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Title: The 116th Battalion in France
Author: Allen, E. P. S.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Cover]



[Illustration: COLOURS OF SOME CANADIAN BATTALIONS ON WOLFE'S MONUMENT
IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY

The 116th Batt. Colours are in the centre. These colours were worked
and presented to the Battalion by the ladies of Ontario County]



                                  THE
                            116TH BATTALION
                               IN FRANCE

  [Illustration: 116 CANADA OVERSEAS BATTALION]

                                  BY
                             THE ADJUTANT

                                 1921



                       _Copyright, Canada, 1921,
                      by E. P. S. Allen, Toronto_


                 PRESS OF THE HUNTER-ROSE CO. LIMITED



                                PREFACE


With the assistance of the official "War Diary" and the proud memory
of two years' service with the 116th Battalion C.E.F. in France,
the writer has compiled this small book for all ex-members of the
Battalion, with the hope that they may find somewhere within its
pages the reminiscence of days spent together, battles fought, and
friendships made; and for the parents, relatives, and friends whose
loved ones fell whilst fighting in the ranks of the Battalion, as a
token of remembrance and sympathy.

                                                          THE ADJUTANT.



                               CONTENTS


                                               PAGE
  INTRODUCTION                               7

  CHAPTER    I.--SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE        13

  CHAPTER   II.--VIMY RIDGE                 19

  CHAPTER  III.--UMPTY UMPS                 27

  CHAPTER   IV.--THE RAID                   31

  CHAPTER    V.--HILL SEVENTY               40

  CHAPTER   VI.--PASSCHENDAELE              49

  CHAPTER  VII.--REST BILLETS               53

  CHAPTER VIII.--AUGUST 8TH                 62

  CHAPTER   IX.--THE BOIRY SHOW             72

  CHAPTER    X.--CAMBRAI                    82

  CHAPTER   XI.--MONS                       87

  HONOR ROLL                                94



                             INTRODUCTION


There were very few, if any, Canadian Militia Regiments that succeeded
in keeping their identity in France throughout the Great War. The
reasons for this were--Firstly, the recruiting system, by means of
which men were gathered into the Battalions of the Expeditionary Force,
through the different Militia Regiments; the majority of the overseas
Battalions being formed by drafts from three, four, five and sometimes
more different Regiments. Secondly, the method of reinforcement, which
distributed officers and men to Battalions in France disregarding any
other principle except that these officers and men were from the same
Province as the Battalion to which they were going. And even this did
not hold good at all times.

The fact remains, however, that the 116th Battalion was recruited and
fostered in the County of Ontario and led to France and in France by an
officer of the 34th Regiment. In consequence, a few details concerning
the military history of that County and the parent regiment may be of
interest to those members of the 116th who joined the Battalion from
other parts of the Province and through other regiments.

The County of Ontario can justly claim credit to have been one of the
first counties in the Province to recognize and fulfil its militia
obligations, the first company of militia in the County being formed at
Oshawa and known as The Oshawa Rifle Company.

Lieut. Colonel Bick, the Commanding Officer of the 34th Regiment, has
in his possession a bugle with the following inscription:

 "Presented by the Ladies of Oshawa to the Oshawa Rifle Company on
 their return home from the Front, June 1866."

The 34th Ontario County Regiment was organized in accordance with
the general orders of September 14th, 1866, and was composed of ten
companies and H.Q. as follows:--

  Battalion and Staff H.Q.      Whitby
  No. 1 Company                 Whitby
      2   "                     Brooklin
      3   "                     Oshawa
      4   "                     Greenwood
      5   "                     Port Perry
      6   "                     Uxbridge
      7   "                     Beaverton
      8   "                     Pickering
      9   "                     Columbus
     10   "                     Cannington

Sometime afterwards the Battalion was reduced to seven companies, those
at Greenwood, Port Perry and Columbus being eliminated.

In 1905 one more Company was added with Headquarters at Brechin and the
distribution at the present time is as follows:--

  Regimental H.Q.      Whitby
  A. Company           Oshawa
  B.    "              Whitby
  C.    "              Oshawa
  D.    "              Beaverton
  E.    "              Uxbridge
  F.    "              Port Perry
  G.    "              Cannington
  H.    "              Oshawa.

During the Fenian Raids of 1866 and 1868, Ontario County contributed
its quota and a number of Ontario County men saw service in the
North-West Rebellion of 1885, some of whom are still living in the
County.

When war broke out in August, 1914, recruiting centres were established
throughout Ontario County, and almost immediately the 34th Regiment was
asked to supply a draft of 125 men for the First Contingent.

So great was the response to the call for this draft that finally 7
officers and 200 other ranks went to Valcartier to join the 2nd and 4th
Battalions.

During the interval between the departure of the First Contingent and
the enrolling of the Second, a great deal of preparatory work was done,
but recruiting was not the only military activity of the times, as
there was considerable anxiety felt throughout the County regarding the
attitude of the alien population.

The public buildings throughout the County were placed under guard, and
upwards of 300 aliens were paroled and kept under surveillance. Great
credit is due to Major A. F. Hind, at that time Chief of Police in
Oshawa and later an officer in the 116th Battalion, for the efficient
way in which this work was carried on.

During the month of May, 1915, Lieut. Colonel Bick, Officer Commanding
the 34th Regiment, prior to his departure for Niagara with the 37th
Overseas Battalion, appointed Captain G. W. P. Every of Whitby (later
transferred to the 116th Battalion), to carry on recruiting throughout
the County. Many small drafts of officers and men were despatched to
the different overseas Battalions at that time being formed, including
27 other ranks to the 58th Battalion which was afterwards closely
connected with the 116th in France; and so things went along until
October, 1915, when the 116th Ontario County Battalion was authorized.
Major S. S. Sharpe, second in command of the 34th Regiment, was given
the command of the Battalion. Headquarters were established at Uxbridge
with companies distributed as follows:--

  A. Company   Uxbridge     Major H. P. Cooke
  B.    "      Beaverton    Major F. H. Moody
  C.    "      Whitby       Major G. W. P. Every
  D.    "      Oshawa       Major A. F. Hind

Lieut.-Colonel Sharpe immediately set to work to enlist the sympathy
and secure the co-operation of the citizens in all parts of the County.

A Civilian Recruiting League was formed and a deputation sent to
wait upon the County Council and ask for financial assistance. The
County Council responded in a magnificent manner to the request and
voted $5,000 to the 116th Battalion--$2,000 for the purchase of band
instruments, and $3,000 for recruiting purposes.

Many other generous donations were made to the Battalion by the people
of Ontario County including the Colours of the Battalion, which were
carried through Belgium, with great pride, after the Armistice.

The progress made in recruiting during the winter was such that by
May, 1916, the Battalion was 1,145 strong, and on the 23rd of July,
1916, set sail from Halifax for England on the old reliable H.M.T.
"Olympic."

[Illustration: LT.-COL. S. S. SHARPE, D.S.O.]



                              CHAPTER I.

                         SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE.


On the 8th February, 1917, the 116th Battalion, quartered at Witley
Camp, England, was warned to proceed to France on Sunday, 11th
February. Everything, in consequence, was hustle and bustle, and the
Battalion Orderly Room, which at the best of times is no haven of rest,
was inundated with requests for additional information and leave.
There was very little information to be got, other than that we were
really for duty in France, and absolutely no leave, and so we gradually
subsided and commenced preparations for our departure.

The next few days seemed an eternity, for it was greatly feared
that, even though we had received official warning for France, the
Battalion's departure might be delayed on account of mumps; at least
four huts just now being quarantined with that disease. Notwithstanding
many pessimistic prophecies emanating from the M.O. (Capt. James
Moore), the fateful day arrived, and the Battalion, less its horses and
half the transport section, which had been sent on in advance under Lt.
Proctor, entrained at Milford Station at the usual army hour for such
operations (1.10 a.m.), one ten ack emma.

The London and South Western Railway seemed determined to make up for
all its past bad behaviour, and by ten o'clock the same morning we were
all safely tucked away on board His Majesty's Transport "Victoria" with
part of the 66th Imperial Divisional Headquarters and some drafts.
Nothing of any importance happened during the voyage, and no "subs"
were sighted, so far as we knew, so that by noon we had arrived at
Boulogne. A short march brought us to St. Martin's Camp, during which
we were carefully scrutinized by the inhabitants, who shouted many
unintelligible comments at us, but which by the expressions on their
faces we interpreted to be of a complimentary nature. A host of small,
stockingless boys accompanied us all the way from the boat to the
camp, asking the most extraordinary questions in broken English, and
generally ending by "cigarette?" or "bully beef?".

St. Martin's Camp, situated as it was on the side of a hill, and about
five kilometres from Boulogne, did not commend itself to us in any way,
and there was nothing of interest there except the odd Y.M.C.A. or
Salvation Army Hut. The men slept about ten in a tent and the officers
were billeted all together in a kind of barn; blankets and bed rolls
were freely distributed, and having vainly applied for leave to visit
the City we turned in to dream of our dear ones or to wonder what fate
had in store for us during the next few months. There is nothing on
earth quite so trying as waiting for orders, especially when confined
to a camp like St. Martin's, but we were not to be kept in suspense
very long, for at midnight (which, as has been mentioned before, is
about the usual Army hour for such things) orders were received to
move, and by 8 a.m., 12th February, the whole Battalion had entrained
for a destination "Somewhere in France."

The poor old despised London and South Western Railway was a perfect
paradise to the cattle trucks of this train, but what did anything
matter now?

By 8 a.m. the following morning we had detrained at Houdain, at that
time the centre of the rest billets occupied by the 3rd Canadian
Division, and after staying one night in the village of Divion, where
we had our first introduction to Company messing, we finally reached
a place called Haillicourt, from where we could hear the guns all day
and could see the flares along the front at night--and so the war was
getting nearer every minute, or rather we were getting nearer to the
war, and strange to tell the nearer we got the better we thought we
liked it.

It might be well at this point to state that we were under orders to
join the 3rd Canadian Division, and it was generally understood that
we were to take the place of the 60th Battalion, which, although the
junior Battalion of the 9th Brigade, was held in very high esteem as
a fighting unit. The reason given for this most unusual proceeding
was that the 60th Battalion, being originally recruited in Quebec,
could not get sufficient reinforcements from its own Province, and in
consequence was receiving both officers and men from the Province
of Ontario. This method of recruiting was evidently frowned upon by
superior authority, and the 116th Battalion had been chosen out of many
others in England as an alternative to the 60th Battalion, and as a
means of overcoming the Provincial question of reinforcements.

Now, as already stated, the 60th had a wonderful record, and
individually they were as fine a lot of men as one could meet anywhere;
therefore, it is only natural that the news that they were soon to be
broken up should cause consternation in the ranks, not only of the 9th
Brigade, but the whole of the 3rd Division; and this did not increase
the popularity of the 116th.

(As later pointed out by our C.O., we were not only the "baby"
battalion of the Canadian Corps, but we were also the "orphan"
battalion.)

In addition to our family troubles we were without field kitchens or
transport, which made things far from comfortable, and it is certain
that during this period our inexperience proved to be our salvation.
We were fresh and eager to do credit to the name of our unit and our
Commanding Officer (Col. Sharpe), whose untiring energies had succeeded
in gaining a place for us in France; so we dealt with our experiences
as we found them and passed through them to others.

[Illustration: BRAMSHOTT GROUP (1916)

 _Back Row_:--Lts. R. C. Henry, M. R. Jacobi, A. W. Baird, F. W. Ott,
 R. J. Blain, W. S. Duncan, J. A. Proctor, W. J. Preston, M. Crabtree,
 C. L. S. Newton.

 _Third Row_:--Lt. H. H. Hyland, Lt. J. J. Doble, Capt. W. E. Shier,
 Maj. F. H. Moody, Maj. H. P. Cooke, Capt. A. F. Hind, Maj. G. W. P.
 Every, Capt. A. W. Pratt, Capt. H. V. Gould, Capt. H. L. Major, Capt.
 G. E. Gilfillan.

 _Second Row_:--Lt. T. W. Hutchison, Lt. G. E. Walls, Capt. J. Moore,
 M.O., Capt. A. W. McConnell (Adjutant), Maj. R. B. Smith, Lt.-Col.
 S. S. Sharp, Maj. C. A. V. McCormack, Capt. J. Garbutt, Capt. A. C.
 McFarlane, Capt. N. E. Fairhead, Capt. C. G. Cowan.

 _Front Row_:--Lt. C. S. Lennox, Lt. J. H. Hughes, Lt. K. L. Wallace.]

Whilst at Haillicourt the Battalion was inspected by Major-General
Lipsett, G.O.C. 3rd Division, and by Lieut.-General Sir Julian Byng,
G.O.C. Canadian Corps, and after about two weeks' training in the
new platoon formation we were moved to Faucquenheim, in order to be
closer to the other battalions of the 9th Brigade. The real reason
for this move was made obvious during the next few days when orders
were received on the 5th March for the Battalion to be split up in the
following manner:--

  A. Company was to go to the 58th Battalion;
  B. Company to the 60th Battalion;
  C. Company to the 43rd Battalion;
  D. Company to the 52nd Battalion.

The object of this being to give the Battalion training in actual
warfare with men who were already experienced in front line work.
Further, each Company was split up so that one platoon was apportioned
to each Company of the different Battalions as above, and all that now
remained of the youthful 116th was an ardent desire to get through the
"baptism of fire" with as much glory and as few casualties as possible.

On the 11th March the 9th Brigade, composed of the 43rd, 52nd, 58th and
60th Battalions, moved into the trenches at the foot of Vimy Ridge,
accompanied by their unwelcome but willing guests from the 116th.
Apart from working parties and general trench routine, which to the
inexperienced is all more or less exciting (especially the working
parties), nothing of any great military value was accomplished during
this tour, and by the 25th of the month our Battalion was reassembled
at old friend Houdain, where the experiences of the past fortnight
were feverishly discussed and compared. It was generally conceded that
trench warfare had not all the advantages the instructors at Bramshott
had claimed for it, and that "Take Me Back to Dear Old Blighty" was not
such a rotten song after all.

Several of the Companies had encountered mud in the trenches, well
over their knees, and, as military overcoats are not constructed for
mud wading, a great many of the men in these Companies, following the
advice of the "old" soldiers in the Battalions to which they were
attached, had cut their coats in accordance, not with orders from
the 9th Brigade, but with the depth of the mud encountered. As these
tailoring alterations were for the most part made by means of the
Service Jack Knife the results were hardly in keeping with (K.R. and
O.), and by the look on the C.O.'s face when he inspected the Battalion
for the first time after its reassembly at Houdain there was certainly
trouble in store for somebody.

The next day saw about 200 brave, but ragged warriors, lined up outside
Battalion Orderly Room, awaiting sentence for destroying Government
property. The sentences were not severe, but the Battalion tailor had
his hands full for a while.



                              CHAPTER II.

                              VIMY RIDGE.


Our sojourn in Houdain was short and sweet. The villagers did
everything in their power to make us comfortable, and in return the
local _estaminets_ were well patronized. The boys of No. 7 platoon
who were quartered in a brewery were particularly loath to leave, but
a pile of trouble was in store for the Canadians, and it was quite
universally known that on the 9th of April the Canadian Corps was to
carry out an operation in conjunction with Imperial troops that would
result in the immediate departure of the enemy from the summit of Vimy
Ridge.

For two years he had looked down into our trenches from the top of that
accursed ridge, which had been lost by the French in the early days
of the war. He could see the country behind our lines for a distance
of about 5 miles, and although every artifice in the dictionary of
camouflage had been used to conceal the hundreds of guns which were
hauled in, under cover of darkness, for the attack, Mister Fritz
could not help seeing something of our preparations. His nerves were
certainly on edge, but it was equally certain that he underestimated
both the strength and number of our guns and the courage of the
assaulting troops.

To drive him from the top of the ridge we must advance a distance
of nearly three miles, uphill, over deep mud and shell holes, and
through barbed wire entanglements strung across the front in a way
that only Germans with a dread of British steel know how to do. Such
an advance, even without a shot being fired from his lines, would be
quite an undertaking; and so he sat back in his deep dug-outs around
the "Zwichen Stellung," and smiled at the idea of anyone taking that
comfortable home away from him.

This, then, was the situation when we received orders on the 7th of
April to vacate our billets in Houdain and take over a series of mud
holes on the top of Mt. St. Eloi, called Dumbell Camp.

From this position, which was right on the edge of a wood (Bois Des
Alleux), we had a wonderful view of Vimy Ridge, and also made an
equally wonderful target for Fritz's high-velocity gunners, who seemed
to suspect, and rightly so, that that wood of ours was a good hiding
place for troops. (There must have been at least two Brigades in the
vicinity, to say nothing of countless ammunition dumps and big guns.)
His shooting was erratic so far as we were concerned, the shells either
going over our heads into the Engineers' Camp or falling short amongst
the mud holes of another battalion.

And here we stayed until the morning of the 9th of April, which was
the day set for the attack. No definite position among the assaulting
troops was assigned to us, the whole of the 9th Brigade being in
reserve, but we were told that we would be used to consolidate the
captured trenches, and that we might win much honour and glory by
conveying ammunition and trench material to the front line, in the
event of a successful attack. These little jobs sound rather tame in
comparison with honest fighting, but in reality they require just as
much skill and courage. Ask any infantry man which he would rather
do--go "over the top" or be in reserve and do working parties, and he
will choose "going over the top" every time. We had not yet reached
the point where we could appreciate these little distinctions, and in
consequence were inclined to underestimate the importance of the part
allotted to us.

