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Title: Bird Guide: Land Birds East of the Rockies - From Parrots to Bluebirds
Author: Reed, Chester A. (Chester Albert)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: PREPARING BREAKFAST (Two adult Chipping Sparrows breaking
worm into pieces to feed young.)]



BIRD GUIDE

LAND BIRDS EAST OF THE ROCKIES

From Parrots to Bluebirds

by

CHESTER A. REED

Author of
North American Birds’ Eggs, and, with Frank M. Chapman, of Color Key to
North American Birds. Curator in Ornithology, Worcester Natural History
Society.



Garden City    New York
Doubleday, Page & Company
1919

Copyrighted, 1906, 1909 by Chas. K. Reed.



                                PREFACE


[Illustration: Chickadee]

The native birds are one of our nation’s most valuable assets. Destroy
them, and in a comparatively few years the insects will have multiplied
to such an extent that trees will be denuded of their foliage, plants
will cease to thrive and crops cannot be raised. This is not fancy but
plain facts. Look at the little Chickadee on the side of this page. She
was photographed while entering a bird box, with about twenty-five plant
lice to feed her seven young; about two hundred times a day, either she
or her mate, made trips with similar loads to feed the growing
youngsters.

It has been found, by observation and dissection, that a Cuckoo consumes
daily from 50 to 400 caterpillars or their equivalent, while a Chickadee
will eat from 200 to 500 insects or up to 4,000 insect or worm eggs. 100
insects a day is a conservative estimate of the quantity consumed by each
individual insectivorous bird. By carefully estimating the birds in
several areas, I find that, in Massachusetts, there are not less than
five insect-eating birds per acre. Thus this state with its 8,000 square
miles has a useful bird population of not less than 25,600,000, which,
for each day’s fare, requires the enormous total of 2,560,000,000
insects. That such figures can be expressed in terms better understood,
it has been computed that about 120,000 average insects fill a bushel
measure. This means that the daily consumption, of chiefly obnoxious
insects, in Massachusetts is 21,000 bushels. This estimate is good for
about five months in the year, May to September, inclusive; during the
remainder of the year, the insects, eggs and larvæ destroyed by our
Winter, late Fall and early Spring migrants will be equivalent to nearly
half this quantity.

It is the duty, and should be the pleasure, of every citizen to do all in
his or her power to protect these valuable creatures, and to encourage
them to remain about our homes. The author believes that the best means
of protection is the disseminating of knowledge concerning them, and the
creating of an interest in their habits and modes of life. With that
object in view, this little book is prepared. May it serve its purpose
and help those already interested in the subject, and may it be the
medium for starting many others on the road to knowledge of our wild,
feathered friends.

                                                        CHESTER A. REED.

  Worcester, Mass.,
    October 1 1905.



                              INTRODUCTION


It is an undisputed fact that a great many of our birds are becoming more
scarce each year, while a few are, even now, on the verge of extinction.
The decrease in numbers of a few species may be attributed chiefly to the
elements, such as a long-continued period of cold weather or ice storms
in the winter, and rainy weather during the nesting season; however, in
one way or another, and often unwittingly, man is chiefly responsible for
the diminution in numbers. If I were to name the forces that work against
the increase of bird life, in order of their importance, I should give
them as: Man; the elements; accidents; cats; other animals; birds of
prey; and snakes. I do not take into consideration the death of birds
from natural causes, such as old age and disease, for these should be
counterbalanced by the natural increase.

There are parts that each one of us can play in lessening the unnatural
dangers that lurk along a bird’s path in life. Individually, our efforts
may amount to but little, perhaps the saving of the lives of two or
three, or more, birds during the year, but collectively, our efforts will
soon be felt in the bird-world.

