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Title: On Yacht Sailing - A simple Treatise for Beginners upon the Art of Handling - Small Yachts and Boats
Author: Day, Thomas Fleming
Language: English
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[Illustration: ON THE WIND.]



                                  ON
                             YACHT SAILING

                    A SIMPLE TREATISE FOR BEGINNERS
                       UPON THE ART OF HANDLING
                        SMALL YACHTS AND BOATS

                                  BY

                          THOMAS FLEMING DAY

   Editor of "The Rudder," Author of "On Yachts and Yacht Handling,"
    "Hints to Young Yacht Skippers," "Songs of Sea and Sail," etc.

                            [Illustration]

                         NEW YORK AND LONDON:
                     THE RUDDER PUBLISHING COMPANY
                                 1904



                            COPYRIGHT 1904
                                  BY
                          THOMAS FLEMING DAY
                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

                               PRESS OF
                             THOMSON & CO.
                        9 MURRAY STREET, N. Y.



_CONTENTS_


  SPECIAL REMARKS                     9
  GENERAL REMARKS                    11
  THE BOAT AND RIG                   19
  THE SIDES AND TACKS                23
  THE HELM                           27
  NOMENCLATURE OF RIGGING AND SAIL   33
  SAILING ON THE WIND                35
  SAILING OFF THE WIND               43
  REEFING AND JIBING                 48
  TAKING CARE OF THE BOAT            52
  MANEUVERS                          56
  RULES OF THE ROAD                  60
  GLOSSARY                           65
  DIAGRAMS AND PLANS                 73
  LIST OF BOOKS                      96



UNIFORM EDITION

RUDDER ON SERIES

_Bound in blue buckram and gold, 32mo. illustrated_


     ON YACHTS AND YACHT HANDLING. By Thomas Fleming Day. Price $1.

     ON YACHT SAILING. By Thomas Fleming Day. Price $1.

     ON MARINE MOTORS AND MOTOR LAUNCHES. By E. W. Roberts, M. E. Price
     $1.

     ON YACHT ETIQUETTE. Second Edition Revised. By Captain Patterson.
     Price $1.

     SOUTHWARD BY THE INSIDE ROUTE. Reprint from THE RUDDER.

     HINTS TO YOUNG YACHT SKIPPERS. By Thomas Fleming Day. Price $1.



_PREFACE_


There is no difficulty in the learned writing for the learned, but it
is extremely difficult to compose a work for the instruction of the
ignorant. The more comprehensive and exact knowledge the writer has of
his subject the more arduous is the effort to express his thoughts in
such simplicity as will make it understandable to those who have little
or no knowledge of the subject he treats. This is doubly so when the
subject is one like sailing--an art whose language is wholly technical
and almost totally divorced from the common expressions of life. It
is impossible to translate sea language into land language; nor is it
possible to explain the conditions and operations of the art without
employing sea terms.

In this work I have endeavored to avoid as far as is possible the
employment of intricate or obscure technical language, and where it is
used have endeavored to explain the meaning and define the application.
This book is intended for the use of persons who are supposed to
be altogether ignorant of the art of sailing. It is a primer and,
therefore, is almost absurdly simple and profuse in explanatory
details. But my experience as a teacher has taught me that such books
cannot be too simple, and that in order to be understandable they must
be loaded with explanations of explanations until nothing is left to
explain. To those who know, this will seem unnecessary, but it must
be remembered that many who will learn from this book, have not only
never handled a sailing boat, but have never seen one before, and have
but extremely crude notions of how the canvas and helm are employed to
drive and direct them.

In regard to the glossary: The definitions given are those that define
the terms as used in sailing or navigating small craft, and may have a
different meaning when applied to larger vessels. It is very difficult
to exactly define many nautical terms, as they are words in action,
and consequently present different phases, as they are differently
employed. In many cases only one who is a trained seaman can comprehend
their exact purport or understand their significant application.



_SPECIAL REMARKS_


The first question before you start to learn to sail is: Do you know
how to swim? If you don't, you have no business in a sailing boat--in
fact you have no business on the water. No parent should allow his
boy or girl to have a sailboat until they have learned to swim. It is
not difficult to learn to swim; any child can be taught that art in
ten days, and it should be a compulsory course in all our schools. If
people knew how to swim, nine-tenths of the drowning accidents that
do happen would not. Every summer a large number of young people are
drowned in this country through the overturning of boats or by falling
overboard. Had these persons been taught to swim the majority of them
would not have been drowned. A person who can swim has confidence. If
suddenly thrown in the water he or she retain their presence of mind,
but if unable to swim they become panic stricken, and are not only
drowned but in their struggles frequently drown others.

Another custom prolific of accident on the water is the overloading of
boats. The green hand should be warned against this practice. Never
take a lot of people out in a boat, particularly a sailboat; especially
do not take out women and children, or men who are not familiar with
boats.

Another thing, never play the fool in a boat. A man who with others in
a boat plays such tricks as rocking or trying to carry large sail in a
breeze, climbing a mast, or any other silly stunt, is a fool, and is
not fit to be trusted with any sort of a craft.

A properly designed and well-constructed boat is perfectly safe in
the hands of a sensible person, and if properly used be made to
give pleasure not only to the owner but to others. Sailing is one
of the safest of our sports; very few yachtsmen lose their lives
while boating. It is nothing like so dangerous a sport as bicycling,
automobiling or carriage driving. I have met thousands of yachtsmen
during my long service in the sport, but of all my acquaintances I can
only recall one who was drowned.



_GENERAL REMARKS_


If you are going to learn to sail get a small boat. Men who learn in
large boats seldom become good helmsmen. Another thing, do not learn
in what is called a non-capsizable boat; get a boat that can be upset.
The modern outside ballast, non-capsizable, finkeel or semi-finkeel,
is a very easy vessel to handle, and it requires very little skill to
sail them; as a fact, you don't sail them; you simply steer them. The
old-fashioned, inside ballast, capsizable, long-keel craft was a very
different proposition, and it required considerable skill to handle
such properly. It is for this reason that the best sailors we have ever
had graduated from the helms of that type of boat.

The best boat for a boy to get to learn in is one of not more than
twenty feet length; a fifteen-footer is better. She should be
half-decked, and be of such construction and weight that even if
filled she will float. It is better to have a boat that requires little
or no ballast. If in a place where the water is generally smooth, the
Lark type is an excellent craft to learn in; if where it is rough,
get one of those cheap sailing dories. THE RUDDER Skip is also a good
boat, but is somewhat more expensive. Another good boat for a beginner
is a 15-foot, half-decked, cat-rigged boat; a boat with considerable
freeboard and a water-tight cockpit. Such a boat can be built in
first-class style for about $250 or $300. I strongly advise the
beginner to use the cat rig, no matter what type of hull he employs.

[Illustration: WIND ABEAM.]

Many begin in a rowboat, fitted with a sail. These are generally poor
craft, not being of the proper form for sailing. While they will do, if
nothing better can be had, they are far inferior to a properly designed
sailing dory or a Lark. If the beginner starts in a poor sailing craft
he is apt to get disgusted with the results of his work and give up.

After you have learned to handle a boat under cat rig you can get one
with a jib, and learn to sail the more complicated rig. It is not best
at first to go in for too many sails, as it means much more gear and
this is apt to confuse the beginner, and make the task of learning
harder.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM A.--DECK PLAN OF YACHT.]

By starting to learn to sail in a capsizable boat you will gather the
first and most important part of sailorizing, and that is caution,
and you will gain from sailing such a boat that nicety of touch which
is the acme of helming skill, and which can never be acquired in an
uncapsizable craft. Knowing that inattention to your work will perhaps
result in a spill, you will be constantly on the alert, and you will
learn that by quick and proper movements of the helm you can control
and maneuvre your boat so as to keep her on her bottom at all times.

If you have your boat ready take a day when the wind is light and
steady and get somebody to go with you who understands sailing. Let
the old hand tend the sheet while you handle the tiller. Then sail up
and down in a quiet place until you get confidence in the boat and in
yourself. This will soon come when you find that you can perform the
different sailing maneuvres. It is a good plan after you have the hang
of handling the tiller to choose a mark to windward, and to start and
beat up to it, then turn the mark and run back again. Repeat this
several times as it will give you practice in sailing both on and off
the wind.

[Illustration: OFF THE WIND.]

If the wind is strong and you feel afraid of the boat, don't go out,
but wait until the conditions are more favorable to have your first
try. If you get afraid or rattled, as it is called, by the boat getting
a knockdown in a puff, just let her come up in the wind and rest, and
you will see that she is perfectly safe, and your courage will soon
return.

