which it crosseth the Yare, that commeth
 from about Buckland, by Whitstaunton, Yarecombe, Long bridge,
 Stockeland, Kilmington bridge (where it receiueth a brooke from by
 south, that runneth by Dalwood) and so into the Axe. From hence our
 Axe goeth to Drake, Musburie, Culliford: but yer it come altogither at
 Culliford, it méeteth with a water that riseth aboue Cotleie, and
 goeth from thence by Widworthie, Culliton, and there receiuing a rill
 also, procéedeth on after the confluence aboue Culliford bridge, into
 the Axe, and from thence hold on togither into the maine sea,
 whereinto they fall vnder the roots of the winter cliffes, the points
 of them being almost a mile in sunder. The most westerlie of them
 called Berewood, lieth within halfe a mile of Seton.

 But the other toward the east is named Whitecliffe, of which I saie no
 more, but that "in the time of Athelstane, the greatest nauie that
 euer aduentured into this Iland, arriued at Seton in Deuonshire, being
 replenished with aliens that sought the conquest of this Iland, but
 Athelstane met and incountered with them in the field, where he
 ouerthrew six thousand of his aforesaid enimies. Not one of them also
 that remained aliue, escaped from the battell without some deadlie or
 verie gréeuous wound. In this conflict moreouer were slaine fiue
 kings, which were interred in the churchyard of Axe minster, and of
 the part of the king of England were killed eight earles of the chéefe
 of his nobilitie, and they also buried in the churchyard aforesaid.
 Héervnto it addeth how the bishop of Shireburne was in like sort
 slaine in this battell, that began at Brunedune neere to Coliton, and
 indured euen to Axe minster, which then was called Brunberie or
 Brunburg. The same daie that this thing happened the sunne lost his
 light, and so continued without anie brightnesse, vntill the setting
 of that planet, though otherwise the season was cléere and nothing

 As for the hauen which in times past as I haue heard, hath béene at
 [Sidenote: Sidde.]
 Sidmouth (so called of Sidde a rillet that runneth thereto) and
 [Sidenote: Seton.]
 likewise at Seton, I passe it ouer, sith now there is none at all. Yet
 hath there béene sometime a notable one, albeit, that at this present
 betweene the two points of the old hauen, there lieth a mightie bar of
 pibble stones, in the verie mouth of it, and the riuer Axe is driuen
 to the verie east point of the hauen called White cliffe. Thereat also
 a verie little gull goeth into the sea, whither small fisherbotes doo
 oft resort for succour. The men of Seton began of late to stake and
 make a maine wall within the hauen to haue changed the course of the
 Axe, and (almost in the middle of the old hauen) to haue trenched
 through the Chesill, thereby to haue let out the Axe, & to haue taken
 in the maine sea, but I heare of none effect that this attempt did
 come vnto. From Seton westward lieth Coliton, about two miles by west
 [Sidenote: Colie.]
 northwest, whereof riseth the riuer Colie, which going by the
 aforesaid towne, passeth by Colecombe parke, and afterward falleth
 betweene Axe bridge and Axe mouth towne into the Axe riuer.

 By west of Bereworth point lieth a créeke, serued (so farre as I
 remember) with a fresh water that commeth from the hilles south of
 [Sidenote: Sid.]
 Soutleie or Branscombe. Sidmouth hauen is the next, and thither
 commeth a fresh water by S. Maries from the said hils, that goeth from
 S. Maries aforesaid to Sidburie, & betweene Saltcombe & Sidmouth into
 [Sidenote: Autrie aliàs Ottereie.]
 the maine sea. By west of Auterton point also lieth another hauen, and
 thither commeth a pretie riueret, whose head is in the Hackpendon
 hilles, and commeth downe first by Vpauter, then by a parke side to
 Mohuns Auter, Munketon, Honniton, Buckewell, and north of Autrie
 [Sidenote: Tale.]
 receiueth a rill called Tale, that riseth northwest of Brodemburie in
 a wood, and from whence it commeth by Pehemburie, Vinniton, and making
 a confluence with the other, they go as one betwéene Cadde and Autrie,
 to Herford, Luton, Collaton, Auterton, Budeleie, and so into the sea.
 On the west side of this hauen is Budeleie almost directly against
 Otterton. It is easie to be seene also, that within lesse space than
 one hundred yeers, ships did vse this hauen, but now it is barred vp.
 Some call it Budeleie hauen of Budeleie towne, others Salterne port,
 of a little créeke comming out of the maine hauen vnto Salterne
 village, that hath in time past béene a towne of great estimation.

 [Sidenote: Exe.]
 The Ex riseth in Exmore in Summersetshire, néere vnto Ex crosse, and
 goeth from thence vnto Exeford, Winsford, and Extun, where it
 receiueth a water comming from Cutcombe, by north. After this
 confluence it goeth on toward the south, till it méet with a pretie
 brooke rising northeast of Whettell (going by Brunton Regis) increased
 at the least with thrée rilles which come all from by north. These
 being once met, this water runneth on by west of the beacon that
 [Sidenote: Barleie.]
 beareth the name of Haddon, & soone after taketh in the Barleie, that
 [Sidenote: Done aliàs Dones broke.]
 receiueth in like sort the Done at Hawkbridge, and from hence goeth by
 Dauerton, and Combe, and then doth méet with the Exe, almost in the
 verie confines betwéene Dorset & Summersetshires. Being past this
 coniunction, our Exe passeth betwéene Brushford and Murbath, and then
 to Exe bridge, where it taketh in (as I heare) a water by west from
 east Austie: and after this likewise another on ech side, whereof one
 [Sidenote: Woodburne.]
 commeth from Dixford, and Baunton, the other called Woodburne,
 somewhat by east of Okeford. From these meetings it goeth to Caue and
 through the forrest and woods to Hatherland and Washfields, vntill it
 come to Tiuerton, and here it receiueth the Lomund water that riseth
 aboue Ashbrittle, & commeth downe by Hockworthie, vpper Loman, and so
 to Tiuerton that standeth almost euen in the verie confluence. Some
 [Sidenote: Lomund or Simming.]
 call this Lomund the Simming brooke or Sunnings bath. After this our
 Exe goeth to Bickleie, Theuerten, (taking in a rill by  west) nether
 [Sidenote: Columbe.]
 Exe, Bramford, beneath which it ioineth with the Columbe that riseth
 of one head northeast of Clarie Haidon, and of another south of
 Shildon, and méeting beneath Columbe stocke, goeth by Columbe and
 Bradfeld, and there crossing a rill that commeth by Ashford, it
 runneth south to Wood, More haies, Columbton, Brandnicke, Beare,
 Columbe Iohn, Hoxham, and ioining (as I said) with the Exe at
 Bramford, passing vnder but one bridge, yer it meet with another water
 [Sidenote: Cride.]
 [Sidenote: Forten.]
 by west, growing of the Forten and Cride waters (except it be so that
 I doo iudge amisse.) The Cride riseth aboue Wollesworthie, and néere
 vnto Vpton: after it is past Dewrish, crosseth a rill from betweene
 Puggill and Stockeleie by Stocke English, &c. From hence it goeth to
 Fulford, where it méeteth with the Forten, wherof one branch commeth
 by Caldbrooke, the other from S. Marie Tedburne, and ioining aboue
 Crediton, the chanell goeth on to the Cride, (which yer long also
 receiueth another from by north, comming by Stockeleie and Combe) then
 betwéene Haine and Newton Sires, to Pines, and so into the Exe, which
 staieth not vntill it come to Excester. From Excester (whither the
 burgesses in time past laboured to bring the same, but in vaine) it
 runneth to Were, there taking in a rill from by west, and an other
 lower by Exminster, next of all vnto Toppesham; beneath which towne
 [Sidenote: Cliuus.]
 the Cliue entreth thereinto, which rising about Plumtree, goeth by
 Cliff Haidon, Cliff Laurence, Brode Cliff, Honiton, Souton, Bishops
 Cliff, S. Marie Cliff, Cliff saint George, and then into the Exe, that
 runneth forward by Notwell court, Limston and Pouderham castell. Here
 [Sidenote: Ken.]
 (as I heare) it taketh in the Ken, or Kenton brooke (as Leland calleth
 it) comming from Holcombe parke, by Dunsdike, Shillingford, Kenford,
 Ken, Kenton, and so into Exe hauen, at whose mouth lie certeine rocks
 which they call the Checkstones, except I be deceiued. The next fall,
 whereof Leland saith nothing at all, commeth by Ashcombe and Dulish,
 and hath his head in the hilles thereby.

 [Sidenote: Teigne.]
 The Teigne mouth is the next fall that we came to, & it is a goodlie
 port foure miles from Exemouth. The head of this water is twentie
 miles from the sea at Teigne head in Dartmore among the Gidleie
 hilles. From whence it goeth to Gidleie towne, Teignton drue, where it
 [Sidenote: Crokerne.]
 receiueth the Crokerne comming from by north, and likewise an other
 west of Fulford parke. Then it goeth to Dufford, Bridford, Kirslowe,
 [Sidenote: Bouie.]
 Chidleie, Knighton, and beneath the bridge there receiueth the Bouie,
 whose course is to north Bouie, Lilleie, and Bouitracie. Thence it
 [Sidenote: Eidis.]
 runneth to kings Teignton, taking in Eidis, a brooke beneath Preston
 that commeth from Edeford by the waie. And when it is past this
 [Sidenote: Leman.]
 confluence, at kings Teignton, it crosseth the Leman, which commeth
 from Saddleton rocke by Beckington, and Newton Bushels: and soone
 [Sidenote: Aller.]
 after the Aller that riseth betwéene Danburie and Warog well,
 afterward falling into the sea by Bishops Teignton, south of
 Teignmouth towne.

 The verie vtter west point of the land, at the mouth of Teigne is
 called the Nesse, and is a verie high red cliffe. The east part of the
 hauen is named the Poles, a low sandie ground, either cast vp by the
 spuing of the sand out of the Teigne, or else throwne vp from the
 shore by the rage of wind and water. This sand occupieth now a great
 quantitie of the ground betwéene the hauen where the sand riseth, and
 Teignmouth towne, which towne (surnamed Regis) hath in time past béene
 sore defaced by the Danes, and of late time by the French.

 From Teignemouth we came to Tor baie, wherof the west point is called
 Birie, and the east Perritorie, betwéene which is little aboue foure
 miles. From Tor baie also to Dartmouth is six miles, where (saith
 Leland) I marked diuerse things. First of all vpon the east side of
 the hauen a great hillie point called Downesend, and betwixt
 Downesend, and a pointlet named Wereford is a little baie. Were it
 selfe, in like sort, is not full a mile from Downesend vpward into the
 hauen. Kingswere towne standeth out as another pointlet, and betwixt
 it & Wereford is the second baie. Somewhat moreouer aboue Kingswere
 towne goeth a little créeke vp into the land from the maine streame of
 the hauen called Waterhead, and this is a verie fit place for vessels
 to be made in. In like sort halfe a mile beyond this into the landward
 goeth another longer créeke, and aboue that also a greater than either
 of these called Gawnston, whose head is here not halfe a mile from the
 maine sea, by the compassing thereof, as it runneth in Tor baie.

 [Sidenote: Dart.]
 The riuer of Dart or Darent (for I read Derenta muth for Dartmouth)
 commeth out of Dartmore fiftéene miles aboue Totnesse, in a verie
 large plot, and such another wild morish & forrestie ground as Exmore
 is. Of it selfe moreouer this water is verie swift, and thorough
 occasion of tin-workes whereby it passeth, it carrieth much sand to
 Totnesse bridge, and so choketh the depth of the riuer downeward, that
 the hauen it selfe is almost spoiled by the same. The mariners of
 Dartmouth accompt this to be about a kenning from Plimmouth. The
 Darent therefore proceeding from the place of his vprising, goeth on
 to Buckland, from whence it goeth to Buckland hole; and soone after
 [Sidenote: Ashburne.]
 [Sidenote: Buckfastlich.]
 taking in the Ashburne water on the one side that runneth from
 Saddleton rocke by north, and the Buckfastlich that commeth from north
 west, it runneth to Staunton, Darington, Hemston, and there also
 crossing a rill on ech side passeth foorth to Totnesse, Bowden, and
 [Sidenote: Hartburne.]
 aboue Gabriell Stoke, méeteth with the Hartburne that runneth vnder
 Rost bridge, two miles aboue Totnes, or (as another saith) by Ratter,
 Harberton, Painesford, and Asprempton into Darent, which yon long also
 commeth to Corneworthie, Grenewaie, Ditsham, Darntmouth towne
 (wherevnto king Iohn gaue sometimes a maior, as he did vnto Totnesse)
 from thence betwéene the castelles, and finallie into sea.

 From hence we went by Stokeflemming to another water, which commeth
 from blacke Auton, then to the second that falleth in east of Slapton,
 and so coasting out of this baie by the Start point, we saile almost
 directlie west, till we come to Saltcombe hauen. Certes this port hath
 verie little fresh water comming to it, and therefore no meruell
 though it be barred; yet the head of it (such as it is) riseth néere
 Buckland, and goeth to Dudbrooke, which standeth betwéene two créekes.
 Thence it hieth to Charleton, where it taketh in a rill, whose head
 commeth from south and north of Shereford. Finallie it hath another
 créeke that runneth vp by Ilton: and the last of all that falleth in
 north of Portlemouth, whose head is so néere the baie last afore
 remembred, that it maketh it a sorie peninsula (as I haue heard it

 [Sidenote: Awne.]
 Then come we to the Awne, whose head is in the hils farre aboue Brent
 towne, from whence it goeth to Dixford wood, Loddewell, Hache, Aunton,
 Thorleston, and so into the sea ouer against a rocke called S.
 [Sidenote: Arme.]
 Michaels burrow. Arme riseth aboue Harford, thence to Stoford, Iuie
 bridge, Armington bridge, Fléet, Orchardton, Ownewell, and so vnto the
 sea, which is full of flats and rocks, so that no ship commeth thither
 in anie tempest, except it be forced therto, through the vttermost
 extremitie and desperat hazard of the fearefull mariners. King Philip
 [Sidenote: Sée Hen. 7. pag. 792, 793, 794.]
 of Castile lost two ships here in the daies of king Henrie the
 seuenth, when he was driuen to land in the west countrie by the rage
 [Sidenote: Yalme.]
 of weather. Yalme goeth by Cornewood, Slade, Stratleie, Yalmeton,
 Collaton, Newton ferrie, and so into the sea, about foure miles by
 [Sidenote: Plim.]
 south east from the maine streame of Plimmouth. Being past these
 portlets, then next of all we come to Plimmouth hauen, a verie busie
 péece to describe, bicause of the numbers of waters that resort vnto
 it, & small helpe that I haue for the knowledge of their courses; yet
 will I doo what I may in this, as in the rest, and so much I hope by
 Gods grace to performe, as shall suffice my purpose in this behalfe.

 [Sidenote: Plim.]
 The Plimne or Plim, is the verie same water that giueth name to
 Plimpton towne. The mouth of this gulfe, wherein the ships doo ride,
 is walled on ech side and chained ouer in time of necessitie, and on
 the south side of the hauen is a blocke house vpon a rockie hill: but
 as touching the riuer it selfe, it riseth in the hils west of
 Cornewood, and commeth downe a short course of thrée miles to Newenham
 after it be issued out of the ground. From Newenham also it runneth to
 [Sidenote: Stoure aliàs Catwater.]
 Plimpton, and soone after into the Stoure, which Stoure ariseth
 northwest of Shepistour, & goeth fr[=o] thence to Memchurch, Hele,
 Shane, Bickleie, and so to Eford, where taking in the Plim, it runneth
 downe as one vnder the name of Plim, vntill it go past Plimmouth, and
 fall into the hauen south east of Plimmouth aforesaid. I haue
 oftentimes trauelled to find out the cause whie so manie riuers in
 England are called by this name Stoure, and at the first supposing
 that it was growne by the corruption of Dour, the British word for a
 streame, I rested thervpon as resolued for a season: but afterward
 finding the word to be méere Saxon, and that Stouremare is a prouince
 subiect to the duke of Saxonie, I yéelded to another opinion: whereby
 I conceiue that the said name was first deriued from the Saxons. But
 to returne to our purpose.

 Plimmouth it selfe standeth betweene two créeks, not serued with anie
 backewater, therefore passing ouer these two, we enter into the Thamar
 that dischargeth it selfe into the aforesaid hauen. Going therfore vp
 that streame, which for the most part parteth Deuonshire from
 [Sidenote: Taue or Tauie.]
 Cornewall, the first riueret that I met withall on the east side is
 called Tauie, the head whereof is among the mounteins foure miles
 aboue Peters Tauie, beneath which it meeteth with another water from
 by west, so that these two waters include Marie Tauie betwéene them,
 though nothing neere the confluence. From hence the Taue or Tauie
 runneth to Tauistocke, aboue which it taketh in a rill from by west,
 and another aboue north Buckland, whose head is in Dartmore, and
 commeth therevnto by Sandford and Harrow bridge. From hence it goeth
 into Thamar, by north Buckland, moonks Buckland, Beare, and Tamerton
 follie. Hauing thus dispatched the Tauie, the next that falleth in on
 [Sidenote: Lidde.]
 the east side vpwards is the Lidde, which rising in the hils aboue
 Lidford, runneth downe by Curriton and Siddenham, and so to Lidstone,
 [Sidenote: Trushell.]
 aboue which it receiueth the Trushell brooke, which rising north east
 of Brediston, goeth by Trusholton to Ibaine, where it receiueth a rill
 that commeth by Bradwood from Germanswike, and after the confluence
 runneth to Liston, and from thence into the Thamar. The next aboue
 [Sidenote: Core.]
 this is the Corewater, this ariseth somewhere about Elwell or Helwell,
 and going by Virginston, runneth on by saint Giles without anie
 increase vntill it come to Thamar. Next of all it taketh in two
 brookes not much distant in sunder, whereof the one commeth in by
 Glanton, the other from Holsworthie, and both east of Tamerton, which
 standeth on the further banke, & other side of the Thamar, and west
 northwest of Tedcote, except the quarter deceiue me.

 [Sidenote: Thamar.]
 Certes, the Thamar it selfe riseth in Summersetshire, about thrée
 miles northeast of Hartland, and in maner so crosseth ouer the whole
 west countrie betwéene sea and sea, that it leaueth Cornewall, a
 byland or peninsula. Being therefore descended from the head, by a
 tract of six miles, it commeth to Denborow, Pancrase well, Bridge
 Reuell, Tamerton, Tetcote, Luffencote, Boiton, and Wirrington, where
 [Sidenote: Arteie.]
 it meeteth with a water on the west side called Arteie, that riseth
 short of Jacobstow. Two miles in like sort fr[=o] this confluence, we
 [Sidenote: Kenseie.]
 met with the Kenseie, whose head is short of Warpeston by south east:
 from whence it goeth by Treneglos, Tremone, Tresmure, Trewen, Lanston,
 and so into the Thamar, that runneth from hence by Lowwhitton vnto
 Bradston, and going on toward Dunterton, taketh in a rill from south
 Pitherwijc, and by Lesant; beneath Dunterton also it crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Enian.]
 Enian. This riuer riseth at Dauidston, and directeth his race by saint
 Clethir, Lancast, and Trelaske first; and then vnder sundrie bridges,
 vntill it méet with the Thamar. From hence also the Thamar goeth by
 Siddenham to Calstocke bridge, Calstocke towne, Clifton, Cargreue
 (there abouts taking in a créeke aboue Landilip) and running on from
 [Sidenote: Liuer.]
 thence, hasteth toward Saltash, where it receiueth the Liuer water.
 The head of Liuer is about Broomwellie hill, from whence it goeth on
 to North hill, Lekenhorne, South hill, and taking in a rill by east
 (from aboue Kellington) it runneth on to Newton, Pillaton, Wootton,
 Blosfleming, saint Erne, and beneath this village crosseth a rillet
 that runneth thither from Bicton by Quithiocke, saint Germans, and
 Sheuiocke. But to procéed. After the confluence, it goeth betweene
 Erlie and Fro Martine castell, and soone after taking in a rill from
 by north, that passeth west of saint Steuens, it is not long yer it
 fall into the Thamar, which after this (receiuing the Milbrooke
 creeke) goeth on by Edgecombe, and betwéene saint Michaels Ile and
 Ridden point into the maine sea. And thus haue I finished the
 description of Plimmouth water, and all such falles as are betwéene
 Newston rocke on the east side, and the Ram head on the other.

 After this we procéeded on with our iournie toward the west, and
 passing by Longstone, we came soone after to Sothan baie, where we
 crossed the Seton water, whose head is about Liscard, & his course by
 [Sidenote: Sutton.]
 [Sidenote: Low.]
 Minheniet, Chafrench, Tregowike, Sutton and so into the sea. Then came
 we to Low, and going in betwéene it and Mount Ile, we find that it had
 a branched course, and thereto the confluence aboue Low. The chiefe
 head riseth in the hils, as it were two miles aboue Gaine, and going
 by that towne, it ceaseth not to continue his course east of Dulo,
 till it come a little aboue Low, where it crosseth and ioineth with
 the Brodoke water that runneth from Brodokes by Trewargo, and so into
 the sea. Next vnto these are two other rils, of which one is called
 [Sidenote: Polpir.]
 Polpir, before we come at Foy, or Fawy.

 [Sidenote: Fawie.]
 Foy or Fawy riuer riseth in Fawy moore, on the side of an hill in Fawy
 moore, from whence it runneth by certeine bridges, till it méet with
 [Sidenote: Glin.]
 the Glin water west of Glin towne, which rising aboue Temple, &
 méeting with a rill that commeth in from S. Neotes, doth fall into
 Fawy a mile and more aboue Resprin from by east. After this confluence
 then, it goeth to Resprin bridge, Lestermen castell, Lostwithiell
 bridge, Pill, saint Kingtons, saint Winnow, and Golant, and here also
 [Sidenote: Lerinus.]
 receiueth the Lerine water out of a parke, that taketh his waie into
 the maine streame by Biconke, Tethe, and the Fining house. Being thus
 vnited, it proceedeth vnto Fawy towne, taking in a rill or creeke from
 aboue it on the one side, and another beneath it south of Halling on
 the other: of which two this latter is the longest of course, sith it
 [Sidenote: Faw.]
 runneth thrée good miles before it come at the Foy. Leland writing of
 this riuer addeth verie largelie vnto it after this maner. The Fawy
 riseth in Fawy moore (about two miles from Camilford by south, and
 sixtéene miles from Fawy towne) in a verie quaue mire on the side of
 an hill. From hence it goeth to Drainesbridge, to Clobham bridge,
 Lergen bridge, New bridge, Resprin bridge, and Lostwithiell bridge,
 where it meeteth with a little brooke, and néere therevnto parteth it
 selfe in twaine. Of these two armes therefore one goeth to a bridge of
 stone, the other to another of timber, and soone after ioining againe,
 the maine riuer goeth to saint Gwinnowes, from thence also to the
 point of saint Gwinnowes wood, which is about halfe a mile from
 thence, except my memorie dooth faile me. Here goeth in a salt créeke
 halfe a mile on the east side of the hauen, and at the head of it is a
 bridge called Lerine bridge; the créeke it selfe in like maner bearing
 the same denomination.

 [Sidenote: In the middle of this créeke was a cell of S. Ciret in an
 Islet longing sometime to Mountegew a priorie.]
 From Lerine créeke, to S. Caracs pill or créeke, is about halfe a
 mile, and Lower on the east side of the said hauen: it goeth vp also
 not aboue a mile and an halfe into the land. From Caracs créeke to
 Poulmorland a mile, and this likewise goeth vp scant a quarter of a
 mile into the land, yet at the head it parteth it selfe in twaine.
 From Poulmorland vnto Bodnecke village halfe a mile, where the passage
 and repassage is commonlie to Fawy. From Bodnecke to Pelene point
 (where a créeke goeth vp not fullie a thousand paces into the land) a
 mile, thence to Poulruan a quarter of a mile, and at this Poulruan is
 a tower of force, marching against the tower on Fawy side, betwéene
 which (as I doo heare) a chaine hath sometime beene stretched, and
 likelie inough; for the hauen there is hardly two bow shot ouer. The
 verie point of land at the east side of the mouth of this hauen, is
 called Pontus crosse, but now Panuche crosse. It shall not be amisse
 in this place somewhat to intreat of the towne of Fawy, which is
 [Sidenote: Comwhath.]
 called in Cornish Comwhath, and being situat on the northside of the
 hauen, is set hanging on a maine rockie hill, being in length about
 one quarter of a mile, except my memorie deceiue me.

 The renowme of Fawy rose by the wars vnder king Edward the first,
 Edward the third, and Henrie the fift, partlie by feats of armes, and
 partlie by plaine pirasie. Finallie, the townesmen feeling themselues
 somwhat at ease and strong in their purses, they fell to merchandize,
 and so they prospered in this their new deuise, that as they trauelled
 into all places, so merchants from all countries made resort to them,
 whereby within a while they grew to be exceeding rich. The ships of
 Fawy sailing on a time by Rhie and Winchelseie in the time of king
 Edward the third, refused stoutlie to vale anie bonet there, although
 warning was giuen them so to doo by the portgreues or rulers of those
 townes. Herevpon the Rhie and Winchelseie men made out vpon them with
 cut and long taile: but so hardlie were they interteined by the Fawy
 pirates (I should saie aduenturers) that they were driuen home againe
 with no small losse and hinderance. Such fauour found the Fawy men
 also immediatlie vpon this bickering, that in token of their victorie
 ouer their winching aduersaries, and riding ripiers (as they called
 them in mockerie) they altered their armes and compounded for new,
 wherein the scutchion of Rhie and Winchelseie is quartered with
 [Sidenote: Gallants of Foy or Fawy.]
 theirs, and beside this the Foyens were called the gallants of Fawy or
 Foy, whereof they not a little reioiced, and more peraduenture than
 for some greater bootie. And thus much of Fawy towne, wherein we sée
 what great successe often commeth of witlesse and rash aduentures. But
 to returne againe to our purpose from whence we haue digressed, and as
 hauing some desire to finish vp this our voiage, we will leaue the
 Fawmouth & go forward on our iournie.

 Being therefore past this hauen, we come into Trewardith baie, which
 lieth into the land betwéene Canuasse and the Blacke head point, and
 here about Leland placeth Vrctoum promontorium. In this we saw the
 fall of two small brookes, not one verie far distant from another. The
 first of them entring west of Trewardith, the other east of saint
 Blaies, and both directlie against Curwarder rocke, except I mistake
 my compasse. Neither of them are of anie great course, and the longest
 not full thrée miles and an halfe. Wherfore sith they are neither
 branched nor of anie great quantitie, what should I make long haruest
 of a little corne and spend more time than may well be spared about

 [Sidenote: Austell.]
 When we were past the Blacke head, we came to Austell brooke, which is
 increased with a water that commeth from aboue Mewan, and within a
 mile after the confluence, they fall into the sea at Pentoren, from
 whence we went by the Blacke rocke, and about the Dudman point, till
 [Sidenote: Chare.]
 we came to Chare haies, where falleth in a pretie water, whose head is
 two miles aboue saint Tues. Thence we went by here and there a méere
 salt créeke, till we passed the Graie rocke, in Gwindraith baie, and
 S. Anthonies point, where Leland maketh his accompt to enter into
 Falamouth hauen.

 [Sidenote: Fala.]
 The Fala riseth a little by north of Penuenton towne, and going
 westward till it come downwards toward saint Dionise, it goeth forth
 from thence to Melader, saint Steuens Grampont, Goldon, Crede,
 Corneleie, Tregue, Moran, Tregunnan, it falleth into the hauen with a
 good indifferent force: and this is the course of Fala. But least I
 should séeme to omit those creekes that are betwéene this and S.
 Anthonies point, I will go a little backe againe, and fetch in so
 manie of them, as come now to my remembrance. Entring therefore into
 the port, we haue a créeke that runneth vp by saint Anthonies toward
 saint Gereus, then another that goeth into the land by east of saint
 Maries castell, with a forked head, passing in the meane time by a
 great rocke that lieth in the verie midst of the hauen, in maner of
 the third point of a triangle, betwéene saint Maries castell and

 Thence we cast about by the said castell, and came by another créeke
 that falleth in by east, then the second aboue saint Iustus, the third
 at Ardenora, the fourth at Rilan. And hauing as it were visited all
 these in order, we came backe againe about by Tregonnian, and then
 going vpward betweene it and Taluerne, till we came to Fentangolan, we
 found the confluence of two great creekes beneath saint Clements,
 whereof one hath a fresh water comming downe by S. Merther, the other
 another from Truro, increased with sundrie branches, though not one of
 them of anie greatnesse, and therefore vnworthie to be handled. Pole
 hole standeth vpon the head almost of the most easterlie of them. S.
 Kenwen and Truro stand aboue the confluence of other two. The fourth
 falleth in by west from certeine hils: as for the fift and sixt, as
 they be little créeks and no fresh, so haue I lesse language and talke
 to spend about them.

 [Sidenote: S. Caie.]
 Of saint Caie, and saint Feokes créeke, whose issue is betwéene
 Restronget and créeke of Trurie, I sée no cause to make any long
 [Sidenote: S. Feoks.]
 spéech; yet I remember that the towne of S. Feoke standeth betwéene
 them both. That also called after this saint, rising aboue
 [Sidenote: Milor.]
 Perannarwothill, and comming thence by Kirklo, falleth into Falamouth,
 northeast of Milor, which standeth vpon the point betwéene it and
 Milor créeke. Milor creeke is next Restronget: some call it Milor
 poole, from whence we went by Trefusis point, and there found an other
 great fall from Perin, which being branched in the top, hath Perin
 towne almost in the verie confluence. And thus much by my collection
 of the fall. But for somuch as Leland hath taken some paines in the
 description of this riuer, I will not suffer it to perish, sith there
 is other matter conteined therein worthie remembrance, although not
 deliuered in such order as the thing it selfe requireth.

 [Sidenote: Fala.]
 The verie point (saith he) of the hauen mouth (being an hill whereon
 the king hath builded a castell) is called Pendinant. It is about a
 mile in compasse, almost inuironed with the sea: and where the sea
 couereth not, the ground is so low that it were a small mastrie to
 make Pendinant an Iland. Furthermore, there lieth a cape or foreland
 within the hauen a mile and a halfe, and betwixt this and maister
 Killigrewes house one great arme of the hauen runneth vp to Penrine
 towne, which is three miles from the verie entrie of Falamouth hauen,
 [Sidenote: Leuine.]
 and two good miles from Penfusis. Moreouer there is Leuine, Priselo,
 betwixt saint Budocus and Pendinas, which were a good hauen but for
 the barre of sand. But to procéed.

 The first creeke or arme that casteth on the northwest side of
 Falemouth hauen, goeth vp to Perin, and at the end it breaketh into
 two armes, whereof the lesse runneth to Glasenith, Viridis nidus, the
 gréene nest, or Wagméere at Penrine: the other to saint Glunias the
 parish church of Penrine. In like sort out of each side of Penrine
 créeke, breaketh an arme yer it come to Penrine. This I vnderstand
 also that stakes and foundations of stone haue béene set in the créeke
 at Penrine a little lower than the wharfe, where it breaketh into
 armes: but howsoeuer this standeth, betwixt the point of Trefusis and
 [Sidenote: Milor.]
 the point of Restronget is Milor créeke, which goeth vp a mile into
 the land, and by the church is a good rode for ships. The next creeke
 [Sidenote: Restronget.]
 beyond the point of Restronget wood, is called Restronget, which going
 two miles vp into the maine, breaketh into two armes. In like order
 betwixt Restronget and the creeke of Trurie be two créekes; one called
 [Sidenote: S. Feoks.]
 [Sidenote: S. Caie.]
 saint Feokes, the other saint Caie, next vnto which is Trurie créeke
 that goeth vp about two miles créeking from the principall streame,
 and breaketh within halfe a mile of Trurie, casting in a branch
 westward euen hard by Newham wood.

 [Sidenote: Trurie créeke.]
 This creeke of Trurie is diuided into two parts before the towne of
 Trurie, and each of them hauing a brooke comming downe and a bridge,
 the towne of Trurie standeth betwixt them both. In like sort Kenwen
 stréet is seuered from the said towne with this arme, and Clements
 street by east with the other. Out of the bodie also of Trurie creeke
 breaketh another eastward a mile from Trurie, and goeth vp a mile and
 a halfe to Cresilian bridge of stone. At the verie entrie and mouth of
 this créeke is a rode of ships called Maples rode: and here fought not
 long since eightéene ships of Spanish merchants, with foure ships of
 warre of Deepe, but the Spaniards draue the Frenchmen all into this
 harborow. A mile and an halfe aboue the mouth of Crurie creeke, is
 [Sidenote: Moran.]
 another named Lhan Moran of S. Morans church at hand. This créeke
 goeth vp a quarter of a mile from the maine streame into the hauen, as
 the maine streame goeth vp two miles aboue Moran créeke ebbing and
 flowing: and a quarter of a mile higher, is the towne of Cregowie,
 where we found a bridge of stone vpon the Fala riuer. Fala it selfe
 riseth a mile or more west of Roche hill, and goeth by Graund pont,
 where I saw a bridge of stone.

 [Sidenote: Graund pont.]
 This Graund pont is foure miles from Roche hill, and two little miles
 from Cregowie, betwixt which the Fala taketh his course. From Cregowie
 to passe downe by the bodie of the hauen of Falamouth to the mouth of
 Lanie horne pill or créeke, on the south side of the hauen is a mile,
 and (as I remember) it goeth vp halfe a mile from the principall
 streame of the hauen. From Lanihorne pill also is a place or point of
 sand about a mile waie of fortie acres or thereabout (as a peninsula)
 called Ardeuerauter. As for the water or créeke that runneth into the
 south southeast part, it is but a little thing of halfe a mile vp into
 the land, and the créeke that hemmeth in this peninsula, of both dooth
 seeme to be the greater. From the mouth of the west creeke of this
 peninsula, vnto saint Iustes creeke, is foure miles or more.

 [Sidenote: S. Iustus.]
 [Sidenote: S. Mawes.]
 In like maner from saint Iustes pill or créeke (for both signifie one
 thing) to saint Mawes creeke is a mile and a halfe, and the point
 betwéene them both is called Pendinas. The créeke of saint Mawes goeth
 vp a two miles by east northeast into the land, and beside that it
 ebbeth and floweth so farre, there is a mill driuen with a fresh
 créeke that resorteth to the same. Halfe a mile from the head of this
 downeward to the hauen, is a créeke in maner of a poole, whereon is a
 mill also that grindeth with the tide. And a mile beneath that on the
 south side entereth a créeke (about halfe a mile into the countrie)
 which is barred from the maine sea by a small sandie banke, and
 another mile yet lower, is an other little créekelet. But how so euer
 these créekes doo run, certeine it is that the bankes of them that
 belong to Fala are meruellouslie well woodded. And hitherto Leland,
 whose words I dare not alter, for feare of corruption and alteration
 of his iudgement. Being past Falmouth hauen therefore (as it were a
 quarter of a mile beyond Arwennach, maister Killegrewes place which
 standeth on the brimme or shore within Falmouth) we came to a little
 hauen which ran vp betwéene two hilles, but it was barred: wherefore
 we could not learne whether it were serued with anie backe fresh water
 or not.

 [Sidenote: Polwitherall.]
 From thence we went by Polwitherall creeke (parted into two armes)
 [Sidenote: Polpenrith.]
 then to the Polpenrith, wherevnto a riueret falleth that riseth not
 farre from thence, and so goeth to the maine streame of the hauen at
 the last, whither the créeke resorteth about thrée miles and more from
 the mouth of the hauen, and into which the water that goeth vnder Gare
 bridges, doo fall in one bottome (as Leland hath reported.) Vnto this
 [Sidenote: Wike.]
 [Sidenote: Gare.]
 [Sidenote: Mogun.]
 [Sidenote: Penkestell.]
 [Sidenote: Callous.]
 [Sidenote: Cheilow.]
 [Sidenote: Gilling.]
 hauen also repaireth the Penkestell, the Callous, the Cheilow, and the
 Gilling, although this latter lieth against saint Mawuons on the
 hither side hard without the hauen mouth (if I haue doone aright.) For
 so motheaten, mouldie, & rotten are those bookes of Leland which I
 haue, and beside that, his annotations are such and so confounded, as
 no man can (in a maner) picke out anie sense from them by a leafe
 togither. Wherefore I suppose that he dispersed and made his notes
 intricate of set purpose: or else he was loth that anie man should
 easilie come to that knowledge by reading, which he with his great
 charge & no lesse trauell attained vnto by experience. Thus leauing
 Fala hauen, as more troublesome for me to describe, than profitable
 for seafaring men, without good aduise to enter into, we left the
 rocke on our left hand, and came straight southwest to Helford hauen,
 [Sidenote: Haile.]
 whose water commeth downe from Wréeke (where is a confluence of two
 small rilles whereof that rill consisteth) by Mawgan and Trelawarren,
 and then it receiueth a rill on the north ripe from Constantine, after
 whose confluence it goeth a maine vntill it come to the Ocean, where
 the mouth is spoiled by sand comming from the tinworks. See Leland in
 the life of S. Breaca. Beneath this also is another rill comming from
 S. Martyrs, by whose course, and another ouer against it on the west
 side that falleth into the sea by Winniton, all Menage is left almost
 in maner of an Iland. From hence we go south to the Manacle point,
 then southwest to Lisard, and so north and by west to Predannocke
 points, beyond which we méet with the fall of the said water that
 riseth in the edge of Menag, and goeth into the sea by Melien on the
 north, and Winniton on the south. By north also of Winniton is the
 [Sidenote: Curie.]
 Curie water that runneth short of Magan, and toucheth with the Ocean
 south of Pengwenian point.

 [Sidenote: Loo.]
 From hence we sailed to the Loo mouth, which some call Lopoole,
 because it is narrower at the fall into the sea, than it is betwéene
 the sea and Hailston. It riseth aboue S. Sethians, and comming downe
 by Wendron, it hasteth to Hailston or Helston, from whence onelie it
 is called Loo: but betwéene Helston and the head, men call it
 commonlie Cohor. Of this riuer Leland saith thus: The Lopoole is two
 miles in length, and betwixt it and the maine Ocean is but a barre of
 sand that once in thrée or foure yéeres, what by weight of the fresh
 water, and working of the sea breaketh out, at which time it maketh a
 wonderfull noise: but soone after the mouth of it is barred vp againe.
 At all other times the superfluitie of the water of Lopole (which is
 full of trout and éele) draineth out through the sandie barre into the
 open sea: certes if this barre could alwaies be kept open, it would
 make a goodlie hauen vp vnto Haileston towne, where coinage of tin is
 also vsed, as at Trurie and Lostwithiell, for the quéenes aduantage.

 Being passed the Loo, I came to another water that descendeth without
 [Sidenote: Simneie.]
 anie increase from Crowan by Simneie, whose whole course is not aboue
 thrée miles in all. Then going by the Cuddan point, we entered the
 mounts Baie, and going streight north (leauing S. Michaels mount a
 [Sidenote: Lid.]
 little vpon the left hand) we came to the Lid, which rising short of
 Tewidnacke, descendeth by Lidgenan, and so into the sea. Certes the
 course of these waters cannot be long, sith in this verie place this
 breadth of land is not aboue foure miles, and not more than fiue at
 the verie lands end. There is also a rill east of Korugie, and
 Guluall, and another west of the same hard at hand, and likewise the
 third east of Pensants: and not a full quarter of a mile from the
 second, southwest of Pensants also lieth the fourth that commeth from
 Sancrete ward by Newlin, from whence going southwest out of the baie
 by Moushole Ile, that lieth south of Moushole towne, we come to a
 water that entreth into the Ocean betwixt Remels & Lamorleie point.
 Trulie the one head thereof commeth from by west of Sancrete, the
 other from by west of an hill that standeth betwéene them both, and
 ioining aboue Remels, it is not long yer they salute their grandame.
 After this, and before we come at Rosecastell, there are two other
 créekes, whereof one is called Boskennie, that riseth south of saint
 Buriens, and an other somewhat longer than the first, that issueth by
 west of the aforesaid towne, wherein is to be noted, that our cards
 made heretofore doo appoint S. Buriens to be at the very lands end of
 Cornewall, but experience now teacheth vs, that it commeth not néere
 the lands end by thrée miles. This latter rill also is the last that I
 doo reade of on the south side, and likewise on the west and north,
 till we haue sailed to S. Ies baie, which is full ten miles from the
 [Sidenote: Bresan Ile.]
 lands end, or Bresan Ile eastward, & rather more, if you reckon to the
 fall of the Haile, which lieth in the very middest and highest part of
 the baie of the same. The soile also is verie hillie here, as for
 saint Ies towne, it is almost (as I said) a byland, and yet is it well
 watered with sundrie rilles that come from those hilles vnto the same.

 [Sidenote: Haile.]
 The Haile riseth in such maner, and from so manie heads, as I haue
 before said: howbeit I will adde somewhat more vnto it, for the
 benefit of my readers. Certes the chéefe head of Haile riseth by west
 of Goodalfin hilles, and going downe toward saint Erthes, it receiueth
 the second, and best of the other three rilles from Goodalfin towne:
 finallie, comming to saint Erthes, and so vnto the maine baie, it
 [Sidenote: Clowart.]
 taketh in the Clowart water from Guimer, south of Phelacke, which hath
 two heads, the said village standing directlie betwixt them both.

 [Sidenote: Caine.]
 The Caine riseth southeast of Caineburne towne a mile and more, from
 whence it goeth without increase by west of Gwethian, and so into the
 sea west of Mara Darwaie. From hence we coasted about the point, &
 left the baie till we came to a water that riseth of two heads from
 those hilles that lie by south of the same: one of them also runneth
 by saint Vni, another by Redreuth, and méeting within a mile, they
 [Sidenote: Luggam.]
 fall into the Ocean beneath Luggam or Tuggan. A mile and a halfe from
 this fall we come vnto another small rill, and likewise two other
 créekes, betwixt which the towne of saint Agnes standeth; and likewise
 the fourth halfe a mile beyond the most easterlie of these, whose head
 is almost thrée miles within the land in a towne called saint Alin.
 Thence going by the Manrocke, and west of saint Piran in the sand, we
 find a course of thrée miles and more from the head, and hauing a
 forked branch, the parts doo méet at west aboue saint Kibbard, and so
 [Sidenote: S. Pirans créeke.]
 [Sidenote: Carantocke.]
 go into the sea. I take this to be saint Pirans créeke, for the next
 is Carantocke pill or créeke, whose head is at Guswarth, from whence
 it goeth vnto Trerise, and soone after taking in a rill from by west,
 it runneth into the sea coast of saint Carantakes. Beyond this is
 another créeke that riseth aboue little saint Colan, and goeth by
 lesse saint Columbe: and east and by north hereof commeth downe one
 more whose head is almost south of the Nine stones, & going from
 thence to great saint Columbes, it passeth by Lamberne, and so into
 the sea. S. Merous créeke is but a little one, rising west of Padstow,
 and falling in almost ouer against the Gull rocke. Then turning
 [Sidenote: Padstow.]
 [Sidenote: Locus bufonis.]
 betwéene the point and the blacke rocke, we entred into Padstow hauen
 thrée miles lower than port Issec, and a mile from port Ewin, whose
 waters remaine next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Alannus.]
 The Alan ariseth flat east from the hauen mouth of Padstow, well néere
 [Sidenote: Eniam.]
 eight or nine miles about Dauidstone, neere vnto which the Eniam also
 issueth, that runneth into the Thamar. Going therefore from hence it
 passeth to Camelford, saint Aduen, saint Bernard (both Cornish saints)
 and soone after receiueth a rill at northeast, descending from Rowters
 hill. Thence it goeth to Bliseland, and Helham, the first bridge of
 name that standeth vpon Alin. Yer long also it taketh in one rill by
 south from Bodman, another from saint Laurence, the third by west of
 this, and the fourth that commeth by Wethiell, no one of them
 excéeding the course of thrée miles, and all by south. From hence it
 goeth toward Iglesaleward, and there receiueth a water on the east
 side, which commeth about two miles from saint Teath, by Michelston,
 saint Tuchoe, saint Maben (mo Cornish patrons) and finallie south of
 Iglesall, méeteth with the Alen that goeth from thence by S. Breaca to
 Woodbridge. Hereabout I find, that into our Alein or Alen, there
 [Sidenote: Carneseie.]
 [Sidenote: Laine.]
 should fall two riuerets, whereof the one is called Carneseie, the
 other Laine, and comming in the end to full notice of the matter, I
 sée them to issue on seuerall sides beneath Woodbridge almost
 directlie the one against the other. That which descendeth from
 northwest, and riseth about saint Kew, is named Carneseie, as I heare:
 the other that commeth in on the southwest banke hight Laine, and
 noted by Leland to rise two miles aboue S. Esse. But howsoeuer this
 matter standeth, there are two other créekes on ech side also, beneath
 [Sidenote: Pethrike.]
 [Sidenote: Minner.]
 [Sidenote: Dunmere.]
 these, as Pethrike creeke, and Minner créeke (so called of the Cornish
 saints) for that soile bred manie, wherewith I finish the description
 of Alen, or (as some call it) Dunmere, and other Padstow water.

 From Padstow hauen also they saile out full west to Waterford in
 Ireland. There are likewise two rockes, which lie in the east side of
 the hauen, secretlie hidden at full sea, as two pads in the straw,
 whereof I think it taketh the name. Yet I remember how I haue read
 that Padstow is a corrupted word for Adlestow, and should signifie so
 much as Athelstani locus, as it may well be. For it is euident that
 they had in time past sundrie charters of priuilege from Athelstane,
 although at this present it be well stored with Irishmen. But to our
 purpose. Leland supposed this riuer to be the same Camblan, where
 Arthur fought his last and fatall conflict: for to this daie men that
 doo eare the ground there, doo oft plow vp bones of a large size, and
 great store of armour, or else it may be (as I rather coniecture) that
 the Romans had some field (or Castra) thereabout, for not long since
 (and in the remembrance of man) a brasse pot full of Romane coine was
 found there, as I haue often heard. Being thus passed Padstow hauen,
 and after we had gone three miles from hence, we came to Portgwin a
 poore fisher towne, where I find a brooke and a péere. Then I came to
 Portissec aliàs Cunilus two miles further, and found there a brooke, a
 péere, and some succor for fisher boats. Next of all vnto a brooke
 that ran from south east, directlie north into the Sauerne sea, and
 within halfe a mile of the same laie a great blacke rocke like an
 Iland. From this water to Treuenni is about a mile, where the paroch
 church is dedicated to saint Simphorian, and in which paroch also
 Tintagell or Dundagie castell standeth, which is a thing inexpugnable
 for the situation, and would be made with little reparations one of
 the strongest things in England. For it standeth on a great high
 terrible crag inuironed with the sea. There is a chappell yet standing
 in the dungeon thereof, dedicated to saint Vlet. Tintagell towne and
 Treuenni are not a mile in sunder.

 [Sidenote: Tredwie.]
 The next créeke is called Bosinni, which is a mile from Tintagell, and
 to the same Tredwie water resorteth, and so they go to the sea betwixt
 two hils, whereof that on the one side lieth out like an arme or cape,
 and maketh the fashion of an hauenet or peere, whither shiplets
 sometime doo resort for succour. A frier of late daies tooke vpon him
 to make an hauen at this place, but in vaine. There lie also two
 blacke rocks as Ilets, at the west northwest point, or side of this
 créeke, the one (sauing that a little gut dooth part them) ioining
 with the other, and in these by all likelihood is great store of
 gulles. I can not tell whether this be the water that runneth by
 Boscastell or not, but if it be not, then haue I this description of
 [Sidenote: Boscastell.]
 the latter. Boscastell créeke that lieth east of Tintagell, is but a
 small thing, running at the most not aboue two miles into the land,
 yet it passeth by foure townes, whereof the first is called Lesneth,
 the second saint Juliet, the third Minster, and the fourth Boscastell
 or Bushcastell, as some men doo pronounce it.

 [Sidenote: Bede.]
 In Bede baie I find the Bedewater, whose chiefe head is not farre from
 [Sidenote: Lancels.]
 Norton. Thence running to Stratton, it receiueth the Lancels rill
 before it come at Norham. And here also it crosseth another whose head
 is east of saint Marie wijke, from whence it runneth by Wolston and
 Whalesborow, and thence into the sea betweene Efford and Plough hill.
 And thus much of the waters that lie betwéene the point of Cornewall,
 and the Hartland head vpon the north side of Cornewall. Now let vs doo
 the like with those that remaine of Deuonshire, whereo the said
 Hartland is the verie first point in this our poeticall voiage. Hauing
 therefore brought Hartland point on our backs, we come next of all to
 Barstable bar, and so into the hauen, whereinto two principall streams
 doo perpetuallie vnburden their chanels.

 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 The first and more westerlie of these is called Ocus, whose head is
 not farre west of the head of Darnt, and Loth in Darntmore. Rising
 therefore in the aforesaid place, it runneth northwest to Snorton, and
 so to Okehampton, beneath which towne it méeteth with an other water
 comming from southeast, & riseth not much west from the head of Tawe.
 From hence it goeth to Stow Exborne, Moonke Okington, & Iddesleie,
 [Sidenote: Tanridge.]
 [Sidenote: Turrege.]
 where it taketh in the Tanridge a verie pretie streamelet, whose issue
 is not full a mile by east from the head of Thamar, thrée miles by
 north east from Hartland. Comming therefore by west and east Putford,
 Bulworthie, Bockington, Newton, and Shebbor, it receiueth a forked
 rill that runneth from ech side of Bradworthie by Sutcombe, Treborow,
 Milton, & so to Thornebirie, where méeting with an other forked water
 (whereof one head comming from Dunsland, ioineth with the other north
 of Cockbirie) it goeth with speed into the Tanridge water. After this
 confluence it runneth on to Shéepewash (by west whereof falleth in the
 [Sidenote: Buckland.]
 Buckland water from by north) thence to high Hainton, and so to
 Haitherlaie, north wherof it taketh in a rill from by south, and
 endeth his race at Iddesleie, by ioining with the Oke. Hence then the
 Ocus hasteth to Dowland, and betwéene it and Doulton, receiueth one
 rill from by east, as it dooth an other betwéene Doulton and Marton
 from by west, and so procéeding on with his course, it commeth east of
 Torrington the lesse, and taking in a water at east, that runneth from
 thrée heads (by Wollie parke) betweene which Combe and Roughborow are
 situat, it descendeth to

 [Sidenote: Langtrée.]
 Torington the more, and meeting with the Langtrée water on the one
 [Sidenote: Were or Ware.]
 side, and the Ware brooke on the other, it procéedeth to Bediford,
 crossing a rill by the waie that commeth vnto it betwéene Annarie &
 Littham. From Bediford bridge it goeth without anie increase to
 Westleie, Norham, Appledoure, and so into the hauen.

 [Sidenote: Taw.]
 The Taw of both is the more noble water, notwithstanding that his
 hauen be barred with sand; and thereby dangerous, and hath most rils
 descending into his chanell. Howbeit, by these two is all the hart of
 Deuonshire well watered on the northside of the moores. The Tawy
 riseth directlie at south west of Throwlie, and north of the head of
 Darnt, or (as Leland saith) in Exmore south east from Barstable. From
 thence also it runneth to Sele, South Taueton, Cockatre, Bath,
 Northtaueton, Ashridge, Colridge, and soone after receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Bowmill.]
 Bowmill créeke, wherof one head riseth at Bow, the other at Mill, and
 meeting beneth Bishops Morchard, they fall into the Taw north of
 Nimeth Rowland, as I haue béene informed. From hence then it runneth
 by Edgeforth, to Chimligh, by south whereof it méeteth with a rill
 comming downe of two heads from about Rakenford, by Wetheridge and
 Chawleie. Thence it goeth to Burrington, and Chiltenholtwood, and
 [Sidenote: Moulebraie.]
 there taketh in the Moulebraie water consisting of two in one chanell,
 wherof the Moll dooth rise aboue north Moulton, and comming to Moulton
 receiueth another rill running from Molland, and soone after the
 second that growing by two brookes (the head of one being at Knawston,
 and of the other west of Crokeham, and both vniting themselues beneath
 Mariston) dooth fall into the same yer long also, and so go togither
 [Sidenote: Braie.]
 till it crosse the Braie, which (being the second of the two that
 maketh the Moulbraie) riseth at Braie, commeth by Buckland, and south
 of Holtwood dooth make his confluence with Taw. Being past the wood,
 it goeth on to Brightleie hall, Taueton, Tauestocke, & Berstable,
 sometime a pretie walled towne with foure gates, but now a little
 thing; and such in déed, as that the suburbes thereof are greater than
 it selfe. I suppose that the name of this towne in the British speach
 was Abertaw, bicause it stood toward the mouth of Taw, and Berdnesse
 pronounced short (as I gesse) for Abernesse. As for Staple, it is an
 addition for a market, & therefore hath nothing to doo in the proper
 name of the towne. King Athelstane is taken here for the chiefe
 priuileger of the towne. This is also worthie to be noted hereof, that
 the houses there are of stone, as most are in all the good townes

 But to proceed with our purpose. Beneath this towne there falleth in a
 water that hath one head néere about Challacombe, & another at east
 Downe, whereof this descending by Stoke riuer, and the other by
 Sherwell, they vnite themselues within thrée miles of Berstaple. Soone
 after also it taketh in another that descendeth from Bitenden by
 Ashford, and the last of all east of saint Anthonies chappell, named
 [Sidenote: Doneham.]
 the Doneham, bicause one head is at west Done, and the other at Ham,
 both of them méeting west of Ash. And thus is Taue described, which is
 no great water nor quicke streame, as may appéere in Low water marke
 at Berstable and yet is it a pretie riueret. This also is worthie to
 be noted thereof, that it receiueth no brooke from by west, whereof I
 would somewhat maruell, if Taurige were not at hand.

 Being past the Taue, Cride baie and Bugpoint aliàs Bagpoint, we go by
 More baie, Morstone aliàs Mortstone, and then toward the northeast,
 till we come by a créekelet to Ilfare combe, & so to Combe Marton,
 whereat (I meane ech of them) are sundrie créekes of salt water, but
 not serued with anie fresh that I as yet doo heare of. Marrie there is
 betwéene Martinbow & Trensow, a créeke that hath a backewater, which

 [Sidenote: Paradine.]
 descendeth from Parracombe (so farre as I call to mind named Parradine
 [Sidenote: Orus.]
 becke) but the greatest of all is betweene Linton and Connisberie
 called Ore, which riseth in Summersetshire in Exmore (east of Hore
 oke, more than a mile) and going by Owre, falleth into the sea
 betwéene Linton and Conisberie, so that the whole race thereof
 amounteth in and out to an eight miles, as I haue heard reported. Thus
 [Sidenote: The bredth of Deuonshire & Cornewall.]
 haue I finished the discourse of the waters of Deuonshire, whose
 breadth in this place from hence ouerthwart to the Checkstones in the
 mouth of Ex, on the south side of the Ile, is eight and thirtie miles
 or vnder fortie, and so much likewise is it from Plimmouth to Hartland
 point, but the broadest part there commeth to six and thirtie miles,
 whereas the broadest part of Cornewall doth want two miles of fortie.

 Being past the aforesaid limits of the counties we came to

 [Sidenote: Loch.]
 Portlochbaie, whither commeth a water named Loch that descendeth from
 [Sidenote: Durus.]
 Stokepero, Lucham and Portloch without increase. Thence to Dunsteir
 brooke, which runneth from about Wootton, and Courtneie by Tunbercombe
 and Dunsteir, then to another that commeth west of Old Cliffe, leauing
 [Sidenote: Vacetus.]
 a parke on the west side, next of all to Watchet water, whereof one
 head commeth from the Quantocke hils south of Bickualer by
 [Sidenote: Williton.]
 Westquantocke head, and almost at Doniford, receiueth the Williton
 becke, then to east Quantocke brooke (omitting a créeket) & next of
 [Sidenote: Doddington.]
 all to Doddington water, that goeth by Holford, Alfoxton, and
 afterward into the sea. From hence we go by Bottesall point, to Stert
 point, where two noble riuers doo make their confluence, which I will
 seuerallie describe, as to my purpose apperteineth.

 [Sidenote: Iuelus.]
 The first of these is called the Iuell, or (as I find it in an ancient
 writer) Yoo, who saith that the riuer Yoo dooth runne from Ilchester
 to Bridgewater, and so into the sea. It riseth aboue Oburne, and at
 Shirburne receiueth a water, whereof Leland saith thus. There are
 [Sidenote: The seuen sisters.]
 seuen springs in an hill called the seuen sisters, north east from
 Shireburne, which gather into one bottome, & come into the Mere.
 Another brooke likewise commeth by Heidon from Puscandell, three miles
 from thence by flat east, betwixt the parke and the Mere full so great
 as the streame of the Mere, and ioining at the lower mill of
 Shireburne, with the Mere water, it is not long yer it fall into the
 Euill. Thence our Euill goeth on towards Glasen Bradford, and yer it
 come there taketh in a forked rill from by south, descending from
 about west Chelburie and Chetnall in Dorsetshire, beneath which towne
 the other head falleth into the same, so that they run foorth by
 Bearhaggard and Thorneford (till they méet with the Iuell) and so to
 Clifton, Euill a proper market towne, Trent, Mutford, Ashinton, and
 [Sidenote: Cade.]
 east of Limminton it méeteth with the Cade that runneth from
 Yarlington, by north Cadbirie, and soone after crossing a rill also
 from by east, that commeth from Blackeford by Compton, it hasteth to
 south Cadbirie, Sparkeford, Queenes Camell, west Camell, and so into
 Iuell, which runneth on to Kimmington, Ilchester, Ilbridge, long
 Sutton, and yer it come at Langport, taketh in two famous waters in
 one chanell, next of all to be remembred before I go anie further. The
 first of all these riseth southeast betwéene the Parrets (where it is
 [Sidenote: Parret.]
 called Parret water) and goeth to Crokehorne, and at Meriot taketh in
 a brooke from the east, which consisteth of two courses vnited at
 Bowbridge, whereof the one descendeth from Pen by Hasilburie, the
 other from aboue the thrée Chenocks, as I doo vnderstand.

 From hence also they go as one with the Parret water, toward south
 Pederton (taking in at east a becke comming from Hamden hill) thence
 to Pederton, Lambrooke, Thorneie bridge, and Muchelneie where it
 [Sidenote: Ill.]
 méeteth with the second called Ill or Ilus, whose head is aboue
 Chellington, & comming downe from thence by Cadworth, before it come
 at Dunniet, it taketh in a rill that runneth by Chascombe and Knoll.
 Thence leauing Ilmister on the east side, it meeteth with another from
 by east, descending from about Whitlakington. Then it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Ilton.]
 Pokington (where it crosseth the Ilton water by west) next to
 Ilbruers, and there it ioineth with a rillet that riseth by west at
 Staple, and runneth by Bicknell and Abbats Ilie, and after this
 confluence goeth on toward Langport. And here after some mens opinion,
 the Iuell looseth his name, and is called Parret: but this coniecture
 cannot hold, sith in the old writers it is called Iuell, till it fall
 into the sea. Neuerthelesse, how soeuer this matter standeth, being
 past Langport, it goeth by Awber toward saint Anthonies, where it
 méeteth with the Tone next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Tone.]
 The Tone issueth at Clatworthie, and goeth by west of Wiuelscombe, to
 Stawleie, Ritford, Runton, Wellington and Bradford, beneath which it
 taketh in a faire water c[=o]ming from Sanford Combe, Elworthie, Brunt
 Rafe, Miluerton, Oke and Hilfarens. After this confluence also it
 runneth to Helebridge, and there below méeteth with one water that
 runneth by Hawse, Hethford, and Norton, then another from Crokeham by
 bishops Slediard, and the third & fourth at Taunton, that descendeth
 from Kingston by north, and another by south that riseth about
 Pidmister. And thus is the Tone increased, which goeth from Taunton to
 Riston, Crech, Northcurrie, Ling, and so by Anthonie into the Iuell,
 [Sidenote: Chare or Care.]
 that after this confluence méeteth yer long with the Chare, a pretie
 riuer that commeth by east from Northborow, by Carleton, Badcare,
 Litecare, Somerton, Higham, Audrie moore, Audrie, and Michelsborow.
 From whence going on betweene Quéenes moore and North moore, it
 [Sidenote: Peder.]
 receiueth one brooke called Peder from by southwest, that runneth
 through Pederton parke and North moore; and likewise another that
 passeth by Durleie, yer it doo come at Bridgewater. From Bridgewater
 it goeth by Chilton directlie northwest, and then turning flat west,
 it goeth northward towards the sea, taking in two waters by the waie,
 [Sidenote: Camington.]
 whereof one runneth by Coripole & Camington, and beareth the name of
 Camington, the other by Siddington and Comage, and then receiuing the
 [Sidenote: Brier.]
 Brier before it come at Start point, they fall as one into the Ocean,
 whereof let this suffice for the description of the Iuell, whose
 streame dooth water all the west part of Summersetshire and leaueth it
 verie fruitfull.

 [Sidenote: Brier.]
 The Brier, Bruer, or Bréer, riseth of two waters, wherof one is in
 Selwood forest, & commeth downe by Bruecombe, Bruham, and Bruton. The
 [Sidenote: _Leland_ writeth the first Brieuelus and the second
 Mellodunus or the Milton water.]
 other which Leland nameth Mellos, is northest of Staffordell towne,
 and going by the same, it runneth by Redlinch, to Wike; where it
 méeteth with the other head, and thence go on as one to Awnsford,
 [Sidenote: Dulis.]
 Alford (where it taketh in a water called Dulis from by north that
 riseth néere Dolting, and commeth by Euerchurch parke) then to the
 Lidfords, Basborow wood, the Torhill, Pont perilous (whereinto they
 fable that Arthur being wounded to death did throw Calibur his sword)
 by Glastenburie and so into the Méere. Beside this riuer there are two
 other also that fall into the said Méere, whereof the one called
 [Sidenote: Sowaie or Stowaie.]
 Sowaie commeth from Créechurch parke, and Pulton by Hartlacke bridge,
 [Sidenote: Cos.]
 the other named Cos or the Coscombe water, from aboue Shepton, Mallet
 (which east of Wike taketh in a water comming from Welles) by Wike,
 Gedneie, and so into the Méere. Finallie, returning all into one
 chanell, it runneth to Burtlehouse, and soone after diuiding it selfe,
 one arme goeth by Bastian aliàs Brent bridge, to High bridge, leauing
 Huntspill a market towne by southwest, the other by Marke to Rokes
 bridge, Hebbes passage, and so into the sea, leauing a faire Iland,
 wherin beside Brentmarsh are seuen or eight townes, of whose names I
 haue no knowledge.

 Now as touching the water that commeth from Welles, which falleth (as
 I said) into the Coscombe water on the right hand of the Cawseie; you
 shall vnderstand that as manie springs are in Wels, so the chiefe of
 them is named Andres well, which riseth in a medow plat not farre from
 the east end of the cathedrall church, and afterward goeth into the
 [Sidenote: Milton.]
 [Sidenote: Golafer.]
 Coscombe, in such place as I haue noted. Leland speaketh of the Milton
 & Golafer waters, which should fall likewise into the Brier: but
 whether those be they whereof the one riseth aboue Staffordell, and in
 the descent runneth by Shipton, Pitcombe, and so to Awnsford on the
 one side, as the other dooth rise betwéene Batcombe and Vpton noble on
 the other halfe; or vnto whether of them either of these names are
 seuerallie to be attributed: as yet I doo not read.