The dawn of the 9th of April, 1917, saw perhaps the fiercest and
most scientific artillery barrage of the war (so far) let loose on
the German front and support line trenches. Fritz must surely have
realized that this was something more than the daily "warm up," which
our artillery had been giving him during the last three weeks, and when
its full meaning had sunk into his thick and short-cropped head his
feelings must have been far from happy.

The boot was to be on the other foot now, for instead of watching us
swimming around in the mud of the Souchez Valley, we were soon to see
him flying across the lowland which stretches from the eastern side
of the Ridge towards Avion and Lens, with the lash of our shells and
bullets around his ears.

From our position we could see only the flash of the guns as it was
scarcely daylight, when, like a mighty earthquake, the artillery burst
forth, sounding the keynote of the advance to our waiting comrades in
the trenches.

Gazing into the smoke and dust, caused by the bursting shells, we
vainly tried to picture the drama that had just begun, and many a
prayer for success went up from the watchers on Mount St. Eloi that
morning.

The attack was evidently progressing, for soon after zero hour, we
received orders for one Company to go forward immediately, three
platoons to act as carrying parties, and one platoon for wiring in
front of some strong points which were to be established by the
P.P.C.L.I. The order in which our Companies would be used had been
previously decided by ballot, for it goes without saying that all
four Companies were anxious to be first--"B" Company were the lucky
ones, and under Major Moody, moved out accompanied by a detachment of
Engineers under whose supervision the defences of the strong points
would be constructed. "A" Company (Major Cooke), "C" Company (Major
Currie), and "D" Company (Major Bird) moved out later in the day.

The work by these Companies, acting independently for the first time,
deserves the highest praise, and their adventures throughout that
memorable day would almost fill a book in themselves. The Sector of the
ridge where our Companies were employed had been cleared of the enemy
and by the time that No. 8 platoon had reached the new front line
around La Folie Farm, the German artillerymen, who up till now had been
chiefly engaged in dragging their guns to safety, were searching the
top of the ridge in an endeavour to retard the work of consolidation.
They must have sighted No. 8 platoon, for no sooner had our men begun
work on the wiring schemes than a veritable hail of shells was poured
into them. In spite of heavy casualties the work of consolidation was
continued and completed, and towards midnight all companies reported
in to Dumbell Camp, having lost ten men killed and thirty wounded,
including Company Sergeant Major Graves.

The reports from all parts of the line fulfilled the highest
expectations, and the prisoners' cages were crowded beyond capacity,
but for the next few days there was to be no rest for anyone until our
new line had been so firmly established as to admit of no possibility
for a successful counter-attack by the Bosch.

The following day the Battalion furnished parties to assist in the
general work of consolidation, and at about 5 o'clock in the evening,
orders were received for us to take over the front line from the 8th
Brigade, composed of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th Battalions, C.M.R. It
looked as if we might get into some of the fighting after all, and
with very mixed feelings the inevitable advance party, consisting of
1 officer and 1 N.C.O. from each Company and H.Q., started out in the
direction of a certain map location called "Spandau Haus" where the
C.M.R. Battalions had established their headquarters. The line of
march brought us through territory already well known--Berthonval Farm,
La Targette Corners, Goodman Tunnel, Chassery Crater, etc., and further
on, through territory fresh with the smell of the Bosch.

It is a very curious sensation to walk boldly across the shell holes,
which only recently were called "No Man's Land," and over which we had
been wont to crawl about with our noses pretty close to the ground. By
the time we reached Spandau Haus, night had set in, and to look over
the line with any intelligence would be an impossibility. This must
have been a very joyous relief to the C.M.R.'s, for they were all dog
tired, and to have to more or less instruct a new Battalion in all the
intricacies of a newly captured position was asking them a little too
much after their experiences of the last 36 hours. This is evidently
what Divisional Headquarters thought too, for by the time our party
had returned to Dumbell Camp, having carefully marked on their maps
all the information possible, it was announced that the relief of the
8th Brigade by our Battalion had been cancelled, and that the 60th
Battalion would go forward in our place--shouts of joy, especially by
the advance party, who had done ten miles in the pouring rain. Instead,
therefore, of holding Vimy Ridge against the now infuriated Bosch, we
were reduced to taking over the support trenches soon to be vacated by
the 60th, and at dusk the following day, during a heavy fall of snow,
these changes were successfully carried out. The Battalion was shelled
heavily by 5.9's just as it reached the old crater line, and had
several casualties, including Lt. John Doble, who was killed.

[Illustration: THE ORIGINAL "ORDERLY ROOM STAFF"]

During the next ten days the whole Battalion was engaged in the
reconstruction of the Lens-Arras road, between Thélus and Vimy, which
had been rendered practically impassable by the recent barrages. This
work was both laborious and nerve-racking. Fritz was quite aware that
the road was one of our only lines of communication, having used it
himself, and consequently he was not going to let us put it into good
condition for nothing. Every variety of "hate," large and small, and
generally in series of four, was thrown at that road blocked with
mule transport, guns, ambulances, and working parties (chiefly 116th
Battalion)? and it is the most extraordinary thing that the work of
reconstruction progressed as favorably as it did, and that there were
not more casualties.

During this period opportunities were afforded us for looking over the
Corps front from the top of the ridge, and for admiring the recent
work of our own artillery on the German defences. Whilst reconnoitring
the forward positions Lt. W. K. Kift and Lt. H. L. Major both received
wounds from which they afterwards died. The laborious work of
road-making with its daily toll of casualties continued, until one day,
a note from Battalion Headquarters announced that we would not become
a fighting unit as heretofore decided, but that we would be made into
a pioneer battalion and be attached permanently to the 8th Brigade.
All this in the interest of the Corps, etc., etc., etc. We were still
"chewing the rag" over this latest development when along came the
Colonel himself to announce that all previous orders regarding pioneer
battalions had been cancelled, and that it had been definitely decided
for us to take over the 60th Battalion. In order to do this with the
least confusion possible, we were to be moved back to the Berthonval
Farm area, where Fritz's shells were not likely to disturb us, all of
which prophecies excepting the one concerning the shells came true.



                             CHAPTER III.

                              UMPTY UMPS.


The successful capture of Vimy Ridge ended another chapter in the
annals of the Canadian Corps which was soon to be regarded as second
to none on the Western front. It also witnessed the birth of a new
battalion, whose fame up to the present, had not extended beyond the
borders of the County of Ontario, but whose ideals, if lived up to,
would make it second to none in the gallant Corps to which it now
belonged.

The recent successes had not been achieved without heavy casualties,
and when these casualties were made good by reinforcements it was quite
evident that the other Battalions in our Division were not greatly
superior to our own in the way of old and experienced soldiers. Their
Headquarters were, of course, composed of men who had seen considerable
fighting, but otherwise from now on we were all more or less on an
equal footing.

The months of May and June slipped away, with nothing more important
being allotted to us than taking over a line of trenches and holding
them; in fact, the usual trench routine with working parties mixed
in. As a special treat one night we were allowed to dig a jumping-off
trench for another Battalion, who were conducting a raid in our Sector;
but anything in the nature of real fighting was considered beyond
us for the present, although there was a certain amount going on
practically all the time, the Bosch being pushed gently but firmly away
from the Ridge as far as Avion and Méricourt--a distance of four miles.

In these minor operations, as they were called, the 116th was either
detailed as the supporting Battalion or else the reserve Battalion for
the Brigade, and as the Bosch showed very little inclination to remain
in his then exposed positions, the result was that by the middle of
July the "Umpty Umps" (as we had been nicknamed, not wholly in fun,
by the older units) had not been actually engaged in any action of a
direct nature whatsoever. In spite of this, our casualties had been
quite heavy, indicating that the main line of resistance is not always
the healthiest place to occupy during an engagement; in fact, with the
exception of Major Currie, "C" Company, not one of our original Company
Commanders remained. During one of these tours in the line one of our
companies came across a memorial to the 60th Battalion erected by some
of their men close to the Village of Vimy. The memorial was in the
shape of a cross with the inscription "In memory of the 60th Battalion.
1915--Raised by Patriotism. 1917--Killed by Politics." A reflection
perhaps not entirely without foundation.

On the 5th of July the 9th Brigade was withdrawn to Divisional reserve
at Chateau de la Haie--meaning that for a week at least we would have
no working parties, also that we would all get an opportunity of
having a real live shower bath and a change of underclothes, which in
most cases was an urgent necessity.

It was during this period that the Brigade Commander announced his
intention of formally inspecting us, and at the completion of his
inspection, having congratulated us on our good appearance and also
our general behaviour since joining his Brigade, he pointed out that
although we had shown extraordinary ability at baseball and other
sports, having lately won the Brigade Championship, much to the
discomfiture of the older Battalions, we had not so far proved our
ability in the noblest sport of all, namely, that of "strafing the
Hun." Proceeding, he indicated that we would be given every opportunity
to do this during the next tour of the Brigade in the line. This
announcement was greeted by "prolonged cheering," for there was nothing
to our minds so alluring as the anticipation of getting to grips with
an enemy who had inflicted casualties amongst us, and upon whom we had
had no opportunity for retaliation.

Great was the excitement after the departure of the Brigadier, and many
the conjectures as to the nature of the "opportunity" we had so long
been waiting for; even the visit of King George V., for whom we lined
the road that afternoon, did little or nothing in removing the one
thought that was uppermost in the mind of each one of us.

Having no scheme of our own, it was evidently the duty of Divisional
or Brigade H.Q. to devise some scheme for us, and this they were not
long in doing, for on the 12th of July--four days after the visit of
the Brigadier--we received orders that instead of proceeding up the
line with the rest of the Brigade we would occupy Comak Camp in the
neighborhood of Berthonval Farm and there carry out practices over
taped trenches for a raid, the details of which would be disclosed to
us later.



                              CHAPTER IV.

                               THE RAID.


Just to the south of the Village of Avion there is situated a colliery
called Fossé 4, with its necessary attendant, a large and ugly slag
heap, shaped like a truncated cone. If our front line, at that time,
might be considered as a line running due east and west and just to
the south of Avion, then Fossé 4 was almost entirely within the German
lines, with just the southern fringe of the slag heap extending into
"No Man's Land."

The German front line, so far as this account is concerned, extended
round the base of the slag heap and then south-east, where it joined a
system of trenches known as the Méricourt Maze at about two hundred and
fifty yards distance.

About 300 yards behind the German front line and running parallel to
it was a railway embankment, scarcely less than 24 feet in height; and
about midway between the German lines and our own and parallel to our
line was a road (Quebec Road). Scatter around a few rows of ruined
houses, a garden fence, and a couple of brick piles and you will have
what the 3rd Divisional Staff considered to be an ideal location for a
raid.

The slag heap was reported to be a veritable nest of machine guns,
and trench mortars; the railway embankment was believed to be fairly
honeycombed with dug-outs, but all that was actually and really known
was that the German front line was strongly barricaded and full of
Germans, and that Quebec Road was partly sunken and full of wire. The
place and opportunity having therefore been supplied it remained for us
to fix the time and arrange the details.

Immediately upon arrival at Comak Camp a stretch of ground was selected
for practice, and the Engineers who started at once to work on the
taped trenches, made such good progress that the following morning
everything was in readiness for our first trial. In the meantime a plan
of attack was formulated, of which the following is a brief résumé:
"A" Company (Capt. Gould) would capture and hold the German front line
(known as Metal Trench) looking after any machine guns and trench
mortar posts found on the slag heap, together with all dug-outs in the
neighborhood.

"B" Company (Capt. Allen) on the left, and "C" Company (Major Currie)
on the right would pass through "A" Company continuing on to the
railway embankment, which they would proceed to capture, destroying
all dug-outs and M.G. emplacements. Upon a given signal from Battalion
Headquarters raiding Companies would retire, protected by covering
parties left along the railway embankment and communication trenches,
"A" Company to remain in Metal Trench until all of "B" and "C"
Companies had withdrawn. The most unpleasant job of all, perhaps, that
of holding the Battalion front during the raid, was assigned to "D"
Company (Capt. Ritchie).

[Illustration: THE BATTALION BAND]

The attack was to be carried out at night (1 a.m.) and under cover of
an artillery and M.G. Barrage.

For the next few days the one topic of conversation was the raid, and
at least two practices a day were carried out over the taped trenches,
until we considered ourselves perfect enough to invite the Divisional
and Brigade Commanders to attend our final practice before going into
the line. This they did and pronounced themselves well satisfied.

During these preparations our Commanding Officer, Col. S. Sharpe, was
untiring in his energies towards overcoming the numerous difficulties
that so frequently presented themselves, and he personally led a
reconnoitring party into Avion in broad daylight, which enabled us to
overlook the territory to be raided from the second story of a ruined
house.

On the 18th of July we received orders to move into the line and to
take over the trenches occupied by the 5th C.M.R. At dusk that evening
the Battalion assembled, and after wishing God-speed to Major Cameron,
our Second in Command, who was leaving that night for Canada, a most
stirring and eloquent address was made by Col. Sharpe; so that when we
moved off by Companies in the direction of Vimy Ridge, to the strains
of "John Peel," the regimental march, there was scarcely a more
confident lot of men in the whole Allied Army.

At about 9.30 p.m., on the 22nd July, a start was made to assemble
the raiding Companies behind Quebec Road, which was the jumping-off
position for the raid. Each man was equipped with an electric
torch-light for use in the German lines, and a large white patch was
sewn on the front of everybody's box respirator, which was thought
to be a good means of identification in the dark. About midnight,
therefore, the platoons were being led quietly and stealthily into
position. Suddenly the bells in the German trenches, not a hundred
yards from the right flank, began to ring; gas fumes were rapidly
making their way over our positions. It was difficult to tell whether
the gas was merely lachrymatory or poisonous, and at the first
indication every officer and man had slipped on his gas helmet.

It is hard enough to find your way about in the dark under ordinary
conditions, but with a gas helmet on it is absolutely impossible, and
in less time than it takes to tell, the greatest confusion arose, and
the success of the whole operation hung in the balance. A desperate
situation confronted the Battalion; in a little while our artillery
barrage would open, and its programme would be carried out while our
men were stumbling blindly through the gas fumes, and in due course the
enemy artillery would open up in retaliation, and our men, helpless
with their gas helmets on, would be wiped out without a chance for
their lives. For about thirty minutes the situation was critical and
fraught with the greatest difficulties; the darkness, the gas, the
fumes, the irregularities of the ground, wire entanglements, ruins,
shell holes, all combined to make the assembling of our companies slow
and difficult.

Chances had to be taken, and gas helmets were removed, the mouthpiece
alone being used, and in this manner, our eyes streaming with tears and
nerves strung to the highest pitch, we eventually reached our positions
around the Quebec Road about five minutes before zero hour.

Exactly on the stroke of one the barrage opened, falling like a
hailstorm on the German front line, which was lit up along its entire
length by the bursting shells. It was certainly an unmerciful pounding
and seemed to fill us with an ardent desire to get over there, and like
Julius Caesar, "negotium finire."

As the barrage opened "A" Company crept across the Quebec Road through
the lanes in the wire which had been previously cut by the scouts, and
at zero, plus three minutes, at which moment the barrage lifted off
Metal Trench to the Railway embankment, they rushed forward, closely
followed by "B" Company on the left and "C" Company on the right. By
the time "A" Company reached Metal Trench the Huns had begun to pour
out of their dug-outs in which they had taken refuge during the shell
storm, and hand-to-hand fighting ensued, in which many of the enemy
were either killed or taken prisoners; leaving "A" Company to deal
with the destruction of the dug-outs and the capture of the slag heap,
as previously arranged, "B" and "C" Companies proceeded to the final
objective.

As already anticipated, our greatest trouble was to be from the flanks,
and during the final stages of the attack, in which "B" and "C"
Companies rushed the embankment, capturing many prisoners, some enemy
machine guns came into action and inflicted heavy casualties on us. In
spite of this, everything seemed to be happening just in the way we
had practised it at Berthonval Farm, even the special carrying parties
that were to bring up trench mats for crossing the wire believed to
exist around the embankment, arrived, and were much disappointed when
they were told they would not be needed. Also the signallers specially
attached to Companies for communication with Battalion Headquarters
came through, but were unable to use their lamps on account of the
smoke and gas.

Considerable trouble was experienced with refractory prisoners, and the
evacuation of our casualties was a matter of the greatest difficulty,
since by the time "B" and "C" Companies had reached the embankment all
sense of direction was lost on account of the darkness and gas fumes,
which were now blowing back over the German lines.

The work of destruction completed, the two Companies, "B" and "C",
withdrew as best they could, covered by sections, one from each
platoon, acting as a rear-guard.

Observation posts were left on the Railway Embankment at each flank
with supporting posts behind them, "A" Company remaining in Metal
Trench until "B" and "C" Companies had completed their withdrawal. The
observation posts were chiefly organized by Lt. Lennox of "B" Company
and Lt. Neil of "C" Company, who were in command of the flank platoons.

