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Title: Chaucer's Works, Volume 2 (of 7) - Boethius and Troilus
Author: Chaucer, Geoffrey, 1343?-1400
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chaucer's Works, Volume 2 (of 7) - Boethius and Troilus" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note: Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

[=a] signifies "a with macron"; [)a] "a with breve"; and so forth. [gh]
represents yogh, [*e] the schwa. A carat character is used to denote
superscription: a single character following the carat is superscripted
(example: 4^o).

Glossary covering the two texts in this volume. See:

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: MS. CORP. CHR. COLL., CAMBRIDGE. Troil. iv. 575-588








LITT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., PH.D.


* *


 'Adam scriveyn, if ever it thee befalle
  Boece or Troilus to wryten newe,
  Under thy lokkes thou most have the scalle,
  But after my making thou wryte trewe.'
                    _Chaucers Wordes unto Adam._





*       *       *       *       *       *



*       *       *       *       *       *



  INTRODUCTION TO BOETHIUS.--§ 1. Date of the Work. § 2. Boethius.
  § 3. The Consolation of Philosophy; and fate of its author. § 4.
  Jean de Meun. § 5. References by Boethius to current events.
  § 6. Cassiodorus. § 7. Form of the Treatise. § 8. Brief sketch
  of its general contents. § 9. Early translations. § 10. Translation
  by Ælfred. § 11. MS. copy, with A.S. glosses. § 12. Chaucer's
  translation mentioned. § 13. Walton's verse translation. § 14.
  Specimen of the same. § 15. His translation of Book ii. met. 5.
  § 16. M. E. prose translation; and others. § 17. Chaucer's
  translation and le Roman de la Rose. § 18. Chaucer's scholarship.
  § 19. Chaucer's prose. § 20. Some of his mistakes. § 21. Other
  variations considered. § 22. Imitations of Boethius in Chaucer's
  works. § 23. Comparison with 'Boece' of other works by
  Chaucer. § 24. Chronology of Chaucer's works, as illustrated by
 'Boece.' § 25. The Manuscripts. § 26. The Printed Editions.
  § 27. The Present Edition                                             vii

  INTRODUCTION TO TROILUS.--§ 1. Date of the Work. § 2. Sources of
  the Work; Boccaccio's Filostrato. §§ 3, 4. Other sources.
  § 5. Chaucer's share in it. § 6. Vagueness of reference to sources.
  § 7. Medieval note-books. § 8. Lollius. § 9. Guido delle
  Colonne. § 10. 'Trophee.' §§ 11, 12. The same continued.
  §§ 13-17. Passages from Guido. §§ 18, 19. Dares, Dictys, and
  Benôit de Ste-More. § 20. The names; Troilus, &c. § 21.
  Roman de la Rose. § 22. Gest Historiale. § 23. Lydgate's
  Siege of Troye. § 24. Henrysoun's Testament of Criseyde. § 25.
  The MSS. § 26. The Editions. § 27. The Present Edition.
  § 28. Deficient lines. § 29. Proverbs. § 30. Kinaston's Latin
  translation. § 31. Sidnam's translation                              xlix

  BOETHIUS DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIE                                    1
      BOOK I.                                                             1
      BOOK II.                                                           23
      BOOK III.                                                          51
      BOOK IV.                                                           92
      BOOK V.                                                           126

  TROILUS AND CRISEYDE                                                  153
      BOOK I.                                                           153
      BOOK II.                                                          189
      BOOK III.                                                         244
      BOOK IV.                                                          302
      BOOK V.                                                           357

  NOTES TO BOETHIUS                                                     419

  NOTES TO TROILUS                                                      461



In my introductory remarks to the Legend of Good Women, I refer to the
close connection that is easily seen to subsist between Chaucer's
translation of Boethius and his Troilus and Criseyde. All critics seem now
to agree in placing these two works in close conjunction, and in making the
prose work somewhat the earlier of the two; though it is not at all
unlikely that, for a short time, both works were in hand together. It is
also clear that they were completed before the author commenced the House
of Fame, the date of which is, almost certainly, about 1383-4. Dr. Koch, in
his Essay on the Chronology of Chaucer's Writings, proposes to date
'Boethius' about 1377-8, and 'Troilus' about 1380-1. It is sufficient to be
able to infer, as we can with tolerable certainty, that these two works
belong to the period between 1377 and 1383. And we may also feel sure that
the well-known lines to Adam, beginning--

 'Adam scriveyn, if ever it thee befalle
  _Boece_ or _Troilus_ to wryten newe'--

were composed at the time when the fair copy of Troilus had just been
finished, and may be dated, without fear of mistake, in 1381-3. It is not
likely that we shall be able to determine these dates within closer limits;
nor is it at all necessary that we should be able to do so. A few further
remarks upon this subject are given below.


Before proceeding to remark upon Chaucer's translation of Boethius, or (as
he calls him) Boece, it is necessary to say a few words as to the original
work, and its author.

Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius, the most learned philosopher
of his time, was born at Rome about A. D. 480, and was put to death A. D.
524. In his youth, he had the advantage of a liberal training, and enjoyed
the rare privilege of being able to read the Greek philosophers in their
own tongue. In the particular treatise which here most concerns us, his
Greek quotations are mostly taken from Plato, and there are a few
references to Aristotle, Homer, and to the _Andromache_ of Euripides. His
extant works shew that he was well acquainted with geometry, mechanics,
astronomy, and music, as well as with logic and theology; and it is an
interesting fact that an illustration of the way in which waves of sound
are propagated through the air, introduced by Chaucer into his House of
Fame, ll. 788-822, is almost certainly derived from the treatise of
Boethius _De Musica_, as pointed out in the note upon that passage. At any
rate, there is an unequivocal reference to 'the felinge' of Boece 'in
musik' in the Nonnes Preestes Tale, B 4484.

§ 3. The most important part of his political life was passed in the
service of the celebrated Theodoric the Goth, who, after the defeat and
death of Odoacer, A. D. 493, had made himself undisputed master of Italy,
and had fixed the seat of his government in Ravenna. The usual account,
that Boethius was twice married, is now discredited, there being no clear
evidence with respect to Elpis, the name assigned to his supposed first
wife; but it is certain that he married Rusticiana, the daughter of the
patrician Symmachus, a man of great influence and probity, and much
respected, who had been consul under Odoacer in 485. Boethius had the
singular felicity of seeing his two sons, Boethius and Symmachus, raised to
the consular dignity on the same day, in 522. After many years spent in
indefatigable study and great public usefulness, he fell under the
suspicion of Theodoric; and, notwithstanding an indignant denial of his
supposed crimes, was hurried away to Pavia, where he was imprisoned in a
tower, and denied the means of justifying his conduct. The rest must be
told in the eloquent words of Gibbon[1].

'While Boethius, oppressed with fetters, expected each moment the sentence
or the stroke of death, he composed in the tower of Pavia the "Consolation
of Philosophy"; a golden volume, not unworthy of the leisure of Plato or
Tully, but which claims incomparable merit from the barbarism of the times
and the situation of the author. The celestial guide[2], whom he had so
long invoked at Rome and at Athens, now condescended to illumine his
dungeon, to revive his courage, and to pour into his wounds her salutary
balm. She taught him to compare his long prosperity and his recent
distress, and to conceive new hopes from the inconstancy of fortune[3].
Reason had informed him of the precarious condition of her gifts;
experience had satisfied him of their real value[4]; he had enjoyed them
without guilt; he might resign them without a sigh, and calmly disdain the
impotent malice of his enemies, who had left him happiness, since they had
left him virtue[5]. From the earth, Boethius ascended to heaven in search
of the SUPREME GOOD[6], explored the metaphysical labyrinth of chance and
destiny[7], of prescience and freewill, of time and eternity, and
generously attempted to reconcile the perfect attributes of the Deity with
the apparent disorders of his moral and physical government[8]. Such topics
of consolation, so obvious, so vague, or so abstruse, are ineffectual to
subdue the feelings of human nature. Yet the sense of misfortune may be
diverted by the labour of thought; and the sage who could artfully combine,
in the same work, the various riches of philosophy, poetry, and eloquence,
must already have possessed the intrepid calmness which he affected to
seek. Suspense, the worst of evils, was at length determined by the
ministers of death, who executed, and perhaps exceeded, the inhuman mandate
of Theodoric. A strong cord was fastened round the head of Boethius, and
forcibly tightened till his eyes almost started from their sockets; and
some mercy may be discovered in the milder torture of beating him with
clubs till he expired. But his genius survived to diffuse a ray of
knowledge over the darkest ages of the Latin world; the writings of the
philosopher were translated by the most glorious of the English Kings, and
the third emperor of the name of Otho removed to a more honourable tomb the
bones of a catholic saint, who, from his Arian persecutors, had acquired
the honours of martyrdom and the fame of miracles. In the last hours of
Boethius, he derived some comfort from the safety of his two sons, of his
wife, and of his father-in-law, the venerable Symmachus. But the grief of
Symmachus was indiscreet, and perhaps disrespectful; he had presumed to
lament, he might dare to revenge, the death of an injured friend. He was
dragged in chains from Rome to the palace of Ravenna; and the suspicions of
Theodoric could only be appeased by the blood of an innocent and aged

This deed of injustice brought small profit to its perpetrator; for we read
that Theodoric's own death took place shortly afterwards; and that, on his
death-bed, 'he expressed in broken murmurs to his physician Elpidius, his
deep repentance for the murders of Boethius and Symmachus.'

§ 4. For further details, I beg leave to refer the reader to the essay on
'Boethius' by H. F. Stewart, published by W. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh
and London, in 1891. We are chiefly concerned here with the 'Consolation of
Philosophy,' a work which enjoyed great popularity in the middle ages, and
first influenced Chaucer indirectly, through the use of it made by Jean de
Meun in the poem entitled Le Roman de la Rose, as well as directly, at a
later period, through his own translation of it. Indeed, I have little
doubt that Chaucer's attention was drawn to it when, somewhat early in
life, he first perused with diligence that remarkable poem; and that it was
from the following passage that he probably drew the inference that it
might be well for him to translate the whole work:--

 'Ce puet l'en bien des clers enquerre
  Qui _Boëce de Confort_ lisent,
  Et les sentences qui là gisent,
  _Dont grans biens as gens laiz feroit
  Qui bien le lor translateroit_' (ll. 5052-6).

I.e. in modern English:--'This can be easily ascertained from the learned
men who read Boece on the Consolation of Philosophy, and the opinions which
are found therein; as to which, any one _who would well translate it for
them_ would confer much benefit on the unlearned folk':--a pretty strong

§ 5. The chief events in the life of Boethius which are referred to in the
present treatise are duly pointed out in the notes; and it may be well to
bear in mind that, as to some of these, nothing further is known beyond
what the author himself tells us. Most of the personal references occur in
Book i. Prose 4, Book ii. Prose 3, and in Book iii. Prose 4. In the first
of these passages, Boethius recalls the manner in which he withstood one
Conigastus, because he oppressed the poor (l. 40); and how he defeated the
iniquities of Triguilla, 'provost' (_præpositus_) of the royal household
(l. 43). He takes credit for defending the people of Campania against a
particularly obnoxious fiscal measure instituted by Theodoric, which was
called 'coemption' (_coemptio_); (l. 59.) This Mr. Stewart describes as 'a
fiscal measure which allowed the state to buy provisions for the army at
something under market-price--which threatened to ruin the province.' He
tells us that he rescued Decius Paulinus, who had been consul in 498, from
the rapacity of the officers of the royal palace (l. 68); and that, in
order to save Decius Albinus, who had been consul in 493, from wrongful
punishment, he ran the risk of incurring the hate of the informer Cyprian
(l. 75). In these ways, he had rendered himself odious to the court-party,
whom he had declined to bribe (l. 79). His accusers were Basilius, who had
been expelled from the king's service, and was impelled to accuse him by
pressure of debt (l. 81); and Opilio and Gaudentius, who had been sentenced
to exile by royal decree for their numberless frauds and crimes, but had
escaped the sentence by taking sanctuary. 'And when,' as he tells us, 'the
king discovered this evasion, he gave orders that, unless they quitted
Ravenna by a given day, they should be branded on the forehead with a hot
iron and driven out of the city. Nevertheless on that very day the
information laid against me by these men was admitted' (ll. 89-94). He next
alludes to some forged letters (l. 123), by means of which he had been
accused of 'hoping for the freedom of Rome,' (which was of course
interpreted to mean that he wished to deliver Rome from the tyranny of
Theodoric). He then boldly declares that if he had had the opportunity of
confronting his accusers, he would have answered in the words of Canius,
when accused by Caligula of having been privy to a conspiracy against
him--'If I had known it, thou shouldst never have known it' (ll. 126-135).
This, by the way, was rather an imprudent expression, and probably told
against him when his case was considered by Theodoric.

He further refers to an incident that took place at Verona (l. 153), when
the king, eager for a general slaughter of his enemies, endeavoured to
extend to the whole body of the senate the charge of treason, of which
Albinus had been accused; on which occasion, at great personal risk,
Boethius had defended the senate against so sweeping an accusation.

In Book ii. Prose 3, he refers to his former state of happiness and good
fortune (l. 26), when he was blessed with rich and influential
parents-in-law, with a beloved wife, and with two noble sons; in particular
(l. 35), he speaks with justifiable pride of the day when his sons were
both elected consuls together, and when, sitting in the Circus between
them, he won general praise for his wit and eloquence.

In Book iii. Prose 4, he declaims against Decoratus, with whom he refused
to be associated in office, on account of his infamous character.

§ 6. The chief source of further information about these circumstances is a
collection of letters (Variæ Epistolæ) by Cassiodorus, a statesman who
enjoyed the full confidence of Theodoric, and collected various
state-papers under his direction. These tell us, in some measure, what can
be said on the other side. Here Cyprian and his brother Opilio are spoken
of with respect and honour; and the only Decoratus whose name appears is
spoken of as a young man of great promise, who had won the king's sincere
esteem. But when all has been said, the reader will most likely be inclined
to think that, in cases of conflicting evidence, he would rather take the
word of the noble Boethius than that of any of his opponents.

§ 7. The treatise 'De Consolatione Philosophiæ' is written in the form of a
discourse between himself and the personification of Philosophy, who
appears to him in his prison, and endeavours to soothe and console him in
his time of trial. It is divided (as in this volume) into five Books; and
each Book is subdivided into chapters, entitled Metres and Proses, because,
in the original, the alternate chapters are written in a metrical form, the
metres employed being of various kinds. Thus Metre 1 of Book I is written
in alternate hexameters and pentameters; while Metre 7 consists of very
short lines, each consisting of a single dactyl and spondee. The Proses
contain the main arguments; the Metres serve for embellishment and

In some MSS. of Chaucer's translation, a few words of the original are
quoted at the beginning of each Prose and Metre, and are duly printed in
this edition, in a corrected form.

§ 8. A very brief sketch of the general contents of the volume may be of
some service.

  BOOK I. Boethius deplores his misfortunes (met. 1). Philosophy appears to
  him in a female form (pr. 2), and condoles with him in song (met. 2);
  after which she addresses him, telling him that she is willing to share
  his misfortunes (pr. 3). Boethius pours out his complaints, and
  vindicates his past conduct (pr. 4). Philosophy reminds him that he seeks
  a heavenly country (pr. 5). The world is not governed by chance (pr. 6).
  The book concludes with a lay of hope (met. 7).

  BOOK II. Philosophy enlarges on the wiles of Fortune (pr. 1), and
  addresses him in Fortune's name, asserting that her mutability is natural
  and to be expected (pr. 2). Adversity is transient (pr. 3), and Boethius
  has still much to be thankful for (pr. 4). Riches only bring anxieties,
  and cannot confer happiness (pr. 5); they were unknown in the Golden Age
  (met. 5). Neither does happiness consist in honours and power (pr. 6).
  The power of Nero only taught him cruelty (met. 6). Fame is but vanity
  (pr. 7), and is ended by death (met. 7). Adversity is beneficial (pr. 8).
  All things are bound together by the chain of Love (met. 8).

  BOOK III. Boethius begins to receive comfort (pr. 1). Philosophy
  discourses on the search for the Supreme Good (_summum bonum_; pr. 2).
  The laws of nature are immutable (met. 2). All men are engaged in the
  pursuit of happiness (pr. 3). Dignities properly appertain to virtue (pr.
  4). Power cannot drive away care (pr. 5). Glory is deceptive, and the
  only true nobility is that of character (pr. 6). Happiness does not
  consist in corporeal pleasures (pr. 7); nor in bodily strength or beauty
  (pr. 8). Worldly bliss is insufficient and false; and in seeking true
  felicity, we must invoke God's aid (pr. 9). Boethius sings a hymn to the
  Creator (met. 9); and acknowledges that God alone is the Supreme Good (p.
  10). The unity of soul and body is necessary to existence, and the love
  of life is instinctive (pr. 11). Error is dispersed by the light of Truth
  (met. 11). God governs the world, and is all-sufficient, whilst evil has
  no true existence (pr. 12). The book ends with the story of Orpheus (met.

  BOOK IV. This book opens with a discussion of the existence of evil, and
  the system of rewards and punishments (pr. 1). Boethius describes the
  flight of Imagination through the planetary spheres till it reaches
  heaven itself (met. 1). The good are strong, but the wicked are
  powerless, having no real existence (pr. 2). Tyrants are chastised by
  their own passions (met. 2). Virtue secures reward; but the wicked lose
  even their human nature, and become as mere beasts (pr. 3). Consider the
  enchantments of Circe, though these merely affected the outward form
  (met. 4). The wicked are thrice wretched; they _will_ to do evil, they
  _can_ do evil, and they actually _do_ it. Virtue is its own reward; so
  that the wicked should excite our pity (pr. 4). Here follows a poem on
  the folly of war (met. 4). Boethius inquires why the good suffer (pr. 5).
  Philosophy reminds him that the motions of the stars are inexplicable to
  one who does not understand astronomy (met. 5). She explains the
  difference between Providence and Destiny (pr. 6). In all nature we see
  concord, due to controlling Love (met. 6). All fortune is good; for
  punishment is beneficial (pr. 7). The labours of Hercules afford us an
  example of endurance (met. 7).

  BOOK V. Boethius asks questions concerning Chance (pr. 1). An example
  from the courses of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates (met. 1). Boethius
  asks questions concerning Free-will (pr. 2). God, who sees all things, is
  the true Sun (met. 2). Boethius is puzzled by the consideration of God's
  Predestination and man's Free-will (pr. 3). Men are too eager to inquire
  into the unknown (met. 3). Philosophy replies to Boethius on the subjects
  of Predestination, Necessity, and the nature of true Knowledge (pr. 4);
  on the impressions received by the mind (met. 4); and on the powers of
  Sense and Imagination (pr. 5). Beasts look downward to the earth, but man
  is upright, and looks up to heaven (met. 5). This world is not eternal,
  but only God is such; whose prescience is not subject to necessity, nor
  altered by human intentions. He upholds the good, and condemns the
  wicked; therefore be constant in eschewing vice, and devote all thy
  powers to the love of virtue (pr. 6).

§ 9. It is unnecessary to enlarge here upon the importance of this
treatise, and its influence upon medieval literature. Mr. Stewart, in the
work already referred to, has an excellent chapter 'On Some Ancient
Translations' of it. The number of translations that still exist, in
various languages, sufficiently testify to its extraordinary popularity in
the middle ages. Copies of it are found, for example, in Old High German by
Notker, and in later German by Peter of Kastl; in Anglo-French by Simun de
Fraisne; in continental French by Jean de Meun[10], Pierre de Paris, Jehan
de Cis, Frere Renaut de Louhans, and by two anonymous authors; in Italian,
by Alberto della Piagentina and several others; in Greek, by Maximus
Planudes; and in Spanish, by Fra Antonio Ginebreda; besides various
versions in later times. But the most interesting, to us, are those in
English, which are somewhat numerous, and are worthy of some special
notice. I shall here dismiss, as improbable and unnecessary, a suggestion
sometimes made, that Chaucer may have consulted some French version in the
hope of obtaining assistance from it; there is no sure trace of anything of
the kind, and the internal evidence is, in my opinion, decisively against

§ 10. The earliest English translation is that by king Ælfred, which is
particularly interesting from the fact that the royal author frequently
deviates from his original, and introduces various notes, explanations, and
allusions of his own. The opening chapter, for example, is really a
preface, giving a brief account of Theodoric and of the circumstances which
led to the imprisonment of Boethius. This work exists only in two MSS.,
neither being of early date, viz. MS. Cotton, Otho A VI, and MS. Bodley NE.
C. 3. 11. It has been thrice edited; by Rawlinson, in 1698; by J. S.
Cardale, in 1829; and by S. Fox, in 1864. The last of these includes a
modern English translation, and forms one of the volumes of Bohn's
Antiquarian Library; so that it is a cheap and accessible work. Moreover,
it contains an alliterative verse translation of most of the _Metres_
contained in Boethius (excluding the _Proses_), which is also attributed to
Ælfred in a brief metrical preface; but whether this ascription is to be
relied upon, or not, is a difficult question, which has hardly as yet been
decided. A summary of the arguments, for and against Ælfred's authorship,
will be found in Wülker's _Grundriss zur Geschichte der angelsächsischen
Litteratur_, pp. 421-435.

§ 11. I may here mention that there is a manuscript copy of this work by
Boethius, in the original Latin, in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, No.
214, which contains a considerable number of Anglo-Saxon glosses. A
description of this MS., by Prof. J. W. Bright and myself, is printed in
the American Journal of Philology, vol. v, no. 4.

§ 12. The next English translation, in point of date, is Chaucer's;
concerning which I have more to say below.

§ 13. In the year 1410, we meet with a _verse_ translation of the whole
treatise, ascribed by Warton (Hist. E. Poetry, § 20, ed. 1871, iii. 39) to
John Walton, Capellanus, or John the Chaplain, a canon of Oseney. 'In the
British Museum,' says Warton, 'there is a correct MS. on parchment[11] of
Walton's translation of Boethius; and the margin is filled throughout with
the Latin text, written by Chaundler above mentioned [i. e. Thomas
Chaundler, among other preferments dean of the king's chapel and of
Hereford Cathedral, chancellor of Wells, and successively warden of
Wykeham's two colleges at Winchester and Oxford.] There is another less
elegant MS. in the same collection[12]. But at the end is this
note:--'Explicit liber Boecij de Consolatione Philosophie de Latino in
Anglicum translatus A.D. 1410, per Capellanum Ioannem. This is the
beginning of the prologue:--"In suffisaunce of cunnyng and witte[13]." And
of the translation:--"Alas, I wrecch, that whilom was in welth." I have
seen a third copy in the library of Lincoln cathedral[14], and a fourth in
Baliol college[15]. This is the translation of Boethius printed in the
monastery of Tavistock in 1525[16], and in octave stanzas. This translation
was made at the request of Elizabeth Berkeley.'

Todd, in his Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer, p. xxxi, mentions another
MS. 'in the possession of Mr. G. Nicol, his Majesty's bookseller,' in which
the above translation is differently attributed in the colophon, which ends
thus: 'translatus anno d_omi_ni millesimo ccccx^o. per Capellanum Iohannem
Tebaud, alius Watyrbeche.' This can hardly be correct[17].

I may here note that this verse translation has _two_ separate Prologues.
One Prologue gives a short account of Boethius and his times, and is extant
in MS. Gg. iv. 18 in the Cambridge University Library. An extract from the
other is quoted below. MS. E Museo 53, in the Bodleian Library, contains
both of them.

§ 14. As to the work itself, Metre 1 of Book i. and Metre 5 of the same are
printed entire in Wülker's Altenglisches Lesebuch, ii. 56-9. In one of the
metrical prologues to the whole work the following passage occurs, which I
copy from MS. Royal 18 A xiii:--

 'I have herd spek and sumwhat haue y-seyne,
  Of diuerse men[18], that wounder subtyllye,
  In metir sum, and sum in prosë pleyne,
  This book translated haue[19] suffishantlye
  In-to[20] Englissh tongë, word for word, wel nye[21];
  Bot I most vse the wittes that I haue;
  Thogh I may noght do so, yit noght-for-thye,
  With helpe of god, the sentence schall I saue.

  To Chaucer, that is floure of rethoryk
  In Englisshe tong, and excellent poete,
  This wot I wel, no-thing may I do lyk,
  Thogh so that I of makynge entyrmete:
  And Gower, that so craftily doth trete,
  As in his book, of moralitee,
  Thogh I to theym in makyng am vnmete,
  [Gh]it most I schewe it forth, that is in me.'

This is an early tribute to the excellence of Chaucer and Gower as poets.

§ 15. When we examine Walton's translation a little more closely, it soon
becomes apparent that he has largely availed himself of Chaucer's prose
translation, which he evidently kept before him as a model of language. For
example, in Bk. ii. met. 5, l. 16, Chaucer has the expression:--'tho weren
the cruel clariouns ful hust and ful stille.' This reappears in one of
Walton's lines in the form:--'Tho was ful huscht the cruel clarioun.' This
is poetry made easy, no doubt.

In order to exhibit this a little more fully, I here transcribe the whole
of Walton's translation of this metre, which may be compared with Chaucer's
rendering at pp. 40, 41 below. I print in italics all the words which are
common to the two versions, so as to shew this curious result, viz. that
Walton was here more indebted to Chaucer, than Chaucer, when writing his
poem of 'The Former Age,' was to himself. The MS. followed is the Royal MS.
mentioned above (p. xvi).



  Full wonder _blisseful was_ that rather _age_,
  When mortal men couthe _holde hem_-selven[22]  _payed_
  To fede hem-selve[23] with-oute suche _outerage_,
  _With mete that trewe feeldes_[24] have arrayed;
  _With acorne[s] thaire hunger_ was alayed,
  And so thei couthe sese thaire talent;
  Thei had[den] yit no queynt[e] craft assayed,
  As _clarry_ for to _make_ ne _pyment_[25].

  _To de[y]en purpure couthe thei noght_ be-thynke,
  _The white flees, with venym Tyryen_;
  _The rennyng_ ryver yaf hem lusty drynke,
  And _holsom sleep the[y]_ took _vpon the_ grene.
  _The pynes_, that so full of braunches been,
  That was thaire hous, to kepe[n] _vnder schade_.
  _The see[26] to kerve_ no _schippes_ were there seen;
  Ther was no man that _marchaundise_ made.

  They liked not to sailen vp and doun,
  But kepe hem-selven[27] where thei weren bred;
  _Tho was ful huscht the cruel clarioun_,
  For _eger hate_ ther was _no blood I-sched_,
  Ne therwith was non _armour_ yet be-bled;
  _For_ in that tyme who durst have be so _wood_
  Suche bitter _woundes_ that he nold have dred,
  With-outen réward, for to lese his _blood_.

  _I wold oure tyme_ myght _turne_ certanly,
  And wise[28] _maneres_ alwey with vs dwelle;
  _But love of hauyng brenneth_ feruently,
  _More_ fersere _than the_ verray _fuyre_ of helle.
  _Allas!_ who _was_ that man _that_ wold him melle
  With[29] _gold and_ gemmes that were _kevered_ thus[30],
  _That first_ began to myne; I can not telle,
  But that he fond _a perel[31] precious_.

§ 16. MS. Auct. F. 3. 5, in the Bodleian Library, contains a _prose_
translation, different from Chaucer's. After this, the next translation
seems to be one by George Colvile; the title is thus given by Lowndes:
'Boetius de Consolatione Philosophiæ, translated by George Coluile, alias
Coldewel. London: by John Cawoode; 1556. 4to.' This work was dedicated to
Queen Mary, and reprinted in 1561; and again, without date.

There is an unprinted translation, in hexameters and other metres, in the
British Museum (MS. Addit. 11401), by Bracegirdle, temp. Elizabeth. See
Warton, ed. Hazlitt, iii. 39, note 6.

Lowndes next mentions a translation by J. T., printed at London in 1609,

A translation 'Anglo-Latine expressus per S. E. M.' was printed at London
in quarto, in 1654, according to Hazlitt's Hand-book to Popular Literature.

Next, a translation into English verse by H. Conningesbye, in 1664, 12mo.

The next is thus described: 'Of the Consolation of Philosophy, made English
and illustrated with Notes by the Right Hon. Richard (Graham) Lord Viscount
Preston. London; 1695, 8vo. Second edition, corrected; London; 1712, 8vo.'

A translation by W. Causton was printed in London in 1730; 8vo.

A translation by the Rev. Philip Ridpath, printed in London in 1785, 8vo.,
is described by Lowndes as 'an excellent translation with very useful
notes, and a life of Boethius, drawn up with great accuracy and fidelity.'

A translation by R. Duncan was printed at Edinburgh in 1789, 8vo.; and an
anonymous translation, described by Lowndes as 'a pitiful performance,' was
printed in London in 1792, 8vo.

In a list of works which the Early English Text Society proposes shortly to
print, we are told that 'Miss Pemberton has sent to press her edition of
the fragments of Queen Elizabeth's Englishings (in the Record Office) from
Boethius, Plutarch, &c.'

§ 17. I now return to the consideration of Chaucer's translation, as
printed in the present volume.

I do not think the question as to the probable date of its composition need
detain us long. It is so obviously connected with 'Troilus' and the 'House
of Fame,' which it probably did not long precede, that we can hardly be
wrong in dating it, as said above, about 1377-1380; or, in round numbers,
about 1380 or a little earlier. I quite agree with Mr. Stewart (Essay, p.
226), that, 'it is surely most reasonable to connect its composition with
those poems which contain the greatest number of recollections and
imitations of his original;' and I see no reason for ascribing it, with
Professor Morley (English Writers, v. 144), to Chaucer's youth. Even Mr.
Stewart is so incautious as to suggest that Chaucer's 'acquaintance with
the works of the Roman philosopher ... would seem to date from about the
year 1369, when he wrote the Deth of Blaunche.' When we ask for some
tangible evidence of this statement, we are simply referred to the
following passages in that poem, viz. the mention of 'Tityus (588); of
Fortune the debonaire (623); Fortune the monster (627); Fortune's
capriciousness and her rolling wheel (634, 642); Tantalus (708); the mind
compared to a clean parchment (778); and Alcibiades (1055-6);' see Essay,
p. 267. In every one of these instances, I believe the inference to be
fallacious, and that Chaucer got all these illustrations, _at second hand_,
from Le Roman de la Rose. As a matter of fact, they are all to be found
there; and I find, on reference, that I have, in most instances, already
given the parallel passages in my notes. However, to make the matter
clearer, I repeat them here.

Book Duch. 588. Cf. Comment li juisier _Ticius_
                    S'efforcent ostoir de mangier;
                         Rom. Rose, 19506.
                    Si cum tu fez, las _Sisifus_, &c.;
                         R. R. 19499.

Book Duch. 623. The dispitouse debonaire,
                That scorneth many a creature.

I cannot give the exact reference, because Jean de Meun's description of
the various moods of Fortune extends to a portentous length. Chaucer
reproduces the general impression which a perusal of the poem leaves on the
mind. However, take ll. 4860-62 of Le Roman:--

  Que miex vaut asses et profite
  Fortune _perverse et contraire_
  Que la mole et _la debonnaire_.

Surely 'debonaire' in Chaucer is rather French than Latin. And see
_debonaire_ in the E. version of the Romaunt, l. 5412.

Book Duch. 627. She is the monstres heed y-wryen,
                As _filth over y-strawed with floures_.

                Si di, par ma parole ovrir,
                Qui vodroit _un femier covrir_
                De dras de soie ou _de floretes_; R. R. 8995.

As the second of the above lines from the Book of the Duchesse is obviously
taken from _Le Roman_, it is probable that the first is also; but it is a
hard task to discover the particular word _monstre_ in this vast poem.
However, I find it, in l. 4917, with reference to Fortune; and her _wheel_
is not far off, six lines above.

B. D. 634, 642. Fortune's capriciousness is treated of by Jean de Meun at
intolerable length, ll. 4863-8492; and elsewhere. As to her wheel, it is
continually rolling through his verses; see ll. 4911, 5366, 5870, 5925,
6172, 6434, 6648, 6880, &c.

B. D. 708. Cf. Et de fain avec _Tentalus_; R. R. 19482.

B. D. 778. Not from Le Roman, nor from Boethius, but from Machault's
_Remède de Fortune_, as pointed out by M. Sandras long ago; see my note.

B. D. 1055-6. Cf. Car le cors Alcipiades
                  Qui de biauté avoit adés ...
                  _Ainsinc le raconte Boece_; R. R. 8981.

See my note on the line; and note the spelling of _Alcipiades_ with a _p_,
as in the English MSS.

We thus see that all these passages (except l. 778) are really taken from
Le Roman, not to mention many more, already pointed out by Dr. Köppel
(_Anglia_, xiv. 238). And, this being so, we may safely conclude that they
were _not_ taken from Boethius directly. Hence we may further infer that,
in all probability, Chaucer, in 1369, was not very familiar with Boethius
in the Latin original. And this accounts at once for the fact that he
seldom quotes Boethius at first hand, perhaps not at all, in any of his
earlier poems, such as the Complaint unto Pite, the Complaint of Mars, or
Anelida and Arcite, or the Lyf of St. Cecilie. I see no reason for
supposing that he had closely studied Boethius before (let us say) 1375;
though it is extremely probable, as was said above, that Jean de Meun
inspired him with the idea of reading it, to see whether it was really
worth translating, as the French poet said it was.

§ 18. When we come to consider the style and manner in which Chaucer has
executed his self-imposed task, we must first of all make some allowance
for the difference between the scholarship of his age and of our own. One
great difference is obvious, though constantly lost sight of, viz. that the
teaching in those days was almost entirely oral, and that the student had
to depend upon his memory to an extent which would now be regarded by many
as extremely inconvenient. Suppose that, in reading Boethius, Chaucer comes
across the phrase 'ueluti quidam clauus atque gubernaculum' (Bk. iii. pr.
12, note to l. 55), and does not remember the sense of _clauus_; what is to
be done? It is quite certain, though this again is frequently lost sight
of, that he had no access to a convenient and well-arranged Latin
Dictionary, but only to such imperfect glossaries as were then in use.
Almost the only resource, unless he had at hand a friend more learned than
himself, was to guess. He guesses accordingly; and, taking _clauus_ to mean
much the same thing as _clauis_, puts down in his translation: 'and he is
as a _keye_ and a stere.' Some mistakes of this character were almost
inevitable; and it must not greatly surprise us to be told, that the
'inaccuracy and infelicity' of Chaucer's translation 'is not that of an
inexperienced Latin scholar, but rather of one who was no Latin scholar at
all,' as Mr. Stewart says in his Essay, p. 226. It is useful to bear this
in mind, because a similar lack of accuracy is characteristic of Chaucer's
other works also; and we must not always infer that emendation is
necessary, when we find in his text some curious error.

§ 19. The next passage in Mr. Stewart's Essay so well expresses the state
of the case, that I do not hesitate to quote it at length. 'Given (he says)
a man who is sufficiently conversant with a language to read it fluently
without paying too much heed to the precise value of participle and
preposition, who has the wit and the sagacity to grasp the meaning of his
author, but not the intimate knowledge of his style and manner necessary to
a right appreciation of either, and--especially if he set himself to write
in an uncongenial and unfamiliar form--he will assuredly produce just such
a result as Chaucer has done.

'We must now glance (he adds) at the literary style of the translation. As
Ten Brink has observed, we can here see as clearly as in any work of the
middle ages what a high cultivation is requisite for the production of a
good prose. Verse, and not prose, is the natural vehicle for the expression
of every language in its infancy, and it is certainly not in prose that
Chaucer's genius shews to best advantage. The restrictions of metre were
indeed to him as silken fetters, while the freedom of prose only served to
embarrass him; just as a bird that has been born and bred in captivity,
whose traditions are all domestic, finds itself at a sad loss when it
escapes from its cage and has to fall back on its own resources for
sustenance. In reading "Boece," we have often as it were to pause and look
on while Chaucer has a desperate wrestle with a tough sentence; but though
now he may appear to be down, with a victorious knee upon him, next moment
he is on his feet again, disclaiming defeat in a gloss which makes us doubt
whether his adversary had so much the best of it after all. But such
strenuous endeavour, even when it is crowned with success, is strange in a
writer one of whose chief charms is the delightful ease, the complete
absence of effort, with which he says his best things. It is only necessary
to compare the passages in Boethius in the prose version with the same when
they reappear in the poems, to realise how much better they look in their
verse dress. Let the reader take Troilus' soliloquy on Freewill and
Predestination (Bk. iv. ll. 958-1078), and read it side by side with the
corresponding passage in "Boece" (Bk. v. proses 2 and 3), and he cannot
fail to feel the superiority of the former to the latter. With what
clearness and precision does the argument unfold itself, how close is the
reasoning, how vigorous and yet graceful is the language! It is to be
regretted that Chaucer did not do for all the Metra of the "Consolation"
what he did for the fifth of the second book. A solitary gem like "The
Former Age" makes us long for a whole set[32]. Sometimes, whether
unconsciously or of set purpose, it is difficult to decide, his prose slips
into verse:--

  It lyketh me to shewe, by subtil song,
  With slakke and délitáble soun of strenges (Bk. iii. met. 2. 1).

  Whan Fortune, with a proud right hand (Bk. ii. met. 1. 1)[33].'

The reader should also consult Ten Brink's History of English Literature,
Book iv. sect. 7. I here give a useful extract.

'This version is complete, and faithful in all essential points. Chaucer
had no other purpose than to disclose, if possible wholly, the meaning of
this famous work to his contemporaries; and notwithstanding many errors in
single points, he has fairly well succeeded in reproducing the sense of the
original. He often employs for this purpose periphrastic turns, and for the
explanation of difficult passages, poetical figures, mythological and
historical allusions; and he even incorporates a number of notes in his
text. His version thus becomes somewhat diffuse, and, in the undeveloped
state of prose composition so characteristic of that age, often quite
unwieldy. But there is no lack of warmth, and even of a certain

'The language of the translation shews many a peculiarity; viz. numerous
Latinisms, and even Roman idioms in synthesis, inflexion, or syntax, which
are either wholly absent or at least found very rarely in Chaucer's poems.
The labour of this translation proved a school for the poet, from which his
powers of speech came forth not only more elevated but more self-reliant;
and above all, with a greater aptitude to express thoughts of a deeper

§ 20. Most of the instances in which Chaucer's rendering is inaccurate,
unhappy, or insufficient are pointed out in the notes. I here collect some
examples, many of which have already been remarked upon by Dr. Morris and
Mr. Stewart.

i. met. 1. 3. rendinge Muses: 'lacerae Camenae.'

   "       20. unagreable dwellinges[34]: 'ingratas moras.'

i. pr. 1. 49. til it be at the laste: 'usque in exitium;' (but see the

i. pr. 3. 2. I took hevene: 'hausi caelum.'

i. met. 4. 5. hete: 'aestum;' (see the note). So again, in met. 7. 3.

i. pr. 4. 83. for nede of foreine moneye: 'alienae aeris necessitate.'

i. pr. 4. 93. lykned: 'astrui;' (see the note).

i. met. 5. 9. cometh eft ayein hir used cours: 'Solitas iterum mutet
habenas;' (see the note).

ii. pr. 1. 22. entree: 'adyto;' (see the note).

ii. pr. 1. 45. use hir maneres: 'utere moribus.'

ii. pr. 5. 10. to hem that despenden it: 'effundendo.'

    "      11. to thilke folk that mokeren it: 'coaceruando.'

    "      90. subgit: 'sepositis;' (see the note).

ii. met. 6. 21. _the gloss is wrong_; (see the note).

ii. met. 7. 20. cruel day: 'sera dies;' (see the note).

iii. pr. 2. 57. birefte awey: 'adferre.' Here MS. C. has _afferre_, and
Chaucer seems to have resolved this into _ab-ferre_.

iii. pr. 3. 48. foreyne: 'forenses.'

iii. pr. 4. 42. many maner dignitees of consules: 'multiplici consulatu.'

iii. pr. 4. 64. of usaunces: 'utentium.'

iii. pr. 8. 11. anoyously: 'obnoxius;' (see the note).

     "      29. of a beest that highte lynx: 'Lynceis;' (see the note).

iii. pr. 9. 16. Wenest thou that he, that hath nede of power, that him ne
lakketh no-thing? 'An tu arbitraris quod nihilo indigeat egere potentia?'
On this Mr. Stewart remarks that 'it is easy to see that _indigeat_ and
_egere_ have changed places.' To me, it is not quite easy; for the senses
of the M.E. _nede_ and _lakken_ are very slippery. Suppose we make them
change places, and read:--'Wenest thou that he, that hath lak of power,
that him ne nedeth no-thing?' This may be better, but it is not wholly

iii. pr.9. 39-41. that he ... yif him nedeth = whether he needeth. A very
clumsy passage; see the Latin quoted in the note.

iii. pr. 10. 165. the soverein fyn and the cause: 'summa, cardo, atque

iii. pr. 12. 55, 67. a keye: 'clauus;' and again, 'clauo.'

      "          74. a yok of misdrawinges: 'detrectantium iugum.'

      "          75. the savinge of obedient thinges: 'obtemperantium

iii. pr. 12. 136. the whiche proeves drawen to hem-self hir feith and hir
acord, everich of hem of other: 'altero ex altero fidem trahente ...
probationibus.' (Not well expressed.)

iii. met. 12. 5. the wodes, moveable, to rennen; and had maked the riveres,
&c.: 'Siluas currere, mobiles Amnes,' &c.

iii. met. 17-19. Obscure and involved.

iv. pr. 1. 22. of wikkede felounes: 'facinorum.'

iv. pr. 2. 97. Iugement: 'indicium' (_misread as_ iudicium).

iv. met. 7. 15. empty: 'immani;' (_misread as_ inani).

v. pr. 1. 3. ful digne by auctoritee: 'auctoritate dignissima.'

    "     34. prince: 'principio.'

    "     57. the abregginge of fortuit hap: 'fortuiti caussae compendii.'

v. pr. 4. 30. by grace of position (_or_ possessioun): 'positionis gratia.'

v. pr. 4. 56. right as we trowen: 'quasi uero credamus.'

v. met. 5. 6. by moist fleeinge: 'liquido uolatu.'

§ 21. In the case of a few supposed errors, as pointed out by Mr. Stewart,
there remains something to be said on the other side. I note the following

i. pr. 6. 28. Lat. 'uelut hiante ualli robore.' Here Mr. Stewart quotes the
reading of MS. A., viz. 'so as the strengthe of the paleys schynyng is
open.' But the English text in that MS. is corrupt. The correct reading is
'palis chyning;' where _palis_ means _palisade_, and translates _ualli_;
and _chyning is open_ means _is gaping open_, and translates _hiante_.

ii. pr. 5. 16. Lat. 'largiendi usu.' The translation has: 'by usage of
large yevinge _of him that hath yeven it_.' I fail to see much amiss; for
the usual sense of _large_ in M. E. is _liberal_, _bounteous_, _lavish_. Of
course we must not substitute the modern sense without justification.

ii. pr. 5. 35. 'of the laste beautee' translates Lat. 'postremae
pulcritudinis.' For this, see my note on p. 431.

ii. pr. 7. 38. Lat. 'tum commercii insolentia.' Chaucer has: 'what for
defaute of unusage and entrecomuninge of marchaundise.' There is not much
amiss; but MS. A. omits the word _and_ after _unusage_, which of course
makes nonsense of the passage.

ii. met. 8. 6. Lat. 'Ut fluctus auidum mare Certo fine coerceat.' Chaucer
has: 'that the see, greedy to flowen, constreyned with a certein ende hise
floodes.' Mr. Stewart understands 'greedy to flowen' to refer to 'fluctus
auidum.' It seems to me that this was merely Chaucer's first idea of the
passage, and that he afterwards meant 'hise floodes' to translate
'fluctus,' but forgot to strike out 'to flowen.' I do not defend the

iii. pr. 11. 86. Lat. 'sede;' Eng. 'sete.' This is quite right. Mr. Stewart
quotes the Eng. version as having 'feete,' but this is only a corrupt
reading, though found in the best MS. Any one who is acquainted with M. E.
MSS. will easily guess that 'feete' is merely mis-copied from 'seete,' with
a long _s_; and, indeed, _sete_ is the reading of the black-letter
editions. There is a blunder here, certainly; only it is not the author's,
but due to the scribes.

iv. pr. 6. 176. Lat. 'quidam me quoque excellentior:' Eng. 'a philosophre,
the more excellent by me.' The M. E. use of _by_ is ambiguous; it
frequently means 'in comparison with.'

v. met. 5. 14. Lat. 'male dissipis:' Eng. 'wexest yvel out of thy wit.' In
this case, _wexest out of thy wit_ translates _dissipis_; and _yvel_, which
is here an adverb, translates _male_.

Of course we must also make allowances for the variations in Chaucer's
Latin MS. from the usually received text. Here we are much assisted by MS.
C., which, as explained below, appears to contain a copy of the very text
which he consulted, and helps to settle several doubtful points. To take
two examples. In Book ii. met. 5. 17, Chaucer has 'ne hadde nat deyed yit
_armures_,' where the usual Lat. text has 'tinxerat _arua_.' But many MSS.
have _arma_; and, of these, MS. C. is one.

Once more, in Book ii. met. 2. 11, Chaucer has 'sheweth _other_ gapinges,'
where the usual Lat. text has '_Altos_ pandit hiatus.' But some MSS. have
_Alios_; and, of these, MS. C. is one.

§ 22. After all, the chief point of interest about Chaucer's translation of
Boethius is the influence that this labour exercised upon his later work,
owing to the close familiarity with the text which he thus acquired. I have
shewn that we must not expect to find such influence upon his earliest
writings; and that, in the case of the Book of the Duchesse, it affected
him at second hand, through Jean de Meun. But in other poems, viz. Troilus,
the House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, some of the Balades, and in
the Canterbury Tales, the influence of Boethius is frequently observable;
and we may usually suppose such influence to have been direct and
immediate; nevertheless, we should always keep an eye on Le Roman de la
Rose, for Jean de Meun was, in like manner, influenced in no slight degree
by the same work. I have often taken an opportunity of pointing out, in my
Notes to Chaucer, passages of this character; and I find that Mr. Stewart,
with praiseworthy diligence, has endeavoured to give (in Appendix B,
following his Essay, at p. 260) 'An Index of Passages in Chaucer which seem
to have been suggested by the De Consolatione Philosophiae.' Very useful,
in connection with this subject, is the list of passages in which Chaucer
seems to have been indebted to Le Roman de la Rose, as given by Dr. E.
Köppel in _Anglia_, vol. xiv. 238-265. Another most useful help is the
comparison between Troilus and Boccaccio's _Filostrato_, by Mr. W. M.
Rossetti; which sometimes proves, beyond all doubt, that a passage which
may seem to be due to Boethius, is really taken from the Italian poet. As
this seems to be the right place for exhibiting the results thus obtained,
I proceed to give them, and gladly express my thanks to the above-named
authors for the opportunity thus afforded.



365.[35] a mirour.--Cf. B. v. met. 4. 8.

638. sweetnesse, &c.--B. iii. met. 1. 4.

730. What? slombrestow as in a lytargye?--See B. i. pr. 2. 14.

731. an asse to the harpe.--B. i. pr. 4. 2.

786. Ticius.--B. iii. met. 12. 29.

837. Fortune is my fo.--B. i. pr. 4. 8.

838-9. May of hir cruel wheel the harm withstonde.--B. ii. pr. 1. 80-82.

840. she pleyeth.--B. ii. met. 1. 10; pr. 2. 36.

841. than blamestow Fortune.--B. ii. pr. 2. 14.

846-7. That, as hir Ioyes moten overgoon,
       So mote hir sorwes passen everichoon.--B. ii. pr. 3. 52-4.

848-9. For if hir wheel stinte any-thing to torne,
       Than cessed she Fortune anoon to be.
                              B. ii. pr. 1. 82-4.

850. Now, sith hir wheel by no wey may soiorne, &c.--B. ii. pr. 2. 59.

857. For who-so list have helping of his leche.--B. i. pr. 4. 3.

1065-71. For every wight that hath an hous to founde.--B. iv. pr. 6. 57-60.


*42.[36] Forthy men seyn, ech contree hath his lawes.--B. ii. pr. 7. 49-51.
(This case is doubtful. Chaucer's phrase--_men seyn_--shews that he is
quoting a common proverb. 'Ase fele thedes, as fele thewes, quoth Hendyng.'
'Tant de gens, tant de guises.'--Ray. So many countries, so many

526. O god, that at thy disposicioun
     Ledest the fyn, by Iuste purveyaunce,
     Of every wight.              B. iv. pr. 6. 149-151.

766-7. And that a cloud is put with wind to flighte
       Which over-sprat the sonne as for a space.
                              B. i. met. 3. 8-10.


617.[37] But O, Fortune, executrice of wierdes,
     O influences of thise hevenes hye!
     Soth is, that, under god, ye ben our hierdes.
                              B. iv. pr. 6. 60-71.

624. The bente mone with hir hornes pale.--B. i. met. 5. 6.

813. O god--quod she--so worldly selinesse ...
     Y-medled is with many a bitternesse.--B. ii. pr. 4. 86, 87.

816. Ful anguisshous than is, god woot--quod she--
     Condicioun of veyn prosperitee.
                              B. ii. pr. 4. 56.

820-833.--B. ii. pr. 4. 109-117.

*836. Ther is no verray wele in this world here.
                              B. ii. pr. 4. 130.

1219. And now swetnesse semeth more swete.--B. iii. met. 1. 4.

1261. Benigne Love, thou holy bond of thinges.--B. ii. met. 8. 9-11.

1625-8. For of Fortunes sharp adversitee, &c.--B. ii. pr. 4. 4-7.

1691-2. Feicitee.--B. iii. pr. 2. 55.

1744-68. Love, that of erthe and see hath governaunce, &c.
          B. ii. met. 8. 9-11; 15, 16; 3-8; 11-14; 17, 18.


*1-7. (Fortune's changes, her wheel, and her scorn).--B. ii. pr. 1. 12;
met. 1. 1, 5-10; pr. ii. 37. (But note, that ll. 1-3 are really due to the
_Filostrato_, Bk. iii. st. 94; and ll. 6, 7 are copied from _Le Roman de la
Rose_, 8076-9).

200. cloud of errour.--B. iii. met. 11. 7.

391. Ne trust no wight to finden in Fortune
     Ay propretee; hir yeftes ben comune.
                              B. ii. pr. 2. 7-9; 61-2.

*481-2. (Repeated from Book III. 1625-8. But, this time, it is copied from
the _Filostrato_, Bk. iv. st. 56).

503. For sely is that deeth, soth for to seyne,
     That, oft y-cleped, comth and endeth peyne.
                              B. i. met. 1. 12-14.

*835. And alle worldly blisse, as thinketh me,
      The ende of blisse ay sorwe it occupyeth.
                              B. ii. pr. 4. 90.

(A very doubtful instance; for l. 836 is precisely the same as Prov. xiv.
13. The word _occupyeth_ is decisive; see my note to Cant. Ta. B 421).

958; 963-6. (Predestination).--B. v. pr. 2. 30-34.

974-1078. (Necessity and Free Will).--B. v. pr. 3. 7-19; 21-71.

*1587.               ... thenk that lord is he
       Of Fortune ay, that nought wol of hir recche;
       And she ne daunteth no wight but a wrecche.
                              B. ii. pr. 4. 98-101.

(But note that l. 1589 really translates two lines in the _Filostrato_, Bk.
iv. st. 154).


278. And Phebus with his rosy carte.--B. ii. met. 3. 1, 2.

763. Felicitee clepe I my suffisaunce.--B. iii. pr. 2. 6-8.

*1541-4. Fortune, whiche that permutacioun
         Of thinges hath, as it is hir committed
         Through purveyaunce and disposicioun
         Of heighe Iove.        B. iv. pr. 6. 75-77.

*1809. (The allusion here to the 'seventh spere' has but a remote reference
to Boethius (iv. met. 1. 16-19); for this stanza 259 is translated from
Boccaccio's _Teseide_, Bk. xi. st. 1).

It thus appears that, for this poem, Chaucer made use of B. i. met. 1, pr.
2, met. 3, pr. 4, met. 5; ii. pr. 1, met. 1, pr. 2, pr. 3, met. 3, pr. 4,
pr. 7, met. 8; iii. met. 1, pr. 2, met. 2, pr. 3, met. 11, 12; iv. pr. 6;
v. pr. 2, pr. 3.


*535 (Book ii. 27). Foudre. (This allusion to the thunderbolt is copied
from Machault, as shewn in my note; but Machault probably took it from
Boeth. i. met. 4. 8; and it is curious that Chaucer has _tour_, not

730-746 (Book ii. 222-238).--Compare B. iii. pr. 11; esp. 98-111. (Also Le
Roman de la Rose, 16957-69; Dante, _Purg._ xviii. 28).

972-8 (Book ii. 464-70).--B. iv. met. 1. 1-5.

1368-1375 (Book iii. 278-285).--Compare B. i. pr. 1. 8-12.

*1545-8 (Book iii. 455-8).--Compare B. i. pr. 5. 43, 44. (The likeness is
very slight).

1920 (Book iii. 830). An hous, that _domus Dedali_, That _Laborintus_
cleped is.--B. iii. pr. 12. 118.


195 (p. 78). tonne.--B. ii. pr. 2. 53-5.

*2228-30. (_Philomela_, 1-3).--B. iii. met. 9. 8-10. (Doubtful; for the
same is in _Le Roman de la Rose_, 16931-6, which is taken from Boethius.
And Köppel remarks that the word _Eternally_ answers to nothing in the
Latin text, whilst it corresponds to the French _Tous jors en



The quotations from Boethius are all taken at second-hand. See above, pp.
xx, xxi.


*380. That hoot, cold, hevy, light, [and] moist and dreye, &c.--B. iii. pr.
11. 98-103.

(Practically, a chance resemblance; these lines are really from Alanus, De
Planctu Naturæ; see the note).

599.              ... as oules doon by light;
     The day hem blent, ful wel they see by night.
                              B. iv. pr. 4. 132-3.


Partly from B. ii. met. 5; see the notes.


1-4. Compare B. ii. met. 1. 5-7.

10-12. Compare B. ii. pr. 8. 22-25.

13. Compare B. ii. pr. 4. 98-101.

*17. Socrates.--B. i. pr. 3. 20. (But really from Le Roman de la Rose,

25. No man is wrecched, but himself it wene.--B. ii. pr. 4. 79, 80; cf. pr.
2. 1-10.

29-30. Cf. B. ii. pr. 2. 17, 18.

31. Cf. B. ii. pr. 2. 59, 60.

33, 34. Cf. B. ii. pr. 8. 25-28.

38. Yit halt thyn ancre.--B. ii. pr. 4. 40.

43, 44. Cf. B. ii. pr. 1. 69-72, and 78-80.

45, 46. Cf. B. ii. pr. 2. 60-62; and 37.

50-52. Cf. B. ii. pr. 8. 25-28.

57-64. Cf. B. ii. pr. 2. 11-18.

65-68. Cf. B. iv. pr. 6. 42-46.

68. Ye blinde bestes.--B. iii. pr. 3. 1.

71. Thy laste day.--B. ii. pr. 3. 60, 61.


2. Cf. B. ii. pr. 5. 56, 57.

3. For hord hath hate.--B. ii. pr. 5. 11.

3. and climbing tikelnesse.--B. iii. pr. 8. 10, 11.

7. And trouthe shal delivere. Cf. B. iii. met. 11. 7-9; 15-20.

8. Tempest thee noght.--B. ii. pr. 4. 50.

9. hir that turneth as a bal.--B. ii. pr. 2. 37.

15. That thee is sent, receyve in buxumnesse.--B. ii. pr. 1. 66-68.

17, 19. Her nis non hoom. Cf. B. i. pr. 5. 11-15.

18. Forth, beste.--B. iii. pr. 3. 1.

19. Know thy contree, lok up.--B. v. met. 5. 14, 15.


For the general idea, see B. iii. pr. 6. 24-38; met. 6. 2, and 6-10. With
l. 5 compare B. iii. pr. 4. 25.


For the general idea, cf. B. ii. met. 8.


PROLOGUE. 337-8. Pleyn delyt, &c.--B. iii. pr. 2. 55.

741-2. The wordes mote be cosin to the dede.--B. iii. pr. 12. 152.

KNIGHTES TALE. 925. Thanked be Fortune, and hir false wheel.--B. ii. pr. 2.

1164. Who shal yeve a lover any lawe?--B. iii, met. 12. 37.

*1251-4. Cf. B. iv. pr. 6. 147-151.

1255, 1256. Cf. B. iii. pr. 2. 19; ii. pr. 5. 122.

1262. A dronke man, &c.--B. iii. pr. 2. 61.

1266. We seke faste after felicitee,
      But we goon wrong ful often, trewely.
                              B. iii. pr. 2. 59, 60; met. 8. 1.

1303-12. O cruel goddes, that governe, &c.--B. i. met. 5. 22-26; iv. pr. 1.

*1946. The riche Cresus. Cf. B. ii. pr. 2. 44. (But cf. Monkes Ta. B. 3917,
and notes.)

2987-2993[38]. The firste moevere, &c.--B. ii. met. 8. 6-11. (But see also
the _Teseide_, Bk. ix. st. 51.)

2994-9, 3003-4.--B. iv. pr. 6. 29-35.

3005-3010.--B. iii. pr. 10. 18-22.

3011-5.--B. iv. pr. 6.


MAN OF LAWES TALE. 295-299. O firste moeving cruel firmament. Cf. B. i.
met. 5. 1-3; iii. pr. 8. 22; pr. 12. 145-147; iv. met. 1. 6.

481-3. Doth thing for certein ende that ful derk is.--B. iv. pr. 6.
114-117, and 152-154.

813-6. O mighty god, if that it be thy wille.--B. i. met. 5. 22-30; iv. pr.
1. 19-26.

N.B. The stanzas 421-7, and 925-931, are not from Boethius, but from Pope
Innocent; see notes.

THE TALE OF MELIBEUS. The suggested parallels between this Tale and Boece
are only three; the first is marked by Mr. Stewart as doubtful, the third
follows Albertano of Brescia word for word; and the second is too general a
statement. It is best to say that no certain instance can be given[39].

THE MONK'S PROLOGUE. 3163. Tragedie.--B. ii. pr. 2. 51.

THE MONKES TALE: HERCULES. 3285-3300.--B. iv. met. 7. 20-42. (But see
Sources of the Tales, § 48; vol. iii. p. 430.)

*3329. Ful wys is he that can him-selven knowe. Cf. B. ii. pr. 4. 98-101.

3434. For what man that hath freendes thurgh fortune,
      Mishap wol make hem enemys, I gesse.
                              B. iii. pr. 5. 48-50.

3537. But ay fortune hath in hir hony galle.--B. ii. pr. 4. 86-7.

3587. Thus can fortune hir wheel governe and gye.--B. ii. pr. 2. 37-39.

*3636. Thy false wheel my wo al may I wyte.--B. ii. pr. 1. 7-10.

3653. NERO. See B. ii. met. 6; esp. 5-16.

3914. JULIUS CESAR. No man ne truste upon hir favour longe. B. ii. pr. 1.

3921. CRESUS.--B. ii. pr. 2. 44-46.

3951. TRAGEDIE.--B. ii. pr. 2. 51-2. (See 3163 above.)

3956. And covere hir brighte face with a cloude.--B. ii. pr. 1. 42.

NONNE PREESTES TALE. 4190. That us governeth alle as in comune.--B. ii. pr.
2. 61.

4424. But what that god forwoot mot nedes be.--B. v. pr. 3. 7-10.

4433. Whether that godes worthy forwiting, &c.--B. v. pr. 3. 5-15; 27-39;
pr. 4. 25-34; &c.


*100. WYF OF BATH. He hath not every vessel al of gold.--B. iv. pr. 1.
30-33. (But cf. 2 Tim. ii. 20.)

170. Another tonne.--B. ii. pr. 2. 53.

1109-1116. 'Gentilesse.'--B. iii. pr. 6. 24-38; met. 6. 6, 7.

1140. Caucasus.--B. ii. pr. 7. 43.

1142. Yit wol the fyr as faire lye and brenne.--B. iii. pr. 4. 47.

1170. That he is gentil that doth gentil dedis.--B. iii. met. 6. 7-10.

1187. He that coveyteth is a povre wight.--B. iii. pr. 5. 20-32.

1203. Povert a spectacle is, as thinketh me.--B. ii. pr. 8. 23-25, 31-33.

THE FRERES TALE. 1483. For som-tyme we ben goddes instruments.--B. iv. pr.
6. 62-71.

THE SOMNOURS TALE. 1968. Lo, ech thing that is oned in him-selve, &c.--B.
iii. pr. 11. 37-40.


THE CLERKES TALE. Mr. Stewart refers ll. 810-2 to Boethius, but these lines
translate Petrarch's sentence--'Nulla homini perpetua sors est.' Also ll.
1155-1158, 1161; but these lines translate Petrarch's sentence--'Probat
tamen et sæpe nos, multis ac _grauibus flagellis exerceri sinit_, non ut
animum nostrum sciat, quem sciuit antequam crearemur ... abundè ergo
constantibus uiris ascripserim, quisquis is fuerit, qui pro Deo suo sine
murmure patiatur.' I find no hint that Chaucer was directly influenced by
Boethius, while writing this Tale.

THE MARCHANTES TALE. Mr. Stewart refers ll. 1311-4 to Boethius, but they
are more likely from Albertanus Brixiensis, _Liber de Amore dei_, fol. 30 a
(as shewn by Dr. Köppel):--'Et merito uxor est diligenda, qui donum est
Dei,' followed by a quotation from Prov. xix. 14.

1582. a mirour--B. v. met. 4. 8.

1784. O famulier foo.--B. iii. pr. 5. 50.

1849. The slakke skin.--B. i. met. 1. 12.

1967-9. Were it by destinee or aventure, &c.--B. iv. pr. 6. 62-71.

2021. felicitee Stant in delyt.--B. iii. pr. 2. 55.

2062. O monstre, &c.--B. ii. pr. 1. 10-14.


THE SQUIERES TALE. *258. As sore wondren somme on cause of thonder. Cf. B.
iv. met. 5. 6. (Somewhat doubtful.)

608. Alle thing, repeiring to his kinde.--B. iii. met. 2. 27-29.

611. As briddes doon that men in cages fede.--B. iii. met. 2. 15-22.

THE FRANKELEINS TALE. 865. Eterne god, that thurgh thy purveyaunce, &c.--B.
i. met. 5. 22, 23; iii. met. 9. 1; cf. iii. pr. 9. 147, 148.

879. Which mankinde is so fair part of thy werk.--B. i. met. 5. 38.

886. Al is for the beste.--B. iv. pr. 6. 194-196.

1031. God and governour, &c.--B. i. met. 6. 10-14.


THE SECONDE NONNES TALE. I think it certain that this early Tale is quite
independent of Boethius. L. 114, instanced by Mr. Stewart, is from
'Ysidorus'; see my note.

THE CANOUNS YEMANNES TALE. *958. We fayle of that which that we wolden
have.--B. iii. pr. 9. 89-91. (Very doubtful.)



                ther may no man embrace
  As to destreyne a thing, which that nature
  Hath naturelly set in a creature.--B. iii. met. 2. 1-5.

163. Tak any brid, &c.--B. iii. met. 2. 15-22.


THE PERSONES TALE. *212. A shadwe hath the lyknesse of the thing of which
it is shadwe, but shadwe is nat the same thing of which it is shadwe.--B.
v. pr. 4. 45, 46. (Doubtful.)

*471. Who-so prydeth him in the goodes of fortune, he is a ful greet fool;
for som-tyme is a man a greet lord by the morwe, that is a caitif and a
wrecche er it be night.--B. ii. met. 3. 16-18. (I think this is doubtful,
and mark it as such.)

472. Som-tyme the delyces of a man is cause of the grevous maladye thurgh
which he dyeth.--B. iii. pr. 7. 3-5.

§ 24. It is worth while to see what light is thrown upon the chronology of
the Canterbury Tales by comparison with Boethius.

In the first place, we may remark that, of the Tales mentioned above, there
is nothing to shew that The Seconde Nonnes Tale, the Clerkes Tale, or even
the Tale of Melibeus, really refer to any passages in Boethius. They may,
in fact, have been written _before_ that translation was made. In the
instance of the Second Nonnes Tale, this was certainly the case; and it is
not unlikely that the same is true with respect to the others.

But the following Tales (_as revised_) seem to be later than 'Boece,' viz.
The Knightes Tale, The Man of Lawes Tale, and The Monkes Tale; whilst it is
quite certain that the following Tales were amongst the latest written,
viz. the Nonne Preestes Tale, the three tales in Group D (Wyf, Frere,
Somnour), the Marchantes Tale, the Squieres Tale, the Frankeleins Tale, the
Canouns Yemannes Tale, and the Maunciples Tale; all of which are in the
heroic couplet, and later than 1385.

The case of the Knightes Tale is especially interesting; for the numerous
references in it to Boece, and the verbal resemblances between it and
Troilus shew that _either_ the original _Palamoun and Arcite_ was written
just after those works, _or else_ (which is more likely) it was revised,
and became the Knight's Tale, nearly at that time. The connection between
Palamon and Arcite, Anelida, and the Parlement of Foules, and the
introduction of three stanzas from the Teseide near the end of Troilus,
render the former supposition unlikely; whilst at the same time we are
confirmed in the impression that the (revised) Knightes Tale succeeded
Boece and Troilus at no long interval, and was, in fact, the _first_ of the
Canterbury Tales that was written _expressly for the purpose_ of being
inserted in that collection, viz. about 1385-6.


I have now to explain the sources of the present edition.

1. MS. C. = MS. Camb. Ii. 3. 21. This MS., in the Cambridge University
Library, is certainly the best; and has therefore been taken as the basis
of the text. The English portion of it was printed by Dr. Furnivall for the
Chaucer Society in 1886; and I have usually relied upon this very useful
edition[40]. It is a fine folio MS., wholly occupied with Boethius (_De
Consolatione Philosophiae_), and comments upon it.

It is divided into two distinct parts, which have been bound up together.
The latter portion consists of a lengthy commentary upon Boethius, at the
end of which we find the title, viz.--'Exposicio preclara quam Iohannes
Theutonicus prescripsit et finiuit Anno d_omi_ni M^oCCCvj viij ydus Iunii;'
i.e. An Excellent Commentary, written by Johannes Teutonicus, and finished
June 6, 1306. This vast commentary occupies 118 folios, in double columns.

The former part of the volume concerns us more nearly. I take it to be, for
all practical purposes, _the authentic copy_. For it presents the following
peculiarities. It contains the whole of the Latin text, as well as
Chaucer's English version; and it is surprising to find that these are
written in alternate chapters. Thus the volume begins with the Latin text
of Metre 1, at the close of which there follows immediately, on the same
page, Chaucer's translation of Metre 1. Next comes Prose 1 in Latin,
followed by Prose 1 in English; and so throughout.

Again, if we examine the Latin text, there seems reason to suppose that it
fairly represents the very recension which Chaucer used. It abounds with
side-notes and glosses, all in Latin; and the glosses correspond to those
in Chaucer's version. Thus, to take an example, the following lines occur
near the end of Bk. iii. met. 11:--

 'Nam cur rogati sponte recte[41] censetis
  Ni mersus alto uiueret fomes corde.'

Over _rogati_ is written the gloss _i. interrogato_.

Over _censetis_ is written _i. iudicatis_.

Over _Ni_ is _i. nisi_; over _mersus alto_ is _i. latenter conditos_; over
_uiueret_ is _i. vigeret_; and over _fomes_ is _i. radix veritatis_.

Besides these glosses, there is here the following side-note:--'Nisi radix
veritatis latenter conditus vigeret in abscondito mentis, homo non
iudicaret recta quacunque ordinata interrogata.'

When we turn to Chaucer's version, we find that he first gives a
translation of the two verses, thus:--

'For wherefor elles demen ye of your owne wil the rightes, whan ye ben
axed, but-yif so were that the norisshinge of resoun ne livede y-plounged
in the depthe of your herte?'

After this he adds, by way of comment:--'This is to seyn, how sholden men
demen the sooth of anything that were axed, yif ther nere a rote of
soothfastnesse that were y-plounged and hid in naturel principles, the
whiche soothfastnesse lived with-in the deepnesse of the thought.'

It is obvious that he has here reproduced the general sense of the Latin
side-note above quoted. The chief thing which is missing in the Latin is
the expression 'in naturel principles.' But we have only to look to a
passage a little higher up, and we find the line--

 'Suis retrusum possidere thesauris.'

Over the word _retrusum_ is written _i. absconditum_; and over _thesauris_
is _i. naturalibus policiis et principiis naturaliter inditis_. Out of
these we have only to pick the words _absconditum naturalibus ...
principiis_, and we at once obtain the missing phrase--'hid in naturel

Or, to take another striking example. Bk. iv. met. 7 begins, in the MS.,
with the lines:

 'Bella bis quinis operatus annis
  Vltor attrides frigie ruinis,
  Fratris amissos thalamos piauit.'

At the beginning, just above these, is written a note: 'Istud metrum est de
tribus exemplis: de agamenone (_sic_); secundum de vlixe; tertium, de

The glosses are these; over _quinis_ is _i. decim_; over _attrides_ is
_agamenon_ (_sic_); over _Fratris_ is _s. menelai_; and over _piauit_ is
_i. vlcissendo_ (_sic_) _purgauit: troia enim erat metropolis Frigie_.

If we turn to Chaucer's version, in which I print the additions to the text
in italics, we find that it runs thus:--

'The wreker Attrides, _that is to seyn, Agamenon_, that wroughte and
continuede the batailes by ten yeer, recovered and purgede _in wrekinge_,
by the destruccioun of Troye, the loste chaumbres of mariage of his
brother; _this is to seyn, that he, Agamenon, wan ayein Eleyne, that was
Menelaus wyf his brother_.'

We see how this was made up. Not a little curious are the spellings
_Attrides_ and _Agamenon_[42], as occurring both in the Latin part of this
MS. and in Chaucer's version. Again, Chaucer has _ten_, corresponding to
the gloss _decim_, not to the textual phrase _bis quinis_. His explanation
of _piauit_ by _recovered and purgede in wrekinge_ is clearly due to the
gloss _ulciscendo purgauit_. His substitution of _Troye_ for _Frigie_ is
due to the gloss: _troia enim erat metropolis Frigie_. And even the name
_Menelaus his brother_ answers to _Fratris, s. menelai_. And all that is
left, as being absolutely his own, are the words _and continuede_,
_recovered_, and _wan ayein Eleyne_. We soon discover that, in a hundred
instances, he renders a single Latin verb or substantive by two English
verbs or substantives, by way of making the sense clearer; which accounts
for his introduction of the verbs _continuede_ and _recovered_; and this
consideration reduces Chaucer's additional contribution to a mention of the
name of _Eleyne_, which was of course extremely familiar to him.

Similarly, we find in this MS. the original of the gloss explaining
_coempcioun_ (p. 11); of the 'Glose' on p. 15; of the 'Glosa' on p. 26; and
of most of the notes which, at first sight, look like additions by Chaucer

The result is that, in all difficulties, the first authority to be
consulted is the Latin text in this particular MS.; for we are easily led
to conclude that it was intentionally designed to preserve both Chaucer's
translation and the original text. It does not follow that it is always
perfect; for it can only be a _copy_ of the Latin, and the scribe may err.
In writing _recte_ for _recta_ (see note on p. xxxviii), he has certainly
committed an error by a slip of the pen. The same mistake has been observed
to occur in another MS., viz. Codex Gothanus I.

The only drawback is this. The MS. is so crowded with glosses and
side-notes, many of them closely written in small characters, that it is
almost impossible to consult them all. I have therefore contented myself
with resorting to them for information in difficult passages only. For
further remarks on this subject, I must refer the reader to the Notes.

Lastly, I may observe that the design of preserving in this MS. all the
apparatus referring to Chaucer's Boethius, is made the more apparent by the
curious fact that, _in this MS. only_, the two poems by Chaucer that are
closely related to Boethius, viz. The Former Age, and Fortune, are actually
inserted into the very body of it, immediately after Bk. ii. met. 5. This
place was of course chosen because The Former Age is, to some extent, a
verse translation of that metre; and Fortune was added because, being
founded upon scraps from several chapters, it had no definite claim to any
specific place of its own.

In this MS., the English text, like the Latin one, has a few imperfections.
One imperfection appears in certain peculiarities of spelling. The scribe
seems to have had some habits of pronunciation that betoken a greater
familiarity with Anglo-French than with English. The awkward position of
the guttural sound of _gh_ in _neighebour_ seems to have been too much for
him; hence he substituted _ssh_ (= _sh-sh_) for _gh_, and gives us the
spelling _neysshebour_ (Bk. ii. pr. 3. 24, foot-note; pr. 7. 57,
foot-note.) Nevertheless, it is the best MS. and has most authority. For
further remarks, see the account of the present edition, on pp.

2. MS. Camb. Ii. 1. 38. This MS. also belongs to the Cambridge University
Library, and was written early in the fifteenth century. It contains 8
complete quires of 8 leaves, and 1 incomplete quire of 6 leaves, making 70
leaves in all. The English version appears alone, and occupies 68 leaves,
and part of leaf 69 recto; leaf 69, verso, and leaf 70, are blank. The last
words are:--'þe eyen of þe Iuge þat seeth and demeth alle thinges.
_Explicit liber boecij, &c._' Other treatises, in Latin, are bound up with
it, but are unrelated. The readings of this MS. agree very closely with
those of Ii. 3. 21, and of our text. Thus, in Met. i. l. 9, it has the
reading _wyerdes_, with the gloss _s. fata_, as in Ii. 3. 21. (The scribe
at first wrote _wyerldes_, but the _l_ is marked for expunction.) In l. 12,
it has _emptid_, whereas the Addit. MS. has _emty_; and in l. 16 it has
_nayteth_, whereas the Addit. MS. wrongly has _naieth_. On account of its
close agreement with the text, I have made but little use of it.

It is worth notice that this MS. (like Harl. 2421) frequently has correct
readings in cases where even the MS. above described exhibits some blunder.
A few such instances are given in the notes. For example, it has the
reading _wrythith_ in Bk. i. met. 4. 7, where MS. C. has the absurd word
_writith_, and MS. A. has _wircheth_. In the very next line, it has
_thonder-leit_, and it is highly probable that _leit_ is the real word, and
_light_ an ignorant substitution; for _leit_ (answering to A.S. _l[=e]get_,
_l[=i]get_) is the right M.E. word for 'lightning'; see the examples in
Stratmann. So again, in Bk. ii. met. 3. 13, it reads _ouer-whelueth_, like
the black-letter editions; whilst MS. C. turns _whelueth_ into _welueeth_,
and MS. A. gives the spelling _whelweth_. In Bk. ii. pr. 6. 63, it
correctly retains _I_ after _may_, though MSS. C. and A. both omit it. In
Bk. ii. pr. 8. 17, it has _wyndy_, not _wyndynge_; and I shew (in the note
at p. 434) that _windy_ is, after all, the correct reading, since the Lat.
text has _uentosam_. In Bk. iii. met. 3. 1, it resembles the printed
editions in the insertion of the words _or a goter_ after _river_. In Bk.
iv. pr. 3. 47, 48, it preserves the missing words: _peyne, he ne douteth
nat þat he nys entecchid and defouled with_. In Bk. iv. met. 6. 24, it has
the right reading, viz. _brethith_. Finally, it usually retains the word
_whylom_ in places where the MS. next described substitutes the word
_somtyme_. If any difficulty in the text raises future discussion, it is
clear that this MS. should be consulted.

3. MS. A. = MS. Addit. 10340, in the British Museum. This is the MS.
printed at length by Dr. Morris for the Early English Text Society, and
denoted by the letter 'A.' in my foot-notes. As it is so accessible, I need
say but little. It is less correct than MS. Ii. 3. 21 in many readings, and
the spelling, on the whole, is not so good. The omissions in it are also
more numerous, but it occasionally preserves a passage which the Cambridge
MS. omits. It is also imperfect, as it omits Prose 8 and Metre 8 of Bk.
ii., and Prose 1 of Bk. iii. It has been collated throughout, though I have
usually refrained from quoting such readings from it as are evidently
inferior or wrong. I notice one peculiarity in particular, viz. that it
almost invariably substitutes the word _somtyme_ for the _whylom_ found in
other copies; and _whylom_, in this treatise, is a rather common word. Dr.
Morris's account of the MS. is here copied.

'The Additional MS. is written by a scribe who was unacquainted with the
force of the final _-e_. Thus he adds it to the preterites of strong verbs,
which do not require it; he omits it in the preterites of weak verbs where
it is wanted, and attaches it to passive participles of weak verbs, where
it is superfluous. The scribe of the Cambridge MS. is careful to preserve
the final _-e_ where it is a sign (1) of the definite declension of the
adjective; (2) of the plural adjective; (3) of the infinitive mood; (4) of
the preterite of weak verbs; (5) of present participles; (6) of the 2nd
pers. pret. indic. of strong verbs; (7) of adverbs; (8) of an older

'The Addit. MS. has frequently _thilk_ (singular and plural) and _-nes_ (in
_wrechednes_, &c.), when the Camb. MS. has _thilke_ (as usual in the
Canterbury Tales) and _-nesse_.'

The copy of Boethius is contained on foll. 3-40. On fol. 41, recto, is a
copy of Chaucer's _Truth_, and the description of the 'Persone,' extracted
from the Prologue to the Cant. Tales. The other side of the leaf is blank.
This is, in fact, the MS. which I denote by 'At.,' as described in the
Introduction to the 'Minor Poems' in vol. i. p. 57.

4. MS. Addit. 16165, in the British Museum. This is one of Shirley's MSS.,
being that which I denote by 'Ad.,' and have described in the Introduction
to the 'Minor Poems' in vol. i. p. 56. I believe this MS. to be of less
value than MS. A. (above), and have therefore not collated it; for even A.
is not a very good authority.

5. MS. Harl. 2421. The Harleian Catalogue describes it thus: 'Torq. Sever.
Boetius: his 5 Books of the Comfort of Philosophy. Translated into English.
On vellum, 152 leaves. XV century.'

A small quarto MS. of the middle of the fifteenth century. The first Prose
of Bk. i. begins (like MS. A.) with the words: 'In þe mene while þat y stil
recorded þese þinges;' &c. Hence are derived the readings marked 'H.' in
Morris's edition, pp. 62-64. It rightly reads _writheth_, _wyndy_,
_bretheth_ (see p. xlii).

6. The celebrated Hengwrt MS. of the Canterbury Tales (denoted by 'Hn.' in
the foot-notes to that poem) contains a part of Chaucer's Boethius. See the
Second Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, p. 106.

7. There is also a copy in a MS. belonging to the Cathedral Library at
Salisbury. It was discovered by Dr. Wülker in 1875; see the _Academy_ for
Oct. 5, 1875. Bk. i. met. 1 was printed, from this MS., by Dr. Wülker in
_Anglia_, ii. 373. It resembles MS. A.

8. In the Phillipps collection, MS. no. 9472 is described as 'Boetius' Boke
of Comfort,' and is said to be of the fifteenth century. I do not know its
real contents.


CAXTON. Chaucer's Boethius was first printed by Caxton, without date; but
probably before 1479. See the description in The Biography and Typography
of W. Caxton, by W. Blades; second edition, 1882; p. 213. A complete
collation of this text with MS. A., as printed by Morris, was printed by L.
Kellner, of Vienna, in Englische Studien, vol. xiv, pp. 1-53; of which I
have gladly availed myself. The text agrees very closely indeed with that
printed by Thynne in 1532, and resembles MS. C. rather than MS. A.

Perhaps it is necessary to remark that the readings of MS. C., as given in
Kellner's collation, are sometimes incorrect, because MS. C. had not at
that time been printed, and the readings of that MS. were only known to him
from the foot-notes in Morris's edition, which are not exhaustive, but only
record the more important variations. There is a curious but natural error,
for example, in his note on l. 1002 of Morris's edition (Bk. ii. met. 3.
14, p. 32, l. 1), where MS. C. has _[gh]eelde_ (= _zeelde_). The word is
missing in MS. A., but Morris supplied it from C. to complete the text.
Hence the foot-note has: '[_[gh]eelde_]--from C.'; meaning that A. omits
_[gh]eelde_, which is supplied from C. This Kellner took to mean that A.
has _[gh]eelde_, and C. has _from_. However, the readings of A. and of
Caxton are given with all possible care and minuteness; and now that C. is
also in type, the slight inevitable errors are easily put right. This
excellent piece of work has saved me much trouble.

It turns out that Caxton's text is of great value. He followed a MS. (now
lost) which is, in some places, even more correct than MS. C. The following
readings are of great importance, as they correct MSS. C. and A. (I denote
Caxton's edition by the symbol Cx.)

Bk. i. met. 4. 7. Cx. writheth. (Cf. p. xlii. above, l. 6.)

Bk. i. met. 4. 8. Cx. thonder leyte[44].

Bk. i. met. 5. 26. Cx. punisheth.

Bk. i. met. 5. 28. Cx. on the nekkes.

Bk. i. pr. 6. 54. Cx. funden (_but read_ founden).

Bk. i. pr. 6. 65. Cx. norissing. (Perhaps better than _norisshinges_, as in
the MSS.; for the Lat. text has the sing. _fomitem_.) Cf. Bk. iii. met. 11.

Bk. ii. pr. 3. 59. Cx. seeld (_better_ selde). It is clear that _yelde_ in
MS. A. arose from a reading _[gh]elde_, which really meant _zelde_, the
Southern form of _selde_. See below.

Bk. ii. met. 3. 14. Cx. selde (_correctly_). And so again in Bk. ii. pr. 6.

Bk. ii. pr. 6. 63. Cx. may I most. (MSS. C. A. _omit_ I.)

Bk. ii. pr. 8. 17. Cx. wyndy (which is right; see note, p. 434).

Bk. iii. pr. 1. 26. Cx. thyne (_better_ thyn, _as in_ Thynne).

Bk. iii. pr. 10. 10. Cx. denyed (_or read_ deneyed).

Bk. iii. pr. 10. 51. Cx. that the fader. (MSS. that this prince.) Caxton's
translation is closer; Lat. text, _patrem_.

Bk. iii. pr. 11. 116. Cx. slepen.

Bk. iii. pr. 11. 152. Cx. maistow (Thynne _has_ mayst thou) MS. C. _omits_
thou; and MS. A. is defective.

Bk. iii. pr. 12. 143. Cx. Parmenides.

Bk. iv. pr. 6. 52. Cx. be cleped.

Bk. iv. pr. 6. 188, 189. Cx. and some dispyse that they mowe not here
(_misprint for_ bere). MSS. C. and A. omit this clause.

Bk. v. pr. 1. 9, 10. Cx. assoilen to the the dette (where the former _the_
= thee).

Bk. v. pr. 3. 142. Cx. impetren.

In a few places, Caxton's text is somewhat fuller than that of the MSS.
Thus in Bk. ii. pr. 3. 8, Cx. has: thei ben herd _and sowne in eeres_ thei,
&c. However, the Lat. text has merely: 'cum audiuntur.' And again, only 9
lines lower (l. 17), Cx. inserts _and ajuste_ after _moeve_; but the Lat.
text has merely: 'admouebo.' In some cases, it is closer to the Latin text;
as, e. g. in Bk. i. met. 3. 9, where Cx. has _kaue_ (Lat. _antro_), whereas
MSS. C. and A. have the pl. _kaues_. In Bk. i. pr. 3. 41, where C. has the
E. form _Sorans_, Cx. preserves the Latin form _Soranos_.

It thus appears that a collation with Caxton's text is of considerable

THYNNE. Thynne's edition of Chaucer, printed in 1532, contains Boethius. I
suspect that Thynne simply reprinted Caxton's text, without consulting any
other authority; for it is hard to detect any difference, except that his
spellings are somewhat less archaic. Hence this text, by a lucky accident,
is an extremely good one, and I have constantly referred to it in all cases
of difficulty. Readings from this edition are marked in the foot-notes with
the symbol 'Ed.'

The later black-letter copies are mere reprints of Thynne's text, each
being, as usual, a little worse than its predecessor, owing to the
introduction of misprints and later forms. I have consulted the editions of
1550 (undated) and 1561. Perhaps the most readable edition is that by
Chalmers, in vol. i. of his British Poets, as it is in Roman type. It
closely resembles the edition of 1561, and is therefore not very correct.


The present edition is, practically, the first in which the preparation of
the text has received adequate attention. Caxton's edition probably
represents a single MS., though a very good one; and all the black-letter
editions merely reproduce the same text, with various new errors. Dr.
Morris's edition was unfortunately founded on an inferior MS., as he
discovered before the printing of it was completed. Dr. Furnivall's text
reproduces the excellent MS. C., but collation was rightly refrained from,
as his object was to give the exact spellings of the MS. for the benefit of
students. Hence there are several passages, in both of these editions,
which do not afford the best sense; in a few places, they are less correct
than the black-letter editions. It is also a considerable drawback to the
reader, that they reproduce, of course intentionally and fully, the
troublesome and obscure punctuation-marks of the MSS.

Finding the ground thus clear, I have taken occasion to introduce the
following improvements. The text is founded on MS. C., certainly the best
extant authority, which it follows, on the whole, very closely. At the same
time, it has been carefully collated throughout with the text of MS. A.,
and (what is even more important) with the texts printed by Caxton and
Thynne and with the original Latin text (1) as given in the edition by
Obbarius (Jena 1843)[45] and (2) as existing in MS. C. The latter usually
gives the exact readings of the MS. used by Chaucer himself. By taking
these precautions, I have introduced a considerable number of necessary
corrections, so that we now possess a very close approximation to the
original text as it left Chaucer's hands. In all cases where emendations
are made, the various readings are given in the foot-notes, where 'C.' and
'A.' refer to the two chief MSS., and 'Ed.' refers to Thynne's first
edition (1532). But I have intentionally refrained from crowding these
foot-notes with inferior readings which are certainly false. Some readings
from the excellent MS. Ii. 1. 38 are given in the Notes; I now wish that I
had collated it throughout. I have introduced modern punctuation. As I am
here entirely responsible, the reader is at liberty to alter it, provided
that he is justified in so doing by the Latin text.

Wherever Chaucer has introduced explanatory words and phrases which are not
in the Latin text, I have printed them _in italics_; as in lines 6, 7, and
18 on page 1. However, these words and phrases are seldom original; they
are usually translated or adapted from some of the Latin glosses and notes
with which MS. C. abounds; as explained above, at p. xxxviii.

I have also adopted an entirely new system of numbering. In Dr. Morris's
edition, every line of the _printed_ text is numbered consecutively, from 1
up to 5219, which is the last line of the treatise. In Dr. Furnivall's
print of MS. C., a new numbering begins on every page, from 1 to 32, 33,
34, or 35. Both these methods are entirely useless for general reference.
The right method of reference is Tyrwhitt's, viz. to treat every chapter
separately. Thus a reference to 'Bk. 1. met. 2' serves for every edition;
but I have further taken occasion to number the lines of every chapter, for
greater convenience. Thus the word _acountinge_ occurs in Bk. i. met. 2.
10: and even in referring to a black-letter edition, the number 10 is of
some use, since it shews that the word occurs very nearly _in the middle_
of the Metre. The usual method of referring to editions _by the page_ is an
extremely poor and inconvenient makeshift; and it is really nearly time
that editors should learn this elementary lesson. Unfortunately, some
difficulty will always remain as to the numbering of the lines of _prose_
works, because the length of each line is indefinite. The longest chapter,
Bk. iv. pr. 6, here extends to 258 lines; the shortest, Bk. iii. met. 3,
has less than 7 lines.

I have also corrected the spelling of MS. C. in a large number of places,
but within very narrow limits. The use of the final _e_ in that MS. is
exceedingly correct, and has almost always been followed, except where
notice to the contrary is given in the notes. My corrections are chiefly
limited to the substitution of _in_ for _yn_, and of _i_ for short _y_, in
such words as _bygynnen_, for which I write _biginnen_; the substitution of
_y_ for long _i_, as in _whylom_, when the MS. has _whilom_; the use of _v_
for the MS. symbol _u_ (where necessary); the substitution of _sch_ or
_ssh_ for _ss_, when the sound intended is double _sh_; and the
substitution of _e_ and _o_ for _ee_ and _oo_ where the vowels are
obviously long by their position in the word. I also substitute _-eth_ and
_-ed_ for the variable _-eth_ or _-ith_, and _-ed_, _-id,_ or _-yd_ of the
MS. Such changes render the text more uniformly phonetic, and much more
readable, without really interfering with the evidence. Changes of a bolder
character are duly noted.

The introduction of these slight improvements will not really trouble the
reader. The trouble has been the editor's; for I found that the only
satisfactory way of producing a really good text was to rewrite the whole
of it. It seemed worth while to have a useful critical edition of
'Boethius' for general reference, because of the considerable use which
Chaucer himself made of his translation when writing many of his later

The Notes are all new, in the sense that no annotated edition of Chaucer's
text has hitherto appeared. But many of them are, necessarily, copied or
adapted from the notes to the Latin text in the editions by Vallinus and


§ 1. DATE OF THE WORK. The probable date is about 1380-2, and can hardly
have been earlier than 1379 or later than 1383. No doubt it was in hand for
a considerable time. It certainly followed close upon the translation of
Boethius; see p. vii above.

§ 2. SOURCES OF THE WORK. The chief authority followed by Chaucer is
Boccaccio's poem named _Il Filostrato_, in 9 Parts or Books of very
variable length, and composed in ottava rima, or stanzas containing eight
lines each. I have used the copy in the Opere Volgari di G. Boccaccio;
Firenze, 1832.

Owing to the patient labours of Mr. W. M. Rossetti, who has collated the
_Filostrato_ with the _Troilus_ line by line, and published the results of
his work for the Chaucer Society in 1875, we are able to tell the precise
extent to which Chaucer is indebted to Boccaccio for this story. The
_Filostrato_ contains 5704 lines; and the _Troilus_ 8239 lines[46], if we
do not reckon in the 12 Latin lines printed below, at p. 404. Hence we
obtain the following result.

  Total of lines in _Troilus_       8239
  Adapted from the _Filostrato_
     (2730 lines, condensed into)   2583
         Balance due to Chaucer     5656

In other words, Chaucer's debt to Boccaccio amounts to _less than_
one-third of the whole poem; and there remains more than two-thirds of it
to be accounted for from other sources. But even after all deductions have
been made for passages borrowed from other authors, very nearly two-thirds
remain for which Chaucer is solely responsible. As in the case of the
Knightes Tale, close investigation shews that Chaucer is, after all, less
indebted to Boccaccio than might seem, upon a hasty comparison, to be the

As it was found impracticable to give Mr. Rossetti's results in full, I
have drawn up lists of parallel passages in a somewhat rough way, which are
given in the Notes, at the beginning of every Book; see pp. 461, 467, 474,
484, 494. These lists are sufficiently accurate to enable the reader, in
general, to discover the passages which are in no way due to the

§ 3. I have taken occasion, at the same time, to note _other_ passages for
which Chaucer is indebted to some other authors. Of these we may
particularly note the following. In Book I, lines 400-420 are translated
from Petrarch's 88th Sonnet, which is quoted at length at p. 464. In Book
III, lines 813-833, 1625-9, and 1744-1768 are all from the second Book of
Boethius (Prose 4, 86-120 and 4-10, and Metre 8). In Book IV, lines
974-1078 are from Boethius, Book V. In Book V, lines 1-14 and 1807-27 are
from various parts of Boccaccio's _Teseide_; and a part of the last stanza
is from Dante. On account of such borrowings, we may subtract about 220
lines more from Chaucer's 'balance'; which still leaves due to him nearly
5436 lines.

§ 4. Of course it will be readily understood that, in the case of these
5436 lines, numerous short quotations and allusions occur, most of which
are pointed out in the notes. Thus, in Book II, lines 402-3 are from Ovid,
Art. Amat. ii. 118; lines 716-8 are from Le Roman de la Rose[47]; and so
on. No particular notice need be taken of this, as similar hints are
utilised in other poems by Chaucer; and, indeed, by all other poets. But
there is one particular case of borrowing, of considerable importance,
which will be considered below, in § 9 (p. liii).

§ 5. It is, however, necessary to observe here that, in taking his story
from Boccaccio, Chaucer has so altered and adapted it as to make it
peculiarly his own; precisely as he has done in the case of the Knightes
Tale. Sometimes he translates very closely and even neatly, and sometimes
he takes a mere hint from a long passage. He expands or condenses his
material at pleasure; and even, in some cases, transposes the order of it.
It is quite clear that he gave himself a free hand.

The most important point is that he did not accept the characters of the
three chief actors, Troilus, Criseyde, and Pandarus, as pourtrayed by
Boccaccio; he did not even accept all the incidents which gave occasion for
their behaviour. Pandarus is no longer the cousin of Criseyde, a young and
dashing gallant, but her middle-aged uncle, with blunted perceptions of
what is moral and noble. In fact, Chaucer's Pandarus is a thorough and
perfect study of character, drawn with a dramatic skill not inferior to
that of Shakespeare, and worthy of the author of the immortal Prologue to
the Canterbury Tales. I must leave the fuller consideration of these points
to others; it is hardly necessary to repeat, at full length, the Prefatory
Remarks by Mr. Rossetti, whilst at the same time, if I begin to quote from
them, I shall hardly know where to stop. See also Ten Brink's English
Literature, and Morley's English Writers, vol. v.

§ 6. It has been observed that, whilst Chaucer carefully read and made very
good use of two of Boccaccio's works, viz. Il Filostrato and Il Teseide, he
nowhere mentions Boccaccio by name; and this has occasioned some surprise.
But we must not apply modern ideas to explain medieval facts, as is so
frequently done. When we consider how often MSS. of works by known authors
have no author's name attached to them, it becomes likely that Chaucer
obtained manuscript copies of these works unmarked by the author's name;
and though he must doubtless have been aware of it, there was no cogent
reason why he should declare himself indebted to one in whom Englishmen
were, as yet, quite uninterested. Even when he refers to Petrarch in the
Clerk's Prologue (E 27-35), he has to explain who he was, and to inform
readers of his recent death. In those days, there was much laxity in the
mode of citing authors.

§ 7. It will help us to understand matters more clearly, if we further
observe the haphazard manner in which quotations were often made. We know,
for example, that no book was more accessible than the Vulgate version of
the Bible; yet it is quite common to find the most curious mistakes made in
reference to it. The author of Piers Plowman (B. text, iii. 93-95)
attributes to Solomon a passage which he quotes from Job, and (B. vii. 123)
to St. Luke, a passage from St. Matthew; and again (B. vi. 240) to St.
Matthew, a passage from St. Luke. Chaucer makes many mistakes of a like
nature; I will only cite here his reference to Solomon (Cant. Tales, A
4330), as the author of a passage in Ecclesiasticus. Even in modern
dictionaries we find passages cited from 'Dryden' or 'Bacon' at large,
without further remark; as if the verification of a reference were of
slight consequence. This may help to explain to us the curious allusion to
_Zanzis_ as being the author of a passage which Chaucer must have known was
from his favourite Ovid (see note to Troil. iv. 414), whilst he was, at the
same time, well aware that Zanzis was not a poet, but a painter (Cant.
Tales, C 16); however, in this case we have probably to do with a piece of
our author's delicious banter, since he adds that Pandarus was speaking
'for the nonce.'

There is another point about medieval quotations which must by no means be
missed. They were frequently made, not from the authors themselves, but
from manuscript note-books which contained hundreds of choice passages,
from all sorts of authors, collected by diligent compilers. Thus it was, I
strongly suspect, that Albertano of Brescia was enabled to pour out such
quantities of quotations as those which Chaucer copied from him in his Tale
of Melibeus. Thus it was that borrowers of such note-books often trusted to
their strong memories for the words of a quotation, yet forgot or mistook
the author's name; as was readily done when a dozen such names occurred on
every page. A MS. of this character is before me now. It contains many
subjects in alphabetical order. Under _Fortitudo_ are given 17 quotations
which more or less relate to it, from Ambrose, Gregory, Chrysostom, and the
rest, all in less than a single page. And thus it was, without doubt, that
Chaucer made acquaintance with the three scraps of Horace which I shall
presently consider. It is obvious that Chaucer never saw Horace's works in
the complete state; if he had done so, he would have found a writer after
his own heart, and he would have quoted him even more freely than he has
quoted Ovid. 'Chaucer on Horace' would have been delightful indeed; but
this treat was denied, both to him and to us.

§ 8. The first and second scraps from Horace are hackneyed quotations.
'Multa renascentur' occurs in Troil. ii. 22 (see note, p. 468); and 'Humano
capiti' in Troil. ii. 1041 (note, p. 472). In the third case (p. 464),
there is no reason why we should hesitate to accept the theory, suggested
by Dr. G. Latham (_Athenæum_, Oct. 3, 1868) and by Professor Ten Brink
independently, that the well-known line (Epist. I, 2. 1)--

 'Troiani belli scriptorem, maxime Lolli,'

was misunderstood by Chaucer (or by some one else who misled him) as
implying that Lollius was the name of a writer on the Trojan war. Those who
are best acquainted with the ways of medieval literature will least
hesitate to adopt this view. It is notorious that _first lines_ of a poem
are frequently quoted apart from their context, and repeated as if they
were complete; and, however amazing such a blunder may seem to us now,
there is really nothing very extraordinary about it.

We should also notice that Lollius was to Chaucer a mere name, which he
used, in his usual manner, as a sort of convenient embellishment; for he is
inconsistent in his use of it. In Book i. 394, 'myn autour called Lollius'
really means Petrarch; whereas in Book v. 1653, though the reference is to
the Filostrato, Bk. viii. st. 8, Chaucer probably meant no more than that
Lollius was an author whom the Italian poet might have followed[48]. Cf. my
note to the House of Fame, 1468, where the name occurs for the third time.
We may also notice that, in Book iii. 1325, Chaucer bears testimony to the
'excellence' of his 'auctor.' The statement, in Book ii. 14, that he took
the story 'out of Latin' is less helpful than it appears to be; for 'Latin'
may mean either Latin or Italian.

§ 9. I have spoken (§ 4) of 'a particular case of borrowing,' which I now
propose to consider more particularly. The discovery that Chaucer mainly
drew his materials from Boccaccio seems to have satisfied most enquirers;
and hence it has come to pass that one of Chaucer's sources has been little
regarded, though it is really of some importance. I refer to the Historia
Troiana of Guido delle Colonne[49], or, as Chaucer rightly calls him, Guido
de Columpnis, i.e. Columnis (House of Fame, 1469). Chaucer's obligations to
this author have been insufficiently explored.

When, in 1889, in printing the Legend of Good Women with an accuracy never
before attempted, I restored the MS. reading _Guido_ for the _Ouyde_ of all
previous editions in l. 1396, a clue was thus obtained to a new source for
some of Chaucer's work. It was thus made clear that the Legend of Hypsipyle
and Medea was primarily derived from this source; and further, that it was
from Guido that Chaucer derived his use of _Ilioun_ to mean the citadel of
Troy (Leg. of Good Women, 936, and note). In the Nonne Prestes Tale, B
4331, as was pointed out by Tyrwhitt long ago, the dream of Andromache is
taken from Guido. And I find in Lounsbury's Studies in Chaucer, ii. 315,
the significant but insufficient remark, that 'it was in Guido da (_sic_)
Colonna's work that Chaucer found the martial deeds of Troilus recounted in
full, the slaughter he wrought, and the terror he inspired.' Hence we
naturally come to the question, what incidents in Troilus are expressly due
to Guido?

§ 10. Before answering this question, it will be best to consider the
famous _crux_, as to the meaning of the word _Trophee_.

When Lydgate is speaking of his master's Troilus, viz. in his Prologue to
the Falls of Princes, st. 3, he says that Chaucer

         'made a translacion
  Of a boke which called is _Trophe_
  In Lumbarde tong,' &c.

No book or author is now known by that name; and, as Chaucer was in this
case much indebted to Boccaccio, critics have jumped to the conclusion that
_Trophee_ means either Boccaccio or the Filostrato; and this conclusion has
been supported by arguments so hopeless as to need no repetition. But it is
most likely that Lydgate, who does not seem to have known any Italian[50],
spoke somewhat casually; and, as Chaucer was to some extent indebted to
Guido, he may possibly have meant Guido.

So far, I have merely stated a supposition which is, in itself, possible;
but I shall now adduce what I believe to be reasonable and solid proof of

We have yet another mention of _Trophee_, viz. in Chaucer himself! In the
Monkes Tale, B 3307, he says of Hercules--

 'At bothe the worldes endes, _seith Trophee_,
  In stede of boundes, he a piler sette.'

Whence, we may ask, is this taken? My answer is, _from Guido_.

§ 11. If we examine the sources of the story of Hercules in the Monkes
Tale, we see that all the supposed facts _except_ the one mentioned in the
two lines above quoted are taken from Boethius and Ovid (see the Notes).
Now the next most obvious source of information was Guido's work, since the
very first Book has a good deal about Hercules, and the Legend of Hypsipyle
clearly shews us that Chaucer was aware of this. And, although neither Ovid
(in Met. ix.) nor Boethius has any allusion to the Pillars of Hercules,
they are expressly mentioned by Guido. In the English translation called
the Gest Historiale of the Destruction of Troy, ed. Panton and Donaldson
(which I call, for brevity, the alliterative Troy-book), l. 308, we read:--

 'But the wonders that he wroght in this world here
  In yche cuntré ben knowen under Criste evyn.
  Tow pyllers he pight in a place lowe
  Vppon Gades groundes, that he gotton had.'

And again, further on, the Latin text has:--'Locus ille, in quo predicte
_Herculis columpne_ sunt affixe, dicitur Saracenica lingua Saphy.' To which
is added, that Alexander afterwards came to the same spot.

When Lydgate, in translating Guido, comes to this passage, he says:--

   'And of the pyllers that at Gades he set,
  Which Alexsaundre, of Macedone the kyng,
  That was so worthy here in his lyuynge,
  Rood in his conquest, as _Guydo_ list to write,
  With all his hoost proudely to visyte ...
  And these boundes named be of all
  Of Hercules, for he hymselfe theim set
  As for his markes, all other for to lette
  Ferther to passe, as _Guydo_ maketh mynde'; &c.
                            Siege of Troye, ed. 1555, fol. B6.

We can now easily see that, when Lydgate speaks of the book 'which called
is Trophe in Lumbarde tong,' he is simply copying the name of the book from
Chaucer, though he seems also to have heard some rumour of its being so
called in Italy.

§ 12. _Why_ this particular book was so called, we have no means of
knowing[51]; but this does not invalidate the fact here pointed out. Of
course the Latin side-note in some of the MSS. of the Monkes Tale, which
explains 'Trophee' as referring to 'ille vates Chaldeorum Tropheus,' must
be due to some mistake, even if it emanated (as is possible) from Chaucer
himself. It is probable that, when the former part of the Monkes Tale was
written, Chaucer did not know much about Guido's work; for the account of
Hercules occurs in the very first chapter. Perhaps he confused the name of
Tropheus with that of Trogus, i.e. Pompeius Trogus the historian, whose
work is one of the authorities for the history of the Assyrian monarchy.

§ 13. It remains for me to point out some of the passages in Troilus which
are clearly due to Guido, and are not found in Boccaccio at all.

Book I. 145-7:--

 'But the Troyane gestes, as they felle,
  In Omer, or in Dares, or in Dyte,
  Who-so that can, may rede hem as they wryte.'

The reference here is simply to Guido's history, whence, and not at first
hand, both Chaucer and his readers could easily get the required
information. Guido constantly refers to these authors; and, although he
speaks disrespectfully of Homer[52], he professes to put great faith in
Dares and Dytes, whose names he frequently cites as being those of his best

With the description of Troilus in ll. 1072-1085, it is interesting to
compare the words of Guido, in Book VIII. 'Troilus vero, licet multum fuit
corpore magnus, magis fuit tamen corde magnanimus; animosus multum, set
multam habuit in sua animositate temperiem; dilectus plurimum a puellis cum
ipse aliqualem seruando modestiam delectaretur in illis. In viribus et
strenuitate bellandi _uel fuit alius Hector uel secundus ab ipso_. In toto
eciam regno Troie iuuenis nullus fuit tantis viribus nec tanta audacia
gloriosus[54].' The latter part of this description should be compared with
Book II. 157-161, where the very phrase 'Ector the secounde' is used; see
also ll. 181-189.

§ 14. Book II. 618. 'The yate ... Of Dardanus.' The six gates of Troy are
named in Guido, Book IV, 'Quarum vna _Dardanides_, secunda Tymbrea, tercia
Helyas, quarta Chetas, quinta Troiana, vltima Anthenorides vocabantur.'

 'The furst and the fairest fourmet was Dardan.'
                                     Allit. Troy-book, l. 1557.

Lydgate keeps the form 'Dardanydes'; cap. xi. fol. F 5.

§ 15. Book IV. 204. 'For he was after traytour to the toun.' The treason of
Antenor is told by Guido at great length; see 'Boke xxviii' of the allit.
Troy-book, p. 364; Lydgate, Siege of Troye, Y 6, back. Cf. Dictys
Cretensis, lib. iv. c. 22.

Book IV. 1397, &c. 'For al Apollo and his clerkish lawes,' &c. Guido gives
rather a long account of the manner in which Criseyde upbraided her father
Chalcas at their meeting. Chaucer says nothing about this matter in Book V.
193, but he here introduces an account of the same speech, telling us that
Creseyde _intended_ to make it! I quote from Book XIX. 'Sane deceperunt te
Apollinis friuola responsa, a quo dicis te suscepisse mandatum vt tu
paternas Lares desereres, et tuos in tanta acerbitate Penates[55] sic tuis
specialiter hostibus adhereres. Sane non fuit ille deus Apollo, set, puto,
fuit comitiua infernalium Furiarum a quibus responsa talia recepisti.' Cf.
allit. Troy-book, 8103-40; and observe that Lydgate, in his Siege of Troye,
R 3, back, omits the speech of Criseyde to her father, on the ground that
it is given in Chaucer. Yet such is not the case, unless we allow the
present passage to stand for it. In Book V. 194, Chaucer (following
Boccaccio) expressly says that she was _mute_!

Book IV. 1695-1701. This last stanza is not in Boccaccio; but the general
sense of it is in Guido, Book XIX, where the interview ends thus:--'Set
diei Aurora quasi superueniente uicina, Troilus a Brisaida in multis
anxietatibus et doloribus discessit; et ea relicta ad sui palacii menia
properauit.' Lydgate, at this point, refers us to Chaucer; Siege of Troye,
fol. R 2, back. The allit. Troy-book actually does the same; l. 8054.

§ 16. Book V. 92-189. These fourteen stanzas are not in Boccaccio. The
corresponding passage in Guido (Book XIX) is as follows:--

'Troilus et Troiani redeunt, Grecis eam recipientibus in suo commeatu.
Inter quos dum esset Diomedes, et illam Diomedes inspexit, statim in ardore
veneris exarsit et eam vehementi desiderio concupiuit, qui collateralis
associando Brisaidam cum insimul equitarent, sui ardoris flammam continere
non valens Brisaide reuelat sui estuantis cordis amorem; quam in multis
affectuosis verbis et blandiciis necnon et promissionibus reuera magnificis
allicere satis humiliter est rogatus. Set Brisaida in primis monitis, vt
mulierum moris est, suum prestare recusauit assensum; nec tamen passa est
quin post multa Diomedis verba, ipsum nolens a spe sua deicere verbis
similibus dixit ei: "Amoris tui oblaciones ad presens nec repudio nec
admitto, cum cor meum non sit ad presens ita dispositum quod tibi possim
aliter respondere."'

Book V. 799-805[56]. The description of Diomede in Boccaccio (Fil. VI. 33)
is merely as follows:--

 'Egli era grande e bel della persona,
  Giovane fresco e piacevole assai,
  E forte e fier siccome si ragiona,
  E parlante quant'altro Greco mai,
  E ad amor la natura aveva prona.'

The account in Guido (Book VIII) is as follows:--'Diomedes vero multa fuit
proceritate, distensus amplo pectore, robustis scapulis, aspectu ferox; in
promissis fallax; in armis strenuus; victorie cupidus; timendus a multis,
cum multum esset iniuriosus; sermonibus sibi nimis impaciens, cum molestus
seruientibus nimis esset; libidinosus quidem multum, et qui multas traxit
angustias ob feruorem amoris.' Cf. allit. Troy-book, ll. 3794-3803;
Lydgate, Siege of Troye, fol. K 1, back.

Book V. 810. To gon y-tressed, &c. Perhaps suggested by the remark in Guido
(Book XIX) that Cressid's hair was unbound in her hour of deepest
sorrow:--'aureos crines suos a lege ligaminis absolutos a lactea sui
capitis cute diuellit.' Cf. IV. 736.

Book V. 827-840. Troilus is not described by Boccaccio. Guido's description
of him has already been quoted above; see remarks on Book I. 1072; pp. lvi,

Book V. 1002-4. The parallel passage in Guido has already been quoted,
viz.: 'Amoris tui oblaciones ad presens nec repudio nec admitto.' See
remarks on l. 92; p. lviii.

Book V. 1013. Obviously from Guido; the passage follows soon after that
last quoted. 'Associauit [Diomedes] eam vsquequo Brisaida recipere in sui
patris tentoria se debebat. Et ea perueniente ibidem, ipse eam ab equo
descendentem promptus adiuit, et vnam de cirothecis[57], quam Brisaida
gerebat in manu, ab ea nullo percipiente furtiue subtraxit. Set cum ipsa
sola presensit, placitum furtum dissimulauit amantis.'

For this incident of the glove, cf. allit. Troy-book, l. 8092.

Book V. 1023-1099. This passage is not in Boccaccio. Several hints for it
seem to have been taken from Guido, Book XIX, whence I quote the following.

'Nondum dies illa ad horas declinauerat vespertinas, cum iam suas Brisaida
recentes mutauerat voluntates,' &c.. 'Et iam nobilis Troili amor ceperat in
sua mente tepescere, et sic repente subito facta volubilis se in omnibus
variauit. Quid est ergo quod dicitur de constancia mulierum,' &c.

'Tunc ilico Diomedes superuenit . . qui repente in Troilum irruit, ipsum ab
equo prosternit, ab eo auferens equum suum, quem per suum nuncium specialem
ad Brisaidam in exennium[58] destinauit, mandans nuncio suo predicto vt
Brisaide nunciet equum ipsum eius fuisse dilecti . . . . Brisaida vero
equum Troili recepit hilariter, et ipsi nuncio refert hec verba: "Dic
secure domino tuo quod ilium odio habere non possum, qui me tanta puritate
cordis affectat . . . . [Diomedes] Brisaidam accedit, et eam suplex
hortatur vt sibi consenciat in multitudine lacrimarum. Set illa, que multum
vigebat sagacitatis astucia, Diomedem sagacibus machinacionibus differre
procurat, ut ipsum afflictum amoris incendio magis affligat, et eius amoris
vehemenciam in maioris augmentum ardoris extollat. Vnde Diomedi suum amorem
non negat, etiam nec promittit."'

In l. 1039, read _he_, i. e. Diomede; see my note on the line, at p. 499.

In l. 1037, _the story_ means the Historia Troiana; and in l. 1044, _in the
stories elles-where_ means 'elsewhere in the same History.' The passage (in
Book XXV) is as follows:--

'Troilus autem tunc amorem Brisaide Diomedi obprobriosis verbis improperat;
set Greci Diomedem ... abstraxerunt' ...

'Interim Brisaida contra patris sui voluntatem videre Diomedem in lecto suo
iacentem ex vulnere sibi facto frequenter accedit, et licet sciuisset illum
a Troilo dudum dilecto suo sic vulneratum, multa tamen in mente sua
reuoluit; et dum diligenter attendit de se iungenda cum Troilo nullam sibi
superesse fiduciam, totum suum animum, tanquam varia et mutabilis, sicut
est proprium mulierum, in Diomedis declinat amorem.'

Cf. Troy-book, ll. 9942-59; Lydgate, Siege of Troye, fol. U 4.

Book V. 1558-60. The treacherous slaughter of Hector by Achilles is in
Guido, near the end of Book XXV. See my note to l. 1558, at p. 503.

Book V. 1771. 'Read Dares.' This merely means that Guido cites Dares as his
authority for the mighty deeds of Troilus. In Book XXV, I find:--'_Scripsit
enim Dares_, quod illo die _mille_ milites interfecit [Troilus] ex Grecis';
cf. l. 1802 below. So in the allit. Troy-book, ll. 9877-9:--

 'As _Dares_ of his dedis duly me tellus,
  A thowsaund thro knightes throng he to dethe,
  That day with his dynttes, of the derffe Grekes.'

So Lydgate, Siege of Troye, fol. U 3, back:--

 'And, as _Dares_ wryteth specyally,
  A thousand knightes this Troyan champyowne
  That day hath slayne, rydyng vp and downe,
  As myne auctour Guydo lyst endyte;
  _Saue after hym_, I can no ferther wryte.'

I. e. he only knew of Dares through the medium of Guido. In fact, Dares
(capp. 29, 31, 32) has 'multos,' not 'mille.'

Book V. 1849-1855. The introduction of this stanza is quite irrelevant,
unless we remember that, in Guido, the story of Troy is completely mixed up
with invectives against idolatry. In Book X, there is a detailed account of
the heathen gods, the worship of which is attributed to the instigation of
fiends. See the long account in the allit. Troy-book, ll. 4257-4531,
concluding with the revelation by Apollo to Calchas of the coming fall of
Troy. Cf. Lydgate, Siege of Troye, fol. K 6. Of course, this notion of the
interference of the gods in the affairs of the Greeks and Trojans is
ultimately due to Homer.

§ 17. With regard to the statement in Guido, that Achilles slew Hector
_treacherously_, we must remember how much turns upon this assertion. His
object was to glorify the Trojans, the supposed ancestors of the Roman
race, and to depreciate the Greeks. The following passage from Guido, Book
XXV, is too characteristic to be omitted. 'Set o Homere, qui in libris tuis
Achillem tot laudibus, tot preconiis extulisti, _que probabilis racio_ te
induxit, vt Achillem tantis probitatis meritis vel titulis exultasses?'
Such was the general opinion about Homer in the thirteenth and fourteenth

§ 18. This is not the place for a full consideration of the further
question, as to the sources of information whence Boccaccio and Guido
respectively drew their stories. Nor is it profitable to search the
supposed works of Dares and Dictys for the passages to which Chaucer
appears to refer; since he merely knew those authors by name, owing to
Guido's frequent appeals to them. Nevertheless, it is interesting to find
that Guido was quite as innocent as were Chaucer and Lydgate of any
knowledge of Dares and Dictys at first hand. He acquired his great
reputation in the simplest possible way, by stealing the whole of his
'History' bodily, from a French romance by Benoît de Sainte-More, entitled
_Le Roman de Troie_, which has been well edited and discussed by Mons. A.
Joly. Mons. Joly has shewn that the _Roman de Troie_ first appeared between
the years 1175 and 1185; and that Guido's _Historia Troiana_ is little more
than an adaptation of it, which was completed in the year 1287, without any
acknowledgment as to its true source.

Benoît frequently cites Dares (or Daires), and at the end of his poem, ll.
30095-6, says:--

 'Ce que dist Daires et Dithis
  I avons si retreit et mis.'

In his Hist. of Eng. Literature (E. version, ii. 113), Ten Brink remarks
that, whilst Chaucer prefers to follow Guido rather than Benoît in his
Legend of Good Women, he 'does the exact opposite to what he did in
Troilus.' For this assertion I can find but little proof. It is hard to
find anything in Benoît's lengthy Romance which he may not have taken, much
more easily, from Guido. There are, however, just a few such points in Book
V. 1037-1078. Thus, in l. 1038, Criseyde gives Diomede Troilus' horse; cf.
Benoît, l. 15046--'lo cheval Vos presterai.' L. 1043 is from the same, ll.

 'La destre manche de son braz
  Bone et fresche de ciclaton
  Li done en leu de gonfanon.'

Ll. 1051-7 answer to the same, beginning at l. 20233; and l. 1074 is from
the same, l. 20308:--'Dex donge bien à Troylus!' I doubt if there is much

For some further account of the works ascribed to Dares Phrygius and Dictys
Cretensis, both duly edited among the 'Delphin Classics,' I must refer the
reader to Smith's Classical Dictionary.

§ 19. The whole question of the various early romances that relate to Troy
is well considered in a work entitled 'Testi Inediti di Storia Trojana,
preceduti da uno studio sulla Leggenda Trojana in Italia, per Egidio Gorra;
Torino, 1887'; where various authorities are cited, and specimens of
several texts are given. At p. 136 are given the very lines of Benoît's
_Roman_ (ll. 795-6) where Guido found a reference to the columns of

 'Et les bonnes ilec ficha
  Ou Alixandre les trova.'

This hint he has somewhat elaborated, probably because he took a personal
interest in 'columns,' on account of their reference to his own
name--'delle Colonne.' I believe that the notion of Alexander finding
Hercules' Pillars is due to a rather large blunder in geography. Hercules
set up his pillars 'at the end of the world,' viz. at the straits of
Gibraltar, whereas Alexander set up his at another 'end of the world,' viz.
at the furthest point of India which he succeeded in reaching. So says his
Romance; see Alexander and Dindimus, ed. Skeat, l. 1137; Wars of Alexander,
l. 5063. The setting up of pillars as boundary-marks seems to have been
common; cf. Vergil, Æn. xi. 262. Among the points noticed by Gorra, I may
mention the following:--

1. Some account (p. 7) of the Ephemeris Belli Troiani by Dictys Cretensis,
who, it was pretended, accompanied Idomeneus to the Trojan war. Achilles is
depicted in dark colours; he is treacherous towards Agamemnon; falls in
love with the Trojan princess, Polyxena; and slays Hector by a stratagem.
It appears to have been a work of invention, resting upon no Greek

2. Some account (p. 17) of the Historia de Excidio Troiae of Dares
Phrygius, a work which (as was pretended) was discovered by Cornelius
Nepos. This also, in the opinion of most critics, was an original work. At
p. 115, there is a comparison of the lists of Greek leaders and the number
of their ships (cf. Homer, Il. ii.) as given by Dares, Benoît, and Guido.

3. At p. 123, there is an enumeration of points in which Guido varies from

4. At p. 152, is an account of some Italian prose versions of the story of
Troy. Such are: La Istorietta Trojana, with extracts from it at p. 371; a
romance by Binduccio dello Scelto, with extracts relating to 'Troilo e
Briseida' at p. 404; a version of Guido by Mazzeo Bellebuoni, with extracts
relating to 'Paride ed Elena' at p. 443; an anonymous version, with
extracts relating to 'Giasone e Medea' at p. 458; a version in the Venetian
dialect, with extracts relating to 'Ettore ed Ercole' at p. 481; another
anonymous version, with extracts at p. 493; and La 'Fiorita' of Armannino,
Giudice da Bologna, with extracts at p. 532.

5. At p. 265, is an account of Italian poetical versions, viz. Enfances
Hector, Poema d'Achille, Il Trojano di Domenico da Montechiello, Il Trojano
a stampa (i.e. a printed edition of Il Trojano), and L'Intelligenza. At p.
336, Boccaccio's Filostrato is discussed; followed by a brief notice of an
anonymous poem, also in ottava rima, called Il cantare di Insidoria. It
appears that Boccaccio followed some recension of the French text of
Benoît, but much of the work is his own invention. In particular, he
created the character of Pandaro, who resembles a Neapolitan courtier of
his own period.

The most interesting of the extracts given by Gorra are those from
Binduccio dello Scelto; at p. 411, we have the incident of Diomede
possessing himself of Briseida's glove, followed by the interview between
Briseida and her father Calcas. At p. 413, Diomede overthrows Troilus,
takes his horse from him and sends it to Briseida, who receives it
graciously; and at p. 417, Briseida gives Diomede her sleeve as a
love-token, after which a 'jousting' takes place between Diomede and
Troilus, in which the former is badly wounded.

For further remarks, we are referred, in particular, to H. Dunger's
Dictys-Septimius: über die ursprüngliche Abfassung und die Quellen der
Ephemeris belli Troiani; Dresden, 1878 (Programm des Vitzthumschen
Gymnasiums); to another essay by the same author on Die Sage vom
trojanischen Kriege, Leipzig, 1869; to Koerting's Dictys und Dares, &c.,
Halle, 1874; to A. Joly's Benoît de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie,
Paris, 1871; and to an article by C. Wagener on Dares Phrygius, in
_Philologus_, vol. xxxviii. The student may also consult E. Meybrinck, Die
Auffassung der Antike bei Jacques Millet, Guido de Columna, und Benoît de
Ste-More, printed in Ausgaben und Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete für
Romanischen Philologie, Marburg, 1886; where the author concludes that
Millet was the originator of the story in France. Also W. Greif, Die
mittelalterlichen Bearbeitungen der Trojanersage; Marburg, 1886.

§ 20. A few words may be said as to the names of the characters. Troilus is
only once mentioned in Homer, where he is said to be one of the sons of
Priam, who were slain in battle, Iliad, xxiv. 257; so that his story is of
medieval invention, except as to the circumstance of his slayer being
Achilles, as stated by Vergil, Æn. i. 474, 475; cf. Horace, Carm. ii. 9.
16. Pandarus occurs as the name of two distinct personages; (1) a Lycian
archer, who wounded Menelaus; see Homer, Il. iv. 88, Vergil, Æn. 5. 496;
and (2) a companion of Æneas, slain by Turnus; see Vergil, Æn. ix. 672, xi.
396. Diomede is a well-known hero in the Iliad, but his love-story is of
late invention. The heroine of Benoît's poem is Briseida, of whom Dares (c.
13) has merely the following brief account: 'Briseidam formosam, alta
statura, candidam, capillo flauo et molli, superciliis junctis[59], oculis
venustis, corpore aequali, blandam, affabilem, uerecundam, animo simplici,
piam'; but he records nothing more about her. The name is simply copied
from Homer's [Greek: Brisêida], Il. i. 184, the accusative being taken (as
often) as a new nominative case; this Briseis was the captive assigned to
Achilles. But Boccaccio substitutes for this the form Griseida, taken from
the accusative of Homer's Chryseis, mentioned just two lines above, Il. i.
182. For this Italian form Chaucer substituted Criseyde, a trisyllabic
form, with the _ey_ pronounced as the _ey_ in _prey_. He probably was led
to this correction by observing the form Chryseida in his favourite author,
Ovid; see Remed. Amoris, 469. Calchas, in Homer, Il. i. 69, is a Grecian
priest; but in the later story he becomes a Trojan soothsayer, who,
foreseeing the destruction of Troy, secedes to the Greek side, and is
looked upon as a traitor. Cf. Vergil, Æn. ii. 176; Ovid, Art. Amat. ii.

§ 21. In Anglia, xiv. 241, there is a useful comparison, by Dr. E. Köppel,
of the parallel passages in Troilus and the French Roman de la Rose, ed.
Méon, Paris, 1814, which I shall denote by 'R.' These are mostly pointed
out in the Notes. Köppel's list is as follows:--

Troilus. I. 635 (cf. III. 328).--Rom. Rose, 8041. 637.--R. 21819. 747.--R.
7595. 810.--R. 21145. 969--R. 12964.

II. 167.--R. 5684. 193.--R. 8757. 716.--R. 5765. 754.--R. 6676. 784 (cf.
III. 1035).--R. 12844. 1564.--R. 18498.

III. 294.--R. 7085. 328; _see_ I. 635. 1035; _see_ II. 784. 1634.--R. 8301.

IV. 7.--R. 8076. 519.--R. 6406. 1398.--R. 6941.

V. 365.--R. 18709.

Some of the resemblances are but slight; but others are obvious. The
numbers refer to the beginning of a passage; sometimes the really
coincident lines are found a little further on.

The parallel passages common to Troilus and Boethius are noted above, pp.

An excellent and exhaustive treatise on the Language of Chaucer's Troilus,
by Prof. Kitteredge, is now (1893) being printed for the Chaucer Society. A
Ryme-Index to the same, compiled by myself, has been published for the same
society, dated 1891.

§ 22. I have frequently alluded above to the alliterative 'Troy-book,' or
'Gest Historiale,' edited for the Early English Text Society, in 1869-74,
by Panton and Donaldson. This is useful for reference, as being a tolerably
close translation of Guido, although a little imperfect, owing to the loss
of some leaves and some slight omissions (probably) on the part of the
scribe. It is divided into 36 Books, which agree, very nearly, with the
Books into which the original text is divided. The most important passages
for comparison with Troilus are lines 3922-34 (description of Troilus);
3794-3803 (Diomede); 7268-89 (fight between Troilus and Diomede); 7886-7905
(Briseida and her dismissal from Troy); 8026-8181 (sorrow of Troilus and
Briseida, her departure, and the interviews between Briseida and Diomede,
and between her and Calchas her father); 8296-8317 (Diomede captures
Troilus' horse, and presents it to Briseida); 8643-60 (death of Hector);
9671-7, 9864-82, 9926-9 (deeds of Troilus); 9942-59 (Briseida visits the
wounded Diomede); 10055-85, 10252-10311 (deeds of Troilus, and his death);
10312-62 (reproof of Homer for his false statements).

At l. 8053, we have this remarkable allusion; speaking of Briseida and
Troilus, the translator says:--

 'Who-so wilnes to wit of thaire wo fir [futher],
  Turne hym to TROILUS, and talke[60] there ynoughe!'

I.e. whoever wishes to know more about their wo, let him turn to TROILUS,
and there find enough. This is a clear allusion to Chaucer's work by its
name, and helps to date the translation as being later than 1380 or 1382.
And, as the translator makes no allusion to Lydgate's translation of Guido,
the date of which is 1412-20, we see that he probably wrote between 1382
and 1420[61]; so that the date 'about 1400,' adopted in the New Eng.
Dictionary (s. v. _Bercelet_, &c.) cannot be far wrong[62].

§ 23. Another useful book, frequently mentioned above, is Lydgate's Siege
of Troye[61], of which I possess a copy printed in 1555. This contains
several allusions to Chaucer's Troilus, and more than one passage in praise
of Chaucer's poetical powers, two of which are quoted in Mr. Rossetti's
remarks on MS. Harl. 3943 (Chaucer Soc. 1875), pp. x, xi. These passages
are not very helpful, though it is curious to observe that he speaks of
Chaucer not only as 'my maister Chaucer,' but as 'noble Galfride, chefe
Poete of Brytaine,' and 'my maister Galfride.' The most notable passages
occur in cap. xv, fol. K 2; cap. xxv, fol. R 2, back; and near the end,
fol. Ee 2. Lydgate's translation is much more free than the preceding one,
and he frequently interpolates long passages, besides borrowing a large
number of poetical expressions from his 'maister.'

§ 24. Finally, I must not omit to mention the remarkable poem by Robert
Henrysoun, called the Testament and Complaint of Criseyde, which forms a
sequel to Chaucer's story. Thynne actually printed this, in his edition of
1532, as one of Chaucer's poems, immediately after Troilus; and all the
black-letter editions follow suit. Yet the 9th and 10th stanzas contain
these words, according to the edition of 1532:--

 'Of his distresse me nedeth nat reherse;
  For worthy Chaucer, in that same boke,
  In goodly termes, and in ioly verse,
  Compyled hath his cares, who wyl loke.
  To breke my slepe, another queare I toke,
  In whiche I founde the fatal desteny
  Of fayre Creseyde, whiche ended wretchedly.

  Who wot if al that Chaucer wrate was trewe?
  Nor I wotte nat if this narration
  Be authorysed, or forged of the newe
  Of some poete by his inuention,
  Made to reporte the lamentation
  And woful ende of this lusty Creseyde,
  And what distresse she was in or she deyde.'


1. MS. CL.--The Campsall MS., on vellum, written before 1413; prepared for
Henry, Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry V, as shewn by his arms on leaf 2.
The poem occupies leaves 2-120; each page usually contains five stanzas.
Two pages have been reproduced by the autotype process for the Chaucer
Society; viz. leaf 1, recto, containing stanzas 1-5, and leaf 42, verso,
containing stanzas 249-251 of Book II, and stanza 1 of Book III. This is a
beautifully written MS., and one of the best; but it is disappointing to
find that it might easily have been much better. The scribe had a still
better copy before him, which he has frequently treated with supreme
carelessness; but it is some consolation to find that his mistakes are so
obvious that they can easily be corrected. Thus, in Book I, l. 27, he
writes _dorst_ for _dorste_, though it ruins the grammar and the metre; in
l. 31, he actually has _hym_ for _hem_, to the destruction of the sense; in
l. 69, he has _high_ (!) for _highte_; and so on. It therefore requires
careful control. In particular, the scribe gives many examples of the fault
of 'anticipation,' i.e. the fault whereby the mind, swifter than the pen,
has induced him to write down letters that belong to a _later_ syllable or
word, or to omit one or more letters. Thus in Book I. l. 80, he omits _u_
in _pryuely_, writing _pryely_; in l. 126, he omits _and_ before _hoom_; in
l. 198, he omits _lewede_; in l. 275, he omits _gan_; &c. But the faults of
'anticipation' appear most clearly in such startling forms as _addermost_
for _aldermost_, I. 248, where the former _d_ is due to the one that is
coming; _assent_ for _absent_, IV. 1642, for a like reason; _estal_ for
_estat_, because the next word is _royal_, I. 432; _þyn_ for _þyng_,
because the next word is _myn_, I. 683; _nat_ for _nas_, because the next
word is _not_, I. 738; _seynt_ for _seyn_, because the next word is _that_,
V. 369; _shad_ for _shal_, because the next word is _drede_, V. 385;
_liten_ for _litel_, because _weten_ follows, IV. 198; _make_ for _may_,
because the line ends with _wake_, III. 341; _fleld_ for _feld_, II. 195.
Sometimes, however, the scribe's mind reverts to something already written,
so that we find _Delphebus_ for _Delphicus_, because _Phebus_ precedes, I.
70; _bothen_ for _bothe_, because _deden_ precedes, I. 82; _falles_ for
_fallen_, after _unhappes_, II. 456; _daunder_ for _daunger_, III. 1321;
_tolle_ for _tolde_, III 802; &c. Downright blunders are not uncommon; as
_incocent_ for _innocent_ (where again the former _c_ is due to the
latter), II. 1723; _agarst_ for _agast_, III. 737; _right_ for _rit_, V.
60. We even find startling variations in the reading, as in III. 1408:--

 'Reson wil not that I speke of _shep_,
  For it accordeth nough[t] to my matere.'