 [Sidenote: Axe. 2.]
 The second Axe which commeth by Axe towne in old time called Vexa,
 issueth out of Owkie hole, from whence it goeth by Owkie towne,
 [Sidenote: The Chederbrooke, driueth twelue miles within a quarter of
 a mile of his head.]
 afterward meeting with the Chederbrooke that commeth from the Cheder
 rocks, wherein is an hole in old time called Carcer Æoli, wherof much
 hath béene written & surmised past credit. It runneth by Were,
 Ratcliffe, and after a little compasse into the northeast branch of
 the aforesaid riuer last described, betweene Rokes bridge and Hebbes
 passage, as I haue beene informed. From the fall of Axe we come to an
 [Sidenote: Bane.]
 other called Bane, northeast of Woodspring, whose head is about
 Banwell parke, or else in Smaldon wood. Then to an other, and to the
 [Sidenote: Artro.]
 third, called Artro, which riseth about Litton, and going by the
 Artroes, Vbbeie, Perribridge (receiuing a rill yer it come thither
 from by south) beneath Cungesbirie, or (as I learne) betwéene Kingston
 and Laurence Wike, it méeteth with the sea.

 [Sidenote: Sottespill.]
 Sottespill water riseth betwéene Cheueleie and Naileseie, howbeit it
 hath no increase before it come into the sea at Sottespill, more than
 [Sidenote: Cleueden.]
 the next vnto it, which is named Cleueden water, of a certeine towne
 neere to the fall thereof. It riseth southeast of Barrow, goeth by
 [Sidenote: Auon. 3.]
 Burton Naileseie, and so vnto Cleuedon. The Auon, commonlie called the
 third Auon, is a goodlie water, and growne to be verie famous by
 sundrie occasions, to be particularlie touched in our description of
 Bristow. Yet thus much will I note héere thereof as a rare accident,
 how that in king Edgars daies, the verie same yeare that the old
 monasterie of Euesham fell downe by itselfe, a porpasse was taken
 therein neere to the said monasterie, and neuer anie before or since
 that time heard of to haue béene found in that streame. And euen so
 [Sidenote: Sturgion taken in Rochester water.]
 not manie yeares before I first wrote this treatise, a sturgion was
 taken aliue in Rochester streame, which the bishop gaue vnto your
 honor, and you would as gladlie haue sent it to the quéenes maiestie,
 if she might haue béene presented withall aliue as it was taken.
 Certes both these rare occurrents gaue no lesse occasion of strange
 surmises to the inhabitants of both places, than the blockes of
 Brerton, when they appeare, doo vnto that familie; of which the report
 goeth that they are neuer séene but against some mischéefe or other to
 befall vnto that house. But how farre am I gone from my purpose?

 The Auon therefore riseth in the verie edge of Tetburie, and goeth by
 long Newton to Brokenton, Whitchurch, and Malmsburie, where it
 receiueth two waters, that is to saie, one from by west comming by
 Foreleie and Bromleham, which runneth so néere to the Auon in the west
 suburbe of Malmsburie, that the towne thereby is almost made an Iland.
 Another from Okeseie parke by Hankerton, Charleton, and Garesden.
 After this confluence it hasteth to Cole parke, then goeth it toward
 the southeast, till it méet with a water comming from southwest
 (betwéene Hullauington and Bradfield) by Aston: and soone after with
 another at the northside from Binall by Wootton Basset (through the
 parke to Gretenham, and Idouer bridges) and after the confluence to
 Dauntseie, Segar, Sutton, Christmalford, Auon, Calwaies house, and
 then to west Tetherton. Beneath this towne also it taketh in a water
 increased by two brookes, whereof one comming from Cleue by Hilmarton,
 Whitleie house and Bramble (and there receiuing another that commeth
 by Calne) passeth on by Stanlie into the Auon, which from thencefoorth
 [Sidenote: Cosham.]
 goeth to Chippenham, Rowdon, Lekham, and then receiuing Cosham water,
 goeth to Lacocke, Melsham, and yer it come at Whaddon, crosseth two
 other in one chanell, whereof one riseth about Brumham house, and
 goeth to Sene, the other about the Diuizes, and from thence runneth to
 Potterne wood, Creeke wood, Worton, Maston, Bucklington, and ioining
 with the other aboue Litleton, they run by Semmington, and north of
 Whaddon aforesaid into the maine streame, whereof I now intreat. From
 hence our Auon runneth to Stauerton, and southwest of that towne
 [Sidenote: Were.]
 méeteth with the Were that commeth from Vpton by Dilton, Brooke parke
 [Sidenote: Westbirie vnder the plaine,
 neuer without a théefe or twaine.]
 (there crossing a rill called Bisse from Westbirie vnder the plaine)
 then to north Bradleie, Trubridge, and so into Auon that goeth from
 thence to Bradford, & within a mile or thereabouts, before it come at
 Freshford, it méeteth with the Frome, whose description dooth insue.

 [Sidenote: Frome.]
 The Frome riseth in the east part of Mendip hils, and from thence
 runneth by Astwijc, the Cole pits, Lie vnder Mendip, Whateleie,
 [Sidenote: Nonneie.]
 Elmesbridge, and soone after taketh in the Nonneie water, comming from
 Nonneie castell, thence to Walles and Orcharleie bridge, where it
 receiueth a pretie brooke descending from Frome Selwood west of
 Brackleie, increased with sundrie rils, whereof two come out of
 Selwood forrest (and one of them from the Fratrie) another out of Long
 lead parke, from Horningsham, and the fourth from Cosleie. Hence our
 Frome goeth to Lullington, Beckington, Farleie castell, Bord and Fresh
 [Sidenote: Silling.]
 foord, and taking in the Silling brooke, falleth into the Auon beneath
 Bradford, and east of Freshford. From thence going beneath Stoke, it
 receiueth on the left hand a water comming from southwest, increased
 by sundrie brookes, whereof one commeth from Camelet by Litleton, and
 Dankerton, the other from Stone Eston, Midsummer Norton, by Welston,
 Rodstocke, Wrigleton, Foscot, and Wellow, and there (taking in a rill
 from Phillips Norton) it goeth by Clauerton to Hampton, and there it
 méeteth with another water comming from Barthford, whose head is at
 Litleton from whence it runneth by west Kineton to Castell combe
 (where it ioineth with a rill rising by north from Litleton drue) and
 thence commeth south to Slaughtenford, Haselburie, Box, Baithford, and
 so into the Auon, which turning plaine west, hasteth to Baithwijc, and
 (meeting with another in his passage from Caldaston) to Bath, the
 Tiuertons, and Coston.

 Héere also it taketh in a rill by the waie from Markesburie by
 Wilmerton and Newton, and then going on to Sawford, it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Swinford.]
 one rill soone west of Northstocke, named Swinford, and another by
 Bitton, from Durhain by Wike, and so procéedeth still holding on his
 [Sidenote: Swinford parteth Summerset & Glocestershires in sunder.]
 way to Caimsham, a towne in Summerset shire (so called of Caim an
 English saint, by whose praiers, as the countrie once beléeued, all
 the adders, snakes and serpents were turned into stone, their formes
 reserued, and for a certeine space of ground about the said towne, and
 whereof some store as yet is to be found in those quaries. But this
 miracle is so true as the historie of Hilda, or that S. Patrike should
 chase all venemous creatures out of Italie, with his staffe; or that
 maid Radegund should driue the crowes to the pound, which did annoie
 hir corne while she went vnto a chappell to heare & sée a masse) where
 it crosseth the Chute, which issueth at Winford, and goeth by bishops
 Chue to Penford, and there receiueth the Clue comming from Cluton, and
 from thence to Chute, & so into the Auon. The Auon likewise after all
 these confluences goeth to Briselton, and so to Bristow, beneath which
 it receiueth a rill on each side (wherof one commeth from about Stoke
 lodge in Glocestershire, being a faire water and running by Acton,
 Frampton, Hambroch, Stapleton, and through Bristow, the other by south
 from Dundreie hill and towne, by Bisport and Bedminster) and so
 descending yet lower, goeth to Rawneham passage and Clifton, then by
 S. Vincents rocke and Laie, next of all to Crocampill, and finallie
 into the sea, whither all waters by nature doo resort.

 [Sidenote: Alderleie.]
 Beside this water, Leland maketh mention of Alderleie brooke, which in
 some ancient records is also called Auon, and runneth by Barkeleie. In
 [Sidenote: Douresleie.]
 like maner he talketh of Douresleie becke, whose principall head is in
 Douresleie towne: howbeit he saith no thing of it more, than that it
 [Sidenote: Torworth.]
 serueth sundrie tucking lucking milles, and goeth by Tortworth or
 foure miles further, before it come at the Sauerne. Finallie, making
 mention of an excellent quarrie of hard stone about Douresleie, he
 telleth of the Tortworth becke, that runneth within a flight shot of
 Barkeleie towne, and falleth on the left hand into Sauerne marches,
 taking with all the Alderleie or Auon, except I mistake his meaning,
 which may soone be doone among his confused notes.



 [Sidenote: Sauerne.]
 The Sauerne which Ptolomie calleth Sabriana, Tacitus Sabrina, diuideth
 England or that part of the Iland, which sometime was called Lhoegres
 from Cambria, so called of Camber, the second sonne of Brute, as our
 histories doo report. But now that region hight Wales, of the Germane
 word Walsh, whereby that nation dooth vse to call all strangers
 without respect of countrie. This riuer tooke the name of a certeine
 ladie, called Habren or Hafren, base daughter to Locrinus begotten
 vpon Estrildis daughter to Humber otherwise called Cumbrus or Vmar,
 and for which some write Chonibrus king of Scithia, that sometime
 inuaded this Island, and was ouerthrowne here in the daies of this
 Locrinus, as shall be shewed at hand: although I suppose rather that
 this ladie was called Ine, and that the word Sabrina is compounded of
 Aber and Ine, and the letter S added "Propter euphoniam:" for the
 mouth or fall of euerie riuer in the British spéech is called Aber,
 whereby Aber Ine is so much to saie as, the fall of Ine. But let vs
 returne againe to our discourse of Humber or Vmar, which is worthie to
 be remembred.

 For after the death of Locrinus, it came to passe that Guendolena his
 wife ruled the kingdome in the nonage of hir sonne: and then getting
 the said Estrildis and Habren hir daughter into hir hands, she drowned
 them both in this riuer. And in perpetuall remembrance of hir husbands
 disloialtie towards hir, she caused the streame to be called Habren of
 the yoong ladie, for which the Romans in processe of time for
 readinesse and mildnesse of pronunciation, wrote Sabrina, and we at
 this time doo pronounce the Sauerne. Of the drowning of the said Abren
 also I find these verses insuing:

                   In fluuium præcipitatur Abren,
   Nomen Abren, fluuio de virgine, nomen eidem
     Nomine corrupto deinde Sabrina datur.

 But to returne to our Sauerne. It falleth into the maine sea betweene
 Wales and Cornewall, which is and shall be called the Sauerne sea, so
 long as the riuer dooth keepe hir name. But as the said streame in
 length of course, bountie of water, and depth of chanell commeth farre
 behind the Thames: so for other commodities, as trade of merchandize,
 plentie of cariage, & store of all kind of fish, as salmon, trouts,
 breames, pikerell, tench, perch, &c: it is nothing at all inferiour or
 second to the same. Finallie, there is nothing to be discommended in
 this riuer, but the opennesse thereof in manie places to the weather,
 whereby sundrie perils oft ouertake such as fish or saile in small
 vessels on the same.

 The head of this noble streame is found in the high mounteines of
 south Wales called Helennith or Plim limmon; in English, the blacke
 mounteins, or moore heads, from whence also the Wie and the Rhidoll do
 procéed: and therefore these thrée waters are commonlie called the
 thrée sisters, and haue in latitude two and fiftie degrees ten
 minutes, in longitude fiftéene and fiftie, as the description
 inferreth. So soone as it is out of the ground, it goeth
 southeastward, till it come within a mile of Laundlos, where it
 receiueth a chanell from by south southwest, called the Dulas, which
 commeth thereinto on the south side, & southwest of Lan Idlos. It
 riseth (as it should séeme) of diuerse heads in the edge of
 Radnorshire, and taking in sundrie small rilles, it meeteth at the
 [Sidenote: Brueham.]
 last with the Brueham brooke, and so they go togither till they fall
 [Sidenote: Clewdogh.]
 into the Sauerne. Beneath Lan Idlos it taketh in the Clewdogh, from
 northwest, a water producted by the influence of foure pretie brookes,
 [Sidenote: Bacho.]
 [Sidenote: Dungum.]
 [Sidenote: Lhoid.]
 [Sidenote: Bigga.]
 [Sidenote: Couine.]
 whereof one is called Bacho, another Dungum comming out of lin
 Glaslin, the third Lhoid rising in lin Begilin, and the most
 southerlie called Bigga. After which confluence our Sauerne procéedeth
 on by Berhlaid toward Landiman, taking in by the waie, on the east
 side the Couine, thence to Cairfuse castell, where it meeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Carnon.]
 [Sidenote: Taran.]
 Carnon, and the Taran both in one chanell, and going not far from the
 [Sidenote: Hawes.]
 [Sidenote: Dulesse. 2.]
 aforesaid fortresse. After this it crosseth the Hawes on the north
 halfe beneath Aberhawes, next of all the Dulesse that riseth in the
 edge of Radnor shire, and méeteth with it before it come at Newton in
 Powisie, otherwise called Trenewith, as I find in British language.
 Being come to Trenewith, I cannot eschue (right honorable) to giue one
 note, as by the waie, touching the originall of my ladie your
 bedfellowes ancestrie, which came from hence, & were surnamed Newtons
 onelie, for that the grandfather of sir John Newton either dwelled or
 was borne there: otherwise the right name is Caradoc, for which some
 doo corruptlie write Cradocke, respecting rather the shortnesse of
 pronuntiation, than the true orthographie and writing of the word.
 Certes the Caradockes haue béene, and yet are a linage of great honor,
 antiquitie, and seruice; their lands also sometime belonged (for the
 most part) to the noble Connoanies of Summersetshire: but in what
 order they descended to the Newtons, in good sooth I cannot tell. But
 to procéed with our riuer, which being past Newton, runneth foorth by
 [Sidenote: Mule.]
 Landilouarne, and so foorth on till it come to the fall of the Mule,
 whose head is in the edge of Radnor also, and thereto his passage by
 Kerie and Lanmereiwijc. After this also it procéedeth further till it
 [Sidenote: Kenlet.]
 [Sidenote: Camalet.]
 [Sidenote: Tate.]
 meet with the Kenlet or the Camalet, which taketh in also the Tate or
 Tadbrooke water rising out of the hilles a mile from Bishops towne,
 the whole course thereof being about seauen miles from the head (as I
 haue often heard.) Of this also I find two descriptions, whereof one I
 borrow out of Leland, who saith that it is a pretie brooke, running in
 the vale by Mountgomerie, and comming within halfe a mile of the place
 where Chirbirie priorie stood, it falleth into the Sauerne about a
 mile from thence. Of the rilles (saith he) that run from the hilles
 thorough Mountgomerie, which are a mile from the Sauerne shore, and
 [Sidenote: Lan Idlos.]
 likewise of the Lan Idlos brooke that méeteth withall within foure
 miles of the head, I speake not, but thinke it sufficient to touch
 those of some estimation, onelie leauing the rest to such as maie
 hereafter deale with things more particularlie as time and trauell
 maie reueale the truth to them. And hitherto Leland, whose words I
 dare not alter. But another noteth this Camalet or Kenlet to run by
 More, Liddiom, Sned, Churchstocke, Chirbirie, Walcote, and Winsbirie,
 and so into the Sauerne.

 From hence then, and after this confluence it goeth on by Fordon,
 Leighton, and Landbreuie toward Meluerleie, and there it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Tanet.]
 sundrie waters in one chanell, whereof the one called the Tanet is a
 [Sidenote: Peuereie or Murnewie.]
 verie pretie water (whereinto the Peuereie or Murneweie doth fall,
 which descendeth from the hilles by west of Matrafall not farre from
 [Sidenote: Auernie.]
 Lhan Filin) the other Auernie, and ioining beneath Abertannoth, or
 aboue Lannamonach neere unto the ditch of Offa, it is not long yer
 [Sidenote: Mordant.]
 they méet with the Mordant brooke, and there loose their names so
 soone as they ioine and mix their waters with it. The head of the
 Mordant issueth out of the Lanuerdan hilles, where diuerse saie, that
 the parish church of crosse Oswald or Oswester sometimes stood.
 Certes, Oswester is thirtéene miles northwest from Shrewesburie, and
 conteineth a mile within the walles. It hath in like sort foure
 suburbs or great stréetes, of which one is called Stratlan, another
 Wuliho, the third Beterich, wherein are one hundred and fortie barns
 standing on a row belonging to the citizens or burgesses, and the
 fourth named the Blackegate stréet, in which are thirtie barns
 mainteined for corne and haie. There is also a brooke running thorough
 [Sidenote: Simons becke.]
 the towne by the crosse, comming from Simons well, a bow shoote
 without the wall; & going vnder the same betweene Thorowgate &
 Newgate, running vnder the Blacke gate. There is another, ouer whose
 [Sidenote: Bederich.]
 course the Baderikes or Bederich gate standeth, and therefore called
 Bederich brooke. The third passeth by the Willigate or Newgate, &
 these fall all togither with the Crosse brooke, a mile lower by south
 into the Mordant that runneth (as I said) by Oswester. From hence also
 it goeth to Mordant towne, and betwéene Landbreuie and Meluerleie doth
 fall into the Sauerne. After this our principall streame goeth to
 Sheauerdon castell, Mountford, and Bicton chappell: and here it
 receiueth a water on the left hand, that riseth of two heads, whereof
 one is aboue Merton, the other at Ellismere, and ioining betweene
 Woodhouses & Bagleie, the confluence runneth on by Radnall, Halton,
 Teddesmer, Roiton, Baschurch, Walford, Grafton, Mitton, and so into
 the Sauerne. From hence it runneth to Fitz, Eton, or Leiton, Barwijc,
 vpper Rossall, Shelton, and so to Shrewsburie, where it crosseth the
 Mele water, whose head (as I heare) is said to be in Weston.

 [Sidenote: Mele.]
 The Mele therefore rising at Weston, goeth by Brocton, Worthen, Aston
 [Sidenote: Haberleie.]
 Pigot, Westleie, Asterleie, and at Lea it méeteth with the Haberleie
 water that commeth downe by Pontesford and Aunston. After this
 confluence also it runneth to Newenham & Crokemele, there taking in a
 rill on the other side that descendeth by Westburie and Stretton, &
 thence going on to Hanwood, Noball, Pulleie, Bracemele, and
 Shrewesburie, it falleth (as I said) into the open Sauerne. From hence
 our Sauerne hasteth to Vffington, Preston, and betwéene Chilton and
 Brampton taketh in the Terne, a faire streame and worthie to be well
 handled; if it laie in me to performe it. This riuer riseth in a mere
 beside Welbridge parke, néere vnto Ternemere village in Staffordshire.
 From whence it runneth by the parkes side to Knighton, Norton, Betton,
 and at Draiton Hales crosseth with a water comming from about Adbaston
 (where maister Brodocke dwelleth) and runneth by Chippenham and
 [Sidenote: Terne.]
 Amming: so that the Terne on the one side, and this brooke on the
 [Sidenote: * Sée Hen. 6. pag. 649]
 other, doo inclose a great part of [*]Blore heath, where a noble
 battell was somtime purposed betwéene king Henrie the sixt, and the
 duke of Yorke: but it wanted execution.

 But to procéed. After this confluence, it runneth to Draiton Hales,
 Ternehill bridge: and yer long taking in a rill from Sandford by
 Blechleie, it goeth to Stoke Allerton, Peplaw, and Eaton, where it
 crosseth with a brooke that riseth about Brinton, and going by Higham,
 Morton, the great Mere, Forton, Pilson, Pickstocke, Keinton,
 Tibberton, and Bolas, it ioineth with the said Terne not farre from
 Water Vpton. Thence passing to Crogenton, it méeteth with another
 brooke that commeth from Chaltwen Aston, by Newport, Longford,
 Aldneie, and so through the Wilde moore to Kinsleie & Sléepe, and
 finallie into the Terne, which hasteth from thence to Eston bridge,
 [Sidenote: Roden.]
 and néere vnto Walcote taketh in the Roden. This water riseth at
 Halton in Cumbermere lake: and comming to Ouenleie, crosseth a rill
 from Cowlemere by Leniall. Thence it goeth to Horton, and (ioining
 with another rill beneath Nonlaie that commeth from Midle) runneth on
 to Wen, Aston, there crossing a rill beneath Lacon hall from Prées
 ward, and so to Lée, Befford, Stanton, Morton, Shabrée, Painton,
 Roden, Rodington, and then into Terne, that runneth from thence by
 Charlton, Vpton, Norton, Barwijc, Acham, and so into the Sauerne two
 miles beneath Shrewesburie (as I wéene.)

 Thus haue I described the Terne in such wise as my simple skill is
 able to performe. Now it resteth that I proceed on (as I maie) with
 the Sauerne streame, with which, after this former confluence, it
 goeth vnto Roxater or Roxcester, Brampton, Eaton vpon Sauerne,
 [Sidenote: Euerne.]
 Draiton, where it ioineth with the Euerne that runneth from
 Frodesleieward by Withiall and Pitchford, Cresfedge, Garneston,
 [Sidenote: Wenlocke or Rhe.]
 Leighton, and betwéene the two Bildasses crosseth the Rhe or Wenlocke
 water, and so goeth on to Browsleie and Hoord parke, where it vniteth
 it selfe with another brooke to be described in this place, whilest
 the Sauerne rests, and recreates it selfe here among the plesant

 This water ariseth aboue Tongcastell, and yer it haue run anie great
 distance from the head, it méeteth with a rill comming by Sheriffe
 Hales, and Staunton. Thence it goeth on to Hatton, Roiton, and there
 crossing another from Woodhouses, comming by Haughton and Euelin, it
 [Sidenote: Worfe.]
 procéedeth to Beckebirie and Higford, and not omitting here to crosse
 the Worfe (sometime a great streame that runneth vnto it out of
 Snowdon poole) and so passeth foorth to Badger, Acleton, Worffield: a
 litle from whence (about Wickin) it taketh in another brooke into it
 called Churle, & so goeth on to Rindleford, and then into Sauerne
 somwhat aboue Bridgenorth at Penston mill (except mine information
 deceiue me.) From Bridgenorth our Sauerne descendeth to Woodburie,
 [Sidenote: Marbrooke.]
 Quatford, and there taking in the Marbrooke beneath Eaton that riseth
 aboue Collaton, and goeth by Moruill & Vnderton, it runneth by
 Didmanston, Hempton, Aueleie, & beneath in the waie to Bargate,
 crosseth with a brooke comming from Vpton parke, by Chetton,
 Billingsleie, and Highleie, which being admitted, it holdeth on to
 [Sidenote: Dowlesse.]
 Areleie, Ciarnewood parke, Hawbach and Dowlesse. Here also it méeteth
 with the Dowlesse water, a pretie brooke issuing out of the Cle hilles
 in Shropshire, verie high to looke vpon, and thrée miles or
 thereabouts from Ludlow, which runneth through Clebirie parke in Wire
 [Sidenote: Lempe.]
 forrest, & taking withall the Lempe, dooth fall into the Sauerne not
 far from Bewdleie.

 But to procéed. From Bewdleie our Sauerne hasteth directlie to
 [Sidenote: Stoure.]
 Ribford, Areleie and Redston, and here it méeteth with a water called
 Stoure, descending from Elie, or out of the ponds of Hales Owen in
 Worcestershire, where it receiueth a rill from the left hand, and
 another from the right, and then goeth on to Sturbridge (taking in
 there the third water yer long running from Sturton castell) then to
 Kniuer Whittenton, Ouerleie and Kidormister, aboue which it crosseth
 one brookelet that commeth thither by Church hill, and another beneath
 it that runneth by Belborow, betwixt which two waters lieth an od
 peece of Staffordshire included, and also the Cle hill. From hence the
 aforesaid Sauerne hasteth by Redston to Shrawleie; and aboue this
 [Sidenote: Astleie.]
 towne receiueth the Astleie water, as beneath the same it dooth
 another. From Witleie then it goeth on to Holt castell, and so to
 [Sidenote: Doure.]
 [Sidenote: Sulwaie.]
 Grimleie, taking in thereabout with the Doure, and Sulwaie waters,
 whereof this riseth at Chadswijc, and runneth by Stoke priorie, &
 Droitwich, the other aboue Chaddesleie, and commeth by Dourdale. After
 this it goeth foorth vnto Worcester, in old time called Cair Brangon,
 [Sidenote: Tiber.]
 or Cair Frangon, where it méeteth with the Tiber, or Tiberton water,
 on the right hand aboue that citie, and beneth it neere vnto Powijc
 with the Temde, whose description shall be set downe before I procéed
 or go anie further with the Sauerne.

 [Sidenote: Temde.]
 The Temde, or (as some name it) the Tame riseth vp in Radnorshire, out
 of the Melenith hilles, and soone after his issue, méeting with a
 water from Withall, it runneth to Begeldie, Lanuerwaterden, and so to
 Knighton, which is fiue or six miles (as I heare) from his originall.
 From Knighton it goeth ouer the ditch of Offa vnto Standish, and
 [Sidenote: Clude.]
 crossing a rill that commeth from betwéene the parke named Clude, (and
 is a bound of Radnorshire) it goeth to Buckton, Walford, and
 Lanuarden, where it meeteth with the Bardwell or Berfield, and the
 Clun, both in one chanell, of which I find these descriptions here
 [Sidenote: Barfield.]
 folowing word for word in Leland. The Bardwell or Barfield riseth
 [Sidenote: Clun.]
 aboue New Chappell, in the honour of Clun, hard by the ditch of Offa,
 and goeth by Bucknell. The Clun issueth out of the ground betwéene
 Lhan Vehan and Maiston, and going on by Bucton, Cluncastell, Clundon,
 Purslaw, and Clunbirie, it crosseth with a brooke that runneth along
 by Kempton and Brampton. Thence going foorth by Clunbirie, Brome,
 Abcot and Marlow, it méeteth with the Bardwell, and so in the Temde,
 not verie far from Temderton. I suppose that Leland calleth the
 [Sidenote: Owke.]
 Bardwell by the name of Owke, but I will not abide by it bicause I am
 not sure of it. After these confluences therefore, our Temde goeth by
 Trippleton, Dounton, Burrington, and Broomefield, where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Oneie.]
 with the Oneie, which is an indifferent streame, and increased with
 sundrie waters, whereof I saie as followeth.

 [Sidenote: Bow.]
 The first of all is called the Bow. It riseth (as I learne) in the
 hilles betwéene Hissington and Shelue, and from thence commeth downe
 [Sidenote: Warren.]
 by Lindleie and Hardwijc, where it crosseth the Warren that issueth
 out of the ground about Rotlie chappell, and runneth by Adston and
 Wentnor. After the confluence also going on by Choulton and Cheinies,
 [Sidenote: Queneie and Strabroke.]
 it taketh in the Queneie and Strabroke both in one chanell, wherof the
 first riseth at Lebotwood, and commeth downe by the Strettons, till it
 passe by Fellanton. The second mounteth about Longuill, and goeth by
 Rushburie, Newhall, Harton, and Alcaster, from whence it is not long
 yer it fall into the Queneie, and so by Stratford into the Oneie,
 which hath borne that name since the confluence of the Bow and Warren
 at Hardwijc, whereof I spake before. Finallie, the Oneie which some
 [Sidenote: Somergill.]
 call the Somergill being thus increased, it runneth on to Hawford
 chappell, Oneibirie, Broomefield, and so into Temde, and next of all
 to Ludlow. The Temde being thus brought to Ludlow, méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Corue.]
 Corue, which commeth thorough Coruedale from aboue Brocton by
 Morehouses, Shipton, Hungerford, and a little beneath taking in a rill
 that commeth by Tugford, and Brencost castell, goeth on to Corsham
 castell, and there crossing another from saint Margarets Clée, it
 hieth to Stanton Lacie, and so likewise to Ludlow.

 From Ludlow in like sort it goeth to Ludford, the Ashfordes, little
 [Sidenote: Ladwich.]
 Hereford, Burrington, and at Burfford vniteth it selfe with the
 Ladwich that commeth beneath Milburne stoke, from betweene Browne,
 Cleehill, and Stittertons hill, to Middleton, Henleie, Ladwich, Conam,
 and so into Temde, which beneath Temdbirie receiueth another rill on
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 the other side, and the second on the left hand called Rhe, that
 commeth from aboue Ricton, Staterton, Hound, Nene, Clebirie, Knighton,
 and then into the Temde. From hence the Temde doeth goe by Astham,
 Lingridge, Shelleie Welch, Clifton, Whitburne (and crossing a water
 that commeth from the Sapies) to Knightwijc and Bradwaies. Hereabout
 againe it interteineth a rill that descendeth from about Kidburie on
 the right hand, and goeth by Collomatherne, Credeleie, Aufrike, and so
 into Temde, and then procéeding forward, the said streame runneth to
 [Sidenote: Langherne.]
 Braunford, and yer long (taking in the Langherne that riseth about
 Martleie, and passeth by Kengewijc) it goeth to Powijc, and so into
 the Sauerne before it come at Wickecester.

 Thus haue I brought all such streames before me that fall into the
 Sauerne from the head, vntill I come to Powijc, wherof (as you may
 easily perceiue) the Temde is the most excellent. Now it resteth that
 I proceed with the rest of the discourse intended concerning this our
 riuer. Certes, from Powijc mils which are about halfe a mile beneth
 Worcester, the Sauerne runneth on to Kempseie and Cleueld, whence
 after it hath crossed a brooke comming from Cowleie, it hasteth first
 to Stoke, and so to Vpton, which is eleuen or twelue miles from
 Glocester, whither it floweth manie times at high tides, but yer it
 come there, it drowneth another fall descending from Maluerne hilles
 by Blackemoore parke, & soone after the third growing by two branches,
 wherof one commeth also from Maluerne hils by little Maluerne and
 Welland, the other from Elderford by Pendocke and Longdon. After these
 confluences in like sort, it runneth to Bushelleie, and Tewkesburie,
 where it receiueth the Auon, that followed next of all in order to be
 described, before I procéed anie further in my discourse of Sauerne.

 [Sidenote: Auon. 4.]
 The Auon riseth at Nauesbie in the borders of Northamptonshire, a
 little side hand of Gillesborow and foot of the hils whereon Nauesbie
 standeth, and euen out of the church yard of the said village. From
 hence it goeth to Welford, Stamford, Lilburne, Clifton, and Rugbie, by
 [Sidenote: Swiuethus.]
 north whereof it crosseth a water called Swift, which commeth from
 aboue Kimcote, to Lutterworth, Browne ouer and Colsford. From thence
 also it goeth to Newbold, Wolston, Ruington, and betwéene the Stonlies
 [Sidenote: Souus.]
 taketh in the Sow. This Sow is a pretie water comming from aboue
 Calendon to Whitleie, and soone after méeting with a riueret from
 Couentrie, which some doo call Shirburne water, it goeth thence to
 [Sidenote: Kinell.]
 Bagginton, where it taketh in a rill called Kinell, as I haue read
 from Kenelsworth, from whence it runneth to Stonleie, & so into the
 Auon. After this confluence the Auon procéedeth on to Stonleie abbeie,
 Ashehow, Miluerton, Edmonds cote, and appace to Warwijc.

 But yer it come there, it méeteth from south east with two waters in
 one chanell, whereof the least commeth to Marton from Bishops
 Itchington, by Herburbirie and Thorpe, where it crosseth a rill from
 [Sidenote: Leame.]
 Southam. The other is called Leame, or Lime that descendeth from about
 Helladon, or néere vnto Catesbie in Northamptonshire, and going by
 Ouencote, Braunston, Lemington and Mertun, it ioineth with the other,
 and then go from thence togither vnder the name of Leame, to
 Hunnington, Cobbington, and so into the Auon, as I gaue notice before.
 At Warwike also the Auon taketh in a water running northwest from
 Groue parke. Thence it goeth on to Bereford, and there crossing
 another from Shirburne, it passeth forth to Bishops Hampton, méeting
 finallie with the third, from Kineton that runneth by Walton and
 Charlecote. After this last rehearsed confluence, it hasteth to
 Stretford vpon Auon, and then to Luddington ward, where it taketh in
 the Stoure that riseth aboue Cherington, & whose course from thence is
 such, as that being once past the head, it goeth by Weston, and yer
 long crossing a water from Campden, hanging Aston, & Todnam, it
 runneth to Barcheston, Aldermaston, Clifford, & so into the Auon. From
 hence then the said Auon goeth to Luddington, Burton, Bitford, and
 Cleue, and being parted from the said towne, yer it come at Sawford,
 [Sidenote: Arow.]
 it receiueth the Arow or Aur, which rising in the blacke hils in
 Worchestershire, commeth by Alchurch, Beleie parke, Ypsleie, Studleie,
 [Sidenote: Alne.]
 and then taking in another rill called Alne, out of Fecknam forrest,
 and going by Coughton parke, it hasteth to Alcester, Arow, Ragleie,
 Wheteleie, Bouington, Standford, and so into Auon, which after this
 conjunction goeth to Vffenton & then to Eouesholme: but yer it come
 there it receiueth two waters in one chanell, whereof the first riseth
 about Willerseie, the other néere to Buckland, and ioining beneath
 [Sidenote: Pludor.]
 Badseie, they fall into Anon, vnder the name of Pludor brooke, before
 it come to Eouesholme.

 [Sidenote: Vincélus.]
 Being past Eouesholme it crosseth the Vincell, which rising out of the
 hils somewhere about Sudleie, runneth two miles further to
 Winchelcombe, and Gretton, and taking in a rill by the waie from
 Hailes, procéedeth on (going within one quarter of a mile of Hailes
 abbaie) to Tuddington, or Doddington, beneath which when it hath
 crossed another rill that commeth from Stanwaie, it goeth to
 Wannington, Sedgeborow, and receiuing there the last on the right hand
 also (as all aboue rehearsed) it falleth into the Auon, when it is
 come by Hinton, vnto a towne called Hampton, or (as some doo write it)
 Ampton. After this confluence the Auon goeth to Charleton, to
 Crapthorne (and there taking in a rill on the left hand) to Fladbirie
 wike, and almost at Persore bridge, méeteth with a branched water that
 [Sidenote: Piddle.]
 commeth by Piddle, whereof one head is at Alberton, an other at
 Piddle. From Persore it goeth to Birlingham, and soone after carrieng
 a brooke withall descending from Fakenham, by Bradleie, Himbleton,
 Huddenton, Crowleie, Churchhill, Pibleton, Besseford and Desseford, it
 fléeteth to Eckington, Bredon, Twining, Mitton, and Tewkesburie, where
 it ioineth with the Sauerne.

 Now to resume the course of the Sauerne, you shall vnderstand, that
 from Tewkesburie it goeth to Derehirst, the How passage, and soone
 [Sidenote: Chilus.]
 after receiuing the Chiltenham water that commeth thither by Bodenton,
 Sawton, and Norton, it runneth to Ashelworth, Sainthirst; and here it
 parteth it selfe till it come to Glocester, where it vniteth it selfe
 againe. But in the meane time the easterlie branch receiueth a forked
 chanell, whereof one head is not far fr[=o] Leke Hampton, the other
 about Witcombe, from whence it goeth to Brockworth. The other branch
 or arme taketh in the Leadon that commeth downe by Preston, Dimmocke,
 [Sidenote: Leadon.]
 Pantleie vpper Leadon, Leadon court, and there taking in one rill that
 commeth from Linton by Areknoll, and another beneath it from Tainton
 by Rudford, it falleth into the said branch on the right side, before
 it come at Glocester.

 The Sauerne therefore being past Glocester, it méeteth with a litle
 rill on the right hand, and thence holding on his course by Elmore,
 Minsterworth, Longneie, to Framilode, it receiueth yer it come at this
 [Sidenote: Strowd.]
 latter the Strowd brooke, which rising not farre from Side, goeth by
 Massade, Edgeworth, Frampton, Strowd, and receiuing there a water that
 commeth from Panneswijc Lodge, by Pittescombe on the one side, and
 another from Radbridge on the other, it prosecuteth his voiage to
 Stone house, Eslington, white Misen, & so toward Framilode, where the
 said Strowd dooth fall into the Sauerne. After the fall of Strowd, the
 Sauerne goeth from thence to Newenham, and Arlingham, and soone after
 receiuing a water on each side, whereof one commeth from Vleie by Cham
 and Chambridge, the other by Blackneie and Catcombe, it goeth foorth
 till it méet with another water on ech side, whereof that on the
 English halfe is forked, so that one head thereof is to be found about
 Borwell, the other at Horton, and méeting aboue Tortworthie, they run
 by Stone and Barkeleie castell, and so into the Sauerne. That on the
 [Sidenote: Newarne.]
 Welsh halfe is named Newarne, which cömeth from the forrest of Deane,
 and so into the Sauerne.



 The Sauerne being thus described, it resteth that I go forward with
 the names of those that lie vpon the coast of Southwales, making my
 entrie at the ferrie ouer betwéene Aust in Glocestershire, and a
 village on the further banke of Sauerne, not farre from Tarendacus
 [Sidenote: Wie mouth.]
 chappell, in the mouth of the riuer Wie, which ferrie is about three
 [Sidenote: Guie aliàs Wie.]
 miles ouer (saith Leland) or else my memorie dooth faile me. This
 riuer Guie or Wie beginneth (as I said before) on the side of the
 hilles, where the Sauerne dooth arise, and passing through Wenceland,
 that is, southeast by Raiader Guie to Buelt (where the Irwon meeteth
 withall) it goeth to Glasburie, Hereford, Monmouth, and finallie into
 the Sauerne sea at Chepstow: for so they call Monhafren, which
 seuereth Wales from Summersetshire, Deuonshire, Cornewall: as for the
 Rhidoll which is the third sister, it hath the shortest course of all,
 for it runneth northward, and into the sea at Aberistwith, which is
 not farre off, as the writers doo report.

 Leland writing of this riuer Guie or Wie saith thus; The Wie goeth
 thorough all Herefordshire by Bradwarden castell, belonging to sir
 Richard Vehan, and so to Hereford east, thence eight miles to Rosse, a
 [Sidenote: Vmber a fish onelie in the Wie.]
 market towne in Herefordshire: and in this riuer be vmbers, otherwise
 called grailings. It is also found by common experience, that the
 salmon of this riuer is in season, when the like fish to be found in
 all other riuers is abandoned and out of vse; wherof we of the east
 parts doo not a little maruell. But let vs not staie vpon these
 descriptions, sith an other is come to my hand more exact than either
 of these.

 The Guie therefore riseth out of the blacke mounteines of Wales, out
 of which the Sauerne springeth in Radnorshire, and comming by
 [Sidenote: Darnoll.]
 Lhangerike, and Raiadargoie, it receiueth one rill from the west
 called Darnoll, and another from by northeast comming by saint Harmon.
 Thence it goeth to Lhanuthell, and in the waie betwixt Raiader and
 [Sidenote: Elland.]
 Lhanuthell, it ioineth with the Elland, whose head is néere to
 [Sidenote: Clardwen.]
 Comeristwith, and taketh likewise into him the Clardwen that diuideth
 for a season Radnorshire from Brecknoch, which Clardwen is likewise
 increased by the Clarthie within thrée miles of his head and lesse,
 hauing his course from southwest & hille soile adiacent. From
 [Sidenote: Ithan.]
 Lhanuthell it goeth west of Dissart, where it receiueth the Ithan, a
 riuer rising aboue Lhanibister, and from whence it runneth to Landwie,
 and Lambaderne vawr: beneath which it crosseth a water on ech side,
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 whereof that on the right hand consisteth on the Dulesse and the
 [Sidenote: Lamaron.]
 Cluedoch, after their confluence: the other hight Lomaron, whose head
 is aboue Lanthangle, and in the forrest of Blethwag. After these
 confluences, it runneth on crinkeling in strange manner, vnder the
 [Sidenote: Hawie.]
 name of Ithor, till it come to Dissart, taking in the Hawie on the
 left side yer it come there, and then into the Wie on the north side,
 which directeth his course further to Bealt, where it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Yrwon.]
 Yrwon, a notable streame, descending from the hilles aboue Lanihangle
 Abergwessen, and thence comming downe by Lanurid Lang marsh, Lanauan,
 Vechan, Langantan, and so to Beth or Bealt, being inlarged by the waie
 [Sidenote: Weuereie.]
 with sundrie faire waters, as the Weuereie, whose head is about
 Lanauan moore, the Dulasse, or (as some call it) the Dowlasse, that
 [Sidenote: Dulasse.]
 [Sidenote: Comarch.]
 [Sidenote: Dulasse.]
 commeth from the hilles west of the head of Weuereie. The Comarch
 whose head and course is west of the Dowlasse on the north side, and
 likewise by two other on the southwest, and Dilasse from by southwest,
 which last rehearsed falleth into him halfe a mile and more aboue the
 influence of the Comarch which lieth on the other side. After this our
 [Sidenote: Dehon.]
 Yrwon goeth to Lhanuareth, where it crosseth the Dehon on the
 [Sidenote: Edwie.]
 southwest side, then to Aberedwie, and there receiueth the Edwie on
 the northeast, which ariseth in the hilles aboue Botins chappell, and
 commeth downe by Crigend and Lanhaderne, thence the Guie goeth on to
 [Sidenote: Machaweie.]
 Lanstephan, and there (or a little aboue) taketh in the Machaweie that
 commeth by castell Paine, and so going on in processe of time with the
 [Sidenote: Leuenni.]
 Leuenni, whereof Leland in his commentaries doth write as here

 [Sidenote: Euer.]
 [Sidenote: Euerie.]
 The Leuenni, otherwise called the Euer or Euerie, is a farre streame
 rising in Welch Talgarth hard by Blaine Leuenni, among the Atterill
 hilles, from whence it goeth to Brecknoch mere, which is two miles
 long, and a mile broad, and where men doo fish in Vniligneis or botes
 of one peece, as they doo in Lhin Seuathan, which is foure miles from
 Brecknoch. Finallie bringing great store of red sand withall, and
 [Sidenote: Brennich.]
 there with the Brennich water (that hath his originall issue at
 [Sidenote: Trufrin.]
 Mennith gader, and is increased with the Trufrin) it falleth into the
 Wie aboue Glesbirie three miles from Haie, at a place that of the
 onelie fall of this brooke is named Aberleuenni, after this the Guie.
 Being come to Haie, a pretie towne where much Romane coine is found,
 which they call Jewes monie: and after it hath passed or crossed a
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 little brooke, which commeth from Lanigon, it méeteth with the Dulesse
 that commeth also from the Atterill by Kersop, and from thence goeth
 to Clifford castell (being now entred into Herefordshire, and leauing
 Radnor, wherevnto it hath for a long course béene march) then to the
 Whitneies, Winferton, Letton, Bradwarden, Broberie, Monington, Biford,
 Bridgesalers, Eaton, Brinton, and Hereford, without anie influence of
 riuer worthie of memorie, and yet with manie windlesses, & there
 méeteth with a water rising short of Wormesleie, which goeth by
 Maunsell, Lacie, Brinsop, Crednell, Stretton, and Huntington, and
 soone after into the Wie, beside a little rill that runneth betwéene
 them both euen into Hereford towne. From hence in like sort the Wie
 hasteth to Rotheras church, Hampton, and Mordeford, where it taketh in
 [Sidenote: Lug.]
 sundrie waters in one chanell, of which the Lug or Luie is the
 principall, and next of all to be described, before I go anie further
 with the course of the Wie, whereinto it dischargeth the chanell. It
 riseth in the edge of the forrest of Kemples aboue Langunlo: from
 whence it goeth to Momonacht, Pilleth Whitton, Fuldibrooke, Prestaine,
 so into Herefordshire, where betwéene Bonie & Beton, or Bitton, it
 receiueth in the Somergill, whose crotched head being march to Radnor
 forrest, directeth his streame betwéene the new and old Radnors, to
 Knill, to Nash, and so into the Lug, which presentlie passeth by
 Kinsham, Shirleie, Ailmister, Kingsland, Eaton chappell, and so into
 Lemister, where it crosseth the Oneie (a streamelet rising short of
 Shobden, and going by Chorlester) a little before it come to the west
 side of the towne.

 At Lemister it selfe in like sort three waters doo méet, and almost
 [Sidenote: Pinsell.]
 inuiron the towne, that is to saie, the Lug, the Pinfulleie or Pinsell
 [Sidenote: Kenbrooke.]
 (a riueret rising at Kingsland two miles from Lemister) & the
 Kenbrooke, which commeth out of the blacke mounteins, from Lemister,
 otherwise called Leofminster, of the builder, and also Leonminster,
 the Lug or Luie goeth on to Eaton, and there taketh in a rill beneath
 Hampton, and aboue Hope, whereof one head is betwéene Hatfield and
 Bickleton, another néere vnto Marston, and méeting of both at Humber.
 From Hampton it goeth to Bodenham, Wellington, Morton, Sutton,
 Shelwijc, Lugwardin, and Longward, where it crosseth the Fromeie or
 Frome, a pretie water, and worthie to be remembred. It riseth about
 Wolferelaw, from whence it commeth downe toward the southest by
 [Sidenote: Fromeie.]
 Edwinsloch to Bromyard, Auenburie, Bishops Frome, Castell Frome, Can
 Frome, to Stretton vpon Frome, and there taking in a water called
 [Sidenote: Loden aliàs Acton.]
 Loden, comming from aboue Bishops Grendon, by Pencombe, Cowarne, Stoke
 Lacie, Cowarne, and Engleton, our Frome goeth on to Yarkeleie,
 Dornington, and Longward, and so into the Lug, betwéene Longward and
 Suston, which runneth foorthwith to Mordford, or Morthford, and there
 into the Wie, vnto whose description I now returne againe.

 Being come therefore vnto Mordford, it goeth to Fawnehope, Hamlacie,
 [Sidenote: Treske.]
 Ballingham, Capull regis, where it receiueth a water called Treske,
 from little Berch by Treske, Fawleie, How, Capull Inkeston, Foie,
 Brampton, Bridstow, Wilton castell, the Rosse, and there a rill from
 Bishops Vptonward by Rudhall, Weresend, Ham, Glewston, Godderich, here
 in like sort meeting with another that commeth from Ecleswall in the
 confines of Glocestershire, by Peniard castell & Coughton, to Welch
 Bicknor, English Bicknor, Huntesham, including a parcell of
 Monmouthshire, being an outliggand, as ye may find in that parcell of
 Herefordshire which butteth vpon Glocestershire (as you shall find the
 like péece of Herefordshire in the confines of Salop and Worcester,
 wherein Rochford standeth, beside manie other which I haue elsewhere
 [Sidenote: Gainar.]
 spoken of) Whitchurch, where it taketh in Gainar water that commeth
 from Much Birch, by Lanwarne, Michaell church, and at Langarran
 [Sidenote: Garran.]
 crosseth the Garran brooke, that riseth in Gregwood, short of Arcop,
 six miles from Monemouth by northwest: after which these two doo runne
 as one to Marston, and almost Whitchurch, and so into the Wie, which
 goeth from thence to Gunnarew, S. Michaell, Dixton, and Monemouth,
 where I will staie a while, till I haue described the Mone, next of
 all to be remembred here.

 [Sidenote: Mona.]
 The Mona or Monbecke, riseth in the forrest of Hene, twentie miles
 from Monemouth by west in Eirisland, and going by Creswell, or
 Craswall chappell not farre from the marches of Brecknocke, and
 northeast of Hatuill hils, which after it hath run a good distance
 [Sidenote: Eskill.]
 from the head receiueth first the Eskle, and passeth by Lanihangle and
 [Sidenote: Elkon.]
 the old Court, from northweast, then the Olcon, from southwest, which
 méeteth withall néere Cledoll or Knedoch, & passing by the old towne,
 it hasteth to Altrinis, where it becommeth march betwéene Hereford and
 [Sidenote: Hodneie.]
 Monemouth shires, and taketh in a water comming by Trewin, & likewise
 the Hordwie or Hodneie which riseth in Becknocke, among the
 Saterelles, & runneth by Capell a fin, Lantonie, Cumroie, Michaell
 church in Monemouthshire, and ioineth with our Mona at Altrinis, which
 after this confluence hasteth to Walderstone, Lansillo Langua,
 [Sidenote: Doure.]
 betwéene which and Kinechurch it ioineth with the Doure that riseth
 about the Bache aboue Dourston, which is six miles aboue Doure abbie,
 so that it runneth through the Gilden dale, by Peterchurch, Fowchurch,
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 Morehampton, Newcourt, Doure, and beneath Doure taketh in the Dulesse,
 [Sidenote: Wormesbecke.]
 from southwest and Lanihangle, by Harleswas castell on the one side,
 and yer long the Wormesbecke, descending from aboue Keuernall by
 Didleie, Deuerox, Workebridge, and Kenderchurch on the other, and so
 running all in one chanell vnto Mona, that riuer goeth on to Kinech
 church, Grismond, Cardwaie, Skenfrith, Warnethall, Perthire, and so to
 Monemouth, where it meeteth with the Wie, ouer each of which riuers
 Monemuth towne hath his particular bridge.

 The Guie or Wie therefore being increased with thus manie brookes and
 waters, passeth on from hence, and going toward Landogo, it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Trollie.]
 with the Trollie becke, whose head is aboue Lannam ferrie in the north
 part of Monemouth shire, and goeth from thence by Lhantellio,
 Lanihangle, Gracedieu, Diggestow, Wonastow, Troie, and so into Wie,
 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 that runneth also by Wies wood chase, taking in there the Elwie that
 commeth from aboue Landelwie by Langowen, Lannissen, Penclase,
 Trilegh, and Langogo, where méeting with the aforesaid streame, the
 Wie directeth his course from thence by Tinterne abbeie (where it
 crosseth a rill from Trile grange) Chapell hill, Parcasicke, Penterie
 chapell, Lancante, Chepstowe, and so into the sea, leauing the Treacle
 (a chappell standing on a rocke) on the hand betweene it & Sauerne,
 ouer against the point that lieth south of Betteslie. Next vnto the
 Wie, I find a rill of no great course, comming downe from Mounton
 chappell, by a place of the bishops of Landaffe. Thence passing by
 Charston rocke, and the point whereon Trinitie chappell standeth, I
 [Sidenote: Trogie.]
 come vnto the fall of Trogie, which riseth short of Trogie castell,
 and runneth toward the sea, by Landuair, Dewston, Calicot, and so into
 the Ocean, ouer against the Charston rocke. The next fall is of a
 water that commeth from aboue Penho by saint Brides, north and by west
 [Sidenote: Dennie Iland in the middest of the Sauerne,
 and likewise another litle one called Beuerage.]
 of Dennie Iland, which lieth midwaie betweene that fall & Porshot
 point, and before I touch at Goldcliffe point, I crosse another fall
 of a fresh brooke, whose head is aboue Landueigo in Wencewood, and
 course by Lhanbed, Langston, Lhanwarme, and through the More to

 [Sidenote: Wiske.]
 Next vnto this is the Aberwish, or Wiske, in Latine Osca, whereon
 Caerleon standeth, sometime called Chester and Ciuitas legionum,
 bicause the Romans soiourned there, as did afterward Arthur the great,
 who also held a noble parlement in the same, whereof Galfride maketh
 mention Lib. 7. cap. 4. affirming thereto, that in those daies the
 maiestie thereof was such, as that all the forefronts of their houses
 were in maner laid ouer with gold, according to the Romane vsage.
 There was in the same in like sort a famous vniuersitie, wherein were
 200 philosophers; also two goodlie churches erected in the remembrance
 of Iulius and Aaron, two Brittish martyrs, whereby it might well be
 reputed for the third metropoliticall sée in Britaine. But to our
 water, whereof I read that it is furthermore one of the greatest in
 Southwales, and huge ships might well come to the towne of Caerleon,
 as they did in the time of the Romans, if Newport bridge were not a
 let vnto them; neuerthelesse, big botes come thereto. It is eight
 Welsh or twelue English miles from Chepstow or Strigull, and of some
 thought to be in base Wenceland, though other be of the contrarie
 opinion. But howsoeuer the matter standeth, this riuer is taken to be
 the bounds of Brechnockshire, as Renni is middle to Wenceland &
 Glamorganshire. But to leaue these by-matters, and come to the
 description of the water.

 [Sidenote: Vske.]
 You shall vnderstand that the Vske or Wiske, in Latin Osca riseth in
 the blacke mounteins ten miles aboue Brechnocke toward Carmardine, the
 hill being properlie called Yminidh Duy out of which it falleth, and
 situate in the verie confines betwéene Brechnocke and Carmardine
 shires, from whence winding into the northeast, it commeth to
 Trecastle, and in the waie betwéene it and Capell Ridburne, it taketh
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 in the Craie brooke, on the right hand before it come to Ridburne
 chappell. Going also from thence toward Deuinocke, it crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Sennie.]
 Senneie on the same side (which riseth aboue Capell Senneie) next of
 [Sidenote: Camblas.]
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 all the Camblas, & at Aberbraine, the Brane, or the Bremich, whose
 head is thrée miles from Brechnocke, and running by Lanihangle, it
 méeteth I saie with the Vske, about master Awbries manor. Beneath Aber
 [Sidenote: Yster.]
 Yster, it receiueth the Yster, which riseth northwest aboue Martyr
 Kinoch, and commeth by Battell chappell, and going from thence by
 Lanspithed and Newton, it runneth in the end to Brechnocke, where it
 [Sidenote: Hodneie.]
 taketh in the Hodneie or Honthie on the one side, whose head is in
 Blaine Hodneie, and comming downe from thence by Defrune chappell,
 Lanihangle and Landiuilog, it méeteth with the Vske or Brechnocke
 townes end, which of the fall of this water was sometime called
 Aberhodni, as I haue beene informed: on the other halfe likewise
 [Sidenote: Tertarith.]
 it receiueth the Tertarith that riseth among the Bane hils, fiue miles
 from Brechnocke, and commeth likewise into the verie suburbs of the
 towne, beneath Trenewith, or new Troie, whereby it taketh the course.

 [Sidenote: Kinuricke.]
 After these confluences, the Vske procéedeth on toward Aberkinurike,
 or the fall of a water whose head is in the roots of Menuchdennie
 hill, and passage by Cantreffe. Thence it goeth by Lanhamlaghe,
 Penkethleie castell, Lansanfreid, Landettie, Langonider, and soone
 [Sidenote: Riangall.]
 after receiuing the Riangall (which riseth about the hill whereon
 Dinas castell standeth, and runneth by Lanihangle and Tretoure) it
 passeth betwéene Laugattocke and Cerigkhowell, to Langroinie, and
 [Sidenote: Groini.]
 there about crosseth the Groinie brooke, that descendeth from
 Monegather, Arthur hill, by Peter church, as I find. When the Vske is
 past this brooke, it taketh in thrée other short rils, from by south
 [Sidenote: Cledoch Vaur.]
 [Sidenote: Fidan.]
 [Sidenote: Cledochveh[=a].]
 within a little distance, whereof the first hight Cledoch Vaur, the
 second Fidan, and the third Cledochvehan. Of these also the last
 falleth in néere to Lanwenarth. From hence the Vske runneth to
 [Sidenote: Kebbie.]
 Abergeuenni towne, where it méeteth with the Kebbie water from by
 north, that riseth short of Bettus chappell aboue the towne, and the
 [Sidenote: Geuenni.]
 Geuennie that descendeth from aboue Landilobartholl beneath not farre
 from Colbroke, and so goeth on to Hardwijc, beneath which it crosseth
 thrée namelesse rilles, on the right hand or southwest side before it
 come at Lanihangle vpon Vske, of whose courses I know not anie more
 than that they are not of anie length, nor the chanell of sufficient
 greatnesse seuerallie to intreat of. Betwéene Kemmeis and Trostreie it
 [Sidenote: Birthin.]
 meeteth with such an other rill that commeth downe by Bettus Newith.
 [Sidenote: Caer Vske standeth on one side of
 Vske, and Caerleon on the other, but Caer Vske
 by diuerse miles further into the land.]
 Thence it goeth to Caer Vske or Brenbigeie (whose bridge, I mene that
 of Vske, was ouerthrowne by rage of this riuer, in the six and
 twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, vpon saint Hughes daie after
 a great snow) but yer it come there, it receiueth the Birthin on the
 right hand, which is a pretie water, descending from two heads,
 whereof the first is northwest of Manihilot, as the other is of
 Lanihangle and Pentmorell.

 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 Next vnto this it ioineth with the Elwie aboue Lanbadocke, whose head
 is east of Penclase, and running westwards by Penclase, Lanislen,
 Langowen (and beneath Landewie taking in a brooket from Ragland
 castell, that commeth downe thither by Ragland parke) it bendeth
 southwest, vntill it come at the Vske, which crinkling towards the
 south, and going by Lanhowell, méeteth with three rilles before it
 come to Marthenie chappell, whereof the first lieth on the right hand,
 and the other on the left: the midlemost falling into the same, not
 farre from Lantressen, as I haue béene informed. From the mouth of the
 Romeneie to the mouth of the Taffe are two miles. Certes the Taffe is
 the greatest riuer in all Glamorganshire, (called by Ptolomie
 Rhatostathybius, as I gesse) and the citie Taffe it selfe of good
 countenance, sith it is indued with the cathedrall see of a bishop.
 The course of the water in like maner is verie swift, and bringeth oft
 such logs and bodies of trées withall from the wooddie hilles, that
 they doo not seldome crush the bridge in péeces, but for so much as it
 is made with timber it is repaired with lighter cost, wheras if it
 were of hard stone, all the countrie about would hardlie be able to
 amend it. It riseth in Brechnockshire among the woodie hilles, from
 two heads, whereof one is in Monuchdenie, the other west of that
 mounteine, of which the first called Taffe vaure, goeth by Capell lan
 vehan, Vainor, and Morlais, the other by Capell Nantie, and ioining at
 southwest beneath Morlais castle, they go to Martyr Tiduill, and
 toward Lannabor, but by the waie it taketh in from northwest a brooke
 called Cunnon, which commeth out of Brechnockshire by Abardare, and
 afterward the Rodneie comming out of the same quarter (but not out of
 the same shire) which runneth by Estridinodoch, a crotched brooke, &
 therefore diuided into Rodneie vaure, & Rodneie vehan, that being
 ioined with the Taffe, doth run on withall to Eglefilian, castle Coch,
 Whitchurch, Landaffe, Cardiffe, and so into the sea, not far from
 Pennarth point, where also the Laie dooth bid him welcome vnto his
 chanell or streame. Furthermore, from Marthellie it hasteth to
 Kemmeis, and yer it come at Caerleon or Chester in the south, taketh
 in two waters on the right hand, of which the first commeth downe from
 the north betweene Landgwie, Landgweth, and by Lhan Henoch, without
 anie further increase: but the other is a more beautifull streame,
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 called Auon, and thus described as I find it among my pamphlets. The
 Auon riseth in the hilles that séeme to part Monemouth and Brechenocke
 shires in sunder, and after a rill receiued from Blorench hill on the
 northside of the same, running downe from thence by Capell Newith and
 Triuethin, it receiueth a water from by south almost of equall course,
 and from that quarter of the countrie, and in processe of time another
 little one from the same side, yer it come to Lanurgwaie and
 Lanihangle, from whence it goeth to Guennocke and Penrose, & so in
 Vske before it go by Caerleon. But here you must note, that the course
 of this streame ioining beneath Quenocke chappell, with the other
 which descendeth (as I said) from the hilles about foure miles aboue
 Landgwaie and Langweth, dooth make an Iland aboue Caerleon, where
 Penrose standeth, & much Romane coine is found of all sorts, so that
 the influence of the one into the other séemeth to me to be but a
 draine deuised by man, to kéepe the citie from the violence of such
 water as otherwise would oft annoie the same.

 Being past Caerleon it runneth to Crindie, where maister Harbert
 dwelleth, and there carieng another brooke withall, that riseth north
 of Tomberlow hill, and descendeth by Henlis and Bettus chappell, it
 runneth forth to Newport (in Welch castle Newith) and from thence
 vnder a bridge, after thrée or foure miles course to the sea, taking
 [Sidenote: Ebowith.]
 the Ebowith water withall, which méeteth with the same almost in the
 verie mouth or fall, and riseth in the edge of Brecknoch shire, or (as
 Leland saith) high Winceland, from two heads of which one is called
 Eberith Vehan, the other Eberith Mawr, as I haue beene informed. The
 course of the first head is by Blamgrent, and after the confluence
 they passe togither by Lanhileth, and comming by west of Tomberlow
 hill (crossing a rill, from north east by the waie) it taketh in
 [Sidenote: Serowie.]
 thereabout the Serowie, that runneth by Trestrent, & is of lesse race
 hitherto than the Ebowith, and from that same quarter. After this
 confluence it goeth to Risleie, Rocheston castell, next of all
 thorough a parke, and so by Greenefield castell, and is not long yer
 it fall into the sea, being the last issue that I doo find in the
 countie, which beareth the name of Monemouth, and was in old time a
 part of the region of the Silures.

 [Sidenote: Romeneie.]
 The Romenie or (as some corruptlie call it) the Nonneie, is a goodlie
 water, and from the head a march betwéene Monemouth & Glamorgan
 shires. The head hereof is aboue Egglins Tider vap Hoell otherwise
 called Fanum Theodori, or the church of Theodorus, whence commeth
 manie springs, & taking one bottome, the water is called Canoch and
 not Romeneie till it be come to Romeneie. It receiueth no water on the
 east side, but on the west diuerse small beckes, whereof three (and
 one of them called Ifra) are betwéene the rising and Brathetere
 chappell, the fourth c[=o]meth in by Capell Gledis, and Kethligaire,
 the fift from betwéene the Faldraie and Lanuabor, the sixt & seuenth
 before it come to Bedwas, and the eight ouer against Bedwas it selfe
 from chappell Martin, Cairfillie castell, and Thauan, after which
 confluences it runneth on by Maghan, Keuen, Mableie and Romeneie, &
 yer long crossing a becke at north west that commeth from aboue
 Lisuan, Lamssen and Roch, it falleth into the sea, about six miles
 from the Wisbe, and albeit the mouth therof be nothing profitable for
 ships, yet is it also a march betwéene the Silures and Glamorganshire.

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 The Laie falleth into the sea a mile almost from the Taffe, and riseth
 in the hilles aboue Lantrissent (for all the region is verie hillie.)
 From whence comming by Lantrissent and Auercastell, it runneth by Coit
 Marchan parke, Lambedder, S. Brides, Lhannihangle, saint Fagans and
 Elaie, Leckwith, Landowgh, Cogampill, and so into the sea, without
 [Sidenote: Dunelais.]
 anie maner increase by anie rils at all sauing the Dunelais, which
 riseth foure miles from his fall, east northeast, and meeteth withall
 a little more than a quarter of a mile from Pont Velim Vaur, and
 [Sidenote: Methcoid.]
 likewise by west, the Methcoid that commeth from Glinne Rodeneie, and
 [Sidenote: Pedware.]
 wherein to the Pedware dischargeth that small water gathered in his
 chanell. Here will I staie a little and breake off into a discourse,
 which Leland left also as parcell of this coast who toucheth it after
 this maner.

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 From Taffe to Laie mouth or Ele riuer a mile, from Laie mouth (or
 [Sidenote: Thawan.]
 rather Penarth, that standeth on the west point of it) to the mouth of
 Thawan riuer (from whence is a common passage ouer vnto Mineheued in
 Summersetshire of 17 miles) are about seuen Welsh miles, which are
 [Sidenote: Scilleie.]
 counted after this maner. A mile and a halfe aboue Thawan is Scilleie
 hauenet (a pretie succour for ships) whose head is in Wenno paroch two
 [Sidenote: Barrie.]
 miles and a halfe from the shore. From Scilleie mouth to Aber Barrie a
 mile, and thither commeth a little rill of fresh water into Sauerne,
 whose head is scant a mile off in plaine ground by northeast, and
 [Sidenote: This Ile went fiftie yeares agone for x. pounds.]
 right against the fall of this becke lieth Barrie Iland a flight shot
 from the shore at the full sea. Halfe a mile aboue Aber Barrie is the
 [Sidenote: Come kidie.]
 mouth of Come kidie, which riseth flat north from the place where it
 goeth into the Sauerne, and serueth oft for harbour vnto sea-farers.
 Thence to the mouth of Thawan are thrée miles, wherevnto ships may
 come at will.