I have taught many--both boys and girls--to sail, and I always put them
right at the helm, and insist upon them staying there. If they get in
a tight place the beginner will generally want to give up the helm. At
such a time I make them retain it, and by a little judicious advice
and a few words of encouragement get them through the difficulty.
This at once instills confidence. One of my favorite tricks is when
the green hand is approaching the shore on a tack to leave him and go
below, pretending to pay no attention to his actions. If he is good for
anything, he will when the right time arrives go about. Once he has
done this by himself he is confident, and will not hesitate to do it
again. This is the principal thing to make a beginner understand, that
he must depend upon his own judgment and not rely upon yours.

Some persons can never be taught to sail. They can learn to steer
perhaps, but never can learn to handle a sailing boat. I have found
that comparatively few females can learn to sail, but when they have
the sailor's instinct it is very strongly developed, and they make
excellent skippers. They are far more fearless than men, and can
invariably be relied upon to carry out orders, even to the death.



_THE BOAT AND RIG_


Having picked out the boat that best suits your ideas and pocket,
start right in and learn all about her. Study out her rig, and learn
the proper names of everything from keel to truck. Nothing sounds
worse than to hear a man who is sailing a boat call the ropes, spars,
etc., by wrong names, and use in speaking of the boat and her actions
unnautical language. One of the quickest and easiest ways to learn the
nomenclature of the boat is to build and rig a small model. You will in
this way not only learn the proper terms but also get an understanding
of how a boat is rigged. The first lesson I had was in trying to
re-rig a topsail schooner, the model of an old U. S. man-of-war. I was
about seven or eight years old, but having the boat mania stuck to the
task, although it was long and difficult, and at last, with the kind
assistance of a lady, succeeded in completing the job. In this way I
captured at an early age a thorough knowledge of how to rig. You need
not make a block model, just step your mast in a flat board.

[Illustration: A LARK.]

If you are going to buy a boat, not having the opportunity to borrow
or steal one, look about for a good second-hand craft. This if in fair
condition will do to start with, for you will, as soon as you have
learned, want a bigger and better one. If you can use tools, and have
the materials and space, I would advise building your own boat, as by
so doing you will gather knowledge that will prove invaluable to you in
your after days. But don't build from your own design. Such boats are
invariably failures. A man must have considerable knowledge of boats
before he can design a proper one. A deal of money has been wasted,
and many have been sadly disheartened and made sick of the sport at
the outset because they have built a boat after their own plans, and
it has turned out a failure. If you are going to build get one of THE
RUDDER _How-to Books_, and you will from it be able to construct a good
sailing craft for a reasonable price, with the least amount of labor.

If you buy a boat be sure the hull is in good condition, and that
the boat is not a heavy and consistent leaker. Also, find out if the
boat will sail on the wind, for many small boats will not. If the hull
is all right, buy the boat. The condition of the sail and rigging is
not so important, as you can renew these for a few dollars, and it is
better to start off with a new sail and first-class gear. A boat with
old canvas and weather-wasted gear will not be satisfactory, and it is
better to spend a few dollars and get these things right.

In rigging the boat use as few ropes as possible. A green hand, like a
canoeman, generally wants to decorate his spars with all the strings
he can get on, but the less rope and the simpler tackles you use the
easier will it be to handle the craft.

Whatever you use be sure it is strong. Always use the best cordage you
can buy; the difference in price per pound is only a few cents, but
there is considerable difference in the way the two kinds will work.
A rope used for running should render freely through the block. To do
this it must be soft and pliable. Use blocks with a larger swallow than
the rope size you intend to run through them, then the rope won't stick
when it gets swollen with dampness or rain.



_THE SIDES AND TACKS_


The sides of a boat have two sets of names, the use of which is apt to
confuse the green hand, but if you once clearly understand how these
terms are applied you will experience no trouble in properly employing
them.

The right-hand side of a vessel when standing looking toward the bow is
called the _starboard_ side.

The left-hand side of a vessel when standing looking toward the bow is
called the _port_ side.

These names are permanent, and no matter which way the boat is turned
the starboard side is always the starboard side and the port side
always the port side.

The other names for the sides of a vessel are not permanent, but are
always changing, shifting from side to side, as the boat is turned
about. Their particular position is determined by the direction of the
wind.

These names are _lee side_ and _weather side_.

[Illustration: SAILING DORIES.]

The _weather side_ is that side of a vessel upon which the wind blows.

The _lee side_ is that side of the vessel which is farthest from the
wind, and is, in a fore-and-aft rigged craft, the side on which the
sail is stretched.

Now you will understand that, in consequence of the vessel turning
round and presenting first one side to the wind and then the other,
these names are continually shifting from side to side.

For instance, if the wind is blowing on the port--left-hand side--that
is the weather side, and the starboard--right-hand side--is the lee
side. Turning the vessel round, so that the wind blows on the starboard
side, that becomes the weather side, and the port side becomes the lee
side.

Having these sides and their names clearly fixed in your mind you will
be able to understand what a tack is.

When a vessel is sailing on a wind we say she is on the port tack
or starboard tack, meaning the way she is heading in regard to the
direction of the wind. This tack is determined by the side upon which
the wind blows.

A vessel is on the starboard tack when the wind strikes upon her
starboard side and the boom of her mainsail is over on the port side.
The reverse of this puts her on the port tack.

Or, to be more concise, when the starboard side is the weather side the
boat is on the starboard tack. When the port side is the weather side
the boat is on the port tack.



_THE HELM_


A boat or any vessel is steered by a contrivance called a rudder, which
is hung like a door on hinges, and swings freely from side to side.
This rudder is moved by a handle called a tiller, which is attached
to the post and projects forward into the boat. The whole apparatus
for steering the boat is called the helm, but in this chapter, when we
speak of the helm, it must be understood to mean the _tiller_.

When the helm is put, i. e., pushed in one direction, the rudder moves
in the other. For instance, if the helm is turned to the right the
rudder moves to the left, and vice versa. The result of such a movement
of the helm is to turn the boat's bow in the direction the rudder
points, so that the boat's bow, or head as we say, turns the opposite
way to the way the tiller is pushed. Remember, that if you put the helm
to the left the boat's head will turn to the right; if you put the
helm to the right it will turn to the left.

[Illustration: SHOAL-DRAUGHT SLOOP.]

The left side of the boat, as I have explained, is always called the
port side; therefore, if I order you to put your helm to _port_ you
must push the tiller toward the left. This will move the rudder toward
the starboard side, and as the boat's bow moves the same way as the
rudder it will also move to starboard.

But in a sailing vessel, when going under canvas, we do not usually
order the helm to be put to starboard or port, but employ terms that
derive their signification from the direction of the wind under whose
influence the vessel is moving. These terms are _up_ and _down_, and
_a-lee_ and _a-weather_.

To put the helm _up_ you push the tiller toward the side of the boat on
which the wind is blowing. This causes the vessel to move her head away
from the wind--to _fall off_, as it is called.

To put the helm _down_ you push the tiller toward the side on which the
sail is. This causes the vessel to move her head toward the wind--to
_luff_, as it is called.

The easiest way to fix these two actions in the wind is this: When a
boat is heeled, i. e., tipped, as she usually is when sailing on the
wind, the helm is put up by moving it toward the high or up side, and
it is put down by moving it toward the low or down side.

To put the helm _a-weather_ is the same as putting it _up_, or toward
the weather side of the boat. To put the helm _a-lee_ is the same as
putting it _down_ or toward the lee side of the boat.

_Up--a-weather._

_Down--a-lee._

The green hand must get the above information firmly fixed in his
mind, as it will save him lots of future trouble. I have met men who
have sailed for years who confuse these orders through not thoroughly
understanding what they mean.

You will frequently hear a man when conning the helm of a boat--that
is, directing the steering--tell the helmsman to _keep off_, meaning by
that to put the helm up and cause the boat to move further away from
the wind or course which the boat has been holding; or else he will
order the helmsman to _luff_, meaning for him to put the helm down, and
bring the boat's bow nearer to the wind.

The order to _steady_ or _right_ the helm means to bring the tiller
amidships, or in such position that it does not influence the boat in
either direction.

Large boats are steered by a wheel, which is simply an apparatus used
to give additional power, so that the helm can be turned easily; but as
we are dealing with small boats using a tiller, we will not bother at
present to understand its working.

[Illustration: A SAILING DORY.]