Certainly, _shep_ (sheep) is irrelevant enough; however, Chaucer refers to
_sleep_. And again, the line in II. 1554, which should run--

  As for to bidde a wood man for to renne

appears in the startling form--

  As for to bydde a womman for to renne.

As all the variations of 'Cl.' from the correct text are given in the
foot-notes, it is not necessary to say more about these peculiarities. I
must add, however, that, as in Boethius, I have silently corrected _yn_ to
_in_ in such words as _thing_; besides altering _ee_ and _oo_ to _e_ and
_o_ in open syllables, writing _v_ for _u_, and the like. See above.

The Campsall MS., now in the possession of Mr. Bacon Frank, has been
printed in full, as written, for the Chaucer Society; and I have relied
upon the accuracy of this well-edited print.

2. MS. CP.--MS. No. 61 in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, described in
Nasmith's Catalogue, p. 40, as 'a parchment book in folio neatly written,
and ornamented with a frontispiece richly illuminated, containing Chaucer's
Troilus, in four [_error for_ five] books.' It is a fine folio MS., 12
inches by 8½. This MS., noticed by Warton, has not as yet been printed,
though the Chaucer Society have undertaken to print it, upon my
recommendation. It contains many pages that are left wholly or partially
blank, obviously meant to be supplied with illuminations; which shews that
it was written for some wealthy person. On the left margin, near the 83rd
stanza of Book IV, is a note of ownership, in a hand of the fifteenth
century--'neu_er_ foryeteth: Anne neuyll.' This probably refers to Anne
Neville, wife of Humphrey, duke of Buckingham (who was killed at
Northampton in 1460), and daughter of Ralph Neville, earl of Westmoreland,
and of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt. That is, she was John of
Gaunt's granddaughter; and it seems reasonable to infer that the MS. was
actually written for one of John of Gaunt's family. This probability is a
very interesting one, when we consider how much Chaucer owed to John of
Gaunt's favour and protection.

The MS. is slightly deficient, owing to the omission of a few stanzas; but
not much is missing. It is of a type closely resembling the preceding, and
gives excellent readings. I have therefore taken the opportunity of
founding the text upon a close collation of Cl. and Cp., taking Cl. as the
foundation, but correcting it by Cp. throughout, without specifying more
than the rejected reading of Cl. in passages where these MSS. differ. In
this way the numerous absurdities of Cl. (as noted above) have been easily
corrected, and the resulting text is a great improvement upon all that have
hitherto appeared. In a few places, as shewn by the foot-notes, the
readings of other MSS. have been preferred.

3. MS. H.--MS. Harl. 2280, in the British Museum. An excellent MS., very
closely related to both the preceding. Printed in full for the Chaucer
Society, and collated throughout in the present edition. It was taken as
the basis of the text in Morris's Aldine edition, which in many passages
closely resembles the present text. It is certainly the third best MS. One
leaf is missing (Bk. V. 1345-1428; twelve stanzas).

4. MS. CM.--MS. Gg. 4. 27, in the Cambridge University Library; the same
MS. as that denoted by 'Cm.' in the foot-notes to the Canterbury Tales, and
by 'C.' in the foot-notes to the Legend of Good Women. A remarkable MS.,
printed in full for the Chaucer Society. It exhibits _a different type_ of
text from that found in Cl., Cp., and H. The most noteworthy differences
are as follows. In Bk. ii. 734, 5, this MS. has quite a different couplet,

  Men louyn women þ_our_ al þis tou_n_ aboute;
  Be þey þe wers? whi, nay, w_i_t_h_-outyn doute.

Bk. ii. 792 runs thus:--

  How ofte tyme may men rede and se.

Bk. iv. 309-15 (stanza 45) runs thus:--

  What shulde ye don but, for myn disconfort,
  Stondyn for nought, and wepyn out youre ye?
  Syn sche is queynt that wont was yow disport[63],
  In vayn from this forth have I seyn twye;
  For[64] medycyn youre vertu is a-weye;
  O crewel eyen, sythyn that youre dispyt
  Was al to sen Crisseydes eyen bryght.

Bk. iv. 638 runs thus:--

  Pandare answerde, of that be as be may.

After Bk. iv. 735, MS. Cm. introduces the following stanza, which, in the
present text, appears a little later (ll. 750-6) in a slightly altered

  The salte teris fro_m_ hyre ey[gh]yn tweyn
  Out ran, as scho_ur_ of aprille, ful swythe;
  Hyre white brest sche bet, and for the peyne,
  Aftyr the deth cryede a thousent sithe,
  Syn he that wonyt was hir wo for to lythe,
  Sche mot forgon; for which disauenture
  Sche held hire-selue a for-lost creature.

Bk. iv. 806-33 (four stanzas) are omitted; so also are the 18 stanzas
referring to Free-Will, viz. Bk. iv. 953-1078. Bk. v. 230-1 runs thus:--

  To whom for eu_er_emor myn herte is holde:
  And thus he pleynyd, and ferth_er_e-more he tolde.

We cannot believe that Bk. iv. 309-15, as here given, can be genuine[65];
but it seems possible that some of the other readings may be so. The
stanza, Bk. iv. 750-6, as here given, seems to represent the first draft of
these lines, which were afterwards altered to the form in which they appear
in the text, whilst at the same time the stanza was shifted down. However,
this is mere speculation; and it must be confessed that, in many places,
this MS. is strangely corrupted. Several stanzas have only six lines
instead of seven, and readings occur which set all ideas of rime at
defiance. Thus, in I. 1260, _paste_ (riming with _caste_) appears as
_passede_; in I. 1253, _ryde_ (riming with _aspyde_) appears as _rydende_;
in III. 351, _hayes_ (riming with _May is_) appears as _halis_; &c.

Yet the MS. is worth collating, as it gives, occasionally, some excellent
readings. For example, in Bk. i. 143, it preserves the word _here_, which
other MSS. wrongly omit; and, in the very next line, rightly has _to longe
dwelle_, not _to longe to dwelle_.

The MS. has been, at some time, shamefully maltreated by some one who has
cut out several leaves, no doubt for the sake of their illuminated
initials. Hence the following passages do not appear: I. 1-70; I. 1037--II.
84; III. 1-56; III. 1807--IV. 112; IV. 1667--V. 35; V. 1702--_end_
(_together with a piece at the beginning of the_ Canterbury Tales).

5. MS. H2.--Harleian MS. 3943, in the British Museum. Printed in full for
the Chaucer Society in 1875, together with a most valuable line by line
collation with Boccaccio's Filostrato, by Wm. Michael Rossetti. Referred to
in Prof. Lounsbury's Studies in Chaucer, i. 398, as 'much the worst that
has been printed,' where his object is to depreciate its authority. Yet it
is well worth a careful study, and it must be particularly borne in mind
that it consists of two parts, written at different dates, and of different
value. In Bell's Chaucer, we read of it:--'Unfortunately it is imperfect.
The first few leaves, and the whole of the latter part of the poem, appear
to have been destroyed, and the deficiency supplied by a later copyist.'
The late hand occurs in I. 1-70, 498-567, III. 1429-1638, IV. 197--_end_,
and Book V.; and thus occupies a large portion of the MS. Moreover, two
leaves are lost after leaf 59, comprising III. 1289-1428; these are
supplied in Dr. Furnivall's edition from Harl. 1239, which accounts for the
extraordinary disorder in which these stanzas are arranged. The MS. also
omits III. 1744-1771, and some other stanzas occasionally.

This is one of those curious MSS. which, although presenting innumerable
corrupt readings (the worst being _Commodious_ for _Commeveden_ in III.
17), nevertheless have some points of contact with an excellent source. All
editors must have observed a few such cases. Thus, in II. 615, it happily
restores the right reading _latis_, where the ordinary reading _gates_ is
ludicrously wrong. In III. 49, it supplies the missing word _gladnes_. In
V. 8, it has 'The Auricomus tressed Phebus hie on lofte,' instead of 'The
golden tressed'; and this reading, though false, lets us into the secret of
the origin of this epithet, viz. that it translates the Latin _auricomus_;
see note to the line. In the very next line, V. 9, it preserves the correct
reading _bemes shene_[66], riming with _grene_, _quene_, where other MSS.
have _bemes clere_, a reminiscence of the opening line of Book III. Hence I
have carefully collated this MS., and all readings of value are given in
the Notes. See, e. g. III. 28, 49, 136, 551, 1268, 1703, &c.

6. MS. Harl. 1239 (B. M.). 'It is an oblong folio, written from the
beginning in a small, clear character, which ceases at an earlier place
[III. 231] than the change occurs in MS. 3943 [IV. 197], leaving the
remainder comparatively useless as an authority.'--Bell. Dr. Furnivall has
printed the passages in III. 1289-1428, and III. 1744-1771, from this MS.
to supply the gaps in H 2 (see above); we thus see that it transposes
several of the stanzas, and is but a poor authority.

7. MS. Harl. 2392 (B. M.).  A late MS. on paper, not very correct; once the
property of Sir H. Spelman. As an example of a strange reading, observe 'O
mortal Gower,' in V. 1856. Still, it has the correct reading _sheene_ in V.
9; and in III. 49, supplies the rare reading _gladnesse_, which is
necessary to the sense.

This MS. has a large number of notes and glosses. Some are of small
interest, but others are of value, and doubtless proceeded from the author
himself, as they furnish useful references and explanations. I here notice
the best of them.

II. 8. 'Cleo: domina eloquencie.' This view of Clio explains the context.

II. 784. Side-note: 'nota mendacium.' A remarkable comment.

II. 1238-9. 'Leuis impressio, leuis recessio.' Clearly, a proverb.

III. 933. 'Dulcarnon: i. fuga miserorum.' This proves that Chaucer confused
the 47th proposition of Euclid with the 5th; see note.

III. 1177. 'Beati misericordes'; from Matt. v. 7.

III. 1183. 'Petite et accipi[e]tis'; a remarkable comment.

III. 1415. 'Gallus vulgaris astrologus; Alanus, de Planctu Nature'; see

III. 1417. 'Lucifera: Stella matutina.'

III. 1466. 'Aurora: amica solis'; shewing the confusion of _Tithonus_ with

IV. 22. 'Herine (_sic_), furie infernales; unde Lucanus, me pronuba duxit
Herinis.' This proves that Chaucer really took the name from Lucan, Phars.
viii. 90, q. v.

IV. 32. 'Sol in Leone'; i. e. the sun was in Leo; see note.

IV. 600. 'Audaces fortuna iuuat'; error for 'Audentes'; see note.

IV. 790. 'Vmbra subit terras,' &c.; Ovid, Met. xi. 61.

IV. 836. 'Extrema gaudii luctus'; see note.

IV. 1138. 'Flet tamen, et tepide,' &c.; Ovid, Met. x. 500.

IV. 1504. 'Non est bonum perdere substantiam propter accidens.'

IV. 1540. 'Styx, puteus infernalis.' Chaucer's mistake.

V. 8. 'The gold-tressed Phebus,' glossed 'Auricomus Sol'; which is from
Valerius Flaccus; see note.

V. 319. Reference to Ovid's Metamorphoses; see note.

V. 655. 'Latona, i. luna'; shewing that 'Latona' is mis-written for
'Lucina.' Cf. IV. 1591.

V. 664. Reference to Ovid, Metam. ii. See note.

V. 1039. For 'she,' MS. has 'he,' correctly (see note); side-note, 'Nota,
de donis c. d.', i. e. of Criseyde to Diomede.

V. 1107. 'Laurigerus'; see note.

V. 1110. 'Nisus,' glossed 'rex'; 'douhter,' glossed 'alauda'; see note.

V. 1548. 'Parodye: duracio'; see note.

V. 1550. 'Vnbodye: decorporare.'

There are many more such glosses, of lesser interest.

8. MS. Harl. 4912 (B. M.). On vellum; rather large pages, with wide
margins; five stanzas on the page. Imperfect; ends at IV. 686. A poor copy.
In III. 49, it retains the rare reading 'gladnes,' but miswritten as

9. MS. Addit. 12044 (B. M.). On vellum; five stanzas to the page. Last leaf
gone; ends at V. 1820. Not a good copy. In III. 17, it has 'Comeued hem,'
an obvious error for 'Comeueden,' which is the true reading. In V. 8, it
has 'golden dressed,' error for 'golden tressed.' Note this correct form
'golden'; for it is miswritten as 'gold' or 'golde' in nearly all other

The next four are in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

10. Arch. Seld. B. 24 is the Scottish MS., dated 1472, described in the
Introduction to the Minor Poems, where it is denoted by 'Ar.,' and fully
collated throughout the Legend of Good Women, where it appears in the
foot-notes as 'A.' It seems to be the best of the Oxford MSS., and has some
good readings. In III. 17, it has 'Co_m_meued tham' for Commeueden,' which
is near enough for a MS. that so freely drops inflexions; and the line ends
with 'and amoreux tham made.' In III. 49, it correctly preserves

11. MS. Rawlinson, Poet. 163. Not a very good copy. It omits the Prologue
to Book III. At the end is the colophon:--

              { Heer endith the book of }
 'Tregentyll {                         } Chaucer.'
              { Troylus and of Cresseyde}

I take 'Tregentyll' to be the scribe's name[67]. Besides the 'Troilus,' the
MS. contains, on a fly-leaf, the unique copy of the Balade to Rosemounde,
beneath which is written (as in the former case) 'tregentil' to the left of
the page, and 'chaucer' to the right; connected by a thin stroke. See my
'Twelve Facsimiles of Old English MSS.'; Plate XII.

12. MS. Arch. Seld. supra 56. Small quarto, 8 inches by 5½, on paper;
vellum binding; writing clear. A poor copy. The grammar shews a Northern

13. MS. Digby 181. Incomplete; nearly half being lost. It ends at III.
532--'A certayn houre in which she come sholde.' A poor copy, closely
allied to the preceding. Thus, in III. 17, both have _moreux_ for
_amoreux_; in III. 2, both have _Adornes_; in III. 6, both absurdly have
_Off_ (_Of_) for _O_; and so on.

14. MS. L. 1, in St. John's College, Cambridge. A fair MS., perhaps earlier
than 1450. Subjoined to the Troilus is a sixteenth century copy of the
Testament of Creseide. Quarto; on vellum; 10 inches by 6½; in 10 sheets of
12 leaves each. Leaf g 12 is cut out, and g 11 is blank, but nothing seems
to be lost. It frequently agrees with Cp., as in I. 5, fro ye; 21, be this;
36, desespeyred; 45, fair ladys so; 70, Delphicus; 308, kan thus. In I.
272, it correctly has: p_er_cede; in 337, nou_n_c_er_teyne. In II. 734, it
agrees with H.; 735 runs--'And whan hem list no lenger, lat hem leue'; a
good line. In II. 894, it has 'mosten axe,' the very reading which I give;
and in II. 968, stalkes.

15. MS. Phillipps 8252; the same MS. as that described in my preface to the
C. text of Piers the Plowman, p. xix, where it is numbered XXVIII.

16. A MS. in the Library of Durham Cathedral, marked V. ii. 13. A single
stanza of Troilus, viz. I. 631-7, occurs in MS. R. 3. 20, in Trinity
College Library, Cambridge; and three stanzas, viz. III. 302-322, in MS.
Ff. 1. 6, leaf 150, in the Cambridge University Library; all printed in Odd
Texts of Chaucer's Minor Poems, ed. F. J. Furnivall, Chaucer Society, 1880,
pp. x-xii. In 1887, Dr. Stephens found two vellum strips in the cover of a
book, containing fragments of a MS. of Troilus (Book V. 1443-1498); see
Appendix to the Report of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, May 24, 1887;
pp. 331-5.

The MSS. fall, as far as I can tell, into two main families. The larger
family is that which resembles Cl., Cp., and H. Of the smaller, Cm. may be
taken as the type. The description of Cm. shews some of the chief
variations. Observe that many MSS. omit I. 890-6; in the John's MS., it is
inserted in a much later hand. The stanza is obviously genuine.

§ 26. THE EDITIONS. 'Troilus' was first printed by Caxton, about 1484; but
without printer's name, place, or date. See the description in Blades' Life
of Caxton, p. 297. There is no title-page. Each page contains five stanzas.
Two copies are in the British Museum; one at St. John's College, Oxford;
and one (till lately) was at Althorp. The second edition is by Wynkyn de
Worde, in 1517. The third, by Pynson, in 1526. These three editions present
Troilus as a separate work. After this, it was included in Thynne's edition
of 1532, and in all the subsequent editions of Chaucer's Works.

Of these, the only editions accessible to me have been Thynne's (1532), of
which there is a copy in the Cambridge University Library; also the
editions of 1550 (or thereabouts) and 1561, of both of which I possess

Thynne's edition was printed from so good a MS. as to render it an
excellent authority. In a few places, I fear he has altered the text for
the worse, and his errors have been carefully followed and preserved by
succeeding editors. Thus he is responsible for altering _io_ (= _jo_) into
_go_, III. 33; for creating the remarkable 'ghost-word' _gofysshe_, III.
584; and a few similar curiosities. But I found it worth while to collate
it throughout; and readings from it are marked 'Ed.' The later black-letter
copies are mere reproductions of it.

§ 27. THE PRESENT EDITION. The present edition has the great advantage of
being founded upon Cl. and Cp., neither of which have been previously made
use of, though they are the two best. Bell's text is founded upon the
Harleian MSS. numbered 1239, 2280, and 3943, in separate fragments; hence
the text is neither uniform nor very good. Morris's text is much better,
being founded upon H. (closely related to Cl. and Cp.), with a few
corrections from other unnamed sources.

Thanks to the prints provided by the Chaucer Society, I have been able to
produce a text which, I trust, leaves but little to be desired. I point out
some of the passages which now appear in a correct form for the first time,
as may be seen by comparison with the editions by Morris and Bell, which I
denote by M. and B.

I. 136; _derre_, dearer; M. B. dere (no rime). 285. _meninge_, i. e.
intention; _and so in_ l. 289; M. B. mevynge. 388. M. B. insert a semicolon
after _arten_. 465. _fownes_ (see note);  M. B. fantasye (line too long).
470 _felle_, fell, pl. adj.; M. B. fille, i. e. fell (verb). 590. _no
comfort_; M. comfort; B. eny comfort. 786. _Ticius_ (see note); M.
Syciphus; B. Siciphus. 896. _Thee oughte_; M. To oght (no sense); B. The
oght (will not scan). 1026. See note; put as a question in M. B.; B. even
inserts _not_ before _to done_. 1050. _me asterte_; M. may sterte; B. me
stert (better).

II. 41. _seyde_, i. e. if that they seyde; M. B. seyinge (will not scan).
138. _were_ (would there be); M. B. is. 180. _wight_; M. B. knyght (but see
l. 177). 808. _looth_; M. B. leve. 834. _Ye_; M. B. The. 1596. _For for_;
M. B. For.

III. 17. _Comeveden_ (see note); M. Comeneden; B. Commodious. _him_; M. B.
hem. 33. _io_ (= _jo_); M. B. go. 49. M. B. omit _gladnes_. 572. _Yow
thurfte_; M. Thow thruste; B. Yow durst. 584. _goosish_; M. goofish; B.
gofisshe. 674. M. Thei voide [_present_], dronke [_past_], and traveres
drawe [_present_] anon; B. They voyded, and drunk, and travars drew anone.
Really, _dronke_ and _drawe_ are both past participles; see note. 725.
_Cipris_; M. Cyphes; B. Ciphis. 1231. _Bitrent and wryth_, i. e. winds
about and wreathes itself; M. Bytrent and writhe is; B. Bitrent and writhen
is. _Wryth_ is short for _writheth_; not a pp. 1453. _bore_, i. e. hole; M.
boure; B. bowre. 1764. _to-hepe_, i. e. together; M. B. to kepe.

IV. 538. _kyth_; M. B. right (no sense). 696. _thing is_; M. B. thynges is.
 818. _martyre_; M. B. matere (neither sense nor rime).

V. 49. _helpen_; M. B. holpen. 469. _howve_; M. B. howen. 583. _in my_; M.
B. omit _my_. 927. _wight_; M. B. with. 1208. _trustinge_; M. B. trusten
(against grammar). 1266. _bet_; M. B. beste. 1335, 6. _wyte The teres_,
i. e. blame the tears; M. B. wite With teres. 1386. _Commeve_; M. Com in
to; B. Can meven. 1467. _She_; M. B. So. 1791. _pace_; M. B. space (see

It is curious to find that such remarkable words as _commeveden_, _io_,
_voidee_, _goosish_, _to-hepe_, appear in no Chaucerian glossary; they are
only found in the MSS., being ignored in the editions.

A large number of lines are now, for the first time, spelt with forms that
comply with grammar and enable the lines to be scanned. For example, M. and
B. actually give _wente_ and _wonte_ in V. 546, instead of _went_ and
_wont_; _knotles_ for _knotteles_ in V. 769, &c.

I have also, for the first time, numbered the lines and stanzas correctly.
In M., Books III. and IV. are both misnumbered, causing much trouble in
reference. Dr. Furnivall's print of the Campsall MS. omits I. 890-6; and
his print of MS. Harl. 3943 counts in the Latin lines here printed at p.

§ 28. It is worth notice that Troilus contains about fifty lines in which
the first foot consists of a single syllable. Examples in Book I are:--

  That | the hot-e fyr of lov' him brende: 490.
  Lov' | ayeins the which who-so defendeth: 603.
  Twen | ty winter that his lady wiste: 811.
  Wer' | it for my suster, al thy sorwe: 860.
  Next | the foule netle, rough and thikke: 948.
  Now | Pandar', I can no mor-e seye: 1051.
  Al | derfirst his purpos for to winne: 1069.

So also II. 369, 677, 934, 1034, 1623 (and probably 1687); III. 412, 526,
662, 855 (perhaps 1552), 1570; IV. 176, 601, 716, 842, 1328, 1676; V. 67
(perhaps 311), 334, 402, 802, 823, 825, 831, 880, 887, 949, 950, 1083,
1094, 1151, 1379, 1446, 1454, 1468, 1524.

It thus appears that deficient lines of this character are by no means
confined to the poems in 'heroic verse,' but occur in stanzas as well.
Compare the Parlement of Foules, 445, 569.

§ 29. PROVERBS. Troilus contains a considerable number of proverbs and
proverbial phrases or similes. See, e. g., I. 257, 300, 631, 638, 694, 708,
731, 740, 946-952, 960, 964, 1002, 1024; II. 343, 398, 403, 585, 784, 804,
807, 861, 867, 1022, 1030, 1041, 1238, 1245, 1332, 1335, 1380, 1387, 1553,
1745; III. 35, 198, 294, 308, 329, 405, 526, 711, 764, 775, 859, 861, 931,
1625, 1633; IV. 184, 415, 421, 460, 588, 595, 622, 728, 836, 1098, 1105,
1374, 1456, 1584; V. 484, 505, 784, 899, 971, 1174, 1265, 1433.

§ 30. A translation of the first two books of Troilus into Latin verse, by
Sir Francis Kinaston, was printed at Oxford in 1635. The volume also
contains a few notes, but I do not find in them anything of value. The
author tries to reproduce the English stanza, as thus:--

 'Dolorem Troili duplicem narrare,
  Qui Priami Regis Trojae fuit gnatus,
  Vt primùm illi contigit amare,
  Vt miser, felix, et infortunatus
  Erat, decessum ante sum conatus.
  Tisiphone, fer opem recensere
  Hos versus, qui, dum scribo, visi flere.'

For myself, I prefer the English.

§ 31. Hazlitt's Handbook to Popular Literature records the following
title:--'A Paraphrase vpon the 3 first bookes of Chaucer's Troilus and
Cressida. Translated into modern English ... by J[onathan] S[idnam]. About
1630. Folio; 70 leaves; in 7-line stanzas.'



P. 8, Book I, met. 4, l. 8. _For_ thonder-light _a better reading is_
thonder-leit; see p. xliii, and the note (p. 422).

P. 10; foot-notes, l. 10. _Read_: C. vnplitable; A. inplitable.

P. 26, Book II, met. 1, l. 11. _For_ proeueth _read_ proeveth.

P. 29, Book II, pr. 3, l. 3. _Delete the comma after_ wherwith.

P. 48, Book II, pr. 7, l. 86. _For_ thas _read_ that.

P. 50, Book II, pr. 8, l. 17. _For_ windinge _read_ windy. See pp. xlii,

P. 58, Book III, pr. 3, l. 68. _For_ all _read_ al.

P. 62, l. 4. Counted as l. 10; it is really l. 9.

P. 63, Book III, pr. 5, l. 41. _For_ of _read_ _of_ (in italics).

P. 74, Book III, pr. 10, l. 6. _For_ has _read_ hast.

P. 111. The side-number 215 is one line too high.

P. 122, Book IV, met. 6, l. 24. Delete the square brackets; see pp. xlii,

P. 124, Book IV, pr. 7, l. 61. MS. C. _has_ confirme; _and_ MS. A. _has_
conferme. _But the right reading must be_ conforme; _for the_ Latin _text
has_ conformandae.


P. 159, Book I, 204. _For_ cast _read_ caste.

P. 160, Book I, 217. The alternative reading is better; see note, p. 463.

P. 160, Book I, 239. _For_ yet _read_ yit (for the rhyme).

P. 162, Book I, 284. _For_ neuer _read_ never.

P. 163, Book, I, 309. _For_ Troylus _read_ Troilus.

P. 163, Book I, 310. _For_ thyng _read_ thing.

P. 165, Book I, 401. _Alter_ ! _to_ ?

P. 166, Book I, 406. _For_ thurst _read_ thurste.

P. 166, Book I, 420. _For_ deye _read_ dye (for the rhyme).

P. 171, Book I, 570. _For_ euery _read_ every.

P. 172, Book I, 621. _For_ Troylus _read_ Troilus (as elsewhere).

P. 173, Book I, 626. Delete the comma after 'fare.'

P. 174, Book I, 656. _For_ y _read_ I.

P. 174, Book I, 657. _Insert_ ' _at the beginning_.

P. 181, Book I, 879. _For_ the _read_ thee.

P. 192, Book II, 113. _Delete_ ' _at the end_.

P. 194, Book II, 170. _Insert_ ' _at the beginning_.

P. 205, Book II, 529. _For_ penaunc _read_ penaunce.

P. 208, Book II, 628. _For_ swych _read_ swich.

P. 229, Book II, 1294. _Insert_ ' _at the beginning_.

P. 234, Book II, 1461. _For_ streyt _read_ streght, _as in_ MS. H.

P. 260, Book III, 522. _Delete the comma after_ laft.

P. 260, Book III, 535. _For_ made _read_ mad _or_ maad.

P. 261, Book III, 558. _For_ lengere _read_ lenger.

P. 264, Book III, 662. _For_ thondre _read_ thonder.

P. 271, Book III, 885. _For_ ringe _read_ ring.

P. 282, Book III, 1219. _For_ sweet _read_ swete.

P. 312, Book IV, 318. _For_ to the peyne _read_ to my peyne.

P. 390, Book V, 1039. _For_ she _read_ he. Cf. note, p. 499; and p. lx, l.

P. 431, note to Prose 5, 35; l. 3. _Delete_ for which I find _no_
authority. (In fact, _postremo_ is the reading given by Peiper, from _one_
MS. only; most MSS. have _postremae_, the reading given by Obbarius, who
does not recognise the reading _postremo_).

P. 463. Note to I, 217. _Add_--So too in Barbour's Bruce, i. 582: 'Bot oft
failyeis the fulis thocht.'

P. 479, last line; and p. 480, first line. _For_ represents the Pers. and
Arab. _d[=u]'lkarnayn_, lit. two-horned; from Pers. _d[=u]_, two, and
_karn_, horn--_read_ represents the Arab, _z[=u]'lkarnayn_, lit.
two-horned; from Arab. _z[=u]_, lord of, _hence_, possessing, and the dual
form of _karn_, horn.

Notes to I. 948, 951; II. 36, 1335; III. 1219. Dr. Köppel has shewn (in
Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, xc. 150, that Chaucer here
quotes from Alanus de Insulis, Liber Parabolarum (as printed in Migne,
Cursus Patrologicus, vol. ccx). The passages are:--

  Fragrantes uicina rosas urtica perurit (col. 582).

  Post noctem sperare diem, post nubila solem;
    Post lacrimas risus laetitiamque potes (583).

  Mille uiae ducunt homines per saecula Romam (591).

  De nuce fit corylus, de glande fit ardua quercus (583).

  Dulcius haerescunt humano mella palato,
    Si malus hoc ipsum mordeat ante sapor (592).

P. 498, Note to V, 806. _Add_--L. 813 is due to Dares; see p. lxiv, note.

P. 499, Note to V, 1039, l. 6. _For_ the rest is Chaucer's addition _read_
the statement that she gave it to Diomede is due to Benoît; see p. lxii.
Again, just below, _read_ The incidents of the 'broche' and 'pensel' are
also due to the same; see p. lxii.




_Carmina qui quondam studio florente peregi._

  Allas! I, weping, am constreined to biginnen vers of sorowful
  matere, that whylom in florisching studie made delitable ditees.
  For lo! rendinge Muses of poetes endyten to me thinges to be
  writen; and drery vers of wrecchednesse weten my face with
  verray teres. At the leeste, no drede ne mighte overcomen tho           5
  Muses, that they ne weren felawes, and folweden my wey, _that is
  to seyn, whan I was exyled_; they that weren glorie of my youthe,
  whylom weleful and grene, comforten now the sorowful werdes of
  me, olde man. For elde is comen unwarly upon me, hasted by
  the harmes that I have, and sorow hath comaunded his age to be         10
  in me. Heres hore ben shad overtymeliche upon myn heved,
  and the slake skin trembleth upon myn empted body. Thilke
  deeth of men is weleful that ne cometh not in yeres that ben
  swete, but cometh to wrecches, often y-cleped.

  Allas! allas! with how deef an ere deeth, cruel, torneth awey          15
  fro wrecches, and naiteth to closen wepinge eyen! Whyl Fortune,
  unfeithful, favorede me with lighte goodes, the sorowful houre,
  _that is to seyn, the deeth_, hadde almost dreynt myn heved. But
  now, for Fortune cloudy hath chaunged hir deceyvable chere to
  me-ward, myn unpitous lyf draweth a-long unagreable dwellinges         20
  _in me_. O ye, my frendes, what or wherto avauntede ye me to
  ben weleful? for he that hath fallen stood nat in stedefast

C. = MS. Ii. 3. 21, Cambridge; A. = MS. Addit. 10340 (Brit. Mus.). _The
text follows_ C. _mainly_. Ed. = Printed edition (1532), _quoted

1, 2. _Imperfect in_ C. 6. C. foleweden; A. folweden. 8. C. sorful; A.
sorouful. // C. wierdes, _glossed_ fata; A. werdes. 11. C. arn; A. ben. 12.
C. of; A. upon. // C. emptyd; A. emty. 16. C. nayteth; A. Ed. naieth. 17.
A. _glosses_ lighte _by_ sc. temporels. // C. sorwful; A. sorouful. 19. C.
deceyuable; A. disceyuable. 20. C. vnpietous; A. vnpitouse. 22. C.
stidefast; A. stedfast.


_Hec dum mecum tacitus ipse reputarem._

  Whyle that I stille recordede thise thinges with my-self, and
  markede my weeply compleynte with office of pointel, I saw,
  stondinge aboven the heighte of myn heved, a woman of ful greet
  reverence by semblaunt, hir eyen brenninge and cleer-seinge over
  the comune might of men; with a lyfly colour, and with swich            5
  vigour and strengthe that it ne mighte nat ben empted; al were it
  so that she was ful of so greet age, that men ne wolde nat trowen,
  in no manere, that she were of oure elde. The stature of hir was
  of a doutous Iugement; for som-tyme she constreinede and shronk
  hir-selven lyk to the comune mesure of men, and sum-tyme it            10
  semede that she touchede the hevene with the heighte of hir
  heved; and whan she heef hir heved hyer, she percede the
  selve hevene, so that the sighte of men looking was in ydel. Hir
  clothes weren maked of right delye thredes and subtil crafte, of
  perdurable matere; the whiche clothes she hadde woven with hir         15
  owene hondes, as I knew wel after by hir-self, declaringe and
  shewinge to me the beautee; the whiche clothes a derknesse of a
  forleten and dispysed elde hadde dusked and derked, as it is wont
  to derken bi-smokede images.

  In the nethereste hem or bordure of thise clothes men redden,          20
  y-woven in, a Grekissh P, _that signifyeth the lyf Actif_; and aboven
  that lettre, in the heyeste bordure, a Grekissh T, _that signifyeth
  the lyf Contemplatif_. And bi-twixen these two lettres ther weren
  seyn degrees, nobly y-wroght in manere of laddres; by whiche
  degrees men mighten climben fro the nethereste lettre to the           25
  uppereste. Natheles, handes of some men hadde corven that cloth
  by violence and by strengthe; and everiche man of hem hadde
  born awey swiche peces as he mighte geten. And forsothe, this
  forseide woman bar smale bokes in hir right hand, and in hir left
  hand she bar a ceptre.                                                 30

  And whan she say thise poetical Muses aprochen aboute my
  bed, and endytinge wordes to my wepinges, she was a litel
  amoved, and glowede with cruel eyen. 'Who,' quod she, 'hath
  suffred aprochen to this syke man thise comune strompetes of
  swich a place that men clepen the theatre? The whiche nat              35
  only ne asswagen nat hise sorwes with none remedies, but they
  wolden feden and norisshen hem with swete venim. Forsothe,
  thise ben tho that with thornes and prikkinges of talents or
  affecciouns, whiche that ne ben no-thing fructefyinge nor
  profitable, destroyen the corn plentevous of fruites of resoun;        40
  for they holden the hertes of men in usage, but they ne delivere
  nat folk fro maladye. But if ye Muses hadden withdrawen fro
  me, with your flateryes, any uncunninge and unprofitable man, as
  men ben wont to finde comunly amonges the poeple, I wolde
  wene suffre the lasse grevously; for-why, in swiche an unprofitable    45
  man, myn ententes ne weren no-thing endamaged. But ye withdrawen
  me this man, that hath be norisshed in the studies or
  scoles of Eleaticis and of Achademicis _in Grece_. But goth now
  rather awey, ye mermaidenes, whiche that ben swete til it be at
  the laste, and suffreth this man to be cured and heled by myne         50
  Muses,' _that is to seyn, by noteful sciences_.

  And thus this companye of Muses y-blamed casten wrothly the
  chere dounward to the erthe; and, shewinge by reednesse hir
  shame, they passeden sorowfully the threshfold.

  And I, of whom the sighte, plounged in teres, was derked so            55
  that I ne mighte not knowen what that womman was, of so
  imperial auctoritee, I wex al abaisshed and astoned, and caste my
  sighte doun to the erthe, and bigan stille for to abyde what she
  wolde don afterward. Tho com she ner, and sette hir doun up-on
  the uttereste corner of my bed; and she, biholdinge my chere,          60
  that was cast to the erthe, hevy and grevous of wepinge, compleinede,
  with thise wordes that I shal seyen, the perturbacioun
  of my thought.

PR. I. 1. C. While that; A. In the mene while that. 2. C. sawh; A. sawe. 3.
C. heyhte; A. hey[gh]t. // C. gret; A. greet. 5. C. myht; A. my[gh]t. 6. C.
vygor; A. vigoure. // C. myhte; A. my[gh]t. // C. emted; A. emptid. 7. C.
gret; A. greet (_and so often_). 9. C. dowtows; A. doutous (_and so_ ow
_for_ ou _often_). 10. C. lyk; A. lyche. 11. C. heyhte; A. hey[gh]te (_and
so elsewhere_). 12. C. hef; A. heued; Ed. houe. 14. C. riht (_and so_ h
_for_ gh _often_). 16. C. knewh; A. knewe. 17. C. dirknesse; A. derkenes.
19. _Both_ dyrken. // C. the smokede; A. bysmoked. 21. A. in swiche; C.
_om._ swiche. C. _glosses_ P _by_ practik. // C. syngnifieth; A.
signifieth. 22. C. _glosses_ T _by_ theorik. // C. singnifieth; A.
signifieth. 23. C. by-twixen; A. by-twene. 24. C. nobely; A. nobly. 25. C.
clymbyn (_and so_ -yn _for_ -en _constantly_). // C. Ed. nethereste; A.
nethemast. 26. C. Ed. vppereste; A. ouermast 31. C. say; A. sau[gh]. 33. C.
amoued; A. ameued. // C. cruwel; A. cruel. 34. C. sike; A. seek. // C. the;
A. thise (Lat. _has_). 37. C. noryssyn; A. norysche. // C. hym; A. hem. 39.
C. fructefiynge; A. frutefiyng. 40. C. corn; A. cornes (Lat. _segetem_).
41. C. _om._ the. // C. _om._ ne. 42. C. maledye; A. maladye. 44. C.
poeple; A. peple. 45. C. greuosly; A. greuously (_and so often_ os _for_
ous _in_ C.). 48. C. schooles; A. scoles. 53. C. downward; A. adounward. //
C. _om._ and. // C. rednesse; A. redenesse. 54. C. sorwfully. // C.
thresshfold; A. threschefolde. 55. C. dyrked; A. derked. 57. C. wax; A.
wex. // C. cast; A. caste. 58. C. down to; A. adoune in-to. 59. C. ner; A.
nere. 61. C. compleyde; A. compleinede. 63. C. thowht; A. thou[gh]t.


_Heu quam precipiti mersa profundo._

  'Allas! how the thought of man, dreint in over-throwinge
  deepnesse, dulleth, and forleteth his propre cleernesse, mintinge
  to goon in-to foreine derknesses, as ofte as his anoyous bisinesse
  wexeth with-oute mesure, that is driven to and fro with worldly
  windes! This man, that whylom was free, to whom the hevene              5
  was open and knowen, and was wont to goon in heveneliche
  pathes, and saugh the lightnesse of the rede sonne, and saugh the
  sterres of the colde mone, and whiche sterre in hevene useth
  wandering recourses, y-flit by dyverse speres--this man, overcomer,
  hadde comprehended al this by noumbre _of acountinge in                10
  astronomye_. And over this, he was wont to seken the causes
  whennes the souning windes moeven and bisien the smothe water
  of the see; and what spirit torneth the stable hevene; and why
  the sterre aryseth out of the rede eest, to fallen in the westrene
  wawes; and what atempreth the lusty houres of the firste somer         15
  sesoun, that highteth and apparaileth the erthe with rosene flowres;
  and who maketh that plentevouse autompne, in fulle yeres, fleteth
  with hevy grapes. And eek this man was wont to telle the
  dyverse causes of nature that weren y-hidde. Allas! now lyeth
  he empted of light of his thought; and his nekke is pressed with       20
  hevy cheynes; and bereth his chere enclyned adoun for the grete
  weighte, and is constreined to looken on the fool erthe!

ME. II. 3. C. dyrk-; A. derk-. 4. C. wordely; A. worldly (Lat. _terrenis_).
5. C. Ed. whilom; A. sumtyme. 7. C. lythnesse; A. ly[gh]tnesse. 10. C.
comprendyd; A. Ed. comprehendid. 11. C. seken; A. seche. 14. C. est; A.
eest. 15. C. fyrst; A. fyrste. 17. A. that; C. the. // C. autompne; A.
autumpne. 19. C. I-hydde; A. yhidde. // C. lith; A. lieth. 20. A. emptid;
C. emted. 22. C. the fool; Ed. the fole; A. foule (Lat. _stolidam_).


_Set medicine, inquit, tempus est._

  But tyme is now,' quod she, 'of medicine more than of
  compleinte.' Forsothe than she, entendinge to me-ward with alle
  the lookinge of hir eyen, seide:--'Art nat thou he,' quod she,
  'that whylom y-norisshed with my milk, and fostered with myne
  metes, were escaped and comen to corage of a parfit man?                5
  Certes, I yaf thee swiche armures that, yif thou thy-self ne
  haddest first cast hem a-wey, they shulden han defended thee
  in sikernesse that may nat ben over-comen. Knowest thou me
  nat? Why art thou stille? Is it for shame or for astoninge?
  It were me lever that it were for shame; but it semeth me that         10
  astoninge hath oppressed thee.' And whan she say me nat only
  stille, but with-outen office of tunge and al doumb, she leide hir
  hand softely upon my brest, and seide: 'Here nis no peril,' quod
  she; 'he is fallen into a litargie, whiche that is a comune sykenes
  to hertes that ben deceived. He hath a litel foryeten him-self,        15
  but certes he shal lightly remembren him-self, yif so be that he
  hath knowen me or now; and that he may so don, I wil wypen a
  litel his eyen, that ben derked by the cloude of mortal thinges.'
  Thise wordes seide she, and with the lappe of hir garment, y-plyted
  in a frounce, she dryede myn eyen, that weren fulle of the wawes       20
  of my wepinges.

PR. II. 4. C. Ed. whilom; A. sumtyme. // C. noryssed; A. I-norschide. 5. C.
escaped; A. ascaped. 8. C. Knowestow; A. Knowest thou. 9. C. artow; A. art
thou. // C. it is; A. Ed. is it. // C. asthonynge (_but_ astonynge
_below_). 14. C. litarge; A. litargie. // C. sykenesse; A. sekenes. 15. C.
desseyued; A. desceiued. 16. C. remenbren; A. reme_m_bren.


_Tunc me discussa liquerunt nocte tenebre._

  Thus, whan that night was discussed and chased a-wey,
  derknesses forleften me, and to myn eyen repeirede ayein hir
  firste strengthe. And, right by ensaumple as the sonne is hid
  whan the sterres ben clustred (_that is to seyn, whan sterres ben
  covered with cloudes_) by a swifte winde that highte Chorus, and        5
  that the firmament stant derked by wete ploungy cloudes, and
  that the sterres nat apperen up-on hevene, so that the night
  semeth sprad up-on erthe: yif thanne the wind that highte Borias,
  y-sent out of the caves of the contree of Trace, beteth this night
  (_that is to seyn, chaseth it a-wey_), and descovereth the closed day: 10
  than shyneth Phebus y-shaken with sodein light, and smyteth
  with his bemes in mervelinge eyen.

ME. III. 1. C. descussed; A. discussed. 2. C. dirk-; A. derk-. // C. _om._
ayein. 3. C. fyrst; A. firste. 5. C. heyhte; A. hy[gh]t. 6. C. dirked; A.
derked. 8. C. hyhte; A. hy[gh]t.


_Haud aliter tristicie nebulis dissolutis._

  Right so, and non other wyse, the cloudes of sorwe dissolved
  and don a-wey, I took hevene, and receivede minde to knowen the
  face of my fysicien; so that I sette myn eyen on hir, and fastnede
  my lookinge. I beholde my norice Philosophie, in whos houses
  I hadde conversed and haunted fro my youthe; and I seide thus.          5
  'O thou maistresse of alle vertues, descended from the soverein
  sete, why artow comen in-to this solitarie place of myn exil?
  Artow comen for thou art maked coupable with me of false

  'O,' quod she, 'my norry, sholde I forsaken thee now, and              10
  sholde I nat parten with thee, by comune travaile, the charge
  that thou hast suffred for envie of my name? Certes, it nere
  not leveful ne sittinge thing to Philosophie, to leten with-outen
  companye the wey of him that is innocent. Sholde I thanne
  redoute my blame, and agrysen as though ther were bifallen a           15
  newe thing? _quasi diceret, non_. For trowestow that Philosophie
  be now alderfirst assailed in perils by folk of wikkede maneres?
  Have I nat striven with ful greet stryf, in olde tyme, bifore the
  age of my Plato, ayeines the foolhardinesse of folye? And eek,
  the same Plato livinge, his maister Socrates deservede victorie of     20
  unrightful deeth in my presence. The heritage of which Socrates--_the
  heritage is to seyn the doctrine of the whiche Socrates in his
  opinioun of Felicitee, that I clepe welefulnesse_--whan that the
  poeple of Epicuriens and Stoiciens and many othre enforceden
  hem to go ravisshe everich man for his part--_that is to seyn,         25
  that everich of hem wolde drawen to the defence of his opinioun the
  wordes of Socrates_--they, as in partie of hir preye, to-drowen me,
  cryinge and debatinge ther-ayeins, and corven and to-renten my
  clothes that I hadde woven with myn handes; and with tho
  cloutes that they hadden araced out of my clothes they wenten          30
  awey, weninge that I hadde gon with hem everydel.

  In whiche _Epicuriens and Stoiciens_, for as moche as ther semede
  some traces or steppes of myn habite, the folye of men, weninge
  tho _Epicuriens and Stoiciens_ my famuleres, perverted (_sc.
  some through the errour of the wikkede or uncunninge                   35
  multitude of hem. _This is to seyn that, for they semede philosophres,
  they weren pursued to the deeth and slayn._ So yif thou hast nat
  knowen the exilinge of Anaxogore, ne the enpoysoninge of
  Socrates, ne the tourments of Zeno, for they weren straungeres:
  yit mightestow han knowen the Senecciens and the Canios and            40
  the Sorans, of whiche folk the renoun is neither over-olde ne
  unsolempne The whiche men, no-thing elles ne broughte hem to
  the deeth but only for they weren enfourmed of myne maneres,
  and semeden most unlyke to the studies of wikkede folk. And
  forthy thou oughtest nat to wondren though that I, in the bittre       45
  see of this lyf, be fordriven with tempestes blowinge aboute, in
  the whiche tempestes this is my most purpos, _that is to seyn_, to
  displesen to wikkede men. Of whiche shrewes, al be the ost
  never so greet, it is to dispyse; for it nis governed with no leder
  of resoun, but it is ravisshed only by fletinge errour folyly and      50
  lightly. And if they som-tyme, makinge an ost ayeins us, assaile
  us as strenger, our leder draweth to-gidere hise richesses in-to his
  tour, and they ben ententif aboute sarpulers or sachels unprofitable
  for to taken. But we that ben heye aboven, siker fro alle
  tumulte and wode noise, warnestored and enclosed in swich a            55
  palis, whider as that chateringe or anoyinge folye ne may nat
  atayne, we scorne swiche ravineres and henteres of fouleste

PR. III. 3. C. fesissien; A. fyciscien; Ed. phisycien. // C. fastnede; A.
festned. 4. Lat. _respicio_. 6. C. vertuus; A. vertues. 7. C. artow; A. art
thou. 13. A. _om._ thing. 14. C. compaygnie; A. compaignie. 16. C.
trowestow; A. trowest thou. 20. C. desseruede; A. deserued. 21. C. eritage;
A. heritage. 25. C. rauysse; A. rauische. 26. C. deffence; A. defence. 30.
C. arraced; A. arased. 31. C. _om._ I. 33. C. or; A. and. 34. A. familers.
36. A. _om._ that. 38. C. _om. 1st_ of. 40. C. myhtestow; A. my[gh]test
thou. // C. Senecciens; A. Senectiens; Ed. Senecas. 43. C. enformyd; A.
vnfourmed. 44. C. vnlyk; A. vnlyke. 48. C. oost, _glossed_ i. acies. 50. C.
rauyssed; A. rauysched. // C. folyly, i. sine consilio. 52. A. hys
rycchesse. 53. C. sarpuleris; A. sarpulers. 55. C. tumolte; A. tumulte. //
A. stored. 56. C. palis; A. palays (Lat. _uallo_). // C. _om._ that. // C.
anoyenge; A. anoying. 57 C. atayne; A. attayne. // C. schorne; A. scorne.


_Quisquis composito serenus euo._

  Who-so it be that is cleer of vertu, sad, and wel ordinat of
  livinge, that hath put under foot the proude werdes and looketh
  upright up-on either fortune, he may holde his chere undiscomfited.
  The rage ne the manaces of the see, commoevinge or
  chasinge upward hete fro the botme, ne shal not moeve that              5
  man; ne the unstable mountaigne that highte Vesevus, that
  wrytheth out through his brokene chiminees smokinge fyres. Ne
  the wey of thonder-light, that is wont to smyten heye toures, ne
  shal nat moeve that man. Wher-to thanne, o wrecches, drede ye
  tirauntes that ben wode and felonous with-oute any strengthe?          10
  Hope after no-thing, ne drede nat; and so shaltow desarmen
  the ire of thilke unmighty tiraunt. But who-so that, quakinge,
  dredeth or desireth thing that nis nat stable of his right, that
  man that so doth hath cast awey his sheld and is remoeved fro
  his place, and enlaceth him in the cheyne with the which he may        15
  ben drawen.

ME. IV. 2. C. leuynge; A. lyuyng. // _Both_ wierdes; C. _has the gloss_
fata. 3. C. may his cheere holde vndescounfited; A. may holde hys chiere
vndiscomfited. 4. C. manesses; A. manace (Lat. _minae_). 5. hete (Lat.
_aestum_). 6. C. hihte; A. hy[gh]t. 7. Ed. writheth; C. writith; A.
wircheth (Lat. _torquet_). // A. chemineys. 9. C. Whar-; A. Wher-. 10. C.
felonos; A. felownes. 11. C. deseruien; A. desarmen; Ed. disarmen. 14. C.
remwed; A. remoeued. 15. A. _om._ the _before_ which.


_Sentisne, inquit, hec._

  'Felestow,' quod she, 'thise thinges, and entren they aught in
  thy corage? Artow lyke an asse to the harpe? Why wepestow,
  why spillestow teres? Yif thou abydest after help of thy leche,
  thee bihoveth discovere thy wounde.'

  Tho I, that hadde gadered strengthe in my corage, answerede             5
  and seide: 'And nedeth it yit,' quod I, 'of rehersinge or of
  amonicioun; and sheweth it nat y-nough by him-self the sharpnesse
  of Fortune, that wexeth wood ayeins me? Ne moeveth it
  nat thee to seen the face or the manere of this place (_i. prisoun_)?
  Is this the librarie whiche that thou haddest chosen for a right       10
  certein sete to thee in myn hous, ther-as thou desputedest ofte
  with me of the sciences of thinges touchinge divinitee and touchinge
  mankinde? Was thanne myn habite swich as it is now?
  Was than my face or my chere swiche as now (_quasi diceret, non_),
  whan I soughte with thee secrets of nature, whan thou enformedest      15
  my maneres and the resoun of alle my lyf to the ensaumple of
  the ordre of hevene? Is nat this the guerdoun that I referre to
  thee, to whom I have be obeisaunt? Certes, thou confermedest,
  by the mouth of Plato, this sentence, _that is to seyn_, that comune
  thinges or comunalitees weren blisful, yif they that hadden studied    20
  al fully to wisdom governeden thilke thinges, or elles yif it so
  bifille that the governoures of comunalitees studieden to geten

  Thou seidest eek, by the mouth of the same Plato, that it was
  a necessarie cause, wyse men to taken and desire the governaunce       25
  of comune thinges, for that the governements of citees, y-left
  in the handes of felonous tormentours citizenes, ne sholde nat
  bringe in pestilence and destruccioun to gode folk. And therfor
  I, folwinge thilke auctoritee (_sc. Platonis_), desired to putten forth
  in execucioun and in acte of comune administracioun thilke             30
  thinges that I hadde lerned of thee among my secree resting-whyles.
  Thou, and god that putte thee in the thoughtes of wyse
  folk, ben knowinge with me, that no-thing ne broughte me to
  maistrie or dignitee, but the comune studie of alle goodnesse.
  And ther-of comth it that bi-twixen wikked folk and me han ben         35
  grevous discordes, that ne mighten ben relesed by preyeres; for
  this libertee hath the freedom of conscience, that the wratthe of
  more mighty folk hath alwey ben despysed of me for savacioun of

  How ofte have I resisted and withstonde thilke man that highte         40
  Conigaste, that made alwey assautes ayeins the prospre fortunes of
  pore feble folk? How ofte eek have I put of or cast out him,
  Trigwille, provost of the kinges hous, bothe of the wronges that he
  hadde bigunne to don, and eek fully performed? How ofte have
  I covered and defended by the auctoritee of me, put ayeins perils--    45
  _that is to seyn, put myn auctoritee in peril for_--the wrecched
  pore folk, that the covetyse of straungeres unpunished tourmenteden
  alwey with miseyses and grevaunces out of noumbre? Never man
  ne drow me yit fro right to wronge. Whan I say the fortunes and
  the richesses of the poeple of the provinces ben harmed or             50
  amenused, outher by privee ravynes or by comune tributes or
  cariages, as sory was I as they that suffreden the harm.

  GLOSSA.  _Whan that Theodoric, the king of Gothes, in a dere
  yere, hadde hise gerneres ful of corn, and comaundede that no man
  ne sholde byen no corn til his corn were sold, and that at a grevous   55
  dere prys, Boece withstood that ordinaunce, and over-com it, knowinge
  al this the king him-self._

  TEXTUS. Whan it was in the soure hungry tyme, ther was
  establisshed or cryed grevous and inplitable coempcioun, that men
  sayen wel it sholde greetly turmenten and endamagen al the             60
  province of Campaigne, I took stryf ayeins the provost of the pretorie
  for comune profit. And, the king knowinge of it, I overcom
  it, so that the coempcioun ne was not axed ne took effect.

  [GLOSSA.] _Coempcioun, that is to seyn, comune achat or bying
  to-gidere, that were establisshed up-on the poeple by swiche a manere  65
  imposicioun, as who-so boughte a busshel corn, he moste yeve the king
  the fifte part._

  [TEXTUS.] Paulin, a counseiller of Rome, the richesses of the
  whiche Paulin the houndes of the palays, _that is to seyn, the
  wolden han devoured by hope and covetise, yit drow I him out of        70
  the Iowes (_sc. faucibus_) of hem that gapeden. And for as moche
  as the peyne of the accusacioun aiuged biforn ne sholde nat
  sodeinly henten ne punisshen wrongfully Albin, a counseiller of
  Rome, I putte me ayeins the hates and indignaciouns of the
  accusor Ciprian. Is it nat thanne y-nough y-seyn, that I have          75
  purchased grete discordes ayeins my-self? But I oughte be the
  more assured ayeins alle othre folk (_s. Romayns_), that for the love
  of rightwisnesse I ne reserved never no-thing to my-self to hem-ward
  of the kinges halle, _sc. officers_, by the whiche I were the more
  siker. But thorugh tho same accusers accusinge, I am condempned.       80
  Of the noumbir of the whiche accusers oon Basilius,
  that whylom was chased out of the kinges service, is now compelled
  in accusinge of my name, for nede of foreine moneye.
  Also Opilion and Gaudencius han accused me, al be it so that the
  Iustice regal hadde whylom demed hem bothe to go in-to exil for        85
  hir trecheryes and fraudes withoute noumbir. To whiche Iugement
  they nolden nat obeye, but defendeden hem by the sikernesse
  of holy houses, _that is to seyn, fledden into seintuaries_; and
  whan this was aperceived to the king, he comaundede, that but
  they voidede the citee of Ravenne by certein day assigned, that        90
  men sholde merken hem on the forheved with an hoot yren and
  chasen hem out of the toune. Now what thing, semeth thee,
  mighte ben lykned to this crueltee? For certes, thilke same day
  was received the accusinge of my name by thilke same accusers.
  What may ben seid her-to? (_quasi diceret, nichil_). Hath my           95
  studie and my cunninge deserved thus; or elles the forseide dampnacioun
  _of me_, made that hem rightful accusers or no? (_quasi
  diceret, non_). Was not Fortune ashamed of this? Certes, al
  hadde nat Fortune ben ashamed that innocence was accused, yit
  oughte she han had shame of the filthe of myne accusours.             100

  But, axestow in somme, of what gilt I am accused, men seyn
  that I wolde save the companye of the senatours. And desirest
  thou to heren in what manere? I am accused that I sholde han
  destourbed the accuser to beren lettres, by whiche he sholde han
  maked the senatoures gilty ayeins the kinges real maiestee. O         105
  maistresse, what demestow of this? Shal I forsake this blame,
  that I ne be no shame to thee? (_quasi diceret, non_). Certes, I have
  wold it, _that is to seyn, the savacioun of the senat_, ne I shal never
  leten to wilne it, and that I confesse and am aknowe; but the
  entente of the accuser to be destourbed shal cese. For shal I         110
  clepe it thanne a felonie or a sinne that I have desired the
  savacioun of the ordre of the senat? (_quasi diceret, dubito quid_).
  And certes yit hadde thilke same senat don by me, thorugh hir
  decrets and hir Iugements, as though it were a sinne or a felonie;
  _that is to seyn, to wilne the savacioun of hem_ (_sc. senatus_). But 115
  folye, that lyeth alwey to him-self, may not chaunge the merite
  of thinges. Ne I trowe nat, by the Iugement of Socrates, that
  it were leveful to me to hyde the sothe, ne assente to lesinges.
  But certes, how so ever it be of this, I putte it to gessen or
  preisen to the Iugement of thee and of wyse folk. Of whiche           120
  thing al the ordinaunce and the sothe, for as moche as folk that
  ben to comen after our dayes shullen knowen it, I have put it
  in scripture and in remembraunce. For touching the lettres falsly
  maked, by whiche lettres I am accused to han hoped the fredom
  of Rome, what aperteneth me to speke ther-of? Of whiche               125
  lettres the fraude hadde ben shewed apertly, yif I hadde had
  libertee for to han used and ben at the confessioun of myne
  accusours, the whiche thing in alle nedes hath greet strengthe.
  For what other fredom may men hopen? Certes, I wolde that
  som other fredom mighte ben hoped. I wolde thanne han                 130
  answered by the wordes of a man that highte Canius; for whan
  he was accused by Gaius Cesar, Germeynes sone, that he
  (_Canius_) was knowinge and consentinge of a coniuracioun
  y-maked ayeins him (_sc. Gaius_), this Canius answerede thus:
  "Yif I hadde wist it, thou haddest nat wist it." In which thing       135
  sorwe hath nat so dulled my wit, that I pleyne only that shrewede
  folk aparailen felonies ayeins vertu; but I wondre greetly how
  that they may performe thinges that they hadde hoped for to
  don. For-why, to wilne shrewednesse, that comth peraventure
  of oure defaute; but it is lyk a monstre and a mervaille, how         140
  that, in the present sighte of god, may ben acheved and performed
  swiche thinges as every felonous man hath conceived in his
  thought ayeins innocents. For which thing oon of thy famileres
  nat unskilfully axed thus: "Yif god is, whennes comen wikkede
  thinges? And yif god ne is, whennes comen gode thinges?"              145
  But al hadde it ben leveful that felonous folk, that now desiren
  the blood and the deeth of alle gode men and eek of alle the
  senat, han wilned to gon destroyen me, whom they han seyen
  alwey batailen and defenden gode men and eek al the senat,
  yit had I nat desserved of the faderes, _that is to seyn, of the      150
  senatoures_, that they sholden wilne my destruccioun.

  Thou remembrest wel, as I gesse, that whan I wolde doon or
  seyen any thing, thou thyself, alwey present, rewledest me. At
  the city of Verone, whan that the king, gredy of comune slaughter,
  caste him to transporten up al the ordre of the senat the gilt of     155
  his real maiestee, of the whiche gilt that Albin was accused, with
  how gret sikernesse of peril to me defendede I al the senat!
  Thou wost wel that I seye sooth, ne I ne avauntede me never
  in preysinge of my-self. For alwey, whan any wight receiveth
  precious renoun in avauntinge him-self of his werkes, he amenuseth    160
  the secree of his conscience. But now thou mayst wel seen to
  what ende I am comen for myne innocence; I receive peyne
  of fals felonye for guerdon of verray vertu. And what open
  confessioun of felonye hadde ever Iuges so acordaunt in crueltee,
  _that is to seyn, as myn accusinge hath_, that either errour of
      mannes                                                            165
  wit or elles condicioun of Fortune, that is uncertein to alle mortal
  folk, ne submittede some of hem, _that is to seyn, that it ne enclynede
  som Iuge to han pitee or compassioun_? For al-thogh I hadde ben
  accused that I wolde brenne holy houses, and strangle preestes
  with wikkede swerde, or that I hadde greythed deeth to al gode        170
  men, algates the sentence sholde han punisshed me, present,
  confessed, or convict. But now I am remewed fro the citee _of
  Rome_ almost fyve hundred thousand pas, I am with-oute defence
  dampned to proscripcioun and to the deeth, for the studie and
  bountees that I have doon to the senat. But O, wel ben they           175
  worthy of merite (_as who seith, nay_), ther mighte never yit non
  of hem be convict of swiche a blame as myne is! Of whiche
  trespas, myne accusours sayen ful wel the dignitee; the whiche
  dignitee, for they wolden derken it with medeling of som felonye,
  they baren me on hand, and lyeden, that I hadde polut and             180
  defouled my conscience with sacrilege, for coveitise of dignitee.
  And certes, thou thy-self, that are plaunted in me, chacedest
  out of the sege of my corage al coveitise of mortal thinges; ne
  sacrilege hadde no leve to han a place in me biforn thyne eyen.
  For thou droppedest every day in myne eres and in my thought          185
  thilke comaundement of Pictagoras, _that is to seyn_, men shal
  serve to godde, _and not to goddes_. Ne it was nat convenient,
  _ne no nede_, to taken help of the foulest spirites; I, that thou
  hast ordeined and set in swiche excellence that thou makedest
  me lyk to god. And over this, the right clene secree chaumbre         190
  of myne hous, _that is to seyn, my wyf_, and the companye of
  myn honest freendes, and my wyves fader, as wel holy as worthy
  to ben reverenced thorugh his owne dedes, defenden me from
  alle suspecioun of swich blame. But O malice! For they that
  accusen me taken of thee, _Philosophie_, feith of so gret blame!      195
  For they trowen that I have had affinitee to malefice _or enchauntement_,
  by-cause that I am replenisshed and fulfilled with thy
  techinges, and enformed of thy maneres. And thus it suffiseth
  not only, that thy reverence ne availe me not, but-yif that thou,
  of thy free wille, rather be blemished with myn offencioun. But       200
  certes, to the harmes that I have, ther bitydeth yit this
  encrees of harm, that the gessinge and the Iugement of moche
  folk ne looken no-thing to the desertes of thinges, but only
  to the aventure of fortune; and iugen that only swiche thinges
  ben purveyed of god, whiche that temporel welefulnesse commendeth.    205

  GLOSE. _As thus: that, yif a wight have prosperitee, he is a
  good man and worthy to han that prosperitee; and who-so hath
  adversitee, he is a wikked man, and god hath forsake him, and
  he is worthy to han that adversitee. This is the opinioun of some     210

  And ther-of comth that good gessinge, first of alle thing, forsaketh
  wrecches: certes, it greveth me to thinke right now the
  dyverse sentences that the poeple seith of me. And thus moche
  I seye, that the laste charge of contrarious fortune is this: that,   215
  whan that any blame is leyd upon a caitif, men wenen that he
  hath deserved that he suffreth. And I, that am put awey fro
  gode men, and despoiled of dignitees, and defouled of my name
  by gessinge, have suffred torment for my gode dedes. Certes,
  me semeth that I see the felonous covines of wikked men               220
  habounden in Ioye and in gladnesse. And I see that every
  lorel shapeth him to finde out newe fraudes for to accuse gode
  folk. And I see that gode men beth overthrowen for drede
  of my peril; and every luxurious tourmentour dar doon alle
  felonye unpunisshed and ben excited therto by yiftes; and             225
  innocents ne ben not only despoiled of sikernesse but of defence;
  and therfore me list to cryen _to god_ in this wyse:--

PR. IV. 1. C. Felistow; A. Felest thou. 2. A. Art thou. // C. wepistow; A.
wepest thou. 3. A. spillest thou. 9. C. sen; A. seen. 11. A. sege (_for_
sete). 12. _So_ A.; C. deuynyte. // C. _om. 2nd_ touchinge. 13. C. _om._ it
is. 14. C. om. _quasi ... non_. 17. _After_ this, C. _has_ nonne; A. _has_
ironice. // C. gerdou_n_s; A. gerdou_n_ (Lat. _praemia_). 18. C.
conformedest (Lat. _sanxisti_); see note. 19. C. Mowht; A. mouthe. 20. A.
comunabletes. 22. A. studieden in grete wisdomes. 25. C. whise; A. wyse.
26. A. of comune citees (Lat. _urbium_). 27. C. citesenes; A. citizenis.
29. A. folowynge. // C. autorite; A. auctoritee. 30. C. excussioun(!); A.
execusioun. 32. C. whise; A. wise. 33. A. knowen; C. _has the gloss_ concij
(= conscii). 34. C. dignete; A. dignite. // C. _om._ the. 36. _So_ A.; C.
descordes. // _Above_ preyeres, C. _has_ i. est inexorabiles. 37. A. _om.
2nd_ the. 38. C. sauacioun; A. saluacioun. 40. C. recisted. // C. hyhte; A.
hy[gh]t. 41. C. Ed. prosp_er_e; A. p_ro_pre. 42. A. poure. // C. fookk; A.
folke. 45. C. deffended; A. defended. // C. autorite; A. auctorite. 47. C.
vnpunyssed; A. -nysched. 49. C. ne drowh; A. drowe. 50. A. rychesse. // C.
_om. 2nd_ the. 51. A. eyther (_for_ outher). // C. pryuey; A. priue. // C.
Raueynes; A. rauynes. 54. C. yer; A. yere. 55. C. A. solde. 58. C. sowr_e_;
A. soure (Lat. _acerbae famis tempore_). 59. A. establissed; C.
estabelissed. // C. vnplitable; A. inplitable (Lat. _inexplicabilis_). 61.
Ed. Campayne; C. A. Compaygne. 64. _The gloss_ (Coempcioun ... part) _is
misplaced in both_ MSS., _so as to precede_ Whan it was (58). 65. C.
estabelissed. // A. _om._ the. 66. C. imposiscioun. // C. bossel; A.
busshel. 68. _So_ A.; C. consoler (!). // A. rychesse. 69. C. palysse; A.
palays. 70. C. drowh; A. drowe. 71. sc. faucibus _from_ A. 73. C. punisse;
A. punischen. // C. conseyler. 75. A. yseyne. 77. A. asseured. 78. _After_
no-thing, C. _adds_ i. affinite. 79. C. _om. 2nd_ the. 81. A. _om. 2nd_
the. 82, 85. C. whilom; A. somtyme. 84. C. caudencius (_wrongly_). 88. C.
sentuarye; A. seyntuaries. 89. C. _om._ was. 90. C. assingned; A. assigned.
91. C. me (= men); A. men. // C. marke; A. merken. 92. A. _om._ the. // C.
_om._ thee. 93. C. crwelte. 94. C. resseyued. 98. C. asshamyd; A. asshamed.
99. C. whas. 101. A. axest thou. 102. C. desires. 104. C. destorbed; A.
distourbed. 106. C. mayst_er_esse; A. meistresse.  A. demest thou. 109. C.
_om._ that. 109. C. I am; A. Ed. _om._ I. 110. C. destorbed. 111. A. a
felonie than. 114. C. and (_for_ or). 119. C. A. put. 120. C. whise. 122.
C. shellen; A. schollen (_better_ shullen). 123. A. _om. 2nd_ in.  C.
thowchinge. 125. C. _om._ Of whiche lettres. 129. C. _om._ what. // C.
hoepen. 133. C. _om._ Canius. 136. C. sorw. 137. C. felonies; A. folies
(Lat. _scelerata_). // A. vertues (_wrongly_). 138. C. han; A. had
(_better_ hadde). 139. C. _om._ to. 148. C. gon and; A. Ed. _om._ and. 151.
C. willene; A. wilne. 153. C. rwledest. 154. C. _om. 1st_ the. 155. C.
transpor(!).  C. vp; A. vp on. 157. C. deffendede. 158. A. _om. 2nd_ ne.
159. C. resseyueth; A. resceiueth. 162. C. resseyue; A. receiue. 163. A. in
(_for_ for). // _Both_ gerdoun; Ed. gwerdone. 164. C. crwelte. 171. C.
punyssed; A. punysched. 172. A. conuict; C. _con_uict. // _So_ A.; C.
remwed. 173. C. paas. 176. C. m_er_ite; A. mercye; (_gloss in_ C. ironice;
O meritos). 179. C. dirken. 180. C. an; A. on. 181. C. sacrilege; _glossed_
sorcerie. 183. C. alle; A. al. 185. C. _om. 2nd_ in. 187. _in margin of_
C.; Homo debet seruire deo et non diis. // C. _om._ was. // A. no couenaunt
(Lat. _Nec conueniebat_). 188. A. spirites; C. spirite (Lat. _spirituum_).
189. C. and; A. or. 190. C. chaumbyr; A. chaumbre. 191. C. compaygnye; A.
compaignie. 193. C. deffenden. // C. from; A. of. 195. C. the philosophre;
A. the philosophie (Lat. _te_). 196. A. enchau_n_tementz. 198. C.
thechinges. 207. A. _Glosa_. 208. C. who; A. who so. 217. C. desserued.
218. C. of (1); A. from. 223. C. beth; A. ben. 225. C. vnpunnysshed; A.
vnpunissed. 227. C. wise; A. manere; Ed. maner.


_O stelliferi conditor orbis._

  O thou maker of the whele that bereth the sterres, which that
  art y-fastned to thy perdurable chayer, and tornest the hevene
  with a ravisshing sweigh, and constreinest the sterres to suffren
  thy lawe; so that the mone som-tyme shyning with hir ful hornes,
  meting with alle the bemes of the sonne hir brother, hydeth the         5
  sterres that ben lesse; and somtyme, whan the mone, pale with
  hir derke hornes, approcheth the sonne, leseth hir lightes; and
  that the eve-sterre Hesperus, whiche that in the firste tyme of
  the night bringeth forth hir colde arysinges, cometh eft ayein
  hir used cours, and is pale _by the morwe_ at the rysing of the        10
  sonne, and is thanne cleped Lucifer. Thou restreinest the day
  by shorter dwelling, in the tyme of colde winter that maketh
  the leves to falle. Thou dividest the swifte tydes of the night,
  whan the hote somer is comen. Thy might atempreth the
  variaunts sesons of the yere; so that Zephirus the deboneir            15
  wind bringeth ayein, _in the first somer sesoun_, the leves that
  the wind that highte Boreas hath reft awey _in autumpne, that
  is to seyn, in the laste ende of somer_; and the sedes that the
  sterre that highte Arcturus saw, ben waxen heye cornes whan the
  sterre Sirius eschaufeth hem. Ther nis no-thing unbounde from          20
  his olde lawe, ne forleteth the werke of his propre estat.

  O thou governour, governinge alle thinges by certein ende, why
  refusestow only to governe the werkes of men by dewe manere?
  Why suffrest thou that slydinge fortune torneth so grete entrechaunginges
  of thinges, so that anoyous peyne, that sholde dewely                  25
  punisshe felouns, punissheth innocents? And folk of wikkede
  maneres sitten in heye chayres, and anoyinge folk treden, and
  that unrightfully, on the nekkes of holy men? And vertu cler-shyninge
  naturelly is hid in derke derkenesses, and the rightful
  man bereth the blame and the peyne of the feloun. Ne forsweringe       30
  ne the fraude, covered and kembd with a fals colour,
  ne anoyeth nat to shrewes; the whiche shrewes, whan hem list
  to usen hir strengthe, they reioysen hem to putten under hem
  the sovereyne kinges, whiche that poeple with-outen noumbre
  dreden.                                                                35

  O thou, what so ever thou be that knittest alle bondes of
  thinges, loke on thise wrecchede erthes; we men that ben nat
  a foule party, but a fayr party of so grete a werk, we ben
  tormented in this see of fortune. Thou governour, withdraw
  and restreyne the ravisshinge flodes, and fastne and ferme thise       40
  erthes stable with thilke bonde, with whiche thou governest the
  hevene that is so large.'

ME. V. 1. C. whel; A. whele. 3. C. Rauessyng; A. rauyssyng. // C. sweyh; A.
sweigh; Ed. sweygh. 4. C. wyt (_for_ with). 6. A. lasse. // C. wan (_for_
whan). 9. C. est; A. eft (Lat. _iterum_). // A. a[gh]eynes. 10. C. _om._
the _after_ at. 13. C. falle; A. to falle. // C. swift; A. swifte. 14. C.
wan (_for_ whan). 15. C. sesoun (_wrongly_); A. sesons. 17. C. hihte; A.
hy[gh]t. // C. borias. 19. C. hihte; A. hy[gh]t. // C. sawgh; A. saw. // C.
hyye; A. hey. // C. wan. 20. C. eschaufed; A. eschaufeth; (Lat. _urat_). //
C. fram. 21. C. the werke; A. hym. 23. C. refowsestow; A. refusest thou. //
C. dwwe; A. dewe. 24. C. suffres. // C. so; A. to. // A. vtter; (_for_
entre-). 25. C. dwwelly; A. duelly. 26. C. punysshe; A. punissit[gh]. 27.
C. heer_e_; A. hei[gh]e (Lat. _celsos_). // C. chayres; A. chaiers. 28. C.
oon (_read_ on); A. in. 29. A. clere and shynyng (Lat. _clara_). 30. A. Ne
the forsweryng. 32. C. weche (_for_ whiche). // C. wan (_for_ whan). 34. C.
weche. // C. nowmbyr; A. noumbre. 38. C. _om._ a _bef._ werk. 39. C. this;
A. the. // C. withdrawh. 40. C. restryne; A. restreyne. // C. thei (_for_
the). // C. rauesynge; A. rauyssinge. 41. C. by whiche; A. with whiche


_Hic ubi continuato dolore delatraui._

  Whan I hadde, with a continuel sorwe, sobbed or borken out
  thise thinges, she with hir chere pesible, and no-thing amoeved
  with my compleintes, seide thus: 'Whan I say thee,' quod she,
  'sorweful and wepinge, I wiste anon that thou were a wrecche
  and exiled; but I wiste never how fer thyne exile was, yif thy          5
  tale ne hadde shewed it to me. But certes, al be thou fer fro thy
  contree, thou nart nat put out of it; but thou hast failed of thy
  weye and gon amis. And yif thou hast lever for to wene that
  thou be put out of thy contree, than hast thou put out thy-self
  rather than any other wight hath. For no wight but thy-self ne         10
  mighte never han don that to thee. For yif thou remembre of
  what contree thou art born, it nis nat governed by emperours, ne
  by governement of multitude, as weren the contrees of hem of
  Athenes; but oo lord and oo king, _and that is god, that is lord of
  thy contree_, whiche that reioyseth him of the dwelling of hise        15
  citezenes, and nat for to putte hem in exil; of the whiche lorde
  it is a soverayne fredom to be governed by the brydel of him and
  obeye to his Iustice. Hastow foryeten thilke right olde lawe of thy
  citee, in the whiche citee it is ordeined and establisshed, that for
  what wight that hath lever founden ther-in his sete or his hous than   20
  elles-wher, he may nat be exiled by no right from that place? For
  who-so that is contened in-with the palis and the clos of thilke citee,
  ther nis no drede that he may deserve to ben exiled. But who-so
  that leteth the wil for to enhabite there, he forleteth also to deserve
  to ben citezein of thilke citee. So that I sey, that the face of this  25
  place ne moveth me nat so mochel as thyne owne face. Ne I
  axe nat rather the walles of thy librarie, aparayled and wrought
  with yvory and with glas, than after the sete of thy thought. In
  whiche I putte nat whylom bokes, but I putte that that maketh
  bokes worthy of prys or precious, that is to seyn, the sentence of     30
  my bokes. And certeinly of thy desertes, bistowed in comune
  good, thou hast seid sooth, but after the multitude of thy gode
  dedes, thou hast seid fewe; and of the honestee or of the falsnesse
  of thinges that ben aposed ayeins thee, thou hast remembred
  thinges that ben knowen to alle folk. And of the felonyes and          35
  fraudes of thyne accusours, it semeth thee have y-touched it forsothe
  rightfully and shortly, al mighten tho same thinges betere
  and more plentivousely ben couth in the mouthe of the poeple
  that knoweth al this.

  Thou hast eek blamed gretly and compleined of the wrongful             40
  dede of the senat. And thou hast sorwed for my blame, and thou
  hast wopen for the damage of thy renoun that is apayred; and thy
  laste sorwe eschaufede ayeins fortune, and compleinest that guerdouns
  ne ben nat evenliche yolden to the desertes of folk. And
  in the latere ende of thy wode Muse, thou preyedest that thilke        45
  pees that governeth the hevene sholde governe the erthe. But
  for that manye tribulaciouns of affecciouns han assailed thee, and
  sorwe and ire and wepinge to-drawen thee dyversely; as thou art
  now feble of thought, mightier remedies ne shullen nat yit touchen
  thee, for whiche we wol usen somdel lighter medicines: so that         50
  thilke passiouns that ben woxen harde in swellinge, by perturbaciouns
  flowing in-to thy thought, mowen wexen esy and softe,
  to receiven the strengthe of a more mighty and more egre
  medicine, by an esier touchinge.

PR. V. 1. C. _om._ a. // C. borken (= barked); A. broken (Lat.
_delatraui_). 2. A. peisible. 4. C. soruful; A. sorweful. // C. wrechche;
A. wrecche. 6. C. nadde; A. ne hadde. // A. to me; C. _om._ to. 8. C. wey;
A. weye. 11. C. remenbre; A. remembre. 13. C. _om._ hem of. 16. C.
cytesenis; A. citezenis. C. put; A. putte. 17. C. brydul; A. bridel. 18. C.
hasthow; A. hast thou. 19. C. weche. 20. C. whyht; A. wy[gh]t. 21. C. wer;
A. where. 22. C. contyned; A. contened. // C. palys; A. paleis (Lat.
_uallo_). 23. C. desserue. 25. C. cytesein; A. Citezein. // C. face,
_glossed_ i. manere (Lat. _facies_). 26. C. moueth; A. amoeueth. 27. A. Ne
I ne axe. // C. wrowht; A. wrou[gh]t. 29. C. put; A. putte (_twice_). // C.
whilom; A. somtyme. 30. C. presyous. 32. C. seyde; A. seid. 33. A.
vnhonestee (_wrongly_). 34. A. Ed. opposed. // C. remenbryd. 36. C.
Acusours. // C. I-twoched (_for_ I-towched); A. I-touched. 38: C. mowhth;
A. mouthe. 42. A. wepen. 43. C. A. gerdouns; Ed. guerdons. 44. C. _om._
nat. 45. C. later_e_; A. l_att_re. // C. _glosses_ wode _by_ s. seuientis.
52. A. p_er_turbac_i_ou_n_ folowyng (_wrongly_).


_Cum Phebi radiis graue
Cancri sidus inestuat._

  Whan that the hevy sterre of the Cancre eschaufeth by the
  bemes of Phebus, _that is to seyn, whan that Phebus the sonne is
  in the signe of the Cancre_, who-so yeveth thanne largely hise sedes
  to the feldes that refusen to receiven hem, lat him gon, bigyled of
  trust that he hadde to his corn, to acorns of okes. Yif thou wolt       5
  gadre violettes, ne go thou not to the purpur wode whan the feld,
  chirkinge, agryseth of colde by the felnesse of the winde that highte
  Aquilon. Yif thou desirest or wolt usen grapes, ne seke thou nat,
  with a glotonous hond, to streyne and presse the stalkes of the
  vine in the ferst somer sesoun; for Bachus, the god of wyne, hath      10
  rather yeven hise yiftes to autumpne, _the later ende of somer_.

  God tokneth and assigneth the tymes, ablinge hem to hir
  propres offices; ne he ne suffreth nat the stoundes whiche that
  him-self hath devyded and constreyned to ben y-medled to-gidere.
  And forthy he that forleteth certein ordinaunce of doinge by
      over-throwinge                                                     15
  wey, he ne hath no glade issue or ende of his werkes.

ME. VI. 1. C. ca_n_kyr; A. Ed. cancre. 2. C. beemes; A. beme (Lat.
_radiis_). 3. C. cankyr; A. Ed. Cancre. 4. C. feeldes. // C. Reseyue; A.
receiuen. // C. _glosses_ hem _by_ s. corn. 5. C. Accornes of Okes; A.
acorns or okes. // C. wolt; A. wilt. 6. C. gadery; A. gadre. // C. feeld;
A. felde. 7. C. felnesses; A. felnesse. // C. hyhte; A. hy[gh]t. 9. C.
stryne; A. streyne. 11. C. later; A. latter. 13. C. propres; A. propre. 16.
C. issw; A. issue.


_Primum igitur paterisne me pauculis rogacionibus._

  First woltow suffre me to touche and assaye the estat of thy
  thought by a fewe demaundes, so that I may understonde what
  be the manere of thy curacioun?'

  'Axe me,' quod I, 'at thy wille, what thou wolt, and I shal
  answere.'                                                               5

  Tho seide she thus: 'Whether wenestow,' quod she, 'that
  this world be governed by foolish happes and fortunous, or
  elles that ther be in it any governement of resoun?'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'I ne trowe nat in no manere, that so
  certein thinges sholde be moeved by fortunous fortune; but I           10
  wot wel that god, maker and mayster, is governour of his werk.
  Ne never nas yit day that mighte putte me out of the sothnesse
  of that sentence.'

  'So is it,' quod she; 'for the same thing songe thou a litel
  her-biforn, and biweyledest and biweptest, that only men weren         15
  put out of the cure of god. For of alle other thinges thou
  ne doutedest nat that they nere governed by resoun. But owh!
  (_i. pape!_) I wondre gretly, certes, why that thou art syk, sin
  that thou art put in so holsom a sentence. But lat us seken
  depper; I coniecte that ther lakketh I not nere what. But              20
  sey me this: sin that thou ne doutest nat that this world be
  governed by god, with whiche governailes takestow hede that
  it is governed?'

  'Unnethe,' quod I, 'knowe I the sentence of thy questioun;
  so that I ne may nat yit answeren to thy demaundes.'                   25

  'I nas nat deceived,' quod she, 'that ther ne faileth somwhat,
  by whiche the maladye of thy perturbacioun is crept into
  thy thought, so as the strengthe of the palis chyning is open.
  But sey me this: remembrest thou what is the ende of thinges,
  and whider that the entencioun of alle kinde tendeth?'                 30

  'I have herd it told som-tyme,' quod I; 'but drerinesse hath
  dulled my memorie.'

  'Certes,' quod she, 'thou wost wel whennes that alle thinges
  ben comen and procedeth?'

  'I wot wel,' quod I, and answerede, that 'god is beginning             35
  of al.'

  'And how may this be,' quod she, 'that, sin thou knowest
  the beginning of thinges, that thou ne knowest nat what is the
  ende of thinges? But swiche ben the customes of perturbaciouns,
  and this power they han, that they may moeve a                         40
  man out of his place, _that is to seyn, fro the stablenes and perfeccioun
  of his knowinge_; but, certes, they may nat al arace
  him, ne aliene him in al. But I wolde that thou woldest
  answere to this: remembrestow that thou art a man?'

  'Why sholde I nat remembre that?' quod I.                              45

  'Maystow nat telle me thanne,' quod she, 'what thing is a man?'

  'Axestow me nat,' quod I, 'whether that I be a resonable
  mortal beest? I woot wel, and I confesse wel that I am it.'

  'Wistestow never yit that thou were any other thing?' quod
  she.                                                                   50

  'No,' quod I.

  'Now woot I,' quod she, 'other cause of thy maladye, and
  that right grete. Thou hast left for to knowen thy-self, what
  thou art; thorugh whiche I have pleynly founden the cause of
  thy maladye, or elles the entree of recoveringe of thyn hele.          55
  For-why, for thou art confounded with foryeting of thy-self, for-thy
  sorwestow that thou art exiled of thy propre goodes. And
  for thou ne wost what is the ende of thinges, for-thy demestow
  that felonous and wikked men ben mighty and weleful. And
  for thou hast foryeten by whiche governements the world is             60
  governed, for-thy wenestow that thise mutaciouns of fortune
  fleten with-oute governour. Thise ben grete causes not only
  to maladye, but, certes, grete causes to deeth. But I thanke
  the auctor and the maker of hele, that nature hath not al
  forleten thee. I have grete norisshinges of thyn hele, and that        65
  is, the sothe sentence of governaunce of the worlde; that thou
  bilevest that the governinge of it nis nat subiect ne underput
  to the folie of thise happes aventurous, but to the resoun of
  god. And ther-for doute thee no-thing; for of this litel spark
  thyn hete of lyf shal shyne.                                           70

  But for as moche as it is nat tyme yit of faster remedies, and
  the nature of thoughtes deceived is this, that as ofte as they
  casten awey sothe opiniouns, they clothen hem in false opiniouns,
  of which false opiniouns the derkenesse of perturbacioun wexeth
  up, that confoundeth the verray insighte: and that derkenesse          75
  shal I assaye som-what to maken thinne and wayk by lighte
  and meneliche remedies; so that, after that the derkenesse of
  deceivinge desiringes is don awey, thou mowe knowe the shyninge
  of verray light.

PR. VI. 1. C. woltow; A. wolt thou. // C. estat; A. stat. 6. C. wheyther.
// C. weenesthow; A. wenest thou. 8. A. _ins._ wenest thou _after_ elles.
9. A. _om. 2nd_ I. 11. C. his; A. this (Lat. _suo_). 12. C. put; A. putte.
14. C. lytul; A. lytel. 17. C. dowtedest, A. doutest. // C. owh; A. how;
Ed. ough. 18. C. syk; A. seek. 19. C. sin that; A. sithen. // A. in-to
(_for_ in). 20. A. _om._ ner_e_. 21. C. syn; A. sithen. 22. A. takest thou.
23. C. _om._ it. 25. C. _om._ nat. // A. demaunde (Lat. _inquisita_). 26.
C. desseyued. 27. C. of thi; A. _om._ thi. 28. C. palys chynyng; A. paleys
schynyng (Lat. _hiante ualli robore_). 29. C. remenbres. // A. _adds_ thi
_bef._ thinges; _and om._ and. 30. C. entensyn. 34. A. p_ro_ceded. 35. A.
is the. 37. C. syn; A. sithen. 39. A. endyng. 42. C. arrace; A. arace. 44.
C. Remenbresthow; A. remembrest thou. 45. C. remenbre. 46. C. Maysthow; A.
Maiste thou. // C. thinge. 47. C. Axestow me nat; A. Axest not me. // C.
wheither. // A. _om._ I _after_ that. 48. A. best mortel. 49. C.
Wystesthow; A. Wistest thou. 54. C. fwonde; A. knowen. 56. C. confwndyd.
57. C. sorwistow; A. sorwest thou. 58. C. domesthow; A. demest. 59. A.
_om._ And. 60. C. ast foryeeten. // C. gou_er_nement; A. gouernementz (Lat.
_gubernaculis_). 61. A. wenest thou. 63. C. thi deth; A. (_rightly_) _om._
thi. 64. C. alle; A. al. 65. A. _ins._ and _before_ I have. 67. A. subgit.
// C. -putte; A. -put. 68. C. Auentros; A. auenturouses; Ed. auenturous. //
C. _om._ to. 69. C. lytul; A. litel. 70. A. heet. 71. C. meche (= moche).
72. C. desseyued; A. disseiued. 74. C. dirkenesse; A. derknesse. // C.
perturba (!). // C. wexit. 78. C. A. desseyuynge.


_Nubibus atris._

  The sterres, covered with blake cloudes, ne mowen yeten
  a-doun no light. Yif the trouble wind that hight Auster, turning
  and walwinge the see, medleth the hete, _that is to seyn,
  the boyling up from the botme_; the wawes, that whylom weren
  clere as glas and lyke to the faire clere dayes, withstande anon        5
  the sightes of men by the filthe and ordure that is resolved.
  And the fletinge streem, that royleth doun dyversly fro heye
  mountaignes, is arested and resisted ofte tyme by the encountringe
  of a stoon that is departed and fallen from som roche.

  And for-thy, yif thou wolt loken and demen sooth with cleer            10
  light, and holden the wey with a right path, weyve thou Ioye,
  dryf fro thee drede, fleme thou hope, ne lat no sorwe aproche;
  _that is to seyn, lat non of thise four passiouns over-comen thee
  or blende thee_. For cloudy and derke is thilke thought, and
  bounde with brydles, where-as thise thinges regnen.'                   15

ME. VII. 1. C. Ed. yeten; A. geten. 2. C. A. wynde. 4. C. Ed. whilom; A.
somtyme. 5. C. lyk; A. lyke. // C. cleer_e_ dayes and brihte; A. bry[gh]t
dayes. // C. withstand; A. withstant. 7. C. hy; A. hey[gh]e. 9. C. fram.
14. C. A. dirke. 15. C. were (_for_ where). // C. reygnen; A. regnen.




_Postea paulisper conticuit._

  After this she stinte a litel; and, after that she hadde gadered
  by atempre stillenesse myn attencioun, she seide thus: (_As who
  mighte seyn thus: After thise thinges she stinte a litel; and whan
  she aperceived by atempre stillenesse that I was ententif to herkene
  hir, she bigan to speke in this wyse_): 'Yif I,' quod she, 'have        5
  understonden and knowen outrely the causes and the habit of
  thy maladye, thou languissest and art defeted for desyr and
  talent of thy rather fortune. She, that ilke Fortune only, that
  is chaunged, as thou feynest, to thee-ward, hath perverted the
  cleernesse and the estat of thy corage. I understonde the              10
  fele-folde colours and deceites of thilke merveilous monstre
  Fortune, and how she useth ful flateringe familaritee with hem
  that she enforceth to bigyle; so longe, til that she confounde
  with unsufferable sorwe hem that she hath left in despeyr unpurveyed.
  And yif thou remembrest wel the kinde, the maneres,                    15
  and the desert of thilke Fortune, thou shalt wel knowe that,
  as in hir, thou never ne haddest ne hast y-lost any fair thing.
  But, as I trowe, I shal nat gretly travailen to do thee remembren
  on thise thinges. For thou were wont to hurtelen and despysen
  hir, with manly wordes, whan she was blaundissinge and present,        20
  and pursewedest hir with sentences that were drawen out of myn
  entree, _that is to seyn, out of myn informacioun_. But no sodein
  mutacioun ne bitydeth nat with-oute a manere chaunginge of
  corages; and so is it befallen that thou art a litel departed
  fro the pees of thy thought.                                           25

  But now is tyme that thou drinke and ataste some softe and
  delitable thinges; so that, whan they ben entred with-in thee,
  it mowe maken wey to strengere drinkes of medicynes. Com
  now forth therfore the suasioun of swetenesse rethorien, whiche
  that goth only the right wey, whyl she forsaketh nat myne estatuts.    30
  And with Rhetorice com forth Musice, a damisel of our hous,
  that singeth now lighter moedes _or prolaciouns_, now hevyer.
  What eyleth thee, man? What is it that hath cast thee in-to
  morninge and in-to wepinge? I trowe that thou hast seyn
  som newe thing and uncouth. Thou wenest that Fortune be                35
  chaunged ayein thee; but thou wenest wrong, yif thou that
  wene. Alwey tho ben hir maneres; she hath rather kept, as
  to thee-ward, hir propre stablenesse in the chaunginge of hir-self.
  Right swich was she whan she flatered thee, and deceived               40
  thee with unleveful lykinges of fals welefulnesse. Thou
  hast now knowen and ataynt the doutous or double visage of
  thilke blinde goddesse Fortune. She, that yit covereth hir and
  wimpleth hir to other folk, hath shewed hir every-del to thee.
  Yif thou aprovest hir and thenkest that she is good, use hir
  maneres and pleyne thee nat. And yif thou agrysest hir false           45
  trecherye, despyse and cast awey hir that pleyeth so harmfully;
  for she, that is now cause of so muche sorwe to thee, sholde
  ben cause to thee of pees and of Ioye. She hath forsaken
  thee, forsothe; the whiche that never man may ben siker that
  she ne shal forsake him.                                               50

  GLOSE. _But natheles, some bokes han the text thus_: For sothe,
  she hath forsaken thee, ne ther nis no man siker that she ne
  hath nat forsaken.

  Holdestow than thilke welefulnesse precious to thee that shal
  passen? And is present Fortune dereworthe to thee, which that          55
  nis nat feithful for to dwelle; and, whan she goth awey, that
  she bringeth a wight in sorwe? For sin she may nat ben withholden
  at a mannes wille, she maketh him a wrecche whan she
  departeth fro him. What other thing is flittinge Fortune but a
  maner shewinge of wrecchednesse that is to comen? Ne it ne             60
  suffyseth nat only to loken on thinge that is present biforn the
  eyen of a man. But wisdom loketh and amesureth the ende
  of thinges; and the same chaunginge from oon in-to an-other,
  _that is to seyn, from adversitee in-to prosperitee_, maketh that the
  manaces of Fortune ne ben nat for to dreden, ne the flateringes        65
  of hir to ben desired. Thus, at the laste, it bihoveth thee to
  suffren with evene wille in pacience al that is don in-with the
  floor of Fortune, _that is to seyn, in this world_, sin thou hast
  ones put thy nekke under the yok of hir. For yif thou wolt
  wryten a lawe of wendinge and of dwellinge to Fortune, whiche          70
  that thou hast chosen frely to ben thy lady, artow nat wrongful
  in that, and makest Fortune wroth and aspere by thyn inpatience,
  and yit thou mayst nat chaunge hir?

  Yif thou committest and bitakest thy sailes to the winde, thou
  shall be shoven, not thider that thou woldest, but whider that the     75
  wind shoveth thee. Yif thou castest thy sedes in-to the feldes,
  thou sholdest han in minde that the yeres ben, amonges, other-whyle
  plentevous and other-whyle bareyne. Thou hast bitaken
  thy-self to the governaunce of Fortune, and for-thy it bihoveth
  thee to ben obeisaunt to the maneres of thy lady. Enforcest            80
  thou thee to aresten or withholden the swiftnesse and the sweigh
  of hir turninge whele? O thou fool of alle mortal fooles, if
  Fortune bigan to dwelle stable, she cesede thanne to ben

PR. I. 1. C. lytul; A. litel; (_and so below_). // A. she; C. I
(_wrongly_). 2. C. atencioun. 4. C. aperseyuyd; A. aperceiued. 5. C. here;
A. hire. // C. whise. 6. A. vtterly. 7. C. maledye. // A. talent and
desijr. 9. C. changed; A. chaunged. 10. A. astat. 11. C. feelefold; A.
felefolde. // A. colo_ur_. // C. meruayles; A. merueillous. 14. C.
onsufferabele; A. vnsuffreable. // C. dyspeyr; A. despeir. 15. C.
remenbrest. 16. A. _om._ that. 17. C. thinge. 18. C. remenbr_e_; A.
remembren. 19. C. on; A. of. // C. hurtelyn; A. hurtlen. 20. C. wan. // C.
_om._ was. 21. C. purswedest; A. pursewedest. 24. A. departed a litel. 26.
C. ataast; A. atast. 29. C. suacyou_n_; A. suasiou_n_. 30. C. estatutes; A.
estatutz. 31. A. damoisel. 32. C. A. moedes (Lat. _modos_). // C.
probasyons; A. prolaciouns. 36. C. weenes. 38. C. stabylnesse; A.
stablenes. // C. _ins._ standeth _bef._ in. // C. chau_n_nynge. 40. C.
desseyued; A. desseiued. // C. vnlefful; A. vnleueful. 42. C. coueryht. 43.
C. hat (_for_ hath). 44. C. thinkest; A. thenkest. // C. god; A. goode. 48.
A. to the cause. 53. C. forsake; A. forsaken. 54. C. holdestow; A. holdest
thou. // C. p_re_syes; A. p_re_ciouse. 56. C. feythfulle; A. feithful. 57.
C. whitholden. 62. A. _om._ a. // A. mesureth. 63. C. fram. 64. C. in-to;
A. to. 65. C. manesses; A. manaces. 67. C. wit. 68. C. syn; A. sythen. 69.
C. welt; A. wilt; Ed. wolt. 71. C. artow; A. art thou. 75. C. thedyr; A.
thider. // C. whedyr. 76. C. A. wynde. // C. in-to; A. in. // C. feeldes.
77. A. _om._ amonges. 78. C. barayne. 81. C. swey[gh]; A. sweyes (Lat.
_impetum_). 82. C. wheel; A. whele.


_Hec cum superba uerterit uices dextra._

  Whan Fortune with a proud right hand hath torned hir
  chaunginge stoundes, she fareth lyk the maneres of the boilinge
  Eurype. GLOSA. _Eurype is an arm of the see that ebbeth and
  floweth; and som-tyme the streem is on o syde, and som-tyme on
  the other._ TEXT. She, cruel Fortune, casteth adoun kinges              5
  that whylom weren y-drad; and she, deceivable, enhaunseth up
  the humble chere of him that is discomfited. Ne she neither
  hereth ne rekketh of wrecchede wepinges; and she is so hard
  that she laugheth and scorneth the wepinges of hem, the whiche
  she hath maked wepe with hir free wille. Thus she pleyeth,             10
  and thus she proeueth hir strengthes; and sheweth a greet wonder
  to alle hir servauntes, yif that a wight is seyn weleful, and over-throwe
  in an houre.

ME. I. 3. C. A. Eurippe (_twice_); Ed. Eurype. 5. C. the; A. that. 6. C.
whilom; A. somtyme. // C. enhanseth; A. enhau_n_seth. 7. C. vmble; A.
humble. // C. descounfited; A. discomfited. // C. Ne; A. and. 9. C.
lyssheth; A. lau[gh]eth; Ed. laugheth (Lat. _ridet_.) 11. A. p_re_ueth. //
A. strengthe (Lat. _uires_). // C. A. grete. 12. C. whiht; A. wy[gh]t.


_Vellem autem pauca tecum._

  Certes, I wolde pleten with thee a fewe thinges, usinge the
  wordes of Fortune; tak hede now thy-self, yif that she axeth
  right. "O thou man, wher-fore makest thou me gilty by thyne
  every-dayes pleyninges? What wrong have I don thee? What
  goodes have I bireft thee that weren thyne? Stryf or plete              5
  with me, bifore what Iuge that thou wolt, of the possessioun
  of richesses or of dignitees. And yif thou mayst shewen me
  that ever any mortal man hath received any of tho thinges to
  ben hise in propre, than wol I graunte frely that alle thilke
  thinges weren thyne whiche that thou axest. Whan that nature           10
  broughte thee forth out of thy moder wombe, I receyved thee
  naked and nedy of alle thinges, and I norisshede thee with my
  richesses, and was redy and ententif through my favour to
  susteyne thee; and that maketh thee now inpacient ayeins me;
  and I envirounde thee with alle the aboundance and shyninge            15
  of alle goodes that ben in my right. Now it lyketh me to
  with-drawen my hand; thou hast had grace as he that hath
  used of foreine goodes: thou hast no right to pleyne thee, as
  though thou haddest outrely for-lorn alle thy thinges. Why
  pleynest thou thanne? I have done thee no wrong. Richesses,            20
  honours, and swiche other thinges ben of my right. My servauntes
  knowen me for hir lady; they comen with me, and departen
  whan I wende. I dar wel affermen hardily, that yif tho thinges,
  of which thou pleynest that thou hast forlorn, hadde ben thyne,
  thou ne haddest not lorn hem. Shal I thanne only ben defended          25
  to usen my right?

  Certes, it is leveful to the hevene to make clere dayes, and,
  after that, to coveren tho same dayes with derke nightes. The
  yeer hath eek leve to apparailen the visage of the erthe, now
  with floures and now with fruit, and to confounden hem som-tyme        30
  with reynes and with coldes. The see hath eek his right
  to ben som-tyme calme and blaundishing with smothe water,
  and som-tyme to ben horrible with wawes and with tempestes.
  But the covetise of men, that may nat ben stanched, shal it
  binde me to ben stedefast, sin that stedefastnesse is uncouth          35
  to my maneres? Swich is my strengthe, and this pley I pleye
  continuely. I torne the whirlinge wheel with the torning cercle;
  I am glad to chaungen the lowest to the heyest, and the heyest
  to the lowest. Worth up, if thou wolt, so it be by this lawe,
  that thou ne holde nat that I do thee wronge thogh thou                40
  descende adoun, whan the resoun of my pley axeth it.

  Wistest thou nat how Cresus, the king of Lydiens, of whiche
  king Cyrus was ful sore agast a litel biforn, that this rewliche
  Cresus was caught of Cyrus and lad to the fyr to ben brent,
  but that a rayn descendede doun fro hevene that rescowede              45
  him? And is it out of thy minde how that Paulus, consul of
  Rome, whan he hadde taken the king of Perciens, weep pitously
  for the captivitee of the self kinge? What other thing biwailen
  the cryinges of tragedies but only the dedes of Fortune, that
  with an unwar stroke overtorneth realmes of grete nobley?              50
  GLOSE. _Tragedie is to seyn, a ditee of a prosperitee for a tyme,
  that endeth in wrecchednesse._

  Lernedest nat thou _in Greke_, whan thou were yonge, that
  in the entree, _or in the celere_, of Iupiter, ther ben couched two
  tonnes; that on is ful of good, that other is ful of harm? What        55
  right hast thou to pleyne, yif thou hast taken more plentevously
  of the goode syde, _that is to seyn, of my richesses and prosperites_;
  and what eek if I ne be nat al departed fro thee? What eek
  yif my mutabilitee yiveth thee rightful cause of hope to han yit
  beter thinges? Natheles dismaye thee nat in thy thought; and           60
  thou that art put in the comune realme of alle, ne desyre nat to
  liven by thyn only propre right.

PR. II. 3. C. makes; A. makest. 4. A. wronges (Lat. _iniuriam_). 5. C.
pleten; A. plete (Lat. _contende_). 8. C. reseyued. // C. tho; A. these. 9.
C. thykke; A. thilke. 11. C. browht; A. brou[gh]t. // C. resseyued. 12. A.
al thing. // C. noryssede; A. norysshed. 13. C. fauor; A. fauo_ur_. 19. A.
vtterly lorn. 20. C. pleynes. 25. C. I shal; A. Shal I. // C. deffendyd.
28. C. coeueryn; A. keuere (_better_ coveren). // C. dirk; A. derke. 29. C.
apayrelyn; A. apparaile. 30. C. frut; A. fruyt. 32. C. kalm; A. calme. //
C. blawndyssynge; A. blaundyshing. 33. C. _om. 2nd_ with. 35. C. stidefast;
A. stedfast. _So_ stide(sted-)fastnesse. 41. C. dessende. // A. dou_n_. //
A. _om._ the. 42. C. wistesthow; A. Wost thou (Lat. _Nesciebas_). // A.
_om._ the. 44. C. kawth; A. cau[gh]t. 45. C. dessendede; A. descended. 48.
C. kapteuite; A. captiuitee. // C. thinge; A. thinges. 49. C. cryenges; A.
criinges. 50. A. the realmes; C. _om._ the. // C. noblye; A. nobley. 54. A.
seler. // C. cowched; A. couched (Lat. _iacere_). 56. C. hasthow. 57. A.
rycchesse. 58. A. _om._ be _and_ al. 59. C. yeueth; A. [gh]iueth. 60. A.
desmaye. 61. A. _om._ the.


_Si quantas rapidis flatibus incitus._

  Though Plentee, _that is goddesse of richesses_, hielde adoun
  with ful horn, and withdraweth nat hir hand, as many richesses
  as the see torneth upward sandes whan it is moeved with
  ravisshinge blastes, or elles as many richesses as ther shynen
  brighte sterres on hevene on the sterry nightes; yit, for al            5
  that, mankinde nolde not cese to wepe wrecchede pleyntes.
  And al be it so that god receyveth gladly hir preyers, and
  yiveth them (as fool-large) moche gold, and aparaileth coveitous
  men with noble or clere honours: yit semeth hem haven y-geten
  no-thing, but alwey hir cruel ravyne, devouringe al that they          10
  han geten, sheweth other gapinges; _that is to seyn, gapen and
  desyren yit after mo richesses_. What brydles mighten withholden,
  to any certein ende, the desordenee covetise of men, whan,
  ever the rather that it fleteth in large yiftes, the more ay brenneth
  in hem the thurst of havinge? Certes he that, quakinge and             15
  dredful, weneth him-selven nedy, he ne liveth never-more riche."

ME. II. 1. A. rycche. // _Both_ hielde; Ed. hylde. 2. A. recches(!). 4. C.
rauyssynge. // A. rycches. 5. A. ny[gh]t (Lat. _noctibus_). 6. C. plentes;
A. pleyntes. 7. C. resseyueth. // C. preyres; A. p_ra_yers. 8. C. A.
yeueth. // A. ful (_for_ fool). 9. A. folk (_for_ men). 10. C. thinge; A.
thing. // C. crewel. 12. A. rycchesse. 15. A. threst. 16. C. leueth; A.
lyueth. // A. -mo.


_Hiis igitur si pro se tecum Fortuna loqueretur._

  Therfor, yif that Fortune spake with thee for hir-self in this
  manere, for-sothe thou ne haddest nat what thou mightest answere.
  And, if thou hast any-thing wherwith, thou mayest rightfully defenden
  thy compleint, it behoveth thee to shewen it; and I wol
  yeven thee space to tellen it.'                                         5

  'Certeynly,' quod I thanne, 'thise beth faire thinges, and
  enointed with hony swetenesse of rethorike and musike; and
  only whyl they ben herd they ben delicious. But to wrecches is
  a depper felinge of harm; _this is to seyn, that wrecches felen the
  harmes that they suffren more grevously than the remedies or the       10
  delites of thise wordes mowen gladen or comforten hem_; so that,
  whan thise thinges stinten for to soune in eres, the sorwe that is
  inset greveth the thought.'

  'Right so is it,' quod she. 'For thise ne ben yit none remedies
  of thy maladye; but they ben a maner norisshinges of thy sorwe,        15
  yit rebel ayein thy curacioun.  For whan that tyme is, I shal
  moeve swiche thinges that percen hem-self depe. But natheles,
  that thou shalt not wilne to leten thy-self a wrecche, hast thou
  foryeten the noumber and the manere of thy welefulnesse? I
  holde me stille, how that the soverayne men of the citee token         20
  thee in cure and kepinge, whan thou were orphelin of fader and
  moder, and were chosen in affinitee of princes of the citee; and
  thou bigunne rather to be leef and dere than forto ben a neighbour;
  the whiche thing is the most precious kinde of any propinquitee
  or alyaunce that may ben. Who is it that ne seide tho                  25
  that thou were right weleful, with so grete a nobleye of thy
  and with the chastitee of thy wyf, and with the oportunitee
  and noblesse of thy masculin children, _that is to seyn, thy sones_?
  And over al this--me list to passen the comune thinges--how
  thou haddest in thy youthe dignitees that weren werned to olde         30
  men. But it delyteth me to comen now to the singuler uphepinge
  of thy welefulnesse. Yif any fruit of mortal thinges may han any
  weighte or prys of welefulnesse, mightest thou ever foryeten, for
  any charge of harm that mighte bifalle, the remembraunce of
  thilke day that thou saye thy two sones maked conseileres, and         35
  y-lad to-gedere fro thyn house under so greet assemblee of
  senatoures and under the blythenesse of poeple; and whan thou
  saye hem set in the court in here chayeres of dignitees? Thou,
  rethorien or pronouncere of kinges preysinges, deservedest glorie
  of wit and of eloquence, whan thou, sittinge bitwene thy two sones,    40
  conseileres, in the place that highte Circo, fulfuldest the abydinge
  of the multitude of poeple that was sprad abouten thee, with so large
  preysinge and laude, as men singen in victories. Tho yave thou
  wordes to Fortune, as I trowe, _that is to seyn, tho feffedest thou
  Fortune with glosinge wordes and deceivedest hir_, whan she acoyede    45
  thee and norisshede thee as hir owne delyces. Thou bere away of
  Fortune a yifte, _that is to seyn, swiche guerdoun_, that she never yaf
  to privee man. Wilt thou therfor leye a rekeninge with Fortune?
  She hath now twinkled first upon thee with a wikkede eye. Yif
  thou considere the noumbre and the manere of thy blisses and           50
  of thy sorwes, thou mayst nat forsaken that thou art yit blisful.
  For if thou therfor wenest thy-self nat weleful, for thinges that
  tho semeden ioyful ben passed, ther nis nat why thou sholdest wene
  thy-self a wrecche; for thinges that semen now sorye passen also.

  Art thou now comen first, a sodein gest, in-to the shadwe or           55
  tabernacle of this lyf; or trowest thou that any stedefastnesse be
  in mannes thinges, whan ofte a swift houre dissolveth the same
  man; _that is to seyn, whan the soule departeth fro the body_? For,
  al-though that selde is ther any feith that fortunous thinges wolen
  dwellen, yit natheles the laste day of a mannes lyf is a manere        60
  deeth to Fortune, and also to thilke that hath dwelt. And therfor,
  what, wenestow, thar [thee] recche, yif thou forlete hir in deyinge,
  or elles that she, _Fortune_, forlete thee in fleeinge awey?

PR. III. 2. A. _om._ nat. 4. A. tellen (_for_ defenden). 6. C. bet (_for_
beth); A. ben. 8. C. delysyos; A. deliciouse. 15. C. maledye. // C.
noryssynges; A. norissinges. // C. sorwes; A. sorwe (Lat. _doloris_). 17.
C. swych; A. swiche. 20. C. souerane; A. souerayn. 23. C. begunne; A.
bygunne. 24. C. neysshebo_ur_; A. ney[gh]bo_ur_. // C. presyous. 26. A.
_om._ tho that. // A. nere (_for_ were). // C. fadyris. 27. C. castete; A.
chastite. 29. C. lyste; A. lyst. // C. the; A. of. 30. A. thought (_for_
youthe); Ed. youthe. 32. C. wel-; A. wele-. // C. frute; A. fruyt. 36. C. A
semble; A. Ed. assemble. 37. C. peeple; A. poeple. 39. C. des-; A. de-. 40.
C. bitwyen; A. bytwix; Ed. bytwene. 41. C. hihte; A. hy[gh]t. // C. A. Ed.
_all insert_ and _before_ fulfuldest; _I omit it, because it obscures the
sense_. 42. A. _om._ the _and_ so. 44. C. to; A. of. 45. _So_ Ed.; C. A.
desseiuedest. 46. C. noryssede; A. norsshed; Ed. norisshed. // A. hast had
(_for_ bere away). // C. bar. 47. C. A. gerdoun; Ed. guerdon. 48. C. lye;
A. leye; Ed. laye (Lat. _ponere_). 49. C. _om._ a. 50. C. blysse
(_wrongly_); A. Ed. blisses. 51. C. art; A. Ed. nart. // C. blysse-; A.
blys-. 53. C. the; A. tho (Lat. _tunc_). 57. C. dyssoluede; A. Ed.
dissolueth. 59. C. al that thowgh; A. Ed. although that. // Ed. selde; C.
[gh]elde (= zelde); A. yelde (= [gh]elde); Lat. _rara_. // C. fortune; A.
Ed. fortunous. 62: C. weenestow; A. wenest thou. // C. dar; A. thar. // _I
supply_ thee. // C. recke; A. recche.


_Cum polo Phebus roseis quadrigis._

  Whan Phebus, the sonne, biginneth to spreden his cleernesse
  with rosene chariettes, thanne the sterre, y-dimmed, paleth hir
  whyte cheres, by the flambes of the sonne that overcometh the
  sterre-light. _This is to seyn, whan the sonne is risen, the dey-sterre
  wexeth pale, and leseth hir light for the grete brightnesse of the      5

  Whan the wode wexeth rody of rosene floures, in the first somer
  sesoun, thorugh the brethe of the winde Zephirus that wexeth
  warm, yif the cloudy wind Auster blowe felliche, than goth awey
  the fairenesse of thornes.                                             10

  Ofte the see is cleer and calm withoute moevinge flodes; and
  ofte the horrible wind Aquilon moeveth boilinge tempestes and
  over-whelveth the see.

  Yif the forme of this worlde is so selde stable, and yif it turneth
  by so many entrechaunginges, wolt thou thanne trusten in the           15
  tomblinge fortunes of men? Wolt thou trowen on flittinge goodes?
  It is certein and establisshed by lawe perdurable, that no-thing that
  is engendred nis stedefast ne stable.'

ME. III. 1. C. hyr; A. Ed. his. 2. C. palyt. 3. A. flamus. 7. C. rosyn; A.
rosene. 9. C. A. wynde. 10. C. thornesse. 11. C. floedes. 13. Ed.
-whelueth; C. -welueeth; A. -whelweth. 14. Ed. selde; C. [gh]eelde (=
zeelde); A. _om._ (Lat. _rara_). 15. C. wolthow; A. Ed. wilt thou. 16. C.
towmblynge; Ed. tomblyng; A. trublynge (Lat. _caducis_). // C. wolthow; A.
Ed. wilt thou. // C. Ed. on; A. in. // C. flettynge; A. flittyng. 17. C. is
it; A. It is. // C. A. establyssed; Ed. establysshed. // C. thinge; A.
thing. 18. C. estable; A. stable.


_Tunc ego, uera, inquam, commemoras._

  Thanne seide I thus: 'O norice of alle vertues, thou seist ful
  sooth; ne I ne may nat forsake the right swifte cours of my
  prosperitee; _that is to seyn, that prosperitee ne be comen to me
  wonder swiftly and sone_. But this is a thing that greetly smerteth
  me whan it remembreth me. For in alle adversitee of fortune,            5
  the most unsely kinde of contrarious fortune is to han ben

  'But that thou,' quod she, 'abyest thus the torment of thy
  false opinioun, that mayst thou nat rightfully blamen ne aretten
  to thinges: _as who seith, for thou hast yit many habundaunces of      10

  TEXT. For al be it so that the ydel name of aventurous
  welefulnesse moeveth thee now, it is leveful that thou rekne with
  me of how manye grete thinges thou hast yit plentee. And
  therfor, yif that thilke thing that thou haddest for most precious     15
  in al thy richesse of fortune be kept to thee yit, by the grace of
  god, unwemmed and undefouled, mayst thou thanne pleyne
  rightfully upon the meschef of Fortune, sin thou hast yit thy
  beste thinges? Certes, yit liveth in good point thilke precious
  honour of mankinde, Symacus, thy wyves fader, which that is            20
  a man maked alle of sapience and of vertu; the whiche man
  thou woldest byen redely with the prys of thyn owne lyf. He
  biwayleth the wronges that men don to thee, and nat for him-self;
  for he liveth in sikernesse of any sentences put ayeins him. And
  yit liveth thy wyf, that is atempre of wit, and passinge other         25
  wimmen in clennesse of chastetee; and for I wol closen shortely
  hir bountees, she is lyk to hir fader.  I telle thee wel, that she
  liveth looth of this lyf, and kepeth to thee only hir goost; and is
  al maat and overcomen by wepinge and sorwe for desyr of thee,
  in the whiche thing only I moot graunten that thy welefulnesse is      30
  amenused. What shal I seyn eek of thy two sones, conseilours,
  of whiche, as of children of hir age, ther shyneth the lyknesse of
  the wit of hir fader or of hir elder fader? And sin the sovereyn
  cure of alle mortel folk is to saven hir owen lyves, O how weleful
  art thou, yif thou knowe thy goodes! For yit ben ther                  35
  thinges dwelled to thee-ward, that no man douteth that they ne
  ben more dereworthe to thee than thyn owen lyf. And for-thy
  drye thy teres, for yit nis nat everich fortune al hateful to thee-ward,
  ne over greet tempest hath nat yit fallen upon thee, whan
  that thyn ancres cleven faste, that neither wolen suffren the          40
  counfort of this tyme present ne the hope of tyme cominge to
  passen ne to faylen.'

  'And I preye,' quod I, 'that faste moten they halden; for
  whyles that they halden, how-so-ever that thinges ben, I shal wel
  fleten forth and escapen; but thou mayst wel seen how grete            45
  aparayles and aray that me lakketh, that ben passed away fro

  'I have som-what avaunsed and forthered thee,' quod she, 'yif
  that thou anoye nat or forthinke nat of al thy fortune: _as who
  seith, I have som-what comforted thee, so that thou tempest thee nat   50
  thus with al thy fortune, sin thou hast yit thy beste thinges_. But
  I may nat suffren thy delices, that pleynest so wepinge and
  anguissous, for that ther lakketh som-what to thy welefulnesse.
  For what man is so sad or of so parfit welefulnesse, that he ne
  stryveth and pleyneth on som halve ayen the qualitee of his            55
  estat? For-why ful anguissous thing is the condicioun of mannes
  goodes; for either it cometh nat al-togider to a wight, or elles it
  last nat perpetuel. For sum man hath grete richesses, but he is
  ashamed of his ungentel linage; and som is renowned of noblesse
  of kinrede, but he is enclosed in so grete anguisshe of nede           60
  of thinges, that him were lever that he were unknowe. And
  som man haboundeth both in richesse and noblesse, but yit he
  bewaileth his chaste lyf, for he ne hath no wyf. And som man is
  wel and selily y-maried, but he hath no children, and norissheth
  his richesses to the eyres of strange folkes. And som man is           65
  gladed with children, but he wepeth ful sory for the trespas of
  his sone or of his doughter. And for this ther ne acordeth no
  wight lightly to the condicioun of his fortune; for alwey to every
  man ther is in som-what that, unassayed, he ne wot nat; or elles
  he dredeth that he hath assayed. And adde this also, that every        70
  weleful man hath a ful delicat felinge; so that, but-yif alle thinges
  bifalle at his owne wil, for he is impacient, or is nat used to han
  non adversitee, anon he is throwen adoun for every litel thing.
  And ful litel thinges ben tho that withdrawen the somme or the
  perfeccioun of blisfulnesse fro hem that ben most fortunat. How        75
  many men, trowest thou, wolden demen hem-self to ben almost in
  hevene, yif they mighten atayne to the leest party of the remnaunt
  of thy fortune? This same place that thou clepest exil, is
  contree to hem that enhabiten heer, and forthy nothing [is]
  wrecched but whan thou wenest it: _as who seith, thou thy-self, ne     80
  no wight elles, nis a wrecche, but whan he weneth him-self a wrecche
  by reputacioun of his corage_. And ayeinward, alle fortune is blisful
  to a man by the agreabletee or by the egalitee of him that
  suffreth it.

  What man is that, that is so weleful, that nolde changen his           85
  estat whan he hath lost pacience? The swetnesse of mannes
  welefulnesse is sprayned with many biternesses; the whiche welefulnesse,
  al-though it seme swete and ioyful to hem that useth it,
  yit may it nat ben with-holden that it ne goth away whan it wole.
  Thanne is it wel sene, how wrecched is the blisfulnesse of mortal      90
  thinges, that neither it dureth perpetuel with hem that every
  fortune receiven agreablely or egaly, ne it delyteth nat in al to
  hem that ben anguissous. O ye mortal folk, what seke ye thanne
  blisfulnesse out of your-self, whiche that is put in your-self?
  Errour and folye confoundeth yow.                                      95

  I shal shewe thee shortely the poynt of sovereyne blisfulnesse.
  Is ther any-thing more precious to thee than thy-self? Thou
  wolt answere, "nay." Thanne, yif it so be that thou art mighty
  over thy-self, _that is to seyn, by tranquillitee of thy sowle_, than
  thou thing in thy power that thou noldest never lesen, ne Fortune     100
  ne may nat beneme it thee. And that thou mayst knowe that
  blisfulnesse ne may nat standen in thinges that ben fortunous
  and temporel, now understonde and gader it to-gidere thus:
  Yif blisfulnesse be the sovereyn good of nature that liveth by
  resoun, ne thilke thing nis nat sovereyn good that may be taken       105
  awey in any wyse, (for more worthy thing and more digne is
  thilke thing that may nat ben taken awey); than sheweth it wel,
  that the unstablenesse of fortune may nat atayne to receiven
  verray blisfulnesse. And yit more-over: what man that this
  toumbling welefulnesse ledeth, either he woot that it is chaungeable, 110
  or elles he woot it nat. And yif he woot it nat, what blisful
  fortune may ther be in the blindnesse of ignorance? And yif he
  woot that it is chaungeable, he moot alwey ben adrad that he ne
  lese that thing that he ne doubteth nat but that he may lesen it;
  _as who seith, he mot ben alwey agast, lest he lese that he wot wel
      he                                                                115
  may lese it_. For which, the continuel dreed that he hath ne
  suffreth him nat to ben weleful. Or yif he lese it, he weneth to
  be dispysed and forleten. Certes eek, that is a ful litel good that
  is born with evene herte whan it is lost; _that is to seyn, that men
  do no more fors of the lost than of the havinge_. And for as moche    120
  as thou thy-self art he, to whom it hath ben shewed and proved
  by ful manye demonstraciouns, as I wot wel, that the sowles of
  men ne mowe nat deyen in no wyse; and eek sin it is cleer and
  certein, that fortunous welefulnesse endeth by the deeth of the
  body; it may nat ben douted that, yif that deeth may take awey        125
  blisfulnesse, that alle the kinde of mortal thinges ne descendeth
  in-to wrecchednesse by the ende of the deeth. And sin we knowen
  wel, that many a man hath sought the fruit of blisfulnesse nat
  only with suffringe of deeth, but eek with suffringe of peynes and
  tormentes; how mighte than this present lyf maken men blisful,        130
  sin that, whan thilke selve lyf is ended, it ne maketh folk no

PR. IV. 1. C. vertuus; A. vertues. 4. C. _om._ a. 6. C. vn[gh]ely (=
vnzely); A. Ed. vnsely. 8. A. abaist (!). // C. tormentz; A. to_ur_ment
(Lat. _supplicium_). 10. C. -daunce; A. Ed. -daunces. 13. C. leefful; A.
leueful. 15. C. thinge; A. thing. 19. C. leueth; A. lyueth. 21. C. _om.
2nd_ of. 24. C. leueth; A. liueth. 29. C. maad; A. maat; Ed. mate. 30. C.
thinge; A. thing. 31. C. amenyssed; A. Ed. amenused. 32. C. lyke-; A. lyk-.
33. A. Ed. eldefadir. 35. A. But (_for_ For). 36. _So_ C. Ed.; A.
dwelly_n_g. // A. -wardes. 40. A. cliue. 42. A. fallen. 43. A. holden. 44.
C. A. halden. 45. C. mayste. 49. A. forthenke. 52. C. delites (?); A. Ed.
delices (Lat. _delicias_). 55. C. Ed. and; A. or. 57. A. _om._ nat. 58. A.
lasteth. // A. p_er_petuely. // A. rycchesse. 59. A. renomed. 60. anguisshe
of] A. angre for. 63. Ed. chaste; C. caste; A. chast. 64. C. zelyly; A. Ed.
selily. // C. hat. // C. noriseth; A. norissheth. 66. C. A. sory; Ed. sore.
69. A. is in mest som-what. 71. A. wel (_for_ ful). 72. Ed. is; C. A. _om._
77. A. remenaunt. 79. _I supply_ is; Lat. nihil _est_ miserum. 80. C. ho;
A. who. 81. A. no (_for_ a). 83. C. egreablete; A. agreablete. 86. C. what
(!); A. whan. // C. lost; A. lorn. 87. C. sprayngd (!); A. y-spranid; Ed.
spraynte. // C. beter-; A. bitter-. // C. weche. 89. C. wan. // C. woole;
A. wol. 92. C. resseyuen; A. receyuen. 100, 106. C. thinge; A. thing. 101.
A. bynyme. 102. A. _om._ ne. 107. C. take; A. taken. 108. C. resseyuen; A.
receyue. 110. A. _om._ it. 115. C. list; A. lest. 116. A. _om._ it. 118. A.
forleten hit. 120. C. A. lost; Ed. losse. // C. meche (_for_ moche). 126.
C. dessendeth; A. descendith. 128. C. frut; A. fruit.


_Quisquis uolet perennem Cautus ponere sedem._

  What maner man, stable and war, that wole founden him
  a perdurable sete, and ne wole nat ben cast down with the loude
  blastes of the wind Eurus; and wole despyse the see, manasinge
  with flodes; lat him eschewen to bilde on the cop of the mountaigne
  or in the moiste sandes. For the felle wind Auster                      5
  tormenteth the cop of the mountaigne with all his strengthes;
  and the lause sandes refusen to beren the hevy wighte.

  And forthy, if thou wolt fleen the perilous aventure, _that is to
  seyn, of the worlde_; have minde certeinly to ficchen thyn hous of
  a merye site in a lowe stoon. For al-though the wind, troubling        10
  the see, thondre with over-throwinges, thou that art put in quiete,
  and weleful by strengthe of thy palis, shalt leden a cleer age,
  scorninge the woodnesses and the ires of the eyr.

ME. IV. 1. C. waar. 7. Ed. lose; A. lowe see(!); (Lat. _solutae_). // A.
wey[gh]te. 10. C. lowh; A. Ed. lowe. 12. C. A. palys (Lat. _ualli_).


_Set cum rationum iam in te._

  But for as moche as the norisshinges of my resouns descenden
  now in-to thee, I trowe it were tyme to usen a litel strenger
  medicynes. Now understond heer, al were it so that the yiftes of
  Fortune ne were nat brutel ne transitorie, what is ther in hem
  that may be thyn in any tyme, or elles that it nis foul, yif that it    5
  be considered and loked perfitly? Richesses, ben they precious
  by the nature of hem-self, or elles by the nature of thee? What is
  most worth of richesses? Is it nat gold or might of moneye
  assembled? Certes, thilke gold and thilke moneye shyneth and
  yeveth betere renoun to hem that despenden it thanne to thilke         10
  folk that mokeren it; for avarice maketh alwey mokereres to ben
  hated, and largesse maketh folk cleer of renoun. For sin that
  swich thing as is transferred fram o man to another ne may nat
  dwellen with no man; certes, thanne is thilke moneye precious
  whan it is translated into other folk and stenteth to ben had, by      15
  usage of large yevinge _of him that hath yeven it_. And also: yif
  that al the moneye that is over-al in the worlde were gadered
  toward o man, it sholde maken alle other men to ben nedy as of that.
  And certes a voys al hool, _that is to seyn, with-oute amenusinge_,
  fulfilleth to-gidere the hering of moche folk; but certes, youre       20
  richesses ne mowen nat passen in-to moche folke with-oute
  amenusinge. And whan they ben apassed, nedes they maken
  hem pore that for-gon the richesses.

  O! streite and nedy clepe I this richesse, sin that many folk
  ne may nat han it al, ne al may it nat comen to o man with-outen       25
  povertee of alle other folk! And the shyninge of gemmes, _that
  I clepe precious stones_, draweth it nat the eyen of folk to hem-ward,
  _that is to seyn, for the beautee_? But certes, yif ther were
  beautee or bountee in the shyninge of stones, thilke cleernesse is
  of the stones hem-self, and nat of men; for whiche I wondre            30
  gretly that men mervailen on swiche thinges. For-why, what
  thing is it, that yif it wanteth moeving and Ioynture of sowle and
  body, that by right mighte semen a fair creature to him that hath
  a sowle of resoun? For al be it so that gemmes drawen to hem-self
  a litel of the laste beautee of the world, through the entente of      35
  hir creatour and through the distinccioun of hem-self; yit, for as
  mochel as they ben put under youre excellence, they ne han nat
  deserved by no wey that ye sholden mervailen on hem. And
  the beautee of feldes, delyteth it nat mochel un-to yow?'

  _Boece._ 'Why sholde it nat delyten us, sin that it is a right fair    40
  porcioun of the right faire werke, _that is to seyn, of this world_?
  And right so ben we gladed som-tyme of the face of the see
  whan it is cleer; and also mervailen we on the hevene and on the
  sterres, and on the sonne and on the mone.'

  _Philosophye._ 'Aperteneth,' quod she, 'any of thilke thinges to       45
  thee? Why darst thou glorifyen thee in the shyninge of any
  swiche thinges? Art thou distingwed and embelised by the
  springinge floures of the first somer sesoun, or swelleth thy
  plentee in the fruites of somer? Why art thou ravisshed with
  ydel Ioyes? Why embracest thou straunge goodes as they weren           50
  thyne? Fortune ne shal never maken that swiche thinges ben
  thyne, that nature of thinges hath maked foreine fro thee. Sooth
  is that, with-outen doute, the frutes of the erthe owen to ben to
  the norissinge of bestes. And yif thou wolt fulfille thy nede after
  that it suffyseth to nature, than is it no nede that thou seke after   55
  the superfluitee of fortune. For with ful fewe things and with ful
  litel thinges nature halt hir apayed; and yif thou wolt achoken
  the fulfillinge of nature with superfluitees, certes, thilke thinges
  that thou wolt thresten or pouren in-to nature shullen ben unioyful
  to thee, or elles anoyous. Wenest thou eek that it be a fair           60
  thing to shyne with dyverse clothinge? Of whiche clothinge yif
  the beautee be agreeable to loken up-on, I wol mervailen on the
  nature of the matere of thilke clothes, or elles on the werkman
  that wroughte hem. But also a long route of meynee, maketh
  that a blisful man? The whiche servants, yif they ben vicious of       65
  condiciouns, it is a great charge and a distruccioun to the hous,
  and a greet enemy to the lord him-self. And yif they ben goode
  men, how shal straunge or foreine goodnesse ben put in the
  noumbre of thy richesse? So that, by all these forseide thinges,
  it is clearly y-shewed, that never oon of thilke thinges that thou     70
  acountedest for thyne goodes nas nat thy good. In the whiche
  thinges, yif ther be no beautee to ben desyred, why sholdest thou
  ben sory yif thou lese hem, or why sholdest thou reioysen thee
  to holden hem? For yif they ben faire of hir owne kinde, what
  aperteneth that to thee? For al so wel sholden they han ben            75
  faire by hem-selve, though they weren departed fram alle thyne
  richesses. Forwhy faire ne precious ne weren they nat, for that
  they comen among thy richesses; but, for they semeden faire and
  precious, ther-for thou haddest lever rekne hem amonges thy
  richesses.                                                             80

  But what desirest thou of Fortune with so grete a noise, and
  with so grete a fare? I trowe thou seke to dryve awey nede with
  habundaunce of thinges; but certes, it torneth to you al in the
  contrarie. Forwhy certes, it nedeth of ful manye helpinges to
  kepen the diversitee of precious ostelments. And sooth it is,          85
  that of manye thinges han they nede that manye thinges han; and
  ayeinward, of litel nedeth hem that mesuren hir fille after the nede
  of kinde, and nat after the outrage of coveityse. Is it thanne so,
  that ye men ne han no proper good y-set in you, for which
  ye moten seken outward youre goodes in foreine and subgit              90
  thinges? So is thanne the condicioun of thinges torned up-so-down,
  that a man, that is a devyne beest by merite of his resoun,
  thinketh that him-self nis neither faire ne noble, but-yif it be
  thorugh possessioun of ostelments that ne han no sowles. And
  certes, al other thinges ben apayed of hir owne beautee; but ye        95
  men, that ben semblable to god by your resonable thought,
  desiren to aparailen your excellent kinde of the lowest thinges;
  ne ye understonden nat how greet a wrong ye don to your
  creatour. For he wolde that mankinde were most worthy and
  noble of any othre erthely thinges; and ye threste adoun your         100
  dignitees benethe the lowest thinges. For yif that al the good of
  every thinge be more precious than is thilke thing whos that
  the good is: sin ye demen that the fouleste thinges ben youre
  goodes, thanne submitten ye and putten your-selven under tho
  fouleste thinges by your estimacioun; and certes, this tydeth nat     105
  with-oute youre desertes. For certes, swiche is the condicioun of
  alle mankinde, that only whan it hath knowinge of it-selve, than
  passeth it in noblesse alle other thinges; and whan it forleteth the
  knowinge of it-self, than is it brought binethen alle beestes. For-why
  al other livinge beestes han of kinde to knowe nat hem-self;          110
  but whan that men leten the knowinge of hemself, it cometh hem
  of vice. But how brode sheweth the errour and the folye of yow
  men, that wenen that any thing may ben aparailed with straunge
  aparailements! But for sothe that may nat ben doon. For yif
  a wight shyneth with thinges that ben put to him, _as thus, if        115
  thilke thinges shynen with which a man is aparailed_, certes, thilke
  thinges ben comended and preysed with which he is aparailed;
  but natheles, the thing that is covered and wrapped under that
  dwelleth in his filthe.