 [Sidenote: Colhow.]
 Two miles aboue Thawan is Colhow, whither a little rill resorteth from
 Lau Iltuit, thence to the mouth of Alen foure miles, that is a mile to
 [Sidenote: Alen.]
 saint Dinothes castell, and thrée miles further. The Alen riseth by
 northeast vp into the land at a place called Lhes Broimith, or
 Skirpton, about foure miles aboue the plot where it commeth by it
 [Sidenote: Ogur.]
 selfe into Sauerne. From thence to the mouth of Ogur aliàs Gur thrée
 [Sidenote: Kensike.]
 miles. Then come they in processe of time vnto the Kensike or
 Colbrooke riuer, which is no great thing, sith it riseth not aboue
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 three miles from the shore. From Kensike to Aber Auon two miles, and
 herein doo ships molested with weather oftentimes séeke harborough. It
 commeth of two armes, wherof that which lieth northeast is called Auon
 Vaur, the other that lieth northwest Auon Vehan. They meet togither at
 Lhanuoie Hengle, about two miles aboue Aber Auon village, which is two
 miles also from the sea.

 [Sidenote: Neth.]
 From hence to the Neth is about two miles and a halfe, thereon come
 shiplets almost to the towne of Neth from the Sauerne. From the mouth
 of Neth vnto the mouth of Crimline becke is two miles, and being
 [Sidenote: Tauie.]
 passed the same we come vnto the Tauie, which descendeth from the
 aforesaid hilles and falleth into the sea by east of Swanseie. Being
 [Sidenote: Lochar.]
 past this we come vnto the Lichwr, or Lochar mouth, and then gliding
 [Sidenote: Wandres.]
 by the Wormes head, we passed to the Wandresmouth, wherof I find this
 [Sidenote: Vendraith Vaur, Vendraith Vehan.]
 description following in Leland. Both Vendraith Vaur and Vendraith
 Vehan rise in a péece of Carmardineshire, called Issekenen, that is to
 saie, the low quarter about Kennen riuer, and betwixt the heads of
 these two hils is another hill, wherein be stones of a gréenish
 colour, whereof the inhabitants make their lime. The name of the hill
 that Vendraith Vaur riseth in, is called Mennith Vaur, and therein is
 a poole as in a moorish ground, named Lhintegowen, where the
 principall spring is, and this hill is eight or nine miles from
 Kidwellie: the hill that Vendraith Vehan springeth out of, is called
 Mennith Vehan, and this water commeth by Kidwellie towne.

 But about thrée or foure miles yer it come thither, it receiueth a
 brooke called Tresgirth, the course whereof is little aboue a mile
 from the place where it goeth into Vendraith, and yet it hath foure or
 fiue tucking milles and thrée corne milles vpon it. At the head of
 this brooke is an hole in the hilles side, where men often enter and
 walke in a large space. And as for the brooke it selfe, it is one of
 the most plentifull and commodious that is to be found in Wales. All
 along the sides also of Vendraith Vaur, you shall find great plentie
 of sea-coles. There is a great hole by head of Vendraith Vehan, where
 men vse to enter into vaults of great compasse, and it is said, that
 they maie go one waie vnder the ground to Wormes head, and another
 waie to Cairkemen castell, which is three miles or more into the land.
 But how true these things are, it is not in me to determine; yet this
 is certeine, that there is verie good hawking at the Heron in
 Vendraith Vehan. There are diuerse prints of the passage of certeine
 worms also in the caue, at the head of Vendraith Vehan, as the
 inhabitants doo fable: but I neuer heard of anie man that saw anie
 worme there, and yet it is beléeued that manie wormes are there.
 Hitherto out of Leland. But now to returne to mine owne course.

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 Leauing the Laie, which some call Elaie, and passing the Pennarth
 baie, that lieth betwéene the Pennarth and the Lauerocke points, we
 left Scillie Ilet (which lieth on the mouth of Scillie hauen before
 [Sidenote: Barrie.]
 described) and came vnto the Barrie, whose head is aboue Wrinston
 castell, and from whence he runneth by Deinspowis, Cadoxton, Barrie,
 and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Aberthaw.]
 Being past the Barrie water, we come to a fall called Aberthaw, which
 riseth two or thrée miles aboue Lansanor, and going by Welch Newton,
 it commeth at length to Cowbridge, and from thence goeth to
 Lanblethian, Landoch, Beanpéere, Flimston, Gilston, and betweene the
 east and the west Aberthaw, & into the Sauerne sea. But yer it come
 all there it receiueth a brooke called Kensan, or Karnsan, or Kensech,
 on the east side, whose head is east of Bolston, & comming by
 Charnelhoid, Lhancaruan, & Lancadle, it falleth into the former aboue
 [Sidenote: Kensan.]
 either of the Thawans. Leland saith, that Kensan hath two heads,
 whereof the more northerlie called Brane, lieth in Luenlithan, and
 runneth seauen miles before it méet with the other. Leauing this water
 we sailed on, casting about the Nash point, omitting two or thrée
 small waters (whereof Leland hath alreadie as ye see made mention)
 because I haue nothing more to add vnto their descriptions, except it
 be, that the Colhow taketh in a rill from Lan Iltruit, of whose course
 (to saie the truth) I haue no manner of knowledge.

 [Sidenote: Ogur.]
 The Ogur or Gur, which some call the Ogmur, is a well faire streame
 (as we were woont to saie in our old English) whose head is in the
 same hilles, where the Rodeneies are to be found, but much more
 westerlie, and running a long course yer it come to anie village, it
 goeth at the length beneath Languineuere or Langouodoch, to S. Brides
 vpon Ogur, then to Newcastell, and Marthermaure, beneath which it
 [Sidenote: Wennie.]
 méeteth the Wennie, halfe a mile from Ogur or Ogmur castell on the
 east side of the banke. It riseth fiue or six miles from this place,
 among the hilles, and comming downe at last by Lanharne, it crosseth a
 rill yer long from northeast, and the confluence passeth foorth by
 Coitchurch, Ogur castell, & so into the Ogur. Leland writing of the
 waters that fall into this Ogur saith thus. Into the Ogur also
 [Sidenote: Garrow.]
 resorteth the Garrow two miles aboue Lansanfride bridge, descending
 from Blaingarow. It taketh furthermore (saith he) another called
 [Sidenote: Leuennie.]
 [Sidenote: Corug.]
 Leuennie rising in the parish of Glin Corug, at northwest, and then
 running two miles lower, vniteth it selfe with the Corug brooke, a
 little short thing, and worthie no longer speach. From this confluence
 the Leuennie goeth seauen miles further yer it meete with the Ogur on
 the west side, at Lansanfride, two miles aboue Penbowt. And so far
 Leland. But I wot not what he meaneth by it. Next vnto the Ogur is the
 [Sidenote: Kensig.]
 Kensig water, that commeth downe by the Pile and Kensig castell, and
 [Sidenote: Margan.]
 being past the same we crosse the Margan rill, where sir Edward
 Manxell dwelt, and so vnto Auon, which hauing two heads (as is said)
 the more easterlie of them commeth downe by Hauodaport chappell, the
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 other by Glin Corug, Michaell church, Aber Auon, and so into the sea,
 yéelding also in time of néed a good harbour for ships to lodge and
 ride in. From hence we went along by the Cole pits to the mouth of the
 [Sidenote: Neth.]
 [Sidenote: Nethuehan.]
 Neth. The Neth is a faire water, rising of diuerse heads, whereof the
 more easterlie named Nethuehan riseth not farre from the head of the
 Kennon, and comming downe by Penedorin to Aberpirgwin it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Nethuaur.]
 Nethuaur, a little aboue the towne, which rising not farre southeast
 of the head of Tauie in Brecknoch shire (as all the rest doo)
 [Sidenote: Trangarth.]
 [Sidenote: Meltaie.]
 [Sidenote: Hepsaie.]
 receiueth the Trangarth, the Meltaie and the Hepsaie, all which are
 accounted as members of his head in one chanell, about a mile or more
 before it ioine with Nethuehan. For as Trangarth riseth east of
 Nethuaur, so the Melta riseth by east of Trangarth, and ioineth with
 the same aboue Istrad wealthie, and a little beneath the same towne
 taketh in the Hepsaie. So that albeit their seuerall risings be half
 or a whole mile in sunder, yet haue they (in a maner) like distance
 from Aberpirgwin, and their finall confluence in the edge of
 Glamorganshire, which they directlie doo crosse. After these
 confluences, the maine streame runneth in and out by sundrie miles,
 and through the wooddie soiles, till it meet with Cledaugh, which
 ioineth with the same beneath the Resonlaie, and goeth withall to
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 Lanisted, where it taketh in the Dulesse, whose head is aboue Chappell
 Krenaunt, in the marches of Brecknoch. Thence it goeth to Cador towne,
 or betwéene it and Lannistide, then to Neth towne, whither small
 [Sidenote: Cledoch.]
 vessels often come: and beneath the same receiuing the Cledoch that
 runneth by Kelebebilch (and also Neth abbeie where maister Crumwell
 dwelleth) it goeth on by Coitfranke forrest, Nethwood, Briton ferrie,
 and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Tauie.]
 The Tauie riseth in the thickest of the blacke mounteines in
 Brecknochshire west of Nethnaur, and comming downe west of Calwen
 [Sidenote: Coilus.]
 chappell, it receiueth on the east banke a rill named Coiell that
 runneth thither by Coielburne chappell: and being thus vnited, the
 [Sidenote: Torch.]
 chanell passeth foorth by Istradgunles, and then méeting with the
 Turch or Torch water that c[=o]meth from the foot of the blacke
 mounteines, and is march to parcell of Caermardinshire, it runneth to
 Langoge, Lansamled, saint Iohns, Swanseie, and so into the Baie. Being
 past this, we come by another little fall, whose water runneth thrée
 or foure miles yer it come into Swanseie baie, but without name.
 Thence we go to the Crimline becke, whose description I neither haue,
 nor find anie great want therof. Wherfore going about by Oistermont
 castell, and Mumbles point, we passe foorth toward the southwest, by
 [Sidenote: Ilston.]
 Penmarch point, til we come to Ilston water, whose head is not farre
 within the land; and yet as it commeth thorough the woodland, and
 downe by Penmarch castell, a rill or two dooth fall into the same.
 Then casting about by Oxwich point, we go onward there by, and sailing
 flat north by the Holme (hauing passed the Wormeshead and S. Kennets
 chappell) and then northeast by Whitford point, we went at length to
 [Sidenote: Lochar.]
 the Lochar or Loghor, or as Lhoyd nameth it, the Lichwr, whose
 indraught for a certene space is march betwéene Caermardine and
 Glamorgan shires. It riseth aboue Gwenwie chappell, from whence it
 goeth Landbea, to and aboue Bettus receiueth a rill named Amond that
 entreth thereinto from northeast. Being past Bettus, it passeth by
 Laneddie, Arthelas bridge and ouer against Landilo Talabout, it
 [Sidenote: Combwilie.]
 crosseth from by west, the Combwilie by west of Parkreame, and
 [Sidenote: Morlais.]
 afterward the Morlais aboue Langnarch on the same side. Then comming
 [Sidenote: Lhu.]
 to Loghor castell, it taketh in on the east side, the Lhu, whose
 course is not aboue fiue miles, and thence loosing the name of Lochar,
 [Sidenote: Burraie.]
 it is called Burraie, as some gesse, vntill it come to the sea, where
 it parteth it selfe going on each side (of Bachannie Iland, a small
 thing) and not worthie for anie thing I read thereof, as yet to be
 particularlie described. From this water we passed (I saie) by
 Bachannies Ile, to the Aberlheddie water, whose head being in the
 hilles aboue Prenacrois, it passeth by Lhaneltheie, and thence into
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 the sea. Then went we to the Dulesse a little rill, whose head is not
 farre from Trinsaren: thence by the Pembraie and Calicoit points, till
 [Sidenote: Wandres.]
 we came about to the Wandres or Vendraith mouth, whose description is
 partlie touched alreadie; but bicause it is not such as I would wish
 it to be, I will here after my owne maner deale somewhat further
 withall. Gwendrath or Vendraith vaur riseth in the lower ground, or
 not far from the hill Renneth Vaur, whereon castell Careg standeth,
 and descending by a pretie long course vnder sundrie bridges, commeth
 at the last to Glin, then to Capull Lanberie, and so vnto the sea,
 being little augmented with influences by the waie. Vendraith Vehan
 riseth a mile higher towards the north than Vendraith Vaur, but out of
 the same soile, & thence directing his course toward the southwest, it
 goeth by Lancharog, Langendarne, Capull Langell, Bithon, Leighdenie,
 Kidwillie, and so into the sea, about one mile from the fall of
 Vendraith Vaur.

 [Sidenote: Towie.]
 The Towie riseth in the mounteines of Elennith foure miles by
 southeast from Lintiue, and two from Lingonon, in a moorish ground
 foure & twentie miles from Caermardine, and in a forrest called
 Bishops forrest, midwaie betwixt Landwibreuie & Landanuerie castell.
 For fish, in my opinion, this is much better than the Taw or Taffe,
 whose head breedeth no fish, but if it be cast into it, they turne vp
 their bellies flote aloft and die out of hand. It parteth Brecknoch
 from Cardigonshire also for a certeine season, till it come by the
 [Sidenote: Trausnant.]
 water of Trausnant, that falleth thereinto from by east out of the
 confins of Brecknoch, vnto Pilin capell, and so to Istrodefine, where
 [Sidenote: Tothée.]
 it méeteth with the Tothee that commeth thither from Lhinuerwin where
 it riseth, and so through Rescoth forrest, vniting it selfe by the
 [Sidenote: Pescotter.]
 waie with the Pescotter, which mounting out of the ground in the edge
 of Cardigonshire, runneth along as a limit and march vnto the same,
 till it ioine with the Tothée, and both come togither beneath
 Istrodefine into Towie, which we haue now in hand. After this
 confluence it commeth to Lhanuair Awbreie, Lanihowell, and
 Lanimphfrie, and here it receiueth two waters in one chanell, whereof
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 [Sidenote: Gutherijc.]
 the first is called Brane, the other Gutherijc (which lieth more
 southerlie of the two) and fall (as I said) into Towie beneath
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 [Sidenote: Morlais.]
 Landonuereie, which runneth on till it méet with the first Dulesse
 that goeth by Lenurdie, then with the Morlais, and these on the
 northwest. Certes the Brane is a pretie brooke rising two or thrée
 miles aboue Capell Newith, and descending by Lanbrane and
 Vstradwalter, it méeteth (I saie) with the Gutherijc, whose head is
 west of Tridcastell in Brecknochshire, and thereby it is not a little
 increased. But to proceed with the Towie, which being past Lanimphfrie
 and a rill that méeteth with the same, descending from northwest of
 Lanurdan, it taketh in the influences of diuerse waters in one
 chanell, of which the greatest is called Modewie, and thereof I find
 this description.

 [Sidenote: Modewie.]
 The Modewie, or (as some pronounce it) Motheuie, riseth of two heads,
 which ioining aboue Lanihangle, the streame runneth on till it méet
 [Sidenote: Cledoch.]
 with the Cledoch on the left hand, procéeding also further toward
 [Sidenote: Sawtheie.]
 Langadocke, it receiueth not far from thence the Sawtheie, whose two
 heads descend from the blacke mounteines or east edge of
 Carmardineshire (as mine information leadeth me.) After this
 [Sidenote: Dulesse. 2.]
 confluence the second Dulesse dooth méet with the Towie, whose head is
 in the hilles aboue Talthogaie abbeie, northwest from Langadocke full
 fiue miles: then comming downe by Landilovaur, Newton, Dinefar
 [Sidenote: Dulesse. 3.]
 castell, and Golden groue, it receiueth the third Dulesse from by
 north that commeth in by Lanihangle and Drislan castell, and after
 [Sidenote: Cothie.]
 that the Cothie, whose race is somewhat long, and therefore his
 description not vtterlie to be passed ouer.

 Not farre from the head (which is three miles from Landanbreuie, vnder
 the hulke of Blame Icorne, a narrow passage, and therein manie heaps
 of stones) and somewhat beneath Lana Pinsent chappell, it taketh in
 [Sidenote: Turche.]
 the Turche becke that runneth thither from aboue Lanacroies: thence it
 goeth to Lansawell, Abergorlech, Breghuangothie, Lannigood, and so
 into Towie, which hasting forward by chappell Dewie, receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Rauelthie.]
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 Rauelthie from by north, then the Gwilie from northwest, whose head is
 aboue Lanie Pinsent, and race by Canwell, Eluert, Comewilie, and
 Merling hill as I haue often heard. After this confluence with the
 Gwilie, the Towie goeth to Caermardine, then to Lanigang, then to
 Lanstephan, S. Ismaels, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Taue.]
 Next vnto the Towie is the Taue, whose head is in the blacke
 mounteines, as at the roots of Wrenni vaur hill in Pembrookeshire,
 from whence it runneth by Lanuurnach, Langludien, Lanualteg, and
 [Sidenote: Dudderie.]
 taking in the Dudderie from southwest, out of the same countie by
 Lanbederuelfraie, and Lindwie, it goeth to Eglesware chappell, beneath
 [Sidenote: Marlais.]
 which it crosseth the Marlais by north that runneth by Lanbedie and
 [Sidenote: Vennie.]
 Whitland. Thence meeting with one rill called Venni, as I take it,
 [Sidenote: Caire.]
 that commeth through Cardith forrest on the one side, and the Caire on
 the other that runneth into it west of Landowror, it hasteth to
 [Sidenote: Carthkinnie.]
 S. Clares, where it taketh in the Carthkinnie, or Barthkinnie (as
 [Sidenote: Gow.]
 Leland calleth it) and the Gow or Tow both in one chanell, of which
 the first riseth aboue Capell Bettus, from whence it runneth by
 Talacouthe, Kilsant, and Langinnin, the other issueth out of the
 ground aboue Trologh Bettus, by Midrun, & ioining with the former a
 little aboue S. Clares, they run into the Taue, and from thence to
 Lanihangle, and betwéene it and Abercowen, admitteth finallie the
 [Sidenote: Gowen.]
 Gowen or Gow streame, which comming likewise from the blacke
 mounteines, goeth by Ebbernant, & so into the Taue, who directeth his
 course by Lancharne castell, and then into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Gwair.]
 The next water that we come to is the Gwair, which is but a small
 thing rising aboue Lambeder Velfraie, and going from thence by east of
 castell Merhie hill, Crumuier and Argwaire, it is not long yer it fall
 into the sea, and so we leaue Cairdinshire, and go ouer into
 Penbrooke. Then passed we by an other comming out of Rathe forrest
 called Coit Rathe, the water it selfe rising about Templeton. Thence
 leauing the Monkeston rocke, we came to Tenbie or Dinbechie Piscood,
 and passing into the port betwéene the castell and S. Katharines
 [Sidenote: Brechnocke.]
 rocke, we found it serued with two little backe waters, of so small
 countenance, that they are not worthie of anie further talke to be
 spent in their descriptions: yet the one séemeth to be called Florence
 brooke, the other Fresto, Gunfreston standing betwéene them both, when
 [Sidenote: From Londie to Caldie thirtie miles.]
 by their sight cannot perish. After this we passed betwéene Londie and
 an other Ilet or rocke lieng by northwest of the same, to Ludsop
 point, & so to Abertrewent, where I found a sillie fresh water named
 [Sidenote: Trewent.]
 Trewend that riseth a mile or thereabout within the land. From thence
 we went southwards by Brode hauen, till we came to S. Gowans point.
 Then gathering west and by north before we came at Shepe Iland, we
 found another fresh water, that riseth short of Kiriog Maharen, and
 running south of Vggarston, Windmill hill, or betwéene it and Castell
 Norton and Gupton, it holdeth on flat west all the waie till it come
 to the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: Pennar.]
 Being passed this water, we cast about toward the northwest, by the
 Poptons and Pennar, till we came to the Pennar mouth, out of which the
 salt water issueth that in manor inuironneth Penbroke. From this
 (omitting sundrie salt créekes on both sides of the hauen, not
 appertinent to our purpose) we came to the fall of two waters in one
 chanell, aboue whose confluence Williamston parke standeth, and
 whereof one (a méere salt course) incloseth thrée parts of Carew
 castell. The other rising néere to Coit Rath forrest is a fresh, &
 going by Geffraiston, Creswell & Lawrenie, it leaueth the parke on the
 south side, & goeth into the hauen after confluence with the former.

 Now come I to the two swords, or hauen of Milford, whereinto two
 [Sidenote: Dugledu.]
 riuers direct their course from the northeast called Dugledu or the
 [Sidenote: Cultlell.]
 two swords, and betwéene them both is a rill which they call also
 Cultlell (that is to saie) the knife. Hereof riseth a merrie tale of a
 Welshman, that lieng in this place abroad all night in the cold
 weather, and peraduenture not verie well occupied, was demanded of his
 hostesse (where he did breake his fast the next morrow) at what inne
 he laie in the night precedent, bicause he came so soone to hir house
 yer anie of hir maids were vp? Oh good hostesse (quoth he) be
 contented, I laie to night in a dangerous estate, for I slept betweene
 two swords with a long knife at my heart; meaning indéed that he laie
 betwéene these two riuers, and his brest towards the south neere to
 the head of Cultlell. But to passe ouer these iests. Here Leland
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 speaketh of a riuer called Gwilie, but where it riseth or falleth, he
 maketh no certeine report: wherefore it is requisit that I proceed
 according to my purpose.

 The one of these swords is called Clotheie or Clothie, of which I find
 [Sidenote: Clotheie.]
 this short and breefe description. The Clothie riseth at the foot of
 Wrennie vaure hill and comming downe to Monachlodge, Langelman,
 Lannakeuen, and Egremond, it receiueth a rill from by northwest before
 it come at Lanhaddon castell, which commeth from aboue the moore by
 Clarbaston and Bletherston, his head arising in the hill west of
 Mancloghaie, as Leland dooth informe me. Yer long also and beneath
 Lanhaddon it taketh in another on the east side from Narbarth castell,
 comming by Robeston, then going by Cunaston, Slebach, Picton castell,
 Sister houses, Minware & Martheltwie, at Rise castell point west of
 [Sidenote: Dugledie.]
 Coit Kenles (as I haue béene informed) it taketh in the other sword,
 named Dugledie, wherof I read as followeth. The head of the Dugledie
 is somwhere at northwest, betwixt S. Laurences & S. Dugwels, from
 whence it runneth to Trauegarne, Redbaxton, & taking in a rill by the
 waie from Camrose at the west, it goeth to Hauerford or Hereford west,
 and there vniteth it selfe with a water, which peraduenture is the
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 same that Leland called Gwilie. Certes it riseth short of Walton, and
 comming by S. Leonards chappell and Pendergest, it falleth I saie into
 the Dugledie, ouer against the towne of Hauerford or Herford west, but
 in Welsh Hufford; as Lhoid dooth set it downe. Beneath Herford it
 taketh in another water from south west, whose head is short of S.
 Margarets chappell, and enterance betweene Harraldston and Herford,
 which Harraldstone receiueth the name of Harrald the successour of
 Edward the confessour as some call him, who was a gréeuous mall vnto
 the Britons that remained in the time of the said Edward; as I haue
 noted elsewhere. Then the Dugledie still descending taketh in the
 Frese fr[=o] Fresethorpe, a rill of no great accompt, and therefore I
 go from it making hast vnto Culthell, & omitting two rils betwéene it
 and the Clotheie on the southside, of no great weight and moment. The
 Cultlhell commeth into the Dugledie beneath Bolston, with a streight
 course from by north, of three or foure miles, rising by west of
 Slebach, and comming by Bowlston, after whose vnition with the
 aforesaid water they run on as one till they méet with the Clothie,
 casting out by the waie sundrie salt créekes, as the maine chanell
 dooth from thence foorth vntill it passe the Sandie hauen, the Dale
 rode (whither a sillie fresh rill commeth of small value) & be come
 about againe to the large Ocean.

 Having thus shewed the courses of those few fresh waters that come to
 Milford hauen, we cast about by the Blockehouse and S. Annes chappell
 [Sidenote: Gateholme Ile.]
 to Gateholme Ile, that lieth betwéene S. Annes and the Wilocke point,
 [Sidenote: Stockholme Ile.]
 directlie ouer against Stockeholme Iland that is situat further off
 into the sea, toward the southwest, and is full halfe so great as the
 Scalmeie that I elsewhere described. Betweene the Willocke point also
 [Sidenote: Midland Ile.]
 and the Scalmeie, directlie west is the Midland Ile, full so great as
 the Gateholme. As for the two rocks that lie by north and south of the
 Scalmeie, of which the one is called the Yardland stone, the other
 Mewstone, it shall not be greatlie requisit to stand on their
 discourses, sith they are such as may hardlie be taken for Ilands, and
 euen in like sort we may iudge of S. Brides Ile, which is southwest of
 [Sidenote: Gresholme.]
 Calthrop rode, & likewise of the Gresholme, whereof I find this short
 description. The Gresholme lieth directlie west of Scalmeie, from
 whence if you saile thither on the south side, you must néeds passe by
 the Mewstone rocke: if on the north of Scalmeie, you must leaue the
 Yarland stone on your left hand. Wherto if you note well the situation
 of these Ilands alreadie named, and confer them with the Ramseie and
 S. Dauids land, you shall find them to produce as it were two
 dangerous points, including the Bridbaie, wherein (notwithstanding the
 greatnesse) are 1000 perils, and no fresh brookes for me to deale
 withall. Finallie, hauing doubled the Willocke point, we thought it
 not good altogether to leaue that baie vnsearched, at lestwise to sée
 what Ilands might there be found, & long entred into the same, we
 [Sidenote: S. Brides Iland.]
 beheld one which the men of the countrie call S. Brides Iland, a verie
 little place and situate néere the land, before I came at Galtroie
 rode. From thence we went about by the little hauen, Doluach hauen,
 Caruaie hauen, Shirelace rocke, Carnbuddie, and Carnaie baies,
 Portelais, and so into the sound betwéene Ramseie and the point. In
 this sound likewise is a little Ile, almost annexed to the maine: but
 in the middest thereof, I meane of the sound, is a rocke called the
 horsse (a mile and more by north of Ribbie rocke, that lieth south
 east of Ramseie) and more infortunate than ten of Seians colts, but
 thanked be God I neuer came on his backe. Thence passing by
 [Sidenote: A sort of dangerous rocks lieng on a row upon the
 west end of South-wales called the Bishop & his clerkes.]
 S. Stephans, and Whitesand baies, we saluted the Bishop and his
 clerks, as they went on procession on our left side (being loth to
 take anie salted holie water at their hands) and came at last to the
 point called S. Dauids head, which Ptolomie calleth Octapitanum
 promontorium, except I be deceiued. But here gentle reader giue me
 leaue to staie a while, and insert the words of Leland touching the
 land called S. Dewies or S. Dauids land, whereof some men may
 peraduenture haue vse, his words are these. Being therefore past this
 hauen and point of Demetia, in casting about the coast we come to
 [Sidenote: S. Dewie or Dauid all one.]
 S. Dewies or S. Dauids land, which Ptolomie calleth Octapitanum
 promontorium, I read to be separated from the rest of the countrie
 much after this maner, although I grant that there may be and are
 diuerse other little creekes betwixt Newgale and S. Dauids head, and
 betwixt S. Dauids and Fischard, beside those that are héere mentioned
 out of a register of that house.

 As we turne therefore from Milford, S. Dauids land beginneth at
 Newgale, a créeke serued with a backe fresh water. Howbeit there is a
 baie before this creeke betwixt it and Milford. From hence about foure
 [Sidenote: Saluach.]
 miles is Saluach creeke, otherwise called Sauerach, whither some fresh
 water resorteth: the mouth also thereof is a good rescue for
 balingers, as it (I meane the register) saith. Thence go we to
 [Sidenote: Portelais.]
 [Sidenote: Alen.]
 Portelais three miles, where is a little portlet, whither the Alen
 that commeth through saint Dewies close dooth run. It lieth a mile
 south-west from S. Dewies, saint Stinans Chappell also is betwéene
 [Sidenote: Portmaw.]
 [Sidenote: Maw.]
 [Sidenote: Pendwie.]
 [Sidenote: Lanuehan.]
 Portelais, and Portmaw. The next is Port Maw, where I found a great
 estuarie into the land. The Pendwie halfe a mile from that: Lhand
 Vehan is thrée miles from Pendwie, where is a salt créeke, then to
 [Sidenote: Tredine.]
 [Sidenote: Langunda.]
 Tredine three miles, where is another creeke to Langunda, foure miles,
 and another créeke is there in like sort where fishermen catch
 herrings. Héere also the Gwerne riuer diuideth Penbidiane from
 [Sidenote: Fischard.]
 [Sidenote: Gwerne.]
 Fischerdine Kemmeis land. From Langunda to Fischard at the Gwerne
 mouth foure miles, and here is a portlet or hauenet also for ships.
 And thus much of S. Dauids land.

 Besides this also, Leland in a third booke talketh of lhinnes and
 pooles, but for as much as my purpose is not to speake of lakes and
 lhinnes, I passe them ouer as hasting to Teifie, in Latine Tibius, and
 after Ptolomie Tuerobius or Tiuirobius, which is the next riuer that
 serueth for my purpose. And yet not forgetting to touch the Gwerne,
 for after we came from saint Dauids head, we coasted along toward the
 southeast, till wée came ouer against saint Catharins, where going
 northwards by the broad hauen, and the Strombles head, we sailed
 thence northeast, and by north, to Langlas head, then flat south by
 the Cow and Calfe (two cruell rockes) which we left on the left hand,
 & so coasted ouer to Abergwin or Fischard where we found a fresh water
 [Sidenote: Gwerne.]
 named Guin, or Gwerne, whose course is in manner directlie out of the
 east into the west, from Vremie hils by pont Vaunt and Lanichair,
 vntill it come within a mile of the foresaid towne. It riseth flat
 north of the Perselie hill, from whence it goeth by Pont vaine,
 Lauerillidoch, Lanchar, Landilouair, & so to Abergwine, or Abergwerne,
 for I read both. From Abergwine, we cast about by Dinas head, till we
 [Sidenote: Neuerne.]
 come to the fall of Neuerne, where Newport standeth. The head of this
 riuer is aboue Capell Nantgwin, from whence it runneth by Whitchurch,
 but yer it come at Kilgwin, it taketh in a little water that riseth
 short of Wrenie vaure, and thence go foorth as one vntill they come to
 Newport. Cardigan hauen is the next fall that I did stumble on,
 wherein lieth a little Iland ouer against the north point. Hereinto
 [Sidenote: Teifie or Tine.]
 also commeth the Teifie, a noble riuer which riseth in Lintiuie, and
 is fraught with delicate samons, and herein and not else where in all
 the riuers of Britaine, is the Castor or Beuer to be found. But to
 procéed. The verie hed thereof (I saie) is foure miles aboue
 Stradflore in Luitie, and after it hath run from thence a little
 space, it receiueth a brooke from southeast that commeth out of Lin
 Legnant, and then after the confluence runneth on to Stradflore
 [Sidenote: Miricke.]
 abbeie, beneth which it méeteth with the Miricke water (that riseth
 [Sidenote: Landurch.]
 aboue Stradmirich) and soone after with the Landurch (both from the
 northwest) and finallie the Bremich aboue Tregaron, that commeth in by
 the east; as Leland hath set downe.

 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 Néere to Landwibreuie also it crosseth the Bromis by east northeast,
 [Sidenote: Matherne.]
 and then goeth to Landuair, Cledogh, Kellan, and soone after taking in
 the Matherne from by east, that parteth Cardigan partlie from
 [Sidenote: Dulas.]
 Carmardine shire, and likewise that Dulas aboue Lanbedder (which
 riseth aboue Langibbie, and goeth thence to Bettus) on the northwest,
 it goeth next of all to Lanbedder towne, then to Laniuair, beneath
 [Sidenote: Grauelth.]
 which it crosseth the Grauelth, thence to Pencarocke, Lanibether,
 Lanlonie, Lanihangle, and Sandissell, and there it vniteth it selfe
 [Sidenote: Clethor.]
 with the Clethor or Dettor, which commeth downe thither by Lantisilued
 chappell, Lanfraine, and finallie Landissell from by north, as I doo
 here affirme. After this confluence it procéedeth on to Landuaie,
 Alloine, Bangor, Langeler, Landeureog and Newcastell, yer long taking
 [Sidenote: Kerie.]
 in the Kerie from by north, whose head is not farre from that of
 Clethor, and whose course is somewhat inlarged by such rilles as
 descend into the same. For west of Kenwith two becks in one chanell
 doo fall into it, which be namelesse, and but of a little length.

 Beneath Tredwair also it crosseth another from by west, that runneth
 along by Bettus, Euan, and finallie méeting with the Teifie, they run
 as one by Kennarth (still parting Cardigon shire from Carmardin, as it
 hath doone sith it met with the Matherne) and so forth on till they
 [Sidenote: Cheach.]
 ioine with the Cheach, which rising southeast aboue chappell Euan,
 dooth part Carmardine and Brechnocke shire in sunder, till it come
 vnto the Teifie. From this confluence, and being still a limit vnto
 Cardigon shire, it goeth by Marierdine, and so to Cardigon, taking in
 one rill from by north descending by Penneralt, by north of Monardiue
 or Marierdine, and two other from by southwest, of which the one
 commeth in beneath Kilgaron castell, the other from Lantwood north
 west of Oscoid Mortemer, which lieth southeast of Cardigan, and then
 going forward betwéene S. Dogmaile, & Langordmere, it is not long yer
 it fall into the Irish sea, flat west and by north from his vprise,
 and sending vs forth from Penlooke into Cardigon shire, wherevnto it
 hath become march euer sithence it came from Kellam, or confluence
 with the Matherne.

 Being come into Cardigon shire, and hauing passed the Cardigon point,
 an Iland of the same denomination lieng by west thereof, we came vnto
 [Sidenote: Airon.]
 the fall of Airon thrée miles beneath Lancleere, it riseth in the
 mounteines by a chappell called Blam Peniall belonging to Landwie
 breuie about thrée or foure miles from Tiue banks, & runneth on by
 Lamberwooddie, Langitho, Tregrigaron hill, Treuilian, Talaferne, and
 soone after taking in a rill from by south from Siliam by Lanleir it
 runneth by Istrade, Kilkennen, Lanicharin, and finallie into the sea,
 [Sidenote: Bidder.]
 crossing by the waie the Bidder brooke, which comming from Dehewide,
 dooth fall into the same, betwéene Lanchairin, and Henuenneie. The
 [Sidenote: Arth.]
 Arth which is the next fall is no great thing, neither of anie long
 course, yet somewhat crotched, and it riseth three or foure miles or
 more within the land slopewise, and comming by Lambaderne, and
 Treueglois, it falleth into the sea, northeast of Aberarth.

 Being past the Arth, & hauing staied there a while bicause we found
 [Sidenote: Ris aliàs Wereie.]
 some harborough, we came next of all vnto the Wereie, which riseth of
 two heads, aboue whose confluence standeth a towne, named Lanihangle,
 Redrod, and from whence it goeth by Lanigruthen to Laristed, & so into
 the Ocean. Then went we to the Ystwith, which riseth in the blacke
 mounteins aboue Comerstwith, from whence it runneth certeine miles,
 [Sidenote: Istwith.]
 vntill it come vnto Ispittie, Istwith, Lananon, Laniler, Lan
 Nachairne, and so into the sea, taking withall first the Meleuen, then
 [Sidenote: Redholl.]
 the Ridall or Redholl not farre from the shore, whereof I haue this
 description. The Ridall riseth in the top of Plimlimmon hill out of a
 lake named Lin Ridall, from whence going toward Spittie Kinwen, it
 crosseth one water on the north, and another beneth it on the
 southeast, and so goeth on by Lanbeder vaure, till it come to
 Aberistwith, the Istwith, and so into the Ocean. Hauing thus viewed
 the Istwith, and taken our selues againe to the sea, we crossed the
 [Sidenote: Salique.]
 Salke or Salique brooke, whereof I find this memoriall.

 The Salique brooke descendeth in like sort from the blacke mounteins,
 & going from Vmmaboue, toward Gogarth, or Gogirthar, it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Massalique.]
 Massalique, and from thence goeth into the sea, southwest from his
 [Sidenote: Lerie.]
 originall. From hence we went to the Lerie, an indraught of no great
 quantitie, neither commodious as I gesse (yet I may be deceiued) for
 anie ship to harborough in. It riseth toward the lower ground of the
 blacke hils, and going by Lanihangle castell Gwalter, it runneth from
 thence northeast into the Ocean, receiuing a rill by the waie from the
 hilles which lie by northeast of his course. But what stand I vpon

 [Sidenote: Wie.]
 Thus haue I brought my selfe out of Caerdigan shire vnto the Wie,
 which is limit betwéene it and Merioneth for a certeine space, & being
 entred in the mouth thereof we gat vp to the head, minding in the
 description of the same to come downeward as in the rest, which we
 will doo in such good manner as for the time and want of some
 information is possible to be performed. It ariseth in the south part
 of Snowdonie and goeth on foorth right to Lammothwie, by Mowdhewie,
 Mathan laith, and comming downe to Dinas Mathew, it receiueth two
 rilles from northwest, and the third comming by Mailroid called
 Cludoch from northeast, & so holdeth on crossing the Angell water at
 the west, which boundeth Mongomerie shire in part, till it come to
 [Sidenote: Remis.]
 Romis, beneath which water it taketh in the Towin that passeth by
 Lambrin mawr from Talgarth, and then goeth to Mathrauerne, crossing
 another from by north and so foorth to Lanworing, where it méeteth
 with the Kerig on the one side, and the Gwidall which commeth from
 Dorowen on the other.

 After this, our maine riuer goeth by Pengos, and beneath the same
 taketh in an influence from southeast, called the Dulas, and another
 from the northwest: from thence it hasteth on to Magenillet, or
 Machenlet, first crossing the Leuennie from southeast, secondlie the
 Peniall from northwest, thirdlie the Einon, fourthlie the Kinar,
 fiftlie the Cleidor, these thrée last rehearsed falling into it from
 southeast, & the last hauing his course by Langwinhelin and so into
 the sea, as mine instruction vpholdeth. It séemeth in some mens
 iudgements to part Northwales and Westwales in sunder, and the same
 which in Latine hight Deuus, in Welsh or British Difi or Dewie,
 whereof the Latine doth séeme to fetch his sound. But to procéed with
 the rest of such falles and waters as are to be found in this countie.
 Going therfore northwestward we come to a fall fr[=o] the north called
 Towen Merionneth which is the mouth of the Difonnie streame, a pretie
 riuer rising in the hilles aboue Lanihangle, and west of castell
 Traherne receiueth the Ridrijc, which commeth from Chadridrijc hill,
 by Tallillin castell, Treherie, and so into the Difonnie from
 southeast, fetching his course by Lanegrin, and so into the sea within
 fiue miles thereof.

 Being past this we did cast about by the Sarnabigh point, till we came
 to the Lingouen becke, and so to the Barre, which is a faire water,
 and therefore worthie to be with diligence described, yet it is not
 called Bar from the head, but rather Moth or Derie, for so are the two
 chiefe heads called out of which this riuer descendeth, and are about
 six miles west of the Lin, out of which the Dée hath his issue, and
 betwéene which the Raran vaure hilles are situat and haue their being.
 After the ioining of the two heds of this Barre, as I name it from the
 originall, it receiueth a rill from northeast called Cain, & another
 beneath the same, comming from Beurose wood, and so holdeth on towards
 the south betwéene Laniltid and Kemmor abbaie, till it meet a little
 by west of Dolgelth with the Auon vaure, which comming also out of the
 Woodland soile, & taking in a rill from Gwannas, hasteth northwestward
 (by Dolgelth) to ioine with the Barre, and being met they receiue the
 Kessilgunt, then the Hirgun, & after a course of foure to fiue miles
 it falleth into the sea, hauing watered the verie hart & inward parts
 of this shire. From hence we crosse the Skethie which runneth by
 Corsogdale and Lanthwie, aliàs Lanthonie, then the Lambader which
 receiuing the Artro aboue Lambader, doth fall into the sea, southeast
 of the point, and flat south of Landango, which is a towne situat on
 the other side of the turning.

 [Sidenote: Ho.]
 After this we passed by Aberho, so named of the riuer Ho, that falleth
 there into the sea, and commeth thither from the Alpes or hils of
 Snowdonie, mounteins, no lesse fertile for grasse, wood, cattell, fish
 and foule, than the famous Alpes beyond the seas, whereof all the
 writers doo make so honorable report. From hence we sailed by Abermawr
 [Sidenote: Mawr.]
 or mouth of Mawr, which commeth in like sort from Snowdonie, and
 [Sidenote: Artro.]
 taketh diuerse riuers with him whose names I doo not know. Then vnto
 the Artro a brooke, whose head commeth from by north east, and in his
 course receiueth the Gedar on the north side, and so holdeth on till
 it fall into the sea, after a few windlesses which it maketh as it
 passeth. After this we come to Traith vehan, which is the fall of the
 Drurid, a pretie riuer comming from the marches of Caernaruonshire,
 which passing by Festimog, soone after taketh in the Cunwell, then the
 Velenrid; and so holdeth on to Deckoin, where it falleth into the said
 Traith. For of the other two rilles that lie by south hereof, and haue
 their issue also into the same, I make but small accompt, bicause
 their quantitie is not great. Next vnto this we haue Traith mawr,
 [Sidenote: Farles.]
 whereinto the Farles hath his issue, a riuer proceeding from Snowdonie
 or the Snowdon hils, descending by Bethkelerke and Lanwrothen, without
 mixture of anie other water in all his course and passage. It is
 parcell of the march also betwéene Merioneth and Caernaruon shires.
 From Traith mawr we passe by the Krekith, and come to another water
 descending from the north by Lanstidwie, and after that to the Moie,
 whose mouthes are so néere togither, that no more than halfe a mile of
 the land dooth seeme to kéepe them in sunder.

 [Sidenote: Erke.]
 Then come we vnto the Erke, a pretie brooke descending from Madrijn
 hils, into whose mouth two other of no lesse quantitie than it selfe
 doo séeme to haue their confluence, and whose courses doo come along
 from the west and northwest; the most southerlie being called Girch,
 and the other the Hellie: except my memorie doo faile me. Then casting
 about toward the south (as the coast lieth) we saw the Abersoch or
 [Sidenote: Soch.]
 mouth of the Soch riuer vpon our right hand, in the mouth whereof, or
 not farre by south thereof lie two Ilands, of which the more
 northerlie is called Tudfall, and the other Penrijn: as Leland did
 obserue. I would set downe the British names of such townes and
 villages as these waters passe by; but the writing of them (for want
 of the language) is so hard to me, that I choose rather to shew their
 falles and risings, than to corrupt their denominations in the
 writing: and yet now and then I vse such words as our Englishmen doo
 giue vnto some of them, but that is not often, where the British name
 is easie to be found out and sounded.

 After this, going about by the point, and leauing Gwelin Ile on the
 [Sidenote: Daron.]
 right hand, we come to Daron riuer, wherevpon standeth Aberdaron a
 quarter of a mile from the shore betwixt Aberdaron and Vortigernes
 vale, where the compasse of the sea gathereth in a head, and entereth
 [Sidenote: Edarne beck.]
 at both ends. Then come we about the point to Edarne becke, a mile and
 more south of Newin. And ten or twelue miles from hence is the Vennie
 brooke, whose course is little aboue so manie miles; and not farre
 from it is the Liuan, a farre lesse water, comming also from the east:
 and next vnto that another, wherinto the Willie by south and the
 Carrog by north after their coniunction doo make their common
 influence. Hauing passed this riuer, we cast about toward the north
 east, and enter at Abermenaie ferrie, into the streicts or streame
 called Menaie, betweene Angleseie and the maine, méeting first of all
 with the Gornaie, which commeth from the Snowdonie out of the
 Treuennian lake, and passeth by Lanunda into the sea or Menaie streame
 at Southcrocke. Next of all we meet with the Saint, which commeth from
 Lin Lanbereie, passeth by Lanihangle, and so falleth into the Menaie
 at Abersaint, which is on the southwest side of Caernaruon: on the
 other side also of the said towne is the Skeuernocke, whereby it
 standeth betweene two riuers, of which this hath his head not farre
 from Dinas Orueg.

 Then come we (saith Leland) to Gwiniwith mirith (or Horsse brooke) two
 miles from Moilethon, and it riseth at a Well so called full a mile
 from thence. Moilethon is a bowe shot from Aberpowle, from whence
 [Sidenote: Conte.]
 ferrie botes go to the Termone or Angleseie. Aberpowle runneth thrée
 miles into the land, and hath his head foure miles beyond Bangor in
 Meneie shore: and here is a little comming in for botes bending into
 [Sidenote: Gegeine.]
 the Meneie. Aber Gegeine commeth out of a mounteine a mile aboue, and
 [Sidenote: Torronnen.]
 Bangor (thorough which a rill called Torronnen hath his course) almost
 [Sidenote: Ogwine.]
 a mile aboue it. Aber Ogwine is two miles aboue that; it riseth at
 Tale linne, Ogwine poole, fiue miles aboue Bangor in the east side of
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 Withow. Aber Auon is two miles aboue Aberogwene, and it riseth in a
 [Sidenote: Lannar Vehan.]
 poole called Lin man Auon, thrée miles off. Auon lan var Vehan riseth
 in a mounteine therby, and goeth into the sea, two miles aboue
 [Sidenote: Duegeuelth.]
 Duegeuelth. Auon Duegeuelth is three miles aboue Conweie, which rising
 in the mounteins a mile off, goeth by it selfe into Meneie salt arme.
 On the said shore also lieth Conweie, and this riuer dooth run betwixt
 Penmaine Maur, and Penmaine Vehan. It riseth about three miles from
 Penmaclon hils which lie about sixtie miles from Conweie abbeie, now
 dissolued out of a lake called Lin Conweie, and on the north and west
 of this riuer standeth the towne of Conweie, which taketh his name

 [Sidenote: Téec.]
 This riuer (which Ptolomie calleth Toesobius, as I take it) after the
 deriuation thereof from the head, passeth on the west side by
 Spittieuan and Tiherio, beneath which it taketh in a streame comming
 from the east out of Denbighshire, deriued from thrée heads, and of
 the greatest called Nag. Soone after also another, and then the third,
 which commeth in from the west by Lanpen Mawr: next of all the Leder
 on the same side, which commeth by Dolathelan castell: and aboue that
 from a Lin of the same denomination. Beneath this and selfe hand lieth
 [Sidenote: Ligow.]
 likewise the Ligow or Ligwie, procéeding from two lakes, that is, the
 Mumber and the Ligow. On the right hand as we still descend, is the
 Coid, then the Glin, & a little lower we méet with the Lin Gerioneth:
 and after we be past another on the right side, we come to the
 Perloid, which commeth out of Lin Cowlid, to the Ygan, to the Idulin,
 to the castell Water on the left, & then to the Melandider on the
 right, without the sight of anie other, till we come almost to
 Conweie, where we find a notched streame comming from by west, and
 called Guffen or Gyffin into the same by one chanell on the northeast
 side of the towne, beneath Guffin or Gyffin, and ouer against
 Lansanfraid in Denbighshire; so farre as I now remember. Some part of
 Carnaruonshire stretcheth also beyond Aber Conweie, or the fall of
 [Sidenote: Ormeshed.]
 Conweie, & it is called Ormeshed point, wherein also is a rill, whose
 fall into the sea is betwéene Penrin and Landright. And thus we haue
 made an end of the chéefe waters which are to be found in this

 The next is a corner of Denbigh, by which we doo as it were step ouer
 into Flintshire, and whose first water is not great, yet it commeth
 from southwest, and falleth into the north or Irish sea called
 Virginium, beneath Landilas; as the next that commeth south from
 Bettas dooth the like thrée miles beneath Abergele, and is not onelie
 [Sidenote: Gele.]
 called Gele (as the name it selfe importeth) but also noted to take
 his course through the Canges. Hauing thus gone ouer the angle of
 Denbighshire, that lieth betwéene those of Carnaruon and Flint, we
 come next of all vnto Aber Cluide, or the fall of Clotha or Glota,
 which is a streame not to be shortlie intreated of. It riseth among
 certeine hilles, which lie not far distant from the confines of
 Merioneth and Denbighshires. Southeast from his fall, and hauing run
 foure or fiue miles from the head, it commeth about to Darwen, taking
 [Sidenote: Maniton.]
 in the Maniton on the left hand, and the Mespin on the right: and
 soone after the third from bywest, whose head is not farre from
 Gloucanocke. Beneath Ruthen also it taketh in the Leueneie: and after
 that another, and the third, all on the right hand, and so holdeth on
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 till it méet with the Cluedoch, then with the Ystrade, which passeth
 by Whitchurch on the left hand. After which we come to the Whéeler on
 the right, and so to his ioining with the Elwie, which is beneath
 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 S. Asaphes, a bishops sée that is inuironed with them both. This Elwie
 riseth aboue Gwitherne, & beneath Lanuair taketh in the Alode, which
 commeth from lin Alode, by Lansannan, and ioineth with him fiue miles
 beneath Langrenew. The Cluda therefore and the Elwie being met, the
 confluence passeth on to the sea by Rutland castell, where it taketh
 in the Sarne, which commeth from by east, and hath a course almost of
 sixteene miles. From hence we tooke sea toward the Dée mouth: and as
 we passed by the rest of the shore, we saw the fall of a little brooke
 néere Basing Werke, of another néere to Flint, of the third at Yowleie
 castell, which with his two armes in maner includeth it; and the
 fourth beneath Hawarden hold, which in like sort goeth round about the
 same, & from whence we came to the Dée, where we landed and tooke vp
 our lodging in Chester. In this place also it was no hard matter to
 deliuer & set downe the names of such riuers and streames as are also
 to be found in Angleseie, finding my selfe to haue some leasure and
 fit opportunitie for the same: and imagining a iourneie thither also,
 as vnto the other places mentioned in this description, whither as yet
 it hath not béene my hap to trauell: I thought it not amisse to take
 it also in hand, and performe it after this maner.

 Ferrieng therefore ouer out of Carnaruonshire to Beaumarise, I went by
 land without crossing of anie riuer or streame worthie memorie, till I
 came to the Brant, which hath his fall not farre from the southest
 point of that Iland. This Brant riseth farre vp in the land, not farre
 from Lauredenell, and holding on his course southward to Lanthoniell
 Vaall, it goeth on to Bodoweruch, Langainwen, and so into the sea.

 The next fall we came vnto was called Maltrath, and it is producted by
 the confluence of two riuers, the Geuennie and the Gint, who ioine not
 farre from Langrestoll. This also last rehearsed hath his head neere
 to Penmoneth, the other being forked riseth in the hillie soile aboue
 Tregaion and Langwithlog: so that part of the Iland obteineth no small
 commoditie and benefit by their passage. Next vnto this we came vnto
 [Sidenote: Fraw.]
 the Fraw, whose head is neere to Langinewen, and passage by Cap Maer;
 after which it falleth into a lake, from whence it goeth east of
 Aberfraw, and so into the sea. The next riuer hath no name to my
 knowledge: yet hath it a longer course than that which I last
 described. For it riseth two or thrée miles aboue Haneglosse: and
 passing from thence to Treualghmaie, after the descent of foure miles,
 it falleth into the sea. After this we came to an other, which riseth
 more to Cap legan ferwie, and falleth into the sea; southeast of the
 little Iland, which is called Ynis Wealt, it is namelesse also as the
 other was: and therefore hauing small delight to write thereof, we
 passed ouer the salt créeke by a bridge into Cair Kibie, which by the
 same, is as it were cut from the maine Iland, and in some respect not
 vnworthie to be taken for an Ile. In the north side therefore of Cair
 Kibie is a little rill or créeke: but whether the water thereof be
 fresh or salt, as yet I doo not remember.

 This place being viewed, I came backe againe by the aforesaid bridge,
 into the maine of Angleseie, and going northwards I find a fall
 inforced by thrée riuerets, each one hauing his course almost south
 from other; and the last falling into the confluence of the two first,
 not halfe a mile from the west, where I first espied the streame: the
 [Sidenote: Linon.]
 [Sidenote: Allo.]
 name of the most northerlie is Linon, of the second Allo; but the
 third is altogither namelesse for aught that I can learne, wherefore
 it shall not be necessarie to spend anie time in the further searching
 of his course. Being past this, we went northwards till we came to the
 point, and then going eastward, we butted vpon the fall of a certeine
 confluence growing by the ioining of the Nathanon and the Geger, which
 méet beneath and néere to the Langechell. And after the same we passed
 on somewhat declining southward by the Hillarie point, toward the
 southeast, till we came to the Dulesse: and from thence to Pentraeth
 water: after which we turned northward, then eastward; and finallie
 southward, till we came to Langurdin; from whence vnto Beaumarise
 (where began our voiage) we find not anie water worthie to be
 remembred. And thence I go forward with the description of the Dee.

 [Sidenote: Dée or Deua.]
 The Dee or Deua (as Ptolomie calleth it) is a noble riuer, & breeder
 of the best trout, whose head is in Merioneth shire, about thrée miles
 aboue the lake, situate in the countie of Penthlin, and called Lin
 Tegnis, whose streame yet verie small, by reason of the shortnesse of
 his course, falleth into the said lake, not far from Lanullin. There
 are sundrie other waters which come also into the said lake, which is
 foure or five miles in length, and about two miles ouer; as one from
 by south, whose fall is east, and not manie furlongs from the Dee:
 another hath his issue into the same by Langower: the third on the
 north side of Lanullin, named Leie: the fourth at Glanlintegid called
 Jauerne, the lake it selfe ending about Bala, and from thence running
 [Sidenote: Trowerin.]
 into the Trowerin, a pretie streame, and not a little augmented by the
 Kelme and Monach which fall by north into the same, and ioineth with
 the Dée south of Lanuair; from whence forth it looseth the name, and
 is afterward called Dée. East of Bala in like sort it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Ruddoch.]
 [Sidenote: Cleton.]
 Ruddoch, then the Cleton, and so passing on by Landright to Langar, it
 méeteth with a confluence procéeding from the Alwen and the Giron, of
 which this riseth in the hils aboue Langham, the other in the
 mounteines about fiue or six miles by northwest of Lanihangle in
 Denbighshire, where (as I gesse) it falleth into the ground; and
 afterward rising againe betwéene Lanihangle and Bettus, it holdeth on
 about two miles, and then ioineth with the Giron, full six miles aboue
 Dole, and before it come to the Dee. From hence the Dee goeth by
 Lansanfraid, and the marches of Merioneth into Denbighshire, and so to
 Langellon, Dinas, Bren, &c: kéeping his course by certeine windlesses,
 [Sidenote: Gristioneth.]
 till he receiue the Gristioneth, descending by Ruabon, then another
 [Sidenote: Keriog.]
 est of the same; the third from by west called Keriog (whose head is
 not farre from the bounds of Merioneth and course by Lanarmon,
 Lansanfraid, and Chirke) the fourth from south east out of Shropshire,
 called Morlais, and so passeth as bounds betwéene Denbighshire, and
 the Outliggand of Flintshire, to wit by Bistocke on the one side and
 Bangor on the other, till it come to Worthenburie: whereabout it
 receiueth a chanell descending from foure influences, of which one
 commeth by Penlie chappell, the second from Hamnere, which goeth downe
 by Emberhall, and falleth in a little by east of the other; the third
 from Blackmere (by Whitchurch) &c: and the fourth from betwéene Chad
 and Worsall. These two later méeting aboue nether Durtwich, doo hold
 on to Talerne, as mine information instructeth me.

 From Wrothenburie the Dee goeth northwestwards toward Shocklige,
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 méeting by the waie with the confluence of the Cluedoch (or Dedoch
 originall mother to those trouts for which the Dée is commended) and
 [Sidenote: Gwinrogh.]
 descendeth from Capell Moinglath) and the Gwinrogh, that runneth
 through Wrexham, both ioining a mile and more beneath Wrexham, not far
 from Hantwerne. Soone after also our maine riuer receiueth another
 becke from by east, which is bound on the northwest side to the
 Outliggand of Flintshire, and so passeth on betwéene Holt castell and
 Ferneton, Almere and Pulton, as march betwéene Denbighshire and
 [Sidenote: Alannus.]
 Cheshire, and then taketh in the Alannus or Alen; a pretie riuer and
 worthie to be described. The head of this Alen therefore is in
 Denbighshire, and so disposed that it riseth in two seuerall places,
 ech being two miles from other, the one called Alen Mawr, the other
 Alen Vehan, as I doo find reported. They méet also beneath Landegleie,
 and run northwards till they come beyond Lanuerres, where meeting with
 a rill comming from by west, it runneth on to the Mold to Horsheth,
 and so in and out to Greseford, taking the Cagidog from southwest with
 it by the waie; then to Traue Alen, and so into the Dée, a mile and
 more aboue the fall of Powton becke, which also descendeth from
 southwest out of Flintshire, and is march vnto the same, euen from the
 verie head. After which confluence the Dée hauing Chestershire on both
 sides, goeth to Aldford with a swift course, where it méeteth with the
 Beston brooke, whereof I doo find this description following.

 [Sidenote: Beston.]
 "The Beston water riseth in the wooddie soile betwéene Spruston and
 Beston castell with a forked head, and leauing Beston towne on the
 northeast, it goeth to Tarneton, and to Hakesleie, where it diuideth
 it selfe in such wise, that one branch thereof runneth by Totnall,
 Goldburne, and Léehall, to Alford, and so into the Dée, the other by
 Stapleford, Terwine, Barrow, Picton, and Therton, where it brancheth
 againe, sending foorth one arme by Stanneie poole, and the parke side
 into Merseie arme, toward the northwest, and another by southwest,
 which commeth as it were backe againe, by Stoke, Croughton, Backeford,
 Charleton, Vpton, the Baites, and so vnder a bridge to Chester ward,
 where it falleth into the Dée arme at Flockes brooke, excluding Wirall
 on the northwest as an Iland, which lieth out like a leg betwéene the
 Merseie and the Dée armes, and including and making another fresh
 Iland within the same, whose limits by northwest are betwéene
 Thorneton, Chester, & Aldford, on the northeast Thorneton and
 Hakesleie, and on the southeast Hakesleie and Aldford, whereby the
 forme thereof dooth in part resemble a triangle." And thus much of the
 Dée, which is a troublesome streame when the wind is at southwest, and
 verie dangerous, in so much that few dare passe thereon. Sometimes
 also in haruest time it sendeth downe such store of water, when the
 wind bloweth in the same quarter, that it drowneth all their grasse
 and corne that groweth in the lower grounds néere vnto the bankes
 thereof. Certes it is about thrée hundred foot, at his departure from
 the Tignie, and worthilie called a litigious streame; because that by
 often alteration of chanell, it inforceth men to séeke new bounds vnto
 their lands, for here it laieth new ground, and there translateth and
 taketh awaie the old, so that there is nothing more vnconstant than
 the course of the said water. Of the monasterie Bangor also, by which
 it passeth after it hath left Orton bridge, I find this note, which I
 will not omit, because of the slaughter of monks made sometime néere
 vnto the same. For although the place require it not, yet I am not
 willing altogither to omit it.

 [Sidenote: The situation of the monasterie of Bangor.]
 This abbeie of Bangor stood sometime in English Mailor, by hither and
 south of the riuer Dée. It is now ploughed ground where that house
 stood, by the space of a Welsh mile (which reacheth vnto a mile and an
 halfe English) and to this day the tillers of the soile there doo plow
 vp bones (as they saie) of those monks that were slaine in the
 quarrell of Augustine, and within the memorie of man some of them were
 taken vp in their rotten weeds, which were much like vnto those of our
 late blacke monks, as Leland set it downe: yet Erasmus is of the
 opinion, that the apparell of the Benedictine monks was such as most
 men did weare generallie at their first institution. But to proceed.
 This abbeie stood in a valleie, and in those times the riuer ran hard
 by it. The compasse thereof likewise was as the circuit of a walled
 towne, and to this daie two of the gates may easilie be discerned, of
 which the one is named Port Hogan lieng by north, the other Port Clais
 situat vpon the south. But the Dée hauing now changed his chanell,
 runneth through the verie middest of the house betwixt those two
 gates, the one being at the left a full halfe mile from the other. As
 for the squared stone that is found hereabout, and the Romane coine,
 there is no such necessitie of the rehersall therof, but that I may
 passe it ouer well inough without anie further mention.

 Being past the Dée we sailed about Wirall, passing by Hibrie or
 Hilbrée Iland, and Leuerpole, Nasse, making our entrie into Merseie
 arme by Leuerpole hauen, where we find a water falling out betwéene
 Seacombe and the Ferie, which dooth in maner cut off the point from
 the maine of Wirall. For rising néere to the northwest shore, it
 holdeth a course directlie toward the southeast by Wallaseie and
 Poton, and so leaueth all the north part beyond that water a
 peninsula, the same being three square, inuironed on two sides with
 the Ocean, & on the third with the aforesaid brooke, whose course is
 well néere three miles except I be deceiued. Fr[=o] hence entring
 further into the hauen, we find another fall betwéene Bebington and
 Brombro chappell, descending from the hilles, which are seene to lie
 not farre from the shore, and thence crossing the fall of the Beston
 [Sidenote: Wiuer.]
 water, we come next of all vnto the Wiuer, than the which I read of no
 riuer in England that fetcheth more or halfe so many windlesses and
 crinklings, before it come at the sea. It riseth at Buckle hilles,
 which lie betwéene Ridleie and Buckle townes, and soone after making a
 lake of a mile & more in length called Ridleie poole, it runneth by
 Ridleie to Chalmondlie.

 Thence it goeth to Wrenburie, where it taketh in a water out of a
 [Sidenote: Combrus.]
 moore that commeth from Marburie: and beneth Sandford bridge the
 Combrus from Combermer or Comber lake: and finallie the third that
 commeth from about Moneton, and runneth by Langerslaw, then betweene
 Shenton and Atherlie parkes, and so into the Wiuer, which watereth all
 the west part of England, and is no lesse notable than the fift Auon
 or third Ouze, whereof I haue spoken alreadie. After these confluences
 it hasteth also to Audlem, Hawklow, and at Barderton crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Betleie.]
 Betleie water, that runneth by Duddington, Widdenberie, and so by
 Barderton into the aforesaid streame. Thence it goeth to Nantwich, but
 yer it come at Marchford bridge, it meeteth with a rill called
 [Sidenote: Salop.]
 Salopbrooke (as I gesse) comming from Caluerleie ward, and likewise
 [Sidenote: Lée and Wuluarne.]
 beneath the said bridge, with the Lée and the Wuluarne both in one
 chanell, wherof the first riseth at Weston, the ether goeth by
 Copnall. From hence the Wiuer runneth on to Minchion and Cardeswijc,
 [Sidenote: Ashe.]
 and the next water that falleth into it is the Ashe (which passeth by
 Darnall Grange) and afterward going to Warke, the vale Roiall, and
 [Sidenote: Dane.]
 Eaton, it commeth finallie to Northwich where it receiueth the Dane,
 to be described as followeth. The Dane riseth in the verie edges of
 Chester, Darbishire, & Staffordshire, and comming by Warneford,
 Swithamleie and Bosleie, is a limit betwéene Stafford and Darbie
 shires, almost euen from the verie head, which is in Maxwell forrest.