"D" Company had detailed parties under Lt. Weber and Lt. Lick, which
were to relieve at daybreak the posts left respectively by "B" and
"C" Companies. Lt. Lick was, however, killed by a shell near Metal
Trench, and his sergeant and corporal wounded. Lt. Weber went up on
the left and reached Metal Trench, but at 4.45 a.m. the Germans had
counter-attacked in force and our posts withdrew fighting as ordered.
When it was learned that Lt. Neil and Lt. Lick were killed and that Lt.
Lennox and Lt. Weber were missing a party was sent up Meander Trench
to assist the posts. This party got out between Metal Trench and the
Railway Embankment just as the Germans began to swarm over it, and also
attack from the flank. Our party was obliged to withdraw, taking the
balance of the men on the posts with it. Stiff fighting took place all
the way back, and many of the enemy were killed.

In such an operation it would be very difficult and most unfair to
mention the work of any one particular platoon, section, or man, since
all we had planned to do was done, and this in the face of many serious
handicaps. The care of our wounded was now the first consideration,
and Capt. Moore, with his staff, who had established an advance
Regimental Aid Post (later known as "Moore's Aid Post") at the junction
of the Lens-Arras Railway and the Avion Road, were busy until daylight,
when a German observation balloon caught sight of them, and they were
forced by heavy shell fire to retire to a more protected position.

And so it was only through the co-operation and courage of all ranks
that we had at last won the right to our place in the 9th Brigade and
the Canadian Corps. Let it be said that this was only one of a great
many successful raids carried out by Canadian troops, and which made
them famous on all the Western front.

In sum we had captured 60 prisoners, including two officers, and
killed at least twice that number, our own casualties being five
officers--Lts. V. C. Lick, C. S. Lennox, F. S. Neil, T. W. Hutchison,
G. R. Weber--and twenty-five other ranks killed, three officers and
forty-two other ranks wounded.

It might be of interest to compare the two communiqués published
shortly afterwards:

 GERMAN--Strong enemy thrusts in the neighborhood of Avion easily
 repulsed with heavy casualties.

 BRITISH--Early this morning our troops carried out a minor enterprise
 S.E. of Avion. The first objective was easily captured, but heavy
 fighting ensued at the railway embankment. After a severe struggle
 the whole of the German garrison was either killed or captured and
 all their dug-outs were destroyed--about fifty--sixty Germans are
 reported to have been taken. Our total casualties are believed to be
 about the same as the number of German prisoners. The enemy's losses
 were heavy.

[Illustration: SKETCH OF FOSSE 4 AND ITS ENVIRONS ]



                              CHAPTER V.

                             HILL SEVENTY.


Every little while, but generally at intervals of about four months, it
fell to the lot of each division to be withdrawn entirely from the line
for the purpose of rest and reorganization.

After a long tour of trench duty, during which life at its best is
merely an existence, it can be readily appreciated that these periods
of rest were greatly looked forward to by all ranks.

Each Corps had a specified rest area, generally from 12 to 14 miles
behind the line, and when a division came out, a village in that
area was allotted to each battalion or sometimes one village to two
battalions. There were, of course, the good villages and the bad
villages, and for about a week before going out there was always a good
deal of speculation as to which village the battalion would go to.
At the beginning of August, the 3rd Canadian Division was withdrawn
from the line, and it fell to our lot to get the Village of Auchel,
conceded by many to be the Queen of billets in the Corps area; but
unfortunately for us we did not arrive there until about the 15th of
the month, being held up at Camblain L'Abbée (Corps Headquarters) on
account of manoeuvres. Open fighting had suddenly become all the rage,
probably in anticipation of the drive the following August, and our
whole division took part in extensive practices. At about this time
No. 1 Platoon under Lt. Ott, distinguished itself in a Corps rifle
competition, held at Ferfay, winning first place in the Division and
only losing first place in the Corps through a technicality.

[Illustration: GROUP OF N.C.O.'S TAKEN AT NIAGARA, 1916]

[Illustration: R.S.M. F. H. HINDLE

(Awarded D.C.M. for bravery in the Field)]

[Illustration: "QUARTERS" MCKAY

(Awarded the Meritorious Service Medal for continuous gallant service
with the Battalion throughout its Campaign in France)]

Considering the representative gathering, which included units such as
the R.C.R. and P.P.C.L.I., the victory reflects the greatest credit
upon the spirit and training of our platoon.

At the completion of the manoeuvres we moved to Auchel and for a week
lived like human beings again, almost forgetting that there was a war
going on, and we had just begun to settle down to a gay village life
when we were rushed unceremoniously to the north of Lens to relieve
certain units of the 2nd Canadian Division, who were engaged in a scrap
which was afterwards known as the Battle of Hill Seventy. And so, on
August 20th, amid the cries of "Bonne chance" from our friends in
Auchel, we marched away with considerable reluctance, arriving the same
evening at Gouy Servins, which was a reminder of the early days of the
Battalion in France. Even then some of us had marched in high spirits
from Auchel to Gouy Servins on a first visit to the trenches; and Gouy
Servins at that time was everything that the first part of its name
would imply. To-day however, in the middle of an almost perfect summer,
so far as weather was concerned, the roads were hard and dusty and the
enthusiasm to reach the front line perhaps not quite so apparent.

Having rested over-night, the march was continued, until about noon
we reached Sains-en-Gohelle, another curiously descriptive name, but
more commonly known as Fossé 10, which forms part of a chain of mining
villages in the neighborhood of Lens.

Things seemed to be quite lively around these parts and high-velocity
shells were dropping almost too close to make a quiet meal possible.
Fossé 10 was really a staging camp to the front line, and there was
naturally considerable confusion due to the relief that was in progress
between the 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions.

Before very long orders were received that the 116th Battalion would
relieve the 27th Battalion that night. A reconnoitring party consisting
of the C.O., the company commanders of "A" and "D" Companies who were
to take over the front line, the scout officer and the M.O. set off
early in the afternoon, as it was fully realized that a ticklish relief
was in store for us.

From information received it was understood that the 2nd Division had
attacked at daybreak and had made splendid progress, but that owing
to the difficulties of communication, due to intense artillery fire,
the situation, and in particular the line established by the 27th
Battalion, was decidedly obscure.

It was whilst this party was making its way forward to the village of
Cité St. Pierre that Captain James Moore, our gallant and popular M.O.,
and two of the chief members of his staff were severely wounded.

During the remainder of the day and early part of the night the Bosch
artillery was more than usually aggressive, in retaliation no doubt for
their recent losses, in fact the R.S.M. of the 27th Battalion remarked
that the artillery concentration on such a small frontage was heavier
than our troops had experienced at any time during the Somme offensive,
an interesting comparison although not entirely appreciated by us at
that time.

Under such conditions the details of the relief are best left to the
imagination. To cut a horrible nightmare short it may be said that
towards 3 a.m. the following morning a line was established by our men
in badly demolished trenches and shell holes running through a portion
of the ruined Cité St. Elizabeth to the outskirts of the City of Lens
proper. Our final dispositions were in the front line right sector "D"
Company (Captain Pratt), left sector "A" Company (Captain Ritchie).
In close support "C" Company (Major Currie), in reserve "B" Company
(Captain Every). The support and reserve companies both occupied
whatever ruins or cellars they could find.

This was a truly delightful awakening after our recent rest in billets!

The enemy was either very nervous or else he suspected that a relief
was in progress, for during the next forty-eight hours, we were treated
to every variety of explosive, both large and high.

So intense was the fire from his artillery, that our front line
companies experienced considerable difficulty in carrying out the
all-important work of consolidation; whilst the support and reserve
companies were equally handicapped in their work of establishing
ammunition dumps, and providing burial and ration parties.

After twelve days, during which we spent eight in the front line and
suffered casualties of no less than twenty O.R's. killed and two
officers and ninety O.R's. wounded, we were more than glad to be
relieved by the 15th Battalion (1st Division).

After spending one night at Marqueffles Farm, in the neighborhood of
Boulay Grenay, we marched south to our old familiar front around Vimy
Ridge, taking over from the 11th Battalion East Lancashire Regiment,
who were in reserve along the Arras-Avion railway embankment. The
dug-out accommodation, having been constructed by the Bosch, was
excellent, if somewhat dirty, and with the exception of one or two
working parties we had nothing very much to worry us. Now and again
Fritz would take it into his head to land a few salvos into the
artillery positions in Vimy Village, about 300 yards away, and as we
had to go there for water it was generally advisable to time our visits
so as not to coincide with the arrival of his shells. He used to fool
us sometimes though, and then the water party would return rather
hurriedly, minus the water and the petrol tins for carrying it.

[Illustration: THE DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT MEDAL

Number won by Batt. 27]

[Illustration: THE MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL

Number won by Batt. 7]

[Illustration: THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER

Number won by Batt. 7]

[Illustration: THE MILITARY MEDAL

Number won by Batt. 102]

[Illustration: THE MILITARY CROSS

Number won by Batt. 26]

On the 15th September we relieved the 58th Battalion in the front
line (Totnes Trench), situated in front of Méricourt, at an average
distance of fifteen hundred yards from the Bosch front line. The 58th
informed us that they had had an ideal tour with scarcely any
shelling, but that during their last day in, the Bosch had registered
several times with 5.9's on the right sector, now occupied by our "B"
Company. This information was rather disconcerting, especially for the
posts in that neighborhood. Anyway, a strict watch was established by
the lookouts, and on the evening of the 16th, Company Commanders were
called hurriedly to a conference at Battalion Headquarters. Information
was that small parties of German officers had been seen that day with
maps pointing in the direction of our trenches, and that messages had
been intercepted indicating the possibility of a raid on our line
that night. In consequence every precaution was taken and the battle
patrols, which were in the habit of scouring "No Man's Land" each
evening, were held in the front line.

It was indeed a timely warning, for at 3 a.m., precisely, on the 17th,
an almost perfect barrage dropped on our front line and supports. Now
a certain Army order stating that no S.O.S. must be sent up until it
was absolutely assured that the enemy was attacking had been recently
impressed on us, and that is probably the reason why only one Company
put one up (Red over Red over Red). Our artillery were sound asleep,
for they never responded at all. The barrage lifted off our front line
and it was evident that we were "for it."

Up went another S.O.S., but our artillery still slept on. A few of the
enemy crept through the wire and entered "C" Company's frontage in an
empty bay at its junction with 12th Ave. communication trench. They
left the trench immediately, having captured Pte. Dewes of "B" Company,
who had been wounded by the barrage, and was evidently on his way out
to the rear. The smoke and dust were so thick we could see nothing, and
a continuous rifle and Lewis gun fire was our only means of retaliation.

About daybreak we captured two of the enemy who had become entangled
in our wire; unfortunately one of them refused to surrender and was
shot dead by Lewis gunners before we could get him in. Our prisoner
informed us that a large raid had been intended, and that the attacking
party (seventy-three in number) was composed of "Stürm Truppen" (storm
troops) who had been rushed up to the line that night in automobiles
especially for this little entertainment. He also presented us with the
photo of his company--published in this book. In evidence of what our
prisoner told us we later found several mobile charges in front of our
wire, intended no doubt for the destruction of the dug-outs, of which
we had none, and whole piles of stick and egg bombs, which came in very
handy as souvenirs for the troops.

On the evening of the 18th, the battalion was relieved by the Royal
Canadian Regiment (Fritz had timed his raid just 24 hours too soon!!)
and marched to Thélus Caves, from where we were transported by light
railway to Fraser Camp (Mount St. Eloi), arriving there about dawn.

For purposes of comparison later on, let it be said that the total
casualties of the battalion up to the present time, or for seven
months' active service, numbered eighteen officers and two hundred and
seventy other ranks killed, wounded and missing.

Practically the whole of these memoirs so far has been devoted to
the personnel of the battalion actually doing duty in the trenches,
and no mention has been made of the work done by the Quartermaster's
department and the transport section.

Whenever the battalion moved into the line the transport and
Quartermaster's stores remained behind together with what was known
as Rear Battalion Headquarters, and they were jointly responsible for
supplying to the battalion each day, food, clothes, ammunition, rum,
etc., in fact all the necessaries of life, and all the necessaries of
war so far as the infantry soldier is concerned, including mail and
reinforcements.

The men belonging to these sections did not therefore come actually
into contact with the enemy, as was the case with the men in the
trenches, but their duties were none the less arduous and none the less
dangerous. Every night rations must be carried to the battalion in the
line, and the roads and pathways along which the transport must travel
were nearly always swept by machine gun and artillery fire, and the
transport lines themselves came in for quite a little shelling by the
German heavies.

Our transport section and Q.M. department had never let us down so
far, which speaks very highly for their personnel, and that they never
came into direct contact with the enemy is not strictly accurate, since
a few days after arriving at Fraser Camp our Quartermaster, who was
riding towards La Targette Corners, was chased by an enemy plane. His
own description of his feelings when he realized the relative speed
of his horse on the gallop and the German plane, is beyond words, and
after a minute or so of terrible suspense, during which the German
plane was putting machine gun groups all round him, he decided that the
duel was unfair and promptly rolled off his horse into the ditch. The
German airman flew home in triumph.

On the 30th September Divine Service for the whole Brigade was held in
the fields around Berthonval Farm, and afterwards an investiture. The
Corps, Divisional and Brigade Commanders were present and the Corps
Commander personally decorated a number of our N.C.O's. and men who had
distinguished themselves in the raid of July 23rd. The proceedings were
slightly marred by the activities of a German aeroplane, which seemed
to be drawing the fire of every "Archie" in the neighborhood, with the
result that nose caps were flying around and greatly disturbing the
steadiness of the troops.

[Illustration: RAIDING PARTY OF "STÜRM TRÜPPEN"

Photo taken from prisoner.]



                              CHAPTER VI.

                            PASSCHENDAELE.


We had not been in Fraser Camp for more than two days when we were
invited to pay a visit to some taped trenches close to Villers au Bois,
and maps of the area which they represented were freely distributed.

The successful capture of Vimy Ridge had certainly improved our
position considerably, but there was still a decided salient round the
city of Lens, which seemed to create a certain amount of uneasiness
among the H.Q. staff. To straighten out this salient was therefore the
object now in view, and to this end the entire Canadian Corps was to be
engaged. An assault through Avion and Méricourt, which were situated to
the south of Lens, combined with a strong demonstration north of that
city, was the plan of campaign to be adopted, the result of which, if
successful, would not only straighten the existing salient, but would
force the Germans to evacuate Lens itself.

Tanks were to be used in conjunction with the infantry, and in order to
become acquainted with their peculiarities we attended a demonstration
by the Tank Corps at Mailly, which was most instructive. For two solid
weeks we worked hard on this scheme, practising over the taped trenches
every day, and then suddenly the practices ceased, and strawberry jam
was substituted for the everlasting plum and apple. This generally
meant that the time for the attack was drawing near, but in this case
it did not materialize, for on the 14th of October we received orders
to move on the next day to Ourton and to entrain for Godewaersvelde, in
Belgium. This change of tactics, quite unforeseen, was not unpopular
with us, as we had not yet seen Belgium, and never having been there,
we thought we might like it, and this in spite of many prophecies to
the contrary.

After a very long and tedious train journey we arrived at our
destination and marched to billets in Caestre. After resting here for
two days and surprising the natives with our fondness for corn on the
cob, which until now they had used entirely as cattle fodder, we were
informed of the reason for our enforced presence in this district.

Operations in front of Ypres had reached a deadlock. The troops
engaged, consisting chiefly of Australians and New Zealanders, had
advanced nearly three miles under conditions that must have been almost
heartbreaking. It had poured with rain every day; the mud was well over
their knees, and they were enfiladed from both sides by the German
artillery, until finally, they were brought to a halt on the top of
Abraham Heights through sheer exhaustion and heavy casualties.

The German defences on this front consisted chiefly of "Pill
Boxes"--oblong, concrete constructions, made out of Portland cement (?)
and divided into several compartments with small, narrow entrances
either at the side or back.

The average head protection in one of these was from four to five feet
of solid concrete, and our field artillery shells would bounce off them
like tennis balls off the sidewalk.

As soon as the shelling ceased, out would come "Mr. Bosch" with his
machine guns, and from selected positions play havoc amongst our
troops, floundering around in the mud. Once in a while a twelve-inch
"how." would make a direct hit on one of these hornets' nests and then,
of course, Fritz would stay in there never to come out again. But a
twenty-five-foot target at a range of ten miles is a difficult one to
hit, and the majority of the "pill boxes" were captured by hand-to-hand
fighting.

The ground seemed to be composed of an endless series of ridges, and
you no sooner reached the top of one ridge than another more formidable
loomed up in front.

From Abraham Heights the Bellevue Spur (another name for a ridge)
dotted here and there with "pill boxes," stood out like a sentinel
keeping watch over the village of Passchendaele in the distance, and
it was plain to all around that fresh and experienced troops would be
needed at this point to effect its capture. There was perhaps no Corps
on the Western front at that time more capable of undertaking this
difficult task, or as numerically strong, as the Canadian Corps, and
that is the reason we ate corn at Caestre instead of hunting the Hun
around Lens.

Two more days' rest were given us to digest this news, and to enable
parties to visit the area of desolation and gloom which was to be the
scene of our future endeavours. Orders were then received to entrain
for Ypres, and our arrival at that historic ruin was greeted by many
cheers from the outgoing Australian units. From all they told us or
rather shouted at us as they crowded into the train we had just left,
we began to realize that we were not going to enjoy ourselves quite so
much as we thought. "Go to it, yer blighters," they yelled, and away we
went. Having occupied several "Camps" in the neighborhood of Wieltje,
the 9th Brigade, with the 116th Battalion in support, attacked the
Bellevue Spur on the morning of October 26th, and by the morning of
the 27th, after one of the fiercest and most bloody onslaughts in its
history, succeeded in destroying the entire German garrison.