  And I denye that thilke thing be good that anoyeth him that           120
  hath it. Gabbe I of this?. Thou wolt seye "nay." Certes,
  richesses han anoyed ful ofte hem that han tho richesses; sin that
  every wikked shrewe, (and for his wikkednesse the more gredy
  after other folkes richesses, wher-so ever it be in any place, be it
  gold or precious stones), weneth him only most worthy that hath       125
  hem. Thou thanne, that so bisy dredest now the swerd and now
  the spere, yif thou haddest entred in the path of this lyf a voide
  wayferinge man, than woldest thou singe beforn the theef; _as
  who seith, a pore man, that berth no richesse on him by the weye,
  may boldely singe biforn theves, for he hath nat wherof to ben        130
  robbed_. O precious and right cleer is the blisfulnesse of mortal
  richesses, that, whan thou hast geten it, than hast thou lorn thy

PR. V. 1. C. A. noryssinges; Ed. norisshynges. // C. dess-; A. desc-. 6. A.
Richesse. 8. A. worthi. // A. rycchesse. // C. _om._ it. 15. C. stenteth;
A. stynteth. 19. A. al hool; Ed. al hole; C. _om._; (Lat. _tota_). 21. A.
rycchesse. 24. A. thise rycchesses. 25. A. _om. 1st_ ne. 27. A. in-to. 28.
C. beautes; A. Ed. beaute. // C. But; A. For. 29. A. _om._ the. 31. C.
gretely; A. gretly. 32. C. Ioyngture; A. ioynture. 33. C. myht; A. my[gh]t.
35. C. last; A. laste. 36. C. _om._ and. 38. C. A. desserued. // A.
shullen. 41. C. ryhte; A ry[gh]t. 46. C. darsthow; A. darst thou. 47. C.
Arthow; A. Art thou. 49. A. _om._ the. // C. fructes; A. fruytes. // C.
arthow. // C. rauyssed; A. rauyshed. 52. A. _om._ hath. // A. Syche (!).
53. A. on (_for 2nd_ to). 59. C. shollen; A. shullen. 60. C. anoyos; A.
anoies; Ed. anoyous. 64. C. wrowht; A. wrou[gh]t. 70. oon] A. none. 71. A.
accou_m_ptedest. 75. A. as (_for_ al-so). 77, 78, 80. A. rycchesse. 90. A.
outwardes. 98. A. ne ye ne, &c. 100. A. Ed. erthely; C. wordly. 103. C.
tho; A. the. // C. A. foulest. 104. A. summytten. // C. the; A. tho. 106.
A. desert. 110. A. _om._ livinge. // C. hym-; A. hem-. 111.  C. _om._ that.
119. _So_ A.; C. felthe. 122. A. rycchesse (_thrice_). // C. tho; A. the.
125. C. A. Ed. and weneth; _but_ and _must be omitted_ (_see_ Latin
_text_). // C. hat. 126. A. _om. 2nd_ now. 128. A. wayfaryng. 132. A.


_Felix nimium prior etas._

  Blisful was the first age of men! They helden hem apayed
  with the metes that the trewe feldes broughten forth. They
  ne distroyede nor deceivede nat hem-self with outrage. They
  weren wont lightly to slaken hir hunger at even with acornes
  of okes. They ne coude nat medly the yifte of Bachus to the             5
  cleer hony; _that is to seyn, they coude make no piment nor clarree_;
  ne they coude nat medle the brighte fleeses of the contree of
  Seriens with the venim of Tyrie; _this is to seyn, they coude nat
  deyen whyte fleeses of Serien contree with the blode of a maner
  shelfisshe that men finden in Tyrie, with whiche blood men deyen       10
  purpur_. They slepen hoolsom slepes up-on the gras, and
  dronken of the renninge wateres; and layen under the shadwes
  of the heye pyn-trees. Ne no gest ne straungere ne carf yit
  the heye see with ores or with shippes; ne they ne hadde seyn
  yit none newe strondes, to leden marchaundyse in-to dyverse            15
  contrees. Tho weren the cruel clariouns ful hust and ful stille,
  ne blood y-shad by egre hate ne hadde nat deyed yit armures.
  For wher-to or which woodnesse of enemys wolde first moeven
  armes, whan they seyen cruel woundes, ne none medes be of
  blood y-shad?                                                          20

  I wolde that oure tymes sholde torne ayein to the olde
  maneres! But the anguissous love of havinge brenneth in folk
  more cruely than the fyr of the mountaigne Ethna, _that ay brenneth_.
  Allas! what was he that first dalf up the gobetes or the weightes
  of gold covered under erthe, and the precious stones that wolden       25
  han ben hid? He dalf up precious perils. _That is to seyn, that
  he that hem first up dalf, he dalf up a precious peril; for-why for
  the preciousnesse of swiche thinge, hath many man ben in peril._

ME. V. 2. Ed. feldes; C. feeldes; A. erthes. 3. C. desseyuyd; A. desceyued.
4. C. accornes; A. acornes. 6. C. nor; Ed. or; A. of. 7. C. fleezes; A.
flies; Ed. fleces. 8. A. siriens (Lat. _Serum_). 9. C. flezes; A. flies;
Ed. fleces. // C. syryen; A. sirien; Ed. Syrien. 10. C. shylle-; A. Ed.
shel-. 13. A. _om. 3rd_ ne. // C. karue; A. karf; Ed. carfe. 16. C. crwel
(_and so again below_). // C. Ed. hust; A. whist. 17. A. y-shed. // A.
armurers (!). 18. C. wer to. 19. C. say; A. seien. 22. C. angwissos; A.
anguissous. 23. C. _om. 2nd_ the. // A. Ed. of Ethna; C. _om._ of. // A.
euer (_for_ ay). 27. C. _om. 2nd_ he. 28. A. _om._ thinge. // A. ben; C.


_Quid autem de dignitatibus._

  But what shal I seye of dignitees and of powers, the whiche
  ye men, that neither knowen verray dignitee ne verray power,
  areysen hem as heye as the hevene? The whiche dignitees and
  powers, yif they comen to any wikked man, they don as grete
  damages and destrucciouns as doth the flaumbe of the mountaigne         5
  Ethna, whan the flaumbe walweth up; ne no deluge ne doth so
  cruel harmes. Certes, thee remembreth wel, as I trowe, that
  thilke dignitee that men clepen the imperie of consulers, the
  whiche that whylom was biginninge of fredom, youre eldres
  coveiteden to han don away that dignitee, for the pryde of the         10
  consulers. And right for the same pryde your eldres, biforn that
  tyme, hadden don awey, out of the citee of Rome, the kinges
  name; _that is to seyn, they nolde han no lenger no king_. But
  now, yif so be that dignitees and powers be yeven to goode men,
  the whiche thing is ful selde, what agreable thing is ther in tho      15
  dignitees or powers but only the goodnesse of folkes that usen
  hem? And therfor it is thus, that honour ne comth nat to vertu
  for cause of dignitee, but ayeinward honour comth to dignitee for
  cause of vertu. But whiche is thilke youre dereworthe power,
  that is so cleer and so requerable? O ye ertheliche bestes,            20
  considere ye nat over which thinge that it semeth that ye han
  power? Now yif thou saye a mous amonges other mys, that
  chalaunged to him-self-ward right and power over alle other mys,
  how greet scorn woldest thou han of it! GLOSA. _So fareth it by
  men; the body hath power over the body._ For yif thou loke wel         25
  up-on the body of a wight, what thing shall thou finde more
  freele than is mankinde; the whiche men wel ofte ben slayn with
  bytinge of smale flyes, or elles with the entringe of crepinge
  wormes in-to the privetees of mannes body? But wher shal man
  finden any man that may exercen or haunten any right up-on             30
  another man, but only up-on his body, or elles up-on thinges
  that ben lowere than the body, the whiche I clepe fortunous
  possessiouns? Mayst thou ever have any comaundement over
  a free corage? Mayst thou remuen fro the estat of his propre
  reste a thought that is clyvinge to-gidere in him-self by stedefast    35
  resoun? As whylom a tyraunt wende to confounde a free man
  of corage, and wende to constreyne him by torment, to maken
  him discoveren and acusen folk that wisten of a coniuracioun,
  _which I clepe a confederacie_, that was cast ayeins this tyraunt;
  but this free man boot of his owne tonge and caste it in the           40
  visage of thilke wode tyraunt; so that the torments that this
  tyraunt wende to han maked matere of crueltee, this wyse man
  maked it matere of vertu.

  But what thing is it that a man may don to another man, that
  he ne may receyven the same thing of othre folk in him-self:           45
  _or thus, what may a man don to folk, that folk ne may don him the
  same?_ I have herd told of Busirides, that was wont to sleen his
  gestes that herberweden in his hous; and he was sleyn him-self
  of Ercules that was his gest. Regulus hadde taken in bataile
  many men of Affrike and cast hem in-to feteres; but sone after         50
  he moste yeve his handes to ben bounde with the cheynes of
  hem that he hadde whylom overcomen. Wenest thou thanne
  that he be mighty, that hath no power to don a thing, that othre
  ne may don in him that he doth in othre? And yit more-over,
  yif it so were that thise dignitees or poweres hadden any propre       55
  or natural goodnesse in hem-self, never nolden they comen to
  shrewes. For contrarious thinges ne ben nat wont to ben
  y-felawshiped to-gidere. Nature refuseth that contrarious thinges
  ben y-ioigned. And so, as I am in certein that right wikked folk
  han dignitees ofte tyme, than sheweth it wel that dignitees and        60
  powers ne ben nat goode of hir owne kinde; sin that they suffren
  hem-self to cleven or ioinen hem to shrewes. And certes, the
  same thing may I most digneliche iugen and seyn of alle the
  yiftes of fortune that most plentevously comen to shrewes; of
  the whiche yiftes, I trowe that it oughte ben considered, that no      65
  man douteth that he nis strong in whom he seeth strengthe; and
  in whom that swiftnesse is, sooth it is that he is swift. Also
  musike maketh musiciens, and phisike maketh phisiciens, and
  rethorike rethoriens. For-why the nature of every thing maketh
  his propretee, ne it is nat entremedled with the effects of the        70
  contrarious thinges; and, as of wil, it chaseth out thinges that
  ben to it contrarie. But certes, richesse may not restreyne
  avarice unstaunched; ne power ne maketh nat a man mighty
  over him-self, whiche that vicious lustes holden destreyned with
  cheynes that ne mowen nat be unbounden. And dignitees that             75
  ben yeven to shrewede folk nat only ne maketh hem nat digne,
  but it sheweth rather al openly that they ben unworthy and
  undigne. And why is it thus? Certes, for ye han Ioye to clepen
  thinges with false names that beren hem alle in the contrarie;
  the whiche names ben ful ofte reproeved by the effecte of the          80
  same thinges; so that thise ilke richesses ne oughten nat by
  right to ben cleped richesses; ne swich power ne oughte nat
  ben cleped power; ne swich dignitee ne oughte nat ben cleped

  And at the laste, I may conclude the same thing of alle the            85
  yiftes of Fortune, in which ther nis nothing to ben desired, ne
  that hath in him-self naturel bountee, as it is ful wel y-sene. For
  neither they ne ioignen hem nat alwey to goode men, ne maken
  hem alwey goode to whom that they ben y-ioigned.

PR. VI. 1. A. seyne. 2. A. _om._ ye. 5. C. flawmbe; A. fla_m_me (_twice_).
6. A. _ins._ wit (!) _bef._ walweth. 7. C. crwel. // C. remenbryth. 8. A.
thilke; C. thikke. // A. emperie; C. Imp_er_iye. 11. A. conseilers. 13. A.
kyng; C. kynge. 15. Ed. selde; C. A. zelde. // C. A. Ed. thinges; _read_
thing (Lat. _quid placet_). 19. A. _om._ thilke. 22. C. mus[gh]; A. myse;
Ed. myce. 23. C. mys[gh]; A. myse; Ed. myce. 26. C. shalthow. 27. A. mannes
kynde. // A. whiche ben ful ofte slayn. 29. A. mennes bodyes. 33. C.
Maysthow. 34. C. Maysthow remwen. 35. A. cleuyng. // C. stidefast; A.
stedfast. 40. Ed. caste; C. A. cast. 42. C. crwelte. 45. C. resseyuen; A.
receyue. 48. A. herburghden. 52. C. _om._ he. // C. whylom; A. somtyme. //
C. weenesthow. 53. C. thinge; A. thing. 54. A. _om. 1st_ in. // A. to (_for
2nd_ in). 63. Ed. I (_after_ may); C. A. _omit_. 67. C. _om._ it. 68. _So_
A.; C. musuciens, phisissiens. 70. A. effect_is_; C. effect. // A. _om._
the. 72. C. A. to it ben. 73. A. _om. 2nd_ ne. 81, 82. A. rycchesse
(_twice_). 82, 83. A. whiche (_for_ swich; _twice_). 87. C. I-seene; A.


_Nouimus quantas dederit ruinas._

  We han wel knowen how many grete harmes and destrucciouns
  weren don _by the emperor Nero_. He leet brenne the citee of
  Rome, and made sleen the senatoures. And he, cruel, whylom
  slew his brother; and he was maked moist with the blood of
  his moder; _that is to seyn, he leet sleen and slitten the body of      5
  his moder, to seen wher he was conceived_; and he loked on every
  halve up-on her colde dede body, ne no tere ne wette his face, but
  _he was so hard-herted that_ he mighte ben domes-man or Iuge of
  hir dede beautee. And natheles, yit governede this _Nero_ by
  ceptre alle the poeples that Phebus the sonne may seen, cominge        10
  from his outereste arysinge til he hyde his bemes under the
  wawes; _that is to seyn, he governed alle the poeples by ceptre imperial
  that the sonne goth aboute, from est to west_. And eek _this
  Nero governed by ceptre_ alle the poeples that ben under the
  colde sterres that highten "septem triones"; _this is to seyn, he      15
  governede alle the poeples that ben under the party of the north_.
  And eek _Nero governed_ alle the poeples that the violent wind
  Nothus scorkleth, and baketh the brenning sandes by his drye
  hete; _that is to seyn, alle the poeples in the south_. But yit ne
  mighte nat al his hye power torne the woodnesse of this wikked         20
  Nero. Allas! it is a grevous fortune, as ofte as wikked swerd
  is ioigned to cruel venim; _that is to seyn, venimous crueltee to

ME. VI. 2. C. let; A. letee (!). 3. C. crwel. // C. whylom; A. somtyme. 5.
C. lette (_wrongly_); A. let. 6. C. conseyued; A. conceiued. 7. A. half. //
C. wecte; A. wette. 9. A. [gh]itte neuertheles. 11. A. hidde. 12. C.
sceptre; A. ceptre. 15. C. vii. tyryones (_sic_); A. the seuene triones;
Ed. the Septentrions. 16. A. parties. 18. C. Ed. scorklith; A. scorchith.
19-21. A. _om._ But yit ... Nero; Ed. _retains it, omitting_ hye. // _For_
Allas ... it is, A. _has_--But ne how greuous fortune is; C. _om._ a _bef._
greuous, _but_ Ed. _retains it_.  C. _repeats_ it is. 22. C. crwel;


_Tum ego, scis, inquam._

  Thanne seyde I thus: 'Thou wost wel thy-self that the coveitise
  of mortal thinges ne hadde never lordshipe of me; but
  I have wel desired matere of thinges to done, _as who seith, I
  desire to han matere of governaunce over comunalitees_, for vertu,
  stille, ne sholde nat elden;' _that is to seyn, that [him] leste that,  5
  or he wex olde, his vertu, that lay now ful stille, ne should nat
  perisshe unexercised in governaunce of comune; for which men
  mighten speken or wryten of his goode governement_.

  _Philosophye._ 'For sothe,' quod she, 'and that is a thing that
  may drawen to governaunce swiche hertes as ben worthy and              10
  noble of hir nature; but natheles, it may nat drawen or tollen
  swiche hertes as ben y-brought to the fulle perfeccioun of vertu,
  that is to seyn, coveitise of glorie and renoun to han wel administred
  the comune thinges or don gode desertes to profit of the
  comune. For see now and considere, how litel and how voide of          15
  alle prys is thilke glorie. Certein thing is, as thou hast lerned by
  the demonstracioun of astronomye, that al the environinge of the
  erthe aboute ne halt nat but the resoun of a prikke at regard of the
  greetnesse of hevene; that is to seyn, that yif ther were maked
  comparisoun of the erthe to the greetnesse of hevene, men wolden       20
  iugen in al, that the erthe ne helde no space. Of the whiche litel
  regioun of this worlde, the ferthe partye is enhabited with livinge
  bestes that we knowen, as thou thyself hast y-lerned by Tholomee
  that proveth it. And yif thou haddest with-drawen and abated in
  thy thought fro thilke ferthe partye as moche space as the see and     25
  the mareys contenen and over-goon, and as moche space as the
  regioun of droughte over-streccheth, _that is to seyn, sandes and
  desertes_, wel unnethe sholde ther dwellen a right streit place to
  the habitacioun of men. And ye thanne, that ben environed and
  closed with-in the leste prikke of thilke prikke, thinken ye to        30
  manifesten your renoun and don youre name to ben born forth?
  But your glorie, that is so narwe and so streite y-throngen in-to so
  litel boundes, how mochel coveiteth it in largesse and in greet
  doinge? And also sette this there-to: that many a nacioun,
  dyverse of tonge and of maneres and eek of resoun of hir livinge,      35
  ben enhabited in the clos of thilke litel habitacle; to the whiche
  naciouns, what for difficultee of weyes and what for dyversitee of
  langages, and what for defaute of unusage and entrecomuninge of
  marchaundise, nat only the names of singuler men ne may nat
  strecchen, but eek the fame of citees ne may nat strecchen. At         40
  the laste, certes, in the tyme of Marcus Tullius, as him-self writ in
  his book, that the renoun of the comune of Rome ne hadde nat
  yit passed ne cloumben over the mountaigne that highte Caucasus;
  and yit was, thilke tyme, Rome wel waxen and greetly redouted of
  the Parthes and eek of other folk enhabitinge aboute. Seestow          45
  nat thanne how streit and how compressed is thilke glorie that ye
  travailen aboute to shewe and to multiplye? May thanne the
  glorie of a singuler Romaine strecchen thider as the fame of the
  name of Rome may nat climben ne passen? And eek, seestow nat
  that the maneres of dyverse folk and eek hir lawes ben discordaunt     50
  among hem-self; so that thilke thing that som men
  iugen worthy of preysinge, other folk iugen that it is worthy of
  torment? And ther-of comth it that, though a man delyte him in
  preysinge of his renoun, he may nat in no wyse bringen forth ne
  spreden his name to many maner poeples. There-for every man            55
  oughte to ben apayed of his glorie that is publisshed among his
  owne neighbours; and thilke noble renoun shal ben restreyned
  within the boundes of o manere folke. But how many a man,
  that was ful noble in his tyme, hath the wrecched and nedy
  foryetinge of wryteres put out of minde and don awey! Al be            60
  it so that, certes, thilke wrytinges profiten litel; the whiche
  wrytinges long and derk elde doth awey, bothe hem and eek hir
  autours. But ye men semen to geten yow a perdurabletee, whan
  ye thenken that, in tyme to-cominge, your fame shal lasten. But
  natheles, yif thou wolt maken comparisoun to the endeles spaces        65
  of eternitee, what thing hast thou by whiche thou mayst reioysen
  thee of long lastinge of thy name? For yif ther were maked comparisoun
  of the abydinge of a moment to ten thousand winter,
  for as mochel as bothe the spaces ben ended, yit hath the
  moment som porcioun of it, al-though it litel be. But natheles,        70
  thilke selve noumbre of yeres, and eek as many yeres as
  ther-to may be multiplyed, ne may nat, certes, ben comparisoned
  to the perdurabletee that is endeles; for of thinges that han ende
  may be maked comparisoun, but of thinges that ben with-outen
  ende, to thinges that han ende, may be maked no comparisoun.           75
  And forthy is it that, al-though renoun, of as long tyme as ever
  thee list to thinken, were thought to the regard of eternitee, that
  is unstaunchable and infinit, it ne sholde nat only semen litel, but
  pleynliche right naught. But ye men, certes, ne conne don
  nothing a-right, but-yif it be for the audience of poeple and for      80
  ydel rumours; and ye forsaken the grete worthinesse of conscience
  and of vertu, and ye seken your guerdouns of the smale wordes of
  straunge folk.

  Have now heer and understonde, in the lightnesse of swich
  pryde and veine glorie, how a man scornede festivaly and merily        85
  swich vanitee. Whylom ther was a man that hadde assayed
  with stryvinge wordes another man, the whiche, nat for usage of
  verray vertu but for proud veine glorie, had taken up-on him
  falsly the name of a philosophre. This rather man. _that I spak
  of_ thoughte he wolde assaye, wher he, thilke, were a philosophre      90
  or no; that is to seyn, yif that he wolde han suffred lightly in
  pacience the wronges that weren don un-to him. This feynede
  philosophre took pacience a litel whyle, and, whan he hadde
  received wordes of outrage, he, as in stryvinge ayein and reioysinge
  of him-self, seyde at the laste right thus: "understondest             95
  thou nat that I am a philosophre?" That other man answerde
  ayein ful bytingly, and seyde: "I hadde wel understonden it, yif
  thou haddest holden thy tonge stille." But what is it to thise
  noble worthy men (for, certes, of swiche folke speke I) that seken
  glorie with vertu? What is it?' quod she; 'what atteyneth fame        100
  to swiche folk, whan the body is resolved by the deeth at the
  laste? For yif it so be that men dyen in al, _that is to seyn, body
  and sowle_, the whiche thing our resoun defendeth us to bileven,
  thanne is ther no glorie in no wyse. _For what sholde thilke glorie
  ben_, whan he, of whom thilke glorie is seyd to be, nis right naught  105
  in no wyse? And yif the sowle, whiche that hath in it-self science
  of goode werkes, unbounden fro the prison of the erthe, wendeth
  frely to the hevene, despyseth it nat thanne alle erthely occupacioun;
  and, being in hevene, reioyseth that it is exempt fro alle
  erthely thinges? _As who seith, thanne rekketh the sowle of no        110
  glorie of renoun of this world._

PR. VII. 4. A. desired. 5. _I supply_ him (_to make sense_). // Ed. leste;
C. A. list. 6. A. wex; C. wax. 7. C. p_er_ise; A. perisshe. // Ed.
vnexercysed; C. A. vnexcercised. 17. A. _om. 1st_ the. // C. _om._ of. 21.
A. that erthe helde. 26. A. and mareys. // C. spaces (_for_ space). 28. C.
vel; A. wel. 32. C. narwh; A. narwe. 36. A. cloos. 37. C. deficulte; A.
difficulte. // C. deficulte (_repeated_); A. Ed. diuersite. 38. A. _om._
and _after_ vnusage. 39. Ed. synguler; C. A. syngler. // A. _om._ nat
(_bef. 1st_ strecchen). 41. C. marchus; A. Marcus. // Ed. Tullius; C. A.
Tulius. // C. writ; A. writeth. 43. C. _om._ yit. // A. hy[gh]t. 44. C.
thikke; A. thilk. // A. wexen. 45. C. sestow; A. Sest thou. 48. Ed.
synguler; C. singler; A. singlere. // A. strecchen; C. strechchen. 49. C.
seysthow; A. sest thou; Ed. seest thou. 51. C. thinge; A. thing. 56. A.
paied. // Ed. publysshed; C. publyssed; A. puplissed. 57. A. ney[gh]bores;
Ed. neyghbours; C. nesshebours. 59. A. nedy and wrecched. 63. A. autours;
Ed. auctours; C. actorros (!). // A. Ed. ye men semen; C. yow men semeth.
64. A. thenke; C. thinken. // A. comyng (_om._ to-). 65. A. space (Lat.
_spatia_). 69. C. A. Ed. _insert_ for _bef._ yit (_wrongly_). 70. A. it a
litel. 73. C. -durablyte; A. -durablete. // A. eenles (_for_ endeles). 74,
75. A. _om._ but of ... comparisoun. 77. A. by (_for 2nd_ to). 82. C. A.
gerdouns; Ed. guerdones. 84. A. whiche (_for_ swich). 89. A. speke. 90. C.
weer_e_ he; A. where he; Ed. wheder he. 91. A. _om._ that. 94. C.
resseyuyd; A. receiued. 95. C. vnderstondow. 97. A. _om._ it. 98. C.
_glosses_ it _by_ s. fama. 102. A. _om._ it. 103. C. deffendeth; A.
defendith. 105. A. for (_for_ whan). 107. C. _glosses_ erthe _by_ i.
corporis. 108. C. _glosses_ it _by_ i. anima. 110, 111. A. _om._ As who ...
this world.


_Quicunque solam mente praecipiti petit._

  Who-so that, with overthrowinge thought, only seketh glorie of
  fame, and weneth that it be sovereyn good: lat him loken up-on
  the brode shewinge contrees of hevene, and up-on the streite site
  of this erthe; and he shal ben ashamed of the encrees of his
  name, that may nat fulfille the litel compas _of the erthe_. O!         5
  what coveiten proude folk to liften up hir nekkes in ydel in the
  dedly yok _of this worlde_? For al-though that renoun y-sprad,
  passinge to ferne poeples, goth by dyverse tonges; and al-though
  that grete houses or kinredes shynen with clere titles of honours;
  yit, natheles, deeth despyseth alle heye glorie of fame: and deeth     10
  wrappeth to-gidere the heye hevedes and the lowe, and maketh
  egal and evene the heyeste to the loweste. Wher wonen now the
  bones of trewe Fabricius? What is now Brutus, or stierne
  Catoun? The thinne fame, yit lastinge, of hir ydel names, is
  marked with a fewe lettres; but al-though that we han knowen           15
  the faire wordes of the fames of hem, it is nat yeven to knowe
  hem that ben dede and consumpte. Liggeth thanne stille, al
  outrely unknowable; ne fame ne maketh yow nat knowe. And
  yif ye wene to liven the longer for winde of your mortal name,
  whan o cruel day shal ravisshe yow, thanne is the seconde deeth        20
  dwellinge un-to yow.' GLOSE. _The first deeth he clepeth heer the
  departinge of the body and the sowle; and the seconde deeth he
  clepeth, as heer, the stintinge of the renoun of fame._

3. C. cyte (_for_ site); A. sete (_error for_ site; Lat. _situm_). 6. A.
liften vpon hire nekkes in ydel and dedely. 7. A. _om._ that. 9. A. _om._
that. // C. cler; A. clere. 13. A. stiern; Ed. sterne. 17. A. Ed. consumpt.
18. A. vtterly. 21. Ed. to (_for_ un-to); A. in. // A. Ed. the; C. _om._
(_after_ heer).


_Set ne me inexorabile contra fortunam._

  'But for as mochel as thou shalt nat wenen', quod she, 'that I
  bere untretable bataile ayeins fortune, yit som-tyme it bifalleth that
  she, deceyvable, deserveth to han right good thank of men; and
  that is, whan she hir-self opneth, and whan she descovereth hir
  frount, and sheweth hir maneres. Peraventure yit understondest          5
  thou nat that I shal seye. It is a wonder that I desire to telle,
  and forthy unnethe may I unpleyten my sentence with wordes; for
  I deme that contrarious Fortune profiteth more to men than
  Fortune debonaire. For alwey, whan Fortune semeth debonaire,
  than she lyeth falsly in bihetinge the hope of welefulnesse; but       10
  forsothe contrarious Fortune is alwey soothfast, whan she sheweth
  hir-self unstable thorugh hir chaunginge. The amiable Fortune
  deceyveth folk; the contrarie Fortune techeth. The amiable
  Fortune bindeth with the beautee of false goodes the hertes of
  folk that usen hem; the contrarie Fortune unbindeth hem by the         15
  knowinge of freele welefulnesse. The amiable Fortune mayst
  thou seen alwey windinge and flowinge, and ever misknowinge of
  hir-self; the contrarie Fortune is atempre and restreyned, and wys
  thorugh exercise of hir adversitee. At the laste, amiable Fortune
  with hir flateringes draweth miswandringe men fro the sovereyne        20
  good; the contrarious Fortune ledeth ofte folk ayein to soothfast
  goodes, and haleth hem ayein as with an hooke. Wenest thou
  thanne that thou oughtest to leten this a litel thing, that this aspre
  and horrible Fortune hath discovered to thee the thoughtes of thy
  trewe freendes? For-why this ilke Fortune hath departed and uncovered  25
  to thee bothe the certein visages and eek the doutous
  visages of thy felawes. Whan she departed awey fro thee, she
  took awey hir freendes, and lafte thee thyne freendes. Now whan
  thou were riche and weleful, as thee semede, with how mochel
  woldest thou han bought the fulle knowinge of this, _that is to seyn,  30
  the knowinge of thy verray freendes_? Now pleyne thee nat thanne
  of richesse y-lorn, sin thou hast founden the moste precious kinde
  of richesses, that is to seyn, thy verray freendes.

PR. VIII. A. _omits to end of_ bk. iii. pr. 1. 3. C. desseyuable. // C.
desserueth. 7. _So_ C.; Ed. vnplyten. 13. C. desseyueth. 17. C. maysthow.
30. C. woldesthow.


_Quod mundus stabili fide._

  That the world with stable feith varieth acordable chaunginges;
  that the contrarious qualitee of elements holden among hem-self
  aliaunce perdurable; that Phebus the sonne with his goldene
  chariet bringeth forth the rosene day; that the mone hath commaundement
  over the nightes, which nightes Hesperus the eve-sterre                 5
  hath brought; that the see, greedy to flowen, constreyneth
  with a certein ende hise flodes, so that it is nat leveful to strecche
  hise brode termes or boundes up-on the erthes, _that is to seyn, to
  covere al the erthe_:--al this acordaunce of thinges is bounden with
  Love, that governeth erthe and see, and hath also commaundements       10
  to the hevenes. And yif this Love slakede the brydeles,
  alle thinges that now loven hem to-gederes wolden maken a bataile
  continuely, and stryven to fordoon the fasoun of this worlde, the
  whiche they now leden in acordable feith by faire moevinges.
  This Love halt to-gideres poeples ioigned with an holy bond, and       15
  knitteth sacrement of mariages of chaste loves; and Love endyteth
  lawes to trewe felawes. O! weleful were mankinde, yif thilke
  Love that governeth hevene governed youre corages!'

ME. VIII. 6. C. hat. 7. C. lueful; Ed. leful. 8. erthes; Lat. _terris_.




_Iam cantum illa finierat._

  By this she hadde ended hir song, whan the sweetnesse of hir
  ditee hadde thorugh-perced me that was desirous of herkninge,
  and I astoned hadde yit streighte myn eres, _that is to seyn, to
  herkne the bet what she wolde seye_; so that a litel here-after I
  seyde thus: 'O thou that art sovereyn comfort of anguissous             5
  corages, so thou hast remounted and norisshed me with the
  weighte of thy sentences and with delyt of thy singinge; so that
  I trowe nat now that I be unparigal to the strokes of Fortune:
  _as who seyth, I dar wel now suffren al the assautes of Fortune, and
  wel defende me fro hir_. And tho remedies whiche that thou             10
  seydest her-biforn weren right sharpe, nat only that I am nat
  a-grisen of hem now, but I, desirous of heringe, axe gretely to
  heren the remedies.'

  Than seyde she thus: 'That felede I ful wel,' quod she, 'whan
  that thou, ententif and stille, ravisshedest my wordes; and I          15
  abood til that thou haddest swich habite of thy thought as thou
  hast now; or elles til that I my-self hadde maked to thee the
  same habit, which that is a more verray thing. And certes, the
  remenaunt of thinges that ben yit to seye ben swiche, that first
  whan men tasten hem they ben bytinge, but whan they ben                20
  receyved withinne a wight, than ben they swete. But for thou
  seyst that thou art so desirous to herkne hem, with how gret
  brenninge woldest thou glowen, yif thou wistest whider I wol
  leden thee!'

  'Whider is that?' quod I.                                              25

  'To thilke verray welefulnesse,' quod she, 'of whiche thyn herte
  dremeth; but for as moche as thy sighte is ocupied and distorbed
  by imaginacioun _of erthely thinges_, thou mayst nat yit seen thilke
  selve welefulnesse.'

  'Do,' quod I, 'and shewe me what is thilke verray welefulnesse,        30
  I preye thee, with-oute taryinge.'

  'That wole I gladly don,' quod she, 'for the cause of thee;
  but I wol first marken thee by wordes and I wol enforcen me to
  enformen thee thilke _false_ cause _of blisfulnesse_ that thou more
  knowest; so that, whan thou hast fully bi-holden thilke false          35
  goodes, and torned thyn eyen to that other syde, thou mowe knowe
  the cleernesse of verray blisfulnesse.

PR. I. 3. C. streyhte; Ed. streyght. 5. C angwissos. 7. C. weyhte; Ed.
weight. // C. sentenses; Ed. sentences. 8. C. vnparygal; Ed. vnperegall.
10. C. deffende; Ed. defende. 11. C. hir-; Ed. here-. 12. C. desiros; Ed.
desyrous. 17. C. Ed. had. 21. C. resseyued. 22. C. wit; Ed. with. 23. C.
woldesthow; Ed. woldest thou. 26. C. thynge (!); Ed. thyn; Lat. _tuus_. 28.
C. herthely; Ed. erthly. 31. C. tarynge; Ed. taryeng; Lat. _cunctatione_.
33. C. the (_for_ thee); Ed. _om._


_Qui serere ingenuum uolet agrum._

  Who-so wole sowe a feeld plentivous, lat him first delivere it fro
  thornes, and kerve asunder with his hook the busshes and the
  fern, so that the corn may comen hevy of eres and of greynes.
  Hony is the more swete, yif mouthes han first tasted savoures that
  ben wikkid. The sterres shynen more agreably whan the wind              5
  Nothus leteth his ploungy blastes; and after that Lucifer the
  day-sterre hath chased awey the derke night, the day the fairere
  ledeth the rosene hors _of the sonne_. And right so thou, bi-holdinge
  first the false goodes, bigin to with-drawen thy nekke
  fro the yok _of erthely affecciouns_; and after-ward the verray goodes 10
  shollen entren in-to thy corage.'

ME. I. 1. A. of (_for_ fro). 2. A. bushes; Ed. busshes; C. bosses. 3. C.
heres; A. eres. 5. A. wikke. // C. agreablely. 7. C. dirke; A. derke. 8. A.
_om._ And. 10. C. verre; A. verrey.


_Tunc defixo paullulum uisu._

  Tho fastnede she a litel the sighte of hir eyen, and with-drow
  hir right as it were in-to the streite sete of hir thought; and bigan
  to speke right thus: 'Alle the cures,' quod she, 'of mortal folk,
  whiche that travaylen hem in many maner studies, goon certes by
  diverse weyes, but natheles they enforcen hem alle to comen only        5
  to oon ende of blisfulnesse. And blisfulnesse is swiche a good,
  that who-so that hath geten it, he ne may, over that, no-thing
  more desyre. And this thing is forsothe the sovereyn good that
  conteyneth in him-self alle maner goodes; to the whiche good yif
  ther failede any thing, it mighte nat ben cleped sovereyn good:        10
  for thanne were ther som good, out of this ilke sovereyn good, that
  mighte ben desired. Now is it cleer and certein thanne, that
  blisfulnesse is a parfit estat by the congregacioun of alle goodes;
  the whiche blisfulnesse, as I have seyd, alle mortal folk enforcen
  hem to geten by diverse weyes. For-why the coveitise of verray         15
  good is naturelly y-plaunted in the hertes of men; but the miswandringe
  errour mis-ledeth hem in-to false goodes. Of the
  whiche men, som of hem wenen that sovereyn good be to liven
  with-oute nede of any thing, and travaylen hem to be haboundaunt
  of richesses. And som other men demen that sovereyn good be,           20
  for to ben right digne of reverence; and enforcen hem to ben
  reverenced among hir neighbours by the honours that they han
  y-geten. And some folk ther ben that holden, that right heigh
  power be sovereyn good, and enforcen hem for to regnen, or elles
  to ioignen hem to hem that regnen. And it semeth to some other         25
  folk, that noblesse of renoun be the sovereyn good; and hasten
  hem to geten glorious name by the arts of werre and of pees.
  And many folk mesuren and gessen that sovereyn good be Ioye
  and gladnesse, and wenen that it be right blisful thing to ploungen
  hem in voluptuous delyt. And ther ben folk that entrechaungen          30
  the causes and the endes of thise forseyde goodes, as they that
  desiren richesses to han power and delytes; or elles they desiren
  power for to han moneye, or for cause of renoun. In thise thinges,
  and in swiche othre thinges, is torned alle the entencioun of
  desiringes and of werkes of men; as thus: noblesse and favour          35
  of people, whiche that yeveth to men, as it semeth hem, a maner
  cleernesse of renoun; and wyf and children, that men desiren for
  cause of delyt and of merinesse. But forsothe, frendes ne sholden
  nat be rekned a-mong the godes of fortune, but of vertu; for it is
  a ful holy maner thing. Alle thise othre thinges, forsothe, ben        40
  taken for cause of power or elles for cause of delyt.

  Certes, now am I redy to referren the goodes of the body to
  thise forseide thinges aboven; for it semeth that strengthe and
  gretnesse of body yeven power and worthinesse, and that beautee
  and swiftnesse yeven noblesses and glorie of renoun; and hele of       45
  body semeth yeven delyt. In alle thise thinges it semeth only
  that blisfulnesse is desired. For-why thilke thing that every man
  desireth most over alle thinges, he demeth that it be the sovereyn
  good; but I have defyned that blisfulnesse is the sovereyn good;
  for which every wight demeth, that thilke estat that he desireth       50
  over alle thinges, that it be blisfulnesse.

  Now hast thou thanne biforn thyn eyen almest al the purposed
  forme of the welefulnesse of man-kinde, that is to seyn, richesses,
  honours, power, and glorie, and delyts. The whiche delyt only
  considerede Epicurus, and iuged and establisshed that delyt is         55
  the sovereyn good; for as moche as alle othre thinges, as him
  thoughte, bi-refte awey Ioye and mirthe fram the herte. But I
  retorne ayein to the studies of men, of whiche men the corage
  alwey reherseth and seketh the sovereyn good, al be it so that
  it be with a derked memorie; but he not by whiche path, right          60
  as a dronken man not nat by whiche path he may retorne him to
  his hous. Semeth it thanne that folk folyen and erren that
  enforcen hem to have nede of nothing? Certes, ther nis non other
  thing that may so wel performe blisfulnesse, as an estat plentivous
  of alle goodes, that ne hath nede of non other thing, but that is      65
  suffisaunt of himself unto him-self. And folyen swiche folk thanne,
  that wenen that thilke thing that is right good, that it be eek right
  worthy of honour and of reverence? Certes, nay. For that thing
  nis neither foul ne worthy to ben despised, that wel neigh al the
  entencioun of mortal folk travaylen for to geten it. And power,        70
  oughte nat that eek to ben rekened amonges goodes? What
  elles? For it is nat to wene that thilke thing, that is most worthy
  of alle thinges, be feble and with-oute strengthe. And cleernesse
  of renoun, oughte that to ben despised? Certes, ther may no
  man forsake, that al thing that is right excellent and noble, that it
      ne                                                                 75
  semeth to ben right cleer and renomed. For certes, it nedeth nat
  to seye, that blisfulnesse be [nat] anguissous ne drery, ne subgit to
  grevaunces ne to sorwes, sin that in right litel thinges folk seken
  to have and to usen that may delyten hem. Certes, thise ben
  the thinges that men wolen and desiren to geten. And for this          80
  cause desiren they richesses, dignitees, regnes, glorie, and delices.
  For therby wenen they to han suffisaunce, honour, power, renoun,
  and gladnesse. Than is it good, that men seken thus by so many
  diverse studies. In whiche desyr it may lightly ben shewed how
  gret is the strengthe of nature; for how so that men han diverse       85
  sentences and discordinge, algates men acorden alle in lovinge the
  ende of good.

PR. II. 2. C. cyte; A. sete; Lat. _sedem_. 5. C. enforsen; A. enforced; Ed.
enforcen. 6. A. _om._ And blisfulnesse. 10. A. _om._ cleped. 14. C.
enforsen; A. enforcen. 18. A. is (_for_ be). 20. C. ben; A. be. 22. C.
nesshebors; A. neyghbours. 23. A. halden. // C. heyh; A. hey[gh]e; Ed. hye.
24: A. to b (_for_ be). 28. C. by (_for_ be); A. Ed. be. 29. A. _om._
thing. 32. A. rycchesse. 35. A. _om. 1st_ of. // C. fauor; A. fauo_ur_. 36.
A. _om._ to men _and_ hem. 38. A. shollen. 39. A. Ed. the; C. tho. 45. C.
sweft-; A. swifte-. 49. C. deffyned; A. Ed. diffined. 52. A. _om._ thy
eyen; C. thy (_for_ thyn); Ed. thyn. // A. almost. 55. A. _om._ and _bef._
iuged. // C. A. establyssed; Ed. establysshed. 59. A. _ins._ of _after_
good (_wrongly_). 60. C. dirkyd; A. derke; Ed. dyrked. // A. _om._ but he
... path. // C. paath (_twice_). 62. C. foleyen; A. folyen. 65. C. A.
_ins._ it _bef._ is; Ed. _om._ 66. C. A. foleyen; Ed. folyen. 69. C. wel
neyh; Ed. wel nygh; A. _om._ // C. alle; A. Ed. al. 77. _I supply_ nat. //
C. angwyssos. // C. subgyd; A. subgit. 81. A. rycches. 86. C. allegates; A.
algates. // A. lyuynge (!).


_Quantas rerum flectat habenas._

  It lyketh me to shewe, by subtil song, with slakke and delitable
  soun of strenges, how that Nature, mighty, enclineth and flitteth
  the governements of thinges, and by whiche lawes she, purveyable,
  kepeth the grete world; and how she, bindinge, restreyneth alle
  thinges by a bonde that may nat ben unbounde. Al be it so that          5
  the lyouns of the contre of Pene beren the faire chaynes, and
  taken metes of the handes of folk that yeven it hem, and dreden
  hir sturdy maystres of whiche they ben wont to suffren betinges:
  yif that hir horrible mouthes ben be-bled, _that is to seyn, of bestes
  devoured_, hir corage of time passed, that hath ben ydel and rested,   10
  repeyreth ayein; and they roren grevously and remembren on hir
  nature, and slaken hir nekkes fram hir chaynes unbounde; and
  hir mayster, first to-torn with blody tooth, assayeth the wode
  wrathes of hem; _this is to seyn, they freten hir mayster_. And the
  iangelinge brid that singeth on the heye braunches, _that is to seyn,  15
  in the wode_, and after is enclosed in a streyt cage: al-though that
  the pleyinge bisinesse of men yeveth hem honiede drinkes and
  large metes with swete studie, yit natheles, yif thilke brid, skippinge
  out of hir streyte cage, seeth the agreables shadewes of the
  wodes, she defouleth with hir feet hir metes y-shad, and seketh        20
  mourninge only the wode; and twitereth, desiringe the wode, with
  hir swete vois. The yerde of a tree, that is haled a-doun by
  mighty strengthe, boweth redily the crop a-doun: but yif that the
  hand of him that it bente lat it gon ayein, anon the crop loketh
  up-right to hevene. The sonne Phebus, that falleth at even in          25
  the westrene wawes, retorneth ayein eftsones his carte, by privee
  path, ther-as it is wont aryse. Alle thinges seken ayein to hir
  propre cours, and alle thinges reioysen hem of hir retorninge ayein
  to hir nature. Ne non ordinaunce nis bitaken to thinges, but that
  that hath ioyned the endinge to the beginninge, and hath maked         30
  the cours of it-self stable, _that it chaungeth nat from his propre

ME. II. 3. A. _om._ the. 8. A. _om._ betinges. 9. C. horyble. 11. A. that
(_for 1st_ and). 13. A. to-teren. 15. A. Iangland. // A. this (_for 2nd_
that). 16. A. inclosed. // C. streyht; A. streit. 17. C. pleynynge; A.
pleiyng; Lat. _ludens_. 19. A. Ed. agreable. 24. C. bent; A. bente. 27. A.
in-to (_for_ to). 30. C. hat; A. hath.


_Vos quoque, o terrena animalia._

  Certes also ye men, that ben ertheliche beestes, dremen alwey
  youre beginninge, al-though it be with a thinne imaginacioun;
  and by a maner thoughte, al be it nat cleerly ne parfitly, ye loken
  fram a-fer to thilke verray fyn of blisfulnesse; and ther-fore naturel
  entencioun ledeth you to thilke verray good, but many maner             5
  errours mis-torneth you ther-fro. Consider now yif that by thilke
  thinges, by whiche a man weneth to geten him blisfulnesse, yif
  that he may comen to thilke ende that he weneth to come by
  nature. For yif that moneye or honours, or thise other forseyde
  thinges bringen to men swich a thing that no good ne fayle hem         10
  ne semeth fayle, certes than wole I graunte that they ben maked
  blisful by thilke thinges that they han geten. But yif so be that
  thilke thinges ne mowen nat performen that they bi-heten, and
  that ther be defaute of manye goodes, sheweth it nat thanne
  cleerly that fals beautee of blisfulnesse is knowen and ateint in      15
  thilke thinges? First and forward thou thy-self, that haddest
  habundaunces of richesses nat long agon, I axe yif that, in the
  habundaunce of alle thilke richesses, thou were never anguissous
  or sory in thy corage of any wrong or grevaunce that bi-tidde thee
  on any syde?'                                                          20

  'Certes,' quod I, 'it ne remembreth me nat that evere I was
  so free of my thought that I ne was alwey in anguissh of

  'And was nat that,' quod she, 'for that thee lakked som-what
  that thou noldest nat han lakked, or elles thou haddest that thou      25
  noldest nat han had?'

  'Right so is it,' quod I.

  'Thanne desiredest thou the presence of that oon and the
  absence of that other?'

  'I graunte wel,' quod I.                                               30

  'Forsothe,' quod she, 'than nedeth ther som-what that every
  man desireth?'

  'Ye, ther nedeth,' quod I.

  'Certes,' quod she, 'and he that hath lakke or nede of aught
  nis nat in every wey suffisaunt to himself?'                           35

  'No,' quod I.

  'And thou,' quod she, 'in al the plentee of thy richesses haddest
  thilke lakke of suffisaunse?'

  'What elles?' quod I.

  'Thanne may nat richesses maken that a man nis nedy, ne that           40
  he be suffisaunt to him-self; and that was it that they bi-highten,
  as it semeth. And eek certes I trowe, that this be gretly to
  considere, that moneye ne hath nat in his owne kinde that it
  ne may ben bi-nomen of hem that han it, maugre hem?'

  'I bi-knowe it wel,' quod I.                                           45

  'Why sholdest thou nat bi-knowen it,' quod she, 'whan every
  day the strenger folk bi-nemen it fro the febler, maugre hem?
  For whennes comen elles alle thise foreyne compleyntes or
  quereles of pletinges, but for that men axen ayein here moneye
  that hath ben bi-nomen hem by force or by gyle, and alwey              50
  maugre hem?'

  'Right so is it,' quod I.

  'Than,' quod she, 'hath a man nede to seken him foreyne
  helpe by whiche he may defende his moneye?'

  'Who may sey nay?' quod I.                                             55

  'Certes,' quod she; 'and him nedede non help, yif he ne hadde
  no moneye that he mighte lese?'

  'That is douteles,' quod I.

  'Than is this thinge torned in-to the contrarye,' quod she.
  'For richesses, that men wenen sholde make suffisaunce, they           60
  maken a man rather han nede of foreyne help! Which is
  the manere or the gyse,' quod she, 'that richesse may dryve awey
  nede? Riche folk, may they neither han hunger ne thurst?
  Thise riche men, may they fele no cold on hir limes on winter?
  But thou wolt answeren, that riche men han y-now wher-with they        65
  may staunchen hir hunger, slaken hir thurst, and don a-wey cold.
  In this wyse may nede be counforted by richesses; but certes,
  nede ne may nat all outrely ben don a-wey. For though this nede,
  that is alwey gapinge and gredy, be fulfild with richesses, and axe
  any thing, yit dwelleth thanne a nede that mighte be fulfild. I        70
  holde me stille, and telle nat how that litel thing suffiseth to
  nature; but certes to avarice y-nough ne suffiseth no-thing. For
  sin that richesses ne may nat al don awey nede, but richesses
  maken nede, what may it thanne be, that ye wenen that richesses
  mowen yeven you suffisaunce?                                           75

PR. III. 2. A. _om._ youre biginninge. 15. C. ataynt; A. a-teint. 24. A.
that (_for_ And). // A. _om._ nat that ... for. // A. thou lakkedest; Ed.
the lacked. 34. A. a wy[gh]t (_for_ aught). 35. C. suffysaunte; A.
suffisaunt. 37, 40. A. rycchesse. 46. C. sholdesthow. 47. A. bynymen. // C.
febeler_e_; A. febler. 50. C. _om._ hem. 54. C. deffende. 56. A. nedith.
60. A. rycchesse. 63. A. threst. 64. C. the; A. thei. 65. A. y-nou[gh]. 66.
A. threst. 68. C. _om._ nat. // C. vtrely; A. outerly. 69, 70. C. fulfyd;
A. fulfilled (_twice_). 72. C. aueryce; A. auarice. 73. C. rychesse (_1st
time only_); A. rychesse (_twice_). // C. alwey; A. awey.


_Quamvis fluente diues auri gurgite._

  Al were it so that a riche coveytous man hadde a river fletinge
  al of gold, yit sholde it never staunchen his coveitise; and though
  he hadde his nekke y-charged with precious stones of the rede
  see, and though he do ere his feldes plentivous with an hundred
  oxen, never ne shal his bytinge bisinesse for-leten him whyl he         5
  liveth, ne the lighte richesses ne sholle nat beren him companye
  whan he is ded.

ME. III. 1. A. _om. 2nd_ a. 2. A. couetise. 4. A. erye. // C. feeldes. 6.
C. leuith; A. lyueth. // C. shol; A. shal. // C. A. compaignie.


_Set dignitates._

  But dignitees, to whom they ben comen, maken they him
  honorable and reverent? Han they nat so gret strengthe, that
  they may putte vertues in the hertes of folk that usen the lordshipes
  of hem? Or elles may they don a-wey the vyces? Certes, they
  ne be nat wont to don awey wikkednesse, but they ben wont               5
  rather to shewen wikkednesse. And ther-of comth it that I have
  right grete desdeyn, that dignitees ben yeven ofte to wikked
  men; for which thing Catullus cleped _a consul of Rome, that
  highte_ Nonius, "postum" or "boch"; _as who seyth, he cleped him
  a congregacioun of vyces in his brest, as a postum is ful of
      corupcioun_,                                                       10
  al were this Nonius set in a chayre of dignitee. Seest thou nat
  thanne how gret vilenye dignitees don to wikked men? Certes,
  unworthinesse of wikked men sholde be the lasse y-sene, yif they
  nere renomed of none honours. Certes, thou thyself ne mightest
  nat ben brought with as manye perils as thou mightest suffren          15
  that thou woldest beren the magistrat with Decorat; _that is to
  seyn, that for no peril that mighte befallen thee by offence of the king
  Theodorike, thou noldest nat be felawe in governaunce with Decorat_;
  whan thou saye that he hadde wikked corage of a likerous shrewe
  and of an accuser. Ne I ne may nat, for swiche honours, iugen          20
  hem worthy of reverence, that I deme and holde unworthy to han
  thilke same honours. Now yif thou saye a man that were fulfild
  of wisdom, certes, thou ne mightest nat deme that he were unworthy
  to the honour, or elles to the wisdom of which he is
  fulfild?'--'No,' quod I.--'Certes, dignitees,' quod she, 'apertienen   25
  proprely to vertu; and vertu transporteth dignitee anon to
  thilke man to which she hir-self is conioigned. And for as moche
  as honours of poeple ne may nat maken folk digne of honour, it
  is wel seyn cleerly that they ne han no propre beautee of dignitee.
  And yit men oughten taken more heed in this. For yif it so be          30
  that a wikked wight be so mochel the foulere and the more out-cast,
  that he is despysed of most folk, so as dignitee ne may nat
  maken shrewes digne of reverence, the which shrewes dignitee
  sheweth to moche folk, thanne maketh dignitee shrewes rather so
  moche more despysed than preysed; and forsothe nat unpunisshed:        35
  _that is for to seyn, that shrewes revengen hem ayeinward
  up-on dignitees_; for they yilden ayein to dignitees as gret guerdoun,
  whan they bi-spotten and defoulen dignitees with hir
  vilenye. And for as mochel as thou mowe knowe that thilke
  verray reverence ne may nat comen by thise shadewy transitorie         40
  dignitees, undirstond now thus: yif that a man hadde used and
  had many maner dignitees of consules, and were comen peraventure
  amonge straunge naciouns, sholde thilke honour maken
  him worshipful and redouted of straunge folk? Certes, yif that
  honour of poeple were a naturel yift to dignitees, it ne mighte        45
  never cesen nowher amonges no maner folk to don his office,
  right as fyr in every contree ne stinteth nat to eschaufen and to
  ben hoot. But for as moche as for to ben holden honourable or
  reverent ne cometh nat to folk of hir propre strengthe of nature,
  but only of the false opinioun of folk, _that is to seyn, that wenen   50
  that dignitees maken folk digne of honour_; anon therfore whan
  that they comen ther-as folk ne knowen nat thilke dignitees, hir
  honours vanisshen awey, and that anon. But that is amonges
  straunge folk, mayst thou seyn; but amonges hem ther they
  weren born, ne duren nat thilke dignitees alwey? Certes, the           55
  dignitee of the provostrie of Rome was whylom a gret power;
  now is it nothing but an ydel name, and the rente of the senatorie
  a gret charge. And yif a wight whylom hadde the office to taken
  hede to the vitailes of the poeple, as of corn and other thinges, he
  was holden amonges grete; but what thing is now more out-cast          60
  thanne thilke provostrie? And, as I have seyd a litel her-biforn,
  that thilke thing that hath no propre beautee of him-self receiveth
  som-tyme prys and shyninge, and som-tyme leseth it by the
  opinioun of usaunces. Now yif that dignitees thanne ne mowen
  nat maken folk digne of reverence, and yif that dignitees wexen        65
  foule of hir wille by the filthe of shrewes, and yif that dignitees
  lesen hir shyninge by chaunginge of tymes, and yif they wexen
  foule by estimacioun of poeple: what is it that they han in hem-self
  of beautee that oughte ben desired? _as who seyth, non_;
  thanne ne mowen they yeven no beautee of dignitee to non other.        70

PR. IV. 2. C. honorable, _glossed_ ironice. 3. C. lordshippys; A.
lordshipes. 5. A. _om._ ne. // A. wikkednesses (_twice_); Lat. _nequitiam_.
6. C. _om._ to _bef._ shewen. 7. C. desdaign; A. desdeyne. 9. C. nomyus; A.
nonius. // Ed. postome. 11. C. nomyus. // C. _om._ a. // C. Sesthow. 12. C.
fylonye; A. vylenye; Ed. vylonies; Lat. _dedecus_. 16. C. Ed. the; A. thi.
// A. magistrat; C. magestrat. 17. A. by the offence; C. by offense; Ed. by
offence. 19. Ed. saw. // C. lykoros; A. likerous. 22. Ed. sawe. 25. A. Ed.
quod she; C. _om._ 29. C. they, _glossed_, s. honurs. 30. A. more; C. mor.
// C. _om._ it. 30-5. A. For if it so be that he that is most out-cast that
most folk dispisen. or as dignite ne may nat maken shrewes worthi of no
reuerences. than maketh dignites shrewes more dispised than preised. the
whiche shrewes dignit (_sic_) scheweth to moche folk. and forsothe not
vnpunissed; Ed. for if a wight be in so muche the more outcast, that he is
dispysed of moste folke, so as dignyte ne may not maken shrewes worthy of
no reuerence, than maketh dignite shrewes rather dispysed tha_n_ praysed,
the whiche shrewes dignite sheweth to moche folk. And forsothe not
vnpunisshed. 38. C. A. gerdoun; Ed. guerdons. // C. by-spetten; A.
byspotten; Lat. _commaculant_. 40. C. thyse shadwye; A. the shadewy. 41. A.
this (_for_ thus). 47. A. enchaufen. 50. C. _om._ that _bef._ wenen. 53. C.
vanesshen; A. vanissen. 54. C. maysthow. // A. but; C. Ed. ne. 56, 58. C.
whylom; A. som-tyme (_twice_). 57. C. _om._ the _bef._ senatorie. 59. A.
and what other; Ed. and of other. 62. C. resseyueth; A. resceyueth. 66. C.
felthe; A. filthe. // C. _om._ that _after_ yif (_3rd time only_). 70. C.


_Quamvis se, Tyrio superbus ostro._

  Al be it so that the proude Nero, with alle his wode luxurie,
  kembde him and aparailede him with faire purpres of Tirie,
  and with whyte perles, algates yit throf he hateful to alle folk:
  _this is to seyn, that al was he behated of alle folk_. Yit this
  wikked _Nero hadde gret lordship, and_ yaf whylom to the                5
  reverents senatours the unworshipful setes of dignitees. _Unworshipful
  setes he clepeth here, for that Nero, that was so wikked, yaf
  tho dignitees._ Who-so wolde thanne resonably wenen, that blisfulnesse
  were in swiche honours as ben yeven by vicious shrewes?                10

ME. IV. 2. A. kembed; apparailed. 5. C. lorshippe; A. lordship. // C. Ed.
whylom; A. som-tyme. 6. C. reuerentz; Ed. reuerent; A. dredeful; Lat.
_uerendis_. 8. A. tho; C. Ed. the. // A. _om._ so. 10. C. vysios; A.


_An vero regna regumque familiaritas._

  But regnes and familiaritees of kinges, may they maken a
  man to ben mighty? How elles, whan hir blisfulnesse dureth
  perpetuely? But certes, the olde age of tyme passed, and eek
  of present tyme now, is ful of ensaumples how that kinges ben
  chaunged in-to wrecchednesse out of hir welefulnesse. O! a              5
  noble thing and a cleer thing is power, that is nat founden
  mighty to kepen it-self! And yif that power of reaumes be
  auctour and maker of blisfulnesse, yif thilke power lakketh on
  any syde, amenuseth it nat thilke blisfulnesse and bringeth in
  wrecchednesse? But yit, al be it so that the reaumes of mankinde       10
  strecchen brode, yit mot ther nede ben moche folk, over
  whiche that every king ne hath no lordshipe ne comaundement.
  And certes, up-on thilke syde that power faileth, which that
  maketh folk blisful, right on that same syde noun-power entreth
  under-nethe, that maketh hem wrecches; in this manere thanne           15
  moten kinges han more porcioun of wrecchednesse than of
  welefulnesse. A tyraunt, _that was king of Sisile_, that hadde
  assayed the peril of his estat, shewede by similitude the dredes
  of reaumes by gastnesse of a swerd that heng over the heved
  _of his familier_. What thing is thanne this power, that may nat       20
  don awey the bytinges of bisinesse, ne eschewe the prikkes of
  drede? And certes, yit wolden they liven in sikernesse, but
  they may nat; and yit they glorifye hem in hir power. Holdest
  thou thanne that thilke man be mighty, that thou seest that
  he wolde don that he may nat don? And holdest thou thanne              25
  him a mighty man, that hath envirownede his sydes with men
  of armes or seriaunts, and dredeth more hem that he maketh
  agast than they dreden him, and that is put in the handes of
  his servaunts for he sholde seme mighty?  But of familieres
  or servaunts of kinges what sholde I telle thee anything, sin          30
  that I myself have shewed thee that reaumes hem-self ben
  ful of gret feblesse? The whiche familieres, certes, the ryal
  power of kinges, in hool estat and in estat abated, ful ofte
  throweth adown. Nero constreynede Senek, his familier and
  his mayster, to chesen on what deeth he wolde deyen. Antonius          35
  comaundede that knightes slowen with hir swerdes Papinian
  _his familier_, which Papinian hadde ben longe tyme ful mighty
  amonges hem of the court. And yit, certes, they wolden bothe
  han renounced hir power; of whiche two Senek enforcede him
  to yeven to Nero his richesses, and also to han gon in-to              40
  solitarie exil. But whan the grete weighte, _that is to seyn_, of
  _lordes power or of fortune_, draweth hem that shullen falle,
  neither of hem ne mighte do that he wolde. What thing is
  thanne thilke power, that though men han it, yit they ben agast;
  and whanne thou woldest han it, thou nart nat siker; and               45
  yif thou woldest forleten it, thou mayst nat eschuen it? But
  whether swiche men ben frendes at nede, as ben conseyled by
  fortune and nat by vertu? Certes, swiche folk as weleful
  fortune maketh freendes, contrarious fortune maketh hem
  enemys. And what pestilence is more mighty for to anoye a              50
  wight than a familier enemy?

PR. V. 3. C. perpetualy; A. perpetuely. 7. A. realmes. 8. C. auctor; A.
auctour. 10. A. realmes (_om._ the). 11. C. node (_for_ nede). 12. C.
lorshipe. 14. C. A. nou_n_power. 19. A. realmes. 20. C. famyler. 23. A.
yit; C. yif. 24. C. seyst; A. seest; Lat. _uideas_. 27. A. seruauntes. //
A. _om._ hem. 31. A. realmes. 32. A. feblenesse. // A. real; Ed. royal. 34.
C. hyr famyler (_sic_); A. his familier. 37. C. famyler; A. familier. // C.
that hadde; A. _om._ that. 41. C. solutarie; A. solitarie. 42. C. sholen;
Ed. shullen; A. sholden; Lat. _ruituros_. 44. C. yit; Ed. yet; A. that. 47.
C. wheyther.


_Qui se uolet esse potentem._

  Who-so wol be mighty, he mot daunten his cruel corage,
  ne putte nat his nekke, overcomen, under the foule reynes of
  lecherye. For al-be-it so that thy lordshipe strecche so fer,
  that the contree of Inde quaketh at thy comaundements or at
  thy lawes, and that the last _ile in the see, that hight_ Tyle,         5
  be thral to thee, yit, yif thou mayst nat putten awey thy foule
  derke desyrs, and dryven out fro thee wrecched complaintes,
  certes, it nis no power that thou hast.                                 8

ME. V. 1. C. wole; Ed. wol; A. wolde. 4. C. thath (!). // A. contre Inde.
// A. comaundement. 5. A. leest (_for_ last); Lat. _ultima_.


_Gloria uero quam fallax saepe._

  But glorie, how deceivable and how foul is it ofte! For
  which thing nat unskilfully a tragedien, _that is to seyn, a maker
  of ditees that highten tragedies_, cryde and seide: "O glorie,
  glorie," quod he, "thou art nothing elles to thousandes of folkes
  but a greet sweller of eres!" For manye han had ful greet               5
  renoun by the false opinioun of the poeple, and what thing
  may ben thought fouler than swiche preysinge? For thilke folk
  that ben preysed falsly, they moten nedes han shame of hir
  preysinges. And yif that folk han geten hem thonk or preysinge
  by hir desertes, what thing hath thilke prys eched or                  10
  encresed to the conscience of wyse folk, that mesuren hir good,
  nat by the rumour of the poeple, but by the soothfastnesse of
  conscience? And yif it seme a fair thing, a man to han
  encresed and spred his name, than folweth it that it is demed
  to ben a foul thing, yif it ne be y-sprad and encresed. But,           15
  as I seyde a litel her-biforn that, sin ther mot nedes ben many
  folk, to whiche folk the renoun of a man ne may nat comen,
  it befalleth that he, that thou wenest be glorious and renomed,
  semeth in the nexte partie of the erthes to ben with-oute glorie
  and with-oute renoun.                                                  20

  And certes, amonges thise thinges I ne trowe nat that the
  prys and grace of the poeple nis neither worthy to ben
  remembred, ne cometh of wyse Iugement, ne is ferme perdurably.
  But now, of this name of gentilesse, what man is it
  that ne may wel seen how veyn and how flittinge a thing it             25
  is? For yif the name of gentilesse be referred to renoun and
  cleernesse of linage, thanne is gentil name but a foreine thing,
  _that is to seyn, to hem that glorifyen hem of hir linage_. For it
  semeth that gentilesse be a maner preysinge that comth of the
  deserte of ancestres. And yif preysinge maketh gentilesse,             30
  thanne moten they nedes be gentil that ben preysed. For
  which thing it folweth, that yif thou ne have no gentilesse of
  thy-self, _that is to seyn, preyse that comth of thy deserte_, foreine
  gentilesse ne maketh thee nat gentil. But certes, yif ther be
  any good in gentilesse, I trowe it be al-only this, that it semeth     35
  as that a maner necessitee be imposed to gentil men, for that
  they ne sholden nat outrayen or forliven fro the virtues of hir
  noble kinrede.

PR. VI. 4. A. Ed. he; C. she (!). 6. A. _om._ the _bef._ poeple. 9. C. of
(_for_ or). 15. A. ne encresed. 19. A. parties of the erthe; Lat. _parte
terrarum_. 23. C. remenbred. 24, 26, 29. C. gentellesse; A. gentilesse. 26.
C. refferred. 30. A. decert; Ed. desert_es_. 32. A. folweth; C. folueth.
36. C. inposed.


_Omne hominum genus in terris._

  Al the linage of men that ben in erthe ben of semblable
  birthe. On allone is fader of thinges. On allone ministreth
  alle thinges. He yaf to the sonne hise bemes; he yaf to the
  mone hir hornes. He yaf the men to the erthe; he yaf the
  sterres to the hevene. He encloseth with membres the soules             5
  that comen fro his hye sete. Thanne comen alle mortal folk
  of noble sede; why noisen ye or bosten of youre eldres? For
  yif thou loke your biginninge, and god your auctor and your
  maker, thanne nis ther no forlived wight, but-yif he norisshe
  his corage un-to vyces, and forlete his propre burthe.                 10

ME. VI. 4. A. Ed. hir hornes; C. hyse hornes. 5. C. menbrys. 8. Ed. ye
loke; Lat. _spectes_. // A. thy (_for 1st_ your); Lat. _uestra_.


_Quid autem de corporis uoluptatibus._

  But what shal I seye of delices of body, of whiche delices the
  desiringes ben ful of anguissh, and the fulfillinges of hem ben ful
  of penaunce? How greet syknesse and how grete sorwes unsufferable,
  right as a maner fruit of wikkednesse, ben thilke delices
  wont to bringen to the bodies of folk that usen hem! Of whiche          5
  delices I not what Ioye may ben had of hir moevinge. But this
  wot I wel, that who-so-ever wole remembren him of hise luxures,
  he shal wel understonde that the issues of delices ben sorwful
  and sorye. And yif thilke delices mowen maken folk blisful,
  than by the same cause moten thise bestes ben cleped blisful;          10
  of whiche bestes al the entencioun hasteth to fulfille hir bodily
  Iolitee. And the gladnesse of wyf and children were an honest
  thing, but it hath ben seyd that it is over muchel ayeins kinde,
  that children han ben founden tormentours to hir fadres, I not
  how manye: of whiche children how bytinge is every condicioun,         15
  it nedeth nat to tellen it thee, that hast or this tyme assayed
  it, and art yit now anguissous. In this approve I the sentence
  of my disciple Euripidis, that seyde, that "he that hath no
  children is weleful by infortune."

PR. VII. 12. A. _om._ an. 15. A. Ed. euery; C. eu_er_e. 18. Ed. Euripidis;
C. Eurydyppys; A. Euridippus; Lat. _Euripidis_ (gen.).


_Habet omnis hoc uoluptas._

  Every delyt hath this, that it anguissheth hem with prikkes
  that usen it. It resembleth to thise flyinge flyes that we clepen
  been, that, after that he hath shad hise agreable honies, he fleeth
  awey, and stingeth the hertes, of hem that ben y-smite, with
  bytinge overlonge holdinge.                                             5

ME. VII. 1. C. A. anguisseth. 3. C. _om. 2nd_ that. // A. the bee (_for_


_Nihil igitur dubium est._

  Now is it no doute thanne that thise weyes ne ben a maner
  misledinges to blisfulnesse, ne that they ne mowe nat leden
  folk thider as they biheten to leden hem. But with how grete
  harmes thise forseyde weyes ben enlaced, I shal shewe thee
  shortly. For-why yif thou enforcest thee to asemble moneye,             5
  thou most bireven him his moneye that hath it. And yif
  thou wolt shynen with dignitees, thou most bisechen and
  supplien hem that yeven tho dignitees. And yif thou coveitest
  by honour to gon biforn other folk, thou shalt defoule thy-self
  thorugh humblesse of axinge. Yif thou desirest power, thou             10
  shalt by awaytes of thy subgits anoyously ben cast under manye
  periles. Axest thou glorie? Thou shalt ben so destrat by aspre
  thinges that thou shalt forgoon sikernesse. And yif thou wolt
  leden thy lyf in delices, every wight shal despisen thee and
  forleten thee, as thou that art thral to thing that is right foul      15
  and brotel; that is to seyn, servaunt to thy body. Now is it
  thanne wel seen, how litel and how brotel possessioun they
  coveiten, that putten the goodes of the body aboven hir owne
  resoun. For mayst thou sormounten thise olifaunts in gretnesse
  or weight of body? Or mayst thou ben stronger than the bole?           20
  Mayst thou ben swifter than the tygre? Bihold the spaces and
  the stablenesse and the swifte cours of the hevene, and stint
  som-tyme to wondren on foule thinges; the which hevene, certes,
  nis nat rather for thise thinges to ben wondred up-on, than for
  the resoun by which it is governed. But the shyning of thy             25
  forme, _that is to seyn, the beautee of thy body_, how swiftly passinge
  is it, and how transitorie; certes, it is more flittinge than the
  mutabilitee of flowers of the somer-sesoun. For so Aristotle
  telleth, that yif that men hadden eyen of a beest that highte
  lynx, so that the lokinge of folk mighte percen thorugh the            30
  thinges that with-stonden it, who-so loked thanne in the entrailes
  of the body of Alcibiades, that was ful fayr in the superfice
  with-oute, it shold seme right foul. And forthy, yif thou semest
  fayr, thy nature maketh nat that, but the desceivaunce of the
  feblesse of the eyen that loken. But preyse the goodes of the          35
  body as mochel as ever thee list; so that thou knowe algates
  that, what-so it be, _that is to seyn, of the goodes of thy body_,
  which that thou wondrest up-on, may ben destroyed or dissolved
  by the hete of a fevere of three dayes. Of alle whiche forseyde
  thinges I may reducen this shortly in a somme, that thise worldly      40
  goodes, whiche that ne mowen nat yeven that they biheten, ne
  ben nat parfit by the congregacioun of alle goodes; that they
  ne ben nat weyes ne pathes that bringen men to blisfulnesse,
  ne maken men to ben blisful.

PR. VIII. 9. C. shal. 10. A. by (_for_ thorugh). 11. C. be (_for_ by). //
A. vndir many; C. Ed. vndyr by many; Lat. _periculis subiacebis_. 12. C. A.
destrat; Ed. distracte. 16. C. brwtel (_for_ brotel; _1st time_). 19. A.
mayst thou; C. maysthow. 20. C. weyhty (!). 32. C. in superfyce (_om._
the). 34. A. desceiuaunce of the; Ed. disceyuaunce of; C. deceyuable or
(!). 37. A. the goodes of thi; Ed. the goodes of the; C. godes of the. 40.
A. Ed. a somme; C. _om._ a. //  C. wordly. 42. C. ne ne ben. // A. Ed. by
the; C. _om._ the. 43. C. man (_for_ men; _1st time_).


_Eheu! quae miseros tramite deuios._

  Allas! which folye and which ignoraunce misledeth wandringe
  wrecches fro the path of verray goode!

  Certes, ye ne seken no gold in grene trees, ne ye ne gaderen
  nat precious stones in the vynes, ne ye ne hyden nat your
  ginnes in the hye mountaignes to cacchen fish of whiche ye              5
  may maken riche festes. And yif yow lyketh to hunte to roes,
  ye ne gon nat to the fordes of the water that highte Tyrene.
  And over this, men knowen wel the crykes and the cavernes
  of the see y-hid in the flodes, and knowen eek which water
  is most plentivous of whyte perles, and knowen which water             10
  haboundeth most of rede purpre, _that is to seyn, of a maner
  shelle-fish with which men dyen purpre_; and knowen which
  strondes habounden most with tendre fisshes, or of sharpe fisshes
  that highten echines. But folk suffren hem-self to ben so blinde,
  that hem ne reccheth nat to knowe where thilke goodes ben              15
  y-hid whiche that they coveiten, but ploungen hem in erthe
  and seken there thilke good that sormounteth the hevene that
  bereth the sterres. What preyere may I maken that be digne
  to the nyce thoughtes of men? But I preye that they coveiten
  richesse and honours, so that, whan they han geten tho false           20
  goodes with greet travaile, that ther-by they mowe knowen the
  verray goodes.

ME. VIII. 4. A. _om._ nat. 5. C. hyye mountaygnes; A. hey[gh]e mountaignes.
// C. kachche; A. kachen; Ed. catchen (= cacchen). 6. C. honte; A. Ed.
hunte. // C. rooes; Ed. roes; A. roos. 8. A. crikes; Ed. crekes; C. brykes;
Lat. _recessus_. 9. A. Ed. in the; C. _om._ the. 14. Ed. Echines; C. A.
echynnys. 15. C. rechcheth; A. recchith. // C. weer_e_ (_for_ where).


_Hactenus mendacis formam._

  It suffyseth that I have shewed hider-to the forme of false
  welefulnesse, so that, yif thou loke now cleerly, the order of
  myn entencioun requireth from hennes-forth to shewen thee the
  verray welefulnesse.'

  'For sothe,' quod I, 'I see wel now that suffisaunce may nat            5
  comen by richesses, ne power by reames, ne reverence by
  dignitees, ne gentilesse by glorie, ne Ioye by delices.'

  'And hast thou wel knowen the causes,' quod she, 'why it is?'

  'Certes, me semeth,' quod I, 'that I see hem right as though
  it were thorugh a litel clifte; but me were levere knowen hem          10
  more openly of thee.'

  'Certes,' quod she, 'the resoun is al redy. For thilke thing
  that simply is o thing, with-outen any devisioun, the errour
  and folye of mankinde departeth and devydeth it, and misledeth
  it and transporteth from verray and parfit good to goodes that         15
  ben false and unparfit. But sey me this. Wenest thou that
  he, that hath nede of power, that him ne lakketh no-thing?'

  'Nay,' quod I.

  'Certes,' quod she, 'thou seyst a-right. For yif so be that
  ther is a thing, that in any partye be febler of power, certes,        20
  as in that, it mot nedes ben nedy of foreine help.'

  'Right so is it,' quod I.

  'Suffisaunce and power ben thanne of o kinde?'

  'So semeth it,' quod I.

  'And demest thou,' quod she, 'that a thing that is of this             25
  manere, _that is to seyn, suffisaunt and mighty_, oughte ben
  despysed, or elles that it be right digne of reverence aboven
  alle thinges?'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'it nis no doute, that it is right worthy to
  ben reverenced.'                                                       30

  'Lat us,' quod she, 'adden thanne reverence to suffisaunce
  and to power, so that we demen that thise three thinges ben
  al o thing.'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'lat us adden it, yif we wolen graunten the
  sothe.'                                                                35

  'What demest thou thanne?' quod she; 'is that a derk thing
  and nat noble, _that is suffisaunt, reverent, and mighty_, or elles that
  it is right noble and right cleer by celebritee of renoun? Consider
  thanne,' quod she, 'as we han graunted her-biforn, that he that
  ne hath nede of no-thing, and is most mighty and most digne            40
  of honour, yif him nedeth any cleernesse of renoun, which
  cleernesse he mighte nat graunten of him-self, so that, for lakke
  of thilke cleernesse, he mighte seme the febeler on any syde
  or the more out-cast?' GLOSE. _This is to seyn, nay; for who-so
  that is suffisaunt, mighty, and reverent, cleernesse of renoun folweth 45
  of the forseyde thinges; he hath it al redy of his suffisaunce._

  _Boece._ 'I may nat,' quod I, 'denye it; but I mot graunte
  as it is, that this thing be right celebrable by cleernesse of renoun
  and noblesse.'

  'Thanne folweth it,' quod she, 'that we adden cleernesse of            50
  renoun to the three forseyde thinges, so that ther ne be amonges
  hem no difference?'

  'This is a consequence,' quod I.

  'This thing thanne,' quod she, 'that ne hath nede of no
  foreine thing, and that may don alle thinges by hise strengthes,       55
  and that is noble and honourable, nis nat that a mery thing
  and a Ioyful?'

  'But whennes,' quod I, 'that any sorwe mighte comen to this
  thing that is swiche, certes, I may nat thinke.'

  'Thanne moten we graunte,' quod she, 'that this thing be               60
  ful of gladnesse, yif the forseyde thinges ben sothe; and certes,
  also mote we graunten that suffisaunce, power, noblesse, reverence,
  and gladnesse ben only dyverse by names, but hir substaunce
  hath no diversitee.'

  'It mot needly been so,' quod I.                                       65

  'Thilke thing thanne,' quod she, 'that is oon and simple
  in his nature, the wikkednesse of men departeth it and devydeth
  it; and whan they enforcen hem to geten partye of a thing
  that ne hath no part, they ne geten hem neither thilke partye that
  nis non, ne the thing al hool that they ne desire nat.'                70

  'In which manere?' quod I.

  'Thilke man,' quod she, 'that secheth richesses to fleen
  povertee, he ne travaileth him nat for to gete power; for he
  hath levere ben derk and vyl; and eek withdraweth from
  him-self many naturel delyts, for he nolde lese the moneye that        75
  he hath assembled. But certes, in this manere he ne geteth
  him nat suffisaunce that power forleteth, and that molestie
  prikketh, and that filthe maketh out-cast, and that derkenesse
  hydeth. And certes, he that desireth only power, he wasteth
  and scatereth richesse, and despyseth delyts, and eek honour           80
  that is with-oute power, ne he ne preyseth glorie no-thing.
  Certes, thus seest thou wel, that manye thinges faylen to him;
  for he hath som-tyme defaute of many necessitees, and many
  anguisshes byten him; and whan he ne may nat don tho defautes
  a-wey, he forleteth to ben mighty, and that is the thing that          85
  he most desireth. And right thus may I maken semblable
  resouns of honours, and of glorie, and of delyts. For so as
  every of thise forseyde thinges is the same that thise other
  thinges ben, _that is to seyn, al oon thing_, who-so that ever
  seketh to geten that oon of thise, and nat that other, he ne           90
  geteth nat that he desireth.'

  _Boece._ 'What seyst thou thanne, yif that a man coveiteth
  to geten alle thise thinges to-gider?'

  _Philosophie._ 'Certes,' quod she, 'I wolde seye, that he wolde
  geten him sovereyn blisfulnesse; but that shal he nat finde in         95
  tho thinges that I have shewed, that ne mowen nat yeven that
  they beheten.'

  'Certes, no,' quod I.

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'ne sholden men nat by no wey seken
  blisfulnesse in swiche thinges as men wene that they ne mowen         100
  yeven but o thing senglely of alle that men seken.'

  'I graunte wel,' quod I; 'ne no sother thing ne may ben

  'Now hast thou thanne,' quod she, 'the forme and the causes
  of false welefulnesse. Now torne and flitte the eyen of thy           105
  thought; for ther shalt thou sen anon thilke verray blisfulnesse
  that I have bihight thee.'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'it is cleer and open, thogh it were to
  a blinde man; and that shewedest thou me ful wel a litel her-biforn,
  whan thou enforcedest thee to shewe me the causes                     110
  of the false blisfulnesse. For but-yif I be bigyled, thanne
  is thilke the verray blisfulnesse parfit, that parfitly maketh a
  man suffisaunt, mighty, honourable, noble, and ful of gladnesse.
  And, for thou shalt wel knowe that I have wel understonden
  thise thinges with-in my herte, I knowe wel that thilke blisfulnesse, 115
  that may verrayly yeven oon of the forseyde thinges, sin
  they ben al oon, I knowe, douteles, that thilke thing is the
  fulle blisfulnesse.'

  _Philosophie._ 'O my norie,' quod she, 'by this opinioun I
  seye that thou art blisful, yif thou putte this ther-to that I        120
  shal seyn.'

  'What is that?' quod I.

  'Trowest thou that ther be any thing in thise erthely mortal
  toumbling thinges that may bringen this estat?'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'I trowe it naught; and thou hast shewed            125
  me wel that over thilke good ther nis no-thing more to ben

  'Thise thinges thanne,' quod she, '_that is to sey, erthely
  suffisaunce and power and swiche thinges_, either they semen
  lykenesses of verray good, or elles it semeth that they yeve to       130
  mortal folk a maner of goodes that ne ben nat parfit; but thilke
  good that is verray and parfit, that may they nat yeven.'

  'I acorde me wel,' quod I.

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'for as mochel as thou hast knowen
  which is thilke verray blisfulnesse, and eek whiche thilke thinges    135
  ben that lyen falsly blisfulnesse, _that is to seyn, that by deceite
  semen verray goodes_, now behoveth thee to knowe whennes and
  where thou mowe seke thilke verray blisfulnesse.'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'that desire I greetly, and have abiden longe
  tyme to herknen it.'                                                  140

  'But for as moche,' quod she, 'as it lyketh to my disciple
  Plato, in his book of "in Timeo," that in right litel thinges men
  sholden bisechen the help of god, what iugest thou that be now
  to done, so that we may deserve to finde the sete of thilke
  verray good?'                                                         145

  'Certes,' quod I, 'I deme that we shollen clepen the fader
  of alle goodes; for with-outen him nis ther no-thing founden

  'Thou seyst a-right,' quod she; and bigan anon to singen
  right thus:--                                                         150

PR. IX. 5. A. _om._ sothe _and 2nd_ I. 6. A. richesse. // A. Ed. realmes.
8. A. hast thou; C.hasthow. // A. cause; Lat. _caussas_. 16. A. inparfit.
// C. Wenesthow. 20. A. fieble; C. Ed. febler; Lat. _imbecillioris
ualentiae_. 21. C. mot; Ed. mote; A. most. 25. C. demesthow. 29. A. nis
(_twice_). 36. C. demesthow. // Ed. derke; C. dyrk; A. dirke. 38. A. of
(_for_ by). 53. A. And this (_for_ This). // C. consequens; Ed.
consequence; A. consequente _or_ consequence. 54. C. hat (_for_ hath). //
A. no nede. 58. Ed. whence; A. wenest (!); Lat. _unde_. 72. A. rychesse.
74. Ed. derke; C. dyrk; A. dirk. 75. C. delices (_or_ delites); A. delitz;
Ed. delytes. 77. Ed. molestie; C. A. moleste; Lat. _molestia_. 78. A.
derknesse; C. dyrkenesse. 80. C. schatereth. // C. delytz; A. delices (_or_
delites). 83. C. Ed. defaute; A. faute. 84. Ed. anguysshes; A. anguysses;
C. angwyssos. 86. A. semblable; C. semlable. 90. C. oothr_e_. 92. C.
seysthow. 101. C. A. senglely. 104. C. hasthow. 106. C. shalthow. 109. A.
_om._ ful wel. 115. C. Ed. that thilke; A. _om._ that. 118. A. the fulle of
(_wrongly_). 119. C. norye; A. nurry. 130. A. likenesse; Lat. _imagines_.
141. A. disciple; C. dissipule. 142. C. in tymeo; A. in thimeo; Lat. _uti
in Timaeo Platoni_. 143. C. byshechen. // A. _om._ now.


_O qui perpetua mundum ratione gubernas._

  'O thou fader, creator of hevene and of erthes, that governest
  this world by perdurable resoun, that comaundest the tymes to
  gon from sin that age hadde beginninge; thou that dwellest
  thy-self ay stedefast and stable, and yevest alle othre thinges
  to ben moeved; ne foreine causes necesseden thee never to               5
  compoune werk of floteringe matere, but only the forme of
  soverein good y-set with-in thee with-oute envye, _that moevede
  thee freely_. Thou that art alder-fayrest, beringe the faire world
  in thy thought, formedest this world to the lyknesse semblable
  of that faire world in thy thought. Thou drawest al thing of           10
  thy soverein ensaumpler, and comaundest that this world,
  parfitliche y-maked, have freely and absolut his parfit parties.
  Thou bindest the elements by noumbres proporcionables, that
  the colde thinges mowen acorden with the hote thinges, and
  the drye thinges with the moiste thinges; that the fyr, that           15
  is purest, ne flee nat over hye, ne that the hevinesse ne drawe
  nat adoun over-lowe the erthes that ben plounged in the wateres.
  Thou knittest to-gider the mene sowle of treble kinde, moevinge
  alle thinges, and devydest it by membres acordinge; and whan
  it is thus devyded, it hath asembled a moevinge in-to two              20
  roundes; it goth to torne ayein to him-self, and envirouneth a
  ful deep thought, and torneth the hevene by semblable image.
  Thou by evene-lyke causes enhansest the sowles and the lasse
  lyves, and, ablinge hem heye by lighte cartes, thou sowest hem
  in-to hevene and in-to erthe; and whan they ben converted to           25
  thee by thy benigne lawe, thou makest hem retorne ayein to
  thee by ayein-ledinge fyr.

  O fader, yive thou to the thought to styen up in-to thy streite
  sete, and graunte him to enviroune the welle of good; and, the
  lighte y-founde, graunte him to fichen the clere sightes of his        30
  corage in thee. And scater thou and to-breke thou the weightes
  and the cloudes of erthely hevinesse, and shyne thou by thy
  brightnesse. For thou art cleernesse; thou art peysible reste
  to debonaire folk; thou thy-self art biginninge, berer, leder, path,
  and terme; to loke on thee, that is our ende.                          35

ME. IX. 3. A. for to gon. // C. from sin that; A. from tyme that; Ed. syth
that. 7. A. _om._ thee _after_ with-in. 10. A. alle thinges. 11. A.
comaundedist. 12. C. _om._ and absolut. 13. A. Ed. proporcionables; C.
porcionables. 16. A. fleye (_for_ flee). // A. Ed. drawe; C. drawen. 18. C.
_glosses_ sowle _by_ anima mundi. 19. C. menbres. 20. C. in to two; A. in
two; Ed. in to. 22. C. tornet; A. tournith. 24. C. Ed. sowest; A. sewest.
26. A. Ed. benigne; C. bygynnynge (!). 28. A. thi thou[gh]t (_wrongly_); C.
_has the gloss_: s. boecii. // A. thi streite; Ed. thy strayte; C. the
streite. 29. A. _om._ him. // C. enuerowne; A. enuiroune. 31. A. _om. 2nd_
thou. 33. A. _om._ reste. 34. C. paath. 35. A. _om._ that.


_Quoniam igitur quae sit imperfecti._

  For as moche thanne as thou hast seyn, which is the forme
  of good that nis nat parfit, and which is the forme of good that
  is parfit, now trowe I that it were good to shewe in what this
  perfeccioun of blisfulnesse is set. And in this thing, I trowe
  that we sholden first enquere for to witen, yif that any swiche         5
  maner good as thilke good that thou has diffinisshed a litel
  heer-biforn, _that is to seyn, soverein good_, may ben founde in the
  nature of thinges; for that veyn imaginacioun of thought ne
  deceyve us nat, and putte us out of the sothfastnesse of thilke
  thing that is summitted unto us. But it may nat ben deneyed            10
  that thilke good ne is, and that it nis right as welle of alle
  goodes. For al thing that is cleped inparfit is proeved inparfit
  by the amenusinge of perfeccioun or of thing that is parfit.
  And ther-of comth it, that in every thing general, yif that men
  sen any-thing that is inparfit, certes, in thilke general ther mot     15
  ben som-thing that is parfit; for yif so be that perfeccioun is
  don awey, men may nat thinke ne seye fro whennes thilke
  thing is that is cleped inparfit. For the nature of thinges ne
  took nat hir beginninge of thinges amenused and inparfit, but
  it procedeth of thinges that ben al hoole and absolut, and             20
  descendeth so doun in-to outterest thinges, and in-to thinges
  empty and with-outen frut. But, as I have y-shewed a litel
  her-biforn, that yif ther be a blisfulnesse that be freele and
  veyn and inparfit, ther may no man doute that ther nis som
  blisfulnesse that is sad, stedefast, and parfit.'                      25

  _Boece._ 'This is concluded,' quod I, 'fermely and sothfastly.'

  _Philosophie._ 'But considere also,' quod she, 'in wham this
  blisfulnesse enhabiteth. The comune acordaunce and conceite
  of the corages of men proeveth and graunteth, that god, prince
  of alle thinges, is good. For, so as nothing ne may ben thought        30
  bettre than god, it may nat ben douted thanne that he, that
  nothing nis bettre, that he nis good. Certes, resoun sheweth
  that god is so good, that it proveth by verray force that parfit
  good is in him. For yif god ne is swich, he ne may nat ben
  prince of alle thinges; for certes som-thing possessing in it-self     35
  parfit good, sholde ben more worthy than god, and it sholde
  semen that thilke thing were first, and elder than god. For
  we han shewed apertly that alle thinges that ben parfit ben
  first or thinges that ben unparfit; and for-thy, for as moche as
  that my resoun or my proces ne go nat a-wey with-oute an               40
  ende, we owen to graunten that the soverein god is right ful
  of soverein parfit good. And we han establisshed that the
  soverein good is verray blisfulnesse: thanne mot it nedes be,
  that verray blisfulnesse is set in soverein god.'

  'This take I wel,' quod I, 'ne this ne may nat ben withseid            45
  in no manere.'

  'But I preye,' quod she, 'see now how thou mayst proeven,
  holily and with-oute corupcioun, this that I have seyd, that the
  soverein god is right ful of soverein good.'

  'In which manere?' quod I.                                             50

  'Wenest thou aught,' quod she, 'that this prince of alle
  thinges have y-take thilke soverein good any-wher out of him-self,
  of which soverein good men proveth that he is ful, right
  as thou mightest thinken that god, that hath blisfulnesse in
  him-self, and thilke blisfulnesse that is in him, weren dyvers in      55
  substaunce? For yif thou wene that god have received thilke
  good out of him-self, thou mayst wene that he that yaf thilke
  good to god be more worthy than is god. But I am bi-knowen
  and confesse, and that right dignely, that god is right worthy
  aboven alle thinges; and, yif so be that this good be in him           60
  by nature, but that it is dyvers fro him by weninge resoun,
  sin we speke of god prince of alle thinges: feigne who-so
  feigne may, who was he that hath conioigned thise dyverse
  thinges to-gider? And eek, at the laste, see wel that a thing
  that is dyvers from any thing, that thilke thing nis nat that          65
  same thing fro which it is understonden to ben dyvers. Thanne
  folweth it, that thilke thing that by his nature is dyvers fro
  soverein good, that that thing nis nat soverein good; but certes,
  that were a felonous corsednesse to thinken that of him that
  nothing nis more worth. For alwey, of alle thinges, the nature         70
  of hem ne may nat ben bettre than his biginning; for which
  I may concluden, by right verray resoun, that thilke that is
  biginning of alle thinges, thilke same thing is soverein good
  in his substaunce.'

  _Boece._ 'Thou hast seyd rightfully,' quod I.                          75

  _Philosophie._ 'But we han graunted,' quod she, 'that the
  soverein good is blisfulnesse.'

  'And that is sooth,' quod I.

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'moten we nedes graunten and confessen
  that thilke same soverein good be god.'                                80

  'Certes,' quod I, 'I ne may nat denye ne withstonde the
  resouns purposed; and I see wel that it folweth by strengthe
  of the premisses.'

  'Loke now,' quod she, 'yif this be proved yit more fermely
  thus: that ther ne mowen nat ben two soverein goodes that              85
  ben dyverse amonge hem-self. For certes, the goodes that
  ben dyverse amonges hem-self, that oon nis nat that that other
  is; thanne ne [may] neither of hem ben parfit, so as either of
  hem lakketh to other. But that that nis nat parfit, men may
  seen apertly that it nis nat soverein. The thinges, thanne, that       90
  ben sovereinly goode, ne mowen by no wey ben dyverse. But
  I have wel concluded that blisfulnesse and god ben the soverein
  good; for whiche it mot nedes ben, that soverein blisfulnesse
  is soverein divinitee.'

  'Nothing,' quod I, 'nis more soothfast than this, ne more              95
  ferme by resoun; ne a more worthy thing than god may nat
  ben concluded.'

  'Up-on thise thinges thanne,' quod she, 'right as thise geometriens,
  whan they han shewed hir proposiciouns, ben wont
  to bringen in thinges that they clepen porismes, _or declaraciouns    100
  of forseide thinges_, right so wole I yeve thee heer as a corollarie,
  _or a mede of coroune_. For-why, for as moche as by the getinge
  of blisfulnesse men ben maked blisful, and blisfulnesse is
  divinitee: thanne is it manifest and open, that by the getinge
  of divinitee men ben maked blisful. Right as by the getinge           105
  of Iustice [they ben maked iust], and by the getinge of sapience
  they ben maked wyse: right so, nedes, by the semblable resoun,
  whan they han geten divinitee, they ben maked goddes. Thanne
  is every blisful man god; but certes, by nature, ther nis but
  o god; but, by the participacioun of divinitee, ther ne let ne        110
  desturbeth nothing that ther ne ben manye goddes.'

  'This is,' quod I, 'a fair thing and a precious, clepe it as
  thou wolt; be it porisme or corollarie,' _or mede of coroune or

  'Certes,' quod she, 'nothing nis fayrer than is the thing that        115
  by resoun sholde ben added to thise forseide thinges.'

  'What thing?' quod I.

  'So,' quod she, 'as it semeth that blisfulnesse conteneth many
  thinges, it were for to witen whether that alle thise thinges maken
  or conioignen as a maner body of blisfulnesse, by dyversitee of       120
  parties or of membres; or elles, yif that any of alle thilke thinges
  be swich that it acomplisshe by him-self the substaunce of
  blisfulnesse, so that alle thise othre thinges ben referred and
  brought to blisfulnesse,' _that is to seyn, as to the cheef of hem_.

  'I wolde,' quod I, 'that thou makedest me cleerly to understonde      125
  what thou seyst, and that thou recordedest me the forseyde

  'Have I nat iuged,' quod she, 'that blisfulnesse is good?'

  'Yis, forsothe,' quod I; 'and that soverein good.'

  'Adde thanne,' quod she, 'thilke good, _that is maked blisfulnesse_,  130
  to alle the forseide thinges; for thilke same blisfulnesse
  that is demed to ben soverein suffisaunce, thilke selve is soverein
  power, soverein reverence, soverein cleernesse _or noblesse_, and
  soverein delyt. CONCLUSIO. What seyst thou thanne of alle thise
  thinges, that is to seyn, suffisaunce, power, and this othre thinges; 135
  ben they thanne as membres of blisfulnesse, or ben they referred
  and brought to soverein good, right as alle thinges that ben brought
  to the chief of hem?'

  'I understonde wel;' quod I, 'what thou purposest to seke;
  but I desire for to herkne that thou shewe it me.'                    140

  'Tak now thus the discrecioun of this questioun,' quod she.
  'Yif alle thise thinges,' quod she, 'weren membres to felicitee,
  than weren they dyverse that oon from that other; and swich is
  the nature of parties or of membres, that dyverse membres compounen
  a body.'                                                              145

  'Certes,' quod I, 'it hath wel ben shewed heer-biforn, that alle
  thise thinges ben alle o thing.'

  'Thanne ben they none membres,' quod she; 'for elles it
  sholde seme that blisfulnesse were conioigned al of on membre
  allone; but that is a thing that may nat be don.'                     150

  'This thing,' quod I, 'nis nat doutous; but I abyde to herknen
  the remnaunt of thy questioun.'

  'This is open and cleer,' quod she, 'that alle othre thinges ben
  referred and brought to good. For therefore is suffisaunce requered,
  for it is demed to ben good; and forthy is power requered,            155
  for men trowen also that it be good; and this same thing mowen
  we thinken and coniecten of reverence, and of noblesse, and of
  delyt. Thanne is soverein good the somme and the cause of al
  that aughte ben desired; for-why thilke thing that with-holdeth
  no good in it-self, ne semblaunce of good, it ne may nat wel in       160
  no manere be desired ne requered. And the contrarie: for
  thogh that thinges by hir nature ne ben nat goode, algates, yif
  men wene that ben goode, yit ben they desired as though that
  they weren verrayliche goode. And therfor is it that men oughten
  to wene by right, that bountee be the soverein fyn, and the cause     165
  of alle the thinges that ben to requeren. But certes, thilke that
  is cause for which men requeren any thing, it semeth that thilke
  same thing be most desired. As thus: yif that a wight wolde
  ryden for cause of hele, he ne desireth nat so mochel the moevinge
  to ryden, as the effect of his hele. Now thanne, sin that             170
  alle thinges ben requered for the grace of good, they ne ben nat
  desired of alle folk more thanne the same good. But we han
  graunted that blisfulnesse is that thing, for whiche that alle thise
  othre thinges ben desired; thanne is it thus: that, certes, only
  blisfulnesse is requered and desired. By whiche thing it sheweth      175
  cleerly, that of good and of blisfulnesse is al oon and the same

  'I see nat,' quod I, 'wherfore that men mighten discorden in

  'And we han shewed that god and verray blisfulnesse is al oo          180

  'That is sooth,' quod I.

  'Thanne mowen we conclude sikerly, that the substaunce of
  god is set in thilke same good, and in non other place.               184

PR. X. 6. A. diffinissed; C. dyffynnyssed; Ed. diffynished. 10. _After_ us,
A. _ins._ this is to seyne (_needlessly_). // C. A. denoyed (_error for_
deneyed); Ed. denyed. 12. A. al; C. alle. 14. C. ther-of; A. Ed. her-of. //
C. comht (_for_ comth). 20. C. absolut, i. laws. 21. C. dessendeth. 28. C.
conseite; A. conceite. 31. A. _om._ he that. 32. A. is bettre. 35. C. Ed.
it-self; A. hym self. 36. A. _om._ it. 39. A. inperfit. 40. C. as that; A.
_om._ that. // A. Ed. proces; C. processes. 41. owen] A. ou[gh]t. 44. A.
_om._ that ... is. 50. A. _om._ In which ... I. 51. C. Wenesthow awht. 56.
A. receyued; C. resseyud. 58. A. goode (_for_ worthy). 61. A. it is; C. is
is (_sic_). // fro him] A. _om._ him. 63. A. _om._ hath. 70. A. Ed. nis; C.
is. 73. A. _om._ soverein. 84. A. _om._ yit. 86, 87. A. _om._ For certes
... hem-self. // C. othre. 88. A. _om._ ne. // C. A. Ed. mowen; _read_ may.
90. A. Ed. nis; C. is. 106. _I supply_ they ben maked iust; Lat. _iusti_.
110. C. by thy (_wrongly_); A. Ed. by the. 119. A. witen; C. whyten. // C.
wheyther that; A. _om._ that. // A. thise; C. this. 120. A. Ed. by; C. be.
121. C. or of; A. _om._ of. 122. Ed. accomplysshe; C. acomplyse; A.
acomplise. 126. A. recordest. 134. C. _om._ thise. 141. Ed. discrecion; A.
discressioun; C. descressioun. 143. C. swhych. 157. C. coniecten; A.
coneiten; Lat. _coniectare_. 159. C. awht; A. au[gh]t. 161. A. requered; C.
required. 171. A. requered; C. required. 176. C. of good; A. _om._ of; Lat.


_Huc omnes pariter uenite capti._

  O cometh alle to-gider now, ye that ben y-caught and y-bounde
  with wikkede cheynes, by the deceivable delyt of erthely thinges
  enhabitinge in your thought! Heer shal ben the reste of your
  labours, heer is the havene stable in peysible quiete; this allone
  is the open refut to wrecches. GLOSA. _This is to seyn, that ye         5
  that ben combred and deceived with worldely affecciouns, cometh now
  to this soverein good, that is god, that is refut to hem that wolen
  comen to him._ TEXTUS. Alle the thinges that the river Tagus
  yeveth yow with his goldene gravailes, or elles alle the thinges
  that the river Hermus yeveth with his rede brinke, or that Indus       10
  yeveth, that is next the hote party of the world, that medleth the
  grene stones with the whyte, ne sholde nat cleeren the lookinge
  of your thought, but hyden rather your blinde corages with-in hir
  derknesse. Al that lyketh yow heer, and excyteth and moeveth
  your thoughtes, the erthe hath norisshed it in hise lowe caves.        15
  But the shyninge, by whiche the hevene is governed and whennes
  he hath his strengthe, that eschueth the derke overthrowinge of
  the sowle; and who-so may knowen thilke light of blisfulnesse,
  he shal wel seyn, that the whyte bemes of the sonne ne ben nat
  cleer.'                                                                20

ME. X. 3. A. Ed. Here; C. He. 6. A. deceyued; C. desseyued. 10. A. Ed.
Hermus; C. Herynus (!). 12. C. grene stones, _i. smaragdes_; with the
whyte, _i. margaretes_. 14. Ed. derkenesse; C. dyrknesse. 16. A. by the
whiche. 17. C. eschueth; A. chaseth; Lat. _uitat_. // A. derke; C. dyrke.


_Assentior, inquam._

  _Boece._ 'I assente me,' quod I; 'for alle thise thinges ben
  strongly bounden with right ferme resouns.'

  _Philosophie._ 'How mochel wilt thou preysen it,' quod she,
  'yif that thou knowe what thilke good is?'

  'I wol preyse it,' quod I, 'by prys with-outen ende, yif it shal        5
  bityde me to knowe also to-gider god that is good.'

  'Certes,' quod she, 'that shal I do thee by verray resoun, yif
  that tho thinges that I have concluded a litel her-biforn dwellen
  only in hir first graunting.'

  'They dwellen graunted to thee,' quod I; _this is to seyn, as          10
  who seith: I graunte thy forseide conclusiouns_.

  'Have I nat shewed thee,' quod she, 'that the thinges that ben
  requered of many folkes ne ben nat verray goodes ne parfite, for
  they ben dyverse that oon fro that othre; and so as ech of hem
  is lakkinge to other, they ne han no power to bringen a good that      15
  is ful and absolut? But thanne at erst ben they verray good,
  whanne they ben gadered to-gider alle in-to o forme and in-to oon
  wirkinge, so that thilke thing that is suffisaunce, thilke same be
  power, and reverence, and noblesse, and mirthe; and forsothe,
  but-yif alle thise thinges ben alle oon same thing, they ne han nat    20
  wherby that they mowen ben put in the noumber of thinges that
  oughten ben requered or desired.'

  'It is shewed,' quod I; 'ne her-of may ther no man douten.'

  'The thinges thanne,' quod she, 'that ne ben no goodes
  whanne they ben dyverse, and whan they beginnen to ben alle            25
  oon thing thanne ben they goodes, ne comth it hem nat thanne
  by the getinge of unitee, that they ben maked goodes?'

  'So it semeth,' quod I.

  'But al thing that is good,' quod she, 'grauntest thou that it be
  good by the participacioun of good, or no?'                            30

  'I graunte it,' quod I.

  'Thanne most thou graunten,' quod she, 'by semblable resoun,
  that oon and good be oo same thing. For of thinges, of whiche
  that the effect nis nat naturelly diverse, nedes the substance mot
  be oo same thing.'                                                     35

  'I ne may nat denye that,' quod I.

  'Hast thou nat knowen wel,' quod she, 'that al thing that is
  hath so longe his dwellinge and his substaunce as longe as it is
  oon; but whan it forleteth to ben oon, it mot nedes dyen and
  corumpe to-gider?'                                                     40

  'In which manere?' quod I.

  'Right as in bestes,' quod she, 'whan the sowle and the body
  ben conioigned in oon and dwellen to-gider, it is cleped a beest.
  And whan hir unitee is destroyed by the disseveraunce of that oon
  from that other, than sheweth it wel that it is a ded thing, and       45
  that it nis no lenger no beest. And the body of a wight, whyl
  it dwelleth in oo forme by coniunccioun of membres, it is
  wel seyn that it is a figure of man-kinde. And yif the parties
  of the body ben so devyded and dissevered, _that oon fro that
  other_, that they destroyen unitee, the body forleteth to ben that     50
  it was biforn. And, who-so wolde renne in the same manere by
  alle thinges, he sholde seen that, with-oute doute, every thing is
  in his substaunce as longe as it is oon; and whan it forleteth to
  ben oon, it dyeth and perissheth.'

  'Whan I considere,' quod I, 'manye thinges, I see non other.'          55

  'Is ther any-thing thanne,' quod she, 'that, in as moche as it
  liveth naturelly, that forleteth the talent or appetyt of his beinge,
  and desireth to come to deeth and to corupcioun?'

  'Yif I considere,' quod I, 'the beestes that han any maner
  nature of wilninge and of nillinge, I ne finde no beest, but-yif       60
  it be constreined fro with-oute forth, that forleteth or
  despyseth the entencioun to liven and to duren, or that wole,
  his thankes, hasten him to dyen. For every beest travaileth him
  to deffende and kepe the savacioun of his lyf, and eschueth deeth
  and destruccioun.                                                      65

  But certes, I doute me of herbes and of trees, _that is to
  seyn, that I am in a doute of swiche thinges as herbes or trees_, that
  ne han no felinge sowles, _ne no naturel wirkinges servinge to
  appetytes as bestes han, whether they han appetyt to dwellen
  and to duren_.'                                                        70

  'Certes,' quod she, 'ne ther-of thar thee nat doute. Now
  loke up-on thise herbes and thise trees; they wexen first in
  swiche places as ben covenable to hem, in whiche places they
  ne mowen nat sone dyen ne dryen, as longe as hir nature may
  deffenden hem. For som of hem waxen in feeldes, and som                75
  in mountaignes, and othre waxen in mareys, and othre cleven
  on roches, and somme waxen plentivous in sondes; and yif
  that any wight enforce him to beren hem in-to othre places,
  they wexen drye. For nature yeveth to every thing that that
  is convenient to him, and travaileth that they ne dye nat, as          80
  longe as they han power to dwellen and to liven. What woltow
  seyn of this, that they drawen alle hir norisshinges by hir rotes,
  right as they hadden hir mouthes y-plounged with-in the erthes,
  and sheden by hir maryes hir wode and hir bark? And what
  woltow seyn of this, that thilke thing that is right softe, as the     85
  marye is, that is alwey hid in the sete, al with-inne, and that
  is defended fro with-oute by the stedefastnesse of wode; and
  that the uttereste bark is put ayeins the destemperaunce of
  the hevene, as a defendour mighty to suffren harm? And thus,
  certes, maystow wel seen how greet is the diligence of nature;         90
  for alle thinges renovelen and puplisshen hem with seed y-multiplyed;
  ne ther nis no man that ne wot wel that they ne
  ben right as a foundement and edifice, for to duren nat only
  for a tyme, but right as for to duren perdurably by generacioun.
  And the thinges eek that men wenen ne haven none sowles,               95
  ne desire they nat ech of hem by semblable resoun to kepen
  that is hirs, _that is to seyn, that is acordinge to hir nature in
  conservacioun of hir beinge and enduringe_? For wher-for elles
  bereth lightnesse the flaumbes up, and the weighte presseth
  the erthe a-doun, but for as moche as thilke places and thilke        100
  moevinges ben covenable to everich of hem? And forsothe
  every thing kepeth thilke that is acordinge and propre to him,
  right as thinges that ben contraries and enemys corompen hem.
  And yit the harde thinges, as stones, clyven and holden hir
  parties to-gider right faste and harde, and deffenden hem in          105
  withstondinge that they ne departe nat lightly a-twinne. And
  the thinges that ben softe and fletinge, as is water and eyr,
  they departen lightly, and yeven place to hem that breken or
  devyden hem; but natheles, they retornen sone ayein in-to
  the same thinges fro whennes they ben arraced. But fyr fleeth         110
  and refuseth al devisioun. Ne I ne trete nat heer now of
  wilful moevinges of the sowle that is knowinge, but of the
  naturel entencioun of thinges, as thus: right as we swolwe the
  mete that we receiven and ne thinke nat on it, and as we
  drawen our breeth in slepinge that we wite it nat whyle we            115
  slepen. For certes, in the beestes, the love of hir livinges ne
  of hir beinges ne comth nat of the wilninges of the sowle, but
  of the biginninges of nature. For certes, thorugh constreininge
  causes, wil desireth and embraceth ful ofte tyme the deeth
  that nature dredeth; _that is to seyn as thus: that a man may         120
  ben constreyned so, by som cause, that his wil desireth and
  taketh the deeth which that nature hateth and dredeth ful sore_.
  And somtyme we seeth the contrarye, as thus: that the wil
  of a wight destorbeth and constreyneth that that nature desireth
  and requereth al-wey, _that is to seyn_, the werk of generacioun,     125
  by the whiche generacioun only dwelleth and is sustened the
  long durabletee of mortal thinges.

  And thus this charitee and this love, that every thing hath
  to him-self, ne comth nat of the moevinge of the sowle, but
  of the entencioun of nature. For the purviaunce of god hath           130
  yeven to thinges that ben creat of him this, that is a ful
  gret cause to liven and to duren; for which they desiren
  naturelly hir lyf as longe as ever they mowen.  For which
  thou mayst nat drede, by no manere, that alle the thinges
  that ben anywhere, that they ne requeren naturelly the ferme          135
  stablenesse of perdurable dwellinge, and eek the eschuinge of

  _Boece._ 'Now confesse I wel,' quod I, 'that I see now wel
  certeinly, with-oute doutes, the thinges that whylom semeden
  uncertain to me.'                                                     140

  'But,' quod she, 'thilke thing that desireth to be and to
  dwellen perdurably, he desireth to ben oon; for yif that that
  oon were destroyed, certes, beinge ne shulde ther non dwellen
  to no wight.'

  'That is sooth,' quod I.                                              145

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'desiren alle thinges oon?'

  'I assente,' quod I.

  'And I have shewed,' quod she, 'that thilke same oon is
  thilke that is good?'

  'Ye, for sothe,' quod I.                                              150

  'Alle thinges thanne,' quod she, 'requiren good; and thilke
  good thanne mayst thou descryven right thus: good is thilke
  thing that every wight desireth.'

  'Ther ne may be thought,' quod I, 'no more verray thing.
  For either alle thinges ben referred and brought to nought,           155
  and floteren with-oute governour, despoiled of oon as of hir
  propre heved; or elles, yif ther be any thing to which that
  alle thinges tenden and hyen, that thing moste ben the soverein
  good of alle goodes.'

  Thanne seyde she thus: 'O my nory,' quod she, 'I have                 160
  gret gladnesse of thee; for thou hast ficched in thyn herte
  the middel soothfastnesse, _that is to seyn_, the prikke; but this
  thing hath ben descovered to thee, in that thou seydest that
  thou wistest nat a litel her-biforn.'

  'What was that?' quod I.                                              165

  'That thou ne wistest nat,' quod she, 'which was the ende
  of thinges; and certes, that is the thing that every wight
  desireth; and for as mochel as we han gadered and comprehended
  that good is thilke thing that is desired of alle, thanne
  moten we nedes confessen, that good is the fyn of alle thinges.       170

PR. XI. 3. C. wylthow. 5. C. pr_e_ys; A. Ed. price. 6. A. Ed. bytyde; C.
betydde. 7. C. _om._ that. // A. Ed. resoun; C. resouns; Lat. _ratione_.
17. C. in on; A. in to oon; Ed. in to one. 23. C. _om._ ther. 29. C.
grauntisthow. 32. Ed. muste thou; C. mosthow; A. mayst thou. // Ed.
semblable; A. sembleable; C. semlable. 37. C. Hasthow. 43. A. conioigned;
C. conioigne. 44. A. disseueraunce; C. desseueraunce; _after which_ C. A.
_om._ of, _which_ Ed. _retains_. 51. A. Ed. who so; C. who. 54. Ed.
perissheth; C. periseth; A. perissith. 60. C. wylnynge; A. Ed. willynge.
62. A. _om._ the entencioun. 64. C. _om._ and _bef._ eschueth. 68. A.
soule. 69. A. Ed. appetite; C. apetid. 76. Ed. mareys; A. mareis; C. marys.
// A. _has here lost a leaf, from_ and othre _to past end of_ Met. xi. 84.
C. maryes, _i. medulle_. 86. Ed. seete; C. feete (!); Lat. _sede_. 87. Ed.
is; C. is is (_sic_). // C. stidefastnesse. 88. C. _om._ the _bef._
destemperaunce; Ed. _has it_. 91. C. pupllisen; Ed. publysshen. 94. Ed.
perdurably; C. perdurablely. 103. Ed. corrumpen. 106. Ed. _om._ nat lightly
... departen. // C. a twyne. 110. Ed. araced. // Ed. fleeth and; C. and
(_om._ fleeth); Lat. _refugit_. 112. Ed. wylful; C. weleful; Lat.
_uoluntariis_. 114. Ed. receyuen; C. resseyuen. 116. Ed. slepen; C. slepyt.
127. Ed. durabylite. 142. Ed. perdurablye; C. perdurablely. 152. Ed. thou;
C. _om._ // Ed. discryuen. 161. C. fichched; Ed. fyxed. 163. Ed.
discouered. 165. Ed. is that (_for_ was that).


_Quisquis profunda mente uestigat uerum._

  Who-so that seketh sooth by a deep thoght, and coveiteth
  nat to ben deceived by no mis-weyes, lat him rollen and trenden
  with-inne him-self the light of his inward sighte; and lat him
  gadere ayein, enclyninge in-to a compas, the longe moevinges
  _of his thoughtes_; and lat him techen his corage that he hath          5
  enclosed and hid in his tresors, al that he compasseth or seketh
  fro with-oute. And thanne thilke thinge, that the blake cloude
  of errour whylom hadde y-covered, shal lighten more cleerly
  thanne Phebus him-self ne shyneth.

  GLOSA. _Who-so wole seken the deep grounde of sooth in his             10
  thought, and wol nat be deceived by false proposiciouns that goon
  amis fro the trouthe, lat him wel examine and rolle with-inne him-self
  the nature and the propretees of the thing; and lat him yit
  eftsones examine and rollen his thoughtes by good deliberacioun, or
  that he deme; and lat him techen his sowle that it hath, by natural    15
  principles kindeliche y-hid with-in it-self, alle the trouthe the whiche
  he imagineth to ben in thinges with-oute. And thanne alle the
  derknesse of his misknowinge shal seme more evidently to sighte of
  his understondinge thanne the sonne ne semeth to sighte
  with-oute-forth._                                                      20

  For certes the body, bringinge the weighte of foryetinge, ne
  hath nat chased out of your thoughte al the cleernesse _of your
  knowinge_; for certeinly the seed of sooth haldeth and clyveth
  with-in your corage, and it is awaked and excyted by the winde
  and by the blastes of doctrine. For wherfor elles demen ye of          25
  your owne wil the rightes, whan ye ben axed, but-yif so were that
  the norisshinge _of resoun_ ne livede y-plounged in the depthe of
  your herte? _this is to seyn, how sholden men demen the sooth of
  any thing that were axed, yif ther nere a rote of soothfastnesse that
  were y-plounged and hid in naturel principles, the whiche
      soothfastnesse                                                     30
  lived with-in the deepnesse of the thought_. And yif so be
  that the Muse and the doctrine of Plato singeth sooth, al that
  every wight lerneth, he ne doth no-thing elles thanne but
  recordeth, as men recorden thinges that ben foryeten.'

ME. XI. 2. Ed. _om._ nat. // Ed. treaten (_for_ trenden). 18. Ed.
derknesse; C. dyrknesse. // Ed. seme; C. seen (_but note_ semeth _below_).
24. Ed. wyndes. 26. Ed. asked. 27. Ed. norisshyng; C. noryssynges; Lat.
_fomes_. 29. Ed. asked. 30. Ed. naturel; C. the nature (_sic_).


_Tum ego, Platoni, inquam._

  Thanne seide I thus: 'I acorde me gretly to Plato, for thou
  remembrest and recordest me thise thinges yit the secounde
  tyme; _that is to seyn_, first whan I loste my memorie by the
  contagious coniunccioun of the body with the sowle; and
  eftsones afterward, whan I loste it, confounded by the charge and       5
  by the burdene of my sorwe.'

  And thanne seide she thus: 'yif thou loke,' quod she, 'first
  the thinges that thou hast graunted, it ne shal nat ben right fer
  that thou ne shalt remembren thilke thing that thou seydest that
  thou nistest nat.'                                                     10

  'What thing?' quod I.

  'By whiche governement,' quod she, 'that this world is

  'Me remembreth it wel,' quod I; 'and I confesse wel that I
  ne wiste it naught. But al-be-it so that I see now from a-fer          15
  what thou purposest, algates, I desire yit to herkene it of thee
  more pleynly.'

  'Thou ne wendest nat,' quod she, 'a litel her-biforn, that men
  sholden doute that this world nis governed by god.'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'ne yit ne doute I it naught, ne I nel never         20
  wene that it were to doute; _as who seith, but I wot wel that god
  governeth this world_; and I shal shortly answeren thee by what
  resouns I am brought to this. This world,' quod I, 'of so manye
  dyverse and contrarious parties, ne mighte never han ben
  assembled in o forme, but-yif ther nere oon that conioignede so        25
  manye dyverse thinges; and the same dyversitee of hir natures,
  that so discorden that oon fro that other, moste departen and
  unioignen the thinges that ben conioigned, yif ther ne were oon
  that contenede that he hath conioined and y-bounde.  Ne the
  certein ordre of nature ne sholde nat bringe forth so ordenee          30
  moevinges, by places, by tymes, by doinges, by spaces, by
  qualitees, yif ther ne were oon that were ay stedefast dwellinge,
  that ordeynede and disponede thise dyversitees of moevinges.
  And thilke thing, what-so-ever it be, by which that alle thinges
  ben y-maked and y-lad, I clepe him "god"; that is a word that          35
  is used to alle folk.'

  Thanne seyde she: 'sin thou felest thus thise thinges,' quod
  she, 'I trowe that I have litel more to done that thou, mighty of
  welefulnesse, hool and sounde, ne see eftsones thy contree.
  But lat us loken the thinges that we han purposed her-biforn.          40
  Have I nat noumbred and seyd,' quod she, 'that suffisaunce is in
  blisfulnesse, and we han acorded that god is thilke same blisfulnesse?'

  'Yis, forsothe,' quod I.

  'And that, to governe this world,' quod she, 'ne shal he never         45
  han nede of non help fro with-oute? For elles, yif he hadde
  nede of any help, he ne sholde nat have no ful suffisaunce?'

  'Yis, thus it mot nedes be,' quod I.

  'Thanne ordeineth he by him-self al-one alle thinges?' quod she.

  'That may nat be deneyed,' quod I.                                     50

  'And I have shewed that god is the same good?'

  'It remembreth me wel,' quod I.

  'Thanne ordeineth he alle thinges by thilke good,' quod she;
  'sin he, which that we han acorded to be good, governeth alle
  thinges by him-self; and he is as a keye and a stere by which          55
  that the edifice of this world is y-kept stable and with-oute

  'I acorde me greetly,' quod I; 'and I aperceivede a litel her-biforn
  that thou woldest seye thus; al-be-it so that it were by
  a thinne suspecioun.'                                                  60

  'I trowe it wel,' quod she; 'for, as I trowe, thou ledest now
  more ententifly thyne eyen to loken the verray goodes. But
  natheles the thing that I shal telle thee yit ne sheweth nat lasse to

  'What is that?' quod I.                                                65

  'So as men trowen,' quod she, 'and that rightfully, that god
  governeth alle thinges by the keye of his goodnesse, and alle thise
  same thinges, as I have taught thee, hasten hem by naturel
  entencioun to comen to good: ther may no man douten that they
  ne be governed voluntariely, and that they ne converten hem of         70
  hir owne wil to the wil of hir ordenour, as they that ben acordinge
  and enclyninge to hir governour and hir king.'

  'It mot nedes be so,' quod I; 'for the reaume ne sholde nat
  semen blisful yif ther were a yok of misdrawinges in dyverse
  parties; ne the savinge of obedient thinges ne sholde nat be.'         75

  'Thanne is ther nothing,' quod she, 'that kepeth his nature,
  that enforceth him to goon ayein god?'

  'No,' quod I.

  'And yif that any-thing enforcede him to with-stonde god,
  mighte it availen at the laste ayeins him, that we han graunted to     80
  ben almighty by the right of blisfulnesse?'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'al-outrely it ne mighte nat availen him.'

  'Thanne is ther no-thing,' quod she, 'that either wole or may
  with-stonden to this soverein good?'

  'I trowe nat,' quod I.                                                 85

  'Thanne is thilke the soverein good,' quod she, 'that alle
  thinges governeth strongly, and ordeyneth hem softely.'

  Thanne seyde I thus: 'I delyte me,' quod I, 'nat only in the
  endes or in the somme of the resouns that thou hast concluded
  and proeved, but thilke wordes that thou usest delyten me moche        90
  more; so, at the laste, fooles that sumtyme renden grete thinges
  oughten ben ashamed of hem-self;' _that is to seyn, that we fooles
  that reprehenden wikkedly the thinges that touchen goddes governaunce,
  we oughten ben ashamed of our-self: as I, that seyde that
  god refuseth only the werkes of men, and ne entremeteth nat of         95

  'Thou hast wel herd,' quod she, 'the fables of the poetes,
  how the giaunts assaileden the hevene _with the goddes_; but forsothe,
  the debonair force _of god_ deposede hem, as it was worthy;
  _that is to seyn, destroyede the giaunts, as it was worthy_. But wilt 100
  thou that we ioignen to-gider thilke same resouns? For per-aventure,
  of swich coniuncioun may sterten up som fair sparkle
  of sooth.'

  'Do,' quod I, 'as thee liste.'

  'Wenest thou,' quod she, 'that god ne be almighty? No man             105
  is in doute of it.'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'no wight ne douteth it, yif he be in his

  'But he,' quod she, 'that is almighty, ther nis nothing that he
  ne may?'                                                              110

  'That is sooth,' quod I.

  'May god don yvel?' quod she.

  'Nay, forsothe,' quod I.

  'Thanne is yvel nothing,' quod she, 'sin that he ne may nat
  don yvel that may don alle thinges.'                                  115

  'Scornest thou me?' quod I; '_or elles pleyest thou or deceivest
  thou me_, that hast so woven me with thy resouns the hous of
  Dedalus, so entrelaced that it is unable to be unlaced; thou that
  other-whyle entrest ther thou issest, and other-whyle issest ther
  thou entrest, ne foldest thou nat to-gider, _by replicacioun of       120
  wordes_, a maner wonderful cercle or environinge of the simplicitee
  devyne? For certes, a litel her-biforn, whan thou bigunne at
  blisfulnesse, thou seydest that it is soverein good; and seydest
  that it is set in soverein god; and seydest that god him-self
  is soverein good; and that god is the fulle blisfulnesse; for which   125
  thou yave me as a covenable yift, _that is to seyn_, that no wight
  nis blisful but-yif he be god also ther-with. And seidest eek,
  that the forme of good is the substaunce of god and of blisfulnesse;
  and seidest, that thilke same oon is thilke same good, that is
  requered and desired of alle the kinde of thinges. And thou           130
  proevedest, in disputinge, that god governeth all the thinges of
  the world by the governements of bountee, _and seydest_, that alle
  thinges wolen obeyen to him; and _seydest_, that the nature of yvel
  nis no-thing. And thise thinges ne shewedest thou nat with none
  resouns y-taken fro with-oute, but by proeves _in cercles and_
      hoomlich                                                          135
  knowen; the whiche proeves drawen to hem-self hir feith and
  hir acord, everich of hem of other.'

  Thanne seyde she thus: 'I ne scorne thee nat, _ne pleye, ne
  deceive thee_; but I have shewed thee the thing that is grettest
  over alle thinges by the yift of god, that we whylom preyeden.        140
  For this is the forme of the devyne substaunce, that is swich that
  it ne slydeth nat in-to outterest foreine thinges, ne ne receiveth
  no straunge thinges in him; but right as Parmenides seyde _in
  Greek_ of thilke devyne substaunce; he seyde thus: that "thilke
  devyne substaunce torneth the world and the moevable cercle of        145
  thinges, whyl thilke devyne substaunce kepeth it-self with-oute
  moevinge;" _that is to seyn, that it ne moeveth never-mo, and yit it
  moeveth alle othre thinges_. But natheles, yif I have stired resouns
  that ne ben nat taken fro with-oute the compas of thing of which
  we treten, but resouns that ben bistowed with-in that compas,         150
  ther nis nat why that thou sholdest merveilen; sin thou hast
  lerned by the sentence of Plato, that "nedes the wordes moten
  be cosines to the thinges of which they speken."

PR. XII. 2. A. _begins again with_ the seconde tyme. 4. A. coniunccioun; C.
coniuncsioun. 12. C. wordyl (_for_ world). 19. C. world nis; Ed. A. worlde
is. 26. A. _om._ dyverse. 27. A. discordeden. 30. C. ordene; A. ordinee.
31. A. Ed. spaces; C. splaces (!). 32. C. stidefast; A. stedfast. 35. Ed.
ymaked; C. A. maked. 40. A. han; C. ha (_for_ h[=a]). 47. A. _om._ no. 50.
C. denoyed (_for_ deneyed); A. Ed. denied. 55. A. Ed. _om._ as; Lat.
_ueluti_. // C. A. stiere (_better_ stere). 57. A. corumpynge. 63. A.
natheles; C. natles. 82. C. hem; A. Ed. hym. 84. A. this; C. Ed. his. 93.
C. reprehendnen. 96. A. hem; C. Ed. it. 99. C. desposede; A. Ed. disposed;
_read_ deposed; Lat. _deposuit_. 100. A. wilt; Ed. wylte; C. wil. 105. C.
Ed. be; A. is. // A. Ed. No man; C. non. 107. A. Ed. if he; C. yif it. 110.
A. may do. 116. C. scornesthow ... pleyesthow ... desseyuesthow. 118. Ed.
Dedalus; C. dydalus; A. didalus. 119. C. A. issest; Ed. issuest. 120. C.
fooldesthow. 125. C. fulle the; A. the ful; Lat. _plenam beatitudinem_.
127. Ed. god (_Deus_); C. A. good. 132. A. bountee; C. bowonte. 139. C. A.
desseyue. 142. C. resseiueth. 143. C. aparmanides; Ed. Permenides; A.
parmaynws; Lat. _Parmenides_. 148. C. Ed. styred; A. stered.


_Felix, qui potuit boni._

  Blisful is that man that may seen the clere welle of good; blisful
  is he that may unbinden him fro the bondes of the hevy erthe.
  The poete of Trace, _Orpheus_, that whylom hadde right greet sorwe
  for the deeth of his wyf, after that he hadde maked, by his weeply
  songes, the wodes, moevable, to rennen; and hadde maked the             5
  riveres to stonden stille; and hadde maked the hertes and the
  hindes to ioignen, dredeles, hir sydes to cruel lyouns, _for to herknen
  his songe_; and hadde maked that the hare was nat agast of the
  hounde, which that was plesed by his songe: so, whan the moste
  ardaunt love of his wif brende the entrailes of his brest, ne the      10
  songes that hadden overcomen alle thinges ne mighten nat
  asswagen hir lord _Orpheus_, he pleynede him of the hevene goddes
  that weren cruel to him; he wente him to the houses of helle.
  And there he temprede hise blaundisshinge songes by resowninge
  strenges, and spak and song in wepinge al that ever he hadde           15
  received and laved out of the noble welles of his moder _Calliope_
  the goddesse; and he song with as mochel as he mighte of wepinge,
  and with as moche as love, that doublede his sorwe, mighte
  yeve him and techen him; and he commoevede the helle, and
  requerede and bisoughte by swete preyere the lordes of sowles          20
  in helle, of relesinge; _that is to seyn, to yilden him his wyf_.