 [Sidenote: Bidle.]
 It is not long also yer it doo méet with the Bidle water, that commeth
 by Congerton, and after the confluence goeth vnto Swetham, the
 Heremitage, Cotton and Croxton, there taking in two great waters,
 [Sidenote: Whelocke.]
 whereof the one is called Whelocke, which comming from the edge of the
 countie by Morton to Sandbach, crosseth another that descended from
 church Cawlhton, and after the confluence goeth to Warmingham, ioining
 also beneath Midlewish with the Croco or Croxston, the second great
 water, whose head commeth out of a lake aboue Bruerton (as I heare)
 [Sidenote: Croco.]
 and thence both the Whelocke and the Croco go as one vnto the Dane, at
 Croxton, as the Dane dooth from thence to Bostocke, Dauenham,
 Shebruch, Shurlach, and at Northwich into the foresaid Wiuer. After
 this confluence the Wiuer runneth on to Barneton, and there in like
 sort receiueth two brookes in one chanell, whereof one commeth from
 aboue Allostocke, by Holme & Lastocke, the other from beyond Birtles
 [Sidenote: Piuereie.]
 mill, by Chelford (where it taketh in a rill called Piuereie) thence
 [Sidenote: Waterlesse.]
 to ouer Peuer, Holford, and there crossing the Waterlesse brooke
 (growing of two becks and ioining at nether Tableie) it goeth foorth
 to Winshambridge, and then méeting with the other, after this
 confluence they procéed till they come almost at Barneton, where the
 said chanell ioineth with a pretie water running thorough two lakes,
 whereof the greatest lieth betwéene Comberbach, Rudworth and Marburie.
 But to go forward with the course of the maine riuer. After these
 confluences our Wiuer goeth to Warham, Actonbridge, and Dutton, ouer
 against which towne, on the other side it méeteth with a rill, comming
 from Cuddington: also the second going by Norleie, and Gritton,
 finallie the third soone after from Kimsleie, and then procéedeth on
 in his passage by Asheton chappell, Frodesham, Rockesauage, and so
 into the sea: and this is all that I doo find of the Wiuer, whose
 influences might haue beene more largelie set downe, if mine
 iniunctions had béene amplie deliuered, yet this I hope may suffice
 for his description, and knowledge of his course.

 [Sidenote: Merseie.]
 The Merseie riseth among the Peke hils, and from thence going downe to
 the Woodhouse, and taking sundrie rilles withall by the waie, it
 becommeth the confines betwéene Chester and Darbishires. Going also
 toward Goitehall, it méeteth with a faire brooke increased by sundrie
 [Sidenote: Goite.]
 waters called Goite, whereof I find this short and briefe description.
 The Goite riseth not far from the Shire méere hill (wherein the Doue
 and the Dane haue their originall) that parteth Darbishire and
 Chestershire in sunder, and thence commeth downe to Goite houses,
 [Sidenote: Frith.]
 Ouerton, Taxhall, Shawcrosse, and at Weibridge taketh in the Frith,
 [Sidenote: Set.]
 and beneath Berdhall, the Set that riseth aboue Thersethall and
 runneth by Ouerset. After this confluence also the Merseie goeth to
 [Sidenote: Tame.]
 Goite hall, & at Stockford or Stopford towne méeteth with the Tame,
 which diuideth Chestershire and Lancastershire in sunder, and whose
 head is in the verie edge of Yorkeshire, from whence it goeth
 southward to Sadleworth Firth, then to Mukelhirst, Stalie hall, Ashdon
 Vnderline, Dunkenfield, Denton, Reddish, and so at Stockford into the
 Merseie streame, which passeth foorth in like sort to Diddesbirie,
 receiuing a brooke by the waie that commeth from Lime parke, by
 Brumhall parke and Chedle.

 [Sidenote: Irwell.]
 From Diddesbirie it procéedeth to Norden, Ashton, Aiston, Flixston,
 where it receiueth the Irwell a notable water, and therefore his
 description is not to be omitted before I doo go forward anie further
 with the Merseie, although it be not nauigable by reason of sundrie
 rockes and shalowes that lie dispersed in the same. It riseth aboue
 Bacop, and goeth thence to Rosendale, and in the waie to Aitenfield it
 taketh in a water from Haselden. After this confluence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Ræus, or Rache.]
 Newhall, Brandlesham, Brurie, and aboue Ratcliffe ioineth with the
 [Sidenote: Leland speaketh of the Corue water about
 Manchester; but I know nothing of his course.]
 Rache water, a faire streame and to be described when I haue finished
 the Irwell, as also the next vnto it beneath Ratcliffe, bicause I
 would not haue so manie ends at once in hand wherewith to trouble my
 readers. Being therfore past these two, our Irwell goeth on to
 Clifton, Hollond, Edgecroft, Strengwaies, and to Manchester, where it
 [Sidenote: Yrke.]
 vniteth it selfe with the Yrke, that runneth thereinto by Roiton
 Midleton, Heaton hill, and Blackeleie. Beneath Manchester also it
 [Sidenote: Medlockte.]
 méeteth with the Medlocke that commeth thither from the northeast side
 of Oldham, and betwéene, Claiton and Garret Halles, and so betwéene
 two parkes, falling into it about Holne. Thence our Irwell going
 forward to Woodsall, Whicleswijc, Ecles, Barton, and Deuelhom, it
 falleth néere vnto Flixton, into the water of Merseie, where I will
 staie a while withall, till I haue brought the other vnto some passe,
 of which I spake before.

 [Sidenote: Rache.]
 The Rache, Rech or Rish consisteth of sundrie waters, whereof ech one
 in maner hath a proper name, but the greatest of all is Rache it
 selfe, which riseth among the blacke stonie hils, from whence it goeth
 [Sidenote: Beile.]
 to Littlebrough, and being past Clegge, receiueth the Beile, that
 commeth thither by Milneraw chappell. After this confluence also, it
 [Sidenote: Sprotton.]
 méeteth with a rill néere vnto Rachedale, and soone after with the
 [Sidenote: Sudleie.]
 Sprotton water, and then the Sudleie brooke, whereby his chanell is
 not a little increased, which goeth from thence to Grisehirst and so
 [Sidenote: Bradsha.]
 into the Irwell, before it come at Ratcliffe. The second streame is
 called Bradsha. It riseth of two heds, aboue Tureton church, whence it
 [Sidenote: Walmesleie.]
 runneth to Bradsha, and yer long taking in the Walmesleie becke, they
 go in one chanell till they come beneath Bolton in the More. From
 hence (receiuing a water that commeth from the roots of Rauenpike hill
 by the way) it goeth by Deane and Bolton in the More, and so into
 Bradsha water, which taketh his waie to Leuermore, Farnworth,
 Leuerlesse, and finallie into the Irwell, which I before described,
 and whereof I find these two verses to be added at the last:

   Irke, Irwell, Medlocke, and Tame,
   When they meet with the Merseie, do loose their name.

 Now therefore to resume our Merseie, you shall vnderstand that after
 his confluence with the Irwell, he runneth to Partington, and not
 [Sidenote: Gles.]
 farre from thence interteineth the Gles, or Glesbrooke water,
 increased with sundrie armes, wherof one commeth from Lodward, another
 from aboue Houghton, the third from Hulton parke, and the fourth from
 Shakerleie: and being all vnited néere vnto Leigh, the confluence
 goeth to Holcroft, and aboue Holling gréene into the swift Merseie.
 After this increase the said streame in like sort runneth to Rigston,
 [Sidenote: Bollein brooke.]
 & there admitteth the Bollein or Bolling brooke water into his
 societie, which rising néere the Chamber in Maxwell forrest goeth to
 Ridge, Sutton, Bollington, Prestbirie, and Newton, where it taketh in
 a water comming from about Pot Chappell, which runneth from thence by
 Adlington, Woodford, Wimesleie, Ringeie, and Ashleie, there receiuing
 [Sidenote: Birkin.]
 the Birkin brooke that commeth from betwéene Allerton and Marchall, by
 [Sidenote: Mar.]
 Mawberleie, and soone after the Marus or Mar, that commeth thereinto
 from Mar towne, by Rawstorne, and after these confluences goeth on to
 Downham, and ouer against Rixton beneath Crosford bridge into the
 Merseie water, which procéeding on, admitteth not another that méeteth
 with all néere Lim before it go to Thelwall. Thence also it goeth by
 Bruche and so to Warrington, a little beneath crossing a brooke that
 commeth from Par by Browseie, Bradleie, and Saukeie on the one side,
 and another on the other that commeth thither from Gropenhall, and
 with these it runneth on to nether Walton, Acton grange, and so to
 [Sidenote: Bold.]
 [Sidenote: Grundich.]
 Penkith, where it interteineth the Bold, and soone after the Grundich
 water on the other side, that passeth by Preston, and Daresbirie.
 Finallie our Merseie going by Moulton, it falleth into Lirepoole, or
 as it was called of old Liuerpoole hauen, when it is past Runcorne.
 And thus much of the Merseie, comparable vnto the Wiuer, and of no
 lesse fame than most riuers of this Iland.

 [Sidenote: Tarbocke.]
 Being past these two, we come next of all to the Tarbocke water, that
 falleth into the sea at Harbocke, without finding anie mo till we be
 past all Wirall, out of Lirepoole hauen, and from the blacke rockes
 that lie vpon the north point of the aforesaid Iland. Then come we to
 [Sidenote: Alt or Ast.]
 the Altmouth, whose fresh rising not far into the land, commeth to
 Feston, and soone after receiuing another on the right hand, that
 passeth into it by Aughton, it is increased no more before it come at
 the sea. Neither find I anie other falles till I méet with the mouth
 [Sidenote: Duglesse or Dulesse.]
 of the Yarrow and Duglesse, which haue their recourse to the sea in
 one chanell as I take it. The Duglesse commeth from by west of
 Rauenspike hill, and yer long runneth by Andertonford to Worthington,
 and so (taking in two or thrée rilles by the waie) to Wigen, where it
 receiueth two waters in one chanell, of which one commeth in south
 from Brin parke, the other from northeast. Being past this, it
 receiueth one on the north side from Standish, and another by south
 from Hollond, and then goeth on toward Rufford chappell taking the
 [sidenote: Taud or Skelmere.]
 Taud withall, that descendeth from aboue Skelmersdale towne, and goeth
 through Lathan parke, belonging (as I heare) vnto the earle of Derbie.
 [Sidenote: Merton.]
 It méeteth also on the same side, with Merton méere water, in which
 méere is one Iland called Netholme beside other, and when it is past
 the hanging bridge, it is not long yer it fall into the Yarrow.

 [Sidenote: Yarrow.]
 [Sidenote: Bagen.]
 The Yarrow riseth of two heads, whereof the second is called Bagen
 brooke, and making a confluence beneath Helbie wood, it goeth on to
 Burgh, Eglestan, Crofton, and then ioineth next of all with the
 Dugglesse, after which confluence, the maine streame goeth foorth to
 Bankehall, Charleton, How, Hesket, and so into the sea. Leland writing
 of the Yarrow, saith thus of the same, so fare as I now remember. Into
 the Dugglesse also runneth the Yarrow, which commeth within a mile or
 thereabout of Chorleton towne, that parteth Lelandshire from
 Derbieshire. Vnder the foot of Chorle also I find a rill named Ceorle,
 and about a mile and a halfe from thence a notable quarreie of stones,
 whereof the inhabitants doo make a great boast and price. And hitherto
 to Leland.

 [Sidenote: Ribble.]
 The Ribble, a riuer verie rich of salmon, and lampreie, dooth in
 manner inuiron Preston in Andernesse, and it riseth neere to
 Kibbesdale aboue Gisborne, from whence it goeth to Sawleie or Salleie,
 [Sidenote: Odder.]
 Chathburne, Woodington, Clithero castell, and beneath Mitton méeteth
 the Odder at north west, which riseth not farre from the crosse of
 Gréet in Yorkeshire, and going thence to Shilburne, Newton, Radholme
 parke, and Stonie hirst, it falleth yer long into the Ribble water.
 [Sidenote: Calder.]
 From hence the Ribble water hath not gone farre, but it méeteth with
 the Calder from southeast. This brooke riseth aboue Holme church in
 Yorkeshire, which lieth by east of Lancastershire, and going by
 Towleie and Burneleie, where it receiueth a trifling rill, thence to
 Higham, and yer long crossing one water that commeth from Wicoler by
 [Sidenote: Pidle.]
 Colne, and another by and by named Pidle brooke, that runneth by New
 church in the Pidle, it méeteth with the Calder, which passeth foorth
 to Paniam; and thence receiuing a becke on the other side, it runneth
 [Sidenote: Henburne.]
 on to Altham, and so to Martholme, where the Henburne brooke dooth
 ioine withall, that goeth by Akington chappell, Dunkinhalgh, Rishton,
 and so into the Calder, as I haue said before. The Calder therefore
 being thus inlarged, runneth foorth to Reade, where maister Nowell
 dwelleth, to Whallie, and soone after into Ribble, that goeth from
 this confluence to Salisburie hall, Ribchester, Osbastin, Samburie,
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 Keuerden, Law, Ribbles bridge, & then taketh in the Darwent, before it
 goeth by Pontwarth or Pentwarth into the maine sea. The Darwent
 diuideth Lelandshire from Andernesse, and it riseth by east aboue
 Darwent chappell; and soone after vniting it selfe with the
 [Sidenote: Blackeburne.]
 [Sidenote: Rodlesworth.]
 Blackeburne, and Rodlesworth water, it goeth through Houghton parke,
 by Houghton towne, to Walton hall, and so into the Ribble. As for
 [Sidenote: Sannocke.]
 the Sannocke brooke, it riseth somewhat aboue Longridge chappell,
 goeth to Broughton towne, Cotham, Lée hall, and so into Ribble. And
 here is all that I haue to saie of this riuer.

 [Sidenote: Wire.]
 The Wire riseth eight or ten miles from Garstan, out of an hill in
 Wiresdale forrest, from whence it runneth by Shireshed chappell, and
 then going by Wadland, or Waddiler, Grenelaw castell (which belongeth
 to the erle of Darbie) Garstan, and Kirkland hall, it first receiueth
 [Sidenote: Calder. 2.]
 the second Calder, that commeth downe by Edmerseie chappell, then
 another chanell increased with sundrie waters, which I will here
 describe before I procéed anie further with the Wire. I suppose that
 [Sidenote: Plimpton.]
 the first water is called Plimpton brooke, it riseth south of Gosner,
 [Sidenote: Barton.]
 and commeth by Cawford hall, and yer long receiuing the Barton becke,
 [Sidenote: Brooke.]
 it procéedeth forward till it ioineth with the Brooke rill that
 commeth from Bowland forrest, by Claughton hall, where master
 Brookehales dooth lie, & so through Mersco forrest. After this
 confluence the Plime or Plimpton water méeteth with the Calder, and
 then with the Wire, which passeth foorth to Michaell church, and the
 [Sidenote: Skipton.]
 Raw cliffes, and aboue Thorneton crosseth the Skipton that goeth by
 Potton, then into the Wire rode, and finallie through the sands into
 the sea, according to his nature. When we were past the fall of the
 [Sidenote: Coker.]
 Wire, we coasted vp by the salt cotes, to Coker mouth, whose head,
 though it be in Weresdale forrest, not far from that of the Wire, yet
 [Sidenote: Cowdar.]
 the shortnesse of course deserueth no description. The next is Cowdar,
 which is comming out of Wire dale, as I take it, is not increased with
 anie other waters more than Coker, and therefore I will rid my hands
 thereof so much the sooner.

 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 Being past these two, I came to a notable riuer called the Lune or
 Loine, or (as the booke of statutes hath) Lonwire Anno 13 Ric. 2. cap.
 19, and giueth name to Lancaster, Lonecaster, or Lunecaster, where
 much Romane monie is found, and that of diuerse stamps, whose course
 dooth rest to be described as followeth; and whereof I haue two
 descriptions. The first being set downe by Leland, as master Moore of
 Catharine hall in Cambridge deliuered it vnto him. The next I exhibit
 as it was giuen vnto me, by one that hath taken paines (as he saith)
 to search out and view the same, but verie latelie to speake of. The
 Lune (saith master Moore) of some commonlie called the Loine, riseth
 at Crosseho, in Dent dale, in the edge of Richmondshire out of thrée
 heads. North also from Dent dale is Garsdale, an vplandish towne,
 wherein are séene manie times great store of red déere that come downe
 to feed from the mounteins into the vallies, and thereby runneth a
 water, which afterward commeth to Sebbar vale, where likewise is a
 brooke méeting with Garsdale water, so that a little lower they go as
 one into Dent dale becke, which is the riuer that afterward is called
 Lune, or Lane, as I haue verie often noted it. Beside these waters
 also before mentioned, it receiueth at the foot of Sebbar vale, a
 great brooke, which commeth out of the Worth, betwéene Westmerland and
 Richmondshire, which taking with him the aforesaid chanels, dooth run
 seauen miles yer it come to Dent dale foot. From hence it entreth into
 Lansdale, corruptlie so called, peraduenture for Lunesdale, & runneth
 therein eight or nine miles southward, and in this dale is Kirbie.
 Hitherto master Moore, as Leland hath exemplified that parcell of his
 [Sidenote: Burbecke.]
 letters. But mine other note writeth hereof in this manner. Burbecke
 water riseth at Wustall head, by west, and going by Wustall foot to
 [Sidenote: Breder.]
 Skaleg, it admitteth the Breder that descendeth thither from Breder
 dale. From hence our Burbecke goeth to Breder dale foot, & so to
 Tibarie, where it méeteth with foure rilles in one bottome, of which
 one commeth from besides Orton, another from betwéene Rasebecke and
 Sunbiggin, the third and fourth from each side of Langdale: and after
 the generall confluence made, goeth toward Roundswath, aboue which
 [Sidenote: Barrow.]
 it vniteth it selfe with the Barrow. Thence it runneth to Howgill,
 Delaker, Firrebanke, and Killington, beneath which it meeteth with a
 [Sidenote: Dent.]
 water comming from the Moruill hilles, and afterward crossing the Dent
 brooke, that runneth thither from Dent towne, beneath Sebbar, they
 continue their course as one into the Burbecke, from whence it is
 called Lune. From hence it goeth to Burbon chappell, where it taketh
 in another rill comming from by east, then to Kirbie, Lansbele, and
 aboue Whittenton crosseth a brooke comming from the countie stone by
 [Sidenote: Greteie.]
 Burros, and soone after beneath Tunstall and Greteie, which descending
 from about Ingelborow hill, passeth by Twiselton, Ingleton, Thorneton,
 Burton, Wratton, and néere Thurland castell, toucheth finallie with
 the Lune, which brancheth, and soone after vniteth it selfe againe.
 [Sidenote: Wennie.]
 After this also it goeth on toward New parke, and receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Hinburne.]
 Wennie, and the Hinburne both in one chanell, of which this riseth
 north of the crosse of Greteie, and going by Benthams and Roberts
 [Sidenote: Rheburne.]
 hill, aboue Wraie taketh in the Rheburne that riseth north of
 Wulfecrag. After this confluence also aboue New parke, it maketh his
 gate by Aughton, Laughton, Skirton, Lancaster, Excliffe, Awcliffe,
 Soddaie, Orton, and so into the sea. Thus haue you both the
 descriptions of Lune, make your conference or election at your
 pleasure, for I am sworne to neither of them both.

 [Sidenote: Docker.]
 The next fall is called Docker, and peraduenture the same that Leland
 [Sidenote: Kerie.]
 dooth call the Kerie, which is not farre from Wharton, where the rich
 Kitson was borne, it riseth north of Docker towne, and going by
 Barwijc hall, it is not increased before it come at the sea, where it
 falleth into the Lune water at Lunesands. Next of all we come to
 Bitham beck, which riseth not far from Bitham towne and parke, in the
 hilles, where about are great numbers of goates kept and mainteined,
 and by all likelihood resorteth in the end to Linsands.

 Being past this, we find a forked arme of the sea called Kensands:
 into the first of which diuerse waters doo run in one chanell, as it
 were from foure principall heads, one of them comming from Grarrig
 hall, another fr[=o] by west of Whinfield, & ioining with the first on
 [Sidenote: Sprota.]
 the east side of Skelmere parke. The third called Sprot or Sprota
 riseth at Sloddale, & commeth downe by west of Skelmer parke, so that
 these two brookes haue the aforesaid parke betwéene them, & fall into
 the fourth east of Barneside, not verie farre in sunder. The fourth or
 [Sidenote: Ken.]
 last called Ken, commeth from Kentmers side, out of Ken moore, in a
 poole of a mile compasse, verie well stored with fish, the head
 whereof, as of all the baronie of Kendall is in Westmerland, & going
 to Stauelope, it taketh in a rill from Chappleton Inges. Then leauing
 Colnehead parke by east, it passeth by Barneside, to Kendall, Helston,
 Sigath, Siggeswijc, Leuenbridge, Milnethorpe, and so into the sea.
 Certes this Ken is a pretie déepe riuer, and yet not safelie to be
 aduentured vpon, with boates and balingers, by reason of rolling
 stones, & other huge substances that oft annoie & trouble the middest
 of the chanell there. The other péece of the forked arme, is called
 [Sidenote: Winstar.]
 Winstar, the hed wherof is aboue Winstar chappell, & going downe
 almost by Carpmaunsell, & Netherslake, it is not long yer it fall into
 the sea, or sands, for all this coast, & a gulfe from the Ramside
 point to the Mealenasse, is so pestered with sands, that it is almost
 incredible to sée how they increase. Those also which inuiron the
 Kenmouth, are named Kensands: but such as receiue the descent from the
 Fosse, Winander, and Sparke, are called Leuesands, as I find by
 sufficient testimonie. The mouth or fall of the Dodon also is not
 farre from this impechment: wherefore it is to be thought, that these
 issues will yer long become verie noisome, if not choked vp
 [Sidenote: Winander.]
 altogither. The Winander water riseth about Cunbalrasestones, from
 whence it goeth to Cangridge, where it maketh a méere: then to
 Ambleside, and taking in yer it come there, two rilles on the left
 hand, and one on the right that commeth by Clapergate, it maketh (as I
 take it) the greatest méere, or fresh water in England; for I read it
 is ten miles in length. Finallie, comming to one small chanell aboue
 Newbridge, it reacheth not aboue six miles yer it fall into the sea.
 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 There is in like sort a water, called the Fosse that riseth néere vnto
 Arneside, and Tillerthwates, and goeth foorth by Grisdale,
 Satrethwate, Rusland, Powbridge, Bowth, and so falleth with the
 Winander water into the maine sea. On the west side of the Fosse also
 commeth another through Furnesse felles, and from the hilles by north
 thereof, which yer long making the Thurstan lake not far from
 Hollinhow, and going by Bridge end, in a narrow channell, passeth
 [Sidenote: Sparke.]
 foorth by Nibthwaits, Blareth, Cowlton, & Sparke bridge, and so into
 the sea. Hauing passed the Leuen or Conisands, or Conistonesands, or
 [Sidenote: Lew.]
 Winander fall (for all is one) I come to the Lew, which riseth at
 [Sidenote: Rawther.]
 Cewike chappell, and falleth into the sea beside Plumpton. The Rawther
 descending out of low Furnesse, hath two heads, whereof one commeth
 from Penniton, the other by Vlmerstone abbeie, and ioining both in one
 chanell, they hasten into the sea, whither all waters direct their
 voiage. Then come we to another rill southwest of Aldingham,
 descending by Glaiston castell; and likewise the fourth that riseth
 néere Lindell, and running by Dawlton castell and Furnesse abbeie, not
 farre from the Barrow head, it falleth into the sea ouer against
 Waueie and Waueie chappell, except mine aduertisements misleade me.

 [Sidenote: Dodon.]
 The Dodon, which from the head is bound vnto Cumberland and
 Westmerland, commeth from the Shire stone hill bottome, and going by
 Blackehill, Southwake, S. Iohns, Vffaie parke, & Broughton, it falleth
 into the orltwater, betwéene Kirbie, and Mallum castell. And thus are
 we now come vnto the Rauenglasse point, and well entred into the
 Cumberland countie.

 Comming to Rauenglasse, I find hard by the towne a water comming from
 two heads, and both of them in lakes or pooles, whereof one issueth
 [Sidenote: Denocke.]
 out of Denocke or Deuenocke méere, and is called Denocke water, the
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 other named Eske from Eske poole which runneth by Eskedale, Dalegarth,
 and soone after meeting with the Denocke, betwéene Mawburthwate and
 Rauenglasse, falleth into the sea. On the other side of Rauenglasse
 [Sidenote: Mite.]
 also commeth the Mite brooke, from Miterdale as I read. Then find we
 another which commeth from the hils, and at the first is forked, but
 soone after making a lake, they gather againe into a smaller chanell:
 [Sidenote: Brenge.]
 finallie meeting with the Brenge, they fall into the sea at Carleton
 [Sidenote: Cander.]
 southeast, as I wéene of Drig. The Cander, or (as Leland nameth it)
 the Calder, commeth out of Copeland forrest, by Cander, Sellefield,
 and so into the sea. Then come we to Euer water, descending out of a
 poole aboue Coswaldhow, and thence going by Euerdale, it crosseth a
 water from Arladon, and after procéedeth to Egremond, S. Iohns, and
 taking in another rill from Hide, it is not long yer it méeteth with
 the sea.

 The next fall is at Moresbie, whereof I haue no skill. From thence
 therefore we cast about by saint Bees to Derwentset hauen, whose water
 [Sidenote: Dargwent.]
 is truelie written Dargwent or Deruent. It riseth in the hils about
 Borrodale, from whence it goeth vnto the Grange, thence into a lake,
 in which are certeine Ilands, and so vnto Keswijc, where it falleth
 [Sidenote: Burthméere.]
 into the Bure, whereof the said lake is called Bursemere, or the
 Burthmere poole. In like sort the Bure or Burthmere water, rising
 among the hils goeth to Tegburthesworth, Forneside, S. Iohns, and
 [Sidenote: Grise.]
 Threlcote: and there méeting with a water from Grisdale, by
 Wakethwate, called Grise, it runneth to Burnesse, Keswijc, and there
 receiueth the Darwent. From Keswijc in like sort it goeth to
 Thorneswate (and there making a plash) to Armanswate, Isell, Huthwate
 [Sidenote: Cokar.]
 and Cokermouth, and here it receiueth the Cokar, which rising among
 the hils commeth by Lowsewater, Brakenthwate, Lorton, and so to
 Cokarmouth towne, from whence it hasteth to Bridgeham, and receiuing a
 rill called the Wire, on the south side that runneth by Dein, it
 leaueth Samburne and Wirketon behind it, and entereth into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Wire.]
 Leland saith that the Wire is a créeke where ships lie off at rode,
 and that Wirketon or Wirkington towne dooth take his name thereof. He
 addeth also that there is iron and coles, beside lead ore in Wiredale.
 Neuerthelesse the water of this riuer is for the most part sore
 troubled, as comming thorough a suddie or soddie more, so that little
 [Sidenote: Elmus.]
 good fish is said to liue therein. But to proceed. The Elme riseth in
 the mines aboue Amautrée, and from Amautre goeth to Yeresbie, Harbie,
 Brow, and there taking in a rill on the left hand comming by
 Torpennie, it goeth to Hatton castell, Alwarbie, Birthie, Dereham, and
 so into the sea. Thence we go about by the chappell at the point, and
 come to a baie serued with two fresh waters, whereof one rising
 westward goeth by Warton, Rabbie, Cotes, and so into the maine, taking
 [Sidenote: Croco.]
 in a rill withall from by south, called Croco, that commeth from
 [Sidenote: Vamus.]
 Crockdale, by Bromefield. The second is named Wampoole broocke, & this
 riseth of two heads, whereof one is about Cardew. Thence in like sort
 it goeth to Thuresbie, Croston, Owton, Gamlesbie, Wampall, the Larth,
 and betwéene Whiteridge and Kirbie into the saltwater. From hence we
 double the Bowlnesse, and come to an estuarie, whither thrée notable
 riuers doo resort, and this is named the Solueie mouth. But of all,
 the first excéedeth, which is called Eden, and whose description dooth
 follow here at hand.

 [Sidenote: Eden.]
 The Eden well fraught with samon, descendeth (as I heare) from the
 hils in Athelstane moore at the foot of Hussiat Moruell hil, where
 Swale also riseth, and southeast of Mallerstang forrest. From thence
 in like maner it goeth to Mallerstang towne, Pendragon castell,
 Wharton hall, Netbie, Hartleie castell, Kirkebie Stephan, and yer it
 come at great Musgrane, it receiueth thrée waters, whereof one is
 [Sidenote: Helbecke.]
 called Helbecke, bicause it commeth from the Derne and Elinge
 mounteins by a towne of the same denomination. The other is named
 [Sidenote: Bellow.]
 Bellow, and descendeth from the east mounteins by Sowarsbie, & these
 two on the northeast: the third falleth from Rauenstandale, by
 Newbiggin, Smardale, Soulbie, Blaterne, and so into Eden, that goeth
 [Sidenote: Orne.]
 from thence by Warcop; and taking in the Orne about Burelles on the
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 one side, and the Morton becke on the other, it hasteth to Applebie,
 [Sidenote: Dribecke.]
 thence to Cowlbie, where it crosseth the Dribecke, thence to Bolton,
 [Sidenote: Trowt becke.]
 and Kirbie, and there méeting with the Trowt becke, and beneath the
 [Sidenote: Liuenet.]
 same with the Liuenet (whereinto falleth an other water from Thurenlie
 méeting withall beneath Clebron) it runneth finallie into Eden. After
 the confluences also the Eden passeth to Temple, and soone after
 meeting with the Milburne and Blincorne waters, in one chanell, it
 runneth to Winderwarth and Hornebie, where we will staie till I haue
 described the water that meeteth withall néere the aforesaid place
 [Sidenote: Vlse.]
 called the Vlse.

 This water commeth out of a lake, which is fed with six rils, whereof
 [Sidenote: Marke.]
 one is called the Marke, and néere the fall thereof into the plash is
 [Sidenote: Harteshop.]
 a towne of the same name; the second hight Harteshop, & runneth from
 [Sidenote: Paterdale.]
 Harteshop hall by Depedale; the third is Paterdale rill; the fourth
 [Sidenote: Roden.]
 [Sidenote: Glenkguin.]
 Glent Roden, the fift Glenkguin, but the sixt runneth into the said
 lake, south of Towthwate. Afterward when this lake commeth toward Pole
 towne, it runneth into a small chanell, & going by Barton, Dalumaine,
 it taketh in a rill by the waie from Daker castell. Thence it goeth to
 Stockebridge, Yoneworth, and soone after méeteth with a pretie brooke
 [Sidenote: Loder.]
 called Loder, comming from Thornethwate by Bauton, and héere a rill;
 then by Helton, and there another; thence to Askham, Clifton, and so
 ioining with the other called Vlse, they go to Brougham castell, Nine
 churches, Hornebie, and so into Eden, taking in a rill (as it goeth)
 that commeth downe from Pencath. Being past Hornebie, our Eden runneth
 to Langunbie, and soone after receiuing a rill that commeth from two
 heads, and ioining beneath Wingsell, it hasteth to Lasenbie, then to
 Kirke Oswald (on ech side whereof commeth in a rill from by east)
 thence to Nonneie, and there a rill, Anstable, Cotehill, Corbie
 castell, Wetherall, Newbie: where I will staie, till I haue described
 the Irding, and such waters as fall into the same before I go to

 [Sidenote: Irding.]
 The Irding ariseth in a moore in the borders of Tindale, néere vnto
 [Sidenote: Terne.]
 Horsse head crag, where it is called Terne becke; vntill it come to
 Spicrag hill, that diuideth Northumberland and Gillesland in sunder,
 from whence it is named Irding. Being therfore come to Ouerhall, it
 [Sidenote: Pultrose.]
 receiueth the Pultrose becke, by east, and thence goeth on to
 Ouerdenton, Netherdenton, Leuercost, and Castelstead, where it taketh
 [Sidenote: Cambocke.]
 in the Cambocke, that runneth by Kirke Cambocke, Askerton castell,
 Walton, and so into Irding, which goeth from thence to Irdington,
 Newbie, & so into Eden. But a little before it come there, it crosseth
 [Sidenote: Gillie.]
 with the Gillie that commeth by Tankin, and soone after falleth into
 it. After these confluences, our Eden goeth to Linstocke castell, (and
 here it interteineth a brooke, comming from Cotehill ward by
 Aglionbie) and then vnto Carleill, which is now almost inuironed with
 foure waters.

 [Sidenote: Pedar aliàs Logus.]
 For beside the Eden it receiueth the Peder, which Leland calleth Logus
 from southeast. This Peder riseth in the hils southwest of
 Penruddocke, from whence it goeth to Penruddocke, then to Grastocke
 castell, Cateleie, and Kenderside hall, and then taking in a water
 from Vnthanke, it goeth to Cathwade, Pettrelwaie, Newbiggin, Carleton,
 and so into Eden, northeast of Carleill. But on the north side the
 [Sidenote: Bruferth.]
 Bruferth brooke dooth swiftlie make his entrance, running by
 Leuerdale, Scalbie castell, and Housedon; as I am informed. The third
 is named Candan (if not Deua after Leland) which rising about the
 Skidlow hils, runneth to Mosedale, Caldbecke, Warnell, Saberham, Rose
 castell, Dawston, Brounston, Harrington, and west of Carleill falleth
 into Eden, which going from thence by Grimsdale, Kirke Andros,
 Beaumont, falleth into the sea beneath the Rowcliffe castell. And thus
 much of the Eden, which Leland neuerthelesse describeth after another
 sort, whose words I will not let to set downe here in this place, as I
 find them in his commentaries.

 [Sidenote: Vlse after Leland.]
 The Eden, after it hath run a pretie space from his head, méeteth in
 time with the Vlse water, which is a great brooke in Westmerland, and
 [Sidenote: Loder.]
 rising aboue Maredale, a mile west of Loder, it commeth by the late
 dissolued house of Shappe priorie, thrée miles from Shappe, and by
 Brampton village into Loder or Lodon. Certes this streame within halfe
 a mile of the head, becommeth a great lake for two miles course, and
 afterward waxing narrow againe, it runneth foorth in a meane and
 [Sidenote: Aimote.]
 indifferent bottome. The said Eden in like sort receiueth the Aimote
 about thrée miles beneath Brougham castell, and into the same Aimote
 [Sidenote: Dacor.]
 falleth Dacor becke (alreadie touched) which riseth by northwest in
 Materdale hils, foure miles aboue Dacor castell, and then going
 through Dacor parke, it runneth by east a good mile lower into Eimote,
 a little beneath Delamaine, which standeth on the left side of Dacor.
 In one of his bookes also he saith, how Carleill standeth betwéene two
 [Sidenote: Deua.]
 streames, that is to saie the Deua, which commeth thither from by
 southwest, and also the Logus that descendeth from the southeast. He
 [Sidenote: Vala.]
 addeth moreouer how the Deua in times past was named Vala or Bala, and
 that of the names of these two, Lugibala for Caerleill hath beene
 deriued, &c. And thus much out of Leland. But where he had the cause
 of this his coniecture as yet I haue not read. Of this am I certeine,
 that I vse the names of most riuers here and else-where described,
 accordinglie as they are called in my time, although I omit not to
 speake here and there of such as are more ancient, where iust occasion
 mooueth me to remember them, for the better vnderstanding of our
 histories, as they doo come to hand.

 [Sidenote: Leuen.]
 Blacke Leuen and white Leuen waters, fall into the sea in one chanell,
 [Sidenote: Lamford.]
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 and with them the Lamford and the Eske, the last confluence being not
 a full mile from the maine sea. The white and blacke Leuen ioining
 [Sidenote: Tomunt.]
 therfore aboue Bucknesse, the confluence goeth to Bracken hill,
 Kirkleuenton, and at Tomunt water meeteth with the Eske. In like sort
 [Sidenote: Kirsop.]
 [Sidenote: Lidde.]
 the Kirsop ioining with the Lidde out of Scotland at Kirsop foot,
 running by Stangerdike side, Harlow, Hathwater, and taking in the Eske
 aboue the Mote, it looseth the former name, and is called Eske, vntill
 it come to the sea.

 Hauing thus gone thorough the riuers of England, now it resteth that
 we procéed with those which are to be found vpon the Scotish shore, in
 such order as we best may, vntill we haue fetched a compasse about the
 same, and come vnto Barwike, whence afterward it shall be easie for vs
 to make repaire vnto the Thames, from which we did set forward in the
 beginning of our voiage. The first riuer that I met withall on the
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 Scotish coast, is the Eske, after I came past the Solueie, which hath
 his head in the Cheuiot hilles, runneth by Kirkinton, and falleth into
 the sea at Borow on the sands. This Eske hauing receiued the Ewis
 falleth into the Solueie first at Atterith. After this I passed ouer a
 little créeke from Kirthell, and so to Anand, whereof the vallie
 Anandale dooth séeme to take the name. There is also the Nide, whereof
 commeth Nidsdale, the Ken, the Dée, the Crale, and the Bladnecke, and
 all these (besides diuerse other small rilles of lesse name) doo lie
 vpon the south of Gallowaie.

 On the north side also we haue the Ruan, the Arde, the Cassile Dune,
 the Burwin, the Cluide (wherevpon sometime stood the famous citie of
 Alcluide, and whereinto runneth the Carath) the Hamell, the
 Dourglesse, and the Lame. From hence in like maner we came vnto the
 Leuind mouth, wherevnto the Blake on the southwest and the Lomund
 Lake, with his fléeting Iles and fish without finnes (yet verie
 holesome) dooth séeme to make his issue. This lake of Lomund in calme
 weather ariseth sometimes so high, and swelleth with such terrible
 billowes, that it causeth the best marriners of Scotland to abide the
 leisure of this water, before they dare aduenture to hoise vp sailes
 on hie. The like is seene in windie weather, but much more perillous.
 There are certeine Iles also in the same, which mooue and remooue,
 oftentimes by force of the water, but one of them especiallie, which
 otherwise is verie fruitfull for pasturage of cattell.

 [Sidenote: Leue. Long.]
 [Sidenote: Goile. Heke.]
 [Sidenote: Robinseie.]
 [Sidenote: Forelan. Tarbat.]
 [Sidenote: Lean.]
 [Sidenote: Abir. Arke.]
 [Sidenote: Zefe. Sell.]
 [Sidenote: Zord. Owin.]
 [Sidenote: Nowisse. Orne.]
 [Sidenote: Lang. Drun.]
 [Sidenote: Hew. Brun.]
 [Sidenote: Kile. Dowr.]
 [Sidenote: Faro. Nesse.]
 Next vnto this is the Leue, the Rage, the Long, the Goile, & the Heke,
 which for the excéeding greatnesse of their heads, are called lakes.
 Then haue we the Robinseie, the Foreland, the Tarbat, the Lean, and
 the Abir, wherevnto the Spanseie, the Loine, the Louth, the Arke, and
 the Zefe doo fall, there is also the Sell, the Zord, the Owin, the
 Newisse, the Orne, the Lang, the Drun, the Hew, the Brun, the Kell,
 the Dowr, the Faro, the Nesse, the Herre, the Con, the Glasse, the
 Maur, the Vrdall, the Fers (that commeth out of the Caldell) the
 Fairsoke, which two latter lie a little by west of the Orchades, and
 are properlie called riuers, bicause they issue onelie from springs;
 but most of the other lakes, bicause they come from linnes and huge
 [Sidenote: Herre. Con.]
 [Sidenote: Glasse. Maur.]
 [Sidenote: Vrdall. Fesse.]
 [Sidenote: Calder. Wifle.]
 [Sidenote: Browre. Clin.]
 [Sidenote: Twin. Shin.]
 [Sidenote: Sillan. Carew.]
 [Sidenote: Nesse. Narding.]
 [Sidenote: Spaie. Downe.]
 [Sidenote: Dée. Eske.]
 pooles, or such low bottomes, fed with springs, as séeme to haue no
 accesse, but onelie recesse of waters, whereof there be manie in

 But to proceed. Hauing once past Dungisbie head in Cathnesse, we shall
 yer long come to the mouth of the Wifle, a prettie streame, comming by
 south of the mounteins called the Maidens pappes. Then to the Browre,
 the Clin, the Twin (whereinto runneth three riuers, the Shin, the
 Sillan, and Carew) the Nesse, which beside the plentie of samon found
 therein is neuer frosen, nor suffereth yee to remaine there, that is
 cast into the poole. From thence we come vnto the Narding, the
 Finderne, the Spaie (which receiues the Vine) the Fitch, the Bulich,
 the Arrian, the Leuin, and the Bogh, from whence we saile vntill we
 come about the Buquhan head, and so to the Downe, and Dee: which two
 streames bring forth the greatest samons that are to be had in
 Scotland, and most plentie of the same. Then to the north Eske,
 whereinto the Esmond runneth aboue Brechin, the south Eske, then the
 Louen and the Taw, which is the finest riuer for water that is in all
 Scotland, and wherevnto most riuers and lakes doo run. As Farlake,
 Yrth, Goure, Loich, Cannach, Linell, Loion, Irewer, Erne, and diuerse
 other besides small rillets which I did neuer looke vpon.

 Then is there the lake Londors, vpon whose mouth saint Andrewes dooth
 stand, the lake Lewin vnto whose streame two other lakes haue recourse
 in Fifland, and then the Firth or Fortha, which some doo call the
 Pictish and Scotish sea, whither the kingdome of the Northumbers was
 sometime extended, and with the riuer last mentioned (I meane that
 commeth from Londors) includeth all Fife, the said Fortha being full
 of oisters and all kinds of huge fish that vse to lie in the déepe.
 How manie waters run into the Firth, called by Ptolomie Lora, it is
 not in my power iustlie to declare: yet are there both riuers, rills,
 [Sidenote: Clacke. Alon.]
 [Sidenote: Dune. Kerie.]
 [Sidenote: Cambell.]
 [Sidenote: Cumer. Tere.]
 [Sidenote: Man.]
 [Sidenote: Torkesan.]
 [Sidenote: Rosham.]
 [Sidenote: Mushell. Blene.]
 [Sidenote: Twede.]
 & lakes that fall into the same, as Clacke, Alon, Dune, Kerie,
 Cambell, Cumer, Tere, Man, Torkeson, Rosham, Mushell, Blene, and
 diuerse other which I call by these names, partlie after information,
 and partlie of such townes as are neere vnto their heads. Finallie,
 when we are past the Haie, then are we come vnto the Twede, whereinto
 we entred, leauing Barwike on the right hand and his appurtenances,
 wherein Halidon hill standeth, and conteineth a triangle of so much
 ground beyond the said riuer, as is well néere foure miles in length,
 and thrée miles in bredth in the broad end: except mine information
 doo faile me.

 The Twede (which Ptolomie nameth Toualsis or Toesis, & betwéene which
 and the Tine the countie of Northumberland is in maner inclosed, and
 watred with sundrie noble riuers) is a noble streame and the limes or
 bound betwéene England & Scotland, wherby those two kingdomes are now
 diuided in sunder. It riseth about Drimlar in Eusbale (or rather out
 of a faire well (as Leland saith) standing in the mosse of an hill
 called Airstane, or Harestan in Twede dale ten miles from Pibble) and
 so comming by Pibble, Lander, Dribiwgh, Lelse, Warke, Norham and
 Hagarstone, it falleth into the sea beneath Barwike, as I heare. Thus
 saith Leland. But I not contented with this so short a discourse of so
 long a riuer & briefe description of so faire a streame, will ad
 somewhat more of the same concerning his race on the English side, and
 rehearsall of such riuers as fall into it. Comming therefore to Ridam,
 it receiueth betwéene that and Carham a becke, which descendeth from
 the hilles that lie by west of Windram. Going also from Ridam by
 Longbridgham (on the Scotish side) and to Carham, it hasteth
 immediatlie to Warke castell on the English, and by Spilaw on the
 other side, then to Cornewall, Cald streame, and Tilmouth, where it
 receiueth sundrie waters in one botome which is called the Till, and
 whose description insueth here at hand.

 [Sidenote: Till.]
 Certes there is no head of anie riuer that is named Till, but the
 issue of the furthest water that commeth hereinto, riseth not farre
 from the head of Vswaie in the Cheuiot hilles, where it is called
 Brennich, whereof the kingdome of Brennicia did sometime take the
 name. From thence it goeth to Hartside, Ingram, Branton, Crawleie,
 Hedgeleie, Beueleie, and Bewijc, beneath which it receiueth one water
 comming from Rodham by west, and soone after a second descending from
 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 the Middletons, and so they go as one with the Bromish, by Chatton to
 Fowbreie (where they crosse the third water falling downe by north
 from Howborne by Heselbridge) thence to Woller, there also taking in a
 rill that riseth about Middleton hall, and runneth by Hardleie,
 Whereleie, and the rest afore remembred, wherby the water of Bromis is
 not a little increased, and after this latter confluence beneath
 Woller, no more called Bromis but the Till, vntill it come at the
 Twede. The Till passing therefore by Weteland and Dedington, méeteth
 soone after with a faire streame comming from by southwest, which most
 [Sidenote: Bowbent.]
 men call the Bowbent or Bobent.

 It riseth on the west side of the Cocklaw hill, and from thence
 hasteth to Hattons, beneath the which it ioineth from by southeast
 with the Hellerborne, and then goeth to Pudston, Downeham, Kilham, and
 a little by north of Newton Kirke, and betweene it and west Newton, it
 taketh in another water called Glin, comming from the Cheuiot hilles
 by Heth poole, and from thenseforth runneth on without anie further
 increase, by Copland Euart, and so in the Till. The Till for his part
 in like sort after this confluence goeth to Broneridge, Fodcastell,
 Eatall castell, Heaton, & north of Tilmouth into the Twede, or by west
 of Wesell, except my memorie dooth faile me. After this also our
 aforesaid water of Twede descendeth to Grotehugh, the Newbiggins,
 [Sidenote: Whitaker.]
 Norham castell, Foord, Lungridge, & crossing the Whitaker on the other
 side from Scotland beneath Cawmill, it runneth to Ordo, to Barwike,
 and so into the Ocean, leauing (as I said) so much English ground on
 the northwest ripe, as lieth in manner of a triangle betwéene Cawmils,
 Barwike, and Lammeton, which (as one noteth) is no more but two miles
 and an halfe euerie waie, or not much more; except he be deceiued.

 Being past this noble streame, we came by a rill that descendeth from
 Bowsden by Barington. Then by the second which ariseth betwéene
 Middleton and Detcham or Dereham, and runneth by Eskill and the Rosse,
 next of all to Warnemouth, of whose backe water I read as followeth.
 [Sidenote: Warne.]
 The Warne or Gwerne riseth southwest of Crokelaw, and going by
 Warneford, Bradford, Spindlestone, and Budill, it leaueth Newton on
 the right hand, and so falleth into the Ocean, after it hath run
 almost nine miles from the head within the land, and receiued a rill
 beneath Yessington, which commeth downe betweene Newland and
 Olchester, and hath a bridge beneath the confluence, which leadeth
 ouer the same. From Warnemouth we sailed by Bamborow castell, and came
 at last to a fall betweene Bedwell and Newton. The maine water that
 serueth this issue, riseth aboue Carleton from the foot of an hill,
 which séemeth to part the head of this and that of Warne in sunder. It
 runneth also by Carleton, Tonleie, Doxford, Brunton, and Tuggell, and
 finallie into the sea, as to his course apperteineth.

 [Sidenote: Aile, or Alne, aliàs Chalne.]
 From this water we went by Dunstanbugh castell, vnto the Chalne or
 Alnemouth, which is serued with a pretie riueret called Alne, the head
 whereof riseth in the hils west of Alnham towne, and called by
 Ptolomie, Celnius. From thense also it runneth by Rile, Kile,
 Eslington, and Whittingham, where it crosseth a rill comming from by
 south, and beneath the same, the second that descendeth from Eirchild
 at Brone, & likewise the third that riseth at Newton, and runneth by
 Edlingham castell and Lemmaton (all on the southeast side or right
 hand) and so passeth on further, till it meet with the fourth, comming
 from aboue Shipleie from by north, after which confluence it goeth to
 Alnewijc, & then to Dennijc, receiuing there a rillet from by south
 and a rill from by north, and thence going on to Bilton, betweene
 Ailmouth towne and Wooddon, it sweepeth into the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: Cocket.]
 The Cocket is a goodlie riuer, the head also thereof is in the roots
 of Kemblespeth hils, from whence it goeth to Whiteside, and there
 [Sidenote: Vswaie.]
 meeting with the Vswaie (which descendeth from the north) it goeth a
 [Sidenote: Ridleie.]
 little further to Linbridge, and there receiueth the Ridleie by
 southwest, and after that with another, called (as I thinke) the Hoc,
 which commeth from the Woodland and hillie soile by Allington, &
 falleth into the same, west of Parke head. It ioineth also yer long
 with the Ridland, which commeth in north by Bilstone, and then hieth
 [Sidenote: Yardop.]
 to Sharpton, to Harbotle, where it crosseth the Yardop water by south,
 then to Woodhouse, and swallowing in a little becke by the waie from
 southwest, to Bickerton, to Tossons, Newton, and running apace toward
 Whitton towre, it taketh a brooke withall that commeth in northwest of
 Alnham, néere Elihaw, and goeth by Skarnewood, ouer nether Trewhet,
 Snitter, and Throxton, and soone after vniteth it selfe with the
 [Sidenote: It may be Leland mistaketh Tickington
 water for one of these.]
 Cocket, from whence they go together to Rethburie, or Whitton towre,
 to Halie, to Brinkehorne, Welden, taking withall soone after the Tod
 or burne called Tod, which falleth in from by south, then to Elihaw,
 Felton (receiuing thereabout the Fareslie brooke, that goeth by
 Wintring by south east, and Sheldike water, that goeth by Hason, to
 Brainsaugh by north) and from thence to Morricke, Warkworth castell,
 and so into the sea.

 There is furthermore a little fall, betwéene Hawkeslaw and Drurith,
 which riseth about Stokes wood, goeth by east Cheuington, and
 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 Whittington castell, and afterward into the Ocean. The Lune is a
 pretie brooke rising west of Espleie, from whence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Wansbecke.]
 Tritlington, Vgham, Linton, and yer long in the sea. Wansbecke (in old
 time Diua) is far greater than the Lune. It issueth vp west and by
 north of west Whelpington, thence it runneth to Kirke Whelpington,
 Wallington, Middleton, and Angerton. Heere it méeteth with a water
 running from about Farnelaw by the grange, and Hartburne on the north,
 and then going from Angerton, it runneth by Moseden to Mitforth, and
 [Sidenote: Font.]
 there in like maner crosseth the Font, which issuing out of the ground
 about Newbiggin, goeth by Nonneie Kirke, Witton castell, Stanton,
 Nunriding, Newton, and so into the Wansbecke, which runneth in like
 maner from Mitford to Morpheth castell (within two miles whereof it
 ebbeth and floweth) the new Chappell, Bottle castell, Shepwash, and so
 into the sea, thrée miles from the next hauen which is called Blithe.

 [Sidenote: Blithe.]
 Blithe water riseth about kirke Heaton, and goeth by Belfe, Ogle, and
 (receiuing the Port aliàs the Brocket, that springeth east of S.
 Oswolds) passeth by Portgate, Whittington, Fennike hall, Madfennes,
 Hawkewell, the Grange, & Dissingtons. After it hath taken in the Pont
 [Sidenote: Hartleie.]
 from the east (whose head is not farre from that of Hartleie streame)
 and is past Barwijc on the hill, it runneth by Harford, Bedlington,
 Cowpon, and at Blithes nuke, into the deepe Ocean. Hartleie streamelet
 riseth in Wéeteslade parioch, goeth by Haliwell, and at Hartleie towne
 yeeldeth to the sea.

 The Tine or Tinna, a riuer notablie stored with samon, and other good
 fish, and in old time called Alan, riseth of two heads, whereof that
 [Sidenote: North Tine.]
 called north Tine, is the first that followeth to be described. It
 springeth vp aboue Belkirke in the hils, & thence goeth to Butterhawgh
 [Sidenote: Shele.]
 (where it receiueth a confluence of Kirsop and the Shele) thence to
 Cragsheles, Leapelish (receiuing on the south a rill out of Tindale)
 then to Shilburne, against which it taketh in a becke that commeth out
 of Tindale called Shill, also two other on the same side, betweene
 Yarro and Fawston hall, and the third at Thorneburne, and so goeth on
 to Grenested, and there carrieth withall a fall, from by north also
 made by the confluence of one rill comming by Thecam, and another that
 passeth by Holinhead, and likewise another on the south comming from
 Tindale, by Chuden, Dalacastell, and Brokes: after which our north
 Tine goeth by Hellaside, to Billingham, and at Rhedes mouth méeteth
 with the Ridde, a verie prettie water, whose description is giuen me
 after this maner.

 [Sidenote: Ridde.]
 The Ridde therefore riseth within thrée miles of the Scotish march, as
 Leland saith, & commeth through Riddesdale, wherevnto it giueth the
 name. Another writeth how it riseth in the roots of the Carter, and
 Redsquibe hilles, and yer it hath gone farre from the head, beside a
 [Sidenote: Shelhop.]
 few little rilles it taketh in the Spelhop or Petop from the north and
 [Sidenote: Cheslop.]
 the Cheslop on the south, beside sundrie other wild rils nameless and
 obscure, as one on the north side next vnto the Petop or Spelhop;
 another by south out of Riddesdale, the third west of Burdop, the
 fourth runneth by Wullaw to Rochester, then two from southwest,
 another from by north which goeth by Durtburne, and is called Durt or
 Durth, then the Smalburne from the west. Next to the same is the Otter
 or Otterburne on the north side also the Ouereie, and finallie the
 last which descendeth from Ellesdon hilles, by Munkrige and ioineth
 with our Ridde, northwest of Nudhowgh, after which the said Ridde
 goeth by Woodburne, Risingham, Leame, and so into the Tine, a mile
 lower than Belingham or Bilingham, which standeth somewhat aloofe from
 north Tine and is (as I take it) ten miles at the least aboue the
 towne of Hexham. After this confluence it passeth to Léehall, to
 [Sidenote: 3. Burnes.]
 [Sidenote: Shitlington.]
 Carehouse (crossing Shitlington becke by west which also receiueth the
 Yare on the south side of Shitlington) another also beneath this on
 the same side, made by the confluence of Workesburne, and Middleburne,
 at Roseburne, beside the third called Morleis or Morelée aboue, and
 Simons burne beneath Shepechase, and likewise the Swine from by north
 that runneth by Swinburne castell, next of all the Riall from the
 northeast, which commeth by Erington, & so holding his course
 directlie southwards, it goeth by S. Oswolds through the Pictishwall,
 to Wall, and so into south Tine, beneath Accam, and northwest (as I
 doo wéene) of Hexham.

 [Sidenote: Tine. S.]
 The south Tine ariseth in the Cheuiot hils, and yer it hath gone farre
 [Sidenote: Esgill.]
 from the head, it méeteth with Esgill on the east, and another rill on
 the west, and so going by the houses toward Awsten moore, it ioineth
 [Sidenote: Vent.]
 with Schud from by west, and soone after with the Vent from by east
 aboue Lowbier. From Lowbier it goeth to Whitehalton, to Kirke Haugh
 [Sidenote: Gilders beck.]
 (crossing the Gilders becke on the one side, and the Alne on the
 other) to Thornehope, where it is inlarged with a water on each side,
 [Sidenote: Knare.]
 to Williamstone, and almost at Knaresdale, taketh in the Knare, and
 then runneth withall to Fetherstone angle. At Fetherstone angle
 likewise it méeteth with Hartleie water, by southwest comming from
 Sibins or Sibbenes, another a little beneath from southeast, and
 thence when it commeth to Billester castell, it carieth another
 withall from by west, Thirlewall called Rippall which riseth in the
 forrest of Lowes, and goeth by the Waltowne, Blinkinsop, & Widon, and
 after which confluence it taketh in another from by north rising west
 of Swinsheld, which goeth by Grenelegh to Haltwestell: thence going by
 Vnthanke, it crosseth another rill from by south, descending from the
 hilles that lie north of Todlewood, and then proceeding vnto
 Wilmotteswijc, it admitteth the Wilmots becke from the south, and
 another running by Bradleie hall on the north side of Beltingham;
 after which it méeteth with the Alen a proper water, and described
 after this maner.

 [Sidenote: East Alen.]
 The Alen or Alon hath two heads, whereof one is called east Alen, the
 other west Alen. The first of them riseth southeast of Sibton Sheles,
 & going by Sundorp, it taketh in a rill withall from by est; after
 which confluence it runneth to Newshele, Allington, Caddon, Old towne,
 [Sidenote: West Alen.]
 & in the course to Stauertpele, méeteth with the west Alen. The west
 Alen riseth in Killop low hilles aboue Wheteleie sheles, from whence
 it goeth to Spartwell, Hawcopole, Owston, and taking in a rill
 thereabouts, it procéedeth on to Permandbie, and crossing there
 another rill in like maner from by west, it goeth by Whitefield, and
 ioining soone after with the est Alen, they run as one to Stauert
 poole, Plankford, and so into the Tine betweene Beltingham and Lées,
 from whence the Tine runneth on by Lees Haddon, Woodhall, Owmers,
 Whernebie, Costleie, & so by Warden, till it crosse the north Tine,
 and come to Hexham, from whence it goeth to Dilstan, crossing two
 waters by the waie, whereof one commeth from by south, and is called
 the Wolsh, which holdeth his course by Stelehall, and Newbiggin
 receiueth another comming from Grimbridge: the other called Dill
 somewhat lower descending from Hedleie, and running by Rising, till it
 fall into the south side of our streame from Dilstan, it goeth to
 Bywell castell, ouer against which it receiueth a rill that runneth by
 Hindleie, thence it hasteth to Eltingham, Pruddo, Willam, (and there
 it meeteth with another becke) then to Reton, Blaidon, and next of all
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 ioineth with the Darwent, from by south.

 This riuer riseth aboue Knewdon, and Rudlamhope in Northumberland,
 from two heads: the northerlie being called Dere, and the southerlie
 the Guent: and ioining so well yer long in chanell as in name, they
 runne on to Humsterworth, new Biggin, Blankeland, Acton, Aspersheles,
 Blackheadlie, Brentfield side, Pansheles, Ebchester, and there taking
 in a water from Hedleie in Northumberland, néere to Blacke hall in the
 bishoprike, it goeth on to Spen, Hollinside, Wickham, Swalwell, and so
 into Tine, which passeth from thence by Elswijc, and méeting with
 another water comming from Shildraw, by Rauensworth castell to
 Redhugh, it goeth on to Newcastell, Fellin, Netherheworth, Walker,
 Waswon, Hedburne, and next to Jerro or Girwie, where Beda dwelled in
 an abbeie; now a gentlemans place (although the church be made a
 parish church, wherevnto diuerse townes resort, as moonke Eaton where
 Beda was borne, which is a mile from thence, Southsheles, Harton,
 Westhow, Hebburne, Hedworth, Wardleie, Fellin, Follinsbie, the
 Heworthes) and from thence to the south and Northsheles, and so into
 the sea, fiue miles by northwest of Weremouth, and (as I gesse)
 somewhat more.

 Beneath the confluence in like sort of both the Tines, standeth
 Corbridge, a towne sometime inhabited by the Romans, and about twelue
 miles from Newcastell, and hereby dooth the Corue run, that meeteth
 yer long with the Tine. Not farre off also is a place called
 Colchester, wherby Leland gesseth that the name of the brooke should
 [Sidenote: Corue.]
 rather be Cole than Corue, and in my iudgement his coniecture is verie
 likelie; for in the life of S. Oswijn (otherwise a féeble authoritie)
 the word Colbridge is alwaies vsed for Corbridge, whereof I thought
 good to leaue this short aduertisement. In this countrie also are the
 thrée vales or dales, whereof men haue doubted whether théeues or true
 men doo most abound in them, that is to saie, Riddesdale, Tuidale, and
 Liddesdale: this last being for the most part Scotish, and without the
 marches of England. Neuerthelesse, sithens that by the diligence
 cheefelie of maister Gilpin, and finallie of other learned preachers,
 the grace of God working with them, they haue béene called to some
 obedience and zeale vnto the word, it is found that they haue so well
 profited by the same, that at this present their former sauage
 demeanour is verie much abated, and their barbarous wildnesse and
 fiercenesse so qualified, that there is great hope left of their
 reduction vnto ciuilitie, and better order of behauiour than hitherto
 they haue béene acquainted withall. But to procéed with the rest.

 [Sidenote: Were.]
 Ptolomie, writing of the Were, calleth it Vedra, a riuer well knowne
 vnto Beda the famous préest, who was brought vp in a monasterie that
 stood vpon the bankes thereof. It riseth of thrée heads in
 [Sidenote: Burdop.]
 Kelloppeslaw hill, whereof the most southerlie is called Burdop, the
 [Sidenote: Wallop.]
 [Sidenote: Kellop.]
 middlemost Wallop, and the northerliest Kellop, which vniting
 themselues about S. Iohns chappell, or a little by west thereof, their
 confluence runneth through Stanhope parke, by east Yare, and so to
 Frosterleie. But yer it come there, it receiueth thrée rilles from the
 north in Weredale, whereof one commeth in by Stanhope, another west of
 Woodcroft hall, and the third at Frosterleie afore mentioned. And a
 little beneath these, I find yet a fourth on the south side, which
 descendeth from southwest by Bolliop, Bishopsleie, Milhouses, and
 Landew, as I haue béene informed. Being therefore vnited all with the
 Were, this streame goeth on to Walsingham, there taking in the
 [Sidenote: Wascrop.]
 Wascropburne, beside another at Bradleie, the third at Harpleie hall
 (and these on the north side) and the fourth betwéene Witton and
 [Sidenote: Bedburne.]
 Witton castell called Bedburne, comming by Hamsterleie, whereby this
 riuer dooth now wax verie great. Going therefore from hence, it
 hasteth to Bishops Akeland, and beneath it receiueth the Garondlesse,
 which (as Leland saith) riseth six miles by west of Akeland castell,
 and running south thereof, passeth by west Akeland, S. Helens Akeland,
 S. Andrewes Akeland, and bishops Akeland, and then into the Were which
 goeth to Newfield, and Willington. Neere vnto this place also and
 somewhat beneath Sunderland, the Were, crosseth one brooke from
 southest by Het, Croxseie, Cronefurth, Tursdale, and Cordale, and two
 other from by northwest in one botome, whereof the first commeth from
 aboue Ash by Langleie: the other called Coue, from aboue Kinchleie by
 Newbiggin, Lanchester, north Langlie, and through Beare parke, & so
 méeting beneath Kelleie or Hedleie with the other, they fall both as
 one into the Were, betweene south Sunderland and Burnall. From hence
 our riuer goeth on to Howghwell, Shirkeleie, old Duresme (and there
 [Sidenote: Pidding brooke.]
 taking in the Pidding brooke by northeast) it goeth to Duresme,
 Finkeleie, Harbarhouse, Lumleie castell (where it méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Pilis.]
 Pilis, whose heads are vnited betweene Pelton and Whitwell (and after
 called Hedleie) and from thence to Lampton, Harroton, the Bedikes,
 Vfferton, Hilton parke, Bishops Weremouth, and so into the sea,
 betweene north Sunderland and north Weremouth towne, which now is
 called moonke Weremouth of the monasterie sometime standing there,
 wherin Beda read & wrote manie of his bookes, as to the world
 appeareth. This mouth of Were is eight miles from Durham, and six from
 Newcastell. Being thus passed the Were, & entered into the Bishoprijc,
 yer we come at the mouth of the These, almost by two miles, ouer
 passing a rill that runneth by castell Eden, and Hardwijc, and
 likewise Hartlepoole towne, which lieth ouer into the sea in maner of
 a byland or peninsula, we meet with a prettie fall, which groweth by a
 riuer that is increased with two waters, whereof one riseth by
 northwest about Moretons, and goeth by Stotfeld and Claxton, the other
 at Dawlton, going by Breerton, Owtham, and Grettam, finallie ioining
 within two miles of the sea, they make a prettie portlet: but I know
 not of what securitie.