_NOMENCLATURE OF RIGGING AND SAIL._


     DOWNHAUL--A rope for hauling down a sail.

     CLEWLINE--A line used to draw together a sail so that it can be
     easily furled.

     HALYARDS--The tackles by which a sail is hoisted.

     GUYS--Are ropes used to support or control a spar, and are either
     permanent or shifting. On spars they generally act in opposition
     to the sheet.

     TOPPING LIFT--A rope or tackle for lifting and holding up the end
     of a boom.

     SHEET--The rope or tackle by which a sail is controlled or
     trimmed. It is made fast to the clew of the sail, or to the boom.

     SHROUDS--Ropes generally of wire employed to support a mast or
     bowsprit by holding it sideways. They are attached to the rail
     by chain plates, and are set up with either lanyards or rigging
     screws.

     STAYS--Ropes used to support or control a spar in a fore-and-aft
     direction.

     LUFF--The fore edge of a sail.

     LEACH--The after edge of a sail.

     HEAD--The upper edge of a sail.

     FOOT--The lower edge of a sail.

     PEAK--The upper outer corner of a triangular sail, also the upper
     corner of a jib or gaff topsail. In this book the more common name
     _head_ is used. See sail plans.

     THROAT--The upper fore corner of a triangular sail, also called
     the _nock_.

     TACK--The lower fore corner of a sail.

     CLEW--The after lower corner of a sail.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM B.--BEATING OR SAILING TO WINDWARD. BOAT, DOTTED
LINES, IS ON STARBOARD TACK; BOAT, FILLED LINES, IS ON PORT TACK.]



_SAILING ON THE WIND_


Sailing on the wind, or by the wind, or close-hauled, is a purely
mechanical action, the motion being the result of opposing two forces,
the wind pressure and the water pressure. The wind pressing on the
canvas forces the boat sideways, her form causes the water to resist
this movement, and as it is easier for her to progress in the direction
of her length she moves that way. Her sails being arranged so as to
transfer this movement in the direction of the bow, she moves ahead.
It is to prevent her going sideways that a boat is given a keel or
centerboard.

In sailing to windward a boat's sails are trimmed flat--that is, the
sheet is hauled in until the foot of the sail lies nearly parallel to
the line of the keel. How close to being parallel depends largely upon
the form of the hull, an easily driven model being able to sail with
a flatter sheet than one of coarser dimensions. No rule can be laid
down for trimming the sheets of a boat when sailing on the wind, it
depending upon the form of the vessel, the strength of the wind, and
the condition of the water.

As the movement of the boat is dependent upon the pressure exerted
upon her canvas by the wind, it is necessary that the wind strike the
sail on one side and fill it, and that it exert this pressure in a
constant manner. Therefore, the boat's bow cannot be kept pointing in
the direction of the wind, but must be made to approach it at an angle.
This angle, in a good sailing vessel, is one of 45 degrees, or four
points by compass.

Let us suppose that the wind is blowing from the North. Now, if the
boat's bow is pointed North the current of air will pass along both
sides of her sail and exert no pressure upon the canvas, acting just as
it does upon the fly of a flag. But if we turn her head slowly round to
the West we will find that the breeze begins to press on the canvas,
gradually filling it until when her bow is pointed Northwest, or four
points away from the wind, the whole sail will be distended with
pressure. She is now said to be on a tack or board, and will move ahead
in the direction Northwest.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM C. BEATING TO WINDWARD--LONG LEG AND SHORT LEG.]

But let us suppose that the point we wish to reach is directly North.
If we continue sailing on this Northwest tack we can never reach it.
In order to do so we must have the boat move in another direction.
Four points, or forty-five degrees, on the other side of North is the
direction Northeast. If our boat will fill her sail with a North wind
when pointed Northwest she will also necessarily fill it when pointed
Northeast. But how are we to get her into a position so that she will
point Northeast? By performing a maneuvre which is called _tacking_ or
_going about_.

To do this we put the helm down, or a-lee--that is, push the tiller
toward the side on which the sail is, the rudder going in the opposite
direction. In consequence of this the boat's bow begins to move toward
the North. As it does so the wind leaves the sail, the canvas shakes,
and then as her head swings past North the sail begins to fill again,
with the breeze on the opposite side, until when she at last points
Northeast it is rap full once more. That is what is called tacking a
vessel.

If we continue to tack, remaining for an equal distance on each board
or leg, the boat will gradually approach the North point by a zig-zag
movement, until she reaches it.

Sometimes, owing to the wind not being directly ahead, we are able to
remain longer on one tack than on the other. This is what is called
making a long and short leg.

To properly sail a boat on the wind requires constant and minute
attention to the helm and the canvas. The best way for the new hand is
to sit low down in the cockpit to leeward of the tiller; this places
him nearly under the boom. Let him look up and watch his sail just at
the throat; here is where it will shake first. To sail the boat close
he must just keep that portion of the sail shaking--or lifting as it
is termed. After a few days at this work he will get so that he can
tell instinctively by the feel of the boat just where she is, and will
be able to keep her close without constantly watching the luff. Some
skippers sail a boat by the jib luff, sitting to windward to see it;
others by the feel of the wind on the face. This is a good guide at
night when you cannot see the sail. But those things will come to the
novice in time.

You should constantly practice altering the sheets of your boat, until
you find out under which trim she goes best. You can mark the positions
of the sheets by inserting between the strands of the rope a bit of
colored worsted; also alter the position of the weights, either ballast
or live, until you get the boat to her proper trim, as this has much to
do with a boat sailing well to windward.

If when trimmed to sail on the wind a boat shows herself to be hard
on the helm it may be the result of her form, of the position of her
ballast, or centerboard, or through having too much after sail. If
she gripes--that is, tries to go up in the wind--slack off a little
mainsheet, and if she has a jib trim it flatter. If she tries to do the
other thing run off to leeward; ease the jib sheets. The worst fault a
boat can have is that of carrying a lee helm. Never buy a slack-headed
boat; they are an abomination.

In rough-water sailing a boat going to windward wants her sheet eased.
Do not trim the sails dead flat, nor try to sail the boat very close to
the wind; give her what is called a _good full_, and keep her moving
all the time. Remember, that every wave is a hill that the boat has to
climb over, and she needs all the drive possible in order to do it. You
must learn how to help her with the helm to take these seas easily,
first by luffing and then by bearing away.

A man can only become a good windward helmsman by constant practice and
by paying attention to every detail. He must have a quick eye, a firm
hand and plenty of grit and strength.

[Illustration: GOING FREE.]



_SAILING OFF THE WIND_


Sailing off the wind, or going free, is a different action from that
of sailing on the wind. Sailing free is purely a natural movement,
complicated by the fact that a vessel, owing to her weight obliging
her to rest in the water, cannot move as freely as a fabric wholly
sustained by the air. The fact that friction of the water retards her
so that she moves at a less speed than the wind that presses her onward
permits of her being steered. Another complication that effects the
speed of a vessel going free is the unevenness of the water, the effect
of the wind raising surface waves; these greatly retard and hamper her
movements. If, instead of rising in waves the sea remained smooth a
sailing vessel could be driven nearly as fast as the wind moves, as is
the case with ice boats, which on smooth ice move as fast as the wind.

In sailing to windward the faster a vessel moves the more pressure
the wind exerts upon her sail. In sailing to leeward this is just the
reverse; the faster she goes the less pressure the wind exerts. In the
first action she is constantly approaching the source of the wind, in
the second receding from it. For instance, if the wind is blowing at
the rate of 20 miles an hour and a vessel sailing before it makes 10
miles an hour the pressure in her sails will only be equal to a rate
of 10 miles. In calculating how much sail to carry the young yachtsman
must remember this: That a windward breeze is nearly double the wind's
velocity, that a leeward breeze is equal to the wind's velocity minus
the boat's speed; so that more sail can be carried off the wind that
can be carried on it.

The amount of sail that can be carried off the wind depends largely
upon the form of the boat and the height and action of the sea. If the
boat is of a good form for running and the water smooth you can carry
all the sail her spars will stand and she can be steered under. But
if she is a bad runner, a boat that roots--goes down by the head--or
chokes up forward, she will do better with less sail. On all boats
there is a time when they reach their maximum speed running and when
they will go along easier and better with less canvas. To do her best
when running a boat should be kept on an even line--that is, level in
the water, and not be allowed to shove her head up or drop her stern
down.