On the evening of the 27th the 116th Battalion took over the front line
from the remnants of the Brigade, remaining there until relieved by
the 49th Battalion (7th Brigade)--during the early hours of the 29th
October.

We were not sorry to move away from our present gruesome surroundings;
but it was not until the 7th November that we actually said "good-bye"
to them, as we thought, and moved by bus to Vlamertinghe, and from
there to the Watou area, east of Poperinghe, having lost forty-two
other ranks killed, three officers and one hundred and one other ranks
wounded, and twelve other ranks gassed.

[Illustration: THE "ROUGH ROAD" TO PASSCHENDAELE, 1917. (Canadian
Official Copyright)]



                             CHAPTER VII.

                             REST BILLETS.


The general feeling amongst the troops was that they had seen enough
of the Ypres salient, or what remained of it, to last them until the
end of the war, and as a few "leaves" to Blighty were filtering through
there were some lucky ones who had their wish fulfilled. The remainder,
however, were sadly deluded, and after billeting in tents for five
days found themselves on the way back to that same quagmire they had
so earnestly desired never to set eyes on again. This tour of duty,
however, proved to be light in comparison with past experiences, and
after six days spent in working parties we were finally relieved in
Brigade reserve by the Royal Irish Rifles, and on the 19th of November
moved by bus to Haverskerque, where we spent the night.

From Haverskerque we marched by easy stages to Bailleul-les-Pernes,
probably the poorest village for billets in the neighborhood, but
thankful to be alive, and pleased at the prospect of spending the next
three weeks anywhere except around Ypres, we settled down to what we
considered a much needed rest.

We had great difficulty in securing a parade ground within easy
marching distance of, and large enough to accommodate all four
Companies, much to the disgust of the C. O., who was never happier than
when he could get the Battalion together again after the disintegration
entailed by a tour in the line.

The billets were certainly poor, and after parade hours, those who
were energetic enough would either wander off to Auchel to renew old
acquaintances or else go to Ferfay to see the latest Dumbell Concert
Party. There was also a small village called Pernes, about three
kilometres away, which most of the boys will remember. "D" Company
Officers' mess gave a party there during which a young calf was driven
into the dining room of the Café. Somebody at once conceived the idea
that calf-riding would be good for the digestion, and there was lots of
fun trying to ride the calf, who resented this treatment by throwing
each of his would-be riders to the floor. Eventually a long-legged
officer from "B" Company succeeded in riding once round the Café, which
broke the calf's spirit completely, and he rolled over breathless on
his back. The orchestra immediately struck up the "Toreador Song" from
Carmen, and the party broke up amidst scenes of the greatest excitement.

During our rest in this village we were given the opportunity to cast
our votes for or against Conscription in Canada. The polling was
organized by Companies, each Company Orderly Room being temporarily
converted into a polling booth. A muster parade was then called, and
the whole affair completed in a few hours. It would be quite safe to
estimate the result at 99.9% in favor of conscription, and it seems a
pity that all elections and things of the kind, including referendums,
cannot be organized in a similar manner.

On November 24th, Major A. W. McConnell, who succeeded Major Cameron
as 2nd in command of the battalion, was recalled to Canada, and the
vacancy thus caused was filled by Major G. R. Pearkes, M.C., of the 5th
C.M.R., who received his appointment through special recommendation of
the Divisional Commander.

After spending a quiet and peaceful month at Bailleul-les-Pernes we
finally relieved the 9th Sherwood Foresters and the 8th Northumberland
Fusiliers in the front line just north of Lens, on the 22nd December,
with the pleasant prospect of being there for Christmas Day.

About this time Col. S. Sharpe proceeded to England for the Senior
Officers' Staff Course, and during his absence Major G. R. Pearkes
assumed command of the battalion. Although Christmas Day was spent
in feasting chiefly on "Bully," on the night of the 26th December
warning was received of an intended raid by the Germans, and a raid
was actually made on Sap 6 at 6.30 a.m. the following morning, but the
enemy was successfully driven off.

The condition of the trenches in this sector was the worst imaginable.
The mud was not only knee deep but like glue, and it was not at all
an unusual occurrence for a man to lose his boots and socks in his
endeavours to extricate himself. One of the smallest of our officers,
Capt. Hughes, was heard to remark that it was a good thing for him
that his colors were painted on his helmet. On one memorable occasion
we were relieving the 58th Battalion--the bad conditions had been
rendered even worse by a heavy fall of snow. Our relieving companies
became so exhausted, which is not to be wondered at when one remembers
the unmercifully heavy equipment usually carried into the line, that
the relief which should have been completed about 10 p.m. was not
actually reported until 3 a.m. the following morning. Even when the
58th had been relieved they found it impossible to get out until
daylight.

The chief work of the period was the reorganization of the front line
and the building of strong points. On the 22nd January, 1918, at 5.40
p.m., the enemy raided No. 4 post, but his party was caught in a
barrage and obliged to retire. The conduct of Corporal Allen in the
handling of his section was most exemplary. Several important patrols
were made during which Lieutenant F. A. McGrotty received wounds from
which he afterwards died.

Towards the end of February the battalion moved back to its old
familiar hunting ground around Avion, where, although the trenches
and general conditions were excellent, we sustained a series of
misfortunes. Patrols went out every night through the ruins of Avion to
try and locate enemy posts and whilst engaged in this work we lost two
of our officers, Lieutenant C. R. Hillis and Lieutenant R. W. Biggar,
within a few days of each other. From this front we moved south and
on the 1st of April we were situated in the New Brunswick trench, in
front of Méricourt.

[Illustration: LT.-COL. G. R. PEARKES, V.C., D.S.O., M.C.]

During the last three months two important changes in our organization
took place which it may be wise to record.

Major G. R. Pearkes, recently awarded the Victoria Cross for gallant
work at Passchendaele with the 5th C.M.R., was appointed Officer
Commanding 116th Battalion, to replace Colonel Sharpe, whose illness in
England seemed likely to keep him away from France for an indefinite
period.

Major J. Sutherland, at one time a Company Commander in the 52nd
Battalion, but recently an instructor at Ferfay, was appointed second
in command to Lt.-Colonel Pearkes.

The German grand offensive, which was to land him at the gates of
Paris, had commenced, and in consequence the "staff" were showing very
distinct signs of nervousness--commonly called "wind up."

The First, Second and Fourth Canadian Divisions had been, or were being
withdrawn from the line to be in readiness for action wherever they
might most be needed, and the Third Division was left to defend Vimy
Ridge as best it could, with nothing behind it except its own artillery
and a couple of labour battalions employed in agricultural work, which
had lately become a feature of modern warfare. During the day the
Brigadier paid a visit to Battalion Headquarters, and, amongst other
things, suggested that we might carry out some kind of raid in order
to get identification, and by this means discover the enemy plans.

At 6 p.m. a meeting of the Company Commanders was called, and within
the hour it was arranged to send out a battle patrol of one officer and
twenty-five O.R's. from each Company, to work independently on given
frontages. It was also arranged that whichever patrol was successful
in capturing a prisoner, would send up a red flare immediately. The
operation was scheduled to commence at 11 p.m., without artillery or
machine gun support.

At 9 p.m. a message was received from the Divisional Commander stating
that identification on our front might be necessary, and at 10 p.m. the
Corps Commander wired in saying that it _was_ necessary, so that, all
things considered, our preparations were probably well timed.

"D" Company patrol, under Captain Baird, was the first to start the
quarry, for shortly after setting out it ran into a strong German
patrol on its way over to our lines. With the battle cry "Come on
Toronto," Captain Baird, followed by his patrol, rushed on the Germans
before they had time to move and a regular scrimmage took place,
during which Captain Baird lost the use of his right arm, due to the
displacement of one of the muscles. He was in the act of capturing the
German patrol leader when his right arm collapsed and his revolver
dropped from his hand. The German officer immediately seized him
round the neck and was giving him a rough time when one of our party
shot the German dead. In the meantime the remainder of our patrol had
succeeded in capturing two prisoners and put the rest to flight.

Red flares were immediately sent up and all parties returned to our
lines in high spirits, having obtained the "necessary identification"
asked for by the Corps only two hours previously, although this
achievement was greatly dimmed by the loss of two officers killed (Lt.
J. A. Gibson and Lt. R. W. Soper).

It was during this tour that we received the following special order of
the day from Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig:

 TO ALL RANKS OF THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE AND FLANDERS:

 "We are again at a crisis in the War. The enemy has collected on this
 front every available Division and is aiming at the destruction of the
 British Army. We have already inflicted on the enemy in the course
 of the last two days, very heavy loss, and the French are sending
 troops as quickly as possible to our support. I feel that everyone
 in the Army, fully realizing how much depends on the exertion and
 steadfastness of each one of us, will do his utmost to prevent the
 enemy from attaining his object."

And this did not add any particular comfort to our feelings.

The Germans, however, were not thinking just then of retaking Vimy
Ridge, but of pushing through to Paris along the line of least
resistance, which, judging by the progress they were making, was
around the front of the Fifth Army, the "Fighting Fifth," as they were
afterwards called.

From the Méricourt front we were moved up north of Lens, and having
put up with a lot of shelling and other annoyances from the Bosch, it
was decided to take revenge by means of a stealth raid. "B" and "C"
Companies each sent out a party consisting of one officer and twenty
O.R's. "B" Company's party, under Lt. Dunlop, encountered the enemy
in Nun's Alley Sap, where a tough fight took place before the Germans
were finally overcome. Several of them threw up their hands as if
to surrender and Lance-Corporal Hayward ran forward to secure these
prisoners; instead of surrendering they seized Hayward, who had the
greatest difficulty in extricating himself from their grip.

On the 30th of April the battalion moved away from the line, and with
the other units of the Canadian Corps, became part of Foch's famous
reserve, which was later to play such a prominent part in the final
overthrow of the entire German Army. And so, during many days of
glorious summer weather, and under the careful and expert guidance
of Lt.-Col. G. R. Pearkes, V.C., the little old "Umpty Umps" made
preparations for the future. It was during this period that we received
the sad news of the death of Colonel Sam Sharpe in Montreal, on the
25th May.

[Illustration: ONE OF THE ORIGINAL ORDERS RECEIVED BY THE BATTALION,
DURING A TOUR IN THE TRENCHES OPPOSITE MERICOURT]

There is, perhaps, no more glorious monument to the memory of this
gallant soldier than his letter written "in the Field" on October 21st,
1917, just before the battle of Passchendaele, in which he said: "If
it should be my fate to be among those who fall, I wish to say I have
no regrets to offer. I have done my duty as I saw it, and have fought
in defence of those principles upon which our great Empire is founded,
and I die without any fears as to the ultimate destiny of all that is
immortal within me."



                             CHAPTER VIII.

                              AUGUST 8TH.


On the 6th July, after an unusually long rest from the line, the 116th
Battalion relieved the P.P.C.L.I. in the Neuville Vitasse sector,
situated about three miles south of Arras. The accommodation here was
very poor, and considerable time was spent in building shelters.

Several important reconnaissances were made on this front, during which
we lost Lt. S. D. Woodruff, killed; and 10 other ranks, wounded.

After spending 17 days in this area we were finally relieved by the 1st
Canadian Infantry Battalion and moved back in reserve once more.

On the evening of August 5th, at Boves Wood, the battalion was resting
in bivouacs, after a series of long night marches from rear areas,
which were conducted with so much secrecy as to almost warrant the
suggestion that we were being transferred to the Italian, or some
other far distant front. Only recently a printed order entitled
"Keep Your Mouth Shut," which dealt with the advisability of strict
silence concerning all movements of troops or operations of a military
nature, had been pasted in the pay book of every man in the Corps; so
that whenever anyone on the line of march was overcurious about our
destination there was always the simple answer, "Remember your pay
book."

That we were still in France was evident, and that we were likely to
remain there, if not permanently, at least for the next few weeks, was
made known that evening at a Company Commanders' meeting, during which
the C.O. announced the joyful news that the battalion would shortly
be engaged in operations of a more comprehensive nature than night
marching. There was evidently some method in our madness, and everyone
was all attention, particularly since Company Commanders' meetings had
lately been showing signs of monotony.

Very little was known, except that a battle of great importance
was imminent, that Australian, British and French troops would
likely be engaged, and that there would be scarcely any time for
final preparations, which we had always been accustomed to in the
past. The German grand offensive, which began in March, had only
partially succeeded, although the battles of the Somme, Messines and
Passchendaele had been neutralized by their recent gains.

The importance of carrying out, to the fullest extent, the training
in open warfare which we had experienced during the summer, was
particularly impressed.

The attack by our battalion was to be carried out on a frontage of one
thousand yards, starting from the village of Hourges, and although
a definite final objective was suggested, entailing an advance of
some five thousand yards, there was nothing to prevent us from
following through to twice or three times that distance, providing the
circumstances proved favorable.

The general scheme for the battalion was as follows:--"A" Company
(Capt. Ritchie) would attack on the right, going through to what
was known as the Bade trench system, which they were to capture and
consolidate. "C" Company (Capt. Sutton) would follow "A" Company, and
working round the high ground on the left flank, would drive for the
enemy defences north of Hammon Wood, thence push from the north edge
of the Wood to the left of our final objective, and deal with certain
enemy batteries presumed to be there. "D" Company (Capt. Baird) would
follow "C" Company and, passing through "A" Company, would work around
the northern slope of high ground and push for the eastern side of
Hammon Wood. "B" Company (Capt. Preston) was to follow in reserve until
the Bade system had been captured, when it would follow "D" Company and
mop up Hammon Wood, "A" Company then coming into battalion reserve.

From a study of the map and intelligence provided it seemed that
even with little opposition the turning movement to be made would be
extremely difficult, and that the leaders of all units would be called
upon to exercise their best judgment and skill in order to ensure
success, especially in view of the fact that very little opportunity
was to be given them for making a personal reconnaissance.

[Illustration: SKETCH OF ATTACK ON HAMON WOOD]

When it became generally known that the attack was imminent the spirits
of the battalion ran high, and preparations for the great battle were
pushed with all possible zeal.

The battalion moved from Boves to Gentelle Wood, a distance of
six kilometres, moving out at 11 p.m., and arriving at 6 a.m. The
congestion of traffic was the worst imaginable, and in consequence it
was only with the greatest difficulty that any movement forward by
infantry was possible, there being only one road of approach.

With but little sleep, reconnoitring commenced almost at once, and
in order to observe secrecy, small parties were sent forward to
Domart Wood. The Commanding Officer, Intelligence Officer and Company
Commanders only were able to reach the forward system and make a quick
reconnaissance at close range. Owing to the broken nature of the ground
the assembly area was limited and positions for one company had to be
found forward of the front line, held by the troops then holding that
sector. All these areas were thoroughly reconnoitred and positions
taped off, which was an extremely difficult and hazardous task due to
the night activity of enemy machine guns, but thanks to the assistance
of the Commander of the Australian Outpost Company then holding
the line, who personally pointed out the most favorable positions,
everything was completed satisfactorily.

At 9.30 p.m. on the night of August 7th the battalion moved off to
occupy the assembly positions. Zigzag lanes had been cut through the
standing corn on both sides of the road and along one of these we moved
in single file with as little noise as possible. Each man carried
two water bottles, 48 hours' rations and 170 rounds of ammunition in
addition to his usual battle equipment. To drown the curses of the
weary troops as well as the approach of the tanks it had been arranged
with great forethought, for a flight of heavy bombing planes to operate
during the night in this area. It was a bright moonlight night, and the
movement forward proceeded uninterrupted; the battalion scouts, acting
as guides, led their platoons, and the slow task of crossing the river
over bridge 53 commenced. Opened out to five paces interval, and trying
to move quietly, made the march an exceptionally tedious one; however,
the crossing was made successfully, and positions occupied under the
personal supervision of those who had made the arrangements the night
before.

It was by no means an easy position to attack from, as the leading
company was facing south. The assembly was finally completed at 2.15
a.m., and word passed round that the zero hour would be at 4.20 a.m.;
consequently there was still time to rest and to take up any minor
details which might have been previously overlooked.

At 4.20 a.m. sharp, one of the greatest barrages in the history of the
war by artillery and machine guns opened out. It was truly a marvellous
piece of work considering no previous registration had been made.
The difficulty of getting away from the assembly points commenced at
zero, plus eight minutes, and the greatest credit is due to the unit
commanders for leading their companies and platoons out as well as
they did. The left company were obliged to make a left-about wheel
round a hedge, out to a road which they covered, and from there deploy
in artillery formation. The remainder followed rapidly, and at zero
plus forty minutes, the whole Battalion was clear of the jumping-off
positions, including Headquarters, which followed in rear of the
reserve company. The enemy retaliation came down quickly, but was not
very heavy, although the congestion around the assembly point resulted
in some casualties there.

The dense fog and smoke made it very difficult to preserve direction,
and the Demuin road, with its tall trees, made an excellent landmark,
previously noted, which enabled the 43rd, 58th and our own battalion
to deploy towards their correct objectives. The enemy machine guns
were then busy, and fighting commenced in earnest. "C" Company, on the
left, realizing the necessity of pushing on as rapidly as possible,
made excellent time. "A" Company got into the fight early, and suffered
severe casualties, losing all their officers and about sixty other
ranks before reaching their objective, and it was only through the
prompt action of C. S. M. Fenwick, who gathered the remnants of that
company together, that they were enabled to do so.