 [Sidenote: Thesis.]
 The These, a riuer that beareth and féedeth an excellent samon, riseth
 in the Blacke lowes, aboue two miles flat west of the southerlie head
 of Were called Burdop, and south of the head of west Alen, and thence
 runneth through Tildale forrest: and taking in the Langdon water from
 northwest it runneth to Durtpit chappell, to Newbiggin, and so to
 Middleton, receiuing by west of each of these a rill comming from by
 [Sidenote: Hude.]
 north (of which the last is called Hude) and likewise the Lune
 afterward by southwest that riseth at thrée seuerall places, whereof
 the first is in the borders of Westmerland and there called Arnegill
 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 becke, the second more southerlie, named Lunebecke, and the third by
 [Sidenote: Arnegill.]
 south at Bandor Skarth hill, and méeting all aboue Arnegill house,
 they run togither in one bottome to Lathekirke bridge, and then into
 the These. Hauing therefore met with these, it runneth to Mickelton (&
 [Sidenote: Skirkewith.]
 there taking in the Skirkwith water) it goeth to Rombald kirke
 [Sidenote: Bander.]
 (crossing there also one rill and the Bander brooke by south west) and
 then going to Morewood hag, and Morewood parke, till it come to
 Bernards castell.

 [Sidenote: Rere crosse.]
 Here also it receiueth the Thuresgill water, comming east of Rere
 crosse in Yorkeshire, from the spittle in Stanmore by Crag almost
 southwest, and being vnited with the These, it goeth by Stratford,
 Eglesdon, Rokesbie, Thorpe, Wickliffe, Ouington, Winston, and betweene
 Barfurth and Gainfurth méeteth with another rill, that commeth from
 Langleie forest, betwéene Rabie castell and Standorpe, of whose name I
 haue no knowledge. But to procéed. The These being past Ramforth,
 runneth betwéene Persore and Cliffe, and in the waie to Crofts bridge
 [Sidenote: Skerne.]
 taketh in the Skerne a pretie water, which riseth about Trimdon, and
 goeth by Fishburne, Bradburie, Preston, Braforton, Skirmingham, the
 Burdens, Haughton and Darlington, & there finallie meeting with the
 Cocke becke or Dare, it falleth in the These beneath Stapleton, before
 it come at Crofts bridge, and (as it should séeme) is the same which
 Leland calleth Gretteie or Grettie. From thence it runneth to
 Sockburne, nether Dunsleie, Middleton row, Newsham, Yarne (crossing a
 brooke from Leuen bridge) called Leuen or Leuinus in Latine, whose
 crinkling course is notable, and the streame of some called Thorpe,
 which I find described in this maner.

 [Sidenote: Thorpe aliàs Leuand.]
 The Thorpe riseth of sundrie heads, whereof one is aboue Pinching
 Thorpe, from whence it goeth to Nonnethorpe, and so to Stokesleie. The
 second hath two branches, and so placed, that Kildale standeth
 betweene them both: finallie, méeting beneath Easbie they go by Eaton,
 and likewise vnto Stokesleie. The last hath also two branches, whereof
 one commeth from Inglesbie, and méeteth with the second beneath
 Broughton; & going from thence to Stokesleie, they méet with the
 Thorpe aboue the towne, as the other fall into it somewhat beneath the
 same. From hence it goeth to Ridleie, and there taketh in another rill
 [Sidenote: Crawthorne.]
 comming from Potto, thence to Crawthorne brooke, Leuanton, Milton,
 Hilton, Inglesbie, and so into the These, betwéene Yarne and Barwijc,
 whereof I made mention before. After this confluence our These hasteth
 on to Barwijc, Preston, Thorne abbeie, and Arsham, which standeth on
 the southeast side of the riuer almost betweene the falles of two
 waters, whereof one descendeth from west Hartburne by long Newton,
 Elton, & Stockton; the other from Stillington, or Shillington, by
 Whitton, Thorpe, Blackestone, Billingham, and Norton. From Arsham
 finallie it goeth to Bellasis, Middleburgh, and so into the sea.
 Leland describing this riuer speaketh of the Wiske, which should come
 thereinto from by south vnder Wiske bridge, by Danbie, and
 Northalarton, and should ioine with a greater streame: but as yet I
 find no certeine place where to bestow the same.

 Next of all we come vnto the high Cliffe water, which rising aboue
 Hutton, goeth by Gisborow, and there receiueth another streame comming
 from by southeast, and then continuing on his course, it is not long
 yer it fall into the sea. The next is the Scaling water, which
 descendeth from Scaling towne, from whence we come to the Molemouth,
 not farre from whose head standeth Molgraue castell: then to Sandford
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 creeke, and next of all to Eske mouth, which riseth aboue Danbie wood,
 and so goeth to Castelton, there méeting by the waie with another rill
 comming from about Westerdale by Danbie, and so they go on togither by
 Armar and Thwate castell, till they ioine with another water aboue
 Glasdule chappell, thence to new Biggin, taking yet another brooke
 [Sidenote: Ibur.]
 with them, running from Goodland ward, and likewise the Ibur, and so
 go on without anie further increase by Busworth, yer long into the

 There is also a créeke on each side of Robin Whoodes baie, of whose
 names and courses I haue no skill, sauing that Fillingale the towne
 dooth stand betwéene them both. There is another not far from
 Scarborow, on the north side called the Harwood brooke. It runneth
 through Harwood dale by Cloughton, Buniston, and soone after méeting
 with another rill on the southwest, they run as one into the ocean
 sea. From Scarborow to Bridlington, by Flamborow head, we met with no
 more falles. This water therefore that we saw at Bridlington, riseth
 at Dugglebie, from whence it goeth to Kirbie, Helperthorpe,
 Butterwijc, Boithorpe, Foxhole, (where it falleth into the ground, and
 riseth vp againe at Rudston) Thorpe, Cathorpe, Bridlington, and so
 into the Ocean.

 Being come about the Spurne head, I meete yer long with a riuer that
 riseth short of Withersie, and goeth by Fodringham and Wisted, from
 thence to another that commeth by Rosse, Halsham, Carmingham: then to
 the third, which riseth aboue Humbleton, and goeth to Esterwijc,
 Heddon, and so into the Humber. The fourth springeth short of
 Sprotleie, goeth by Witton, and falleth into the water of Humber at
 Merflete, as I heare.

 [Sidenote: Hull.]
 The next of all is the Hull water, which I will describe also here,
 and then crosse ouer vnto the southerlie shore. The furthest head of
 Hull water riseth at Kilham, from whence it goeth to Lewthorpe créeke,
 and so to Fodringham, a little beneath which it meeteth with sundrie
 waters, whereof one falleth in on the northest side, comming from
 about Lisset; the second on the northwest banke from Nafferton; the
 third from Emmeswell and Kirkeburne: for it hath two heads which
 ioined beneth little Drifield, and the fourth which falleth into the
 same: so that these two latter run vnto the maine riuer both in one
 chanell, as experience hath confirmed. From hence then our Hull goeth
 to Ratseie, to Goodalehouse, and then taking in a water from Hornesie
 mere, it goeth on through Beuerleie medowes, by Warron, Stoneferrie,
 Hull, and finallie into the Humber. Of the rill that falleth into this
 water from south Netherwijc, by Skirlow, and the two rilles that come
 from Cottingham and Woluerton, I saie no more, sith it is enough to
 name them in their order.



 [Sidenote: Humber.]
 There is no riuer called Humber from the hed. Wherfore that which we
 now call Humber, Ptolomie Abie, Leland Aber, as he gesseth, hath the
 same denomination no higher than the confluence of Trent with the
 Ouze, as beside Leland sundrie ancient writers haue noted before vs
 both. Certes it is a noble arme of the sea, and although it be
 properlie to be called Ouze or Ocellus euen to the Nuke beneath
 Ancolme, yet are we contented to call it Humber of Humbrus or Vmar, a
 king of the Scithians, who inuaded this Ile in the time of Locrinus,
 thinking to make himselfe monarch of the same. But as God hath from
 time to time singularlie prouided for the benefit of Britaine, so in
 this businesse it came to passe, that Humber was put to flight, his
 men slaine: and furthermore, whilest he attempted to saue himselfe by
 hasting to his ships (such was the prease of his nobilitie that
 followed him into his owne vessell, and the rage of weather which
 hastened on his fatall daie) that both he and they were drowned
 togither in that arme. And this is the onelie cause wherefore it hath
 béene called Humber, as our writers saie; and wherof I find these

   Dum fugit obstat ei flumen submergitur illic,
     Déque suo tribuit nomine nomen aquæ.

 This riuer in old time parted Lhoegres or England from Albania, which
 was the portion of Albanactus, the yongest sonne of Brute. But since
 that time the limits of Lhoegres haue béene so inlarged, first by the
 prowesse of the Romans, then by the conquests of the English, that at
 this present daie, the Twede on the one side, & the Solue on the
 other, be taken for the principall bounds betweene vs and those of
 Scotland. In describing therefore the Humber, I must néeds begin with
 the Ouze, whose water bringeth foorth a verie sweet, fat and delicat
 samon, as I haue béene informed, beside sundrie other kinds of fish,
 which we want here on the south and southwest coasts & riuers of our
 land, whereof I may take occasion to speake more at large heerafter.

 [Sidenote: Vre aliàs Ouze, or Isis.]
 The Vre therfore riseth in the furthest parts of all Richmondshire,
 among the Coterine hilles, in a mosse, toward the west fourtéene miles
 beyond Midleham. Being therefore issued out of the ground, it goeth to
 Holbecke, Hardraw, Hawshouse, Butterside, Askebridge (which Leland
 calleth the Askaran, and saith thereof and the Bainham, that they are
 but obscure bridges) then to Askarth, through Wanlesse parke,
 Wenseleie bridge (made two hundred yeares since, by Alwin, parson of
 Winslaw) New parke, Spennithorne, Danbie, Geruise abbeie, Clifton and
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Masham. When it is come to Masham, it receiueth the Burne, by south
 [Sidenote: Wile.]
 west (as it did the Wile, from verie déepe scarrie rockes, before at
 Askaran) and diuerse other wild rilles not worthie to be remembred.
 From Masham, it hasteth vnto Tanfield (taking in by the waie a rill by
 southwest) then to another Tanfield, to Newton hall, and Northbridge,
 at the hither end of Rippon, and so to Huickes bridge. But yer it come
 [Sidenote: Skell.]
 there it méeteth with the Skell, which being incorporat with the same,
 they run as one to Thorpe, then to Alborow, and soone after receiue
 the Swale.

 [Sidenote: Swale.]
 Here (saith Leland) I am brought into no little streict, what to
 coniecture of the méeting of Isis and Vre, for some saie that the Isis
 and the Vre doo méet at Borowbridge, which to me dooth séeme to be
 verie vnlikelie, sith Isurium taketh his denomination of Isis and Vro,
 for it is often séene that the lesse riuers doo mingle their names
 with the greater, as in the Thamesis and other is easie to be found.
 Neither is there any more mention of the Vre after his passage vnder
 Borowbridge, but onelie of Isis or the Ouze in these daies, although
 in old time it held vnto Yorke it selfe, which of the Vre is truelie
 called Vrewijc (or Yorke short) or else my persuasion dooth faile me.
 I haue red also Ewerwijc and Yorwijc. But to procéed, and leaue this
 superfluous discourse.

 From Borowbridge, the Ouze goeth to Aldborough, and (receiuing the
 Swale by the waie) to Aldworke, taking in Vsburne water, from the
 southwest, then to Linton vpon Ouze, to Newton vpon Ouze, and to
 Munketun, méeting with the Nid yer long, and so going withall to the
 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 Redhouses, to Popleton, Clifton, Yorke (where it crosseth the Fosse)
 to Foulfoorth, Middlethorpe, Acaster, & Acaster, Kelfléet, Welehall,
 Barelebie, Selbie, Turmonhall, Skurthall, Hokelath, Hoke, Sandhall,
 Rednesse, Whitegift, Vslet, Blacketoft, Foxfléet, Brownfléet, and so
 into Humber.

 [Sidenote: Ouze.]
 The course of the Ouze being thus described, and as it were simplie
 without his influences, now will I touch such riuers as fall into the
 same also by themselues, contrarie to my former proceeding, imagining
 a voiage from the Rauenspurne, vntill I come néere to the head of
 These, & so southwards about againe by the bottome of the hillie soile
 vntill I get to Buxston, Sheffeld, Scrobie, & the verie south point of
 Humber mouth, whereby I shall crosse them all that are to be found in
 this walke, & leaue (I doubt) some especiall notice of their seuerall
 [Sidenote: Hull or Hulne.]
 heads and courses. The course of the Hull, a streame abounding with
 sturgeon and lampreie, as also the riuers which haue their issue into
 the same, being (as I say) alreadie described, I thinke it not amisse,
 as by the waie to set downe what Leland saith thereof, to the end that
 his trauell shall not altogither be lost in this behalfe; and for that
 it is short, and hath one or two things worthie to be remembred
 conteined in the same.

 The Hulne (saith he) riseth of thrée seuerall heads, whereof the
 greatest is not far from Driefield, now a small village sixtéene miles
 from Hull. Certes it hath beene a goodlie towne, and therein was the
 palace of Egbright king of the Northumbers, and place of sepulture of
 Alfred the noble king sometime of that nation, who died there 727, the
 ninetéene Cal. of Julie, the twentith of his reigne, and whose toombe
 or monument dooth yet remaine (for ought that I doo know to the
 contrarie) with an inscription vpon the same written in Latine
 letters. Néere vnto this towne also is the Danefield, wherein great
 numbers of Danes were slaine, and buried in those hils, which yet
 remaine there to be séene ouer their bones and carcasses. The second
 head (saith he) is at Estburne, and the third at Emmeswell, and
 méeting all togither not farre from Drifield, the water there
 beginneth to be called Hulne, as I haue said alreadie.

 From hence also it goeth through Beuerleie medowes, and comming at the
 last not farre from an arme led from the Hulne by mans hand (and able
 to beare great vessels) almost to Beuerleie towne, which in old time
 either hight or stood in Deirwald, vntill John of Beuerleie (whom
 Leland nameth out of an old author to be the first doctor or teacher
 of diuinitie that euer was in Oxford, and (as it should séeme also by
 an ancient monument yet remaining) to be of an hostell where the
 vniuersitie college now standeth; & therfore they write him, Somtime
 fellow of that house) began to be of fame, of whom it is called
 Beuerleie (as some affirme) to this daie. Indéed all the countrie
 betwéene the Deirwent & the Humber was sometime called Deira, and the
 lower part Caua Deira in respect of the higher soile, but now it is
 named the east Riding. But what is this to my purpose? The Hulne
 therefore being come almost to Beuerleie towne, & méeting thereabout
 [Sidenote: Cottingham.]
 also with the Cottingham becke comming from Westwood by the waie, it
 hasteth to Kingston vpon Hulne or Hull, and so into the Humber without
 anie maner impeachment.

 [Sidenote: Fowlneie.]
 The Fowlneie riseth about Godmanham, from whence it goeth by Wighton,
 Hareswell, Seton, Williams bridge, and soone after spreading it selfe,
 [Sidenote: Skelfléet.]
 one arme called Skelfleet goeth by Cane Cawseie to Brownefléet and so
 into the Ouze. The other passeth by Sandholme, Gilberts dike, Scalbie
 chappell, Blacketoft, and so into the aforesaid Ouze, leauing a verie
 pretie Iland, which is a parcell (as I heare) of Walding fen more,
 though otherwise obscure to vs that dwell here in the south.

 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 The Darwent riseth in the hilles that lie west of Robin Whoodes baie,
 or two miles aboue Aiton bridge, west from Scarborow as Leland saith:
 and yer it hath run farre from the head, it receiueth two rilles in
 one bottome from by west, which ioine withall about Longdale end.
 Thence they go togither to Broxeie, and at Hacknesse take in another
 water comming from about Silseie. Afterward it commeth to Aiton, then
 [Sidenote: Kenford.]
 to Haibridge, and there crosseth the Kenford that descendeth from
 Roberteston. After this also it goeth on to Potersbrumton where it
 taketh in one rill, as it dooth another beneath running from
 Shirburne, and the third yet lower on the further banke, that
 descendeth from Brumton. From these confluences it runneth to
 Fowlbridge, Axbridge, Yeldingham bridge, & so to Cotehouse, receiuing
 by the waie manie waters, & yéelding great plentie of delicate samons
 to such as fish vpon the same. Leland reckoning vp the names of the
 seuerall brookes, numbreth them confusedlie after his accustomed
 order. The Darwent (saith he) receiueth diuerse streames, as the
 [Sidenote: Shirihutton.]
 [Sidenote: Crambecke.]
 Shirihutton. The second is the Crambecke, descending from Hunderskell
 castell (so called Tanquam à centum fontibus, or multitude of springs
 [Sidenote: Rie.]
 that rise about the same) and goeth to Rie, which comming out of the
 [Sidenote: Ricoll.]
 Blackemore, passeth by Riuers abbeie, taking in the Ricoll on the left
 [Sidenote: Seuen.]
 [Sidenote: Costeie.]
 [Sidenote: Pickering.]
 hand, then the Seuen, the Costeie, and Pickering brooke.

 The Seuin also (saith he) riseth in the side of Blackemoore, and
 thence goeth by Sinnington foure miles from Pickering, and about a
 mile aboue a certeine bridge ouer Rie goeth into the streame. The
 Costeie in like sort springeth in the verie edge of Pickering towne,
 at a place called Keld head, and goeth into the Rie two miles beneath
 Pickering, about Kirbie minster. Finallie, Pickering water ariseth in
 Blackemoore, and halfe a mile beneath Pickering falleth into Costeie,
 [Sidenote: Pocklington.]
 meeting by the way with the Pocklington becke, and an other small rill
 or two, of whose names I haue no knowledge. Hitherto Leland. But in
 mine opinion, it had béene far better to haue described them thus. Of
 those waters that fall into the Darwent beneath Cotehouse, the first
 commeth from Swenton, the second from Ebberston, the third from
 Ollerston, the fourth from Thorneton & Pickering, and the fift on the
 other side that commeth thither from Wintringham. For so should he
 haue dealt in better order, and rid his hands of them with more
 expedition, referring the rest also vnto their proper places.

 But to procéed after mine owne maner. Being past Cotehouse, & yer the
 [Sidenote: Rie.]
 Darwent come at Wickham, it crosseth the Rie, which riseth of two
 heads, and ioining west of Locton they run through Glansbie parke.
 [Sidenote: Costeie.]
 Finallie, receiuing the Costeie, it méeteth at the last with an other
 streame increased by the fals of six waters and more yer it come into
 the Darwent.

 [Sidenote: Seuen.]
 The most easterlie of these is called Seuen, and riseth (as is
 aforesaid) in Blackemoore, from whence it goeth by Sinnington, Murton,
 [Sidenote: Don or Done.]
 Normanbie, Newsound, How, and so into the Rie. The second named Don
 hath his originall likewise in Blackemoore, and descending by Rasmore,
 [Sidenote: Hodgebecke.]
 Keldon and Edston (where it receiueth the Hodgebecke, that commeth by
 Bernesdale, Kirkedale, & Welburne) it goeth to Sawlton, and there
 [Sidenote: Ricoll.]
 taketh in first the Ricoll, that goeth by Careton, and whereof Ridall
 [Sidenote: Fesse.]
 (as some think, but falslie) doth séeme to take the name. Then Fesse,
 which riseth aboue Bilisdale chappell, and méeteth with the Rie at the
 Shaking bridge, from whence they go togither vnder the Rie bridge, to
 Riuis abbeie, and thence (after it hath crossed a becke from the west)
 through a parke of the earle of Rutlands to Newton, Muniton, and so to
 [Sidenote: Holbecke.]
 Sawton or Sawlton, as I doo find it written. Here also it taketh in
 the Holbecke brooke, that commeth thither from by west by Gilling
 castell, and Stangraue, from whence it goeth on to Brabie, next into
 the Seuen, then into the Rie, and so into the Darwent, which from
 thence dooth run to Wickham.

 Being past Wickham, it méeteth with a water that commeth thereinto
 from Grinston to Setterington at southeast, and thence it goeth on to
 Malton and Malton (where the prouerbe saith that a bushell of rie and
 an other of malt is woorth but sixpence, carie awaie whilest you may,
 so as you can kéepe them from running through the sackes) Sutton,
 Wellam, Furbie, and Kirkeham, receiuing by the waie one rill on the
 one side and an other on the other, whereof this commeth from
 Burdfall, that other from Conisthorpe. From Kirkeham it goeth to
 Cramburne and Owsham bridge (crossing by the waie an other brooke
 comming from saint Edwards gore, by Faston) then to Aldbie, Buttercram
 (aliàs Butterham) bridge, Stamford bridge, Kerbie bridge, Sutton,
 Ellerton, Aughton, Bubwith, Wresill, Babthorpe, and so into the Ouze,
 wherewith I finish the description of Darwent: sauing that I haue to
 let you vnderstand how Leland heard that an arme ran some time from
 the head of Darwent also to Scarborow, till such time as two hils
 betwixt which it ran, did shalder and so choke vp his course.

 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 The Fosse (a slow streame yet able to beare a good vessell) riseth in
 Nemore Calaterio, that is, Galters wood or Cawood, among the wooddie
 hilles, and in his descent from the higher ground, he leaueth Crake
 castell, on his west side: thence he goeth by Marton abbeie, Marton,
 Stillington, Farlington, Towthorpe, Erswijc, Huntington, & at Yorke
 [Sidenote: Kile.]
 into the Ouze. The Kile riseth flat north at Newborow, from whence it
 goeth by Thorneton on the hill, Ruskell parke, Awne, Tollerton, and so
 [Sidenote: Swale.]
 into the Ouze about Newton vpon Ouze. The Swale is a right noble
 riuer, & march in some places betwéene Richmondshire and Westmerland,
 it riseth not far from Pendragon castell in the hilles aboue
 Kirkedale, and from this towne it goeth to Kelde chappell, Carret
 [Sidenote: Barneie.]
 house, Crackepot, Whiteside, and neere vnto Yalen taketh in the
 Barneie water, which commeth from the north east. Thence it goeth by
 [Sidenote: Arcleie.]
 Harcaside to Reth (where it méeteth with the Arcleie) and so to
 [Sidenote: Holgate.]
 Flemington, Grinton, Marrike (taking in the Holgate that commeth from
 [Sidenote: Mariske becke.]
 by south: and in the waie to Thorpe, the Mariske becke, or
 peraduenture Applegarth water, as Leland calleth it, that descendeth
 from the north) then to Thorpe, Applegarth, Richmond, Easbie and

 Here by north it interteineth two or thrée waters in one chanell,
 [Sidenote: Rauenswath.]
 called Rauenswath water, whereof the two furthest doo ioine not farre
 from the Dawltons, and so go by Rauenswath, Hartfoorth, Gilling, and
 at Skebie méet with the third, comming from Richmond beaconward. By
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 west also of Brunton, the Swale méeteth with the Rhe, running from
 Resdale, and being past Brunton, it goeth to Caterijc bridge beneath
 Brunton, then to Ellerton, Kirkebie, Langton parua, Thirtoft, Anderbie
 [Sidenote: Bedall aliàs Leming.]
 stéeple: and before it come vnto Gatenbie, it meeteth with the Bedall
 brooke, aliàs Lemings becke, that commeth west of Kellirbie, by
 Cunstable, Burton, Langthorpe, Bedall, and Leming chappell. From
 [Sidenote: Wiske.]
 Gattenbie likewise it goeth to Mawbie, & at Brakenbirie receiueth the
 Wiske, which is a great water, rising betwéene two parkes aboue
 Swanbie in one place, and southeast of Mountgrace abbeie in another;
 and after the confluence which is about Siddlebridge, goeth on
 betwéene the Rughtons to Appleton, the Smetons, Birtbie, Hutton
 Coniers, Danbie, Wijc, Yafford, Warlabie, and taking in there a rill
 from Brunton Aluerton, it procéedeth to Otterington, Newlie, Kirbie
 Wiske, Newson, and Blackenburie, there méeting (as I said) with the
 Swale, that runneth fr[=o] thence by Skipton bridge, Catton,
 Topcliffe, and Raniton, and aboue Eldmire méeteth with sundrie other
 [Sidenote: Cawdebec.]
 rilles in one bottome, whereof the northwesterlie is called Cawdebec:
 [Sidenote: Kebecke.]
 the south easterlie Kebecke, which ioine est of Thorneton moore, and
 so go to Thorneton in the stréet, Kiluington, Thruske, Sowerbie,
 Grastwijc, and soone after crossing another growing of the mixture of
 [Sidenote: Cuckwolds becke.]
 the Willow, and likewise of the Cuckewold beckes, which ioine aboue
 Bridforth, and running on till it come almost at Dawlton, it maketh
 confluence with the Swale, and go thence as one with all their samons
 by Thorneton bridge, Mitton vpon Swale, and so into the Ouze.

 [Sidenote: Skell.]
 The Skell riseth out of the west two miles from Founteines abbeie, and
 commeth (as Leland saith) with a faire course by the one side of
 Rippon, as the Vre dooth on the other. And on the bankes hereof stood
 the famous abbeie called Founteines or Adfontes, so much renowmed for
 the lustie monks that sometimes dwelled in the same. It receiueth also
 [Sidenote: Lauer.]
 the Lauer water (which riseth thrée miles from Kirbie, and meeteth
 withall néere vnto Rippon) and finallie falleth into the Vre, a
 quarter of a mile beneath Rippon towne, & almost midwaie betwéene the
 North and Huicke bridges.

 [Sidenote: Nidde.]
 The Nidde, which the booke of statutes called Nidor (anno 13. Edw. 1.)
 and thereto noteth it to be inriched with store of samon, as are also
 the Wheof and Aire, riseth among those hilles that lie by west
 northwest of Gnarresborow, fiue miles aboue Pakeleie bridge, and going
 in short processe of time by Westhouses, Lodgehouses, Woodhall,
 Newhouses, Midlesmore, Raunsgill, Cowthouse, Gowthwall, Bureleie,
 [Sidenote: Killingale.]
 Brimham, Hampeswale, and soone after méeting with the Killingale
 becke, it goeth after the confluence by Bilton parke, Gnaresbridge,
 Washford, Cathall, Willesthorpe, Munketon, or Nonmocke, and so into
 the Ouze, fouretéene miles beneath Gnaresborow, being increased by the
 waie with verie few or no waters of anie countenance. Leland hauing
 said thus much of the Nidde, addeth herevnto the names of two other
 [Sidenote: Couer.]
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 waters, that is to saie, the Couer and the Burne, which doo fall
 likewise into the Vre or Ouze. But as he saith little of the same, so
 among all my pamphlets, I can gather no more of them, than that the
 first riseth six miles aboue Couerham by west, and falleth into the
 Vre, a little beneath Middleham bridge, which is two miles beneath the
 towne of Couerham. As for the Burne, it riseth at More hilles, and
 falleth into the said riuer a little beneath Massham bridge. And so
 much of these two.

 [Sidenote: Wharfe aliàs Gwerfe.]
 The Wharffe or Gwerfe ariseth aboue Vghtershaw, from whence it runneth
 to Beggermons, Rosemill, Hubberham, Backden, Starbotton, Kettlewell,
 Cunniston in Kettlewell, and here it meeteth with a rill comming from
 Haltongill chappell, by Arnecliffe, and ioining withall northeast of
 Kilneseie crag, it passeth ouer by the lower grounds to Girsington,
 and receiuing a rill there also from Tresfeld parke, it proceedeth on
 to Brunsall bridge. Furthermore at Appletréewijc, it méeteth with a
 rill from by north, and thence goeth to Barden towre, Bolton, Beth and
 Misleie hall, where it crosseth a rill comming from by west, thence to
 Addingham, taking in there also another from by west, and so to
 Ikeleie, and receiuing yer long another by north from Denton hall, it
 hasteth to Weston Vauasour, Oteleie, and Letheleie, where it taketh in
 the Padside, & the Washburne (both in one streame from Lindleie ward)
 and thence to Casleie chappell, and there it crosseth one from by
 north, and another yer long from by south, and so to Yardwood castell,
 Kerebie, Woodhall, Collingham, Linton, Wetherbie, Thorpatch, Newton,
 [Sidenote: Cockebecke.]
 Tadcaster, and when it hath receiued the Cockebecke from southwest,
 that goeth by Barwie, Aberfoorth, Leadhall, and Grimston, it runneth
 to Exton, Kirbie Wharfe, Vskell, Rither, Nunapleton, & so into the
 Ouze beneath Cawood, a castell belonging to the archbishop of Yorke,
 where he vseth oft to lie when he refresheth himselfe with change of
 aire and shift of habitation, for the auoiding of such infection as
 may otherwise ingender by his long abode in one place, for want of due
 purgation and airing of his house.

 [Sidenote: Air.]
 The Air or Arre riseth out of a lake or tarne south of Darnbrooke,
 wherein (as I heare) is none other fish but red trowt, and perch.
 Leland saith it riseth néere vnto Orton in Crauen, wherfore the ods is
 but little. It goeth therefore from thence to Mawlam, Hamlith, Kirbie,
 Moldale, Calton hall, Areton, and so foorth till it come almost to
 [Sidenote: Otterburne.]
 Gargraue, there crossing the Otterburne water on the west, and the
 [Sidenote: Winterburne.]
 Winterburne on the north, which at Flasbie receiueth a rill from
 Helton, as I heare. Being past Gargraue, our Air goeth on to Eshton,
 Elswood, and so foorth on, first receiuing a brooke from southwest
 (whereof one branch commeth by Marton, the other by Thorneton, which
 meete about Broughton) then another from northeast, that runneth by
 Skipton castell. After this confluence it hasteth by manifold
 windlesses, which caused thirteene bridges at the last to be ouer the
 same within a little space, to Newbiggin, Bradleie, and Kildwijc, by
 south east whereof it méeteth with one water from Mawsis, and
 [Sidenote: Glike.]
 Glusburne or Glukesburne, called Glike; another likewise a little
 beneath from Seton, beside two rilles from by north, after which
 confluence it runneth by Reddlesden, and ouer against this towne the
 [Sidenote: Lacocke.]
 [Sidenote: Woorth.]
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 Lacocke and the Woorth doo meet withall in one chanell, as the Moreton
 water dooth on the north, although it be somewhat lower. Thence it
 goeth to Rishfoorth hall, and so to Bungleie, where it taketh a rill
 from Denholme parke to Shipeleie, and there crossing another from
 Thorneton, Leuenthorpe, and Bradleie, it goeth to Caluerleie, to
 Christall, and so to Léedes, where one water runneth thereinto by
 north from Wettlewood, & two other from by south in one chanell,
 wherof the first hath two armes, of which the one commeth from Pudseie
 chappell, the other from Adwalton, their confluence being made aboue
 Farnesleie hall. The other likewise hath two heads, whereof one is
 aboue Morleie, the other commeth from Domingleie, and méeting with the
 first not far southwest of Leedes, they fall both into the Air, and so
 [Sidenote: Rodwell.]
 run with the same to Swillington, and there taking in the Rodwell
 becke south of the bridge, it proceedeth to Ollerton, Castleford,
 [Sidenote: Went.]
 Brotherton & Ferribridge, there receiuing the Went, a becke from
 Pontefract or Pomfret, which riseth of diuerse heads, wherof one is
 among the cole pits. Thence to Beall, Berkin, Kellington, middle
 Hodleseie, Templehirst, Gowldall, Snath, Rawcliffe, Newland, Armie,
 and so into the Ouze with an indifferent course. Of all the riuers in
 the north, Leland (in so manie of his bookes as I haue séene) saith
 least of this. Mine annotations also are verie slender in the
 particular waters wherbie it is increased: wherfore I was compelled of
 necessitie to conclude euen thus with the description of the same, and
 had so left it in déed, if I had not receiued one other note more to
 ad vnto it (euen when the leafe was at the presse) which saith as
 followeth in maner word for word.

 There is a noble water that falleth into Air, whose head (as I take
 it) is about Stanford. From whence it goeth to Creston chappell, to
 Lingfield, and there about receiuing one rill néere Elfrabright
 [Sidenote: Hebden.]
 bridge, and also the Hebden by northwest, it goeth to Brearleie hall,
 and so taking in the third by north, it procéedeth on eastward by
 Sorsbie bridge chappell (and there a rill from southwest) and so to
 Coppeleie hall. Beneath this place I find also that it receiueth one
 rill from Hallifax, which riseth from two heads, and two other from
 southwest, of which one commeth by Baresland, and Staneland in one
 chanell, as I read. So that after this confluence the aforesaid water
 goeth on toward Cowford bridge, and as it taketh in two rilles aboue
 the same on the north side, so beneath that bridge there falleth into
 it a pretie arme increased by sundrie waters c[=o]ming from by south,
 as from Marsheden chappell, from Holmesworth chappell, and Kirke
 Heton, each one growing of sundrie heads; whereof I would saie more,
 if I had more intelligence of their seuerall gates and passages.

 But to procéed. From Cowford bridge it runneth to Munfeld, and
 receiuing yer long one rill from Leuersage hall, and another from
 Burshall by Dewesburie, it goeth on northeast of Thornehull, south of
 Horbirie thornes, and thereabout crossing one rill from by south from
 Woller by new Milner Dam, and soone after another from northwest,
 [Sidenote: Chald.]
 called Chald, rising in the Peke hils, whereon Wakefield standeth, and
 likewise the third from southeast, and Waterton hall, it goeth by
 Warmefield, Newland, Altoftes, and finallie into the Aire, west of
 Castelworth, as I learne. What the name of this riuer should be as yet
 I heare not, and therefore no maruell that I doo not set it downe, yet
 is it certeine that it is called Chald, after his c[=o]fluence with
 the Chald, and finallie Chaldair or Chaldar after it hath ioined with
 the Air or Ar. But what is this for his denominations from the head?
 It shall suffice therefore thus farre to haue shewed the course
 thereof: and as for the name I passe it ouer vntill another time.

 [Sidenote: Trent.]
 The Trent is one of the most excellent riuers in the land, not onelie
 for store of samon, sturgeon, and sundrie other kinds of delicate fish
 wherewith it dooth abound, but also for that it is increased with so
 manie waters, as for that onelie cause it may be compared either with
 the Ouze or Sauerne, I meane the second Ouze, whose course I haue
 latelie described. It riseth of two heads which ioine beneath Norton
 in the moore, and from thence goeth to Hilton abbeie, Bucknell church,
 [Sidenote: Foulebrooke.]
 and aboue Stoke receiueth in the Foulebrooke water, which commeth
 thither from Tunstall, by Shelton, and finallie making a confluence
 they go to Hanfleet, where they méet with another on the same side,
 that descendeth from Newcastell vnder Line, which Leland taketh to be
 the verie Trent it selfe, saieng: that it riseth in the hils aboue
 Newcastell, as may be séene by his commentaries.

 But to proceed. At Trentham, or not farre from thence, it crosseth a
 riueret from northeast, whose name I know not, & thence going to Stone
 Aston, Stoke Burston, the Sandons and Weston, a little aboue Shubburne
 & Hawood, it receiueth the Sow, a great chanell increased with sundrie
 waters, which I will here describe, leauing the Trent at Shubburne,
 [Sidenote: Sow.]
 till I come backe againe. The Sow descendeth from the hilles, aboue
 Whitemoore chappell, and goeth by Charleton, and Stawne, and beneath
 Shalford ioineth with another by northeast that commeth from bishops
 Offeleie, Egleshall, Chesbie, Raunton. After this confluence also it
 runneth by Bridgeford, Tillington, & Stafford, beneath which towne
 [Sidenote: Penke.]
 it crosseth the Penke becke, that riseth aboue Nigleton, & Berwood, &
 aboue Penke bridge vniteth it selfe with another comming from
 Knightleie ward, by Gnashall church, Eaton: and so going foorth as
 one, it is not long yer they fall into Sow, after they haue passed
 Draiton, Dunstan, Acton, and Banswich, where loosing their names, they
 with the Sow & the Sow with them doo ioine with the Trent, at
 Shubburne, vpon the southerlie banke.

 From Shubburne the Trent goeth on to little Harwood (meeting by the
 waie one rill at Ousleie bridge, and another south of Riddlesleie)
 thence by Hawksberie, Mauestane, Ridware, and so toward Yoxhall; where
 I must staie a while to consider of other waters, wherewith I méet in
 this voiage. Of these therefore the lesser commeth in by south from
 Farwall, the other from by west, a faire streame, and increased with
 two brooks, whereof the first riseth in Nedewood forrest, northeast of
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 Haggersleie parke, whereinto falleth another west of Hamsteed Ridware,
 called Blith, which riseth among the hilles in Whateleie moore, aboue
 Weston Conie, and thence going to the same towne, it commeth to
 Druicote, aliàs Dracote, Painsleie, Gratwitch, Grimleie, Aldmaston,
 Hamstéed, Ridware, and finallie into the Trent, directlie west of
 Yoxhall, which runneth also from thence, & leauing kings Bromleie in a
 parke (as I take it) on the left hand, and the Blacke water comming
 from Southton and Lichfield on the right, goeth streightwaie to
 [Sidenote: Tame.]
 Catton, where it méeteth with the Tame, whose course I describe as

 It riseth in Staffordshire (as I remember) not farre from Petteshall,
 and goeth foorth by Hamsted, toward Pirihall and Brimichams Aston,
 taking in by the waie a rill on each side, whereof the first groweth
 through a confluence of two waters, the one of them comming from
 Tipton, the other from Aldburie, and so running as one by Wedburie
 till they fall into the same. The latter commeth from Woolfhall, and
 ioineth with it on the left hand. After this, and when it is past the
 aforesaid places, it crosseth in like sort a rill from Smethike ward:
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 thence it goeth to Yarneton hall, beneath which it méeteth with the
 Rhée, and thence through the parke, at Parke hall by Watercote,
 [Sidenote: Cole.]
 crossing finallie the Cole, whose head is in the forrest by
 Kingesnorton wood, and hath this course, whereof I now giue notice. It
 riseth (as I said) in the forrest by Kingesnorton wood, and going by
 Yareleie and Kingeshirst, it méeteth betwéene that and the parke, with
 a water running betwéene Helmedon and Sheldon.

 Thence it passeth on to Coleshull, by east whereof it ioineth with a
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 brooke, mounting southwest of Golihull called Blith, which going by
 Henwood and Barston, crosseth on ech side of Temple Balshall, a rill,
 whereof one commeth through the Quéenes parke or chase that lieth by
 west of Kenelworth, & the other by Kenelworth castell it selfe, from
 about Haselie parke. After which confluences it procéedeth in like
 maner to Hampton in Arden, and the Packingtons, and so to Coleshull,
 where it méeteth with the Cole, that going a little further, vniteth
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 it selfe with the Burne on the one side (whereinto runneth a water
 comming from Ansleie on the east) and soone after on the other dooth
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 fall into the Tame, that which some call the Rhée, a common name to
 all waters that mooue and run from their head. For [Greek: reo] in
 Gréeke is to flow and run, although in truth it is proper to the sea
 onelie to flow. Leland nameth the Brimicham water, whose head (as I
 heare) is aboue Norffield, so that his course shuld be by
 Kingesnorton, Bremicham, Budston hall, till it fall beneath Yarneton
 into the Tame it selfe, that runneth after these confluences on by
 Lée, Kingesbirie parke, and going by east of Draiton, Basset parke, to
 Falkesleie bridge, it méeteth with another water called Burne, also
 comming from Hammerwich church, by Chesterford, Shenton, Thickebrowne,
 and the north side of Draiton, Basset parke, wherof I spake before.
 From hence our Tame runneth on to Tamworth, there taking in the Anchor
 by east, whose description I had in this maner deliuered vnto me.

 It riseth aboue Burton, from whence it goeth by Nonneaton, Witherleie
 and Atherstone. Yer long also it taketh in a water from northeast,
 which commeth by Huglescote, Shapton, Cunston, Twicrosse (vniting it
 [Sidenote: Anchor.]
 selfe with a water from Bosworth) Ratcliffe, & so to the Anchor, which
 after this confluence passeth by Whittendon, Crindon, Pollesworth,
 Armington, Tamworth, & so into Tame, that hasteth to Hopwash,
 Comberford hall, Telford, and soone after crossing a rill that riseth
 short of Swinfield hall, and commeth by Festirike, it runneth not
 farre from Croxhall, and so to Catton, thereabout receiuing his last
 [Sidenote: Mese.]
 increase not worthie to be omitted. This brooke is named Mese, and it
 riseth in the great parke that lieth betwéene Worthington, and
 Smethike, from whence also it goeth by Ashbie de la Souche,
 Packington, Mesham, and Stretton, and therabout crossing a rill about
 Nethersale grange, from Ouersale by east, it proceedeth by Chilcote,
 Clifton, Croxall, into the Thame, and both out of hand into the maine
 riuer a mile aboue Repton. Leland writing of this riuer (as I earst
 noted) saith thereof in this wise. Into the Thame also runneth the
 Bremicham brooke, which riseth foure or fiue miles about Bremicham in
 the Blacke hils in Worcestershire, and goeth into the aforesaid water
 a mile aboue Crudworth bridge. Certes (saith he) this Bremicham is a
 towne mainteined chieflie by smiths, nailers, cutlers, edgetoole
 forgers, lorimers or bitmakers, which haue their iron out of Stafford
 and Warwijc shires, and coles also out of the first countie. Hitherto
 Leland. Now to resume the Trent, which being growen to some
 greatnesse, goeth on to Walton, Drakelow, and there crossing a water
 that commeth by Newbold hall, it runneth to Stapenell, Winshull,
 Wightmere, and Newton Souch, where it receiueth two chanels within a
 short space, to be described apart.

 [Sidenote: Dou.]
 The first of these is called the Dou or Doue, it riseth about the
 thrée shires méere, and is as it were limes betweene Stafford and
 Darbishires, vntill it come at the Trent. Descending therefore from
 the head, it goeth by Earlesbooth, Pilsburie grange, Hartington,
 Wolscot, Eaton, Hunsington grange, and aboue Thorpe receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Manifold.]
 Manifold water, so called, bicause of the sundrie crinckling rills
 that it receiueth, and turnagaines that it selfe sheweth before it
 come at the Dou. Rising therefore not farre from Axe edge crosse (in
 the bottome thereby) it runneth from thence to Longmore, Shéene,
 Warslow chappell, and Welton.

 [Sidenote: Hansleie.]
 Beneath Welton also it taketh in the Hansleie water, that commeth out
 of Blackemoore hilles to Watersall, where it falleth into the ground:
 and afterward mounting againe is receiued into the Manifold, north of
 Throwleie (as I heare) which goeth from thence to Ilam, and aboue
 Thorpe dooth cast it selfe into Dou. Hauing therefore met togither
 after this maner, the Dou procéedeth on to Maplington, beneath which
 it crosseth one water descending from Brassington by Fennie Bentleie,
 and another somewhat lower that commeth from Hocston hall by Hognaston
 and Ashburne, and then going to Matterfield, Narburie, Ellaston,
 [Sidenote: Churne.]
 Rawston Rowcester, it meeteth with the Churne, euen here to be
 described before I go anie further. It riseth a good waie aboue
 Delacrasse abbie, and comming thither by Hellesbie wood, it taketh in
 [Sidenote: Dunsmere.]
 the Dunsmere, betwéene Harracrasse and Leike.

 [Sidenote: Yendor.]
 Thence it goeth to the Walgrange, and a little beneath receiueth the
 Yendor that commeth from aboue Harton, thence to Cheddleton, and
 [Sidenote: Aula Canuti.]
 [Sidenote: Ashenhirst.]
 hauing crossed the Ashenhirst brooke aboue Cnutes hall, it runneth by
 Ypston, Froghall, Below hill, Alton castell, Préestwood, and at
 Rowcester falleth into the Dou, which yer long also receiueth a rill
 [Sidenote: Teine.]
 from Crowsden, and then going to Eton méeteth first with the Teine
 that commeth thither from each side of Chedleie by Teinetowne,
 [Sidenote: Vttoxeter or Vncester.]
 Bramhirst and Stranehill. Secondlie with the Vncester or Vttoxeter
 water, and then going on to Merchington, Sidberie, Cawlton, it
 crosseth a brooke from Sidmister college, by Saperton. From this
 confluence in like sort it passeth foorth to Tilberie castell,
 Marston, and at Edgerton méeteth with the water that commeth from
 Yeldersleie by Longford (whereinto runneth another that commeth from
 Hollington) and so to Hilton. These waters being thus ioined, and
 manie ends brought into one, the Dou it selfe falleth yer long
 likewise into the Trent, aboue Newton Souch. So that the maine riuer
 being thus inlarged, goeth onwards with his course, and betwéene
 Willington and Repton meeteth with two waters on sundrie sides,
 whereof that which falleth in by Willington, riseth néere Dawberie
 Lies, and runneth by Trusselie and Ashe: the other that entereth aboue
 Repton, descendeth from Hartesburne, so that the Trent being past
 these, hasteth to Twiford, Inglebie, Staunton, Weston, Newton, and
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 Aston, yer long also méeting with the Darwent; next of all to be
 dispatched. The Darwent, or (to vse the verie British word) Dowr gwine
 (but in Latine Fluuius Dereuantanus) riseth plaine west, néere vnto
 the edge of Darbishire, aboue Blackwell a market towne, and from the
 head runneth to the New chappell, within a few miles after it be
 risen. From hence moreouer it goeth by Howden house, Darwent chappell,
 [Sidenote: Neue.]
 Yorkeshire bridge, and at Witham bridge dooth crosse the Neue or
 Nouius that commeth from Newstole hill, by Netherburgh, Hope (crossing
 there one rill from Castelton, another from Bradwell, and the third at
 Hathersage, from Stonie ridge hill) and so goeth on to Padleie,
 Stockehall, receiuing a rill by the waie from by west, to Stonie
 [Sidenote: Burbroke.]
 Middleton, and Baslow, and hauing here taken in the Burbrooke on the
 one side, and another from Halsop on the other, it goeth to Chatworth
 and to Rowseleie, where it is increased with the Wie comming from by
 west, and also a rill on the east, a little higher. But I will
 describe the Wie before I go anie further.

 [Sidenote: Wie.]
 The Wie riseth aboue Buxston well, and there is increased with the
 [Sidenote: Hawkeshow.]
 [Sidenote: Wile.]
 Hawkeshow, and the Wile brooke, whose heads are also further distant
 from the edge of Darbishire than that of Wie, and races somwhat
 longer, though neither of them be worthie to be accompted long. For
 the Wile, hauing two heads, the one of them is not farre aboue the
 place where Wilebecke abbeie stood, the other is further off by west,
 about Wilebecke towne: and finallie ioining in one they runne to
 Cuckneie village, where receiuing a becke that commeth downe from by
 west, it holdeth on two miles further, there taking in the second
 [Sidenote: Rufford aliàs Manbecke.]
 rill, and so resort to Rufford, or the Manbecke. Vnto this also doo
 other two rills repaire, wherof the one goeth through and the other
 hard by Maunsfield, of which two also this latter riseth west about
 foure miles, and runneth foorth to Clipston (three miles lower) and so
 likewise to Rufford, whereof I will speake hereafter. In the meane
 time to returne againe to the Wie. From Buxston well, it runneth to
 Staddon, Cowdale, Cowlow, New medow, Milhouses, Bankewell, and Haddon
 [Sidenote: Lathkell.]
 hall, beneath which it receiueth the Lath kell, that runneth by
 [Sidenote: Bradford.]
 Ouerhaddon, and the Bradford, both in one bottome after they be ioined
 in one at Alport. And this is the first great water that our Darwent
 dooth méet withall. Being therefore past the Rowsleies, the said
 Darwent goeth to Stancliffe, Darleie in the peake, Wensleie,
 Smitterton hall, and at Matlocke taketh in a rill by northeast, as it
 dooth another at Crumford that goeth by Boteshall.

 From Mattocke, it procéedeth to Watston, or Watsond, Well bridge,
 [Sidenote: Amber.]
 Alderwash, and ioineth with another streame called Amber comming in
 from by north by Amber bridge, whose description shall insue in this
 wise, as I find it. The head of Amber is aboue Edleston hall, or (as
 Leland saith) est of Chesterfield, and comming from thence by
 Middleton to Ogston hall, it taketh withall another brooke, descending
 from Hardwijc wood, by Alton and Streton. Thence it goeth to Higham,
 Brackenfield, and aboue Dale bridge meeteth with a brooke running from
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 Hucknalward to Shireland parke side, there crossing the Moreton becke,
 and so to Alferton, except I name it wrong. From Dale bridge it goeth
 by Wingfeld, to Hedge, Fritchlin, and so into Darwent, taking the
 water withall that descendeth from Swanswijc by Pentridge, as Leland
 doth remember. From this confluence likewise it runneth to Belper,
 where it méeteth with a rill comming from Morleie parke: thence to
 [Sidenote: Eglesburne.]
 Makenie, and at Duffeld, receiueth the Eglesburne, which ariseth about
 Wirkesworth or Oresworth, but in the same parish out of a rocke, and
 commeth in by Turnedich. From Duffeld, it passeth to Bradsall, Darleie
 abbeie, and at Darbie taketh in a rill comming from Mirkaston by
 Weston vnderwood, Kidleston and Merton. If a man should say that
 Darwent riuer giueth name to Darbie towne, he should not well know how
 euerie one would take it, and peraduenture therby he might happen to
 offend some. In the meane time I beleeue it, let other iudge as
 pleaseth them, sith my coniecture can preiudice none. To proceed
 therefore. From Darbie it runneth on by Aluaston, Ambaston, the
 [Sidenote: Sora, or Surus.]
 Welles, and so into Trent, which goeth from hence to Sawleie, and
 north of Thrumpton taketh in the Sore, a faire streame, and not
 worthie to be ouerpassed.

 It riseth in Leicestershire aboue Wigton, and thence goeth to
 Sharneford, Sapcote, and beneath Staunton taketh in a rill that
 commeth by Dounton and Broughton Astleie. Thence to Marleborow, and
 before it come to Eston, crosseth another on the same side (descending
 by Burton, Glen, Winstow, Kilbie and Blabie) then to Leircester towne,
 Belgraue, Burstall, Wanlip; and yer it come at Cussington or Cositon,
 [Sidenote: Eie.]
 crosseth the Eie, which riseth néere Occam aboue Bramston, going by
 [Sidenote: _Leland_ calleth one of these rilles Croco.]
 Knawstow, Somerbie, Pickwell, Whitesonden; and beneath (a litle)
 receiueth a rill on the right hand, from Coldnorton. Thence to
 Stapleford, & soone after crossing a brooke from aboue Sproxton,
 Coson, Garthorpe and Sarbie, it runneth to Wiuerbie, Brentingbie; and
 yer it come at Milton, meeteth with two other small rilles, from the
 right hand whereof one commeth from about Caldwell by Thorpe Arnold,
 and Waltham in the Would; the other from Skaleford ward, and from
 Melton goeth by Sisonbie, there méeting with another from northeast
 ouer against Kirbie Hellars, after which time the name of Eie is
 [Sidenote: Warke, Vrke, or Wreke.]
 changed into Warke or Vrke, and so continueth vntill it come at the
 Soure. From hence also it goeth to Asterbie, Radgale, Habie,
 Trussington, Ratcliffe; and soone after crosseth sundrie waters not
 verie farre in sunder, whereof one commeth from Oueston, by Twiford,
 Ashbie, and Gadesbie; another from Losebie, by Baggraue, and Crawston,
 and ioining with the first at Ouennihow, it is not long yer they fall
 into the Warke. The second runneth from Engarsbie, by Barkeleie, and
 Sison. But the third and greatest of the thrée, is a chanell increased
 with thrée waters, whereof one commeth from Norton by Burton, Kilbie,
 Foston and Blabie, the other from Dounton by Broughton and Astleie,
 and méeting with the third from Sapcoth, and stonie Staunton, they run
 togither by Narborow, and soone after ioining aboue Elston, with the
 first of the thrée, they go as one by Elston to Leircester, Belgraue,
 Wanlip, and aboue Cussington doo fall into the Warke, and soone after
 into the Soure. The Soure in like sort going from thence to mount
 Sorrell, & taking in another brooke southwest from Leircester forrest,
 by Glenfield, Austie, Thurcaston and Rodelie, ioineth with the Soure,
 which goeth from thence to mount Sorrell, and Quarendon (where it
 taketh in a water comming from Charnewood forrest, and goeth by
 Bradegate and Swithland) and then procéedeth to Cotes, Lughborow and
 Stanford, there also taking in one rill out of Nottinghamshire by
 northeast; and soone after another from southwest, comming from
 Braceden to Shepesheued, Garrington, & Dighlie grange, and likewise
 the third from Worthington, by Disworth, long Whitton, and Wathorne.
 Finallie, after these confluences, it hasteth to Sutton, Kingston, and
 Ratcliffe, and so into the Trent.

 These things being thus brought togither, and we now resuming the
 discourse of the same riuer, it dooth after his méeting with the
 [Sidenote: Erwash.]
 Soure, procéed withall to Barton, where it taketh in the Erwash, which
 riseth about Kirbie, and thence goeth to Selston, Wansbie, Codnor
 castell, Estwood, and crossing a water from Beuall, runneth to
 Coshall, Trowell (and there taking in another rill comming from Henor
 by Shipleie) it proceedeth on to Stapleford, long Eaton, and so into
 the Trent. This being doone it goeth to Clifton, and yer it come at
 Wilford, it méeteth with a brooke that passeth from Staunton by Bonnie
 and Rodington, and thence to Notingham, where it crosseth the Line,
 which riseth aboue Newsted; and passing by Papplewijc, Hucknall,
 Bafford, Radford and Linton, next of all to Thorpe & Farmdon, where it
 brancheth and maketh an Iland, and into the smaller of them goeth a
 brooke from Beuer castell, which rising betweene east Well and Eaton
 [Sidenote: Dene.]
 in Leircester is called the Dene, and from thence runneth by Bramston
 to Knipton, & beneath Knipton méeteth with a brooke that commeth by
 west of Croxston, and thence holdeth on with his course, betwéene
 Willesthorpe and Beuer castell aforesaid, and so to Bottesworth,
 [Sidenote: Snite.]
 Normanton, Killington, Shilton, there receiuing the Snite from by
 south (whose head is néere Clauston, & course from thence by Hickling,
 Langer, Whalton, Orston, and Flareborow) and yer long another comming
 from Bingham, and Sibthorpe. Thence our Trent runneth to Coxam,
 Hawton, Newarke castell, and so to Winthorpe, where the branches are
 reunited, and thence going on by Holme to Cromwell (and soone after
 taking in a brooke comming from Bilsthorpe, by Kersall, Cawnton,
 Norwell and Willowbie) to Carlton, and to Sutton, there making a litle
 Ile, then to Grinton, where it toucheth a streame on ech side, whereof
 one commeth from Morehouse by Weston & Gresthorpe, another from
 Langthorpe, by Collingham, and Bosthorpe. From hence likewise it
 passeth to Clifton, Newton, Kettlethorpe, Torkeseie, Knash,
 Gainsborow, Waltrith, Stockwith; and leauing Axholme on the left hand,
 it taketh withall Hogdike water out of the Ile, and so goeth foorth to
 Wildsworth, Eastferrie, Frusworth, Burringham, Gummeis, Hixburgh,
 Burton, Walcote, and at Ankerburie into the Humber, receiuing the
 swift Doue by the waie, which for his noblenesse is not to be
 ouerpassed, especiallie for that Anno 1536 Hen. 8, 28, it was (by Gods
 prouidence) a staie of great bloudshed like to haue fallen out
 betwéene the kings side and the rebelles of the north, in a quarrell
 [Sidenote: A miracle.]
 about religion. For the night before the battle should haue béene
 stricken, and without anie apparent cause (a little showre of raine
 excepted farre vnpossible vpon such a sudden to haue made so great a
 water) the said riuer arose so high, & ran with such vehemencie, that
 on the morow the armies could not ioine to trie & fight it out: after
 which a pacification insued, and those countries were left in quiet.
 Secondlie, the description hereof is not to be ouerpassed, bicause of
 the fine grasse which groweth vpon the banks thereof, which is so fine
 and batable, that there goeth a prouerbe vpon the same; so oft as a
 man will commend his pasture, to say that there is no better féed on
 Doue banke: that maketh it also the more famous.

 [Sidenote: Doue.]
 The Doue therefore riseth in Yorkeshire among the Peke hilles, and
 hauing receiued a water comming by Ingbirchworth (where the colour
 thereof is verie blacke) it goeth to Pennistone, which is foure miles
 from the head: then by Oxspring to Thurgoland, and soone after
 (ioining by the waie with the Midhop water, that runneth by Midhop
 chappell, and Hondshelfe) it méeteth with another comming from
 Bowsterston chappell. Then goeth it by Waddesleie wood to Waddesleie
 bridge, and at Aluerton receiueth the Bradfeld water. Then passeth it
 to Crokes, and so to Sheffeld castell (by east whereof it receiueth a
 brooke from by south that commeth through Sheffeld parke.) Thence it
 procéedeth to Westford bridge, Briksie bridge; and southwest of
 [Sidenote: Cowleie.]
 Timsleie receiueth the Cowleie streame that runneth by Ecclefield.
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 Next of all it goeth to Rotheram, where it méeteth with the Rother, a
 goodlie water, whose head is in Darbieshire about Pilsleie, from
 whence it goeth vnder the name of Doleie, till it come at Rotheram, by
 north Winfield church, Wingerworth, and Foreland hall, twelue miles
 [Sidenote: Iber.]
 [Sidenote: Brampton.]
 from Rotheram, to Chesterford, where it méeteth with the Iber, and
 Brampton water that commeth by Holme hall, both in one chanell. Thence
 it runneth to Topton castell, and yer long crossing one water comming
 from Dronefeld by Whittington on the one side, and the second from
 aboue Birmington on the other, it goeth through Stalie parke, and
 soone after méeteth with the Crawleie becke, whereof I find this note.

 [Sidenote: Crawleie.]
 The Crawleie riseth not farre from Hardwijc, and going by Stanesbie
 and Woodhouse, it receiueth aboue Netherthorpe, one water on the one
 side comming from the Old parke, and another from Barlborow hill on
 the other, that runneth not farre from Woodthorpe. After this
 confluence likewise they run as one into the Rother, which hasteth
 from thence to Eckington (there crossing a rill that runneth by
 Birleie hill) and so to Kilmarsh, in the confines of Darbieshire,
 [Sidenote: Gunno.]
 where it taketh in the Gunno from by east. Thence to Boughton, vniting
 it selfe therabout with another by west from Gledles, called
 [Sidenote: Mesebrooke.]
 Mesebrooke, which diuideth Yorkeshire from Darbieshire, and so runneth
 to Treton, Whiston, there taking in a rill from Aston, and so to
 Rotheram, where it méeteth with the Doue, and from whence our Doue
 (yéelding plentie of samon all the waie as it passeth) hasteth to
 Aldwarke, Swaiton, Mexburge, there taking in the Darne, which I will
 next describe, and staie with the Doue, vntill I haue finished the
 same. It riseth at Combworth, and so commeth about by Bretton hall, to
 Darton ward, where it crosseth a water that runneth from Gonthwake
 hall, by Cawthorne vnited of two heads. From hence it goeth to Burton
 grange, then to Drax, where it toucheth with a water from southwest, &
 then goeth to Derfield and Goldthorpe: but yer it come to Sprotborow,
 it vniteth it selfe with a faire riuer, increased by diuerse waters,
 before it come at the Doue, & whereinto it falleth (as I heare)
 northeast of Mexburgh. After this confluence likewise the Doue goeth
 by Sprotborow, to Warnesworth, Doncaster, Wheatleie, (there méeting
 [Sidenote: Hampall.]
 with the Hampall créeke on the northeast side, which riseth east of
 Kirbie) thence to Sandall, Kirke Sandall, Branwith ferrie, Stanford,
 Fishlake, and so to Thuorne or Thurne, where it crosseth the Idle
 (whose description followeth) and finallie into Trent, and so into the

 But before I deale with the description of the Idle, I will adde
 somewhat of the Rume, a faire water. For though the description
 thereof be not so exactlie deliuered me as I looked for; yet such as
 it is I will set downe, conferring it with Lelands booke, and helping
 their defect so much as to me is possible. It riseth by south of
 Maunsfield, fiue miles from Rumford abbeie, and when the streame
 commeth neere the abbeie, it casteth it selfe abroad and maketh a
 faire lake. After this it commeth againe into a narrow channell, and
 [Sidenote: Budbie.]
 [Sidenote: Gerberton.]
 so goeth on to Rumford village, carrieng the Budbie and the Gerberton
 waters withall. From thence, and with a méetlie long course, it goeth
 to Bawtrie or Vautrie, a market towne in Nottinghamshire, fiue miles
 from Doncaster, and so into the Trent. Beneath Rumford also commeth in
 [Sidenote: Girt.]
 the Girt, which goeth vnto Southwell milles, and so into the Trent.
 Now as concerning our Idle.

 [Sidenote: Idle.]
 The Idle, which some call Brier streame, riseth at Sutton in Ashfield,
 from whence it runneth to Maunsfield, Clipston & Allerton, where it
 taketh in a water that riseth in the forrest, one mile north of
 Bledworth, and runneth on by Rughford abbeie, till it come to
 [Sidenote: Manbecke.]
 Allerton. The forresters call this Manbecke, whereof Leland also
 speaketh, who describeth it in this maner. Manbrooke riseth somewhere
 about Linthirst wood, from whence it goeth to Blisthorpe, and so to
 Allerton. But to procéed. The Idle hauing taken in the Manbecke, it
 runneth to Bothomsall, by Boughton, & Perlethorpe: but yer it come
 [Sidenote: Meding becke.]
 there, it méeteth the Meding Maiden, or Midding brooke, which rising
 about Teuersall, goeth to Pleasleie, Nettleworth, Sawcan, Warsop,
 Budleie, Thursbie, Bothomsall, and so into the Idle. After this it
 proceedeth to Houghton, west Draiton, but yer it touch at Graunston or
 [Sidenote: Wilie.]
 Gaunston, it taketh in the Wilie, which commeth from Clowne, to
 Creswell, Holbecke, Woodhouse, Wilebecke, Normenton, Elsleie,
 Graunston, and so into the Idle. Being thus increased, the Idle
 runneth on to Idleton, Ordsall, Retford, Bollam, Tilneie, Matterseie
 abbeie, and so to Bawtrie, where it méeteth another from the shire
 Okes, that riseth aboue Geitford, passeth on to Worksop (or Radfurth)
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 Osberton, Bilbie, and Blith, there vniting it selfe with thrée rilles
 in one bottome, whereof one commeth from Waldingwell to Careleton, and
 so thorough a parke to Blith towne, another from by west Furbecke
 thrée miles, and so to Blith: but the third out of the White water
 néere to Blith, and there being vnited they passe on to Scrobie, and
 so into the Idle.