In straight stem boats with very little fullness in the forward
sections the weight of the crew should be kept aft, as they have a
tendency to root--shove their bows down--but in boats with long, full
overhangs the weights should be kept forward, as the shape of these
craft causes them to shove out the bow and depress and drag the after
end.

The most difficult helming of a boat is off the wind in a tall
following sea, and great care is necessary then in steering a vessel.
If the sea is very heavy and the wind strong do not try to run directly
before it, but beat to leeward, first taking the wind on one quarter,
and then on the other. If you run dead before, be careful not to let
the boat sheer off the helm on either side, or she will be _brought by
the lee_ or _broach to_. If she is brought by the lee her mainsail will
jibe over.

You must watch your boat carefully, and you will soon learn to
anticipate her next movement, first by noticing the wave that passes,
and second by the feeling how she lifts on the one just overtaking
her. As soon as the stern lifts she will begin to yaw, as it is called,
and then you must at once check this movement by altering the position
of the rudder to prevent her swinging too far. This is what is called
_meeting her with the helm_.

One piece of advice when running before a sea: Never get frightened or
rattled, and never look behind you, for the sight of a big sea curling
up just ready to drop on the stern will scare any one but a hardened
sea-dog. Always carry enough sail to keep the boat racing with the
waves, or you are liable to get pooped. But do not carry too much sail,
for if you do the boat when on top of a wave if struck, as she usually
is in such position by a hard puff, is likely to become unmanageable
and get away from you.

If you have a boat with a jib, set that and sheet it flat amidships;
this when she tries to broach to will fill and drive her head off. If
she steers hard trim your mainsheet aft and it will ease her. Lowering
the peak and topping up the boom will also ease the steering. Always
top up the boom if the sea is heavy, so as to prevent the end of the
spar striking the water. Never in heavy weather square the main boom
right off; always keep it away from the rigging.

The light sails commonly employed off the wind are the spinnaker and
balloon jib. The former is of very little use except with the wind dead
aft--that is, directly behind. The moment you have to guy the boom
forward to make it draw it loses its power and the balloon jib is a
better sail to use. Do not have these sails cut too large, as they are
then unhandy and cannot be kept properly sheeted. Never sheet running
sails down hard; give them plenty of lift, especially light jibs. A
small spinnaker is a great help in steering a boat when running before
a strong breeze.



_REEFING AND JIBING_


By reefing is meant the means by which a sail is reduced in size by
rolling up and tying part of it down to a spar. The sail that you will
have to reef is the mainsail, as the jib on a small boat is generally
too little to be bothered with in that way. You will notice on a sail,
stretching across it from luff to leach, a band, or sometimes two or
three bands, in which are inserted short lengths of small line. This
is the reef band, and the small lengths of rope are called points, or
knittles. At either end of the band in the edge of the sail you will
find a hole--or cringle, as it is called. The hole at the after end in
the leach of the sail is for the pendant, a small rope that hauls the
canvas aft or back towards the stern. The hole at the fore end in the
luff of the sail is for the tack, a short length of rope that ties the
luff of the sail down to the boom.

There are two ways of reefing. The first and easiest way, which can be
performed when the boat is at anchor or lying to a dock, is to hoist
the sail up until the reef band is as high as the boom; then take the
tack and pass the ends round the boom, pass the ends back again through
the cringle several times, if it will go, and then tie hard. Having
the tack fast, haul out on the pendant, which should be rove through a
beehole or cheek block on the boom; pull on this until the sail's foot
is out taut, but do not pull until the cloth is strained. When the foot
is out taut make the pendant fast; then take a short piece of rope and
pass it round the boom and pendant just at the cringle and through that
hole. Tie this down hard. This is called the _clew lashing_. Always put
on a clew lashing, as it will save the sail from being torn.

Having the tack and pendant fast, begin to tie in the points. Get all
the slack canvas on one side and roll it up tight; then pass one end
of the reef point through _between the lacing and the sail, not round
the boom_. Tie the point ends together with a bow knot, which is a reef
knot with the loop caught in the tie. Pull all your points taut, but be
sure and put the same strain on all. Begin to tie in the middle first,
and then work toward both ends.

To shake out a reef reverse these operations. First untie the points,
then the clew lashing, then slack in the pendant, and last cast loose
the tack lashing. Be careful to untie all the points, because if you do
not you are liable to tear the sail when hoisting it. Before shaking
out a reef, if you have a topping lift fitted pull up on that so as to
take the weight of the boom off the sail. If the air is damp, or rain
or spray knocking about, don't haul the sail out very taut or tie the
points down hard, as the wet will cause the rope and canvas to shrink
and strain the sail out of shape. Never leave reefs tied in sail when
stowed, as the canvas will mildew and rot.

Jibing is the operation of passing a boom sail over from one side
of the boat to the other when sailing off the wind. A great deal of
nonsense has been written and talked about jibing, and it is commonly
supposed to be a very dangerous maneuvre. So it is, if carried out by
incompetent persons or reckless fools in a bad boat, but if common
sense and caution are used there is no danger whatever in jibing a sail
at any time.

The first and most important thing is to keep control of the sheet,
and to have as little of it out as possible when the sail goes over.
In order to do this you must use the helm with great care to bring the
boat slowly round. If it is blowing hard top up the boom and lower the
peak; in this way you can always safely jibe.

To jibe: Haul in the sheet slowly but steadily, and when well aft
carefully put the helm up until the wind strikes the fore side of the
sail. As the boom swings across right the helm and then put it the
other way, so as to catch the boat as she swings off.

If you have to jibe all standing--what is called a North River
jibe--that is, with the sheet all off--just as soon as boom goes over
put your helm hard the other way; this will throw the boat's head so
the wind will strike the fore side of the sail and break the force of
the swing. It is a very dangerous method, unless you are a skillful
skipper, and should never be employed except in an emergency. Never
jibe in a seaway with the sheet off; at such time it is better to lower
the peak.



_TAKING CARE OF THE BOAT_


You must not only learn to sail, but you must learn to take care of
your boat, to keep her neat and clean, and have everything above and
below decks in shipshape order. Nothing looks worse than a slovenly
kept and dirty yacht; a boat with fag ends of rope hanging about, loose
and tangled messes of gear, sails not properly stowed, and a general
air of untidiness apparent everywhere. The first attribute of good
seamanship is order. Therefore, if you want to be considered a skillful
sailor, keep your boat both above and below decks in shipshape fashion.

To do this means considerable work. It is no easy job to take proper
care of even a small yacht, but if you regularly attend to the work
you will find it come easier as you grow more familiar and used to the
task. In the first place, the boat should be kept pumped out if she
has a leak, as most boats have; next, her decks and cockpit should be
thoroughly scrubbed and kept as clean as possible; the paint round the
house and rails washed regularly, and her topsides looked to at least
once a week.

Next, keep good watch over the gear; don't let the ends of the ropes
get fagged out; keep them whipped. Always, after coming in from a
sail, coil down and clear up all the ends of the gear. Keep your rodes
and warps neatly coiled or Flemished, and not heaped in a tangled
mass, thrown in any way. Take up on your tackles so that ropes don't
swing loose, but be careful not to take up too hard, if you are not
staying on the boat, because if dampness or rain sets in the rope
will absorb the moisture and swell, causing it to contract and shrink
lengthways. This not only is bad for the cordage, but in small vessels
it frequently strains and distorts the spars.

If you have to leave your boat for several days with no one to care
for her, do not stow your sails too tightly; roll them up loosely, and
gasket so that they cannot shake out if it comes on to blow. If sails
are furled in hard rolls the dampness in the canvas will cause them to
sweat and rot; canvas to keep good wants the air. Sail covers are not
good things to use, unless they are frequently removed, so as to let
the air and sun get at the sails.

If your boat is rigged with metal blocks, turnbuckles, etc., these
should be frequently oiled and greased, as should also the gooseneck
and the jaws of the gaff. By keeping rust and verdigris off the working
parts of these things you will increase their length of service and
always have them in good working order. The steering gear, if you use
a wheel, should be frequently inspected and oiled. If you use a tiller
see that it is in good condition and not split or weakened where it
is attached to the head of the rudder post. Steering gear accidents
are more frequent than any others, and sometimes lead to disagreeable
consequences.

The chain plates, and the shrouds where they go over the mast should
be looked at, and also the bobstay and other headgear. Make a practice
of going over your rigging at least once a week during the season, and
you will be less likely to meet with any mishaps or accidents through
something unexpectedly giving way.