The tanks were very much handicapped by the dense fog, and lost
direction, operating on the flanks, with the exception of two, which
nearly ran down a number of our battalion when they went through us at
the start.

Very heavy fighting took place around enemy Headquarters. Machine guns
were in abundance, and it was only after brilliant work on the part of
the forward company that this nest was successfully dealt with, and
a long stream of prisoners commenced leaving for the rear. The dash
of our men was most marked, showing a marvellous difference from the
old staid method of following the barrage shoulder to shoulder at the
high port. Enemy machine gun nests were difficult to locate, owing
to the poor observation, and a great many of these were cut off and
surrendered to the infantry following behind.

Owing to a check which "A" Company received at the Hangard-Dodo Wood
road, Battalion Headquarters soon found itself close to the battle and
provided reinforcements to assist them in taking their final objective.

The advance had also been checked by machine gun fire immediately
to the right centre and left of the Bade trench, and under cover of
our own fire these nests were rushed and put out of action, severe
casualties being inflicted on the enemy, their guns being captured and
some prisoners taken.

An isolated field gun was still in action behind a small hedge
approximately to the front and left of Bade trench; this was soon put
out of action and the survivors of the crew captured. The advance
was then continued and the Bade system finally taken with a number of
machine guns, which were remounted on the parados ready for action by
6.15 a.m.; Battalion Headquarters was immediately established here, and
the composite company ("A" Company, with Headquarter reinforcements)
moved forward to provide a covering fire for "C" and "D" Companies in
their advance on Hammon Wood.

Meanwhile, on the left, the advance was going along well, a great
many machine guns being captured without interfering with the
progress of our men. Close touch was kept on our left flank with the
58th Battalion, and owing to the extremely poor visibility, it was
considered advisable to make certain that our left flank was secure
at Demuin Wood before committing all our left flank platoons to the
assault on Hammon Wood; consequently one platoon went into Demuin with
the 58th Battalion.

It was not known exactly what progress the right was making at this
time, and with depleted ranks, it seemed at the moment that the number
of infantry available for the advance on Hammon Wood was none too
strong. As the advance progressed the enemy were seen on the high
ground 500 yards to the right, still in action and apparently firing on
"A" Company in the Bade trench. Fire was immediately brought to bear on
the rear of this party, and after a few rounds they were compelled to
capitulate; again a large number of prisoners were sent to the rear.
This enabled "B" Company to go up on the right and their appearance
considerably heartened "C" Company, so that the advance against Hammon
Wood pushed forward rapidly from west and north. It was also realized
that "D" Company was making good progress, and were getting within
reach of the Woods.

An enemy field-battery of two guns, still in action, was dealt with on
the high ground to the north of Hammon Wood re-entrant, together with a
number of machine guns.

Whilst "D" Company progressed forward on the right a composite company
of "C" and "B" Companies pressed up the re-entrant from the north. The
enemy artillery had evidently been reached before they had realized
their danger; some of the gunners fought to a finish, firing through
open sights on our men advancing until surrounded. A few rounds,
together with the bold assault of infantry straight to the guns, was
sufficient to prove to the enemy the futility of further resistance;
consequently a record capture of enemy guns was made, and the survivors
of the artillery group, who were numerous, came streaming from the
dug-outs in which they had taken shelter, and were marched to the rear
under their own officers. An eight-inch howitzer, a 5.9, and a 4.1
long-range battery were among the trophies captured, together with an
artillery Quartermaster's stores, which contained all kinds of unknown
material.

Along the high ground to the south and east some enemy machine guns
still held out. These were quickly dealt with by "D" Company, and
Hammon Wood was cleared. Our men now went well forward of the Wood and
commenced firing on parties of the enemy infantry seen on a hill about
a hundred yards to the left. A temporary defence system was rapidly
established, and the ground cleared in front of the 7th Brigade,
which was close behind and ready to push forward; and so by 7.30 a.m.
our battalion had reached and consolidated its final objective, in
which operations they captured 16 guns, 40 machine guns and about 450
prisoners.

Our casualties were 2 officers, Capt. A. W. Baird, M.C., Lt. J.
Anderson, and 30 other ranks killed; 10 officers and 148 other ranks
wounded and missing.



                              CHAPTER IX.

                            THE BOIRY SHOW.


Successful as our attack had been, we were not allowed to leave this
area until after a further demonstration of our usefulness, and on
the 11th instant we took over the line from remnants of the Royal
Scots, Dorsets and Manchesters, who had run into stiff opposition in
the neighborhood of Parvillers, and in consequence had suffered very
heavy casualties. The situation was what is called obscure, and on the
following day six of our platoons, in conjunction with the P.P.C.L.I.
on the left, were rushed forward to capture Middle Wood and Square
Wood. A number of machine guns fell into our hands, and identification
was secured.

On the 13th the Germans counter-attacked and forced our outposts to
retire slightly, and on the 16th we were relieved by the 19th Battalion
and withdrew to Beaucourt Wood, having lost one officer, Lt. I. J. J.
McCorkell, and thirteen other ranks killed; three officers, including
Lt. A. H. Goodman, who died of wounds, and sixty-four other ranks
wounded.

[Illustration: GROUP TAKEN AT PERNES (Dec., 1918)

 _Back Row_:--Lt. E. B. Elliott; Lt. G. W. Morgan; Lt. C. R. Hillis
 (killed in action); Lt. A. L. MacDonald; Lt. H. K. Wood; Lt. F. A.
 MacGrotty (killed in action); Lt. W. E. Shier; Lt. G. E. Haygarth; Lt.
 W. A. Orr; Lt. J. B. Quarry; Lt. H. E. Patterson.

 _Third Row_:--Lt. R. W. Soper (killed in action); Lt. J. A. Hughes;
 Lt. J. A. Proctor (accidentally killed); Lt. W. J. Preston (killed in
 action); Lt. J. A. Gibson (killed in action); Lt. R. W. Biggar (killed
 in action); Lt. A. H. Dixon; Lt. J. A. Huggins; Lt. H. R. Williams;
 Lt. G. M. Leslie; Lt. T. A. Irwin; Lt. A. K. Wilson; Lt. T. H. Broad
 (killed in action).

 _Second Row_:--Capt. Armstrong, C.A.M.C.; Capt. D. Ritchie, O.C. (A
 Co'y); Actg. Major E. P. S. Allen, O.C. (B Co'y); Major G. R. Pearkes,
 M. C. (2nd in Command); Lt.-Col. S. S. Sharpe, O.C. (accidentally
 killed); Capt. A. F. Hind (Adjutant); Capt. H. E. Ruwald, O.C. (C
 Co'y); Capt. A. W. Baird, O.C. (D Co'y) (killed in action); Capt. N.
 E. Fairhead (Quartermaster).

 _Front Row_:--Lt. W. A. Dunlop; Lt. L. V. Sutton; Lt. J. H. Hughes,
 M.C. (Transport Officer); Lt. K. L. Wallace; Lt. H. E. Gee.]

After a march by easy stages from the Amiens sector we finally reached
"Y" huts on the 25th of August; old familiar rest homes of the Nissen
variety on the Arras-St. Pol Road. The reports from all parts of the
line were most satisfactory, but we had not been allowed to while away
the summer in training for nothing, and on the morning of the 26th we
were again on the march in "battle order."

It was soon realized that something serious was on in front, our hearts
being gladdened by the sight of six hundred or more Bosch prisoners,
who were passed _en route_ for the rear.

About midday, after marching through the picturesque old city of Arras,
we halted on the outskirts of the city and made ourselves comfortable
in cellars and ruined houses.

Along the line of march we had been busy among ourselves with
conjectures as to what our next job was to be, and from information
secured from walking wounded and others, we learned that the 8th
Brigade C.M.R., after several days of fighting, had attacked and
captured the village of Monchy Le Preu, a particularly fine piece of
work, for Monchy was a hard nut to crack owing to its geographical
situation on the high ground, situated about three miles east of Arras
and just north of the Arras-Cambrai Road.

At 7 p.m. we moved forward again and at 11.30 p.m. reached and occupied
shell holes just west of Monchy, very fortunately shown on the map as
Orange Hill. On our arrival here orders were received from the 9th
Brigade to co-operate with other units of the Brigade and attack at
4.55 a.m. A conference of Company Commanders was hastily called when
the plan of attack was discussed and instructions quickly detailed,
and at 12.10 midnight, companies had moved off by platoons to take
up assembly positions in the jumping-off trench held by the Royal
Canadian Regiment. It was a pitch dark night with no opportunity for
looking over the ground, and very little time to explain to the men
the objective and plan of attack. It was here that the results of
summer training and night manoeuvres justified the many hours spent,
all companies being in position by 4 a.m., thus giving all hands a
breathing spell and an opportunity to explain details of the attack.

The Brigade objectives were Boiry-Notre-Dame, Artillery Hill, and the
two woods known as Bois du Sart and Bois du Vert. The 58th Battalion
objective was the Bois du Sart, and the 52nd Battalion the Bois du
Vert. The 116th Battalion was to pass through these units and capture
Boiry and Artillery Hill, the 43rd Battalion to follow in reserve. "A"
Company (Capt. Preston) was to follow in close support to the 52nd
Battalion, and on their clearing the wood was to follow through and
make a turning movement north on Boiry Village. "D" Company (Capt.
Wilson), followed by "C" Company (Capt. Sutton), were to work along the
sunken road between the two woods and on their being cleared were to
push on and capture Boiry and Artillery Hill, "B" Company (Major Pratt)
to follow in close support of "C" and "D" Companies.

With an almost uncanny exactness our artillery barrage opened at
4.55 a.m., and being closely followed by our front waves, the whole
battalion was soon in the thick of the Bosch artillery and machine gun
barrage.

After moving forward about a hundred yards our objectives were soon
seen. The two woods situated on rising ground stood out in bold relief
with the village of Boiry perched on the top of another and higher hill
about 800 yards beyond the woods.

It was soon realized that the Bosch had a lot of kick left in him
yet, "A" Company being forced to swing to the right of the Bois du
Vert to clean up some machine gun nests which were inflicting heavy
casualties on our forward platoons by enfilade fire. The enemy was
in great strength here and it was not long before we were engaged
in hand-to-hand fighting. During the day this line of trenches was
captured, lost and recaptured by counter-attacks no less than three
times.

During one of these attacks Sergt. McMillan of "A" Company was captured
and forced by the Bosch to carry back wounded, but on his second trip
he was recaptured in a counter-attack led by Capt. Preston.

In the meantime the 58th and 52nd Battalions, after hard fighting,
had captured their objectives and "D" and "C" Companies of our own
Battalion had cleaned up the ground between the woods, but on emerging
to the open ground in advance of these they were literally mown down by
intense machine gun fire from Artillery Hill and Boiry Village. It was
here, whilst gallantly trying to lead forward the advance, that Major
J. Sutherland, acting in command of the battalion, was killed, the
command then falling on Major Pratt, next senior officer.

Owing to the intense machine gun fire it was found impossible to
make any great advance without further support, but during the day
individual and small parties made further gains and a line was
finally established well in advance of the woods, communication being
established with the 58th and 52nd Battalions on our left and right.

On night falling every effort was made to reorganize the companies and
platoons. The evacuation of the wounded was rendered most difficult,
as were the ration and ammunition carrying parties, owing to the
continuous machine gun fire and the fact that we were occupying shell
holes with very little cover. During the night, orders were received
to make a further attack in conjunction with other units of the 9th
Brigade on Artillery Hill from the Bois du Sart; on the morning of
the 28th Aug., after getting into our assembly positions this order
was cancelled, and we were ordered to take up new ground and closely
support the 4th C.M.R. Battalion in a flank movement from the south of
the Bois du Vert, in conjunction with other units of the 3rd Division.

At 11 a.m., "zero hour," our artillery laid down a perfect barrage
and both Boiry and Artillery Hill were captured with a large number
of prisoners, a line being established just on the outskirts of the
town. At 9.30 p.m. very welcome orders were received that our division
would be relieved by the 4th British Division and at 3.10 a.m. on the
29th of August the 116th Battalion was relieved by a battalion of the
Hampshire Regiment, companies moving off independently when relieved
and assembling in billets in Feuchy.

In these two days of fighting our losses were three officers, Major
J. Sutherland, D.S.O., Lt. H. D. Livingstone, Lt. R. Campkin, and
forty-two other ranks killed, seven officers and two hundred and
forty-three other ranks wounded or missing.

On the 17th September the battalion was resting in the Guemappe area,
close to the scene of the fighting described above, and about 5 p.m.
the German artillery suddenly commenced to register on our camp with
5.9's; several men standing round the field kitchens were killed, and a
number wounded. One of these shells burst within a few yards of a party
of our officers who were on their way over to look after casualties,
and Captain F. W. Ott and Captain T. H. Broad, both of whom came over
to France with the battalion, were killed. Colonel Pearkes and Lt.
Proctor were wounded, the former very seriously. This was a terrible
blow to the battalion, coming on top of the very severe casualties we
had experienced during the last month, and left us incidentally sans
Colonel, second in command (Major Sutherland); Adjutant (Captain Ott);
Intelligence Officer (Captain Broad); and Scout Officer (Lt. Proctor).
The general surroundings and our recent losses had a most depressing
effect on the whole battalion, and we were glad when orders were
received to move back to Arras, which was accomplished on the 19th,
under the command of Major Pratt.

Later we were moved back a few more miles to "Y" huts, already
mentioned, and which was just across the road from the Casualty
Clearing Station in which Colonel Pearkes was lying dangerously ill.

Arriving in France with the 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade in 1915,
Private G. R. Pearkes proceeded to win a commission in the field, and
as a Lieutenant in the same brigade was awarded the Military Cross for
gallant conduct during the Somme offensive of 1916--although he had
been wounded three times he continued in his upward career, and as a
Company Commander in the 5th C.M.R., with the acting rank of Major,
he won the Victoria Cross for conspicuous gallantry during the Battle
of Passchendaele. It was then that the Divisional Commander (General
Lipsett) selected him out of all other officers in the 3rd Division to
fill the vacancy of 2nd in Command to the 116th Battalion.

All the previous honors won by him together with his almost unequalled
experience were immediately centred in the welfare of our unit, and
undoubtedly the high state of fighting efficiency and organization
attained by us was greatly due to his unerring judgment and unselfish
devotion to the battalion.

As our Commanding Officer in the battle of Amiens he was awarded the
D.S.O. and French Croix de Guerre, and although not permitted to lead
the battalion against Boiry his influence and support behind were
strongly felt by all ranks throughout this action and assisted us
greatly in gaining our objectives. Wounded severely for the fifth time,
it seemed hopeless to expect that he could survive. To the surprise
and joy of everyone he rejoined us later at the Armistice Line in time
to lead the triumphant march through Belgium and to return with us to
Canada.



                              CHAPTER X.

                               CAMBRAI.


On the evening of the 26th September we were off again in the direction
of Cambrai, and after a cold and tedious train journey we arrived at
Quéant about 1.30 a.m. on the 27th. The guides, who had been sent on in
advance, seemed to have got lost, for they did not meet us at Quéant
Station, and a certain amount of confusion ensued in consequence,
before it was decided in which direction was situated a certain map
location given us by Brigade Headquarters as our billetting area.

The rain poured down in buckets, and everyone was drenched to the skin
by the time we reached our destination; however, the cooks got busy
and a hot meal was served, soon after which we received orders to
move forward. It should be mentioned here that Major D. Carmichael,
D.S.O., M.C., second in command of the 58th Battalion, and one of the
outstanding officers of the 9th Brigade, was transferred to us as
Officer Commanding just after leaving "Y" huts.

The roads were packed with transport and guns coming up from every
direction, and we picked our way by overland routes to Inchy, and from
there to our new area, east of the Canal du Nord.

The kitchens were unable to move with us, and we bivouacked in shell
holes that night with no covering except waterproof sheets, and no hot
dinner. About 3 a.m. the next morning the kitchens arrived, and the
men gathered round them in small groups to try and get warm. It is
surprising how good a thick bacon sandwich is with a ration of rum,
about 5 o'clock in the morning!

About 7 a.m. the battalion moved forward, according to plan, closely
following the 58th Battalion, through Bourlon Wood, which had been
captured only a few hours previously by the 4th Division, and by 10
a.m. we were assembled behind a railway embankment to the east of
Bourlon, and in full view of the city of Cambrai. Up to this time we
had encountered nothing more than scattered shell fire, and we had had
no casualties.

From our embankment we watched some tanks coming out of action, and at
6.30 p.m. we received verbal instructions that the 58th Battalion would
attack the Marcoing Line, and that the 116th Battalion, passing through
the 58th, would attack and capture the Village of St. Olle, which is a
small suburb of Cambrai.

Zero hour was set for 7 p.m., and in consequence there was no time to
discuss any plan of operation beyond the fact that "A" Company (Capt.
Preston) and "B" Company (Capt. Orr) would lead the attack. By the time
we had reached our positions it was dark.