  _Cerberus_, the porter of helle, with his three hevedes, was caught
  and al abayst for the newe song; and the three goddesses, _Furies_,
  and vengeresses of felonyes, that tormenten and agasten the sowles
  by anoy, woxen sorwful and sory, and wepen teres for pitee.            25
  Tho ne was nat the heved of Ixion y-tormented by the overthrowinge
  wheel; and Tantalus, that was destroyed by the woodnesse
  of longe thurst, despyseth the flodes to drinke; the fowl that
  highte voltor, that eteth the stomak or the giser of Tityus, is so
  fulfild of his song that it nil eten ne tyren no more. At the laste    30
  the lord and Iuge of sowles was moeved to misericordes and
  cryde, "we ben overcomen," quod he; "yive we to Orpheus his
  wyf to bere him companye; he hath wel y-bought hir by his song
  and his ditee; but we wol putte a lawe in this, and covenaunt in
  the yifte: _that is to seyn_, that, til he be out of helle, yif he
      loke                                                               35
  behinde him, that his wyf shal comen ayein unto us."

  But what is he that may yive a lawe to loveres? Love is
  a gretter lawe and a strenger to him-self _than any lawe that men
  may yeven_. Allas! whan Orpheus and his wyf weren almest at the
  termes of the night, _that is to seyn, at the laste boundes of helle_, 40
  Orpheus lokede abakward on Eurydice his wyf, and loste hir, and
  was deed.

  This fable aperteineth to yow alle, who-so-ever desireth or
  seketh to lede his thought in-to the soverein day, _that is to seyn,
  to cleernesse of soverein good_. For who-so that ever be so overcomen  45
  that he ficche his eyen into the putte of helle, _that is to
  seyn, who-so sette his thoughtes in erthely thinges_, al that ever he
  hath drawen of the noble good celestial, he leseth it whan he
  loketh the helles,' _that is to seyn, in-to lowe thinges of the erthe_.

ME. XII. 2. A. bonde; Lat. _uincula_. // A. Ed. _om. 2nd_ the. 4. C.
wepply; A. Ed. wepely. 7. A. cruel; C. cruwel. 10. A. Ed. ardaunt; C.
ardent. 12. C. goodes; A. godes (_om._ hevene); Lat. _superos_. 14. C.
blaundyssynge; A. blaundissyng. 15. C. soonge; A. song (_twice_). 16. C.
resseyued; A. resceyued. // C. calyope; A. calliope. 17. A. as mychel as he
my[gh]t; C. _om._ he. 19. C. thechen; _after_ techen him, A. _adds_ in his
seke herte (_not in_ Lat.) 23. Ed. Furyes; C. A. furijs. 27. C. tatalus
(_for_ t[=a]talus). 28. A. thrust. 29. Ed. Tityus; C. A. ticius; Lat.
_Tityi_. 33. A. his faire song; Lat. _carmine_. 38. A. gretter; C. gret;
Lat. _maior_. 41. C. A. Erudice; Ed. Euridice; Lat. _Eurydicen_. 43. C.
apartienyth; A. apperteineth. 45. C. god; A. goode. 46. C. fychche. 47. C.
_om._ his _after_ sette. 49. A. to (_for_ in-to). // C. _om._ the _bef._




_Hec cum Philosophia, dignitate uultus._

  Whan Philosophye hadde songen softely and delitably the
  forseide thinges, kepinge the dignitee of hir chere and the
  weighte of hir wordes, I thanne, that ne hadde nat al-outerly
  foryeten the wepinge and the mourninge that was set in myn
  herte, forbrak the entencioun of hir that entendede yit to seyn         5
  some othre thinges. 'O,' quod I, 'thou that art gyderesse of
  verrey light; the thinges that thou hast seid me hider-to ben so
  clere to me and so shewinge by the devyne lookinge of hem, and
  by thy resouns, that they ne mowen ben overcomen. And
  thilke thinges that thou toldest me, al-be-it so that I hadde          10
  whylom foryeten hem, for the sorwe of the wrong that hath ben
  don to me, yit natheles they ne weren nat al-outrely unknowen to
  me. But this same is, namely, a right greet cause of my sorwe,
  so as the governour of thinges is good, yif that yveles mowen ben
  by any weyes; or elles yif that yveles passen with-oute punisshinge.   15
  The whiche thing only, how worthy it is to ben wondred
  up-on, thou considerest it wel thy-self certeinly. But yit to this
  thing ther is yit another thing y-ioigned, more to ben wondred
  up-on. For felonye is emperesse, and floureth _ful of richesses_;
  and vertu nis nat al-only with-oute medes, but it is cast under and    20
  fortroden under the feet of felonous folk; and it abyeth the
  torments in stede of wikkede felounes. Of alle whiche thinges
  ther nis no wight that may merveylen y-nough, ne compleine,
  that swiche thinges ben doon in the regne of god, that alle thinges
  woot and alle thinges may, and ne wole nat but only gode               25

  Thanne seyde she thus: 'Certes,' quod she, 'that were a greet
  merveyle, and an enbasshinge with-outen ende, and wel more
  horrible than alle monstres, yif it were as thou wenest; _that is to
  seyn_, that in the right ordenee hous of so mochel a fader and an      30
  ordenour of meynee, that the vesseles that ben foule and vyle
  sholden ben honoured and heried, and the precious vesseles
  sholden ben defouled and vyle; but it nis nat so. For yif tho
  thinges that I have concluded a litel her-biforn ben kept hole
  and unraced, thou shalt wel knowe by the autoritee of god, of the      35
  whos regne I speke, that certes the gode folk ben alwey mighty,
  and shrewes ben alwey out-cast and feble; ne the vyces ne ben
  never-mo with-oute peyne, ne the vertues ne ben nat with-oute
  mede; and that blisfulnesses comen alwey to goode folk, and
  infortune comth alwey to wikked folk. And thou shalt wel               40
  knowe many thinges of this kinde, that shollen cesen thy pleintes,
  and strengthen thee with stedefast sadnesse. And for thou hast
  seyn the forme of the verray blisfulnesse by me, that have
  whylom shewed it thee, and thou hast knowen in whom blisfulnesse
  is y-set, alle thinges y-treted that I trowe ben necessarie to         45
  putten forth, I shal shewe thee the wey that shal bringen thee
  ayein un-to thyn hous. And I shal ficchen fetheres in thy thought,
  by whiche it may arysen in heighte, so that, alle tribulacioun
  y-don awey, thou, by my gydinge and by my path and by my
  sledes, shalt mowe retorne hool and sound in-to thy contree.           50

PR. I. 6. A. _om._ some. // A. Se (_for_ O); Lat. _o_. // C. _om._ that. 7.
A. _om._ me. 9. A. Ed. thy; C. the. 14. C. so as; Ed. so that as; A. that
so as. 19. C. imperisse; A. emperisse; Ed. emperesse. // A. rycchesse. 20.
A. vertues (_badly_). 22. Ed. stede; C. stide; A. sted. 25. C. good; A.
goode. 28. A. enbaissynge; Ed. abasshyng. 29. C. horible. // C. al; A.
alle. 31. A. Ed. vyle; C. vyl (_twice_). 32. C. he heryed (_mistake for_
heryed). 33. C. tho; A. Ed. the. 35. Ed. vnaraced. 37. A. yuel (_for_
out-cast). 42. C. strengthyn; A. stedfast (!). // C. stidfast; A. stedfast.
45. C. I tretyd; A. I treted; Ed. treated; Lat. _decursis omnibus_. 48. C.
areysen. 50. C. sledys; A. Ed. sledes. // C. shal (_for_ shalt).


_Sunt etenim pennae uolucres mihi._

  I have, forsothe, swifte fetheres that surmounten the heighte of
  hevene. Whan the swifte thought hath clothed it-self in tho
  fetheres, it despyseth the hateful erthes, and surmounteth the
  roundnesse of the grete ayr; and it seeth the cloudes behinde his
  bak; and passeth the heighte of the region of the fyr, that             5
  eschaufeth by the swifte moevinge of the firmament, til that he
  areyseth him in-to the houses that beren the sterres, and ioyneth
  his weyes with the sonne Phebus, and felawshipeth the wey of
  the olde colde Saturnus; and he y-maked a knight of the clere
  sterre; _that is to seyn, that the thought is maked goddes knight by   10
  the sekinge of trouthe to comen to the verray knowleche of god_.
  And thilke thoght renneth by the cercle of the sterres, in alle
  places ther-as the shyninge night is peinted; _that is to seyn, the
  night that is cloudeles; for on nightes that ben cloudeles it semeth as
  the hevene were peinted with dyverse images of sterres_. And           15
  whanne he hath y-doon ther y-nough, he shal forleten the laste
  hevene, and he shal pressen and wenden on the bak of the
  swifte firmament, and he shal ben maked parfit of the worshipful
  light _of god_. Ther halt the lord of kinges the ceptre of his
  might, and atempreth the governements of the world, and the            20
  shyninge Iuge of thinges, stable in him-self, governeth the swifte
  cart or wayn, _that is to seyn, the circuler moevinge of the sonne_.
  And yif thy wey ledeth thee ayein so that thou be brought thider,
  thanne wolt thou seye now that that is the contree that thou
  requerest, of which thou ne haddest no minde: "but now it              25
  remembreth me wel, heer was I born, heer wol I fastne my
  degree, heer wole I dwelle." But yif thee lyketh thanne to loken
  on the derknesse of the erthe that thou hast forleten, thanne
  shalt thou seen that thise felonous tyraunts, that the wrecchede
  peple dredeth, now shollen ben exyled fro thilke fayre contree.'       30

ME. I. 1. C. swife (_for_ swifte). 4. A. hey[gh]enesse (_for_ roundnesse);
Lat. _globum_. // A. hir (_for_ his). 6. A. til that she areisith hir
in-til ... hir weyes. 9. C. saturnis; A. saturnus. // A. she (_for_ he).
10. A. soule (_for_ thought); _twice_. 12. C. alle; A. alle the; Ed. al
the. 13. Ed. ypaynted; A. depeynted. 16. A. And whan the soule hath gon
ynou[gh] she shal forleten the last poynt of the heuene, and she. 17. A.
Ed. wenden; C. wyndyn. 18. A. she (_for_ he). 18, 19. C. Ed. worshipful
lyht; A. dredefulle clerenesse. // A. haldeth. 20. A. this; _for_ the (2).
22. A. _om._ or wayn. 25. C. requerest; Ed. requirest; A. requeredest. 27.
A. lyke (_for_ lyketh). 28. C. dyrknesses; A. derkenesse; Lat. _noctem_.


_Tum ego, Papae, inquam._

  Than seyde I thus: 'owh! I wondre me that thou bihetest me
  so grete thinges; ne I ne doute nat that thou ne mayst wel
  performe that thou bihetest. But I preye thee only this, that
  thou ne tarye nat to telle me thilke thinges that thou hast
  moeved.'                                                                5

  'First,' quod she, 'thou most nedes knowen, that goode folk
  ben alwey stronge and mighty, and the shrewes ben feble and
  desert and naked of alle strengthes. And of thise thinges, certes,
  everich of hem is declared and shewed by other. For so as
  good and yvel ben two contraries, yif so be that good be stedefast,    10
  than sheweth the feblesse of yvel al openly; and yif thou
  knowe cleerly the frelenesse of yvel, the stedefastnesse of good is
  knowen. But for as moche as the fey of my sentence shal be the
  more ferme and haboundaunt, I will gon by that oo wey and by
  that other; and I wole conferme the thinges that ben purposed,         15
  now on this syde and now on that syde. Two thinges ther ben
  in whiche the effect of alle the dedes of mankinde standeth, that
  is to seyn, wil and power; and yif that oon of thise two fayleth,
  ther nis nothing that may be don. For yif that wil lakketh, ther
  nis no wight that undertaketh to don that he wol nat don; and          20
  yif power fayleth, the wil nis but in ydel and stant for naught.
  And ther-of cometh it, that yif thou see a wight that wolde geten
  that he may nat geten, thou mayst nat douten that power ne
  fayleth him to haven that he wolde.'

  'This is open and cleer,' quod I; 'ne it may nat ben deneyed           25
  in no manere.'

  'And yif thou see a wight,' quod she, 'that hath doon that he
  wolde doon, thou nilt nat douten that he ne hath had power to
  don it?'

  'No,' quod I.                                                          30

  'And in that that every wight may, in that men may holden
  him mighty; _as who seyth, in so moche as man is mighty to don a
  thing, in so mochel men halt him mighty_; and in that that he ne
  may, in that men demen him to be feble.'

  'I confesse it wel,' quod I.                                           35

  'Remembreth thee,' quod she, 'that I have gadered and
  shewed by forseyde resouns that al the entencioun of the wil of
  mankinde, which that is lad by dyverse studies, hasteth to
  comen to blisfulnesse?'

  'It remembreth me wel,' quod I, 'that it hath ben shewed.'             40

  'And recordeth thee nat thanne,' quod she, 'that blisfulnesse
  is thilke same good that men requeren; so that, whan that
  blisfulnesse is requered of alle, that good also is requered and
  desired of alle?'

  'It ne recordeth me nat,' quod I; 'for I have it gretly alwey          45
  ficched in my memorie.'

  'Alle folk thanne,' quod she, 'goode and eek badde, enforcen
  hem with-oute difference of entencioun to comen to good?'

  'This is a verray consequence,' quod I.

  'And certein is,' quod she, 'that by the getinge of good ben           50
  men y-maked goode?'

  'This is certein,' quod I.

  'Thanne geten goode men that they desiren?'

  'So semeth it,' quod I.

  'But wikkede folk,' quod she, 'yif they geten the good that            55
  they desiren, they ne mowe nat be wikkede?'

  'So is it,' quod I.

  'Thanne, so as that oon and that other,' quod she, 'desiren
  good; and the goode folk geten good, and nat the wikke folk;
  thanne nis it no doute that the goode folk ne ben mighty and           60
  the wikkede folk ben feble?'

  'Who-so that ever,' quod I, 'douteth of this, he ne may nat
  considere the nature of thinges ne the consequence of resouns.'

  And over this quod she, 'yif that ther be two thinges that
  han oo same purpose by kinde, and that oon of hem pursueth             65
  and parformeth thilke same thing by naturel office, and that
  other ne may nat doon thilke naturel office, but folweth, by other
  manere thanne is convenable to nature, him that acomplissheth
  his purpos kindely, and yit he ne acomplissheth nat his owne
  purpos: whether of thise two demestow for more mighty?'                70

  'Yif that I coniecte,' quod I, 'that thou wolt seye, algates yit
  I desire to herkne it more pleynly of thee.'

  'Thou wilt nat thanne deneye,' quod she, 'that the moevement
  of goinge nis in men by kinde?'

  'No, forsothe,' quod I.                                                75

  'Ne thou ne doutest nat,' quod she, 'that thilke naturel office
  of goinge ne be the office of feet?'

  'I ne doute it nat,' quod I.

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'yif that a wight be mighty to moeve and
  goth upon his feet, and another, to whom thilke naturel office of      80
  feet lakketh, enforceth him to gon crepinge up-on his handes:
  whiche of thise two oughte to ben holden the more mighty by

  'Knit forth the remenaunt,' quod I; 'for no wight ne douteth
  that he that may gon by naturel office of feet ne be more mighty       85
  than he that ne may nat.'

  'But the soverein good,' quod she, 'that is eveneliche purposed
  to the gode folk and to badde, the gode folk seken it by naturel
  office of vertues, and the shrewes enforcen hem to geten it by
  dyverse coveityse _of erthely thinges_, which that nis no naturel
      office                                                             90
  to geten thilke same soverein good. Trowestow that it be any
  other wyse?'

  'Nay,' quod I; 'for the consequence is open and shewinge of
  thinges that I have graunted; that nedes gode folk moten ben
  mighty, and shrewes feeble and unmighty.'                              95

  'Thou rennest a-right biforn me,' quod she, 'and this is the
  Iugement; _that is to seyn, I iuge of thee_ right as thise leches ben
  wont to hopen _of syke folk, whan they aperceyven_ that nature is
  redressed and withstondeth to the maladye. But, for I see thee
  now al redy to the understondinge, I shal shewe thee more thikke      100
  and continuel resouns. For loke now how greetly sheweth the
  feblesse and infirmitee of wikkede folk, that ne mowen nat comen
  to that hir naturel entencioun ledeth hem, and yit almost thilke
  naturel entencioun constreineth hem. And what _were to demen
  thanne of shrewes_, yif thilke naturel help hadde forleten hem, the   105
  which _naturel help of intencioun_ goth awey biforn hem, and is so
  greet that unnethe it may ben overcome? Consider thanne how
  greet defaute of power and how greet feblesse ther is in wikkede
  felonous folk; _as who seyth, the gretter thing that is coveited and
  the desire nat acomplisshed, of the lasse might is he that coveiteth
      it                                                                110
  and may nat acomplisshe. And forthy Philosophie seyth thus by
  soverein good_: Ne shrewes ne requeren nat lighte medes ne veyne
  games, whiche they ne may folwen ne holden; but they failen of
  thilke somme and of the heighte of thinges, _that is to seyn, soverein
  good_; ne thise wrecches ne comen nat to the effect _of soverein      115
  good_, the which they enforcen hem only to geten, by nightes and
  by dayes; in the getinge of which good the strengthe of good folk
  is ful wel y-sene. For right so as thou mightest demen him mighty
  of goinge, that gooth on his feet til he mighte come to thilke
  place, fro the whiche place ther ne laye no wey forther to ben        120
  gon; right so most thou nedes demen him for right mighty, that
  geteth and ateyneth to the ende of alle thinges that ben to desire,
  biyonde the whiche ende ther nis nothing to desire. Of the
  which _power of good folk_ men may conclude, that the wikked
  men semen to be bareine and naked of alle strengthe. For-why          125
  forleten they vertues and folwen vyces? Nis it nat for that they
  ne knowen nat the goodes? But what thing is more feble and
  more caitif thanne is the blindnesse of ignoraunce? Or elles they
  knowen ful wel whiche thinges that they oughten folwe, but
  lecherye and coveityse overthroweth hem mistorned; and certes,        130
  so doth distemperaunce to feble men, that ne mowen nat wrastlen
  ayeins the vyces. Ne knowen they nat thanne wel that they
  forleten the good wilfully, and tornen hem wilfully to vyces? And
  in this wyse they ne forleten nat only to ben mighty, but they
  forleten al-outrely in any wyse for to ben. For they that forleten    135
  the comune fyn of alle thinges that ben, they forleten also therwith-al
  for to ben.

  And per-aventure it sholde semen to som folk that this were
  a merveile to seyen: that shrewes, whiche that contienen the more
  partye of men, ne ben nat ne han no beinge; but natheles, it is so,   140
  and thus stant this thing. For they that ben shrewes, I deneye
  nat that they ben shrewes; but I deneye, and seye simplely and
  pleinly, that they ne ben nat, ne han no beinge. For right as
  thou mightest seyen of the carayne of a man, that it were a deed
  man, but thou ne mightest nat simplely callen it a man; so graunte    145
  I wel forsothe, that vicious folk ben wikked, but I ne may nat
  graunten absolutly and simplely that they ben. For thilke thing
  that with-holdeth ordre and kepeth nature, thilke thing is and
  hath beinge; but what thing that faileth of that, _that is to seyn,
  that he forleteth naturel ordre_, he forleteth thilke thing that is
      set                                                               150
  in his nature. But thou wolt seyn, that shrewes mowen. Certes,
  that ne deneye I nat; but certes, hir power ne descendeth nat of
  strengthe, but of feblesse. For they mowen don wikkednesses;
  the whiche they ne mighte nat don, yif they mighten dwellen in
  the forme and in the doinge of good folk. And thilke power            155
  sheweth ful evidently that they ne mowen right naught. For so
  as I have gadered and proeved a litel her-biforn, that yvel is
  naught; and so as shrewes mowen only but shrewednesses, this
  conclusioun is al cleer, that shrewes ne mowen right naught, ne
  han no power.                                                         160

  And for as moche as thou understonde which is the strengthe
  of this power of shrewes, I have definisshed a litel her-biforn, that
  nothing is so mighty as soverein good.'

  'That is sooth,' quod I.

  'And thilke same soverein good may don non yvel?'                     165

  'Certes, no,' quod I.

  'Is ther any wight thanne,' quod she, 'that weneth that men
  mowen doon alle thinges?'

  'No man,' quod I, 'but-yif he be out of his witte.'

  'But, certes, shrewes mowen don yvel,' quod she.                      170

  'Ye, wolde god,' quod I, 'that they mighten don non!'

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'so as he that is mighty to doon only but
  goode thinges may don alle thinges; and they that ben mighty to
  don yvele thinges ne mowen nat alle thinges: thanne is it open
  thing and manifest, that they that mowen don yvel ben of lasse        175
  power. And yit, _to proeve this conclusioun_, ther helpeth me this,
  that I have y-shewed her-biforn, that alle power is to be noumbred
  among thinges that men oughten requere. And I have shewed
  that alle thinges, that oughten ben desired, ben referred to good,
  right as to a maner heighte of hir nature. But for to mowen don       180
  yvel and felonye ne may nat ben referred to good. Thanne nis
  nat yvel of the noumbir of thinges that oughte ben desired. But
  alle power oughte ben desired and requered. Than is it open and
  cleer that the power ne the mowinge of shrewes nis no power; and
  of alle thise thinges it sheweth wel, that the goode folke ben
      certeinly                                                         185
  mighty, and the shrewes douteles ben unmighty. And it is
  cleer and open that thilke opinioun of Plato is verray and sooth, that
  seith, that only wyse men may doon that they desiren; and
  shrewes mowen haunten that hem lyketh, but that they desiren,
  _that is to seyn, to comen to sovereign good_, they ne han no power   190
  to acomplisshen that. For shrewes don that hem list, whan, by
  tho thinges in which they delyten, they wenen to ateine to thilke
  good that they desiren; but they ne geten ne ateinen nat ther-to,
  for vyces ne comen nat to blisfulnesse.

PR. II. 1. C. owh; Ed. O; A. _om._; Lat. _Papae_. 8. C. dishert; A. desert;
Ed. deserte; Lat. _desertos_. // _All_ strengthes; Lat. _uiribus_. 10. C.
stidefast; A. stedfast. 12. C. stidefastnesse; A. stedfastnesse. 13. C. A.
fey; Ed. faythe. 19. C. lakkit; A. lakketh. 25. C. denoyed. 28. C. _om._ he
_bef._ ne. 33. C. halt; A. halden; Ed. holde. // A. Ed. that that; C. that.
42. A. whan that; C. Ed. _om._ that. 45. C. It ne ... nat; A. It recordeth
me wel; Lat. _Minimè ... recordor_. 48. C. defference; A. Ed. difference.
63. A. resoun; Lat. _rationum_. 67. C. by (_for_ but; _by mistake_). 68.
Ed. accomplyssheth; A. acomplisith; C. a-complesseth (_twice_). 70. A.
demest thou. 73. C. denoye (_for_ deneye); A. Ed. denye. // A. moeuementz;
Lat. _motum_. 88. C. good folk (_1st time_); goode folk (_2nd time_). 91.
A. trowest thou. 92. A. wyse; C. whise. 99. C. maledie; A. maladie. 104. C.
_om._ hem _after_ constreineth. 109. A. the gretter thinges that ben. 110.
C. acomplised; A. accomplissed; Ed. accomplysshed. 112. C. veyn; A. veyne.
120. A. lay. 122. C. desired (_for_ desire, _by mistake_). 135. A. wise; C.
whise. 141. C. denoye (_for_ deneye); A. denye (_thrice_). 142. C. sympeli
(_1st time_). 149. C. Ed. what; A. that. 151. C. shrewen (_by mistake_).
152. A. descendeth; C. dessendit (_sic_). 158. A. shrewednesse; Lat.
_mala_. 160. A. to han (_for_ ne han no). 162. C. diffinissed; A.
diffinised; Ed. defynisshed; Lat. _definiuimus_. 169. A. but yif; Ed. but
if; C. but. 186. A. _om._ ben. 188. A. _om._ doon. 192. C. the; A. Ed. tho.
194. C. _om._ to.


_Quos uides sedere celsos._

  Who-so that the covertoures of hir veyne aparailes mighte strepen
  of thise proude kinges, that thou seest sitten on heigh in hir
  chaires gliteringe in shyninge purpre, envirouned with sorwful
  armures, manasinge with cruel mouth, blowinge by woodnesse of
  herte, he shulde seen thanne that thilke lordes beren with-inne hir     5
  corages ful streite cheines. For lecherye tormenteth hem in that
  oon syde with gredy venims; and troublable ire, that araiseth in
  him the flodes _of troublinges_, tormenteth up-on that other syde
  hir thought; or sorwe halt hem wery and y-caught; or slydinge
  and deceivinge hope tormenteth hem. And therfore, sen thou             10
  seest oon heed, _that is to seyn, oon tyraunt_, beren so manye
  tyrannyes, thanne ne doth thilke tyraunt nat that he desireth, sin
  he is cast doun with so manye wikkede lordes; _that is to seyn, with
  so manye vyces, that han so wikkedly lordshipes over him_.

ME. II. 1. Ed. vayne; C. A. veyn. 2. A. Ed. in; C. on. 3. Ed. chayres; C.
(_miswritten_) charyes; A. chayeres. 4. A. manasyng; C. manassinge. 8. A.
troublynges; C. trwblynges. 9. C. hym (_for_ hem). 12. C. Ed. tyrannyes; A.
tyrauntis. 14. A. wicked (_for_ wikkedly).


_Videsne igitur quanto in coeno._

  Seestow nat thanne in how grete filthe thise shrewes ben
  y-wrapped, and with which cleernesse thise good folk shynen? In
  this sheweth it wel, that to goode folk ne lakketh never-mo hir
  medes, ne shrewes lakken never-mo torments. For of alle thinges
  that ben y-doon, thilke thing, for which any-thing is don, it semeth    5
  as by right that thilke thing be the mede of that; as thus: yif
  a man renneth in the stadie, _or in the forlong_, for the corone,
  thanne lyth the mede in the corone for which he renneth. And
  I have shewed that blisfulnesse is thilke same good for which
  that alle thinges ben doon. Thanne is thilke same good purposed        10
  to the workes of mankinde right as a comune mede; which
  mede ne may ben dissevered fro good folk. For no wight as by
  right, fro thennes-forth that him lakketh goodnesse, ne shal ben
  cleped good. For which thing, folk of goode maneres, hir medes
  ne forsaken hem never-mo. For al-be-it so that shrewes wexen           15
  as wode as hem list _ayeins goode folk_, yit never-the-lesse the
  corone of wyse men shal nat fallen ne faden. For foreine shrewednesse
  ne binimeth nat fro the corages of goode folk hir propre
  honour. But yif that any wight reioyse him of goodnesse that he
  hadde take fro with-oute (_as who seith, yif that any wight hadde      20
  his goodnesse of any other man than of him-self_), certes, he that yaf
  him thilke goodnesse, or elles som other wight, mighte binime it
  him. But for as moche as to every wight his owne propre bountee
  yeveth him his mede, thanne at erst shal he failen of mede whan
  he forleteth to ben good. And at the laste, so as alle medes ben       25
  requered for men wenen that they ben goode, who is he that
  wolde deme, that he that is right mighty of good were part-les of
  mede? And of what mede shal he be guerdoned? Certes, of
  right faire mede and right grete aboven alle medes. Remembre
  thee of thilke noble corolarie that I yaf thee a litel her-biforn;     30
  and gader it to-gider in this manere:--so as good him-self is
  blisfulnesse, thanne is it cleer and certein, that alle good folk ben
  maked blisful for they ben goode; and thilke folk that ben blisful,
  it acordeth and is covenable to ben goddes. Thanne is the mede
  of goode folk swich that no day shal enpeiren it, ne no wikkednesse    35
  ne shal derken it, ne power of no wight ne shal nat amenusen it,
  _that is to seyn_, to ben maked goddes.

  And sin it is thus, _that goode men ne failen never-mo of hir mede_,
  certes, no wys man ne may doute of undepartable peyne of the
  shrewes; _that is to seyn, that the peyne of shrewes ne departeth nat  40
  from hem-self never-mo_. For so as goode and yvel, and peyne and
  medes ben contrarye, it mot nedes ben, that right as we seen
  bityden in guerdoun of goode, that also mot the peyne of yvel
  answery, by the contrarye party, to shrewes. Now thanne, so as
  bountee and prowesse ben the mede to goode folk, al-so is              45
  shrewednesse it-self torment to shrewes. Thanne, who-so that
  ever is entecched and defouled with peyne, he ne douteth nat,
  that he is entecched and defouled with yvel. Yif shrewes thanne
  wolen preysen hem-self, may it semen to hem that they ben with-outen
  party of torment, sin they ben swiche that the uttereste               50
  wikkednesse (_that is to seyn, wikkede thewes, which that is the
  uttereste and the worste kinde of shrewednesse_) ne defouleth ne
  enteccheth nat hem only, but infecteth and envenimeth hem
  gretly? And also look on shrewes, that ben the contrarie party
  of goode men, how greet peyne felawshipeth and folweth hem!            55
  For thou hast lerned a litel her-biforn, that al thing that is and
  hath beinge is oon, and thilke same oon is good; thanne is this
  the consequence, that it semeth wel, that al that is and hath beinge
  is good; _this is to seyn, as who seyth, that beinge and unitee and
  goodnesse is al oon_. And in this manere it folweth thanne, that al    60
  thing that faileth to ben good, it stinteth for to be and for to han
  any beinge; wherfore it is, that shrewes stinten for to ben that
  they weren. But thilke other forme of mankinde, that is to seyn,
  the forme of the body with-oute, sheweth yit that thise shrewes
  weren whylom men; wher-for, whan they ben perverted and                65
  torned in-to malice, certes, than han they forlorn the nature of
  mankinde. But so as only bountee and prowesse may enhaunsen
  every man over other men; thanne mot it nedes be that shrewes,
  which that shrewednesse hath cast out of the condicioun of mankinde,
  ben put under the merite and the desert of men. Thanne                 70
  bitydeth it, that yif thou seest a wight that be transformed into
  vyces, thou ne mayst nat wene that he be a man.

  For yif he be ardaunt in avaryce, and that he be a ravinour by
  violence of foreine richesse, thou shalt seyn that he is lyke to the
  wolf. And yif he be felonous and with-oute reste, and exercyse         75
  his tonge to chydinges, thou shalt lykne him to the hound. And
  yif he be a prevey awaitour y-hid, and reioyseth him to ravisshe
  by wyles, thou shalt seyn him lyke to the fox-whelpes. And yif he
  be distempre and quaketh for ire, men shal wene that he bereth
  the corage of a lyoun. And yif he be dredful and fleinge, and          80
  dredeth thinges that ne oughten nat to ben dred, men shal holden
  him lyk to the hert. And yif he be slow and astoned and lache, he
  liveth as an asse. And yif he be light and unstedefast of corage, and
  chaungeth ay his studies, he is lykned to briddes. And if he be
  plounged in foule and unclene luxuries, he is with-holden in the       85
  foule delyces of the foule sowe. Thanne folweth it, that he that
  bountee and prowesse, he forleteth to ben a man; sin he may
  nat passen in-to the condicioun of god, he is torned in-to a beest.

PR. III. 1. A. Seest thou. 16. A. les; C. leese (_error for_ lesse). 17. C.
faaden. 25. A. laste; C. last. 27. A. wolde; C. Ed. nolde; Lat. _quis ...
iudicet_. 27, 28. A. Ed. of mede; C. of the mede. // C. A. gerdoned; Ed.
reguerdoned. 30. C. yat (_miswritten for_ yaf). 31. C. good him-self; A.
Ed. god him-self; Lat. _ipsum bonum_. // C. his (_error for_ is); _after_
him-self. 36. A. endirken (_for_ derken). 38. A. medes. 43. C. gerdown; A.
gerdoun; Ed. guerdone. 44. A. Ed. answer_e_. // A. Ed. by the; C. _om._
the. 45. A. medes; Lat. _praemium_. 47. C. entechched. // _Both_ MSS. _om._
peyne ... defouled with; _but_ Ed. _has_: payne, he ne douteth not, that he
is entetched and defouled with; Lat. _quisquis afficitur poena, malo se
affectum esse non dubitat_. 50. A. _om._ uttereste ... which that is the.
52. C. vtteriste (_1st time_); owttereste (_2nd time_). 55. C. folueth. 56.
C. alle; A. al. 58. C. alle; A. al (_twice_). 67. A. Ed. so as; C. _om._
as. // C. enhawsen (_for_ enhaw_n_sen). 73. A. rauynour; Ed. rauenour; C.
rauaynour. 75. A. Ed. a wolf. // C. excersise. 77. A. rauysshe; C. rauysse.
78. A. Ed. wyles; C. whiles; Lat. _fraudibus_. 81. C. dredd. 82. A. Ed.
slowe; C. slowh. 83. C. vnstidefast.


_Vela Neritii dulcis._

  Eurus _the wind_ aryvede the sailes of _Ulixes_, duk of the contree
  of Narice, and his wandringe shippes by the see, in-to the ile
  ther-as _Circes_, the faire goddesse, doughter of the sonne,
  dwelleth; that medleth to hir newe gestes drinkes that ben
  touched and maked with enchauntements. And after that hir               5
  hand, mighty over the herbes, hadde chaunged hir gestes in-to
  dyverse maneres; that oon of hem, is covered his face with forme
  of a boor; that other is chaunged in-to a lyoun of the contree of
  Marmorike, and his nayles and his teeth wexen; that other of
  hem is neweliche chaunged in-to a wolf, and howleth whan he            10
  wolde wepe; that other goth debonairely in the hous as a tygre
  of Inde.

  But al-be-it so that the godhed of _Mercurie, that is cleped_ the
  brid of Arcadie, hath had mercy of the duke _Ulixes_, biseged with
  dyverse yveles, and hath unbounden him fro the pestilence of           15
  his ostesse, algates the roweres and the marineres hadden by this
  y-drawen in-to hir mouthes and dronken the wikkede drinkes.
  They that weren woxen swyn hadden by this y-chaunged hir
  mete of breed, for to eten akornes of okes. Non of hir limes ne
  dwelleth with hem hole, but they han lost the voice and the            20
  body; only hir thought dwelleth with hem stable, that wepeth
  and biweileth the monstruous chaunginge that they suffren. O
  overlight hand (_as who seyth, O! feble and light is the hand of
  Circes the enchaunteresse, that chaungeth the bodyes of folkes in-to
  bestes, to regard and to comparisoun of mutacioun that is maked by     25
  vyces_); ne the herbes _of Circes_ ne ben nat mighty. For al-be-it
  so that they may chaungen the limes of the body, algates yit
  they may nat chaunge the hertes; for with-inne is y-hid the
  strengthe and vigor of men, in the secree tour _of hir hertes; that
  is to seyn, the strengthe of resoun_. But thilke venims _of vyces_
      to-drawen                                                          30
  a man to hem more mightily _than the venim of Circes_;
  for vyces ben so cruel that they percen and thorugh-passen the
  corage with-inne; and, thogh they ne anoye nat the body, yit
  vyces wooden _to destroye men_ by wounde of thought.'

ME. III. 1. C. A. Ed. wynde. 2. C. A. Ed. Narice; Lat. _Neritii_. 3. C. Ed.
Circes; A. Circe. 8. C. boer; A. boor. 9. C. A. Ed. Marmorike; Lat.
_Marmaricus leo_. 14. A. Arcadie; C. Ed. Archadie; Lat. _Arcadis alitis_.
15. A. Ed. vnbounden; C. vnbounded. // A. pestilence; C. pestelence. 16. A.
oosteresse (!). 18. A. Ed. woxen; C. wexen. 19. C. akkornes; A. acorns. //
C. lemes; A. lymes; Ed. lymmes. 20. A. Ed. hoole; C. hool.


_Tum ego, Fateor, inquam._

  Than seyde I thus: 'I confesse and am a-knowe it,' quod I;
  'ne I ne see nat that men may sayn, as by right, that shrewes ne
  ben chaunged in-to bestes by the qualitee of hir soules, al-be-it so
  that they kepen yit the forme of the body of mankinde. But I
  nolde nat of shrewes, of which the thought cruel woodeth al-wey         5
  in-to destruccioun of goode men, that it were leveful to hem to
  don that.'

  'Certes,' quod she, 'ne is nis nat leveful to hem, as I shal wel
  shewe thee in covenable place; but natheles, yif so were that thilke
  that men wenen be leveful to shrewes were binomen hem, _so that        10
  they ne mighte nat anoyen or doon harm to goode men_, certes, a
  greet partye of the peyne to shrewes sholde ben allegged and
  releved. For al-be-it so that this ne seme nat credible thing,
  per-aventure, to some folk, yit moot it nedes be, that shrewes ben
  more wrecches and unsely whan they may doon and performe               15
  that they coveiten, than yif they mighte nat complisshen that they
  coveiten. For yif so be that it be wrecchednesse to wilne to don
  yvel, than is more wrecchednesse to mowen don yvel; with-oute
  whiche mowinge the wrecched wil sholde languisshe with-oute
  effect. Than, sin that everiche of thise thinges hath his              20
  wrecchednesse, _that is to seyn, wil to don yvel and mowinge to don
  yvel_, it moot nedes be that they ben constreyned by three
  unselinesses, that wolen and mowen and performen felonyes and

  'I acorde me,' quod I; 'but I desire gretly that shrewes               25
  losten sone thilke unselinesse, _that is to seyn_, that shrewes weren
  despoyled of mowinge to don yvel.'

  'So shullen they,' quod she, 'soner, per-aventure, than thou
  woldest; or soner than they hem-self wene to lakken _mowinge to
  don yvel_. For ther nis no-thing so late in so shorte boundes of       30
  this lyf, that is long to abyde, nameliche, to a corage inmortel;
  of whiche shrewes the grete hope, and the hye compassinges of
  shrewednesses, is ofte destroyed by a sodeyn ende, or they ben
  war; and that thing estableth to shrewes the ende of hir
  shrewednesse. For yif that shrewednesse maketh wrecches, than          35
  mot he nedes ben most wrecched that lengest is a shrewe; the
  whiche wikked shrewes wolde I demen aldermost unsely and caitifs,
  yif that hir shrewednesse ne were finisshed, at the leste wey, by
  the outtereste deeth. For yif I have concluded sooth of the unselinesse
  of shrewednesse, than sheweth it cleerly that thilke                   40
  wrecchednesse is with-outen ende, the whiche is certein to ben

  'Certes,' quod I, 'this conclusioun is hard and wonderful to
  graunte; but I knowe wel that it acordeth moche to the thinges
  that I have graunted her-biforn.'                                      45

  'Thou hast,' quod she, 'the right estimacioun of this; but
  who-so-ever wene that it be a hard thing to acorde him to a
  conclusioun, it is right that he shewe that some of the premisses
  ben false; or elles he moot shewe that the collacioun of proposiciouns
  nis nat speedful to a necessarie conclusioun. And yif it               50
  be nat so, but that the premisses ben y-graunted, ther is not why
  he sholde blame the argument.

  For this thing that I shal telle thee now ne shal nat seme lasse
  wonderful; but of the thinges that ben taken also it is necessarie;'
  _as who seyth, it folweth of that which that is purposed biforn_.      55

  'What is that?' quod I.

  'Certes,' quod she, 'that is, that thise wikked shrewes ben
  more blisful, _or elles lasse wrecches_, that abyen the torments that
  they han deserved, than yif no peyne of Iustice ne chastysede
  hem. Ne this ne seye I nat now, for that any man mighte                60
  thenke, that the maners of shrewes ben coriged and chastysed by
  veniaunce, and that they ben brought to the right wey by the
  drede of the torment, ne for that they yeven to other folk
  ensaumple to fleen fro vyces; but I understande yit in another
  manere, that shrewes ben more unsely whan they ne ben nat              65
  punisshed, al-be-it so that ther ne be had no resoun or lawe of
  correccioun, ne non ensaumple of lokinge.'

  'And what manere shal that ben,' quod I, 'other than hath be
  told her-biforn?'

  'Have we nat thanne graunted,' quod she, 'that goode folk              70
  ben blisful, and shrewes ben wrecches?'

  'Yis,' quod I.

  'Thanne,' quod she, 'yif that any good were added to the
  wrecchednesse of any wight, nis he nat more weleful than he that
  ne hath no medlinge of good in his solitarie wrecchednesse?'           75

  'So semeth it,' quod I.

  'And what seystow thanne,' quod she, 'of thilke wrecche that
  lakketh alle goodes, _so that no good nis medled in his wrecchednesse_,
  and yit, over al his wikkednesse for which he is a wrecche, that
  ther be yit another yvel anexed and knit to him, shal nat men          80
  demen him more unsely than thilke wrecche of whiche the unselinesse
  is releved by the participacioun of som good?'

  'Why sholde he nat?' quod I.

  'Thanne, certes,' quod she, 'han shrewes, whan they ben
  punisshed, som-what of good anexed to hir wrecchednesse, that is       85
  to seyn, the same peyne that they suffren, which that is good by
  the resoun of Iustice; and whan thilke same shrewes ascapen
  with-oute torment, than han they som-what more of yvel yit over
  the wikkednesse that they han don, _that is to seyn_, defaute of
  peyne; which defaute of peyne, thou hast graunted, is yvel for         90
  the deserte of felonye.' 'I ne may nat denye it,' quod I. 'Moche
  more thanne,' quod she, 'ben shrewes unsely, whan they ben
  wrongfully delivered fro peyne, than whan they ben punisshed by
  rightful veniaunce. But this is open thing and cleer, that it is
  right that shrewes ben punisshed, and it is wikkednesse and            95
  wrong that they escapen unpunisshed.'

  'Who mighte deneye that?' quod I.

  'But,' quod she, 'may any man denye that al that is right nis
  good; and also the contrarie, that al that is wrong is wikke?'

  'Certes,' quod I, 'these thinges ben clere y-nough; and that          100
  we han concluded a litel her-biforn. But I praye thee that thou
  telle me, yif thou acordest to leten no torment to sowles, after that
  the body is ended by the deeth;' _this is to seyn, understandestow
  aught that sowles han any torment after the deeth of the body?_

  'Certes,' quod she, 'ye; and that right greet; of which sowles,'      105
  quod she, 'I trowe that some ben tormented by asprenesse of
  peyne; and some sowles, I trowe, ben exercised by a purginge
  mekenesse. But my conseil nis nat to determinye of thise peynes.
  But I have travailed and told yit hiderto, for thou sholdest knowe
  that the mowinge of shrewes, which mowinge thee semeth to ben         110
  unworthy, nis no mowinge: and eek of shrewes, of which thou
  pleinedest that they ne were nat punisshed, that thou woldest
  seen that they ne weren never-mo with-outen the torments of hir
  wikkednesse: and of the licence _of the mowinge to don yvel_,
  that thou preydest that it mighte sone ben ended, and that thou       115
  woldest fayn lernen that it ne sholde nat longe dure: and that
  shrewes ben more unsely yif they were of lenger duringe, and
  most unsely yif they weren perdurable. And after this, I have
  shewed thee that more unsely ben shrewes, whan they escapen
  with-oute hir rightful peyne, than whan they ben punisshed by         120
  rightful veniaunce. And of this sentence folweth it, that thanne
  ben shrewes constreined at the laste with most grevous torment,
  whan men wene that they ne be nat punisshed.'

  'Whan I consider thy resouns,' quod I, 'I ne trowe nat that
  men seyn any-thing more verayly. And yif I torne ayein to the         125
  studies of men, who is he to whom it sholde seme that he ne
  sholde nat only leven thise thinges, but eek gladly herkne

  'Certes,' quod she, 'so it is; but men may nat. For they han
  hir eyen so wont to the derknesse _of erthely thinges_, that they ne  130
  may nat liften hem up to the light of cleer sothfastnesse; but
  they ben lyke to briddes, of which the night lightneth hir lokinge,
  and the day blindeth hem. For whan men loken nat the ordre of
  thinges, but hir lustes and talents, they wene that either the leve
  or the mowinge to don wikkednesse, or elles the scapinge with-oute    135
  peyne, be weleful. But consider the Iugement of the
  perdurable lawe. For yif thou conferme thy corage to the beste
  thinges, thou ne hast no nede of no Iuge to yeven thee prys or
  mede; for thou hast ioyned thy-self to the most excellent thing.
  And yif thou have enclyned thy studies to the wikked thinges, ne      140
  seek no foreyne wreker out of thy-self; for thou thy-self hast
  thrist thy-self in-to wikke thinges: right as thou mightest loken by
  dyverse tymes the foule erthe and the hevene, and that alle other
  thinges stinten fro with-oute, _so that thou nere neither in hevene
  ne in erthe, ne saye no-thing more_; than it sholde semen to          145
  thee, as by only resoun of lokinge, that thou were now in the
  sterres and now in the erthe. But the poeple ne loketh nat on
  thise thinges. What thanne? Shal we thanne aprochen us to
  hem that I have shewed that they ben lyk to bestes? And what
  woltow seyn of this: yif that a man hadde al forlorn his sighte       150
  and hadde foryeten that he ever saugh, and wende that no-thing
  ne faylede him of perfeccioun of mankinde, now we that mighten
  seen the same thinges, wolde we nat wene that he were blinde?
  Ne also ne acordeth nat the poeple to that I shal seyn, the which
  thing is sustened by a stronge foundement of resouns, _that is to_    155
  _seyn_, that more unsely ben they that don wrong to othre folk
  than they that the wrong suffren.'

  'I wolde heren thilke same resouns,' quod I.

  'Denyestow,' quod she, 'that alle shrewes ne ben worthy to
  han torment?'                                                         160

  'Nay,' quod I.

  'But,' quod she, 'I am certein, by many resouns, that shrewes
  ben unsely.'

  'It acordeth,' quod I.

  'Thanne ne doutestow nat,' quod she, 'that thilke folk that ben       165
  worthy of torment, that they ne ben wrecches?'

  'It acordeth wel,' quod I.

  'Yif thou were thanne,' quod she, 'y-set a Iuge or a knower of
  thinges, whether, trowestow, that men sholden tormenten him
  that hath don the wrong, or elles him that hath suffred the           170

  'I ne doute nat,' quod I, 'that I nolde don suffisaunt satisfaccioun
  to him that hadde suffred the wrong by the sorwe of him
  that hadde don the wrong.'

  'Thanne semeth it,' quod she, 'that the doere of wrong is             175
  more wrecche than he that suffred wrong?'

  'That folweth wel,' quod I.

  'Than,' quod she, 'by these causes and by othre causes that
  ben enforced by the same rote, filthe or sinne, by the propre
  nature of it, maketh men wrecches; and it sheweth wel, that the       180
  wrong that men don nis nat the wrecchednesse of him that
  receyveth the wrong, but the wrecchednesse of him that doth the
  wrong. But certes,' quod she, 'thise oratours or advocats don al
  the contrarye; for they enforcen hem to commoeve the Iuges to
  han pitee of hem that han suffred and receyved the thinges that       185
  ben grevous and aspre, and yit men sholden more rightfully han
  pitee of hem that don the grevaunces and the wronges; the
  whiche shrewes, it were a more covenable thing, that the
  accusours or advocats, nat wroth but pitous and debonair, ledden
  tho shrewes that han don wrong to the Iugement, right as men          190
  leden syke folk to the leche, for that they sholde seken out the
  maladyes of sinne by torment. And by this covenaunt, either the
  entente of deffendours or advocats sholde faylen and cesen in al,
  or elles, yif the office of advocats wolde bettre profiten to men,
  it sholde ben torned in-to the habite of accusacioun; _that is to     195
  seyn, they sholden accuse shrewes, and nat excuse hem_. And eek
  the shrewes hem-self, yif hit were leveful to hem to seen at any
  clifte the vertu that they han forleten, and sawen that they
  sholden putten adoun the filthes of hir vyces, by the torments of
  peynes, they ne oughte nat, right for the recompensacioun for to      200
  geten hem bountee and prowesse which that they han lost,
  demen ne holden that thilke peynes weren torments to hem; and
  eek they wolden refuse the attendaunce of hir advocats, and
  taken hem-self to hir Iuges and to hir accusors. For which it
  bitydeth that, as to the wyse folk, ther nis no place y-leten to      205
  hate; _that is to seyn, that ne hate hath no place amonges wyse men_.
  For no wight nil haten goode men, but-yif he were over-mochel a
  fool; and for to haten shrewes, it nis no resoun. For right so as
  languissinge is maladye of body, right so ben vyces and sinne
  maladye of corage. And so as we ne deme nat, that they that ben       210
  syke of hir body ben worthy to ben hated, but rather worthy of
  pitee: wel more worthy, nat to ben hated, but for to ben had in
  pitee, ben they of whiche the thoughtes ben constreined by
  felonous wikkednesse, that is more cruel than any languissinge of     215

PR. IV. 1. A. _om._ it. 3. C. ne ben; A. ne ben nat; Ed. ben. 10. C. to; A.
for. 16. A. _om._ than yif ... coveiten. 19. C. languesse. 22. A. thre; C.
the; Lat. _triplici_. 26. Ed. vnselynesse; C. A. vnselynysses; Lat. _hoc
infortunio_. 29. A. to lakken ... yvel; C. Ed. _omit_. 30. A. Ed. so short;
C. the shorte; Lat. _tam breuibus_. 38. A. yfinissed. 49. A. colasioun; Ed.
collacyon; C. collacions; Lat. _collationem_. 58. A. byen (_for_ abyen).
59. A. chastied. 61. A. thenk; C. thinke. // C. A. Ed. coriged. 64. A.
yitte; Ed. yet; C. yif. 66. Ed. punysshed; C. A. punyssed. 67. C.
correcsioun. 78. C. lakked; A. lakketh. 80. A. knyt; C. knytte. 96. A.
escapin. 99. A. nis wicked. 101. A. a litel; C. alyter. 103. A. dedid
(_for_ ended). 108. A. this peyne; Lat. _de his_. 109. C. yit; Ed. yet; A.
it. 110. C. mowynge, i. myght. 113. A. seen; C. seyn; _uideres_. 116. C.
dure; A. endure. 120. A. _om._ hir. 124. A. resouns; C. resoun; _rationes_.
135. A. escaping; C. schapynge (_for_ scapynge). 138. C. of no; A. to no.
142. A. threst the. 143. C. _puts_ the foule erthe _before_ by dyverse
tymes. 145. A. _om._ nere neither ... erthe; Ed. were in neyther (_om._ in
hevene ... erthe). 147. A. Ed. on; C. in. 149. A. to the bestes. 150. A.
wilt thou. 153. A. thing; _eadem_. 155. C. _om._ is. 159. A. Deniest thou.
165. A. dowtest thou. 168. C. Ed. _om._ quod she. 169. C. _om._ whether. //
A. trowest thou. 172. C. _om._ suffisaunt. 176. C. that (_for_ than). // A.
that hath suffred the wrong. 179. C. _wrongly ins._ of _bef._ enforced. //
A. _ins._ that _bef._ filthe. 182, 3. C. _om._ but the ... wrong. 198. A.
Ed. sawen; C. sawh. 199. C. felthes. 209. A. languissing; C. langwissynges.
// C. maledye; A. maladie.


_Quid tantos iuuat excitare motus._

  What delyteth you to excyten so grete moevinges _of hateredes_,
  and to hasten and bisien the fatal disposicioun of your deeth with
  your propre handes? _that is to seyn, by batailes or by contek_. For
  yif ye axen the deeth, it hasteth him of his owne wil; ne deeth
  ne tarieth nat his swifte hors. And the men that the serpent and        5
  the lyoun and the tygre and the bere and the boor seken to sleen
  with hir teeth, yit thilke same men seken to sleen everich of hem
  other with swerd. Lo! for hir maneres ben dyverse and descordaunt,
  they moeven unrightful ostes and cruel batailes, and wilnen
  to perisshe by entrechaunginge of dartes. But the resoun of            10
  crueltee nis nat y-nough rightful.

  Wiltow thanne yelden a covenable guerdoun to the desertes of
  men? Love rightfully goode folk, and have pitee on shrewes.'

ME. IV. 1. A. deliteth it yow. // A. moewynges; C. moeuynge; _motus_. 5.
hors _is plural_; Lat. _equos_. // A. serpentz. 6. A. lyouns. 8. A.
discordaunt. 10. Ed. perysshe; A. perisse; C. perise.  A. Ed. -chaungynge;
C. -chaungynges. 12. C. A. gerdoun; Ed. guerdon.


_Hic ego uideo inquam._

  'Thus see I wel,' quod I, 'either what blisfulnesse or elles
  what unselinesse is establisshed in the desertes of goode men and
  of shrewes. But in this ilke fortune of poeple I see somwhat of
  good and somwhat of yvel. For no wyse man hath lever ben
  exyled, poore and nedy, and nameles, than for to dwellen in his         5
  citee and flouren of richesses, and be redoutable by honour, and
  strong of power. For in this wyse more cleerly and more witnesfully
  is the office of wyse men y-treted, whan the blisfulnesse and
  the poustee of governours is, as it were, y-shad amonges poeples
  that be neighebours _and subgits_; sin that, namely, prisoun, lawe,    10
  and thise othre torments of laweful peynes ben rather owed to
  felonous citezeins, for the whiche felonous citezeins tho peynes
  ben establisshed, _than for good folk_. Thanne I mervaile me
  greetly,' quod I, 'why that the thinges ben so mis entrechaunged,
  that torments of felonyes pressen and confounden goode folk, and       15
  shrewes ravisshen medes of vertu, _and ben in honours and in
  gret estats_. And I desyre eek for to witen of thee, what semeth
  thee to ben the resoun of this so wrongful a conclusioun? For I
  wolde wondre wel the lasse, yif I trowede that al thise thinges
  weren medled by fortunous happe; but now hepeth and encreseth          20
  myn astonyinge god, governour of thinges, that, so as god
  yeveth ofte tymes to gode men godes and mirthes, and to shrewes
  yveles and aspre thinges: and yeveth ayeinward to gode folk hardnesses,
  and to shrewes he graunteth hem hir wil and that they
  desyren: what difference thanne may ther be bitwixen that that         25
  god doth, and the happe of fortune, yif men ne knowe nat the
  cause why that it is?'

  'Ne it nis no mervaile,' quod she, 'though that men wenen that
  ther be somewhat folissh and confuse, whan the resoun of the
  ordre is unknowe. But al-though that thou ne knowe nat the             30
  cause of so greet a disposicioun, natheles, for as moche as god,
  the gode governour, atempreth and governeth the world, ne doute
  thee nat that alle thinges ben doon a-right.

PR. V.  4. C. hath leuere; A. hath nat leuer; Ed. had not leuer.  8. A. Ed.
witnes-; C. witnesse-. 10. A. ney[gh]bours; C. nesshebors. 17. A. witen; C.
weten. 21. C. A. astonyenge. 25. C. defference. 28. C. Ne it nis; A. it
nis. 33. C. ben; A. ne ben.


_Si quis Arcturi sidera nescit._

  Who-so that ne knowe nat the sterres of Arcture, y-torned neigh
  to the soverein contree or point, _that is to seyn, y-torned neigh to
  the soverein pool of the firmament_, and wot nat why _the sterre_
  Bootes passeth or gadereth his weynes, and drencheth his late
  flambes in the see, and why that Bootes _the sterre_ unfoldeth his      5
  over-swifte arysinges, thanne shal he wondren of the lawe of the
  heye eyr.

  _And eek, yif that he ne knowe nat why that_ the hornes of the fulle
  mone wexen pale and infect by the boundes of the derke night;
  and _how_ the mone, derk and confuse, discovereth the sterres that     10
  she hadde y-covered by hir clere visage. The comune errour
  moeveth folk, and maketh wery hir basins of bras by thikke
  strokes; _that is to seyn, that ther is a maner of poeple that highte
  Coribantes, that wenen that, whan the mone is in the eclipse, that it
  be enchaunted; and therfore, for to rescowe the mone, they beten hir   15
  basins with thikke strokes_.

  Ne no man ne wondreth whan the blastes of the wind Chorus
  beten the strondes of the see by quakinge flodes; ne no man ne
  wondreth whan the weighte of the snowe, y-harded by the colde,
  is resolved by the brenninge hete of Phebus the sonne; for heer        20
  seen men redely the causes.

  But the causes y-hid, _that is to seyn, in hevene_, troublen the
  brestes of men; the moevable poeple is astoned of alle thinges
  that comen selde and sodeinly in our age. But yif the troubly
  errour of our ignoraunce departede fro us, _so that we wisten the      25
  causes why that swiche thinges bi-tyden_, certes, they sholden cese
  to seme wondres.'

ME. V.  1. Ed. Arcture; C. Arctour; A. aritour.  4. Ed. Bootes; C. A.
boetes (_twice_).  9. A. Ed. by the; C. by. 11. A. Ed. had; C. hadde. 12.
C. basynnes (1_st time_); basyns (2_nd_). 14. Ed. Coribantes; C. A.
coribandes. 17. A. Ed. blastes; C. blases. 18. A. Ed. man ne; C. manne. 19.
A. Ed. the snowe; C. sonwh (_sic_; _om._ the).


_Ita est, inquam._

  'Thus is it,' quod I. 'But so as thou hast yeven or bi-hight
  me to unwrappen the hid causes of thinges, and to discovere me
  the resouns covered with derknesses, I prey thee that thou devyse
  and iuge me of this matere, and that thou do me to understonden
  it; for this miracle or this wonder troubleth me right gretly.'         5

  And thanne she, a litel what smylinge, seyde: 'thou clepest
  me,' quod she, 'to telle thing that is grettest of alle thinges that
  mowen ben axed, and to the whiche questioun unnethes is ther
  aught y-nough to laven it; _as who seyth, unnethes is ther suffisauntly
  anything to answere parfitly to thy questioun_. For the                10
  matere of it is swich, that whan o doute is determined and cut
  awey, ther wexen other doutes with-oute number; right as the
  hevedes wexen of Ydre, _the serpent that Ercules slowh_. Ne ther
  ne were no manere ne non ende, but-yif that a wight constreinede
  tho doutes by a right lyfly and quik fyr of thought; _that is to_      15
  _seyn, by vigour and strengthe of wit_. For in this manere men
  weren wont to maken questions of the simplicitee of the purviaunce
  of god, and of the order of destinee, and of sodein
  happe, and of the knowinge and predestinacioun divyne, and of
  the libertee of free wille; the whiche thinges thou thy-self           20
  aperceyvest wel, of what weight they ben. But for as mochel
  as the knowinge of thise thinges is a maner porcioun of the
  medicine of thee, al-be-it so that I have litel tyme to don it,
  yit natheles I wol enforcen me to shewe somwhat of it. But
  al-thogh the norisshinges of ditee of musike delyteth thee, thou       25
  most suffren and forberen a litel of thilke delyte, whyle that
  I weve to thee resouns y-knit by ordre.'

  'As it lyketh to thee,' quod I, 'so do.' Tho spak she right as
  by another biginninge, and seyde thus. 'The engendringe of
  alle thinges,' quod she, 'and alle the progressiouns of muable         30
  nature, and al that moeveth in any manere, taketh his causes, his
  ordre, and his formes, of the stablenesse of the divyne thoght;
  and thilke divyne thought, that is y-set and put in the tour, _that
  is to seyn, in the heighte_, of the simplicitee of god, stablissheth
  many maner gyses to thinges that ben to done; the whiche               35
  maner, whan that men loken it in thilke pure clennesse of the
  divyne intelligence, it is y-cleped purviaunce; but whan thilke
  maner is referred by men to thinges that it moveth and disponeth,
  thanne of olde men it was cleped destinee. The whiche thinges,
  yif that any wight loketh wel in his thought the strengthe of that     40
  oon and of that other, he shal lightly mowen seen, that thise two
  thinges ben dyverse. For purviaunce is thilke divyne reson that
  is establisshed in the soverein prince of thinges; the whiche purviaunce
  disponeth alle thinges. But destinee is the disposicioun
  and ordinaunce clyvinge to moevable thinges, by the whiche             45
  disposicioun the purviaunce knitteth alle thinges in hir ordres;
  for purviaunce embraceth alle thinges to-hepe, al-thogh that they
  ben dyverse, and al-thogh they ben infinite; but destinee departeth
  and ordeineth alle thinges singulerly, and divyded in
  moevinges, in places, in formes, in tymes, as thus: lat the            50
  unfoldinge of temporel ordinaunce, assembled and ooned in the
  lokinge of the divyne thought, be cleped purviaunce; and thilke
  same assemblinge and ooninge, divyded and unfolden by tymes,
  lat that ben called destinee. And al-be-it so that thise thinges
  ben dyverse, yit natheles hangeth that oon on that other; for-why      55
  the order destinal procedeth of the simplicitee of purviaunce.
  For right as a werkman, that aperceyveth in his thoght the forme
  of the thing that he wol make, and moeveth the effect of the
  werk, and ledeth that he hadde loked biforn in his thoght simply
  and presently, by temporel ordinaunce: certes, right so god            60
  disponeth in his purviaunce, singulerly and stably, the thinges
  that ben to done, but he aministreth in many maneres and in
  dyverse tymes, by destinee, thilke same thinges that he hath

  Thanne, whether that destinee be exercysed outher by some              65
  divyne spirits, servaunts to the divyne purviaunce, or elles by
  som sowle, or elles by alle nature servinge to god, or elles by the
  celestial moevinges of sterres, or elles by the vertu of angeles, or
  elles by the dyverse subtilitee of develes, or elles by any of hem,
  or elles by hem alle, the destinal ordinaunce is y-woven and           70
  acomplisshed. Certes, it is open thing, that the purviaunce is
  an unmoevable and simple forme of thinges to done; and the
  moveable bond and the temporel ordinaunce of thinges, whiche
  that the divyne simplicitee of purviaunce hath ordeyned to done,
  that is destinee. For which it is, that alle thinges that ben put      75
  under destinee ben, certes, subgits to purviaunce, to whiche purviaunce
  destinee itself is subgit and under. But some thinges
  ben put under purviaunce, that surmounten the ordinaunce of
  destinee; and tho ben thilke that stably ben y-ficched negh to the
  firste godhed: they surmounten the ordre of destinal moevabletee.      80
  For right as of cercles that tornen a-boute a same centre or a-boute
  a poynt, thilke cercle that is innerest or most with-inne ioyneth to
  the simplesse of the middel, and is, as it were, a centre or a poynt
  to that other cercles that tornen a-bouten him; and thilke that is
  outterest, compassed by larger envyronninge, is unfolden by            85
  larger spaces, in so moche as it is forthest fro the middel simplicitee
  of the poynt; and yif ther be any-thing that knitteth and
  felawshippeth him-self to thilke middel poynt, it is constreined
  in-to simplicitee, _that is to seyn, in-to unmoevabletee_, and it ceseth
  to be shad and to fleten dyversely: right so, by semblable resoun,     90
  thilke thing that departeth forthest fro the first thoght of god, it is
  unfolden and summitted to gretter bondes of destinee: and in so
  moche is the thing more free and laus fro destinee, as it axeth and
  holdeth him ner to thilke centre of thinges, _that is to seyn, god_.
  And yif the thing clyveth to the stedefastnesse of the thoght of god,  95
  and be with-oute moevinge, certes, it sormounteth the necessitee of
  destinee. Thanne right swich comparisoun as it is of skilinge to
  understondinge, and of thing that is engendred to thing that is, and
  of tyme to eternitee, and of the cercle to the centre, right so is the
  ordre of moevable destinee to the stable simplicitee of purviaunce.   100

  Thilke ordinaunce moeveth the hevene and the sterres, and
  atempreth the elements to-gider amonges hem-self, and transformeth
  hem by entrechaungeable mutacioun; and thilke same
  ordre neweth ayein alle thinges growinge and fallinge a-doun, by
  semblable progressiouns of sedes and of sexes, _that is to seyn,      105
  male and femele_. And this ilke ordre constreineth the fortunes and
  the dedes of men by a bond of causes, nat able to ben unbounde;
  the whiche destinal causes, whan they passen out fro the biginninges
  of the unmoevable purviaunce, it mot nedes be that they
  ne be nat mutable. And thus ben the thinges ful wel y-governed,       110
  yif that the simplicitee dwellinge in the divyne thoght sheweth
  forth the ordre of causes, unable to ben y-bowed; and this ordre
  constreineth by his propre stabletee the moevable thinges, or elles
  they sholden fleten folily. For which it is, that alle thinges semen
  to ben confus and trouble to us men, for we ne mowen nat considere    115
  thilke ordinaunce; natheles, the propre maner of every
  thinge, dressinge hem to goode, disponeth hem alle.

  For ther nis no-thing don for cause of yvel; ne thilke thing
  that is don by wikkede folk _nis nat don for yvel_. The whiche
  shrewes, as I have shewed ful plentivously, seken good, but           120
  wikked errour mistorneth hem, ne the ordre cominge fro the
  poynt of soverein good ne declyneth nat fro his biginninge. But
  thou mayst seyn, what unreste may ben a worse confusioun than
  that gode men han somtyme adversitee and somtyme prosperitee,
  and shrewes also now han thinges that they desiren, and now           125
  thinges that they haten? Whether men liven now in swich
  hoolnesse of thoght, (_as who seyth, ben men now so wyse_), that
  swiche folk as they demen to ben gode folk or shrewes, that
  it moste nedes ben that folk ben swiche as they wenen? But in
  this manere the domes of men discorden, that thilke men that          130
  some folk demen worthy of mede, other folk demen hem worthy of
  torment. But lat us graunte, I pose that som man may wel demen
  or knowen the gode folk and the badde; may he thanne knowen
  and seen thilke innereste atempraunce of corages, as it hath ben
  wont to be seyd of bodies; _as who seyth, may a man speken and        135
  determinen of atempraunces in corages, as men were wont to demen or
  speken of complexiouns and atempraunces of bodies?_ Ne it ne is nat
  an unlyk miracle, to hem that ne knowen it nat, (_as who seith, but it
  is lyke a merveil or a miracle to hem that ne knowen it nat_), why that
  swete thinges ben covenable to some bodies that ben hole, and to      140
  some bodies bittere thinges ben covenable; and also, why that
  some syke folk ben holpen with lighte medicynes, and some folk
  ben holpen with sharpe medicynes. But natheles, the leche that
  knoweth the manere and the atempraunce of hele and of maladye,
  ne merveileth of it no-thing. But what other thing semeth hele        145
  of corages but bountee and prowesse? And what other thing
  semeth maladye _of corages_ but vyces? Who is elles kepere of
  good or dryver awey of yvel, but god, governour and lecher of
  thoughtes? The whiche god, whan he hath biholden from the
  heye tour of his purveaunce, he knoweth what is covenable to          150
  every wight, and leneth hem that he wot that is covenable to hem.
  Lo, her-of comth and her-of is don this noble miracle of the ordre
  destinal, whan god, that al knoweth, doth swiche thing, of which
  thing that unknowinge folk ben astoned. But for to constreine,
  _as who seyth, but for to comprehende and telle_ a fewe thinges of
      the                                                               155
  divyne deepnesse, the whiche that mannes resoun may understonde,
  thilke man that thou wenest to ben right Iuste and right
  kepinge of equitee, the contrarie of that semeth to the divyne
  purveaunce, that al wot. And Lucan, my familer, telleth that
  "the victorious cause lykede to the goddes, and the cause over-comen  160
  lykede to Catoun." Thanne, what-so-ever thou mayst seen
  that is don in this werld unhoped or unwened, certes, it is the
  right ordre of thinges; but, as to thy wikkede opinioun, it is a
  confusioun. But I suppose that som man be so wel y-thewed,
  that the divyne Iugement and the Iugement of mankinde acorden         165
  hem to-gider of him; but he is so unstedefast of corage, that, yif
  any adversitee come to him, he wol forleten, par-aventure, to
  continue innocence, by the whiche he ne may nat with-holden
  fortune. Thanne the wyse dispensacioun of god spareth him, the
  whiche man adversitee mighte enpeyren; for that god wol nat           170
  suffren him to travaile, to whom that travaile nis nat covenable.
  Another man is parfit in alle vertues, and is an holy man, and
  negh to god, so that the purviaunce of god wolde demen, that
  it were a felonye that he were touched with any adversitees; so
  that he wol nat suffre that swich a man be moeved with any            175
  bodily maladye. But so as seyde a philosophre, the more excellent
  by me: _he seyde in Grek_, that "vertues han edified the body
  of the holy man." And ofte tyme it bitydeth, that the somme of
  thinges that ben to done is taken to governe to gode folk, for that
  the malice haboundaunt of shrewes sholde ben abated. And god          180
  yeveth and departeth to othre folk prosperitees and adversitees
  y-medled to-hepe, after the qualitee of hir corages, and remordeth
  som folk _by adversitee_, for they ne sholde nat wexen proude by
  longe welefulnesse. And other folk he suffreth to ben travailed
  with harde thinges, for that they sholden confermen the vertues       185
  of corage by the usage and exercitacioun of pacience. And
  other folk dreden more than they oughten [that] whiche they
  mighten wel beren; and somme dispyse that they mowe nat
  beren; and thilke folk god ledeth in-to experience of himself by
  aspre and sorwful thinges. And many othre folk han bought             190
  honourable renoun of this world by the prys of glorious deeth.
  And som men, that ne mowen nat ben overcomen by torments,
  have yeven ensaumple to othre folk, that vertu may nat ben overcomen
  by adversitees; and of alle thinges ther nis no doute, that
  they ne ben don rightfully and ordenely, to the profit of hem to      195
  whom we seen thise thinges bityde. For certes, that adversitee
  comth somtyme to shrewes, and somtyme that that they desiren,
  it comth of thise forseide causes. And of sorwful thinges _that
  bityden to shrewes_, certes, no man ne wondreth; for alle men
  wenen that they han wel deserved it, and that they ben of             200
  wikkede merite; of whiche shrewes the torment somtyme agasteth
  othre to don felonyes, and somtyme it amendeth hem that suffren
  the torments. And the prosperitee _that is yeven to shrewes_
  sheweth a greet argument to gode folk, what thing they sholde
  demen of thilke welefulnesse, the whiche prosperitee men seen         205
  ofte serven to shrewes. In the which thing I trowe that god
  dispenseth; for, per-aventure, the nature of som man is so overthrowinge
  _to yvel_, and so uncovenable, that the nedy povertee of
  his houshold mighte rather egren him to don felonyes. And to
  the maladye of him god putteth remedie, to yeven him richesses.       210
  And som other man biholdeth his conscience defouled with sinnes,
  and maketh comparisoun of his fortune and of him-self; and
  dredeth, per-aventure, that his blisfulnesse, of which the usage is
  Ioyeful to him, that the lesinge of thilke blisfulnesse ne be nat
  sorwful to him; and therfor he wol chaunge his maneres, and, for      215
  he dredeth to lese his fortune, he forleteth his wikkednesse. To
  othre folk is welefulnesse y-yeven unworthily, the whiche overthroweth
  hem in-to distruccioun that they han deserved. And to
  som othre folk is yeven power to punisshen, for that it shal be
  cause of _continuacioun and_ exercysinge to gode folk and cause of    220
  torment to shrewes. For so as ther nis non alyaunce by-twixe
  gode folk and shrewes, ne shrewes ne mowen nat acorden amonges
  hem-self. And why nat? For shrewes discorden of hem-self by
  hir vyces, the whiche vyces al to-renden hir consciences; and don
  ofte tyme thinges, the whiche thinges, whan they han don hem,         225
  they demen that tho thinges ne sholden nat han ben don. For
  which thing thilke soverein purveaunce hath maked ofte tyme fair
  miracle; so that shrewes han maked shrewes to ben gode men.
  For whan that som shrewes seen that they suffren wrongfully
  felonyes of othre shrewes, they wexen eschaufed in-to hate of hem     230
  that anoyeden hem, and retornen to the frut of vertu, whan they
  studien to ben unlyk to hem that they han hated. Certes, only
  this is the divyne might, to the whiche might yveles ben thanne
  gode, whan it useth tho yveles covenably, and draweth out the
  effect of any gode; _as who seyth, that yvel is good only to the
      might                                                             235
  of god, for the might of god ordeyneth thilke yvel to good_.

  For oon ordre embraseth alle thinges, so that what wight that
  departeth fro the resoun of thilke ordre which that is assigned to
  him, algates yit he slydeth in-to another ordre, so that no-thing
  nis leveful to folye in the reame of the divyne purviaunce; _as who   240
  seyth, nothing nis with-outen ordinaunce in the reame of the divyne
  purviaunce_; sin that the right stronge god governeth alle thinges
  in this world. For it nis nat leveful to man to comprehenden by
  wit, ne unfolden by word, alle the subtil ordinaunces and disposiciouns
  of the divyne entente. For only it oughte suffise to                  245
  han loked, that god him-self, maker of alle natures, ordeineth and
  dresseth alle thinges to gode; whyl that he hasteth to with-holden
  the thinges that he hath maked in-to his semblaunce, _that is to
  seyn, for to with-holden thinges in-to good, for he him-self is good_,
  he chaseth out al yvel fro the boundes of his comunalitee by the      250
  ordre of necessitee destinable. For which it folweth, that yif thou
  loke the purviaunce ordeininge the thinges that men wenen ben
  outrageous or haboundant in erthes, thou ne shalt nat seen in no
  place no-thing of yvel. But I see now that thou art charged with
  the weighte of the questioun, and wery with the lengthe of my         255
  resoun; and that thou abydest som sweetnesse of songe. Tak
  thanne this draught; and whan thou art wel refresshed and refect,
  thou shal be more stedefast to stye in-to heyere questiouns.

PR. VI.  4. A. Ed. do; C. don.  5. C. meracle.  6. A. _om._ what. 13. A.
Ed. Hercules. C. slowh; A. Ed. slough. 21. C. wyht. 22, 3. A. to the
medicine to the. 25. C. norysynges. 27. C. A. weue; _glossed_ contexo. 28.
A. Tho; C. So. 30. A. progressiouns; C. progressioun; _progressus_. 48. C.
Ed. infynyte; A. with-outen fyn. 49. C. dyuydyd; A. Ed. diuideth;
_distributa_. 50. _After_ tymes A. _ins._ departith (_om._ as). // C. lat;
Ed. Let; A. so that. 52. Ed. be cleaped; C. A. is (_see_ 54). 55. A. Ed.
on; C. of. 57. C. _om._ a. 59. C. symplely. 60. C. Ed. ordinaunce; A.
thou[gh]t. 61. C. stablely. 64. C. desponed. 65. C. weyther.  C. destyn
(_miswritten_). 67. C. A. sowle; _glossed_ anima mundi. 68. C. _om._ the
_bef._ vertu. 71. C. acomplyssed; A. accomplissed. 79. C. stablely.  A.
yficched; C. y-fechched; Ed. fyxed. 80. Ed. mouablyte; A. moeuablite. 81.
A. Ed. _om._ of. 85. A. Ed. larger; C. a large. 86. C. Ed. fertherest; A.
forthest. 91. C. A. fyrthest (_see_ 86). 93. A. lovs; Ed. loce. 96. C.
necissite. 103. C. mutasioun. 105. A. Ed. progressiouns; C. progressioun;
Lat. _progressus_. 106. A. female. 107. A. unbounden; _glossed_
indissolubili. 137. _After_ bodies, A. _has_ '_quasi non_.' 139. C. _om.
2nd_ a. 142, 3. A. _om._ and some ... medicynes. 148. A. leecher. 159. A.
familier. 160. Ed. victoriouse; C. A. victories; _uictricem_. 164. C.
sopose. 166. C. _om._ so. 176. bodily] A. manere. // A. _om._ the more ...
by me; _me quoque excellentior_. A. _has_: the aduersites comen nat, he
seide in grec, there that vertues. 186. C. corages (_animi_). // C.
excercitacion. 187. _All_ the (_for_ that.) 188, 9. Ed. and some ... not
beare; C. A. _om._ 191. C. of the; A. Ed. of. 195. A. ordeinly. 202. C. Ed.
felonies; A. folies. 210. A. puttith; C. pittyth. // A. rychesse. 213. A.
his; C. is. 219. C. A. punyssen; Ed. punysshen. 220. C. excercisynge. 222.
A. Ed. accorden; C. acordy. 228. _After_ maked A. _ins._ oftyme (_not in_
Lat.). 232. C. _om._ studien. 235. A. by (_for_ to). 238. C. assyngned.
240. A. realme (_twice_). 243. A. to no man. 247. C. wyl; A. while. 253.
Ed. outragyous; C. outraious; A. _om._ 255. C. the lengthe; A. Ed. _om._
the. 257. A. refet. 258. C. stydefast.


_Si uis celsi iura tonantis._

  If thou, wys, wilt demen in thy pure thought the rightes or the
  lawes of the heye thonderer, _that is to seyn, of god_, loke thou and
  bihold the heightes of the soverein hevene. There kepen the
  sterres, by rightful alliaunce of thinges, hir olde pees. The sonne,
  y-moeved by his rody fyr, ne distorbeth nat the colde cercle of         5
  the mone. Ne the sterre y-cleped "the Bere," that enclyneth his
  ravisshinge courses abouten the soverein heighte of the worlde, ne
  the same sterre Ursa nis never-mo wasshen in the depe westrene
  see, ne coveiteth nat to deyen his flaumbes in the see of the occian,
  al-thogh he see othre sterres y-plounged in the see. And Hesperus      10
  _the sterre_ bodeth and telleth alwey the late nightes; and Lucifer
  _the sterre_ bringeth ayein the clere day.

  And thus maketh Love entrechaungeable the perdurable courses;
  and thus is discordable bataile y-put out of the contree of the
  sterres. This acordaunce atempreth by evenelyk maneres the             15
  elements, that the moiste thinges, stryvinge with the drye thinges,
  yeven place by stoundes; and the colde thinges ioynen hem by
  feyth to the hote thinges; and that the lighte fyr aryseth in-to
  heighte; and the hevy erthes avalen by hir weightes. By thise
  same causes the floury yeer yildeth swote smelles in the firste        20
  somer-sesoun warminge; and the hote somer dryeth the cornes;
  and autumpne comth ayein, hevy of apples; and the fletinge reyn
  bideweth the winter. This atempraunce norissheth and bringeth
  forth al thing that [bretheth] lyf in this world; and thilke same
  atempraunce, ravisshinge, hydeth and binimeth, and drencheth           25
  under the laste deeth, alle thinges y-born.

  Amonges thise thinges sitteth the heye maker, king and lord,
  welle and biginninge, lawe and wys Iuge, to don equitee; and
  governeth and enclyneth the brydles of thinges. And tho thinges
  that he stereth to gon by moevinge, he withdraweth and aresteth;       30
  and affermeth the moevable or wandringe thinges. For yif that
  he ne clepede ayein the right goinge of thinges, and yif that he ne
  constreinede hem nat eft-sones in-to roundnesses enclynede, the
  thinges that ben now continued by stable ordinaunce, they sholden
  departen from hir welle, _that is to seyn, from hir biginninge_, and   35
  faylen, _that is to seyn, torne in-to nought_.

  This is the comune Love to alle thinges; and alle thinges axen
  to ben holden by the fyn of good. For elles ne mighten they nat
  lasten, yif they ne come nat eft-sones ayein, by Love retorned, to
  the cause that hath yeven hem beinge, _that is to seyn, to god_.       40

ME. VI. 1. A. _om._ wys; Lat. _sollers_. 3. C. the souereyn; A. _om._ the.
5. C. clerke (!); _for_ cercle. 7. C. cours (_meatus_); _see_ 13. 9. A.
dy[gh]en; C. deeyn, _glossed_ tingere; Ed. deyen. 10. A. in-to (_for_ in).
16. A. striuen nat with the drye thinges, but yiuen. 24. A. al; C. alle. //
A. bredith; C. Ed. bereth; _read_ bretheth (_spirat_). 31. C. _om._ the.
35. A. bygynnynge; C. bygynge.


_Iamne igitur uides._

  Seestow nat thanne what thing folweth alle the thinges that I
  have seyd?' _Boece._ 'What thing?' quod I.

  'Certes,' quod she, 'al-outrely, that alle fortune is good.'

  'And how may that be?' quod I.

  'Now understand,' quod she, 'so as alle fortune, whether so it          5
  be Ioyeful fortune or aspre fortune, is yeven either by cause of
  guerdoning or elles of exercysinge of good folk, or elles by cause
  to punisshen or elles chastysen shrewes; thanne is alle fortune
  good, the whiche fortune is certein that it be either rightful or
  elles profitable.'                                                     10

  'Forsothe, this is a ful verray resoun,' quod I; 'and yif I consider
  the purviaunce and the destinee that thou taughtest me a
  litel her-biforn, this sentence is sustened by stedefast resouns.
  But yif it lyke unto thee, lat us noumbren hem amonges thilke
  thinges, of whiche thou seydest a litel her-biforn, that they ne were  15
  nat able to ben wened to the poeple.' 'Why so?' quod she.

  'For that the comune word of men,' quod I, 'misuseth this
  _maner speche of fortune_, and seyn ofte tymes that the fortune of
  som wight is wikkede.'

  'Wiltow thanne,' quod she, 'that I aproche a litel to the wordes       20
  of the poeple, so that it seme nat to hem that I be overmoche departed
  as fro the usage of mankinde?'

  'As thou wolt,' quod I.

  'Demestow nat,' quod she, 'that al thing that profiteth is good?'

  'Yis,' quod I.                                                         25

  'And certes, thilke thing that exercyseth or corigeth, profiteth?'

  'I confesse it wel,' quod I.

  'Thanne is it good?' quod she.

  'Why nat?' quod I.

  'But this is the fortune,' quod she, 'of hem that either ben put       30
  in vertu and batailen ayeins aspre thinges, or elles of hem that
  eschuen and declynen fro vyces and taken the wey of vertu.'

  'This ne may I nat denye,' quod I.

  'But what seystow of the mery fortune that is yeven to good
  folk in guerdoun? Demeth aught the poeple that it is wikked?'          35

  'Nay, forsothe,' quod I; 'but they demen, as it sooth is, that it
  is right good.'

  'And what seystow of that other fortune,' quod she, 'that,
  al-thogh that it be aspre, and restreineth the shrewes by rightful
  torment, weneth aught the poeple that it be good?'                     40

  'Nay,' quod I, 'but the poeple demeth that it is most wrecched
  of alle thinges that may ben thought.'

  'War now, and loke wel,' quod she, 'lest that we, in folwinge
  the opinioun of the poeple, have confessed and concluded thing
  that is unable to be wened _to the poeple_.                            45

  'What is that?' quod I.

  'Certes,' quod she, 'it folweth or comth of thinges that ben
  graunted, that alle fortune, what-so-ever it be, of hem that ben
  either in possessioun of vertu, or in the encres of vertu, or elles in
  the purchasinge of vertu, that thilke fortune is good; and that alle   50
  fortune is right wikkede to hem that dwellen in shrewednesse;' _as
  who seyth, and thus weneth nat the poeple_.

  'That is sooth,' quod I, 'al-be-it so that no man dar confesse it
  ne biknowen it.'

  'Why so?' quod she; 'for right as the stronge man ne semeth            55
  nat to abaissen or disdaignen as ofte tyme as he hereth the noise
  of the bataile, ne also it ne semeth nat, to the wyse man, to beren
  it grevously, as ofte as he is lad in-to the stryf of fortune. For
  bothe to that oon man and eek to that other thilke difficultee is
  the matere; to that oon man, of encres of his glorious renoun,         60
  and to that other man, to confirme his sapience, _that is to seyn, to
  the asprenesse of his estat_. For therfore is it called "vertu," for
  that it susteneth and enforseth, by hise strengthes, that it nis nat
  overcomen by adversitees. Ne certes, thou that art put in the
  encres or in the heighte of vertu, ne hast nat comen to fleten with    65
  delices, and for to welken in bodily luste; thou sowest or plauntest
  a ful egre bataile _in thy corage_ ayeins every fortune: for that the
  sorwful fortune ne confounde thee nat, ne that the merye fortune
  ne corumpe thee nat, occupye the mene by stedefast strengthes.
  For al that ever is under the mene, or elles al that overpasseth the   70
  mene, despyseth welefulnesse (_as who seyth, it is vicious_), and ne
  hath no mede of his travaile. For it is set in your hand (_as who
  seyth, it lyth in your power_) what fortune yow is levest, _that is to
  seyn, good or yvel_. For alle fortune that semeth sharp or aspre,
  yif it ne exercyse nat _the gode folk_ ne chastyseth _the wikked
      folk_, it                                                          75

PR. VII. 1. A. Sest thou; C. Sestow.  5, 6. A. _om._ alle ... aspre. 7. Ed.
guerdonyng; C. A. gerdonynge. // C. excersisinge. 16. A. ywened. 20. A.
proche. 24. A. Demest thou; Ed. Wenest thou.  A. al; C. alle. 26. C.
excersiseth.  C. corigit; A. corigith; Ed. corrygeth. 34. A. seist thou.
35. Ed. guerdon; C. A. gerdoun.  C. Ed. demeth; A. deuinith; _decernit_.
A. poeples; _uulgus_. 38. A. seist thou. 41. C. Ed. is; A. be. 49. A. _om._
or in ... vertu. 55. C. the stronge; A. no strong. 56. Ed. abasshen; A.
abassen. 66. A. welken; Ed. walken; C. wellen; _emarcescere_. 69. A. Ed.
corrumpe.  C. Ocupye; A. Occupy.  C. stydefast. 75. C. excersyse. 76. C.
punysseth; A. punisseth.


_Bella bis quinis operatus annis._

  The wreker Attrides, _that is to seyn, Agamenon_, that wroughte
  and continuede the batailes by ten yeer, recovered and purgede
  _in wrekinge_, by the destruccioun of Troye, the loste chaumbres of
  mariage of his brother; _this is to seyn, that he, Agamenon, wan
  ayein Eleyne, that was Menelaus wyf his brother_. In the mene           5
  whyle that thilke _Agamenon_ desirede to yeven sayles to the
  Grekissh navye, and boughte ayein the windes by blood, he unclothede
  him of pitee of fader; and the sory preest yiveth in
  sacrifyinge the wrecched cuttinge of throte of the doughter; _that
  is to seyn, that Agamenon let cutten the throte of his doughter by
      the_                                                               10
  _preest, to maken allyaunce with his goddes, and for to han winde
  with whiche he mighte wenden to Troye_.

  Itacus, _that is to seyn, Ulixes_, biwepte his felawes y-lorn, the
  whiche felawes the ferse Poliphemus, ligginge in his grete cave,
  hadde freten and dreynt in his empty wombe. But natheles               15
  Poliphemus, wood for his blinde visage, yald to Ulixes Ioye by
  his sorwful teres; _this is to seyn, that Ulixes smoot out the eye of
  Poliphemus that stood in his forehed, for which Ulixes hadde Ioye,
  whan he say Poliphemus wepinge and blinde_.

  Hercules is celebrable for his harde travailes; he dauntede the        20
  proude Centaures, _half hors, half man_; and he birafte the dispoylinge
  fro the cruel lyoun, _that is to seyn, he slowh the lyoun and
  rafte him his skin_. He smoot the briddes _that highten Arpyes_
  with certein arwes. He ravisshede apples fro the wakinge dragoun,
  and his hand was the more hevy for the goldene metal.                  25
  He drow Cerberus, _the hound of helle_, by his treble cheyne. He,
  overcomer, as it is seyd, hath put an unmeke lord foddre to his
  cruel hors; _this is to seyn, that Hercules slowh Diomedes, and made
  his hors to freten him_. And he, Hercules, slowh Ydra _the serpent_,
  and brende the venim. And Achelous the flood, defouled in his          30
  forhed, dreynte his shamefast visage in his strondes; _this is to
  seyn, that Achelous coude transfigure him-self in-to dyverse lyknesses;
  and, as he faught with Hercules, at the laste he tornede him in-to a
  bole; and Hercules brak of oon of his hornes, and he, for shame,
  hidde him in his river_. And he, Hercules, caste adoun Antheus         35
  the gyaunt in the strondes of Libie; and Cacus apaysede the
  wratthes of Evander; _this is to seyn, that Hercules slowh the
  monstre Cacus, and apaysede with that deeth the wratthe of
  Evander_. And the bristlede boor markede with scomes the
  shuldres of Hercules, the whiche shuldres the heye cercle of           40
  hevene sholde thriste. And the laste of his labours was, that he
  sustened the hevene up-on his nekke unbowed; and he deservede
  eft-sones the hevene, to ben the prys of his laste travaile.

  Goth now thanne, ye stronge men, ther-as the heye wey of the
  grete ensaumple ledeth yow. O nyce men, why nake ye youre              45
  bakkes? _As who seyth: O ye slowe and delicat men, why flee ye
  adversitees, and ne fighten nat ayeins hem by vertu, to winnen the
  mede of the hevene?_ For the erthe, overcomen, yeveth the sterres';
  _this is to seyn, that, whan that erthely lust is overcomen, a man is
  maked worthy to the hevene_.                                           50

ME. VII. 4. A. Ed. _om._ he. 8. A. pite as fader. 16. A. yeld. 22. A.
slou[gh]. 23. Ed. Arpyes; C. A. arpiis; _glossed_--in the palude of lyrne.
26. C. drowh; A. drou[gh]. 28. C. slowgh; A. slou[gh] (_thrice_). 28, 31,
37, 49. C. this (_for_ this is). 29. A. etyn (_for_ freten). 30. C.
achelows (_1st time_); achelous (_2nd_); A. achelaus (_twice_). 34. C. he,
_glossed_ achelous; A. achelaus (_om._ he). 39. Ed. vomes (_for_ scomes).
40. A. Ed. cercle; C. clerke (!). 48. A. mede of the. // A. Ed. the
sterres; C. _om._ the.



_Dixerat, orationisque cursum._

  She hadde seyd, and torned the cours of hir resoun to some
  othre thinges to ben treted and to ben y-sped. Thanne seyde I,
  'Certes, rightful is thyn amonestinge and ful digne by auctoritee.
  But that thou seidest whylom, that the questioun of the divyne
  purviaunce is enlaced with many other questiouns, I understonde         5
  wel and proeve it by the same thing. But I axe yif that thou
  wenest that hap be any thing in any weys; and, yif thou wenest
  that hap be anything, what is it?'

  Thanne quod she, 'I haste me to yilden and assoilen to thee
  the dette of my bihest, and to shewen and opnen the wey, by            10
  which wey thou mayst come ayein to thy contree. But al-be-it
  so that the thinges which that thou axest ben right profitable to
  knowe, yit ben they diverse somwhat fro the path of my purpos;
  and it is to douten that thou ne be maked wery by mis-weyes, so
  that thou ne mayst nat suffyce to mesuren the right wey.'              15

  'Ne doute thee ther-of nothing,' quod I. 'For, for to knowen
  thilke thinges to-gedere, in the whiche thinges I delyte me greetly,
  that shal ben to me in stede of reste; sin it is nat to douten of
  the thinges folwinge, whan every syde of thy disputacioun shal han
  be stedefast to me by undoutous feith.'                                20

  Thanne seyde she, 'That manere wol I don thee'; and bigan
  to speken right thus. 'Certes,' quod she, 'yif any wight diffinisshe
  hap in this manere, that is to seyn, that "hap is bitydinge
  y-brought forth by foolish moevinge and by no knettinge of
  causes," I conferme that hap nis right naught in no wyse; and I        25
  deme al-outrely that hap nis, ne dwelleth but a voice, _as who seith,
  but an ydel word_, with-outen any significacioun of thing submitted
  to that vois. For what place mighte ben left, or dwellinge,
  to folye and to disordenaunce, sin that god ledeth and constreineth
  alle thinges by ordre? For this sentence is verray and                 30
  sooth, that "nothing ne hath his beinge of naught"; to the
  whiche sentence none of thise olde folk ne withseyde never; al-be-it
  so that they ne understoden ne meneden it naught by god,
  prince and beginnere of werkinge, but they casten [it] as a manere
  foundement of subiect material, that is to seyn, of the nature of      35
  alle resoun. And yif that any thing is woxen or comen of no
  causes, than shal it seme that thilke thing is comen or woxen of
  naught; but yif this ne may nat ben don, thanne is it nat possible,
  that hap be any swich thing as I have diffinisshed a litel heer-biforn.'

  'How shal it thanne be?' quod I. 'Nis ther thanne no-thing             40
  that by right may be cleped either "hap" or elles "aventure of
  fortune"; or is ther aught, al-be-it so that it is hid fro the peple,
  to which these wordes ben covenable?'

  'Myn Aristotulis,' quod she, 'in the book of his Phisik, diffinissheth
  this thing by short resoun, and neigh to the sothe.'                   45

  'In which manere?' quod I.

  'As ofte,' quod she, 'as men doon any thing for grace of any
  other thing, and an-other thing than thilke thing that men
  entenden to don bitydeth by some causes, it is cleped "hap."
  Right as a man dalf the erthe by cause of tilyinge of the feeld,       50
  and founde ther a gobet of gold bidolven, thanne wenen folk that
  it is bifalle by fortunous bitydinge. But, for sothe, it nis nat of
  naught, for it hath his propre causes; of whiche causes the cours
  unforeseyn and unwar semeth to han maked hap. For yif the
  tilyere of the feld ne dolve nat in the erthe, and yif the hyder of    55
  the gold ne hadde hid the gold in thilke place, the gold ne hadde
  nat been founde. Thise ben thanne the causes of the abregginge
  of fortuit hap, the which abregginge of fortuit hap comth of causes
  encountringe and flowinge to-gidere to hem-self, and nat by the
  entencioun of the doer. For neither the hyder of the gold ne the       60
  delver of the feeld ne understoden nat that the gold sholde han
  ben founde; but, as I sayde, it bitidde and ran to-gidere that he
  dalf ther-as that other hadde hid the gold. Now may I thus
  diffinisshe "hap." Hap is an unwar bitydinge of causes assembled
  in thinges that ben don for som other thing. But thilke ordre,         65
  procedinge by an uneschuable bindinge to-gidere, which that
  descendeth fro the welle of purviaunce that ordeineth alle thinges
  in hir places and in hir tymes, maketh that the causes rennen and
  assemblen to-gidere.

PR. I. 1. C. by cours (_wrongly_); A. Ed. the cours. 4. C. whilom; A. som
tyme. // the (2)] C. thy. 8. A. any (_for_ any thing). // C. it is; A. Ed.
is it. 9. C. Ed. to the; A. the to the; Cax. to the the (= to thee the).
13. C. and yit; A. Ed. _om_. and. 19. A. disputisou_n_. 19, 20. C. han be;
Ed. haue ben; A. be. 22, 23. C. deffenysshe; _but_ diffinysshed _in_ 39. //
C. _glosses_ bitydinge _by_ i. euentu_m_. 24. A. knyttyng. 31. A. _om._
the. 33. C. -stondyn; A. -stoden. // C. meneden _or_ meueden; A. moeueden
(_not in the_ Latin _text_). 34. _I supply_ it. 35. A. _om._ the. 38. C.
_om._ yif (Lat. _quod si_). 43. C. co_n_venable. 50. C. to tylyinge; A. of
tylienge. 52. A. fallen. 53. C. of nawht (_de nihilo_); A. for nau[gh]t.
55. C. of the feld (_agri_); A. in the erthe. // C. in the erthe (_humum_);
A. in the felde. 57. A. abreggynge; C. abriggynge (_but_ abreggynge _2nd
time_). 58. A. fortune (!), _for_ fortuit; _twice_. 66. A. vneschewable.


_Rupis Achemenie scopulis, ubi uersa sequentum._

  Tigris and Eufrates resolven and springen of oo welle, in the
  cragges of the roche of the contree of Achemenie, ther-as the
  fleinge bataile ficcheth hir dartes, retorned in the brestes of hem
  that folwen hem. And sone after tho same riveres, Tigris and
  Eufrates, unioinen and departen hir wateres. And yif they comen         5
  to-gideres, and ben assembled and cleped to-gidere into o cours,
  thanne moten thilke thinges fleten to-gidere which that the water
  of the entrechaunginge flood bringeth. The shippes and the
  stokkes arraced with the flood moten assemblen; and the wateres
  y-medled wrappeth or implyeth many fortunel happes or maneres;         10
  the whiche wandringe happes, natheles, thilke declyninge lownesse
  of the erthe and the flowinge ordre of the slydinge water governeth.
  Right so Fortune, that semeth as that it fleteth with slaked or
  ungovernede brydles, it suffereth brydles, _that is to seyn, to be
  governed_, and passeth by thilke lawe, _that is to seyn, by thilke_    15
  _divyne ordenaunce_.'

ME. I. 1. A. _om._ and _after_ Tigris. 3. A. _om._ bataile. 8. C.
entrechaungynge, _glossed_ i. alt_er_ni. 10. A. fortuned. 11. C.
declynynge, _glossed_ decliuitas. 13. A. _om._ that (2). 15. _thilke_] A.


_Animaduerto, inquam._

  'This understonde I wel,' quod I, 'and I acorde wel that it is
  right as thou seyst. But I axe yif ther be any libertee of free wil
  in this ordre of causes that clyven thus to-gidere in hem-self; or
  elles I wolde witen yif that the destinal cheyne constreineth the
  movinges of the corages of men?'                                        5

  'Yis,' quod she; 'ther is libertee of free wil. Ne ther ne was
  nevere no nature of resoun that it ne hadde libertee of free wil.
  For every thing that may naturely usen resoun, it hath doom by
  which it decerneth and demeth every thing; thanne knoweth it,
  by it-self, thinges that ben to fleen and thinges that ben to desiren. 10
  And thilke thing that any wight demeth to ben desired, that axeth
  or desireth he; and fleeth thilke thing that he troweth ben to
  fleen. Wherfore in alle thinges that resoun is, in hem also is
  libertee of willinge and of nillinge. But I ne ordeyne nat, _as who
  seyth, I ne graunte nat_, that this libertee be evene-lyk in alle      15
  thinges. Forwhy in the sovereines devynes substaunces, _that is
  to seyn, in spirits_, Iugement is more cleer, and wil nat y-corumped,
  and might redy to speden thinges that ben desired. But the
  soules of men moten nedes be more free whan they loken hem in
  the speculacioun or lokinge of the devyne thought, and lasse free      20
  whan they slyden in-to the bodies; and yit lasse free whan they
  ben gadered to-gidere and comprehended in erthely membres.
  But the laste servage is whan that they ben yeven to vyces, and
  han y-falle from the possessioun of hir propre resoun. For after
  that they han cast awey hir eyen fro the light of the sovereyn         25
  soothfastnesse to lowe thinges and derke, anon they derken by
  the cloude of ignoraunce and ben troubled by felonous talents; to
  the whiche talents whan they aprochen and asenten, they hepen
  and encresen the servage which they han ioyned to hem-self; and
  in this manere they ben caitifs fro hir propre libertee. The whiche    30
  thinges, nathelesse, the lokinge of the devyne purviaunce seeth,
  that alle thinges biholdeth and seeth fro eterne, and ordeineth
  hem everich in hir merites as they ben predestinat: _and it is seyd
  in Greek, that_ "alle thinges he seeth and alle thinges he hereth."

PR. II. 1. A. Ed. quod I; C. _om._ // C. Ed. acorde me; A. acorde wel. 2.
C. of; A. or (_wrongly_); Lat. _arbitrii_. 3. C. hym; A. Ed. hem. 5. C.
mouynges (_motus_); A. moeueuynge (!). 12. A. _om._ thilke. // C. to ben
fleen; A. ben to fleen; Ed. be to flyen. 16. C. dyuynes; A. deuynes (_as
often in_ C). 17. C. wil nat I-coromped (_uoluntas incorrupta_); A. wil nat
be corumped (_wrongly_). 18. C. myht (_potestas_); A. hath my[gh]t. 27. C.
clowdes; A. Ed. cloude (_nube_). 27, 8. Ed. A. to the; C. _om._ the. 31. A.
purueaunce. 34. _The last clause, in the original, is in Greek._


_Puro clarum lumine Phebum._

  Homer with the hony mouth, _that is to seyn, Homer with the
  swete ditees_, singeth, that the sonne is cleer by pure light; natheles
  yit ne may it nat, by the infirme light of his bemes, breken or
  percen the inwarde entrailes of the erthe, or elles of the see. So
  ne seeth nat _god_, maker of the grete world: to him, that loketh       5
  alle thinges from an heigh, ne withstondeth nat no thinges by
  hevinesse of erthe; ne the night ne withstondeth nat to him by
  the blake cloudes. _Thilke god_ seeth, in oo strok of thought, alle
  thinges that ben, or weren, or sholle comen; and _thilke god_, for
  he loketh and seeth alle thinges alone, thou mayst seyn that he is     10
  the verray sonne.'

ME. II. 3. A. inferme. 6. C. _om._ nat. 7. C. heuynesse (_mole_); A.
heuynesses. 8. C. strokk, _glossed_ i. ictu.


_Tum ego, en, inquam._

  Thanne seyde I, 'now am I confounded by a more hard doute
  than I was.'

  'What doute is that?' quod she. 'For certes, I coniecte now
  by whiche thinges thou art troubled.'

  'It semeth,' quod I, 'to repugnen and to contrarien greetly,            5
  that god knoweth biforn alle thinges, and that ther is any freedom
  of libertee. For yif so be that god loketh alle thinges biforn, ne
  god ne may nat ben desseived in no manere, than mot it nedes
  been, that alle thinges bityden the whiche that the purviaunce of
  god hath seyn biforn to comen. For which, yif that god                 10
  knoweth biforn nat only the werkes of men, but also hir conseiles
  and hir willes, thanne ne shal ther be no libertee of arbitre; ne,
  certes, ther ne may be noon other dede, ne no wil, but thilke
  which that the divyne purviaunce, that may nat ben desseived,
  hath feled biforn. For yif that they mighten wrythen awey in           15
  othre manere than they ben purveyed, than sholde ther be no
  stedefast prescience of thing to comen, but rather an uncertein
  opinioun; the whiche thing to trowen of god, I deme it felonye
  and unleveful. Ne I ne proeve nat thilke same resoun, _as who
  seyth, I ne alowe nat, or I ne preyse nat, thilke same resoun_, by     20
  which that som men wenen that they mowen assoilen and
  unknitten the knotte of this questioun. For, certes, they seyn
  that thing nis nat to comen for that the purviaunce of god hath
  seyn it biforn that is to comen, but rather the contrarye, _and that
  is this_: that, for that the thing is to comen, therfore ne may it     25
  nat ben hid fro the purviaunce of god; and in this manere this
  necessitee slydeth ayein in-to the contrarye partye: ne it ne
  bihoveth nat, nedes, that thinges bityden that ben purvyed, but
  it bihoveth, nedes, that thinges that ben to comen ben y-porveyed:
  but as it were y-travailed, _as who seyth, that thilke answere_        30
  _procedeth right as thogh men travaileden, or weren bisy to enqueren_,
  the whiche thing is cause of the whiche thing:--as, whether the
  prescience is cause of the necessitee of thinges to comen, or elles
  that the necessitee of thinges to comen is cause of the purviaunce.
  But I ne enforce me nat now to shewen it, that the bitydinge of        35
  thinges y-wist biforn is necessarie, how so or in what manere
  that the ordre of causes hath it-self; al-thogh that it ne seme nat
  that the prescience bringe in necessitee of bitydinge to thinges to
  comen. For certes, yif that any wight sitteth, it bihoveth by
  necessitee that the opinioun be sooth of him that coniecteth that      40
  he sitteth; and ayeinward also is it of the contrarye: yif the
  opinioun be sooth of any wight for that he sitteth, it bihoveth by
  necessitee that he sitte. Thanne is heer necessitee in that oon
  and in that other: for in that oon is necessitee of sittinge, and,
  certes, in that other is necessitee of sooth. But therfore ne          45
  sitteth nat a wight, for that the opinioun of the sittinge is sooth;
  but the opinioun is rather sooth, for that a wight sitteth biforn.
  And thus, al-thogh that the cause of the sooth cometh of that
  other syde (_as who seyth, that al-thogh the cause of sooth comth_
  _of the sitting, and nat of the trewe opinioun_), algates yit is ther  50
  comune necessitee in that oon and in that other. Thus sheweth
  it, that I may make semblable skiles of the purviaunce of god
  and of thinges to comen. For althogh that, for that thinges ben
  to comen, ther-fore ben they purveyed, nat, certes, for that they
  ben purveyed, ther-fore ne bityde they nat. Yit natheles,              55
  bihoveth it by necessitee, that either the thinges to comen ben
  y-purveyed of god, or elles that the thinges that ben purveyed of
  god bityden. And this thing only suffiseth y-nough to destroyen
  the freedom of oure arbitre, _that is to seyn, of oure free wil_. But
  now, certes, _sheweth it wel, how fer fro the sothe and_ how
      up-so-doun                                                         60
  is this thing that we seyn, that the bitydinge of temporel
  thinges is cause of the eterne prescience. But for to wenen that
  god purvyeth the thinges to comen for they ben to comen, what
  other thing is it but for to wene that thilke thinges that bitidden
  whylom ben causes of thilke soverein purvyaunce _that is in god_?      65
  And her-to _I adde yit this thing_: that, right as whan that I wot
  that a thing is, it bihoveth by necessitee that thilke selve thing be;
  and eek, whan I have knowe that any thing shal bityden, so
  byhoveth it by necessitee that thilke thing bityde:--so folweth it
  thanne, that the bitydinge of the thing y-wist biforn ne may nat       70
  ben eschued. And at the laste, yif that any wight wene a thing
  to ben other weyes thanne it is, it is nat only unscience, but it is
  deceivable opinioun ful diverse and fer fro the sothe of science.
  Wherfore, yif any thing be so to comen, that the bitydinge of hit
  ne be nat certein ne necessarie, who may weten biforn that thilke      75
  thing is to comen? For right as science ne may nat ben medled
  with falsnesse (_as who seyth, that yif I wot a thing, it ne may nat
  be false that I ne wot it_), right so thilke thing that is conceived by
  science ne may nat ben non other weys than as it is conceived.
  For that is the cause why that science wanteth lesing (_as who_        80
  _seyth, why that witinge ne receiveth nat lesinge of that it wot_); for
  it bihoveth, by necessitee, that every thing be right as science
  comprehendeth it to be. What shal I thanne seyn? In whiche
  manere knoweth god biforn the thinges to comen, yif they ne be
  nat certein? For yif that he deme that they ben to comen               85
  uneschewably, and so may be that it is possible that they ne
  shollen nat comen, god is deceived. But nat only to trowen that
  god is deceived, but for to speke it with mouth, it is a felonous
  sinne. But yif that god wot that, right so as thinges ben _to
  comen_, so shullen they comen--so that he wite egaly, _as who_         90
  _seyth, indifferently_, that thinges mowen ben doon or elles nat
  y-doon--what is thilke prescience that ne comprehendeth no
  certein thing ne stable? Or elles what difference is ther bitwixe
  the prescience and thilke Iape-worthy divyninge of Tiresie the
  divynour, _that seyde_: "Al that I seye," quod he, "either it shal be, 95
  or elles it ne shal nat be?" Or elles how mochel is worth the
  devyne prescience more than the opinioun of mankinde, yif so be
  that it demeth the thinges uncertein, as men doon; of the whiche
  domes of men the bitydinge nis nat certein? But yif so be that
  non uncertein thing ne may ben in him that is right certein welle     100
  of alle thinges, thanne is the bitydinge certein of thilke thinges
  whiche he hath wist biforn fermely to comen. For which it
  folweth, that the freedom of the conseiles and of the werkes of
  mankind nis non, sin that the thoght of god, that seeth alle
  thinges without errour of falsnesse, bindeth and constreineth         105
  hem to a bitydinge _by necessitee_. And yif this thing be ones
  y-graunted and received, _that is to seyn, that ther nis no free wille_,
  than sheweth it wel, how greet destruccioun and how grete
  damages ther folwen of thinges of mankinde. For in ydel ben
  ther thanne purposed and bihight medes to gode folk, and peynes       110
  to badde folk, sin that no moevinge of free corage voluntarie ne
  hath nat deserved hem, _that is to seyn, neither mede ne peyne_; and
  it sholde seme thanne, that thilke thing is alderworst, which that
  is now demed for aldermost iust and most rightful, _that is to seyn_,
  that shrewes ben punisshed, or elles that gode folk ben y-gerdoned:   115
  the whiche folk, sin that hir propre wil ne sent hem nat to that oon
  ne to that other, _that is to seyn, neither to gode ne to harm_, but
  hem certein necessitee of thinges to comen: thanne ne
  shollen ther nevere ben, ne nevere weren, vyce ne vertu, but it
  sholde rather ben confusioun of alle desertes medled with-outen       120
  discrecioun. And yit _ther folweth an-other inconvenient_, of the
  whiche ther ne may ben thoght no more felonous ne more wikke;
  _and that is this_: that, so as the ordre of thinges is y-led and
  comth of the purviaunce of god, ne that no-thing nis leveful to
  the conseiles of mankinde (_as who seyth, that men han no power to    125
  doon no-thing, ne wilne no-thing_), than folweth it, that oure vyces
  ben referred to the maker of alle good (_as who seyth, than folweth
  it, that god oughte han the blame of oure vyces, sin he constreineth us
  by necessitee to doon vyces_). Thanne is ther no resoun to hopen _in
  god_, ne for to preyen _to god_; for what sholde any wight hopen _to_ 130
  _god_, or why sholde he preyen _to god_, sin that the ordenaunce of
  destinee, which that ne may nat ben inclyned, knitteth and streineth
  alle thinges that men may desiren? Thanne sholde ther be doon
  awey thilke only allyaunce bitwixen god and men, that is to seyn,
  to hopen and to preyen. But by the prys of rightwisnesse and of       135
  verray mekenesse we deserven the gerdoun of the divyne grace,
  which that is inestimable, _that is to seyn, that it is so greet, that it
  ne may nat ben ful y-preysed_. And this is only the manere, _that is
  to seyn, hope and preyeres_, for which it semeth that men mowen
  speke with god, and by resoun of supplicacioun be conioined to        140
  thilke cleernesse, that nis nat aproched no rather or that men
  beseken it and impetren it. And yif men wene nat that hope ne
  preyeres ne han no strengthes, by the necessitee of thinges to
  comen y-received, what thing is ther thanne by whiche we mowen
  ben conioined and clyven to thilke soverein prince of thinges?        145
  For which it bihoveth, by necessitee, that the linage of mankinde,
  as thou songe a litel her-biforn, be departed and unioined from
  his welle, and failen _of his biginninge, that is to seyn, god_.

PR. III. 9. A. purueaunce. 14. A. _om._ that (1). 18. C. of; A. on. 24. C.
_om._ it. // C. but; _glossed_ s. aiunt. 25. C. _om._ is (1). // A. that
therfore. 28. A. _om._ nat. // A. ypurueid. 28, 9. A. _om._ but it bihoveth
... y-porveyed. 32. A. whiche thinges (_for 2nd_ the whiche thing). // C.
weyther. 34. C. p_ur_uyaunce; _glossed_ s. p_ro_uidencie. 35. C. it;
_glossed_ illud. 38. A. of thinges. 48, 9. A. _om._ the sooth cometh ...
cause of. 53. C. Ed. that for that; A. for that that. 58. A. bitiden by
necessite; C. _has the gloss_--s. by necessite. 60. A. _om._ certes. 60, 1.
C. vp so down; _glossed_ p_re_postere. 62. A. is the cause. 63. A. _om._
the. 64, 5. A. bitiden som-tyme. 71. C. at the laste; _glossed_ i.
postremo. 74. A. so that the. 75. A. _om._ biforn. 79. A. _om._ nat. // C.
as it is; A. it is be. 82. A. _om._ be. 85. C. he; _glossed_ s. deus. // C.
they; _glossed_ s. thynges. 86. C. vneschwably; _glossed_ i.
memorabilit_er_ (!) 87. C. A. desseyued (_twice_). 92. A. don. 94. C. Iape
worthi; _glossed_ i. ridiculo. 100. A. _om._ ne. 102. C. he; _glossed_ s.
deus. // C. fermely; _glossed_ i. firmit_er_. 106. A. _om._ this. 107. C.
resseyuyd; A. receyued. 108. C. destruccyou_n_; _glossed_ i. occasus. 110.
C. Meedes to; A. medes of. 113. A. alther-worste. 114. A. alther-moste.
116. C. hir; A. the. // A. _om._ ne _before_ sent. 120. C. dissertes; A.
desertes. 121. _For_ of the, _read_ than; _see note_. 122. A. ne (_for_
no). 128. A. _om._ us. 129. A. to han hopen. 135. A. p_re_is. 136. C.
desseruyn; A. deserue. 139. A. _om._ men. 142. Ed. impetren; C. impetrent
(!); A. emprenten. // A. _om._ nat. // A. _om._ hope. 143. C. _om._ no.
144. C. I-resseyuyd (_glossed_ i. graunted); A. y-resceiued. 147. C. thou;
_glossed_ s. philosophie. // C. her by-forn, libro 4^o metro sexto [_line_


_Quenam discors federa rerum._

  What discordable cause hath to-rent and unioined the bindinge,
  _or the alliaunce_, of thinges, _that is to seyn, the coniunccioun of god
  and man_? Whiche god hath establisshed so greet bataile bitwixen
  thise two soothfast or verray thinges, _that is to seyn,
  bitwixen the purviaunce of god and free wil_, that they ben singuler    5
  and devyded, ne that they ne wolen nat be medeled ne coupled
  to-gidere? But ther nis no discord to the verray thinges, but they
  clyven, certein, alwey to hem-self. But the thought of man, confounded
  and overthrowen by the dirke membres of the body, ne
  may nat, by fyr of his derked looking, _that is to seyn, by the
      vigour_                                                            10
  _of his insighte, whyl the soule is in the body_, knowe the thinne
  subtil knittinges of thinges. But wherfore enchaufeth it so, by so
  greet love, to finden thilke notes of sooth y-covered; _that is to
  seyn, wherfore enchaufeth the thoght of man by so greet desyr to
  knowen thilke notificacions that ben y-hid under the covertoures of    15
  sooth?_ Wot it aught thilke thing that it, anguissous, desireth to
  knowe? _As who seith, nay; for no man travaileth for to witen
  thinges that he wot. And therfore the texte seith thus_: but who
  travaileth to witen thinges y-knowe? And yif that he ne knoweth
  hem nat, what seketh thilke blinde thoght? What is he that             20
  desireth any thing of which he wot right naught? _As who seith,
  who so desireth any thing, nedes, somwhat he knoweth of it; or
  elles, he ne coude nat desire it._ Or who may folwen thinges that ne
  ben nat y-wist? _And thogh that he seke tho thinges_, wher shal he
  finde hem? What wight, that is al unconninge and ignoraunt,            25
  may knowen the forme that is y-founde? But whan the soule
  biholdeth and seeth the heye thoght, _that is to seyn, god_, than
  knoweth it to-gidere the somme and the singularitees, _that is to
  seyn, the principles and everich by him-self_.

  But now, whyl the soule is hid in the cloude and in the derkenesse     30
  of the membres of the body, it ne hath nat al for-yeten
  it-self, but it with-holdeth the somme of thinges, and leseth the
  singularitees. Thanne, who-so that seeketh soothnesse, he nis in
  neither nother habite; for he noot nat al, ne he ne hath nat al
  foryeten: but yit him remembreth the somme of thinges that he          35
  with-holdeth, and axeth conseil, and retreteth deepliche thinges
  y-seyn biforn, _that is to seyn, the grete somme in his minde_: so that
  he mowe adden the parties that he hath for-yeten to thilke that he
  hath with-holden.'

ME. III. 1. C. vnioygnyd, _glossed_ s. ne se compaciant_ur_ si_mi_l_iter_.
2. C. coniuncciou_n_s; A. coniuncc_i_oun. 3. C. man, _quasi dicat, nullus_.
// C. which that god; A. Ed. whiche god (_quis Deus_). 6. C. deuydyd,
_quasi dicat, non est ita_. 7. A. _om._ the. // C. thinges, _s. prudencia
et liberum arbitrium_. 8. A. cleuen. 10. A. dirk. 12. C. it, _s. anima_.
13. A. note (Lat. _notas_). 16. C. it, _s. anima_. 18. _After_ thus, A.
_adds_--Si enim anima ignorat istas subtiles connexiones, responde, vnde
est quod desiderat scire cum nil ignotum possit desiderare; _but both_ C.
_and_ Ed. _omit this_. 21. wot] C. not. // C. nawht, _quasi dicat, non_.
24. A. _om._ that. 26. C. yfownde, _quasi dicat, nullus_. 29. A. Ed.
principles; C. principulis. 34. A. nouthir habit. 36. C. retretith, _i.
retractat_; A. tretith.


_Tum illa: Vetus, inquit, hec est._

  Thanne seide she: 'this is,' quod she, 'the olde question of
  the purviaunce of god; and Marcus Tullius, whan he devyded the
  divynaciouns, _that is to seyn, in his book that he wroot of
  he moevede gretly this questioun; and thou thy-self has y-sought
  it mochel, and outrely, and longe; but yit ne hath it nat ben           5
  determined ne y-sped fermely and diligently of any of yow. And
  the cause of this derkenesse and of this difficultee is, for that the
  moevinge of the resoun of mankinde ne may nat moeven to (_that
  is to seyn, applyen or ioinen to_) the simplicitee of the devyne
  prescience; the whiche _simplicitee of the devyne prescience_, yif     10
  that men mighten thinken it in any maner, _that is to seyn, that yif
  men mighten thinken and comprehenden the thinges as god seeth
  hem_, thanne ne sholde ther dwellen outrely no doute: the whiche
  _resoun and cause of difficultee_ I shal assaye at the laste to shewe
  and to speden, whan I have first y-spended and answered to tho         15
  resouns by which thou art y-moeved. For I axe why thou wenest
  that thilke resouns of hem that assoilen this questioun ne ben
  nat speedful y-nough ne sufficient: the whiche _solucioun, or the
  whiche resoun_, for that it demeth that the prescience nis nat cause
  of necessitee to thinges to comen, than ne weneth it nat that          20
  freedom of wil be destorbed or y-let by prescience. For ne
  drawestow nat arguments from elles-where of the necessitee of
  thinges to-comen (_as who seith, any other wey than thus_) but that
  thilke thinges that the prescience wot biforn ne mowen nat unbityde?
  _That is to seyn, that they moten bityde._ But thanne, yif             25
  that prescience ne putteth no necessitee to thinges to comen, as
  thou thy-self hast confessed it and biknowen a litel her-biforn, what
  cause or what is it (_as who seith, ther may no cause be_) by which
  that the endes voluntarie of thinges mighten be constreined to
  certein bitydinge? For by grace of positioun, so that thou mowe        30
  the betere understonde this that folweth, I pose, _per impossibile_,
  that ther be no prescience. Thanne axe I,' quod she, 'in as
  mochel as apertieneth to that, sholden thanne thinges that comen
  of free wil ben constreined to bityden by necessitee?'

  _Boece._ 'Nay,' quod I.                                                35

  'Thanne ayeinward,' quod she, 'I suppose that ther be prescience,
  but that it ne putteth no necessitee to thinges; thanne
  trowe I, that thilke selve freedom of wil shal dwellen al hool and
  absolut and unbounden. But thou wolt seyn that, al-be-it so that
  prescience nis nat cause of the necessitee of bitydinge to thinges     40
  to comen, algates yit it is a signe that the thinges ben to bityden
  by necessitee. By this manere thanne, al-thogh the prescience
  ne hadde never y-ben, yit _algate or at the leeste weye_ it is certein
  thing, that the endes and bitydinges of thinges to comen sholden
  ben necessarie. For every signe sheweth and signifyeth only what       45
  the thing is, but it ne maketh nat the thing that it signifyeth. For
  which it bihoveth first to shewen, that no-thing ne bitydeth that it
  ne bitydeth by necessitee, so that it may appere that the prescience
  is signe of this necessitee; or elles, yif ther nere no necessitee,
  certes, thilke prescience ne mighte nat be signe of thing that nis     50
  nat. But certes, it is now certein that the proeve of this,
  y-sustened by stidefast resoun, ne shal nat ben lad ne proeved by
  signes ne by arguments y-taken fro with-oute, but by causes
  covenable and necessarie. But _thou mayst seyn_, how may it be
  that the thinges ne bityden nat that ben y-purveyed to comen?          55
  But, certes, right as we trowen that tho thinges which that the
  purviance wot biforn to comen ne ben nat to bityden; but that
  ne sholden we nat demen; but rather, al-thogh that they shal
  bityden, yit ne have they no necessitee of hir kinde to bityden.
  And this maystow lightly aperceiven by this that I shal seyn. For      60
  we seen many thinges whan they ben don biforn oure eyen, right
  as men seen the cartere worken in the torninge or atempringe or
  adressinge of hise cartes or charietes. And by this manere (_as
  who seith, maystow understonde_) of alle othere _workmen_. Is ther
  thanne any necessitee, _as who seith, in oure lokinge_, that
      constreineth                                                       65
  or compelleth any of thilke thinges to ben don so?'

  _Boece._ 'Nay,' quod I; 'for in ydel and in veyn were al the
  effect of craft, yif that alle thinges weren moeved by constreininge;'
  _that is to seyn, by constreininge of oure eyen or of oure sight_.

  _Philosophie._ 'The thinges thanne,' quod she, 'that, whan men         70
  doon hem, ne han no necessitee that men doon hem, eek tho
  same thinges, first or they ben doon, they ben to comen with-oute
  necessitee. For-why ther ben somme thinges to bityden, of which
  the endes and the bitydinges of hem ben absolut and quit of alle
  necessitee. For certes, I ne trowe nat that any man wolde seyn         75
  this: that tho thinges that men doon now, that they ne weren to
  bityden first or they weren y-doon; and thilke same thinges,
  al-thogh that men had y-wist hem biforn, yit they han free
  bitydinges. For right as science of thinges present ne bringeth in
  no necessitee to thinges that men doon, right so the prescience of     80
  thinges to comen ne bringeth in no necessitee to thinges to
  bityden. But thou mayst seyn, that of thilke same it is y-douted,
  as whether that of thilke thinges that ne han non issues and
  bitydinges necessaries, yif ther-of may ben any prescience; for
  certes, they semen to discorden. For thou wenest that, yif that        85
  thinges ben y-seyn biforn, that necessitee folweth hem; and yif
  necessitee faileth hem, they ne mighten nat ben wist biforn, and
  that no-thing ne may ben comprehended by science but certein;
  and yif tho thinges that ne han no certein bitydinges ben purveyed
  as certein, it sholde ben dirknesse of opinioun, nat soothfastnesse    90
  of science. And thou wenest that it be diverse fro the hoolnesse
  of science that any man sholde deme a thing to ben other-weys
  thanne it is it-self. And the cause of this erroure is, that of alle
  the thinges that every wight hath y-knowe, they wenen that tho
  thinges been y-knowe al-oonly by the strengthe and by the nature       95
  of the thinges that ben y-wist or y-knowe; and it is al the
  contrarie. For al that ever is y-knowe, it is rather comprehended
  and knowen, nat after his strengthe and his nature, but after the
  facultee, _that is to seyn, the power and the nature_, of hem that
  knowen. And, for that this thing shal mowen shewen by a short         100
  ensaumple: the same roundnesse of a body, other-weys the sighte
  of the eye knoweth it, and other-weyes the touchinge. The
  lokinge, by castinge of his bemes, waiteth and seeth from afer al
  the body to-gidere, with-oute moevinge of it-self; but the touchinge
  clyveth and conioineth to the rounde body, and moeveth aboute         105
  the environinge, and comprehendeth by parties the roundnesse.
  And the man him-self, other-weys wit biholdeth him, and
  other-weys imaginacioun, and other-weys resoun, and other-weys
  intelligence. For the wit comprehendeth withoute-forth the
  figure of the body of the man that is establissed in the              110
  matere subiect; but the imaginacioun comprehendeth only the
  figure withoute the matere. Resoun surmounteth imaginacioun,
  and comprehendeth by universal lokinge the comune spece that
  is in the singuler peces. But the eye of intelligence is heyere; for
  it surmounteth the environinge of the universitee, and looketh,       115
  over that, by pure subtilitee of thoght, thilke same simple forme
  _of man that is perdurably in the divyne thoght_. In whiche this
  oughte greetly to ben considered, that the heyeste strengthe to
  comprehenden thinges enbraseth and contieneth the lowere
  strengthe; but the lowere strengthe ne aryseth nat in no manere       120
  to heyere strengthe. For wit ne may no-thing comprehende out
  of matere, ne the imaginacioun ne loketh nat the universels
  speces, ne resoun taketh nat the simple forme _so as intelligence
  taketh it_; but intelligence, that looketh al aboven, whan it hath
  comprehended the forme, it knoweth and demeth alle the thinges        125
  that ben under that forme. But _she knoweth hem_ in thilke manere
  in the whiche it comprehendeth thilke same simple forme that
  ne may never ben knowen to none of that other; _that is to seyn,
  to none of tho three forseide thinges of the sowle_. For it knoweth
  the universitee of resoun, and the figure of the imaginacioun,        130
  and the sensible material _conceived by wit_; ne it ne useth nat nor
  of resoun ne of imaginacioun ne of wit withoute-forth; but it
  biholdeth alle thinges, so as I shal seye, by a strok of thought
  formely, _withoute discours or collacioun_. Certes resoun, whan it
  looketh any-thing universel, it ne useth nat of imaginacioun, nor     135
  of witte, and algates yit it comprehendeth the thinges imaginable
  and sensible; for resoun is she that diffinisseth the universel of hir
  conseyte right thus:--man is a resonable two-foted beest. And
  how so that this knowinge is universel, yet nis ther no wight that
  ne woot wel that a man is a thing imaginable and sensible; and        140
  this same considereth wel resoun; but that nis nat by imaginacioun
  nor by wit, but it looketh it by a resonable concepcioun. Also
  imaginacioun, al-be-it so that it taketh of wit the beginninges to
  seen and to formen the figures, algates, al-thogh that wit ne were
  nat present, yit it environeth and comprehendeth alle thinges         145
  sensible; nat by resoun sensible of deminge, but by resoun
  imaginatif. Seestow nat thanne that alle the thinges, in knowinge,
  usen more of hir facultee or of hir power than _they doon of the
  facultee or power_ of thinges that ben y-knowe? Ne that nis nat
  wrong; for so as every Iugement is the dede or doinge of him          150
  that demeth, it bihoveth that every wight performe the werk and
  his entencioun, nat of foreine power, but of his propre power.

PR. IV. 2. C. deuynede; Ed. deuyded; A. deuided; _distribuit_. 7. C.
dirknesse; A. derkenesse. // A. _om. 2nd_ of this. 11, 12. A. _om._ mighten
thinken it ... yif men. 15. A. _om._ y-spended and. // C. the; A. tho. 22.
A. drawest thou. 24. A. thinge. // A. _om._ ne. 28. A. _om._ or what. 29.
C. A. _gloss_ endes _by_ exitus. 30. Ed. posycion (Lat. _positionis_); C.
A. possessioun; _and_ C. _glosses_ For ... possessioun _by_ uerbi gratia.
31. A. _inpossibile_; C. _per impossibile_ (as a gloss). 37. Ed. it; C. is.
44. C. endes, _i. exitus_. // A. and the (_for_ and). 46. C. thing is, _i.
se eius significatum_. // C. maketh, _glossed_ causat. 47, 48. A. _om._
that it ne bitydeth. 48, 49. C. _om._ so that ... necessitee. 51. A. preue.
52. A. stedfast. // A. p_ro_ued. 57. C. but that; A. _om._ that. 58. A.
_om._ that. 60. A. maist thou. 62. A. and in attempryng or in adressyng.
63. A. chariottes. 64. A. mayst thou. 65. A. _om._ that. 66. C. _om._
thilke. // C. so, _quasi dicat, non_. 70. A. thise thingus. 80, 81. A.
_om._ that men doon ... to thinges. 83. C. Ed. issues; A. endes; C.
_adds_--_i. exitus_. 87, 88. C. and yif (_wrongly_); A. Ed. and that.
91-93. A. _om._ And thou ... is it-self _here, but inserts the same in a
wrong place_ (131 _below_). 99. A. _om. 2nd_ the. 100. A. Ed. that; C.
_om._ // Ed. thing; C. A. _om._ 103. C. after; A. afer; Ed. a-ferre. 105.
C. body, _glossed_ orbis; A. body, _glossed_ orbi (Lat. _orbi_). 109. A.
fro with-outen furthe. 111. C. comprehendeth, _vel iudicat_. 111, 2. A.
_om._ comprehendeth ... imaginacioun. 113. C. Ed. by; A. by an. // C. A.
(_gloss_) speciem. 120, 121. A. _om._ but the ... strengthe. // A. Ed. For;
C. _om._ 124. A. Ed. it; C. _om._ // A. but the. // A. Ed. that; C. _om._
126. C. she; _glossed_ intelligence. // C. Ed. in; A. vndir. 131. _Here_ A.
_wrongly inserts a clause omitted above_ (91-93). 136. A. _om._ it. // A.
comprendith. 139. A. _om._ is. 140. A. _om._ a thing. 142. A. _om._ a. 147.
A. Sest thou. 148. A. of faculte or of power. 149. A. Ed. no (_for_ nat).
150. A. or the.