Nothing looks better or reflects more credit on a young yacht sailor
than to have his boat from truck to keel in first-class order. It is a
certain sign that he understands his business, takes an interest in
sport, and is a thorough and skilled sailorman. Of course, he cannot if
he only spends, say, two days out of the week on board keep the boat
up to the highest notch of completeness and order as a yacht is kept
that carries a professional crew, but he can keep her neat and clean
by giving a few hours of his time to the task. But to make the work
easy let him refrain from covering his deck with brass or other fancy
gewgaws. Stick to things that don't need polishing; the less brass the
less work.

Another thing I would point out to you, and that is, when painting the
decks or cockpit of a boat do not use light-colored paints. One reason
for this is that a light color shows every speck of dirt and never can
be made to look clean, especially if the boat is harbored in places
where the water is muddy or dirty; the other reason is that light paint
reflects the sun and is very trying on the eyes. For cockpit, decks
and the top of cabin houses, use a dark shade of green, grey or slate;
green is the best for the eyes.



_MANEUVERS_


TO TACK:

When ready to tack first put the helm up slightly so as to give the
boat a good full, then put it down slowly and steadily. As the vessel's
bow comes into the wind, right the helm, and then as she falls off
catch her with the helm before she gets too far away from the wind. If
the water is rough and the boat shows an inclination to miss-stay, give
her a good full, slacking the sheet slightly to help her get headway,
then as you put the helm down, haul in smartly on the sheet.


TO TACK A SLOOP:

A sloop or any rig carrying headsails can be tacked as follows: When
ready to go about, ease the jib sheet, putting down the helm at the
same time; as the boat's head comes into the wind, haul in the same
sheet that you just eased, so as to get that sail aback; as she swings
off slack the weather sheet and haul aft the lee one.


TO TACK A YAWL:

Proceed same as for tacking a sloop, but to aid her haul dead-flat the
mizzen before putting the helm down. In a light air and a lob of sea
when a yawl refuses to go round, you can sometimes cause her to stay by
lighting up the jib and hauling the mizzen boom up on the weather side.


TACKING SMALL BOATS:

Small open boats such as dingeys and skiffs which are slow at staying
can be materially helped by moving the weight of the crew forward as
they come to the wind, and again aft as they fall off.


MISS-STAYING:

Our modern yachts unlike the old fashioned kind seldom miss-stay,
except when attempted to tack in a heavy seaway. The cause of
miss-staying is generally either carelessness or haste. Always give
the boat a good full and have way on her before you put the helm down.
If a boat miss-stay and get in irons do not jam the helm hard over,
but keep it amidship until she gathers stern-way then move it over
slowly. Remember that the helm when a boat is going stern first acts
the opposite to what it does when she is going ahead. If a centerboard
boat pull up the board. If she still refuses to fill, drop the peak.


TO WEAR:

Wearing or veering is the opposite of tacking. In a heavy sea when
there is danger of a boat miss-staying it is better to wear. To
wear, get your sheet in flat, then put the helm up slowly and as she
pays-off, ease the sheet gradually. To wear a yawl ease off the mizzen,
keep the mainsail flat, and haul the jib a-weather. In a centerboard
boat haul up the board. In a catboat if she refuse to wear drop the
peak.


TO ANCHOR:

The one prime rule of anchoring is never to let go the anchor until the
boat has stopped going ahead and is beginning to go sternwards. In this
way you prevent the anchor being turned over, and brought foul of the
hawser. Always give an anchor plenty of line or scope as it is called.
Six times the depth of water is sufficient under ordinary conditions.
In bad weather give all you can spare.


TO GET UNDERWAY:

If at anchor before making sail heave in short on your hawser or chain,
but be careful not to take in enough to trip the hook, then cast loose
and hoist the sail, when ready heave in and break the anchor out of the
bottom.


TO CAST:

To cast a vessel is to turn her head from an anchorage or mooring so
as to make her go off on a chosen tack. This is sometimes necessary
when anchored between other vessels or close to shore. Supposing it is
necessary in order to clear to take the port tack: Haul your mainsail
over to starboard, putting your helm the same way. This wall cause
her to make a sternboard and her bow will fall off to port. A surer
way if at a mooring is to pass a light line to the buoy; carry this
aft outside of the rigging to the starboard quarter, then let go the
mooring warp and haul in on the spring line. This will cause her head
to pay off to port; when on the course let go the spring. To cast her
to starboard reverse these proceedings.



_RULES OF THE ROAD_


The rules of the road are the rules governing the movements of vessels
when underway. They are laws enacted by an agreement between all
maritime nations, and obedience to them is compulsory. If in case of
a collision, it is proved that one of the parties has violated a rule
of the road, the damages lie against the violator. Yachtsmen should
thoroughly learn and understand these rules, and should always maintain
and obey them.

A _steam vessel_ is any vessel propelled by machinery--this includes
naphtha, gasolene, kerosene and electric launches.

A _sailing vessel_ is a vessel wholly propelled by sails.

An _auxiliary_ yacht when using her engines, no matter whether she has
sail set or not is a _steam vessel_. If not using her engine she is a
sailing vessel.

Steam vessels must keep out of the way of sailing vessels; sailing
vessels must keep out of the way of row-boats.

Vessels of all kinds, when underway, must keep clear of anchored craft
or craft lying idle or hove-to.

Overtaking vessels must keep clear of vessels overtaken. A sailing
vessel overtaking a launch must keep clear of the launch.

When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve
risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other
as follows:

A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel
which is close-hauled.

A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the
way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.

When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the
vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of
the other.

When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel
which is to the windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which
is to the leeward.

A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other
vessel.


RUNNING LIGHTS.

A sailing vessel, when running at night, carries a green light on her
starboard side, and a red light on her port side. Such lights are
generally carried in the rigging, about six feet above the rail.

A rowboat must carry a white light in a lantern to show when in danger
of being run down.

A steam vessel carries the same lights as a sailing vessel, with the
addition of a white light at the foremast head, or on launches on top
of the pilot house.

A steam vessel, when towing another vessel, carries two white lights;
if she is towing more than one vessel, tandem fashion, she shall carry
three white lights.


ANCHOR LIGHTS.

A vessel when at anchor must keep burning a white light, throwing an
unbroken flare in every direction; this light should be hoisted above
the deck the height of the vessel's breadth.

All lights must be carried from sunset to sunrise; no other lights
should be shown.


FOG SIGNALS.

A steam vessel must be provided with a whistle operated by steam or air.

A sailing vessel must be provided with a horn.

In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, whether by day or
night, the signals described shall be used:

A steam vessel underway shall sound, at intervals of not more than one
minute, a prolonged blast.

A sailing vessel underway shall sound, at intervals of not more than
one minute, when on the starboard tack, one blast; when on the port
tack, two blasts in succession, and when with the wind abaft the beam,
three blasts in succession.

A vessel when at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one
minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.

A steam vessel when towing shall, instead of the signal prescribed
above, at intervals of not more than one minute, sound three blasts in
succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A
vessel towed may give this signal and she shall not give any other.

All rafts or other water craft, not herein provided for, navigating by
hand power, horse-power, or by the current of the river, shall sound a
blast of the fog horn, or equivalent signal, at intervals of not more
than one minute.


STEAM VESSEL SIGNALS.

_One blast_--I am directing my course to starboard.

_Two blasts_--I am directing my course to port.

_Three blasts_--I am going astern.

The vessel that blows first has the right of way.

Passing through narrow channels a vessel must keep to that bank of the
fairway which is on her starboard hand.



_GLOSSARY_


     ABACK--Said of a sail when the wind blows on the back or wrong
     side of it and forces the boat sternwards.

     ABAFT--Towards the stern, as abaft the mast.

     ABEAM--At right angles to the length of the vessel, as a dock is
     abeam when it bears directly off one side.

     ABOARD--On the vessel, as come aboard, get the anchor aboard, etc.

     ABOUT--To go about is to tack.

     ADRIFT--Broken loose, as the boat is adrift, the sheet is adrift,
     etc.

     AFT--Back or behind, as come aft, haul the mainsheet aft, meaning
     to pull it towards the stern.

     AFTER--As after sails, meaning the sails set behind the mast. In a
     sloop the mainsail is an after sail and the jib a foreward one.

     AHEAD--In front of, as a buoy is ahead when steering towards it.

     A-LEE--An order to put the helm over towards the lee side. The
     helm is hard a-lee when it is as far over towards the lee side as
     it will go.

     ALOFT--Up above.

     ALONGSIDE--Close to the side.

     AMIDSHIPS--In line with the keel.