The attack by the 58th was successful, and we moved through their
lines in the direction of St. Olle. Judging by the machine gun fire
the village was strongly held, and as no reconnaissance of the ground
could be made, and only a very general direction maintained, it was
decided that we would not proceed with the attack until daylight.
Battalion Headquarters was established, and rations were brought
forward and distributed to the companies under the very nose of the
Bosch, who could have wiped us out if he had only known; and so
darkness has sometimes its advantages also. During the night it was
possible to make some preparation, and at 6 a.m. the next morning "A"
and "B" Companies, with "C" Company (Capt. Williams) and "D" Company
(Capt. Patterson) in support, resumed the attack.

The leading platoons had scarcely started when they were caught between
cross belts of machine gun fire, coming from a small trench in front of
St. Olle and Petit Fontaine on the right, and after an hour's fighting
they had hardly made any headway at all, and had lost practically
the whole of their effectives. News of this disaster was brought by
Lieutenant Smith of "B" Company, who rolled over the parapet of the
trench just outside Battalion Headquarters in an exhausted condition.
From all he said, it appeared that "A" and "B" Companies had been
annihilated; that Captain Preston and Lieutenant Palmer were both
wounded and prisoners, and that Lieutenant Norton had been killed. This
information was corroborated by Private Stankewicz, who had been taken
prisoner with Captain Preston, but who later escaped to our lines.

[Illustration: GROUP OF OFFICERS AT BLANDAIN, 1919. (Canadian Official
Copyright)

 _Back Row_:--Lt. A. B. Bonner, M.M., D.S.O.; Lt. L. W. Harron, M.C.;
 Lt. W. R. Barton; Lt. J. R. Leslie; Capt. L. V. Sutton, M.C.; Lt. G.
 W. Morgan; Lt. G. E. Walls; Capt. J. A. Hughes, M.C.; Lt. T. A. Smith,
 M.C.

 _Third Row_:--Lt. W. H. Montague; Padré Capt. Costello; Lt. A. S.
 Deeks; Lt. F. T. H. Youngman, M.C.; Capt. A. M. Close; Lt. D. M.
 Waterous; Capt. E. C. Harris (C.A.M.C.); Capt. H. E. Patterson, M.C.;
 Lt. M. Crabtree, M.C.; Lt. E. J. Sager; Lt. H. J. A. Painter.

 _Second Row_:--Capt. J. H. Hughes, M.C. (Quartermaster); Capt. A. K.
 Wilson, M.C., O.C. (A. Coy); Capt. E. P. S. Allen, D.S.O. (Adjutant);
 Major A. W. Pratt. D.S.O. (2nd in Command); Lt.-Col. G. R. Pearkes,
 V.C., D.S.O., M.C. (O.C.); Major A. F. Hind, O.C. (D Co'y); Capt. W.
 A. Dunlop, M.C., O.C. (B Co'y); Capt. F. H. Moody, O.C. (C Co'y);
 Capt. C. M. Sheppard.

 _Front Row_:--Lt. R. R. Huestis (Transport Off.); Lt. E. Pearson; Lt.
 J. A. Tiffin; Lt. I. M. Wylie.]

Under these distressing conditions it seemed almost as if our
gallant unit would fail, for the first time, to win its objective. A
battery of our Field Artillery were in action about one thousand yards
directly to our rear and a messenger was despatched at once to explain
the situation to the Battery Commander, and, if possible, obtain his
assistance.

Fire was immediately brought to bear on the machine gun positions in
the St. Olle trench, and the work by this battery, in conjunction with
our own Lewis guns, was so effective that it was possible to work
two platoons from "C" and "D" Companies around the north-west of the
village, and Lt. Bonner, who was placed in command of the operation,
succeeded with consummate skill and bravery, in rushing the St. Olle
trench, destroying a large number of the enemy and capturing one
hundred prisoners with ten heavy machine guns.

"D" Company was then able to push through the village as far as the
junction of the Arras-Cambrai and Bapaume-Cambrai roads, along which
posts were immediately established, and the remnants of "A" and "B"
Companies were withdrawn to Battalion Headquarters.

If Fritz had not been so concerned about his own safety at this time he
might have found the retaking of St. Olle a very easy matter, for after
practically three days and nights without sleep the resisting powers of
the gallant "Umpty Umps" were fast waning.

On account of the severe casualties the battalion was reduced to three
companies, each one having an average strength of ninety rifles, and
orders were issued by the Brigadier to make use of the Battalion Band
and Bugles, as the attack was to be continued on the first of October.

Such things had happened to other units we knew, but we certainly did
not relish the thought of losing our "music," although the "music"
itself, with the true battalion spirit, was game to the core. During
the day Major Carmichael, with Major Pratt and Lieutenant Bonner, made
a reconnaissance of the ground immediately between us and Cambrai,
and were very nearly put out of business by our own heavy artillery,
which had started to register without warning, on the junction of the
Arras-Cambrai and Bapaume-Cambrai roads.

All that night it poured with rain, but towards dawn the weather
commenced to clear, and companies moved off from their positions around
St. Olle, "D" Company leading, followed by "C", "B" and Headquarters.
An intense artillery barrage was encountered whilst crossing the
Douai-Cambrai Road, and the battalion suffered quite a number of
casualties. Major Carmichael was badly wounded in the face, and gave
instructions to Captain Allen, the next senior officer, to take over
the remnants of the battalion.

On our left we could see the 4th Division advancing in artillery
formation, lines of men in single file going steadily forward as if
nothing could stop them; it was most inspiring, and everyone started
cheering.

It seemed somehow that the Germans were at last beaten, and that the
war would soon be over, but our feelings of jubilation were a little
previous, for after progressing about a mile our leading companies were
stopped by a withering fire coming from the right flank.

On observation we discovered a battery of field guns, and quickly
changing front, we engaged them with Lewis gun and rifle fire. By this
means we managed to work up within close range, and most of the crews
being killed or wounded the remainder disappeared over the brow of
the hill. Following up closely it was found that they had taken up a
position in a small triangular wood, which we eventually surrounded and
captured, together with about eighty prisoners, four machine guns, and
the battery of field guns mentioned above.

"D" Company and some sections of "C" Company then advanced slightly,
taking up positions in front of the wood and facing Ramillies. Whilst
holding this line they came under very heavy fire, and a battery of
"whizz-bangs" opened on them at point blank range. For an hour or two
the situation was most uncomfortable. The battalion on our right had
been held up, and the 4th Division on our left had been forced to
retire, leaving both our flanks in the air.

Reorganization in our present precarious position was out of the
question, and after hanging on for two hours we decided to withdraw
behind the western slope of the hill, where we established ourselves in
a line of rifle pits, and got in touch with our right and left flanks.
By this time the men were thoroughly exhausted, and news was gladly
received that the 24th Battalion would relieve us that evening.

Our total casualties for the last four days' fighting around Cambrai
were four hundred all ranks killed, wounded and missing.



                              CHAPTER XI.

                                 MONS.


Throughout the whole operation around Cambrai the officers, N.C.O.'s.
and men showed a wonderful devotion to duty, and an indomitable spirit
to push forward. The difficulty of taking a well-organized system
of enemy defences was considerably increased owing to the fact that
there had been no opportunity for anyone to reconnoitre the assembly
positions, or view the grounds over which we attacked, also the time
which could be devoted to explaining to the men even the smallest
outline of the plan of attack was almost negligible.

The greatest features were the taking of St. Olle after two of our
companies had been practically wiped out; and the crossing of the
Douai-Cambrai Road under a barrage of German heavy artillery. The
good work by our battalion was recognized by the Divisional Commander
who mentioned us in his special order of the day concerning these
battles--in his own words:

 "I wish to express my appreciation of the work done by the different
 Units of the Division, and by the Formations co-operating with us,
 during the past four days' fighting.

 "The 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade under Brig.-General J. A. Clarke,
 D.S.O., and the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade under Brig.-Gen. D. M.
 Ormond, D.S.O., have maintained their organization through difficult
 and sustained fighting.

 "_The work of the 116th Canadian Infantry Battalion has been
 especially fine, etc., etc._

  (Signed)                                     F. O. W. LOOMIS,
                                                   (Major-General)
                                          Commanding 3rd Canadian Div."

  2-10-'18

As soon as the relief had been completed by the 24th Battalion we were
moved back behind Cambrai and camped in a sunken road just in front of
Bourlon Wood. From here we retired by easy stages to Quéant, which we
reached on the 10th of October, and having been allotted a section of
the old Hindenburg trench, we started in to make ourselves at home and
to nurse our wounds.

It was during our stay here that H.R.H. the Prince of Wales paid us an
informal visit. At the time of his arrival the companies were scattered
around the area, carrying out some Lewis gun training, and the Adjutant
was in his shirt sleeves, making some improvements to his trench
shelter.

[Illustration: N.C.O.'S AT BLANDAIN, 1919. (Canadian Official
Copyright)]

Major Younger, the Brigade Major, rushed up to the Adjutant and asked
for the C. O. (Major Pratt). "I'm sure I don't know where he is," said
the Adjutant. "Oh, well," said the B. M., "you'll do. The Prince of
Wales is just outside, and wants to go round and see the companies, so
hurry up and get some clothes on and come and be presented." (Scene of
great excitement, during which hats, coats, and belts were nowhere
to be found, and finally the young Prince, highly amused, is conducted
round by the hatless and much embarrassed adjutant.)

Later, Major Pratt was found, and introduced to our distinguished
visitor, but not catching his name, stepped forward, and seizing his
hand, said, "Pleased to meet you, I'm sure." But the Prince of Wales
is a prince of good fellows, and despite the seeming want of courtesy
shown him, pronounced himself highly pleased with his visit.

In the afternoon, all the officers of the battalion, together with a
composite company of one hundred other ranks, attended the funeral of
Major-General Lipsett, who was killed by a sniper whilst reconnoitring
the forward positions. During his command of the 3rd Canadian Division
(he had only recently been transferred to the Imperial Forces) his keen
interest in the welfare of all ranks under his command had made him one
of the most popular officers in the Canadian Corps.

On the 17th of the month, the 9th Brigade was inspected by the Corps
Commander in a large and muddy field just north of Quéant. The Corps
Commander, as most of the Corps know, was by no means a small man, and
amongst the troops inspected were a number of men who had recently
joined us, and who had consequently no idea as to whom the inspecting
officer might be--also the ration of bread at that time was one loaf
to three men. It was towards the end of the inspection, and the
small squad of brass caps was walking down the ranks of a certain
platoon--one of the newcomers took one look at the Corps Commander and
remarked in a loud undertone, "Gee Whiz! Fancy being three men on a
loaf with that old beggar."

The German Army was now in full retreat, and from intelligence
received, it seemed likely that from now on we would have a difficult
task in even keeping in touch with it. Starting on the 22nd of the
month we began a series of advances, which only ended when the
Armistice terms had been signed and the Armistice line established
about five miles east of Mons.

This advance through country and villages, which had so long been
occupied by a cruel and overbearing enemy, will live forever in the
memories of all who took part in it. The people seemed to be crazed
with the joy of liberty--there wasn't anything they wouldn't do for
"les braves Canadiens," as they called us--flowers were strewn along
the streets, bouquets were showered on us, and even kisses. Wine was
dug up from where it had been hastily cached in 1914, and from personal
experience we can assert that it showed no sign of deterioration for
its four years' rest.

These were good days for France, and for us, too, and on the 10th of
November we were billetted in a small town called Wasmuel, waiting for
orders to take over the front line, at present occupied by the 7th
Brigade. At about 8 o'clock on the morning of the 11th November the
following order arrived from Brigade H.Q.:

"The 116th Battalion will move up forthwith and take over the line
from the 7th Brigade, holding a front line from Q. 9 central to K. 19
central aaa. After taking over the line the battalion will stand fast
aaa. _Hostilities will cease at 11 a.m. to-day aaa._ All precautions to
be taken against the enemy aaa. No intercourse with the enemy whatever
to take place aaa. O.C. 116th Battalion will report to 9th Brigade H.Q.
immediately, and will receive instructions as to route. Acknowledge."

It didn't take long to acknowledge such news as that, nor was there any
delay in finding a runner to carry the tidings round to the companies,
and by 9 a.m. the battalion was moving forward in the direction of
Mons, over practically the same ground that our "contemptible little
army" had made its gallant stand in August, 1914. The relief completed,
a party of one hundred men from the rear details, including the brass
band, represented the Battalion at a demonstration held in the public
square in Mons, to celebrate the liberation of the City, and in the
meantime we advanced our line somewhat, taking up positions along the
Brussels-Mons Road, with Headquarters in Nimy.

At 5.30 the following morning the whole neighborhood was awakened by
a series of explosions, which bore a striking resemblance to the fire
from field artillery; for about half an hour we had an uncomfortable
feeling that the war had started again, but on investigation discovered
an enemy ammunition train, which had been set on fire by some very
small and truly patriotic young Belgians.

Later in the day our line was still further advanced, and we finally
occupied what was to be known as the Armistice Line, and from which no
advance could be made until the expiration of a definite time limit.

Our left flank, which rested on the Brussels-Mons Road, proved to be
a source of great trouble and annoyance, since we received explicit
orders to allow no one to pass either from east to west or west to
east, except those carrying a special permit signed by 3rd Canadian
Divisional H.Q.

Our posts along this road were harassed daily by a continuous barrage
of civilians, wishing to pass through from both sides, and naturally
peeved at being refused permission. In addition the number of staff
officers and generals who clamored to proceed to Brussels, was almost
unlimited. The "Umpty Umps" had never seen so many red caps in the
front line before; in fact, we scarcely knew that there were so many of
them in the whole of the British Army.

"What do you mean by stopping my car?" said one rather fat and irate
general. "I'm General 'so-and-so of the so-and-so's'." "I'm sorry, sir,
but my instructions are absolutely definite, and unless you have a
pass, etc., etc."--and back he had to go to Mons and get it.

[Illustration: BATTALION COLOURS ARRIVE AT EXHIBITION GROUNDS, TORONTO
(1919)]

And here ended the active service of our gallant unit, for when the
first and second Canadian Divisions started their advance to the
Rhine our posts were withdrawn, and on December 26th, after marching
as far as Brussels with the object of relieving the First Division
in Germany, we suddenly received orders to "about turn." We
accomplished this in two beats of quick time instead of the usual
three, and marched to Blandain, on the borders of France and Belgium,
from which place, passing through Le Havre, we were transported to
Bramshott via Weymouth, England, and thence to Canada.

    "It's a long, long way to Tipperary,
     But my heart's right there."

[Illustration: MUSIC]



Honor Roll, showing the names of all ranks of the 116th Battalion who
were killed in action or died of wounds or sickness, whilst on the
service roll of the Battalion in France, between February, 1917, and
February, 1919. This roll was compiled from the Service records of the
Battalion, and is complete so far as the records will allow.

It is very much regretted that the names of those men who died of
wounds or sickness, after having been evacuated to England or Canada do
not all appear in this roll, owing to the fact that no official record
was sent to the Battalion of such cases.



[Illustration: LT. J. ANDERSON

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: CAPT. A. W. BAIRD, M.C. & Bar

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. R. W. BIGGAR

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: CAPT. T. H. BROAD

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. R. CAMPKIN

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. C. V. V. COOMBS

(Died Dec. 26th, 1919)]

[Illustration: LT. J. J. DOBLE

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. W. K. KIFT

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. J. A. GIBSON

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. A. H. GOODMAN

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. C. R. HILLIS

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. T. W. HUTCHISON

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. C. S. LENNOX

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. V. C. LICK

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. H. D. LIVINGSTON

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. F. A. MACGROTTY

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. H. L. MAJOR

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. I. J. J. MCCORKELL

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. F. S. NEIL

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. C. A. NORTON

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: CAPT. F. W. OTT, M.C.

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: CAPT. W. J. PRESTON, M.C. & Bar

(Died of wounds)]

[Illustration: LT. J. A. PROCTOR

(Accidentally killed)]

[Illustration: LT. G. W. ROBINSON

(Died Nov. 11th, 1918)]

[Illustration: MAJOR J. SUTHERLAND, D.S.O.