_Quondam porticus attulit._

  The Porche, _that is to seyn, a gate of the town of Athenes ther-as
  philosophres hadden hir congregacioun to desputen_, thilke Porche
  broughte som-tyme olde men, ful derke in hir sentences, _that is to
  seyn, philosophres that highten Stoiciens_, that wenden that images
  and sensibilitees, _that is to seyn, sensible imaginaciouns, or elles   5
  imaginaciouns of sensible thinges_, weren empreinted in-to sowles
  fro bodies withoute-forth; _as who seith, that thilke Stoiciens wenden
  that the sowle hadde ben naked of it-self, as a mirour or a clene
  parchemin, so that alle figures mosten first comen fro thinges fro
  withoute-forth in-to sowles, and ben empreinted in-to sowles_: TEXT:   10
  right as we ben wont som-tyme, by a swifte pointel, to ficchen
  lettres empreinted in the smothenesse or in the pleinnesse of the
  table of wex _or in parchemin_ that ne hath no figure ne note in it.
  GLOSE. _But now argueth Boece ayeins that opinioun, and seith
  thus_: But yif the thryvinge sowle ne unpleyteth no-thing, _that is    15
  to seyn, ne doth no-thing_, by his propre moevinges, but suffreth and
  lyth subgit to tho figures and to tho notes of bodies withoute-forth,
  and yildeth images ydel and veyn in the manere of a mirour,
  whennes thryveth thanne or whennes comth thilke knowinge in
  our sowle, that discerneth and biholdeth alle thinges? And             20
  whennes is thilke strengthe that biholdeth the singuler thinges;
  or whennes is the strengthe that devydeth thinges y-knowe; and
  thilke strengthe that gadereth to-gidere the thinges devyded; and
  the strengthe that cheseth his entrechaunged wey? For som-tyme
  it heveth up the heved, _that is to seyn, that it heveth up the
      entencioun                                                         25
  to right heye thinges_; and som-tyme it descendeth in-to
  right lowe thinges. And whan it retorneth in-to him-self, it reproeveth
  and destroyeth the false thinges by the trewe thinges.
  Certes, this strengthe is cause more efficient, and mochel
  more mighty _to seen and to knowe thinges_, than thilke cause that     30
  suffreth and receiveth the notes and the figures impressed in
  maner of matere. Algates the passioun, _that is to seyn, the
  suffraunce or the wit_, in the quike body, goth biforn, excitinge and
  moevinge the strengthes of the thought. Right so as whan that
  cleernesse smyteth the eyen _and moeveth hem to seen_, or right so     35
  as vois or soun hurteleth to the eres _and commoeveth hem to
  herkne_, than is the strengthe of the thought y-moeved and
  excited, and clepeth forth, to semblable moevinges, the speces
  that it halt with-inne it-self; and addeth tho speces to the notes
  and to the thinges withoute-forth, and medleth the images of           40
  thinges withoute-forth to tho formes y-hidde with-inne him-self.

ME. IV. 3. C. dirke; A. Ed. derke. 5. A. _om._ and. 9. A. _om._ first. 10.
A. inp_re_ntid; C. apreyntyd (_but_ emprientyd _just below, and_ enpreynted
_above_). 12. A. emp_re_ntid. 13. A. _om. 2nd._ ne. 14. A. Ed. that; C.
the. 15. A. vnplitith. 17. A. subgit; Ed. subiecte; C. _om._ // A. the
(_for_ tho); _twice_. 20. A. Ed. discernith; C. decerneth. 26. C. heye
thinges, _i. principijs_. // C. dessendith; A. discendith. 27. C. lowe
thynges, s. conclu_sion_es. // A. rep_re_uith. 29. C. strengthe, _s.
anima_. 31. C. resseyuyth; A. resceyueth; Ed. receyueth. // C. A.
inpressed; Ed. impressed. 36. A. hurtlith. 38. C. Ed. to; A. the (Lat.
_Ad_). 40. A. medeleth. 41. A. to the forme.


_Quod si in corporibus sentiendis._

  But what yif that in bodies to ben feled, _that is to seyn, in the
  takinge of knowelechinge of bodily thinges_, and al-be-it so that the
  qualitees of bodies, that ben obiecte fro withoute-forth, moeven
  and entalenten the instruments of the wittes; and al-be-it so that
  the passioun of the body, _that is to seyn, the wit or the suffraunce_, 5
  goth to-forn the strengthe of the workinge corage, the which
  passioun or suffraunce clepeth forth the dede of the thoght in him-self,
  and moeveth and exciteth in this mene whyle the formes that
  resten withinne-forth; and yif that, in sensible bodies, as I have
  seyd, our corage nis nat y-taught or empreinted by passioun _to        10
  knowe thise thinges_, but demeth and knoweth, of his owne strengthe,
  the passioun or suffraunce subiect to the body: moche more
  thanne tho thinges that ben absolut and quite fro alle talents
  or affecciouns of bodies, _as god or his aungeles_, ne folwen nat in
  discerninge thinges obiect fro withoute-forth, but they accomplisshen  15
  and speden the dede of hir thoght. By this resoun
  thanne ther comen many maner knowinges to dyverse and
  differinge substaunces. For the wit of the body, the whiche
  wit is naked and despoiled of alle other knowinges, thilke wit
  comth to beestes that ne mowen nat moeven hem-self her and             20
  ther, as _oystres and muscules, and other swiche_ shelle-fish of the
  see, that clyven and ben norisshed to roches. But the imaginacioun
  comth to remuable beestes, that semen to han talent to
  fleen or to desiren any thing. But resoun is al-only to the linage
  of mankinde, right as intelligence is only [to] the devyne nature:     25
  of which it folweth, that thilke knowinge is more worth than thise
  othre, sin it knoweth by his propre nature nat only his subiect, _as
  who seith, it ne knoweth nat al-only that apertieneth properly to his
  knowinge_, but it knoweth the subiects of alle other knowinges.
  But how shal it thanne be, yif that wit and imaginacioun stryven       30
  ayein resoninge, and seyn, that of thilke universel thing that
  resoun weneth to seen, that it nis right naught? _For wit and
  imaginacioun seyn that_ that, that is sensible or imaginable, it ne
  may nat be universel. Thanne is either the Iugement of resoun
  sooth, ne that ther nis nothing sensible; or elles, for that resoun    35
  wot wel that many thinges ben subiect to wit and to imaginacioun,
  thanne is the concepcioun of resoun veyn and false, which that
  loketh and comprehendeth that that is sensible and singuler as
  universel. And yif that resoun wolde answeren ayein to thise
  two, _that is to seyn, to witte and to imaginacioun_, and seyn, that   40
  soothly she hir-self, _that is to seyn, resoun_, loketh and
  by resoun of universalitee, bothe that that is sensible
  and that that is imaginable; and that thilke two, _that is to seyn,
  wit and imaginacioun_, ne mowen nat strecchen ne enhansen hem-self
  to the knowinge of universalitee, for that the knowinge of             45
  hem ne may exceden ne surmounte the bodily figures: certes, of
  the knowinge of thinges, men oughten rather yeven credence to
  the more stedefast and to the more parfit Iugement. In this
  maner stryvinge thanne, we that han strengthe of resoninge and
  of imagininge and of wit, _that is to seyn, by resoun and by
      imaginacioun                                                       50
  and by wit_, we sholde rather preyse the cause of resoun; _as
  who seith, than the cause of wit and of imaginacioun_.

  Semblable thing is it, that the resoun of mankinde ne weneth
  nat that the devyne intelligence bi-holdeth or knoweth thinges to
  comen, but right as the resoun of mankinde knoweth hem. For            55
  thou arguest and seyst thus: that yif it ne seme nat to men that
  some thinges han certein and necessarie bitydinges, they ne
  mowen nat ben wist biforn certeinly to bityden. And thanne
  nis ther no prescience of thilke thinges; and yif we trowe that
  prescience be in thise thinges, thanne is ther no-thing that it ne     60
  bitydeth by necessitee. But certes, yif we mighten han the Iugement
  of the devyne thoght, as we ben parsoneres of resoun, right
  so as we han demed that it behoveth that imaginacioun and wit
  be binethe resoun, right so wolde we demen that it were rightful
  thing, that mannes resoun oughte to submitten it-self and to ben       65
  binethe the divyne thoght. For which, yif that we mowen, _as
  who seith, that, yif that we mowen, I counseyle, that_ we enhanse us
  in-to the heighte of thilke sovereyn intelligence; for ther shal
  resoun wel seen that, that it ne may nat biholden in it-self. And
  certes that is this, in what maner the prescience of god seeth alle    70
  thinges certeins and diffinisshed, al-thogh they ne han no certein
  issues or bitydinges; ne this is non opinioun, but it is rather the
  simplicitee of the sovereyn science, that nis nat enclosed nor
  y-shet within none boundes.

PR. V. 1. A. _om._ yif (Lat. _Quod si_). 5. C. A. witte; Ed. wytte. // A.
_om._ or the. 6, 7. A. _om._ goth ... suffraunce. 10. A. enp_re_ntid; C.
emprienpted. 20, 1. A. here ne there. // A. muscles. 25. _I supply_ to. 26,
7. C. thise oothr_e_; A. is other. 29. A. subgitz. 31. Ed. vnyuersal
thynge; A. vniuersel thinges; C. vniuersels thinges (Lat. _uniuersale_).
35. C. soth; Ed. sothe; A. _om._ // C. sensible, _quod absurdum est_. 41.
C. seyn; A. seyn that. 44. C. enhansen; A. enhaunsen. 45. Ed. the knowing;
A. knowynge; C. knowy (Lat. _cognitionem_). 46. A. figure. 48. C.
stidefast; A. stedfast. 51. C. and we; A. Ed. _om._ and. 52. C. Ed. and of;
A. or. 56. A. Ed. ne; C. _om._ 58. A. _om._ And. 59. A. _om._ ther. 61. C.
bideth (!). 62. C. parsoneres; A. parsoners; Ed. parteners. 63. A. _om.
1st_ that. 65. A. su_m_mitten. 66. C. yif that; Ed. if; A. that yif. 71. C.
diffinysshed; A. difinissed. 72. A. Ed. is; C. nis.


_Quam uariis terris animalia permeant figuris._

  The beestes passen by the erthes by ful diverse figures. For
  som of hem han hir bodies straught and crepen in the dust, and
  drawen after hem a tras or a foruh y-continued; _that is to seyn, as
  nadres or snakes_. And other beestes, by the wandringe lightnesse
  of hir winges, beten the windes, and over-swimmen the spaces of         5
  the longe eyr by moist fleeinge. And other beestes gladen hem-self
  to diggen hir tras or hir steppes in the erthe with hir goings
  or with hir feet, and to goon either by the grene feldes, or elles to
  walken under the wodes. And al-be-it so that thou seest that
  they alle discorden by diverse formes, algates hir faces, enclined,    10
  hevieth hir dulle wittes. Only the linage of man heveth heyeste
  his heye heved, and stondeth light with his up-right body, and
  biholdeth the erthes under him. And, but-yif thou, erthely man,
  wexest yvel out of thy wit, this figure amonesteth thee, that axest
  the hevene with thy righte visage, and hast areysed thy fore-heved,    15
  to beren up a-heigh thy corage; so that thy thoght ne be nat
  y-hevied ne put lowe under fote, sin that thy body is so heye

ME. V. 3. C. traas; A. t_ra_is; Ed. trace. // C. forwh; A. forghe; Ed.
forough. // A. Ed. continued. 4. A. addres; Ed. nedders. // A. _om._ the.
7. C. A. traas. // A. goynge (Lat. _gressibus_). 8. C. feeldes. // A. _om._
elles. 10. A. _om._ faces. // A. enclini[n]g. 13. A. erthe (Lat. _terras_).
// A. _om._ And. 16. A. on heye.


_Quoniam igitur, uti paullo ante._

  Therfor thanne, as I have shewed a litel her-biforn, that al
  thing that is y-wist nis nat knowen by his nature propre, but by
  the nature of hem that comprehenden it, lat us loke now, in as
  mochel as it is leveful to us, _as who seith, lat us loke now as we
  mowen_, which that the estat is of the devyne substaunce; so that       5
  we mowen eek knowen what his science is. The commune Iugement
  of alle creatures resonables thanne is this: that god is eterne.
  Lat us considere thanne what is eternitee; for certes that shal
  shewen us to-gidere the devyne nature and the devyne science.

  Eternitee, thanne, is parfit possessioun and al-togidere of lyf        10
  interminable; and that sheweth more cleerly by the comparisoun
  or the collacioun of temporel thinges. For al thing that liveth in
  tyme it is present, and procedeth fro preterits in-to futures, _that is
  to seyn, fro tyme passed in-to tyme cominge_; ne ther nis no-thing
  establisshed in tyme that may enbracen to-gider al the space of        15
  his lyf. For certes, yit ne hath it taken the tyme of to-morwe, and
  it hath lost the tyme of yisterday. And certes, in the lyf of this
  day, ye ne liven no more but right as in the moevable and
  transitorie moment. Thanne thilke thing that suffreth temporel
  condicioun, al-thogh that it never bigan to be, ne thogh it never      20
  cese for to be, as Aristotle demed of the world, and al-thogh that
  the lyf of it be strecched with infinitee of tyme, yit algates nis
  it no swich thing that men mighten trowen by right that it is
  eterne. For al-thogh that it comprehende and embrace the space
  of lyf infinit, yit algates ne embraceth it nat the space of the lyf   25
  al-togider; for it ne hath nat the futures that ne ben nat yit, _ne it
  ne hath no lenger the preterits that ben y-doon or y-passed_. But
  thilke thing thanne, that hath and comprehendeth to-gider al the
  plentee of the lyf interminable, to whom ther ne faileth naught of
  the future, and to whom ther nis naught of the preterit escaped        30
  nor y-passed, thilke same is y-witnessed and y-proeved by right to
  be eterne. And it bihoveth by necessitee that thilke thing be
  al-wey present to him-self, and compotent; _as who seith, al-wey
  present to him-self, and so mighty that al be right at his plesaunce_;
  and that he have al present the infinitee of the moevable tyme.        35
  Wher-for som men trowen wrongfully that, whan they heren that
  it semede to Plato that this world ne hadde never beginninge
  of tyme, ne that it never shal han failinge, they wenen in this
  maner that this world be maked coeterne with his maker; _as who
  seith, they wene that this world and god ben maked togider eterne,_    40
  _and that is a wrongful weninge_. For other thing is it to ben y-lad
  by lyf interminable, as Plato graunted to the world, and other
  thing is it to embrace to-gider al the present of the lyf interminable,
  the whiche thing it is cleer and manifest that it is propre to the
  devyne thoght.                                                         45

  Ne it ne sholde nat semen to us, that god is elder thanne
  thinges that ben y-maked by quantitee of tyme, but rather by
  the propretee of his simple nature. For this ilke infinit moevinge
  of temporel thinges folweth this presentarie estat of lyf unmoevable;
  and so as it ne may nat countrefeten it ne feynen it ne be evenlyke    50
  to it for the inmoevabletee, _that is to seyn, that is in the
  eternitee of god_, it faileth and falleth in-to moevinge fro the
  of the presence _of god_, and disencreseth in-to the infinit
  quantitee of future and of preterit: and so as it ne may nat han
  to-gider al the plentee of the lyf, algates yit, for as moche as it    55
  ne ceseth never for to ben in som maner, it semeth som-del to us,
  that it folweth and resembleth thilke thing that it ne may nat
  atayne to ne fulfillen, and bindeth it-self to som maner presence
  of this litel and swifte moment: the which _presence of this litel
  and swifte moment_, for that it bereth a maner image or lyknesse       60
  of the ay-dwellinge presence _of god_, it graunteth, to swiche maner
  thinges as it bitydeth to, that it semeth hem as thise thinges _han
  y-ben, and_ ben.

  And, for that _the presence of swich litel moment_ ne may nat
  dwelle, ther-for it ravisshed and took the infinit wey of tyme, _that_ 65
  _is to seyn, by successioun_; and by this maner is it y-doon, for that
  it sholde continue the lyf in goinge, of the whiche lyf it ne mighte
  nat enbrace the plentee in dwellinge. And for-thy, yif we wollen
  putten worthy names to thinges, and folwen Plato, lat us seye
  thanne soothly, that god is eterne, and the world is perpetuel.        70
  Thanne, sin that every Iugement knoweth and comprehendeth by
  his owne nature thinges that ben subiect un-to him, ther is soothly
  to god, al-weys, an eterne and presentarie estat; and the science
  of him, that over-passeth al temporel moevement, dwelleth in the
  simplicitee of his presence, and embraceth and considereth alle        75
  the infinit spaces of tymes, preterits and futures, and loketh, in
  his simple knowinge, alle thinges _of preterit_ right as they weren
  y-doon presently right now. Yif thou wolt thanne thenken and
  avyse the prescience, by which it knoweth alle thinges, thou ne
  shal nat demen it as prescience of thinges to comen, but thou          80
  shalt demen it more rightfully that it is science of presence or of
  instaunce, that never ne faileth. For which it nis nat y-cleped
  "previdence," but it sholde rather ben cleped "purviaunce," that
  is establisshed ful fer fro right lowe thinges, and biholdeth from
  a-fer alle thinges, right as it were fro the heye heighte of thinges.  85

  Why axestow thanne, or why desputestow thanne, that thilke
  thinges ben doon by necessitee whiche that ben y-seyn and
  knowen by the devyne sighte, sin that, forsothe, men ne maken
  nat thilke thinges necessarie which that they seen ben y-doon in
  hir sighte? For addeth thy biholdinge any necessitee to thilke         90
  thinges that thou biholdest presente?'

  'Nay,' quod I.

  _Philosophie._ 'Certes, thanne, if men mighte maken any digne
  comparisoun or collacioun of the presence devyne and of the
  presence of mankinde, right so as ye seen some thinges in this         95
  temporel present, right so seeth god alle thinges by his eterne
  present. Wher-fore this devyne prescience ne chaungeth nat the
  nature ne the propretee of thinges, but biholdeth swiche thinges
  present to him-ward as they shullen bityde to yow-ward in tyme
  to comen. Ne it confoundeth nat the Iugement of thinges; but          100
  by o sighte of his thought, he knoweth the thinges to comen, as
  wel necessarie as nat necessarie. Right so as whan ye seen
  to-gider a man walken on the erthe and the sonne arysen in
  the hevene, al-be-it so that ye seen and biholden that oon and
  that other to-gider, yit natheles ye demen and discernen that that    105
  oon is voluntarie and that other necessarie. Right so thanne the
  devyne lookinge, biholdinge alle thinges under him, ne troubleth
  nat the qualitee of thinges that ben certeinly present to him-ward;
  but, as to the condicioun of tyme, forsothe, they ben future. For
  which it folweth, that this nis noon opinioun, but rather a stedefast 110
  knowinge, y-strengthed by soothnesse, that, whanne that god
  knoweth anything to be, he ne unwot nat that thilke thing wanteth
  necessitee to be; _this is to seyn, that, whan that god knoweth any
  thing to bityde, he wot wel that it ne hath no necessitee to bityde._

  And yif thou seyst heer, that thilke thing that god seeth to          115
  bityde, it ne may nat unbityde (_as who seith, it mot bityde_), and
  thilke thing that ne may nat unbityde it mot bityde by necessitee,
  and that thou streyne me by this name of necessitee: certes,
  I wol wel confessen and biknowe a thing of ful sad trouthe, but
  unnethe shal ther any wight mowe _seen it or_ come ther-to, but-yif   120
  that he be biholder of the devyne thoght. For I wol answeren
  thee thus: that thilke thing that is future, whan it is referred
  to the devyne knowinge, thanne is it necessarie; but certes, whan it
  is understonden in his owne kinde, men seen it is outrely free,
  and absolut _fro alle necessitee_.                                    125

  For certes, ther ben two maneres of necessitee. That oon
  necessitee is simple, as thus: that it bihoveth by necessitee, that
  alle men be mortal _or deedly_. Another necessitee is conditionel,
  as thus: yif thou wost that a man walketh, it bihoveth by necessitee
  that he walke. Thilke thing thanne that any wight hath y-knowe        130
  to be, it ne may ben non other weyes thanne he knoweth it to be.
  But this condicioun ne draweth nat with hir thilke necessitee
  simple. For certes, this necessitee _conditionel_, the propre nature
  of it ne maketh it nat, but the adieccioun of the condicioun
  _maketh it_. For no necessitee ne constreyneth a man to gon,          135
  that goth by his propre wil; al-be-it so that, whan he goth,
  that it is necessarie that he goth. Right on this same maner
  thanne, yif that the purviaunce of god seeth any thing present,
  than mot thilke thing ben by necessitee, al-thogh that it ne have
  no necessitee of his owne nature. But certes, the futures that        140
  bityden by freedom of arbitre, god seeth hem alle to-gider present.
  Thise thinges thanne, yif they ben referred to the devyne sighte,
  thanne ben they maked necessarie by the condicioun of the
  devyne knowinge. But certes, yif thilke thinges be considered
  by hem-self, they ben absolut _of necessitee_, and ne forleten nat ne 145
  cesen nat of the libertee of hir owne nature. Thanne, certes,
  with-oute doute, alle the thinges shollen ben doon which that
  god wot biforn that they ben to comen. But som of hem comen
  and bityden of free arbitre _or of free wille_, that, al-be-it so that
  they bityden, yit algates ne lese they nat hir propre nature in       150
  beinge; by the which first, or that they weren y-doon, they
  hadden power nat to han bitid.'

  _Boece_. 'What is this to seyn thanne,' quod I, 'that thinges ne
  ben nat necessarie _by hir propre nature_, so as they comen in alle
  maneres in the lyknesse of necessitee by the condicioun of the        155
  devyne science?'

  _Philosophie._ 'This is the difference,' quod she; 'that tho
  thinges that I purposede thee a litel heer-biforn, that is to seyn,
  the sonne arysinge and the man walkinge, that, ther-whyles that
  thilke thinges been y-doon, they ne mighte nat ben undoon;            160
  natheles, that oon of hem, or it was y-doon, it bihoved by necessitee
  that it was y-doon, but nat that other. Right so _is it
  here_, that the thinges that god hath present, with-oute doute they
  shollen been. But som of hem descendeth of the nature of
  thinges, _as the sonne arysinge_; and som descendeth of the power     165
  of the doeres, _as the man walkinge_. Thanne seide I no wrong,
  that yif these thinges ben referred to the devyne knowinge, thanne
  ben they necessarie; and yif they ben considered by hem-self,
  thanne ben they absolut fro the bond of necessitee. Right so as
  alle thinges that apereth or sheweth to the wittes, yif thou referre  170
  it to resoun, it is universel; and yif thou referre it or loke it
  to it-self, than is it singuler. But now, yif thou seyst thus, that
  yif it be in my power to chaunge my purpos, than shal I voide the
  purviaunce _of god_, whan that, peraventure, I shal han chaunged
  the thinges that he knoweth biforn, thanne shal I answere thee        175
  thus. Certes, thou mayst wel chaunge thy purpos; but, for as
  mochel as the present soothnesse of the devyne purviaunce biholdeth
  that thou mayst chaunge thy purpos, and whether thou
  wolt chaunge it or no, and whiderward that thou torne it, thou ne
  mayst nat eschuen the devyne prescience; right as thou ne mayst       180
  nat fleen the sighte of the presente eye, al-though that thou torne
  thy-self by thy free wil in-to dyverse acciouns. But thou mayst
  seyn ayein: "How shal it thanne be? Shal nat the devyne
  science be chaunged by my disposicioun, whan that I wol o thing
  now, and now another? And thilke prescience, ne semeth it nat         185
  to entrechaunge stoundes of knowinge;"' _as who seith, ne shal it
  nat seme to us, that the devyne prescience entrechaungeth hise dyverse
  stoundes of knowinge, so that it knowe sum-tyme o thing and sum-tyme
  the contrarie of that thing?_

  'No, forsothe,' _quod I_.                                             190

  _Philosophie._ 'For the devyne sighte renneth to-forn and seeth alle
  futures, and clepeth hem ayein, and retorneth hem to the presence
  of his propre knowinge; ne he ne entrechaungeth nat, so as thou
  wenest, the stoundes of forknowinge, as now this, now that; but
  he ay-dwellinge comth biforn, and embraceth at o strook alle thy      195
  mutaciouns. And this presence to comprehenden and to seen
  alle thinges, god ne hath nat taken it of the bitydinge of thinges
  to come, but of his propre simplicitee. And her-by is assoiled
  thilke thing that thou puttest a litel her-biforn, _that is to seyn_,
  that it is unworthy thing to seyn, that our futures yeven cause of    200
  the science of god. For certes, this strengthe of the devyne
  science, which that embraceth alle thinges by his presentarie
  knowinge, establissheth maner to alle thinges, and it ne oweth
  naught to latter thinges; and sin that these thinges ben thus,
  _that is to seyn, sin that necessitee nis nat in thinges by the
      devyne_                                                           205
  _prescience_, than is ther freedom of arbitre, that dwelleth hool and
  unwemmed to mortal men. Ne the lawes ne purposen nat
  wikkedly medes and peynes to the willinges of men that ben
  unbounden and quite of alle necessitee. And god, biholder and
  for-witer of alle thinges, dwelleth above; and the present eternitee  210
  of his sighte renneth alwey with the dyverse qualitee of oure
  dedes, despensinge and ordeyninge medes to goode men, and
  torments to wikked men. Ne in ydel ne in veyn ne ben ther nat
  put in god hope and preyeres, that ne mowen nat ben unspeedful
  ne with-oute effect, whan they ben rightful.                          215

  Withstond thanne and eschue thou vyces; worshipe and love
  thou virtues; areys thy corage to rightful hopes; yilde thou
  humble preyeres a-heigh. Gret necessitee of prowesse and vertu
  is encharged and commaunded to yow, yif ye nil nat dissimulen;
  sin that ye worken and doon, _that is to seyn, your dedes or your     220
  workes_, biforn the eyen of the Iuge that seeth _and demeth_ alle
  thinges.' _To whom be glorye and worshipe by infinit tymes_. AMEN.

PR. VI. 1, 2. C. alle thinges; A. Ed. al thing (Lat. _omne_). 6. A. _om._
eek. 12. A. _om._ the. // C. alle; A. al. 16. A. the morwe. 17. A. that
(_for_ the tyme). 18. A. this (_for_ the). 20. A. _om._ it. 22. C.
strechched. 25. A. braceth. 30. C. preterite; A. preterit. 31. C.
I-witnesshed; A. ywitnessed. // C. and; A. or. 34. A. plesaunce; C.
pleasaunce. 35. A. infinit. 41. A. it (_for_ that). 43. A. embracen. 49. A.
of the lijf. 53. A. _om._ the. // C. in-to; A. to. 58. A. presence; C.
presensse. 64. A. _om._ that. 65. A. _om._ it. // C. Infynyte; A. infinit.
73. A. alwey to god. 78. C. thinken; A. thenke. 81. A. _om._ it. 83. A.
prouidence; C. puruydence (_glossed_ p_r_ouidentia); _but see note_. 86. A.
disputest thou. 88. A. yknowen. 101. C. o; Ed. one; A. of (!); Lat.
_unoque_. 104. A. _om._ the. 106. A. _om._ the. 110. C. stidefast; A.
stedfast. 116. A. bitide; C. bide (_miswritten_; _2nd time_). 120. A. _om._
mowe. 124. A. _om._ is. 134. A. nau[gh]t (_for_ nat). 135, 6. A. _om._ gon
that. 141. A. presentz. 142. A. _om._ yif. 143. C. by; A. to (Lat. _per_).
149. A. _om. 1st_ free. 150. C. in; A. ne (_wrongly_). 161. A. byhoued; Ed.
behoueth; C. houyd (!). 169. A. _om._ as. 170. Ed. apereth; C. apiereth; A.
appiereth. 178. C. wheyther; A. whethir. 179. A. _om._ ne. 186. A.
knowynges (Lat. _noscendi_). 189. Ed. of that thing; C. A. _om._ 190. Ed.
quod she (_for_ quod I; _wrongly_). 193. A. _om._ so. 194. A. _om._ as.
203. A. awith nat. 205, 6. C. _om._ that is ... prescience; Ed. _and_ A.
_have it_. 213. C. torment; A. tourmentz (_supplicia_). 214. A. nat; Ed.
not; C. ne. 216. C. withston (_sic_). 218. A. an hey[gh]e. 222. C. To whom
be goye (_sic_) and worshipe bi Infynyt tymes. AMEN; _which_ A. Ed.
(_perhaps rightly_) _omit_.



  1. The double sorwe of Troilus to tellen,
  That was the king Priamus sone of Troye,
  In lovinge, how his aventures fellen
  Fro wo to wele, and after out of Ioye,
  My purpos is, er that I parte fro ye.                                   5
  Thesiphone, thou help me for tendyte
  Thise woful vers, that wepen as I wryte!

  2. To thee clepe I, thou goddesse of torment,
  Thou cruel Furie, sorwing ever in peyne;
  Help me, that am the sorwful instrument                                10
  That helpeth lovers, as I can, to pleyne!
  For wel sit it, the sothe for to seyne,
  A woful wight to han a drery fere,
  And, to a sorwful tale, a sory chere.

  3. For I, that god of Loves servaunts serve,                           15
  Ne dar to Love, for myn unlyklinesse,
  Preyen for speed, al sholde I therfor sterve,
  So fer am I fro his help in derknesse;
  But nathelees, if this may doon gladnesse
  To any lover, and his cause avayle,                                    20
  Have he my thank, and myn be this travayle!

  4. But ye loveres, that bathen in gladnesse,
  If any drope of pitee in yow be,
  Remembreth yow on passed hevinesse
  That ye han felt, and on the adversitee                                25
  Of othere folk, and thenketh how that ye
  Han felt that Love dorste yow displese;
  Or ye han wonne him with to greet an ese.

  5. And preyeth for hem that ben in the cas
  Of Troilus, as ye may after here,                                      30
  That love hem bringe in hevene to solas,
  And eek for me preyeth to god so dere,
  That I have might to shewe, in som manere,
  Swich peyne and wo as Loves folk endure,
  In Troilus unsely aventure.                                            35

  6. And biddeth eek for hem that been despeyred
  In love, that never nil recovered be,
  And eek for hem that falsly been apeyred
  Thorugh wikked tonges, be it he or she;
  Thus biddeth god, for his benignitee,                                  40
  To graunte hem sone out of this world to pace,
  That been despeyred out of Loves grace.

  7. And biddeth eek for hem that been at ese,
  That god hem graunte ay good perseveraunce,
  And sende hem might hir ladies so to plese,                            45
  That it to Love be worship and plesaunce.
  For so hope I my soule best avaunce,
  To preye for hem that Loves servaunts be,
  And wryte hir wo, and live in charitee.

  8. And for to have of hem compassioun                                  50
  As though I were hir owene brother dere.
  Now herkeneth with a gode entencioun,
  For now wol I gon streight to my matere,
  In whiche ye may the double sorwes here
  Of Troilus, in loving of Criseyde,                                     55
  And how that she forsook him er she deyde.

  9. It is wel wist, how that the Grekes stronge
  In armes with a thousand shippes wente
  To Troyewardes, and the citee longe
  Assegeden neigh ten yeer er they stente,                               60
  And, in diverse wyse and oon entente,
  The ravisshing to wreken of Eleyne,
  By Paris doon, they wroughten al hir peyne.

  10. Now fil it so, that in the toun ther was
  Dwellinge a lord of greet auctoritee,                                  65
  A gret devyn that cleped was Calkas,
  That in science so expert was, that he
  Knew wel that Troye sholde destroyed be,
  By answere of his god, that highte thus,
  Daun Phebus or Apollo Delphicus.                                       70

  11. So whan this Calkas knew by calculinge,
  And eek by answere of this Appollo,
  That Grekes sholden swich a peple bringe,
  Thorugh which that Troye moste been for-do,
  He caste anoon out of the toun to go;                                  75
  For wel wiste he, by sort, that Troye sholde
  Destroyed been, ye, wolde who-so nolde.

  12. For which, for to departen softely
  Took purpos ful this forknowinge wyse,
  And to the Grekes ost ful prively                                      80
  He stal anoon; and they, in curteys wyse,
  Him deden bothe worship and servyse,
  In trust that he hath conning hem to rede
  In every peril which that is to drede.

  13. The noyse up roos, whan it was first aspyed,                       85
  Thorugh al the toun, and generally was spoken,
  That Calkas traytor fled was, and allyed
  With hem of Grece; and casten to ben wroken
  On him that falsly hadde his feith so broken;
  And seyden, he and al his kin at ones                                  90
  Ben worthy for to brennen, fel and bones.

  14. Now hadde Calkas left, in this meschaunce,
  Al unwist of this false and wikked dede,
  His doughter, which that was in gret penaunce,
  For of hir lyf she was ful sore in drede,                              95
  As she that niste what was best to rede;
  For bothe a widowe was she, and allone
  Of any freend, to whom she dorste hir mone.

  15. Criseyde was this lady name a-right;
  As to my dome, in al Troyes citee                                     100
  Nas noon so fair, for passing every wight
  So aungellyk was hir natyf beautee,
  That lyk a thing inmortal semed she,
  As doth an hevenish parfit creature,
  That doun were sent in scorning of nature.                            105

  16. This lady, which that al-day herde at ere
  Hir fadres shame, his falsnesse and tresoun,
  Wel nigh out of hir wit for sorwe and fere,
  In widewes habit large of samit broun,
  On knees she fil biforn Ector a-doun;                                 110
  With pitous voys, and tendrely wepinge,
  His mercy bad, hir-selven excusinge.

  17. Now was this Ector pitous of nature,
  And saw that she was sorwfully bigoon,
  And that she was so fair a creature;                                  115
  Of his goodnesse he gladed hir anoon,
  And seyde, 'lat your fadres treson goon
  Forth with mischaunce, and ye your-self, in Ioye,
  Dwelleth with us, whyl you good list, in Troye.

  18. And al thonour that men may doon yow have,                        120
  As ferforth as your fader dwelled here,
  Ye shul han, and your body shal men save,
  As fer as I may ought enquere or here.'
  And she him thonked with ful humble chere,
  And ofter wolde, and it hadde ben his wille,                          125
  And took hir leve, and hoom, and held hir stille.

  19. And in hir hous she abood with swich meynee
  As to hir honour nede was to holde;
  And whyl she was dwellinge in that citee,
  Kepte hir estat, and bothe of yonge and olde                          130
  Ful wel beloved, and wel men of hir tolde.
  But whether that she children hadde or noon,
  I rede it nought; therfore I lete it goon.

  20. The thinges fellen, as they doon of werre,
  Bitwixen hem of Troye and Grekes ofte;                                135
  For som day boughten they of Troye it derre,
  And eft the Grekes founden no thing softe
  The folk of Troye; and thus fortune on-lofte,
  And under eft, gan hem to wheelen bothe
  After hir cours, ay whyl they were wrothe.                            140

  21. But how this toun com to destruccioun
  Ne falleth nought to purpos me to telle;
  For it were here a long disgressioun
  Fro my matere, and yow to longe dwelle.
  But the Troyane gestes, as they felle,                                145
  In Omer, or in Dares, or in Dyte,
  Who-so that can, may rede hem as they wryte.

  22. But though that Grekes hem of Troye shetten,
  And hir citee bisegede al a-boute,
  Hir olde usage wolde they not letten,                                 150
  As for to honoure hir goddes ful devoute;
  But aldermost in honour, out of doute,
  They hadde a relik hight Palladion,
  That was hir trist a-boven everichon.

  23. And so bifel, whan comen was the tyme                             155
  Of Aperil, whan clothed is the mede
  With newe grene, of lusty Ver the pryme,
  And swote smellen floures whyte and rede,
  In sondry wyses shewed, as I rede,
  The folk of Troye hir observaunces olde,                              160
  Palladiones feste for to holde.

  24. And to the temple, in al hir beste wyse,
  In general, ther wente many a wight,
  To herknen of Palladion the servyse;
  And namely, so many a lusty knight,                                   165
  So many a lady fresh and mayden bright,
  Ful wel arayed, bothe moste and leste,
  Ye, bothe for the seson and the feste.

  25. Among thise othere folk was Criseyda,
  In widewes habite blak; but nathelees,                                170
  Right as our firste lettre is now an A,
  In beautee first so stood she, makelees;
  Hir godly looking gladede al the prees.
  Nas never seyn thing to ben preysed derre,
  Nor under cloude blak so bright a sterre                              175

  26. As was Criseyde, as folk seyde everichoon
  That hir bihelden in hir blake wede;
  And yet she stood ful lowe and stille alloon,
  Bihinden othere folk, in litel brede,
  And neigh the dore, ay under shames drede,                            180
  Simple of a-tyr, and debonaire of chere,
  With ful assured loking and manere.

  27. This Troilus, as he was wont to gyde
  His yonge knightes, ladde hem up and doun
  In thilke large temple on every syde,                                 185
  Biholding ay the ladyes of the toun,
  Now here, now there, for no devocioun
  Hadde he to noon, to reven him his reste,
  But gan to preyse and lakken whom him leste.

  28. And in his walk ful fast he gan to wayten                         190
  If knight or squyer of his companye
  Gan for to syke, or lete his eyen bayten
  On any woman that he coude aspye;
  He wolde smyle, and holden it folye,
  And seye him thus, 'god wot, she slepeth softe                        195
  For love of thee, whan thou tornest ful ofte!

  29. 'I have herd told, pardieux, of your livinge,
  Ye lovers, and your lewede observaunces,
  And which a labour folk han in winninge
  Of love, and, in the keping, which doutaunces;                        200
  And whan your preye is lost, wo and penaunces;
  O verrey foles! nyce and blinde be ye;
  Ther nis not oon can war by other be.'

  30. And with that word he gan cast up the browe,
  Ascaunces, 'lo! is this nought wysly spoken?'                         205
  At which the god of love gan loken rowe
  Right for despyt, and shoop for to ben wroken;
  He kidde anoon his bowe nas not broken;
  For sodeynly he hit him at the fulle;
  And yet as proud a pekok can he pulle.                                210

  31. O blinde world, O blinde entencioun!
  How ofte falleth al theffect contraire
  Of surquidrye and foul presumpcioun;
  For caught is proud, and caught is debonaire.
  This Troilus is clomben on the staire,                                215
  And litel weneth that he moot descenden.
  But al-day falleth thing that foles ne wenden.

  32. As proude Bayard ginneth for to skippe
  Out of the wey, so priketh him his corn,
  Til he a lash have of the longe whippe,                               220
  Than thenketh he, 'though I praunce al biforn
  First in the trays, ful fat and newe shorn,
  Yet am I but an hors, and horses lawe
  I moot endure, and with my feres drawe.'

  33. So ferde it by this fers and proude knight;                       225
  Though he a worthy kinges sone were,
  And wende no-thing hadde had swiche might
  Ayens his wil that sholde his herte stere,
  Yet with a look his herte wex a-fere,
  That he, that now was most in pryde above,                            230
  Wex sodeynly most subget un-to love.

  34. For-thy ensample taketh of this man,
  Ye wyse, proude, and worthy folkes alle,
  To scornen Love, which that so sone can
  The freedom of your hertes to him thralle;                            235
  For ever it was, and ever it shal bifalle,
  That Love is he that alle thing may binde;
  For may no man for-do the lawe of kinde.

  35. That this be sooth, hath preved and doth yet;
  For this trowe I ye knowen, alle or some,                             240
  Men reden not that folk han gretter wit
  Than they that han be most with love y-nome;
  And strengest folk ben therwith overcome,
  The worthiest and grettest of degree;
  This was, and is, and yet men shal it see.                            245

  36. And trewelich it sit wel to be so;
  For alderwysest han ther-with ben plesed;
  And they that han ben aldermost in wo,
  With love han ben conforted most and esed;
  And ofte it hath the cruel herte apesed,                              250
  And worthy folk maad worthier of name,
  And causeth most to dreden vyce and shame.

  37. Now sith it may not goodly be withstonde,
  And is a thing so vertuous in kinde,
  Refuseth not to Love for to be bonde,                                 255
  Sin, as him-selven list, he may yow binde.
  The yerde is bet that bowen wole and winde
  Than that that brest; and therfor I yow rede
  To folwen him that so wel can yow lede.

  38. But for to tellen forth in special                                260
  As of this kinges sone of which I tolde,
  And leten other thing collateral,
  Of him thenke I my tale for to holde,
  Bothe of his Ioye, and of his cares colde;
  And al his werk, as touching this matere,                             265
  For I it gan, I wil ther-to refere.

  39. With-inne the temple he wente him forth pleyinge,
  This Troilus, of every wight aboute,
  On this lady and now on that lokinge,
  Wher-so she were of toune, or of with-oute:                           270
  And up-on cas bifel, that thorugh a route
  His eye perced, and so depe it wente,
  Til on Criseyde it smoot, and ther it stente.

  40. And sodeynly he wex ther-with astoned,
  And gan hire bet biholde in thrifty wyse:                             275
  'O mercy, god!' thoughte he, 'wher hastow woned,
  That art so fair and goodly to devyse?'
  Ther-with his herte gan to sprede and ryse,
  And softe sighed, lest men mighte him here,
  And caughte a-yein his firste pleyinge chere.                         280

  41. She nas not with the leste of hir stature,
  But alle hir limes so wel answeringe
  Weren to womanhode, that creature
  Was neuer lasse mannish in seminge.
  And eek the pure wyse of here meninge                                 285
  Shewede wel, that men might in hir gesse
  Honour, estat, and wommanly noblesse.

  42. To Troilus right wonder wel with-alle
  Gan for to lyke hir mening and hir chere,
  Which somdel deynous was, for she leet falle                          290
  Hir look a lite a-side, in swich manere,
  Ascaunces, 'what! may I not stonden here?'
  And after that hir loking gan she lighte,
  That never thoughte him seen so good a sighte.

  43. And of hir look in him ther gan to quiken                         295
  So greet desir, and swich affeccioun,
  That in his hertes botme gan to stiken
  Of hir his fixe and depe impressioun:
  And though he erst hadde poured up and doun,
  He was tho glad his hornes in to shrinke;                             300
  Unnethes wiste he how to loke or winke.

  44. Lo, he that leet him-selven so konninge,
  And scorned hem that loves peynes dryen,
  Was ful unwar that love hadde his dwellinge
  With-inne the subtile stremes of hir yën;                             305
  That sodeynly him thoughte he felte dyen,
  Right with hir look, the spirit in his herte;
  Blessed be love, that thus can folk converte!

  45. She, this in blak, lykinge to Troylus,
  Over alle thyng he stood for to biholde;                              310
  Ne his desir, ne wherfor he stood thus,
  He neither chere made, ne worde tolde;
  But from a-fer, his maner for to holde,
  On other thing his look som-tyme he caste,
  And eft on hir, whyl that servyse laste.                              315

  46. And after this, not fulliche al awhaped,
  Out of the temple al esiliche he wente,
  Repentinge him that he hadde ever y-iaped
  Of loves folk, lest fully the descente
  Of scorn fille on him-self; but, what he mente,                       320
  Lest it were wist on any maner syde,
  His wo he gan dissimulen and hyde.

  47. Whan he was fro the temple thus departed,
  He streyght anoon un-to his paleys torneth,
  Right with hir look thurgh-shoten and thurgh-darted,                  325
  Al feyneth he in lust that he soiorneth;
  And al his chere and speche also he borneth;
  And ay, of loves servants every whyle,
  Him-self to wrye, at hem he gan to smyle.

  48. And seyde, 'lord, so ye live al in lest,                          330
  Ye loveres! for the conningest of yow,
  That serveth most ententiflich and best,
  Him tit as often harm ther-of as prow;
  Your hyre is quit ayein, ye, god wot how!
  Nought wel for wel, but scorn for good servyse;                       335
  In feith, your ordre is ruled in good wyse!

  49. In noun-certeyn ben alle your observaunces,
  But it a sely fewe poyntes be;
  Ne no-thing asketh so grete attendaunces
  As doth your lay, and that knowe alle ye;                             340
  But that is not the worste, as mote I thee;
  But, tolde I yow the worste poynt, I leve,
  Al seyde I sooth, ye wolden at me greve!

  50. But tak this, that ye loveres ofte eschuwe,
  Or elles doon of good entencioun,                                     345
  Ful ofte thy lady wole it misconstrue,
  And deme it harm in hir opinioun;
  And yet if she, for other enchesoun,
  Be wrooth, than shalt thou han a groyn anoon:
  Lord! wel is him that may be of yow oon!'                             350

  51. But for al this, whan that he say his tyme,
  He held his pees, non other bote him gayned;
  For love bigan his fetheres so to lyme,
  That wel unnethe un-to his folk he feyned
  That othere besye nedes him destrayned;                               355
  For wo was him, that what to doon he niste,
  But bad his folk to goon wher that hem liste.

  52. And whan that he in chaumbre was allone,
  He doun up-on his beddes feet him sette,
  And first he gan to syke, and eft to grone,                           360
  And thoughte ay on hir so, with-outen lette,
  That, as he sat and wook, his spirit mette
  That he hir saw a temple, and al the wyse
  Right of hir loke, and gan it newe avyse.

  53. Thus gan he make a mirour of his minde,                           365
  In which he saugh al hoolly hir figure;
  And that he wel coude in his herte finde,
  It was to him a right good aventure
  To love swich oon, and if he dide his cure
  To serven hir, yet mighte he falle in grace,                          370
  Or elles, for oon of hir servaunts pace.

  54. Imagininge that travaille nor grame
  Ne mighte, for so goodly oon, be lorn
  As she, ne him for his desir ne shame,
  Al were it wist, but in prys and up-born                              375
  Of alle lovers wel more than biforn;
  Thus argumented he in his ginninge,
  Ful unavysed of his wo cominge.

  55. Thus took he purpos loves craft to suwe,
  And thoughte he wolde werken prively,                                 380
  First, to hyden his desir in muwe
  From every wight y-born, al-outrely,
  But he mighte ought recovered be therby;
  Remembring him, that love to wyde y-blowe
  Yelt bittre fruyt, though swete seed be sowe.                         385

  56. And over al this, yet muchel more he thoughte
  What for to speke, and what to holden inne,
  And what to arten hir to love he soughte,
  And on a song anoon-right to biginne,
  And gan loude on his sorwe for to winne;                              390
  For with good hope he gan fully assente
  Criseyde for to love, and nought repente.

  57. And of his song nought only the sentence,
  As writ myn autour called Lollius,
  But pleynly, save our tonges difference,                              395
  I dar wel sayn, in al that Troilus
  Seyde in his song; lo! every word right thus
  As I shal seyn; and who-so list it here,
  Lo! next this vers, he may it finden here.

                      CANTUS TROILI.

  58. 'If no love is, O god, what fele I so?                            400
  And if love is, what thing and whiche is he!
  If love be good, from whennes comth my wo?
  If it be wikke, a wonder thinketh me,
  Whenne every torment and adversitee
  That cometh of him, may to me savory thinke;                          405
  For ay thurst I, the more that I it drinke.

  59. And if that at myn owene lust I brenne,
  Fro whennes cometh my wailing and my pleynte?
  If harme agree me, wher-to pleyne I thenne?
  I noot, ne why unwery that I feynte.                                  410
  O quike deeth, o swete harm so queynte,
  How may of thee in me swich quantitee,
  But-if that I consente that it be?

  60. And if that I consente, I wrongfully
  Compleyne, y-wis; thus possed to and fro,                             415
  Al sterelees with-inne a boot am I
  A-mid the see, by-twixen windes two,
  That in contrarie stonden ever-mo.
  Allas! what is this wonder maladye?
  For hete of cold, for cold of hete, I deye.'                          420

  61. And to the god of love thus seyde he
  With pitous voys, 'O lord, now youres is
  My spirit, which that oughte youres be.
  Yow thanke I, lord, that han me brought to this;
  But whether goddesse or womman, y-wis,                                425
  She be, I noot, which that ye do me serve;
  But as hir man I wole ay live and sterve.

  62. Ye stonden in hire eyen mightily,
  As in a place un-to your vertu digne;
  Wherfore, lord, if my servyse or I                                    430
  May lyke yow, so beth to me benigne;
  For myn estat royal here I resigne
  In-to hir hond, and with ful humble chere
  Bicome hir man, as to my lady dere.'

  63. In him ne deyned sparen blood royal                               435
  The fyr of love, wher-fro god me blesse,
  Ne him forbar in no degree, for al
  His vertu or his excellent prowesse;
  But held him as his thral lowe in distresse,
  And brende him so in sondry wyse ay newe,                             440
  That sixty tyme a day he loste his hewe.

  64. So muche, day by day, his owene thought,
  For lust to hir, gan quiken and encrese,
  That every other charge he sette at nought;
  For-thy ful ofte, his hote fyr to cese,                               445
  To seen hir goodly look he gan to prese;
  For ther-by to ben esed wel he wende,
  And ay the ner he was, the more he brende.

  65. For ay the ner the fyr, the hotter is,
  This, trowe I, knoweth al this companye.                              450
  But were he fer or neer, I dar seye this,
  By night or day, for wysdom or folye,
  His herte, which that is his brestes yë,
  Was ay on hir, that fairer was to sene
  Than ever was Eleyne or Polixene.                                     455

  66. Eek of the day ther passed nought an houre
  That to him-self a thousand tyme he seyde,
  'Good goodly, to whom serve I and laboure,
  As I best can, now wolde god, Criseyde,
  Ye wolden on me rewe er that I deyde!                                 460
  My dere herte, allas! myn hele and hewe
  And lyf is lost, but ye wole on me rewe.'

  67. Alle othere dredes weren from him fledde,
  Bothe of the assege and his savacioun;
  Ne in him desyr noon othere fownes bredde                             465
  But arguments to this conclusioun,
  That she on him wolde han compassioun,
  And he to be hir man, whyl he may dure;
  Lo, here his lyf, and from the deeth his cure!

  68. The sharpe shoures felle of armes preve,                          470
  That Ector or his othere bretheren diden,
  Ne made him only ther-fore ones meve;
  And yet was he, wher-so men wente or riden,
  Founde oon the best, and lengest tyme abiden
  Ther peril was, and dide eek such travayle                            475
  In armes, that to thenke it was mervayle.

  69. But for non hate he to the Grekes hadde,
  Ne also for the rescous of the toun,
  Ne made him thus in armes for to madde,
  But only, lo, for this conclusioun,                                   480
  To lyken hir the bet for his renoun;
  Fro day to day in armes so he spedde,
  That alle the Grekes as the deeth him dredde.

  70. And fro this forth tho refte him love his sleep,
  And made his mete his foo; and eek his sorwe                          485
  Gan multiplye, that, who-so toke keep,
  It shewed in his hewe, bothe eve and morwe;
  Therfor a title he gan him for to borwe
  Of other syknesse, lest of him men wende
  That the hote fyr of love him brende.                                 490

  71. And seyde, he hadde a fever and ferde amis;
  But how it was, certayn, can I not seye,
  If that his lady understood not this,
  Or feyned hir she niste, oon of the tweye;
  But wel I rede that, by no maner weye,                                495
  Ne semed it [as] that she of him roughte,
  Nor of his peyne, or what-so-ever he thoughte.

  72. But than fel to this Troylus such wo,
  That he was wel neigh wood; for ay his drede
  Was this, that she som wight had loved so,                            500
  That never of him she wolde have taken hede;
  For whiche him thoughte he felte his herte blede.
  Ne of his wo ne dorste he not biginne
  To tellen it, for al this world to winne.

  73. But whanne he hadde a space fro his care,                         505
  Thus to him-self ful ofte he gan to pleyne;
  He sayde, 'O fool, now art thou in the snare,
  That whilom Iapedest at loves peyne;
  Now artow hent, now gnaw thyn owene cheyne;
  Thou were ay wont eche lovere reprehende                              510
  Of thing fro which thou canst thee nat defende.

  74. What wole now every lover seyn of thee,
  If this be wist, but ever in thyn absence
  Laughen in scorn, and seyn, "lo, ther gooth he,
  That is the man of so gret sapience,                                  515
  That held us loveres leest in reverence!
  Now, thonked be god, he may goon in the daunce
  Of hem that Love list febly for to avaunce!

  75. But, O thou woful Troilus, god wolde,
  Sin thow most loven thurgh thy destinee,                              520
  That thow beset were on swich oon that sholde
  Knowe al thy wo, al lakkede hir pitee:
  But al so cold in love, towardes thee,
  Thy lady is, as frost in winter mone,
  And thou fordoon, as snow in fyr is sone."                            525

  76. God wolde I were aryved in the port
  Of deeth, to which my sorwe wil me lede!
  A, lord, to me it were a greet comfort;
  Then were I quit of languisshing in drede.
  For by myn hidde sorwe y-blowe on brede                               530
  I shal bi-Iaped been a thousand tyme
  More than that fool of whos folye men ryme.

  77. But now help god, and ye, swete, for whom
  I pleyne, y-caught, ye, never wight so faste!
  O mercy, dere herte, and help me from                                 535
  The deeth, for I, whyl that my lyf may laste,
  More than my-self wol love yow to my laste.
  And with som freendly look gladeth me, swete,
  Though never more thing ye me bi-hete!'

  78. This wordes and ful manye an-other to                             540
  He spak, and called ever in his compleynte
  Hir name, for to tellen hir his wo,
  Til neigh that he in salte teres dreynte.
  Al was for nought, she herde nought his pleynte;
  And whan that he bithoughte on that folye,                            545
  A thousand fold his wo gan multiplye.

  79. Bi-wayling in his chambre thus allone,
  A freend of his, that called was Pandare,
  Com ones in unwar, and herde him grone,
  And sey his freend in swich distresse and care:                       550
  'Allas!' quod he, 'who causeth al this fare?
  O mercy, god! what unhap may this mene?
  Han now thus sone Grekes maad yow lene?

  80. Or hastow som remors of conscience,
  And art now falle in som devocioun,                                   555
  And waylest for thy sinne and thyn offence,
  And hast for ferde caught attricioun?
  God save hem that bi-seged han our toun,
  And so can leye our Iolyte on presse,
  And bring our lusty folk to holinesse!'                               560

  81. These wordes seyde he for the nones alle,
  That with swich thing he mighte him angry maken,
  And with an angre don his sorwe falle,
  As for the tyme, and his corage awaken;
  But wel he wiste, as fer as tonges spaken,                            565
  Ther nas a man of gretter hardinesse
  Than he, ne more desired worthinesse.

  82. 'What cas,' quod Troilus, 'or what aventure
  Hath gyded thee to see my languisshinge,
  That am refus of euery creature?                                      570
  But for the love of god, at my preyinge,
  Go henne a-way, for certes, my deyinge
  Wol thee disese, and I mot nedes deye;
  Ther-for go wey, ther is no more to seye.

  83. But if thou wene I be thus syk for drede,                         575
  It is not so, and ther-for scorne nought;
  Ther is a-nother thing I take of hede
  Wel more than ought the Grekes han y-wrought,
  Which cause is of my deeth, for sorwe and thought.
  But though that I now telle thee it ne leste,                         580
  Be thou nought wrooth, I hyde it for the beste.'

  84. This Pandare, that neigh malt for wo and routhe,
  Ful often seyde, 'allas! what may this be?
  Now freend,' quod he, 'if ever love or trouthe
  Hath been, or is, bi-twixen thee and me,                              585
  Ne do thou never swiche a crueltee
  To hyde fro thy freend so greet a care;
  Wostow nought wel that it am I, Pandare?

  85. I wole parten with thee al thy peyne,
  If it be so I do thee no comfort,                                     590
  As it is freendes right, sooth for to seyne,
  To entreparten wo, as glad desport.
  I have, and shal, for trewe or fals report,
  In wrong and right y-loved thee al my lyve;
  Hyd not thy wo fro me, but telle it blyve.'                           595

  86. Than gan this sorwful Troilus to syke,
  And seyde him thus, 'god leve it be my beste
  To telle it thee; for, sith it may thee lyke,
  Yet wole I telle it, though myn herte breste;
  And wel wot I thou mayst do me no reste.                              600
  But lest thow deme I truste not to thee,
  Now herkne, freend, for thus it stant with me.

  87. Love, a-yeins the which who-so defendeth
  Him-selven most, him alder-lest avayleth,
  With desespeir so sorwfully me offendeth,                             605
  That streyght un-to the deeth myn herte sayleth.
  Ther-to desyr so brenningly me assaylleth,
  That to ben slayn it were a gretter Ioye
  To me than king of Grece been and Troye!

  88. Suffiseth this, my fulle freend Pandare,                          610
  That I have seyd, for now wostow my wo;
  And for the love of god, my colde care
  So hyd it wel, I telle it never to mo;
  For harmes mighte folwen, mo than two,
  If it were wist; but be thou in gladnesse,                            615
  And lat me sterve, unknowe, of my distresse.'

  89. 'How hastow thus unkindely and longe
  Hid this fro me, thou fool?' quod Pandarus;
  'Paraunter thou might after swich oon longe,
  That myn avys anoon may helpen us.'                                   620
  'This were a wonder thing,' quod Troylus,
  'Thou coudest never in love thy-selven wisse;
  How devel maystow bringen me to blisse?'

  90. 'Ye, Troilus, now herke,' quod Pandare,
  'Though I be nyce; it happeth ofte so,                                625
  That oon that exces doth ful yvele fare,
  By good counseyl can kepe his freend ther-fro.
  I have my-self eek seyn a blind man go
  Ther-as he fel that coude loke wyde;
  A fool may eek a wys man ofte gyde.                                   630

  91. A whetston is no kerving instrument,
  And yet it maketh sharpe kerving-tolis.
  And ther thow woost that I have ought miswent,
  Eschewe thou that, for swich thing to thee scole is;
  Thus ofte wyse men ben war by folis.                                  635
  If thou do so, thy wit is wel biwared;
  By his contrarie is every thing declared.

  92. For how might ever sweetnesse have be knowe
  To him that never tasted bitternesse?
  Ne no man may be inly glad, I trowe,                                  640
  That never was in sorwe or som distresse;
  Eek whyt by blak, by shame eek worthinesse,
  Ech set by other, more for other semeth;
  As men may see; and so the wyse it demeth.

  93. Sith thus of two contraries is a lore,                            645
  I, that have in love so ofte assayed
  Grevaunces, oughte conne, and wel the more
  Counsayllen thee of that thou art amayed.
  Eek thee ne oughte nat ben yvel apayed,
  Though I desyre with thee for to bere                                 650
  Thyn hevy charge; it shal the lasse dere.

  94. I woot wel that it fareth thus by me
  As to thy brother Parys an herdesse,
  Which that y-cleped was Oënone,
  Wrot in a compleynt of hir hevinesse:                                 655
  Ye say the lettre that she wroot, y gesse?'
  Nay, never yet, y-wis,' quod Troilus.
  'Now,' quod Pandare, 'herkneth; it was thus.--

  95. "Phebus, that first fond art of medicyne,"
  Quod she, "and coude in every wightes care                            660
  Remede and reed, by herbes he knew fyne,
  Yet to him-self his conninge was ful bare;
  For love hadde him so bounden in a snare,
  Al for the doughter of the kinge Admete,
  That al his craft ne coude his sorwe bete."--                         665

  96. Right so fare I, unhappily for me;
  I love oon best, and that me smerteth sore;
  And yet, paraunter, can I rede thee,
  And not my-self; repreve me no more.
  I have no cause, I woot wel, for to sore                              670
  As doth an hauk that listeth for to pleye,
  But to thyn help yet somwhat can I seye.

  97. And of o thing right siker maystow be,
  That certayn, for to deyen in the peyne,
  That I shal never-mo discoveren thee;                                 675
  Ne, by my trouthe, I kepe nat restreyne
  Thee fro thy love, thogh that it were Eleyne,
  That is thy brotheres wyf, if ich it wiste;
  Be what she be, and love hir as thee liste.

  98. Therfore, as freend fullich in me assure,                         680
  And tel me plat what is thyn enchesoun,
  And final cause of wo that ye endure;
  For douteth no-thing, myn entencioun
  Nis nought to yow of reprehencioun,
  To speke as now, for no wight may bireve                              685
  A man to love, til that him list to leve.

  99. And witeth wel, that bothe two ben vyces,
  Mistrusten alle, or elles alle leve;
  But wel I woot, the mene of it no vyce is,
  For for to trusten sum wight is a preve                               690
  Of trouthe, and for-thy wolde I fayn remeve
  Thy wrong conceyte, and do thee som wight triste,
  Thy wo to telle; and tel me, if thee liste.

  100. The wyse seyth, "wo him that is allone,
  For, and he falle, he hath noon help to ryse;"                        695
  And sith thou hast a felawe, tel thy mone;
  For this nis not, certeyn, the nexte wyse
  To winnen love, as techen us the wyse,
  To walwe and wepe as Niobe the quene,
  Whos teres yet in marbel been y-sene.                                 700

  101. Lat be thy weping and thy drerinesse,
  And lat us lissen wo with other speche;
  So may thy woful tyme seme lesse.
  Delyte not in wo thy wo to seche,
  As doon thise foles that hir sorwes eche                              705
  With sorwe, whan they han misaventure,
  And listen nought to seche hem other cure.

  102. Men seyn, "to wrecche is consolacioun
  To have an-other felawe in his peyne;"
  That oughte wel ben our opinioun,                                     710
  For, bothe thou and I, of love we pleyne;
  So ful of sorwe am I, soth for to seyne,
  That certeynly no more harde grace
  May sitte on me, for-why ther is no space.

  103. If god wole thou art not agast of me,                            715
  Lest I wolde of thy lady thee bigyle,
  Thow wost thy-self whom that I love, pardee,
  As I best can, gon sithen longe whyle.
  And sith thou wost I do it for no wyle,
  And sith I am he that thou tristest most,                             720
  Tel me sumwhat, sin al my wo thou wost.'

  104. Yet Troilus, for al this, no word seyde,
  But longe he lay as stille as he ded were;
  And after this with sykinge he abreyde,
  And to Pandarus voys he lente his ere,                                725
  And up his eyen caste he, that in fere
  Was Pandarus, lest that in frenesye
  He sholde falle, or elles sone dye:

  105. And cryde 'a-wake' ful wonderly and sharpe;
  'What? slombrestow as in a lytargye?                                  730
  Or artow lyk an asse to the harpe,
  That hereth soun, whan men the strenges plye,
  But in his minde of that no melodye
  May sinken, him to glade, for that he
  So dul is of his bestialitee?'                                        735

  106. And with that Pandare of his wordes stente;
  But Troilus yet him no word answerde,
  For-why to telle nas not his entente
  To never no man, for whom that he so ferde.
  For it is seyd, 'man maketh ofte a yerde                              740
  With which the maker is him-self y-beten
  In sondry maner,' as thise wyse treten,

  107. And namely, in his counseyl tellinge
  That toucheth love that oughte be secree;
  For of him-self it wolde y-nough out-springe,                         745
  But-if that it the bet governed be.
  Eek som-tyme it is craft to seme flee
  Fro thing which in effect men hunte faste;
  Al this gan Troilus in his herte caste.

  108. But nathelees, whan he had herd him crye                         750
  'Awake!' he gan to syke wonder sore,
  And seyde, 'freend, though that I stille lye,
  I am not deef; now pees, and cry no more;
  For I have herd thy wordes and thy lore;
  But suffre me my mischef to biwayle,                                  755
  For thy proverbes may me nought avayle.

  109. Nor other cure canstow noon for me.
  Eek I nil not be cured, I wol deye;
  What knowe I of the quene Niobe?
  Lat be thyne olde ensaumples, I thee preye.'                          760
  'No,' quod tho Pandarus, 'therfore I seye,
  Swich is delyt of foles to biwepe
  Hir wo, but seken bote they ne kepe.

  110. Now knowe I that ther reson in thee fayleth.
  But tel me, if I wiste what she were                                  765
  For whom that thee al this misaunter ayleth?
  Dorstestow that I tolde hir in hir ere
  Thy wo, sith thou darst not thy-self for fere,
  And hir bisoughte on thee to han som routhe?'
  'Why, nay,' quod he, 'by god and by my trouthe!'                      770

  111. 'What? not as bisily,' quod Pandarus,
  'As though myn owene lyf lay on this nede?'
  'No, certes, brother,' quod this Troilus.
  'And why?'--'For that thou sholdest never spede.'
  'Wostow that wel?'--'Ye, that is out of drede,'                       775
  Quod Troilus, 'for al that ever ye conne,
  She nil to noon swich wrecche as I be wonne.'

  112. Quod Pandarus, 'allas! what may this be,
  That thou despeyred art thus causelees?
  What? liveth not thy lady? _benedicite!_                              780
  How wostow so that thou art gracelees?
  Swich yvel is not alwey botelees.
  Why, put not impossible thus thy cure,
  Sin thing to come is ofte in aventure.

  113. I graunte wel that thou endurest wo                              785
  As sharp as doth he, Ticius, in helle,
  Whos stomak foules tyren ever-mo
  That highte volturis, as bokes telle.
  But I may not endure that thou dwelle
  In so unskilful an opinioun                                           790
  That of thy wo is no curacioun.

  114. But ones niltow, for thy coward herte,
  And for thyn ire and folish wilfulnesse,
  For wantrust, tellen of thy sorwes smerte,
  Ne to thyn owene help do bisinesse                                    795
  As muche as speke a resoun more or lesse,
  But lyest as he that list of no-thing recche.
  What womman coude love swich a wrecche?

  115. What may she demen other of thy deeth,
  If thou thus deye, and she not why it is,                             800
  But that for fere is yolden up thy breeth,
  For Grekes han biseged us, y-wis?
  Lord, which a thank than shaltow han of this!
  Thus wol she seyn, and al the toun at ones,
  "The wrecche is deed, the devel have his bones!"                      805

  116. Thou mayst allone here wepe and crye and knele;
  But, love a woman that she woot it nought,
  And she wol quyte that thou shalt not fele;
  Unknowe, unkist, and lost that is un-sought.
  What! many a man hath love ful dere y-bought                          810
  Twenty winter that his lady wiste,
  That never yet his lady mouth he kiste.

  117. What? shulde he therfor fallen in despeyr,
  Or be recreaunt for his owene tene,
  Or sleen him-self, al be his lady fayr?                               815
  Nay, nay, but ever in oon be fresh and grene
  To serve and love his dere hertes quene,
  And thenke it is a guerdoun hir to serve
  A thousand-fold more than he can deserve.'

  118. And of that word took hede Troilus,                              820
  And thoughte anoon what folye he was inne,
  And how that sooth him seyde Pandarus,
  That for to sleen him-self mighte he not winne,
  But bothe doon unmanhod and a sinne,
  And of his deeth his lady nought to wyte;                             825
  For of his wo, god woot, she knew ful lyte.

  119. And with that thought he gan ful sore syke,
  And seyde, 'allas! what is me best to do?'
  To whom Pandare answerde, 'if thee lyke,
  The best is that thou telle me thy wo;                                830
  And have my trouthe, but thou it finde so,
  I be thy bote, or that it be ful longe,
  To peces do me drawe, and sithen honge!'

  120. 'Ye, so thou seyst,' quod Troilus tho, 'allas!
  But, god wot, it is not the rather so;                                835
  Ful hard were it to helpen in this cas,
  For wel finde I that Fortune is my fo,
  Ne alle the men that ryden conne or go
  May of hir cruel wheel the harm withstonde;
  For, as hir list, she pleyeth with free and bonde.'                   840

  121. Quod Pandarus, 'than blamestow Fortune
  For thou art wrooth, ye, now at erst I see;
  Wostow nat wel that Fortune is commune
  To every maner wight in som degree?
  And yet thou hast this comfort, lo, pardee!                           845
  That, as hir Ioyes moten over-goon,
  So mote hir sorwes passen everichoon.

  122. For if hir wheel stinte any-thing to torne,
  Than cessed she Fortune anoon to be:
  Now, sith hir wheel by no wey may soiorne,                            850
  What wostow if hir mutabilitee
  Right as thy-selven list, wol doon by thee,
  Or that she be not fer fro thyn helpinge?
  Paraunter, thou hast cause for to singe!

  123. And therfor wostow what I thee beseche?                          855
  Lat be thy wo and turning to the grounde;
  For who-so list have helping of his leche,
  To him bihoveth first unwrye his wounde.
  To Cerberus in helle ay be I bounde,
  Were it for my suster, al thy sorwe,                                  860
  By my wil, she sholde al be thyn to-morwe.

  124. Loke up, I seye, and tel me what she is
  Anoon, that I may goon aboute thy nede;
  Knowe ich hir ought? for my love, tel me this;
  Than wolde I hopen rather for to spede.'                              865
  Tho gan the veyne of Troilus to blede,
  For he was hit, and wex al reed for shame;
  'A ha!' quod Pandare, 'here biginneth game!'

  125. And with that word he gan him for to shake,
  And seyde, 'theef, thou shalt hir name telle.'                        870
  But tho gan sely Troilus for to quake
  As though men sholde han lad him in-to helle,
  And seyde, 'allas! of al my wo the welle,
  Than is my swete fo called Criseyde!'
  And wel nigh with the word for fere he deyde.                         875

  126. And whan that Pandare herde hir name nevene,
  Lord, he was glad, and seyde, 'freend so dere,
  Now fare a-right, for Ioves name in hevene,
  Love hath biset the wel, be of good chere;
  For of good name and wysdom and manere                                880
  She hath y-nough, and eek of gentilesse;
  If she be fayr, thow wost thy-self, I gesse.

  127. Ne I never saw a more bountevous
  Of hir estat, ne a gladder, ne of speche
  A freendlier, ne a more gracious                                      885
  For to do wel, ne lasse hadde nede to seche
  What for to doon; and al this bet to eche,
  In honour, to as fer as she may strecche,
  A kinges herte semeth by hires a wrecche.

  128. And for-thy loke of good comfort thou be;                        890
  For certeinly, the firste poynt is this
  Of noble corage and wel ordeynè,
  A man to have pees with him-self, y-wis;
  So oughtest thou, for nought but good it is
  To loven wel, and in a worthy place;                                  895
  Thee oughte not to clepe it hap, but grace.

  129. And also thenk, and ther-with glade thee,
  That sith thy lady vertuous is al,
  So folweth it that ther is som pitee
  Amonges alle thise othere in general;                                 900
  And for-thy see that thou, in special,
  Requere nought that is ayein hir name;
  For vertue streccheth not him-self to shame.

  130. But wel is me that ever I was born,
  That thou biset art in so good a place;                               905
  For by my trouthe, in love I dorste have sworn,
  Thee sholde never han tid thus fayr a grace;
  And wostow why? for thou were wont to chace
  At love in scorn, and for despyt him calle
  "Seynt Idiot, lord of thise foles alle."                              910

  131. How often hastow maad thy nyce Iapes,
  And seyd, that loves servants everichone
  Of nycetee ben verray goddes apes;
  And some wolde monche hir mete alone,
  Ligging a-bedde, and make hem for to grone;                           915
  And som, thou seydest, hadde a blaunche fevere,
  And preydest god he sholde never kevere!

  132. And some of hem toke on hem, for the colde,
  More than y-nough, so seydestow ful ofte;
  And some han feyned ofte tyme, and tolde                              920
  How that they wake, whan they slepen softe;
  And thus they wolde han brought hem-self a-lofte,
  And nathelees were under at the laste;
  Thus seydestow, and Iapedest ful faste.

  133. Yet seydestow, that, for the more part,                          925
  These loveres wolden speke in general,
  And thoughten that it was a siker art,
  For fayling, for to assayen over-al.
  Now may I iape of thee, if that I shal!
  But nathelees, though that I sholde deye,                             930
  That thou art noon of tho, that dorste I seye.

  134. Now beet thy brest, and sey to god of love,
  "Thy grace, lord! for now I me repente
  If I mis spak, for now my-self I love:"
  Thus sey with al thyn herte in good entente.'                         935
  Quod Troilus, 'a! lord! I me consente,
  And pray to thee my Iapes thou foryive,
  And I shal never-more whyl I live.'

  135. 'Thow seyst wel,' quod Pandare, 'and now I hope
  That thou the goddes wraththe hast al apesed;                         940
  And sithen thou hast wepen many a drope,
  And seyd swich thing wher-with thy god is plesed,
  Now wolde never god but thou were esed;
  And think wel, she of whom rist al thy wo
  Here-after may thy comfort been al-so.                                945

  136. For thilke ground, that bereth the wedes wikke,
  Bereth eek thise holsom herbes, as ful ofte
  Next the foule netle, rough and thikke,
  The rose waxeth swote and smothe and softe;
  And next the valey is the hil a-lofte;                                950
  And next the derke night the glade morwe;
  And also Ioye is next the fyn of sorwe.

  137. Now loke that atempre be thy brydel,
  And, for the beste, ay suffre to the tyde,
  Or elles al our labour is on ydel;                                    955
  He hasteth wel that wysly can abyde;
  Be diligent, and trewe, and ay wel hyde.
  Be lusty, free, persevere in thy servyse,
  And al is wel, if thou werke in this wyse.

  138. But he that parted is in every place                             960
  Is no-wher hool, as writen clerkes wyse;
  What wonder is, though swich oon have no grace?
  Eek wostow how it fareth of som servyse?
  As plaunte a tre or herbe, in sondry wyse,
  And on the morwe pulle it up as blyve,                                965
  No wonder is, though it may never thryve.

  139. And sith that god of love hath thee bistowed
  In place digne un-to thy worthinesse,
  Stond faste, for to good port hastow rowed;
  And of thy-self, for any hevinesse,                                   970
  Hope alwey wel; for, but-if drerinesse
  Or over-haste our bothe labour shende,
  I hope of this to maken a good ende.

  140. And wostow why I am the lasse a-fered
  Of this matere with my nece trete?                                    975
  For this have I herd seyd of wyse y-lered,
  "Was never man ne woman yet bigete
  That was unapt to suffren loves hete
  Celestial, or elles love of kinde;"
  For-thy som grace I hope in hir to finde.                             980

  141. And for to speke of hir in special,
  Hir beautee to bithinken and hir youthe,
  It sit hir nought to be celestial
  As yet, though that hir liste bothe and couthe;
  But trewely, it sete hir wel right nouthe                             985
  A worthy knight to loven and cheryce,
  And but she do, I holde it for a vyce.

  142. Wherfore I am, and wol be, ay redy
  To peyne me to do yow this servyse;
  For bothe yow to plese thus hope I                                    990
  Her-afterward; for ye beth bothe wyse,
  And conne it counseyl kepe in swich a wyse,
  That no man shal the wyser of it be;
  And so we may be gladed alle three.

  143. And, by my trouthe, I have right now of thee                     995
  A good conceyt in my wit, as I gesse,
  And what it is, I wol now that thou see.
  I thenke, sith that love, of his goodnesse,
  Hath thee converted out of wikkednesse,
  That thou shalt be the beste post, I leve,                           1000
  Of al his lay, and most his foos to-greve.

  144. Ensample why, see now these wyse clerkes,
  That erren aldermost a-yein a lawe,
  And ben converted from hir wikked werkes
  Thorugh grace of god, that list hem to him drawe,                    1005
  Than arn they folk that han most god in awe,
  And strengest-feythed been, I understonde,
  And conne an errour alder-best withstonde.'

  145. Whan Troilus had herd Pandare assented
  To been his help in loving of Criseyde,                              1010
  Wex of his wo, as who seyth, untormented,
  But hotter wex his love, and thus he seyde,
  With sobre chere, al-though his herte pleyde,
  'Now blisful Venus helpe, er that I sterve,
  Of thee, Pandare, I may som thank deserve.                           1015

  146. But, dere frend, how shal myn wo ben lesse
  Til this be doon? and goode, eek tel me this,
  How wiltow seyn of me and my destresse?
  Lest she be wrooth, this drede I most, y-wis,
  Or nil not here or trowen how it is.                                 1020
  Al this drede I, and eek for the manere
  Of thee, hir eem, she nil no swich thing here.'

  147. Quod Pandarus, 'thou hast a ful gret care
  Lest that the cherl may falle out of the mone!
  Why, lord! I hate of thee thy nyce fare!                             1025
  Why, entremete of that thou hast to done!
  For goddes love, I bidde thee a bone,
  So lat me alone, and it shal be thy beste.'--
  'Why, freend,' quod he, 'now do right as thee leste.

  148. But herke, Pandare, o word, for I nolde                         1030
  That thou in me wendest so greet folye,
  That to my lady I desiren sholde
  That toucheth harm or any vilenye;
  For dredelees, me were lever dye
  Than she of me ought elles understode                                1035
  But that, that mighte sounen in-to gode.'

  149. Tho lough this Pandare, and anoon answerde,
  'And I thy borw? fy! no wight dooth but so;
  I roughte nought though that she stode and herde
  How that thou seyst; but fare-wel, I wol go.                         1040
  A-dieu! be glad! god spede us bothe two!
  Yif me this labour and this besinesse,
  And of my speed be thyn al that swetnesse.'

  150. Tho Troilus gan doun on knees to falle,
  And Pandare in his armes hente faste,                                1045
  And seyde, 'now, fy on the Grekes alle!
  Yet, pardee, god shal helpe us at the laste;
  And dredelees, if that my lyf may laste,
  And god to-forn, lo, som of hem shal smerte;
  And yet me athinketh that this avaunt me asterte!                    1050

  151. Now, Pandare, I can no more seye,
  But thou wys, thou wost, thou mayst, thou art al!
  My lyf, my deeth, hool in thyn honde I leye;
  Help now,' quod he. 'Yis, by my trouthe, I shal.'
  'God yelde thee, freend, and this in special,'                       1055
  Quod Troilus, 'that thou me recomaunde
  To hir that to the deeth me may comaunde.'

  152. This Pandarus tho, desirous to serve
  His fulle freend, than seyde in this manere,
  'Far-wel, and thenk I wol thy thank deserve;                         1060
  Have here my trouthe, and that thou shalt wel here.'--
  And wente his wey, thenking on this matere,
  And how he best mighte hir beseche of grace,
  And finde a tyme ther-to, and a place.

  153. For every wight that hath an hous to founde                     1065
  Ne renneth nought the werk for to biginne
  With rakel hond, but he wol byde a stounde,
  And sende his hertes lyne out fro with-inne
  Alderfirst his purpos for to winne.
  Al this Pandare in his herte thoughte,                               1070
  And caste his werk ful wysly, or he wroughte.

  154. But Troilus lay tho no lenger doun,
  But up anoon up-on his stede bay,
  And in the feld he pleyde tho leoun;
  Wo was that Greek that with him mette that day.                      1075
  And in the toun his maner tho forth ay
  So goodly was, and gat him so in grace,
  That ech him lovede that loked on his face.

  155. For he bicom the frendlyeste wight,
  The gentileste, and eek the moste free,                              1080
  The thriftieste and oon the beste knight,
  That in his tyme was, or mighte be.
  Dede were his Iapes and his crueltee,
  His heighe port and his manere estraunge,
  And ech of tho gan for a vertu chaunge.                              1085

  156. Now lat us stinte of Troilus a stounde,
  That fareth lyk a man that hurt is sore,
  And is somdel of akinge of his wounde
  Y-lissed wel, but heled no del more:
  And, as an esy pacient, the lore                                     1090
  Abit of him that gooth aboute his cure;
  And thus he dryveth forth his aventure.


The MSS. are:--Cl. (= Campsall MS.), _and_ Cp. (= Corp. Chr. Camb. 61),
_taken as the basis of the text_; H. (= Harl. 2280); H2. (= Harl. 3943);
Cm. (= Cambridge MS. Gg. 4. 27); Ed. (= printed edition, 1532).

1-70. _Lost in_ Cm. and H2. (_where it is supplied in late hand_). 5. Cl.
Cp. froye; H. fro ye. 6. Cl. helpe; Cp. H. help. 7. Cp. thise; Cl. H. this.
15. Cl. seruauntz. 18. Cl. _om._ I; H. I am; Cp. Ed. am I. 20. Cl. H.
Vn-to; Cp. Ed. To. 21. Cl. be his; Cp. be this; H. by this. 23. Cl. ony;
Cp. Hl. any (_often_). 24. Cp. Hl. Remembreth; Cl. Remembre. 26. Cl. other
fok; Cp. othere folk. 27. Cl. dorst; Cp. H. dorste. 31. Cp. H. Ed. hem; Cl.
him. 36, 42. Cl. Cp. desespeyred; H. despeyred; Ed. dispeyred. 41. Cp. To;
Cl. H. So. 44. Cl. H. goode; Cp. Ed. good. 45. Cp. ladies so; Cl. loues
for; H. loueres for. 48. Cl. seruauntz. 58. Cl. went; Cp. H. wente. 62. Cl.
raueshyng; Cp. rauysshynge. 69. Cl. high (!); Cp. highte; H. hyghte. 70.
Cl. Delphebus; Cp. H. Ed. Delphicus. 71. Cl. whanne; Cp. whan. 76. Cl.
wyst; H. west; Cm. woste; Cp. wiste. 79. Cl. forknowyng; Cp. H. Cm.
for-knowynge. 80. Cl. pryely (!); Cp. H. pryuely; Cm. preuili. 82. Cl. H.
bothen; Cp. Cm. bothe. 87. Cl. Cp. H. _ins._ fals _bef._ fled; H2. Ed.
_om._ 90. Cl. onys. 96. Cl. H. nyst; Cm. nyste. 98. Cl. dorst make; Cp.
dorste; H. dorst; Cm. durste. 99. Cp. a-; _rest_ al. 101. Cl. H. faire; Cp.
Cm. fair. 102. Cl. angelyk; Cp. aungelik. 112. Cl. Cm. selue; Cp. H.
seluen. 126. Cl. _om. 2nd_ and. // H. hoom; Cm. hom; Cl. home. 128. to] Cp.
H. til. 129. Cl. dwelled; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. was dwellynge. 130. Cl. Kept; Cp.
Kepte. // Cl. yong; H. Cp. yonge. 132. Cl. hadde children; _rest_ children
hadde. 133. Cm. lete; Cl. late; H. latt. 137. Cp. H. Cm. eft; Ed. efte; Cl.
ofte. 139. H. Ed. vnder; H2. vndur; Cl. wonder (_wrongly_). // H. H2. eft;
Ed. efte; Cl. ofte. // H. whielen (_better_ wheelen); Cp. whilen; H2.
whilyn; Ed. whelmen; Cl. weylen; Cm. weyle. 143. Cm. here; _rest om._ 144.
Cm. dwelle; _rest_ to dwelle (_badly_). // Cl. Troiane; H2. troianys;
_rest_ troyan. 146. H2. homere; _rest_ Omer. // Cl. of (_for 1st_ or). 155.
Cl. come; _rest_ comen (comyn). 158. Cl. swoot; Cp. H. swote; Cm. swete.
161. Cl. H. H2. Palladions; Cm. Palasdionis (_for_ Palladionis). 162. Cl.
H. _wrongly ins._ goodly _before_ beste. Cp. Cm. beste; _rest_ best. 163.
H. Cm. wente; _rest_ went. 164. Cl. Cm. herkenen; Cp. herknen. 167. Cl.
bothe meene meste; H. Cp. bothe most meyne; Cm. bothe meste; Ed. bothe
most. 168. Cl. and for the; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. _om._ for. 171. H. furste; Cl.
Cm. first. 172. Cl. stode; Cp. stood. 174. Cl. yet thing seyn; H. þat seyn
thing; Cm. yit seyen þyng; H2. seyn thing (_best_). // Cl. presed; H. Cp.
preysed. 175. H. Cm. Cp. cloude; Cl. cloud. 176, 178. Cl. euerichone,
allone. 192. Cp. baiten; Cl. beyten. 196. H. Cm. Cp. ful; Cl. _om._ 198.
Cm. lewede; H2. lewde; Ed. leude; Cl. H. _om._ 199. H. Cm. Cp. Ed. which a
labour; Cl. swych labour as. 202. Cl. loues; _rest_ fooles (folis). 206.
Cl. to loken; _rest om._ to. 208. Cp. He kidde; Cl. And kyd. 209. Cp. Ful;
_rest_ For. 211. Cl. blynd; Cp. blynde (_twice_). 213. Cl. Suriquidrie.
216. Cm. mot; Ed. mote; Cp. moot; Cl. moste; H. schall. 217. _So_ Cl.;
_rest_ But alday fayleth thing that fooles wenden. 220. Cl. long; H. Cp.
longe. 224. Cl. felawes; _rest_ feres. 225. Cl. proud; H. Cm. Cp. proude.
227. Cp. swiche; Cl. swich. 228. Cl. dere; _rest_ stere. 229. Cl. hert
(_see_ l. 228).  Cl. H. wax; Cp. Cm. wex. 231. Cl. H. Wax; Cm. Wex. 234.
scornen] Cp. seruen. 240. Cl. H. Cp. Cm. or; H2. Ed. and. 244. Cl. of;
_rest_ in. 246. Cp. Cm. wel; Cl. H. wele. 248. Cl. addermost (!). 252. Cp.
H. H2. causeth; Cl. causen. 261. Cl. H. Cm. _om._ As (H2. Ed. _have it_).
262. Cl. letten; Cp. H. Cm. leten; H2. Ed. leuen. 264. Cl. Cm. Ioyes;
_rest_ Ioye. 266. H. refeere. 267. Cl. went; Cp. H. Cm. wente. // Cl.
pleynge. 268. H. Cm. Cp. Ed. of; Cl. and. 272. H. percede; Ed. perced; Cl.
Cp. procede (!). 274. Cl. wax; H. Cm. wex. 275. Cl. _om._ gan. 278. Cp.
herte; Cl. hert. 280. Cl. pleynge. 286. Cm. Schewede; Cl. H. Shewed. 294.
H. Cp. Cm. thoughte; Cl. thought. 294. Cl. fair; _rest_ good. 301. Cp. H.
wiste; Cl. wyst. 305. _All_ eyen (ey[gh]en). 306. Cp. Ed. he felte; H. he
felt; Cl. that he sholde; Cm. for to. 307. Cl. _om._ his. 308. Cl. Blyssyd;
Cp. H. Blissed; Cm. Ed. Blessed; _see_ 436. // Cl. Cp. kan thus; H. Ed.
thus kan. 310. Cl. al; H. Cm. alle. // Cl. _om._ for. 312. Cl. ne made. //
Cp. H. worde; Cl. word. 315. Cl. Ed. the seruise; _rest om._ the. 321. Cp.
H. Cm. Lest; Cl. Lyst. 324. Cp. H. torneth; Cl. Cm. turneth. 327. Cl. H2.
speche and cher; _rest_ chere and speche. 329. H. Ed. wrie; Cl. wre; Cp.
wrey. 330. Cl. lyst; Cp. lest; H. leste. 337. Cl. I; _rest_ In. // Cl.
noun-; H. non-; H2. Ed. no; Cp. Cm. veyn (_for_ noun). 341. Cp. H. mote;
Cl. Cm. mot. 351. Cl. H. _om._ that. 354. Cp. vn-til. 356. Cp. doon; H.
don; Cl. Cm. done. 357. Cl. hym; _rest_ hem. 360. Cl. _om._ eft. 361. Cl.
ony lette; _rest om._ ony. 363. Cl. a; H2. in the; _rest_ and. 369. H.
dydde; Ed. dyd; _rest_ dede. 371. Cl. seruauntz. 374. Cp. Cm. ne (_2nd_);
Cl. H. no. 379. Cl. H. toke; Cp. took. 381. H. Cp. hiden; Cl. hide. 385.
Cp. [gh]eldeth. // Cl. _om._ seed. 386. Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche. 387. Cl.
For what (_for_ What for). // Cl. speken; _rest_ speke (spek). 394. Cp. H.
Cm. myn; Cl. my. 395. Cp. H. tonges; Cm. tungis; Cl. tonge. // Cl.
deference (!). 398. Cl. _om._ so. // Cl. it to; _rest om._ to. // Cl. hire;
_rest_ here. 399. HEADING; _so_ Cp. H.; Cm. Cantus; Ed. The song of
Troylus. 400. Cl. _om._ no. 401. whiche] Cl. what. 402. H. Cp. whennes
comth; Cm. whennys comyt; Cl. whens cometh. 403. Cl. thenketh. 405. Cl. me
so goodly; _rest_ to me sauory. 406. Cm. H2. _om._ it. 408. Cl. walyng.
409. Cl. thanne. 411. Cp. Cm. harm; Cl. H. harme. 412. Cl. _om._ thee. //
Cp. swich; Cl. H. swiche. 413. Cp. H. Cm. be; _rest_ so be. 416. Cm.
stereles; H. stierlees; Cl. sterles; Cp. sterlees. 417. Cp. bitwixen; H.
betwexen; Cm. be-twexe; Cl. by-twen. 423. Cp. oughte; Cm. au[gh]te; Cl.
aught. // H. yours; Cp. youres; Cl. youre; _see_ l. 422. 427. Cl. leue; Cp.
H. Cm. lyue. 430. Cl. my lord; _rest om._ my. 432. estat] Cl. estal. 435.
Cl. deynede; Cp. H. Cm. deyned. 436. _After_ love, Cl. _ins._ þe, _and_ H.
_ins._ ye. // H2. blesse; Cl. blysse; Cp. H. blisse; Cm. blys. 439. held]
Cl. hold. 440. Cm. brende; Cl. brend. 444. Cp. Cm. sette; Cl. H. sett. 446.
H. preesse. 453. Cp. H. Cm. herte; Cl. hert. // _All_ eye (ey[gh]e). 454.
Cl. fairest; _rest_ fairer. 457. Cl. tymes; _see_ 531. 460. H2. deyd; Cp.
Ed. deyde; Cl. Cm. deyede; H. dyede. 462. rewe] Cl. rew. 463. dredes] Cl.
dredres. // Cp. H. Ed. fledde; _rest_ fled. 464. Cp. thassege. //
savacioun] Cl. saluacioun. 465. Ne in] Cm. Cp. Nyn. // Cl. doon; _rest_ non
(none). // Cl. H. Ed. fownes; Cm. founys. 470. Cl. shoures sharpe. // Cm.
felle; Ed. fel; Cl. H. fille. 471. Cl. and; _rest_ or. 475. Cl. trauayl.
483. H2. al; _rest om._; _read_ alle. 486. H. toke; Cl. took. 487. Cp. H.
eue; Cl. euen. 490. _So all._ 491. H. Cm. ferde; Cl. ferd. 496. H2. as;
_rest_ that; _read_ as that. 498. H. than; Cl. Cm. thanne. // Cm. fel to;
Cl. Cp. felt. 500. Cl. H. hadde; Cm. hade; Ed. _om._ 502. Cp. H. Ed.
whiche; Cl. such. // Cl. thought; felt. 503. Cl. dorst; Cp. dorste. 511.
Cp. H. nat; Cm. not; Cl. nought. 516. H. leest; Cl. lest. 517. Cp. H. _om._
be. 518. Cm. febly; Cl. febely; H. fiebly. 520. H. Cp. Ed. louen; Cm. loue;
Cl. leue. 528. Cl. _om._ a. 530. Cp. H. hidde; Ed. hyd; Cl. Cm. hed. 534.
Cl. yet; _rest_ ye. 536. Cp. H. Cm. may; Cl. wole. 544. Cl. H. herd; Cm.
Cp. herde. 545. Cm. thoughte; Cl. H. bithought. 546. Cl. multeplie. 549.
Cl. onys. // H. herde; Cl. herd. 554. Cl. _om._ som. 555. H. Cm. Cp. falle;
Cl. fallen. 557. H. ferde; Cl. Cm. ferd. 563. Cm. H2. sorwe; Ed. sorowe;
Cp. H. wo to; Cl. wo. 567. Cl. Cm. desirede. 569. Cp. H. Ed. sen me. 572.
H. henne; Cm. hene; Cl. hens; Cp. hennes. 573. Cl. dishese. 578. Cl. Cm.
wrought; H. y-wrogth; Cp. H2. Ed. yet wrought. 580. Cp. H. Ed. leste; Cl.
Cm. lest. 581. Cl. Ne be; _rest om._ Ne. 582. Cl. sorwe; _rest_ wo. 586. H.
swiche; Cp. Cm. swich; Cl. such. 589. Cl. Cm. þyn; H. Cp. þi. 596. Cp. H.
Cm. sorwful Troilus; Cl. Troilus sorwfully. 600. Cl. don. 601. Cp. Cm.
truste; H. tryste; Cl. trust. 602. Cm. herkene; Cl. H. herke. // Cm. frend;
Cl. H. frende. 606. Cp. H. sailleth; Cm. saylyth; Ed. sayleth; Cl.
ffayleth. 607. Cl. brennynly. 612. Cm. colde; Cl. H. cold. 613. Cl. telle;
_rest_ tolde. 622. Cl. Cm. thyn; Cp. H. thi. 626. Cm. exces; Cl. Cm.
excesse; Ed. axes. 630. Cl. ofte a wys man; Ed. H. Cp. a wys man ofte. 631.
Ed. whetston; Cl. Cp. H. wheston; Cm. weston. 633. Cl. out; Cm. ou[gh]t; H.
Cp. aught. 637. Cl. eche; _rest_ his. 643. Cp. H. Ech; Cl. Cm. Eche. 647.
Cl. ought; _but see_ l. 649. 650. Cp. Though; H. Thoughe; Cl. Cm. Thow. //
Cl. desir; H. Ed. desire; Cp. desyre. 653. Cp. herdesse; Cl. H. Cm.
hierdesse. 654. H. Oonone. 658. Cl. No (_for_ Now). // Cl. herkene; Cp.
herkne; H. herken; Cm. herkenyt; Ed. herkeneth. 659. Cl. medecyne. 661. Cp.
H. Ed. herbes; Cl. erbess. // Cl. Cp. H. she; _rest_ he. 663. Cp. H.
bounden; Cm. boundyn; Cl. bounde. 664. Ed. Admete; _rest_ Amete. 665. Cl.
koude al; _rest om._ al. 667. Cl. H. oone; Cm. on. 674. Cm. deyen; Cl.
deye; Cp. H. dyen. 675. Cp. H. Ed. mo; Cl. Cm. more. 677. H2. thogh; Cm.
þow; Cl. they; Cp. H. theigh. // thogh that] Ed. although. 680. Cl. as a;
_rest om._ a. 681. Cl. Cp. Cm. telle; _rest_ tel. 682. H2. Ed. final; Cl.
finally; Cp. finaly; H. fynali; Cm. finially (!). 683. Cl. þyn (_for_
þyng). 685. Cl. wygh (!). 687. H. witeth; Cl. Cm. weteth. 689. Cl. wot I.
690. H. Cm. For for; Ed. As for; Cl. For. 693. H. Cm. Cp. Ed. tel me; Cl.
telle me. // Cl. Cm. thou; Cp. H. the. 694. Cl. Thise; _rest_ The. 697. Cl.
yn certeyn; _rest om._ yn. // Cl. next. 700. Cl. terys. 703. Cl. this; Cp.
H. thy. 704. Cl. forto; _rest_ to. 707. Cl. sechen; _rest_ seche hem. 710.
Cp. owghte; Cm. au[gh]te; Cl. H. ought. 716. Cp. Cm. wolde; Cl. wold; H.
wol. 720. Cl. sithen; Cp. H. sith; Ed. sythe; H2. seyst. // Cp. H. Cm. Ed.
that; Cl. yn whom. 723. H. Cp. Cm. lay as; Cl. _om._ as. 730. _All_
lytargye (litargye). 734. H. Cp. synken; Cm. synkyn; Cl. synk yn. 737. H.
Cp. answerde; Cl. answerede. 738. Cp. H. nas; Cl. nat (!); _rest_ was. 739.
Cl. _om._ no. 741. Cp. H. ybeten; Cm. I-bete; Cl. beten. 742. Cm. maner;
Cp. H. manere; Cl. maneres. // H. Cp. þise; Cl. þis. 743. H. tellynge; Cl.
Cm. tellyng. 744. Cl. ought; H. ougthte (_sic_). 745. Cp. Ed. ynough
outsprynge; Cm. Inow outsprynge; Cl. not ought sprynge. 764. Cp. H. Cm.
ther; _rest om._ 765. H. tel; Cl. Cm. telle. // Cl. wyst; Cp. H. Cm. Ed.
wiste. 767. Cm. told hyre; Ed. H2. tolde it; Cp. H. tolde; Cl. telle. 769.
Cp. by-soughte; Cl. H. bysought. 777. Cl. nyl not; _rest om._ not. // Cp.
H. noon; Cm. non; Cl. no. // Cl. _om._ as I. 779. Cl. desespered; Cm.
dispeyred; Cp. dispeired; H. despired. 780. Cp. bendiste; H. bendistee.
786. Cm. Cp. Ed. he; Cl. H2. the; H. _om._ // Ticius] Cm. which is; Ed.
Tesiphus; H2. Siciphus. 787. Cl. foughles. 788. Cl. H. volturis; H2.
vulturus; Ed. vultures; Cm. wulturn_us_ (!). 793. Cl. folessh. 796. Cp. H.
muche; Cl. Cm. meche. // Cl. lasse. 797. Ed. H2. lyest; Cp. list; H. liste;
Cl. lyk. // H2. lyst; Cl. H. lest; Cm. leste. 798. Cl. wolde (_for_ coude).
799. Cp. H. demen; Cm. demyn; Cl. deme. 803. H. Cm. thank; Cl. thonk. //
Cl. then; Cp. than. 812. he] Cl. yet. 814. Cp. recreant; Cl. H. recreaunte.
// Cl. H2. of; _rest_ for. 815. Cl. feyr. 817. H. Cp. Ed. serue; Cl.
seruen. 818. Cl. thenk. 819. Cp. Cm. fold; Cl. H. folde. 820. Cl. Cp. H.
_om._ And. 821. Cl. þought. 822. Cl. hym soth. 824. Cl. Cp. H2. _om._ a.
826. woot she knew] Cl. knoweth (!). 830. Cl. Cp. H. _ins._ al _bef._ thy.
833. Cl. Cp. H. pieces. 837. Cm. wel; Cl. H. wele. 839. Cm. whel; Cl. H.
whiel. 842. Cp. H. [gh]e; Cm. [gh]a; Cl. _om._ 846, 7. Cm. -gon, -on; Cl.
H. -gone, -one. 848, 850. Cl. H. whiel; Cm. whelys (whel). 851. if] Cl. of
(!). 855. what] Cl. whan. 858. Cm. onwrye; Ed. vnwrie; Cl. H. vnwre. 862,
864. Cm. tel; Cl. H. telle. 863. Cp. thy; H. þi; Cl. Cm. þin. 865. Cp.
hopen; Cl. H. hopen the; Cm. Ed. hope. 867. H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax. 871. Cl.
bigan; Cp. H. Cm. gan. 883. H2. Ne y; H. Ny (= Ne y); Cl. Cm. _om._ I. 885.
Cl. frendliour. // H2. ne a; Cl. H. na (= ne a); _see_ l. 884. 886. Cp.
_om. 2nd_ to. 889. Cl. H. hires; Ed. hers. 890-896. Cl. Cp. H. Cm. _omit_;
_from_ Ed. _and_ H2.; _also in_ Jo. _and_ Harl. 2392. 891. Ed. first; H2.
ferst; _read_ firste. 892. Ed. H2. wele. // Ed. ordayne the (_with_ the
_added_; ordeynè _is trisyllabic_). 894. H2. _om._ nought but (!). 895. H2.
wele; Ed. wel. 896. H2. oght; Ed. ought; _read_ oughte. 902. H. Cp. nought;
Cl. not. 907. Cp. H. Cm. han; Cl. a. // thus] Cl. so. 908. Ed. wo_n_t; Cp.
H. wonte; Cl. woned. 911. H. Cp. often; Cl. Cm. ofte. 914. H2. monche; Ed.
monch; Cl. mucche; H. muche. 915. Cl. _om._ make. 917. Cp. H. preydest; Cl.
preyedest. 918. Cl. som. 921. H. slepten. 922. Cl. wolden. 925. Ed. H. Cp.
Yet; Cm. Yit; Cl. Ye. // Cl. _om._ that. 927. Ed. H. Cp. thoughten; Cm.
thou[gh]tyn; Cl. thought. // Cl. Ed. _om._ that. 928. Cl. to assayn; H. Cp.
tassayen. 931. H. noon; Cp. non; Cl. none. 932. H. Cp. sey; Cl. seye. 935.
H. Cp. herte; Cl. hert. 937. Cp. H. for-[gh]iue; Cl. Cm. for-yeue. 938. Cp.
liue; Cl. Cm. leue. 939. Ed. H2. Pandare; Cl. H. Pandarus. 941. Cl. sithen
that; Cp. H. sithen. // H. wepen; Cm. wepyn; Cl. wopen. 945. H. Cm. ben;
Cl. be. 947. as] Cl. al; H2. and. 950, 1. Cl. nexst. // Cl. Cp. H2. derk;
_rest_ derke. 952. the--of] Cl. after. 955. Cp. al; Cl. H. alle. 958. Cp.
thy; Cl. Cm. þyn. 959. Cp. werke; Cl. werk. 960. Cm. H2. partyd; _rest_
departed. 962. Cp. H. Cm. though swich; Cl. that such. 963. of] Cl. on.
966. H. though; Cl. Cm. thow. // may] Cl. mowe. 969. Cp. Cm. faste; _rest_
fast. 972. Cm. bothis. 973. Cp. H. Ed. maken; Cl. Cm. make. 980. Cl. Cp.
Cm. _om._ to. 982. Cp. H. Ed. bethynken; Cl. byþynke. 984. As] Cl. And.
985. Cp. Cm. trewely; Cl. H. trewly. H. Cp. sate; Cl. Cm. sat; (_read_
sete). 986. H. Cp. louen; Cl. Cm. loue. 993. Cl. of it the wiser. 995. And]
Cl. For. 997. it] Cl. that. 1002. now] Cl. ye. // Cl. Cp. H. wyse; _rest_
grete. 1003. a] Cl. the. 1006. most god] Cm. god most. 1009. Cl. Whanne.
1017. MSS. telle; Ed. tel; _see_ l. 681. 1020. Cp. H. here; Cl. heren.
1024. may] // Cl. wole. 1028. Cp. malone. 1033. Cp. H. Ed. any; Cl. Cm.
ony. 1034. Cp. H. Ed. dredeles; _rest_ dredles. 1036. Cp. myghte; Cl. H.
myght. 1039. H. Cp. roughte; Cl. rought. 1042. H. Cm. Yif; Cp. Yef; Cl.
Yeue. 1044-1092. _Lost in_ Cm. 1044. Tho] Cl. But. // on] Cl. on his. 1045.
H. Cp. Ed. hente; Cl. hent. 1048. Cp. H. dredelees; Cl. dredles. 1050. H.
mathynketh; Ed. me athinketh; Cl. me ofthynketh; Cp. mathenketh. // Ed.
masterte; Cp. me sterte. 1051. _So all._ 1052. _Accent_ thou. 1059. Cp. H.
than; Cl. thenne. 1067. Cp. H. wol; Cl. wole. 1068. Cp. H. sende; Cl. send.
1069. _So all_. 1074. Cl. lyoun. 1075. Wo] Cl. Who (!) // that (2)] H. a.
1079. Cp. bicom; Cl. by come. 1080. _All_ most; _read_ moste. 1084. H.
hieghe; Cl. heigh. 1086. Cp. H. lat; Cl. late. 1092. H2. Ed. driueth; Cl.
drieth; Cp. H. dryeth.



  1. Out of these blake wawes for to sayle,
  O wind, O wind, the weder ginneth clere;
  For in this see the boot hath swich travayle,
  Of my conning that unnethe I it stere:
  This see clepe I the tempestous matere                                  5
  Of desespeyr that Troilus was inne:
  But now of hope the calendes biginne.

  2. O lady myn, that called art Cleo,
  Thou be my speed fro this forth, and my muse,
  To ryme wel this book, til I have do;                                  10
  Me nedeth here noon other art to use.
  For-why to every lovere I me excuse,
  That of no sentement I this endyte,
  But out of Latin in my tonge it wryte.

  3. Wherfore I nil have neither thank ne blame                          15
  Of al this werk, but pray yow mekely,
  Disblameth me, if any word be lame,
  For as myn auctor seyde, so seye I.
  Eek though I speke of love unfelingly,
  No wonder is, for it no-thing of newe is;                              20
  A blind man can nat Iuggen wel in hewis.

  4. Ye knowe eek, that in forme of speche is chaunge
  With-inne a thousand yeer, and wordes tho
  That hadden prys, now wonder nyce and straunge
  Us thinketh hem; and yet they spake hem so,                            25
  And spedde as wel in love as men now do;
  Eek for to winne love in sondry ages,
  In sondry londes, sondry ben usages.

  5. And for-thy if it happe in any wyse,
  That here be any lovere in this place                                  30
  That herkeneth, as the story wol devyse,
  How Troilus com to his lady grace,
  And thenketh, so nolde I nat love purchace,
  Or wondreth on his speche and his doinge,
  I noot; but it is me no wonderinge;                                    35

  6. For every wight which that to Rome went,
  Halt nat o path, or alwey o manere;
  Eek in some lond were al the gamen shent,
  If that they ferde in love as men don here,
  As thus, in open doing or in chere,                                    40
  In visitinge, in forme, or seyde hir sawes;
  For-thy men seyn, ech contree hath his lawes.

  7. Eek scarsly been ther in this place three
  That han in love seyd lyk and doon in al;
  For to thy purpos this may lyken thee,                                 45
  And thee right nought, yet al is seyd or shal;
  Eek som men grave in tree, som in stoon wal,
  As it bitit; but sin I have begonne,
  Myn auctor shal I folwen, if I conne.



  8. In May, that moder is of monthes glade,                             50
  That fresshe floures, blewe, and whyte, and rede,
  Ben quike agayn, that winter dede made,
  And ful of bawme is fletinge every mede;
  Whan Phebus doth his brighte bemes sprede
  Right in the whyte Bole, it so bitidde                                 55
  As I shal singe, on Mayes day the thridde,

  9. That Pandarus, for al his wyse speche,
  Felte eek his part of loves shottes kene,
  That, coude he never so wel of loving preche,
  It made his hewe a-day ful ofte grene;                                 60
  So shoop it, that him fil that day a tene
  In love, for which in wo to bedde he wente,
  And made, er it was day, ful many a wente.

  10. The swalwe Proignè, with a sorwful lay,
  Whan morwe com, gan make hir weymentinge,                              65
  Why she forshapen was; and ever lay
  Pandare a-bedde, half in a slomeringe,
  Til she so neigh him made hir chiteringe
  How Tereus gan forth hir suster take,
  That with the noyse of hir he gan a-wake;                              70

  11. And gan to calle, and dresse him up to ryse,
  Remembringe him his erand was to done
  From Troilus, and eek his greet empryse;
  And caste and knew in good plyt was the mone
  To doon viage, and took his wey ful sone                               75
  Un-to his neces paleys ther bi-syde;
  Now Ianus, god of entree, thou him gyde!

  12. Whan he was come un-to his neces place,
  'Wher is my lady?' to hir folk seyde he;
  And they him tolde; and he forth in gan pace,                          80
  And fond, two othere ladyes sete and she
  With-inne a paved parlour; and they three
  Herden a mayden reden hem the geste
  Of the Sege of Thebes, whyl hem leste.

  13. Quod Pandarus, 'ma dame, god yow see,                              85
  With al your book and al the companye!'
  'Ey, uncle myn, welcome y-wis,' quod she,
  And up she roos, and by the hond in hye
  She took him faste, and seyde, 'this night thrye,
  To goode mote it turne, of yow I mette!'                               90
  And with that word she doun on bench him sette.

  14. 'Ye, nece, ye shal fare wel the bet,
  If god wole, al this yeer,' quod Pandarus;
  'But I am sory that I have yow let
  To herknen of your book ye preysen thus;                               95
  For goddes love, what seith it? tel it us.
  Is it of love? O, som good ye me lere!'
  'Uncle,' quod she, 'your maistresse is not here!'

  15. With that they gonnen laughe, and tho she seyde,
  'This romaunce is of Thebes, that we rede;                            100
  And we han herd how that king Laius deyde
  Thurgh Edippus his sone, and al that dede;
  And here we stenten at these lettres rede,
  How the bisshop, as the book can telle,
  Amphiorax, fil thurgh the ground to helle.'                           105

  16. Quod Pandarus, 'al this knowe I my-selve,
  And al the assege of Thebes and the care;
  For her-of been ther maked bokes twelve:--
  But lat be this, and tel me how ye fare;
  Do wey your barbe, and shew your face bare;                           110
  Do wey your book, rys up, and lat us daunce,
  And lat us don to May som observaunce.'

  17. 'A! god forbede!' quod she, 'be ye mad?'
  Is that a widewes lyf, so god you save?
  By god, ye maken me right sore a-drad,                                115
  Ye ben so wilde, it semeth as ye rave!
  It sete me wel bet ay in a cave
  To bidde, and rede on holy seyntes lyves:
  Lat maydens gon to daunce, and yonge wyves.'

  18. 'As ever thryve I,' quod this Pandarus,                           120
  'Yet coude I telle a thing to doon you pleye.'
  'Now uncle dere,' quod she, 'tel it us
  For goddes love; is than the assege aweye?
  I am of Grekes so ferd that I deye.'
  'Nay, nay,' quod he, 'as ever mote I thryve!                          125
  It is a thing wel bet than swiche fyve.'

  19. 'Ye, holy god!' quod she, 'what thing is that?
  What? bet than swiche fyve? ey, nay, y-wis!
  For al this world ne can I reden what
  It sholde been; som Iape, I trowe, is this;                           130
  And but your-selven telle us what it is,
  My wit is for to arede it al to lene;
  As help me god, I noot nat what ye mene.'

  20. 'And I your borow, ne never shal, for me,
  This thing be told to yow, as mote I thryve!'                         135
  'And why so, uncle myn? why so?' quod she.
  'By god,' quod he, 'that wole I telle as blyve;
  For prouder womman were ther noon on-lyve,
  And ye it wiste, in al the toun of Troye;
  I iape nought, as ever have I Ioye!'                                  140

  21. Tho gan she wondren more than biforn
  A thousand fold, and doun hir eyen caste;
  For never, sith the tyme that she was born,
  To knowe thing desired she so faste;
  And with a syk she seyde him at the laste,                            145
  'Now, uncle myn, I nil yow nought displese,
  Nor axen more, that may do yow disese.'

  22. So after this, with many wordes glade,
  And freendly tales, and with mery chere,
  Of this and that they pleyde, and gunnen wade                         150
  In many an unkouth glad and deep matere,
  As freendes doon, whan they ben met y-fere;
  Til she gan axen him how Ector ferde,
  That was the tounes wal and Grekes yerde.

  23. 'Ful wel, I thanke it god,' quod Pandarus,                        155
  'Save in his arm he hath a litel wounde;
  And eek his fresshe brother Troilus,
  The wyse worthy Ector the secounde,
  In whom that every vertu list abounde,
  As alle trouthe and alle gentillesse,                                 160
  Wysdom, honour, fredom, and worthinesse.'

  24. 'In good feith, eem,' quod she, 'that lyketh me;
  They faren wel, god save hem bothe two!
  For trewely I holde it greet deyntee
  A kinges sone in armes wel to do,                                     165
  And been of good condiciouns ther-to;
  For greet power and moral vertu here
  Is selde y-seye in o persone y-fere.'

  25. 'In good feith, that is sooth,' quod Pandarus;
  But, by my trouthe, the king hath sones tweye,                        170
  That is to mene, Ector and Troilus,
  That certainly, though that I sholde deye,
  They been as voyde of vyces, dar I seye,
  As any men that liveth under the sonne,
  Hir might is wyde y-knowe, and what they conne.                       175

  26. Of Ector nedeth it nought for to telle;
  In al this world ther nis a bettre knight
  Than he, that is of worthinesse welle;
  And he wel more vertu hath than might.
  This knoweth many a wys and worthy wight.                             180
  The same prys of Troilus I seye,
  God help me so, I knowe not swiche tweye.'

  27. 'By god,' quod she, 'of Ector that is sooth;
  Of Troilus the same thing trowe I;
  For dredelees, men tellen that he dooth                               185
  In armes day by day so worthily,
  And bereth him here at hoom so gentilly
  To every wight, that al the prys hath he
  Of hem that me were levest preysed be.'

  28. 'Ye sey right sooth, y-wis,' quod Pandarus;                       190
  'For yesterday, who-so hadde with him been,
  He might have wondred up-on Troilus;
  For never yet so thikke a swarm of been
  Ne fleigh, as Grekes fro him gonne fleen;
  And thorugh the feld, in every wightes ere,                           195
  Ther nas no cry but "Troilus is there!"

  29. Now here, now there, he hunted hem so faste,
  Ther nas but Grekes blood; and Troilus,
  Now hem he hurte, and hem alle doun he caste;
  Ay where he wente it was arayed thus:                                 200
  He was hir deeth, and sheld and lyf for us;
  That as that day ther dorste noon with-stonde,
  Whyl that he held his blody swerd in honde.

  30. Therto he is the freendlieste man
  Of grete estat, that ever I saw my lyve;                              205
  And wher him list, best felawshipe can
  To suche as him thinketh able for to thryve.'
  And with that word tho Pandarus, as blyve,
  He took his leve, and seyde, 'I wol go henne:'
  'Nay, blame have I, myn uncle,' quod she thenne.                      210

  31. 'What eyleth yow to be thus wery sone,
  And namelich of wommen? wol ye so?
  Nay, sitteth down; by god, I have to done
  With yow, to speke of wisdom er ye go.'
  And every wight that was a-boute hem tho,                             215
  That herde that, gan fer a-wey to stonde,
  Whyl they two hadde al that hem liste in honde.

  32. Whan that hir tale al brought was to an ende
  Of hire estat and of hir governaunce,
  Quod Pandarus, 'now is it tyme I wende;                               220
  But yet, I seye, aryseth, lat us daunce,
  And cast your widwes habit to mischaunce:
  What list yow thus your-self to disfigure,
  Sith yow is tid thus fair an aventure?'

  33. 'A! wel bithought! for love of god,' quod she,                    225
  'Shal I not witen what ye mene of this?'
  'No, this thing axeth layser,' tho quod he,
  'And eek me wolde muche greve, y-wis,
  If I it tolde, and ye it toke amis.
  Yet were it bet my tonge for to stille                                230
  Than seye a sooth that were ayeins your wille.

  34. For, nece, by the goddesse Minerve,
  And Iuppiter, that maketh the thonder ringe,
  And by the blisful Venus that I serve,
  Ye been the womman in this world livinge,                             235
  With-oute paramours, to my witinge,
  That I best love, and lothest am to greve,
  And that ye witen wel your-self, I leve.'

  35. 'Y-wis, myn uncle,' quod she, 'grant mercy;
  Your freendship have I founden ever yit;                              240
  I am to no man holden trewely
  So muche as yow, and have so litel quit;
  And, with the grace of god, emforth my wit,
  As in my gilt I shal you never offende;
  And if I have er this, I wol amende.                                  245

  36. But, for the love of god, I yow beseche,
  As ye ben he that I most love and triste,
  Lat be to me your fremde maner speche,
  And sey to me, your nece, what yow liste:'
  And with that word hir uncle anoon hir kiste,                         250
  And seyde, 'gladly, leve nece dere,
  Tak it for good that I shal seye yow here.'

  37. With that she gan hir eyen doun to caste,
  And Pandarus to coghe gan a lyte,
  And seyde, 'nece, alwey, lo! to the laste,                            255
  How-so it be that som men hem delyte
  With subtil art hir tales for to endyte,
  Yet for al that, in hir entencioun,
  Hir tale is al for som conclusioun.

  38. And sithen thende is every tales strengthe,                       260
  And this matere is so bihovely,
  What sholde I peynte or drawen it on lengthe
  To yow, that been my freend so feithfully?'
  And with that word he gan right inwardly
  Biholden hir, and loken on hir face,                                  265
  And seyde, 'on suche a mirour goode grace!'

  39. Than thoughte he thus, 'if I my tale endyte
  Ought hard, or make a proces any whyle,
  She shal no savour han ther-in but lyte,
  And trowe I wolde hir in my wil bigyle.                               270
  For tendre wittes wenen al be wyle
  Ther-as they can nat pleynly understonde;
  For-thy hir wit to serven wol I fonde'--

  40. And loked on hir in a besy wyse,
  And she was war that he byheld hir so,                                275
  And seyde, 'lord! so faste ye me avyse!
  Sey ye me never er now? what sey ye, no?'
  'Yes, yes,' quod he, 'and bet wole er I go;
  But, by my trouthe, I thoughte now if ye
  Be fortunat, for now men shal it see.                                 280

  41. For to every wight som goodly aventure
  Som tyme is shape, if he it can receyven;
  And if that he wol take of it no cure,
  Whan that it cometh, but wilfully it weyven,
  Lo, neither cas nor fortune him deceyven,                             285
  But right his verray slouthe and wrecchednesse;
  And swich a wight is for to blame, I gesse.

  42. Good aventure, O bele nece, have ye
  Ful lightly founden, and ye conne it take;
  And, for the love of god, and eek of me,                              290
  Cacche it anoon, lest aventure slake.
  What sholde I lenger proces of it make?
  Yif me your hond, for in this world is noon,
  If that you list, a wight so wel begoon.

  43. And sith I speke of good entencioun,                              295
  As I to yow have told wel here-biforn,
  And love as wel your honour and renoun
  As creature in al this world y-born;
  By alle the othes that I have yow sworn,
  And ye be wrooth therfore, or wene I lye,                             300
  Ne shal I never seen yow eft with yë.

  44. Beth nought agast, ne quaketh nat; wher-to?
  Ne chaungeth nat for fere so your hewe;
  For hardely, the werste of this is do;
  And though my tale as now be to yow newe,                             305
  Yet trist alwey, ye shal me finde trewe;
  And were it thing that me thoughte unsittinge,
  To yow nolde I no swiche tales bringe.'

  45. 'Now, my good eem, for goddes love, I preye,'
  Quod she, 'com of, and tel me what it is;                             310
  For bothe I am agast what ye wol seye,
  And eek me longeth it to wite, y-wis.
  For whether it be wel or be amis,
  Sey on, lat me not in this fere dwelle:'
  'So wol I doon, now herkneth, I shal telle:                           315

  46. Now, nece myn, the kinges dere sone,
  The goode, wyse, worthy, fresshe, and free,
  Which alwey for to do wel is his wone,
  The noble Troilus, so loveth thee,
  That, bot ye helpe, it wol his bane be.                               320
  Lo, here is al, what sholde I more seye?
  Doth what yow list, to make him live or deye.

  47. But if ye lete him deye, I wol sterve;
  Have her my trouthe, nece, I nil not lyen;
  Al sholde I with this knyf my throte kerve'--                         325
  With that the teres braste out of his yën,
  And seyde, 'if that ye doon us bothe dyen,
  Thus giltelees, than have ye fisshed faire;
  What mende ye, though that we bothe apeyre?

  48. Allas! he which that is my lord so dere,                          330
  That trewe man, that noble gentil knight,
  That nought desireth but your freendly chere,
  I see him deye, ther he goth up-right,
  And hasteth him, with al his fulle might,
  For to be slayn, if fortune wol assente;                              335
  Allas! that god yow swich a beautee sente!

  49. If it be so that ye so cruel be,
  That of his deeth yow liste nought to recche,
  That is so trewe and worthy, as ye see,
  No more than of a Iapere or a wrecche,                                340
  If ye be swich, your beautee may not strecche
  To make amendes of so cruel a dede;
  Avysement is good bifore the nede.

  50. Wo worth the faire gemme vertulees!
  Wo worth that herbe also that dooth no bote!                          345
  Wo worth that beautee that is routhelees!
  Wo worth that wight that tret ech under fote!
  And ye, that been of beautee crop and rote,
  If therwith-al in you ther be no routhe,
  Than is it harm ye liven, by my trouthe!                              350

  51. And also thenk wel, that this is no gaude;
  For me were lever, thou and I and he
  Were hanged, than I sholde been his baude,
  As heyghe, as men mighte on us alle y-see:
  I am thyn eem, the shame were to me,                                  355
  As wel as thee, if that I sholde assente,
  Thorugh myn abet, that he thyn honour shente.

  52. Now understond, for I yow nought requere,
  To binde yow to him thorugh no beheste,
  But only that ye make him bettre chere                                360
  Than ye han doon er this, and more feste,
  So that his lyf be saved, at the leste:
  This al and som, and playnly our entente;
  God helpe me so, I never other mente.

  53. Lo, this request is not but skile, y-wis,                         365
  Ne doute of reson, pardee, is ther noon.
  I sette the worste that ye dredden this,
  Men wolden wondren seen him come or goon:
  Ther-ayeins answere I thus a-noon,
  That every wight, but he be fool of kinde,                            370
  Wol deme it love of freendship in his minde.

  54. What? who wol deme, though he see a man
  To temple go, that he the images eteth?
  Thenk eek how wel and wysly that he can
  Governe him-self, that he no-thing foryeteth,                         375
  That, wher he cometh, he prys and thank him geteth;
  And eek ther-to, he shal come here so selde,
  What fors were it though al the toun behelde?

  55. Swich love of freendes regneth al this toun;
  And wrye yow in that mantel ever-mo;                                  380
  And, god so wis be my savacioun,
  As I have seyd, your beste is to do so.
  But alwey, goode nece, to stinte his wo,
  So lat your daunger sucred ben a lyte,
  That of his deeth ye be nought for to wyte.'                          385

  56. Criseyde, which that herde him in this wyse,
  Thoughte, 'I shal fele what he meneth, y-wis.'
  'Now, eem,' quod she, 'what wolde ye devyse,
  What is your reed I sholde doon of this?'
  'That is wel seyd,' quod he, 'certayn, best is                        390
  That ye him love ayein for his lovinge,
  As love for love is skilful guerdoninge.

  57. Thenk eek, how elde wasteth every houre
  In eche of yow a party of beautee;
  And therfore, er that age thee devoure,                               395
  Go love, for, olde, ther wol no wight of thee.
  Lat this proverbe a lore un-to yow be;
  "To late y-war, quod Beautee, whan it paste;"
  And elde daunteth daunger at the laste.

  58. The kinges fool is woned to cryen loude,                          400
  Whan that him thinketh a womman bereth hir hyë,
  "So longe mote ye live, and alle proude,
  Til crowes feet be growe under your yë,
  And sende yow thanne a mirour in to pryë
  In whiche ye may see your face a-morwe!"                              405
  Nece, I bidde wisshe yow no more sorwe.'

  59. With this he stente, and caste adoun the heed,
  And she bigan to breste a-wepe anoon.
  And seyde, 'allas, for wo! why nere I deed?
  For of this world the feith is al agoon!                              410
  Allas! what sholden straunge to me doon,
  When he, that for my beste freend I wende,
  Ret me to love, and sholde it me defende?

  60. Allas! I wolde han trusted, doutelees,
  That if that I, thurgh my disaventure,                                415
  Had loved other him or Achilles,
  Ector, or any mannes creature,
  Ye nolde han had no mercy ne mesure
  On me, but alwey had me in repreve;
  This false world, allas! who may it leve?                             420

  61. What? is this al the Ioye and al the feste?
  Is this your reed, is this my blisful cas?
  Is this the verray mede of your beheste?
  Is al this peynted proces seyd, allas!
  Right for this fyn? O lady myn, Pallas!                               425
  Thou in this dredful cas for me purveye;
  For so astonied am I that I deye!'

  62. With that she gan ful sorwfully to syke;
  'A! may it be no bet?' quod Pandarus;
  'By god, I shal no-more com here this wyke,                           430
  And god to-forn, that am mistrusted thus;
  I see ful wel that ye sette lyte of us,
  Or of our deeth! Allas! I woful wrecche!
  Mighte he yet live, of me is nought to recche.

  63. O cruel god, O dispitouse Marte,                                  435
  O Furies three of helle, on yow I crye!
  So lat me never out of this hous departe,
  If that I mente harm or vilanye!
  But sith I see my lord mot nedes dye,
  And I with him, here I me shryve, and seye                            440
  That wikkedly ye doon us bothe deye.

  64. But sith it lyketh yow that I be deed,
  By Neptunus, that god is of the see,
  Fro this forth shal I never eten breed
  Til I myn owene herte blood may see;                                  445
  For certayn, I wole deye as sone as he'--
  And up he sterte, and on his wey he raughte,
  Til she agayn him by the lappe caughte.

  65. Criseyde, which that wel neigh starf for fere,
  So as she was the ferfulleste wight                                   450
  That mighte be, and herde eek with hir ere,
  And saw the sorwful ernest of the knight,
  And in his preyere eek saw noon unright,
  And for the harm that mighte eek fallen more,
  She gan to rewe, and dradde hir wonder sore;                          455

  66. And thoughte thus, 'unhappes fallen thikke
  Alday for love, and in swich maner cas,
  As men ben cruel in hem-self and wikke;
  And if this man slee here him-self, allas!
  In my presence, it wol be no solas.                                   460
  What men wolde of hit deme I can nat seye;
  It nedeth me ful sleyly for to pleye.'

  67. And with a sorwful syk she seyde thrye,
  'A! lord! what me is tid a sory chaunce!
  For myn estat now lyth in Iupartye,                                   465
  And eek myn emes lyf lyth in balaunce;
  But nathelees, with goddes governaunce,
  I shal so doon, myn honour shal I kepe,
  And eek his lyf;' and stinte for to wepe.

  68. 'Of harmes two, the lesse is for to chese;                        470
  Yet have I lever maken him good chere
  In honour, than myn emes lyf to lese;
  Ye seyn, ye no-thing elles me requere?'
  'No, wis,' quod he, 'myn owene nece dere.'
  'Now wel,' quod she, 'and I wol doon my peyne;                        475
  I shal myn herte ayeins my lust constreyne,

  69. But that I nil not holden him in honde,
  Ne love a man, ne can I not, ne may
  Ayeins my wil; but elles wol I fonde,
  Myn honour sauf, plese him fro day to day;                            480
  Ther-to nolde I nought ones have seyd nay,
  But that I dredde, as in my fantasye;
  But cesse cause, ay cesseth maladye.

  70. And here I make a protestacioun,
  That in this proces if ye depper go,                                  485
  That certaynly, for no savacioun
  Of yow, though that ye sterve bothe two,
  Though al the world on o day be my fo,
  Ne shal I never on him han other routhe.'--
  'I graunte wel,' quod Pandare, 'by my trouthe.                        490

  71. But may I truste wel ther-to,' quod he,
  'That, of this thing that ye han hight me here,
  Ye wol it holden trewly un-to me?'
  'Ye, doutelees,' quod she, 'myn uncle dere.'
  'Ne that I shal han cause in this matere,'                            495
  Quod he, 'to pleyne, or after yow to preche?'
  'Why, no, pardee; what nedeth more speche?'

  72. Tho fillen they in othere tales glade,
  Til at the laste, 'O good eem,' quod she tho,
  'For love of god, which that us bothe made,                           500
  Tel me how first ye wisten of his wo:
  Wot noon of hit but ye?' He seyde, 'no.'
  'Can he wel speke of love?' quod she, 'I preye,
  Tel me, for I the bet me shal purveye.'

  73. Tho Pandarus a litel gan to smyle,                                505
  And seyde, 'by my trouthe, I shal yow telle.
  This other day, nought gon ful longe whyle,
  In-with the paleys-gardyn, by a welle,
  Gan he and I wel half a day to dwelle,
  Right for to speken of an ordenaunce,                                 510
  How we the Grekes mighte disavaunce.

  74. Sone after that bigonne we to lepe,
  And casten with our dartes to and fro,
  Til at the laste he seyde, he wolde slepe,
  And on the gres a-doun he leyde him tho;                              515
  And I after gan rome to and fro
  Til that I herde, as that I welk allone,
  How he bigan ful wofully to grone.

  75. Tho gan I stalke him softely bihinde,
  And sikerly, the sothe for to seyne,                                  520
  As I can clepe ayein now to my minde,
  Right thus to Love he gan him for to pleyne;
  He seyde, "lord! have routhe up-on my peyne,
  Al have I been rebel in myn entente;
  Now, _mea culpa_, lord! I me repente.                                 525

  76. O god, that at thy disposicioun
  Ledest the fyn, by Iuste purveyaunce,
  Of every wight, my lowe confessioun
  Accepte in gree, and send me swich penaunce
  As lyketh thee, but from desesperaunce,                               530
  That may my goost departe awey fro thee,
  Thou be my sheld, for thy benignitee.

  77. For certes, lord, so sore hath she me wounded
  That stod in blak, with loking of hir yën,
  That to myn hertes botme it is y-sounded,                             535
  Thorugh which I woot that I mot nedes dyen;
  This is the worste, I dar me not bi-wryen;
  And wel the hotter been the gledes rede,
  That men hem wryen with asshen pale and dede."

  78. With that he smoot his heed adoun anoon,                          540
  And gan to motre, I noot what, trewely.
  And I with that gan stille awey to goon,
  And leet ther-of as no-thing wist hadde I,
  And come ayein anoon and stood him by,
  And seyde, "a-wake, ye slepen al to longe;                            545
  It semeth nat that love dooth yow longe,

  79. That slepen so that no man may yow wake.
  Who sey ever or this so dul a man?"
  "Ye, freend," quod he, "do ye your hedes ake
  For love, and lat me liven as I can."                                 550
  But though that he for wo was pale and wan,
  Yet made he tho as fresh a contenaunce,
  As though he shulde have led the newe daunce.

  80. This passed forth, til now, this other day,
  It fel that I com roming al allone                                    555
  Into his chaumbre, and fond how that he lay
  Up-on his bed; but man so sore grone
  Ne herde I never, and what that was his mone,
  Ne wiste I nought; for, as I was cominge,
  Al sodeynly he lefte his compleyninge.                                560

  81. Of which I took somwhat suspecioun,
  And neer I com, and fond he wepte sore;
  And god so wis be my savacioun,
  As never of thing hadde I no routhe more.
  For neither with engyn, ne with no lore,                              565
  Unethes mighte I fro the deeth him kepe;
  That yet fele I myn herte for him wepe.

  82. And god wot, never, sith that I was born,
  Was I so bisy no man for to preche,
  Ne never was to wight so depe y-sworn,                                570
  Or he me tolde who mighte been his leche.
  But now to yow rehersen al his speche,
  Or alle his woful wordes for to soune,
  Ne bid me not, but ye wol see me swowne.

  83. But for to save his lyf, and elles nought,                        575
  And to non harm of yow, thus am I driven;
  And for the love of god that us hath wrought,
  Swich chere him dooth, that he and I may liven.
  Now have I plat to yow myn herte schriven;
  And sin ye woot that myn entente is clene,                            580
  Tak hede ther-of, for I non yvel mene.

  84. And right good thrift, I pray to god, have ye,
  That han swich oon y-caught with-oute net;
  And be ye wys, as ye ben fair to see,
  Wel in the ring than is the ruby set.                                 585
  Ther were never two so wel y-met,
  Whan ye ben his al hool, as he is youre:
  Ther mighty god yet graunte us see that houre!'

  85. 'Nay, therof spak I not, a, ha!' quod she,
  'As helpe me god, ye shenden every deel!'                             590
  'O mercy, dere nece,' anoon quod he,
  'What-so I spak, I mente nought but weel,
  By Mars the god, that helmed is of steel;
  Now beth nought wrooth, my blood, my nece dere.'
  'Now wel,' quod she, 'foryeven be it here!'                           595

  86. With this he took his leve, and hoom he wente;
  And lord, how he was glad and wel bigoon!
  Criseyde aroos, no lenger she ne stente,
  But straught in-to hir closet wente anoon,
  And sette here doun as stille as any stoon,                           600
  And every word gan up and doun to winde,
  That he hadde seyd, as it com hir to minde;

  87. And wex somdel astonied in hir thought,
  Right for the newe cas; but whan that she
  Was ful avysed, tho fond she right nought                             605
  Of peril, why she oughte afered be.
  For man may love, of possibilitee,
  A womman so, his herte may to-breste,
  And she nought love ayein, but-if hir leste.