     ANCHOR--The instrument used to hold a vessel to the bottom,
     usually made of iron.

     ASTERN--Behind the vessel.

     ATHWART--Across, as athwartships, meaning that a thing is lying
     across the vessel.

     AVAST--An order to stop.

     A-WEATHER--An order to put the helm towards the windward side.

     BALLAST--Weight placed in or hung to the bottom of a boat to keep
     her upright.

     BEATING--Tacking. Sailing towards the source of the wind by making
     a series of tacks.

     BECALMED--Being without enough wind to propel the boat.

     BEEHOLE--A hole bored in a spar for a rope to pass through and
     move freely.

     BELAY--To make a rope fast to cleat or pin.

     BEND--To bend is to fasten, as to bend a sail, i. e., lace it to
     the spars. Bend the cable, meaning to fasten it to the anchor.

     BIGHT--The slack or loop of a rope.

     BILGE--The inside of the lower part of the bottom of a boat, where
     the water she leaks in stands.

     BINNACLE--A box for the steering compass which can be lighted at
     night.

     BLOCKS--The instrument through which ropes are rove so as to
     facilitate the hoisting and trimming of the sails, called by
     landsmen pulleys.

     BOARD--A tack.

     BOBSTAY--A rope generally of wire extending from the end of the
     bowsprit to the stem to hold the spar down.

     BOLT-ROPE--The rope sewn round the edge of a sail to strengthen it.

     BOOM--The spar used to extend the foot of the mainsail or foresail.

     BOW--The forward end of a boat.

     BOWSPRIT--The spar thrust out from the bow upon which the jib is
     set.

     BURGEE--The ensign or house flag of a yacht club.

     BY THE HEAD--A boat is said to be by the head, when she is drawing
     more water forward than aft, or is out of trim owing to her bows
     being overloaded and depressed.

     BY THE STERN--The opposite to by the head.

     BY THE WIND--Same as on the wind, or close-hauled.

     CABLE--A rope or chain used to anchor a boat.

     CAPSIZE--To upset.

     CAST OFF--To loosen, as cast off that line.

     CASTING--To pay a boat's head off from a mooring by getting the
     sails aback or by using a spring line.

     CAT RIG--A vessel with one mast, placed right in the bow, and
     carrying a single sail.

     CENTERBOARD--A keel that can be lifted up and down. It is hung in
     a trunk or box which is built up inside the boat to keep the water
     out.

     CLEAT--A piece of wood, iron or brass used to fasten or belay
     ropes to.

     CLEWS--The corners of a sail.

     CLOSE-HAULED--A vessel is close-hauled when she is sailing as
     close to the wind as possible.

     COIL--To gather a rope into a series of circles so that it will
     roll out again without getting tangled.

     CON--To direct a helmsman how to steer.

     COURSE--The direction or path which a boat sails.

     CRINGLE--An eye worked in the bolt rope of a sail for a small line
     to pass through.

     CROTCH--Two pieces of wood put together like a pair of scissors
     and used to hold the boom up when the vessel is at anchor.

     DOWNHAUL--A rope used to haul a sail down.

     DRAUGHT--The depth of water necessary to float a boat, the amount
     in feet and inches a vessel's hull is immersed.

     DRIFT--To move sideways or sternways, as when a boat is becalmed.
     The drift of a tide or current is its velocity.

     ENSIGN--The national flag always flown furthest aft, either from
     the gaff end or on a flagpole over the stern.

     FATHOM--Six feet. A measure used by seamen principally to
     designate depths of water.

     FLUKES--The broad, arrow-shaped parts of an anchor.

     FORE--The part of a vessel nearest to the bow.

     FORE AND AFT--Parallel to the keel. A fore-and-after is a vessel
     without square sails like a sloop or schooner.

     FOUL--Entangled or caught, as a rope is foul, meaning it is caught
     in someway. To foul another boat is to run into it.

     FURL--To roll up and make sails fast so that the wind cannot
     distend them.

     GAFF--The spar that extends the head of a main or foresail.

     GASKET--A short piece of rope used to tie up sails with,
     frequently called a stop.

     GRIPE--A boat is said to gripe when she tries to force her bow up
     in the wind, and has to be held off by putting the helm up.

     HALYARDS--Ropes used to hoist a sail.

     HANKS--Rings made fast to the luff of a jib to hold it to the stay
     up which it is hoisted. On small boats snap-hooks are generally
     used.

     HAUL--To pull.

     HEEL--A vessel is said to heel when she leans to one side. This
     term is often confused with careen.

     HELM--The tiller.

     HITCH--To hitch is to make fast. A hitch is a simple turn of rope
     used to make fast with.

     HOVE-TO--Brought to the wind and kept stationary by having the
     sails trimmed so that part of the canvas pushes the vessel
     backward and part pushes her forward; often confused with lying-to.

     HULL--The body of a vessel.

     IRONS--A vessel is in irons when having lost steerageway she
     refuses to obey the helm.

     JIBING--Passing a sail from one side to the other when a vessel is
     sailing free.

     KEEL--The largest and lowest timber of a vessel, upon which the
     hull is erected.

     LEACH--The after edge of a sail.

     LEEWARD--The direction toward which the wind is blowing.

     LONG LEG--The tack upon which a vessel in beating to windward
     remains longest, owing to her point of destination not lying
     directly in the wind. See diagram.

     LOG--The record kept of a vessel's work. A ship's diary. Also an
     instrument for ascertaining a vessel's speed through the water.

     LUFF--The fore edge of a sail, also an order to bring a vessel
     closer to the wind.

     LYING-TO--A vessel is lying-to when she is brought close to the
     wind under short sail and allowed to ride out a storm. See hove-to.

     MOOR--To anchor a vessel with two or more anchors. To tie up to a
     mooring.

     MOORING--A permanent anchor.

     NEAR--A vessel is said to be near when her sails are not properly
     full of wind, owing to her being steered too close.

     MISS-STAY--To fail to tack or go about.

     OFF AND ON--When beating to windward to approach the land on one
     tack and leave it on the other.

     OVERHAUL--To haul a rope through a block so as to see it all
     clear. To overtake another vessel.

     PAINTER--The rope attached to the bow of boat by which it is made
     fast.

     PART--To part a rope is to break it.

     PAY OFF--To pay off is to recede from the wind or from a dock.

     PEAK UP--To peak up a sail is to haul on the peak halyards so as
     to elevate the outer end of the gaff.

     POOPING--A vessel is said to be pooped when, owing to her not
     moving fast enough ahead, the sea breaks over her stern.

     PORT--The left-hand side of a vessel looking forward, formerly
     called larboard. Designating color, red.

     PREVENTER--A rope used to prevent the straining or breaking of a
     spar or sail.

     PENNANT--A narrow flag, also a short piece of rope commonly
     spelled pendant.

     QUARTER--See diagram A.

     RAKE--The inclination of a spar out of the perpendicular.

     REEF--To reduce a sail by rolling up and tying part of it to a
     spar.

     REEVE--To pass a rope through a block.

     RIDE--As to ride at anchor.

     RIGHT--A vessel is said to right when after being on her side she
     regains an upright position.

     RIGHT THE HELM--To put it amidships.

     RODE--A hawser used to anchor with.

     SCOPE--The length of cable a vessel is riding to when at anchor.

     SERVE--To wind cord or canvas round a rope or spar to protect it
     from chafing.

     SEIZE--To make fast by taking a number of turns with small line.

     SHEER--To sheer is to move away from the proper course. The sheer
     of a vessel is the fore-and-aft curve of the deck line.

     SHIP--To ship is to take on board.

     SHIVER--To shake the canvas by bringing the luff in the wind.

     SLACK--The part of a rope that hangs loose.

     SLIP--To slip is to let go of a cable without taking it on board.

     SNUB--To check the cable when running out.

     SOUND--To try the depth of water by casting the lead.

     SPILL--To throw the wind out of a sail by putting the helm down or
     by easing the sheet.

     SPRING--To spring a spar is to crack it.

     SPRING--A rope used to cast or turn a vessel.

     STAND ON--To keep a course--to proceed in the same direction.

     STAND-BY--To be ready for action, as stand-by to let go the anchor.

     STARBOARD--The right-hand side looking forward. Designating color,
     green.

     STEER--To direct a vessel by employing the helm.

     STOW--To furl. Properly speaking, a boom sail or any sail that
     lowers down is stowed. Square sails are furled.

     SWIG--To haul a rope by holding a turn round a cleat and pulling
     off laterally.