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. R. W. SOPER

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. G. R. WEBER

(Killed in action)]

[Illustration: LT. S. D. WOODRUFF

(Killed in action)]



                              HONOR ROLL


  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
          | Lt.-Col. | Sharpe, S. S. (D.S.O.)  | Uxbridge, Ont.
          | Major    | Sutherland, J. (D.S.O.) | Winnipeg, Man.
          | Capt.    | Baird, A. W. (M.C.)     | Toronto, Ont.
          | Capt.    | Broad, T. H.            | Calgary, Alta.
          | Capt.    | Ott, F. W. (M.C.)       | Port Credit, Ont.
          | Capt.    | Preston, W. J. (M.C.)   | Toronto, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Anderson, J.            | Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Biggar, R. W.           | Hamilton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Campkin, R.             | Brampton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Coombs, C. V. V.        | Toronto, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Doble, J. J.            | Sunderland, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Gibson, J. A.           | Woodstock, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Goodman, A. H.          | Toronto, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Hillis, C. R.           | Hamilton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Hutchison, T. W.        | Uxbridge, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Kift, W. K.             | Cannington, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Lennox, C. S.           | Toronto, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Lick, V. C.             | Beachville, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Livingston, H. D.       | Brantford, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | MacGrotty, F. A.        | Whitby, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Major, H. L.            | Whitevale, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | McCorkell, I. J. J.     | Beaverton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Neil, F. S.             | Harriston, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Norton, C. A.           | Midland, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Proctor, J. A.          | Beaverton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Robinson, G. W.         | Toronto, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Soper, R. W.            | Uxbridge, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Weber, G. R.            | Hamilton, Ont.
          | Lieut.   | Woodruff, S. D.         | St. Catharines, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  679272  | C.S.M.   | MacMillan, A. C. (M.M.) | Toronto, Ont.
  643810  | CQMS.    | Penman, A.              | Orillia, Ont.
  644559  | Sgt.     | Braden, N. J. (M.M.)    | Sebright, Ont.
  746277  | Sgt.     | Brooks, R. F.           | Toronto, Ont.
  678241  | Sgt.     | Caulfield, S. J.        | Toronto, Ont.
  746278  | Sgt.     | Chapman, A. E.          | Bilton, York, Eng.
  775472  | Sgt.     | Dennison, S. O.         | Inglewood, Ont.
  745308  | Sgt.     | Drew, O. C.             | Cannington, Ont.
  745825  | Sgt.     | Fuller, C. O.           | Watford, Ont.
  775495  | Sgt.     | Hostrawser, G.          | Malton, Ont.
  776085  | Sgt.     | Howson, R. C.           | Wingham, Ont.
  679270  | Sgt.     | Keller, H. A.           | Toronto, Ont.
  678508  | Sgt.     | Knibbs, A. M.           | Toronto, Ont.
  644615  | Sgt.     | Picotte, N. E.          | Penetang, Ont.
  757875  | Sgt.     | Randle, A. E.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  690761  | Sgt.     | Stout, R. J.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  228441  | Sgt.     | Waldrum, D. D. K.       | Toronto, Ont.
  643985  | Sgt.     | Wheatley, J. A.         | Elmvale, Ont.
  745607  | L.-Sgt.  | Blunden, W. J.          | Madeley, Salop, Eng.
  679254  | L.-Sgt.  | Fell, W. G. A.          | Toronto, Ont.
  644405  | Cpl.     | Arnold, P. A.           | Midland, Ont.
  678537  | Cpl.     | Brittan, L. F. (M.M.)   | Hamilton, Ont.
  678545  | Cpl.     | Butchers, A.            | Plymouth, Eng.
  745250  | Cpl.     | Campbell, J.            | Woodville, Ont.
  775262  | Cpl.     | Crawford, R.            | Detroit, Mich.
  681305  | Cpl.     | Daniells, F. B.         | Toronto, Ont.
  690461  | Cpl.     | Doan, J. E. (M.M.)      | Hamilton, Ont.
  802019  | Cpl.     | Doughty, E. R.          | London, Ont.
  745085  | Cpl.     | Hawkins, W. H. K.       | Guelph, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  643807  | Cpl.     | Hinchcliffe, L.         | Orillia, Ont.
  868008  | Cpl.     | Hood, G. W.             | Port Perry, Ont.
  644408  | Cpl.     | Irwin, R. C.            | Midland, Ont.
  228307  | Cpl.     | Lawrence, J. H.         | Toronto, Ont.
  775520  | Cpl.     | Maltby, A. E.           | Thornton Heath, Eng.
  228302  | Cpl.     | McConnell, H. G.        | Toronto, Ont.
  644083  | Cpl.     | McLean, H.              | Orillia, Ont.
  678087  | Cpl.     | Orange, E.              | Nottingham, Eng.
  678664  | Cpl.     | Rivers, T. L.           | Toronto, Ont.
  868015  | Cpl.     | Shannon, E. G.          | Islington, Ont.
  678438  | Cpl.     | Turner, P. (D.C.M.)     | Shelburne, Ont.
  745931  | L.-C.    | Branch, B. W.           | Bowmanville, Ont.
  745946  | L.-C.    | Coulter, W. H.          | Oshawa, Ont.
  2507310 | L.-C.    | Deane, T. J.            | Liverpool, Eng.
  868303  | L.-C.    | Elliott, H. L.          | Elizabethville, Ont.
  775501  | L.-C.    | Howe, S.                | Cromarty, Ont.
  644025  | L.-C.    | McKerrall, C.           | Coldwater, Ont.
  678643  | L.-C.    | McKinnell, G.           | Cheshire, Eng.
  644073  | L.-C.    | Middleton, W. R.(D.C.M.)| Coldwater, Ont.
  757380  | L.-C.    | Millar, C.              | Hamilton, Ont.
  643999  | L.-C.    | Newlove, W. M.          | Bradford, Yorks, Eng.
  644611  | L.-C.    | Peacock, J. L.          | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  644838  | L.-C.    | Reynolds, D. J.         | Anten Mills, Ont.
  802004  | L.-C.    | Ross, I. D. (M.M.).     | Newmarket, Ont.
  678922  | L.-C.    | Smith, G.               | Toronto, Ont.
  678218  | L.-C.    | Spiroff, J.             | Toronto, Ont.
  1004145 | Pte.     | Aaron, W.               | Oshwegan, Ont.
  838469  | Pte.     | Adair, C. R.            | Mount Forest, Ont.
  757925  | Pte.     | Adams, L. R.            | Caistorville, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3025008 | Pte.     | Allan, Wm.              | Markinch, Scotland.
  678759  | Pte.     | Allen, A. J.            | Much Wenlock, Eng.
  3106609 | Pte.     | Allen, W. R.            | Sunderland, Eng.
  663303  | Pte.     | Anderson, A. E.         | Acton West, Ont.
  2562384 | Pte.     | Andison, R.             | Edinburgh, Scotland
  2537460 | Pte.     | Arnold, R.              | Leicester, Eng.
  270639  | Pte.     | Armstrong, T.           | Dunnville, Ont.
  644413  | Pte.     | Archer, A. V.           | Waverly, Ont.
  104111  | Pte.     | Arnold, O. S.           | Hanwell, Middx., Eng.
  757835  | Pte.     | Ashbough, A.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  249195  | Pte.     | Atkins, J.              | Toronto, Ont.
  249793  | Pte.     | Atkinson, W. G.         | Co. Down, Ireland
  690265  | Pte.     | Barlow, C.              | Paris, Ont.
  851074  | Pte.     | Bain, R.                | Plymouth, Mass.
  745768  | Pte.     | Bailey, A.              | Toronto, Ont.
  691013  | Pte.     | Bale, W. H.             | Darwen, Lancs., Eng.
  3030462 | Pte.     | Barker, A.              | Frankford, U.S.A.
  2507382 | Pte.     | Barnes, J. A.           | Boston, U.S.A.
  542535  | Pte.     | Bewley, S. C.           | Toronto, Ont.
  2255301 | Pte.     | Beckett, T. J.          | Cardinal, Ont.
  643847  | Pte.     | Bentley, F.             | Orillia, Ont.
  679023  | Pte.     | Bennett, C.             | Torrington, Eng.
  644564  | Pte.     | Beauchamp, I.           | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  3030410 | Pte.     | Bencraft, W. L.         | Arlington, N.Y.
  663532  | Pte.     | Berry, G. G.            | Lisle, Ont.
  3030163 | Pte.     | Beddows, E. A.          | Liverpool, England
  868262  | Pte.     | Bellbody, W. J.         | Uxbridge, Ont.
  2591293 | Pte.     | Beveridge, J. J.        | Dunfermline, Scotland
  678525  | Pte.     | Binkley, N.             | Hanover, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  868257  | Pte.     | Blatchford, E. A.       | Brownsville, Ont.
  663235  | Pte.     | Blair, J.               | Georgetown, Ont.
  679031  | Pte.     | Boyce, R.               | Toronto, Ont.
  264420  | Pte.     | Borden, V. L.           | Detroit, Mich.
  643839  | Pte.     | Borman, George.         | Orillia, Ont.
  757258  | Pte.     | Bowerbank, E. A         | Hamilton, Ont.
  1063070 | Pte.     | Bolton, F.              | Burleigh Falls, Ont.
  2537404 | Pte.     | Bowerbank, T. W.        | Tuxedo Park, N.Y.
  249537  | Pte.     | Boucher, P. L.          | Masson, Que.
  757263  | Pte.     | Bowerbank, J. T.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  868201  | Pte.     | Brown, W. A.            | London, England
  690569  | Pte.     | Brownlie, A.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  757725  | Pte.     | Brain, T. W.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  644560  | Pte.     | Braithwaite, W. H.      | Lefaives Corners, Ont.
  264384  | Pte.     | Brewster, E.            | Boaz, Ala.
  850478  | Pte.     | Brown, A. C.            | Shallow Lake, Ont.
  690207  | Pte.     | Bremner, R. R.          | Hamilton, Ont.
  3105671 | Pte.     | Briggs, T.              | Fall River, Mass.
  863115  | Pte.     | Brown, B. J.            | Toronto, Ont.
  2304464 | Pte.     | Brophy, J. Dennis       | Burlington, Vermont
  1027596 | Pte.     | Burchfield, R. L.       | Ithaca, N.Y.
  3310041 | Pte.     | Burke, H. A.            | Canfield, Ont.
  3105833 | Pte.     | Burns, J.               | Montreal, Que.
  853399  | Pte.     | Campbell, W. A.         | Vasey, Ont.
  745250  | Pte.     | Campbell, J.            | Woodville, Ont.
  775458  | Pte.     | Campkin, S.             | Brampton, Ont.
  868316  | Pte.     | Campbell, John H.       | Hillier, Ont.
  2537328 | Pte.     | Callow, A. W.           | Toronto, Ont.
  121593  | Pte.     | Carroll, J.             | England
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  644437  | Pte.     | Church, F. J.           | Midland, Ont.
  3106344 | Pte.     | Church, O.              | Woodstock, Ont.
  690466  | Pte.     | Churches, D. S.         | Hamilton, Ont.
  679317  | Pte.     | Christo, E.             | Macedonia, Greece
  3106697 | Pte.     | Ciuciulette, J.         | Roumania
  746280  | Pte.     | Clark, F.               | Port Perry, Ont.
  2537330 | Pte.     | Clark, A.               | Port Perry, Ont.
  2562375 | Pte.     | Coates, W. J.           | East Orange, U.S.A.
  745344  | Pte.     | Congdon, O. J.          | Atherley, Ont.
  690804  | Pte.     | Cooke, W. F.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  264536  | Pte.     | Cooper, J. W.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  775460  | Pte.     | Corless, H. S.          | Bolton, Ont.
  642058  | Pte.     | Cole, B. T.             | Orillia, Ont.
  928416  | Pte.     | Cole, W. F.             | Surrey, England
  249711  | Pte.     | Cowan, A. F. C.         | Toronto, Ont.
  775467  | Pte.     | Cousins, W. J.          | Brampton, Ont.
  3107044 | Pte.     | Colling, J. H.          | Darlington, Eng.
  3031118 | Pte.     | Courtney, G.B.          | Paterson, N.J.
  690038  | Pte.     | Crampton, F.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  690342  | Pte.     | Crisp, J. P.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  690268  | Pte.     | Crockett, H. G.         | Abbotsford, B.C.
  249251  | Pte.     | Crosthwait, W. H.       | Dublin, Ireland
  3106722 | Pte.     | Currie, J. D.           | Gore Bay, Ont.
  690873  | Pte.     | Dale, E. N.             | Marlbank, Ont.
  775054  | Pte.     | Davey, S. J.            | Toronto, Ont.
  678564  | Pte.     | Davis, G. F.            | Toronto, Ont.
  678078  | Pte.     | Dewes, L.               | Toronto, Ont.
  3106206 | Pte.     | Delauney, L. A.         | Mexico City, Mex.
  868273  | Pte.     | De Geer, C. W.          | Uxbridge, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3106579 | Pte.     |  Delien, A. A.          | Hoboken, N.J.
  644576  | Pte.     |  Desroches, H.          | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  775914  | Pte.     |  Dixon, T. W.           | Toronto, Ont.
  3106727 | Pte.     |  Dobbs, N.              | Dunchurch, Ont.
  690395  | Pte.     |  Downton, H. V.         | Hamilton, Ont.
  678809  | Pte.     |  Douglas, F. W.         | Pelham, Herts, Eng.
  868170  | Pte.     |  Doubt, A. B.           | Port Perry, Ont.
  3105438 | Pte.     |  Downey, J.             | Yorks, England.
  2562420 | Pte.     |  Douglass, F.           | Walton, England
  3025022 | Pte.     |  Dowling, P.            | Lisanearla, Ireland
  644579  | Pte.     |  Dusome, K. H.          | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  228432  | Pte.     |  Earnshaw, B. A.        | Toronto, Ont.
  690764  | Pte.     |  Eastwood, H. K.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  3105356 | Pte.     |  Edwards, D. D.         | Freeport, Maine
  681617  | Pte.     |  Edwards, F. W.         | Toronto, Ont.
  3105612 | Pte.     |  Ede, A. E.             | Niagara Falls S., Ont.
  3106823 | Pte.     |  Elder, G. C.           | Hudson Bay Jct., Sask.
  644454  | Pte.     |  Ellery, H. M.          | Wyebridge, Ont.
  643877  | Pte.     |  Elson, Charles         | Ibstock, England
  340136  | Pte.     |  Emery, C.              | Toronto, Ont.
  663460  | Pte.     |  Ewing, R. E.           | Laurel, Ont.
  690276  | Pte.     |  Fairbrother, L.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  745373  | Pte.     |  Fairman, J. J.         | Argyle, Ont.
  225373  | Pte.     |  Fester, Arthur D.      | McNab, Ont.
  238121  | Pte.     |  Flaherty, Charles J.   | Guelph, Ont.
  648321  | Pte.     |  Flanigan, W. J.        | Heaslip, Ont.
  2507364 | Pte.     |  Fogarty, M.            | Ireland
  237015  | Pte.     |  Fortner, E.            | Toronto, Ont.
  264532  | Pte.     |  Forrest, T. W.         | Brooklyn, N.Y.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  868434  | Pte.     | Foster, C.              | Oshawa, Ont.
  2537469 | Pte.     | Fox, J. J.              | Liverpool, Eng.
  757526  | Pte.     | Forbes, G. H. E.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  225283  | Pte.     | Foster, W. C.           | Pittsburgh, Pa.
  757988  | Pte.     | Fraser, G. E.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  528082  | Pte.     | Frisken, G. W.          | Toronto, Ont.
  458095  | Pte.     | Fuller, J.              | Montreal, Que.
  192025  | Pte.     | Fulton, A.              | London, Eng.
  2537467 | Pte.     | Galer, G. F.            | Wangford, England
  644464  | Pte.     | Gardiner, V.            | Midland, Ont.
  690399  | Pte.     | Gatenby, A.             | Hamilton, Ont.
  226462  | Pte.     | Gates, J. A.            | Detroit, Mich.
  663093  | Pte.     | Gillard, F. G.          | Mount Hamilton, Ont.
  746468  | Pte.     | Gittings, F. J.         | Manor, Sask.
  249379  | Pte.     | Gibson, R. J.           | Toronto, Ont.
  679080  | Pte.     | Ginn, A. G.             | Toronto, Ont.
  3030541 | Pte.     | Givens, F. R.           | Blairstown, N. J.
  3105361 | Pte.     | Gleason, P.             | Philadelphia, Pa.
  678827  | Pte.     | Gouldsbrough, F.        | Durham, Eng.
  690554  | Pte.     | Gordon, R.              | Hamilton, Ont.
  763042  | Pte.     | Goodall, H. H.          | Warren, Ont.
  2537359 | Pte.     | Gordon, D.              | Aberdeen, Scotland
  3030514 | Pte.     | Goodwin, H.             | Chelsea, Mass.
  3107089 | Pte.     | Goodstein, J.           | Cleveland, Ohio
  643883  | Pte.     | Gowanlock, J. L.        | Atherley, Ont.
  678586  | Pte.     | Graham, C.              | Toronto, Ont.
  690661  | Pte.     | Graisley, T. V.         | Hamilton, Ont.
  745072  | Pte.     | Greenwood, F. H.        | Sunderland, Ont.
  868329  | Pte.     | Greenwood, D. N.        | Sunderland, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3030303 | Pte.     | Greenwood, J. A.        | Philadelphia, Pa.
  3005310 | Pte.     | Greene, J.              | Toronto, Ont.