  88. But as she sat allone and thoughte thus,                          610
  Thascry aroos at skarmish al with-oute,
  And men cryde in the strete, 'see, Troilus
  Hath right now put to flight the Grekes route!'
  With that gan al hir meynee for to shoute,
  'A! go we see, caste up the latis wyde;                               615
  For thurgh this strete he moot to palays ryde;

  89. For other wey is fro the yate noon
  Of Dardanus, ther open is the cheyne.'
  With that com he and al his folk anoon
  An esy pas rydinge, in routes tweyne,                                 620
  Right as his happy day was, sooth to seyne,
  For which, men say, may nought disturbed be
  That shal bityden of necessitee.

  90. This Troilus sat on his baye stede,
  Al armed, save his heed, ful richely,                                 625
  And wounded was his hors, and gan to blede,
  On whiche he rood a pas, ful softely;
  But swych a knightly sighte, trewely,
  As was on him, was nought, with-outen faile,
  To loke on Mars, that god is of batayle.                              630

  91. So lyk a man of armes and a knight
  He was to seen, fulfild of heigh prowesse;
  For bothe he hadde a body and a might
  To doon that thing, as wel as hardinesse;
  And eek to seen him in his gere him dresse,                           635
  So fresh, so yong, so weldy semed he,
  It was an heven up-on him for to see.

  92. His helm to-hewen was in twenty places,
  That by a tissew heng, his bak bihinde,
  His sheld to-dasshed was with swerdes and maces,                      640
  In which men mighte many an arwe finde
  That thirled hadde horn and nerf and rinde;
  And ay the peple cryde, 'here cometh our Ioye,
  And, next his brother, holdere up of Troye!'

  93. For which he wex a litel reed for shame,                          645
  Whan he the peple up-on him herde cryen,
  That to biholde it was a noble game,
  How sobreliche he caste doun his yën.
  Cryseyda gan al his chere aspyen,
  And leet so softe it in hir herte sinke,                              650
  That to hir-self she seyde, 'who yaf me drinke?'

  94. For of hir owene thought she wex al reed,
  Remembringe hir right thus, 'lo, this is he
  Which that myn uncle swereth he moot be deed,
  But I on him have mercy and pitee;'                                   655
  And with that thought, for pure a-shamed, she
  Gan in hir heed to pulle, and that as faste,
  Whyl he and al the peple for-by paste,

  95. And gan to caste and rollen up and doun
  With-inne hir thought his excellent prowesse,                         660
  And his estat, and also his renoun,
  His wit, his shap, and eek his gentillesse;
  But most hir favour was, for his distresse
  Was al for hir, and thoughte it was a routhe
  To sleen swich oon, if that he mente trouthe.                         665

  96. Now mighte som envyous Iangle thus,
  'This was a sodeyn love, how mighte it be
  That she so lightly lovede Troilus
  Right for the firste sighte; ye, pardee?'
  Now who-so seyth so, mote he never thee!                              670
  For every thing, a ginning hath it nede
  Er al be wrought, with-outen any drede.

  97. For I sey nought that she so sodeynly
  Yaf him hir love, but that she gan enclyne
  To lyke him first, and I have told yow why;                           675
  And after that, his manhod and his pyne
  Made love with-inne hir for to myne,
  For which, by proces and by good servyse,
  He gat hir love, and in no sodeyn wyse.

  98. And also blisful Venus, wel arayed,                               680
  Sat in hir seventhe hous of hevene tho,
  Disposed wel, and with aspectes payed,
  To helpen sely Troilus of his wo.
  And, sooth to seyn, she nas nat al a fo
  To Troilus in his nativitee;                                          685
  God woot that wel the soner spedde he.

  99. Now lat us stinte of Troilus a throwe,
  That rydeth forth, and lat us tourne faste
  Un-to Criseyde, that heng hir heed ful lowe,
  Ther-as she sat allone, and gan to caste                              690
  Wher-on she wolde apoynte hir at the laste,
  If it so were hir eem ne wolde cesse,
  For Troilus, up-on hir for to presse.

  100. And, lord! so she gan in hir thought argue
  In this matere of which I have yow told,                              695
  And what to doon best were, and what eschue,
  That plyted she ful ofte in many fold.
  Now was hir herte warm, now was it cold,
  And what she thoughte somwhat shal I wryte,
  As to myn auctor listeth for to endyte.                               700

  101. She thoughte wel, that Troilus persone
  She knew by sighte and eek his gentillesse,
  And thus she seyde, 'al were it nought to done,
  To graunte him love, yet, for his worthinesse,
  It were honour, with pley and with gladnesse,                         705
  In honestee, with swich a lord to dele,
  For myn estat, and also for his hele.

  102. Eek, wel wot I my kinges sone is he;
  And sith he hath to see me swich delyt,
  If I wolde utterly his sighte flee,                                   710
  Paraunter he mighte have me in dispyt,
  Thurgh which I mighte stonde in worse plyt;
  Now were I wys, me hate to purchace,
  With-outen nede, ther I may stonde in grace?

  103. In every thing, I woot, ther lyth mesure.                        715
  For though a man forbede dronkenesse,
  He nought for-bet that every creature
  Be drinkelees for alwey, as I gesse;
  Eek sith I woot for me is his distresse,
  I ne oughte not for that thing him despyse,                           720
  Sith it is so, he meneth in good wyse.

  104. And eek I knowe, of longe tyme agoon,
  His thewes goode, and that he is not nyce.
  Ne avauntour, seyth men, certein, is he noon;
  To wys is he to do so gret a vyce;                                    725
  Ne als I nel him never so cheryce,
  That he may make avaunt, by Iuste cause;
  He shal me never binde in swiche a clause.

  105. Now set a cas, the hardest is, y-wis,
  Men mighten deme that he loveth me:                                   730
  What dishonour were it un-to me, this?
  May I him lette of that? why nay, pardee!
  I knowe also, and alday here and see,
  Men loven wommen al this toun aboute;
  Be they the wers? why, nay, with-outen doute.                         735

  106. I thenk eek how he able is for to have
  Of al this noble toun the thriftieste,
  To been his love, so she hir honour save;
  For out and out he is the worthieste,
  Save only Ector, which that is the beste.                             740
  And yet his lyf al lyth now in my cure,
  But swich is love, and eek myn aventure.

  107. Ne me to love, a wonder is it nought;
  For wel wot I my-self, so god me spede,
  Al wolde I that noon wistë of this thought,                           745
  I am oon the fayreste, out of drede,
  And goodlieste, who-so taketh hede;
  And so men seyn in al the toun of Troye.
  What wonder is it though he of me have Ioye?

  108. I am myn owene woman, wel at ese,                                750
  I thank it god, as after myn estat;
  Right yong, and stonde unteyd in lusty lese,
  With-outen Ialousye or swich debat;
  Shal noon housbonde seyn to me "chekmat!"
  For either they ben ful of Ialousye,                                  755
  Or maisterful, or loven novelrye.

  109. What shal I doon? to what fyn live I thus?
  Shal I nat loven, in cas if that me leste?
  What, _par dieux_! I am nought religious!
  And though that I myn herte sette at reste                            760
  Upon this knight, that is the worthieste,
  And kepe alwey myn honour and my name,
  By alle right, it may do me no shame.'

  110. But right as whan the sonne shyneth brighte,
  In March, that chaungeth ofte tyme his face,                          765
  And that a cloud is put with wind to flighte
  Which over-sprat the sonne as for a space,
  A cloudy thought gan thorugh hir soule pace,
  That over-spradde hir brighte thoughtes alle,
  So that for fere almost she gan to falle.                             770

  111. That thought was this, 'allas! sin I am free,
  Sholde I now love, and putte in Iupartye
  My sikernesse, and thrallen libertee?
  Allas! how dorste I thenken that folye?
  May I nought wel in other folk aspye                                  775
  Hir dredful Ioye, hir constreynt, and hir peyne?
  Ther loveth noon, that she nath why to pleyne.

  112. For love is yet the moste stormy lyf,
  Right of him-self, that ever was bigonne;
  For ever som mistrust, or nyce stryf,                                 780
  Ther is in love, som cloud is over the sonne:
  Ther-to we wrecched wommen no-thing conne,
  Whan us is wo, but wepe and sitte and thinke;
  Our wreche is this, our owene wo to drinke.

  113. Also these wikked tonges been so prest                           785
  To speke us harm, eek men be so untrewe,
  That, right anoon as cessed is hir lest,
  So cesseth love, and forth to love a newe:
  But harm y-doon, is doon, who-so it rewe.
  For though these men for love hem first to-rende,                     790
  Ful sharp biginning breketh ofte at ende.

  114. How ofte tyme hath it y-knowen be,
  The treson, that to womman hath be do?
  To what fyn is swich love, I can nat see,
  Or wher bicomth it, whan it is ago;                                   795
  Ther is no wight that woot, I trowe so,
  Wher it bycomth; lo, no wight on it sporneth;
  That erst was no-thing, in-to nought it torneth.

  115. How bisy, if I love, eek moste I be
  To plesen hem that Iangle of love, and demen,                         800
  And coye hem, that they sey non harm of me?
  For though ther be no cause, yet hem semen
  Al be for harm that folk hir freendes quemen;
  And who may stoppen every wikked tonge,
  Or soun of belles whyl that they be ronge?'                           805

  116. And after that, hir thought bigan to clere,
  And seyde, 'he which that no-thing under-taketh,
  No-thing ne acheveth, be him looth or dere.'
  And with an other thought hir herte quaketh;
  Than slepeth hope, and after dreed awaketh;                           810
  Now hoot, now cold; but thus, bi-twixen tweye,
  She rist hir up, and went hir for to pleye.

  117. Adoun the steyre anoon-right tho she wente
  In-to the gardin, with hir neces three,
  And up and doun ther made many a wente,                               815
  Flexippe, she, Tharbe, and Antigone,
  To pleyen, that it Ioye was to see;
  And othere of hir wommen, a gret route,
  Hir folwede in the gardin al aboute.

  118. This yerd was large, and rayled alle the aleyes,                 820
  And shadwed wel with blosmy bowes grene,
  And benched newe, and sonded alle the weyes,
  In which she walketh arm in arm bi-twene;
  Til at the laste Antigone the shene
  Gan on a Troian song to singe clere,                                  825
  That it an heven was hir voys to here.--

  119. She seyde, 'O love, to whom I have and shal
  Ben humble subgit, trewe in myn entente,
  As I best can, to yow, lord, yeve ich al
  For ever-more, myn hertes lust to rente.                              830
  For never yet thy grace no wight sente
  So blisful cause as me, my lyf to lede
  In alle Ioye and seurtee, out of drede.

  120. Ye, blisful god, han me so wel beset
  In love, y-wis, that al that bereth lyf                               835
  Imaginen ne cowde how to ben bet;
  For, lord, with-outen Ialousye or stryf,
  I love oon which that is most ententyf
  To serven wel, unwery or unfeyned,
  That ever was, and leest with harm distreyned.                        840

  121. As he that is the welle of worthinesse,
  Of trouthe ground, mirour of goodliheed,
  Of wit Appollo, stoon of sikernesse,
  Of vertu rote, of lust findere and heed,
  Thurgh which is alle sorwe fro me deed,                               845
  Y-wis, I love him best, so doth he me;
  Now good thrift have he, wher-so that he be!

  122. Whom sholde I thanke but yow, god of love,
  Of al this blisse, in which to bathe I ginne?
  And thanked be ye, lord, for that I love!                             850
  This is the righte lyf that I am inne,
  To flemen alle manere vyce and sinne:
  This doth me so to vertu for to entende,
  That day by day I in my wil amende.

  123. And who-so seyth that for to love is vyce,                       855
  Or thraldom, though he fele in it distressse,
  He outher is envyous, or right nyce,
  Or is unmighty, for his shrewednesse,
  To loven; for swich maner folk, I gesse,
  Defamen love, as no-thing of him knowe;                               860
  They speken, but they bente never his bowe.

  124. What is the sonne wers, of kinde righte,
  Though that a man, for feblesse of his yën,
  May nought endure on it to see for brighte?
  Or love the wers, though wrecches on it cryen?                        865
  No wele is worth, that may no sorwe dryen.
  And for-thy, who that hath an heed of verre,
  Fro cast of stones war him in the werre!

  125. But I with al myn herte and al my might,
  As I have seyd, wol love, un-to my laste,                             870
  My dere herte, and al myn owene knight,
  In which myn herte growen is so faste,
  And his in me, that it shal ever laste.
  Al dredde I first to love him to biginne,
  Now woot I wel, ther is no peril inne.'                               875

  126. And of hir song right with that word she stente,
  And therwith-al, 'now, nece,' quod Criseyde,
  'Who made this song with so good entente?'
  Antigone answerde anoon, and seyde,
  'Ma dame, y-wis, the goodlieste mayde                                 880
  Of greet estat in al the toun of Troye;
  And let hir lyf in most honour and Ioye.'

  127. 'Forsothe, so it semeth by hir song,'
  Quod tho Criseyde, and gan ther-with to syke,
  And seyde, 'lord, is there swich blisse among                         885
  These lovers, as they conne faire endyte?'
  'Ye, wis,' quod fresh Antigone the whyte,
  'For alle the folk that han or been on lyve
  Ne conne wel the blisse of love discryve.

  128. But wene ye that every wrecche woot                              890
  The parfit blisse of love? why, nay, y-wis;
  They wenen al be love, if oon be hoot;
  Do wey, do wey, they woot no-thing of this!
  Men mosten axe at seyntes if it is
  Aught fair in hevene; why? for they conne telle;                      895
  And axen fendes, is it foul in helle.'

  129. Criseyde un-to that purpos nought answerde,
  But seyde, 'y-wis, it wol be night as faste.'
  But every word which that she of hir herde,
  She gan to prenten in hir herte faste;                                900
  And ay gan love hir lasse for to agaste
  Than it dide erst, and sinken in hir herte,
  That she wex somwhat able to converte.

  130. The dayes honour, and the hevenes yë,
  The nightes fo, al this clepe I the sonne,                            905
  Gan westren faste, and dounward for to wrye,
  As he that hadde his dayes cours y-ronne;
  And whyte thinges wexen dimme and donne
  For lak of light, and sterres for to appere,
  That she and al hir folk in wente y-fere.                             910

  131. So whan it lyked hir to goon to reste,
  And voyded weren they that voyden oughte,
  She seyde, that to slepe wel hir leste.
  Hir wommen sone til hir bed hir broughte.
  Whan al was hust, than lay she stille, and thoughte                   915
  Of al this thing the manere and the wyse.
  Reherce it nedeth nought, for ye ben wyse.

  132. A nightingale, upon a cedre grene,
  Under the chambre-wal ther as she lay,
  Ful loude sang ayein the mone shene,                                  920
  Paraunter, in his briddes wyse, a lay
  Of love, that made hir herte fresh and gay.
  That herkned she so longe in good entente,
  Til at the laste the dede sleep hir hente.

  133. And, as she sleep, anoon-right tho hir mette,                    925
  How that an egle, fethered whyt as boon,
  Under hir brest his longe clawes sette,
  And out hir herte he rente, and that a-noon,
  And dide his herte in-to hir brest to goon,
  Of which she nought agroos ne no-thing smerte,                        930
  And forth he fleigh, with herte left for herte.

  134. Now lat hir slepe, and we our tales holde
  Of Troilus, that is to paleys riden,
  Fro the scarmuch, of the whiche I tolde,
  And in his chambre sit, and hath abiden                               935
  Til two or three of his messages yeden
  For Pandarus, and soughten him ful faste,
  Til they him founde, and broughte him at the laste.

  135. This Pandarus com leping in at ones
  And seide thus, 'who hath ben wel y-bete                              940
  To-day with swerdes, and with slinge-stones,
  But Troilus, that hath caught him an hete?'
  And gan to Iape, and seyde, 'lord, so ye swete!
  But rys, and lat us soupe and go to reste;'
  And he answerde him, 'do we as thee leste.'                           945

  136. With al the haste goodly that they mighte,
  They spedde hem fro the souper un-to bedde;
  And every wight out at the dore him dighte,
  And wher him list upon his wey he spedde;
  But Troilus, that thoughte his herte bledde                           950
  For wo, til that he herde som tydinge,
  He seyde, 'freend, shal I now wepe or singe?'

  137. Quod Pandarus, 'ly stille, and lat me slepe,
  And don thyn hood, thy nedes spedde be;
  And chese, if thou wolt singe or daunce or lepe;                      955
  At shorte wordes, thow shall trowe me.--
  Sire, my nece wol do wel by thee,
  And love thee best, by god and by my trouthe,
  But lak of pursuit make it in thy slouthe.

  138. For thus ferforth I have thy work bigonne,                       960
  Fro day to day, til this day, by the morwe,
  Hir love of freendship have I to thee wonne,
  And also hath she leyd hir feyth to borwe.
  Algate a foot is hameled of thy sorwe.'
  What sholde I lenger sermon of it holde?                              965
  As ye han herd bifore, al he him tolde.

  139. But right as floures, thorugh the colde of night
  Y-closed, stoupen on hir stalkes lowe,
  Redressen hem a-yein the sonne bright,
  And spreden on hir kinde cours by rowe;                               970
  Right so gan tho his eyen up to throwe
  This Troilus, and seyde, 'O Venus dere,
  Thy might, thy grace, y-heried be it here!'

  140. And to Pandare he held up bothe his hondes,
  And seyde, 'lord, al thyn be that I have;                             975
  For I am hool, al brosten been my bondes;
  A thousand Troians who so that me yave,
  Eche after other, god so wis me save,
  Ne mighte me so gladen; lo, myn herte,
  It spredeth so for Ioye, it wol to-sterte!                            980

  141. But lord, how shal I doon, how shal I liven?
  Whan shal I next my dere herte see?
  How shal this longe tyme a-wey be driven,
  Til that thou be ayein at hir fro me?
  Thou mayst answere, "a-byd, a-byd," but he                            985
  That hangeth by the nekke, sooth to seyne,
  In grete disese abydeth for the peyne.'

  142. 'Al esily, now, for the love of Marte,'
  Quod Pandarus, 'for every thing hath tyme;
  So longe abyd til that the night departe;                             990
  For al so siker as thow lyst here by me,
  And god toforn, I wol be there at pryme,
  And for thy werk somwhat as I shal seye,
  Or on som other wight this charge leye.

  143. For pardee, god wot, I have ever yit                             995
  Ben redy thee to serve, and to this night
  Have I nought fayned, but emforth my wit
  Don al thy lust, and shal with al my might.
  Do now as I shal seye, and fare a-right;
  And if thou nilt, wyte al thy-self thy care,                         1000
  On me is nought along thyn yvel fare.

  144. I woot wel that thow wyser art than I
  A thousand fold, but if I were as thou,
  God helpe me so, as I wolde outrely,
  Right of myn owene hond, wryte hir right now                         1005
  A lettre, in which I wolde hir tellen how
  I ferde amis, and hir beseche of routhe;
  Now help thy-self, and leve it not for slouthe.

  145. And I my-self shal ther-with to hir goon;
  And whan thou wost that I am with hir there,                         1010
  Worth thou up-on a courser right anoon,
  Ye, hardily, right in thy beste gere,
  And ryd forth by the place, as nought ne were,
  And thou shalt finde us, if I may, sittinge
  At som windowe, in-to the strete lokinge.                            1015

  146. And if thee list, than maystow us saluwe,
  And up-on me makë thy contenaunce;
  But, by thy lyf, be war and faste eschuwe
  To tarien ought, god shilde us fro mischaunce!
  Ryd forth thy wey, and hold thy governaunce;                         1020
  And we shal speke of thee som-what, I trowe,
  Whan thou art goon, to do thyne eres glowe!

  147. Touching thy lettre, thou art wys y-nough,
  I woot thow nilt it digneliche endyte;
  As make it with thise argumentes tough;                              1025
  Ne scrivenish or craftily thou it wryte;
  Beblotte it with thy teres eek a lyte;
  And if thou wryte a goodly word al softe,
  Though it be good, reherce it not to ofte.

  148. For though the beste harpour upon lyve                          1030
  Wolde on the beste souned Ioly harpe
  That ever was, with alle his fingres fyve,
  Touche ay o streng, or ay o werbul harpe,
  Were his nayles poynted never so sharpe,
  It shulde maken every wight to dulle,                                1035
  To here his glee, and of his strokes fulle.

  149. Ne Iompre eek no discordaunt thing y-fere,
  As thus, to usen termes of phisyk;
  In loves termes, hold of thy matere
  The forme alwey, and do that it be lyk;                              1040
  For if a peyntour wolde peynte a pyk
  With asses feet, and hede it as an ape,
  It cordeth nought; so nere it but a Iape.'

  150. This counseyl lyked wel to Troilus;
  But, as a dreedful lover, he seyde this:--                           1045
  'Allas, my dere brother Pandarus,
  I am ashamed for to wryte, y-wis,
  Lest of myn innocence I seyde a-mis,
  Or that she nolde it for despyt receyve;
  Thanne were I deed, ther mighte it no-thing weyve.'                  1050

  151. To that Pandare answerde, 'if thee lest,
  Do that I seye, and lat me therwith goon;
  For by that lord that formed est and west,
  I hope of it to bringe answere anoon
  Right of hir hond, and if that thou nilt noon,                       1055
  Lat be; and sory mote he been his lyve,
  Ayeins thy lust that helpeth thee to thryve.'

  152. Quod Troilus, '_Depardieux_, I assente;
  Sin that thee list, I will aryse and wryte;
  And blisful god preye ich, with good entente,                        1060
  The vyage, and the lettre I shal endyte,
  So spede it; and thou, Minerva, the whyte,
  Yif thou me wit my lettre to devyse:'
  And sette him doun, and wroot right in this wyse.--

  153. First he gan hir his righte lady calle,                         1065
  His hertes lyf, his lust, his sorwes leche,
  His blisse, and eek this othere termes alle,
  That in swich cas these loveres alle seche;
  And in ful humble wyse, as in his speche,
  He gan him recomaunde un-to hir grace;                               1070
  To telle al how, it axeth muchel space.

  154. And after this, ful lowly he hir prayde
  To be nought wrooth, though he, of his folye,
  So hardy was to hir to wryte, and seyde,
  That love it made, or elles moste he dye,                            1075
  And pitously gan mercy for to crye;
  And after that he seyde, and ley ful loude,
  Him-self was litel worth, and lesse he coude;

  155. And that she sholde han his conning excused,
  That litel was, and eek he dredde hir so,                            1080
  And his unworthinesse he ay acused;
  And after that, than gan he telle his wo;
  But that was endeles, with-outen ho;
  And seyde, he wolde in trouthe alwey him holde;--
  And radde it over, and gan the lettre folde.                         1085

  156. And with his salte teres gan he bathe
  The ruby in his signet, and it sette
  Upon the wex deliverliche and rathe;
  Ther-with a thousand tymes, er he lette,
  He kiste tho the lettre that he shette,                              1090
  And seyde, 'lettre, a blisful destenee
  Thee shapen is, my lady shal thee see.'

  157. This Pandare took the lettre, and that by tyme
  A-morwe, and to his neces paleys sterte,
  And faste he swoor, that it was passed pryme,                        1095
  And gan to Iape, and seyde, 'y-wis, myn herte,
  So fresh it is, al-though it sore smerte,
  I may not slepe never a Mayes morwe;
  I have a Ioly wo, a lusty sorwe.'

  158. Criseyde, whan that she hir uncle herde,                        1100
  With dreedful herte, and desirous to here
  The cause of his cominge, thus answerde,
  'Now by your feyth, myn uncle,' quod she, 'dere,
  What maner windes gydeth yow now here?
  Tel us your Ioly wo and your penaunce,                               1105
  How ferforth be ye put in loves daunce.'

  159. 'By god,' quod he, 'I hoppe alwey bihinde!'
  And she to-laugh, it thoughte hir herte breste.
  Quod Pandarus, 'loke alwey that ye finde
  Game in myn hood, but herkneth, if yow leste;                        1110
  Ther is right now come in-to toune a geste,
  A Greek espye, and telleth newe thinges,
  For which come I to telle yow tydinges.

  160. Into the gardin go we, and we shal here,
  Al prevely, of this a long sermoun.'                                 1115
  With that they wenten arm in arm y-fere
  In-to the gardin from the chaumbre doun.
  And whan that he so fer was that the soun
  Of that he speke, no man here mighte,
  He seyde hir thus, and out the lettre plighte,                       1120

  161. 'Lo, he that is al hoolly youres free
  Him recomaundeth lowly to your grace,
  And sent to you this lettre here by me;
  Avyseth you on it, whan ye han space,
  And of som goodly answere yow purchace;                              1125
  Or, helpe me god, so pleynly for to seyne,
  He may not longe liven for his peyne.'

  162. Ful dredfully tho gan she stonde stille,
  And took it nought, but al hir humble chere
  Gan for to chaunge, and seyde, 'scrit ne bille,                      1130
  For love of god, that toucheth swich matere,
  Ne bring me noon; and also, uncle dere,
  To myn estat have more reward, I preye,
  Than to his lust; what sholde I more seye?

  163. And loketh now if this be resonable,                            1135
  And letteth nought, for favour ne for slouthe,
  To seyn a sooth; now were it covenable
  To myn estat, by god, and by your trouthe,
  To taken it, or to han of him routhe,
  In harming of my-self or in repreve?                                 1140
  Ber it a-yein, for him that ye on leve!'

  164. This Pandarus gan on hir for to stare,
  And seyde, 'now is this the grettest wonder
  That ever I sey! lat be this nyce fare!
  To deethe mote I smiten be with thonder,                             1145
  If, for the citee which that stondeth yonder,
  Wolde I a lettre un-to yow bringe or take
  To harm of yow; what list yow thus it make?

  165. But thus ye faren, wel neigh alle and some,
  That he that most desireth yow to serve,                             1150
  Of him ye recche leest wher he bicome,
  And whether that he live or elles sterve.
  But for al that that ever I may deserve,
  Refuse it nought,' quod he, and hente hir faste,
  And in hir bosom the lettre doun he thraste,                         1155

  166. And seyde hir, 'now cast it away anoon,
  That folk may seen and gauren on us tweye.'
  Quod she, 'I can abyde til they be goon,'
  And gan to smyle, and seyde him, 'eem, I preye,
  Swich answere as yow list your-self purveye,                         1160
  For trewely I nil no lettre wryte.'
  'No? than wol I,' quod he, 'so ye endyte.'

  167. Therwith she lough, and seyde, 'go we dyne.'
  And he gan at him-self to iape faste,
  And seyde, 'nece, I have so greet a pyne                             1165
  For love, that every other day I faste'--
  And gan his beste Iapes forth to caste;
  And made hir so to laughe at his folye,
  That she for laughter wende for to dye.

  168. And whan that she was comen in-to halle,                        1170
  'Now, eem,' quod she, 'we wol go dyne anoon;'
  And gan some of hir women to hir calle,
  And streyght in-to hir chaumbre gan she goon;
  But of hir besinesses, this was oon
  A-monges othere thinges, out of drede,                               1175
  Ful prively this lettre for to rede;

  169. Avysed word by word in every lyne,
  And fond no lak, she thoughte he coude good;
  And up it putte, and went hir in to dyne.
  And Pandarus, that in a study stood,                                 1180
  Er he was war, she took him by the hood,
  And seyde, 'ye were caught er that ye wiste;'
  'I vouche sauf,' quod he, 'do what yow liste.'

  170. Tho wesshen they, and sette hem doun and ete;
  And after noon ful sleyly Pandarus                                   1185
  Gan drawe him to the window next the strete,
  And seyde, 'nece, who hath arayed thus
  The yonder hous, that stant afor-yeyn us?'
  'Which hous?' quod she, and gan for to biholde,
  And knew it wel, and whos it was him tolde,                          1190

  171. And fillen forth in speche of thinges smale,
  And seten in the window bothe tweye.
  Whan Pandarus saw tyme un-to his tale,
  And saw wel that hir folk were alle aweye,
  'Now, nece myn, tel on,' quod he, 'I seye,                           1195
  How lyketh yow the lettre that ye woot?
  Can he ther-on? for, by my trouthe, I noot.'

  172. Therwith al rosy hewed tho wex she,
  And gan to humme, and seyde, 'so I trowe.'
  'Aquyte him wel, for goddes love,' quod he;                          1200
  'My-self to medes wol the lettre sowe,'
  And held his hondes up, and sat on knowe,
  'Now, goode nece, be it never so lyte,
  Yif me the labour, it to sowe and plyte.'

  173. 'Ye, for I can so wryte,' quod she tho;                         1205
  'And eek I noot what I sholde to him seye.'
  'Nay, nece,' quod Pandare, 'sey not so;
  Yet at the leste thanketh him, I preye,
  Of his good wil, and doth him not to deye.
  Now for the love of me, my nece dere,                                1210
  Refuseth not at this tyme my preyere.'

  174. '_Depar-dieux_,' quod she, 'god leve al be wel!
  God helpe me so, this is the firste lettre
  That ever I wroot, ye, al or any del.'
  And in-to a closet, for to avyse hir bettre,                         1215
  She wente allone, and gan hir herte unfettre
  Out of disdaynes prison but a lyte;
  And sette hir doun, and gan a lettre wryte,

  175. Of which to telle in short is myn entente
  Theffect, as fer as I can understonde:--                             1220
  She thonked him of al that he wel mente
  Towardes hir, but holden him in honde
  She nolde nought, ne make hir-selven bonde
  In love, but as his suster, him to plese,
  She wolde fayn, to doon his herte an ese.                            1225

  176. She shette it, and to Pandarus gan goon,
  There as he sat and loked in-to strete,
  And doun she sette hir by him on a stoon
  Of Iaspre, up-on a quisshin gold y-bete,
  And seyde, 'as wisly helpe me god the grete,                         1230
  I never dide a thing with more peyne
  Than wryte this, to which ye me constreyne;'

  177. And took it him: he thonked hir and seyde,
  'God woot, of thing ful ofte looth bigonne
  Cometh ende good; and nece myn, Criseyde,                            1235
  That ye to him of hard now ben y-wonne
  Oughte he be glad, by god and yonder sonne!
  For-why men seyth, "impressiounes lighte
  Ful lightly been ay redy to the flighte."

  178. But ye han pleyed tyraunt neigh to longe,                       1240
  And hard was it your herte for to grave;
  Now stint, that ye no longer on it honge,
  Al wolde ye the forme of daunger save.
  But hasteth yow to doon him Ioye have;
  For trusteth wel, to longe y-doon hardnesse                          1245
  Causeth despyt ful often, for distresse.'

  179. And right as they declamed this matere,
  Lo, Troilus, right at the stretes ende,
  Com ryding with his tenthe some y-fere,
  Al softely, and thiderward gan bende                                 1250
  Ther-as they sete, as was his wey to wende
  To paleys-ward; and Pandare him aspyde,
  And seyde, 'nece, y-see who cometh here ryde!

  180. O flee not in, he seeth us, I suppose;
  Lest he may thinke that ye him eschuwe.'                             1255
  'Nay, nay,' quod she, and wex as reed as rose.
  With that he gan hir humbly to saluwe,
  With dreedful chere, and ofte his hewes muwe;
  And up his look debonairly he caste,
  And bekked on Pandare, and forth he paste.                           1260

  181. God woot if he sat on his hors a-right,
  Or goodly was beseyn, that ilke day!
  God woot wher he was lyk a manly knight!
  What sholde I drecche, or telle of his aray?
  Criseyde, which that alle these thinges say,                         1265
  To telle in short, hir lyked al y-fere,
  His persone, his aray, his look, his chere,

  182. His goodly manere and his gentillesse,
  So wel, that never, sith that she was born,
  Ne hadde she swich routhe of his distresse;                          1270
  And how-so she hath hard ben her-biforn,
  To god hope I, she hath now caught a thorn.
  She shal not pulle it out this nexte wyke;
  God sende mo swich thornes on to pyke!

  183. Pandare, which that stood hir faste by,                         1275
  Felte iren hoot, and he bigan to smyte,
  And seyde, 'nece, I pray yow hertely,
  Tel me that I shal axen yow a lyte.
  A womman, that were of his deeth to wyte,
  With-outen his gilt, but for hir lakked routhe,                      1280
  Were it wel doon?' Quod she, 'nay, by my trouthe!'

  184. 'God helpe me so,' quod he, 'ye sey me sooth.
  Ye felen wel your-self that I not lye;
  Lo, yond he rit!' Quod she, 'ye, so he dooth.'
  'Wel,' quod Pandare, 'as I have told yow thrye,                      1285
  Lat be your nyce shame and your folye,
  And spek with him in esing of his herte;
  Lat nycetee not do yow bothe smerte.'

  185. But ther-on was to heven and to done;
  Considered al thing, it may not be;                                  1290
  And why, for shame; and it were eek to sone
  To graunten him so greet a libertee.
  'For playnly hir entente,' as seyde she,
  Was for to love him unwist, if she mighte,
  And guerdon him with no-thing but with sighte.'                      1295

  186. But Pandarus thoughte, 'it shal not be so,
  If that I may; this nyce opinioun
  Shal not be holden fully yeres two.'
  What sholde I make of this a long sermoun?
  He moste assente on that conclusioun                                 1300
  As for the tyme; and whan that it was eve,
  And al was wel, he roos and took his leve.

  187. And on his wey ful faste homward he spedde,
  And right for Ioye he felte his herte daunce;
  And Troilus he fond alone a-bedde,                                   1305
  That lay as dooth these loveres, in a traunce,
  Bitwixen hope and derk desesperaunce.
  But Pandarus, right at his in-cominge,
  He song, as who seyth, 'lo! sumwhat I bringe.'

  188. And seyde, 'who is in his bed so sone                           1310
  Y-buried thus?' 'It am I, freend,' quod he.
  'Who, Troilus? nay helpe me so the mone,'
  Quod Pandarus, 'thou shalt aryse and see
  A charme that was sent right now to thee,
  The which can helen thee of thyn accesse,                            1315
  If thou do forth-with al thy besinesse.'

  189. 'Ye, through the might of god!' quod Troilus.
  And Pandarus gan him the lettre take,
  And seyde, 'pardee, god hath holpen us;
  Have here a light, and loke on al this blake.'                       1320
  But ofte gan the herte glade and quake
  Of Troilus, whyl that he gan it rede,
  So as the wordes yave him hope or drede.

  190. But fynally, he took al for the beste
  That she him wroot, for sumwhat he biheld                            1325
  On which, him thoughte, he mighte his herte reste,
  Al covered she the wordes under sheld.
  Thus to the more worthy part he held,
  That, what for hope and Pandarus biheste,
  His grete wo for-yede he at the leste.                               1330

  191. But as we may alday our-selven see,
  Through more wode or col, the more fyr;
  Right so encrees of hope, of what it be,
  Therwith ful ofte encreseth eek desyr;
  Or, as an ook cometh of a litel spyr,                                1335
  So through this lettre, which that she him sente,
  Encresen gan desyr, of which he brente.

  192. Wherfore I seye alwey, that day and night
  This Troilus gan to desiren more
  Than he dide erst, thurgh hope, and dide his might                   1340
  To pressen on, as by Pandarus lore,
  And wryten to hir of his sorwes sore
  Fro day to day; he leet it not refreyde,
  That by Pandare he wroot somwhat or seyde;

  193. And dide also his othere observaunces                           1345
  That to a lovere longeth in this cas;
  And, after that these dees turnede on chaunces,
  So was he outher glad or seyde 'allas!'
  And held after his gestes ay his pas;
  And aftir swiche answeres as he hadde,                               1350
  So were his dayes sory outher gladde.

  194. But to Pandare alwey was his recours,
  And pitously gan ay til him to pleyne,
  And him bisoughte of rede and som socours;
  And Pandarus, that sey his wode peyne,                               1355
  Wex wel neigh deed for routhe, sooth to seyne,
  And bisily with al his herte caste
  Som of his wo to sleen, and that as faste;

  195. And seyde, 'lord, and freend, and brother dere,
  God woot that thy disese dooth me wo.                                1360
  But woltow stinten al this woful chere,
  And, by my trouthe, or it be dayes two,
  And god to-forn, yet shal I shape it so,
  That thou shalt come in-to a certayn place,
  Ther-as thou mayst thy-self hir preye of grace.                      1365

  196. And certainly, I noot if thou it wost,
  But tho that been expert in love it seye,
  It is oon of the thinges that furthereth most,
  A man to have a leyser for to preye,
  And siker place his wo for to biwreye;                               1370
  For in good herte it moot som routhe impresse,
  To here and see the giltles in distresse.

  197. Paraunter thenkestow: though it be so
  That kinde wolde doon hir to biginne
  To han a maner routhe up-on my wo,                                   1375
  Seyth Daunger, "Nay, thou shalt me never winne;
  So reuleth hir hir hertes goost with-inne,
  That, though she bende, yet she stant on rote;
  What in effect is this un-to my bote?"

  198. Thenk here-ayeins, whan that the sturdy ook,                    1380
  On which men hakketh ofte, for the nones,
  Receyved hath the happy falling strook,
  The grete sweigh doth it come al at ones,
  As doon these rokkes or these milne-stones.
  For swifter cours cometh thing that is of wighte,                    1385
  Whan it descendeth, than don thinges lighte.

  199. And reed that boweth doun for every blast,
  Ful lightly, cesse wind, it wol aryse;
  But so nil not an ook whan it is cast;
  It nedeth me nought thee longe to forbyse.                           1390
  Men shal reioysen of a greet empryse
  Acheved wel, and stant with-outen doute,
  Al han men been the lenger ther-aboute.

  200. But, Troilus, yet tel me, if thee lest,
  A thing now which that I shal axen thee;                             1395
  Which is thy brother that thou lovest best
  As in thy verray hertes privetee?'
  'Y-wis, my brother Deiphebus,' quod he.
  'Now,' quod Pandare, 'er houres twyes twelve,
  He shal thee ese, unwist of it him-selve.                            1400

  201. Now lat me allone, and werken as I may,'
  Quod he; and to Deiphebus wente he tho
  Which hadde his lord and grete freend ben ay;
  Save Troilus, no man he lovede so.
  To telle in short, with-outen wordes mo,                             1405
  Quod Pandarus, 'I pray yow that ye be
  Freend to a cause which that toucheth me.'

  202. 'Yis, pardee,' quod Deiphebus, 'wel thow wost,
  In al that ever I may, and god to-fore,
  Al nere it but for man I love most,                                  1410
  My brother Troilus; but sey wherfore
  It is; for sith that day that I was bore,
  I nas, ne never-mo to been I thinke,
  Ayeins a thing that mighte thee for-thinke.'

  203. Pandare gan him thonke, and to him seyde,                       1415
  'Lo, sire, I have a lady in this toun,
  That is my nece, and called is Criseyde,
  Which som men wolden doon oppressioun,
  And wrongfully have hir possessioun:
  Wherfor I of your lordship yow biseche                               1420
  To been our freend, with-oute more speche.'

  204. Deiphebus him answerde, 'O, is not this,
  That thow spekest of to me thus straungely,
  Crisëyda, my freend?' He seyde, 'Yis.'
  'Than nedeth,' quod Deiphebus hardely,                               1425
  'Na-more to speke, for trusteth wel, that I
  Wol be hir champioun with spore and yerde;
  I roughte nought though alle hir foos it herde.

  205. But tel me, thou that woost al this matere,
  How I might best avaylen? now lat see.'                              1430
  Quod Pandarus, 'if ye, my lord so dere,
  Wolden as now don this honour to me,
  To prayen hir to-morwe, lo, that she
  Com un-to yow hir pleyntes to devyse,
  Hir adversaries wolde of hit agryse.                                 1435

  206. And if I more dorste preye as now,
  And chargen yow to have so greet travayle,
  To han som of your bretheren here with yow,
  That mighten to hir cause bet avayle,
  Than, woot I wel, she mighte never fayle                             1440
  For to be holpen, what at your instaunce,
  What with hir othere freendes governaunce.'

  207. Deiphebus, which that comen was, of kinde,
  To al honour and bountee to consente,
  Answerde, 'it shal be doon; and I can finde                          1445
  Yet gretter help to this in myn entente.
  What wolt thow seyn, if I for Eleyne sente
  To speke of this? I trowe it be the beste;
  For she may leden Paris as hir leste.

  208. Of Ector, which that is my lord, my brother,                    1450
  It nedeth nought to preye him freend to be;
  For I have herd him, o tyme and eek other,
  Speke of Criseyde swich honour, that he
  May seyn no bet, swich hap to him hath she.
  It nedeth nought his helpes for to crave;                            1455
  He shal be swich, right as we wole him have.

  209. Spek thou thy-self also to Troilus
  On my bihalve, and pray him with us dyne.'
  'Sire, al this shal be doon,' quod Pandarus;
  And took his leve, and never gan to fyne,                            1460
  But to his neces hous, as streyt as lyne,
  He com; and fond hir fro the mete aryse;
  And sette him doun, and spak right in this wyse.

  210. He seyde, 'O veray god, so have I ronne!
  Lo, nece myn, see ye nought how I swete?                             1465
  I noot whether ye the more thank me conne.
  Be ye nought war how that fals Poliphete
  Is now aboute eft-sones for to plete,
  And bringe on yow advocacyës newe?'
  'I? no,' quod she, and chaunged al hir hewe.                         1470

  211. 'What is he more aboute, me to drecche
  And doon me wrong? what shal I do, allas?
  Yet of him-self no-thing ne wolde I recche,
  Nere it for Antenor and Eneas,
  That been his freendes in swich maner cas;                           1475
  But, for the love of god, myn uncle dere,
  No fors of that, lat him have al y-fere;

  212. With-outen that, I have ynough for us.'
  'Nay,' quod Pandare, 'it shal no-thing be so.
  For I have been right now at Deiphebus,                              1480
  And Ector, and myne othere lordes mo,
  And shortly maked eche of hem his fo;
  That, by my thrift, he shal it never winne
  For ought he can, whan that so he biginne.'

  213. And as they casten what was best to done,                       1485
  Deiphebus, of his owene curtasye,
  Com hir to preye, in his propre persone,
  To holde him on the morwe companye
  At diner, which she nolde not denye,
  But goodly gan to his preyere obeye.                                 1490
  He thonked hir, and wente up-on his weye.

  214. Whanne this was doon, this Pandare up a-noon,
  To telle in short, and forth gan for to wende
  To Troilus, as stille as any stoon,
  And al this thing he tolde him, word and ende;                       1495
  And how that he Deiphebus gan to blende;
  And seyde him, 'now is tyme, if that thou conne,
  To bere thee wel to-morwe, and al is wonne.

  215. Now spek, now prey, now pitously compleyne;
  Lat not for nyce shame, or drede, or slouthe;                        1500
  Som-tyme a man mot telle his owene peyne;
  Bileve it, and she shal han on thee routhe;
  Thou shalt be saved by thy feyth, in trouthe.
  But wel wot I, thou art now in a drede;
  And what it is, I leye, I can arede.                                 1505

  216. Thow thinkest now, "how sholde I doon al this?
  For by my cheres mosten folk aspye,
  That for hir love is that I fare a-mis;
  Yet hadde I lever unwist for sorwe dye."
  Now thenk not so, for thou dost greet folye.                         1510
  For right now have I founden o manere
  Of sleighte, for to coveren al thy chere.

  217. Thow shall gon over night, and that as blyve,
  Un-to Deiphebus hous, as thee to pleye,
  Thy maladye a-wey the bet to dryve,                                  1515
  For-why thou semest syk, soth for to seye.
  Sone after that, doun in thy bed thee leye,
  And sey, thow mayst no lenger up endure,
  And lye right there, and byde thyn aventure.

  218. Sey that thy fever is wont thee for to take                     1520
  The same tyme, and lasten til a-morwe;
  And lat see now how wel thou canst it make,
  For, par-dee, syk is he that is in sorwe.
  Go now, farewel! and, Venus here to borwe,
  I hope, and thou this purpos holde ferme,                            1525
  Thy grace she shal fully ther conferme.'

  219. Quod Troilus, 'y-wis, thou nedelees
  Counseylest me, that sykliche I me feyne!
  For I am syk in ernest, doutelees,
  So that wel neigh I sterve for the peyne.'                           1530
  Quod Pandarus, 'thou shalt the bettre pleyne,
  And hast the lasse nede to countrefete;
  For him men demen hoot that men seen swete.

  220. Lo, holde thee at thy triste cloos, and I
  Shal wel the deer un-to thy bowe dryve.'                             1535
  Therwith he took his leve al softely,
  And Troilus to paleys wente blyve.
  So glad ne was he never in al his lyve;
  And to Pandarus reed gan al assente,
  And to Deiphebus hous at night he wente.                             1540

  221. What nedeth yow to tellen al the chere
  That Deiphebus un-to his brother made,
  Or his accesse, or his syklych manere,
  How men gan him with clothes for to lade,
  Whan he was leyd, and how men wolde him glade?                       1545
  But al for nought, he held forth ay the wyse
  That ye han herd Pandare er this devyse.

  222. But certeyn is, er Troilus him leyde,
  Deiphebus had him prayed, over night,
  To been a freend and helping to Criseyde.                            1550
  God woot, that he it grauntede anon-right,
  To been hir fulle freend with al his might.
  But swich a nede was to preye him thenne,
  As for to bidde a wood man for to renne.

  223. The morwen com, and neighen gan the tyme                        1555
  Of meel-tyd, that the faire quene Eleyne
  Shoop hir to been, an houre after the pryme,
  With Deiphebus, to whom she nolde feyne;
  But as his suster, hoomly, sooth to seyne,
  She com to diner in hir playn entente.                               1560
  But god and Pandare wiste al what this mente.

  224. Come eek Criseyde, al innocent of this,
  Antigone, hir sister Tarbe also;
  But flee we now prolixitee best is,
  For love of god, and lat us faste go                                 1565
  Right to the effect, with-oute tales mo,
  Why al this folk assembled in this place;
  And lat us of hir saluinges pace.

  225. Gret honour dide hem Deiphebus, certeyn,
  And fedde hem wel with al that mighte lyke.                          1570
  But ever-more, 'allas!' was his refreyn,
  'My goode brother Troilus, the syke,
  Lyth yet'--and therwith-al he gan to syke;
  And after that, he peyned him to glade
  Hem as he mighte, and chere good he made.                            1575

  226. Compleyned eek Eleyne of his syknesse
  So feithfully, that pitee was to here,
  And every wight gan waxen for accesse
  A leche anoon, and seyde, 'in this manere
  Men curen folk; this charme I wol yow lere.'                         1580
  But there sat oon, al list hir nought to teche,
  That thoughte, best coude I yet been his leche.

  227. After compleynt, him gonnen they to preyse,
  As folk don yet, whan som wight hath bigonne
  To preyse a man, and up with prys him reyse                          1585
  A thousand fold yet hyer than the sonne:--
  'He is, he can, that fewe lordes conne.'
  And Pandarus, of that they wolde afferme,
  He not for-gat hir preysing to conferme.

  228. Herde al this thing Criseyde wel y-nough,                       1590
  And every word gan for to notifye;
  For which with sobre chere hir herte lough;
  For who is that ne wolde hir glorifye,
  To mowen swich a knight don live or dye?
  But al passe I, lest ye to longe dwelle;                             1595
  For for o fyn is al that ever I telle.

  229. The tyme com, fro diner for to ryse,
  And, as hem oughte, arisen everychoon,
  And gonne a while of this and that devyse.
  But Pandarus brak al this speche anoon,                              1600
  And seyde to Deiphebus, 'wole ye goon,
  If yourë wille be, as I yow preyde,
  To speke here of the nedes of Criseyde?'

  230. Eleyne, which that by the hond hir held,
  Took first the tale, and seyde, 'go we blyve;'                       1605
  And goodly on Criseyde she biheld,
  And seyde, 'Ioves lat him never thryve,
  That dooth yow harm, and bringe him sone of lyve!
  And yeve me sorwe, but he shal it rewe,
  If that I may, and alle folk be trewe.'                              1610

  231. 'Tel thou thy neces cas,' quod Deiphebus
  To Pandarus, 'for thou canst best it telle.'--
  'My lordes and my ladyes, it stant thus;
  What sholde I lenger,' quod he, 'do yow dwelle?'
  He rong hem out a proces lyk a belle,                                1615
  Up-on hir fo, that highte Poliphete,
  So hëynous, that men mighte on it spete.

  232. Answerde of this ech worse of hem than other,
  And Poliphete they gonnen thus to warien,
  'An-honged be swich oon, were he my brother;                         1620
  And so he shal, for it ne may not varien.'
  What sholde I lenger in this tale tarien?
  Pleynly, alle at ones, they hir highten,
  To been hir helpe in al that ever they mighten.

  233. Spak than Eleyne, and seyde, 'Pandarus,                         1625
  Woot ought my lord, my brother, this matere,
  I mene, Ector? or woot it Troilus?'
  He seyde, 'ye, but wole ye now me here?
  Me thinketh this, sith Troilus is here,
  It were good, if that ye wolde assente,                              1630
  She tolde hir-self him al this, er she wente.

  234. For he wole have the more hir grief at herte,
  By cause, lo, that she a lady is;
  And, by your leve, I wol but right in sterte,
  And do yow wite, and that anoon, y-wis,                              1635
  If that he slepe, or wole ought here of this.'
  And in he lepte, and seyde him in his ere,
  'God have thy soule, y-brought have I thy bere!'

  235. To smylen of this gan tho Troilus,
  And Pandarus, with-oute rekeninge,                                   1640
  Out wente anoon to Eleyne and Deiphebus,
  And seyde hem, 'so there be no taryinge,
  Ne more pres, he wol wel that ye bringe
  Crisëyda, my lady, that is here;
  And as he may enduren, he wole here.                                 1645

  236. But wel ye woot, the chaumbre is but lyte,
  And fewe folk may lightly make it warm;
  Now loketh ye, (for I wol have no wyte,
  To bringe in prees that mighte doon him harm
  Or him disesen, for my bettre arm),                                  1650
  Wher it be bet she byde til eft-sones;
  Now loketh ye, that knowen what to doon is.

  237. I sey for me, best is, as I can knowe,
  That no wight in ne wente but ye tweye,
  But it were I, for I can, in a throwe,                               1655
  Reherce hir cas, unlyk that she can seye;
  And after this, she may him ones preye
  To ben good lord, in short, and take hir leve;
  This may not muchel of his ese him reve.

  238. And eek, for she is straunge, he wol forbere                    1660
  His ese, which that him thar nought for yow;
  Eek other thing, that toucheth not to here,
  He wol me telle, I woot it wel right now,
  That secret is, and for the tounes prow.'
  And they, that no-thing knewe of this entente,                       1665
  With-oute more, to Troilus in they wente.

  239. Eleyne in al hir goodly softe wyse,
  Gan him saluwe, and womanly to pleye,
  And seyde, 'ywis, ye moste alweyes aryse!
  Now fayre brother, beth al hool, I preye!'                           1670
  And gan hir arm right over his sholder leye,
  And him with al hir wit to recomforte;
  As she best coude, she gan him to disporte.

  240. So after this quod she, 'we yow biseke,
  My dere brother, Deiphebus, and I,                                   1675
  For love of god, and so doth Pandare eke,
  To been good lord and freend, right hertely,
  Un-to Criseyde, which that certeinly
  Receyveth wrong, as woot wel here Pandare,
  That can hir cas wel bet than I declare.'                            1680

  241. This Pandarus gan newe his tunge affyle,
  And al hir cas reherce, and that anoon;
  Whan it was seyd, sone after, in a whyle,
  Quod Troilus, 'as sone as I may goon,
  I wol right fayn with al my might ben oon,                           1685
  Have god my trouthe, hir cause to sustene.'
  'Good thrift have ye,' quod Eleyne the quene.

  242. Quod Pandarus, 'and it your wille be,
  That she may take hir leve, er that she go?'
  'Or elles god for-bede,' tho quod he,                                1690
  'If that she vouche sauf for to do so.'
  And with that word quod Troilus, 'ye two,
  Deiphebus, and my suster leef and dere,
  To yow have I to speke of o matere,

  243. To been avysed by your reed the bettre':--                      1695
  And fond, as hap was, at his beddes heed,
  The copie of a tretis and a lettre,
  That Ector hadde him sent to axen reed,
  If swich a man was worthy to ben deed,
  Woot I nought who; but in a grisly wyse                              1700
  He preyede hem anoon on it avyse.

  244. Deiphebus gan this lettre to unfolde
  In ernest greet; so dide Eleyne the quene;
  And rominge outward, fast it gan biholde,
  Downward a steyre, in-to an herber grene.                            1705
  This ilke thing they redden hem bi-twene;
  And largely, the mountaunce of an houre,
  They gonne on it to reden and to poure.

  245. Now lat hem rede, and turne we anoon
  To Pandarus, that gan ful faste prye                                 1710
  That al was wel, and out he gan to goon
  In-to the grete chambre, and that in hye,
  And seyde, 'god save al this companye!
  Com, nece myn; my lady quene Eleyne
  Abydeth yow, and eek my lordes tweyne.                               1715

  246. Rys, take with yow your nece Antigone,
  Or whom yow list, or no fors, hardily;
  The lasse prees, the bet; com forth with me,
  And loke that ye thonke humblely
  Hem alle three, and, whan ye may goodly                              1720
  Your tyme y-see, taketh of hem your leve,
  Lest we to longe his restes him bireve.'

  247. Al innocent of Pandarus entente,
  Quod tho Criseyde, 'go we, uncle dere';
  And arm in arm inward with him she wente,                            1725
  Avysed wel hir wordes and hir chere;
  And Pandarus, in ernestful manere,
  Seyde, 'alle folk, for goddes love, I preye,
  Stinteth right here, and softely yow pleye.

  248. Aviseth yow what folk ben here with-inne,                       1730
  And in what plyt oon is, god him amende!
  And inward thus ful softely biginne;
  Nece, I coniure and heighly yow defende,
  On his half, which that sowle us alle sende,
  And in the vertue of corounes tweyne,                                1735
  Slee nought this man, that hath for yow this peyne!

  249. Fy on the devel! thenk which oon he is,
  And in what plyt he lyth; com of anoon;
  Thenk al swich taried tyd, but lost it nis!
  That wol ye bothe seyn, whan ye ben oon.                             1740
  Secoundelich, ther yet devyneth noon
  Up-on yow two; com of now, if ye conne;
  Whyl folk is blent, lo, al the tyme is wonne!

  250. In titering, and pursuite, and delayes,
  The folk devyne at wagginge of a stree;                              1745
  And though ye wolde han after merye dayes,
  Than dar ye nought, and why? for she, and she
  Spak swich a word; thus loked he, and he;
  Lest tyme I loste, I dar not with yow dele;
  Com of therfore, and bringeth him to hele.'                          1750

  251. But now to yow, ye lovers that ben here,
  Was Troilus nought in a cankedort,
  That lay, and mighte whispringe of hem here,
  And thoughte, 'O lord, right now renneth my sort
  Fully to dye, or han anoon comfort';                                 1755
  And was the firste tyme he shulde hir preye
  Of love; O mighty god, what shal he seye?


RUBRIC. _So_ Cp. H. 1-84. _Lost in_ Cm. 4. Ed. connyng; H. coniynge(!); Cl.
H2. comynge; Cp. c[=o]myng. 6. Cp. desespeir; H. desespeyre; Cl. desper. 8.
H2. Clyo; _rest_ Cleo. 11. Cl. H2. _om._ other. 15. Cl. nel. 17. H.
Desblameth. 21. can nat] Cl. ne kan. 25. H. Ed. thynketh; Cl. Cp. thenketh.
37. Cl. al o; _rest om._. al. 38. H. Ed. gamen; _rest_ game. 39. Cl. _om._
that. 40. Ed. open; _rest_ opyn. 41. H2. seying; _rest_ seyde. 42. Cl.
seyth. 46. H2. to me; _rest_ thee. 49. H. Cp. folwen; Cl. folwe. 55. Cl. so
it. 58. H2. shottis; Ed. shottes; Cl. H. shotes. 59. Cl. _om._ of loving.
61. fil] Cl. felt(!). 64. H. Proignee. 68. Cl. hym so neigh. // Cl. Cp.
cheterynge; H. H2. chiteringe. 69. H2. Ed. Thereus (_for_ Tereus); Cl. Cp.
Tireux; H. Tryeux. 73. his] Cl. þe. 75. Cl. tok weye soone. 79. Cl. vn-to.
80. Cl. in forth. 81. Cl. sette; Cp. H. sete; H2. sate. 84. _So all._ 86.
Cl. Cp. H. faire book; _rest om._ faire.  90. H. Cm. goode; Cl. good.  H.
Cm. mote; Cl. mot.  94. Cl. _om._ that.  95. H. herknen; _rest_ herken
(herkyn).  97. Cp. H. o; Cm. Ed. or; Cl. _om._  H2. Is it of love, some
good ye may me lere.  99. Cl. _om._ tho. 101. Cl. that the; _rest om._ the.
102. _All_ Edippus. 104. _So all._ 107. Cp. H. Ed. thassege.  Cl. al the
care; _rest om._ al. 110. barbe] Cm. wimpil. 113. Cl. A; Ed. Eighe; _rest_
I. 115. _So_ Cp. Cl. H. Ed.; Cm. H2. Ye makyn me be iouys sore adradde
(a-drad). 116. as] Cl. that. 117. H. H2. sate; Cp. satte; _rest_ sat;
_read_ sete.  Cl. H. _om._ a. 120. Cl. I thriue; _om._ this. 123. Cp. H.
Ed. thassege; Cm. H2. the sege. 124. Cp. fered. 126. _So_ Cp. H. H2. Ed.;
Cm. better (_for_ wel bet); Cl. _corrupt_; _see_ l. 128. 128. Ed. eighe
(_better_ ey); Cl. Cp. H. Cm. I. 131. Cl. _om._ vs. 134. H2. borow; Cm.
borw; Cp. H. borugh; Ed. borowe; Cl. bourgh. 138. Cl. were; _rest_ is. 141.
wondren] Cl. Iape. 155. Cp. H. Ed. it; _rest om._ 159. H2. Ed. euery; Cl.
H. al; Cp. alle. 160. H2. In; _rest_ As (_usually with_ al). 164. Cl.
trewly; Cp. H. trewelich; Cm. trewely. 176. Cm. nought; H2. no thing (_om._
for); _rest_ no more. 177. H. Cm. ther; Cl. ner. 179. Cp. H. Cm. than; Cl.
that. 185. H. Cp. dredelees; Cl. Cm. dredles. 188. Cm. al the; Cl. Cp. H.
alle; _rest_ al. 194. Cl. Cm. gonne fro him. 195. Cl. fleld (_for_ feld).
201. Cl. lyf and sheld; Cp. H. Ed. sheld and lif; H2. sheld of lyf; Cm.
schild and spere. 202. as] Cl. al. 204. H. Cm. freendlyeste; Cl.
frendlyest. 206. Cl. felawship; H. felaweschipe. 207. Cl. thenketh. 212.
Cl. womman; H2. woman; _rest_ wommen. 215. Cl. two; Cm. to; _rest_ tho.
216. Cm. Ed. herde; _rest_ herd. 217. they two] Cl. that they. 220. Cm. H2.
it; _rest om._ 221. Cl. Cm. H2. and lat. 223. Cl. yow-; _rest_ your-. 224.
Cl. it; _rest_ is. // fair] Cp. gladde; Cm. H2. Ed. glad. 226. witen] Cl.
wete. 227. Cl. _om._ this _and_ tho. 238. Cl. Cm. wete; Cp. H. Ed. weten;
H2. wite. // your] Cl. yow. 239. Cl. Cp. H. _om._ myn. 247. Cl. Cm. truste.
248. Cl. _om._ to me. // Cp. H. frende (_error for_ fremde); H2. frend; Ed.
fremed; Cl. Cm. frendly. 250. Cl. here he keste; _rest om._ he. 255. Cl. lo
alwey. 259. Cl. tales (!). 260. H. sithen; Cp. Cm. sithe; Cl. sith. // Cl.
Cm. H2. the ende. // Cl. _ins._ of _after_ is. 262. H2. Ed. peynt; Cm.
pente; _rest_ poynte. 265. Cl. loke. 266. Cp. H. goode; _rest_ good. 269.
Cl. litel (!). 276. Cl. _om._ faste. // Cp. H. mauise. 279. Cm. thoughte;
Cl. Cp. thought. 284. that] Cl. than. // Cl. weylen (!). 287. Cl. _om._ a.
289. and] Cl. if. 291. H. it slake; _rest om._ it. 296. Cl. toforn; _rest_
biforn. 299. Cl. to yow; _rest om._ to. // Cl. H. Ed. sworne; _rest_ sworn.
300. or] Cl. and. 301. _All_ eye (eighe). 303. chaungeth] Cl. quaketh (!).
308. Cl. nolde; _rest_ wolde. 309. Cl. H. Cp. _om._ my. 315. Cl. shal yow;
_rest om._ yow. 317. H. Cm. goode; Cl. Cp. good. 323. Cl. thow; _rest_ ye.
// H2. lete; Cl. Cp. Cm. late; H. lat. 324. Cl. nel. // Cl. H. lye. 325.
Cl. myn owene; _rest_ my (myn). 326. _All_ eyen (eighen). 328. Cl. giltles;
H. Cm. gilteles. 329. mende]  H2. wyn. 338. H. Cm. liste; Ed. lysteth; Cl.
lyst. 349. If] Cl. And. 350. Cl. that ye; _rest om._ that. 351. this] Cm.
H2. it; H. _om._ 359. Cl. behest. 368. Cl. to se; Cp. H. sen. 369. H2.
a-yens; Ed. ayenst; H. ayeyn; Cm. ayen. 370. fool] Cl. fel (_for_ fol).
371. Cl. frenship. 372. Cl. _om._ //What. 374. Cl. _om._ wel and. 380. Ed.
wrie; Cm. wri; Cl. Cp. wre; H. were (!); H2. couere. 381. Cp. H. Cm. Ed.
sauacioun; _rest_ saluacioun. 383. Cm. H2. Ed. _put_ alwey _after_ nece. //
Cm. goode; _rest_ good. 384. Ed. H2. sugred. 385. Cp. Cm. for; Ed. al; Cl.
H. _om._ 386. Cl. herd. 387. meneth] H. Cm. mene. 388. Cl. wole. 389.
sholde] Cl. shal. 395. Cl. H2. _om._ that. 401. _Read_ think'th, ber'th
(Cl. thenketh; Cp. H. berth). // Cl. Cp. H. heighe; Ed. Cm. hye. 403. Cl.
ben growen; Cp. H. be growe; Ed. growe; Cm. hem waxen; H2. be wox. // _All_
eye (eighe, ey, eyen). 405. H. H2. whiche; Cl. Cm. which; Cp. Ed. which
that. 406. Cm. H2. _om._ Nece. // Cm. I bidde with (!); H2. I kepe than
wisshe; (_read_ Nec' I bidd' wisshë). 411. Cl. Cp. Ed. straunge; H. H2.
straunge folk; Cm. straunge men. 413. Cp. H2. Ret; Ed. Rate; Cm. Redith;
Cl. Bet (!); H. Let (!). 414. H. tristed. 421. this] Cl. that. 423. Cl.
behest. 429. Cl. Ay; Cm. O; Ed. Ne; _rest_ A. 435. H. dispitouse; Cm.
dispituse; _rest_ dispitous (despitous). 438. Cl. _ins._ ony (Cp. H. any,
H2. eny) _before_ vilanye. // Cl. vylonye. 446. Cl. certaynly. 448. Cl. hym
agayn. 456. Cl. falles (_sic_). 460. Cl. wyl; Cp. H. wol. 461. Cl. of hit
wold. 466. lyth] Cp. H. is. 468. Cl. don so. 474. Cl. H2. y-wis; _rest_
wis. 480. Cm. H2. plese; _rest_ plesen. 482. Cp. Ed. dredde; _rest_ drede.
483. H. Ed. Cp. cesse; Cm. sese; (_see_ l. 1388); Cl. cesseth. 486. H. Cm.
Ed. sauacioun; _rest_ saluacioun. 490. Cp. Ed. H2. Pandare; _rest_
Pandarus. 491. Cp. H. truste; Cm. troste; _rest_ trust. 494. Cp. Cm.
doutelees; Cl. doutles. 496. Cm. Cp. after; H. efter; _rest_ ofter (!).
500. love of god] Cl. Cp. H. his love. 505. a litel gan to] Cl. bygan for
to. 507. Cl. go. // Cp. H. Ed. longe; _rest_ long. 516. Cm. Ed. after; Cl.
Cp. H. ther-after. 519. Cl. softly hym. 523. upon] Cl. on. 534. _All_ eyen
(eighen). 535. Cl. _om._ botme. 536. Cl. Cp. Cm. deyen. 537. Cp. Cm. Ed.
bywreyen; Cl. H2. bywryen; H. wryen. 539. hem] Cl. hym. // asshen] Cl.
asshe. 540. Cl. adown his hed. 541. Cp. H. Cm. trewely; _rest_ trewly. 542.
Cl. _puts_ awey _after_ I. 543. Cp. leet; H. lete; Cl. Cm. let. 549. Cl. ye
do. 554. Cl. passede. 555. Cp. com; Cm. cam; _rest_ come. 556. his] Cl. a.
562. Cp. com; _rest_ come. 563. Cl. saluacioun. 564. Cl. ne hadde I routhe.
567. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. herte; _rest_ hert. 570. Cl. _puts_ was _after_ depe.
574. see] Cl. do. // Cl. H. swone. 576. Cl. dreuen. 577. Cl. hath vs. 588.
Cp. H. houre; Cl. Cm. oure. 589. Ed. H2. a ha; H. ha a; Cm. Cp. ha ha; Cl.
_om._ 590, 592, 593. Cl. del, wele, stel. 595. Cm. Cp. Ed. wel; H2. wele;
Cl. H. wole I. 597. Cm. H2. Ed. Ye; _rest_ And. // Cl. Cp. H. H2. _om._
how. 602. Cp. com; H2. cam; Ed. came; _rest_ come. 603. Cm. wex; H2. wax;
Ed. woxe; _rest_ was. 611. Ed. Thascrye; Cm. The acry (_sic_); H2. In the
skye (!); Cl. Cp. H. Ascry. 612. MSS. cryede, cried, criedyn. 615. H2.
latis; _rest_ yates. 616. this]   Cl. that. 617. Cm. from; Ed. H2. fro; Cl.
Cp. H. to. 618. Cl. Gardanus; H2. Cardanus; Cm. dardannis; _rest_ Dardanus.
// open] Cl. Cm. vp on. 624. Cl. H. Thus.  Cp. Ed. baye; Cm. bay[gh]e;
_rest_ bay. 628. Cp. H. Cm. sighte; _rest_ sight. 636. weldy]   Cm. worthi.
642. Cl. thrilled. 643. Cp. cryde; Cl. cryede. 644. Cl. nexst. 648. _All_
eyen, eighen. 650. Cl. Ed. it so softe. 651. Cl. seluen. 658. for] Cl. Ed.
forth. 659. Cl. casten. 662. Cl. _om._ his _bef._ shap. 666. _Read_
envýous. 669. _All_ syght (_wrongly_). 670. thee] Cp. H. y-the. 677. H2.
_ins._ hert (_error for_ herte) _bef._ for. 681. Cl. seuenethe. 686. Cm.
sonere; Ed. sooner; _rest_ sonner. 694. Cl. she yn thought gan to. 696. Ed.
don; H2. do; _rest_ done. 697, 8. Cl. folde, colde. 700. Cp. H. Ed.
tendite. 701. Cl. thought; _see_ l. 699. 702. his] Cl. Cm. Ed. by. 710. H.
sighte; _rest_ sight. 713. H. No (_for_ Now). // wys] H2. a fole. 718. Cl.
drynklees; Cm. Cp. drynkeles. 719. Cl. Ek for me sith I wot. // Cl. al his;
_rest om._ al. 720. Cp. Cm. aughte; _rest_ ought, aught. 722. Cl. _om._
And. // Cl. Cm. long. 723. he] Cl. she (!). 724. Cl. Ne auaunter; Ed. No
vauntour; Cp. H. Nauauntour. 725. vyce] Cl. nyse. 726. Cl. cherishe; _rest_
cherice. 729. y-wis] Cl. wys. 733. H. Ed. alway. 734. wommen] Cl. a woman.
// Cl. H. Cp. al bysyde hire leue; Cm. þo_ur_ al this town aboute; Ed. H2.
al this towne aboute. 735. _So_ Cm. H2. Ed.; Cl. H. Cp. // And whanne hem
leste no more lat hem byleue. 736. Cl. Ed. H2. _om._ for. 737. Cl. Cp. H.
this ilke; _rest om._ ilke. // Cl. thryftiest (_also_ worthiest _in_ l.
739, _and_ best _in_ l. 740). 745. Cm. H2. no man; _rest_ noon (none). 746.
Cm. Cp. H. fayreste; _rest_ fairest. 747. Cp. H. goodlieste; _rest_
goodliest. 752. Ed. H. vnteyd; Cp. vnteyde; Cm. onteyed; _rest_ vntyd. 753.
Cl. H2. With-out. 757. Cl. _om. 2nd_ I. 758. Cp. Ed. leste; _rest_ lyst
(liste). 759. H. Cp. nought; _rest_ not. 763. Cp. alle; _rest_ al. 764. H.
brighte; _rest_ bright. 765. H. Cm. March; _rest_ Marche. 766. _All_
flight. 772. H. Cm. putte; _rest_ put. 777. Cm. why; _rest_ (_except_ H2)
weye (wey). // H2. Ther lovith none with-out bothe care and peyn
(_wrongly_). 778. Cm. moste; Cl. meste. 781. Cp. Cm. the; _rest_ that. 787.
Cp. H. Ed. cessed; Cl. Cm. sesed. 791. Cl. at the; _rest om._ the. 792. Cp.
H. y-knowen; Cl. knowe. // Cm. H2. Ed. tyme may men rede and se. 795. Cl.
Cm. go; Cp. H. ago. 797. _All_ bycometh; _see_ l. 795. 800. Cl. Cp. H.
dremen; _rest_ demen (deme). 801. Cl. H. _om._ that. 804. Cp. H. Ed.
stoppen; _rest_ stoppe. 804, 5. Cl. tungen (!), rungen. // whyl] Cl.
whanne. 814, 9. Cl. gardeyn. 819. Cm. folwede; Cl. folweden. 820. yerd] //
Cl. gardeyn. 821. Cl. shadwede (_om._ wel). // Cl. bowes blosmy and grene.
830. Cl. herte. 833. Cp. H. alle; _rest_ al; _see_ 763.  Cl. surete; H. Cm.
H2. seurte. 834. Cp. H2. Ye; _rest_ The. 838. Cl. _om._ that. 840. Cp. H.
leest; Cl. Ed. H2. lest. 843. Of wit] Cl. With (!). // Cl. H. secrenesse
(!). 844. lust] Cl. luf (!). 845. Cl. Cm. al; _rest_ alle. 847. Cl. _om._
so. 851. Cm. ryghte; _rest_ right. 857. Cf. l. 666. 860. Ed. H2. him;
_rest_ it; see 861. 862, 4. H. righte, bryghte; _rest_ right, bryght. 863.
Cl. Cp. feblesse; _rest_ fieblenesse (febilnesse). // _All_ eyen (eighen).
867. who] Cl. he (_for_ ho). 872. Cl. H2. is growen. 876. Cl. stynte; H2.
stynt. 882. Cp. H. Cm. let; _rest_ led. 884. _See_ note. 894. Cl. Cp. H.
moste; Cm. miste; Ed. mote; H2. must. // at] Cl. of. 896. H2. axe; Ed.
aske; Cl. H. Cp. axen; Cm. axith. // Cl. ful (_for_ foul). 903. Cp. Cm.
wex; Cl. was; _rest_ wax. 904. Cl. heighe; Cp. H. heye; _rest_ eye; _read_
yë. 909. H. Cp. for tapere. 910. Cl. _om._ al. // in] Cm. H2. hom. 916. Cl.
alle. 919. Under] Cl. Vp-on. 923. Cl. Cm. Ed. herkened; Cp. H. herkned.
924. Til] Cl. That. 934. H. scarmich; H2. Ed. scarmysshe. 936. yeden] Cm.
ridyn. 937. Cl. sought. 938. Cp. H. Cm. laste; _rest_ last. 939. Ed. came;
_rest_ come. 941. Cl. Cp. H2. slyng; H. sleynge (_for_ slynge); Ed. slonge;
Cm. slynging of. 942. Cl. now an; _rest om._ now. 943. Ed. Cm. _om._ so.
945. H. Ed. answerde; Cl. answered. 947. Cp. H. Ed. the; H2. her; _rest
om._ 950. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. _om._ that. 953. Cl. vs; _rest_ me. 954. don] Cm.
Ed. do on. // Cl. H2. sped; _rest_ spedde. 955. Cl. _om._ And. 956. Cp. H.
Cm. Ed. shorte; _rest_ short. 957. _So all._ 959. lak] Cl. lat (!). // Cl.
_om._ thy. 967. Cl. of the; _rest om._ the. 968. Ed. stalkes; H2. stalkys;
Cm. stalke; _rest_ stalk. 973. Cl. y-hered. 974. Cp. H2. Pandare; _rest_
Pandarus. 976. Cl. bonden; Cm. woundis (!). 979. Cl. myght; Cp. H. Cm.
myghte. 982. Cl. Whanne; nexst. 983. Cl. ben y-dreuen. 987. Cl. dishese.
995. Cp. H. Cm. yit; _rest_ yet. 999. fare] Cl. do. 1001. along] Cl.
y-long. 1002. Cl. _om._ wel. 1003. as] Cl. a. 1005. Cl. Cp. H. _om._ //
Right. 1006. Cp. H. Ed. tellen; _rest_ telle. 1009. Cl. myn-. // Cl. wil;
Cp. H. wol; _rest_ shal. 1011. Cl. Cm. _om._ thou. 1012. right] Cm. and
that; Cl. _om._ 1015. _All_ strete. 1016. H. leste; Cm. lyste; Cl. lyke;
_rest_ list. 1017. make] Cp. H. Ed. make thou; H2. thow make. 1022. Whan]
Cl. Than. 1023. Cl. that thow; _rest om._ that. 1025. Cp. H. Ed. tough; Cl.
towh; _rest_ tow. 1026. Cm. _om._ it. 1030. Cm. Cp. Ed. beste; _rest_ best.
1031. H. Cm. Cp. Ed. beste; _rest_ best. // Cl. sounded. 1033. H2. werble;
Ed. warble; H. warbul; Cm. warbele. 1035. Cp. H. maken; _rest_ make. 1037.
Cm. iumpere; Ed. iombre. 1039. of] Cl. vp. 1043. nere] Cl. Ed. were. 1044.
H2. to; _rest_ vn-to. 1049. Cl. Cm. _om._ it. 1051. H. Cm. answerde; Cl.
answered. // Cp H. leste; Cm. Ed. lest; _rest_ lyst. 1053. that lord] Cl.
hym. 1055. Cl. Cp. H. _om._ Right. 1060. Cl. I pray; Cm. preye I; _rest_
prey ich. 1063. Cp. H. Cm. Yif; Cl. Yef. 1064. Cp. H. sette; Cl. Ed. set;
Cm. sat. 1065. Cl. _om._ hir. // Cm. ryghte; _rest_ right. 1066. Cl. lece.
1068. Cl. alle these loueres. 1071. Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche. 1072. Cl. H2.
_om._ this. // Cl. louely; Ed. H2. lowly; _rest_ lowely. 1077. Cp. H.
leigh; H2. Ed. lyed. 1079. Cl. wold (_for_ sholde). 1086. Cl. salty; Cp.
Cm. Ed. salte; _rest_ salt. 1090. H. Cm. Cp. Ed. kiste; Cl. cussed. 1093.
Cl. Cm. Pandarus. 1095. it] Cl. is (!). 1097. Cp. Ed. H. sore; Cl. so.
1107. Cp. H. Cm. hoppe; _rest_ hope. 1108. Cl. Ed. laughe; H. laugh; H2.
lagh; Cm. law. // H. breste; _rest_ brest. 1109. Ed. alway that ye; Cm.
that ye alwey; _rest om._ that. 1111. come] Cl. y-come. 1112. Cl. griek;
Cp. greek; _rest_ greke. 1113. Cm. H2. come I; Cl. I am come; Cp. H. Ed. I
come. // Cl. Cp. H. Ed. _ins._ newe _after_ yow. 1116. Cl. wente. 1119. Cl.
they spoke; H. Ed. he spake (_read_ speke); Cp. he spak; Cm. H2. his
wordis. 1123. Cp. Ed. sente; _rest_ sent. // H2. to; _rest om._ 1130. Ed.
scripte. 1131. swich] Cl. this. 1137. Cm. H. seyn; Cl. sey. 1145. Cm. H2.
Ed. dethe; _rest_ deth. // smiten be] Cl. be smet. 1148. Cl. H2. to; _rest_
it (_better_). 1149. Cp. H. neigh; Cl. nyh. // Cp. Cm. alle; Cl. H. al.
1154. Cl. hent. 1155. H2. doun the lettre cast; _perhaps read_ doun the
lettre thraste. 1156. Cl. or noon (_for_ anoon). 1157. Cl. gaueren; _rest_
gauren. 1159. Cl. Cm. _om._ him. 1160. your] Cl. yow. 1161. Cl. Ed. wol.
1162. Cl. thanne wole. 1172. Cl. som; _rest_ some. 1174. Cp. Ed.
besynesses; _rest_ besynesse. 1181. Cl. Cp. H. _om._ him. 1182. Cl. H. H2.
_om._ that. 1186. Cl. wyndowe nexst. 1188. Cl. aforn-yeyn; Cp. afor[gh]eyn;
Ed. aforyene; H. aforyeynes; H2. aforyens; Cm. aforn. 1193. vn-to] Cl. Cm.
to. 1194. Cl. Cp. H. weren. // Cl. H2. _om._ alle. 1198. Cl. Cm. _om._ tho.
// Cp. H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax. 1202. Cl. honde. // Cm. fel; H2. fil; _rest_
sat. 1214. Cl. wrote; ony. 1215. in-to] H2. in. 1217. Cm. disdainys; Ed.
disdaynes; Cp. desdaynes; Cl. H. disdayns; H2. disdeynous. 1223. Cl. wolde.
// Ed. Cp. seluen; H. selfen; _rest_ self. 1225. Cp. fayn; Cl. H. fayne;
Cm. ay fayn. // Cm. _om._ to. 1227. Cp. Ed. in-to; Cl. in-to a; _rest_
in-to the. 1229. Cp. quysshyn; Cm. quysschyn; H. Ed. quysshen; Cl.
quysshon; H2. cusshyn. 1238. _All_ impressions. 1245. Cp. H. y-doon; Ed.
ydone; _rest_ don. 1247. they] Cl. he. 1250. Cl. softly: thederwardes.
1252. Cl. paylays; H. payleysse; _rest_ paleys. // Ed. H2. Pandare; _rest_
Pandarus. 1254. Cp. seeth; H. seth; Ed. sethe; Cl. seyth; Cm. sey. 1256.
Cp. H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax. // Cl. as the rose; _rest om._ the. 1260. Cl.
_om._ he. 1270. Cl. a routhe; _rest om._ a. 1273. Cp. Cm. nexte; Cl. nexst.
1278. Cl. H. Telle; _rest_ Tel. 1284. Cp. Ed. H. yonde; Cl. H2. yend; Cm.
yondir. // Cl. ritt; Cp. Cm. rit; Ed. rydeth; H. ride. // Cl. _om._ ye.
1298. Cp. H. Ed. holden; _rest_ holde (hold). 1309. Ed. lo; _rest om._
1313. Cl. Cp. ryse; Ed. vp ryse; _rest_ aryse. 1317. Cl. Cp. thorugh. 1320.
H2. and se thes lettres blake. 1323. yave] Cl. yaf; Cm. yeue. 1329. H. Cp.
Ed. biheste; _rest_ byhest. 1332. Ed. Through; Cl. Cp. Thorugh; H. Thorw;
H2. The. // or] Cl. and. 1336. Cl. Cp. H. thorugh. 1347. Ed. dyce. 1349.
Cl. gistes; H2. gyltes; Cp. gostes; _rest_ gestes. 1350. And] Cp. H. H2.
As. 1352. Cl. Cm. Pandarus; _rest_ Pandare. 1354. Cl. Cm. red. 1355. Cp. H.
woode; Cm. Ed. wode; Cl. wod; H2. wood. 1360. Cl. dishese. 1368. Cp. H. Ed.
_om._ that. 1374. Ed. her don. // Cm. H2. Ed. for to; Cl. H. _om._ for.
1379. What] Cl. That. 1383. Cl. Cp. H. Cm. _ins._ to _bef._ come. // come]
Cm. falle; H2. than fal. 1384. doon] Cl. doth. // Cp. H. Ed. milne; Cm.
melle; Cl. H2. myl. 1387. Cp. reed; Cl. H. ried. 1388. Cl. wold. 1394. H.
Ed. tel; Cl. telle. // Cp. H. Ed. lest; Cl. lyste; _rest_ lyst. 1401. Cp.
lat malone. 1409. Cl. to-forn. 1413. nas] Cl. na. 1418. doon] Cl. do. 1423.
thus] Cl. so. 1427. spore] H. H2. Cm. spere. 1428. Cp. Cm. roughte; _rest_
rought (roght). 1429. Cl. H. Cm. telle. 1436. Cl. Cp. H. yow as; _rest om._
yow. 1452. and eek] Cl. ek and. 1460. gan to] Cl. wolde he. 1465. Cl. _om._
myn. 1466. Cl. H2. _put_ me _before_ the. 1467. Cl. H. _om._ ye. // H2.
that; _rest om._ 1473. Cp. H. ne wolde; Cm. yit wolde; _rest_ wolde. 1482.
Cp. Ed. maked; H. makes (_for_ maked); _rest_ made (mad). 1484. Ed. H2. so
that; Cl. Cp. H. that so; Cm. so euere. 1489. nolde] Cl. H. wolde. 1490.
goodly] Cl. good. 1495. _So all_. 1504. thou] Cl. yow. // Ed. H2. a; _rest
om._ 1509. Yet] Cl. That. 1513. Cm. Ed. belyue; H2. as blyue; _rest_ blyue.
1517. Cm. Ed. Sone; Cl. So; Cp. H. And. 1526. Cp. H. Ed. fully ther; H2.
fully the; Cl. there fully; Cm. the fulli. 1527. thou] Cl. Cm. H2. now.
1532. Cl. H. Cm. _om._ the. 1536. Cl. _om._ al. 1554. wood man] Cl. womman.
1556. Cp. meel-tide; Ed. mealtyde; Cl. meltid; H. meelited (!); Cm. mele.
1557. Shoop] Cl. H. Shapt; Cp. Shapte. 1558. Cl. nold not; H2. wold not;
_rest_ nolde. 1559. sooth] Cl. for. 1561. Cp. Ed. Cm. al what; Cl. H. what
al. 1582. Cp. H. Cm. thoughte; _rest_ thought. // coude] Cl. cowede. 1585.
Cl. Cp. H. Ed. _om._ up. 1588. they] Cl. he. 1591. Cl. _om._ for. 1594.
don] H2. to; Cl. _om._ 1595. lest] Cl. Cp. H. lyst. 1596. H. _glosses_ For
for _by_ quia propter. 1598. arisen] Cl. aryse; H2. thei risyn. 1602. H2.
If it; _rest om._ it. 1604. Cl. H. Ed. whiche. 1605. Took] Cl. To(!). 1607.
Cm. H2. Iouis. 1611. thou] Cl. yow; H. how. 1615. Cl. Cm. _om._ out. 1618.
Answerde] Cl. Answere. 1621. it] Cl. he. 1628. Cl. _om._ me. 1629.
thinketh] Cl. thenketh. // H. sith; _rest_ sith that. 1635. Cl. _om._ do.
Cp. H. H2. wyte; Cl. Ed. wete. 1638. thy] Cl. the. 1641. _So all._ 1647.
Cl. lightly may. 1648, 1652. loketh] Cl. loke. 1649. Cl. H. _om._ him.
1650. Cl. dishesen. 1652. Cp. H. Ed. knowen; Cl. Cm. knoweth. 1659. H.
muchel; Cl. mechel. 1661. him] Cl. he. 1662. toucheth] Cl. toucher(!).
1665, 6. Cp. H. entente, wente; _rest_ entent, went. 1667. Cl. goode
softly. 1670. Cl. fare. 1673. Cp. H. H2. Ed. to; _rest om._ 1674. Cp. Ed.
biseke; H. bisike; _rest_ byseche. 1680. than] Cl. that. 1686. Cl. Cm.
susteyne. 1687. Ed. Now good thrift. 1690. Cm. H2. Or; _rest_ O. // Cl. Cm.
for-bede; _rest_ for-bede it. // Cl. H2. _om._ tho. 1691. Cp. H. sauf; Cl.
Cm. saf. 1697. Cl. tretes. 1703. Cl. Cm. dede. 1708. Cp. H. Ed. gonne; Cl.
gon; Cm. gan. // Cl. rede. 1719. Cl. humbely; Cp. H. humblely; Cm. vmbely;
_rest_ humbly. 1722. his--bireve] Cl. of his reste hym reue. 1723. Cl.
Incocent (!). 1730. Cl. Avise. 1734. Cl. by halue; Cm. halue; _rest_ half.
// Cl. vs alle sowle; H2. vs soule hath; Cp. Cm. Ed. soule us alle; H. same
(_for_ soule) vs al. 1739. Cl. Thenk that; _rest om._ that. 1741. Cl.
Secundelich; Cm. Secundeli; Cp. Secoundely; H. Secoundly; _rest_ Secondly.
1746. Cl. wolden; Cm. woldyn. 1749. Ed. H2. Lest; _rest_ Las (!). // Ed.
H2. be lost; Cp. I loste; _rest_ I lost. 1752. H2. kankerdorte; _rest_
kankedort, cankedort. 1757. Cl. Cm. I; _rest_ he.



  1. O Blisful light, of whiche the bemes clere                           1
  Adorneth al the thridde hevene faire!
  O sonnes leef, O Ioves doughter dere,
  Plesaunce of love, O goodly debonaire,
  In gentil hertes ay redy to repaire!                                    5
  O verray cause of hele and of gladnesse,
  Y-heried be thy might and thy goodnesse!

  2. In hevene and helle, in erthe and salte see
  Is felt thy might, if that I wel descerne;
  As man, brid, best, fish, herbe and grene tree                         10
  Thee fele in tymes with vapour eterne.
  God loveth, and to love wol nought werne;
  And in this world no lyves creature,
  With-outen love, is worth, or may endure.

  3. Ye Ioves first to thilke effectes glade,                            15
  Thorugh which that thinges liven alle and be,
  Comeveden, and amorous him made
  On mortal thing, and as yow list, ay ye
  Yeve him in love ese or adversitee;
  And in a thousand formes doun him sente                                20
  For love in erthe, and whom yow liste, he hente.

  4. Ye fierse Mars apeysen of his ire,
  And, as yow list, ye maken hertes digne;
  Algates, hem that ye wol sette a-fyre,
  They dreden shame, and vices they resigne;                             25
  Ye do hem corteys be, fresshe and benigne,
  And hye or lowe, after a wight entendeth;
  The Ioyes that he hath, your might him sendeth.

  5. Ye holden regne and hous in unitee;
  Ye soothfast cause of frendship been also;                             30
  Ye knowe al thilke covered qualitee
  Of thinges which that folk on wondren so,
  Whan they can not construe how it may io,
  She loveth him, or why he loveth here;
  As why this fish, and nought that, cometh to were.                     35

  6. Ye folk a lawe han set in universe,
  And this knowe I by hem that loveres be,
  That who-so stryveth with yow hath the werse:
  Now, lady bright, for thy benignitee,
  At reverence of hem that serven thee,                                  40
  Whos clerk I am, so techeth me devyse
  Som Ioye of that is felt in thy servyse.

  7. Ye in my naked herte sentement
  Inhelde, and do me shewe of thy swetnesse.--
  Caliope, thy vois be now present,                                      45
  For now is nede; sestow not my destresse,
  How I mot telle anon-right the gladnesse
  Of Troilus, to Venus heryinge?
  To which gladnes, who nede hath, god him bringe!



  8. Lay al this mene whyle Troilus,                                     50
  Recordinge his lessoun in this manere,
  'Ma fey!' thought he, 'thus wole I seye and thus;
  Thus wole I pleyne un-to my lady dere;
  That word is good, and this shal be my chere;
  This nil I not foryeten in no wyse.'                                   55
  God leve him werken as he gan devyse.

  9. And lord, so that his herte gan to quappe,
  Heringe hir come, and shorte for to syke!
  And Pandarus, that ladde hir by the lappe,
  Com ner, and gan in at the curtin pyke,                                60
  And seyde, 'god do bote on alle syke!
  See, who is here yow comen to visyte;
  Lo, here is she that is your deeth to wyte.'

  10. Ther-with it semed as he wepte almost;
  'A ha,' quod Troilus so rewfully,                                      65
  'Wher me be wo, O mighty god, thou wost!
  Who is al there? I see nought trewely.'
  'Sire,' quod Criseyde, 'it is Pandare and I.'
  'Ye, swete herte? allas, I may nought ryse
  To knele, and do yow honour in som wyse.'                              70

  11. And dressede him upward, and she right tho
  Gan bothe here hondes softe upon him leye,
  'O, for the love of god, do ye not so
  To me,' quod she, 'ey! what is this to seye?
  Sire, come am I to yow for causes tweye;                               75
  First, yow to thonke, and of your lordshipe eke
  Continuaunce I wolde yow biseke.'

  12. This Troilus, that herde his lady preye
  Of lordship him, wex neither quik ne deed,
  Ne mighte a word for shame to it seye,                                 80
  Al-though men sholde smyten of his heed.
  But lord, so he wex sodeinliche reed,
  And sire, his lesson, that he wende conne,
  To preyen hir, is thurgh his wit y-ronne.

  13. Cryseyde al this aspyede wel y-nough,                              85
  For she was wys, and lovede him never-the-lasse,
  Al nere he malapert, or made it tough,
  Or was to bold, to singe a fool a masse.
  But whan his shame gan somwhat to passe,
  His resons, as I may my rymes holde,                                   90
  I yow wol telle, as techen bokes olde.

  14. In chaunged vois, right for his verrey drede,
  Which vois eek quook, and ther-to his manere
  Goodly abayst, and now his hewes rede,
  Now pale, un-to Criseyde, his lady dere,                               95
  With look doun cast and humble yolden chere,
  Lo, the alderfirste word that him asterte
  Was, twyes, 'mercy, mercy, swete herte!'

  15. And stinte a whyl, and whan he mighte out-bringe,
  The nexte word was, 'god wot, for I have,                             100
  As feythfully as I have had konninge,
  Ben youres, also god my sowle save;
  And shal, til that I, woful wight, be grave.
  And though I dar ne can un-to yow pleyne,
  Y-wis, I suffre nought the lasse peyne.                               105

  16. Thus muche as now, O wommanliche wyf,
  I may out-bringe, and if this yow displese,
  That shal I wreke upon myn owne lyf
  Right sone, I trowe, and doon your herte an ese,
  If with my deeth your herte I may apese.                              110
  But sin that ye han herd me som-what seye,
  Now recche I never how sone that I deye.'

  17. Ther-with his manly sorwe to biholde,
  It mighte han maad an herte of stoon to rewe;
  And Pandare weep as he to watre wolde,                                115
  And poked ever his nece newe and newe,
  And seyde, 'wo bigon ben hertes trewe!
  For love of god, make of this thing an ende,
  Or slee us bothe at ones, er that ye wende.'

  18. 'I? what?' quod she, 'by god and by my trouthe,                   120
  I noot nought what ye wilne that I seye.'
  'I? what?' quod he, 'that ye han on him routhe,
  For goddes love, and doth him nought to deye.'
  'Now thanne thus,' quod she, 'I wolde him preye
  To telle me the fyn of his entente;                                   125
  Yet wiste I never wel what that he mente.'

  19. 'What that I mene, O swete herte dere?'
  Quod Troilus, 'O goodly fresshe free!
  That, with the stremes of your eyen clere,
  Ye wolde som-tyme freendly on me see,                                 130
  And thanne agreën that I may ben he,
  With-oute braunche of vyce in any wyse,
  In trouthe alwey to doon yow my servyse

  20. As to my lady right and chief resort,
  With al my wit and al my diligence,                                   135
  And I to han, right as yow list, comfort,
  Under your yerde, egal to myn offence,
  As deeth, if that I breke your defence;
  And that ye deigne me so muche honoure,
  Me to comaunden ought in any houre.                                   140

  21. And I to ben your verray humble trewe,
  Secret, and in my paynes pacient,
  And ever-mo desire freshly newe,
  To serven, and been y-lyke ay diligent,
  And, with good herte, al holly your talent                            145
  Receyven wel, how sore that me smerte,
  Lo, this mene I, myn owene swete herte.'

  22. Quod Pandarus, 'lo, here an hard request,
  And resonable, a lady for to werne!
  Now, nece myn, by natal Ioves fest,                                   150
  Were I a god, ye sholde sterve as yerne,
  That heren wel, this man wol no-thing yerne
  But your honour, and seen him almost sterve,
  And been so looth to suffren him yow serve.'

  23. With that she gan hir eyen on him caste                           155
  Ful esily, and ful debonairly,
  Avysing hir, and hyed not to faste
  With never a word, but seyde him softely,
  'Myn honour sauf, I wol wel trewely,
  And in swich forme as he can now devyse,                              160
  Receyven him fully to my servyse,

  24. Biseching him, for goddes love, that he
  Wolde, in honour of trouthe and gentilesse,
  As I wel mene, eek mene wel to me,
  And myn honour, with wit and besinesse,                               165
  Ay kepe; and if I may don him gladnesse,
  From hennes-forth, y-wis, I nil not feyne:
  Now beeth al hool, no lenger ye ne pleyne.

  25. But nathelees, this warne I yow,' quod she,
  'A kinges sone al-though ye be, y-wis,                                170
  Ye shul na-more have soverainetee
  Of me in love, than right in that cas is;
  Ne I nil forbere, if that ye doon a-mis,
  To wrathen yow; and whyl that ye me serve,
  Cherycen yow right after ye deserve.                                  175

  26. And shortly, derë herte and al my knight,
  Beth glad, and draweth yow to lustinesse,
  And I shal trewely, with al my might,
  Your bittre tornen al in-to swetnesse;
  If I be she that may yow do gladnesse,                                180
  For every wo ye shal recovere a blisse';
  And him in armes took, and gan him kisse.

  27. Fil Pandarus on knees, and up his yën
  To hevene threw, and held his hondes hye,
  'Immortal god!' quod he, 'that mayst nought dyen,                     185
  Cupide I mene, of this mayst glorifye;
  And Venus, thou mayst make melodye;
  With-outen hond, me semeth that in towne,
  For this merveyle, I here ech belle sowne.

  28. But ho! no more as now of this matere,                            190
  For-why this folk wol comen up anoon,
  That han the lettre red; lo, I hem here.
  But I coniure thee, Criseyde, and oon,
  And two, thou Troilus, whan thow mayst goon,
  That at myn hous ye been at my warninge,                              195
  For I ful wel shal shape your cominge;

  29. And eseth ther your hertes right y-nough;
  And lat see which of yow shal bere the belle
  To speke of love a-right!' ther-with he lough,
  'For ther have ye a layser for to telle.'                             200
  Quod Troilus, 'how longe shal I dwelle
  Er this be doon?' Quod he, 'whan thou mayst ryse,
  This thing shal be right as I yow devyse.'

  30. With that Eleyne and also Deiphebus
  Tho comen upward, right at the steyres ende;                          205
  And lord, so than gan grone Troilus,
  His brother and his suster for to blende.
  Quod Pandarus, 'it tyme is that we wende;
  Tak, nece myn, your leve at alle three,
  And lat hem speke, and cometh forth with me.'                         210

  31. She took hir leve at hem ful thriftily,
  As she wel coude, and they hir reverence
  Un-to the fulle diden hardely,
  And speken wonder wel, in hir absence,
  Of hir, in preysing of hir excellence,                                215
  Hir governaunce, hir wit; and hir manere
  Commendeden, it Ioye was to here.

  32. Now lat hir wende un-to hir owne place,
  And torne we to Troilus a-yein,
  That gan ful lightly of the lettre passe,                             220
  That Deiphebus hadde in the gardin seyn.
  And of Eleyne and him he wolde fayn
  Delivered been, and seyde, that him leste
  To slepe, and after tales have reste.

  33. Eleyne him kiste, and took hir leve blyve,                        225
  Deiphebus eek, and hoom wente every wight;
  And Pandarus, as faste as he may dryve,
  To Troilus tho com, as lyne right;
  And on a paillet, al that glade night,
  By Troilus he lay, with mery chere,                                   230
  To tale; and wel was hem they were y-fere.

  34. Whan every wight was voided but they two,
  And alle the dores were faste y-shette,
  To telle in short, with-oute wordes mo,
  This Pandarus, with-outen any lette,                                  235
  Up roos, and on his beddes syde him sette,
  And gan to speken in a sobre wyse
  To Troilus, as I shal yow devyse.

  35. 'Myn alderlevest lord, and brother dere,
  God woot, and thou, that it sat me so sore,                           240
  When I thee saw so languisshing to-yere,
  For love, of which thy wo wex alwey more;
  That I, with al my might and al my lore,
  Have ever sithen doon my bisinesse
  To bringe thee to Ioye out of distresse;                              245

  36. And have it brought to swich plyt as thou wost,
  So that, thorugh me, thow stondest now in weye
  To fare wel, I seye it for no bost,
  And wostow why? for shame it is to seye,
  For thee have I bigonne a gamen pleye                                 250
  Which that I never doon shal eft for other,
  Al-though he were a thousand fold my brother.

  37. That is to seye, for thee am I bicomen,
  Bitwixen game and ernest, swich a mene
  As maken wommen un-to men to comen;                                   255
  Al sey I nought, thou wost wel what I mene.
  For thee have I my nece, of vyces clene,
  So fully maad thy gentilesse triste,
  That al shal been right as thy-selve liste.

  38. But god, that al wot, take I to witnesse,                         260
  That never I this for coveityse wroughte,
  But only for to abregge that distresse,
  For which wel nygh thou deydest, as me thoughte.
  But gode brother, do now as thee oughte,
  For goddes love, and keep hir out of blame,                           265
  Sin thou art wys, and save alwey hir name.

  39. For wel thou wost, the name as yet of here
  Among the peple, as who seyth, halwed is;
  For that man is unbore, I dar wel swere,
  That ever wiste that she dide amis.                                   270
  But wo is me, that I, that cause al this,
  May thenken that she is my nece dere,
  And I hir eem, and traytor eek y-fere!

  40. And were it wist that I, through myn engyn,
  Hadde in my nece y-put this fantasye,                                 275
  To do thy lust, and hoolly to be thyn,
  Why, al the world up-on it wolde crye,
  And seye, that I the worste trecherye
  Dide in this cas, that ever was bigonne,
  And she for-lost, and thou right nought y-wonne.                      280

  41. Wher-fore, er I wol ferther goon a pas,
  Yet eft I thee biseche and fully seye,
  That privetee go with us in this cas,
  That is to seye, that thou us never wreye;
  And be nought wrooth, though I thee ofte preye                        285
  To holden secree swich an heigh matere;
  For skilful is, thow wost wel, my preyere.

  42. And thenk what wo ther hath bitid er this,
  For makinge of avauntes, as men rede;
  And what mischaunce in this world yet ther is,                        290
  Fro day to day, right for that wikked dede;
  For which these wyse clerkes that ben dede
  Han ever yet proverbed to us yonge,
  That "firste vertu is to kepe tonge."

  43. And, nere it that I wilne as now tabregge                         295
  Diffusioun of speche, I coude almost
  A thousand olde stories thee alegge
  Of wommen lost, thorugh fals and foles bost;
  Proverbes canst thy-self y-nowe, and wost,
  Ayeins that vyce, for to been a labbe,                                300
  Al seyde men sooth as often as they gabbe.

  44. O tonge, allas! so often here-biforn
  Hastow made many a lady bright of hewe
  Seyd, "welawey! the day that I was born!"
  And many a maydes sorwes for to newe;                                 305
  And, for the more part, al is untrewe
  That men of yelpe, and it were brought to preve;
  Of kinde non avauntour is to leve.

  45. Avauntour and a lyere, al is on;
  As thus: I pose, a womman graunte me                                  310
  Hir love, and seyth that other wol she non,
  And I am sworn to holden it secree,
  And after I go telle it two or three;
  Y-wis, I am avauntour at the leste,
  And lyere, for I breke my biheste.                                    315

  46. Now loke thanne, if they be nought to blame,
  Swich maner folk; what shal I clepe hem, what,
  That hem avaunte of wommen, and by name,
  That never yet bihighte hem this ne that,
  Ne knewe hem more than myn olde hat?                                  320
  No wonder is, so god me sende hele,
  Though wommen drede with us men to dele.

  47. I sey not this for no mistrust of yow,
  Ne for no wys man, but for foles nyce,
  And for the harm that in the world is now,                            325
  As wel for foly ofte as for malyce;
  For wel wot I, in wyse folk, that vyce
  No womman drat, if she be wel avysed;
  For wyse ben by foles harm chastysed.

  48. But now to purpos; leve brother dere,                             330
  Have al this thing that I have seyd in minde,
  And keep thee clos, and be now of good chere,
  For at thy day thou shalt me trewe finde.
  I shal thy proces sette in swich a kinde,
  And god to-forn, that it shall thee suffyse,                          335
  For it shal been right as thou wolt devyse.

  49. For wel I woot, thou menest wel, parde;
  Therfore I dar this fully undertake.
  Thou wost eek what thy lady graunted thee,
  And day is set, the chartres up to make.                              340
  Have now good night, I may no lenger wake;
  And bid for me, sin thou art now in blisse,
  That god me sende deeth or sone lisse.'

  50. Who mighte telle half the Ioye or feste
  Which that the sowle of Troilus tho felte,                            345
  Heringe theffect of Pandarus biheste?
  His olde wo, that made his herte swelte,
  Gan tho for Ioye wasten and to-melte,
  And al the richesse of his sykes sore
  At ones fledde, he felte of hem no more.                              350

  51. But right so as these holtes and these hayes,
  That han in winter dede been and dreye,
  Revesten hem in grene, whan that May is,
  Whan every lusty lyketh best to pleye:
  Right in that selve wyse, sooth to seye,                              355
  Wex sodeynliche his herte ful of Ioye,
  That gladder was ther never man in Troye.

  52. And gan his look on Pandarus up caste
  Ful sobrely, and frendly for to see,
  And seyde, 'freend, in Aprille the laste,                             360
  As wel thou wost, if it remembre thee,
  How neigh the deeth for wo thou founde me;
  And how thou didest al thy bisinesse
  To knowe of me the cause of my distresse.

  53. Thou wost how longe I it for-bar to seye                          365
  To thee, that art the man that I best triste;
  And peril was it noon to thee by-wreye,
  That wiste I wel; but tel me, if thee liste,
  Sith I so looth was that thy-self it wiste,
  How dorste I mo tellen of this matere,                                370
  That quake now, and no wight may us here?

  54. But natheles, by that god I thee swere,
  That, as him list, may al this world governe,
  And, if I lye, Achilles with his spere
  Myn herte cleve, al were my lyf eterne,                               375
  As I am mortal, if I late or yerne
  Wolde it biwreye, or dorste, or sholde conne,
  For al the good that god made under sonne;

  55. That rather deye I wolde, and determyne,
  As thinketh me, now stokked in presoun,                               380
  In wrecchednesse, in filthe, and in vermyne,
  Caytif to cruel king Agamenoun;
  And this, in alle the temples of this toun,
  Upon the goddes alle, I wol thee swere,
  To-morwe day, if that thee lyketh here.                               385

  56. And that thou hast so muche y-doon for me,
  That I ne may it never-more deserve,
  This knowe I wel, al mighte I now for thee
  A thousand tymes on a morwen sterve,
  I can no more, but that I wol thee serve                              390
  Right as thy sclave, whider-so thou wende,
  For ever-more, un-to my lyves ende!

  57. But here, with al myn herte, I thee biseche,
  That never in me thou deme swich folye
  As I shal seyn; me thoughte, by thy speche,                           395
  That this, which thou me dost for companye,
  I sholde wene it were a bauderye;
  I am nought wood, al-if I lewed be;
  It is not so, that wool I wel, pardee.

  58. But he that goth, for gold or for richesse,                       400
  On swich message, calle him what thee list;
  And this that thou dost, calle it gentilesse,
  Compassioun, and felawship, and trist;
  Departe it so, for wyde-where is wist
  How that there is dyversitee requered                                 405
  Bitwixen thinges lyke, as I have lered.

  59. And, that thou knowe I thenke nought ne wene
  That this servyse a shame be or Iape,
  I have my faire suster Polixene,
  Cassandre, Eleyne, or any of the frape;                               410
  Be she never so faire or wel y-shape,
  Tel me, which thou wilt of everichone,
  To han for thyn, and lat me thanne allone.

  60. But sin that thou hast don me this servyse,
  My lyf to save, and for noon hope of mede,                            415
  So, for the love of god, this grete empryse
  Parforme it out; for now is moste nede.
  For high and low, with-outen any drede,
  I wol alwey thyne hestes alle kepe;
  Have now good night, and lat us bothe slepe.'                         420

  61. Thus held him ech with other wel apayed,
  That al the world ne mighte it bet amende;
  And, on the morwe, whan they were arayed,
  Ech to his owene nedes gan entende.
  But Troilus, though as the fyr he brende                              425
  For sharp desyr of hope and of plesaunce,
  He not for-gat his gode governaunce.

  62. But in him-self with manhod gan restreyne
  Ech rakel dede and ech unbrydled chere,
  That alle tho that liven, sooth to seyne,                             430
  Ne sholde han wist, by word or by manere,
  What that he mente, as touching this matere.
  From every wight as fer as is the cloude
  He was, so wel dissimulen he coude.

  63. And al the whyl which that I yow devyse,                          435
  This was his lyf; with al his fulle might,
  By day he was in Martes high servyse,
  This is to seyn, in armes as a knight;
  And for the more part, the longe night
  He lay, and thoughte how that he mighte serve                         440
  His lady best, hir thank for to deserve.

  64. Nil I nought swerë, al-though he lay softe,
  That in his thought he nas sumwhat disesed,
  Ne that he tornede on his pilwes ofte,
  And wolde of that him missed han ben sesed;                           445
  But in swich cas man is nought alwey plesed,
  For ought I wot, no more than was he;
  That can I deme of possibilitee.

  65. But certeyn is, to purpos for to go,
  That in this whyle, as writen is in geste,                            450
  He say his lady som-tyme; and also
  She with him spak, whan that she dorste or leste,
  And by hir bothe avys, as was the beste,
  Apoynteden ful warly in this nede,
  So as they dorste, how they wolde procede.                            455

  66. But it was spoken in so short a wyse,
  In swich awayt alwey, and in swich fere,
  Lest any wyght divynen or devyse
  Wolde of hem two, or to it leye an ere,
  That al this world so leef to hem ne were                             460
  As that Cupido wolde hem grace sende
  To maken of hir speche aright an ende.

  67. But thilke litel that they speke or wroughte,
  His wyse goost took ay of al swich hede,
  It semed hir, he wiste what she thoughte                              465
  With-outen word, so that it was no nede
  To bidde him ought to done, or ought for-bede;
  For which she thoughte that love, al come it late,
  Of alle Ioye hadde opned hir the yate.

  68. And shortly of this proces for to pace,                           470
  So wel his werk and wordes he bisette,
  That he so ful stood in his lady grace,
  That twenty thousand tymes, or she lette,
  She thonked god she ever with him mette;
  So coude he him governe in swich servyse,                             475
  That al the world ne mighte it bet devyse.

  69. For-why she fond him so discreet in al,
  So secret, and of swich obëisaunce,
  That wel she felte he was to hir a wal
  Of steel, and sheld from every displesaunce;                          480
  That, to ben in his gode governaunce,
  So wys he was, she was no more afered,
  I mene, as fer as oughte ben requered.

  70. And Pandarus, to quike alwey the fyr,
  Was ever y-lyke prest and diligent;                                   485
  To ese his frend was set al his desyr.
  He shof ay on, he to and fro was sent;
  He lettres bar whan Troilus was absent.
  That never man, as in his freendes nede,
  Ne bar him bet than he, with-outen drede.                             490

  71. But now, paraunter, som man wayten wolde
  That every word, or sonde, or look, or chere
  Of Troilus that I rehersen sholde,
  In al this whyle, un-to his lady dere;
  I trowe it were a long thing for to here;                             495
  Or of what wight that stant in swich disioynte,
  His wordes alle, or every look, to poynte.

  72. For sothe, I have not herd it doon er this,
  In storye noon, ne no man here, I wene;
  And though I wolde I coude not, y-wis;                                500
  For ther was som epistel hem bitwene,
  That wolde, as seyth myn auctor, wel contene
  Neigh half this book, of which him list not wryte;
  How sholde I thanne a lyne of it endyte?

  73. But to the grete effect: than sey I thus,                         505
  That stonding in concord and in quiete
  Thise ilke two, Criseyde and Troilus,
  As I have told, and in this tyme swete,
  Save only often mighte they not mete,
  Ne layser have hir speches to fulfelle,                               510
  That it befel right as I shal yow telle,

  74. That Pandarus, that ever dide his might
  Right for the fyn that I shal speke of here,
  As for to bringe to his hous som night
  His faire nece, and Troilus y-fere,                                   515
  Wher-as at leyser al this heigh matere,
  Touching hir love, were at the fulle up-bounde,
  Hadde out of doute a tyme to it founde.

  75. For he with greet deliberacioun
  Hadde every thing that her-to mighte avayle                           520
  Forn-cast, and put in execucioun,
  And neither laft, for cost ne for travayle;
  Come if hem lest, hem sholde no-thing fayle;
  And for to been in ought espyed there,
  That, wiste he wel, an inpossible were.                               525

  76. Dredelees, it cleer was in the wind
  Of every pye and every lette-game;
  Now al is wel, for al the world is blind
  In this matere, bothe fremed and tame.
  This timber is al redy up to frame;                                   530
  Us lakketh nought but that we witen wolde
  A certein houre, in whiche she comen sholde.

  77. And Troilus, that al this purveyaunce
  Knew at the fulle, and waytede on it ay,
  Hadde here-up-on eek made gret ordenaunce,                            535
  And founde his cause, and ther-to his aray,
  If that he were missed, night or day,
  Ther-whyle he was aboute this servyse,
  That he was goon to doon his sacrifyse,

  78. And moste at swich a temple alone wake,                           540
  Answered of Appollo for to be;
  And first, to seen the holy laurer quake,
  Er that Apollo spak out of the tree,
  To telle him next whan Grekes sholden flee,
  And forthy lette him no man, god forbede,                             545
  But preye Apollo helpen in this nede.

  79. Now is ther litel more for to done,
  But Pandare up, and shortly for to seyne,
  Right sone upon the chaunging of the mone,
  Whan lightles is the world a night or tweyne,                         550
  And that the welken shoop him for to reyne,
  He streight a-morwe un-to his nece wente;
  Ye han wel herd the fyn of his entente.

  80. Whan he was come, he gan anoon to pleye
  As he was wont, and of him-self to Iape;                              555
  And fynally, he swor and gan hir seye,
  By this and that, she sholde him not escape,
  Ne lengere doon him after hir to gape;
  But certeynly she moste, by hir leve,
  Come soupen in his hous with him at eve.                              560

  81. At whiche she lough, and gan hir faste excuse,
  And seyde, 'it rayneth; lo, how sholde I goon?'
  'Lat be,' quod he, 'ne stond not thus to muse;
  This moot be doon, ye shal be ther anoon.'
  So at the laste her-of they felle at oon,                             565
  Or elles, softe he swor hir in hir ere,
  He nolde never come ther she were.

  82. Sone after this, to him she gan to rowne,
  And asked him if Troilus were there?
  He swor hir, 'nay, for he was out of towne,'                          570
  And seyde, 'nece, I pose that he were,
  Yow thurfte never have the more fere.
  For rather than men mighte him ther aspye,
  Me were lever a thousand-fold to dye.'

  83. Nought list myn auctor fully to declare                           575
  What that she thoughte whan he seyde so,
  That Troilus was out of town y-fare,
  As if he seyde ther-of sooth or no;
  But that, with-oute awayt, with him to go,
  She graunted him, sith he hir that bisoughte,                         580
  And, as his nece, obeyed as hir oughte.

  84. But nathelees, yet gan she him biseche,
  Al-though with him to goon it was no fere,
  For to be war of goosish peples speche,
  That dremen thinges whiche that never were,                           585
  And wel avyse him whom he broughte there;
  And seyde him, 'eem, sin I mot on yow triste,
  Loke al be wel, and do now as yow liste.'

  85. He swor hir, 'yis, by stokkes and by stones,
  And by the goddes that in hevene dwelle,                              590
  Or elles were him lever, soule and bones,
  With Pluto king as depe been in helle
  As Tantalus!' What sholde I more telle?
  Whan al was wel, he roos and took his leve,
  And she to souper com, whan it was eve,                               595

  86. With a certayn of hir owene men,
  And with hir faire nece Antigone,
  And othere of hir wommen nyne or ten;
  But who was glad now, who, as trowe ye,
  But Troilus, that stood and mighte it see                             600
  Thurgh-out a litel windowe in a stewe,
  Ther he bishet, sin midnight, was in mewe,

  87. Unwist of every wight but of Pandare?
  But to the poynt; now whan she was y-come
  With alle Ioye, and alle frendes fare,                                605
  Hir eem anoon in armes hath hir nome,
  And after to the souper, alle and some,
  Whan tyme was, ful softe they hem sette;
  God wot, ther was no deyntee for to fette.

  88. And after souper gonnen they to ryse,                             610
  At ese wel, with hertes fresshe and glade,
  And wel was him that coude best devyse
  To lyken hir, or that hir laughen made.
  He song; she pleyde; he tolde tale of Wade.
  But at the laste, as every thing hath ende,                           615
  She took hir leve, and nedes wolde wende.

  89. But O, Fortune, executrice of wierdes,
  O influences of thise hevenes hye!
  Soth is, that, under god, ye ben our hierdes,
  Though to us bestes been the causes wrye.                             620
  This mene I now, for she gan hoomward hye,
  But execut was al bisyde hir leve,
  At the goddes wil; for which she moste bleve.

  90. The bente mone with hir hornes pale,
  Saturne, and Iove, in Cancro ioyned were,                             625
  That swich a rayn from hevene gan avale,
  That every maner womman that was there
  Hadde of that smoky reyn a verray fere;
  At which Pandare tho lough, and seyde thenne,
  'Now were it tyme a lady to go henne!                                 630

  91. But goode nece, if I mighte ever plese
  Yow any-thing, than prey I yow,' quod he,
  'To doon myn herte as now so greet an ese
  As for to dwelle here al this night with me,
  For-why this is your owene hous, pardee.                              635
  For, by my trouthe, I sey it nought a-game,
  To wende as now, it were to me a shame.'

  92. Criseyde, whiche that coude as muche good
  As half a world, tok hede of his preyere;
  And sin it ron, and al was on a flood,                                640
  She thoughte, as good chep may I dwellen here,
  And graunte it gladly with a freendes chere,
  And have a thank, as grucche and thanne abyde;
  For hoom to goon it may nought wel bityde.

  93. 'I wol,' quod she, 'myn uncle leef and dere,                      645
  Sin that yow list, it skile is to be so;
  I am right glad with yow to dwellen here;
  I seyde but a-game, I wolde go.'
  'Y-wis, graunt mercy, nece!' quod he tho;
  'Were it a game or no, soth for to telle,                             650
  Now am I glad, sin that yow list to dwelle.'

  94. Thus al is wel; but tho bigan aright
  The newe Ioye, and al the feste agayn;
  But Pandarus, if goodly hadde he might,
  He wolde han hyed hir to bedde fayn,                                  655
  And seyde, 'lord, this is an huge rayn!
  This were a weder for to slepen inne;
  And that I rede us sone to biginne.

  95. And nece, woot ye wher I wol yow leye,
  For that we shul not liggen fer asonder,                              660
  And for ye neither shullen, dar I seye,
  Heren noise of reynes nor of thondre?
  By god, right in my lyte closet yonder.
  And I wol in that outer hous allone
  Be wardeyn of your wommen everichone.                                 665

  96. And in this middel chaumbre that ye see
  Shul youre wommen slepen wel and softe;
  And ther I seyde shal your-selve be;
  And if ye liggen wel to-night, com ofte,
  And careth not what weder is on-lofte.                                670
  The wyn anon, and whan so that yow leste,
  So go we slepe, I trowe it be the beste.'

  97. Ther nis no more, but here-after sone,
  The voydè dronke, and travers drawe anon,
  Gan every wight, that hadde nought to done                            675
  More in that place, out of the chaumber gon.
  And ever-mo so sternelich it ron,
  And blew ther-with so wonderliche loude,
  That wel neigh no man heren other coude.

  98. Tho Pandarus, hir eem, right as him oughte,                       680
  With women swiche as were hir most aboute,
  Ful glad un-to hir beddes syde hir broughte,
  And toke his leve, and gan ful lowe loute,
  And seyde, 'here at this closet-dore with-oute,
  Right over-thwart, your wommen liggen alle,                           685
  That, whom yow liste of hem, ye may here calle.'

  99. So whan that she was in the closet leyd,
  And alle hir wommen forth by ordenaunce
  A-bedde weren, ther as I have seyd,
  There was no more to skippen nor to traunce,                          690
  But boden go to bedde, with mischaunce,
  If any wight was steringe any-where,
  And late hem slepe that a-bedde were.

  100. But Pandarus, that wel coude eche a del
  The olde daunce, and every poynt ther-inne,                           695
  Whan that he sey that alle thing was wel,
  He thoughte he wolde up-on his werk biginne,
  And gan the stewe-dore al softe un-pinne,
  And stille as stoon, with-outen lenger lette,
  By Troilus a-doun right he him sette.                                 700

  101. And, shortly to the poynt right for to gon,
  Of al this werk he tolde him word and ende,
  And seyde, 'make thee redy right anon,
  For thou shalt in-to hevene blisse wende.'
  'Now blisful Venus, thou me grace sende,'                             705
  Quod Troilus, 'for never yet no nede
  Hadde I er now, ne halvendel the drede.'

  102. Quod Pandarus, 'ne drede thee never a del,
  For it shal been right as thou wilt desyre;
  So thryve I, this night shal I make it wel,                           710
  Or casten al the gruwel in the fyre.'
  'Yit blisful Venus, this night thou me enspyre,'
  Quod Troilus, 'as wis as I thee serve,
  And ever bet and bet shal, til I sterve.

  103. And if I hadde, O Venus ful of murthe,                           715
  Aspectes badde of Mars or of Saturne,
  Or thou combust or let were in my birthe,
  Thy fader prey al thilke harm disturne
  Of grace, and that I glad ayein may turne,
  For love of him thou lovedest in the shawe,                           720
  I mene Adoon, that with the boor was slawe.

  104. O Iove eek, for the love of faire Europe,
  The whiche in forme of bole away thou fette;
  Now help, O Mars, thou with thy blody cope,
  For love of Cipris, thou me nought ne lette;                          725
  O Phebus, thenk whan Dane hir-selven shette
  Under the bark, and laurer wex for drede,
  Yet for hir love, O help now at this nede!

  105. Mercurie, for the love of Hiersè eke,
  For which Pallas was with Aglauros wrooth,                            730
  Now help, and eek Diane, I thee biseke,
  That this viage be not to thee looth.
  O fatal sustren, which, er any clooth
  Me shapen was, my destenè me sponne,
  So helpeth to this werk that is bi-gonne!'                            735

  106. Quod Pandarus, 'thou wrecched mouses herte,
  Art thou agast so that she wol thee byte?
  Why, don this furred cloke up-on thy sherte,
  And folowe me, for I wol han the wyte;
  But byd, and lat me go bifore a lyte.'                                740
  And with that word he gan un-do a trappe,
  And Troilus he broughte in by the lappe.

  107. The sterne wind so loude gan to route
  That no wight other noyse mighte here;
  And they that layen at the dore with-oute,                            745
  Ful sykerly they slepten alle y-fere;
  And Pandarus, with a ful sobre chere,
  Goth to the dore anon with-outen lette,
  Ther-as they laye, and softely it shette.

  108. And as he com ayeinward prively,                                 750
  His nece awook, and asked 'who goth there?'
  'My dere nece,' quod he, 'it am I;
  Ne wondreth not, ne have of it no fere;'
  And ner he com, and seyde hir in hir ere,
  'No word, for love of god I yow biseche;                              755
  Lat no wight ryse and heren of our speche.'

  109. 'What! which wey be ye comen, _benedicite_?'
  Quod she, 'and how thus unwist of hem alle?'
  'Here at this secre trappe-dore,' quod he.
  Quod tho Criseyde, 'lat me som wight calle.'                          760
  'Ey! god forbede that it sholde falle,'
  Quod Pandarus, 'that ye swich foly wroughte!
  They mighte deme thing they never er thoughte!

  110. It is nought good a sleping hound to wake,
  Ne yeve a wight a cause to devyne;                                    765
  Your wommen slepen alle, I under-take,
  So that, for hem, the hous men mighte myne;
  And slepen wolen til the sonne shyne.
  And whan my tale al brought is to an ende,
  Unwist, right as I com, so wol I wende.                               770

  111. Now nece myn, ye shul wel understonde,'
  Quod he, 'so as ye wommen demen alle,
  That for to holde in love a man in honde,
  And him hir "leef" and "dere herte" calle,
  And maken him an howve above a calle,                                 775
  I mene, as love an other in this whyle,
  She doth hir-self a shame, and him a gyle.

  112. Now wherby that I telle yow al this?
  Ye woot your-self, as wel as any wight,
  How that your love al fully graunted is                               780
  To Troilus, the worthieste knight,
  Oon of this world, and ther-to trouthe plyght,
  That, but it were on him along, ye nolde
  Him never falsen, whyl ye liven sholde.

  113. Now stant it thus, that sith I fro yow wente,                    785
  This Troilus, right platly for to seyn,
  Is thurgh a goter, by a privè wente,
  In-to my chaumbre come in al this reyn,
  Unwist of every maner wight, certeyn,
  Save of my-self, as wisly have I Ioye,                                790
  And by that feith I shal Pryam of Troye!

  114. And he is come in swich peyne and distresse
  That, but he be al fully wood by this,
  He sodeynly mot falle in-to wodnesse,
  But-if god helpe; and cause why this is,                              795
  He seyth him told is, of a freend of his,
  How that ye sholde love oon that hatte Horaste,
  For sorwe of which this night shalt been his laste.'

  115. Criseyde, which that al this wonder herde,
  Gan sodeynly aboute hir herte colde,                                  800
  And with a syk she sorwfully answerde,
  'Allas! I wende, who-so tales tolde,
  My dere herte wolde me not holde
  So lightly fals! allas! conceytes wronge,
  What harm they doon, for now live I to longe!                         805

  116. Horaste! allas! and falsen Troilus?
  I knowe him not, god helpe me so,' quod she;
  'Allas! what wikked spirit tolde him thus?
  Now certes, eem, to-morwe, and I him see,
  I shal ther-of as ful excusen me                                      810
  As ever dide womman, if him lyke';
  And with that word she gan ful sore syke.

  117. 'O god!' quod she, 'so worldly selinesse,
  Which clerkes callen fals felicitee,
  Y-medled is with many a bitternesse!                                  815
  Ful anguisshous than is, god woot,' quod she,
  'Condicioun of veyn prosperitee;
  For either Ioyes comen nought y-fere,
  Or elles no wight hath hem alwey here.

  118. O brotel wele of mannes Ioye unstable!                           820
  With what wight so thou be, or how thou pleye,
  Either he woot that thou, Ioye, art muable,
  Or woot it not, it moot ben oon of tweye;
  Now if he woot it not, how may he seye
  That he hath verray Ioye and selinesse,                               825
  That is of ignoraunce ay in derknesse?

  119. Now if he woot that Ioye is transitorie,
  As every Ioye of worldly thing mot flee,
  Than every tyme he that hath in memorie,
  The drede of lesing maketh him that he                                830
  May in no parfit selinesse be.
  And if to lese his Ioye he set a myte,
  Than semeth it that Ioye is worth ful lyte.

  120. Wherfore I wol deffyne in this matere,
  That trewely, for ought I can espye,                                  835
  Ther is no verray wele in this world here.
  But O, thou wikked serpent Ialousye,
  Thou misbeleved and envious folye,
  Why hastow Troilus me mad untriste,
  That never yet agilte him, that I wiste?'                             840

  121. Quod Pandarus, 'thus fallen is this cas.'
  'Why, uncle myn,' quod she, 'who tolde him this?
  Why doth my dere herte thus, allas?'
  'Ye woot, ye nece myn,' quod he, 'what is;
  I hope al shal be wel that is amis.                                   845
  For ye may quenche al this, if that yow leste,
  And doth right so, for I holde it the beste.'

  122. 'So shal I do to-morwe, y-wis,' quod she,
  'And god to-forn, so that it shal suffyse.'
  'To-morwe? allas, that were a fayr,' quod he,                         850
  'Nay, nay, it may not stonden in this wyse;
  For, nece myn, thus wryten clerkes wyse,
  That peril is with drecching in y-drawe;
  Nay, swich abodes been nought worth an hawe.

  123. Nece, al thing hath tyme, I dar avowe;                           855
  For whan a chaumber a-fyr is, or an halle,
  Wel more nede is, it sodeynly rescowe
  Than to dispute, and axe amonges alle
  How is this candele in the straw y-falle?
  A! _benedicite!_ for al among that fare                               860
  The harm is doon, and fare-wel feldefare!

  124. And, nece myn, ne take it not a-greef,
  If that ye suffre him al night in this wo,
  God help me so, ye hadde him never leef,
  That dar I seyn, now there is but we two;                             865
  But wel I woot, that ye wol not do so;
  Ye been to wys to do so gret folye,
  To putte his lyf al night in Iupartye.'

  125. 'Hadde I him never leef? By god, I wene
  Ye hadde never thing so leef,' quod she.                              870
  'Now by my thrift,' quod he, 'that shal be sene;
  For, sin ye make this ensample of me,
  If I al night wolde him in sorwe see
  For al the tresour in the toun of Troye,
  I bidde god, I never mote have Ioye!                                  875

  126. Now loke thanne, if ye, that been his love,
  Shul putte al night his lyf in Iupartye
  For thing of nought! Now, by that god above,
  Nought only this delay comth of folye,
  But of malyce, if that I shal nought lye.                             880
  What, platly, and ye suffre him in distresse,
  Ye neither bountee doon ne gentilesse!'

  127. Quod tho Criseyde, 'wole ye doon o thing,
  And ye therwith shal stinte al his disese;
  Have here, and bereth him this blewe ringe,                           885
  For ther is no-thing mighte him bettre plese,
  Save I my-self, ne more his herte apese;
  And sey my dere herte, that his sorwe
  Is causeles, that shal be seen to-morwe.'

  128. 'A ring?' quod he, 'ye, hasel-wodes shaken!                      890
  Ye, nece myn, that ring moste han a stoon
  That mighte dede men alyve maken;
  And swich a ring, trowe I that ye have noon.
  Discrecioun out of your heed is goon;
  That fele I now,' quod he, 'and that is routhe;                       895
  O tyme y-lost, wel maystow cursen slouthe!

  129. Wot ye not wel that noble and heigh corage
  Ne sorweth not, ne stinteth eek for lyte?
  But if a fool were in a Ialous rage,
  I nolde setten at his sorwe a myte,                                   900
  But feffe him with a fewe wordes whyte
  Another day, whan that I mighte him finde:
  But this thing stont al in another kinde.

  130. This is so gentil and so tendre of herte,
  That with his deeth he wol his sorwes wreke;                          905
  For trusteth wel, how sore that him smerte,
  He wol to yow no Ialouse wordes speke.
  And for-thy, nece, er that his herte breke,
  So spek your-self to him of this matere;
  For with o word ye may his herte stere.                               910

  131. Now have I told what peril he is inne,
  And his coming unwist is to every wight;
  Ne, pardee, harm may ther be noon ne sinne;
  I wol my-self be with yow al this night.
  Ye knowe eek how it is your owne knight,                              915
  And that, by right, ye moste upon him triste,
  And I al prest to fecche him whan yow liste.'

  132. This accident so pitous was to here,
  And eek so lyk a sooth, at pryme face,
  And Troilus hir knight to hir so dere,                                920
  His privè coming, and the siker place,
  That, though that she dide him as thanne a grace,
  Considered alle thinges as they stode,
  No wonder is, sin she dide al for gode.

  133. Cryseyde answerde, 'as wisly god at reste                        925
  My sowle bringe, as me is for him wo!
  And eem, y-wis, fayn wolde I doon the beste,
  If that I hadde grace to do so.
  But whether that ye dwelle or for him go,
  I am, til god me bettre minde sende,                                  930
  At dulcarnon, right at my wittes ende.'

  134. Quod Pandarus, 'ye, nece, wol ye here?
  Dulcarnon called is "fleminge of wrecches";
  It semeth hard, for wrecches wol not lere
  For verray slouthe or othere wilful tecches;                          935
  This seyd by hem that be not worth two fecches.
  But ye ben wys, and that we han on honde
  Nis neither hard, ne skilful to withstonde.'