     TACK--To beat to windward. See diagram.

     TACKLE--An assemblage of blocks and rope used to hoist and control
     sails, lift spars, etc.

     TAUT--Tight.

     TENDER--The small boat carried by a yacht generally called a
     dingey.

     TOW--To drag behind.

     TRUCK--The uttermost upper end of the mast through which the
     signal halyard is rove.

     UNBEND--To untie, as--unbend the cable.

     WAKE--The furrow left by the passage of the vessel through the
     water.

     WEAR OR VEER--The opposite of tacking--to turn from the wind.

     WARP--A hawser used to make fast with. To warp is to haul or move
     a vessel by pulling on such a rope.

     WATCH--A division of the crew, also the space of time they are on
     duty.

     WAY--A vessel's progress through the water. To get underway--to
     set sail, to move off.

     WEATHER--To weather a vessel or object is to pass to windward of
     it.

     WEATHER SIDE--The side upon which the wind blows.

     WEATHER SHORE--The weather shore is the shore from off of which
     the wind blows if viewed from the sea, but it is the shore upon
     which the wind blows if viewed from the land.

     WEIGH OR WAY--To way the anchor is to lift it from the bottom.

     WIND'S EYE--The exact direction from which the wind blows.

     WINDWARD--Toward the place from where the wind comes. To go to
     windward of another vessel is to pass between her and the source
     of the wind.

     YAW--To swerve from side to side as a vessel does when running
     free.



_Diagrams and Plans_


[Illustration: DIAGRAM D.--BOAT, FROM 1 TO 6, IS BEARING AWAY OR
KEEPING OFF FROM THE WIND; BOAT, FROM 8 TO 13, IS LUFFING OR NEARING
THE WIND.]


_DIAGRAM C._

     1--Close-hauled on port tack.

     2--Wind forward of the beam.

     3--Wind abeam.

     4-- " abaft the beam.

     5-- " on the quarter.

     6-- " astern.

     7-- " dead astern.

     8--Jibed over to starboard tack.

     9--Wind on the quarter.

     10-- " abaft the beam.

     11-- " abeam.

     12-- " forward of the beam.

     13--Close-hauled on starboard tack.

[Illustration: SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF CAT BOAT.]


_SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF CAT BOAT._

     1--Hull.

     2--Cabin house.

     3--Main mast.

     4-- " boom.

     5-- " gaff.

     6--Companionway or hatch.

     7--Main sheet.

     8--Topping lift.

     9--Lazy jacks.

     10--Peak halyards.

     12-- " " bridle.

     11--Throat "

     13--Jaws of gaff.

     15--Head stay.

     16--Shroud.

     17--Strut.

     18--Bitts.

     19--Cockpit.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF CAT BOAT.]


_SAIL PLAN OF CAT BOAT._

     1--Mainsail.

     2--   "     luff.

     3--   "     leach.

     4--   "     head.

     5--   "     foot.

     6--Mainsail throat.

     7--   "     peak.

     8--   "     tack.

     9--   "     clew.

[Illustration: SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF POLE MAST SLOOP.]


_SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF SLOOP._

     1--Freeboard.

     2--Rail.

     3--Mast.

     4--Main boom.

     5--Gaff.

     6--Bowsprit.

     7--Bobstay.

     8--Strut.

     9--Main sheet.

     10--Peak halyards.

     11--Throat   "

     12--Topping lift.

     13--Lazy jacks.

     14--Preventer or shifting backstay.

     15--Gaff jaws.

     16--Boom jaws or gooseneck.

     17--Shroud to hounds.

     18-- " to mast head.

     19--Peak halyard bridle.

     20--Fore stay.

     21--Jib stay.

     22--Fore staysail halyards.

     23--Jib halyards.

     24--Cockpit coaming.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF POLE MAST SLOOP.]


_SAIL PLAN OF POLE MAST SLOOP._

     1--Mainsail.

     4--   "     peak.

     5--   "     throat.

     6--   "     tack.

     7--   "     clew.

     2--Fore staysail.

     8-- "      "     head.

     9--Fore staysail tack.

     10-- "      "     clew.

     3--Jib.

     11-- "  head.

     12-- "  tack.

     13-- " clew.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF TOPSAIL SLOOP.]


_SAIL PLAN OF TOPSAIL SLOOP._

     1--Mainsail.

     6--  "  peak.

     7--  "  throat.

     8--  "  tack.

     9--  "  clew.

     2--Fore staysail.

     10-- "   "  head.

     11-- "   "  tack.

     12-- "   "  clew.

     3--Jib.

     13-- " head.

     14--Jib tack.

     15-- " clew.

     4--Jib topsail.

     16-- "  "  head.

     17-- "  "  tack.

     18-- "  "  clew.

     5--Topsail.

     19-- "  head.

     20-- "  clew.

     21-- "  tack.

[Illustration: SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF YAWL.]


_SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF YAWL._

     1--Hull.

     2--Cabin house.

     3--Cockpit rail or coaming.

     4--Main mast.

     5--Mizzen mast.

     6--Main boom.

     7-- " gaff.

     8--Mizzen boom.

     9-- "  gaff.

     10--Main sheet.

     11--Mizzen "

     12--Main peak halyards.

     13--Main throat halyards.

     14--Mizzen peak "

     15-- "  throat "

     16--Main topping lift.

     17--Mizzen "  "

     18--Main shrouds.

     19--Mizzen "

     20--Jib stay.

     21-- " halyards.

     22--Bowsprit.

     23--Bobstay.

     24--Boomkin.

     25-- "   stay.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF YAWL.]


_SAIL PLAN OF YAWL._

     1--Mainsail.

     4-- "  peak.

     5-- "  tack.

     6-- "  throat.

     8-- "  clew.

     2--Mizzen.

     9-- "  peak.

     10--Mizzen throat.

     11-- "   tack.

     12-- "   clew.

     3--Jib.

     13-- " head.

     14-- " tack.

     15-- " clew.

[Illustration: _SAIL PLAN OF KETCH._]


_SAIL PLAN OF KETCH._

     1--Mainsail.

     7-- "  peak.

     8-- "  throat.

     9-- "  tack.

     10-- "  clew.

     2--Mizzen.

     11-- "  peak.

     12-- "  throat.

     13-- "  tack.

     14-- "  clew.

     3--Fore staysail.

     15--"   "  head.

     16--"   "  tack.

     17--Fore staysail clew.

     4--Jib.

     18-- " head.

     19-- " tack.

     20-- " clew.

     5--Jib topsail.

     21-- "  "  head.

     22-- "  "  tack.

     23-- "  "  clew.

     6--Topsail.

     24-- "  head.

     25-- "  clew.

     26-- "  tack.

[Illustration: SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF SCHOONER.]


_SPAR AND RIGGING PLAN OF SCHOONER._

     1--Freeboard.

     2--Rail.

     3--Cabin house.

     4--Wheel.

     5--Fore hatch.

     6-- " mast.

     7-- " topmast.

     8-- " truck.

     9-- " doublings.

     10--Main mast.

     11-- " topmast.

     12-- " truck.

     13--Head of main mast and doublings.

     14--Fore boom.

     15-- " gaff.

     16--Main boom.

     17-- " gaff.

     18--Fore sheet.

     19-- " peak halyards.

     20-- " throat "

     21-- " peak halyard bridles.

     22--Main sheet.

     23-- " peak halyards.

     24-- " throat "

     25-- " peak halyard bridles.

     26--Fore topping lift.

     27--Main " "

     28--Preventer backstay or runner.

     29--Topmast preventer backstay.

     30--Bowsprit.

     31--Bobstay.

     32--Fore stay.

     33--Fore staysail halyards.

     34--Jib stay.

     35-- " halyards.

     36-- " topsail stay.

     37--" " halyards.

     38--Triatic stay.

     39--Spring stay.

     40--Main topmast stay.

[Illustration: SAIL PLAN OF SCHOONER.]


_SAIL PLAN OF SCHOONER._

     1--Mainsail.

     9-- " peak.

     10-- " throat.

     11-- " tack.

     12-- " clew.

     2--Fore sail.

     13-- " " peak.

     14-- " " tack.

     15-- " " clew.

     3--Fore staysail.

     16-- " " head.

     17-- " " tack.

     18-- " " clew.

     4--Jib.

     19-- " head.

     20-- " tack.

     21-- " clew.

     5--Jib topsail.

     22--" " head.

     23--Jib topsail tack.

     24-- " " clew.

     6--Main topsail.