  690513  | Pte.     | Guthrie, J.             | Hamilton, Ont.
  681303  | Pte.     | Hadley, S. K.           | Ilkley, Yorks, Eng.
  690403  | Pte.     | Harvey, C. E.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  237903  | Pte.     | Halpin, W.              | Glen William, Ont.
  678329  | Pte.     | Halfyard, W. R.         | Toronto, Ont.
  769948  | Pte.     | Hardy, A.               | Bradford, Yorks, Eng.
  690285  | Pte.     | Hartley, B.             | Hamilton, Ont.
  264234  | Pte.     | Haslam, H.              | Retford, Notts, Eng.
  775711  | Pte.     | Hadden, W. J.           | Toronto, Ont.
  3105135 | Pte.     | Hawkes, R.              | New Grafton, N. S.
  868198  | Pte.     | Hall, R. H.             | Sunderland, Ont.
  264333  | Pte.     | Hamilton, W. J.         | Chicago, Ill.
  3030159 | Pte.     | Haines, W. A.           | Freeport, Pa.
  228195  | Pte.     | Hadden, G. A.           | Newport, Eng.
  868377  | Pte.     | Hazard, A. J.           | Oshawa, Ont.
  1063009 | Pte.     | Heath, G. E.            | Manchester, Eng.
  681264  | Pte.     | Heath, T.               | Toronto, Ont.
  663544  | Pte.     | Hewson, E. T.           | Orangeville, Ont.
  690078  | Pte.     | Henderson, E. F.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  3030392 | Pte.     | Hennigan, W. T.         | Philadelphia, Pa.
  644065  | Pte.     | Herbert, S. A.          | Hawkestone, Ont.
  758034  | Pte.     | Hill, W. E.             | Hamilton, Ont.
  644586  | Pte.     | Hirst, C. H.            | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  3030441 | Pte.     | Hicks, J.               | Toronto, Ont.
  679102  | Pte.     | Hogarth, J.             | Toronto, Ont.
  250058  | Pte.     | Hopcraft, E. W.         | Toronto, Ont.
  766850  | Pte.     | House, W. J.            | Toronto, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3105443 | Pte.     | Hogan, J.               | Chicago, Ill.
  776085  | Pte.     | Howson, R. C.           | Wingham, Ont.
  514583  | Pte.     | Hunter, W. E.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  690934  | Pte.     | Hunter, R.              | Tillicoultry, Scot.
  746290  | Pte.     | Hull, W. H.             | Oshawa, Ont.
  663431  | Pte.     | Hutchins, F. C.         | Illbury, Herts, Eng.
  663022  | Pte.     | Hunt, E.                | Burlington, Ont.
  690077  | Pte.     | Hyland, F.              | Cobourg, Ont.
  663462  | Pte.     | Irwin, J. D.            | Laurel, Ont.
  678754  | Pte.     | Jackson, O. G.          | Toronto, Ont.
  3105288 | Pte.     | Jamieson, A.            | Belfast, Ireland
  679111  | Pte.     | Jeffery, A. G.          | Lowerbourne, Eng.
  3030654 | Pte.     | Jeulin, A. C.           | New York, N. Y.
  264247  | Pte.     | Johnson, W. M.          | (M.M.) Calumet, Mich.
  135747  | Pte.     | Johnson, A. R           | Stapenhill, England
  644482  | Pte.     | Jones, G. A.            | Vasey, Ont.
  1063054 | Pte.     | Jones, I. W.            | Apsley, Ont.
  643899  | Pte.     | Jones, G. H.            | Orillia, Ont.
  757569  | Pte.     | Jones, R. A.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  3030579 | Pte.     | Jones, W.               | Llandudno, Wales
  727436  | Pte.     | Jones, A.               | Stratford, Ont.
  2507318 | Pte.     | Jones, J. H.            | Flint, N. Wales
  3105191 | Pte.     | Juleff, Wm. M.          | England
  928143  | Pte.     | Keith, J. A.            | Simcoe, Ont.
  3106189 | Pte.     | Kelly, J. E.            | Springfield, Ill.
  644850  | Pte.     | Kemp, H. J.             | Wyebridge, Ont.
  644591  | Pte.     | Kennedy, W.             | Penetang, Ont.
  644479  | Pte.     | Kinch, I. T. R.         | Midland, Ont.
  249509  | Pte.     | King, P.                | Rossport, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  2537472 | Pte.     | King, R. P.             | Philadelphia, Pa.
  264098  | Pte.     | Kubiak, M.              | Detroit, Mich.
  644070  | Pte.     | Lamble, W. R.           | Orillia, Ont.
  644018  | Pte.     | Langley, J. M.          | Lawson, Ont.
  2507404 | Pte.     | Lannigan, W. H.         | Chicago, Ill.
  1090239 | Pte.     | Laronde, T. A.          | Cobalt, Ont.
  850091  | Pte.     | Lawn, P.                | Braintree, Essex, Eng.
  680204  | Pte.     | Lee, A.                 | Toronto, Ont.
  775944  | Pte.     | Leece, W. T.            | Brampton, Ont.
  642700  | Pte.     | Legg, A. W.             | New Lowell
  228049  | Pte.     | Lillew, H. W.           | Toronto, Ont.
  775736  | Pte.     | Litchfield, T. W.       | Toronto, Ont.
  678033  | Pte.     | Litherland, A. O. H.    | Toronto, Ont.
  678619  | Pte.     | Lloyd, W. E.            | Toronto, Ont.
  678621  | Pte.     | Logan, W.               | Toronto, Ont.
  264187  | Pte.     | Loughlin, T.            | Los Angeles, Cal.
  3105101 | Pte.     | Lowe, A.                | Evanston, Ill.
  663182  | Pte.     | Lowman, R.              | London, England
  3317073 | Pte.     | Luney, T. W.            | Toronto, Ont.
  249456  | Pte.     | Mangan, M. E.           | Dublin, Ireland
  249731  | Pte.     | Machin, J. E.           | Toronto, Ont.
  644072  | Pte.     | Marshall, F.            | Orillia, Ont.
  690307  | Pte.     | Massey, P. A.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  690838  | Pte.     | Macklow, J. A.          | Hamilton, Ont.
  757849  | Pte.     | May, J. W.              | Hamilton, Ont.
  663780  | Pte.     | Maples, R. F.           | Mono Mills, Ont.
  868237  | Pte.     | Marshall, R. J.         | Wilberforce, Ont.
  3106003 | Pte.     | MacIntosh, A. G.        | Jersey City, N.J.
  2529441 | Pte.     | Mayne, C. J.            | Toronto, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  249452  | Pte.     | McPhail, J.             | Toronto, Ont.
  249140  | Pte.     | McGrath, H. P.          | Toronto, Ont.
  237630  | Pte.     | McDade, J.              | Toronto, Ont.
  690573  | Pte.     | McFarlane, W.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  3030274 | Pte.     | McCallum, W.            | Philadelphia, Pa.
  757870  | Pte.     | McInnes, D. G.          | Hamilton, Ont.
  644074  | Pte.     | McNabb, C. H.           | Orillia, Ont.
  745428  | Pte.     | McMillan, J. A.         | Orillia, Ont.
  690758  | Pte.     | McCall, W.              | Hamilton, Ont.
  868051  | Pte.     | McInally, C.            | Oshawa, Ont.
  663553  | Pte.     | McLellan, E. W.         | Shelburne, Ont.
  663187  | Pte.     | McGillivray, F. S.      | Orangeville, Ont.
  745431  | Pte.     | McPhadden, C. R.        | Sunderland, Ont.
  775989  | Pte.     | McCaffrey, W. L.        | Caledon East, Ont.
  3106214 | Pte.     | McArthur, T. A.         | Kansas City, Mo.
  264540  | Pte.     | McKay, J. G. (M.M.)     | Cincinnati, Ohio
  3105335 | Pte.     | McCord, R.              | Danville, Que.
  3030969 | Pte.     | McGrath, J. P.          | Chicago, Ill.
  3030533 | Pte.     | McLean, D.              | Philadelphia, Pa.
  3105497 | Pte.     | McTavish, R. A.         | Glasgow, Scotland
  2304372 | Pte.     | McKissock, D.           | Johnstone, Scotland
  3107124 | Pte.     | McCrea, F.              | Chicago, Ill.
  3106002 | Pte.     | McCaig, H.              | Toronto, Ont.
  3106304 | Pte.     | McKee, A.               | Ballymoney, Ireland
  663186  | Pte.     | McDonald, J. W.         | Grand Valley, Ont.
  3310318 | Pte.     | Merkley, W. S.          | Dundas, Ont.
  2537304 | Pte.     | Methuen, W.             | Dunfermline, Scot.
  678877  | Pte.     | Middleton, W. J.        | Toronto, Ont.
  172359  | Pte.     | Miller, F. O.           | Toronto, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  249286  | Pte.     | Miller, F. L.           | Toronto, Ont.
  644829  | Pte.     | Montgomery, J. C.       | Midland, Ont.
  690229  | Pte.     | Montgomery, W. J. A.    | Hamilton, Ont.
  679133  | Pte.     | Montgomery, E. J.       | Toronto, Ont.
  3106407 | Pte.     | Morrison, J. J.         | Hamilton, Ont.
  857010  | Pte.     | Moore, W.               | London, Eng.
  746465  | Pte.     | Moore, G. E.            | Burketon, Ont.
  681188  | Pte.     | Morgan, C. W.           | Walsall, Staffs., Eng.
  663751  | Pte.     | Mottart, H. A.          | Waldemar, Ont.
  3030309 | Pte.     | Morgan, J.              | Bellevue, Pa.
  448714  | Pte.     | Moore, A.               | Montreal, Que.
  3030279 | Pte.     | Mulligan, J. J.         | Ballagfraderrin, Ire.
  690734  | Pte.     | Muldoon, P.             | Linwood, Scot.
  2537499 | Pte.     | Murphy, A. L.           | St. John's, Nfld.
  3105661 | Pte.     | Noonan, T.              | Chicago, Ill.
  3105019 | Pte.     | O'Donnelly, D. S.       | Hamilton, Ont.
  529289  | Pte.     | O'Leary, J. P.          | Detroit, Mich.
  1003244 | Pte.     | Oliver, W. F.           | Thessalon, Ont.
  273632  | Pte.     | O'Neill, J.             | Liverpool, Eng.
  2537416 | Pte.     | Orr, W.                 | Stockport, England
  679152  | Pte.     | Osborne, S.             | Bristol, England
  746072  | Pte.     | Owen, J.                | Beeton, Ont.
  678203  | Pte.     | Park, L. C.             | Toronto, Ont.
  690798  | Pte.     | Park, R.                | Glasgow, Scotland
  757924  | Pte.     | Parish, H. J.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  678651  | Pte.     | Parker, F.              | Toronto, Ont.
  679283  | Pte.     | Patterson, M.           | Kilmacnenan, Ireland
  678088  | Pte.     | Painter, W. J.          | Toronto, Ont.
  644519  | Pte.     | Paul, H.                | Midland, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  678894  | Pte.     | Payne, A. E. S.         | Bradford, Yorks, Eng.
  3105507 | Pte.     | Paylor, G. F.           | Lynn, Mass.
  733605  | Pte.     | Pearl, A. M.            | Berwick, N.S.
  775906  | Pte.     | Perkins, C.             | Clawton, England
  3106172 | Pte.     | Perks, E.               | St. John's, Nfld.
  644094  | Pte.     | Phillips, V. R.         | Orillia, Ont.
  678898  | Pte.     | Philip, R. M.           | Toronto, Ont.
  2537366 | Pte.     | Pink, S.                | Farnham, England
  171997  | Pte.     | Pimlott, H.             | Toronto, Ont.
  3106293 | Pte.     | Plooard, T. A.          | Hamilton, Ont.
  663668  | Pte.     | Potter, N. C.           | Waldemar, Ont.
  3105758 | Pte.     | Powell, F.              | Chicago, Ill.
  868420  | Pte.     | Pritchard, L. H.        | Ramsgate, England
  644518  | Pte.     | Puddicomb, W. J.        | Midland, Ont.
  690246  | Pte.     | Pulsford, F. J.         | Hamilton, Ont.
  643948  | Pte.     | Raaflaub, R. O.         | Jarrett, Ont.
  3105793 | Pte.     | Ramsey, J.              | Hillhead Faroes, Scot.
  663514  | Pte.     | Rainey, F. W.           | Grand Valley, Ont.
  3314394 | Pte.     | Randle, W.              | Bridgeburg, Ont.
  745612  | Pte.     | Reesor, I. O.           | Cedar Grove, Ont.
  679161  | Pte.     | Reid, A. E.             | Toronto, Ont.
  679164  | Pte.     | Reid, L.                | Toronto, Ont.
  3310211 | Pte.     | Ribble, G. A.           | Walsingham C., Ont.
  690645  | Pte.     | Rogers, W. C.           | St. Ann's, Ont.
  240616  | Pte.     | Robertson, D. E.        | Hamilton, Ont.
  690621  | Pte.     | Rorie, T.               | Hamilton, Ont.
  690158  | Pte.     | Rogers, J. T.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  746118  | Pte.     | Sayers, J.              | Cedardale, Ont.
  457964  | Pte.     | Sauve, W.               | Montreal, Que.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3031164 | Pte.     | Sather, O.              | Denver, Col.
  3030180 | Pte.     | Sandell, W.             | Philadelphia, Pa.
  3030837 | Pte.     | Sanderson, R. F.        | Oconomowoc, Wis.
  1004236 | Pte.     | Sandie, E. C.           | Thessalon, Ont.
  642072  | Pte.     | Scott, P. H.            | Orillia, Ont.
  3106266 | Pte.     | Shuman, O. G.           | Eldorado, Ill.
  2393428 | Pte.     | Secker, A. E.           | London, Eng.
  3314848 | Pte.     | Shannon, F. R.          | Collingwood, Ont.
  745472  | Pte.     | Sheffield, J. H.        | Udora, Ont.
  643407  | Pte.     | Sharp, J. J.            | Tottenham, Ont.
  868119  | Pte.     | Shaw, A. H.             | Toronto, Ont.
  763406  | Pte.     | Shortt, E. S.           | Muskoka, Ont.
  249661  | Pte.     | Shier, H. E.            | Pefferlaw, Ont.
  3106366 | Pte.     | Sholters, G. H.         | Cainsville, Ont.
  663515  | Pte.     | Simmons, A. R.          | Dundalk, Ont.
  754471  | Pte.     | Smith, H. A.            | Toronto, Ont.
  644710  | Pte.     | Sproule, H. T.          | Penetang, Ont.
  644867  | Pte.     | Sterrett, A. W.         | London, Eng.
  775564  | Pte.     | Stronge, A.             | Toronto, Ont.
  249634  | Pte.     | Stephenson, J. B.       | Toronto, Ont.
  681865  | Pte.     | Stott, T.               | Toronto, Ont.
  868113  | Pte.     | Stone, A. W.            | Greenbank, Ont.
  797616  | Pte.     | Stipe, C. L.            | Delhi, Ont.
  250141  | Pte.     | Stout, J. P.            | Toronto, Ont.
  679188  | Pte.     | Switzer, R. G.          | Toronto, Ont.
  802471  | Pte.     | Swan, J.                | London, Ont.
  644533  | Pte.     | Symons, F. A.           | Midland, Ont.
  868019  | Pte.     | Taylor, A. L.           | St. Catharines, Ont.
  3317099 | Pte.     | Tennison, J. W.         | Sebright, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  3105825 | Pte.     | Thomson, A.             | Jeanette, Pa.
  3105824 | Pte.     | Toon, G. W.             | Chicago, Ill.
  690974  | Pte.     | Toner, E.               | Carlisle, England
  868053  | Pte.     | Trick, I. J.            | Oshawa, Ont.
  690643  | Pte.     | Turnbull, T.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  757649  | Pte.     | Unsworth, R.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  644628  | Pte.     | Vailliancourt, J.       | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  2562460 | Pte.     | Vallis, A. H.           | N. Devon., Bermuda
  757472  | Pte.     | Vanevery, M.            | Niagara Falls, Ont.
  644630  | Pte.     | Vasseur, A. P.          | Penetanguishene, Ont.
  746446  | Pte.     | Wain, L.A.              | Uxbridge, Ont.
  457552  | Pte.     | Walsh, S.               | Montreal, Que.
  690625  | Pte.     | Waters, H. J.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  775592  | Pte.     | Walker, A.              | Palgrave, Ont.
  803030  | Pte.     | Walters, J. W.          | Thorndale, Ont.
  157527  | Pte.     | Waller, J.              | Toronto, Ont.
  225715  | Pte.     | Wallis, I. N.           | Greensville, Ont.
  1090125 | Pte.     | Weaver, E.              | Picton, Ont.
  690599  | Pte.     | Wells, A. E.            | Yarmouth, Eng.
  1090410 | Pte.     | Webb, G.                | Arlington, N.J.
  757935  | Pte.     | Weir, A. G.             | Burford, Ont.
  775589  | Pte.     | West, J. T.             | Brampton, Ont.
  690841  | Pte.     | Welsh, Bert.            | Hamilton, Ont.
  3034652 | Pte.     | Westerman, E. W.        | Buffalo, N.Y.
  681513  | Pte.     | White, J. B.            | Toronto, Ont.
  757658  | Pte.     | White, J.               | London, England
  745500  | Pte.     | Whetter, F.             | Woodville, Ont.
  2529450 | Pte.     | Wilson, R. McK.         | Paris, Ont.
  1090151 | Pte.     | Wilkins, E.             | Picton, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------

  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
   Regt.  |   Rank   |          Name           |        Address
    No.   |          |                         |
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------
  850618  | Pte.     | Williamson, J. C.       | Thorold, Ont.
  690204  | Pte.     | Wilson, A. S.           | Hamilton, Ont.
  264615  | Pte.     | Wilson, H. T.           | Parkersburg, W. Va.
  643981  | Pte.     | Williams, W. J.         | Longford, Ont.
  237243  | Pte.     | Williams, G. E.         | Toronto, Ont.
  285570  | Pte.     | Wood, T.                | Scotland
  775584  | Pte.     | Wood, W. H.             | Bolton, Ont.
  3106755 | Pte.     | Woodcock, J. O.         | Dwight, Ont.
  1090068 | Pte.     | Wylie, B.               | Brinston, Ont.
  225462  | Pte.     | Yaffo, N. W.            | Toronto, Ont.
  --------+----------+-------------------------+------------------------


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

The transcriber has corrected an error in the table of contents.
Chapter XI Mons was listed as on page 88 in the book. It should have
read 87.





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