 From hence it runneth on to Missen, to Sadlers bridge, and next of all
 [Sidenote: Sandbecke.]
 to Santoft, where it méeteth with the Sandbecke, which rising not
 farre from Sandbecke towne, passeth by Tickhill, Rosington bridge,
 Brampton, Rilholme, Lindholme, and one mile south of Santoft into the
 Idle water, which runneth from thence to Thorne, where it méeteth with
 the Doue, and so with it to Crowleie. Finallie, inuironing the Ile of
 Axeholme, it goeth vnto Garthorpe, Focorbie, & so into the Trent.
 Leland writing of the Wilie, Wile, or Gwilie (as some write it) saith
 thus therof. The Wile hath two heads, whereof one is not farre aboue
 the place where Wilbecke abbeie stood; the other riseth further off by
 west aboue Welbecke or Wilebecke towne: finallie ioining in one, they
 runne to Cuckeneie village, where crossing a becke that commeth in
 from by west, it holdeth on two miles further, there taking in the
 second rill, and so resort to Rufford. To this riuer likewise (saith
 he) doo two other waters repaire, whereof the one goeth hard by
 Maunsfield (rising foure miles from thence by west) and then commeth
 thrée miles lower to Rufford; the other (so far as I remember) goeth
 quite through the towne.



 Hauing in this maner described the Ouze, and such riuers as fall into
 the same: now it resteth that I procéed in my voiage toward the
 Thames, according to my former order. Being therefore come againe into
 the maine sea, I find no water of anie countenance or course (to my
 [Sidenote: Ancolme.]
 remembrance) till I come vnto the Ancolme a goodlie water, which
 riseth east of Mercate Rasing, and from thence goeth by middle Rasing.
 Then receiuing a short rill from by south, it runneth on vnder two
 bridges, by the waie, till it come to Wingall, northeast; where also
 it méeteth with another brooke, from Vsselbie that commeth thither by
 Vresbie, goeth by Cadneie (taking in the two rilles in one bottome,
 that descend from Howsham, and north Leiseie) and thence to Newsted,
 Glanford, Wardeleie, Thorneham, Applebie, Horslow, north Ferribie, and
 so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Kilis.]
 Being past Ancolme, we go about the Nesse, and so to the fall of the
 water which commeth from Kelebie, by Cotham abbeie, Nersham abbeie,
 Thorneton, and leauing Coxhill by west, it falleth into the Ocean. The
 next is the fall of another brooke comming from Fleting, all alongst
 by Stallingburne. Then crossed we Grimsbie gullet, which issuing aboue
 Erebie commeth to Lasebie, the two Cotes, and then into the sea. After
 this we passed by another portlet, whose backwater descendeth from
 Balesbie by Ashbie, Briggesleie, Wath, and Towneie, and finallie to
 the next issue, before we come at Saltflete, which branching at the
 last, leaueth a prettie Iland wherein Comsholme village standeth. This
 water riseth short (as I heare) of Tathewell, from whence it goeth to
 Rathbie, Hallington, Essington, Lowth, Kidirington, Auingham, and then
 branching aboue north Somerton, one arme méeteth with the sea, by
 Grauethorpe, the other by north of Somercote.

 [Sidenote: Saltflete.]
 Saltflete water hath but a short course: for rising among the
 Cockeringtons, it commeth to the sea, at Saltflete hauen: howbeit the
 next vnto it is of a longer race, for it riseth (as I take it) at
 Cawthorpe paroch, and descendeth by Legburne, the Carletons, the west
 middle and east Saltfletes, and so into the Ocean. The water that
 riseth aboue Ormesbie and Dribie, goeth to Cawsbie, Swabie abbeie,
 Clathorpe, Belew, Tattle, Witherne, Stane, and northeast of
 Thetilthorpe into the maine sea.

 [Sidenote: Maplethorpe]
 Maplethorpe water riseth at Tharesthorpe, and going by Markeleie,
 Folethorpe, and Truthorpe, it is not long yer it méet with the Germane
 Ocean. Then come we to the issue that commeth from aboue the Hotoft,
 and thence to Mumbie chappell, whither the water comming from Claxbie,
 Willowbie, and Slouthbie (and whereinto another rill falleth) dooth
 runne, as there to doo homage vnto their lord and souereigne. As for
 Ingold mill créeke, I passe it ouer, and come straight to another
 water, descending from Burge by Skegnes. From hence I go to the issue
 of a faire brooke, which (as I heare) dooth rise at Tetford, and
 thence goeth by Somerbie, Bagenderbie, Ashwardbie, Sawsthorpe,
 Partneie, Ashbie, the Stepings, Thorpe croft, and so into the sea. As
 for Wainflete water, it commeth from the east sea, and goeth betwéene
 S. Maries & Alhallowes by Wainflete towne, and treading the path of
 his predecessors, emptieth his chanell to the maintenance of the sea.

 Now come I to the course of the Witham, a famous riuer, whereof goeth
 the biword, frequented of old, and also of Ancolme, which I before

   Ancolme ele, and Witham pike,
   Search all England and find not the like.

 [Sidenote: Lindis, Witham, Rhe.]
 Leland calleth it Lindis, diuerse the Rhe, and I haue read all these
 names my selfe: and thereto that the Lincolneshire men were called in
 old time Coritani, and their head citie Lindus, Lindon, or Linodunum,
 in which region also Ptolomie placeth Rage, which some take to be
 Notingham, except my memorie doo faile me. It riseth among the
 Wickhams, in the edge of Lincolnshire, and (as I take it) in
 south-Wickham paroch, from whence it goeth to Colsterworth, Easton,
 Kirkestoke Paunton, and Paunton Houghton, and at Grantham taketh in a
 rill from by southwest, as I heare. From Grantham it runneth to Man,
 Thorpe, Bolton, and Barneston, where crossing a becke from northeast,
 it procéedeth further southwest ward by Mereston, toward Faston (there
 also taking in a brooke that riseth about Denton, and goeth by
 Sidbrooke) it hasteth to Dodington, Clapale, Barmebie, Beckingham,
 Stapleford, Bassingham, Thursbie, and beneath Amburgh crosseth a water
 that commeth from Stogilthorpe by Somerton castell.

 After this confluence also, our Witham goeth still foorth on his waie
 to the Hickhams, Boltham, Bracebridge, and Lincolne it selfe, for
 which the Normans write Nicholl by transposition of the letters, or
 (as I may better saie) corruption of the word. But yer it come there,
 it maketh certeine pooles (whereof one is called Swan poole) and soone
 after diuiding it selfe into armes, they run both thorough the lower
 part of Lincolne, each of them hauing a bridge of stone ouer it,
 thereby to passe through the principall stréet: and as the bigger arme
 is well able to beare their fisher botes, so the lesser is not without
 his seuerall commodities. At Lincolne also this noble riuer méeteth
 [Sidenote: Fosse dike.]
 with the Fosse dike, whereby in great floods vessels may come from the
 Trents side to Lincolne. For betweene Torkseie, where it beginneth,
 and Lincolne citie, where it endeth, are not aboue seuen miles, as
 Leland hath remembred. Bishop Atwater began to clense this ditch,
 thinking to bring great vessels from Trent to Lincolne in his time:
 but sith he died before it was performed, there hath no man beene
 since so well minded as to prosecute his purpose. The course moreouer
 of this our streame following, from Lincolne to Boston is fiftie miles
 by water: but if you mind to ferrie, you shall haue but 24. For there
 are foure common places where men are ferried ouer; as Short ferrie,
 fiue miles from Lincolne, Tatersall ferrie, eight miles from Short
 ferrie, Dogdike ferrie a mile, Langreth ferrie fiue miles, and so
 manie finallie to Boston.

 But to go forward with the course of Lindis (whereof the whole
 prouince hath béene called Lindeseie) when it is past Lincolne, it
 goeth by Shepewash, Wassingburg, Fiskerton, and soone after taketh in
 sundrie riuers in one chanell, whereby his greatnesse is verie much
 increased. From this confluence it goeth to Bardolfe, and there
 receíuing a rill (descending from betweene Sotbie and Randbie, and
 going by Harton) it slideth foorth by Tupham to Tatersall castell,
 taking vp there in like sort thrée small rills by the waie, whereof I
 haue small notice as yet: and therefore I referre them vnto a further
 consideration to be had of them hereafter, if it shall please God that
 I may liue to haue the filing of these rude pamphlets yet once againe,
 & somewhat more leasure to peruse them than at this time is granted.
 Finallie, being past Tatersall, and Dogdike ferrie, the Witham goeth
 toward Boston, & thence into the sea. Thus haue I brieflie dispatched
 this noble riuer Witham. But hauing another note deliuered me thereof
 from a fréend, I will yéeld so farre vnto his gratification, that I
 will remember his trauell here, and set downe also what he hath
 written thereof, although the riuer be sufficientlie described

 [Sidenote: Witham.]
 Into Witham therefore from by north, and seuen miles beneath Lincolne,
 [Sidenote: Hake.]
 there falleth a faire water, the head whereof is at Hakethorne, from
 whence it goeth by Hanworth, Snarford, Resbie, Stainton, and at
 Bullington méeteth with a water on ech side, whereof one commeth from
 Haiton and Turrington, the other from Sudbrooke, and likewise beneath
 Birlings with the third comming from Barkeworth by Stansted, and
 ioining all in one, soone after it is not long yer it fall into the
 chanell of Witham, and so are neuer more heard of. There is also a
 brooke by southwest, that commeth from Kirbie to Cateleie, Billingams,
 [Sidenote: Bane.]
 and the Ferrie. At Tatersall it méeteth with the Bane, which riseth
 aboue Burgh, and néere vnto Ludford goeth downe to Dunnington,
 Stanigod, Hemmingsbie, Bamburgh, Fillington, Horne castell, (where it
 crosseth a rill from Belchworth) Thornton, Marton, Halton, Kirkebie,
 Comsbie, Tatersall, and so to Dogdike ferrie.

 Aboue Boston likewise it taketh in a water comming from Lusebie by
 Bolingbrooke, Stickeford, Stickneie, Sibbeseie and Hildrike. And to
 Boston towne it selfe doo finallie come sundrie brookes in one
 chanell, called Hammond becke, which rising at Donesbie, runneth on to
 Wrightbold, where it casteth one arme into Holiwell water. Thence it
 hasteth toward Dunnington, receiuing four brookes by the waie, whereof
 the first commeth from Milthorpe, the second from Fokingham, called
 [Sidenote: Bollingborow.]
 Bollingborow, or (after some, I wote not vpon what occasion)
 [Sidenote: Sempringham.]
 Sempringham water, the third from Bridge end, the fourth from
 Sempringham, and afterwards the maine streame is found to run by
 Kirton holme, and so into the Witham. Into the Wiland likewise falleth
 the Holiwell, which riseth of a spring that runneth toward the east
 from Haliwell to Onebie, Esonden, Gretford, and so to Catbridge, where
 it receiueth another rising at Witham and west of Manthorpe, and the
 second comming from Laund, and so run from thence togither to
 Willesthorpe and Catbridge, and then into the Haliwell, which after
 these confluences goeth to Tetford and Eastcote, where it meeteth with
 a draine, comming from Bourne, and so through the fennes to
 Pinchbecke, Surfleet, and Fosdike, where it méeteth with the Welland,
 in the mouth of the Wash, as I haue noted vnto you.

 [Sidenote: Wiland.]
 Hauing thus set foorth the riuers that fall into the Witham, now come
 we to the Wiland or Welland, wherevnto we repaire after we be past
 Boston, as drawing by litle and litle toward the Girwies, which
 inhabit in the fennes (for Gir in the old Saxon speach dooth signifie
 déepe fennes and marishes) and these beginning at Peterborow eastward,
 extend themselues by the space of thrée score miles & more, as Hugh of
 Peterborow writeth. This streame riseth about Sibbertoft, and running
 betwéene Bosworth and Howthorpe, it goeth to Féedingworth, Merson,
 [Sidenote: Braie.]
 Bubberham, Trussell, Herborow (receiuing there the Braie, which
 commeth from Braiebrooke castell) to Bowton, Weston, Wiland, Ashleie,
 Medburne, Rokingham, and Cawcot, where a riueret called little Eie
 méeteth withall, comming from east Norton by Alexstone, Stocke,
 Fasten, and Drie stocke. From Cawcot it goeth to Gritto, Harringworth,
 Seton, Wauerlie, Duddington, Collie Weston, Eston, and there ioineth
 [Sidenote: Warke.]
 with the third called Warke, not far from Ketton, which commeth from
 Lie by Preston, Wing, Lindon, Luffenham, &c. Thence it goeth on by
 [Sidenote: Brooke water.]
 [Sidenote: Whitnell.]
 Tinwell, to Stanford (crossing the Brooke water, and Whitnelbecke,
 both in one bottome) and from Stanford by Talington, Mareie, to
 Mercate Deeping, Crowland (where it almost meeteth with the Auon) then
 to Spalding, Whapland, and so into the sea.

 Leland writing of this Wiland, addeth these words which I will not
 omit, sith in mine opinion they are worthie to be noted, for better
 consideration to be had in the said water and his course. The Wiland
 (saith he) going by Crowland, at Newdrene diuideth it selfe into two
 [Sidenote: Newdrene.]
 branches, of which one goeth vp to Spalding called Newdrene, and so
 [Sidenote: South.]
 into the sea at Fossedike Stow: the other named the South into
 Wisbech. This latter also parteth it selfe two miles from Crowland,
 [Sidenote: Writhlake.]
 sendeth a rill called Writhlake by Thorneie, where it méeteth with an
 arme of the Nene, that commeth from Peterborow, and holdeth course
 with the broad streame, till it be come to Murho, six miles from
 Wisbech, where it falleth into the South.

 [Sidenote: Shéepees eie.]
 Out of the South in like sort falleth another arme called Sheepes eie
 and at Hopelode (which is fouretéene miles from Lin) did fall into the
 sea. But now the course of that streame is ceased, wherevpon the
 inhabitants susteine manie grieuous flouds, bicause the mouth is
 stanched, by which it had accesse before into the sea. Hitherto
 Leland. Of the course of this riuer also from Stanford, I note this
 furthermore out of another writing in my time. Being past Stanton
 (saith he) it goeth by Burghleie, Vffington, Tallington, Mareie,
 Déeping, east Deeping, and comming to Waldram hall, it brancheth into
 two armes, whereof that which goeth to Singlesole, receiueth the Nene
 out of Cambridgeshire, and then going by Dowesdale, Trekenhole, and
 winding at last to Wisbech, it goeth by Liuerington, saint Maries, and
 so into the sea. The other arme hasteth to Crowland, Clowthouse,
 Bretherhouse, Pikale, Cowbecke and Spalding. Here also it receiueth
 the Baston dreane, Longtoft dreane, Déeping dreane, and thence goeth
 by Wickham into the sea, taking withall on the right hand sundrie
 other dreanes. And thus farre he.

 Next of all, when we are past these, we come to another fall of water
 into the Wash, which descendeth directlie from Whaplade dreane to
 Whaplade towne in Holland: but bicause it is a water of small
 importance, I passe from thence, as hasting to the Nene, of both the
 more noble riuer: and about the middest thereof in place is a certeine
 swallow, so déepe and so cold in the middest of summer, that no man
 dare diue to the bottome thereof for coldnesse, and yet for all that
 in winter neuer found to haue béene touched with frost, much lesse to
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 be couered with ise. The next therefore to be described is the Auon,
 [Sidenote: Nene.]
 otherwise called Nene, which the said author describeth after this
 maner. The Nene beginneth foure miles aboue Northampton in Nene méere,
 where it riseth out of two heads, which ioine about Northampton. Of
 this riuer the citie and countrie beareth the name, although we now
 pronounce Hampton for Auondune, which errour is committed also in
 south Auondune, as we may easilie see. In another place Leland
 describeth the said riuer after this maner. The Auon riseth in Nene
 méere field, and going by Oundale and Peterborow, it diuideth it selfe
 into thrée armes, whereof one goeth to Horneie, another to Wisbech,
 the third to Ramseie: and afterward being vnited againe, they fall
 into the sea not verie farre from Lin. Finallie, the descent of these
 waters leaue here a great sort of Ilands, wherof Elie, Crowland, and
 Mersland, are the chiefe. Hitherto Leland.

 Howbeit, because neither of these descriptions touch the course of
 this riuer at the full, I will set downe the third, which shall
 supplie whatsoeuer the other doo want. The Auon therefore arising in
 Nenemere field, is increased with manie rilles, before it come at
 Northampton, & one aboue Kings thorpe, from whence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Vedunus.]
 Dallington, and so to Northhampton, where it receiueth the Wedon. And
 here I will staie, till I haue described this riuer. The Wedon
 therefore riseth at Faulesse in master Knightlies pooles, and in
 Badbie plashes also are certeine springs that resort vnto this
 streame. Faulesse pooles are a mile from Chareton, where the head of
 Chare riuer is, that runneth to Banberie. There is but an hill called
 Alberie hill betwéene the heads of these two riuers.

 From the said hill therefore the Wedon directeth his course to Badbie,
 Newenham, Euerton, Wedon, betwixt which and Floretowne, it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Florus.]
 the Florus (a pretie water rising of foure heads, whereof the one is
 at Dauentrie, another at Watford, the third at long Bucke, the fourth
 aboue Whilton) and then passeth on to Heiford, Kislingberie, Vpton,
 and so to Northhampton, where it falleth into the Auon, receiuing
 [Sidenote: Bugius.]
 finallie by the waie the Bugbrooke water at Heiford, Patshall water
 néere Kislingberie, and finallie Preston water beneath Vpton, which
 running from Preston by Wootton, méeteth at the last with Milton rill,
 and so fall into Auon. Now to resume the tractation of our Auon. From
 Northhampton therefore it runneth by Houghton, great Billing,
 Whitstone, Dodington, and Willingborow, where we must staie a while:
 for betweene Willingborow and Higham ferries, it receiueth a pretie
 [Sidenote: Kilis.]
 water comming from about Kilmarsh, which going by Ardingworth,
 Daisborow, Rusheton, Newton, Gaddington, Boughton, Warketon,
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 Kettering, Berton, and Burton, méeteth there with Rothwell water,
 which runneth west of Kettering to Hisham, the greater Haridon, and
 then into the Auon.

 Being therfore past Burton, our maine streame goeth to Higham Ferries,
 Artleborow, Ringsted, Woodford, and (méeting thereby with Cranford
 [Sidenote: Ocleie.]
 rill) to Thraxton, north whereof it ioineth also with the Ocleie
 water, that commeth from Sudborow and Lowicke, to old Vmkles, Waden
 ho, Pilketon, Toke (where it taketh in the Liueden becke) and so to
 Oundell, Cotterstocke, Tansoner, and betweene Tothering and Warmington
 [Sidenote: Corbie.]
 receiueth the Corbie water, which rising at Corbie, goeth by Weldon,
 Denethap, Bulwich, Bletherwijc, Fineshed, Axthorpe, Newton, Tothering,
 and so into the Auon. After this, the said Auon goeth to Elton,
 Massittgton, Yerwell, Sutton, Castor, Allerton, and so to Peterborow,
 where it diuideth it selfe into sundrie armes, and those into seuerall
 branches and draines, among the fennes and medowes, not possible
 almost to be numbred, before it méet with the sea on the one side of
 the countrie, and fall into the Ouze on the other.

 [Sidenote: Isis 3.]
 The Ouze, which Leland calleth the third Isis, falleth into the sea
 betwéene Mersland & Downeham. The chiefe head of this riuer ariseth
 néere to Stanes, from whence it commeth to Brackleie (sometime a noble
 towne in Northampton shire, but now scarselie a good village) and
 there taking in on the left hand one water comming from the parke
 [Sidenote: Sisa.]
 betwéene Sisam and Astwell (which runneth by Whitfield and Tinweston)
 [Sidenote: Imelus.]
 and another on the right from Imleie, it goeth on by Westbirie,
 Fulwell, water Stretford, Buckingham, and Berton, beneath which towne
 the Erin falleth into it, whereof I find this short description to be
 [Sidenote: Erin.]
 inserted here. The Erin riseth not farre from Hardwijc in
 Northamptonshire, from hence it goeth by Heth, Erinford, Godderington,
 Twiford, Steeple Cladon, & yer it come at Padbirie, méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Garan.]
 Garan brooke descending from Garanburge, and so they go togither by
 Padbirie, till they fall into the Ouze, which carieth them after the
 confluence to Thorneton bridge (where they crosse another fall of
 water comming from Whitlewood forrest by Luffeld, Lecamsted and
 Foscot) and so to Beachampton, Culuerton, Stonie Stratford, and

 [Sidenote: Verus.]
 Here the Ouze méeteth with a water (called, as Leland coniectureth,
 the Vere or Were) on the left hand, as you go downewards, that commeth
 betwéene Wedon and Wexenham in Northamptonshire, and goeth by
 Towcester, and Alderton, and not farre from Woluerton and Hauersham
 into the foresaid Ouze, which goeth also from hence to
 Newportpaganell, where in like sort I must staie a while till I haue
 [Sidenote: Cle aliàs Claius.]
 described another water, named the Clée, by whose issue the said
 streame is not a little increased. This riuer riseth in the verie
 confines betwéene Buckingham and Bedfordshires, not farre from
 Whippesnade, and going on toward the northwest, by Eaton and Laiton,
 it commeth to Linchlade, where it entreth whollie into
 Buckinghamshire, and so goeth on by Hammond, Brickle, Fennie
 Stratford, Simpson, Walton and Middleton, beneath which it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Saw.]
 the Saw from aboue Halcot, and so goeth on till it meet with the Ouze
 néere vnto Newport, as I haue said. Being vnited therefore, we set
 forward from the said towne, and follow this noble riuer, to
 Lathbirie, Thuringham, Filgrane, Lawndon, Newington, Bradfield on the
 one side, and Turueie on the other, till it come at length to Bedford
 after manie windlesses, and then méeteth with another streame, which
 is increased with so manie waters, that I was inforced to make an
 imagined staie here also, and view their seuerall courses, supposing
 my selfe to looke downe from the highest steeple in Bedford, whence
 (as best meane to view anie countrie wheresoeuer) I note the same as

 Certes on the east side, where I began this speculation, I saw one
 that came from Potton, and met withall néere Becliswade: another that
 grew of two waters, wherof one descended from Baldocke, the other from
 Hitchin, which ioined beneth Arleseie, and thence went to Langford and
 [Sidenote: These rise not far from Michelborow
 & one of them in Higham parke.]
 Edworth. The third which I beheld had in like sort two heads, wherof
 one is not farre from Wood end, the other from Wooburne (or Howburne),
 and ioining about Flitwijc, they go to Flitton (where they receiue
 Antill brooke) and so by Chiphill, and Chicksand, they come to
 Shafford, from whence taking the aforsaid Langford water with them,
 they go foorth by Becliswade, Sandie, Blumham, and neere vnto
 Themisford are vnited with the Ouze. And now to our purpose againe.

 [Sidenote: Verus or the Were.]
 After this the Ouze goeth by Berkeford, to Winteringham (méeting there
 with the Wareslie becke) and so runneth to S. Neotes (or saint Nedes,
 [Sidenote: Stoueus.]
 in old time Goluesburg, as Capgraue saith In vita Neoti) to Paxston,
 Offordes, and so to Godmanchester, in old time called Gumicester,
 which (as it should séeme) hath béene a towne of farre greater
 countenance than at this present it is; for out of the ruines thereof
 much Romane coine is found, and sometimes with the image of C. Antius
 which hath long haire, as the Romans had before they receiued barbars
 into their citie, and therevnto the bones of diuerse men of farre
 greater stature than is credible to be spoken of in these daies. But
 what stand I vpon these things? From hence therfore our water goeth on
 to Huntingdon, Wilton, saint Iues, Holiwell, and Erith, receiueth in
 [Sidenote: Stoueus.]
 [Sidenote: Helenus.]
 [Sidenote: Elmerus.]
 the meane time the Stow (néere vnto little Paxton) and likewise the
 Ellen, and the Emmer, in one chanell a little by west of Huntingdon.

 Finallie, the maine streame spreading abroad into the Fennes, I cannot
 tell into how manie branches, neither how manie Ilets are inforced by
 the same; although of Iles, Marshland, Ancarig or Ancarie be the
 chiefe, and of which this later is called Crowland (as Crowland also
 hight thornie A cruda terra, or store of bushes saith Hugo le Blanc)
 sometime growing in the same, and Ancarijc because sundrie Ancres haue
 liued & borne great swaie therein. But howsoeuer this case standeth,
 this is certeine, that after it hath thus delited it selfe with
 ranging a while about the pleasant bottoms & lower grounds, it méeteth
 with the Granta, from whence it goeth with a swift course vnto
 Downeham. Betwéene it also and the Auon, are sundrie large meeres or
 plashes, by southwest of Peterborow full of powts and carpes, whereof
 [Sidenote: Riuelus.]
 Whittleseie méere, and Ramseie méere (whereinto the Riuall falleth),
 that commeth from aboue Broughton, Wiston, and great Riuelleie) are
 said to be greatest. Of all the riuers that run into this streame,
 [Sidenote: Granta.]
 that called Granta (whereof the whole countie in old time was called
 Grantabrycshire, as appéereth by the register of Henrie prior of
 Canturburie) is the most noble and excellent, which I will describe
 euen in this place, notwithstanding that I had earst appointed it vnto
 my second booke. But for somuch as a description of Ouze and Granta
 were deliuered me togither, I will for his sake that gaue them me, not
 separate them now in sunder.

 The verie furthest head and originall of this riuer is in Henham, a
 large parke belonging to the earle of Sussex, wherein (as the
 townesmen saie) are foure springs that run foure sundrie waies into
 the maine sea. Leland sought not the course of this water aboue
 Newport pond, and therefore in his commentaries vpon the song of the
 swan, he writeth thereof after this maner insuing. Although doctor
 Iohn Caius the learned physician, and some other are of the opinion,
 that this riuer comming from Newport, is properlie to be called the
 Rhée: but I may not so easilie dissent from Leland, whose iudgement in
 my mind is by a great deale the more likelie. Harken therefore what he

 The head of Grantha or Granta, is in the pond at Newport, a towne of
 the east Saxons, which going in a bottome beside the same, receiueth a
 pretie rill, which in the middest thereof dooth driue a mill, and
 descendeth from Wickin Bonhant, that standeth not farre from thence.
 Being past Newport, it goeth alongst in the lower ground, vntill it
 come to Broke Walden, west of Chipping Walden (now Saffron Walden)
 hard by the lord Awdleis place, where the right honorable Thomas
 Howard with his houshold doo soiourne, and sometime stood an abbeie of
 Benedictine moonks, before their generall suppression. From Awdleie
 end it goeth to Littleburie, the lesse and greater Chesterfords,
 Yealdune, Hincstone, Seoston or Sawson, and néere vnto Shaleford
 [Sidenote: Babren.]
 receiueth the Babren that commeth by Linton, Abbington, Babrenham, and
 Stapleford: and so going forward it commeth at the last to
 Trompington, which is a mile from Cambridge. But yer it come
 altogither to Trompington, it méeteth with the Barrington water, as
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 Leland calleth it, but some other the Rhee (a common name to all
 waters in the Saxon speech) whereof I find this description, to be
 touched by the waie. The Rhée riseth short of Ashwell in
 Hertfordshire, and passing under the bridge betweene Gilden Mordon and
 Downton, and leauing Tadlow on the west side (as I remember) it goeth
 toward Crawden, Malton, Barrington, Haselingfield, and so into Granta,
 taking sundrie rills with him from south and southwest, as Wendie
 water southwest of Crawden, Whaddon brooke southwest of Orwell,
 Mildred becke southwest of Malton, and finallie the Orme which commeth
 out of Armington or Ormendum well, and goeth by Fulmere and Foxton,
 and falleth into the same betweene Barrington and Harleston, or
 Harston; as they call it.

 Now to procéed with our Granta. From Trompington on the one side, and
 Grantcester, on the other, it hasteth to Cambridge ward, taking the
 Burne with it by the waie, which descendeth from a castell of the same
 denomination, wherein the Picotes and Peuerels sometime did inhabit.
 Thence it goeth by sundrie colleges in Cambridge, as the queenes
 college, the kings college, Clare hall, Trinitie college, S. Johns,
 &c: vnto the high bridge of Cambridge, and betwéene the towne and the
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 castell to Chesterton, and receiuing by and by the Stoure, or Sture
 (at whose bridge the most famous mart in England is yearlie holden and
 kept) from Chesterton it goeth to Ditton, Milton, and yer long méeting
 with two rilles (from Bottesham and Wilberham, in one bottome) it
 runneth to Horningseie, & Water Bech: and finallie here ioining with
 [Sidenote: Bulbecke.]
 the Bulbecke water, it goeth by Dennie, and so forth into the Ouze,
 fiftéene miles from Cambridge, as Leland hath set downe. And thus much
 of the third Isis or Ouze, out of the aforesaid author: wherevnto I
 haue not onelie added somewhat of mine owne experience, but also of
 other mens notes, whose diligent obseruation of the course of this
 riuer hath not a little helped me in the description of the same. Now
 it resteth that we come neerer to the coast of Northfolke, and set
 foorth such waters as we passe by vpon the same, wherein I will deale
 so preciselie as I may: and so farre will I trauell therein, as I hope
 shall content euen the curious reader: or if anie fault be made, it
 shall not be so great, but that after some trauell in the finding, it
 shall with ease be corrected.

 The first riuer that therefore we come vnto, after we be past the
 confluence of Granta, and the Ouze, and within the iurisdiction of
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Northfolke, is called the Burne. This streame riseth not verie farre
 from Burne Bradfield, aboue the greater Wheltham, and from thence it
 goeth on to Nawnton, Burie, Farneham Martin, Farneham Alhallowes,
 Farneham Genouefa, Hengraue, Flemton, Lackeford, Icklingham, and to
 [Sidenote: Dale.]
 Milden hall: a little beneath which, it meeteth with the Dale water,
 that springeth not farre from Catilege, and going by Asheleie, Moulton
 (a benefice as the report goeth not verie well prouided for) to
 Kenford, Kenet, Bradingham, Frekenham, it falleth at the last not
 farre from Iselham into the Burne, from whence they go togither as one
 into the Ouze. With the Burne also there ioineth a water comming from
 about Lidgate, a little beneath Iselham, and not verie far from

 [Sidenote: Dunus.]
 The Dune head, and rising of Wauenheie, are not much in sunder: for as
 it is supposed, they are both not farre distant from the bridge
 betwéene Loph[=a]m and Ford, wherby the one runneth east and the other
 west, as I haue béene informed. The Dune goeth first of all by
 Feltham, then to Hopton, & to Kinets hall, where it meeteth with a
 water c[=o]ming out of a lake short of Banham (going, by Quiddenham,
 Herling, Gasthorpe) and so on, both in one chanell, they run to
 Ewston. Here they méet in like sort, with another descending from two
 heads, wherof the one is néere vnto Pakenham, the other to Tauestocke,
 as I heare. Certes these heads ioine aboue Ilesworth, not farre from
 Stow Langtoft, from whence they go to Yxworth, Thorpe, Berdwell,
 Hunnington, Fakenham, and so into the Dune at Ewston; as I said. From
 hence also they hasten to Downeham, which of this riuer dooth séeme to
 borow his name. South Rée rill I passe ouer as not worthie the
 description, because it is so small.

 [Sidenote: Bradunus fortè.]
 Next vnto this riuer on the south side is the Braden, or Bradunus,
 which riseth at Bradenham, and goeth by Necton, north Peckenham, south
 Peckenham, Kirsingham, Bedneie, Langford, Igbor, Munford, North Old,
 Stockebridge, Ferdham, Helgie, and so into the Ouze. The néerest vnto
 [Sidenote: Linus.]
 this is another which riseth about Lukeham, and from thence commeth to
 Lexham, Massingham, Newton, the castell Acre, Acres, Nerboe, Pentneie,
 Wrongeie, Rounghton (which at one time might haue béene my liuing if I
 would haue giuen sir Thomas Rugband money inough, but now it belongeth
 to Gundeuill and Caius college in Cambridge) Westchurch, and so to
 Linne. As so dooth also another by north of this, which commeth from
 [Sidenote: Congunus.]
 the east hilles by Congenham, Grimston, Bawseie, Gaiwood, whereof let
 this suffice. And now giue eare to the rest sith I am past the Ouze.
 Being past the mouth or fall of the Ouze, we méet next of all with the
 [Sidenote: Rising.]
 Rising chase water, which Ptolomie (as some thinke) doth call Metaris,
 [Sidenote: Ingell.]
 and descendeth from two heads, and also the Ingell that commeth from
 about Snetsham. From hence we go by the point of saint Edmund, and so
 hold on our course till we come vnto the Burne, which falleth into the
 sea by south from Waterden, and going betwéene the Crakes to Burnham
 Thorpe, and Burnham Norton, it striketh at the last into the sea; east
 of Burnham Norton a mile at the least, except my coniecture doo faile
 [Sidenote: Glouius.]
 me. The Glow or Glowie riseth not far from Baconsthorpe, in the
 hundred of Tunsted; & going by and by into Holt hundred, it passeth by
 Hunworth, Thornage, Glawnsford, Blackneie, Clare, and so into the sea,
 receiuing there at hand also a rill by east, which descendeth from the
 hilles lieng betwéene Killing towne and Waiburne.

 [Sidenote: Wantsume.]
 The Wantsume riseth in Northfolke at Galesend in Holt hundred, from
 whence it goeth to Watersend, Townton, Skelthorpe, Farneham,
 Pensthorpe, Rieburg, Ellingham, and Billingsford. And here it
 receiueth two waters in one bottome, of which the first goeth by
 Stanfield and Beteleie, the other by Wandling and Gressonhall, and so
 run on ech his owne waie, till they méet at Houndlington, southwest of
 Billingsford with the Wantsume. From hence they go all togither to
 Below, Ieng, Weston, and Moreton; but yer it come to Moreton, it
 [Sidenote: Yocus.]
 méeteth with the Yowke, which (issuing about Yexham) goeth by
 Matteshall and Barrow. After this the said Wantsume goeth on by
 Ringland, and so to Norwich the pontificall sée of the bishop, to
 whome that iurisdiction apperteineth, which seemeth by this memoriall
 yet remaining in the corrupted name of the water, to be called in old
 time Venta, or (as Leland addeth) Venta Icenorum. But to procéed.
 Beneath Norwich also it receiueth two waters in one chanell, which I
 will seuerallie describe, according to their courses, noting their
 confluence to be at Bixleie, within two miles of Norwich, except my
 annotation deceiue me. The first of these hath two heads wherof one
 mounteth vp southwest of Whinborow, goeth by Gerneston, and is the
 [Sidenote: Hierus.]
 [Sidenote: Gerus.]
 verie Hiere or Yare that drowneth the name of Wantsume, so soone as he
 meeteth withall. The other head riseth at Wood in Mitford hundred, and
 after confluence with the Hiere at Caston, going by Brandon, Bixton,
 Berford, Erleham, Cringlefield (not farre from Bixleie as I said) doth
 méet with his companion, which is the second to be described as
 followeth. It hath two heads also that méet northwest of Therstane;
 and hereof the one commeth from Findon hall, by Wrenningham from about
 Wotton, by Hemnall, Fretton, Stretton, and Tasborow, till they ioine
 at Therston, as I gaue notice aforehand. From Therston therefore they
 go togither in one to Newton, Shotesham, Dunston, Castor, Arminghale,
 Bixleie, Lakenham, and Trowse, and then fall into the Wantsume beneath
 Norwich, which hereafter is named Hiere. The Hiere, Yare, or Gare
 therefore proceeding in his voiage, as it were to salute his grandame
 the Ocean, goeth from thence by Paswijc, Surlingham, Claxton, and
 Yardleie; and here it meeteth againe with another riueret descending
 from about Shotesham to Therstane, Shedgraue, Hockingham, and so into
 Gare or Yare, whereof Yardleie the towne receiueth denomination. After
 this it goeth to Frethorpe, and aboue Burgh castell meeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Wauen.]
 Waueneie, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 Into this riuer also falleth the Bure, which rising at a towne of the
 same name, passeth by Milton, Buresdune, Corpesteie, Marington,
 Blekeling, Bure, Alesham, Brampton, Buxton, Horsted, Werxham bridge,
 [Sidenote: Thurinus.]
 Horning, Raneworth; and beneath Bastewijc receiueth the Thurine which
 riseth aboue Rolesbie; then to Obie, Clipsbie (there also receiuing
 another from Filbie) Rimham, Castor, and by Yarmouth into the Ocean.
 The Waueneie afore mentioned, riseth on the south side of Brisingham,
 and is a limit betweene Northfolke and Suffolke. Going therefore by
 Dis, Starton, not farre from Octe, it méeteth with the Eie, which
 riseth néere Ockold, or betwéene it and Braisworth, & goeth on by
 [Sidenote: Wauen.]
 Brome, Octe, and so into the Waueneie. From thence our Waueneie
 runneth by Silam, Brodish, Nedam, Harleston, Rednam, Alborow, Flixton,
 Bungeie, Sheepemedow, Barsham, Beckles, Albie, & at Whiteacre (as I
 heare) parteth in twaine, or receiuing Milford water (which is most
 [Sidenote: Einus.]
 likelie) it goeth along by Somerleie, Hormingfléet, S. Olaues, (there
 [Sidenote: Fritha.]
 receiuing the Frithstane or Fristan brooke, out of low or litle
 England) Fristan & Burgh castell, where it méeteth with the Hiere, &
 from thencefoorth accompanieth it (as I said) vnto the sea. Willingham
 water commeth by Hensted, Einsted, or Enistate, and falleth into the
 sea by south of Kesland.

 [Sidenote: Cokelus.]
 The Cokell riseth south southwest of Cokeleie towne in Blithe hundred,
 and neere vnto Hastelworth it meeteth with the rill that commeth from
 Wisset, and so going on togither by Wenhaston, and Bliborow, it
 falleth into the sea at an hauen betwéene Roidon and Walderswicke. A
 little rill runneth also thereinto from Eston by Sowold, and another
 from Dunwich, by Walderswijke: and hereby it wanteth little that Eston
 Nesse is not cut off and made a pretie Iland.

 [Sidenote: Ford.]
 The Ford riseth at Poxford, and going by Forderleie, and Theberton, it
 [Sidenote: Orus.]
 falleth at last into Mismere créeke. Into the Oreford hauen runneth
 one water comming from Aldborow ward, by a narrow passage from the
 [Sidenote: Fromus.]
 north into the south. By west wherof (when we are past a little Ile)
 it receiueth the second, descending from betwéene Talingston and
 Framingham in Plomes hundred; which c[=o]ming at last to Marleford,
 [Sidenote: Glema.]
 meeteth with a rill southwest of Farnham called the Gleme (that
 commeth by Rendlesham, the Gleinhams) and so passing foorth, it taketh
 another at Snapesbridge, comming from Carleton by Saxmundham,
 [Sidenote: Iken, or Ike.]
 Sternefield & Snape. Then going to Iken (where it méeteth with the
 third rill at the west side) it fetcheth a compasse by Sudburne east
 of Orford, and so into the hauen. Next vnto this by west of Orford,
 there runneth vp another créeke by Butleie, whereinto the waters
 comming from Cellesford, and from the Ike, doo run both in one
 bottome. And thus much of Orford hauen.

 [Sidenote: Deua.]
 The Deue riseth in Debenham, in the hundred of Hertesméere, and from
 thence goeth to Mickford, Winston, Cretingham, Lethringham, Wickham,
 hitherto still creeping toward the south: but then going in maner full
 south, it runneth neere vnto Ash, Rendlesham, Vfford, Melton, and
 Woodbridge, beneath which it receiueth on the west side, a water
 comming of two heads, wherof one is by north from Oteleie, and the
 other by south from Henleie, which ioining west of Mertelsham, go vnto
 the said towne and so into the Deue, east of Mertelsham abouesaid.
 [Sidenote: Clarus fons.]
 From thence the Deue goeth by Waldringfield and Henleie, and méeting
 soone after with Brightwell brooke, it hasteth into the maine sea,
 leauing Bawdseie on the east, where the fall therof is called Bawdseie

 [Sidenote: Vrus.]
 Vre riseth not farre from Bacton, in Hertesmeere hundred, and thense
 descendeth into Stow hundred by Gipping Newton, Dagworth, Stow
 (beneath which it méeteth with a water comming from Rattlesden, by one
 house) and so going on to Nedeham (through Bosméere and Claidon
 hundreds) to Blakenham, Bramford, Ypswich, receiuing beneath Stoke,
 which lieth ouer against Ypswich, the Chatsham water, that goeth by
 Belsted, and so into the Vre, at the mouth whereof is a maruellous
 deepe and large pit, whereof some marriners saie that they could neuer
 find the bottome, and therefore calling it a well, and ioining the
 name of the riuer withall, it commeth to passe that the hauen there is
 called Vrewell, for which in these daies we doo pronounce it Orwell.
 Into this hauen also the Sture or Stoure hath readie passage, which
 remaineth in this treatise next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 The Sture or Stoure parteth Essex from Suffolke, as Houeden saith, and
 experience confirmeth. It ariseth in Suffolke, out of a lake neere
 vnto a towne called Stourméere. For although there come two rilles
 vnto the same, whereof the one descendeth from Thirlo, the Wratings
 and Ketton, the other from Horshed parke, by Hauerill, &c: yet in
 summer time they are often drie, so that they cannot be said to be
 perpetuall heads vnto the aforesaid riuer. The Stoure therefore
 (being, as I take it, called by Ptolomie, Edomania, for thereon toward
 the mouth standeth a prettie towne named Manitrée, which carieth some
 shadow of that ancient name thereof vnto this daie, if my coniecture
 be any thing) ariseth at Stouremeere, which is a poole conteining
 twentie acres of ground at the least, the one side whereof is full of
 alders, the other of réeds, wherin the great store of fish there bred,
 is not a little succoured. From this méere also it goeth to Bathorne
 bridge, to Stocke clare, Cawndish, Pentlo, Paules Beauchampe, Milford,
 Foxerth, Buresleie, Sudburie, Bures, Boxsted, Stoke, Nailand, Lanham,
 Dedham, Strotford, east Barfold, Brampton, Manitree, Catwade bridge,
 and so into the sea, where in the verie fall also it ioineth with
 Orwell hauen, so néere that of manie they are reputed as one, and
 parted but by a shingle that dooth run along betwéene them: neither
 dooth it passe cléere in this voiage, but as it were often occupied by
 the waie, in receiuing sundrie brookes and rilles not héere to be

 For on Essex side it hath one from Hemsted, which goeth by Bumsted,
 and Birdbrooke: another rising short of Foxerth, that runneth by water
 Beauchampe, Brundon, and falleth into the same at Badlington, west of
 Sudburie: and the third that glideth by Horkesleie, and méeteth
 withall west of Boxsted. On the north, or vpon Suffolke side, it
 receiueth one descending from Catiledge, by Bradleie, Thurlow,
 Wratting, Kiddington, and at Hauerell falleth into this Sture. The
 second descendeth northward from Posling field, and ioineth therewith
 east of Clare. It was in old time called Cicux or Ceuxis, and it
 méeteth with the Stoure in such wise that they séeme to make a right
 angle, in the point almost wherof standeth a ruinous castell. Howbeit
 as sithence which time this water (in some mens iudgement) hath béene
 named Clarus (not so much for the greatnesse as clearnesse of the
 streame) even so the Stoure it selfe was also called Ens as they say,
 and after their confluence the whole Clarens, which giueth
 denomination to a duchie of this Iland of no small fame and honour.
 But these are but méere fables, sith the word Clare is deriued from
 the towne, wherein was an house of religion erected to one Clara, and
 Clarens brought from the same, because of an honour the prince had in
 those parties: which may suffice to know from whence the name
 proceedeth. The third ariseth of two heads, whereof one commeth from
 Wickham brooke, the other from Chedbar in Risbie hundred, and ioining
 about Stanfield, it goeth by Hawton, Somerton, Boxsted, Stansted, and
 north of Foxerth falleth into Stoure. The fourth issueth from betwéene
 the Waldingfields, and goeth by Edwardstone, Boxsted, Alington,
 Polsted, Stoke, and so at south Boxsted falleth into the same. The
 fift riseth northwest of Cockefield, and goeth to Cockefield, Laneham,
 [Sidenote: Kettle baston.]
 Brimsleie, Midling, and receiuing Kettle Baston water southwest of
 Chelsworth (and likewise the Breton that commeth from Bretenham, by
 Hitcheham, and Bisseton stréet on the south east of the same towne) it
 goeth in by Nedging, Aldham, Hadleie, Lainham, Shellie, Higham, and so
 into the Stoure. The sixt is a little rill descending southwest from
 Chappell. The seuenth riseth betweene Chappell and Bentleie, and going
 betwéene Tatingston, and Whetsted, Holbrooke, and Sutton, it falleth
 at length into Stoure, and from thence is neuer heard of.

 [Sidenote: Ocleie.]
 As for Ocleie Drill, that riseth betweene Ocleie, and Wikes parkes,
 and so goeth into the Stoure, on Essex side, west of Harwich, and east
 of Rée Ile; I passe it ouer, because it is of it selfe but a rill, and
 not of anie greatnesse, till it come to the mill aboue Ramseie bridge,
 where I was once almost drowned (by reason of the ruinous bridge which
 leadeth ouer the streame being there verie great) as an arme of the
 sea that continuallie ebbeth & floweth. Next vnto this, we came to
 [Sidenote: Mosa.]
 another that runneth south of Beaumont by Mosse, and falleth into the
 sea about the middest of the Baie, betwixt Harwich and the Naze.
 Betwixt the Naze also and the mouth of Colne, is another rill, which
 riseth at little Bentleie, and thence goeth to Tendring thorpe,
 [Sidenote: Claco.]
 through Clacton parke by great Holland, and east of little Holland,
 into the déepe sea.

 [Sidenote: Colunus.]
 The Colne hath three heads, whereof one is at Ouington that goeth by
 Tilberie, and east of Yeldam falleth into the chiefe head which riseth
 about Redgewell in Essex, from whence also it goeth to Yeldam and
 Hedingham, otherwise called Yngham: also Hedningham or Heuedingham,
 [Sidenote: * Sic.]
 [*] or Heuedingham of the superioritie which accrued therevnto,
 because the chiefe lords of the same from time to time kept residence
 in the towne. For Heued or Hed signifieth The chiefe, in the old
 English language, which in the name of this and manie other townes and
 villages yet standing in England cannot easilie be forgotten. The
 third falleth in south of Yeldam, and being once met all in one
 chanell, and called the Colne, it goeth (as I said) to Hedningham,
 Hawsted, Erles Colne, Wakes Colne, Fordon, Bardfold, Colchester, in
 old time Camalodunum, and so into the sea at Brickleseie. Some thinke
 that Colchester and Camalodunum are sundrie cities and situat in
 diuerse places, whereby Maldon (or Ithancester out of whose ruines the
 said towne of Maldon was erected) should rather be Camalodunum than
 Colchester, but hereof I cannot iudge. Indeed if (as Leland saith)
 Maldon should be written Malodunum, it were a likelihood that there
 assertions should be probable. Some reason also may be gathered for
 the same out of Dion, and such as make the Thames mouth to take his
 beginning at Colchester water. But I dare not presume to conclude any
 thing hereof, least I should séeme rashlie to take hold of euerie
 coniecture. This I relie vpon rather as a more certeintie, that in the
 first edition of this treatise I was persuaded, that the sea entring
 by the Colne made thrée seuerall passages fr[=o] thence into the land:
 but now I vnderstand that these are seuerall entrances and streames,
 of which the Colne is one, another is the Salcote water, which commeth
 in beneath the Stroud (a causeie that leadeth vnto Merseie Ile, ouer
 which the sea méeteth with a contrarie course) and the third the faire
 arme that floweth vnto Maldon, and all these thrée haue their falles
 either ouer against or néere vnto the aforesaid Ile, which at a low
 water is not halfe a mile from the shore. Into the Colne or Colunus
 also (whereof Leland thinketh Colchester to take his name, and not A
 colonia Romanorum, although I may not consent to him herein) doo run
 manie salt creekes beneath Fingering ho, of whose names sith I doo not
 know, nor whether they be serued with anie backewaters or not, I giue
 ouer to intreat anie further & likewise of their positions. Into that
 of Maldon runneth manie faire waters, whereof I will saie so much as I
 know to be true in maner by experience.

 [Sidenote: Gwin or Pant.]
 There is a pretie water that beginneth néere vnto Gwinbach or Winbeche
 church in Essex, a towne of old, and yet belonging to the Fitzwaters,
 taking name of Gwin, which is beautifull or faire, & Bache that
 signifieth a wood: and not without cause, sith not onelie the hilles
 on ech side of the said rillet, but all the whole paroch hath sometime
 abounded in woods; but now in manner they are vtterlie decaied, as the
 like commoditie is euerie where, not onelie thorough excessiue
 building for pleasure more than profit, which is contrarie to the
 ancient end of building; but also for more increase of pasture &
 commoditie to the lords of the soile, through their sales of that
 emolument, whereby the poore tenants are inforced to buie their
 fewell, and yet haue their rents in triple maner inhanced.) This said
 brooke runneth directlie from thence vnto Radwinter, now a parcell of
 your lordships possessions in those parts, descended from the
 Chamberleins, who were sometime chéefe owners of the same. By the waie
 also it is increased with sundrie pretie springs, of which Pantwell is
 the chéefe (whereof some thinke the whole brooke to be named Pant) and
 which (to saie the truth) hath manie a leasing fathered on the same.
 Certes by the report of common fame it hath béene a pretie water, and
 of such quantitie, that botes haue come in time past from Bilie abbeie
 beside Maldon vnto the moores in Radwinter for corne. I haue heard
 also that an anchor was found there neere to a red willow, when the
 water-courses by act of parlement were surueied and reformed
 throughout England, which maketh not a little with the aforesaid
 relation. But this is strangest of all, that a lord sometime of
 Winbech (surnamed the great eater, because he would breake his fast
 with a whole calfe, and find no bones therein as the fable goeth)
 falling at contention with the lord Iohn of Radwinter, could worke him
 none other iniurie, but by stopping vp the head of Pantwell, to put by
 the vse of a mill which stood by the church of Radwinter, and was
 serued by that brooke abundantlie. Certes I know the place where the
 mill stood, and some posts thereof doo yet remaine. But sée the malice
 of mankind, whereby one becommeth a woolfe vnto the other in their
 mischeeuous moodes. For when the lord saw his mill to be so spoiled,
 he in reuenge of his losse, brake the necke of his aduersarie, when he
 was going to horsebacke, as the constant report affirmeth. For the
 lord of Radwinter holding a parcell of his manour of Radwinter hall of
 the Fitzwaters, his sonne was to hold his stirrop at certeine times
 when he should demand the same. Shewing himselfe therefore prest on a
 time to doo his said seruice, as the Fitzwater was readie to lift his
 leg ouer the saddle, he by putting backe his foot, gaue him such a
 thrust that he fell backward, and brake his necke: wherevpon insued
 great trouble, till the matter was taken vp by publike authoritie; and
 that seruile office conuerted into a pound of pepper, which is trulie
 paid to this daie. But to leaue these impertinent discourses, and
 returne againe to the springs whereby our Pant or Gwin is increased.
 There is likewise another in a pasture belonging to the Grange, now in
 possession of William Bird esquier, who holdeth the same in the right
 of his wife, but in time past belonging to Tilteie abbeie. The third
 commeth out of the yard of one of your lordships manors there called
 Radwinter hall. The fourth from Iohn Cockswets house, named the
 Rotherwell, which running vnder Rothers bridge, méeteth with the Gwin
 or Pant on the northwest end of Ferrants meade, southeast of Radwinter
 church, whereof I haue the charge by your honours fauourable

 I might take occasion to speake of another rill which falleth into the
 Rother from Bendish hall: but bicause it is for the most part drie in
 summer I passe it ouer. Yet I will not omit to speake also of the
 manor which was the chiefe lordship sometime of a parish or hamlet
 called Bendishes, now worne out of knowledge, and vnited partlie to
 Radwinter, and partlie to Ashdon. It belonged first to the Bendishes
 gentlemen of a verie ancient house yet extant, of which one laieng the
 said manour to morgage to the moonks of Feuersham, at such time as K.
 Edward the third went to the siege of Calis, thereby to furnish
 himselfe the better toward the seruice of his prince, it came to passe
 that he staied longer beyond the sea than he supposed. Wherevpon he
 came before his daie to confer with his creditors, who commending his
 care to come out of debt, willed him in friendlie maner not to suspect
 anie hard dealing on their behalfes, considering his businesse in
 seruice of the king was of it selfe cause sufficient, to excuse his
 delaie of paiment vpon the daie assigned. Herevpon he went ouer againe
 vnto the siege of Calis. But when the daie came, the moonks for all
 this made seisure of the manour, and held it continuallie without anie
 further recompense, maugre all the friendship that the aforesaid
 Bendish could make. The said gentleman also tooke this cousening part
 in such choler, that he wrote a note yet to be séene among his
 euidences, whereby he admonisheth his posteritie to beware how they
 trust either knaue moonke or knaue frier, as one of the name and
 descended from him by lineall descent hath more than once informed me.
 Now to resume our springs that méet and ioine with our Pant.

 [Sidenote: Froshwell.]
 The next is named Froshwell. And of this spring dooth the whole
 hundred beare the name, & after this confluence the riuer it selfe
 whervnto it falleth (from by north) so farre as I remember. Certes,
 all these, sauing the first and second, are within your lordships
 towne aforesaid. The streame therefore running from hence (& now, as I
 said, called Froshwell, of Frosh, which signifieth a frog) hasteth
 immediatlie vnto old Sandford, then through new Sandford parke, and
 afterward with full streame (receiuing by the waie, the Finch brooke
 that commeth thorough Finchingfield) to Shalford, Bocking, Stifted,
 Paswijc, and so to Blackewater, where the name of Froshwell ceaseth,
 the water being from hencefoorth (as I heare) commonlie called
 Blackwater, vntill it come to Maldon, where it falleth into the salt
 arme of the sea that beateth vpon the towne; and which of some (except
 I be deceiued) is called also Pant: and so much the rather I make this
 conjecture, for that Ithancester stood somewhere vpon the banks
 thereof, & in the hundred of Danseie, whose ruines (as they saie) also
 are swalowed vp by the said streame, which can not be verified in our
 riuer that runneth from Pantwell, which at the mouth and fall into the
 great current, excéedeth not (to my coniecture) aboue one hundred
 foot. But to returne to our Pant, alias the Gwin. From Blackwater it
 goeth to Coxall, Easterford, Braxsted and Wickham, where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Barus.]
 with the Barus, and so going togither as one, they descend to
 Heiebridge, and finallie into the salt water aboue Maldon, and at hand
 as is aforesaid. As for the Barus, it riseth in a statelie parke of
 Essex called Bardfield, belonging to sir Thomas Wroth whilest he
 liued, who hath it to him and his heires males for euer, from the
 crowne. Being risen, it hasteth directlie to old Saling Brainetrée,
 crossing a rillet by the waie comming from Raine, blacke Norleie,
 white Norleie, Falkeburne, Wittham, and falleth into the Blackewater
 beneath Braxsted on the south.

 [Sidenote: Chelmer.]
 Beside this, the said Pant or Gwin receiueth the Chelme or Chelmer,
 which ariseth also in Wimbech aforesaid, where it hath two heads: of
 which the one is not farre from Brodockes (where master Thomas Wiseman
 esquier dwelleth) the other nigh vnto a farme called Highams in the
 same paroch, and ioining yer long in one chanell, they hie them toward
 Thacsted vnder Prowds bridge, méeting in the waie with a rill comming
 from Boiton end, whereby it is somewhat increased. Being past
 Thacsted, it goeth by Tilteie, and soone after receiueth one rill
 [Sidenote: Lindis.]
 which riseth on the north side of Lindsell, & falleth into the Chelmer
 by northeast at Tilteie aforesaid, & another c[=o]ming from southwest,
 rising southeast from Lindsell at much Eiston. From thence then
 holding on still with the course, it goeth to Candfield the more,
 Dunmow, litle Dunmow, Falsted, Lies, both Walthams, Springfield, and
 so to Chelmeresford. Here vpon the south side I find the issue of a
 water that riseth fiue miles (or thereabouts) south and by west of the
 said towne, from whence it goeth to Munasing, Buttesburie (there
 receiuing a rill from by west, to Ingatstone, Marget Inge, Widford
 bridge, Writtle bridge, and so to Chelmeresford (crossing also the
 [Sidenote: Roxford.]
 second water that descendeth from Roxford southwest of Writtle by the
 waie) whereof let this suffice.

 From hence the Chelmer goeth directlie toward Maldon by Badow, Owting,
 Woodham water, Bilie, and so to Blackwater northwest of Maldon,
 receiuing neuerthelesse yer it come fullie thither, a becke also that
 [Sidenote: Lée.]
 goeth from Lée parke, to little Lées, great Lées, Hatfield, Peuerell,
 Owting, and so into Blackwater (whereof I spake before) as Maldon
 streame dooth a rill from by south ouer against saint Osithes, and
 also another by Bradwell. After which the said streame growing also to
 be verie great, passeth by the Tolshunts, Tollesbie, and so foorth
 into the maine sea neere vnto Marseie: betwéene which fall and the
 place where Salute water entreth into the land, Plautus abode the
 comming of Claudius sometime into Britaine, when he being hardlie
 beeset, did send vnto him for aid and spéedie succour, who also being
 come did not onelie rescue his legat, but in like manner wan
 Colchester, and put it to the spoile, if it be Camalodunum.

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 The Burne riseth somewhere about Ronwell, and thence goeth to Hull
 bridge, south Fambridge, Kirkeshot ferrie, and so to Foulnesse. And as
 this is the short course of that riuer, so it brancheth, and the south
 arme thereof receiueth a water comming from Haukewell, to great
 Stanbridge, and beneath Pakesham dooth méet by south with the said
 arme, and so finish vp his course, as we doo our voiage also about the
 coast of England.

 Thus haue I finished the description of such riuers and streames as
 fall into the Ocean, according to my purpose, although not in so
 precise an order and manner of handling as I might, if information
 promised had been accordinglie performed; or others would, if they had
 taken the like in hand. But this will I saie of that which is here
 done, that from the Solueie by west, which parteth England & Scotland
 on that side; to the Twede, which separateth the said kingdoms on the
 east: if you go backeward, contrarie to the course of my description,
 you shall find it so exact, as beside a verie few by-riuers, you shall
 not need to vse anie further aduise for the finding and falles of the
 aforesaid streames. For such hath beene my helpe of maister Sackfords
 cardes, and conference with other men about these, that I dare
 pronounce them to be perfect and exact. Furthermore, this I haue also
 to remember, that in the courses of our streames, I regard not so much
 to name the verie towne or church, as the limits of the paroch. And
 therefore if I saie it goeth by such a towne, I thinke my dutie
 discharged, if I hit vpon anie part or parcell of the paroch. This
 also hath not a little troubled me, I meane the euill writing of the
 names of manie townes and villages: of which I haue noted some one
 man, in the description of a riuer, to write one towne two or thrée
 manner of waies, whereby I was inforced to choose one (at aduenture
 most commonlie) that séemed the likeliest to be sound in mine opinion
 and iudgement.

 Finallie, whereas I minded to set downe an especiall chapter of ports
 and créeks, lieng on ech coast of the English part of this Ile; and
 had prouided the same in such wise as I iudged most conuenient: it
 came to passe, that the greater part of my labour was taken from me by
 stealth, and therefore as discouraged to meddle with that argument, I
 would haue giuen ouer to set downe anie thing therefore at all: and so
 much the rather, for that I sée it may prooue a spurre vnto further
 mischéefe, as things come to passe in these daies. Neuerthelesse,
 because a little thereof is passed in the beginning of the booke, I
 will set downe that parcell thereof which remaineth, leauing the
 supplie of the rest either to my selfe hereafter, (if I may come by
 it) or to some other that can better performe the same.



 It maie be that I haue in these former chapters omitted sundrie hauens
 to be found vpon the shore of England, and some of them serued with
 backe waters, through want of sound and sufficient information from
 such as haue written vnto me of the same. In recompense whereof I haue
 thought good to adde this chapter of ports and creekes, whereby (so
 farre as to me is possible) I shall make satisfaction of mine
 ouersights. And albeit I cannot (being too too much abused by some
 that haue béereft me of my notes in this behalfe) bring my purpose to
 passe for all the whole coast of England round about, from Berwike to
 the Solue: yet I will not let to set downe so much as by good hap
 remaineth, whereby my countriemen shall not altogither want that
 benefit, hoping in time to recouer also the rest, if God grant life
 and good successe thereto.

 [Sidenote: Northumberland.]
 In Northumberland therefore we haue Berwike, Holie Iland, Bamborow,
 Bedwell, Donstanborow, Cocket Iland, Warkeworth, Newbiggin, Almow,
 Blithes nuke, and Tinmouth hauen.

 [Sidenote: Durham.]
 In the bishoprijc, Sonderland, Stocketon, Hartlepoole, These.

 [Sidenote: Yorkeshire.]
 In Yorkeshire, Dapnam sands, Steningreene, Staies, Runswike,
 Robinhoods baie, Whitbie, Scarborow, Fileie, Flamborow, Bricklington,
 Horneseie becke, Sister kirke, Kelseie, Cliffe, Pattenton, Holmes,
 Kenningham, Pall, Hidon, Hulbrige, Beuerlie, Hull, Hasell,
 Northferebie, Bucke créeke, Blacke cost, Wrethell, Howden.

 [Sidenote: Lincolneshire.]
 In Lincolneshire, Selbie, Snepe, Turnebrige, Rodiffe, Catebie,
 Stockwith, Torkeseie, Gainsborow, Southferebie, Barton a good point,
 Barrow a good hauen, Skatermill a good port, Penningham, Stalingborow
 a good hauen, Guimsbie a good port, Clie, March chappell, Saltfléete,
 Wilgripe, Mapleford, saint Clements, Wenfléete, Friscon, Toft,
 Skerbike, Boston, Frompton, Woluerton, Fossedike a good hauen.

 [Sidenote: Northfolke.]
 In Northfolke, Linne a good hauen, Snatchham, Hitchham, Desingham
 good, Thunstone, Thorneham good, Brankester good, Burnham good, with
 diuers townes and villages thereto belonging, Welles good, Strikeie,
 Marston, Blakeleie towne, Withon Claie, Blakelie hauen good, Salthouse
 créeke, Sheringham hith, Roughton, Cromer, Beston, Trinningham,
 Mounsleie, Bromwall, Haseborow, Wakesham, Eckelles, Winterton, Custer,
 Helmesleie, Okell, Vpton, Waibridge, Yarmouth, good all the waie to
 Norwich, with diuerse villages on the riuer side.

 [Sidenote: Suffolke.]
 In Suffolke, Becles, Bongeie, Southton, Corton, Gorton, Laistow a good
 port, Kirtill, Pakefield, Kasseldon, Bliborow, Coffe hith, Eston,
 Walderswijc, Donewich, Swold hauen, Sisewell, Thorpe, Alborow, Orford
 a good hauen, Balseie good, Felixstow, Colneie, Sproten, Ypswich,
 Downambridge good, Pinnemill, Shoteleie, Cataweie, Barfold.

 [Sidenote: Essex.]
 In Essex we haue Dedham, Maning trée, Thorne, Wrabbesnes, Ramseie,
 Harwich, Douercourt, Handford, Okeleie, Kirbie, Thorpe, Brichwill,
 Walton mill, Walton hall, Ganfléete, Newhauen good, S. Osithes,
 Bentleie good, Bricleseie, Thorlington (where good ships of a hundred
 tun or more be made) Alsford, Wiuenhall, Colchester, Cold hith, Rough
 hedge, Fingering ho, east Merseie, west Merseie, Salcot, Goldanger,
 Borow, Maldon, Stanesgate, Sudmester, S. Peters, Burnham, Crixseie,
 Aldon, Clements gréene, Hulbridge, Pacleston, Barling, litle Wakering,
 much Wakering, south Sudburie, Wakeringham, Melton, Papper hill, or
 Lee, Beamfléete, Pidseie range, Fobbing, Hadleie good, Mucking,
 Stanford, and Tilberie ferrie.