  135. 'Thanne, eem,' quod she, 'doth her-of as yow list;
  But er he come I wil up first aryse;                                  940
  And, for the love of god, sin al my trist
  Is on yow two, and ye ben bothe wyse,
  So wircheth now in so discreet a wyse,
  That I honour may have, and he plesaunce;
  For I am here al in your governaunce.'                                945

  136. 'That is wel seyd,' quod he, 'my nece dere,
  Ther good thrift on that wyse gentil herte!
  But liggeth stille, and taketh him right here,
  It nedeth not no ferther for him sterte;
  And ech of yow ese otheres sorwes smerte,                             950
  For love of god; and, Venus, I thee herie;
  For sone hope I we shulle ben alle merie.'

  137. This Troilus ful sone on knees him sette
  Ful sobrely, right by hir beddes heed,
  And in his beste wyse his lady grette;                                955
  But lord, so she wex sodeynliche reed!
  Ne, though men sholden smyten of hir heed,
  She coude nought a word a-right out-bringe
  So sodeynly, for his sodeyn cominge.

  138. But Pandarus, that so wel coude fele                             960
  In every thing, to pleye anoon bigan,
  And seyde, 'nece, see how this lord can knele!
  Now, for your trouthe, seeth this gentil man!'
  And with that word he for a quisshen ran,
  And seyde, 'kneleth now, whyl that yow leste,                         965
  Ther god your hertes bringe sone at reste!'

  139. Can I not seyn, for she bad him not ryse,
  If sorwe it putte out of hir remembraunce,
  Or elles if she toke it in the wyse
  Of duëtee, as for his observaunce;                                    970
  But wel finde I she dide him this plesaunce,
  That she him kiste, al-though she syked sore;
  And bad him sitte a-doun with-outen more.

  140. Quod Pandarus, 'now wol ye wel biginne;
  Now doth him sitte, gode nece dere,                                   975
  Upon your beddes syde al there with-inne,
  That ech of yow the bet may other here.'
  And with that word he drow him to the fere,
  And took a light, and fond his contenaunce
  As for to loke up-on an old romaunce.                                 980

  141. Criseyde, that was Troilus lady right,
  And cleer stood on a ground of sikernesse,
  Al thoughte she, hir servaunt and hir knight
  Ne sholde of right non untrouthe in hir gesse,
  Yet nathelees, considered his distresse,                              985
  And that love is in cause of swich folye,
  Thus to him spak she of his Ielousye:

  142. 'Lo, herte myn, as wolde the excellence
  Of love, ayeins the which that no man may,
  Ne oughte eek goodly maken resistence                                 990
  And eek bycause I felte wel and say
  Your grete trouthe, and servyse every day;
  And that your herte al myn was, sooth to seyne,
  This droof me for to rewe up-on your peyne.

  143. And your goodnesse have I founde alwey yit,                      995
  Of whiche, my dere herte and al my knight,
  I thonke it yow, as fer as I have wit,
  Al can I nought as muche as it were right;
  And I, emforth my conninge and my might,
  Have and ay shal, how sore that me smerte,                           1000
  Ben to yow trewe and hool, with al myn herte;

  144. And dredelees, that shal be founde at preve.---
  But, herte myn, what al this is to seyne
  Shal wel be told, so that ye noght yow greve,
  Though I to yow right on your-self compleyne.                        1005
  For ther-with mene I fynally the peyne,
  That halt your herte and myn in hevinesse,
  Fully to sleen, and every wrong redresse.

  145. My goode, myn, not I for-why ne how
  That Ialousye, allas! that wikked wivere,                            1010
  Thus causelees is cropen in-to yow;
  The harm of which I wolde fayn delivere!
  Allas! that he, al hool, or of him slivere,
  Shuld have his refut in so digne a place,
  Ther Iove him sone out of your herte arace!                          1015

  146. But O, thou Iove, O auctor of nature,
  Is this an honour to thy deitee,
  That folk ungiltif suffren here iniure,
  And who that giltif is, al quit goth he?
  O were it leful for to pleyne on thee,                               1020
  That undeserved suffrest Ialousye,
  And that I wolde up-on thee pleyne and crye!

  147. Eek al my wo is this, that folk now usen
  To seyn right thus, "ye, Ialousye is love!"
  And wolde a busshel venim al excusen,                                1025
  For that o greyn of love is on it shove!
  But that wot heighe god that sit above,
  If it be lyker love, or hate, or grame;
  And after that, it oughte bere his name.

  148. But certeyn is, som maner Ialousye                              1030
  Is excusable more than som, y-wis.
  As whan cause is, and som swich fantasye
  With pietee so wel repressed is,
  That it unnethe dooth or seyth amis,
  But goodly drinketh up al his distresse;                             1035
  And that excuse I, for the gentilesse.

  149. And som so ful of furie is and despyt,
  That it sourmounteth his repressioun;
  But herte myn, ye be not in that plyt,
  That thanke I god, for whiche your passioun                          1040
  I wol not calle it but illusioun,
  Of habundaunce of love and bisy cure,
  That dooth your herte this disese endure.

  150. Of which I am right sory, but not wrooth;
  But, for my devoir and your hertes reste,                            1045
  Wher-so yow list, by ordal or by ooth,
  By sort, or in what wyse so yow leste,
  For love of god, lat preve it for the beste!
  And if that I be giltif, do me deye,
  Allas! what mighte I more doon or seye?'                             1050

  151. With that a fewe brighte teres newe
  Out of hir eyen fille, and thus she seyde,
  'Now god, thou wost, in thought ne dede untrewe
  To Troilus was never yet Criseyde.'
  With that hir heed doun in the bed she leyde,                        1055
  And with the shete it wreigh, and syghed sore,
  And held hir pees; not o word spak she more.

  152. But now help god to quenchen al this sorwe,
  So hope I that he shal, for he best may;
  For I have seyn, of a ful misty morwe                                1060
  Folwen ful ofte a mery someres day;
  And after winter folweth grene May.
  Men seen alday, and reden eek in stories,
  That after sharpe shoures been victories.

  153. This Troilus, whan he hir wordes herde,                         1065
  Have ye no care, him liste not to slepe;
  For it thoughte him no strokes of a yerde
  To here or seen Criseyde his lady wepe;
  But wel he felte aboute his herte crepe,
  For every teer which that Criseyde asterte,                          1070
  The crampe of deeth, to streyne him by the herte.

  154. And in his minde he gan the tyme acurse
  That he cam therë, and that he was born;
  For now is wikke y-turned in-to worse,
  And al that labour he hath doon biforn,                              1075
  He wende it lost, he thoughte he nas but lorn.
  'O Pandarus,' thoughte he, 'allas! thy wyle
  Serveth of nought, so weylawey the whyle!'

  155. And therwithal he heng a-doun the heed,
  And fil on knees, and sorwfully he sighte;                           1080
  What mighte he seyn? he felte he nas but deed,
  For wrooth was she that shulde his sorwes lighte.
  But nathelees, whan that he speken mighte,
  Than seyde he thus, 'god woot, that of this game,
  Whan al is wist, than am I not to blame!'                            1085

  156. Ther-with the sorwe so his herte shette,
  That from his eyen fil ther not a tere,
  And every spirit his vigour in-knette,
  So they astoned and oppressed were.
  The feling of his sorwe, or of his fere,                             1090
  Or of ought elles, fled was out of towne;
  And doun he fel al sodeynly a-swowne.

  157. This was no litel sorwe for to see;
  But al was hust, and Pandare up as faste,
  'O nece, pees, or we be lost,' quod he,                              1095
  Beth nought agast;' but certeyn, at the laste,
  For this or that, he in-to bedde him caste,
  And seyde, 'O theef, is this a mannes herte?'
  And of he rente al to his bare sherte;

  158. And seyde, 'nece, but ye helpe us now,                          1100
  Allas, your owne Troilus is lorn!'
  'Y-wis, so wolde I, and I wiste how,
  Ful fayn,' quod she; 'allas! that I was born!'
  'Ye, nece, wol ye pullen out the thorn
  That stiketh in his herte?' quod Pandare;                            1105
  'Sey "al foryeve," and stint is al this fare!'

  159. 'Ye, that to me,' quod she, 'ful lever were
  Than al the good the sonne aboute gooth';
  And therwith-al she swoor him in his ere,
  'Y-wis, my dere herte, I am nought wrooth,                           1110
  Have here my trouthe and many another ooth;
  Now speek to me, for it am I, Cryseyde!'
  But al for nought; yet mighte he not a-breyde.

  160. Therwith his pous and pawmes of his hondes
  They gan to frote, and wete his temples tweyne,                      1115
  And, to deliveren him from bittre bondes,
  She ofte him kiste; and, shortly for to seyne,
  Him to revoken she dide al hir peyne.
  And at the laste, he gan his breeth to drawe,
  And of his swough sone after that adawe,                             1120

  161. And gan bet minde and reson to him take,
  But wonder sore he was abayst, y-wis.
  And with a syk, whan he gan bet a-wake,
  He seyde, 'O mercy, god, what thing is this?'
  'Why do ye with your-selven thus amis?'                              1125
  Quod tho Criseyde, 'is this a mannes game?
  What, Troilus! wol ye do thus, for shame?'

  162. And therwith-al hir arm over him she leyde,
  And al foryaf, and ofte tyme him keste.
  He thonked hir, and to hir spak, and seyde                           1130
  As fil to purpos for his herte reste.
  And she to that answerde him as hir leste;
  And with hir goodly wordes him disporte
  She gan, and ofte his sorwes to comforte.

  163. Quod Pandarus, 'for ought I can espyen,                         1135
  This light nor I ne serven here of nought;
  Light is not good for syke folkes yën.
  But for the love of god, sin ye be brought
  In thus good plyt, lat now non hevy thought
  Ben hanginge in the hertes of yow tweye:'                            1140
  And bar the candele to the chimeneye.

  164. Sone after this, though it no nede were,
  Whan she swich othes as hir list devyse
  Hadde of him take, hir thoughte tho no fere,
  Ne cause eek non, to bidde him thennes ryse.                         1145
  Yet lesse thing than othes may suffyse
  In many a cas; for every wight, I gesse,
  That loveth wel meneth but gentilesse.

  165. But in effect she wolde wite anoon
  Of what man, and eek where, and also why                             1150
  He Ielous was, sin ther was cause noon;
  And eek the signe, that he took it by,
  She bad him that to telle hir bisily,
  Or elles, certeyn, she bar him on honde,
  That this was doon of malis, hir to fonde.                           1155

  166. With-outen more, shortly for to seyne,
  He moste obeye un-to his lady heste;
  And for the lasse harm, he moste feyne.
  He seyde hir, whan she was at swiche a feste
  She mighte on him han loked at the leste;                            1160
  Not I not what, al dere y-nough a risshe,
  As he that nedes moste a cause fisshe.

  167. And she answerde, 'swete, al were it so,
  What harm was that, sin I non yvel mene?
  For, by that god that boughte us bothe two,                          1165
  In alle thinge is myn entente clene.
  Swich arguments ne been not worth a bene;
  Wol ye the childish Ialous contrefete?
  Now were it worthy that ye were y-bete.'

  168. Tho Troilus gan sorwfully to syke,                              1170
  Lest she be wrooth, him thoughte his herte deyde;
  And seyde, 'allas! upon my sorwes syke
  Have mercy, swete herte myn, Cryseyde!
  And if that, in tho wordes that I seyde,
  Be any wrong, I wol no more trespace;                                1175
  Do what yow list, I am al in your grace.'

  169. And she answerde, 'of gilt misericorde!
  That is to seyn, that I foryeve al this;
  And ever-more on this night yow recorde,
  And beth wel war ye do no more amis.'                                1180
  'Nay, dere herte myn,' quod he, 'y-wis.'
  'And now,' quod she, 'that I have do yow smerte,
  Foryeve it me, myn owene swete herte.'

  170. This Troilus, with blisse of that supprysed,
  Put al in goddes hond, as he that mente                              1185
  No-thing but wel; and, sodeynly avysed,
  He hir in armes faste to him hente.
  And Pandarus, with a ful good entente,
  Leyde him to slepe, and seyde, 'if ye ben wyse,
  Swowneth not now, lest more folk aryse.'                             1190

  171. What mighte or may the sely larke seye,
  Whan that the sparhauk hath it in his foot?
  I can no more, but of thise ilke tweye,
  To whom this tale sucre be or soot,
  Though that I tarie a yeer, som-tyme I moot,                         1195
  After myn auctor, tellen hir gladnesse,
  As wel as I have told hir hevinesse.

  172. Criseyde, which that felte hir thus y-take,
  As writen clerkes in hir bokes olde,
  Right as an aspes leef she gan to quake,                             1200
  Whan she him felte hir in his armes folde.
  But Troilus, al hool of cares colde,
  Gan thanken tho the blisful goddes sevene;
  Thus sondry peynes bringen folk to hevene.

  173. This Troilus in armes gan hir streyne,                          1205
  And seyde, 'O swete, as ever mote I goon,
  Now be ye caught, now is ther but we tweyne;
  Now yeldeth yow, for other boot is noon.'
  To that Criseyde answerde thus anoon,
  'Ne hadde I er now, my swete herte dere,                             1210
  Ben yolde, y-wis, I were now not here!'

  174. O! sooth is seyd, that heled for to be
  As of a fevre or othere greet syknesse,
  Men moste drinke, as men may often see,
  Ful bittre drink; and for to han gladnesse,                          1215
  Men drinken often peyne and greet distresse;
  I mene it here, as for this aventure,
  That thourgh a peyne hath founden al his cure.

  175. And now swetnesse semeth more sweet,
  That bitternesse assayed was biforn;                                 1220
  For out of wo in blisse now they flete.
  Non swich they felten, sith they were born;
  Now is this bet, than bothe two be lorn!
  For love of god, take every womman hede
  To werken thus, if it comth to the nede.                             1225

  176. Criseyde, al quit from every drede and tene,
  As she that iuste cause hadde him to triste,
  Made him swich feste, it Ioye was to sene,
  Whan she his trouthe and clene entente wiste.
  And as aboute a tree, with many a twiste,                            1230
  Bitrent and wryth the sote wode-binde,
  Gan eche of hem in armes other winde.

  177. And as the newe abaysshed nightingale,
  That stinteth first whan she biginneth singe,
  Whan that she hereth any herde tale,                                 1235
  Or in the hegges any wight steringe,
  And after siker dooth hir voys out-ringe;
  Right so Criseyde, whan hir drede stente,
  Opned hir herte, and tolde him hir entente.

  178. And right as he that seeth his deeth y-shapen,                  1240
  And deye moot, in ought that he may gesse,
  And sodeynly rescous doth him escapen,
  And from his deeth is brought in sikernesse,
  For al this world, in swich present gladnesse
  Was Troilus, and hath his lady swete;                                1245
  With worse hap god lat us never mete!

  179. Hir armes smale, hir streyghte bak and softe,
  Hir sydes longe, fleshly, smothe, and whyte
  He gan to stroke, and good thrift bad ful ofte
  Hir snowish throte, hir brestes rounde and lyte;                     1250
  Thus in this hevene he gan him to delyte,
  And ther-with-al a thousand tyme hir kiste;
  That, what to done, for Ioye unnethe he wiste.

  180. Than seyde he thus, 'O, Love, O, Charitee,
  Thy moder eek, Citherea the swete,                                   1255
  After thy-self next heried be she,
  Venus mene I, the wel-willy planete;
  And next that, Imenëus, I thee grete;
  For never man was to yow goddes holde
  As I, which ye han brought fro cares colde.                          1260

  181. Benigne Love, thou holy bond of thinges,
  Who-so wol grace, and list thee nought honouren,
  Lo, his desyr wol flee with-outen winges.
  For, noldestow of bountee hem socouren
  That serven best and most alwey labouren,                            1265
  Yet were al lost, that dar I wel seyn, certes,
  But-if thy grace passed our desertes.

  182. And for thou me, that coude leest deserve
  Of hem that nombred been un-to thy grace,
  Hast holpen, ther I lykly was to sterve,                             1270
  And me bistowed in so heygh a place
  That thilke boundes may no blisse pace,
  I can no more, but laude and reverence
  Be to thy bounte and thyn excellence!'

  183. And therwith-al Criseyde anoon he kiste,                        1275
  Of which, certeyn, she felte no disese.
  And thus seyde he, 'now wolde god I wiste,
  Myn herte swete, how I yow mighte plese!
  What man,' quod he, 'was ever thus at ese
  As I, on whiche the faireste and the beste                           1280
  That ever I say, deyneth hir herte reste.

  184. Here may men seen that mercy passeth right;
  The experience of that is felt in me,
  That am unworthy to so swete a wight.
  But herte myn, of your benignitee,                                   1285
  So thenketh, though that I unworthy be,
  Yet mot I nede amenden in som wyse,
  Right thourgh the vertu of your heyghe servyse.

  185. And for the love of god, my lady dere,
  Sin god hath wrought me for I shal yow serve,                        1290
  As thus I mene, that ye wol be my stere,
  To do me live, if that yow liste, or sterve,
  So techeth me how that I may deserve
  Your thank, so that I, thurgh myn ignoraunce,
  Ne do no-thing that yow be displesaunce.                             1295

  186. For certes, fresshe wommanliche wyf,
  This dar I seye, that trouthe and diligence,
  That shal ye finden in me al my lyf,
  Ne I wol not, certeyn, breken your defence;
  And if I do, present or in absence,                                  1300
  For love of god, lat slee me with the dede,
  If that it lyke un-to your womanhede.'

  187. 'Y-wis,' quod she, 'myn owne hertes list,
  My ground of ese, and al myn herte dere,
  Graunt mercy, for on that is al my trist;                            1305
  But late us falle awey fro this matere;
  For it suffyseth, this that seyd is here.
  And at o word, with-outen repentaunce,
  Wel-come, my knight, my pees, my suffisaunce!'

  188. Of hir delyt, or Ioyes oon the leste                            1310
  Were impossible to my wit to seye;
  But iuggeth, ye that han ben at the feste,
  Of swich gladnesse, if that hem liste pleye!
  I can no more, but thus thise ilke tweye
  That night, be-twixen dreed and sikernesse,                          1315
  Felten in love the grete worthinesse.

  189. O blisful night, of hem so longe y-sought,
  How blithe un-to hem bothe two thou were!
  Why ne hadde I swich on with my soule y-bought,
  Ye, or the leeste Ioye that was there?                               1320
  A-wey, thou foule daunger and thou fere,
  And lat hem in this hevene blisse dwelle,
  That is so heygh, that al ne can I telle!

  190. But sooth is, though I can not tellen al,
  As can myn auctor, of his excellence,                                1325
  Yet have I seyd, and, god to-forn, I shal
  In every thing al hoolly his sentence.
  And if that I, at loves reverence,
  Have any word in eched for the beste,
  Doth therwith-al right as your-selven leste.                         1330

  191. For myne wordes, here and every part,
  I speke hem alle under correccioun
  Of yow, that feling han in loves art,
  And putte it al in your discrecioun
  To encrese or maken diminucioun                                      1335
  Of my langage, and that I yow bi-seche;
  But now to purpos of my rather speche.

  192. Thise ilke two, that ben in armes laft,
  So looth to hem a-sonder goon it were,
  That ech from other wende been biraft,                               1340
  Or elles, lo, this was hir moste fere,
  That al this thing but nyce dremes were;
  For which ful ofte ech of hem seyde, 'O swete,
  Clippe ich yow thus, or elles I it mete?'

  193. And, lord! so he gan goodly on hir see,                         1345
  That never his look ne bleynte from hir face,
  And seyde, 'O dere herte, may it be
  That it be sooth, that ye ben in this place?'
  'Ye, herte myn, god thank I of his grace!'
  Quod tho Criseyde, and therwith-al him kiste,                        1350
  That where his spirit was, for Ioye he niste.

  194. This Troilus ful ofte hir eyen two
  Gan for to kisse, and seyde, 'O eyen clere,
  It were ye that wroughte me swich wo,
  Ye humble nettes of my lady dere!                                    1355
  Though ther be mercy writen in your chere,
  God wot, the text ful hard is, sooth, to finde,
  How coude ye with-outen bond me binde?'

  195. Therwith he gan hir faste in armes take,
  And wel an hundred tymes gan he syke,                                1360
  Nought swiche sorwful sykes as men make
  For wo, or elles whan that folk ben syke,
  But esy sykes, swiche as been to lyke,
  That shewed his affeccioun with-inne;
  Of swiche sykes coude he nought bilinne.                             1365

  196. Sone after this they speke of sondry thinges,
  As fil to purpos of this aventure,
  And pleyinge entrechaungeden hir ringes,
  Of which I can nought tellen no scripture;
  But wel I woot a broche, gold and asure,                             1370
  In whiche a ruby set was lyk an herte,
  Criseyde him yaf, and stak it on his sherte.

  197. Lord! trowe ye, a coveitous, a wrecche,
  That blameth love and holt of it despyt,
  That, of tho pens that he can mokre and kecche,                      1375
  Was ever yet y-yeve him swich delyt,
  As is in love, in oo poynt, in som plyt?
  Nay, doutelees, for also god me save,
  So parfit Ioye may no nigard have!

  198. They wol sey 'yis,' but lord! so that they lye,                 1380
  Tho bisy wrecches, ful of wo and drede!
  They callen love a woodnesse or folye,
  But it shal falle hem as I shal yow rede;
  They shul forgo the whyte and eke the rede,
  And live in wo, ther god yeve hem mischaunce,                        1385
  And every lover in his trouthe avaunce!

  199. As wolde god, tho wrecches, that dispyse
  Servyse of love, hadde eres al-so longe
  As hadde Myda, ful of coveityse;
  And ther-to dronken hadde as hoot and stronge                        1390
  As Crassus dide for his affectis wronge,
  To techen hem that they ben in the vyce,
  And loveres nought, al-though they holde hem nyce!

  200. Thise ilke two, of whom that I yow seye,
  Whan that hir hertes wel assured were,                               1395
  Tho gonne they to speken and to pleye,
  And eek rehercen how, and whanne, and where,
  They knewe hem first, and every wo and fere
  That passed was; but al swich hevinesse,
  I thanke it god, was tourned to gladnesse.                           1400

  201. And ever-mo, whan that hem fel to speke
  Of any thing of swich a tyme agoon,
  With kissing al that tale sholde breke,
  And fallen in a newe Ioye anoon,
  And diden al hir might, sin they were oon,                           1405
  For to recoveren blisse and been at ese,
  And passed wo with Ioye countrepeyse.

  202. Reson wil not that I speke of sleep,
  For it accordeth nought to my matere;
  God woot, they toke of that ful litel keep,                          1410
  But lest this night, that was to hem so dere,
  Ne sholde in veyn escape in no manere,
  It was biset in Ioye and bisinesse
  Of al that souneth in-to gentilnesse.

  203. But whan the cok, comune astrologer,                            1415
  Gan on his brest to bete, and after crowe,
  And Lucifer, the dayes messager,
  Gan for to ryse, and out hir bemes throwe;
  And estward roos, to him that coude it knowe,
  _Fortuna maior_, [than] anoon Criseyde,                              1420
  With herte sore, to Troilus thus seyde:--

  204. 'Myn hertes lyf, my trist and my plesaunce,
  That I was born, allas! what me is wo,
  That day of us mot make desseveraunce!
  For tyme it is to ryse, and hennes go,                               1425
  Or elles I am lost for evermo!
  O night, allas! why niltow over us hove,
  As longe as whanne Almena lay by Iove?

  205. O blake night, as folk in bokes rede,
  That shapen art by god this world to hyde                            1430
  At certeyn tymes with thy derke wede,
  That under that men mighte in reste abyde,
  Wel oughte bestes pleyne, and folk thee chyde,
  That there-as day with labour wolde us breste,
  That thou thus fleest, and deynest us nought reste!                  1435

  206. Thou dost, allas! to shortly thyn offyce,
  Thou rakel night, ther god, makere of kinde,
  Thee, for thyn hast and thyn unkinde vyce,
  So faste ay to our hemi-spere binde,
  That never-more under the ground thou winde!                         1440
  For now, for thou so hyest out of Troye,
  Have I forgon thus hastily my Ioye!'

  207. This Troilus, that with tho wordes felte,
  As thoughte him tho, for pietous distresse,
  The blody teres from his herte melte,                                1445
  As he that never yet swich hevinesse
  Assayed hadde, out of so greet gladnesse,
  Gan therwith-al Criseyde his lady dere
  In armes streyne, and seyde in this manere:--

  208. 'O cruel day, accusour of the Ioye                              1450
  That night and love han stole and faste y-wryen,
  A-cursed be thy coming in-to Troye,
  For every bore hath oon of thy bright yën!
  Envyous day, what list thee so to spyen?
  What hastow lost, why sekestow this place,                           1455
  Ther god thy lyght so quenche, for his grace?

  209. Allas! what han thise loveres thee agilt,
  Dispitous day? thyn be the pyne of helle!
  For many a lovere hastow shent, and wilt;
  Thy pouring in wol no-wher lete hem dwelle.                          1460
  What proferestow thy light here for to selle?
  Go selle it hem that smale seles graven,
  We wol thee nought, us nedeth no day haven.'

  210. And eek the sonne Tytan gan he chyde,
  And seyde, 'O fool, wel may men thee dispyse,                        1465
  That hast the Dawing al night by thy syde,
  And suffrest hir so sone up fro thee ryse,
  For to disesen loveres in this wyse.
  What! hold your bed ther, thou, and eek thy Morwe!
  I bidde god, so yeve yow bothe sorwe!'                               1470

  211. Therwith ful sore he sighte, and thus he seyde,
  'My lady right, and of my wele or wo
  The welle and rote, O goodly myn, Criseyde,
  And shal I ryse, allas! and shal I go?
  Now fele I that myn herte moot a-two!                                1475
  For how sholde I my lyf an houre save,
  Sin that with yow is al the lyf I have?

  212. What shal I doon, for certes, I not how,
  Ne whanne, allas! I shal the tyme see,
  That in this plyt I may be eft with yow;                             1480
  And of my lyf, god woot, how that shal be,
  Sin that desyr right now so byteth me,
  That I am deed anoon, but I retourne.
  How sholde I longe, allas! fro yow soiourne?

  213. But nathelees, myn owene lady bright,                           1485
  Yit were it so that I wiste outrely,
  That I, your humble servaunt and your knight,
  Were in your herte set so fermely
  As ye in myn, the which thing, trewely,
  Me lever were than thise worldes tweyne,                             1490
  Yet sholde I bet enduren al my peyne.'

  214. To that Cryseyde answerde right anoon,
  And with a syk she seyde, 'O herte dere,
  The game, y-wis, so ferforth now is goon,
  That first shal Phebus falle fro his spere,                          1495
  And every egle been the dowves fere,
  And every roche out of his place sterte,
  Er Troilus out of Criseydes herte!

  215. Ye be so depe in-with myn herte grave,
  That, though I wolde it turne out of my thought,                     1500
  As wisly verray god my soule save,
  To dyen in the peyne, I coude nought!
  And, for the love of god that us hath wrought,
  Lat in your brayn non other fantasye
  So crepe, that it cause me to dye!                                   1505

  216. And that ye me wolde han as faste in minde
  As I have yow, that wolde I yow bi-seche;
  And, if I wiste soothly that to finde,
  God mighte not a poynt my Ioyes eche!
  But, herte myn, with-oute more speche,                               1510
  Beth to me trewe, or elles were it routhe;
  For I am thyn, by god and by my trouthe!

  217. Beth glad for-thy, and live in sikernesse;
  Thus seyde I never er this, ne shal to mo;
  And if to yow it were a gret gladnesse                               1515
  To turne ayein, soone after that ye go,
  As fayn wolde I as ye, it were so,
  As wisly god myn herte bringe at reste!'
  And him in armes took, and ofte keste.

  218. Agayns his wil, sin it mot nedes be,                            1520
  This Troilus up roos, and faste him cledde,
  And in his armes took his lady free
  An hundred tyme, and on his wey him spedde,
  And with swich wordes as his herte bledde,
  He seyde, 'farewel, my dere herte swete,                             1525
  Ther god us graunte sounde and sone to mete!'

  219. To which no word for sorwe she answerde,
  So sore gan his parting hir destreyne;
  And Troilus un-to his palays ferde,
  As woo bigon as she was, sooth to seyne;                             1530
  So hard him wrong of sharp desyr the peyne
  For to ben eft there he was in plesaunce,
  That it may never out of his remembraunce.

  220. Retorned to his real palais, sone
  He softe in-to his bed gan for to slinke,                            1535
  To slepe longe, as he was wont to done,
  But al for nought; he may wel ligge and winke,
  But sleep ne may ther in his herte sinke;
  Thenkinge how she, for whom desyr him brende,
  A thousand-fold was worth more than he wende.                        1540

  221. And in his thought gan up and doun to winde
  Hir wordes alle, and every contenaunce,
  And fermely impressen in his minde
  The leste poynt that to him was plesaunce;
  And verrayliche, of thilke remembraunce,                             1545
  Desyr al newe him brende, and lust to brede
  Gan more than erst, and yet took he non hede.

  222. Criseyde also, right in the same wyse,
  Of Troilus gan in hir herte shette
  His worthinesse, his lust, his dedes wyse,                           1550
  His gentilesse, and how she with him mette,
  Thonkinge love he so wel hir bisette;
  Desyring eft to have hir herte dere
  In swich a plyt, she dorste make him chere.

  223. Pandare, a-morwe which that comen was                           1555
  Un-to his nece, and gan hir fayre grete,
  Seyde, 'al this night so reyned it, allas!
  That al my drede is that ye, nece swete,
  Han litel layser had to slepe and mete;
  Al night,' quod he, 'hath reyn so do me wake,                        1560
  That som of us, I trowe, hir hedes ake.'

  224. And ner he com, and seyde, 'how stont it now
  This mery morwe, nece, how can ye fare?'
  Criseyde answerde, 'never the bet for yow,
  Fox that ye been, god yeve your herte care!                          1565
  God helpe me so, ye caused al this fare,
  Trow I,' quod she, 'for alle your wordes whyte;
  O! who-so seeth yow knoweth yow ful lyte!'

  225. With that she gan hir face for to wrye
  With the shete, and wex for shame al reed;                           1570
  And Pandarus gan under for to prye,
  And seyde, 'nece, if that I shal ben deed,
  Have here a swerd, and smyteth of myn heed.'
  With that his arm al sodeynly he thriste
  Under hir nekke, and at the laste hir kiste.                         1575

  226. I passe al that which chargeth nought to seye,
  What! God foryaf his deeth, and she al-so
  Foryaf, and with hir uncle gan to pleye,
  For other cause was ther noon than so.
  But of this thing right to the effect to go,                         1580
  Whan tyme was, hom til hir hous she wente,
  And Pandarus hath fully his entente.

  227. Now torne we ayein to Troilus,
  That resteles ful longe a-bedde lay,
  And prevely sente after Pandarus,                                    1585
  To him to come in al the haste he may.
  He com anoon, nought ones seyde he 'nay,'
  And Troilus ful sobrely he grette,
  And doun upon his beddes syde him sette.

  228. This Troilus, with al the affeccioun                            1590
  Of frendes love that herte may devyse,
  To Pandarus on kneës fil adoun,
  And er that he wolde of the place aryse,
  He gan him thonken in his beste wyse;
  A hondred sythe he gan the tyme blesse,                              1595
  That he was born to bringe him fro distresse.

  229. He seyde, 'O frend, of frendes the alderbeste
  That ever was, the sothe for to telle,
  Thou hast in hevene y-brought my soule at reste
  Fro Flegiton, the fery flood of helle;                               1600
  That, though I mighte a thousand tymes selle,
  Upon a day, my lyf in thy servyse,
  It mighte nought a mote in that suffyse.

  230. The sonne, which that al the world may see,
  Saw never yet, my lyf, that dar I leye,                              1605
  So inly fair and goodly as is she,
  Whos I am al, and shal, til that I deye;
  And, that I thus am hires, dar I seye,
  That thanked be the heighe worthinesse
  Of love, and eek thy kinde bisinesse.                                1610

  231. Thus hastow me no litel thing y-yive,
  Fo which to thee obliged be for ay
  My lyf, and why? for thorugh thyn help I live;
  For elles deed hadde I be many a day.'
  And with that word doun in his bed he lay,                           1615
  And Pandarus ful sobrely him herde
  Til al was seyd, and thanne he him answerde:

  232. 'My dere frend, if I have doon for thee
  In any cas, god wot, it is me leef;
  And am as glad as man may of it be,                                  1620
  God help me so; but tak now not a-greef
  That I shal seyn, be war of this myscheef,
  That, there-as thou now brought art in-to blisse,
  That thou thy-self ne cause it nought to misse.

  233. For of fortunes sharp adversitee                                1625
  The worst kinde of infortune is this,
  A man to have ben in prosperitee,
  And it remembren, whan it passed is.
  Thou art wys y-nough, for-thy do nought amis;
  Be not to rakel, though thou sitte warme,                            1630
  For if thou be, certeyn, it wol thee harme.

  234. Thou art at ese, and holde thee wel ther-inne.
  For also seur as reed is every fyr,
  As greet a craft is kepe wel as winne;
  Brydle alwey wel thy speche and thy desyr.                           1635
  For worldly Ioye halt not but by a wyr;
  That preveth wel, it brest alday so ofte;
  For-thy nede is to werke with it softe.'

  235. Quod Troilus, 'I hope, and god to-forn,
  My dere frend, that I shal so me bere,                               1640
  That in my gilt ther shal no thing be lorn,
  Ne I nil not rakle as for to greven here;
  It nedeth not this matere ofte tere;
  For wistestow myn herte wel, Pandare,
  God woot, of this thou woldest litel care.'                          1645

  236. Tho gan he telle him of his glade night.
  And wher-of first his herte dredde, and how,
  And seyde, 'freend, as I am trewe knight,
  And by that feyth I shal to god and yow,
  I hadde it never half so hote as now;                                1650
  And ay the more that desyr me byteth
  To love hir best, the more it me delyteth.

  237. I noot my-self not wisly what it is;
  But now I fele a newe qualitee,
  Ye, al another than I dide er this.'                                 1655
  Pandare answerde, and seyde thus, that he
  That ones may in hevene blisse be,
  He feleth other weyes, dar I leye,
  Than thilke tyme he first herde of it seye.

  238. This is o word for al; this Troilus                             1660
  Was never ful, to speke of this matere,
  And for to preysen un-to Pandarus
  The bountee of his righte lady dere,
  And Pandarus to thanke and maken chere.
  This tale ay was span-newe to biginne                                1665
  Til that the night departed hem a-twinne.

  239. Sone after this, for that fortune it wolde,
  I-comen was the blisful tyme swete,
  That Troilus was warned that he sholde,
  Ther he was erst, Criseyde his lady mete;                            1670
  For which he felte his herte in Ioye flete;
  And feythfully gan alle the goddes herie;
  And lat see now if that he can be merie.

  240. And holden was the forme and al the wyse,
  Of hir cominge, and eek of his also,                                 1675
  As it was erst, which nedeth nought devyse.
  But playnly to the effect right for to go,
  In Ioye and seurte Pandarus hem two
  A-bedde broughte, whan hem bothe leste,
  And thus they ben in quiete and in reste.                            1680

  241. Nought nedeth it to yow, sin they ben met,
  To aske at me if that they blythe were;
  For if it erst was wel, tho was it bet
  A thousand-fold, this nedeth not enquere.
  A-gon was every sorwe and every fere;                                1685
  And bothe, y-wis, they hadde, and so they wende,
  As muche Ioye as herte may comprende.

  242. This is no litel thing of for to seye,
  This passeth every wit for to devyse;
  For eche of hem gan otheres lust obeye;                              1690
  Felicitee, which that thise clerkes wyse
  Commenden so, ne may not here suffyse.
  This Ioye may not writen been with inke,
  This passeth al that herte may bithinke.

  243. But cruel day, so wel-awey the stounde!                         1695
  Gan for to aproche, as they by signes knewe,
  For whiche hem thoughte felen dethes wounde;
  So wo was hem, that changen gan hir hewe,
  And day they gonnen to dispyse al newe,
  Calling it traytour, envyous, and worse,                             1700
  And bitterly the dayes light they curse.

  244. Quod Troilus, 'allas! now am I war
  That Pirous and tho swifte stedes three,
  Whiche that drawen forth the sonnes char,
  Han goon som by-path in despyt of me;                                1705
  That maketh it so sone day to be;
  And, for the sonne him hasteth thus to ryse,
  Ne shal I never doon him sacrifyse!'

  245. But nedes day departe moste hem sone,
  And whanne hir speche doon was and hir chere,                        1710
  They twinne anoon as they were wont to done,
  And setten tyme of meting eft y-fere;
  And many a night they wroughte in this manere.
  And thus Fortune a tyme ladde in Ioye
  Criseyde, and eek this kinges sone of Troye.                         1715

  246. In suffisaunce, in blisse, and in singinges,
  This Troilus gan al his lyf to lede;
  He spendeth, Iusteth, maketh festeyinges;
  He yeveth frely ofte, and chaungeth wede,
  And held aboute him alwey, out of drede,                             1720
  A world of folk, as cam him wel of kinde,
  The fressheste and the beste he coude fynde;

  247. That swich a voys was of hym and a stevene
  Thorugh-out the world, of honour and largesse,
  That it up rong un-to the yate of hevene.                            1725
  And, as in love, he was in swich gladnesse,
  That in his herte he demede, as I gesse,
  That there nis lovere in this world at ese
  So wel as he, and thus gan love him plese.

  248. The godlihede or beautee which that kinde                       1730
  In any other lady hadde y-set
  Can not the mountaunce of a knot unbinde,
  A-boute his herte, of al Criseydes net.
  He was so narwe y-masked and y-knet,
  That it undon on any manere syde,                                    1735
  That nil not been, for ought that may betyde.

  249. And by the hond ful ofte he wolde take
  This Pandarus, and in-to gardin lede,
  And swich a feste and swich a proces make
  Him of Criseyde, and of hir womanhede,                               1740
  And of hir beautee, that, with-outen drede,
  It was an hevene his wordes for to here;
  And thanne he wolde singe in this manere.

  250. 'Love, that of erthe and see hath governaunce,
  Love, that his hestes hath in hevene hye,                            1745
  Love, that with an holsom alliaunce
  Halt peples ioyned, as him list hem gye,
  Love, that knetteth lawe of companye,
  And couples doth in vertu for to dwelle,
  Bind this acord, that I have told and telle;                         1750

  251. That that the world with feyth, which that is stable,
  Dyverseth so his stoundes concordinge,
  That elements that been so discordable
  Holden a bond perpetuely duringe,
  That Phebus mote his rosy day forth bringe,                          1755
  And that the mone hath lordship over the nightes,
  Al this doth Love; ay heried be his mightes!

  252. That that the see, that gredy is to flowen,
  Constreyneth to a certeyn ende so
  His flodes, that so fersly they ne growen                            1760
  To drenchen erthe and al for ever-mo;
  And if that Love ought lete his brydel go,
  Al that now loveth a-sonder sholde lepe,
  And lost were al, that Love halt now to-hepe.

  253. So wolde god, that auctor is of kinde,                          1765
  That, with his bond, Love of his vertu liste
  To cerclen hertes alle, and faste binde,
  That from his bond no wight the wey out wiste.
  And hertes colde, hem wolde I that he twiste
  To make hem love, and that hem leste ay rewe                         1770
  On hertes sore, and kepe hem that ben trewe.'

  254. In alle nedes, for the tounes werre,
  He was, and ay the firste in armes dight;
  And certeynly, but-if that bokes erre,
  Save Ector, most y-drad of any wight;                                1775
  And this encrees of hardinesse and might
  Cam him of love, his ladies thank to winne,
  That altered his spirit so with-inne.

  255. In tyme of trewe, on haukinge wolde he ryde,
  Or elles hunten boor, bere, or lyoun;                                1780
  The smale bestes leet he gon bi-syde.
  And whan that he com rydinge in-to toun,
  Ful ofte his lady, from hir window doun,
  As fresh as faucon comen out of muwe,
  Ful redy was, him goodly to saluwe.                                  1785

  256. And most of love and vertu was his speche,
  And in despyt hadde alle wrecchednesse;
  And doutelees, no nede was him biseche
  To honouren hem that hadde worthinesse,
  And esen hem that weren in distresse.                                1790
  And glad was he if any wight wel ferde,
  That lover was, whan he it wiste or herde.

  257. For sooth to seyn, he lost held every wight
  But-if he were in loves heigh servyse,
  I mene folk that oughte it been of right.                            1795
  And over al this, so wel coude he devyse
  Of sentement, and in so unkouth wyse
  Al his array, that every lover thoughte,
  That al was wel, what-so he seyde or wroughte.

  258. And though that he be come of blood royal,                      1800
  Him liste of pryde at no wight for to chase;
  Benigne he was to ech in general,
  For which he gat him thank in every place.
  Thus wolde Love, y-heried be his grace,
  That Pryde, Envye, Ire, and Avaryce                                  1805
  He gan to flee, and every other vyce.

  259. Thou lady bright, the doughter to Dione,
  Thy blinde and winged sone eek, daun Cupyde;
  Ye sustren nyne eek, that by Elicone
  In hil Parnaso listen for to abyde,                                  1810
  That ye thus fer han deyned me to gyde,
  I can no more, but sin that ye wol wende,
  Ye heried been for ay, with-outen ende!

  260. Thourgh yow have I seyd fully in my song
  Theffect and Ioye of Troilus servyse,                                1815
  Al be that ther was som disese among,
  As to myn auctor listeth to devyse.
  My thridde book now ende ich in this wyse;
  And Troilus in luste and in quiete
  Is with Criseyde, his owne herte swete.                              1820


RUBRIC; _from_ Cp. 1-56. _Lost in_ Cm. 3. H2. leef; Ed. lefe; Cl. lyef; Cp.
H. lief. 7. Cl. thin (_for 2nd_ thy). 9. Cl. of; _rest_ if. // Cp. Ed. wel;
H2. wil; Cl. wole; H. wol. 10. Cl. Cp. beste. 11. Cl. H. Ed. The; H2. To.
// Cl. feld (_for_ fele). 12. Cl. nough (!). 13. Cl. word; H. world; Cp.
Ed. worlde; H2. wirk. 17. Cl. H. Comeueden (_rightly_); Cp. Comended; Ed.
Comenden; H2. Commodious(!). // Cp. Ed. amorous; H2. amerous; Cl. H.
amoreux. // _All_ hem (_wrongly_); _read_ him; _see_ l. 19. 20. Cp. H. H2.
hym; Ed. him; Cl. hem. 22. H. apasen; Ed. apeasen; H2. apesyn. // Cl. Iire.
23. Cl. lyste; _rest_ list. 28. H2. hym; _rest_ it. 32. Cl. thing. 33. Cl.
constreue. // Cl. H. Cp. Io; H2. io; Ed. go; (Io=jo). 36. Cl. vniuersite
(!). 38. Cl. H. worse. 42. Cl. this (_for_ thy). // Cl. seruyce. 44. Cp. H.
Inhielde. 49. H2. gladnes; _rest om._ 51. _All_ lesson. 56. H2. leve
(_sic_); _rest_ leue. // Cp. H. Ed. werken; Cl. werke. 57. Cm. how; _rest_
so. // Cl. _om._ that. 58. Cp. Ed. Cm. shorte; _rest_ short. 59. Cl. lad.
60. Cl. _om._ in. 65. Cl. rufully; Ed. routhfully. 66. thou] Cl. yow. 74.
H2. Ed. ey; _rest_ I. 76. lordshipe] Cl. mercy. 77. Cl. beseche. 79. H. Cm.
wex; Cl. Cp. wax. 81. Cl. smyte. 83. Cl. _om._ he. 90. Cp. H. Ed. resons;
Cl. resones; Cm. werkis; H2. wordis. 92. Cl. An; H2. Hym; _rest_ In. 93.
Cl. quooke. 97. Cm. ferste; _rest_ first (ferst). 99. Cl. whily. // Cl. ho
(_for_ he). 100. Cl. that; _rest_ for. 101. Cl. _om._ I. 110. Cm. wrethe
(_for_ herte). // Cm. I; H2. y; _rest om._ 114. Cl. for to; _rest_ to. 116.
H. puked; H2. p_ro_curid (!). 119. Cm. H2. _om._ that. 121. Cp. H. Ed.
wilne; Cm. wiln; Cl. wille. // Cl. shal seye; _rest om._ shal. 125. of] Cl.
on. 135. Cl. deligence. 136. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. _om._ I; _see_ l. 141. 138. Cl.
defende (!). 139. Cl. Cm. digne; _rest_ deigne. 142. Cl. Cp. myn; Cm. myne.
144. H2. serve; _rest_ seruen. // Cl. Cp. H. ben ay I-lyke; Ed. to ben aye
ylike; H2. bene y-lyke; Cm. ay ben I-lik; _but read_ been y-lyke ay. 149.
And] Cl. A. // Cl. _om._ a. 150. Cl. Cp. H. feste. 152. Cl. that this;
_rest om._ that. 160. Cl. But (_for_ And). 167. Cp. H. hennes; Cm. henys;
Cl. hens. 172. MSS. soueraynte. 173. Cp. Ny (_for_ Ne I). 176. Cl. my dere;
_rest om._ my. 179. Cl. Ed. to; _rest_ in-to. 180. yow] Cl. now. 183. H.
yen; Cm. ey[gh]yn; _rest_ eyen. 188. Cl. Cp. H. in the; _rest om._ the.
190. Cl. Cm. H2. Ed. _om._ as. 193. Cl. and on; Ed. H2. and one; H. and
oon; Cp. an oon; Cm. a-non; _read_ as oon? 194. Cm. H2. the; Cp. to; _rest_
two. 195. my] Cl. Cm. myn. 205. H2. They come vpwardis at. 207. Cl. blynde.
208. Cl. it is tyme. 213. Cl. _ins._ hire _bef._ diden. // Cp. H. diden;
Cl. deden. 214. Cm. spekyn wondir wel; Cl. (_and rest_) wonder wel spaken
(speken). 221. Cl. gardeyn. 223. Cl. lyste; Cp. Ed. H. leste. 229. Cp. Ed.
paillet; _rest_ pailet. 237. Cl. speke; _rest_ speken (spekyn). 240. Cl.
_om._ so. 242. Cp. Cm. waxeth; Ed. woxe; _rest_ wax (_but read_ wex). 244.
Cl. sethen do. 250. Cl. a game bygonne to. 254. Cp. H. Bitwixen; Cl.
Bytwene. 260. Cl. alle; _rest_ al. 262. Cl. for to abrygge; Cp. H. for
tabregge; Cm. to abregge. // Cl. destresse. 268. Cl. alwed. 269. Cl. dar I;
_rest_ I dar wel. 270. Cl. _om._ that. 279. Cl. bygone. 280. Cl. wonne.
281. Cl. _om._ wol. // Cl. H2. go. 283. Cl. preuete. 290. Cl. Cm. Ed. _om._
ther. 293. H. Ed. this (_for_ yet); Cp. thus. 299. Cl. selue; Cm. seluyn.
300. H2. as for to; blabbe. 301. Cl. the (_for_ they). 308. Cl. kyng (_for_
kynde). // Cl. auauntures (!). 310. As] Cl. A. 312. Cl. H2. holde; _rest_
holden. 313. Cl. _om._ it. 315. Cl. Cp. H2. And a; _rest_ And. // Cl.
heste; H2. hest; _rest_ byheste. 319. Cl. byhight; Cp. bihyghte. 320. Cl.
no more; _rest om._ no. 332. Cl. womman (!). 323. Cl. this not. 324. Cm.
wis man; H2. wyse man; _rest_ wyse men. 327. Cl. wys. 329. Cl. _om._ harm.
335. Cl. suffice; _rest_ suffise. 337. Cl. _om._ wel. 340. the] Cl. H2.
thi. 341. Cl. make (_for_ may). 344. or] Cl. and. 346. theffect] Cl. the
feyth. 347. Cl. sorwe (_for_ herte). 351. Cl. _om._ as. 352. Cp. H. H2.
dede; Cl. Cm. ded. 355. Cl. Cp. H. for to (_for_ to). 356. Cm. Wex; Cl. Cp.
H. Wax. 360. Cm. aprille; H. ap_er_il; _rest_ April. 361. remembre] Cl.
remembreth. 363. H. didest; Cl. Cp. dedest. 366. Cl. I to; _rest om._ to.
368. Cm. Ed. tel; _rest_ telle. 380. Cl. thenketh. 382. Cp. H. Caytif; Cl.
Castif; _rest_ Captif. // _All_ Agamenoun. 385. Ed. the lyketh; H2. it lyke
the; Cl. it lyketh; Cp. H. Cm. it liketh the. 386. Cl. meche; Cp. muche. //
Cl. Cm. don; _rest_ I-do (y-do, ydon). 389. Cl. In; _rest_ on. 390. Cl. the
wole. 391. Cp. H. sclaue; Ed. slaue; Cl. knaue (_with_ sl _altered to_ kn).
397. Cl. baudery. 398. Cl. _om._ wood. 412. _All_ Tel. // Cl. Cp. H. _om._
me. 414. Cl. seruyce. 417. Ed. moste; _rest_ most. 425. Cp. Ed. though; H2.
thogh; Cl. H. thought; Cm. tho. 441. Cl. he (_for_ her). 442. _All_ lay;
_perhaps read_ laye (_subjunctive_). 443. Cl. dishesed. 446. Cm. man; Cl.
Cp. H. men. // Ed. men be. // Cl. yplesed; _rest_ plesed. 450. Cp. H.
writen; Cl. wreten. 451. Cl. _om._ and. 452. or] Cl. Ed. and. 453. Cl. as
it; _rest om._ it. 457. Cl. _om._ awayt. 462. Cl. make; a (_for_ an). 463.
Cm. speke; _rest_ spake. 475. Cl. seruyce. 476. Cp. H. auyse; _rest_
deuyse. 481. Cm. goode; _rest_ good. 485. Cp. Ed. y-like; H. yhold; _rest_
ylyk. 491. wayten] Cl. wene. 496. Cl. stont; Cp. H. Cm. stant. 497. Cl. Cp.
Cm. Hise. 507. Cm. These; _rest_ This. 509. Cl. myght; Cp. H. Cm. myghte.
510. Ed. fulfell; _rest_ fulfille. 514. Cl. And; _rest_ As. 516. Cl.
There-as; _rest_ Wher-as. 520. Cl. _om._ -to. 525. Cp. H. H2. impossible.
526. Cp. H. Cm. Dredeles; Cl. Dredles. // Cm. cler; _rest_ clere. 527. Of]
Cl. From. 531. Cp. H. H2. witen; _rest_ weten. 533. Cl. puruyaunce. 540. H.
moste; Cm. Ed. muste; Cl. most. 545. Cl. _om._ -thy. 547. Cl. there but;
_rest om._ but. 548. Cl. shortely. 551. Ed. H2. welken; Cp. wolken; _rest_
walkene (walken). 552. Cl. straught; H. H2. streight; Cp. streght. 555. Cl.
woned; _rest_ wont. 558. Cp. H. cape. 562. sholde] Cl. shal. 563. Cl. _om._
ne. 572. Cp. H. thruste (!); Cm. thourrste (_for_ thurfte); H2. Ed. durst;
Cl. dorste (_but read_ thurfte). // Cl. haue neuere. 573. Cl. hem; _rest_
him. 576. Cl. Cp. H2. whan that; _rest om._ that. 578. Cl. ther; _rest_
ther-of. 579. Cl. Cp. Ed. with-outen. // Cl. a-wayte. 584. H. goosish; Cp.
goosissh; H2. gosisshe; Cl. gosylyche; Ed. gofysshe (!). // Cl. peple; H.
peples; Cm. puples; Cp. poeples; Ed. peoples. 587. Cm. mot; _rest_ most
(must). 589. Cl. _om._ hir. 595. Cl. vn to the; _rest_ to. 601. Cl. Cp.
stuwe. 602. Cl. _om._ in. 603. Cl. H. Wnwist. 608. Cl. hym; _rest_ hem.
612. Cl. auyse; _rest_ deuyse. 613. Cl. like; Cp. H. Cm. liken. // Cl.
laughen that here. 614. Cp. Cm. Ed. tolde; Cl. H. told. // Cl. tales; Ed. a
tale; H2. the tale; _rest_ tale. 616. Cl. she wolde; _rest om._ she. 617.
H2. werdis; Cl. Cp. Ed. wyerdes; H. wierdes; Cm. wordis (!). 619. Cm. H2.
herdis; _rest_ hierdes. 621. Cl. _om._ now. 630. it] Cl. a. 632. Cl. _om._
I. 636. Cl. be. nought a-] Cl. for no. 637. Cl. _om._ as. 640. ron] Ed.
rayned. H2. flood; Cl. H. Cm. flode. 642. Cl. _om._ it. 645. dere] Cl.
drede. 648. a] Cm. on. 664. Cp. outer; H. outter; Cl. other; Ed. vtter; Cm.
vttir. 674. Cl. Cp. H. The voyde; Cm. They voydyn; Ed. They voyde; H2. They
voydid &. 676. Cl. that; H2. _om._; _rest_ the. 684. Cl. in; _rest_ at.
690. Cp. Ed. skippen; H. skipen; Cm. schepe; H2. skipe; Cl. speken. //
traunce] Ed. praunce. 696. Cl. Cp. sey; H. seye; Cm. woste; H2. wist; Ed.
sawe. // Cl. Ed. H2. al. 697. Cl. _om._ up-. 704. Cl. _om._ For. 711. Cp.
H. gruwel; Cl. Cm. growel; Ed. gruell. 715. Cl. An; Cp. As; _rest_ And.
717. Cl. combest; Cm. H2. cumbrid; Cp. H. Ed. combust. // Cl. _om._ in.
722. Cl. Cp. Ed. _om._ O. 725. Cl. Cp. H. Cipres; Cm. Cipris; Ed. Cipria;
H2. Ciphis. 726. Ed. Daphne. 727. Cm. wex; Cl. Cp. H. wax. 729. Cl. Cp. H.
hierse; H2. hyerce; Cm. hirie; Ed. her (!). 729, 731. Cl. ek, by-sek; H.
eke, bi-seke. 735. Cl. help; _rest_ helpeth. 737. Cl. a-garst (!). 738. Cp.
H. don; Cm. do; _rest_ do on. // Cl. a-boue; _rest_ up-on. 739. Cl. folewe;
Cp. Cm. folwe; H. Ed. folowe. 745. Cp. H. Ed. layen; Cl. lay. 753. Cl. Cm.
haveth. 756. H. rise; Cl. rysen. 758. Cm. H2. thus; _rest om._ // hem] Cl.
vs. 761. H2. Ey; Ed. Eygh; _rest_ I. 762. Cl. Quod tho; _rest om._ tho.
763. Cl. _om._ er. 770. com] Cl. cam. 775. Cm. houe; H2. howe. 776. Cl. Cp.
H. Ed. this mene while; Cm. H2. _om._ mene. 777. Cl. _om._ _2nd_ a. 780.
Cl. that; Cp. Cm. H. Ed. al. 791. shal] H2. ow; Ed. owe. 795. Cl. Ed. H2.
is this. 797. Cp. H. Cm. scholden louen oon; Cl. louen sholde on. // hatte]
Ed. hight. 799. Cl. alle these thynges herde. 801. she] Cl. H2. ful. // Cl.
answerede. 802. Cl. tolle (!). 804. Cl. conseytes. 809. Cl. more (_for_
morwe). // and] Cl. yf. 810. Cl. fully excuse. 811. him] Cl. he. 813. Cl.
_om._ god. 818. Cp. Ed. either; H. oyther (_for_ eyther); Cl. Cm. other. //
Cl. nough. 823. Cl. Other he; _rest_ Or. 826. derknesse] H. distresse. 829.
Cl. _om._ that. 833. ful] Cl. but. 834. Cl. Cm. manere. 839. Cl. H. mad
Troylus to me; H2. thus Troylus me made; Cm. Ed. Cp. Troylus mad to me.
842. him] Cl. yow. 843. Cl. myn; Cp. H. my. 847. Ed. I (_for_ for I). // H.
Ed. for the beste. 850. Ed. H2. _om._ a. 854. H. abedes; Cm. abydis. 857.
Cp. H. Ed. Wel; _rest om._ // Cl. H2. to rescowe; _rest om._ to. 859. Cm.
H2. How is; _rest om._ is (_here_). // H2. y-fall_e_; Cm. falle; _rest_ is
falle. 861. H2. feldyfare; Cl. feld-fare; _rest_ feldefare. 862. Cp. H. Ed.
ne; _rest om._ // Cl. gref. 869. I] Cl. ye. 870. Ye] Cl. I. 880. Cl. malis.
887. more] Cl. H2. bettre. 889. Cl. ben sene; Cp. H. Cm. be sene; H2. be
seyn; Ed. he sene. 892. dede men] Cl. a dede man. 893. trowe I] Cl. I
trowe. 898. Cl. stenteth; _rest_ stynteth. 900. Cp. Ed. Cm. nolde; H. nold;
Cl. nold not. Cp. H. setten; Cl. Cm. sette. 909. Cl. To; _rest_ So. // H.
spek; _rest_ speke. 912. Cm. _om._ is. // H. teuery (_for_ to euery). 917.
Cl. at; H2. am; Cm. H. Ed. al; Cp. _om._ 928. to] Cl. Cp. H. Ed. for to.
931. Cl. H. A; _rest_ At. 935. or] Cl. Cm. H2. and. // Cl. tacches. 936.
Cp. Ed. This is seyd. // Cl. hym; _rest_ hem. // Cl. is; _rest_ be (ben,
beth). 947. Cl. That; H2. That good; _rest_ Ther good. 954. Cl. Cm. Cp. H2.
hede; Ed. heed; H. hed. 956. Cl. -lych; H. -lyche. 964. Cl. quysshon; Cm.
qwischin; H2. cusshyn. 965. Cp. Ed. leste; _rest_ lyste, lyst. 968. Cl.
put; Cp. H. putte. 970. H2. dewte; Cp. dewete. 975. Cl. H2. now gode; _rest
om._ now. 976. Cl. _om._ al. 978. Cl. fyre; Ed. fiere; _rest_ fere. 980.
Cl. loken. 990. Cl. goudly; Cp. H. goodly. // Cl. Cp. make; H. Cm. Ed.
maken. 994. for] Cl. first; Cm. H2. _om._ 995. H2. found; _rest_ founden.
// Cp. [gh]it; Cm. yite; _rest_ yet. 999. Cl. emforthe; Cp. H. Ed. emforth.
1002. Cl. H2. dredles. 1004. Cl. H2. yow not. 1005. your] Cl. H2. yow.
1009. Cl. loue (_for_ myn, _as a correction_). 1014. Cl. refuyt; Cp. H. Cm.
refut; Ed. refute. 1015. Cl. _ins._ him _bef._ arace. // arace] Cl. Ed.
race. 1017. Ed. dignyte (_for_ deitee). 1020. for to] Cl. that I. // on]
Cl. Ed. of. 1022. up-on] Cl. on. 1029. Cl. Cm. to bere; _rest om._ to.
1032. Cl. And whanne. 1033. Cp. H. piete; _rest_ pite. 1043. Cl. dishese.
1046. Cp. H. Ed. list; Cl. lyste. // Cm. ordel. 1047. Cl. lyste; Cp. H. Ed.
leste. 1055. Cl. in-to the bed down; _rest_ doun in the bed. 1056. Cl.
wreygh; Cp. H. wreigh; Cm. wrigh; Ed. wrighe. 1060. Cl. _om._ a. 1066. Cm.
Ed. liste; _rest_ lyst (list, lest). 1067. Cl. _om._ a. 1074. in] Cl. vn.
1075. that] Cl. the. 1087. Cl. eighen; Cp. H. Ed. eyen. 1094. Cl. H2. For;
_rest_ But. // Ed. hushte. 1096. Cl. Buth; Cp. H. Ed. Beth. 1097. Cl. he
him in-to bedde. 1104. Cp. Ed. Cm. pullen; Cl. H. pulle. 1113. Cl. no; Cm.
not; Cp. H. nought. 1116. to] Cl. for. 1121. Cl. bet gan; _rest_ gan bet.
1129. Cp. Ed. keste; Cl. Cm. kyste. 1131. Cp. H. herte; _rest_ hertes.
1132. Cp. H. Ed. leste; Cl. lyste. 1137. _All_ eyen (ey[gh]en). 1141. Cl.
Cp. chimeney; H. Cm. chimeneye. 1143. H. Ed. list; Cl. lyste. 1144. Cp. Cm.
thoughte; Cl. H. thought. 1163. Cp. Ed. andswerde; H. answarde; Cl.
answered. 1168. Cp. H. Ed. Ialous; Cm. Ielous; Cl. Ialousye. 1169. Cl.
_om._ it. 1177. Cp. H. answerde; Cl. answered. 1192. Cl. Cp. Cm. it; _rest_
him. // Cp. H. foot; Cl. fote. 1193. Cp. H. thise; Cm. these; Cl. this.
1194. Cp. H. sucre; Cm. seukere; H2. Ed. sugre; Cl. sour. // Cp. H. soot;
Cl. sot; Cm. H2. sote; Ed. soote. 1195. Cl. mot. 1200. Ed. aspen; H2.
auspen. 1201. Cl. _om._ his. 1203. Cl. _om._ tho. 1206. Cm. Ed. mote;
_rest_ mot. 1208. H. boot; Cl. Cp. Cm. bote. 1209. Cp. H. Cm. answerde; Cl.
answered. 1211. Cl. yolden. 1218. hath] Cl. is. 1219. Cl. the more; _rest
om._ the. 1222. Cl. sith that; _rest om._ that. 1225. Cp. comth; Cl. come.
1227. Cl. Iust. 1229. Cl. entent; H. entente. 1231. Cl. Cm. wrythe; Cp. H.
Ed. writhe; H2. writhen is (_read_ wryth _or_ writh). 1234. Cl. gynneth to;
Cp. bygynneth to; _rest_ begynneth. 1236. Cl. ony. 1238. Cl. Criseyd. //
Cl. stynte; Cp. H. stente. 1240. y-] Cl. is. 1241. Cl. out; gysse. 1244.
Cl. alle; word. 1247. Cl. streyght; Cp. streghte. 1248. Cl. fleysshly.
1251. Cl. _om._ heuene _and_ to. 1258. Cl. the; _rest_ that (_after_ next).
1261. Cl. Cm. Benyngne; Cp. H. Benigne. 1264. Cl. nodestow(!). 1266. Cl.
seye; Cp. H. Cm. seyn. 1268. H2. coude leest; Cm. couthe lest; Cp. H. leest
koude; Cl. lest kowde. 1269. Cl. be; Cp. H. Cm. ben. // Cl. to; Cp. H. Cm.
vn-to. 1272. Cp. H. H2. pace; Cl. passe. 1276. Cl. dishese. 1285. Cp. H.
Cm. benignite; Cl. benyngnite. 1286. Cm. thynkith; Cl. thenk; Cp. H. thynk
that. 1288. Cl. seruyce. 1290. Cl. for that; _rest om._ that. 1291. Cl. Cm.
Cp. stere; H. Ed. fere (feere). 1294. Cl. _om._ that I; Cm. Cp. _om._ I.
1296. Cl. But; _rest_ For. 1298. H. Cp. Ed. fynden; Cl. Cm. fynde. // Cl.
lyfe. 1299. Cp. H. Ny (_for_ Ne I). // Cm. Ed. H2. not; Cl. Cp. H. _om._
1302. Cl. to; _rest_ un-to. 1314. Cl. _om._ thise. 1315. Cm. be-twixe; Cl.
be-twexen; H. bitweyne. // Cl. Cm. dred; _rest_ drede (_read_ dreed). 1318.
Cl. _om._ two. 1321. Cl. daunder (!). 1322. Cl. blyssyd; _rest_ blisse
(blis). 1324. Cp. Ed. tellen; Cm. tellyn; H. talen; Cl. telle. 1326. Cm.
(_2nd_) I; Cl. Cp. H. and; Ed. _om._ 1339. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. a-sonder; Cl.
a-sondry. // Cp. H. Cm. Ed. gon; Cl. go ne(!) // Cl. _om._ it. 1340. Cm.
H2. wende; Cp. Cl. H. wenden. 1341. Cm. Ed. Cp. H2. moste; Cl. H. most.
1342. Cl. nere (_for_ were). 1345. And] Cl. A. // goodly] Cl. gladly. 1346.
H. Cm. blynte; Cp. Ed. bleynte; Cl. blente. 1352. Cl. eighen; Cp. H. Ed.
eyen. 1356. Cl. wreten; Cp. H. writen. 1361. H. swiche; H2. Ed. suche; Cl.
swich. 1362. Cl. whanne; Cm. whan; Cp. H. when. 1365. H. bilynne; _rest_
blynne. 1370. Cl. of; _rest_ and. 1373. Cl. Cp. H. or a; Cm. a; _rest om._
1375. tho] Cl. the. // Cl. Ed. pens; Cp. H. Cm. pans. // Cp. H. mokre; H2.
moker; Cm. mokere; Cl. moke. // Cl. Ed. kecche; Cm. crache(!); Cp.
tecche(!); H2. teche(!); H. theche(!). 1385. Cp. H. Ed. lyue; Cl. leue.
1387. tho] Cl. that. 1388. Cl. eerys. 1390. Cl. drenken. 1394. Cp. H.
Thise; Cl. This. 1396. Cp. H. speken; Cl. speke. 1398. hem] Cl. hym. 1400.
to] H. Cm. in-to. 1401. Cp. H. Cm. mo; _rest_ more. // Cp. H. fel; Cl.
fille. 1403. Cp. H. Cm. al; Cl. alle. 1405. Cl. dede; Cm. dedyn; Ed.
dydden; _rest_ diden. 1407. Cl. Cp. Ed. -peyse; _rest_ -pese. 1408. Cl.
shep(!); H. slep; _rest_ slepe. 1409. Cl. nough(!) 1410. H. Cm. kep; _rest_
kepe. 1414. Cl. Cp. gentilesse; _rest_ gentilnesse. 1415. Cl. whanne; Cp.
Cm. whan; H. when. 1416. Cl. to crowe; _rest om._ to. 1418. Cm. hese (=
his); _rest_ here (hire). // Cl. bemys throw. 1419. Cl. Cm. after-; _rest_
est-. 1420. than] _All_ that. 1424. Cl. Cm. des-; _rest_ dis-. 1425. Cp. H.
hennes; Cm. henys; Cl. hens to. 1426. Cl. ellys. 1428. Ed. Alcmena. 1435.
Cl. Cm. flest; Cp. H. H2. fleest. 1442. Cl. hastely. 1444. H. piteous; Cp.
pietous; _rest_ pitous. 1450. Cl. crueel. 1453. Cp. H2. yen; _rest_ eyen.
1454. Cm. espyen. 1457. Cl. Cm. these; Cp. H2. thise. 1459. Cl. shent;
_rest_ slayn. 1460. Cm. Ed. let; Cl. late; _rest_ lat (_read_ lete). 1462.
Cl. Cp. selys. 1464. Cl. he to; _rest om._ to. 1465. Cp. H. fool; Cl. Cm.
fol. 1466. Cl. Cp. Cm. dawyng; _rest_ dawnyng. 1471. H. Cp. sighte; Cl.
sight; Ed. syghed. 1476. H. my lyf an oure; Cp. Ed. my lyf an houre; Cl. an
hour my lyf. 1482. Cl. brenneth; H. bitleth(!); Cp. biteth; Ed. byteth;
_rest_ streyneth. 1486. Cm. H2. Yit; _rest om._ // Cp. H. wiste; Cl. wist.
1490. Cl. Cm. wordes; _rest_ worldes. 1491. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. enduren; Cl.
endure. 1492. Cp. H. answerde; Cl. answered. 1498. Cl. Troles(!). 1506. Cl.
An. 1516. H. Cp. ayein; Cl. a-yen. 1525. Cl. myn herte and dere swete.
1526. Cp. H. sownde; Cl. sound. 1527. Cp. H. Cm. answerde; Cl. answerede.
1535. Cl. Cp. Ed. bedde; _rest_ bed. 1536. Cl. woned. 1542. Cl. Hise;
_rest_ Hire (Her). 1543. Cl. hire; _rest_ his. 1546. Cl. new; Cp. H. Cm.
newe. 1554. Cp. dorste; Cl. H. dorst. 1558. Cl. ye my; _rest om._ my. 1559.
slepe] Cl. shepe(!). 1562. Cp. H. com; Cl. Cm. come. 1563. Cl. H. murye;
Cm. merie. 1564. Cp. H. answerde; Cl. Cm. answerede. // Cl. _om._ for.
1566. Cp. H. caused; Cl. causes. 1568. Cl. Cm. _om._ O. 1570. H. Cm. wex;
Cl. Cp. wax. 1573. Cl. Here haue. // Ed. smyteth; Cp. smyten; _rest_ smyte.
1575. Cl. keste. 1576-82. Cp. _om._ 1577. and] Cl. an. 1578. to] Cl. for
to. 1579. Cl. H2. but; _rest_ than. 1583. H. Cp. ayeyn; Cl. a-yen. 1587.
Cl. come. 1592. Cm. kneis; Cp. H. knowes. 1593. Cl. out of; _rest om._ out.
1595. he] Cl. Cm. and. // Cl. H. Cm. blysse; _rest_  blesse. 1600. Cp. Cm.
flegetoun; Ed. Phlegeton. // Cl. Cp. H. Cm. fery; H2. firy; Ed. fyrie.
1603. Cm. myghte; Cl. might. // Cm. Ed. mote; Cp. H. moote; Cl. mot. 1608.
Cp. H. hires; Cl. heres. 1609. Cp. heighe; Cm. hye; Cl. H. heigh. 1611. Cp.
y-[gh]iue; Cl. y-yeue. 1613. Cl. Cm. leue; _rest_ lyue. 1619, 1621, 1622.
Cl. Cp. lief, grief, mischief; Cm. lef, gref, myschef; H2. leef, greef,
mischeef. 1621. now] Cl. it. 1622. Cl. of of (!); _rest_ of this. 1627. Cl.
H2. be; _rest_ ben. 1629. Cp. H. Thart. // Cl. ynowh. 1634. Cl. kep; _rest_
kepe. 1642. Cp. H. Ny. 1644. Cm. wistist thou; Ed. wystest thou; Cp.
wystestow; Cl. H. wistow. 1655. than] Cl. er. 1656. H. answerde; Cl.
answerede. 1657. Cl. Cm. onys. 1659. Cp. H. Cm. herde; Cl. herd. 1662. H.
Cp. preysen; Cl.preyse. 1663. Cp. Cm. righte; Cl. H. right. 1664. chere]
Cl. clere. 1671. Cp. Cm. felte; Cl. H. felt. 1675. Cm. H2. ek; _rest om._
1677. Cp. H. theffect. 1679. _Al_ brought. // Cl. Cp. H. H2. whan that; Cm.
Ed. _om._ that. 1680. Cl. _om._ thus. 1687. Cl. complende(!); Cp.
comprende; _rest_ comprehende. 1693. H. wryten; H2. writyn; Cl. y-wrete.
1694. Cl. by-thenke; _rest_ by-thynke. 1696. signes] Cl. synes. 1700.
traytour] Cl. traytous. 1702. Cl. Cp. H. _om._ allas. 1703. H2. Pirous; Ed.
Pyrous; H. Pirors; Cl. Cp. Cm. Piros. 1704. Ed. Whiche; _rest_ Which. 1708.
him] Cl. here; Cp. H. hire. // Cl. sacrifice. 1711. Cl. woned; Cp. H2. Ed.
wont; H. wonte; Cm. wone. 1713. Cp. Cm. wroughte; Cl. H. wrought. 1718. Cl.
H. festeynynges; Cp. H2. festynges; Cm. festyngys; (_read_ festeyinges).
1720. aboute him] Cl. hym aboute. 1722. H. fresshiste; Cl. fresshest. 1723.
Cl. _om. 2nd_ a. // stevene] H. neuene. 1725. Cl. rong vp into. 1731. Cl.
ony. 1734. Cl. y-maked(!). 1738. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. gardyn; Cl. gardeyn. 1745.
Cl. heste. 1747. Cl. hem lyst hym (_wrongly_). 1748. Cl. Cp. knetteth; H.
knettheth; Ed. knytteth; H2. kennyth; Cm. endytyth. // Cl. Cm. of; H. Cp.
Ed. and; H2. _om._ 1753. Cl. elementes; Cp. H. elementz. 1755. Cp. H2. Ed.
mote; Cl. H. mot; Cm. may. 1759. Cl. Constreyne. 1760. Cl. _om._ so. // Cp.
H. Ed. fiersly; Cm. fersely; H2. fersly; Cl. freshly. 1762. Cp. H. lete;
Cl. late; Cm. let; Ed. lette. 1767. H. Cp. cerclen; Cm. serkelyn; Cl.
cerchen; Ed. serchen; H2. cherysson. 1768. Cp. H. wey; Cl. weye. 1769.
twiste] Cl. it wyste. 1770. Cl. lest; Cp. H. liste. 1771. Cl. kep. 1774.
Cl. certaynly. 1776. Cl. H. Cm. encres; Ed. encrease. 1779. Cl. _om_. he.
1780. Cp. boor; Cm. bor; _rest_ bore. 1784. Cl. H2. cometh; _rest_ comen.
1787. Cl. Cp. H. alle; _rest_ al. 1794. Cl. heyghe; Cp. H. heigh. 1797. Cm.
vnkouth; Cl. vnkow; Cp. vnkoude; _rest_ vnkouthe. 1800. Cm. real. 1801. Cl.
Lyst hym; Cp. H. Him liste. 1804. Cp. Cm. wolde; Cl. H. wold. 1805. Cp. H.
Ed. pride and Ire enuye. 1807-1820. _Lost in_ Cm. 1810. In] Cl. I. // Cp.
H. tabide. 1815. Cl. seruyce. 1816. Cl. dishese. 1818. wyse] Cl. wys.
COLOPHON. _From_ Ed.; Cl. Cp. H. H2. _wrongly place it after_ Book IV, l.



  1. But al to litel, weylawey the whyle,
  Lasteth swich Ioye, y-thonked be Fortune!
  That semeth trewest, whan she wol bygyle,
  And can to foles so hir song entune,
  That she hem hent and blent, traytour comune;                           5
  And whan a wight is from hir wheel y-throwe,
  Than laugheth she, and maketh him the mowe.

  2. From Troilus she gan hir brighte face
  Awey to wrythe, and took of him non hede,
  But caste him clene oute of his lady grace,                            10
  And on hir wheel she sette up Diomede;
  For which right now myn herte ginneth blede,
  And now my penne, allas! with which I wryte,
  Quaketh for drede of that I moot endyte.

  3. For how Criseyde Troilus forsook,                                   15
  Or at the leste, how that she was unkinde,
  Mot hennes-forth ben matere of my book,
  As wryten folk thorugh which it is in minde.
  Allas! that they shulde ever cause finde
  To speke hir harm; and if they on hir lye,                             20
  Y-wis, hem-self sholde han the vilanye.

  4. O ye Herines, Nightes doughtren three,
  That endelees compleynen ever in pyne,
  Megera, Alete, and eek Thesiphone;
  Thou cruel Mars eek, fader to Quiryne,                                 25
  This ilke ferthe book me helpeth fyne,
  So that the los of lyf and love y-fere
  Of Troilus be fully shewed here.


  5. Ligginge in ost, as I have seyd er this,
  The Grekes stronge, aboute Troye toun,                                 30
  Bifel that, whan that Phebus shyning is
  Up-on the brest of Hercules Lyoun,
  That Ector, with ful many a bold baroun,
  Caste on a day with Grekes for to fighte,
  As he was wont to greve hem what he mighte.                            35

  6. Not I how longe or short it was bitwene
  This purpos and that day they fighte mente;
  But on a day wel armed, bright and shene,
  Ector, and many a worthy wight out wente,
  With spere in hond and bigge bowes bente;                              40
  And in the berd, with-oute lenger lette,
  Hir fomen in the feld anoon hem mette.

  7. The longe day, with speres sharpe y-grounde,
  With arwes, dartes, swerdes, maces felle,
  They fighte and bringen hors and man to grounde,                       45
  And with hir axes out the braynes quelle.
  But in the laste shour, sooth for to telle,
  The folk of Troye hem-selven so misledden,
  That with the worse at night homward they fledden.

  8. At whiche day was taken Antenor,                                    50
  Maugre Polydamas or Monesteo,
  Santippe, Sarpedon, Polynestor,
  Polyte, or eek the Troian daun Ripheo,
  And othere lasse folk, as Phebuseo.
  So that, for harm, that day the folk of Troye                          55
  Dredden to lese a greet part of hir Ioye.

  9. Of Pryamus was yeve, at Greek requeste,
  A tyme of trewe, and tho they gonnen trete,
  Hir prisoneres to chaungen, moste and leste,
  And for the surplus yeven sommes grete.                                60
  This thing anoon was couth in every strete,
  Bothe in thassege, in toune, and every-where,
  And with the firste it cam to Calkas ere.

  10. Whan Calkas knew this tretis sholde holde,
  In consistorie, among the Grekes, sone                                 65
  He gan in thringe forth, with lordes olde,
  And sette him there-as he was wont to done;
  And with a chaunged face hem bad a bone,
  For love of god, to don that reverence,
  To stinte noyse, and yeve him audience.                                70

  11. Thanne seyde he thus, 'lo! lordes myne, I was
  Troian, as it is knowen out of drede;
  And if that yow remembre, I am Calkas,
  That alderfirst yaf comfort to your nede,
  And tolde wel how that ye sholden spede.                               75
  For dredelees, thorugh yow, shal, in a stounde,
  Ben Troye y-brend, and beten doun to grounde.

  12. And in what forme, or in what maner wyse
  This town to shende, and al your lust to acheve,
  Ye han er this wel herd it me devyse;                                  80
  This knowe ye, my lordes, as I leve.
  And for the Grekes weren me so leve,
  I com my-self in my propre persone,
  To teche in this how yow was best to done;

  13. Havinge un-to my tresour ne my rente                               85
  Right no resport, to respect of your ese.
  Thus al my good I loste and to yow wente,
  Wening in this you, lordes, for to plese.
  But al that los ne doth me no disese.
  I vouche-sauf, as wisly have I Ioye,                                   90
  For you to lese al that I have in Troye,

  14. Save of a doughter, that I lafte, allas!
  Slepinge at hoom, whanne out of Troye I sterte.
  O sterne, O cruel fader that I was!
  How mighte I have in that so hard an herte?                            95
  Allas! I ne hadde y-brought hir in hir sherte!
  For sorwe of which I wol not live to morwe,
  But-if ye lordes rewe up-on my sorwe.

  15. For, by that cause I say no tyme er now
  Hir to delivere, I holden have my pees;                               100
  But now or never, if that it lyke yow,
  I may hir have right sone, doutelees.
  O help and grace! amonges al this prees,
  Rewe on this olde caitif in destresse,
  Sin I through yow have al this hevinesse!                             105

  16. Ye have now caught and fetered in prisoun
  Troians y-nowe; and if your willes be,
  My child with oon may have redempcioun.
  Now for the love of god and of bountee,
  Oon of so fele, allas! so yeve him me.                                110
  What nede were it this preyere for to werne,
  Sin ye shul bothe han folk and toun as yerne?

  17. On peril of my lyf, I shal not lye,
  Appollo hath me told it feithfully;
  I have eek founde it by astronomye,                                   115
  By sort, and by augurie eek trewely,
  And dar wel seye, the tyme is faste by,
  That fyr and flaumbe on al the toun shal sprede;
  And thus shal Troye turne in asshen dede.

  18. For certeyn, Phebus and Neptunus bothe,                           120
  That makeden the walles of the toun,
  Ben with the folk of Troye alwey so wrothe,
  That thei wol bringe it to confusioun,
  Right in despyt of king Lameadoun.
  By-cause he nolde payen hem hir hyre,                                 125
  The toun of Troye shal ben set on-fyre.'

  19. Telling his tale alwey, this olde greye,
  Humble in speche, and in his lokinge eke,
  The salte teres from his eyën tweye
  Ful faste ronnen doun by eyther cheke.                                130
  So longe he gan of socour hem by-seke
  That, for to hele him of his sorwes sore,
  They yave him Antenor, with-oute more.

  20. But who was glad y-nough but Calkas tho?
  And of this thing ful sone his nedes leyde                            135
  On hem that sholden for the tretis go,
  And hem for Antenor ful ofte preyde
  To bringen hoom king Toas and Criseyde;
  And whan Pryam his save-garde sente,
  Thembassadours to Troye streyght they wente.                          140

  21. The cause y-told of hir cominge, the olde
  Pryam the king ful sone in general
  Let here-upon his parlement to holde,
  Of which the effect rehersen yow I shal.
  Thembassadours ben answered for fynal,                                145
  Theschaunge of prisoners and al this nede
  Hem lyketh wel, and forth in they procede.

  22. This Troilus was present in the place,
  Whan axed was for Antenor Criseyde,
  For which ful sone chaungen gan his face,                             150
  As he that with tho wordes wel neigh deyde.
  But nathelees, he no word to it seyde,
  Lest men sholde his affeccioun espye;
  With mannes herte he gan his sorwes drye.

  23. And ful of anguish and of grisly drede                            155
  Abood what lordes wolde un-to it seye;
  And if they wolde graunte, as god forbede,
  Theschaunge of hir, than thoughte he thinges tweye,
  First, how to save hir honour, and what weye
  He mighte best theschaunge of hir withstonde;                         160
  Ful faste he caste how al this mighte stonde.

  24. Love him made al prest to doon hir byde,
  And rather dye than she sholde go;
  But resoun seyde him, on that other syde,
  'With-oute assent of hir ne do not so,                                165
  Lest for thy werk she wolde be thy fo,
  And seyn, that thorugh thy medling is y-blowe
  Your bother love, there it was erst unknowe.'

  25. For which he gan deliberen, for the beste,
  That though the lordes wolde that she wente,                          170
  He wolde late hem graunte what hem leste,
  And telle his lady first what that they mente.
  And whan that she had seyd him hir entente,
  Ther-after wolde he werken also blyve,
  Though al the world ayein it wolde stryve.                            175

  26. Ector, which that wel the Grekes herde,
  For Antenor how they wolde han Criseyde,
  Gan it withstonde, and sobrely answerde:--
  'Sires, she nis no prisoner,' he seyde;
  'I noot on yow who that this charge leyde,                            180
  But, on my part, ye may eft-sone him telle,
  We usen here no wommen for to selle.'

  27. The noyse of peple up-stirte thanne at ones,
  As breme as blase of straw y-set on fyre;
  For infortune it wolde, for the nones,                                185
  They sholden hir confusioun desyre.
  'Ector,' quod they, 'what goost may yow enspyre,
  This womman thus to shilde and doon us lese
  Daun Antenor?--a wrong wey now ye chese--

  28. That is so wys, and eek so bold baroun,                           190
  And we han nede of folk, as men may see;
  He is eek oon, the grettest of this toun;
  O Ector, lat tho fantasyës be!
  O king Pryam,' quod they, 'thus seggen we,
  That al our voys is to for-gon Criseyde;'                             195
  And to deliveren Antenor they preyde.

  29. O Iuvenal, lord! trewe is thy sentence,
  That litel witen folk what is to yerne
  That they ne finde in hir desyr offence;
  For cloud of errour lat hem not descerne                              200
  What best is; and lo, here ensample as yerne.
  This folk desiren now deliveraunce
  Of Antenor, that broughte hem to mischaunce!

  30. For he was after traytour to the toun
  Of Troye; allas! they quitte him out to rathe;                        205
  O nyce world, lo, thy discrecioun!
  Criseyde, which that never dide hem skathe,
  Shal now no lenger in hir blisse bathe;
  But Antenor, he shal com hoom to toune,
  And she shal out; thus seyden here and howne.                         210

  31. For which delibered was by parlement,
  For Antenor to yelden up Criseyde,
  And it pronounced by the president,
  Al-theigh that Ector 'nay' ful ofte preyde.
  And fynaly, what wight that it with-seyde,                            215
  It was for nought, it moste been, and sholde;
  For substaunce of the parlement it wolde.

  32. Departed out of parlement echone,
  This Troilus, with-oute wordes mo,
  Un-to his chaumbre spedde him faste allone,                           220
  But-if it were a man of his or two,
  The whiche he bad out faste for to go,
  By-cause he wolde slepen, as he seyde,
  And hastely up-on his bed him leyde.

  33. And as in winter leves been biraft,                               225
  Eche after other, til the tree be bare,
  So that ther nis but bark and braunche y-laft,
  Lyth Troilus, biraft of ech wel-fare,
  Y-bounden in the blake bark of care,
  Disposed wood out of his wit to breyde,                               230
  So sore him sat the chaunginge of Criseyde.

  34. He rist him up, and every dore he shette
  And windowe eek, and tho this sorweful man
  Up-on his beddes syde a-doun him sette,
  Ful lyk a deed image pale and wan;                                    235
  And in his brest the heped wo bigan
  Out-breste, and he to werken in this wyse
  In his woodnesse, as I shal yow devyse.

  35. Right as the wilde bole biginneth springe
  Now here, now there, y-darted to the herte,                           240
  And of his deeth roreth in compleyninge,
  Right so gan he aboute the chaumbre sterte,
  Smyting his brest ay with his festes smerte;
  His heed to the wal, his body to the grounde
  Ful ofte he swapte, him-selven to confounde.                          245

  36. His eyen two, for pitee of his herte,
  Out stremeden as swifte welles tweye;
  The heighe sobbes of his sorwes smerte
  His speche him rafte, unnethes mighte he seye,
  'O deeth, allas! why niltow do me deye?                               250
  A-cursed be the day which that nature
  Shoop me to ben a lyves creature!'

  37. But after, whan the furie and the rage
  Which that his herte twiste and faste threste,
  By lengthe of tyme somwhat gan asswage,                               255
  Up-on his bed he leyde him doun to reste;
  But tho bigonne his teres more out-breste,
  That wonder is, the body may suffyse
  To half this wo, which that I yow devyse.

  38. Than seyde he thus, 'Fortune! allas the whyle!                    260
  What have I doon, what have I thus a-gilt?
  How mightestow for reuthe me bigyle?
  Is ther no grace, and shal I thus be spilt?
  Shal thus Criseyde awey, for that thou wilt?
  Allas! how maystow in thyn herte finde                                265
  To been to me thus cruel and unkinde?

  39. Have I thee nought honoured al my lyve,
  As thou wel wost, above the goddes alle?
  Why wiltow me fro Ioye thus depryve?
  O Troilus, what may men now thee calle                                270
  But wrecche of wrecches, out of honour falle
  In-to miserie, in which I wol biwayle
  Criseyde, allas! til that the breeth me fayle?

  40. Allas, Fortune! if that my lyf in Ioye
  Displesed hadde un-to thy foule envye,                                275
  Why ne haddestow my fader, king of Troye,
  By-raft the lyf, or doon my bretheren dye,
  Or slayn my-self, that thus compleyne and crye,
  I, combre-world, that may of no-thing serve,
  But ever dye, and never fully sterve?                                 280

  41. If that Criseyde allone were me laft,
  Nought roughte I whider thou woldest me stere;
  And hir, allas! than hastow me biraft.
  But ever-more, lo! this is thy manere,
  To reve a wight that most is to him dere,                             285
  To preve in that thy gerful violence.
  Thus am I lost, ther helpeth no defence!

  42. O verray lord of love, O god, allas!
  That knowest best myn herte and al my thought,
  What shal my sorwful lyf don in this cas                              290
  If I for-go that I so dere have bought?
  Sin ye Cryseyde and me han fully brought
  In-to your grace, and bothe our hertes seled,
  How may ye suffre, allas! it be repeled?

  43. What I may doon, I shal, whyl I may dure                          295
  On lyve in torment and in cruel peyne,
  This infortune or this disaventure,
  Allone as I was born, y-wis, compleyne;
  Ne never wil I seen it shyne or reyne;
  But ende I wil, as Edippe, in derknesse                               300
  My sorwful lyf, and dyen in distresse.

  44. O wery goost, that errest to and fro,
  Why niltow fleen out of the wofulleste
  Body, that ever mighte on grounde go?
  O soule, lurkinge in this wo, unneste,                                305
  Flee forth out of myn herte, and lat it breste,
  And folwe alwey Criseyde, thy lady dere;
  Thy righte place is now no lenger here!

  45. O wofulle eyen two, sin your disport
  Was al to seen Criseydes eyen brighte,                                310
  What shal ye doon but, for my discomfort,
  Stonden for nought, and wepen out your sighte?
  Sin she is queynt, that wont was yow to lighte,
  In veyn fro-this-forth have I eyen tweye
  Y-formed, sin your vertue is a-weye.                                  315

  46. O my Criseyde, O lady sovereyne
  Of thilke woful soule that thus cryeth,
  Who shal now yeven comfort to the peyne?
  Allas, no wight; but when myn herte dyeth,
  My spirit, which that so un-to yow hyeth,                             320
  Receyve in gree, for that shal ay yow serve;
  For-thy no fors is, though the body sterve.

  47. O ye loveres, that heighe upon the wheel
  Ben set of Fortune, in good aventure,
  God leve that ye finde ay love of steel,                              325
  And longe mot your lyf in Ioye endure!
  But whan ye comen by my sepulture,
  Remembreth that your felawe resteth there;
  For I lovede eek, though I unworthy were.

  48. O olde unholsom and mislyved man,                                 330
  Calkas I mene, allas! what eyleth thee
  To been a Greek, sin thou art born Troian?
  O Calkas, which that wilt my bane be,
  In cursed tyme was thou born for me!
  As wolde blisful Iove, for his Ioye,                                  335
  That I thee hadde, where I wolde, in Troye!'

  49. A thousand sykes, hottere than the glede,
  Out of his brest ech after other wente,
  Medled with pleyntes newe, his wo to fede,
  For which his woful teres never stente;                               340
  And shortly, so his peynes him to-rente,
  And wex so mat, that Ioye nor penaunce
  He feleth noon, but lyth forth in a traunce.

  50. Pandare, which that in the parlement
  Hadde herd what every lord and burgeys seyde,                         345
  And how ful graunted was, by oon assent,
  For Antenor to yelden so Criseyde,
  Gan wel neigh wood out of his wit to breyde,
  So that, for wo, he niste what he mente;
  But in a rees to Troilus he wente.                                    350

  51. A certeyn knight, that for the tyme kepte
  The chaumbre-dore, un-dide it him anoon;
  And Pandare, that ful tendreliche wepte,
  In-to the derke chaumbre, as stille as stoon,
  Toward the bed gan softely to goon,                                   355
  So confus, that he niste what to seye;
  For verray wo his wit was neigh aweye.

  52. And with his chere and loking al to-torn,
  For sorwe of this, and with his armes folden,
  He stood this woful Troilus biforn,                                   360
  And on his pitous face he gan biholden;
  But lord, so often gan his herte colden,
  Seing his freend in wo, whos hevinesse
  His herte slow, as thoughte him, for distresse.

  53. This woful wight, this Troilus, that felte                        365
  His freend Pandare y-comen him to see,
  Gan as the snow ayein the sonne melte,
  For which this sorwful Pandare, of pitee,
  Gan for to wepe as tendreliche as he;
  And specheles thus been thise ilke tweye,                             370
  That neyther mighte o word for sorwe seye.

  54. But at the laste this woful Troilus,
  Ney deed for smert, gan bresten out to rore,
  And with a sorwful noyse he seyde thus,
  Among his sobbes and his sykes sore,                                  375
  'Lo! Pandare, I am deed, with-outen more.
  Hastow nought herd at parlement,' he seyde,
  'For Antenor how lost is my Criseyde?'

  55. This Pandarus, ful deed and pale of hewe,
  Ful pitously answerde and seyde, 'yis!                                380
  As wisly were it fals as it is trewe,
  That I have herd, and wot al how it is.
  O mercy, god, who wolde have trowed this?
  Who wolde have wend that, in so litel a throwe,
  Fortune our Ioye wolde han over-throwe?                               385

  56. For in this world ther is no creature,
  As to my doom, that ever saw ruyne
  Straungere than this, thorugh cas or aventure.
  But who may al eschewe or al devyne?
  Swich is this world; for-thy I thus defyne,                           390
  Ne trust no wight to finden in Fortune
  Ay propretee; hir yeftes been comune.

  57. But tel me this, why thou art now so mad
  To sorwen thus? Why lystow in this wyse,
  Sin thy desyr al holly hastow had,                                    395
  So that, by right, it oughte y-now suffyse?
  But I, that never felte in my servyse
  A frendly chere or loking of an yë,
  Lat me thus wepe and wayle, til I dye.

  58. And over al this, as thou wel wost thy-selve,                     400
  This town is ful of ladies al aboute;
  And, to my doom, fairer than swiche twelve
  As ever she was, shal I finde, in som route,
  Ye, oon or two, with-outen any doute.
  For-thy be glad, myn owene dere brother,                              405
  If she be lost, we shul recovere another.

  59. What, god for-bede alwey that ech plesaunce
  In o thing were, and in non other wight!
  If oon can singe, another can wel daunce;
  If this be goodly, she is glad and light;                             410
  And this is fayr, and that can good a-right.
  Ech for his vertu holden is for dere,
  Bothe heroner and faucon for rivere.

  60. And eek, as writ Zanzis, that was ful wys,
  "The newe love out chaceth ofte the olde;"                            415
  And up-on newe cas lyth newe avys.
  Thenk eek, thy-self to saven artow holde;
  Swich fyr, by proces, shal of kinde colde.
  For sin it is but casuel plesaunce,
  Som cas shal putte it out of remembraunce.                            420

  61. For al-so seur as day cometh after night,
  The newe love, labour or other wo,
  Or elles selde seinge of a wight,
  Don olde affecciouns alle over-go.
  And, for thy part, thou shalt have oon of tho                         425
  To abrigge with thy bittre peynes smerte;
  Absence of hir shal dryve hir out of herte.'

  62. Thise wordes seyde he for the nones alle,
  To helpe his freend, lest he for sorwe deyde.
  For doutelees, to doon his wo to falle,                               430
  He roughte not what unthrift that he seyde.
  But Troilus, that neigh for sorwe deyde,
  Tok litel hede of al that ever he mente;
  Oon ere it herde, at the other out it wente:--

  63. But at the laste answerde and seyde, 'freend,                     435
  This lechecraft, or heled thus to be,
  Were wel sitting, if that I were a feend,
  To traysen hir that trewe is unto me!
  I pray god, lat this consayl never y-thee;
  But do me rather sterve anon-right here                               440
  Er I thus do as thou me woldest lere.

  64. She that I serve, y-wis, what so thou seye,
  To whom myn herte enhabit is by right,
  Shal han me holly hires til that I deye.
  For, Pandarus, sin I have trouthe hir hight,                          445
  I wol not been untrewe for no wight;
  But as hir man I wol ay live and sterve,
  And never other creature serve.

  65. And ther thou seyst, thou shall as faire finde
  As she, lat be, make no comparisoun                                   450
  To creature y-formed here by kinde.
  O leve Pandare, in conclusioun,
  I wol not be of thyn opinioun,
  Touching al this; for whiche I thee biseche,
  So hold thy pees; thou sleest me with thy speche.                     455

  66. Thow biddest me I sholde love an-other
  Al freshly newe, and lat Criseyde go!
  It lyth not in my power, leve brother.
  And though I mighte, I wolde not do so.
  But canstow pleyen raket, to and fro,                                 460
  Netle in, dokke out, now this, now that, Pandare?
  Now foule falle hir, for thy wo that care!

  67. Thow farest eek by me, thou Pandarus,
  As he, that whan a wight is wo bi-goon,
  He cometh to him a pas, and seyth right thus,                         465
  "Thenk not on smert, and thou shalt fele noon."
  Thou most me first transmuwen in a stoon,
  And reve me my passiounes alle,
  Er thou so lightly do my wo to falle.

  68. The deeth may wel out of my brest departe                         470
  The lyf, so longe may this sorwe myne;
  But fro my soule shal Criseydes darte
  Out never-mo; but doun with Proserpyne,
  Whan I am deed, I wol go wone in pyne;
  And ther I wol eternally compleyne                                    475
  My wo, and how that twinned be we tweyne.

  69. Thow hast here maad an argument, for fyn,
  How that it sholde lasse peyne be
  Criseyde to for-goon, for she was myn,
  And live in ese and in felicitee.                                     480
  Why gabbestow, that seydest thus to me
  That "him is wors that is fro wele y-throwe,
  Than he hadde erst non of that wele y-knowe?"

  70. But tel me now, sin that thee thinketh so light
  To chaungen so in love, ay to and fro,                                485
  Why hastow not don bisily thy might
  To chaungen hir that doth thee al thy wo?
  Why niltow lete hir fro thyn herte go?
  Why niltow love an-other lady swete,
  That may thyn herte setten in quiete?                                 490

  71. If thou hast had in love ay yet mischaunce,
  And canst it not out of thyn herte dryve,
  I, that livede in lust and in plesaunce
  With hir as muche as creature on-lyve,
  How sholde I that foryete, and that so blyve?                         495
  O where hastow ben hid so longe in muwe,
  That canst so wel and formely arguwe?

  72. Nay, nay, god wot, nought worth is al thy reed,
  For which, for what that ever may bifalle,
  With-outen wordes mo, I wol be deed.                                  500
  O deeth, that endere art of sorwes alle,
  Com now, sin I so ofte after thee calle,
  For sely is that deeth, soth for to seyne,
  That, ofte y-cleped, cometh and endeth peyne.

  73. Wel wot I, whyl my lyf was in quiete,                             505
  Er thou me slowe, I wolde have yeven hyre;
  But now thy cominge is to me so swete,
  That in this world I no-thing so desyre.
  O deeth, sin with this sorwe I am a-fyre,
  Thou outher do me anoon in teres drenche,                             510
  Or with thy colde strook myn hete quenche!

  74. Sin that thou sleest so fele in sondry wyse
  Ayens hir wil, unpreyed, day and night,
  Do me, at my requeste, this servyse,
  Delivere now the world, so dostow right,                              515
  Of me, that am the wofulleste wight
  That ever was; for tyme is that I sterve,
  Sin in this world of right nought may I serve.'

  75. This Troilus in teres gan distille,
  As licour out of alambyk ful faste;                                   520
  And Pandarus gan holde his tunge stille,
  And to the ground his eyen doun he caste.
  But nathelees, thus thoughte he at the laste,
  'What, parde, rather than my felawe deye,
  Yet shal I som-what more un-to him seye:'                             525

  76. And seyde, 'freend, sin thou hast swich distresse,
  And sin thee list myn arguments to blame,
  Why nilt thy-selven helpen doon redresse,
  And with thy manhod letten al this grame?
  Go ravisshe hir ne canstow not for shame!                             530
  And outher lat hir out of toune fare,
  Or hold hir stille, and leve thy nyce fare.

  77. Artow in Troye, and hast non hardiment
  To take a womman which that loveth thee,
  And wolde hir-selven been of thyn assent?                             535
  Now is not this a nyce vanitee?
  Rys up anoon, and lat this weping be,
  And kyth thou art a man, for in this houre
  I wil be deed, or she shal bleven oure.'

  78. To this answerde him Troilus ful softe,                           540
  And seyde, 'parde, leve brother dere,
  Al this have I my-self yet thought ful ofte,
  And more thing than thou devysest here.
  But why this thing is laft, thou shalt wel here;
  And whan thou me hast yeve an audience,                               545
  Ther-after mayst thou telle al thy sentence.

  79. First, sin thou wost this toun hath al this werre
  For ravisshing of wommen so by might,
  It sholde not be suffred me to erre,
  As it stant now, ne doon so gret unright.                             550
  I sholde han also blame of every wight,
  My fadres graunt if that I so withstode,
  Sin she is chaunged for the tounes goode.

  80. I have eek thought, so it were hir assent,
  To aske hir at my fader, of his grace;                                555
  Than thenke I, this were hir accusement,
  Sin wel I woot I may hir not purchace.
  For sin my fader, in so heigh a place
  As parlement, hath hir eschaunge enseled,
  He nil for me his lettre be repeled.                                  560

  81. Yet drede I most hir herte to pertourbe
  With violence, if I do swich a game;
  For if I wolde it openly distourbe,
  It moste been disclaundre to hir name.
  And me were lever deed than hir defame,                               565
  As nolde god but-if I sholde have
  Hir honour lever than my lyf to save!

  82. Thus am I lost, for ought that I can see;
  For certeyn is, sin that I am hir knight,
  I moste hir honour levere han than me                                 570
  In every cas, as lovere oughte of right.
  Thus am I with desyr and reson twight;
  Desyr for to distourben hir me redeth,
  And reson nil not, so myn herte dredeth.'

  83. Thus wepinge that he coude never cesse,                           575
  He seyde, 'allas! how shal I, wrecche, fare?
  For wel fele I alwey my love encresse,
  And hope is lasse and lasse alwey, Pandare!
  Encressen eek the causes of my care;
  So wel-a-wey, why nil myn herte breste?                               580
  For, as in love, ther is but litel reste.'

  84. Pandare answerde, 'freend, thou mayst, for me,
  Don as thee list; but hadde ich it so hote,
  And thyn estat, she sholde go with me;
  Though al this toun cryede on this thing by note,                     585
  I nolde sette at al that noyse a grote.
  For when men han wel cryed, than wol they roune;
  A wonder last but nyne night never in toune.

  85. Devyne not in reson ay so depe
  Ne curteysly, but help thy-self anoon;                                590
  Bet is that othere than thy-selven wepe,
  And namely, sin ye two been al oon.
  Rys up, for by myn heed, she shal not goon;
  And rather be in blame a lyte y-founde
  Than sterve here as a gnat, with-oute wounde.                         595

  86. It is no shame un-to yow, ne no vyce
  Hir to with-holden, that ye loveth most.
  Paraunter, she mighte holden thee for nyce
  To lete hir go thus to the Grekes ost.
  Thenk eek Fortune, as wel thy-selven wost,                            600
  Helpeth hardy man to his empryse,
  And weyveth wrecches, for hir cowardyse.

  87. And though thy lady wolde a litel hir greve,
  Thou shalt thy pees ful wel here-after make,
  But as for me, certayn, I can not leve                                605
  That she wolde it as now for yvel take.
  Why sholde than for ferd thyn herte quake?
  Thenk eek how Paris hath, that is thy brother,
  A love; and why shaltow not have another?

  88. And Troilus, o thing I dar thee swere,                            610
  That if Criseyde, whiche that is thy leef,
  Now loveth thee as wel as thou dost here,
  God helpe me so, she nil not take a-greef,
  Though thou do bote a-noon in this mischeef.
  And if she wilneth fro thee for to passe,                             615
  Thanne is she fals; so love hir wel the lasse.

  89. For-thy tak herte, and thenk, right as a knight,
  Thourgh love is broken alday every lawe.
  Kyth now sumwhat thy corage and thy might,
  Have mercy on thy-self, for any awe.                                  620
  Lat not this wrecched wo thin herte gnawe,
  But manly set the world on sixe and sevene;
  And, if thou deye a martir, go to hevene.

  90. I wol my-self be with thee at this dede,
  Though ich and al my kin, up-on a stounde,                            625
  Shulle in a strete as dogges liggen dede,
  Thourgh-girt with many a wyd and blody wounde.
  In every cas I wol a freend be founde.
  And if thee list here sterven as a wrecche,
  A-dieu, the devel spede him that it recche!'                          630

  91. This Troilus gan with tho wordes quiken,
  And seyde, 'freend, graunt mercy, ich assente;
  But certaynly thou mayst not me so priken,
  Ne peyne noon ne may me so tormente,
  That, for no cas, it is not myn entente,                              635
  At shorte wordes, though I dyen sholde,
  To ravisshe hir, but-if hir-self it wolde.'

  92. 'Why, so mene I,' quod Pandarus, 'al this day.
  But tel me than, hastow hir wel assayed,
  That sorwest thus?' And he answerde, 'nay.'                           640
  'Wher-of artow,' quod Pandare, 'than a-mayed,
  That nost not that she wol ben yvel apayed
  To ravisshe hir, sin thou hast not ben there,
  But-if that Iove tolde it in thyn ere?

  93. For-thy rys up, as nought ne were, anoon,                         645
  And wash thy face, and to the king thou wende,
  Or he may wondren whider thou art goon.
  Thou most with wisdom him and othere blende;
  Or, up-on cas, he may after thee sende
  Er thou be war; and shortly, brother dere,                            650
  Be glad, and lat me werke in this matere.

  94. For I shal shape it so, that sikerly
  Thou shalt this night som tyme, in som manere,
  Com speke with thy lady prevely,
  And by hir wordes eek, and by hir chere,                              655
  Thou shalt ful sone aparceyve and wel here
  Al hir entente, and in this cas the beste;
  And fare now wel, for in this point I reste.'

  95. The swifte Fame, whiche that false thinges
  Egal reporteth lyk the thinges trewe,                                 660
  Was thorugh-out Troye y-fled with preste winges
  Fro man to man, and made this tale al newe,
  How Calkas doughter, with hir brighte hewe,
  At parlement, with-oute wordes more,
  I-graunted was in chaunge of Antenore.                                665

  96. The whiche tale anoon-right as Criseyde
  Had herd, she which that of hir fader roughte,
  As in this cas, right nought, ne whanne he deyde,
  Ful bisily to Iuppiter bisoughte
  Yeve him mischaunce that this tretis broughte.                        670
  But shortly, lest thise tales sothe were,
  She dorste at no wight asken it, for fere.

  97. As she that hadde hir herte and al hir minde
  On Troilus y-set so wonder faste,
  That al this world ne mighte hir love unbinde,                        675
  Ne Troilus out of hir herte caste;
  She wol ben his, whyl that hir lyf may laste.
  And thus she brenneth bothe in love and drede,
  So that she niste what was best to rede.

  98. But as men seen in toune, and al aboute,                          680
  That wommen usen frendes to visyte,
  So to Criseyde of wommen com a route
  For pitous Ioye, and wenden hir delyte;
  And with hir tales, dere y-nough a myte,
  These wommen, whiche that in the cite dwelle,                         685
  They sette hem doun, and seyde as I shal telle.

  99. Quod first that oon, 'I am glad, trewely,
  By-cause of yow, that shal your fader see.'
  A-nother seyde, 'y-wis, so nam not I;
  For al to litel hath she with us be.'                                 690
  Quod tho the thridde, 'I hope, y-wis, that she
  Shal bringen us the pees on every syde,
  That, whan she gooth, almighty god hir gyde!'

  100. Tho wordes and tho wommannisshe thinges,
  She herde hem right as though she thennes were;                       695
  For, god it wot, hir herte on other thing is,
  Although the body sat among hem there.
  Hir advertence is alwey elles-where;
  For Troilus ful faste hir soule soughte;
  With-outen word, alwey on him she thoughte.                           700

  101. Thise wommen, that thus wenden hir to plese,
  Aboute nought gonne alle hir tales spende;
  Swich vanitee ne can don hir non ese,
  As she that, al this mene whyle, brende
  Of other passioun than that they wende,                               705
  So that she felte almost hir herte deye
  For wo, and wery of that companye.

  102. For which no lenger mighte she restreyne
  Hir teres, so they gonnen up to welle,
  That yeven signes of the bitter peyne                                 710
  In whiche hir spirit was, and moste dwelle;
  Remembring hir, fro heven unto which helle
  She fallen was, sith she forgoth the sighte
  Of Troilus, and sorowfully she sighte.

  103. And thilke foles sittinge hir aboute                             715
  Wenden, that she wepte and syked sore
  By-cause that she sholde out of that route
  Departe, and never pleye with hem more.
  And they that hadde y-knowen hir of yore
  Seye hir so wepe, and thoughte it kindenesse,                         720
  And eche of hem wepte eek for hir distresse;

  104. And bisily they gonnen hir conforten
  Of thing, god wot, on which she litel thoughte;
  And with hir tales wenden hir disporten,
  And to be glad they often hir bisoughte.                              725
  But swich an ese ther-with they hir wroughte
  Right as a man is esed for to fele,
  For ache of heed, to clawen him on his hele!

  105. But after al this nyce vanitee
  They took hir leve, and hoom they wenten alle.                        730
  Criseyde, ful of sorweful pitee,
  In-to hir chaumbre up wente out of the halle,
  And on hir bed she gan for deed to falle,
  In purpos never thennes for to ryse;
  And thus she wroughte, as I shal yow devyse.                          735

  106. Hir ounded heer, that sonnish was of hewe,
  She rente, and eek hir fingres longe and smale
  She wrong ful ofte, and bad god on hir rewe,
  And with the deeth to doon bote on hir bale.
  Hir hewe, whylom bright, that tho was pale,                           740
  Bar witnes of hir wo and hir constreynte;
  And thus she spak, sobbinge, in hir compleynte:

  107. 'Alas!' quod she, 'out of this regioun
  I, woful wrecche and infortuned wight,
  And born in corsed constellacioun,                                    745
  Mot goon, and thus departen fro my knight;
  Wo worth, allas! that ilke dayes light
  On which I saw him first with eyen tweyne,
  That causeth me, and I him, al this peyne!'

  108. Therwith the teres from hir eyen two                             750
  Doun fille, as shour in Aperill, ful swythe;
  Hir whyte brest she bet, and for the wo
  After the deeth she cryed a thousand sythe,
  Sin he that wont hir wo was for to lythe,
  She mot for-goon; for which disaventure                               755
  She held hir-self a forlost creature.

  109. She seyde, 'how shal he doon, and I also?
  How sholde I live, if that I from him twinne?
  O dere herte eek, that I love so,
  Who shal that sorwe sleen that ye ben inne?                           760
  O Calkas, fader, thyn be al this sinne!
  O moder myn, that cleped were Argyve,
  Wo worth that day that thou me bere on lyve!

  110. To what fyn sholde I live and sorwen thus?
  How sholde a fish with-oute water dure?                               765
  What is Criseyde worth, from Troilus?
  How sholde a plaunte or lyves creature
  Live, with-oute his kinde noriture?
  For which ful oft a by-word here I seye,
  That, "rotelees, mot grene sone deye."                                770

  111. I shal don thus, sin neither swerd ne darte
  Dar I non handle, for the crueltee,
  That ilke day that I from yow departe,
  If sorwe of that nil not my bane be,
  Than shal no mete or drinke come in me                                775
  Til I my soule out of my breste unshethe;
  And thus my-selven wol I do to dethe.

  112. And, Troilus, my clothes everichoon
  Shul blake been, in tokeninge, herte swete,
  That I am as out of this world agoon,                                 780
  That wont was yow to setten in quiete;
  And of myn ordre, ay til deeth me mete,
  The observaunce ever, in your absence,
  Shal sorwe been, compleynte, and abstinence.

  113. Myn herte and eek the woful goost ther-inne                      785
  Biquethe I, with your spirit to compleyne
  Eternally, for they shul never twinne.
  For though in erthe y-twinned be we tweyne,
  Yet in the feld of pitee, out of peyne,
  That hight Elysos, shul we been y-fere,                               790
  As Orpheus and Erudice his fere.

  114. Thus herte myn, for Antenor, allas!
  I sone shal be chaunged, as I wene.
  But how shul ye don in this sorwful cas,
  How shal your tendre herte this sustene?                              795
  But herte myn, for-yet this sorwe and tene,
  And me also; for, soothly for to seye,
  So ye wel fare, I recche not to deye.'

  115. How mighte it ever y-red ben or y-songe,
  The pleynte that she made in hir distresse?                           800
  I noot; but, as for me, my litel tonge,
  If I discreven wolde hir hevinesse,
  It sholde make hir sorwe seme lesse
  Than that it was, and childishly deface
  Hir heigh compleynte, and therfore I it pace.                         805

  116. Pandare, which that sent from Troilus
  Was to Criseyde, as ye han herd devyse,
  That for the beste it was accorded thus,
  And he ful glad to doon him that servyse,
  Un-to Criseyde, in a ful secree wyse,                                 810
  Ther-as she lay in torment and in rage,
  Com hir to telle al hoolly his message.

  117. And fond that she hir-selven gan to trete
  Ful pitously; for with hir salte teres
  Hir brest, hir face y-bathed was ful wete;                            815
  The mighty tresses of hir sonnish heres,
  Unbroyden, hangen al aboute hir eres;
  Which yaf him verray signal of martyre
  Of deeth, which that hir herte gan desyre.

  118. Whan she him saw, she gan for sorwe anoon                        820
  Hir tery face a-twixe hir armes hyde,
  For which this Pandare is so wo bi-goon,
  That in the hous he mighte unnethe abyde,
  As he that pitee felte on every syde.
  For if Criseyde hadde erst compleyned sore,                           825
  Tho gan she pleyne a thousand tymes more.

  119. And in hir aspre pleynte than she seyde,
  'Pandare first of Ioyes mo than two
  Was cause causinge un-to me, Criseyde,
  That now transmuwed been in cruel wo.                                 830
  Wher shal I seye to yow "wel come" or no,
  That alderfirst me broughte in-to servyse
  Of love, allas! that endeth in swich wyse?

  120. Endeth than love in wo? Ye, or men lyeth!
  And alle worldly blisse, as thinketh me,                              835
  The ende of blisse ay sorwe it occupyeth;
  And who-so troweth not that it so be,
  Lat him upon me, woful wrecche, y-see,
  That my-self hate, and ay my birthe acorse,
  Felinge alwey, fro wikke I go to worse.                               840

  121. Who-so me seeth, he seeth sorwe al at ones,
  Peyne, torment, pleynte, wo, distresse.
  Out of my woful body harm ther noon is,
  As anguish, langour, cruel bitternesse,
  A-noy, smert, drede, fury, and eek siknesse.                          845
  I trowe, y-wis, from hevene teres reyne,
  For pitee of myn aspre and cruel peyne!'

  122. 'And thou, my suster, ful of discomfort,'
  Quod Pandarus, 'what thenkestow to do?
  Why ne hastow to thy-selven som resport,                              850
  Why woltow thus thy-selve, allas, for-do?
  Leef al this werk and tak now hede to
  That I shal seyn, and herkne, of good entente,
  This, which by me thy Troilus thee sente.'

  123. Torned hir tho Criseyde, a wo makinge                            855
  So greet that it a deeth was for to see:--
  'Allas!' quod she, 'what wordes may ye bringe?
  What wol my dere herte seyn to me,
  Which that I drede never-mo to see?
  Wol he have pleynte or teres, er I wende?                             860
  I have y-nowe, if he ther-after sende!'

  124. She was right swich to seen in hir visage
  As is that wight that men on bere binde;
  Hir face, lyk of Paradys the image,
  Was al y-chaunged in another kinde.                                   865
  The pleye, the laughtre men was wont to finde
  In hir, and eek hir Ioyes everychone,
  Ben fled, and thus lyth now Criseyde allone.

  125. Aboute hir eyen two a purpre ring
  Bi-trent, in sothfast tokninge of hir peyne,                          870
  That to biholde it was a dedly thing,
  For which Pandare mighte not restreyne
  The teres from his eyen for to reyne.
  But nathelees, as he best mighte, he seyde
  From Troilus thise wordes to Criseyde.                                875

  126. 'Lo, nece, I trowe ye han herd al how
  The king, with othere lordes, for the beste,
  Hath mad eschaunge of Antenor and yow,
  That cause is of this sorwe and this unreste.
  But how this cas doth Troilus moleste,                                880
  That may non erthely mannes tonge seye;
  For verray wo his wit is al aweye.

  127. For which we han so sorwed, he and I,
  That in-to litel bothe it hadde us slawe;
  But thurgh my conseil this day, fynally,                              885
  He somwhat is fro weping now with-drawe.
  And semeth me that he desyreth fawe
  With yow to been al night, for to devyse
  Remede in this, if ther were any wyse.

  128. This, short and pleyne, theffect of my message,                  890
  As ferforth as my wit can comprehende.
  For ye, that been of torment in swich rage,
  May to no long prologe as now entende;
  And her-upon ye may answere him sende.
  And, for the love of god, my nece dere,                               895
  So leef this wo er Troilus be here.'

  129. 'Gret is my wo,' quod she, and sighte sore,
  As she that feleth dedly sharp distresse;
  'But yet to me his sorwe is muchel more,
  That love him bet than he him-self, I gesse.                          900
  Allas! for me hath he swich hevinesse?
  Can he for me so pitously compleyne?
  Y-wis, this sorwe doubleth al my peyne.

  130. Grevous to me, god wot, is for to twinne,'
  Quod she, 'but yet it hardere is to me                                905
  To seen that sorwe which that he is inne;
  For wel wot I, it wol my bane be;
  And deye I wol in certayn,' tho quod she;
  'But bidde him come, er deeth, that thus me threteth,
  Dryve out that goost, which in myn herte beteth.'                     910

  131. Thise wordes seyd, she on hir armes two
  Fil gruf, and gan to wepe pitously.
  Quod Pandarus, 'allas! why do ye so,
  Syn wel ye wot the tyme is faste by,
  That he shal come? Arys up hastely,                                   915
  That he yow nat biwopen thus ne finde,
  But ye wol han him wood out of his minde!

  132. For wiste he that ye ferde in this manere,
  He wolde him-selve slee; and if I wende
  To han this fare, he sholde not come here                             920
  For al the good that Pryam may despende.
  For to what fyn he wolde anoon pretende,
  That knowe I wel; and for-thy yet I seye,
  So leef this sorwe, or platly he wol deye.

  133. And shapeth yow his sorwe for to abregge,                        925
  And nought encresse, leve nece swete;
  Beth rather to him cause of flat than egge,
  And with som wysdom ye his sorwes bete.
  What helpeth it to wepen ful a strete,
  Or though ye bothe in salte teres dreynte?                            930
  Bet is a tyme of cure ay than of pleynte.

  134. I mene thus; whan I him hider bringe,
  Sin ye ben wyse, and bothe of oon assent,
  So shapeth how distourbe your goinge,
  Or come ayen, sone after ye be went.                                  935
  Wommen ben wyse in short avysement;
  And lat sen how your wit shal now avayle;
  And what that I may helpe, it shal not fayle.'

  135. 'Go,' quod Criseyde, 'and uncle, trewely,
  I shal don al my might, me to restreyne                               940
  From weping in his sight, and bisily,
  Him for to glade, I shal don al my peyne,
  And in myn herte seken every veyne;
  If to this soor ther may be founden salve,
  It shal not lakken, certain, on myn halve.'                           945

  136. Goth Pandarus, and Troilus he soughte,
  Til in a temple he fond him allone,
  As he that of his lyf no lenger roughte;
  But to the pitouse goddes everichone
  Ful tendrely he preyde, and made his mone,                            950
  To doon him sone out of this world to pace;
  For wel he thoughte ther was non other grace.

  137. And shortly, al the sothe for to seye,
  He was so fallen in despeyr that day,
  That outrely he shoop him for to deye.                                955
  For right thus was his argument alwey:
  He seyde, he nas but loren, waylawey!
  'For al that comth, comth by necessitee;
  Thus to be lorn, it is my destinee.

  138. For certaynly, this wot I wel,' he seyde,                        960
  That for-sight of divyne purveyaunce
  Hath seyn alwey me to for-gon Criseyde,
  Sin god seeth every thing, out of doutaunce,
  And hem desponeth, thourgh his ordenaunce,
  In hir merytes sothly for to be,                                      965
  As they shul comen by predestinee.

  139. But nathelees, allas! whom shal I leve?
  For ther ben grete clerkes many oon,
  That destinee thorugh argumentes preve;
  And som men seyn that nedely ther is noon;                            970
  But that free chois is yeven us everichoon.
  O, welaway! so sleye arn clerkes olde,
  That I not whos opinion I may holde.

  140. For som men seyn, if god seth al biforn,
  Ne god may not deceyved ben, pardee,                                  975
  Than moot it fallen, though men hadde it sworn,
  That purveyaunce hath seyn bifore to be.
  Wherfor I seye, that from eterne if he
  Hath wist biforn our thought eek as our dede,
  We have no free chois, as these clerkes rede.                         980

  141. For other thought nor other dede also
  Might never be, but swich as purveyaunce,
  Which may not ben deceyved never-mo,
  Hath feled biforn, with-outen ignoraunce.
  For if ther mighte been a variaunce                                   985
  To wrythen out fro goddes purveyinge,
  Ther nere no prescience of thing cominge;

  142. But it were rather an opinioun
  Uncerteyn, and no stedfast forseinge;
  And certes, that were an abusioun,                                    990
  That god shuld han no parfit cleer witinge
  More than we men that han doutous weninge.
  But swich an errour up-on god to gesse
  Were fals and foul, and wikked corsednesse.

  143. Eek this is an opinioun of somme                                 995
  That han hir top ful heighe and smothe y-shore;
  They seyn right thus, that thing is not to come
  For that the prescience hath seyn bifore
  That it shal come; but they seyn, that therfore
  That it shal come, therfore the purveyaunce                          1000
  Wot it biforn with-outen ignoraunce;

  144. And in this manere this necessitee
  Retorneth in his part contrarie agayn.
  For needfully bihoveth it not to be
  That thilke thinges fallen in certayn                                1005
  That ben purveyed; but nedely, as they seyn,
  Bihoveth it that thinges, whiche that falle,
  That they in certayn ben purveyed alle.

  145. I mene as though I laboured me in this,
  To enqueren which thing cause of which thing be;                     1010
  As whether that the prescience of god is
  The certayn cause of the necessitee
  Of thinges that to comen been, pardee;
  Or if necessitee of thing cominge
  Be cause certeyn of the purveyinge.                                  1015

  146. But now ne enforce I me nat in shewinge
  How the ordre of causes stant; but wel wot I,
  That it bihoveth that the bifallinge
  Of thinges wist biforen certeynly
  Be necessarie, al seme it not ther-by                                1020
  That prescience put falling necessaire
  To thing to come, al falle it foule or faire.

  147. For if ther sit a man yond on a see,
  Than by necessitee bihoveth it
  That, certes, thyn opinioun soth be,                                 1025
  That wenest or coniectest that he sit;
  And ferther-over now ayenward yit,
  Lo, right so it is of the part contrarie,
  As thus; (now herkne, for I wol not tarie):

  148. I seye, that if the opinioun of thee                            1030
  Be sooth, for that he sit, than seye I this,
  That he mot sitten by necessitee;
  And thus necessitee in either is.
  For in him nede of sitting is, y-wis,
  And in thee nede of sooth; and thus, forsothe,                       1035
  Ther moot necessitee ben in yow bothe.

  149. But thou mayst seyn, the man sit not therfore,
  That thyn opinion of sitting soth is;
  But rather, for the man sit ther bifore,
  Therfore is thyn opinion sooth, y-wis.                               1040
  And I seye, though the cause of sooth of this
  Comth of his sitting, yet necessitee
  Is entrechaunged, bothe in him and thee.

  150. Thus on this same wyse, out of doutaunce,
  I may wel maken, as it semeth me,                                    1045
  My resoninge of goddes purveyaunce,
  And of the thinges that to comen be;
  By whiche reson men may wel y-see,
  That thilke thinges that in erthe falle,
  That by necessitee they comen alle.                                  1050

  151. For al-though that, for thing shal come, y-wis,
  Therfore is it purveyed, certaynly,
  Nat that it comth for it purveyed is:
  Yet nathelees, bihoveth it nedfully,
  That thing to come be purveyed, trewely;                             1055
  Or elles, thinges that purveyed be,
  That they bityden by necessitee.

  152. And this suffyseth right y-now, certeyn,
  For to destroye our free chois every del.--
  But now is this abusion to seyn,                                     1060
  That fallinge of the thinges temporel
  Is cause of goddes prescience eternel.
  Now trewely, that is a fals sentence,
  That thing to come sholde cause his prescience.

  153. What mighte I wene, and I hadde swich a thought,                1065
  But that god purveyth thing that is to come
  For that it is to come, and elles nought?
  So mighte I wene that thinges alle and some,
  That whylom been bifalle and over-come,
  Ben cause of thilke sovereyn purveyaunce,                            1070
  That for-wot al with-outen ignoraunce.

  154. And over al this, yet seye I more herto,
  That right as whan I woot ther is a thing,
  Y-wis, that thing mot nedefully be so;
  Eek right so, whan I woot a thing coming,                            1075
  So mot it come; and thus the bifalling
  Of thinges that ben wist bifore the tyde,
  They mowe not been eschewed on no syde.'

  155. Than seyde he thus, 'almighty Iove in trone,
  That wost of al this thing the soothfastnesse,                       1080
  Rewe on my sorwe, or do me deye sone,
  Or bring Criseyde and me fro this distresse.'
  And whyl he was in al this hevinesse,
  Disputinge with him-self in this matere,
  Com Pandare in, and seyde as ye may here.                            1085

  156. 'O mighty god,' quod Pandarus, 'in trone,
  Ey! who seigh ever a wys man faren so?
  Why, Troilus, what thenkestow to done?
  Hastow swich lust to been thyn owene fo?
  What, parde, yet is not Criseyde a-go!                               1090
  Why lust thee so thy-self for-doon for drede,
  That in thyn heed thyn eyen semen dede?

  157. Hastow not lived many a yeer biforn
  With-outen hir, and ferd ful wel at ese?
  Artow for hir and for non other born?                                1095
  Hath kinde thee wroughte al-only hir to plese?
  Lat be, and thenk right thus in thy disese.
  That, in the dees right as ther fallen chaunces,
  Right so in love, ther come and goon plesaunces.

  158. And yet this is a wonder most of alle,                          1100
  Why thou thus sorwest, sin thou nost not yit,
  Touching hir goinge, how that it shal falle,
  Ne if she can hir-self distorben it.
  Thou hast not yet assayed al hir wit.
  A man may al by tyme his nekke bede                                  1105
  Whan it shal of, and sorwen at the nede.

  159. For-thy take hede of that that I shal seye;
  I have with hir y-spoke and longe y-be,
  So as accorded was bitwixe us tweye.
  And ever-mo me thinketh thus, that she                               1110
  Hath som-what in hir hertes prevetee,
  Wher-with she can, if I shal right arede,
  Distorbe al this, of which thou art in drede.

  160. For which my counseil is, whan it is night,
  Thou to hir go, and make of this an ende;                            1115
  And blisful Iuno, thourgh hir grete mighte,
  Shal, as I hope, hir grace un-to us sende.
  Myn herte seyth, "certeyn, she shal not wende;"
  And for-thy put thyn herte a whyle in reste;
  And hold this purpos, for it is the beste.'                          1120

  161. This Troilus answerde, and sighte sore,
  'Thou seyst right wel, and I wil do right so;'
  And what him liste, he seyde un-to it more.
  And whan that it was tyme for to go,
  Ful prevely him-self, with-outen mo,                                 1125
  Un-to hir com, as he was wont to done;
  And how they wroughte, I shal yow telle sone.

  162. Soth is, that whan they gonne first to mete,
  So gan the peyne hir hertes for to twiste,
  That neither of hem other mighte grete,                              1130
  But hem in armes toke and after kiste.
  The lasse wofulle of hem bothe niste
  Wher that he was, ne mighte o word out-bringe,
  As I seyde erst, for wo and for sobbinge.

  163. Tho woful teres that they leten falle                           1135
  As bittre weren, out of teres kinde,
  For peyne, as is ligne aloës or galle.
  So bittre teres weep nought, as I finde,
  The woful Myrra through the bark and rinde.
  That in this world ther nis so hard an herte,                        1140
  That nolde han rewed on hir peynes smerte.

  164. But whan hir woful wery gostes tweyne
  Retorned been ther-as hem oughte dwelle,
  And that som-what to wayken gan the peyne
  By lengthe of pleynte, and ebben gan the welle                       1145
  Of hire teres, and the herte unswelle,
  With broken voys, al hoors for-shright, Criseyde
  To Troilus thise ilke wordes seyde:

  165. 'O Iove, I deye, and mercy I beseche!
  Help, Troilus!' and ther-with-al hir face                            1150
  Upon his brest she leyde, and loste speche;
  Hir woful spirit from his propre place,
  Right with the word, alwey up poynt to pace.
  And thus she lyth with hewes pale and grene,
  That whylom fresh and fairest was to sene.                           1155

  166. This Troilus, that on hir gan biholde,
  Clepinge hir name, (and she lay as for deed,
  With-oute answere, and felte hir limes colde,
  Hir eyen throwen upward to hir heed),
  This sorwful man can now noon other reed,                            1160
  But ofte tyme hir colde mouth he kiste;
  Wher him was wo, god and him-self it wiste!

  167. He rist him up, and long streight he hir leyde;
  For signe of lyf, for ought he can or may,
  Can he noon finde in no-thing on Criseyde,                           1165
  For which his song ful ofte is 'weylaway!'
  But whan he saugh that specheles she lay,
  With sorwful voys, and herte of blisse al bare,
  He seyde how she was fro this world y-fare!

  168. So after that he longe hadde hir compleyned,                    1170
  His hondes wrong, and seyde that was to seye,
  And with his teres salte hir brest bireyned,
  He gan tho teris wypen of ful dreye,
  And pitously gan for the soule preye,
  And seyde, 'O lord, that set art in thy trone,                       1175
  Rewe eek on me, for I shal folwe hir sone!'

  169. She cold was and with-outen sentement,
  For aught he woot, for breeth ne felte he noon;
  And this was him a preignant argument
  That she was forth out of this world agoon;                          1180
  And whan he seigh ther was non other woon,
  He gan hir limes dresse in swich manere
  As men don hem that shul be leyd on bere.

  170. And after this, with sterne and cruel herte,
  His swerd a-noon out of his shethe he twighte,                       1185
  Him-self to sleen, how sore that him smerte,
  So that his sowle hir sowle folwen mighte,
  Ther-as the doom of Mynos wolde it dighte;
  Sin love and cruel Fortune it ne wolde,
  That in this world he lenger liven sholde.                           1190

  171. Thanne seyde he thus, fulfild of heigh desdayn,
  'O cruel Iove, and thou, Fortune adverse,
  This al and som, that falsly have ye slayn
  Criseyde, and sin ye may do me no werse,
  Fy on your might and werkes so diverse!                              1195
  Thus cowardly ye shul me never winne;
  Ther shal no deeth me fro my lady twinne.

  172. For I this world, sin ye han slayn hir thus,
  Wol lete, and folowe hir spirit lowe or hye;
  Shal never lover seyn that Troilus                                   1200
  Dar not, for fere, with his lady dye;
  For certeyn, I wol bere hir companye.
  But sin ye wol not suffre us liven here,
  Yet suffreth that our soules ben y-fere.