     25-- " " head.

     26-- " " clew.

     27-- " " tack.

     7--Fore topsail.

     28-- " " head.

     29-- " " clew.

     8--Main topmast staysail.

     30-- " " " head.

     31--Upper tack.

     32--Lower tack.

     33--Clew.



_LIST OF BOOKS._


The following books are recommended to the young yachtsman. From them
he can obtain information of value, and a study of their pages will
materially aid him in gaining a thorough knowledge of the seaman's art:

  On Yachts and Yacht Handling       _Day_
  Hints to Young Yacht Skippers      _Day_
  Small Boat Sailing                 _Knight_
  Boat Sailor's Manual               _Qualtrough_
  Knots and Splices                  _Jutsum_
  Canoe Handling                     _Vaux_
  Elements of Navigation             _Henderson_
  How to Swim                        _Dalton_


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BY THOMAS FLEMING DAY

The first volume of a series of technical books that will be an
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CONTENTS

[Illustration]

  On Seamanship
  On Boats in General
  On One-Man Boats
  On Seagoing Boats
  On Sails as an Auxiliary
  On Reefing
  On Anchors and Anchoring
  On Rigging
  On Stranding

In this book Mr. Day has dropped all technical terms that are apt to
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                            Hints to Young
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                         By THOMAS FLEMING DAY

Hints on buying, rigging, keeping, handling, maneuvering, repairing,
canvasing and navigating small yachts and boats.

Experience compounded with common sense and offered in a condensed form.

Illustrated with drawings and plans.

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CANOE HANDLING AND SAILING

BY C. BOWYER VAUX ("Dot")

     The Canoe--history, uses, limitations and varieties; practical
     management and care, and relative facts. New and revised edition
     with additional matter.

Illustrated, cloth, 168 pages

=Price, postpaid, $1.00=


SMALL BOAT SAILING

By KNIGHT

A very readable and instructive book containing useful information of
all types of craft.

=Price, postpaid, $1.50=


YACHT SAILS AND HOW TO HANDLE THEM

By CAPTAIN HOWARD PATTERSON

     A comprehensive treatise on working and racing sail; how they are
     made; the running rigging belonging to them; the manner in which
     they are confined to there respective spars, stays, etc.; the way
     they are bent and unbent, etc. A book as applicable for the small
     boat as for the large yacht. It should be in the library of every
     Corinthian sailor. Illustrated. Convenient size for the pocket.

=Price, postpaid, $1.00=


ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN

By NORMAN L. SKENE, S. B.

A simple and satisfactory explanation of the art of designing yachts.
Contents--General Discussions, Methods of Calculations, Displacement,
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Construction.

     Fully Illustrated with Diagrams and Tables.

=Price, postpaid, $2.00=

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HOW TO SWIM

BY CAPT. DAVIS DALTON

     Champion Long-distance Swimmer of the World. Chief Inspector of
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     A practical treatise upon the art of natation, together with
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12mo., 120 pages

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ELEMENTS OF NAVIGATION

By W. J. HENDERSON

     This little book, a very clever abridgement and complication of
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     the lot, and I recommend it to those who are anxious to study
     navigation.--EDITOR OF THE RUDDER.

=Price, postpaid, $1.00=


KNOTS AND SPLICES

By CAPTAIN JUTSUM

How to make them; showing various strands in different colors in course
of construction. Also tables of strength of ropes, wire rigging,
chains, etc.

=Price, postpaid, $1.00=


THE BOAT SAILORS' MANUAL

By E. F. QUALTROUGH, U. S. N.

A complete treatise of the management of sailing boats of all kinds and
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=Price, postpaid, $1.50=

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[Illustration]

Simplest, safest and fastest boat that can be built. 16 feet over all;
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The plans were published in 1898, and since then some 1,000 boats have
been built from them. The book has numerous illustrations of boats in
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How to Build a Skipjack

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How to Build a Knockabout

[Illustration]

The most wholesome type of boat for all-around cruising and racing. 32
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The Latest How-To Book

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                               a ROWBOAT

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  HOW TO SAIL A MODEL YACHT,
              HOW TO CUT AND MAKE SAILS

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fully and clearly. Good book for a beginner; excellent for an old hand.
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_The Cat Book_

  Containing the designs and plans of twelve Cabin Cats

                                        _Price, $1.00_

_The Yawl Book_

  Contains designs and plans of twelve Yawl-Rigged Boats

                                        _Price, $1.00_

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                                        _Price, $1.00_

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TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL

  Amateur Sailing. By Biddle                                          $1.50
  Art and Science of Sailmaking. By Sadler                             5.00
  A Text-Book on Marine Motors. By Captain Du Boulay                   2.50
  Astronomy for Everybody.  By S. Newcombe  $2.00; by express paid,    2.15
  American Merchant's Marine.  By Marvin    $2.00;       “     “       2.22
  American Yachting.  By W. P. Stephens     $2.00; by mail             2.15
  A, B, C of Swimming. By ex-Captain of a London Swimming Club          .50
  A B C of Motoring                                                     .50
  Aids to Stability. By H. Owen                                        1.50
  A Manual of Mechanical Drawing. By P. D. Johnson                     2.00

  Boat Sailor's Manual.  By E. F. Qualtrough                           1.50
  Building Model Boats.  By P. N. Hasluck                               .50

  Canoe Handling. By C. B. Vaux                                        1.00
  Coast Pilot for Atlantic Coast, Illustrated                          1.25
  Coast Pilot for the Lakes. By Scott                                  1.50
  Corinthian Yachtsman                                                 1.50
  Canvas Canoes--How to Build Them. By Field                            .50
  Canoe Cruising and Camping.  By P. D. Frazer                         1.00
  Canoe and Camera.  By Steele                                         1.00
  Canoe and Boatbuilding for Amateurs.  By Stevens                     2.00
  Canoe and Camp Cookery.  By Seneca                                   1.00

  Dry Batteries.  By a Dry Battery Expert                               .25

  Eldredge's Tide-Book                                                  .50
  Elements of Navigation.  By Henderson                                1.00
  Elements of Yacht Design.  By Norman L. Skene                        2.00

  Fore-and-Aft Seamanship                                               .50

  Gas Engine Handbook.  By Roberts. 2nd edition                        1.50
  Gas Engines and Their Troubles                                       1.50

  Handbook of Naval Gunnery. By Radford                                2.00

  RUDDER HOW-TO SERIES--
      How to Build a Racer for $50                                     1.00
      How to Build a Skip Jack                                         1.00
      How to Build a Racing Sloop                                      1.00
      How to Build a Knockabout                                        1.00
      How to Build a 3 H. P. Motor                                     2.50
      How to Build a Motor Launch                                      1.00
      How to Build a Model Yacht                                       1.00
      How to Build a Flattie or Sharpie                                1.00
      How to Build a Shoal-Draught Sloop                               1.00
      How to Build a Speed Launch                                      1.00
      How to Build a Row Boat                                          1.00
      How to Make Knots, Bends and Splices                              .50
      How to Swim. By Capt. Dalton                                     1.00

  Hints to Beginners in Amateur Yacht Designing                        1.00

  Illustrated Coast Pilot. By N. L. Stebbins               $1; by mail 1.25

  Kedge Anchor. By Patterson                                           1.00
  Knots and Splices. By Capt. Jutsum                                   1.00

  Long Island Sound Yacht Racing Association Rules                      .25
  Lloyds' Yacht Register, 1904                                         7.50
  Lucas' Questions and Answers for Marine Engineers                    2.00

  Model Engines and Small Boats. By Hopkins                            1.25
  Masting and Rigging. By Robert Kipping                               1.00
  Model Yachts. By Grosvenor                                           2.00
  Manual of the Canvas Canoe. By Webb                                  1.25
  Marine Engineers--How to Become One. By E. G. Constantine            2.50
  Mechanics' and Engineers' Pocketbook. By Charles H. Haswell          4.00
  Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing. By Dixon Kemp                     12.00
  Modern Seamanship. By Knight                                         6.00
  Mechanical Drawing. By Hawkins                                       2.00
  Motor Rules American Power Boat Association                           .25
  Modern Practice of Shipbuilding Iron and Steel. By Thearle (2 vols.) 5.25

  Navigation for Yachtsmen. By V. J. English, R. N.                    7.50
  Naval Militiaman's Guide. By J. H. Barnard                           1.25
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  Naval Architecture. A Manual on Laying-Off. By Watson                5.00

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       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:
Obvious typographical and punctuation errors were repaired.





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