 [Sidenote: Kent.]
 In Kent, Harling, Cliffe, Tanfleete, Stokehow, Snodlond, Melhall,
 Maidston, Ailesford, New hith, Rochester, Gelingham, Reinham,
 Vpchurch, Halsted, Quinborow, Milton, Feuersham, Whitstaple, Herne,
 Margate, Brodestaier, Ramsgate; and manie of these good créekes: also
 Sandwich, Douer, Hide, reasonable ports, although none of the best.

 [Sidenote: Sussex.]
 In Sussex we haue Smalade with the créekes adioining to the same,
 Ridon, Appledoure, Rie a good hauen, and Winchelseie nothing at all
 inferiour to the same, and so manie shires onelie are left vnto me at
 this time, wherefore of force I must abruptlie leaue off to deale anie
 further with the rest, whose knowledge I am right sure would haue been
 profitable: and for the which I hoped to haue reaped great thankes at
 the hands of such sea-faring men, as should haue had vse hereof.

 _Desunt cætera._



 [Sidenote: The aire of Britaine.]
 The aire (for the most part) throughout the Iland is such, as by
 reason in maner of continuall clouds, is reputed to be grosse, and
 nothing so pleasant as that is of the maine. Howbeit, as they which
 affirme these things, haue onelie respect to the impediment or
 hinderance of the sunne beames, by the interposition of the clouds and
 oft ingrossed aire: so experience teacheth vs, that it is no lesse
 pure, wholesome, and commodious, than is that of other countries, and
 (as Cæsar himselfe hereto addeth) much more temperate in summer than
 that of the Galles, from whom he aduentured hither. Neither is there
 anie thing found in the aire of our region, that is not vsuallie séene
 amongst other nations lieng beyond the seas. Wherefore, we must néeds
 confesse, that the situation of our Iland (for benefit of the heauens)
 is nothing inferiour to that of anie countrie of the maine, where so
 euer it lie vnder the open firmament. And this Plutarch knew full
 well, who affirmeth a part of the Elisian fields to be found in
 Britaine, and the Iles that are situate about it in the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: The soile.]
 The soile of Britaine is such, as by the testimonies and reports both
 of the old and new writers, and experience also of such as now inhabit
 the same, is verie fruitfull; and such in deed as bringeth foorth
 manie commodities, whereof other countries haue néed, and yet it selfe
 (if fond nicenesse were abolished) néedlesse of those that are dailie
 brought from other places. Neuerthelesse it is more inclined to
 féeding and grasing, than profitable for tillage, and bearing of
 corne; by reason whereof the countrie is wonderfullie replenished with
 neat, and all kind of cattell: and such store is there also of the
 same in euerie place, that the fourth part of the land is scarselie
 manured for the prouision and maintenance of graine. Certes this
 fruitfulnesse was not vnknowne vnto the Britons long before Cæsars
 time, which was the cause wherefore our predecessors liuing in those
 daies in maner neglected tillage, and liued by féeding and grasing
 onelie. The grasiers themselues also then dwelled in mooueable
 villages by companies, whose custome was to diuide the ground amongst
 them, and each one not to depart from the place where his lot laie (a
 [Sidenote: Criacht.]
 thing much like to the Irish Criacht) till by eating vp of the
 countrie about him, he was inforced to remooue further, and séeke for
 better pasture. And this was the British custome (as I learne) at
 first. It hath béene commonlie reported, that the ground of Wales is
 neither so fruitfull as that of England, neither the soile of Scotland
 so bountifull as that of Wales: which is true, for corne and for the
 most part: otherwise, there is so good ground in some parts of Wales,
 as is in England, albeit the best of Scotland be scarselie comparable
 to the meane of either of both. Howbeit, as the bountie of the Scotish
 dooth faile in some respect, so dooth it surmount in other; God and
 nature hauing not appointed all countries to yéeld foorth like

 But where our ground is not so good as we would wish, we haue (if néed
 be) sufficient help to cherish our ground withall, and to make it more
 fruitfull. For beside the compest that is carried out of the
 husbandmens yards, ditches, ponds, doouehouses, or cities and great
 townes: we haue with vs a kind of white marle, which is of so great
 force, that if it be cast ouer a péece of land but once in thrée score
 years, it shall not need of anie further compesting. Hereof also dooth
 Plinie speake, lib. 17, cap. 6, 7, 8, where he affirmeth that our
 [Sidenote: Marle.]
 marle indureth vpon the earth by the space of fourescore yeares:
 insomuch that it is laid vpon the same but once in a mans life,
 whereby the owner shall not need to trauell twise in procuring to
 commend and better his soile. He calleth it Marga, and making diuerse
 kinds thereof, he finallie commendeth ours, and that of France, aboue
 all other, which lieth sometime a hundred foot déepe, and farre better
 than the scattering of chalke vpon the same, as the Hedni and Pictones
 did in his time, or as some of our daies also doo practise: albeit
 diuerse doo like better to cast on lime, but it will not so long
 indure, as I haue heard reported.

 [Sidenote: Plentie of riuers.]
 There are also in this Iland great plentie of fresh riuers and
 streams, as you haue heard alreadie, and these throughlie fraught with
 all kinds of delicate fish accustomed to be found in riuers. The whole
 [Sidenote: Hilles.]
 Ile likewise is verie full of hilles, of which some (though not verie
 manie) are of exceeding heigth, and diuerse extending themselues verie
 far from the beginning; as we may see by Shooters hill, which rising
 east of London, and not farre from the Thames, runneth along the south
 side of the Iland westward, vntill it come to Cornewall. Like vnto
 these also are the Crowdon hils, which though vnder diuers names (as
 also the other from the Peke) doo run into the borders of Scotland.
 What should I speake of the Cheuiot hilles, which reach twentie miles
 [Sidenote: (*) Here lacks.]
 in length? of the blacke mounteines in Wales, which go from (*) to (*)
 miles at the least in length? of the Cle hilles in Shropshire, which
 come within foure miles of Ludlow, and are diuided from some part of
 Worcester by the Teme? of the Grames in Scotland, and of our Chiltren,
 which are eightéene miles at the least from one end of them, which
 reach from Henlie in Oxfordshire to Dunstable in Bedfordshire, and are
 verie well replenished with wood and corne? notwithstanding that the
 most part yéeld a sweet short grasse, profitable for shéepe. Wherein
 albeit they of Scotland doo somewhat come behind vs, yet their outward
 defect is inwardlie recompensed, not onelie with plentie of quarries
 (and those of sundrie kinds of marble, hard stone, and fine alabaster)
 but also rich mines of mettall, as shall be shewed hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Winds.]
 In this Iland likewise the winds are commonlie more strong and fierce,
 than in anie other places of the maine, which Cardane also espied: and
 that is often séene vpon the naked hilles, not garded with trées to
 beare and kéepe it off. That grieuous inconuenience also inforceth our
 [Sidenote: Building.]
 nobilitie, gentrie, and communaltie, to build their houses in the
 vallies, leauing the high grounds vnto their corne and cattell, least
 the cold and stormie blasts of winter should bréed them greater
 annoiance: whereas in other regions each one desireth to set his house
 aloft on the hill, not onlie to be seene a farre off, and cast forth
 his beames of statelie and curious workemanship into euerie quarter of
 the countrie; but also (in hot habitations) for coldnesse sake of the
 aire, sith the heat is neuer so vehement on the hill top as in the
 vallie, because the reuerberation of the sunne beames either reacheth
 not so farre as the highest, or else becommeth not so strong as when
 it is reflected upon the lower soile.

 [Sidenote: Husbandrie amended.]
 But to leaue our buildings vnto the purposed place (which
 notwithstanding haue verie much increased, I meane for curiositie and
 cost, in England, Wales, and Scotland, within these few yeares) and to
 returne to the soile againe. Certeinelie it is euen now in these our
 daies growne to be much more fruitfull, than it hath béene in times
 past. The cause is for that our countriemen are growne to be more
 painefull, skilfull, and carefull through recompense of gaine, than
 heretofore they haue béene: insomuch that my Synchroni or time fellows
 can reape at this present great commoditie in a little roome; whereas
 of late yeares, a great compasse hath yéelded but small profit, and
 this onelie through the idle and negligent occupation of such, as
 dailie manured and had the same in occupieng. I might set downe
 examples of these things out of all the parts of this Iland, that is
 to saie, manie of England, more out of Scotland, but most of all out
 of Wales: in which two last rehearsed, verie little other food and
 liuelihood was wont to be looked for (beside flesh) more than the
 soile of it selfe, and the cow gaue; the people in the meane time
 liuing idelie, dissolutelie, and by picking and stealing one from
 another. All which vices are now (for the most part) relinquished, so
 that each nation manureth hir owne with triple commoditie, to that it
 was before time.

 [Sidenote: Pasture.]
 The pasture of this Iland is according to the nature and bountie of
 the soile, whereby in most places it is plentifull, verie fine,
 batable, and such as either fatteth our cattell with speed, or
 yéeldeth great abundance of milke and creame: whereof the yellowest
 butter and finest chéese are made. But where the blue claie aboundeth
 (which hardlie drinketh vp the winters water in long season) there the
 grasse is spearie, rough, and verie apt for brushes: by which occasion
 it commeth nothing so profitable vnto the owner as the other. The best
 pasture ground of all England is in Wales, & of all the pasture in
 Wales that of Cardigan is the cheefe. I speake of the same which is to
 be found in the mounteines there, where the hundred part of the grasse
 growing is not eaten, but suffered to rot on the ground, whereby the
 soile becommeth matted, and diuerse bogges and quicke moores made
 withall in long continuance: because all the cattell in the countrie
 are not able to eat it downe. If it be to be accompted good soile, on
 which a man may laie a wand ouer night, and on the morrow find it
 hidden and ouergrowen with grasse: it is not hard to find plentie
 thereof in manie places of this land. Neuertheless, such is the
 fruitfulnes of the aforsaid countie that it farre surmounteth this
 proportion, whereby it may be compared for batablenesse with Italie,
 which in my time is called the paradise of the world, although by
 reason of the wickednesse of such as dwell therein it may be called
 the sinke and draine of hell: so that whereas they were woont to saie
 of vs that our land is good but our people euill, they did but onlie
 speake it; whereas we know by experience that the soile of Italie is a
 noble soile, but the dwellers therein farre off from anie vertue or

 [Sidenote: Medowes.]
 Our medowes, are either bottomes (whereof we haue great store, and
 those verie large, bicause our soile is hillie) or else such as we
 call land meads, and borowed from the best & fattest pasturages. The
 first of them are yearelie & often ouerflowen by the rising of such
 streames as passe through the same, or violent falles of land-waters,
 that descend from the hils about them. The other are seldome or neuer
 ouerflowen, and that is the cause wherefore their grasse is shorter
 than that of the bottomes, and yet is it farre more fine, wholesome,
 and batable, sith the haie of our low medowes is not onelie full of
 sandie cinder, which breedeth sundrie diseases in our cattell, but
 also more rowtie, foggie, and full of flags, and therefore not so
 profitable for stouer and forrage as the higher meads be. The
 difference furthermore in their commodities is great, for whereas in
 our land meadowes we haue not often aboue one good load of haie, or
 peraduenture a little more in an acre of ground (I vse the word
 Carrucata or Carruca which is a waine load, and, as I remember, vsed
 by Plinie lib. 33. cap. 11.) in low meadowes we haue sometimes thrée,
 but commonlie two or vpward, as experience hath oft confirmed.

 Of such as are twise mowed I speake not, sith their later math is not
 so wholesome for cattell as the first; although in the mouth more
 pleasant for the time: for thereby they become oftentimes to be
 rotten, or to increase so fast in bloud, that the garget and other
 diseases doo consume manie of them before the owners can séeke out any
 remedie, by Phlebotomie or otherwise. Some superstitious fooles
 suppose that they which die of the garget are ridden with the night
 mare, and therefore they hang vp stones which naturallie haue holes in
 them, and must be found vnlooked for; as if such a stone were an apt
 cockeshot for the diuell to run through and solace himselfe withall,
 whilest the cattell go scot free and are not molested by him. But if I
 should set downe but halfe the toies that superstition hath brought
 into our husbandmens heads in this and other behalfes, it would aske a
 greater volume than is conuenient for such a purpose, wherefore it
 shall suffice to haue said thus much of these things.

 [Sidenote: Corne.]
 The yéeld of our corne-ground is also much after this rate folowing.
 Through out the land (if you please to make an estimat thereof by the
 acre) in meane and indifferent yeares, wherein each acre of rie or
 wheat, well tilled and dressed, will yeeld commonlie sixtéene or
 twentie bushels, an acre of barlie six and thirtie bushels, of otes
 and such like foure or fiue quarters, which proportion is
 notwithstanding oft abated toward the north, as it is oftentimes
 surmounted in the south. Of mixed corne, as peason and beanes, sowen
 togither, tares and otes (which they call bulmong) rie and wheat named
 miscelin here is no place to speake, yet their yéeld is neuerthelesse
 much after this proportion, as I haue often marked. And yet is not
 this our great foison comparable to that of hoter countries of the
 maine. But of all that euer I read, the increase which Eldred Danus
 writeth of in his De imperio Iudæorum in Aethiopia surmounteth, where
 he saith that in the field néere to the Sabbatike riuer, called in old
 time Gosan, the ground is so fertile, that euerie graine of barleie
 growing dooth yéeld an hundred kernels at the least vnto the owner.

 Of late yeares also we haue found and taken vp a great trade in
 planting of hops, whereof our moorie hitherto and vnprofitable grounds
 doo yeeld such plentie & increase, that their are few farmers or
 occupiers in the countrie, which haue not gardens and hops growing of
 their owne, and those farre better than doo come from Flanders vnto
 us. Certes the corruptions vsed by the Flemings, and forgerie dailie
 practised in this kind of ware, gaue vs occasion to plant them here at
 home: so that now we may spare and send manie ouer vnto them. And this
 I know by experience, that some one man by conuersion of his moorie
 grounds into hopyards, wherof before he had no commoditie, dooth raise
 yearelie by so little as twelue acres in compasse two hundred markes;
 all charges borne toward the maintenance of his familie. Which
 industrie God continue! though some secret fréends of Flemings let not
 to exclaime against this commoditie, as a spoile of wood, by reason of
 the poles, which neuerthelesse after three yeares doo also come to the
 fire, and spare their other fewell.

 [Sidenote: Cattell.]
 The cattell which we breed are commonlie such, as for greatnesse of
 bone, swéetnesse of flesh, and other benefits to be reaped by the
 same, giue place vnto none other: as may appeare first by our oxen,
 whose largenesse, height, weight, tallow, hides, and hornes are such,
 as none of anie other nation doo commonlie or may easilie excéed them.
 Our shéepe likewise for good tast of flesh, quantitie of lims, finesse
 of fléece caused by their hardnesse of pasturage, and abundance of
 increase (for in manie places they bring foorth two or thrée at an
 eaning) giue no place vnto anie, more than doo our goates, who in like
 sort doo follow the same order, and our déere come not behind. As for
 our conies, I haue séene them so fat in some soiles, especiallie about
 [Sidenote: Meall and Disnege.]
 Meall and Disnege, that the grease of one being weighed, hath peised
 verie néere six or seuen ounces. All which benefits we first refer to
 the grace and goodnesse of God, and next of all vnto the bountie of
 our soile, which he hath indued with so notable and commodious

 But as I meane to intreat of these things more largelie hereafter, so
 will I touch in this place one benefit which our nation wanteth, and
 [Sidenote: Wine.]
 that is wine; the fault whereof is not in our soile, but the
 negligence of our countriemen (especiallie of the south partes) who
 doo not inure the same to this commoditie, and which by reason of long
 discontinuance, is now become vnapt to beare anie grapes almost for
 pleasure & shadow, much lesse then the plaine fields or seuerall
 vineyards for aduantage and commoditie. Yet of late time some haue
 assaied to deale for wine, as to your lordship also is right well
 knowen. But sith that liquor when it commeth to the drinking hath bin
 found more hard, than that which is brought from beyond the sea, and
 the cost of planting and keeping thereof so chargeable, that they may
 buie it far better cheape from other countries: they haue giuen ouer
 their enterprises without anie consideration, that as in all other
 things, so neither the ground it selfe in the beginning, nor successe
 of their trauell can answer their expectation at the first, vntill
 such time as the soile be brought as it were into acquaintance with
 this commoditie, and that prouision may be made for the more easinesse
 of charge, to be imploied vpon the same.

 If it be true, that where wine dooth last and indure well, there it
 will grow no worse: I muse not a little wherefore the planting of
 vines should be neglected in England. That this liquor might haue
 growne in this Iland heretofore, first the charter that Probus the
 emperour gaue equallie to vs, the Galles, and Spaniards, is one
 sufficient testimonie. And that it did grow here, beside the
 testimonie of Beda lib. 1. cap. 1. the old notes of tithes for wine
 that yet remaine in the accompts of some parsons and vicars in Kent, &
 elsewhere, besides the records of sundrie sutes, commensed in diuerse
 ecclesiasticall courts, both in Kent, Surrie, &c: also the inclosed
 parcels almost in euerie abbeie yet called the vineyardes, may be a
 notable witnesse, as also the plot which we now call east Smithfield
 in London giuen by Canutus sometime king of this land, with other
 soile there about vnto certeine of his knights, with the libertie of a
 Guild which therof was called Knighten Guild. The truth is (saith Iohn
 Stow our countrie man, and diligent traueller in the old estate of
 this my natiue citie) that it is now named Port soken ward, and giuen
 in time past to the religious house within Algate. Howbeit first
 Otwell, the Archouell, Otto, & finallie Geffrie erle of Essex
 constables of the Tower of London, withheld that portion fr[=o] the
 said house, vntill the reigne of king Stephan, and thereof made a
 vineyard to their great commoditie and lucre. The Ile of Elie also was
 in the first times of the Normans called Le Ile des vignes. And good
 record appéereth, that the bishop there had yearelie thrée or foure
 tunne at the least giuen him Nomine decimæ, beside whatsoeuer
 ouer-summe of the liquor did accrue to him by leases and other
 excheats, whereof also I haue seene mention. Wherefore our soile is
 not to be blamed, as though our nights were so exceeding short, that
 in August and September the moone which is ladie of moisture, & chiefe
 ripener of this liquor, cannot in anie wise shine long inough vpon the
 same: a verie méere toie and fable right worthie to be suppressed,
 because experience conuinceth the vpholders thereof euen in the
 Rhenish wines.

 [Sidenote: Wad.]
 The time hath béene also that wad, wherwith our countrie men died
 their faces (as Cæsar saith) that they might séeme terrible to their
 enimies in the field, and also women & their daughters in law did
 staine their bodies & go naked, in that pickle to the sacrifices of
 their gods, coueting to resemble therin the Ethiopians, as Plinie
 [Sidenote: Madder.]
 saith li. 22. cap. 1. and also madder haue béene (next vnto our tin
 and woolles) the chiefe commodities, and merchandize of this realme. I
 [Sidenote: Rape.]
 find also that rape oile hath beene made within this land. But now our
 soile either will not or at the leastwise may not beare either wad or
 madder: I saie not that the ground is not able so to doo, but that we
 are negligent, afraid of the pilling of our grounds, and carelesse of
 our owne profit, as men rather willing to buie the same of others than
 take anie paine to plant them here at home. The like I may saie of
 [Sidenote: Flax.]
 flax, which by law ought to be sowen in euerie countrie-towne in
 England, more or lesse: but I sée no successe of that good and
 wholesome law, sith it is rather contemptuouslie reiected than
 otherwise dutifullie kept in anie place of England.

 Some saie that our great number of lawes doo bréed a generall
 negligence and contempt of all good order; bicause we haue so manie,
 that no subiect can liue without the transgression of some of them,
 and that the often alteration of our ordinances dooth much harme in
 this respect, which (after Aristotle) doth séeme to carie some reason
 withall, for (as Cornelius Gallus hath:)

 [Sidenote: Eleg. 2.]

   Euentus varios res noua semper habet.

 But verie manie let not to affirme, that the gréedie corruption of the
 promoters on the one side, facilitie in dispensing with good lawes,
 and first breach of the same in the lawmakers & superiors, & priuat
 respects of their establishment on the other, are the greatest causes
 whie the inferiours regard no good order, being alwaies so redie to
 offend without anie facultie one waie, as they are otherwise to
 presume, vpon the examples of their betters when anie hold is to be
 [Sidenote: Principis longè magis exemplo quion culpa peccare solent.]
 taken. But as in these things I haue no skill, so I wish that fewer
 licences for the priuat commoditie but of a few were granted (not that
 thereby I denie the maintenance of the prerogatiue roiall, but rather
 would with all my hart that it might be yet more honorablie increased)
 & that euerie one which by féeed friendship (or otherwise) dooth
 attempt to procure oughts from the prince, that may profit but few and
 proue hurtfull to manie, might be at open assizes and sessions
 denounced enimie to his countrie and commonwealth of the land.

 Glasse also hath beene made here in great plentie before, and in the
 time of the Romans; and the said stuffe also, beside fine scissers,
 shéeres, collars of gold and siluer for womens necks, cruses and cups
 of amber, were a parcell of the tribute which Augustus in his daies
 laid vpon this Iland. In like sort he charged the Britons with
 certeine implements and vessels of iuorie (as Strabo saith.) Wherby it
 appéereth that in old time our countriemen were farre more industrious
 and painefull in the vse and application of the benefits of their
 countrie, than either after the comming of the Saxons or Normans, in
 which they gaue themselues more to idlenesse and following of the

 [Sidenote: Earth.]
 If it were requisit that I should speake of the sundrie kinds of
 moold, as the cledgie or claie, whereof are diuerse sorts (red, blue,
 blacke and white) also the red or white sandie, the lomie, rosellie,
 grauellie, chalkie or blacke, I could saie that there are so manie
 diuerse veines in Britaine, as else where in anie quarter of like
 quantitie in the world. Howbeit this I must néeds confesse, that the
 sandie and cledgie doo beare great swaie: but the claie most of all,
 as hath beene, and yet is alwaies séene & felt through plentie and
 dearth of corne. For if this latter (I meane the claie) doo yeeld hir
 full increase (which it dooth commonlie in drie yeares for wheat) then
 is there generall plentie: wheras if it faile, then haue we scarsitie,
 according to the old rude verse set downe of England, but to be
 vnderstood of the whole Iland, as experience dooth confirme:

   When the sand dooth serue the claie,
   Then may we sing well awaie,
   But when the claie dooth serue the sand,
   Then is it merie with England.

 [Sidenote: Vallies.]
 I might here intreat of the famous vallies in England, of which one is
 called the vale of White horsse, another of Eouesham, commonlie taken
 for the granarie of Worcestershire, the third of Ailesbirie that goeth
 by Tame, the rootes of Chilterne hils, to Donstable, Newport panell,
 Stonie Stratford, Buckhingham, Birstane parke, &c. Likewise of the
 fourth of Whitehart or Blackemoore in Dorsetshire. The fift of
 Ringdale or Renidale, corruptlie called Ringtaile, that lieth (as mine
 author saith) vpon the edge of Essex and Cambridgeshire, and also the
 Marshwood vale: but for somuch as I know not well their seuerall
 limits, I giue ouer to go anie further in their description. In like
 [Sidenote: Fennes.]
 sort it should not be amisse to speake of our fennes, although our
 countrie be not so full of this kind of soile as the parties beyond
 the seas, to wit, Narbon, &c: and thereto of other pleasant botoms,
 the which are not onelie indued with excellent riuers and great store
 of corne and fine fodder for neat and horsses in time of the yeare
 (whereby they are excéeding beneficiall vnto their owners) but also of
 no small compasse and quantitie in ground. For some of our fens are
 well knowen to be either of ten, twelue, sixtéene, twentie, or thirtie
 miles in length, that of the Girwies yet passing all the rest, which
 is full 60 (as I haue often read.) Wherein also Elie the famous Ile
 standeth, which is seuen miles euerie waie, and wherevnto there is no
 accesse but by thrée causies, whose inhabitants in like sort by an old
 priuilege may take wood, sedge, turfe, &c; to burne: likewise haie for
 their cattell, and thatch for their houses of custome, and each
 occupier in his appointed quantitie through out the Ile; albeit that
 couetousnesse hath now begun somewhat to abridge this large
 beneuolence and commoditie, aswell in the said Ile as most other
 places of this land.

 [Sidenote: Commons.]
 Finallie, I might discourse in like order of the large commons, laid
 out heretofore by the lords of the soiles for the benefit of such
 poore, as inhabit within the compasse of their manors. But as the true
 intent of the giuers is now in most places defrauded, in so much that
 not the poore tenants inhabiting vpon the same, but their landlords
 haue all the commoditie and gaine, so the tractation of them belongeth
 rather to the second booke. Wherfore I meane not at this present to
 deale withall, but reserue the same wholie vnto the due place whilest
 I go forward with the rest; setting downe neuerthelesse by the waie a
 generall commendation of the whole Iland, which I find in an ancient
 monument, much vnto this effect.

   Illa quidem longè celebris splendore, beata,
   Glebis, lacte, fauis, supereminet insula cunctis,
   Quas regit ille Deus, spumanti cuius ab ore
   Profluit oceanus, &c.
   _And a little after_: Testis Lundonia ratibus, Wintonia Baccho,
   Herefordia grege, Worcestria fruge redundans,
   Batha lacu, Salabyra feris, Cantuaria pisce,
   Eboraca syluis, Excestria clara metallis,
   Norwicum Dacis hybernis, Cestria Gallis,
   Cicestrum Norwagenis, Dunelmia præpinguis,
   Testis Lincolnia gens infinita decore,
   Testis Eli formosa situ, Doncastria visu, &c.



 There are, which indeuoring to bring all things to their Saxon
 originall, doo affirme, that this diuision of waies, (whereof we now
 intreat) should apperteine vnto such princes of that nation as reigned
 here, since the Romanes gaue vs ouer: and herevpon they inferre, that
 Wattling street was builded by one Wattle from the east vnto the west.
 But how weake their coniectures are in this behalfe, the antiquitie of
 these streets it selfe shall easilie declare, whereof some parcelles,
 after a sort, are also set downe by Antoninus; and those that haue
 written of the seuerall iournies from hence to Rome: although
 peraduenture not in so direct an order as they were at the first
 established. For my part, if it were not that I desire to be short in
 this behalfe, I could with such notes as I haue alreadie collected for
 that purpose, make a large confutation of diuerse of their opinions
 concerning these passages, and thereby rather ascribe the originall of
 these waies to the Romans than either the British or Saxon princes.
 But sith I haue spent more time in the tractation of the riuers than
 was allotted vnto me, and that I sée great cause (notwithstanding my
 late alledged scruple) wherfore I should hold with our Galfride before
 anie other; I will omit at this time to discourse of these things as I
 would, and saie what I maie for the better knowledge of their courses,
 procéeding therein as followeth.

 First of all I find, that Dunwallon king of Britaine, about 483 yeares
 before the birth of our sauiour Iesus Christ, séeing the subiects of
 his realme to be in sundrie wise oppressed by théeues and robbers as
 they trauelled to and fro; and being willing (so much as in him laie)
 to redresse these inconueniences, caused his whole kingdome to be
 surueied; and then commanding foure principall waies to be made, which
 should leade such as trauelled into all parts thereof, from sea to
 sea, he gaue sundrie large priuileges vnto the same, whereby they
 became safe, and verie much frequented. And as he had regard herein to
 the securitie of his subiects, so he made sharpe lawes grounded vpon
 iustice, for the suppression of such wicked members as did offer
 violence to anie traueler that should be met withall or found within
 the limits of those passages. How and by what parts of this Iland
 these waies were conueied at the first, it is not so wholie left in
 memorie: but that some question is mooued among the learned,
 concerning their ancient courses. Howbeit such is the shadow remaining
 hitherto of their extensions, that if not at this present perfectlie,
 yet hereafter it is not vnpossible, but that they may be found out, &
 left certeine vnto posteritie. It seemeth by Galfride, that the said
 Dunwallon did limit out those waies by dooles and markes, which being
 in short time altered by the auarice of such irreligious persons as
 dwelt néere, and incroched vpon the same (a fault yet iustlie to be
 found almost in euerie place, euen in the time of our most gratious
 and souereigne Ladie Elizabeth, wherein the lords of the soiles doo
 vnite their small occupieng, onelie to increase a greater proportion
 of rent; and therefore they either remooue, or giue licence to erect
 small tenements vpon the high waies sides and commons; wherevnto, in
 truth, they haue no right: and yet out of them also doo raise a new
 commoditie) and question mooued for their bounds before Belinus his
 sonne, he to auoid all further controuersie that might from
 thencefoorth insue, caused the same to be paued with hard stone of
 eightéene foot in breadth, ten foot in depth, and in the bottome
 thereof huge flint stones also to be pitched, least the earth in time
 should swallow vp his workemanship, and the higher ground ouer-grow
 their rising crests. He indued them also with larger priuileges than
 before, protesting that if anie man whosoeuer should presume to
 infringe his peace, and violate the lawes of his kingdome in anie
 maner of wise, neere vnto or vpon those waies, he should suffer such
 punishment without all hope to escape (by freendship or mercie) as by
 the statutes of this realme latelie prouided in those cases were due
 vnto the offendors. The names of these foure waies are the Fosse, the
 Gwethelin or Watling, the Erming, and the Ikenild.

 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 The Fosse goeth not directlie but slopewise ouer the greatest part of
 this Iland, beginning at Dotnesse or Totnesse in Deuonshire, where
 Brute somtime landed, or (as Ranulphus saith, which is more likelie)
 at the point of Cornwall, though the eldest writers doo séeme to note
 the contrarie. From hence it goeth thorough the middle of Deuonshire &
 Summersetshire, and commeth to Bristow, from whence it runneth
 manifestlie to Sudberie market, Tetburie, and so foorth holdeth on as
 you go almost to the midde waie betweene Glocester and Cirnecester,
 (where the wood faileth, and the champeigne countrie appeareth toward
 Cotteswald) streight as a line vntill you come to Cirnecester it
 selfe. Some hold opinion that the waie, which lieth from Cirnecester
 to Bath, should be the verie Fosse; and that betwixt Cirnecester and
 Glocester to be another of the foure waies, made by the Britons. But
 ancient report grounded vpon great likelihood, and confirmed also by
 some experience, iudgeth that most of the waies crossed ech other in
 this part of the realme. And of this mind is Leland also, who learned
 it of an abbat of Cirnecester that shewed great likelihood by some
 records thereof. But to procéed. From Cirnecester, it goeth by
 Chepingnorton to Couentrie, Leircester, Newarke, and so to Lincolne
 ouerthwart the Watlingstreet: where, by generall consent of all the
 writers (except Alfred of Beuerleie, who extendeth it vnto Cathnesse
 in Scotland) it is said to haue an end.

 [Sidenote: Watling stréet.]
 The Watlingstréete begun (as I said) by Dunwallo, but finished by
 Gutheline, of whome it is directlie to be called Gutheline stréet,
 though now corrupted into Watlingstréet, beginneth at Douer in Kent,
 and so stretcheth through the middest of Kent vnto London, and so
 foorth (peraduenture by the middest of the citie) vnto Verolamium or
 Verlamcester, now saint Albons, where, in the yeare of grace, one
 thousand fiue hundred thirtie & one, the course thereof was found by a
 man that digged for grauell wherwith to mend the high waie. It was in
 this place eighteene foot broad, and about ten foot déepe, and stoned
 in the bottome in such wise as I haue noted afore, and peraduenture
 also on the top: but these are gone, and the rest remaine equall in
 most places, and leuell with the fields. The yelow grauell also that
 was brought thither in carts two thousand yéeres passed, remained
 there so fresh and so strong, as if it had béene digged out of the
 naturall place where it grew not manie yéeres before. From hence it
 goeth hard by Margate, leauing it on the west side. And a little by
 south of this place, where the priorie stood, is a long thorough fare
 vpon the said street, méetly well builded (for low housing) on both
 sides. After this it procéedeth (as the chronicle of Barnwell saith)
 to Caxton, and so to Huntingdon, & then forward, still winding in and
 out till it not onelie becommeth a bound vnto Leicestershire toward
 Lugbie, but also passeth from Castleford to Stamford, and so foorth by
 west of Marton, which is but a mile from Torkeseie.

 Here by the waie I must touch the opinion of a traueller of my time,
 who noteth the said stréet to go another waie, insomuch that he would
 haue it to crosse the third Auon, betwixt Newton and Dowbridge, and so
 go on to Binford bridge, Wibtoft, the High crosse, and thence to
 Atherston vpon Ancre. Certes it may be, that the Fosse had his course
 by the countrie in such sort as he describeth; but that the
 Watlingstréet should passe by Atherston, I cannot as yet be persuaded.
 Neuerthelesse his coniecture is not to be misliked, sith it is not
 vnlikelie that thrée seuerall waies might méet at Alderwaie (a towne
 vpon Tame, beneath Salters bridge) for I doo not doubt that the said
 towne did take his name of all three waies, as Aldermarie church in
 London did of all thrée Maries, vnto whom it hath béene dedicated: but
 that the Watlingstréet should be one of them, the compasse of his
 passage will in no wise permit. And thus much haue I thought good to
 note by the waie. Now to returne againe to Leland, and other mens

 The next tidings that we heare of the Watlingstréet, are that it goeth
 thorough or neere by the parke at Pomfret, as the common voice also of
 the countrie confirmeth. Thence it passeth hastilie ouer Castelford
 bridge to Aberford, which is fiue miles from thence, and where are
 most manifest tokens of this stréet and his broad crest by a great
 waie togither, also to Yorke, to Witherbie, and then to Borowbridge,
 where on the left hand thereof stood certeine monuments, or pyramides
 of stone, sometimes placed there by the ancient Romanes. These stones
 (saith Leland) stand eight miles west from Bowis, and almost west from
 Richmond is a little thorough fare called Maiden castell, situate
 apparantlie vpon the side of this stréet. And here is one of those
 pyramides or great round heapes, which is three score foot compasse in
 the bottome. There are other also of lesse quantities, and on the
 verie top of ech of them are sharpe stones of a yard in length; but
 the greatest of all is eighteene foot high at the least, from the
 ground to the verie head. He addeth moreouer, how they stand on an
 hill in the edge of Stanes moore, and are as bounds betwéene
 Richmondshire, and Westmerland. But to procéed. This stréet lieng a
 mile from Gilling, and two miles from Richmond commeth on from
 Borowbridge to Catericke, eightéene miles; that is, twelue to Leuing,
 & six to Catericke; then eleuen miles to Greteie or Gritto, fiue miles
 to Bottles, eight miles to Burgh on Stanes moore, foure miles from
 Applebie, and fiue to Browham, where the said stréet commeth thorough
 Winfoll parke, and ouer the bridge on Eiemouth and Loder, and leauing
 Perith a quarter of a mile or more on the west side of it, goeth to
 Carleill seuenteene miles from Browham, which hath béene some notable
 thing. Hitherto it appeareth euidentlie, but going from hence into
 Scotland, I heare no more of it, vntill I come to Cathnesse, which is
 two hundred and thirtie miles or thereabouts out of England.

 [Sidenote: Erming stréet.]
 The Erming stréet, which some call the Lelme, stretcheth out of the
 east, as they saie, into the southeast, that is, from Meneuia or S.
 Dauids in Wales vnto Southampton, whereby it is somewhat likelie
 indeed that these two waies, I meane the Fosse and the Erming, should
 méet about Cirnecester, as it commeth from Glocester, according to the
 opinion conceiued of them in that countrie. Of this waie I find no
 more written, and therefore I can saie no more of it, except I should
 indeuor to driue awaie the time, in alleging what other men say
 thereof, whose minds doo so farre disagrée one from another, as they
 doo all from a truth, and therefore I giue them ouer as not delighting
 in such dealing.

 [Sidenote: Ikenild.]
 The Ikenild or Rikenild began somewhere in the south, and so held on
 toward Cirnecester, then to Worcester, Wicombe, Brimcham, Lichfield,
 Darbie, Chesterfield; and crossing the Watlingstréet somewhere in
 Yorkeshire, stretched foorth in the end vnto the mouth of the Tine,
 where it ended at the maine sea, as most men doo confesse. I take it
 to be called the Ikenild, because it passed thorough the kingdome of
 the Icenes. For albeit that Leland & other following him doo séeme to
 place the Icenes in Norffolke and Suffolke; yet in mine opinion that
 can not well be doone, sith it is manifest by Tacitus, that they laie
 néere vnto the Silures, and (as I gesse) either in Stafford and
 Worcester shires, or in both, except my coniecture doo faile me. The
 author of the booke, intituled Eulogium historiarum, doth call this
 stréet the Lelme. But as herein he is deceiued, so haue I dealt
 withall so faithfullie as I may among such diuersitie of opinions; yet
 not denieng but that there is much confusion in the names and courses
 of these two latter, the discussing whereof I must leaue to other men
 that are better learned than I.

 Now to speake generallie of our common high waies through the English
 part of the Ile (for of the rest I can saie nothing) you shall
 vnderstand that in the claie or cledgie soile they are often verie
 déepe and troublesome in the winter halfe. Wherfore by authoritie of
 parlement an order is taken for their yearelie amendment, whereby all
 sorts of the common people doo imploie their trauell for six daies in
 summer vpon the same. And albeit that the intent of the statute is
 verie profitable for the reparations of the decaied places, yet the
 rich doo so cancell their portions, and the poore so loiter in their
 labours, that of all the six, scarcelie two good days works are well
 performed and accomplished in a parish on these so necessarie
 affaires. Besides this, such as haue land lieng vpon the sides of the
 waies, doo vtterlie neglect to dich and scowre their draines and
 watercourses, for better auoidance of the winter waters (except it may
 be set off or cut from the meaning of the statute) whereby the stréets
 doo grow to be much more gulled than before, and thereby verie noisome
 for such as trauell by the same. Sometimes also, and that verie often,
 these daies works are not imploied vpon those waies that lead from
 market to market, but ech surueior amendeth such by-plots & lanes as
 séeme best for his owne commoditie, and more easie passage vnto his
 fields and pastures. And whereas in some places there is such want of
 stones, as thereby the inhabitants are driuen to seeke them farre off
 in other soiles: the owners of the lands wherein those stones are to
 be had, and which hitherto haue giuen monie to haue them borne awaie,
 doo now reape no small commoditie by raising the same to excessiue
 prices, whereby their neighbours are driuen to grieuous charges, which
 is another cause wherefore the meaning of that good law is verie much
 defrauded. Finallie, this is another thing likewise to be considered
 of, that the trées and bushes growing by the stréets sides; doo not a
 little keepe off the force of the sunne in summer for drieng vp of the
 lanes. Wherefore if order were taken that their boughs should
 continuallie be kept short, and the bushes not suffered to spread so
 far into the narrow paths, that inconuenience would also be remedied,
 and manie a slough proue hard ground that yet is déepe and hollow. Of
 the dailie incroaching of the couetous vpon the hie waies I speake
 not. But this I know by experience, that wheras some stréets within
 these fiue and twentie yeares haue béene in most places fiftie foot
 broad according to the law, whereby the traueller might either escape
 the théefe or shift the mier, or passe by the loaden cart without
 danger of himselfe and his horsse; now they are brought vnto twelue,
 or twentie, or six and twentie at the most, which is another cause
 also whereby the waies be the worse, and manie an honest man encombred
 in his iourneie. But what speake I of these things whereof I doo not
 thinke to heare a iust redresse, because the error is so common, and
 the benefit thereby so swéet and profitable to manie, by such houses
 and cotages as are raised vpon the same.



 Such as are bred in this Iland are men for the most part of a good
 complexion, tall of stature, strong in bodie, white of colour, and
 thereto of great boldnesse and courage in the warres. As for their
 generall comelinesse of person, the testimonie of Gregorie the great,
 at such time as he saw English capteins sold at Rome, shall easilie
 confirme what it is, which yet dooth differ in sundrie shires and
 soiles, as also their proportion of members, as we may perceiue
 betwéene Herefordshire and Essex men, or Cambridgeshire and the
 Londoners for the one, and Pokington and Sedberrie for the other;
 these latter being distinguished by their noses and heads, which
 commonlie are greater there than in other places of the land. As
 concerning the stomachs also of our nation in the field, they haue
 alwaies beene in souereigne admiration among forren princes: for such
 hath béene the estimation of our souldiers from time to time, since
 our Ile hath béene knowne vnto the Romans, that wheresoeuer they haue
 serued in forren countries, the cheefe brunts of seruice haue beene
 reserued vnto them. Of their conquests and bloudie battels woone in
 France, Germanie, and Scotland, our histories are full: & where they
 haue beene ouercome, the victorers themselues confessed their
 victories to haue béene so déerelie bought, that they would not
 gladlie couet to ouercome often, after such difficult maner. In
 martiall prowesse, there is little or no difference betwéene
 Englishmen and Scots: for albeit that the Scots haue beene often and
 verie gréeuouslie ouercome by the force of our nation, it hath not
 béene for want of manhood on their parts, but through the mercie of
 God shewed on vs, and his iustice vpon them, sith they alwaies haue
 begun the quarels, and offered vs méere iniurie with great despite and

 Leland noting somewhat of the constitution of our bodies, saith these
 words grounding (I thinke vpon Aristotle, who writeth that such as
 dwell neere the north, are of more courage and strength of bodie than
 skilfulnesse or wisdome.) The Britons are white in colour, strong of
 bodie, and full of bloud, as people inhabiting neere the north, and
 farre from the equinoctiall line, where the soile is not so fruitfull,
 and therefore the people not so feeble: whereas contrariwise such as
 dwell toward the course of the sunne, are lesse of stature, weaker of
 bodie, more nice, delicate, fearefull by nature, blacker in colour, &
 some so blacke in déed as anie crow or rauen. Thus saith he. Howbeit,
 as those which are bred in sundrie places of the maine, doo come
 behind vs in constitution of bodie, so I grant, that in pregnancie of
 wit, nimblenesse of limmes, and politike inuentions, they generallie
 exceed vs: notwithstanding that otherwise these gifts of theirs doo
 often degenerate into méere subtiltie, instabilitie, vnfaithfulnesse,
 & crueltie. Yet Alexander ab Alexandro is of the opinion, that the
 fertilest region dooth bring foorth the dullest wits, and contrariwise
 the harder soile the finest heads. But in mine opinion, the most
 fertile soile dooth bring foorth the proudest nature, as we may see by
 the Campanians, who (as Cicero also saith) had "Penes eos ipsum
 domicilium superbiæ." But nether of these opinions do iustlie take
 hold of vs, yet hath it pleased the writers to saie their pleasures of
 vs. And for that we dwell northward, we are commonlie taken by the
 forren historiographers, to be men of great strength and little
 policie, much courage and small shift, bicause of the weake abode of
 the sunne with vs, whereby our braines are not made hot and warmed, as
 Pachymerus noteth lib. 3: affirming further, that the people
 inhabiting in the north parts are white of colour, blockish, vnciuill,
 fierce and warlike, which qualities increase, as they come neerer vnto
 the pole; whereas the contrarie pole giueth contrarie gifts,
 blacknesse, wisdome, ciuilitie, weakenesse, and cowardise, thus saith
 he. But alas, how farre from probabilitie or as if there were not one
 and the same conclusion to be made of the constitutions of their
 bodies, which dwell vnder both the poles. For in truth his assertion
 holdeth onelie in their persons that inhabit néere vnto and vnder the
 equinoctiall. As for the small tariance of the sunne with vs, it is
 also confuted by the length of our daies.

 [Sidenote: Non vi sed virtute, non armis sed ingenio vincuntur Angli.]
 Wherefore his reason seemeth better to vphold that of Alexander ab
 Alexandro afore alledged, than to prooue that we want wit, bicause our
 brains are not warmed by the tariance of the sunne. And thus also
 dooth Comineus burden vs after a sort in his historie, and after him,
 Bodinus. But thanked be God, that all the wit of his countriemen, if
 it may be called wit, could neuer compasse to doo so much in Britaine,
 as the strength and courage of our Englishmen (not without great
 wisedome and forecast) haue brought to passe in France. The Galles in
 time past contemned the Romans (saith Cæsar) bicause of the smalnesse
 of their stature: howbeit, for all their greatnesse (saith he) and at
 the first brunt in the warres, they shew themselues to be but féeble,
 neither is their courage of any force to stand in great calamities.
 Certes in accusing our wisedome in this sort, he dooth (in mine
 opinion) increase our commendation. For if it be a vertue to deale
 vprightlie with singlenesse of mind, sincerelie and plainlie, without
 anie such suspicious fetches in all our dealing, as they commonlie
 practise in their affaires, then are our countrimen to be accompted
 wise and vertuous. But if it be a vice to colour craftinesse, subtile
 practises, doublenesse, and hollow behauiour, with a cloake of
 policie, amitie and wisedome: then are Comineus and his countrimen to
 be reputed vicious, of whome this prouerbe hath of old time beene vsed
 as an eare marke of their dissimulation,

   Galli ridendo fidem frangunt. &c.

 How these latter points take hold in Italie, I meane not to discusse.
 How they are dailie practised in manie places of the maine, & he
 accompted most wise and politike, that can most of all dissemble; here
 is no place iustlie to determine (neither would I wish my countrimen
 to learne anie such wisedome) but that a king of France could saie;
 "Qui nescit dissimulare, nescit regnare, _or_ viuere," their owne
 histories are testimonies sufficient. Galen, the noble physician,
 transferring the forces of our naturall humors from the bodie to the
 mind, attributeth to the yellow colour, prudence; to the blacke,
 constancie; to bloud, mirth; to phlegme, courtesie: which being mixed
 more or lesse among themselues, doo yéeld an infinit varietie. By this
 meanes therefore it commeth to passe, that he whose nature inclineth
 generallie to phlegme, cannot but be courteous: which joined with
 strength of bodie, and sinceritie of behauiour (qualities vniuersallie
 granted to remaine so well in our nation, as other inhabitants of the
 north) I cannot see what may be an hinderance whie I should not rather
 conclude, that the Britons doo excell such as dwell in the hoter
 countries, than for want of craft and subtilties to come anie whit
 behind them. It is but vanitie also for some to note vs (as I haue
 often heard in common table talke) as barbarous, bicause we so little
 regard the shedding of our bloud, and rather tremble not when we sée
 the liquor of life to go from vs (I vse their owne words.) Certes if
 we be barbarous in their eies, bicause we be rather inflamed than
 appalled at our wounds, then are those obiectors flat cowards in our
 iudgement: sith we thinke it a great péece of manhood to stand to our
 tackling, vntill the last drop, as men that may spare much bicause we
 haue much: whereas they hauing lesse are afraid to lose that little
 which they haue: as Frontinus also noteth. As for that which the
 French write of their owne manhood in their histories, I make little
 accompt of it: for I am of the opinion, that as an Italian writing of
 his credit; A papist intreating of religion, a Spaniard of his
 méekenesse, or a Scot of his manhood, is not to be builded on; no more
 is a Frenchman to be trusted in the report of his owne affaires,
 wherein he dooth either dissemble or excéed, which is a foule vice in
 such as professe to deale vprightlie. Neither are we so hard to
 strangers as Horace wold séeme to make vs, sith we loue them so long
 as they abuse vs not, & make accompt of them so far foorth as they
 despise vs not. And this is generallie to be verified, in that they
 vse our priuileges and commodities for diet, apparell and trade of
 gaine, in so ample manner as we our selues enioy them: which is not
 lawfull for vs to doo in their countries, where no stranger is
 suffered to haue worke, if an home-borne be without. But to procéed
 with our purpose.

 With vs (although our good men care not to liue long, but to liue
 well) some doo liue an hundred yéers, verie manie vnto foure score: as
 for thrée score, it is taken but for our entrance into age, so that in
 Britaine no man is said to wax old till he draw vnto thrée score, at
 which time God spéed you well commeth in place; as Epaminondas
 [Sidenote: Salutations according to our ages.]
 sometime said in mirth, affirming that vntill thirtie yeares of age,
 You are welcome is the best salutation; and from thence to thréescore,
 God kéepe you; but after thréescore, it is best to saie, God spéed you
 well: for at that time we begin to grow toward our iournies end,
 whereon manie a one haue verie good leaue to go. These two are also
 noted in vs (as things apperteining to the firme constitutions of our
 bodies) that there hath not béene séene in anie region so manie
 carcasses of the dead to remaine from time to time without corruption
 as in Britaine: and that after death by slaughter or otherwise, such
 as remaine vnburied by foure or fiue daies togither, are easie to be
 knowne and discerned by their fréends and kindred; whereas Tacitus and
 other complaine of sundrie nations, saieng, that their bodies are "Tam
 fluidae substantiæ," that within certeine houres the wife shall
 hardlie know hir husband, the mother hir sonne, or one fréend another
 after their liues be ended. In like sort the comelinesse of our liuing
 bodies doo continue from midle age (for the most) euen to the last
 gaspe, speciallie in mankind. And albeit that our women through
 bearing of children doo after fortie begin to wrinkle apace, yet are
 they not commonlie so wretched and hard fauoured to looke vpon in
 their age, as the French women, and diuerse of other countries with
 whom their men also doo much participate; and thereto be so often
 waiward and peeuish, that nothing in maner may content them.

 I might here adde somewhat also of the meane stature generallie of our
 women, whose beautie commonlie excéedeth the fairest of those of the
 maine, their comlinesse of person and good proportion of limmes, most
 of theirs that come ouer vnto vs from beyond the seas. This
 neuerthelesse I vtterlie mislike in the poorer sort of them, for the
 wealthier doo sildome offend herein: that being of themselues without
 gouernement, they are so carelesse in the education of their children
 (wherein their husbands are also to be blamed) by means whereof verie
 manie of them neither fearing God, neither regarding either maners or
 obedience, doo oftentimes come to confusion, which (if anie correction
 or discipline had béene vsed toward them in youth) might haue prooued
 good members of their common-wealth & countrie, by their good seruice
 and industrie. I could make report likewise of the naturall vices and
 vertues of all those that are borne within this Iland, but as the full
 tractation herof craueth a better head than mine to set foorth the
 same, so will I giue place to other men that list to take it in hand.
 Thus much therefore of the constitutions of our bodies: and so much
 may suffice.



 After the comming of Brutus into this Iland (which was, as you haue
 read in the foresaid treatise, about the yeare of the world, 2850, or
 1217 before the incarnation of Christ, although Goropius after his
 maner doo vtterlie denie our historie in this behalfe) he made a
 generall surueie of the whole Iland from side to side, by such means
 to view and search out not onelie the limits and bounds of his
 dominions, but also what commodities this new atchiued conquest might
 yéeld vnto his people. Furthermore, finding out at the last also a
 conuenable place wherin to erect a citie, he began there euen the
 verie same which at this daie is called London, naming it Trenouanton,
 in remembrance of old Troie, from whence his ancestors proceeded, and
 for which the Romans pronounced afterward Trinobantum, although the
 Welshmen doo call it still Trenewith. This citie was builded (as some
 write) much about the tenth yeare of his reigne, so that he liued not
 aboue fiftéene yeares after he had finished the same. But of the rest
 of his other acts attempted and doone, before or after the erection of
 this citie, I find no certeine report, more than that when he had
 reigned in this Iland after his arriuall by the space of foure and
 twentie yeares, he finished his daies at Trenouanton aforesaid, being
 in his yoong and florishing age, where his carcase was honourablie
 interred. As for the maner of his death, I find as yet no mention
 thereof among such writers as are extant; I meane whether it grew vnto
 him by defect of nature, or force of gréeuous wounds receiued in his
 warres against such as withstood him from time to time in this Iland,
 and therefore I can saie nothing of that matter. Herein onelie all
 agree, that during the time of his languishing paines, he made a
 disposition of his whole kingdome, diuiding it into three parts or
 portions, according to the number of his sonnes then liuing, whereof
 the eldest excéeded not eight and twentie yeares of age, as my
 coniecture giueth me.

 [Sidenote: Locrine.]
 To the eldest therefore, whose name was Locrine, he gaue the greatest
 and best region of all the rest, which of him to this daie is called
 [Sidenote: Lhoegria.]
 Lhoegres among the Britons, but in our language England: of such
 English Saxons as made conquest of the same. This portion also is
 included on the south with the British sea, on the est with the
 Germane Ocean, on the north with the Humber, and on the west with the
 Irish sea, and the riuers Dee and Sauerne, whereof in the generall
 [Sidenote: Camber.]
 [Sidenote: Cambri.]
 description of this Iland I haue spoken more at large. To Camber his
 second sonne he assigned all that lieth beyond the Sauerne and Dée,
 toward the west (which parcell in these daies conteineth Southwales
 and Northwales) with sundrie Ilands adiacent to the same, the whole
 being in maner cut off and separated from England or Lhoegria by the
 said streams, wherby it séemeth also a peninsula or by-land, if you
 respect the small hillie portion of ground that lieth indifferentlie
 betwéene their maine courses, or such branches (at the least) as run
 and fall into them. The Welshmen or Britons call it by the ancient
 name still vnto this day, but we Englishmen terme it Wales: which
 denomination we haue from the Saxons, who in time past did vse the
 word Walsh in such sort as we doo Strange: for as we call all those
 strangers that are not of our nation, so did they name them Walsh
 which were not of their countrie.

 [Sidenote: Albanact.]
 The third and last part of the Iland he allotted vnto Albanact his
 youngest sonne (for he had but three in all, as I haue said before)
 whose portion séemed for circuit to be more large than that of Camber,
 and in maner equall in greatnesse with the dominions of Locrinus. But
 if you haue regard to the seuerall commodities that are to be reaped
 by each, you shall find them to be not much discrepant or differing
 one from another: for whatsoeuer the first & second haue in plentie of
 corne, fine grasse, and large cattell, this latter wanteth not in
 excéeding store of fish, rich mettall, quarries of stone, and
 abundance of wild foule: so that in mine opinion, there could not be a
 more equall partition than this made by Brute, and after the aforesaid
 maner. This later parcell at the first, tooke the name of Albanactus,
 who called it Albania. But now a small portion onelie of the region
 (being vnder the regiment of a duke) reteineth the said denomination,
 the rest being called Scotland, of certeine Scots that came ouer from
 Ireland to inhabit in those quarters. It is diuided from Lhoegres also
 by the Solue and the Firth, yet some doo note the Humber; so that
 [Sidenote: Albania.]
 Albania (as Brute left it) conteined all the north part of the Iland
 that is to be found beyond the aforesaid streame, vnto the point of

 To conclude, Brute hauing diuided his kingdome after this maner, and
 therein contenting himselfe as it were with the generall title of the
 whole, it was not long after yer he ended his life; and being
 solemnelie interred at his new citie by his thrée children, they
 parted each from other, and tooke possession of their prouinces. But
 [Sidenote: Locrine king also of Scotland.]
 Scotland after two yeares fell againe into the hands of Locrinus as to
 the chiefe lord, by the death of his brother Albanact, who was slaine
 by Humber king of the Scithians, and left none issue behind him to
 succéed him in that kingdome.



 [Sidenote: The Scots alwaies desirous to shake off the English
 subiection, have often made cruell & odious attempts so to doo,
 but in vaine.]
 It is possible that some of the Scotish nation, reading the former
 chapter, will take offence with me for meaning that the principalitie
 of the north parts of this Ile hath alwais belonged to the kings of
 Lhoegres. For whose more ample satisfaction in this behalfe, I will
 here set downe a discourse thereof at large, written by diuerse, and
 now finallie brought into one treatise, sufficient (as I thinke) to
 satisfie the reasonable, although not halfe enough peraduenture to
 content a wrangling mind, sith there is (or at the leastwise hath
 beene) nothing more odious among some, than to heare that the king of
 England hath ought to doo in Scotland.

 How their historiographers haue attempted to shape manie coloured
 excuses to auoid so manifest a title, all men may see that read their
 bookes indifferentlie, wherevnto I referre them. For my part there is
 little or nothing of mine herein, more than onelie the collection and
 abridgement of a number of fragments togither, wherein chéeflie I haue
 vsed the helpe of Nicholas Adams a lawier, who wrote thereof (of set
 purpose) to king Edward the sixt, as Leland did the like to king
 Henrie the eight, Iohn Harding vnto Edward the fourth; beside thrée
 other, whereof the first dedicated his treatise to Henrie the fourth,
 the second to Edward the third, and the third to Edward the first, as
 their writings yet extant doo abundantlie beare witnesse. The title
 also that Leland giueth his booke, which I haue had written with his
 owne hand, beginneth in this maner: "These remembrances following are
 found in chronicles authorised, remaining in diuerse monasteries both
 in England and Scotland, by which it is euidentlie knowne and shewed,
 that the kings of England haue had, and now ought to haue the
 souereigntie ouer all Scotland, with the homage and fealtie of the
 kings there reigning from time to time, &c." Herevnto you haue heard
 alreadie, what diuision Brute made of this Iland not long before his
 death, wherof ech of his children, so soone as he was interred, tooke
 seisure and possession. Howbeit, after two yeares it happened that
 Albanact was slaine, wherevpon Locrinus and Camber raising their
 powers, reuenged his death: and finallie the said Locrinus made an
 entrance vpon Albania, seized it into his owne hands (as excheated
 wholie vnto himselfe) without yéelding anie part thereof vnto his
 brother Camber, who made no claime nor title vnto anie portion of the
 same. Hereby then (saith Adams) it euidentlie appeareth, that the
 entire seigniorie ouer Albania consisted in Locrinus, according to
 which example like law among brethren euer since hath continued, in
 preferring the eldest brother to the onelie benefit of the collaterall
 ascension from the yongest, as well in Scotland as in England vnto
 this daie.

 Ebranke the lineall heire from the bodie of this Locrine, that is to
 saie, the sonne of Mempris, sonne of Madan, sonne of the same Locrine
 builded in Albania the castell of Maidens, now called Edenborough (so
 called of Aidan somtime king of Scotland, but at the first named Cair
 Minid Agnes. 1. the castell on mount Agnes, and the castell of
 virgins) and the castell of Alcluith or Alclude, now called Dunbriton,
 as the Scotish Hector Boetius confesseth: whereby it most euidentlie
 appeareth, that our Ebranke was then thereof seized. This Ebranke
 reigned in the said state ouer them a long time; after whose death
 Albania (as annexed to the empire of Britaine) descended to the onelie
 king of Britons, vntill the time of the two sisters sonnes, Morgan and
 Conedage, lineall heires from the said Ebranke, who brotherlie at the
 first diuided the realme betwéen them; so that Morgan had Lhoegres,
 and Conedage had Albania. But shortlie after Morgan the elder brother,
 pondering in his head the loue of his brother with the affection to a
 kingdome, excluded nature, and gaue place to ambition, and therevpon
 denouncing warre, death miserablie ended his life (as the reward of
 his vntruth) whereby Conedage obteined the whole empire of all
 Britaine: in which state he remained during his naturall life.

 From him the same lineallie descended to the onelie king of Britons,
 vntill (and after) the reigne of Gorbodian, who had issue two sonnes,
 Ferrex, and Porrex. This Porrex, requiring like diuision of the land,
 affirming the former partitions to be rather of law than fauor, was by
 the hands of his elder brother (best loued of queene mother) both of
 his life and hoped kingdome béereaued at once. Wherevpon their
 vnnaturall mother, vsing hir naturall malice for the death of hir one
 sonne (without regard of the loosing of both) miserablie slue the
 other in his bed mistrusting no such treason.

 Cloten, by all writers, as well Scotish as other, was the next
 inheritour to the whole empire: but lacking power (the onelie meane in
 those daies to obteine right) he was contented to diuide the same
 among foure of his kinsmen; so that Scater had Albania. But after the
 death of this Cloten, his sonne Dunwallo Mulmutius made warre vpon
 these foure kings, and at last ouercame them, and so recouered the
 whole dominion. In token of which victorie, he caused himselfe to be
 crowned with a crowne of gold, the verie first of that mettall (if
 anie at all were before in vse) that was worne among the kings of this
 nation. This Dunwallo erected temples, wherein the people should
 assemble for praier; to which temples he gaue benefit of sanctuarie.
 He made the law for wager of battell, in cases of murder and felonie,
 whereby a théefe that liued and made his art of fighting, should for
 his purgation fight with the true man whom he had robbed, beléeuing
 assuredlie, that the gods (for then they supposed manie) would by
 miracle assigne victorie to none but the innocent partie. Certes the
 priuileges of this law, and benefit of the latter, as well in Scotland
 as in England, be inioied to this daie, few causes by late positiue
 laws among vs excepted, wherin the benefit of wager of battell is
 restreined. By which obedience to his lawes, it dooth manifestlie
 appéere, that this Dunwallo was then seized of Albania, now called
 Scotland. This Dunwallo reigned in this estate ouer them manie yeares.

 Beline and Brenne the sonnes also of Dunwallo, did after their fathers
 death fauourablie diuide the land betweene them; so that Beline had
 Lhoegres, & Brenne had Albania: but for that this Brenne (a subiect)
 without the consent of his elder brother and lord, aduentured to
 marrie with the daughter of the king of Denmarke; Beline seized
 Albania into his owne hands, and thervpon caused the notable waies
 priuileged by Dunwallons lawes to be newlie wrought by mens hands,
 which for the length extended from the further part of Cornewall, vnto
 the sea by north Cathnesse in Scotland. In like sort to and for the
 better maintenance of religion in those daies, he constituted
 ministers called archflamines, in sundrie places of this Iland (who in
 their seuerall functions resembled the bishops of our times) the one
 of which remained at Ebranke now called Yorke, and the whole region
 Caerbrantonica (whereof Ptolomie also speaketh but not without
 wresting of the name) whose power extended to the vttermost bounds of
 Albania, wherby likewise appeareth that it was then within his owne
 dominion. After his death the whole Ile was inioied by the onelie
 kings of Britaine, vntill the time of Vigenius & Peridurus lineall
 heires from the said Beline, who fauourablie made partition, so that
 Vigenius had all the land from Humber by south, and Peridurus from
 thence northwards all Albania, &c. This Vigenius died, and Peridurus
 suruiued, and thereby obteined the whole, from whom the same quietlie
 descended, and was by his posteritie accordinglie inioied, vntill the
 reigne of Coell the first of that name. In his time an obscure nation
 (by most writers supposed Scithians) passed by seas from Ireland, and
 arriued in that part of Britaine called Albania: against whome this
 Coell assembled his power, and being entred Albania to expell them,
 one Fergus in the night disguised, entered the tent of this Coell, and
 in his bed traitorouslie slue him.