  173. And thou, citee, whiche that I leve in wo,                      1205
  And thou, Pryam, and bretheren al y-fere,
  And thou, my moder, farewel! for I go;
  And Attropos, make redy thou my bere!
  And thou, Criseyde, o swete herte dere,
  Receyve now my spirit!' wolde he seye,                               1210
  With swerd at herte, al redy for to deye.

  174. But as god wolde, of swough ther-with she abreyde,
  And gan to syke, and 'Troilus' she cryde;
  And he answerde, 'lady myn Criseyde,
  Live ye yet?' and leet his swerd doun glyde.                         1215
  'Ye, herte myn, that thanked be Cupyde!'
  Quod she, and ther-with-al she sore sighte;
  And he bigan to glade hir as he mighte;

  175. Took hir in armes two, and kiste hir ofte,
  And hir to glade he dide al his entente;                             1220
  For which hir goost, that flikered ay on-lofte,
  In-to hir woful herte ayein it wente.
  But at the laste, as that hir eyen glente
  A-syde, anoon she gan his swerd aspye,
  As it lay bare, and gan for fere crye,                               1225

  176. And asked him, why he it hadde out-drawe?
  And Troilus anoon the cause hir tolde,
  And how himself ther-with he wolde have slawe.
  For which Criseyde up-on him gan biholde,
  And gan him in hir armes faste folde,                                1230
  And seyde, 'O mercy, god, lo, which a dede!
  Allas! how neigh we were bothe dede!

  177. Thanne if I ne hadde spoken, as grace was,
  Ye wolde han slayn your-self anoon?' quod she.
  'Ye, douteless;' and she answerde, 'allas!                           1235
  For, by that ilke lord that made me,
  I nolde a forlong wey on-lyve han be,
  After your deeth, to han be crowned quene
  Of al the lond the sonne on shyneth shene.

  178. But with this selve swerd, which that here is,                  1240
  My-selve I wolde have slayn!'--quod she tho;
  'But ho, for we han right y-now of this,
  And late us ryse and streight to bedde go;
  And therë lat vs speken of our wo.
  For, by the morter which that I see brenne,                          1245
  Knowe I ful wel that day is not fer henne.'

  179. Whan they were in hir bedde, in armes folde,
  Nought was it lyk tho nightes here-biforn;
  For pitously ech other gan biholde,
  As they that hadden al hir blisse y-lorn,                            1250
  Biwaylinge ay the day that they were born.
  Til at the last this sorwful wight Criseyde
  To Troilus these ilke wordes seyde:--

  180. 'Lo, herte myn, wel wot ye this,' quod she,
  'That if a wight alwey his wo compleyne,                             1255
  And seketh nought how holpen for to be,
  It nis but folye and encrees of peyne;
  And sin that here assembled be we tweyne
  To finde bote of wo that we ben inne,
  It were al tyme sone to biginne.                                     1260

  181. I am a womman, as ful wel ye woot,
  And as I am avysed sodeynly,
  So wol I telle yow, whyl it is hoot.
  Me thinketh thus, that neither ye nor I
  Oughte half this wo to make skilfully.                               1265
  For there is art y-now for to redresse
  That yet is mis, and sleen this hevinesse.

  182. Sooth is, the wo, the whiche that we ben inne,
  For ought I woot, for no-thing elles is
  But for the cause that we sholden twinne.                            1270
  Considered al, ther nis no-more amis.
  But what is thanne a remede un-to this,
  But that we shape us sone for to mete?
  This al and som, my dere herte swete.

  183. Now that I shal wel bringen it aboute                           1275
  To come ayein, sone after that I go,
  Ther-of am I no maner thing in doute.
  For dredeles, with-inne a wouke or two,
  I shal ben here; and, that it may be so
  By alle right, and in a wordes fewe,                                 1280
  I shal yow wel an heep of weyes shewe.

  184. For which I wol not make long sermoun,
  For tyme y-lost may not recovered be;
  But I wol gon to my conclusioun,
  And to the beste, in ought that I can see.                           1285
  And, for the love of god, for-yeve it me
  If I speke ought ayein your hertes reste;
  For trewely, I speke it for the beste;

  185. Makinge alwey a protestacioun,
  That now these wordes, whiche that I shal seye,                      1290
  Nis but to shewe yow my mocioun,
  To finde un-to our helpe the beste weye;
  And taketh it non other wyse, I preye.
  For in effect what-so ye me comaunde,
  That wol I doon, for that is no demaunde.                            1295

  186. Now herkeneth this, ye han wel understonde,
  My goinge graunted is by parlement
  So ferforth, that it may not be with-stonde
  For al this world, as by my Iugement.
  And sin ther helpeth noon avysement                                  1300
  To letten it, lat it passe out of minde;
  And lat us shape a bettre wey to finde.

  187. The sothe is, that the twinninge of us tweyne
  Wol us disese and cruelliche anoye.
  But him bihoveth som-tyme han a peyne,                               1305
  That serveth love, if that he wol have Ioye.
  And sin I shal no ferthere out of Troye
  Than I may ryde ayein on half a morwe,
  It oughte lasse causen us to sorwe.

  188. So as I shal not so ben hid in muwe,                            1310
  That day by day, myn owene herte dere,
  Sin wel ye woot that it is now a truwe,
  Ye shul ful wel al myn estat y-here.
  And er that truwe is doon, I shal ben here,
  And thanne have ye bothe Antenor y-wonne                             1315
  And me also; beth glad now, if ye conne;

  189. And thenk right thus, "Criseyde is now agoon,
  But what! she shal come hastely ayeyn;"
  And whanne, allas? by god, lo, right anoon,
  Er dayes ten, this dar I saufly seyn.                                1320
  And thanne at erste shul we been so fayn,
  So as we shulle to-gederes ever dwelle,
  Thal al this world ne mighte our blisse telle.

  190. I see that ofte, ther-as we ben now,
  That for the beste, our conseil for to hyde,                         1325
  Ye speke not with me, nor I with yow
  In fourtenight; ne see yow go ne ryde.
  May ye not ten dayes thanne abyde,
  For myn honour, in swich an aventure?
  Y-wis, ye mowen elles lite endure!                                   1330

  191. Ye knowe eek how that al my kin is here,
  But-if that onliche it my fader be;
  And eek myn othere thinges alle y-fere,
  And nameliche, my dere herte, ye,
  Whom that I nolde leven for to see                                   1335
  For al this world, as wyd as it hath space;
  Or elles, see ich never Ioves face!

  192. Why trowe ye my fader in this wyse
  Coveiteth so to see me, but for drede
  Lest in this toun that folkes me dispyse                             1340
  By-cause of him, for his unhappy dede?
  What woot my fader what lyf that I lede?
  For if he wiste in Troye how wel I fare,
  Us neded for my wending nought to care.

  193. Ye seen that every day eek, more and more,                      1345
  Men trete of pees; and it supposed is,
  That men the quene Eleyne shal restore,
  And Grekes us restore that is mis.
  So though ther nere comfort noon but this,
  That men purposen pees on every syde,                                1350
  Ye may the bettre at ese of herte abyde.

  194. For if that it be pees, myn herte dere,
  The nature of the pees mot nedes dryve
  That men moste entrecomunen y-fere,
  And to and fro eek ryde and gon as blyve                             1355
  Alday as thikke as been flen from an hyve;
  And every wight han libertee to bleve
  Wher-as him list the bet, with-outen leve.

  195. And though so be that pees ther may be noon,
  Yet hider, though ther never pees ne were,                           1360
  I moste come; for whider sholde I goon,
  Or how mischaunce sholde I dwelle there
  Among tho men of armes ever in fere?
  For which, as wisly god my soule rede,
  I can not seen wher-of ye sholden drede.                             1365

  196. Have here another wey, if it so be
  That al this thing ne may yow not suffyse.
  My fader, as ye knowen wel, pardee,
  Is old, and elde is ful of coveityse.
  And I right now have founden al the gyse,                            1370
  With-oute net, wher-with I shal him hente;
  And herkeneth how, if that ye wole assente.

  197. Lo, Troilus, men seyn that hard it is
  The wolf ful, and the wether hool to have;
  This is to seyn, that men ful ofte, y-wis,                           1375
  Mot spenden part, the remenaunt for to save.
  For ay with gold men may the herte grave
  Of him that set is up-on coveityse;
  And how I mene, I shal it yow devyse.

  198. The moeble which that I have in this toun                       1380
  Un-to my fader shal I take, and seye,
  That right for trust and for savacioun
  It sent is from a freend of his or tweye,
  The whiche freendes ferventliche him preye
  To senden after more, and that in hye,                               1385
  Whyl that this toun stant thus in Iupartye.

  199. And that shal been an huge quantitee,
  Thus shal I seyn, but, lest it folk aspyde,
  This may be sent by no wight but by me;
  I shal eek shewen him, if pees bityde,                               1390
  What frendes that ich have on every syde
  Toward the court, to doon the wrathe pace
  Of Priamus, and doon him stonde in grace.

  200. So, what for o thing and for other, swete,
  I shal him so enchaunten with my sawes,                              1395
  That right in hevene his sowle is, shal he mete!
  For al Appollo, or his clerkes lawes,
  Or calculinge avayleth nought three hawes;
  Desyr of gold shal so his sowle blende,
  That, as me lyst, I shal wel make an ende.                           1400

  201. And if he wolde ought by his sort it preve
  If that I lye, in certayn I shal fonde
  Distorben him, and plukke him by the sleve,
  Makinge his sort, and beren him on honde,
  He hath not wel the goddes understonde.                              1405
  For goddes speken in amphibologyes,
  And, for a sooth, they tellen twenty lyes.

  202. Eek drede fond first goddes, I suppose,
  Thus shal I seyn, and that his cowarde herte
  Made him amis the goddes text to glose,                              1410
  Whan he for ferde out of his Delphos sterte.
  And but I make him sone to converte,
  And doon my reed with-inne a day or tweye,
  I wol to yow oblige me to deye.'

  203. And treweliche, as writen wel I finde,                          1415
  That al this thing was seyd of good entente;
  And that hir herte trewe was and kinde
  Towardes him, and spak right as she mente,
  And that she starf for wo neigh, whan she wente,
  And was in purpos ever to be trewe;                                  1420
  Thus writen they that of hir werkes knewe.

  204. This Troilus, with herte and eres spradde,
  Herde al this thing devysen to and fro;
  And verraylich him semed that he hadde
  The selve wit; but yet to lete hir go                                1425
  His herte misforyaf him ever-mo.
  But fynally, he gan his herte wreste
  To trusten hir, and took it for the beste.

  205. For which the grete furie of his penaunce
  Was queynt with hope, and ther-with hem bitwene                      1430
  Bigan for Ioye the amorouse daunce.
  And as the briddes, whan the sonne is shene,
  Delyten in hir song in leves grene,
  Right so the wordes that they spake y-fere
  Delyted hem, and made hir hertes clere.                              1435

  206. But natheles, the wending of Criseyde,
  For al this world, may nought out of his minde;
  For which ful ofte he pitously hir preyde,
  That of hir heste he might hir trewe finde.
  And seyde hir, 'certes, if ye be unkinde,                            1440
  And but ye come at day set in-to Troye,
  Ne shal I never have hele, honour, ne Ioye.

  207. For al-so sooth as sonne up-rist on morwe,
  And, god! so wisly thou me, woful wrecche,
  To reste bringe out of this cruel sorwe,                             1445
  I wol my-selven slee if that ye drecche.
  But of my deeth though litel be to recche,
  Yet, er that ye me cause so to smerte,
  Dwel rather here, myn owene swete herte!

  208. For trewely, myn owene lady dere,                               1450
  Tho sleightes yet that I have herd yow stere
  Ful shaply been to failen alle y-fere.
  For thus men seyn, "that oon thenketh the bere,
  But al another thenketh his ledere."
  Your sire is wys, and seyd is, out of drede,                         1455
  "Men may the wyse at-renne, and not at-rede."

  209. It is ful hard to halten unespyed
  Bifore a crepul, for he can the craft;
  Your fader is in sleighte as Argus yëd;
  For al be that his moeble is him biraft,                             1460
  His olde sleighte is yet so with him laft,
  Ye shal not blende him for your womanhede,
  Ne feyne a-right, and that is al my drede.

  210. I noot if pees shal ever-mo bityde;
  But, pees or no, for ernest ne for game,                             1465
  I woot, sin Calkas on the Grekes syde
  Hath ones been, and lost so foule his name,
  He dar no more come here ayein for shame;
  For which that weye, for ought I can espye,
  To trusten on, nis but a fantasye.                                   1470

  211. Ye shal eek seen, your fader shal yow glose
  To been a wyf, and as he can wel preche,
  He shal som Grek so preyse and wel alose,
  That ravisshen he shal yow with his speche,
  Or do yow doon by force as he shal teche.                            1475
  And Troilus, of whom ye nil han routhe,
  Shal causeles so sterven in his trouthe!

  212. And over al this, your fader shal despyse
  Us alle, and seyn this citee nis but lorn;
  And that thassege never shal aryse,                                  1480
  For-why the Grekes han it alle sworn
  Til we be slayn, and doun our walles torn.
  And thus he shal you with his wordes fere,
  That ay drede I, that ye wol bleve there.

  213. Ye shul eek seen so many a lusty knight                         1485
  A-mong the Grekes, ful of worthinesse,
  And eche of hem with herte, wit, and might
  To plesen yow don al his besinesse,
  That ye shul dullen of the rudenesse
  Of us sely Troianes, but-if routhe                                   1490
  Remorde yow, or vertue of your trouthe.

  214. And this to me so grevous is to thinke,
  That fro my brest it wol my soule rende;
  Ne dredeles, in me ther may not sinke
  A good opinioun, if that ye wende;                                   1495
  For-why your faderes sleighte wol us shende.
  And if ye goon, as I have told yow yore,
  So thenk I nam but deed, with-oute more.

  215. For which, with humble, trewe, and pitous herte,
  A thousand tymes mercy I yow preye;                                  1500
  So reweth on myn aspre peynes smerte,
  And doth somwhat, as that I shal yow seye,
  And lat us stele away bitwixe us tweye;
  And thenk that folye is, whan man may chese,
  For accident his substaunce ay to lese.                              1505

  216. I mene this, that sin we mowe er day
  Wel stele away, and been to-gider so,
  What wit were it to putten in assay,
  In cas ye sholden to your fader go,
  If that ye mighte come ayein or no?                                  1510
  Thus mene I, that it were a gret folye
  To putte that sikernesse in Iupartye.

  217. And vulgarly to speken of substaunce
  Of tresour, may we bothe with us lede
  Y-nough to live in honour and plesaunce,                             1515
  Til in-to tyme that we shul ben dede;
  And thus we may eschewen al this drede.
  For everich other wey ye can recorde,
  Myn herte, y-wis, may not ther-with acorde.

  218. And hardily, ne dredeth no poverte,                             1520
  For I have kin and freendes elles-where
  That, though we comen in our bare sherte,
  Us sholde neither lakke gold ne gere,
  But been honoured whyl we dwelten there.
  And go we anoon, for, as in myn entente,                             1525
  This is the beste, if that ye wole assente.'

  219. Criseyde, with a syk, right in this wyse
  Answerde, 'y-wis, my dere herte trewe,
  We may wel stele away, as ye devyse,
  And finde swiche unthrifty weyes newe;                               1530
  But afterward, ful sore it wol us rewe.
  And help me god so at my moste nede
  As causeles ye suffren al this drede!

  220. For thilke day that I for cherisshinge
  Or drede of fader, or of other wight,                                1535
  Or for estat, delyt, or for weddinge
  Be fals to yow, my Troilus, my knight,
  Saturnes doughter, Iuno, thorugh hir might,
  As wood as Athamante do me dwelle
  Eternaly in Stix, the put of helle!                                  1540

  221. And this on every god celestial
  I swere it yow, and eek on eche goddesse,
  On every Nymphe and deite infernal,
  On Satiry and Fauny more and lesse,
  That halve goddes been of wildernesse;                               1545
  And Attropos my threed of lyf to-breste
  If I be fals; now trowe me if thow leste!

  222. And thou, Simoys, that as an arwe clere
  Thorugh Troye rennest ay downward to the see,
  Ber witnesse of this word that seyd is here,                         1550
  That thilke day that ich untrewe be
  To Troilus, myn owene herte free,
  That thou retorne bakwarde to thy welle,
  And I with body and soule sinke in helle!

  223. But that ye speke, awey thus for to go                          1555
  And leten alle your freendes, god for-bede,
  For any womman, that ye sholden so,
  And namely, sin Troye hath now swich nede
  Of help; and eek of o thing taketh hede,
  If this were wist, my lif laye in balaunce,                          1560
  And your honour; god shilde us fro mischaunce!

  224. And if so be that pees her-after take,
  As alday happeth, after anger, game,
  Why, lord! the sorwe and wo ye wolden make,
  That ye ne dorste come ayein for shame!                              1565
  And er that ye Iuparten so your name,
  Beth nought to hasty in this hote fare;
  For hasty man ne wanteth never care.

  225. What trowe ye the peple eek al aboute
  Wolde of it seye? It is ful light to arede.                          1570
  They wolden seye, and swere it, out of doute,
  That love ne droof yow nought to doon this dede,
  But lust voluptuous and coward drede.
  Thus were al lost, y-wis, myn herte dere,
  Your honour, which that now shyneth so clere.                        1575

  226. And also thenketh on myn honestee,
  That floureth yet, how foule I sholde it shende,
  And with what filthe it spotted sholde be,
  If in this forme I sholde with yow wende.
  Ne though I livede un-to the worldes ende,                           1580
  My name sholde I never ayeinward winne;
  Thus were I lost, and that were routhe and sinne.

  227. And for-thy slee with reson al this hete;
  Men seyn, "the suffraunt overcometh," pardee;
  Eek "who-so wol han leef, he leef mot lete;"                         1585
  Thus maketh vertue of necessitee
  By pacience, and thenk that lord is he
  Of fortune ay, that nought wol of hir recche;
  And she ne daunteth no wight but a wrecche.

  228. And trusteth this, that certes, herte swete,                    1590
  Er Phebus suster, Lucina the shene,
  The Leoun passe out of this Ariete,
  I wol ben here, with-outen any wene.
  I mene, as helpe me Iuno, hevenes quene,
  The tenthe day, but-if that deeth me assayle,                        1595
  I wol yow seen, with-outen any fayle.'

  229. 'And now, so this be sooth,' quod Troilus,
  'I shal wel suffre un-to the tenthe day,
  Sin that I see that nede it moot be thus.
  But, for the love of god, if it be may,                              1600
  So lat us stele prively away;
  For ever in oon, as for to live in reste,
  Myn herte seyth that it wol been the beste.'

  230. 'O mercy, god, what lyf is this?' quod she;
  'Allas, ye slee me thus for verray tene!                             1605
  I see wel now that ye mistrusten me;
  For by your wordes it is wel y-sene.
  Now, for the love of Cynthia the shene,
  Mistrust me not thus causeles, for routhe;
  Sin to be trewe I have yow plight my trouthe.                        1610

  231. And thenketh wel, that som tyme it is wit
  To spende a tyme, a tyme for to winne;
  Ne, pardee, lorn am I nought fro yow yit,
  Though that we been a day or two a-twinne.
  Dryf out the fantasyes yow with-inne;                                1615
  And trusteth me, and leveth eek your sorwe,
  Or here my trouthe, I wol not live til morwe.

  232. For if ye wiste how sore it doth me smerte,
  Ye wolde cesse of this; for god, thou wost,
  The pure spirit wepeth in myn herte,                                 1620
  To see yow wepen that I love most,
  And that I moot gon to the Grekes ost.
  Ye, nere it that I wiste remedye
  To come ayein, right here I wolde dye!

  233. But certes, I am not so nyce a wight                            1625
  That I ne can imaginen a way
  To come ayein that day that I have hight.
  For who may holde thing that wol a-way?
  My fader nought, for al his queynte pley.
  And by my thrift, my wending out of Troye                            1630
  Another day shal torne us alle to Ioye.

  234. For-thy, with al myn herte I yow beseke,
  If that yow list don ought for my preyere,
  And for the love which that I love yow eke,
  That er that I departe fro yow here,                                 1635
  That of so good a comfort and a chere
  I may you seen, that ye may bringe at reste
  Myn herte, which that is at point to breste.

  235. And over al this, I pray yow,' quod she tho,
  'Myn owene hertes soothfast suffisaunce,                             1640
  Sin I am thyn al hool, with-outen mo,
  That whyl that I am absent, no plesaunce
  Of othere do me fro your remembraunce.
  For I am ever a-gast, for-why men rede,
  That "love is thing ay ful of bisy drede."                           1645

  236. For in this world ther liveth lady noon,
  If that ye were untrewe, as god defende!
  That so bitraysed were or wo bigoon
  As I, that alle trouthe in yow entende.
  And douteles, if that ich other wende,                               1650
  I nere but deed; and er ye cause finde,
  For goddes love, so beth me not unkinde.'

  237. To this answerde Troilus and seyde,
  'Now god, to whom ther nis no cause y-wrye,
  Me glade, as wis I never un-to Criseyde,                             1655
  Sin thilke day I saw hir first with yë,
  Was fals, ne never shal til that I dye.
  At shorte wordes, wel ye may me leve;
  I can no more, it shal be founde at preve.'

  238. 'Graunt mercy, goode myn, y-wis,' quod she,                     1660
  'And blisful Venus lat me never sterve
  Er I may stonde of plesaunce in degree
  To quyte him wel, that so wel can deserve;
  And whyl that god my wit wol me conserve,
  I shal so doon, so trewe I have yow founde,                          1665
  That ay honour to me-ward shal rebounde.

  239. For trusteth wel, that your estat royal
  Ne veyn delyt, nor only worthinesse
  Of yow in werre, or torney marcial,
  Ne pompe, array, nobley, or eek richesse,                            1670
  Ne made me to rewe on your distresse;
  But moral vertue, grounded upon trouthe,
  That was the cause I first hadde on yow routhe!

  240. Eek gentil herte and manhod that ye hadde,
  And that ye hadde, as me thoughte, in despyt                         1675
  Every thing that souned in-to badde,
  As rudenesse and poeplish appetyt;
  And that your reson brydled your delyt,
  This made, aboven every creature,
  That I was your, and shal, whyl I may dure.                          1680

  241. And this may lengthe of yeres not for-do,
  Ne remuable fortune deface;
  But Iuppiter, that of his might may do
  The sorwful to be glad, so yeve us grace,
  Er nightes ten, to meten in this place,                              1685
  So that it may your herte and myn suffyse;
  And fareth now wel, for tyme is that ye ryse.'

  242. And after that they longe y-pleyned hadde,
  And ofte y-kist and streite in armes folde,
  The day gan ryse, and Troilus him cladde,                            1690
  And rewfulliche his lady gan biholde,
  As he that felte dethes cares colde.
  And to hir grace he gan him recomaunde;
  Wher him was wo, this holde I no demaunde.

  243. For mannes heed imaginen ne can,                                1695
  Ne entendement considere, ne tonge telle
  The cruel peynes of this sorwful man,
  That passen every torment doun in helle.
  For whan he saugh that she ne mighte dwelle,
  Which that his soule out of his herte rente,                         1700
  With-outen more, out of the chaumbre he wente.

Explicit Liber Quartus.

TITLE. _Not in the_ MSS. // C. _has lost ll._  1-112. 4. Cl. kane. 6, 11.
Cl. Cp. H. whiel; H2. Ed. whele. 7. Cl. here; _rest_ him. 12. Cl. rytht.
21. Cl. vilonye; H. vilenye; _rest_ vilanye. 22. _All_ herynes. // Cl.
nyghttes. 23. Cl. compleynes; H. compleynen; Cp. compleignen. 24. Ed.
Allecto; Tesiphonee. 25. Cp. H. to; Cl. H2. of. 27. H. los; Cl. losse.
COLOPHON. Cl. Cp. H. _wrongly have_ Explicit liber Tercius; _read_
prohemium. 30. Cl. Grekys. 31. Cl. whanne. 32. H. herculis. 33. H. Cp. ful;
_rest om._ 35. Cl. woned. 40. Cl. on; _rest_ in. 41. Cl. lenge; _rest_
lenger. 43. sharpe] Cl. faste. 44. Cl. fele. 47. Cl. last; Cp. H. Ed.
laste. 51. Ed. Polymydas. // Cl. Cp. H. Ed. Monesteo; H2. Penestio. 52. Ed.
Xantyppe; H2. Sartip. // Ed. Palestynor. 53. H2. Riphio; Cl. Cp. H. Rupheo.
57. Cp. H. a Grek; Cl. H2. Ed. at Grekes; _read_ at Greek. 59. Ed. moste;
Cp. meste; _rest_ most. 60. Cl. yeue; Cp. Ed. yeuen. 67. Cl. woned. 69. Cl.
don hym; _rest om._ hym. 75. Cl. told; Cp. H. tolde. 76. Cl. dredles; Cp.
H. dredeles. 78. Cl. for (_for 2nd_ in). 79. Cp. H. Ed. tacheue. 81. H.
leue (_glossed_ i. credo). 82. Cl. weres; Cp. H. Ed. weren. // H. leue
(_gl._ i. cari). 86. Ed. regarde; _rest_ resport (_see_ l. 850). 89. Cl.
losse; dishese. 90. Cl. -saf; Cp. H. -sauf. 94. Cp. and (_for 2nd_ O). //
Cl. cruwel. 99. Cl. H. say; _rest_ sawe. 101. Cl. yif. // H. H2. _om._
that. 103. Cp. amonges; _rest_ among (amonge). 105. through] Cl. for. 106.
Cl. preson; H. prisoun. 107. Cl. wille. 108. Cl. chyd (_sic_). 110. Cl. On;
Cp. H. Oon. 115. Cp. Cm. Ed. it; _rest om._ 117. And] Cl. I. 118. Cm. fer;
H2. fere. 119. Cl. in; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. to; H2. in-to. 120. Cp. Ed. H2.
Neptunus; H. neptimus; Cl. Neptainus; Cm. Natyinus. 121. Cp. Ed. makeden;
H. makkeden; _rest_ maden. 124. Ed. Lamedoun. 125, 6. Cm. here, fere. 129.
Cl. terys; twye. 131. Cl. by-seche. 132. Cl. helen. 133. Cp. yaue; Cl. Cm.
yaf; Ed. gaue. 134. Cl. y-nowh. 138. Cp. Ed. Cm. bryngen; H. brynge; Cl.
bryng. // H. hom; Cl. Cm. hem; _rest_ home. // H. Tooas; Ed. Thoas. 139.
Cp. H. Ed. -garde; Cl. -gard. // Cm. H2. his saf cundwyt hem sente. 140.
Cp. H. Ed. Thembassadours; Cl. H2. The ambassiatours (_see_ l. 145). 155.
Cl. angwyssh. 163. Cl. gon; _rest_ go. 165. H. Cm. ne; _rest om._ 167. Cl.
blowe; _rest_ y-blowe. 168. Cl. bothere; Ed. bother; Cp. brother (!); H2.
bothe; Cm. botheis; H. eyther. 173. Cl. whanne. // Cl. Cp. Cm. hadde;
_rest_ had. 175. Cp. H. a[gh]eyn; Cl. Cm. ayen. 176. Cp. H. Ed. Grekes;
_rest_ Grekis. 178. Cl. answerede; Cp. H. Cm. answerde. 179. Cl. Cm.
presoner. 180. Cl. H2. _om._ that. 183, 5. Cl. onys, nonys. 184. Cl. in;
H2. a; _rest_ on. 186. Cp. H. Ed. sholden; Cl. sholde. 191. Cl. Cp. Ed. to;
H. tolk (_for_ to folk); _rest_ of. 192. Cl. stown (!). 198. Cl. liten (!).
// Cl. weten; H. Cp. witen; Ed. wenen; H2. know. 201. Cl. here an; _rest
om._ an. 204. Cl. after he was. 205. Ed. quytte; H2. quytt; H. Cp. quite;
Cl. Cm. quyt. 206. Cl. discressioun. 207. Cl. Cm. dede. 210. Cl. seyden;
Cp. H. Cm. seyde; Ed. sayd; H2. saide. // Ed. heere; _rest_ here. // Cm.
hou_n_ne; _rest_ howne (hown). 211. Cl. was delibered. 213. Cl. pronuncede;
precident. 214. Cl. Al they; preyede. 220. Cl. Cm. spede; _rest_ spedde.
223. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. slepen; Cl. slepe. 229. Cl. I-bounde. 236. Cl. hepede;
H. heped. 237. Cl. -brest; Cp. Cm. -breste; H. -brast. // Cl. werkyn. 242.
Cl. Righ. 243. Cl. Cm. festes; _rest_ fistes. 245. Cp. H. Ed. seluen; Cl.
self. 252. MSS. Schop, Shope. 257. Cl. terys. 260. Cl. Thanne; Cp. H. Than.
270. Cp. Cm. Ed. now the; Cl. H. the now. 277. Cl. on (_for_ or). // Cl.
Cm. deye; Cp. H. dye. 282. Cp. H. Ed. whider; Cl. Cm. wheder. 286. H.
gerful; Ed. gierful; Cl. greful; Cm. gery; Cp. serful(!). 294. Cl.
repeles(!). 295. Cm. H2. schal I; _rest_ I may. 296. Cl. cruwel; Cm.
crewel. 298. Cl. Allas; _rest_ Allone. 302. Cp. Ed. wery; Cm. werray;
_rest_ verray. 305. H. vnneste (_glossed_ i. go out of thi nest). // Ed.
woful neste (_wrongly_). 309. Cl. desport. 310. Cp. H2. brighte; _rest_
bright (_but_ Cm. _varies_). 312. Cp. H. Stonden; Cm. Stondyn; Ed.
Sto_n_den; Cl. Stondeth. // Cp. H. sighte; Cl. sight. 313. Cp. H. lighte;
Cl. lyght. 314. Cl. tweyne; Cp. H. tweye. 317. H2. thilke; Cm. ye ilke;
_rest_ this. 318. Cl. Cp. H. the; Ed. thy; _rest_ my. 320. Cl. vn-to yow
so. 323. H. heighe; Cp. heigh; Cl. heyhe. 327. Cl. whanne; be. 330. Cp. H.
Ed. myslyued; H2. mysleuyd; Cl. Cm. mysbyleued. 336. Cl. where as; _rest
om._ as. 339. Cl. Meddles; _rest_ Medled (Medlid). 345. Cl. Burgeys & lord.
350. Cp. H. rees; Cl. Cm. res; Ed. race. 352. Cp. H. vndid; Cl. vndede.
354. Cl. as ony; _rest om._ ony. 356. Cm. nyste; Cl. Cp. H. nyst; _see_
349. 362. Cl. colde. 364. Cp. H. slough. 367. H. Cp. ayein; Cl. Cm. ayen;
Ed. ayenst. 368. Cl. wyych. 370. Cp. H. thise; Cl. this. 379. Ed. deed; H.
Cm. ded; Cl. Cp. dede. 380. Cl. answerede. 387. Cl. Als; _rest_ As. 392.
Cl. Cm. his; _rest_ hire (her). 398. _All_ eye (ey). 402. Cm. sweche; Ed.
H2. suche; Cl. H. Cp. swych. 405. Cm. owene; Cl. Cp. H. owen; Ed. owne.
408. Cl. _om._ in. 413. Cl. Cm. of; _rest_ for. 414. Cl. H. zauzis; _rest_
zanzis. 415. Cp. H. chaceth; Cl. cacheth. 417. Cl. thow art; Cp. artow; H.
ertow; Cm. or thow; _rest_ art thou. 423. Cl. ellys. 424. Cl. al. 426. H.
Tabrigge; Cp. Tabregge; Cm. To abregge. 430. Cl. Cm. sorwe; _rest_ wo. 431.
Cm. roughte; Cl. Cp. H. rought. // Cl. vnthryf; _om._ that. 434. Cp. at
oothir; H. attother. 435. Cl. he answered. // Cl. seyde a; _rest om._ a.
437. Cl. fende. 438. Cp. H. traysen; Cl. trassen; Ed. trayen. // Cl. Cm.
here (hire); _rest_ a wight. 439. Cl. to god; _rest om._ to. // Cp. H.
y-the; Cl. the. 440. Cl. anoon sterue right. 443. Cl. her (_for_ herte).
444. Cl. heres; Cp. H. hires; Ed. hers. 445. Cl. syn that; _rest om._ that.
455. Cl. sleste; H. Cm. slest; _rest_ sleest. 459. H2. wolde; Cm. nulde;
Cp. H. Ed. wol; Cl. wil. 462. Cl. that (_before_ for) _and_ hath (_over
erasure_); Cp. H. and; _rest_ that. 468. Cm. pasciounys; _rest_ passions.
472. Cl. Criseyde; Cm. Crisseid; _rest_ Criseydes. 478. Cl. a lasse; _rest
om._ a. 480. Cl. leue; Cm. lyuyn; Cp. H. lyuyd (!). 483. Cl. Ed. knowe;
_rest_ y-knowe. 484. Cl. thenketh; Cp. H. Cm. thynketh. Cp. _omits_
491-532. 493.  Cl. leuede; H. lyuede; Ed. lyued. 498. H2. _repeats_ nay;
_rest_ Nay. 506. Ed. hyre; H. H2. hire; Cl. Cm. here. 510. H. outher; Cl.
Cm. other; H2. eyther. // Cl. yn this teris; _rest om._ this. 520. Cl.
_om._ out. // Cl. a lambyc; H. a lambic; Cm. a lambik; H2. lambyke; Ed.
allambyke. 525. Cl. it; _rest_ him. 526. Cm. seyde; Cl. H. seyd. 527. Cl.
thow; _rest_ thee (the). // H. Cm. H2. to; _rest om._ 528. Cl. self; H. Ed.
seluen; Cm. selue. 530. Cl. H2. To; _rest_ Go. 531. H. outher; Cl. Cm.
other; H2. either. 535. Cl. H2. be; _rest_ ben. 539. Cm. beleuyn. 540. Cl.
answerede. 544. Cl. _om._ this. 548. by] Cl. my. 556. Cl. Thanne. 564. Cp.
mooste; Cl. most. 566. Cl. Cp. H. nold; _rest_ nolde. 582. Cl. answerede.
583. Cl. for; _rest_ so. 586. Cl. H. nold; Cm. nylde; _rest_ nolde. 591.
Cp. H. Ed. seluen; _rest_ self. 592. Cl. Cp. namly. 594. Cp. H. lite; Cl.
Ed. Cm. litel. 596. Cp. H. Ed. vn-to; Cl. to. 599. H2. lete; Cm. letyn; Cp.
H. laten; Cl. late. // H2. to; Cm. in-to (_om._ thus); _rest_ vn-to. 601.
man] Cm. men. 607. Cl. Cp. H. of; _rest_ for. // Cl. Cp. H. fered; Cm.
ferd; Ed. feare; H2. drede. 612. Cl. loue. 614. Ed. H2. Though; Cp. H.
Theigh; Cl. They; Cm. That. 615. thee] Cl. yow. 619. Cl. Kygh (!); Ed.
Kythe; Cp. Cm. Kith. 624. dede] Cl. nede. 625. Cl. H. Cp. Theygh; Ed.
Though. // Cl. stonde. 630. H. H2. it; _rest om._ 631. Cl. to quiken. 636.
Cl. short. 637. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. rauysshen. 639. Cl. thanne. // wel] Cp. H.
wil. 640. Cl. answered. 642. H. Ed. yuel; Cp. yuele; Cl. Cm. euele. 643.
Cl. Cp. H. Ed. rauysshen. 652. Cl. shappe; _om._ that. 662. Cp. H. Ed. al;
Cl. of; Cm. _om._ 667. Cl. _om._ which. 671. Cp. thise; Cm. Ed. these; Cl.
H. this. // Cp. H. Cm. sothe; Cl. soth. 675. this] Cl. the. // mighte] Cl.
koude. 679. Cl. _om._ So. 682. Cp. H. com; _rest_ come. 684. Cl. ynowh.
688. Cl. that ye shal; Cm. ye schal; _rest om._ ye. 689. seyde] Cl.
answered. // nam] Cl. Cm. Ed. am. 691. Cp. H. Ed. tho; _rest om._ 692. Cp.
bryngen; Cm. bryngyn; Cl. H. brynge. 693. Cl. whanne. 694. Cl. wodes (!);
wo_m_mannyssh. 695. Cp. thennes; H. tennes (!); Cl. thens. 699. Cl. herte;
_rest_ soule. 701. Cp. H. Thise; Cl. This. // Cl. _om._ thus. 703. Cl. hem;
Ed. her; _rest_ hire. 707. _So all_ (_except_ their _for_ that _in_ H2.).
708-714. Cp. Cl. H. _omit_. // _From_ Ed. (_corrected by_ John's MS.) 708.
Ed. H2. might she no lenger; Cm. myghte sche no lenger to. 709. Ed. H2.
they gan so; Cm. so gunne thei; (_read_ so they gonnen). 710. Cm. yeuyn;
Ed. gaue. // Cm. the; _rest_ her. 713. Cm. sithe; H2. sythe; Ed. sens. //
Cm. forgoth; Ed. forgo; H2. forgeten. 716. Cp. H. Wenden; _rest_ Wende.
717. Cl. _om._ she. 720. Cl. Seygh; H. Cp. Seigh; Cm. Saw. 722. Cl.
comforten; H. Cm. conforten. 731. Ed. soroufull; Cl. H. sorwful. _After_ l.
735, Cm. _inserts_ 750-756, _with various readings_. 741. Cl. _om. 2nd_
hir. 750-756. Cm. _has these lines after_ l. 735. 750. Cm. The salte teris
from hyre ey[gh]yn tweyn. 751. Doun fille] Cm. Out ran. // in] Cm. of. //
Cm. H2. Aprille; Cp. April. // Cm. ful; _rest om._ 752. wo] Cm. peyne. 756.
forlost] H2. soore lorn. 757. doon] Cl. do. // Cm. What schal he don what
schal I don also. 758. Cl. _om._ that. 765. Cl. I a; _rest om._ I. 768. Cm.
Leuyn. 772. Cp. crueltee; Cl. cruwelte; H. Ed. cruelte. 773. yow] Cl. him.
775. Ed. Cp. H2. drinke; _rest_ drynk. 777. Cp. Ed. wol; Cm. wele; Cl. H.
wold. 788. Cl. Ed. Cm. twynned. 790. Cm. There Pluteo regnyth schal. 791.
Cm. Erodice; _rest_ Erudice. 799. y-red] H. y-herd. 805. I] Cp. H. ich.
806-833. Cm. _omits_. 806. Cl. sent was; _rest om._ was. 807. Cl. _om._
Was. // H2. to; _rest_ vn-to. 810. Cp. secree; Cl. seere (!); Ed. H2.
secrete; H. faire. 812. Cl. Cp. Come; H. Com; Ed. Came. 814. Cl. terys.
816. Cl. herys. 817. Cl. eris. 818. H2. martire; Cp. matire; Ed. matiere;
_rest_ matere (!). 824. H2. pite felte; Cp. pitie felt; H. pite hadde; Cl.
felte pyte. 827. Cp. H. pleynte; Cl. pleynt. 832. Cl. -ferst; brough (!).
833. swich] Cl. this. 834. Cl. thanne. // or] Cl. er. 835. Cm. euery;
_rest_ alle. // Cl. thenketh. 837. Cl. who that. 839. Cl. accurse; Cp. H.
a-corse. 840. wikke] Cl. wo. 841. Cl. onys. 842. Cp. H. pleynte; Cl.
pleynt. // Cl. Ed. wo and; Cp. H. H2. _om._ and. 845. Cl. sikenesse; H.
sekenesse; Cp. siknesse. 846. Cl. teris. 847. Cl. cruwel. 850. Cp. Cl. Ed.
resport (_see_ l. 86); H. reporte; Cm. report; H2. desporte. 851. Cl. _om._
allas. 852. Cl. Lef; Cp. H. Leef; Cm. Leue. // werk] Cl. wek. // Cm. tak;
Cl. Cp. H. take. 858. wol] Cl. wold. // Cl. _om._ herte. 860. Cl. ye (_for_
he). // Cl. terys. 864. Cl. a; H. to; _rest_ of. 870. H2. Betrent. // H.
toknynge; Cl. tokenynge. 872. Cl. H. myght; Cp. Cm. myghte. 873. Cl. terys;
hise. 875. Cp. H. thise; Cl. this. 882. Cl. awey. 887. Cl. It; _rest_ And.
891. can] Cl. may. 893. Cl. May as; _rest om._ as. 894. Cl. an answere;
_rest om._ an. 896. Cp. H2. leue; Ed. leaue; Cm. leuyth; Cl. H. Lef. 897.
Cp. H. sighte; Cl. Ed. sighed; Cm. syghynge. 898. Cl. felt; _rest_ feleth.
// Cl. sharpe; Cp. H. sharp. 899. Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche. 900. Cl.
loueth. 903. Cp. Cm. sorwe; Cl. H. sorw. 909. Cl. And; _rest_ But. // Cl.
treteth. 910. Cl. the; _rest_ that. // Cp. Cl. H. H2. he beteth; Cm. Ed.
_om._ he. 911. Cl. This. 914. Cl. ye wel. 917. Cl. Cm. wod. 919. Cl. wend.
924. Cl. Cp. H. lef; H2. leue; Ed. leaue. 925. Cl. shappeth. // H.
tabrigge. 927. Cl. Buth; Cm. Be; _rest_ Beth. // Cl. _om._ cause. // flat]
Ed. plat. 930. Cl. drenche; Cm. drenk; _rest_ dreynte. 932. hider] Cl.
here. 934. Cl. shappeth. // Cl. Cm. this; _rest_ your. 937. Cl. _puts_ now
_after_ sen. 944. this] Cl. Cm. H2. his. // H. soor; Cl. Cm. sor. 948. Cl.
rowhte. 949. Cp. H. Cm. pitouse; Cl. petouse. 953-1078. Cm. _omits_. 957.
_Read_ loren (Legend, 1048); MSS. lorn. 966. Cl. come; _rest_ comen. 968.
Cl. clerkes grete. 969. Cp. H2. Ed. argumentes; Cl. H. argumentz. 974. som]
Cl. so. 975. Ne] Cl. And. 976. Cl. falle; _rest_ fallen. // H2. Ed. though;
Cl. they; Cp. H. theigh. 977. Cl. seighen; Ed. sene; _rest_ seyn. 978. _In_
H., he _is glossed_ i. deus. 984. _All_ feled (felid); _read_ fel'd. 989.
Cl. stedefast. 994. Cl. corsed wykkednesse. 998. Cl. seyghen; Ed. sene;
_rest_ seyn. 1011. Cl. wheyther. 1016. Cp. H. nenforce. // Cp. Ed. H. nat;
Cl. nought; _rest_ not. 1019. Cl. byforn; H. Cp. bifor; H2. Ed. before;
_read_ biforen. 1021. Cp. Ed. necessaire; _rest_ necessarie. 1026. Cl.
coniestest. 1029. Cl. nowe herkene. 1035. Cl. _om._ in thee (_rest_ in
the). 1036. Cl. Ter mot. 1038. _All give too long a line_: That thyn
opinion of his sitting soth is. 1039. sit] Ed. sate. 1045. Cl. make. 1048.
Cl. Cp. H. which. 1052. Cl. it is; _rest_ is it. 1053. Cl. Nough; _rest_
Nat (Not). 1065. I (_2nd_)] Cl. ich. 1066. H2. purueyth; Cl. purueyed;
_rest_ purueyeth. 1070. Cl. H. soueyren; H2. souereyn. 1072. H. H2. herto;
Cl. Ed. therto. 1073. Cl. _om._ That. // as] Cl. a. 1077. the] Cl. that.
1079. Cl. Thanne. 1080. Cl. H2. alle; _rest_ al this. 1085. Cp. H. Ed. in;
_rest om._ 1087. Cm. H2. Ey; Ed. Eygh; Cl. Cp. H. I. 1089. Cm. owene; H.
Ed. owne; Cl. owen. 1091. Cl. thyn; H. Cp. thy. 1092. Cl. eyghen. 1093. Cl.
by-fore; _rest_ be-forn (by-forne). 1097. Cl. _om._ thy. 1099. Cl. H. com;
Cp. Ed. come. 1103. Cl. seluen; _rest_ self. 1114. Cl. swych; Cm. why;
_rest_ which. 1116. Cl. blissyd; _rest_ blisful. 1120. this] Cl. H2. thi.
1121. Cl. answerede; H. answerde. // Cl. sight; Cp. H. sighte. 1128. Cl. it
is; _rest om._ it. // that] H. than; Cl. _om._ // Cl. whanne. 1129. peyne]
Cl. peynes; Cm. sorwe. 1135, 6, 8. Cl. teris. 1139. Cl. thought; Ed.
through; Cp. thorugh; H. thorwgh. 1144. H. woken; Ed. weaken; Cm. lesse.
1146. Cl. teris. 1147. H2. Cm. hors; Ed. horse; H. hois. // Cp. H. Ed. H2.
for shright; Cl. for bright (!); Cm. for feynt. 1151. Cl. lost; H. lefte;
_rest_ loste. 1153. Cl. vp; Cm. H2. a; Cp. H. o; Ed. in. 1158. Cm.
With-oute; _rest_ With-outen. 1166. ful] Cl. fyl. // is] Cl. his. 1171. Cl.
honde. 1178. Cl. _om._ aught. // he] Cl. I. 1181. Cl. Cm. won; H. H2. wone.
1184, 1189. Cl. cruwel; Cp. H. cruel. 1185. Cl. He (_for_ His). 1186. Ed.
sleen; Cl. Cp. Cm. slen. 1187. Cl. sowe (_2nd time_). 1188. Cp. doom; Cl.
Cm. dom; _rest_ dome. 1191. Cl. Cp. H2. fulfilled; _rest_ fulfild. 1193.
Cl. _om._ ye. 1202. H. wol; Cl. wole. 1203. H. suffure; Cp. Ed. H2. suffre;
Cl. Cm. suffren. // H. lyues here; Cl. y-fere (!); _rest_ lyuen here. 1207.
Cl. now I; _rest om._ now. 1208. H2. Attropos; Ed. Attropose; Cl. H. Cp.
Attropes. 1212. H. breyde; Cm. brayd; _rest_ abreyde (Cp. shabreyde). 1221.
Cl. flekered; Cm. flekerede; Cp. Ed. flikered; H2. fykered (!); H. fliked.
1222. Cl. a-yen; H. a-yein. 1226. Cp. H. it hadde; H2. that (he) hadde;
_rest_ hadde it. 1227. Cl. Cm. _om._ hir. 1231. Cl. swich; _rest_ which.
1234. Cl. wolden; slay. 1235. Cl. answerede. 1236. Cl. mad; _rest_ made.
1241. slayn] Cm. slawe. 1244. Cm. Ed. there; _rest_ ther. 1245. morter] Cm.
p_er_cher. 1246. ful] Cl. right. 1248. tho] Cl. Cm. H2. the. 1249. Cl. gan
other. 1257. nis] Cl. H. is. // Cl. Cm. encres; Cp. H. encresse; H2.
encrease; Ed. encreace. 1259. Cl. H2. be; _rest_ ben. 1261, 3. Cl. Cm. wot,
hot; H. woote, hoote. 1264. Cl. thenketh; _rest_ thinketh. // Cl. H2. ne;
_rest_ nor. 1265. Cm. Aughte; _rest_ Ought. 1267. Ed. sleen; Cl. H. Cm.
slen. 1268. Cl. _om. 2nd_ the. 1271. nis] Cl. Cm. is. 1272. Cl. Cp. remede;
H. remade; _rest_ remedie. 1276. H. Cp. ayein; Cl. Cm. ayen. 1278. Cl.
dredles; Cp. H. Cm. dredeles. // Cl. Cp. H. wowke; Cm. wouke; H2. wooke;
Ed. weke. 1281. Cl. Cm. hep; Cp. H. heepe. 1282. Cl. wot; Cp. H. Ed. wol;
Cm. nyl. // Cl. sermon. 1283. may] Cl. wol. 1284. Cl. conclusyon. 1287. Cl.
Cm. ayen; H. ayenis; Cp. ayeyns. 1296. Cl. for ye; _rest om._ for. 1299.
Cl. Iuggement. 1304. Cl. dishese; cruwellyche. 1308. Cl. Cm. ayen; H. Cp.
ayein. 1309. Cp. oughte; Cl. ought. // Cl. H2. the lasse; _rest om._ the.
1312. Cl. ye wel. 1318. H. Cp. ayein; Cl. ayen. 1319. Cl. righ. 1321. Cl.
Cm. erst; _rest_ erste. // Cl. shal; _see_ 1322. 1324. Cl. Cp. H. Ed.
_insert_ tyme _after_ ofte. 1329. Cp. H. an; _rest om._ 1330. lite] Cl. Cm.
H2. litel. 1343. if] Cl. and. 1344. Cl. nedede; H. H2. neded. 1354. Cm.
moste; H. most; Cp. moost; Cl. mose (!). 1356. Cl. Cm. ben; _rest_ been.
1358. Cl. wit-outen. 1361. Cl. wheder. 1373. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. ful hard; _rest
om._ ful. 1376. Cm. Mot; H. Moot; Cl. Cp. Mote. 1380. Cp. H. H2. moeble;
Cl. moble; _see_ l. 1460. 1384. Cl. wheche. 1385. Cm. sendyn; _rest_ sende.
1387. H. _glosses_ quantitee _by_ i. of golde; _hence_ Ed. _has_ be of
golde an. 1388-1408. Cp. _omits_. 1388. Ed. aspyde; Cm. aspiede; H. aspied;
Cl. aspie. 1391. Cl. H2. _om._ that. 1394. what for] Cl. that for other
(!). 1397. Cl. and or; _rest om._ and. 1398. Cl. calkullynge. 1399. Ed.
blende; _rest_ blynde. 1406. Ed. speke. 1407. a] Ed. o. 1409. his] Cl. is.
1411. H. Ed. ferde; Cm. fer; Cl. Cp. fered; H2. drede. // Cl. his; _rest
om._ 1415. Cl. wreten. 1416. of] H. Cm. in. // Cp. Ed. entente; _rest_
entent. 1422. Cl. eerys. 1423. Ed. H2. deuysed. 1425. selve] Cl. same. //
H2. lete; Cl. Cp. H. late. // hir] Cl. he. 1426. Cl. _om._ him. 1431. Cp.
H. thamorouse. 1435. Cp. H2. Delited; Cl. Ed. Deliten; Cm. Delite; H.
Delites (!). 1436. Cp. H. natheles; Cl. nathles. 1445. Cp. Ed. H. cruel;
Cl. cruwel. 1449. Ed. Dwell; H2. Dwelleth; _rest_ Dwelle. 1452. Cl.
fayllen; Cp. H. faylen. 1456. and] Cl. but. // Cl. a-rede; H. Cp. atrede;
Cm. at-rede. 1458. Cl. H. crepul; Cp. crepel; _rest_ crepil. // Cl. can on;
_rest om._ on. 1459. MSS. eyed. 1463. Cl. H. alle; Cm. Cp. Ed. al. 1468.
Cl. a-yen; H. Cp. ayein. 1470. on] Cl. to. 1473. preyse] Cl. prese. 1476.
of] Cm. Ed. on; H. of on (!). // Cl. H2. he; _rest_ ye. 1483. And] Cl. Al.
1490. Cm. Troilus; Cl. Cp. H. Ed. Troians (_but read_ Troián-es). 1492. Cl.
thenke; _rest_ thinke. 1494. Cp. H. dredeles; Cl. Cm. dredles. 1498. Cl.
am; Cp. H. Ed. H2. nam. 1501. reweth] Cl. rewes. 1503. Cp. H. bi-twixe; Cl.
by-twext. 1505. his] Cl. is. 1507. Cp. H. to-gidere; Cl. to-gedre. 1508.
wit] Cl. nede. 1509. Cp. sholden; H. sholdon; Cm. schuldyn; Cl. sholde.
1515. Cl. Y-nowh. // Cl. pleasaunce; Cp. H. Cm. plesaunce. 1520. Cl. Cm.
Ed. hardely. 1523. Cp. Cm. gold; _rest_ golde. 1532. Cl. Cp. helpe; H. Cm.
help. // Cm. moste; Cp. mooste; Cl. H. most. 1538. Cl. Ed. Saturnus. 1539.
Cp. H. wood; Cl. wod. // Cm. achamaunt; Ed. Achamante. 1546. Cp. H. Cm. Ed.
to-breste; Cl. H2. thow breste. 1548. Ed. Synoys; _rest_ Symoys. 1549. Cm.
_om._ ay. 1550. Cl. wittenesse. 1555. awey] Cl. alwey. 1557. any] Cl. ony.
1558. Cl. namly. 1560. Cm. leye; Ed. laye; H2. were; Cl. Cp. H. lay. 1562.
Ed. herafter be take. // _Perhaps read_: pees be after take. 1565. Cp. H.
ayeyne; Cl. ayen. 1567, 8. Cp. H. Cm. hastif. 1569. Cl. ye that the peple
ek of al; _rest om._ that _and_ of. 1570. Cp. H. tarede. 1577. I] Cl. H2.
it. 1585. Cp. H. moot; Cl. Cm. mote. 1587. Cp. H. Ed. By pacience
(paciens); Cl. By pacient; H2. Be pacient; Cm. Beth pacient. // Cl. thenk;
Cm. thynkith; _rest_ thynke. 1592. H. leon, _glossed_ i. signum leonis;
ariete, _glossed_ i. signum arietis. 1595. Cp. H. messaile. 1603. Cl. _om._
that. 1608. H. cynthia; Cp. Cinthia; Cl. Cynthes (!); Ed. Scythia (!).
1623. Cp. H. Cm. wiste; Cl. H2. wist. 1624. Cl. H. com. 1626. H. H2. way;
Cp. wey; Cl. weye. 1632. Cl. Cm. beseche. 1633. Cl. ough. 1636. so] Cl.
the. // Cl. good of; Cm. good; _rest_ good a. 1637. Cl. _om._ ye. 1638. Ed.
at; H2. in; H. a; Cl. Cp. Cm. o. // point] Cl. poyn. 1640. Cp. Cm. owene;
Ed. owne; Cl. owen. 1642. Cl. assent (!). 1643. Cl. do ye me. 1649. Cp. H2.
alle; _rest_ al. 1655. Cm. Ed. glade; H2. gladde; Cl. H. glad. 1656. H2.
yhe; _rest_ eye. 1658. Cm. schorte; Cp. Ed. shorte; _rest_ short. 1660. Cp.
H. Cm. goode; Cl. good. 1664. Cl. _om._ god. 1667-1701. Cm. _omits_. 1669.
H. tournay; H2. tourney. 1670. Cl. aray. 1677. and] Cl. an. // Cl.
pepelyssh; H. Cp. H2. poeplissh. 1682. _Read_ fortun-è. 1689. Cp. H2.
streite; H. streyte; Cl. streyght. 1691. Cl. Cp. rowfullych; H.
rewfulliche; H2. pitously. 1693. hir] Cl. his. 1696. Ed. H2. Ne
entendement; Cl. Cp. Nentendement. 1697. The] Cl. This. // H. cruel; Cp.
cruele; Cl. cruwel. 1699. Cl. _om._ whan.



  1. Aprochen gan the fatal destinee
  That Ioves hath in disposicioun,
  And to yow, angry Parcas, sustren three,
  Committeth, to don execucioun;
  For which Criseyde moste out of the toun,                               5
  And Troilus shal dwelle forth in pyne
  Til Lachesis his threed no lenger twyne.--

  2. The golden-tressed. Phebus heighe on-lofte
  Thryës hadde alle with his bemes shene
  The snowes molte, and Zephirus as ofte                                 10
  Y-brought ayein the tendre leves grene,
  Sin that the sone of Ecuba the quene
  Bigan to love hir first, for whom his sorwe
  Was al, that she departe sholde a-morwe.

  3. Ful redy was at pryme Dyomede,                                      15
  Criseyde un-to the Grekes ost to lede,
  For sorwe of which she felte hir herte blede,
  As she that niste what was best to rede.
  And trewely, as men in bokes rede,
  Men wiste never womman han the care,                                   20
  Ne was so looth out of a toun to fare.

  4. This Troilus, with-outen reed or lore,
  As man that hath his Ioyes eek forlore,
  Was waytinge on his lady ever-more
  As she that was the soothfast crop and more                            25
  Of al his lust, or Ioyes here-tofore.
  But Troilus, now farewel al thy Ioye,
  For shaltow never seen hir eft in Troye!

  5. Soth is, that whyl he bood in this manere,
  He gan his wo ful manly for to hyde,                                   30
  That wel unnethe it seen was in his chere;
  But at the yate ther she sholde oute ryde
  With certeyn folk, he hoved hir tabyde,
  So wo bigoon, al wolde he nought him pleyne,
  That on his hors unnethe he sat for peyne.                             35

  6. For ire he quook, so gan his herte gnawe,
  Whan Diomede on horse gan him dresse,
  And seyde un-to him-self this ilke sawe,
  'Allas,' quod he, 'thus foul a wrecchednesse
  Why suffre ich it, why nil ich it redresse?                            40
  Were it not bet at ones for to dye
  Than ever-more in langour thus to drye?

  7. Why nil I make at ones riche and pore
  To have y-nough to done, er that she go?
  Why nil I bringe al Troye upon a rore?                                 45
  Why nil I sleen this Diomede also?
  Why nil I rather with a man or two
  Stele hir a-way? Why wol I this endure?
  Why nil I helpen to myn owene cure?'

  8. But why he nolde doon so fel a dede,                                50
  That shal I seyn, and why him liste it spare:
  He hadde in herte alwey a maner drede,
  Lest that Criseyde, in rumour of this fare,
  Sholde han ben slayn; lo, this was al his care.
  And elles, certeyn, as I seyde yore,                                   55
  He hadde it doon, with-outen wordes more.

  9. Criseyde, whan she redy was to ryde,
  Ful sorwfully she sighte, and seyde 'allas!'
  But forth she moot, for ought that may bityde,
  And forth she rit ful sorwfully a pas.                                 60
  Ther nis non other remedie in this cas.
  What wonder is though that hir sore smerte,
  Whan she forgoth hir owene swete herte?

  10. This Troilus, in wyse of curteisye,
  With hauke on hond, and with an huge route                             65
  Of knightes, rood and dide hir companye,
  Passinge al the valey fer with-oute.
  And ferther wolde han riden, out of doute,
  Ful fayn, and wo was him to goon so sone;
  But torne he moste, and it was eek to done.                            70

  11. And right with that was Antenor y-come
  Out of the Grekes ost, and every wight
  Was of it glad, and seyde he was wel-come.
  And Troilus, al nere his herte light,
  He peyned him with al his fulle might                                  75
  Him to with-holde of wepinge at the leste,
  And Antenor he kiste, and made feste.

  12. And ther-with-al he moste his leve take,
  And caste his eye upon hir pitously,
  And neer he rood, his cause for to make,                               80
  To take hir by the honde al sobrely.
  And lord! so she gan wepen tendrely!
  And he ful softe and sleighly gan hir seye,
  'Now hold your day, and dooth me not to deye.'

  13. With that his courser torned he a-boute                            85
  With face pale, and un-to Diomede
  No word he spak, ne noon of al his route;
  Of which the sone of Tydeus took hede,
  As he that coude more than the crede
  In swich a craft, and by the reyne hir hente;                          90
  And Troilus to Troye homwarde he wente.

  14. This Diomede, that ladde hir by the brydel,
  Whan that he saw the folk of Troye aweye,
  Thoughte, 'al my labour shal not been on ydel,
  If that I may, for somwhat shal I seye.                                95
  For at the worste it may yet shorte our weye.
  I have herd seyd, eek tymes twyës twelve,
  "He is a fool that wol for-yete him-selve."'

  15. But natheles this thoughte he wel ynough,
  'That certaynly I am aboute nought                                    100
  If that I speke of love, or make it tough;
  For douteles, if she have in hir thought
  Him that I gesse, he may not been y-brought
  So sone awey; but I shal finde a mene,
  That she not wite as yet shal what I mene.'                           105

  16. This Diomede, as he that coude his good,
  Whan this was doon, gan fallen forth in speche
  Of this and that, and asked why she stood
  In swich disese, and gan hir eek biseche,
  That if that he encrese mighte or eche                                110
  With any thing hir ese, that she sholde
  Comaunde it him, and seyde he doon it wolde.

  17. For trewely he swoor hir, as a knight,
  That ther nas thing with whiche he mighte hir plese,
  That he nolde doon his peyne and al his might                         115
  To doon it, for to doon hir herte an ese.
  And preyede hir, she wolde hir sorwe apese,
  And seyde, 'y-wis, we Grekes con have Ioye
  To honouren yow, as wel as folk of Troye.'

  18. He seyde eek thus, 'I woot, yow thinketh straunge,                120
  No wonder is, for it is to yow newe,
  Thaqueintaunce of these Troianes to chaunge,
  For folk of Grece, that ye never knewe.
  But wolde never god but-if as trewe
  A Greek ye shulde among us alle finde                                 125
  As any Troian is, and eek as kinde.

  19. And by the cause I swoor yow right, lo, now,
  To been your freend, and helply, to my might,
  And for that more acqueintaunce eek of yow
  Have ich had than another straunger wight,                            130
  So fro this forth I pray yow, day and night,
  Comaundeth me, how sore that me smerte,
  To doon al that may lyke un-to your herte;

  20. And that ye me wolde as your brother trete,
  And taketh not my frendship in despyt;                                135
  And though your sorwes be for thinges grete,
  Noot I not why, but out of more respyt,
  Myn herte hath for to amende it greet delyt.
  And if I may your harmes not redresse,
  I am right sory for your hevinesse.                                   140

  21. And though ye Troians with us Grekes wrothe
  Han many a day be, alwey yet, pardee,
  O god of love in sooth we serven bothe.
  And, for the love of god, my lady free,
  Whom so ye hate, as beth not wroth with me.                           145
  For trewely, ther can no wight yow serve,
  That half so looth your wraththe wolde deserve.

  22. And nere it that we been so neigh the tente
  Of Calkas, which that seen us bothe may,
  I wolde of this yow telle al myn entente;                             150
  But this enseled til another day.
  Yeve me your hond, I am, and shal ben ay,
  God help me so, whyl that my lyf may dure,
  Your owene aboven every creature.

  23. Thus seyde I never er now to womman born;                         155
  For god myn herte as wisly glade so,
  I lovede never womman here-biforn
  As paramours ne never shal no mo.
  And, for the love of god, beth not my fo;
  Al can I not to yow, my lady dere,                                    160
  Compleyne aright, for I am yet to lere.

  24. And wondreth not, myn owene lady bright,
  Though that I speke of love to you thus blyve;
  For I have herd or this of many a wight,
  Hath loved thing he never saugh his lyve.                             165
  Eek I am not of power for to stryve
  Ayens the god of love, but him obeye
  I wol alwey, and mercy I yow preye.

  25. Ther been so worthy knightes in this place,
  And ye so fair, that everich of hem alle                              170
  Wol peynen him to stonden in your grace.
  But mighte me so fair a grace falle,
  That ye me for your servaunt wolde calle,
  So lowly ne so trewely you serve
  Nil noon of hem, as I shal, til I sterve.'                            175

  26. Criseide un-to that purpos lyte answerde,
  As she that was with sorwe oppressed so
  That, in effect, she nought his tales herde,
  But here and there, now here a word or two.
  Hir thoughte hir sorwful herte brast a-two.                           180
  For whan she gan hir fader fer aspye,
  Wel neigh doun of hir hors she gan to sye.

  27. But natheles she thonked Diomede
  Of al his travaile, and his goode chere,
  And that him liste his friendship hir to bede;                        185
  And she accepteth it in good manere,
  And wolde do fayn that is him leef and dere;
  And trusten him she wolde, and wel she mighte,
  As seyde she, and from hir hors she alighte.

  28. Hir fader hath hir in his armes nome,                             190
  And tweynty tyme he kiste his doughter swete,
  And seyde, 'O dere doughter myn, wel-come!'
  She seyde eek, she was fayn with him to mete,
  And stood forth mewet, mildë, and mansuete.
  But here I leve hir with hir fader dwelle,                            195
  And forth I wol of Troilus yow telle.

  29. To Troye is come this woful Troilus,
  In sorwe aboven alle sorwes smerte,
  With felon look, and face dispitous.
  Tho sodeinly doun from his hors he sterte,                            200
  And thorugh his paleys, with a swollen herte,
  To chambre he wente; of no-thing took he hede,
  Ne noon to him dar speke a word for drede.

  30. And there his sorwes that he spared hadde
  He yaf an issue large, and 'deeth!' he cryde;                         205
  And in his throwes frenetyk and madde
  He cursed Iove, Appollo, and eek Cupyde,
  He cursed Ceres, Bacus, and Cipryde,
  His burthe, him-self, his fate, and eek nature,
  And, save his lady, every creature.                                   210

  31. To bedde he goth, and weyleth there and torneth
  In furie, as dooth he, Ixion, in helle;
  And in this wyse he neigh til day soiorneth.
  But tho bigan his herte a lyte unswelle
  Thorugh teres which that gonnen up to welle;                          215
  And pitously he cryde up-on Criseyde,
  And to him-self right thus he spak, and seyde:--

  32. 'Wher is myn owene lady lief and dere,
  Wher is hir whyte brest, wher is it, where?
  Wher ben hir armes and hir eyen clere,                                220
  That yesternight this tyme with me were?
  Now may I wepe allone many a tere,
  And graspe aboute I may, but in this place,
  Save a pilowe, I finde nought tenbrace.

  33. How shal I do? Whan shal she com ayeyn?                           225
  I noot, allas! why leet ich hir to go?
  As wolde god, ich hadde as tho be sleyn!
  O herte myn, Criseyde, O swete fo!
  O lady myn, that I love and no mo!
  To whom for ever-mo myn herte I dowe;                                 230
  See how I deye, ye nil me not rescowe!

  34. Who seeth yow now, my righte lode-sterre?
  Who sit right now or stant in your presence?
  Who can conforten now your hertes werre?
  Now I am gon, whom yeve ye audience?                                  235
  Who speketh for me right now in myn absence?
  Allas, no wight; and that is al my care;
  For wel wot I, as yvel as I ye fare.

  35. How shulde I thus ten dayes ful endure,
  Whan I the firste night have al this tene?                            240
  How shal she doon eek, sorwful creature?
  For tendernesse, how shal she this sustene,
  Swich wo for me? O pitous, pale, and grene
  Shal been your fresshe wommanliche face
  For langour, er ye torne un-to this place.'                           245

  36. And whan he fil in any slomeringes,
  Anoon biginne he sholde for to grone,
  And dremen of the dredfulleste thinges
  That mighte been; as, mete he were allone
  In place horrible, makinge ay his mone,                               250
  Or meten that he was amonges alle
  His enemys, and in hir hondes falle.

  37. And ther-with-al his body sholde sterte,
  And with the stert al sodeinliche awake,
  And swich a tremour fele aboute his herte,                            255
  That of the feer his body sholde quake;
  And there-with-al he sholde a noyse make,
  And seme as though he sholde falle depe
  From heighe a-lofte; and than he wolde wepe,

  38. And rewen on him-self so pitously,                                260
  That wonder was to here his fantasye.
  Another tyme he sholde mightily
  Conforte him-self, and seyn it was folye,
  So causeles swich drede for to drye,
  And eft biginne his aspre sorwes newe,                                265
  That every man mighte on his sorwes rewe.

  39. Who coude telle aright or ful discryve
  His wo, his pleynte, his langour, and his pyne?
  Nought al the men that han or been on-lyve.
  Thou, redere, mayst thy-self ful wel devyne                           270
  That swich a wo my wit can not defyne.
  On ydel for to wryte it sholde I swinke,
  Whan that my wit is wery it to thinke.

  40. On hevene yet the sterres were sene,
  Al-though ful pale y-waxen was the mone;                              275
  And whyten gan the orisonte shene
  Al estward, as it woned is to done.
  And Phebus with his rosy carte sone
  Gan after that to dresse him up to fare,
  Whan Troilus hath sent after Pandare.                                 280

  41. This Pandare, that of al the day biforn
  Ne mighte have comen Troilus to see,
  Al-though he on his heed it hadde y-sworn,
  For with the king Pryam alday was he,
  So that it lay not in his libertee                                    285
  No-wher to gon, but on the morwe he wente
  To Troilus, whan that he for him sente.

  42. For in his herte he coude wel devyne,
  That Troilus al night for sorwe wook;
  And that he wolde telle him of his pyne,                              290
  This knew he wel y-nough, with-oute book.
  For which to chaumbre streight the wey he took,
  And Troilus tho sobreliche he grette,
  And on the bed ful sone he gan him sette.

  43. 'My Pandarus,' quod Troilus, 'the sorwe                           295
  Which that I drye, I may not longe endure.
  I trowe I shal not liven til to-morwe;
  For whiche I wolde alwey, on aventure,
  To thee devysen of my sepulture
  The forme, and of my moeble thou dispone                              300
  Right as thee semeth best is for to done.

  44. But of the fyr and flaumbe funeral
  In whiche my body brenne shal to glede,
  And of the feste and pleyes palestral
  At my vigile, I pray thee take good hede                              305
  That al be wel; and offre Mars my stede,
  My swerd, myn helm, and, leve brother dere,
  My sheld to Pallas yef, that shyneth clere.

  45. The poudre in which myn herte y-brend shal torne,
  That preye I thee thou take and it conserve                           310
  In a vessel, that men clepeth an urne,
  Of gold, and to my lady that I serve,
  For love of whom thus pitously I sterve,
  So yeve it hir, and do me this plesaunce,
  To preye hir kepe it for a remembraunce.                              315

  46. For wel I fele, by my maladye,
  And by my dremes now and yore ago,
  Al certeinly, that I mot nedes dye.
  The owle eek, which that hight Ascaphilo,
  Hath after me shright alle thise nightes two.                         320
  And, god Mercurie! of me now, woful wrecche,
  The soule gyde, and, whan thee list, it fecche!'

  47. Pandare answerde, and seyde, 'Troilus,
  My dere freend, as I have told thee yore,
  That it is folye for to sorwen thus,                                  325
  And causeles, for whiche I can no-more.
  But who-so wol not trowen reed ne lore,
  I can not seen in him no remedye,
  But lete him worthen with his fantasye.

  48. But Troilus, I pray thee tel me now,                              330
  If that thou trowe, er this, that any wight
  Hath loved paramours as wel as thou?
  Ye, god wot, and fro many a worthy knight
  Hath his lady goon a fourtenight,
  And he not yet made halvendel the fare.                               335
  What nede is thee to maken al this care?

  49. Sin day by day thou mayst thy-selven see
  That from his love, or elles from his wyf,
  A man mot twinnen of necessitee,
  Ye, though he love hir as his owene lyf;                              340
  Yet nil he with him-self thus maken stryf.
  For wel thow wost, my leve brother dere,
  That alwey freendes may nought been y-fere.

  50. How doon this folk that seen hir loves wedded
  By freendes might, as it bi-tit ful ofte,                             345
  And seen hem in hir spouses bed y-bedded?
  God woot, they take it wysly, faire and softe.
  For-why good hope halt up hir herte on-lofte,
  And for they can a tyme of sorwe endure;
  As tyme hem hurt, a tyme doth hem cure.                               350

  51. So sholdestow endure, and late slyde
  The tyme, and fonde to ben glad and light.
  Ten dayes nis so longe not tabyde.
  And sin she thee to comen hath bihight,
  She nil hir hestes breken for no wight.                               355
  For dred thee not that she nil finden weye
  To come ayein, my lyf that dorste I leye.

  52. Thy swevenes eek and al swich fantasye
  Dryf out, and lat hem faren to mischaunce;
  For they procede of thy malencolye,                                   360
  That doth thee fele in sleep al this penaunce.
  A straw for alle swevenes signifiaunce!
  God helpe me so, I counte hem not a bene,
  Ther woot no man aright what dremes mene.

  53. For prestes of the temple tellen this,                            365
  That dremes been the revelaciouns
  Of goddes, and as wel they telle, y-wis,
  That they ben infernals illusiouns;
  And leches seyn, that of complexiouns
  Proceden they, or fast, or glotonye.                                  370
  Who woot in sooth thus what they signifye?

  54. Eek othere seyn that thorugh impressiouns,
  As if a wight hath faste a thing in minde,
  That ther-of cometh swiche avisiouns;
  And othere seyn, as they in bokes finde,                              375
  That, after tymes of the yeer by kinde,
  Men dreme, and that theffect goth by the mone;
  But leve no dreem, for it is nought to done.

  55. Wel worth of dremes ay thise olde wyves,
  And treweliche eek augurie of thise foules;                           380
  For fere of which men wenen lese her lyves,
  As ravenes qualm, or shryking of thise oules.
  To trowen on it bothe fals and foul is.
  Allas, allas, so noble a creature
  As is a man, shal drede swich ordure!                                 385

  56. For which with al myn herte I thee beseche,
  Un-to thy-self that al this thou foryive;
  And rys up now with-oute more speche,
  And lat us caste how forth may best be drive
  This tyme, and eek how freshly we may live                            390
  Whan that she cometh, the which shal be right sone;
  God help me so, the beste is thus to done.

  57. Rys, lat us speke of lusty lyf in Troye
  That we han lad, and forth the tyme dryve;
  And eek of tyme cominge us reioye,                                    395
  That bringen shal our blisse now so blyve;
  And langour of these twyës dayes fyve
  We shal ther-with so foryete or oppresse,
  That wel unnethe it doon shal us duresse.

  58. This toun is ful of lordes al aboute,                             400
  And trewes lasten al this mene whyle.
  Go we pleye us in som lusty route
  To Sarpedon, not hennes but a myle.
  And thus thou shalt the tyme wel bigyle,
  And dryve it forth un-to that blisful morwe,                          405
  That thou hir see, that cause is of thy sorwe.

  59. Now rys, my dere brother Troilus;
  For certes, it noon honour is to thee
  To wepe, and in thy bed to iouken thus.
  For trewely, of o thing trust to me,                                  410
  If thou thus ligge a day, or two, or three,
  The folk wol wene that thou, for cowardyse,
  Thee feynest syk, and that thou darst not ryse.'

  60. This Troilus answerde, 'O brother dere,
  This knowen folk that han y-suffred peyne,                            415
  That though he wepe and make sorwful chere,
  That feleth harm and smert in every veyne,
  No wonder is; and though I ever pleyne,
  Or alwey wepe, I am no-thing to blame,
  Sin I have lost the cause of al my game.                              420

  61. But sin of fyne force I moot aryse,
  I shal aryse, as sone as ever I may;
  And god, to whom myn herte I sacrifyse,
  So sende us hastely the tenthe day!
  For was ther never fowl so fayn of May,                               425
  As I shal been, whan that she cometh in Troye,
  That cause is of my torment and my Ioye.

  62. But whider is thy reed,' quod Troilus,
  'That we may pleye us best in al this toun?'
  'By god, my conseil is,' quod Pandarus,                               430
  'To ryde and pleye us with king Sarpedoun.'
  So longe of this they speken up and doun,
  Til Troilus gan at the laste assente
  To ryse, and forth to Sarpedoun they wente.

  63. This Sarpedoun, as he that honourable                             435
  Was ever his lyve, and ful of heigh prowesse,
  With al that mighte y-served been on table,
  That deyntee was, al coste it greet richesse,
  He fedde hem day by day, that swich noblesse,
  As seyden bothe the moste and eek the leste,                          440
  Was never er that day wist at any feste.

  64. Nor in this world ther is non instrument
  Delicious, through wind, or touche, or corde,
  As fer as any wight hath ever y-went,
  That tonge telle or herte may recorde,                                445
  That at that feste it nas wel herd acorde;
  Ne of ladies eek so fayr a companye
  On daunce, er tho, was never y-seyn with yë.

  65. But what avayleth this to Troilus,
  That for his sorwe no-thing of it roughte?                            450
  For ever in oon his herte piëtous
  Ful bisily Criseyde his lady soughte.
  On hir was ever al that his herte thoughte.
  Now this, now that, so faste imagininge,
  That glade, y-wis, can him no festeyinge.                             455

  66. These ladies eek that at this feste been,
  Sin that he saw his lady was a-weye,
  It was his sorwe upon hem for to seen,
  Or for to here on instrumentz so pleye.
  For she, that of his herte berth the keye,                            460
  Was absent, lo, this was his fantasye,
  That no wight sholde make melodye.

  67. Nor ther nas houre in al the day or night,
  Whan he was ther-as no wight mighte him here,
  That he ne seyde, 'O lufsom lady bright,                              465
  How have ye faren, sin that ye were here?
  Wel-come, y-wis, myn owene lady dere.'
  But welaway, al this nas but a mase;
  Fortune his howve entended bet to glase.

  68. The lettres eek, that she of olde tyme                            470
  Hadde him y-sent, he wolde allone rede,
  An hundred sythe, a-twixen noon and pryme;
  Refiguringe hir shap, hir womanhede,
  With-inne his herte, and every word and dede
  That passed was, and thus he droof to an ende                         475
  The ferthe day, and seyde, he wolde wende.

  69. And seyde, 'leve brother Pandarus,
  Intendestow that we shul herë bleve
  Til Sarpedoun wol forth congeyen us?
  Yet were it fairer that we toke our leve.                             480
  For goddes love, lat us now sone at eve
  Our leve take, and homward lat us torne;
  For trewely, I nil not thus soiorne.'

  70. Pandare answerde, 'be we comen hider
  To fecchen fyr, and rennen hoom ayeyn?                                485
  God helpe me so, I can not tellen whider
  We mighten goon, if I shal soothly seyn,
  Ther any wight is of us more fayn
  Than Sarpedoun; and if we hennes hye
  Thus sodeinly, I holde it vilanye,                                    490

  71. Sin that we seyden that we wolde bleve
  With him a wouke; and now, thus sodeinly,
  The ferthe day to take of him our leve,
  He wolde wondren on it, trewely!
  Lat us holde forth our purpos fermely;                                495
  And sin that ye bihighten him to byde,
  Hold forward now, and after lat us ryde.'

  72. Thus Pandarus, with alle peyne and wo,
  Made him to dwelle; and at the woukes ende,
  Of Sarpedoun they toke hir leve tho,                                  500
  And on hir wey they spedden hem to wende.
  Quod Troilus, 'now god me grace sende,
  That I may finden, at myn hom-cominge,
  Criseyde comen!' and ther-with gan he singe.

  73. 'Ye, hasel-wode!' thoughte this Pandare,                          505
  And to him-self ful softely he seyde,
  'God woot, refreyden may this hote fare
  Er Calkas sende Troilus Criseyde!'
  But natheles, he Iaped thus, and seyde,
  And swor, y-wis, his herte him wel bihighte,                          510
  She wolde come as sone as ever she mighte.

  74. Whan they un-to the paleys were y-comen
  Of Troilus, they doun of hors alighte,
  And to the chambre hir wey than han they nomen.
  And in-to tyme that it gan to nighte,                                 515
  They spaken of Crisëyde the brighte.
  And after this, whan that hem bothe leste,
  They spedde hem fro the soper un-to reste.

  75. On morwe, as sone as day bigan to clere,
  This Troilus gan of his sleep tabreyde,                               520
  And to Pandare, his owene brother dere,
  'For love of god,' ful pitously he seyde,
  'As go we seen the paleys of Criseyde;
  For sin we yet may have namore feste,
  So lat us seen hir paleys at the leste.'                              525

  76. And ther-with-al, his meyne for to blende,
  A cause he fond in toune for to go,
  And to Criseydes hous they gonnen wende.
  But lord! this sely Troilus was wo!
  Him thoughte his sorweful herte braste a-two.                         530
  For whan he saugh hir dores sperred alle,
  Wel neigh for sorwe a-doun he gan to falle.

  77. Therwith whan he was war and gan biholde
  How shet was every windowe of the place,
  As frost, him thoughte, his herte gan to colde;                       535
  For which with chaunged deedlich pale face,
  With-outen word, he forth bigan to pace;
  And, as god wolde, he gan so faste ryde,
  That no wight of his contenaunce aspyde.

  78. Than seyde he thus, 'O paleys desolat,                            540
  O hous, of houses whylom best y-hight,
  O paleys empty and disconsolat,
  O thou lanterne, of which queynt is the light,
  O paleys, whylom day, that now art night,
  Wel oughtestow to falle, and I to dye,                                545
  Sin she is went that wont was us to gye!

  79. O paleys, whylom croune of houses alle,
  Enlumined with sonne of alle blisse!
  O ring, fro which the ruby is out-falle,
  O cause of wo, that cause hast been of lisse!                         550
  Yet, sin I may no bet, fayn wolde I kisse
  Thy colde dores, dorste I for this route;
  And fare-wel shryne, of which the seynt is oute!'

  80. Ther-with he caste on Pandarus his yë
  With chaunged face, and pitous to biholde;                            555
  And whan he mighte his tyme aright aspye,
  Ay as he rood, to Pandarus he tolde
  His newe sorwe, and eek his Ioyes olde,
  So pitously and with so dede an hewe,
  That every wight mighte on his sorwe rewe.                            560

  81. Fro thennesforth he rydeth up and doun,
  And every thing com him to remembraunce
  As he rood forth by places of the toun
  In whiche he whylom hadde al his plesaunce.
  'Lo, yond saugh I myn owene lady daunce;                              565
  And in that temple, with hir eyen clere,
  Me caughte first my righte lady dere.

  82. And yonder have I herd ful lustily
  My dere herte laughe, and yonder pleye
  Saugh I hir ones eek ful blisfully.                                   570
  And yonder ones to me gan she seye,
  "Now goode swete, love me wel, I preye."
  And yond so goodly gan she me biholde,
  That to the deeth myn herte is to hir holde.

  83. And at that corner, in the yonder hous,                           575
  Herde I myn alderlevest lady dere
  So wommanly, with voys melodious,
  Singen so wel, so goodly, and so clere,
  That in my soule yet me thinketh I here
  The blisful soun; and, in that yonder place,                          580
  My lady first me took un-to hir grace.'

  84. Thanne thoughte he thus, 'O blisful lord Cupyde,
  Whanne I the proces have in my memorie,
  How thou me hast werreyed on every syde,
  Men mighte a book make of it, lyk a storie.                           585
  What nede is thee to seke on me victorie,
  Sin I am thyn, and hoolly at thy wille?
  What Ioye hastow thyn owene folk to spille?

  85. Wel hastow, lord, y-wroke on me thyn ire,
  Thou mighty god, and dredful for to greve!                            590
  Now mercy, lord, thou wost wel I desire
  Thy grace most, of alle lustes leve.
  And live and deye I wol in thy bileve;
  For which I naxe in guerdon but a bone,
  That thou Criseyde ayein me sende sone.                               595

  86. Distreyne hir herte as faste to retorne
  As thou dost myn to longen hir to see;
  Than woot I wel, that she nil not soiorne.
  Now, blisful lord, so cruel thou ne be
  Un-to the blood of Troye, I preye thee,                               600
  As Iuno was un-to the blood Thebane,
  For which the folk of Thebes caughte hir bane.'

  87. And after this he to the yates wente
  Ther-as Criseyde out-rood a ful good paas,
  And up and doun ther made he many a wente,                            605
  And to him-self ful ofte he seyde 'allas!
  From hennes rood my blisse and my solas!
  As wolde blisful god now, for his Ioye,
  I mighte hir seen ayein come in-to Troye.

  88. And to the yonder hille I gan hir gyde,                           610
  Allas! and there I took of hir my leve!
  And yond I saugh hir to hir fader ryde,
  For sorwe of which myn herte shal to-cleve.
  And hider hoom I com whan it was eve;
  And here I dwelle out-cast from alle Ioye,                            615
  And shal, til I may seen hir eft in Troye.'

  89. And of him-self imagined he ofte
  To ben defet, and pale, and waxen lesse
  Than he was wont, and that men seyde softe,
  'What may it be? who can the sothe gesse                              620
  Why Troilus hath al this hevinesse?'
  And al this nas but his malencolye,
  That he hadde of him-self swich fantasye.

  90. Another tyme imaginen he wolde
  That every wight that wente by the weye                               625
  Had of him routhe, and that they seyen sholde,
  'I am right sory Troilus wol deye.'
  And thus he droof a day yet forth or tweye.
  As ye have herd, swich lyf right gan he lede,
  As he that stood bitwixen hope and drede.                             630

  91. For which him lyked in his songes shewe
  Thencheson of his wo, as he best mighte,
  And make a song of wordes but a fewe,
  Somwhat his woful herte for to lighte.
  And whan he was from every mannes sighte,                             635
  With softe voys he, of his lady dere,
  That was absent, gan singe as ye may here.

  92. 'O sterre, of which I lost have al the light,
  With herte soor wel oughte I to bewayle,
  That ever derk in torment, night by night,                            640
  Toward my deeth with wind in stere I sayle;
  For which the tenthe night if that I fayle
  The gyding of thy bemes brighte an houre,
  My ship and me Caribdis wol devoure.'

  93. This song when he thus songen hadde, sone                         645
  He fil ayein in-to his sykes olde;
  And every night, as was his wone to done,
  He stood the brighte mone to beholde,
  And al his sorwe he to the mone tolde;
  And seyde, 'y-wis, whan thou art horned newe,                         650
  I shal be glad, if al the world be trewe!

  94. I saugh thyn hornes olde eek by the morwe,
  Whan hennes rood my righte lady dere,
  That cause is of my torment and my sorwe;
  For whiche, O brighte Lucina the clere,                               655
  For love of god, ren faste aboute thy spere!
  For whan thyn hornes newe ginne springe,
  Than shal she come, that may my blisse bringe!'

  95. The day is more, and lenger every night,
  Than they be wont to be, him thoughte tho;                            660
  And that the sonne wente his course unright
  By lenger wey than it was wont to go;
  And seyde, 'y-wis, me dredeth ever-mo,
  The sonnes sone, Pheton, be on-lyve,
  And that his fadres cart amis he dryve.'                              665

  96. Upon the walles faste eek wolde he walke,
  And on the Grekes ost he wolde see,
  And to him-self right thus he wolde talke,
  'Lo, yonder is myn owene lady free,
  Or elles yonder, ther tho tentes be!                                  670
  And thennes comth this eyr, that is so sote,
  That in my soule I fele it doth me bote.

  97. And hardely this wind, that more and more
  Thus stoundemele encreseth in my face,
  Is of my ladyes depe sykes sore.                                      675
  I preve it thus, for in non othere place
  Of al this toun, save onliche in this space,
  Fele I no wind that souneth so lyk peyne;
  It seyth, "allas! why twinned be we tweyne?"'

  98. This longe tyme he dryveth forth right thus,                      680
  Til fully passed was the nynthe night;
  And ay bi-syde him was this Pandarus,
  That bisily dide alle his fulle might
  Him to comforte, and make his herte light;
  Yevinge him hope alwey, the tenthe morwe                              685
  That she shal come, and stinten al his sorwe.

  99. Up-on that other syde eek was Criseyde,
  With wommen fewe, among the Grekes stronge;
  For which ful ofte a day 'allas!' she seyde,
  'That I was born! Wel may myn herte longe                             690
  After my deeth; for now live I to longe!
  Allas! and I ne may it not amende;
  For now is wors than ever yet I wende.

  100. My fader nil for no-thing do me grace
  To goon ayein, for nought I can him queme;                            695
  And if so be that I my terme passe,
  My Troilus shal in his herte deme
  That I am fals, and so it may wel seme.
  Thus shal I have unthank on every syde;
  That I was born, so weylawey the tyde!                                700

  101. And if that I me putte in Iupartye,
  To stele awey by nighte, and it bifalle
  That I be caught, I shal be holde a spye;
  Or elles, lo, this drede I most of alle,
  If in the hondes of som wrecche I falle,                              705
  I am but lost, al be myn herte trewe;
  Now mighty god, thou on my sorwe rewe!'

  102. Ful pale y-waxen was hir brighte face,
  Hir limes lene, as she that al the day
  Stood whan she dorste, and loked on the place                         710
  Ther she was born, and ther she dwelt hadde ay.
  And al the night wepinge, allas! she lay.
  And thus despeired, out of alle cure,
  She ladde hir lyf, this woful creature.

  103. Ful ofte a day she sighte eek for destresse,                     715
  And in hir-self she wente ay portrayinge
  Of Troilus the grete worthinesse,
  And alle his goodly wordes recordinge
  Sin first that day hir love bigan to springe.
  And thus she sette hir woful herte a-fyre                             720
  Thorugh remembraunce of that she gan desyre.

  104. In al this world ther nis so cruel herte
  That hir hadde herd compleynen in hir sorwe,
  That nolde han wopen for hir peynes smerte,
  So tendrely she weep, bothe eve and morwe.                            725
  Hir nedede no teres for to borwe.
  And this was yet the worste of al hir peyne,
  Ther was no wight to whom she dorste hir pleyne.

  105. Ful rewfully she loked up-on Troye,
  Biheld the toures heighe and eek the halles;                          730
  'Allas!' quod she, 'the plesaunce and the Ioye
  The whiche that now al torned in-to galle is,
  Have I had ofte with-inne yonder walles!
  O Troilus, what dostow now,' she seyde;
  'Lord! whether yet thou thenke up-on Criseyde?                        735

  106. Allas! I ne hadde trowed on your lore,
  And went with yow, as ye me radde er this!
  Thanne hadde I now not syked half so sore.
  Who mighte have seyd, that I had doon a-mis
  To stele awey with swich on as he is?                                 740
  But al to late cometh the letuarie,
  Whan men the cors un-to the grave carie.

  107. To late is now to speke of this matere;
  Prudence, allas! oon of thyn eyen three
  Me lakked alwey, er that I cam here;                                  745
  On tyme y-passed, wel remembred me;
  And present tyme eek coude I wel y-see.
  But futur tyme, er I was in the snare,
  Coude I not seen; that causeth now my care.

  108. But natheles, bityde what bityde,                                750
  I shal to-morwe at night, by est or weste,
  Out of this ost stele on som maner syde,
  And go with Troilus wher-as him leste.
  This purpos wol I holde, and this is beste.
  No fors of wikked tonges Ianglerye,                                   755
  For ever on love han wrecches had envye.

  109. For who-so wole of every word take hede,
  Or rewlen him by every wightes wit,
  Ne shal he never thryven, out of drede.
  For that that som men blamen ever yit,                                760
  Lo, other maner folk commenden it.
  And as for me, for al swich variaunce,
  Felicitee clepe I my suffisaunce.

  110. For which, with-outen any wordes mo,
  To Troye I wol, as for conclusioun.'                                  765
  But god it wot, er fully monthes two,
  She was ful fer fro that entencioun.
  For bothe Troilus and Troye toun
  Shal knotteles through-out hir herte slyde;
  For she wol take a purpos for tabyde.                                 770

  111. This Diomede, of whom yow telle I gan,
  Goth now, with-inne him-self ay arguinge
  With al the sleighte and al that ever he can,
  How he may best, with shortest taryinge,
  In-to his net Criseydes herte bringe.                                 775
  To this entente he coude never fyne;
  To fisshen hir, he leyde out hook and lyne.

  112. But natheles, wel in his herte he thoughte,
  That she nas nat with-oute a love in Troye.
  For never, sithen he hir thennes broughte,                            780
  Ne coude he seen her laughe or make Ioye.
  He niste how best hir herte for tacoye.
  'But for to assaye,' he seyde, 'it nought ne greveth;
  For he that nought nassayeth, nought nacheveth.'

  113. Yet seide he to him-self upon a night,                           785
  'Now am I not a fool, that woot wel how
  Hir wo for love is of another wight,
  And here-up-on to goon assaye hir now?
  I may wel wite, it nil not been my prow.
  For wyse folk in bokes it expresse,                                   790
  "Men shal not wowe a wight in hevinesse."

  114. But who-so mighte winnen swich a flour
  From him, for whom she morneth night and day,
  He mighte seyn, he were a conquerour.'
  And right anoon, as he that bold was ay,                              795
  Thoughte in his herte, 'happe, how happe may,
  Al sholde I deye, I wole hir herte seche;
  I shal no more lesen but my speche.'

  115. This Diomede, as bokes us declare,
  Was in his nedes prest and corageous;                                 800
  With sterne voys and mighty limes square,
  Hardy, testif, strong, and chevalrous
  Of dedes, lyk his fader Tideus.
  And som men seyn, he was of tunge large;
  And heir he was of Calidoine and Arge.                                805

  116. Criseyde mene was of hir stature,
  Ther-to of shap, of face, and eek of chere,
  Ther mighte been no fairer creature.
  And ofte tyme this was hir manere,
  To gon y-tressed with hir heres clere                                 810
  Doun by hir coler at hir bak bihinde,
  Which with a threde of gold she wolde binde.

  117. And, save hir browes ioyneden y-fere,
  Ther nas no lak, in ought I can espyen;
  But for to speken of hir eyen clere,                                  815
  Lo, trewely, they writen that hir syen,
  That Paradys stood formed in hir yën.
  And with hir riche beautee ever-more
  Strof love in hir, ay which of hem was more.

  118. She sobre was, eek simple, and wys with-al,                      820
  The beste y-norisshed eek that mighte be,
  And goodly of hir speche in general,
  Charitable, estatliche, lusty, and free;
  Ne never-mo ne lakkede hir pitee;
  Tendre-herted, slydinge of corage;                                    825
  But trewely, I can not telle hir age.

  119. And Troilus wel waxen was in highte,
  And complet formed by proporcioun
  So wel, that kinde it not amenden mighte;
  Yong, fresshe, strong, and hardy as lyoun;                            830
  Trewe as steel in ech condicioun;
  On of the beste enteched creature,
  That is, or shal, whyl that the world may dure.

  120. And certainly in storie it is y-founde,
  That Troilus was never un-to no wight,                                835
  As in his tyme, in no degree secounde
  In durring don that longeth to a knight.
  Al mighte a geaunt passen him of might,
  His herte ay with the firste and with the beste
  Stod paregal, to durre don that him leste.                            840

  121. But for to tellen forth of Diomede:--
  It fil that after, on the tenthe day,
  Sin that Criseyde out of the citee yede,
  This Diomede, as fresshe as braunche in May,
  Com to the tente ther-as Calkas lay,                                  845
  And feyned him with Calkas han to done;
  But what he mente, I shal yow telle sone.

  122. Criseyde, at shorte wordes for to telle,
  Welcomed him, and doun by hir him sette;
  And he was ethe y-nough to maken dwelle.                              850
  And after this, with-outen longe lette,
  The spyces and the wyn men forth hem fette;
  And forth they speke of this and that y-fere,
  As freendes doon, of which som shal ye here.

  123. He gan first fallen of the werre in speche                       855
  Bitwixe hem and the folk of Troye toun;
  And of thassege he gan hir eek byseche,
  To telle him what was hir opinioun.
  Fro that demaunde he so descendeth doun
  To asken hir, if that hir straunge thoughte                           860
  The Grekes gyse, and werkes that they wroughte?

  124. And why hir fader tarieth so longe
  To wedden hir un-to som worthy wight?
  Criseyde, that was in hir peynes stronge
  For love of Troilus, hir owene knight,                                865
  As fer-forth as she conning hadde or might,
  Answerde him tho; but, as of his entente,
  It semed not she wiste what he mente.

  125. But natheles, this ilke Diomede
  Gan in him-self assure, and thus he seyde,                            870
  'If ich aright have taken of yow hede,
  Me thinketh thus, O lady myn, Criseyde,
  That sin I first hond on your brydel leyde,
  Whan ye out come of Troye by the morwe,
  Ne coude I never seen yow but in sorwe.                               875

  126. Can I not seyn what may the cause be
  But-if for love of som Troyan it were,
  The which right sore wolde athinken me
  That ye, for any wight that dwelleth there,
  Sholden spille a quarter of a tere,                                   880
  Or pitously your-selven so bigyle;
  For dredelees, it is nought worth the whyle.

  127. The folk of Troye, as who seyth, alle and some
  In preson been, as ye your-selven see;
  For thennes shal not oon on-lyve come                                 885
  For al the gold bitwixen sonne and see.
  Trusteth wel, and understondeth me,
  Ther shal not oon to mercy goon on-lyve,
  Al were he lord of worldes twyës fyve!

  128. Swich wreche on hem, for fecching of Eleyne,                     890
  Ther shal be take, er that we hennes wende,
  That Manes, which that goddes ben of peyne,
  Shal been agast that Grekes wol hem shende.
  And men shul drede, un-to the worldes ende,
  From hennes-forth to ravisshe any quene,                              895
  So cruel shal our wreche on hem be sene.

  129. And but-if Calkas lede us with ambages,
  That is to seyn, with double wordes slye,
  Swich as men clepe a "word with two visages,"
  Ye shul wel knowen that I nought ne lye,                              900
  And al this thing right seen it with your yë,
  And that anoon; ye nil not trowe how sone;
  Now taketh heed, for it is for to done.

  130. What wene ye your wyse fader wolde
  Han yeven Antenor for yow anoon,                                      905
  If he ne wiste that the citee sholde
  Destroyed been? Why, nay, so mote I goon!
  He knew ful wel ther shal not scapen oon
  That Troyan is; and for the grete fere,
  He dorste not, ye dwelte lenger there.                                910

  131. What wole ye more, lufsom lady dere?
  Lat Troye and Troyan fro your herte pace!
  Dryf out that bittre hope, and make good chere,
  And clepe ayein the beautee of your face,
  That ye with salte teres so deface.                                   915
  For Troye is brought in swich a Iupartye,
  That, it to save, is now no remedye.

  132. And thenketh wel, ye shal in Grekes finde,
  A more parfit love, er it be night,
  Than any Troyan is, and more kinde,                                   920
  And bet to serven yow wol doon his might.
  And if ye vouche sauf, my lady bright,
  I wol ben he to serven yow my-selve,
  Ye, lever than be lord of Greces twelve!'

  133. And with that word he gan to waxen reed,                         925
  And in his speche a litel wight he quook,
  And caste a-syde a litel wight his heed,
  And stinte a whyle; and afterward awook,
  And sobreliche on hir he threw his look,
  And seyde, 'I am, al be it yow no Ioye,                               930
  As gentil man as any wight in Troye.

  134. For if my fader Tydeus,' he seyde,
  'Y-lived hadde, I hadde been, er this,
  Of Calidoine and Arge a king, Criseyde!
  And so hope I that I shal yet, y-wis.                                 935
  But he was slayn, allas! the more harm is,
  Unhappily at Thebes al to rathe,
  Polymites and many a man to scathe.

  135. But herte myn, sin that I am your man,
  And been the ferste of whom I seche grace,                            940
  To serven you as hertely as I can,
  And ever shal, whyl I to live have space,
  So, er that I departe out of this place,
  Ye wol me graunte, that I may to-morwe,
  At bettre leyser, telle yow my sorwe.'                                945

  136. What shold I telle his wordes that he seyde?
  He spak y-now, for o day at the meste;
  It preveth wel, he spak so that Criseyde
  Graunted, on the morwe, at his requeste,
  For to speken with him at the leste,                                  950
  So that he nolde speke of swich matere;
  And thus to him she seyde, as ye may here:

  137. As she that hadde hir herte on Troilus
  So faste, that ther may it noon arace;
  And straungely she spak, and seyde thus:                              955
  'O Diomede, I love that ilke place
  Ther I was born; and Ioves, for his grace,
  Delivere it sone of al that doth it care!
  God, for thy might, so leve it wel to fare!

  138. That Grekes wolde hir wraththe on Troye wreke,                   960
  If that they mighte, I knowe it wel, y-wis.
  But it shal not bifallen as ye speke;
  And god to-forn, and ferther over this,
  I wot my fader wys and redy is;
  And that he me hath bought, as ye me tolde,                           965
  So dere, I am the more un-to him holde.

  139. That Grekes been of heigh condicioun,
  I woot eek wel; but certein, men shal finde
  As worthy folk with-inne Troye toun,
  As conning, and as parfit and as kinde,                               970
  As been bitwixen Orcades and Inde.
  And that ye coude wel your lady serve,
  I trowe eek wel, hir thank for to deserve.

  140. But as to speke of love, y-wis,' she seyde,
  'I hadde a lord, to whom I wedded was,                                975
  The whos myn herte al was, til that he deyde;
  And other love, as helpe me now Pallas,
  Ther in myn herte nis, ne never was.
  And that ye been of noble and heigh kinrede,
  I have wel herd it tellen, out of drede.                              980

  141. And that doth me to han so gret a wonder,
  That ye wol scornen any womman so.
  Eek, god wot, love and I be fer a-sonder;
  I am disposed bet, so mote I go,
  Un-to my deeth, to pleyne and maken wo.                               985
  What I shal after doon, I can not seye;
  But trewely, as yet me list not pleye.

  142. Myn herte is now in tribulacioun,
  And ye in armes bisy, day by day.
  Here-after, whan ye wonnen han the toun,                              990
  Paraunter, thanne so it happen may,
  That whan I see that I never er say,
  Than wole I werke that I never wroughte!
  This word to yow y-nough suffysen oughte.

  143. To-morwe eek wol I speke with yow fayn,                          995
  So that ye touchen nought of this matere.
  And whan yow list, ye may come here ayeyn;
  And, er ye gon, thus muche I seye yow here:
  As helpe me Pallas with hir heres clere,
  If that I sholde of any Greek han routhe,                            1000
  It sholde be your-selven, by my trouthe!

  144. I sey not therfore that I wol yow love,
  Ne I sey not nay, but in conclusioun,
  I mene wel, by god that sit above:'--
  And ther-with-al she caste hir eyen doun,                            1005
  And gan to syke, and seyde, 'O Troye toun,
  Yet bidde I god, in quiete and in reste
  I may yow seen, or do myn herte breste.'

  145. But in effect, and shortly for to seye,
  This Diomede al freshly newe ayeyn                                   1010
  Gan pressen on, and faste hir mercy preye;
  And after this, the sothe for to seyn,
  Hir glove he took, of which he was ful fayn.
  And fynally, whan it was waxen eve,
  And al was wel, he roos and took his leve.                           1015

  146. The brighte Venus folwede and ay taughte
  The wey, ther brode Phebus doun alighte;
  And Cynthea hir char-hors over-raughte
  To whirle out of the Lyon, if she mighte;
  And Signifer his candeles shewed brighte,                            1020
  Whan that Criseyde un-to hir bedde wente
  In-with hir fadres faire brighte tente.

  147. Retorning in hir soule ay up and doun
  The wordes of this sodein Diomede,
  His greet estat, and peril of the toun,                              1025
  And that she was allone and hadde nede
  Of freendes help; and thus bigan to brede
  The cause why, the sothe for to telle,
  That she tok fully purpos for to dwelle.

  148. The morwe com, and goostly for to speke,                        1030
  This Diomede is come un-to Criseyde,
  And shortly, lest that ye my tale breke,
  So wel he for him-selve spak and seyde,
  That alle hir sykes sore adoun he leyde.
  And fynally, the sothe for to seyne,                                 1035
  He refte hir of the grete of al hir peyne.

  149. And after this the story telleth us,
  That she him yaf the faire baye stede,
  The which he ones wan of Troilus;
  And eek a broche (and that was litel nede)                           1040
  That Troilus was, she yaf this Diomede.
  And eek, the bet from sorwe him to releve,
  She made him were a pencel of hir sleve.

  150. I finde eek in the stories elles-where,
  Whan through the body hurt was Diomede                               1045
  Of Troilus, tho weep she many a tere,
  Whan that she saugh his wyde woundes blede;
  And that she took to kepen him good hede,
  And for to hele him of his sorwes smerte.
  Men seyn, I not, that she yaf him hir herte.                         1050

  151. But trewely, the story telleth us,
  Ther made never womman more wo
  Than she, whan that she falsed Troilus.
  She seyde, 'allas! for now is clene a-go
  My name of trouthe in love, for ever-mo!                             1055
  For I have falsed oon, the gentileste
  That ever was, and oon the worthieste!

  152. Allas, of me, un-to the worldes ende,
  Shal neither been y-writen nor y-songe
  No good word, for thise bokes wol me shende.                         1060
  O, rolled shal I been on many a tonge;
  Through-out the world my belle shal be ronge;
  And wommen most wol hate me of alle.
  Allas, that swich a cas me sholde falle!

  153. They wol seyn, in as muche as in me is,                         1065
  I have hem don dishonour, weylawey!
  Al be I not the firste that dide amis,
  What helpeth that to do my blame awey?
  But sin I see there is no bettre way,
  And that to late is now for me to rewe,                              1070
  To Diomede algate I wol be trewe.

  154. But Troilus, sin I no better may,
  And sin that thus departen ye and I,
  Yet preye I god, so yeve yow right good day
  As for the gentileste, trewely,                                      1075
  That ever I say, to serven feithfully,
  And best can ay his lady honour kepe:'--
  And with that word she brast anon to wepe.

  155. 'And certes, yow ne haten shal I never,
  And freendes love, that shal ye han of me,                           1080
  And my good word, al mighte I liven ever.
  And, trewely, I wolde sory be
  For to seen yow in adversitee.
  And giltelees, I woot wel, I yow leve;
  But al shal passe; and thus take I my leve.'                         1085

  156. But trewely, how longe it was bitwene,
  That she for-sook him for this Diomede,
  Ther is non auctor telleth it, I wene.
  Take every man now to his bokes hede;
  He shal no terme finden, out of drede.                               1090
  For though that he bigan to wowe hir sone,
  Er he hir wan, yet was ther more to done.

  157. Ne me ne list this sely womman chyde
  Ferther than the story wol devyse.
  Hir name, allas! is publisshed so wyde,                              1095
  That for hir gilt it oughte y-now suffyse.
  And if I mighte excuse hir any wyse,
  For she so sory was for hir untrouthe,
  Y-wis, I wolde excuse hir yet for routhe.

  158. This Troilus, as I biforn have told,                            1100
  Thus dryveth forth, as wel as he hath might.
  But often was his herte hoot and cold,
  And namely, that ilke nynthe night,
  Which on the morwe she hadde him byhight
  To come ayein: god wot, ful litel reste                              1105
  Hadde he that night; no-thing to slepe him leste.

  159. The laurer-crouned Phebus, with his hete,
  Gan, in his course ay upward as he wente,
  To warmen of the est see the wawes wete;
  And Nisus doughter song with fresh entente,                          1110
  Whan Troilus his Pandare after sente;
  And on the walles of the toun they pleyde,
  To loke if they can seen ought of Criseyde.

  160. Til it was noon, they stoden for to see
  Who that ther come; and every maner wight,                           1115
  That cam fro fer, they seyden it was she,
  Til that they coude knowen him a-right.
  Now was his herte dul, now was it light;
  And thus by-iaped stonden for to stare
  Aboute nought, this Troilus and Pandare.                             1120

  161. To Pandarus this Troilus tho seyde,
  'For ought I wot, bi-for noon, sikerly,
  In-to this toun ne comth nought here Criseyde.
  She hath y-now to done, hardily,
  To winnen from hir fader, so trowe I;                                1125
  Hir olde fader wol yet make hir dyne
  Er that she go; god yeve his herte pyne!'

  162. Pandare answerde, 'it may wel be, certeyn;
  And for-thy lat us dyne, I thee biseche;
  And after noon than mayst thou come ayeyn.'                          1130
  And hoom they go, with-oute more speche;
  And comen ayein, but longe may they seche
  Er that they finde that they after cape;
  Fortune hem bothe thenketh for to Iape.

  163. Quod Troilus, 'I see wel now, that she                          1135
  Is taried with hir olde fader so,
  That er she come, it wol neigh even be.
  Com forth, I wol un-to the yate go.
  Thise portours been unkonninge ever-mo;
  And I wol doon hem holden up the yate                                1140
  As nought ne were, al-though she come late.'

  164. The day goth faste, and after that comth eve,
  And yet com nought to Troilus Criseyde.
  He loketh forth by hegge, by tree, by greve,
  And fer his heed over the wal he leyde.                              1145
  And at the laste he torned him, and seyde,
  'By god, I woot hir mening now, Pandare!
  Al-most, y-wis, al newe was my care.

  165. Now douteles, this lady can hir good;
  I woot, she meneth ryden prively.                                    1150
  I comende hir wysdom, by myn hood!
  She wol not maken peple nycely
  Gaure on hir, whan she comth; but softely
  By nighte in-to the toun she thenketh ryde.
  And, dere brother, thenk not longe to abyde.                         1155

  166. We han nought elles for to don, y-wis.
  And Pandarus, now woltow trowen me?
  Have here my trouthe, I see hir! yond she is.
  Heve up thyn eyen, man! maystow not see?'
  Pandare answerde, 'nay, so mote I thee!                              1160
  Al wrong, by god; what seystow, man, wher art?
  That I see yond nis but a fare-cart.'

  167. 'Allas, thou seist right sooth,' quod Troilus;
  'But hardely, it is not al for nought
  That in myn herte I now reioyse thus.                                1165
  It is ayein som good I have a thought.
  Noot I not how, but sin that I was wrought,
  Ne felte I swich a confort, dar I seye;
  She comth to-night, my lyf, that dorste I leye!'

  168. Pandare answerde, 'it may be wel, y-nough';                     1170
  And held with him of al that ever he seyde;
  But in his herte he thoughte, and softe lough,
  And to him-self ful sobrely he seyde:
  'From hasel-wode, ther Ioly Robin pleyde,
  Shal come al that that thou abydest here;                            1175
  Ye, fare-wel al the snow of ferne yere!'

  169. The wardein of the yates gan to calle
  The folk which that with-oute the yates were,
  And bad hem dryven in hir bestes alle,
  Or al the night they moste bleven there.                             1180
  And fer with-in the night, with many a tere,
  This Troilus gan hoomward for to ryde;
  For wel he seeth it helpeth nought tabyde.

  170. But natheles, he gladded him in this;
  He thoughte he misacounted hadde his day,                            1185
  And seyde, 'I understonde have al a-mis.
  For thilke night I last Criseyde say,
  She seyde, "I shal ben here, if that I may,
  Er that the mone, O dere herte swete!
  The Lyon passe, out of this Ariete."                                 1190

  171. For which she may yet holde al hir biheste.'
  And on the morwe un-to the yate he wente,
  And up and down, by west and eek by este,
  Up-on the walles made he many a wente.
  But al for nought; his hope alwey him blente;                        1195
  For which at night, in sorwe and sykes sore
  He wente him hoom, with-outen any more.

  172. This hope al clene out of his herte fledde,
  He nath wher-on now lenger for to honge;
  But for the peyne him thoughte his herte bledde,                     1200
  So were his throwes sharpe and wonder stronge.
  For when he saugh that she abood so longe,
  He niste what he iuggen of it mighte,
  Sin she hath broken that she him bihighte.

  173. The thridde, ferthe, fifte, sixte day                           1205
  After tho dayes ten, of which I tolde,
  Bitwixen hope and drede his herte lay,
  Yet som-what trustinge on hir hestes olde.
  But whan he saugh she nolde hir terme holde,
  He can now seen non other remedye,                                   1210
  But for to shape him sone for to dye.

  174. Ther-with the wikked spirit, god us blesse,
  Which that men clepeth wode Ialousye,
  Gan in him crepe, in al this hevinesse;
  For which, by-cause he wolde sone dye,                               1215
  He ne eet ne dronk, for his malencolye,
  And eek from every companye he fledde;
  This was the lyf that al the tyme he ledde.

  175. He so defet was, that no maner man
  Unnethe mighte him knowe ther he wente;                              1220
  So was he lene, and ther-to pale and wan,
  And feble, that he walketh by potente;
  And with his ire he thus him-selven shente.
  And who-so axed him wher-of him smerte,
  He seyde, his harm was al aboute his herte.                          1225

  176. Pryam ful ofte, and eek his moder dere,
  His bretheren and his sustren gonne him freyne
  Why he so sorwful was in al his chere,
  And what thing was the cause of al his peyne?
  But al for nought; he nolde his cause pleyne,                        1230
  But seyde, he felte a grevous maladye
  A-boute his herte, and fayn he wolde dye.

  177. So on a day he leyde him doun to slepe,
  And so bifel that in his sleep him thoughte,
  That in a forest faste he welk to wepe                               1235
  For love of hir that him these peynes wroughte;
  And up and doun as he the forest soughte,
  He mette he saugh a boor with tuskes grete,
  That sleep ayein the brighte sonnes hete.

  178. And by this boor, faste in his armes folde,                     1240
  Lay kissing ay his lady bright Criseyde:
  For sorwe of which, whan he it gan biholde,
  And for despyt, out of his slepe he breyde,
  And loude he cryde on Pandarus, and seyde,
  'O Pandarus, now knowe I crop and rote!                              1245
  I nam but deed, ther nis non other bote!

  179. My lady bright Criseyde hath me bitrayed,
  In whom I trusted most of any wight,
  She elles-where hath now hir herte apayed;
  The blisful goddes, through hir grete might,                         1250
  Han in my dreem y-shewed it ful right.
  Thus in my dreem Criseyde I have biholde'--
  And al this thing to Pandarus he tolde.

  180. 'O my Criseyde, allas! what subtiltee,
  What newe lust, what beautee, what science,                          1255
  What wratthe of iuste cause have ye to me?
  What gilt of me, whal fel experience
  Hath fro me raft, allas! thyn advertence?
  O trust, O feyth, O depe asëuraunce,
  Who hath me reft Criseyde, al my plesaunce?                          1260

  181. Allas! why leet I you from hennes go,
  For which wel neigh out of my wit I breyde?
  Who shal now trowe on any othes mo?
  God wot I wende, O lady bright, Criseyde,
  That every word was gospel that ye seyde!                            1265
  But who may bet bigylen, if him liste,
  Than he on whom men weneth best to triste?

  182. What shal I doon, my Pandarus, allas!
  I fele now so sharpe a newe peyne,
  Sin that ther is no remedie in this cas,                             1270
  That bet were it I with myn hondes tweyne
  My-selven slow, than alwey thus to pleyne.
  For through my deeth my wo sholde han an ende,
  Ther every day with lyf my-self I shende.'

  183. Pandare answerde and seyde, 'allas the whyle                    1275
  That I was born; have I not seyd er this,
  That dremes many a maner man bigyle?
  And why? for folk expounden hem a-mis.
  How darstow seyn that fals thy lady is,
  For any dreem, right for thyn owene drede?                           1280
  Lat be this thought, thou canst no dremes rede.

  184. Paraunter, ther thou dremest of this boor,
  It may so be that it may signifye
  Hir fader, which that old is and eek hoor,
  Ayein the sonne lyth, on poynt to dye,                               1285
  And she for sorwe ginneth wepe and crye,
  And kisseth him, ther he lyth on the grounde;
  Thus shuldestow thy dreem a-right expounde.'

  185. 'How mighte I thanne do?' quod Troilus,
  'To knowe of this, ye, were it never so lyte?'                       1290
  'Now seystow wysly,' quod this Pandarus,
  'My reed is this, sin thou canst wel endyte,
  That hastely a lettre thou hir wryte,
  Thorugh which thou shalt wel bringen it aboute,
  To knowe a sooth of that thou art in doute.                          1295

  186. And see now why; for this I dar wel seyn,
  That if so is that she untrewe be,
  I can not trowe that she wol wryte ayeyn.
  And if she wryte, thou shalt ful sone see,
  As whether she hath any libertee                                     1300
  To come ayein, or elles in som clause,
  If she be let, she wol assigne a cause.

  187. Thou hast not writen hir sin that she wente,
  Nor she to thee, and this I dorste leye,
  Ther may swich cause been in hir entente,                            1305
  That hardely thou wolt thy-selven seye,
  That hir a-bood the beste is for yow tweye.
  Now wryte hir thanne, and thou shalt fele sone
  A sothe of al; ther is no more to done.'

  188. Acorded been to this conclusioun,                               1310
  And that anoon, these ilke lordes two;
  And hastely sit Troilus adoun,
  And rolleth in his herte to and fro,
  How he may best discryven hir his wo.
  And to Criseyde, his owene lady dere,                                1315
  He wroot right thus, and seyde as ye may here.

  189. 'Right fresshe flour, whos I have been and shal,
  With-outen part of elles-where servyse,
  With herte, body, lyf, lust, thought, and al;
  I, woful wight, in every humble wyse                                 1320
  That tonge telle or herte may devyse,
  As ofte as matere occupyeth place,
  Me recomaunde un-to your noble grace.

  190. Lyketh it yow to witen, swete herte,
  As ye wel knowe how longe tyme agoon                                 1325
  That ye me lafte in aspre peynes smerte,
  Whan that ye wente, of which yet bote noon
  Have I non had, but ever wers bigoon
  Fro day to day am I, and so mot dwelle,
  While it yow list, of wele and wo my welle!                          1330

  191. For which to yow, with dredful herte trewe,
  I wryte, as he that sorwe dryfth to wryte,
  My wo, that every houre encreseth newe,
  Compleyninge as I dar or can endyte.
  And that defaced is, that may ye wyte                                1335
  The teres, which that fro myn eyen reyne,
  That wolde speke, if that they coude, and pleyne.

  192. Yow first biseche I, that your eyen clere
  To look on this defouled ye not holde;
  And over al this, that ye, my lady dere,                             1340
  Wol vouche-sauf this lettre to biholde.
  And by the cause eek of my cares colde,
  That sleeth my wit, if ought amis me asterte,
  For-yeve it me, myn owene swete herte.

  193. If any servant dorste or oughte of right                        1345
  Up-on his lady pitously compleyne,
  Than wene I, that ich oughte be that wight,
  Considered this, that ye these monthes tweyne
  Han taried, ther ye seyden, sooth to seyne,
  But dayes ten ye nolde in ost soiourne,                              1350
  But in two monthes yet ye not retourne.

  194. But for-as-muche as me mot nedes lyke
  Al that yow list, I dar not pleyne more,
  But humbely with sorwful sykes syke;
  Yow wryte ich myn unresty sorwes sore,                               1355
  Fro day to day desyring ever-more
  To knowen fully, if your wil it were,
  How ye han ferd and doon, whyl ye be there.

  195. The whos wel-fare and hele eek god encresse
  In honour swich, that upward in degree                               1360
  It growe alwey, so that it never cesse;
  Right as your herte ay can, my lady free,
  Devyse, I prey to god so mote it be.
  And graunte it that ye sone up-on me rewe
  As wisly as in al I am yow trewe.                                    1365

  196. And if yow lyketh knowen of the fare
  Of me, whos wo ther may no wight discryve,
  I can no more but, cheste of every care,
  At wrytinge of this lettre I was on-lyve,
  Al redy out my woful gost to dryve;                                  1370
  Which I delaye, and holde him yet in honde,
  Upon the sight of matere of your sonde.

  197. Myn eyen two, in veyn with which I see,
  Of sorweful teres salte arn waxen welles;
  My song, in pleynte of myn adversitee;                               1375
  My good, in harm; myn ese eek waxen helle is.
  My Ioye, in wo; I can sey yow nought elles,
  But turned is, for which my lyf I warie,
  Everich Ioye or ese in his contrarie.

  198. Which with your cominge hoom ayein to Troye                     1380
  Ye may redresse, and, more a thousand sythe
  Than ever ich hadde, encressen in me Ioye.
  For was ther never herte yet so blythe
  To han his lyf, as I shal been as swythe
  As I yow see; and, though no maner routhe                            1385
  Commeve yow, yet thinketh on your trouthe.

  199. And if so be my gilt hath deeth deserved,
  Or if you list no more up-on me see,
  In guerdon yet of that I have you served,
  Biseche I yow, myn hertes lady free,                                 1390
  That here-upon ye wolden wryte me,
  For love of god, my righte lode-sterre,
  Ther deeth may make an ende of al my werre.

  200. If other cause aught doth yow for to dwelle,
  That with your lettre ye me recomforte;                              1395
  For though to me your absence is an helle,
  With pacience I wol my wo comporte.
  And with your lettre of hope I wol desporte.
  Now wryteth, swete, and lat me thus not pleyne;
  With hope, or deeth, delivereth me fro peyne.                        1400

  201. Y-wis, myn owene dere herte trewe,
  I woot that, whan ye next up-on me see,
  So lost have I myn hele and eek myn hewe,
  Criseyde shal nought conne knowe me!
  Y-wis, myn hertes day, my lady free,                                 1405
  So thursteth ay myn herte to biholde
  Your beautee, that my lyf unnethe I holde.

  202. I sey no more, al have I for to seye
  To you wel more than I telle may;
  But whether that ye do me live or deye,                              1410
  Yet pray I god, so yeve yow right good day.
  And fareth wel, goodly fayre fresshe may,
  As ye that lyf or deeth me may comaunde;
  And to your trouthe ay I me recomaunde

  203. With hele swich that, but ye yeven me                           1415
  The same hele, I shal noon hele have.
  In you lyth, whan yow list that it so be,
  The day in which me clothen shal my grave.
  In yow my lyf, in yow might for to save
  Me from disese of alle peynes smerte;                                1420
  And fare now wel, myn owene swete herte!
                              LE VOSTRE T.'

  204. This lettre forth was sent un-to Criseyde,
  Of which hir answere in effect was this;
  Ful pitously she wroot ayein, and seyde,
  That al-so sone as that she might, y-wis,                            1425
  She wolde come, and mende al that was mis.
  And fynally she wroot and seyde him thanne,
  She wolde come, ye, but she niste whanne.

  205. But in hir lettre made she swich festes,
  That wonder was, and swereth she loveth him best,                    1430
  Of which he fond but botmelees bihestes.
  But Troilus, thou mayst now, est or west,
  Pype in an ivy leef, if that thee lest;
  Thus gooth the world; god shilde us fro mischaunce,
  And every wight that meneth trouthe avaunce!                         1435

  206. Encresen gan the wo fro day to night
  Of Troilus, for taryinge of Criseyde;
  And lessen gan his hope and eek his might,
  For which al doun he in his bed him leyde;
  He ne eet, ne dronk, ne sleep, ne word he seyde,                     1440
  Imagininge ay that she was unkinde;
  For which wel neigh he wex out of his minde.

  207. This dreem, of which I told have eek biforn,
  May never come out of his remembraunce;
  He thoughte ay wel he hadde his lady lorn,                           1445
  And that Ioves, of his purveyaunce,
  Him shewed hadde in sleep the signifiaunce
  Of hir untrouthe and his disaventure,
  And that the boor was shewed him in figure.

  208. For which he for Sibille his suster sente,                      1450
  That called was Cassandre eek al aboute;
  And al his dreem he tolde hir er he stente,
  And hir bisoughte assoilen him the doute
  Of the stronge boor, with tuskes stoute;
  And fynally, with-inne a litel stounde,                              1455
  Cassandre him gan right thus his dreem expounde.

  209. She gan first smyle, and seyde, 'O brother dere,
  If thou a sooth of this desyrest knowe,
  Thou most a fewe of olde stories here,
  To purpos, how that fortune over-throwe                              1460
  Hath lordes olde; through which, with-inne a throwe,
  Thou wel this boor shalt knowe, and of what kinde
  He comen is, as men in bokes finde.

  210. Diane, which that wrooth was and in ire
  For Grekes nolde doon hir sacrifyse,                                 1465
  Ne encens up-on hir auter sette a-fyre,
  She, for that Grekes gonne hir so dispyse,
  Wrak hir in a wonder cruel wyse.
  For with a boor as greet as oxe in stalle
  She made up frete hir corn and vynes alle.                           1470

  211. To slee this boor was al the contree reysed,
  A-monges which ther com, this boor to see,
  A mayde, oon of this world the best y-preysed;
  And Meleagre, lord of that contree,
  He lovede so this fresshe mayden free                                1475
  That with his manhod, er he wolde stente,
  This boor he slow, and hir the heed he sente;

  212. Of which, as olde bokes tellen us,
  Ther roos a contek and a greet envye;
  And of this lord descended Tydeus                                    1480
  By ligne, or elles olde bokes lye;
  But how this Meleagre gan to dye
  Thorugh his moder, wol I yow not telle,
  For al to long it were for to dwelle.'

  [_Argument of the 12 Books of_ Statius' Thebais.]

  Associat profugum Tideo primus Polimitem;
  Tidea legatum docet insidiasque secundus;
  Tercius Hemoniden canit et vates latitantes;
  Quartus habet reges ineuntes prelia septem;                             4
  Mox furie Lenne quinto narratur et anguis;
  Archimori bustum sexto ludique leguntur;
  Dat Graios Thebes et vatem septimus vmbris;
  Octauo cecidit Tideus, spes, vita Pelasgis;                             8
  Ypomedon nono moritur cum Parthonopeo;
  Fulmine percussus, decimo Capaneus superatur;
  Vndecimo sese perimunt per vulnera fratres;
  Argiuam flentem narrat duodenus et ignem.                              12

  213. She toldë eek how Tydeus, er she stente,                        1485
  Un-to the stronge citee of Thebes,
  To cleyme kingdom of the citee, wente,
  For his felawe, daun Polymites,
  Of which the brother, daun Ethyocles
  Ful wrongfully of Thebes held the strengthe;                         1490
  This tolde she by proces, al by lengthe.

  214. She tolde eek how Hemonides asterte,
  Whan Tydeus slough fifty knightes stoute.
  She told eek al the prophesyes by herte,
  And how that sevene kinges, with hir route,                          1495
  Bisegeden the citee al aboute;
  And of the holy serpent, and the welle,
  And of the furies, al she gan him telle.

  215. Of Archimoris buryinge and the pleyes,
  And how Amphiorax fil through the grounde,                           1500
  How Tydeus was slayn, lord of Argeyes,
  And how Ypomedoun in litel stounde
  Was dreynt, and deed Parthonope of wounde;
  And also how Cappanëus the proude
  With thonder-dint was slayn, that cryde loude.                       1505

  216. She gan eek telle him how that either brother,
  Ethyocles and Polimyte also,
  At a scarmyche, eche of hem slough other,
  And of Argyves wepinge and hir wo;
  And how the town was brent she tolde eek tho.                        1510
  And so descendeth doun from gestes olde
  To Diomede, and thus she spak and tolde.

  217. 'This ilke boor bitokneth Diomede,
  Tydeus sone, that doun descended is
  Fro Meleagre, that made the boor to blede.                           1515
  And thy lady, wher-so she be, y-wis,
  This Diomede hir herte hath, and she his.
  Weep if thou wolt, or leef; for, out of doute,
  This Diomede is inne, and thou art oute.'

  218. 'Thou seyst nat sooth,' quod he, 'thou sorceresse,              1520
  With al thy false goost of prophesye!
  Thou wenest been a greet devyneresse;
  Now seestow not this fool of fantasye
  Peyneth hir on ladyes for to lye?
  Awey,' quod he, 'ther Ioves yeve thee sorwe!                         1525
  Thou shalt be fals, paraunter, yet to-morwe!

  219. As wel thou mightest lyen on Alceste,
  That was of creatures, but men lye,
  That ever weren, kindest and the beste.
  For whanne hir housbonde was in Iupartye                             1530
  To dye him-self, but-if she wolde dye,
  She chees for him to dye and go to helle,
  And starf anoon, as us the bokes telle.'

  220. Cassandre goth, and he with cruel herte
  For-yat his wo, for angre of hir speche;                             1535
  And from his bed al sodeinly he sterte,
  As though al hool him hadde y-mad a leche.
  And day by day he gan enquere and seche
  A sooth of this, with al his fulle cure;
  And thus he dryeth forth his aventure.                               1540

  221. Fortune, whiche that permutacioun
  Of thinges hath, as it is hir committed
  Through purveyaunce and disposicioun
  Of heighe Iove, as regnes shal ben flitted
  Fro folk in folk, or whan they shal ben smitted,                     1545
  Gan pulle awey the fetheres brighte of Troye
  Fro day to day, til they ben bare of Ioye.

  222. Among al this, the fyn of the parodie
  Of Ector gan approchen wonder blyve;
  The fate wolde his soule sholde unbodie,                             1550
  And shapen hadde a mene it out to dryve;
  Ayeins which fate him helpeth not to stryve;
  But on a day to fighten gan he wende,
  At which, allas! he caughte his lyves ende.

  223. For which me thinketh every maner wight                         1555
  That haunteth armes oughte to biwayle
  The deeth of him that was so noble a knight;
  For as he drough a king by thaventayle,
  Unwar of this, Achilles through the mayle
  And through the body gan him for to ryve;                            1560
  And thus this worthy knight was brought of lyve.

  224. For whom, as olde bokes tellen us,
  Was mad swich wo, that tonge it may not telle;
  And namely, the sorwe of Troilus,
  That next him was of worthinesse welle.                              1565
  And in this wo gan Troilus to dwelle,
  That, what for sorwe, and love, and for unreste,
  Ful ofte a day he bad his herte breste.

  225. But natheles, though he gan him dispeyre,
  And dradde ay that his lady was untrewe,                             1570
  Yet ay on hir his herte gan repeyre.
  And as these loveres doon, he soughte ay newe
  To gete ayein Criseyde, bright of hewe.
  And in his herte he wente hir excusinge,
  That Calkas causede al hir taryinge.                                 1575

  226. And ofte tyme he was in purpos grete
  Him-selven lyk a pilgrim to disgyse,
  To seen hir; but he may not contrefete
  To been unknowen of folk that weren wyse,
  Ne finde excuse aright that may suffyse,                             1580
  If he among the Grekes knowen were;
  For which he weep ful ofte many a tere.

  227. To hir he wroot yet ofte tyme al newe
  Ful pitously, he lefte it nought for slouthe,
  Biseching hir that, sin that he was trewe,                           1585
  She wolde come ayein and holde hir trouthe.
  For which Criseyde up-on a day, for routhe,
  I take it so, touchinge al this matere,
  Wrot him ayein, and seyde as ye may here.

  228. 'Cupydes sone, ensample of goodlihede,                          1590
  O swerd of knighthod, sours of gentilesse!
  How mighte a wight in torment and in drede
  And helelees, yow sende as yet gladnesse?
  I hertelees, I syke, I in distresse;
  Sin ye with me, nor I with yow may dele,                             1595
  Yow neither sende ich herte may nor hele.

  229. Your lettres ful, the papir al y-pleynted,
  Conseyved hath myn hertes piëtee;