How Can We Protect the Birds?—Nearly all states have fairly good game
laws, which, if they could be enforced, would properly protect our birds
from man, but they cannot be; if our boys and girls are educated to
realize the economic value of the birds, and are encouraged to study
their habits, the desire to shoot them or to rob them of their eggs will
be very materially lessened. It is a common practice for some farmers to
burn their land over in the Spring, usually about nesting time. Three
years ago, and as far back of that as I can remember, a small ravine or
valley was teeming with bird life; it was the most favored spot that I
know of, for the variety and numbers of its bird tenants. Last year,
toward the end of May, this place was deliberately burned over by the
owner. Twenty-seven nests that I know of, some with young, others with
eggs, and still others in the process of construction, were destroyed,
besides hundreds of others that I had never seen. This year the same
thing was done earlier in the season, and not a bird nested here, and,
late in Summer, only a few clumps of ferns have found courage to appear
above the blackened ground. Farmers also cut off a great many patches of
underbrush that might just as well have been left, thus, for lack of
suitable places for their homes, driving away some of their most valuable
assistants. The cutting off of woods and forests is an important factor
in the decrease of bird life, as well as upon the climate of the country.

Our winter birds have their hardships when snow covers the weed tops, and
a coating of ice covers the trees, so that they can neither get seeds nor
grubs. During the nesting season, we often have long-continued rains
which sometimes cause an enormous loss of life to insect-eating birds and
their young. In 1903, after a few weeks’ steady rain and damp weather,
not a Purple Martin could be found in Worcester County, nor, as far as I
know, in New England; they were wholly unable to get food for either
themselves or their young, and the majority of them left this region. The
Martin houses, when cleaned out, were found to contain young, eggs, and
some adults that had starved rather than desert their family. The Martins
did not return in 1904 or 1905.

Birds are subject to a great many accidents, chiefly by flying into
objects at night. Telephone and telegraph wires maim or kill thousands,
while lighthouses and steeples often cause the ground to be strewn with
bodies during migrations. Other accidents are caused by storms, fatigue
while crossing large bodies of water, nests falling from trees because of
an insecure support, and ground nests being trod upon by man, horses, and
cattle.

In the vicinity of cities, towns, villages, or farms, one of the most
fertile sources of danger to bird life is from cats. Even the most gentle
household pet, if allowed its liberty out of doors, will get its full
quota of birds during the year, while homeless cats, and many that are
not, will average several hundred birds apiece during the season. After
years of careful observation, Mr. E. H. Forbush, Mass., state
ornithologist, has estimated that the average number of birds killed, per
cat population, is about fifty. If a dog kills sheep or deer, he is shot
and the owner has to pay damages; if a man is caught killing a bird, he
pays a fine; but cats are allowed to roam about without restriction,
leaving death and destruction in their wake. All homeless cats should be
summarily dealt with, and all pets should be housed, at least from May
until August, when the young birds are able to fly.

Of wild animals, Red Squirrels are far the most destructive to young
birds and eggs; Chipmunks and Grays are also destructive but not nearly
as active or impudent as the Reds. Skunks, Foxes, and Weasels are smaller
factors in the decrease of bird life.

Birds of prey have but little to do with the question of bird protection
for, with a few exceptions, they rarely feed upon other birds, and nearly
all of them are of considerable economic value themselves. Jays, Crows,
and Grackles, by devouring the eggs and young of our smaller birds, are a
far greater menace than are the birds of prey, but even these have their
work and should be left in the place that Nature intended for them; they
should, however, be taught to keep away from the neighborhood of houses.

How Can We Attract Birds About Our Homes?—Many birds prefer to live in
the vicinity of houses, and they soon learn where they are welcome. Keep
your premises as free as possible from cats, dogs, and especially English
Sparrows, and other birds will come. Robins, Orioles, Kingbirds, Waxwings
and a few others will nest in orchard trees, while in dead limbs or bird
boxes will be found Bluebirds, Wrens, Swallows, Woodpeckers, Chickadees,
etc.