 This Fergus was therfore, in reward of his great prowesse, made there
 king, whervpon they sat downe in that part, with their wiues and
 children, and called it Scotland, and themselues Scots: from the
 beginning of the world, foure thousand six hundred and seauentéene
 yeares after the Scotish accompt, which by iust computation and
 confession of all their owne writers, is six hundred yeares lacking
 ten, after that Brutus had reigned ouer the whole Iland, the same land
 being inioied by him and his posteritie before their comming, during
 two and fiftie descents of the kings of Britaine, which is a large
 prescription. Certes this intrusion into a land so manie hundred
 yeares before inhabited, and by so manie descents of kings quietlie
 inioied, is the best title that all their owne writers can alledge for
 them. But to proceed. Fergus herevpon immediatlie did diuide Albania
 also among his capteins and their souldiers: whereby it most
 euidentlie appeareth, that there were no people of that nation
 inhabiting there before, in proofe whereof the same partition shall

 The lands of Cathnes lieng against Orkneie, betwéene Dummesbeie and
 [Sidenote: Out of Hector Boecius lib. 1.]
 the water of Thane, was giuen vnto one Cornath, a capteine and his
 people. The lands betwéene the water of Thane & Nes, now called Rosse,
 being in bredth from Cromart to the mouth of the water of Locht, were
 giuen to Lutorke, another capteine and his people. The lands betweene
 Spaie and Nes, from the Almane seas to the Ireland seas, now called
 Murraie land, were giuen to one Warroch and his people. The land of
 Thalia, now called Boin Ainze, Bogewall, Gariot, Formartine, and
 Bowguhan, were giuen to one Thalis and his people. The lands of Mar
 Badezenoch, and Lochquhaber, were giuen to Martach and his people. The
 lands of Lorne and Kintier, with the hilles and mounteins thereof,
 lieng from Mar to the Ireland seas, were giuen to capteine Nanance and
 his people. The lands of Athole were giuen to Atholus, another
 capteine and his people. The lands of Strabraun, & Brawdawane lieng
 west from Dunkell, were giuen to Creones & Epidithes two capteins. The
 lands of Argile, were giuen to Argathelus a capteine. The lands of
 Linnox & Clidisdale were allotted to Lolgona a capteine. The lands of
 Siluria now called Kile, Carrike & Cuningham, were giuen to Silurth
 another capteine. The lands of Brigance now called Gallowaie, were
 giuen to the companie called Brigandes, which (as their best men) were
 appointed to dwell next the Britons, who afterward expelled the
 Britons from Annandale in Albania, whereby it is confessed to be
 before inhabited by Britons. The residue of the land now called
 Scotland, that is to saie: Meirnis, Angus, Steremond, Gowrie,
 Strahern, Pirth, Fiffe, Striueling, Callender, Calderwood, Lougthian,
 Mers, Teuedale, with other the Rement Dales, & the Sherifdome, of
 Berwicke, were then enioied by a nation mingled in marriage with the
 [Sidenote: Berouicum potiùs à Berubio promontorio.]
 Britons, and in their obedience, whose capteine called Beringer
 builded the castell and towne of Berwicke vpon Twede, & these people
 were called Picts, vpon whome by the death of this Coell, these Scots
 had opportunitie to vse wars, whereof they ceased not, vntill such
 time as it pleased God to appoint another Coell king of Britons,
 against whose name, albeit they hoped for a like victorie to the
 first, yet he preuailed and ceased not his warre, vntill these Scots
 were vtterlie expelled out of all the bounds of Britaine, in which
 they neuer dared to reenter, vntill the troublesome reigne of Sisilt
 king of Britons, which was the twelft king after this Coell. During
 all which time the countrie was reinhabited by the Britons. But then
 the Scots turning the ciuill discord of this realme, betweene this
 Sisilt and his brother Blede to their best aduantage, arriued againe
 in Albania, & there made one Reuther their king.

 Vpon this their new arriuall, new warre was made vpon them by this
 Sisilt king of Britons, in which warre Reuther their new king died,
 and Thereus succéeded, against whome the warre of Britons ceased not,
 vntill he freelie submitted himselfe to the said Sicill king of
 Britons at Ebranke, that is Yorke, where shortlie after the tenth
 yeare of his reigne he died. Finnane brother of Josine succeeded by
 their election to the kingdome of Scots, who shortlie after (compelled
 by the warres of the same Sicill) declared himselfe subiect, and for
 the better assurance of his faith and obeisance to the king of
 Britons, deliuered his sonne Durstus into the hands of this Sicill:
 who fantasieng the child, and hoping by his owne succession to alter
 their subtiltie (I will not saie duplicitie saith Adams) married him
 in the end to Agasia his owne daughter.

 [Sidenote: Durstus.]
 This Durstus was their next king; but for that he had married a Briton
 woman, (though indeed she was a kings daughter) the Scots hated him
 for the same cause, for which they ought rather to haue liked him the
 better, and therefore not onelie traitorouslie slue him; but further
 to declare the end of their malice, disinherited (as much as in them
 was) the issues of the same Durstus and Agasia. Herevpon new warre
 sproong betwéene them and vs, which ceased not vntill they were
 contented to receiue Edeir to their king, the next in bloud then
 liuing, descended from Durstus and Agasia, and thereby the bloud of
 the Britons, of the part of the mother, was restored to the crowne of
 Albania: so that nature, whose law is immutable, caused this bond of
 loue to hold. For shortlie after this Edeir attended vpon Cassibelane
 king of Britons, for the repulse of Iulius Cæsar, as their owne author
 Boetius confesseth, who commanded the same as his subiect. But Iulius
 Cæsar, after his second arriuall, by treason of Androgeus preuailed
 against the Britons, and therevpon pursued this Edeir into Scotland;
 and (as himselfe saith in his commentaries) subdued all the Ile of
 Britaine. Which though the liuing Scots denie it, their dead writers
 confesse that he came beyond Calender wood, and cast downe Camelon,
 the principall citie of the Picts. And in token of this victorie, not
 farre from Carron, builded a round temple of stone, which remained in
 some perfection vntill the reigne of our king Edward called the first
 after the conquest, by whome it was subuerted: but the monument
 thereof remaineth to this daie.

 [Sidenote: Marius.]
 Marius the sonne of Aruiragus, being king of all Britaine, in his time
 one Roderike a Scithian, with a great rabble of néedie souldiours,
 came to the water of Frith in Scotland, which is an arme of the sea,
 diuiding Pentland from Fiffe: against whome this Marius assembled a
 power, by which he slue this Rodericke, and discomfited his people in
 Westmerland: but to those that remained aliue, he gaue the countrie of
 Cathnesse in Scotland, which prooueth it to be within his owne

 [Sidenote: Coelus.]
 Coell the sonne of this Marius had issue Lucius, counted the first
 Christian king of this nation: he conuerted the three archflamines of
 this land into bishopriks, and ordeined bishops vnto ech of them. The
 first remained at London, and his power extended from the furthest
 part of Cornewall to Humber water. The second dwelled at Yorke, and
 his power stretched from Humber to the furthest part of all Scotland.
 The third aboded at Caerleon vpon the riuer of Wiske in Glamorgan in
 Wales, & his power extended from Seuerne through all Wales. Some write
 that he made but two, and turned their names to archbishops, the one
 to remaine at Canturburie, the other at Yorke: yet they confesse that
 he of Yorke had iurisdiction through all Scotland: either of which is
 sufficient to prooue Scotland to be then vnder his dominion.

 [Sidenote: Seuerus.]
 Seuerus, by birth a Romane, but in bloud a Briton (as some thinke) and
 the lineall heire of the bodie of Androgeus sonne of Lud, & nephue of
 Cassibelane, was shortlie after emperour & king of Britons, in whose
 time the people to whom his ancestor Marius gaue the land of Cathnesse
 in Scotland, conspired with the Scots, & receiued them from the Iles
 into Scotland. But herevpon this Seuerus came into Scotland, and
 méeting with their faith and false harts togither, droue them all out
 of the maine land into Iles, the vttermost bounds of all great
 Britaine. But notwithstanding this glorious victorie, the Britons
 considering their seruitude to the Romans, imposed by treason of
 Androgeus, ancestor to this Seuerus, began to hate him, whome yet they
 had no time to loue, and who in their defense and suertie had slaine
 of the Scots and their confederats in one battell thirtie thousand:
 but such was the consideration of the common sort in those daies,
 whose malice no time could diminish, nor iust desert appease.

 [Sidenote: Bassianus.]
 Antoninus Bassianus borne of a Briton woman, and Geta borne by a
 Romane woman, were the sonnes of this Seuerus, who after the death of
 their father, by the contrarie voices of their people, contended for
 the crowne. Few Britons held with Bassianus, fewer Romans with Geta:
 but the greater number with neither of both. In the end Geta was
 slaine, and Bassianus remained emperour, against whom Carautius
 rebelled, who gaue vnto the Scots, Picts, and Scithians, the countrie
 of Cathnesse in Scotland, which they afterward inhabited, whereby his
 seison thereof appeareth.

 [Sidenote: Coill.]
 Coill, descended of the bloud of the ancient kings of this land, was
 shortlie after king of the Britons, whose onelie daughter and heire
 called Helen, was married vnto Constantius a Romane, who daunted the
 rebellion of all parts of great Britaine; and after the death of this
 Coill was in the right of his wife king thereof, and reigned in his
 state ouer them thirtéene or fourtéene yeares.

 [Sidenote: Constantine.]
 Constantine the sonne of this Constance, and Helen, was next king of
 Britons, by the right of his mother, who passing to Rome to receiue
 the empire thereof, deputed one Octauius king of Wales, and duke of
 the Gewisses (which some expound to be afterward called west Saxons)
 to haue the gouernment of this dominion. But abusing the kings
 innocent goodnesse, this Octauius defrauded this trust, and tooke vpon
 him the crowne. For which traitorie albeit he was once vanquished by
 Leonine Traheron, great vncle to Constantine: yet after the death of
 this Traheron, he preuailed againe, and vsurped ouer all Britaine.
 Constantine being now emperor sent Maximius his kinsman hither (in
 processe of time) to destroie the same Octauius, who in singular
 battell discomfited him. Wherevpon this Maximius, as well by the
 consent of great Constantine, as by the election of all the Britons,
 for that he was a Briton in bloud, was made king or rather vicegerent
 of Britaine. This Maximius made warre vpon the Scots and Scithians
 within Britaine, and ceassed not vntill he had slaine Eugenius their
 king, and expelled and driuen them out of the whole limits and bounds
 of Britaine. Finallie he inhabited all Scotland with Britons, no man,
 woman, nor child of the Scotish nation suffered to remaine within it,
 which (as their Hector Boetius saith) was for their rebellion; and
 rebellion properlie could it not be, except they had béene subiects.
 He suffered the Picts also to remaine his subiects, who made solemne
 othes to him, neuer after to erect anie peculiar king of their owne
 nation, but to remaine vnder the old empire of the onelie king of
 Britaine. I had once an epistle by Leland exemplified (as he saith)
 out of a verie ancient record which beareth title of Helena vnto hir
 sonne Constantine, and entreth after this manner; "Domino semper
 Augusto filio Constantino, mater Helena semper Augusta, &c." And now
 it repenteth me that I did not exemplifie and conueigh it into this
 treatise whilest I had his books. For thereby I might haue had great
 light for the estate of this present discourse: but as then I had no
 mind to haue trauelled in this matter; neuerthelesse, if hereafter it
 come againe to light I would wish it were reserued. It followeth on
 also in this maner (as it is translated out of the Gréeke) "Veritatem
 sapientis animus non recusat, nec fides recta aliquando patitur
 quamcunque iacturam, &c."

 About fiue and fourtie yeares after this (which was long time after
 the death of this Maximius) with the helpe of Gouan or Gonan and
 Melga, the Scots newlie arriued in Albania, and there created one
 Fergus the second of that name to be there king. But bicause they were
 before banished the continent land, they crowned him king on their
 aduenture in Argile, in the fatall chaire of marble, the yéere of our
 Lord, foure hundred and two and twentie, as they themselues doo write.

 [Sidenote: Maximian.]
 Maximian sonne of Leonine Traheron, brother to king Coill, and vncle
 to Helene, was by lineall succession next king of Britons: but to
 appease the malice of Dionothus king of Wales, who also claimed the
 kingdome, he married Othilia eldest daughter of Dionothus, and
 afterwards assembled a great power of Britons, and entered Albania,
 inuading Gallowaie, Mers, Annandale, Pentland, Carrike, Kill, and
 Cuningham, and in battell slue both this Fergus then king of Scots,
 and Durstus the king of Picts, and exiled all their people out of the
 continent land: wherevpon the few number of Scots then remaining a
 liue, went to Argile, and there made Eugenius their king. When this
 Maximian had thus obteined quietnesse in Britaine, he departed with
 his cousine Conan Meridocke into Armorica, where they subdued the
 king, and depopulated the countrie, which he gaue to Conan his
 cousine, to be afterward inhabited by Britons, by the name of Britaine
 the lesse: and hereof this realme tooke name of Britaine the great,
 which name by consent of forren writers it keepeth vnto this daie.

 After the death of Maximian, dissention being mooued betweene the
 nobles of Britaine, the Scots swarmed togither againe, and came to the
 wall of Adrian, where (this realme being diuided in manie factions)
 they ouercame one. And herevpon their Hector Boetius (as an hen that
 for laieng of one eg, will make a great cakeling) solemnlie triumphing
 for a conquest before the victorie, alledgeth that hereby the Britons
 were made tributaries to the Scots, and yet he confesseth that they
 won no more land, by that supposed conquest, but the same portion
 betwéene them and Humber, which in the old partitions before was
 annexed to Albania. It is hard to be beléeued, that such a broken
 nation as the Scots at that time were, returning from banishment
 within foure yeares before, and since in battell loosing both their
 kings, and the great number of their best men, to be thus able to make
 a conquest of great Britaine; and verie vnlikelie if they had
 conquered it, they would haue left the hot sunne of the south parts,
 to dwell in the cold snow in Scotland. Incredible it is, that if they
 had conquered it, they would not haue deputed officers in it, as in
 cases of conquest behooueth. And it is beyond all beliefe, that great
 Britaine, or any other countrie, should be woon without the comming of
 anie enimie into it: as they did not, but taried finallie at the same
 wall of Adrian, whereof I spake before.

 But what need I speake of these defenses, when the same Boecius
 scantlie trusteth his owne beliefe in this tale. For he saieth that
 Galfride, and sundrie other authentike writers, diuerslie varie from
 this part of his storie, wherein his owne thought accuseth his
 conscience of vntruth: herein also he further forgetting how it
 behooueth a lier to be mindfull of his assertion, in the fourth
 chapter next following, wholie bewraieth himselfe, saieng that the
 confederat kings of Scots and Picts, vpon ciuill warres betwéene the
 Britons (which then followed) hoped shortlie to inioie all the land of
 great Britaine, from beyond Humber vnto the fresh sea, which hope had
 bene vaine, and not lesse than void, if it had béene their owne by
 anie conquest before.

 Constantine of Britaine, descended from Conan king thereof, cousine of
 Brutes bloud to this Maximian, and his neerest heire was next king of
 Britaine; he immediatlie pursued the Scots with wars, and shortlie in
 battell slue their king Dongard, in the first yeare of his reigne,
 whereby he recouered Scotland out of their hands, and tooke all the
 holdes thereof into his owne possessions. Vortiger shortlie after
 obteined the crowne of Britaine, against whom the Scots newlie
 rebelled: for the repressing whereof (mistrusting the Britons to hate
 him for sundrie causes, as one that to auoid the smoke dooth oft fall
 into the fire) receiued Hengest a Saxon, and a great number of his
 countriemen, with whom and a few Britons he entred Scotland & ouercame
 them, wherevpon they tooke the Iles, which are their common refuge. He
 gaue also much of Scotland, as Gallowaie, Pentland, Mers and
 Annandale, with sundrie other lands to this Hengest and his people to
 inhabit, which they did accordinglie inioie. But when this Hengest in
 processe of time thirsted after the whole kingdome of the south, he
 was banished, and yet afterward being restored, he conspired with the
 Scots against Aurilambrose the sonne of Constantine, the iust
 inheritor of this whole dominion. But his vntruth and theirs were both
 [Sidenote: Some thinke the Seimors to come from this man by lineall
 descent and I suppose no lesse.]
 recompensed togither, for he was taken prisoner by Eldulph de Samor a
 noble man of Britaine, and his head for his traitorie striken off at
 the commandement of Aurilambrose. In the field the Scots were
 vanquished: but Octa the sonne of Hengest was receiued to mercie, to
 whome and his people this Aurilambrose gaue the countrie of Gallowaie
 in Scotland, for which they became his subiects. And hereby appeareth
 that Scotland was then againe reduced into his hands.

 Vter called also Pendragon, brother to Aurilambrose was next king of
 the Britons, against whome, these sworne Saxons now foresworne
 subiects (confederate with the Scots) newlie rebelled: but by his
 power assembled against them in Gallowaie in Scotland, they were
 discomfited, & Albania againe recouered vnto his subiection. Arthur
 the sonne of this Vter, begotten before the mariage, but lawfullie
 borne in matrimonie, succéeded next to the crowne of great Britaine;
 whose noble acts, though manie vulgar fables haue rather stained than
 commended: yet all the Scotish writers confesse, that he subdued great
 Britaine, and made it tributarie to him, and ouercame the Saxons then
 scattered as far as Cathnesse in Scotland: and in all these wars
 against them, he had the seruice and obeisance of Scots and Picts. But
 at the last setting their féet in the guilefull paths of their
 predecessors, they rebelled and besieged the citie of Yorke, Howell
 king of the lesse Britaine cousine to king Arthur being therein. But
 he with an host came thither and discomfited the Scots, chased them
 into a marsh, and besieged them there so long, that they were almost
 famished: vntill the bishops, abbats, and men of religion (for as much
 as they were christened people) besought him to take them to his
 mercie and grace, and to grant them a portion of the same countrie to
 dwell in vnder euerlasting subiection. Vpon this he tooke them to his
 grace, homage and fealtie: and when they were sworne his subiects and
 liegemen, he ordeined his kinsman Anguisan to be their king and
 gouernour, Vrian king of Iland, and Murefrence king of Orkeneie. He
 made an archbishop of Yorke also, whose authoritie extended through
 all Scotland.

 Finallie, the said Arthur holding his roiall feast at Cairleon, had
 there all the kings that were subiects vnto him, among which, Angusian
 the said king of Scots did his due seruice and homage, so long as he
 was with him for the realme of Scotland, & bare king Arthurs sword
 afore him. Malgo shortlie after succéeded in the whole kingdome of
 great Britaine, who vpon new resistance made, subdued Ireland, Iland,
 the Orchads, Norwaie and Denmarke, and made Ethelfred a Saxon king of
 Bernicia, that is, Northumberland, Louthian, and much other land of
 Scotland, which Ethelfred by the sword obteined at the hands of the
 wilfull inhabitants, and continued true subiect to this Malgo.

 Cadwan succéeded in the kingdome of great Britaine, who in defense of
 his subiects the Scots, made warre vpon this Ethelfred, but at the
 last they agréed, and Cadwan vpon their rebellion gaue all Scotland
 vnto this Ethelfred, which he therevpon subdued and inioied: but
 afterward in the reigne of Cadwallo that next succeeded in great
 Britaine, he rebelled. Whervpon the same Cadwallo came into Scotland,
 and vpon his treason reseised the countrie into his owne hands, and
 hauing with him all the vicerois of the Saxons, which then inhabited
 here as his subiects, in singular battell he slue the same Ethelfred
 with his owne hands.

 Oswald was shortlie after by Cadwallos gift made king of Bernicia, and
 he as subiect to Cadwallo, and by his commandement discomfited the
 Scots and Picts, and subdued all Scotland. Oswie the brother of this
 Oswald, was by the like gift of Cadwallo, made next king of Bernicia,
 and he by like commandement newlie subdued the Scots and Picts, and
 held them in that obeisance to this Cadwallow, during eight and
 twentie yeares. Thus Cadwallo reigned in the whole monarchie of great
 Britaine, hauing all the seuen kings thereof, as well Saxons as others
 his subiects: for albeit the number of Saxons from time to time
 greatlie increased, yet were they alwaies either at the first
 expelled, or else made tributarie to the onelie kings of Britons for
 the time being, as all their owne writers doo confesse.

 Cadwallader was next king of the whole great Britaine, he reigned
 twelue yeares ouer all the kings thereof, in great peace and
 tranquillitie: and then vpon the lamentable death of his subiects,
 which died of sundrie diseases innumerablie, he departed into little
 Britaine. His sonne and cousine Iuor and Iue, being expelled out of
 England also by the Saxons, went into Wales, where among the Britons
 they and their posteritie remained princes. Vpon this great
 alteration, and warres being through the whole dominion betwéene the
 Britons and Saxons, the Scots thought time to slip the collar of
 obedience, and therevpon entred in league with Charles then king of
 France, establishing it in this wise.

 1 "The iniurie of Englishmen doone to anie of these people, shall be
 perpetuallie holden common to them both.

 2 "When Frenchmen be inuaded by Englishmen, the Scots shall send their
 armie in defense of France, so that they be supported with monie and
 vittels by the French.

 3 "When Scots be inuaded by Englishmen, the Frenchmen shall come vpon
 their owne expenses, to their support and succour.

 4 "None of the people shall take peace or truce with Englishmen,
 without the aduise of other, &c."

 [Sidenote: _Nicholas Adams._]
 Manie disputable opinions may be had of warre without the praising of
 it, as onelie admittable by inforced necessitie, and to be vsed for
 peace sake onelie, where here the Scots sought warre for the loue of
 warre onelie. For their league giueth no benefit to themselues, either
 in frée traffike of their owne commodities, or benefit of the French,
 or other priuilege to the people of both. What discommoditie riseth by
 loosing the intercourse and exchange of our commodities (being in
 necessaries more aboundant than France) the Scots féele, and we
 perfectlie know. What ruine of their townes, destruction of countries,
 slaughter of both peoples, haue by reason of this bloudie league
 chanced, the histories be lamentable to read, and horrible among
 Christian men to be remembred: but God gaue the increase according to
 their séed, for as they did hereby sowe dissention, so did they
 shortlie after reape a bloudie slaughter and confusion. For Alpine
 their king, possessing a light mind that would be lost with a little
 wind, hoped by this league shortlie to subdue all great Britaine, and
 to that end not onelie rebelled in his owne kingdome, but also vsurped
 vpon the kingdome of Picts. Whervpon Edwine king of England, made one
 Brudeus king of Picts, whom he sent into Scotland with a great power,
 where in battell he tooke this Alpine king of Scots prisoner, and
 discomfited his people. And this Alpine being their king found subiect
 and rebell, his head was striken off at a place in Scotland, which
 thereof is to this daie called Pasalpine, that is to saie, the head of
 Alpine. And this was the first effect of their French league.

 Osbright king of England, with Ella his subiect, and a great number of
 Britons and Saxons shortlie after, for that the Scots had of
 themselues elected a new king, entered Scotland, and ceassed not his
 war against them, vntill their king and people fled into the Iles,
 with whome at the last vpon their submission, peace was made in this

 The water of Frith shall be march betwéene Scots and Englishmen in the
 east parts, and shall be named the Scotish sea.

 The water of Cluide to Dunbriton, shall be march in the west parts
 betwéene the Scots and Britons. This castell was before called
 Alcluide, but now Dunbriton, that is to say, the castle of Britons,
 and sometimes it was destroied by the Danes. So the Britons had all
 the lands from Sterling to the Ireland seas, and from the water of
 Frith & Cluide to Cumber, with all the strengths and commodities
 thereof: and the Englishmen had the lands betwéene Sterling and
 Northumberland. Thus was Cluide march betwéene the Scots and the
 Britons on the one side, and the water of Frith named the Scotish sea,
 march betwéene them and Englishmen on the other side, and Sterling
 common march to thrée people, Britons, Englishmen, and Scots, howbeit
 king Osbright had the castle of Stirling, where first he caused to be
 coined Sterling monie. The Englishmen also builded a bridge of stone,
 for passage ouer the water of Frith, in the middest whereof they made
 a crosse, vnder which were written these verses:

   I am free march, as passengers may ken,
   To Scots, to Britons, and Englishmen.

 Not manie yeares after this, Hinguar and Hubba, two Danes, with a
 great number of people, arriued in Scotland, and slue Constantine,
 whom Osbright had before made king: wherevpon Edulfe or Ethelwulfe,
 then king of England, assembled his power against Hinguar and Hubba,
 and in one battell slue them both; but such of their people as would
 remaine and become christians, he suffered to tarie: the rest he
 banished or put to death, &c.

 This Ethelwulfe granted the Peter pence, of which albeit Peter & Paule
 had little need and lesse right: yet the paiment thereof continued in
 this realme euer after vntill now of late yeares. But the Scots euer
 since vnto this daie haue, and yet doo paie it, by reason of that
 grant, which prooueth them to be then vnder his obeisance.

 Alured or Alfred succéeded in the kingdome of England, and reigned
 noblie ouer the whole monarchie of great Britaine: he made lawes, that
 persons excommunicated should be disabled to sue or claime anie
 propertie; which law Gregour, whome this Alured had made king of
 Scots, obeied; and the same law as well in Scotland as in England is
 holden to this daie, which also prooueth him to be high lord of

 This Alured constreined Gregour king of Scots also to breake the
 league with France, for generallie he concluded with him, and serued
 him in all his warres, as well against Danes as others, not reseruing
 or making anie exception of the former league with France.

 The said Alured, after the death of Gregour, had the like seruice and
 obeisance of Donald king of Scots with fiue thousand horssemen,
 against one Gurmond a Dane that then infested the realme, and this
 Donald died in this faith and obeisance with Alured.

 Edward the first of that name called Chifod sonne of this Alured
 succéeded his father, and was the next king of England: against whome
 Sithrijc a Dane and the Scots conspired; but they were subdued, and
 Constantine their king brought to obeisance. He held the realme of
 Scotland also of king Edward, and this dooth Marian their owne
 countrieman a Scot confesse: beside Roger Houeden, and William of

 In the yeare of our Lord 923, the same king Edward was president and
 gouernour of all the people of England, Cumberland, Scots, Danes, and

 King Athelstane in like sort conquered Scotland, and as he laie in his
 tents beside Yorke, whilest the warres lasted, the king of Scots
 feined himselfe to be a minstrell, and harped before him onelie to
 espie his ordinance and his people. But being (as their writers
 confesse) corrupted with monie, he sold his faith and false heart
 together to the Danes, and aided them against king Athelstane at
 sundrie times. Howbeit he met with all their vntruthes at Broningfield
 in the west countrie, as is mentioned in the ninth chapter of the
 first booke of this description, where he discomfited the Danes, and
 slue Malcolme deputie in that behalfe to the king of Scots: in which
 battell the Scots confesse themselues to haue lost more people than
 were remembred in anie age before. Then Athelstane following his good
 lucke, went throughout all Scotland and wholie subdued it, and being
 in possession thereof, gaue land there lieng in Annandale by his deed,
 the copie wherof dooth follow:

 "I king Athelstane, giues vnto Paulam, Oddam and Roddam, als good and
 als faire, as euer they mine were, and thereto witnesse Mauld my

 By which course words, not onelie appeareth the plaine simplicitie of
 mens dooings in those daies: but also a full proofe that he was then
 seized of Scotland. At the last also he receiued homage of Malcolme
 king of Scots: but for that he could not be restored to his whole
 kingdome, he entered into religion, and there shortlie after died.

 Then Athelstane, for his better assurance of that countrie there
 after, thought it best to haue two stringes to the bowe of their
 obedience, and therefore not onelie constituted one Malcolme to be
 their king, but also appointed one Indulph sonne of Constantine the
 third, to be called prince of Scotland, to whome he gaue much of
 Scotland: and for this Malcolme did homage to Athelstane.

 Edmund brother of Athelstane succéeded next king of England, to whome
 this Indulph then king of Scots not onelie did homage, but also serued
 him with ten thousand Scots, for the expulsion of the Danes out of the
 realme of England.

 [Sidenote: Some referre this to an Edward.]
 Edred or Eldred brother to this Edmund succéeded next king of England:
 he not onelie receiued the homage of Irise then king of Scots, but
 also the homage of all the barons of Scotland.

 Edgar the sonne of Edmund, brother of Athelstane, being now of full
 age, was next king of England: he reigned onelie ouer the whole
 monarchie of Britaine, and receiued homage of Keneth king of Scots for
 the kingdome of Scotland, and made Malcolme prince thereof.

 This Edgar gaue vnto the same Keneth the countrie of Louthian in
 Scotland, which was before seized into the hands of Osbright king of
 England for their rebellion, as is before declared. He inioined Keneth
 their said king also once in euerie yéere at certeine principall
 feasts (whereat the king did vse to weare his crowne) to repaire vnto
 him into England for the making of lawes: which in those daies was
 doone by the noble men or péeres according to the order of France at
 this daie. He allowed also sundrie lodgings in England, to him and his
 successours, whereat to lie, and refresh themselues in their
 iourneies, whensoeuer they should come vp to doo their homages: and
 finallie a péece of ground lieng beside the new palace of Westminster,
 vpon which this Keneth builded a house, that by him and his posteritie
 was inioied vntill the reigne of king Henrie the second. In whose
 time, vpon the rebellion of William king of Scots, it was resumed into
 the king of Englands hand. The house is decaied, but the ground where
 it stood is called Scotland to this daie.

 [Sidenote: Lawfull age and wardship of heires.]
 Moreouer, Edgar made this law, that no man should succéed to his
 patrimonie or inheritance holden by knights seruice, vntill he
 accomplished the age of one and twentie yéeres: because by intendment
 vnder that age, he should not be able in person to serue his king and
 countrie according to the tenor of his deed, and the condition of his
 purchase. This law was receiued by the same Keneth in Scotland; and as
 well there as in England is obserued to this daie: which prooueth also
 that Scotland was then vnder his obeisance.

 In the yeere of our Lord 974, Kinald king of Scots, and Malcolme king
 of Cumberland, Macon king of Man and the Iles, Duuenall king of
 Southwales, Siferth and Howell kings of the rest of Wales, Jacob or
 James of Gallowaie, & Jukill of Westmerland did homage to king Edgar
 at Chester. And on the morrow going by water to the monasterie of
 saint Iohns to seruice, and returning home againe: the said Edgar
 sitting in a barge, and stirring the same vpon the water of Dée, made
 the said kings to row the barge, saieng that his successors might well
 be ioifull to haue the prerogatiue of so great honour, and the
 superioritie of so manie mightie princes to be subiect vnto their

 Edward, the sonne of this Edgar, was next king of England, in whose
 time this Keneth king of Scots caused Malcolme king of Scotland to be
 poisoned. Wherevpon king Edward made warre against him, which ceased
 not vntill this Keneth submitted himselfe, and offered to receiue him
 for prince of Scotland, whome king Edward would appoint. Herevpon king
 Edward proclamed one Malcolme to be prince of Scotland, who
 immediatlie came into England, and there did homage vnto the same king

 Etheldred, brother of this Edward succeeded next ouer England, against
 whome Swaine king of Denmarke conspired with this last Malcolme then
 king of Scots. But shortlie after, this Malcolme sorrowfullie
 submitted himselfe into the defense of Etheldred: who considering how
 that which could not be amended, must onelie be repented, benignlie
 receiued him. By helpe of whose seruice at last Etheldred recouered
 his realme againe out of the hands of Swaine, and reigned ouer the
 whole monarchie eight and thirtie yéeres.

 Edmund surnamed Ironside, sonne of this Etheldred, was next king of
 England, in whose time Canutus a Dane inuaded the realme with much
 crueltie. But at the last he married with Emme sometime wife vnto
 Etheldred and mother of this Edmund. Which Emme, as arbitratrix
 betweene hir naturall loue to the one, and matrimoniall dutie to the
 other, procured such amitie betwéene them in the end, that Edmund was
 contented to diuide the realme with Canutus: and keeping to himselfe
 all England on this side Humber, gaue all the rest beyond Humber, with
 the seigniorie of Scotland to this Canutus. Wherevpon Malcolme then
 king of Scots (after a little accustomable resistance) did homage to
 the same Canutus for the kingdome of Scotland. Thus the said Canutus
 held the same ouer of this Edmund king of England by the like
 seruices, so long as they liued togither. This Canutus in memorie of
 this victorie, and glorie of his seigniorie ouer the Scots, commanded
 Malcolme their king to build a church in Buchquhan in Scotland, (where
 a field betweene him and them was fought) to be dedicated to Olauus
 patrone of Norwaie and Denmarke, which church was by the same Malcolme
 accordinglie performed.

 Edward called the Confessour, sonne of Etheldred, and brother to
 Edmund Ironside, was afterward king of England: he tooke from Malcolme
 king of Scots his life and his kingdome, and made Malcolme sonne to
 the king of Cumberland and Northumberland king of Scots, who did him
 homage and fealtie.

 This Edward perused the old lawes of the realme, and somewhat added to
 some of them: as to the law of Edgar for the wardship of the lands
 vntill the heire should accomplish the age of one and twentie yeeres.
 He added, that the marriage of such heire should also belong to the
 [Sidenote: To whome the marriage of the ward perteineth.]
 lord of whom the same land was holden. Also, that euerie woman
 marrieng a freeman, should (notwithstanding she had no children by
 that husband) enioie the third part of his inheritance during hir
 life: with manie other lawes which the same Malcolme king of Scots
 obeied, and which as well by them in Scotland, as by vs in England be
 obserued to this day, and directlie prooueth the whole to be then
 vnder his obeisance.

 By reason of this law, Malcolme the sonne of Duncane next inheritor to
 the crowne of Scotland, being within age, was by the nobles of
 Scotland deliuered as ward to the custodie also of king Edward. During
 whose minoritie, one Makebeth a Scot traitorouslie vsurped the crowne
 of Scotland. Against whome the said Edward made warre, in which the
 said Mackbeth was ouercome and slaine. Wherevpon the said Malcolme was
 crowned king of Scots at Scone, in the eight yeere of the reigne of
 king Edward aforesaid. This Malcolme also by tenor of the said new law
 of wardship, was married vnto Margaret the daughter of Edward sonne of
 Edmund Ironside and Agatha, by the disposition of the same king
 Edward, and at his full age did homage to this king Edward the
 Confessour for the kingdome of Scotland.

 [Sidenote: Edward the Confessour.]
 Moreouer, Edward of England, hauing no issue of his bodie, and
 mistrusting that Harald the son of Goodwine, descended of the daughter
 of Harald Harefoot the Dane, would vsurpe the crowne, if he should
 leaue it to his cousine Edgar Eatling (being then within age) and
 partlie by the petition of his subiects, who before had sworne neuer
 to receiue anie kings ouer them of the Danish nation, did by his
 substantiall will in writing (as all our clergie writers affirme)
 demise the crowne of great Britaine vnto William Bastard, then duke of
 Normandie, and to his heires, constituting him his heire
 testamentarie. Also there was proximitie in bloud betwéene them: for
 Emme daughter of Richard duke of Normandie was wife vnto Etheldred, on
 whom he begat Alured and this Edward: and this William was son of
 Robert sonne of Richard, brother of the whole bloud to the same Emme.
 Whereby appeareth that this William was heire by title, and not by
 conquest, albeit that partlie to extinguish the mistrust of other
 titles, and partlie for the glorie of his victorie, he chalenged in
 the end, the name of a conquerour, and hath béene so written euer
 since the time of his arriuall.

 [Sidenote: William Bastard.]
 Furthermore, this William, called the Bastard and the Conquerour,
 supposed not his conquest perfect till he had likewise subdued the
 Scots. Wherfore to bring the Scots to iust obeisance after his
 coronation, as heire testamentarie to Edward the Confessour; he entred
 Scotland, where after a little resistance made by the inhabitants, the
 said Malcolme then their king did homage to him at Abirnethie in
 Scotland for the kingdome of Scotland, as to his superiour also by
 meane of his late conquest.

 [Sidenote: William Rufus.]
 William surnamed Rufus, sonne to this William called the Conquerour,
 succéeded next in the throne of England, to whome the said Malcolme
 king of Scots did like homage for the whole kingdome of Scotland. But
 afterward he rebelled, and was by this William Rufus slaine in plaine
 field. Wherevpon the Scotishmen did choose one Donald or Dunwall to be
 their king. But this William Rufus deposed him, and created Dunkane
 sonne of Malcolme to be their king, who did like homage to him.
 Finallie, this Dunkane was slaine by the Scots, and Dunwall restored,
 who once againe by this William Rufus was deposed; and Edgar son of
 Malcolme, and brother to the last Malcolme, was by him made their
 king, who did like homage for Scotland to this William Rufus.

 [Sidenote: Henrie I.]
 Henrie called Beauclerke the sonne of William called the Conquerour,
 after the death of his brother William Rufus, succéeded to the crowne
 of England, to whome the same Edgar king of Scots did homage for
 Scotland: this Henrie Beauclerke maried Mawd the daughter of Malcolme
 K. of Scots, and by hir had issue Mawd afterward empresse.

 Alexander the sonne of Malcolme brother to this Mawd was next king of
 Scots, he did like homage for the kingdome of Scotland to this Henrie
 the first, as Edgar had doone before him.

 [Sidenote: Mawd.]
 Mawd called the empresse, daughter and heire to Henrie Beauclerke and
 Mawd his wife, receiued homage of Dauid, brother to hir and to this
 Alexander next king of Scots, before all the temporall men of England
 for the kingdome of Scotland. This Mawd the empresse gaue vnto Dauid
 in the marriage, Mawd the daughter and heire of Voldosius earle of
 Huntingdon & Northumberland. And herein their euasion appeareth, by
 which they allege that their kings homages were made for the earledome
 of Huntingdon. For this Dauid was the first that of their kings was
 earle of Huntingdon, which was since all the homages of their kings
 before recited, and at the time of this mariage, & long after the said
 Alexander his brother was king of Scots, doing the homage aforesaid to
 Henrie Beauclerke son to the aforesaid ladie, of whome I find this
 epitaph worthie to be remembred:

   Ortu magna, viro maior, sed maxima partu,
     Hîc iacet Henrici filia, sponsa, parens.

 In the yéere of our Lord 1136, and first yéere of the reigne of king
 Stephan, the said Dauid king of Scots being required to doo his
 homage, refused it: for so much as he had doone homage to Mawd the
 empresse before time; notwithstanding the sonne of the said Dauid did
 homage to king Stephan.

 [Sidenote: Henrie 2.]
 Henrie called Fitz empresse, the sonne of Mawd the empresse daughter
 of Mawd, daughter of Malcolme king of Scots, was next king of England.
 He receiued homage for Scotland of Malcolme sonne of Henrie, sonne of
 the said Dauid their last king. Which Malcolme after this homage
 attended vpon the same king Henrie in his warres against Lewis then
 king of France. Whereby appeareth that their French league was neuer
 renewed after the last diuision of their countrie by Osbright king of
 England. But after these warres finished with the French king, this
 Malcolme being againe in Scotland rebelled: wherevpon king Henrie
 immediatlie seized Huntingdon and Northumberland into his owne hands
 by confiscation, and made warres vpon him in Scotland: during which
 the same Malcolme died without issue of his bodie.

 William brother of this Malcolme was next king of Scots, he with all
 [Sidenote: Because they were taken from him before.]
 the nobles of Scotland (which could not be now for anie earledome) did
 homage to the sonne of Henrie the second, his father. Also the
 earledome of Huntingdon was (as ye haue heard) before this forfeited
 by Malcolme his brother, and neuer after restored to the crowne of

 This William did afterward attend vpon the same Henrie the second, in
 his warres in Normandie against the French king (notwithstanding their
 French league) and then being licenced to depart home in the tenth of
 this prince, and vpon the fifteenth of Februarie he returned, and vpon
 the sixtéenth of October did homage to him for the realme of Scotland.
 In token also of his perpetuall subjection to the crowne of England,
 he offered vp his cloake, his saddle, and his speare at the high altar
 in Yorke: wherevpon he was permitted to depart home into Scotland,
 where immediatlie he mooued cruell warre in Northumberland against the
 same king Henrie, being as yet in Normandie. But God tooke the defense
 of king Henries part, and deliuered the same William king of Scots
 into the hands of a few Englishmen, who brought him prisoner to king
 Henrie into Normandie in the twentith yeere of his reigne. But at the
 last, at the sute of Dauid his brother, Richard bishop of saint
 Andrews, and other bishops and lords, he was put to this fine for the
 amendment of his trespasse; to wit, to paie ten thousand pounds
 sterling, and to surrender all his title to the earldome of
 Huntingdon, Cumberland, & Northumberland into the hands of king
 Henrie, which he did in all things accordinglie, sealing his charters
 thereof with the great scale of Scotland, and signets of his nobilitie
 yet to be seene: wherein it was also comprised, that he and his
 successours should hold the realme of Scotland of the king of England
 and his successours for euer. And herevpon he once againe did homage
 to the same king Henrie, which now could not be for the earledome of
 Huntingdon, the right whereof was alreadie by him surrendered. And for
 the better assurance of this faith also, the strengths of Berwike,
 Edenborough, Roxborough, and Striueling were deliuered into the hands
 of our king Henrie of England, which their owne writers confesse. But
 Hector Boetius saith, that this trespasse was amended by fine of
 twentie thousand pounds sterling, and that the erledome of Huntingdon,
 Cumberland, and Northumberland were deliuered as morgage into the
 hands of king Henrie, vntill other ten thousand pounds sterling should
 be to him paid, which is so farre from truth, as Hector was (while he
 liued) from well meaning to our countrie. But if we grant that it is
 true, yet prooueth he not that the monie was paid, nor the land
 otherwise redéemed, or euer after came to anie Scotish kings hands.
 And thus it appeareth that the earledome of Huntingdon was neuer
 occasion of the homages of the Scotish kings to the kings of England,
 either before this time or after.

 This was doone 1175. Moreouer I read this note hereof gathered out of
 Robertus Montanus or Montensis that liued in those daies, and was (as
 I take it) "confessor to king Henrie. The king of Scots dooth homage
 to king Henrie for the kingdome of Scotland, and is sent home againe,
 his bishops also did promise to doo the like to the archbishop of
 Yorke, and to acknowledge themselues to be of his prouince and
 iurisdiction. By vertue also of this composition the said Robert
 saith, that Rex Angliæ dabat honores, episcopatus, abbatias, & alias
 dignitates in Scotia, vel saltem eius consilio dabantur, that is, The
 king of England gaue honors, bishopriks, abbatships, and other
 dignities in Scotland, or at the leastwise they were not giuen without
 his aduise and counsell."

 At this time Alexander bishop of Rome (supposed to haue generall
 iurisdiction ecclesiasticall through christendome) established the
 whole cleargie of Scotland (according to the old lawes) vnder the
 iurisdiction of the archbishop of Yorke.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1185, in the moneth of August, at Cairleill,
 Rouland Talmant lord of Galwaie, did homage and fealtie to the said
 king Henrie with all that held of him.

 In the two and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the second,
 Gilbert sonne of Ferguse prince of Galwaie, did homage and fealtie to
 the said king Henrie, and left Dunecan his sonne in hostage for
 conseruation of his peace.

 Richard surnamed C[oe]ur de Lion, because of his stoutnesse, and sonne
 of this Henrie was next king of England, to whome the same William
 king of Scots did homage at Canturburie for the whole kingdome of

 This king Richard was taken prisoner by the duke of Ostrich, for whose
 redemption the whole realme was taxed at great summes of monie vnto
 the which this William king of Scots (as a subject) was contributorie,
 and paied two thousand markes sterling.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1199, Iohn king of England sent to William
 king of Scots, to come and doo his homage, which William came to
 Lincolne in the moneth of December the same yeare, and did his homage
 vpon an hill in the presence of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, and
 of all the people there assembled, and therevnto tooke his oth and was
 sworne vpon the crosse of the said Hubert: also he granted by his
 charter confirmed, that he should haue the mariage of Alexander his
 sonne, as his liegeman, alwaies to hold of the king of England:
 promising moreouer that he the said king William and his sonne
 Alexander, should keepe and hold faith and allegiance to Henrie sonne
 of the said king Iohn, as to their chiefe lord against all maner of
 men that might liue and die.

 Also whereas William king of Scots had put Iohn bishop of saint Andrew
 out of his bishoprike, pope Clement wrote to Henrie king of England,
 that he should mooue and induce the same William; and if néed required
 by his roiall power and prerogatiue ouer that nation, to compell him
 to leaue his rancor against the said bishop, and suffer him to haue
 and occupie his said bishoprike againe.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1216, and fiue & twentith of the reigne of
 Henrie, sonne to king Iohn, the same Henrie and the quéene were at
 Yorke at the feast of Christmasse, for the solemnization of a marriage
 made in the feast of saint Stephan the martyr the same yeare, betwéene
 Alexander king of Scots, and Margaret the kings daughter, and there
 the said Alexander did homage to Henrie king of England for all the
 realme of Scotland.

 In buls of diuerse popes were admonitions giuen to the kings of Scots,
 as appeareth by that of Gregorie the fift and Clement his successor,
 that they should obserue and trulie kéepe all such appointments, as
 had béene made betwéene the kings of England and Scotland. And that
 the kings of Scotland should still hold the realme of Scotland of the
 kings of England, vpon paine of cursse and interdiction.

 After the death of Alexander king of Scots, Alexander his sonne, being
 nine yeares of age, was by the lawes of Edgar, in ward to king Henrie
 the third, & by the nobles of Scotland brought to Yorke, and there
 deliuered vnto him. During whose minoritie king Henrie gouerned
 Scotland, and to subdue a commotion in this realme, vsed the aid of
 fiue thousand Scotishmen. But king Henrie died during the nonage of
 this Alexander, whereby he receiued not his homage, which by reason
 and law was respited vntill his full age of one and twentie yeares.

 Edward the first after the conquest, sonne of this Henrie was next
 king of England; immediatlie after whose coronation, Alexander king of
 Scots, being then of full age, did homage to him for Scotland at
 Westminster, swearing (as all the rest did) after this maner.

 "I. D. N. king of Scots shall be true and faithfull vnto you lord E.
 by the grace of God king of England, the noble and superior lord of
 the kingdome of Scotland, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the
 same kingdome, the which I hold and claime to hold of you. And I shall
 beare you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honour
 against all men, faithfullie I shall knowlege and shall doo you
 seruice due vnto you of the kingdome of Scotland aforesaid, as God me
 so helpe and these holie euangelies."

 This Alexander king of Scots died, leauing one onelie daughter called
 Margaret for his heire, who before had maried Hanigo, sonne to Magnus
 king of Norwaie, which daughter also shortlie after died, leauing one
 onelie daughter hir heire, of the age of two yeares, whose custodie
 and mariage by the lawes of king Edgar, and Edward the confessor,
 belonged to Edward the first: whervpon the nobles of Scotland were
 commanded by our king Edward to send into Norwaie, to conueie this
 yoong queene into England to him, whome he intended to haue maried to
 his sonne Edward: and so to haue made a perfect vnion long wished for
 betwéene both realmes. Herevpon their nobles at that time considering
 the same tranquillitie that manie of them haue since refused, stood
 not vpon shifts and delaies of minoritie nor contempt, but most
 gladlie consented, and therevpon sent two noble men of Scotland into
 Norwaie, for hir to be brought to this king Edward, but she died
 before their comming thither, and therefore they required nothing but
 to inioie the lawfull liberties that they had quietlie possessed in
 the last king Alexanders time.

 After the death of this Margaret, the Scots were destitute of anie
 heire to the crowne from this Alexander their last king, at which time
 this Edward descended from the bodie of Mawd daughter of Malcolme
 sometime king of Scots, being then in the greatest broile of his
 warres with France, minded not to take the possession of that kingdome
 in his owne right, but was contented to establish Balioll to be king
 thereof, the weake title betwéene him, Bruse, & Hastings, being by the
 humble petition of all the realme of Scotland c[=o]mitted to the
 determination of king Edward, wherein by autentike writing they
 confessed the superioritie of the realme to remaine in king Edward,
 sealed with the seales of foure bishops, seuen earles, and twelue
 barons of Scotland, and which shortlie after was by the whole assent
 of the three estates of Scotland, in their solemne parlement confessed
 and enacted accordinglie, as most euidentlie dooth appeare.

 The Balioll in this wise made king of Scotland, did immediatlie make
 his homage and fealtie at Newcastell vpon saint Stéeuens daie (as did
 likewise all the lords of Scotland, each one setting his hand to the
 composition in writing) to king Edward of England for the kingdome of
 Scotland: but shortlie after defrauding the benigne goodnesse of his
 superiour, he rebelled, and did verie much hurt in England. Herevpon
 king Edward inuaded Scotland, seized into his hands the greater part
 of the countrie, and tooke all the strengths thereof. Whervpon Balioll
 king of Scots came vnto him to Mauntrosse in Scotland with a white
 wand in his hand, and there resigned the crowne of Scotland, with all
 his right, title, and interest to the same, into the hands of king
 Edward, and thereof made his charter in writing, dated and sealed the
 fourth yeare of his reigne. All the nobles and gentlemen of Scotland
 also repaired to Berwike, and did homage and fealtie to king Edward,
 there becomming his subiects. For the better assurance of whose oths
 also, king Edward kept all the strengths and holdes of Scotland in his
 owne hands; and herevpon all their lawes, processes, all iudgements,
 gifts of assises and others, passed vnder the name and authoritie of
 king Edward. Leland touching the same rehearsall, writeth thereof in
 this maner.

 "In the yeare of our Lord 1295, the same Iohn king of Scots, contrarie
 to his faith and allegiance rebelled against king Edward, and came
 into England, and burnt and slue without all modestie and mercie.
 Wherevpon king Edward with a great host went to Newcastell vpon Tine,
 passed the water of Twéed, besieged Berwike, and got it. Also he wan
 the castell of Dunbar, and there were slaine at this brunt 15700
 Scots. Then he proceeded further, and gat the castell of Rokesborow,
 and the castell of Edenborow, Striuelin and Gedworth, and his people
 harried all the land. In the meane season, the said king Iohn of
 Scots, considering that he was not of power to withstand king Edward,
 sent his letters and besought him of treatie and peace, which our
 prince benignlie granted, and sent to him againe that he should come
 to the towre of Brechin, and bring thither the great lords of Scotland
 with him. The king of England sent thither Antonie Becke bishop of
 Durham, with his roiall power, to conclude the said treatise. And
 there it was agreed that the said Iohn and all the Scots should
 vtterlie submit themselues to the kings will. And to the end the
 submission should be performed accordinglie, the king of Scots laid
 his sonne in hostage and pledge vnto him. There also he made his
 letters sealed with the common seale of Scotland, by the which he
 knowledging his simplenes and great offense doone to his lord king
 Edward of England, by his full power and frée will yeelded vp all the
 land of Scotland, with all the people and homage of the same. Then our
 king went foorth to sée the mounteins, and vnderstanding that all was
 in quiet and peace, he turned to the abbeie of Scone, which was of
 [Sidenote: The Scots dreame that this was the stone whereon Jacob
 slept when he fled into Mesopotamia.]
 chanons regular, where he tooke the stone called the Regall of
 Scotland, vpon which the kings of that nation were woont to sit, at
 the time of their coronations for a throne, & sent it to the abbeie of
 Westminster, commanding to make a chaire therof for the priests that
 should sing masse at the high altar: which chaire was made, and
 standeth yet there at this daie to be séene."

 In the yeare of our Lord 1296, the king held his parlement at Berwike:
 and there he tooke homage singularlie of diuerse of the lords & nobles
 of Scotland. And for a perpetuall memorie of the same, they made their
 letters patents sealed with their seales, and then the king of England
 made William Warreine earle of Surrie and Southsax lord Warden of
 Scotland, Hugh of Cressingham treasurer, and William Ormesbie iustice
 of Scotland, and foorthwith sent king Iohn to the Tower of London, and
 Iohn Comin, and the earle Badenauth, the earle of Bohan and other
 lords into England to diuerse places on this side of the Trent.

 And after that, in the yeare of our Lord 1297, at the feast of
 Christmas, the king called before him the said Iohn king of Scots,
 although he had committed him to ward: and said that he would burne or
 destroie their castels, townes, and lands, if he were not recompensed
 for his costs and damages susteined in the warres; but king Iohn and
 the other that were in ward, answered that they had nothing, sith
 their liues, their deaths, and goods were in his hands. The king vpon
 that answer mooued with pitie, granted them their liues; so that they
 would doo their homage, and make their oth solenmelie at the high
 altar (in the church of the abbeie of Westminster) vpon the eucharist,
 that they and euerie of them should hold and keepe true faith,
 obedience, and allegiance to the said king Edward and his heires kings
 of England for euer. And where the said king of Scots saw the kings
 banner of England displaied, he and all his power should draw
 therevnto. And that neither he or anie of his from thencefoorth should
 beare armes against the king of England or anie of his bloud.
 Finallie, the king rewarding with great gifts the said king Iohn and
 his lords, suffered them to depart. But they went into Scotland alwaie
 imagining (notwithstanding this their submission) how they might
 oppresse king Edward, and disturbe his realme. The Scots sent also to
 the king of France for succour and helpe, who sent them ships to
 Berwike furnished with men of armes, the king of England then being in

 In the yeare of our Lord 1298, the king went into Scotland with a
 great host, and the Scots also assembled in great number, but the king
 fought with them at Fawkirke on S. Marie Magdalens daie, where were
 slaine thréescore thousand Scots, & William Walleis that was their
 capteine fled, who being taken afterward, was hanged, drawen, &
 quartered at London, for his trespasses.

 After this the Scots rebelled againe, and all the lords of Scotland
 [Sidenote: This was doone upon the nine & twentith of Ianuarie, 1306.]
 chose Robert Bruse to be king, except onelie Iohn Commin earle of
 Carrike, who would not consent thereto bicause of his oth made to the
 king of England. Wherefore Robert Bruse slue him at Dumfrise, and then
 was crowned at Schone abbeie. Herevpon the king of England assembled a
 great hoast, and rode through all Scotland, discomfited Robert Bruse,
 slue eight thousand Scots, & tooke the most part of all the lords of
 Scotland, putting the temporall lords to deth bicause they were

 Edward borne at Carnaruan sonne of this Edward, was next king of
 England, who from the beginning of his reigne enioied Scotland
 peaceablie, dooing in all things as is aboue said of king Edward his
 father, vntill toward the later end of his reigne, about which time
 this Robert Bruse conspired against him, and with the helpe of a few
 forsworne Scots, forswore himselfe king of Scots. Herevpon this Edward
 with Thomas earle of Lancaster and manie other lords made warre vpon
 him, about the feast of Marie Magdalene, the said Bruse and his
 partakers being alreadie accurssed by the pope for breaking the truce
 that he had established betwixt them. But being infortunate in his
 first warres against him, he suffered Edward the sonne of Balioll to
 proclame himselfe king of Scots; and neuerthelesse held foorth his
 warres against Bruse, before the ending of which he died, as I read.

 Edward borne at Windsore sonne of Edward the second was next king of
 England, at the age of fifteene yeares, in whose minoritie the Scots
 practised with Isabell mother to this Edward, and with Roger Mortimer
 earle of the March to haue their homages released: whose good will
 therein they obteined, so that for the same release they should paie
 to this king Edward thirtie thousand pounds starling, in three yeares
 next following, that is to saie, ten thousand pounds starling
 yeerelie. But bicause the nobilitie and commons of this realme would
 not by parlement consent vnto it, their king being within age, the
 same release procéeded not, albeit the Scots ceased not their
 practises with this quéene and earle. But before those thrée yeares,
 in which their monie (if the bargaine had taken place) should haue
 béene paied, were expired, our king Edward inuaded Scotland, and
 ceassed not the warre, vntill Dauid the sonne of Robert le Bruse (then
 by their election king of Scotland) absolutelie submitted himselfe
 vnto him. But for that the said Dauid Bruse had before by practise of
 the quéene and the earle of March, married Iane the sister of this
 king Edward: he mooued by naturall zeale to his sister, was contented
 to giue the realme of Scotland to this Dauid Bruse, and to the heires
 that should be begotten of the bodie of the said Iane (sauing the
 reuersion and meane homages to this king Edward and to his owne
 children) wherewith the same Dauid Bruse was right well contented, and
 therevpon immediatlie made his homage for all the realme of Scotland
 to him.

 Howbeit, shortlie after causelesse conceiuing cause of displeasure,
 this Dauid procured to dissolue this same estate tailée, and therevpon
 not onelie rebelled in Scotland, but also inuaded England, whilest
 king Edward was occupied about his wars in France. But this Dauid was
 not onelie expelled England in the end, but also thinking no place a
 sufficient defense to his vntruth, of his owne accord fled out of
 Scotland: whereby the countries of Annandale, Gallowaie, Mars,
 Teuidale, Twedale, and Ethrike were seized into the king of Englands
 hands, and new marches set betwéene England and Scotland at Cockburnes
 path & Sowtrie hedge. Which when this Dauid went about to recouer
 againe, his power was discomfited, and himselfe by a few Englishmen
 taken & brought into England, where he remained prisoner eleuen yeares
 after his said apprehension.

 During this time, king Edward enioied Scotland peaceablie, and then at
 the contemplation and wearie suit of his sorowfull sister, wife of
 this Dauid, he was contented once againe to restore him to the
 kingdome of Scotland. Wherevpon it was concluded, that for this
 rebellion Dauid should paie to king Edward, the summe of one hundred
 thousand markes starling, and thereto destroie all his holdes and
 fortresses standing against the English borders, and further assure
 the crowne of Scotland to the children of this king Edward for lacke
 of heire of his owne bodie, all which things he did accordinglie. And
 for the better assurance of his obeisance also, he afterward deliuered
 into the hands of king Edward sundrie noble men of Scotland in this
 behalfe as his pledges. This is the effect of the historie of Dauid,
 touching his delings. Now let vs sée what was doone by Edward Balioll,
 wherof our chronicles doo report, that in the yéere of our Lord 1326,
 Edward the third, king of England, was crowned at Westminster, and in
 the fift yeare of his reigne Edward Balioll right heire to the
 kingdome of Scotland came in, and claimed it as due to him. Sundrie
 lords and gentlemen also, which had title to diuerse lands there,
 either by themselues, or by their wiues, did the like. Wherevpon the
 said Balioll and they went into Scotland by sea, and landing at
 Kinghorne with 3000 Englishmen, discomfited 10000 Scots, and slue
 1200, and then went foorth to Dunfermeline, where the Scots assembled
 against them with 40000 men, and in the feast of saint Laurence, at a
 place called Gastmore (or otherwise Gladmore) were slaine fiue earls,
 thirtéene barons, a hundred and thrée score knights, two thousand men
 of armes, and manie other; in all fortie thousand: and there were
 slaine on the English part but thirtéene persons onelie, if the number
 be not corrupted.

 In the eight yeare of the reigne of king Edward, he assembled a great
 hoast, and came to Berwike vpon Twéed, and laid siege therto. To him
 also came Edward Balioll king of Scots, with a great power to
 strengthen & aid him against the Scots, who came out of Scotland in
 foure batels well armed & araied.

 Edward king of England, and Edward king of Scots, apparrelled their
 people either of them in foure battels: and vpon Halidon hill, beside
 Berwike, met these two hoasts, and there were discomfited of the Scots
 fiue and twentie thousand and seauen hundred, whereof were slaine
 eight earles, a thousand and thrée hundred knights and gentlemen. This
 victorie doone, the king returned to Berwike, & then the towne with
 the castell were yéelded vp vnto him. In the eight yeare of the reigne
 of king Edward of England, Edward Balioll king of Scots came to
 Newcastell vpon Tine, and did homage for all the realme of Scotland.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1346, Dauid Bruse by the prouocation of the
 king of France rebelled, and came into England with a great hoast vnto
 Neuils crosse: but the archbishop of Yorke, with diuerse temporall
 men, fought with him; and the said king of Scots was taken, and
 William earle of Duglas with Morrise earle of Strathorne were brought
 to London, and manie other lords slaine, which with Dauid did homage
 to Edward king of England.

 And in the thirtith yeare of the kings reigne, and the yeare of our
 Lord 1355, the Scots woone the towne of Berwicke, but not the castell.
 Herevpon the king came thither with a great hoast, and anon the towne
 was yéelded vp without anie resistance.

 Edward Balioll, considering that God did so manie maruellous and
 gratious things for king Edward, at his owne will gaue vp the crowne
 and the realme of Scotland to king Edward of England at Rokesborough,
 by his letters patents. And anon after the king of England, in
 presence of all his lords spirituall and temporall, let crowne
 himselfe king there of the realme of Scotland, & ordeined all things
 to his intent, and so came ouer into England.

 Richard the sonne of Edward, called the Blacke prince, sonne of this
 king Edward, was next king of England, who for that the said Iane, the
 wife of the said king Dauid of Scotland was deceassed without issue,
 and being informed how the Scots deuised to their vttermost power to
 breake the limitation of this inheritance touching the crowne of
 Scotland, made foorthwith war against them, wherein he burnt
 Edenbrough, spoiled all their countrie, tooke all their holds, & held
 continuallie war against them vntill his death, which was Anno Dom.

 Henrie the fourth of that name was next king of England, he continued
 these warres begun against them by king Richard, and ceassed not
 vntill Robert king of Scots (the third of that name) resigned his
 crowne by appointment of this king Henrie, and deliuered his sonne
 Iames, being then of the age of nine yeares, into his hands to remaine
 at his custodie, wardship and disposition, as of his superiour lord,
 according to the old lawes of king Edward the confessor. All this was
 doone Anno Dom. 1404, which was within fiue yeares after the death of
 king Richard. This Henrie the fourth reigned in this estate ouer them
 fouretéene yeares.

 Henrie the fift of that name, sonne to this king Henrie the fourth,
 was next king of England. He made warres against the French king, in
 all which this Iames then king of Scots attended vpon him, as vpon his
 superiour lord, with a conuenient number of Scots, notwithstanding
 their league with France. But this Henrie reigned but nine yeares,
 whereby the homage of this Iames their king (hauing not fullie
 accomplished the age of one & twentie yeares) was by reason and law
 respited. Finallie the said Iames with diuerse other lords attended
 vpon the corps of the said Henrie vnto Westminster, as to his dutie

 Henrie the sixt, the sonne of this Henrie the fift, was next king of
 England, to whome the seigniorie of Scotland & custodie of this Iames
 by right, law, and reason descended, married the same Iames king of
 Scots to Iane daughter of Iohn earle of Summerset, at saint Marie ouer
 Ise in Southwarke, and tooke for the value of this mariage, the summe
 of one hundred thousand markes starling.

 This Iames king of Scots at his full age, did homage to the same king
 Henrie the sixt, for the kingdome of Scotland at Windsore, in the
 moneth of Ianuarie.

 Since which time, vntill the daies of king Henrie the seuenth,
 grandfather to our souereigne ladie that now is, albeit this realme
 hath béene molested with diuersitie of titles, in which vnmeet time
 neither law nor reason admit prescription to the prejudice of anie
 right: yet did king Edward the fourth next king of England, by
 preparation of war against the Scots in the latter end of his reigne,
 sufficientlie by all lawes induce to the continuance of his claime to
 the same superioritie ouer them.

 After whose death, vnto the beginning of the reigne of our souereigne
 lord king Henrie the eight, excéeded not the number of seauen and
 twentie yeares, about which time the impediment of our claime of the
 Scots part, chanced by the nonage of Iames their last king which so
 continued the space of one and twentie yeares. And like as his
 minoritie was by all law and reason an impediment to himselfe to make
 homage; so was the same by like reason an impediment to the king of
 this realme to demand anie, so that the whole time of intermission of
 our claime in the time of the said king Henrie the eight, is deduced
 vnto the number of thirteene yeares. And thus much for this matter.



 Hauing hitherto discoursed vpon the title of the kings of England,
 vnto the Scotish kingdome: I haue now thought good to adde herevnto
 the description of two walles that were (in times past) limits vnto
 both the said regions, and therefore to be touched in this first
 booke, as generallie appertinent vnto the estate of the whole Iland;
 and no lesse famous than that which Anastasius Dicorus made afterward
 from the Euxine vnto the Thracian sea, conteining 420 furlongs in
 length, and twelue foot in bredth, & distant from Constantinople 280
 furlongs, albeit that of Hadrian was made of turffe and timber. The
 [Sidenote: The first beginner of the Picts wall.]
 author therefore of the first wall was Hadrian the emperour, who (as
 Ælius Spartianus saith) erected the same of foure score miles in
 length, twelue foot in heigth, and eight in bredth, to diuide the
 barbarous Britons from the more ciuill sort, which then were
 generallie called by the name of Romans ouer all.

 [Sidenote: The finisher of the wall.]
 After his time Seuerus the emperour comming againe into this Ile
 (where he had serued before in repression of the tumults here begun,
 after the death of Lucius) amongst other things he made another wall
 (but of stone) betwéene eightie and a hundred miles from the first, &
 of thirtie two miles in length, reaching on both sides also to the
 sea, of whome the Britons called it S. Murseueri, or Gwall Seueri,
 that is, The wall of Seuerus, or Seuerus dale, which later indureth
 vntill these daies in fresh memorie, by reason of the ruines & square
 stones there oft found, whose inscriptions declare the authors of that
 worke. It is worthie the noting also, how that in this voiage he lost
 50000 men in the Scot