A house for Purple Martins may contain many apartments; it should be
erected in an open space, on a ten or twelve foot pole. Boxes for other
birds should have but one compartment, and should be about six by six by
eight inches, with a hole at least one and one-half inches in diameter in
one side; these can be fastened in trees or on the sides or cornices of
barns or sheds. It is needless to say that English Sparrows should not be
allowed to use these boxes. By tying suet to limbs of trees in winter,
and providing a small board upon which grain, crumbs, etc., may be
sprinkled, large numbers of winter birds may be fed; of these, probably
only the Chickadees will remain to nest, if they can find a suitable
place.

How to Study Birds.—This refers, not to the scientific, but to the
popular study of our birds, chiefly in the field. We can learn many very
interesting things by watching our birds, especially during the nesting
season, and the habits and peculiarities of many are still but
imperfectly known. One thing to be impressed upon the student at the
start is the need of very careful observation before deciding upon the
identity of a bird with which you are not perfectly familiar. A bird’s
colors appear to differ greatly when viewed in different lights, while in
looking up in the tree tops, it is often impossible to see any color at
all without the aid of a good field glass. By the way, we would advise
every one to own a good pair of these, for, besides being almost
indispensable for bird study, they are equally valuable for use at the
seashore, in the mountains, or at the theatre. We have examined more than
a hundred makes of field glasses to select the one best adapted to bird
study, and at a moderate price. We found one that was far superior to any
other at the same price, and was equal to most of those costing three
times as much. It gives a very clear image, magnifies about four
diameters, and has a very large field of view. It comes in a silk-lined
leather case, with cord for suspending from the shoulder, and is of a
convenient size for carrying in the pocket. We have made arrangements so
that we can sell these at a reasonable price (money refunded if they are
not satisfactory after three days’ trial).

We should also advise every one to keep a notebook, apart from the Bird
Guide. At the end of the season you can write neatly with ink on the top
of the pages of the Guide, the dates of the earliest arrivals and latest
departures of the birds that you have recorded. If you see a bird that
you do not recognize, make the following notes, as completely as
possible: Length (approximately); any bright colors or patches; shape of
bill, whether most like that of a finch, warbler, etc.; has it a medium
or superciliary line, eye ring, wing bars, or white in the tail; what are
its notes or song; does it keep on or near the ground, or high up; are
its actions quick or slow; upon what does it appear to be feeding; is it
alone or with other birds, and what kind; where was it seen, in dry
woods, swamp, pasture, etc.; date that it was seen. With this data you
can identify any bird, but usually you will need only to glance over the
pictures in the Bird Guide to find the name of the bird you have seen.

I should advise any one by all means to make a complete local list of all
the birds that are found in their neighborhood, but of far greater value
than the simple recording of the different species seen on each walk,
will be the making a special study of one or more birds, even though they
be common ones. While, of course, noting any peculiarities of any bird
that you may see, select some particular one or ones and find out all you
can about it. The following most necessary points are cited to aid the
student in making observations: Date of arrival and whether in large
flocks, pairs, or singly; where found most abundantly; upon what do they
feed at the different seasons; what are their songs and calls at
different seasons; when and where do they make their nests; of what are
they made and by which bird or both; how long does it take, and when is
the first and last egg laid; how long does it take them to hatch, and do
both birds or only one incubate them; upon what are the young fed at
different ages; how long do they remain in the nest, and do they return
after once leaving; how long before they are able to feed themselves, and
do they remain with their parents until they migrate. These and other
notes that will suggest themselves will furnish interesting and valuable
instruction during your leisure time.

[Illustration: TOPOGRAPHY OF A BIRD]

The numbers and names used in this book are those adopted by the American
Ornithologists’ Union, and are known both in this country and abroad. The
lengths given are averages; our small birds often vary considerably and
may be found either slightly larger or smaller than those quoted.

On some of the pages a number of sub-species are mentioned. Sub-species
often cause confusion, because they are usually very similar to the
original; they can best be identified by the locality in which they are
found.

Of course the writing of birds’ songs is an impossibility, but wherever I
have thought it might prove of assistance, I have given a crude imitation
of what it sounds like to me. The nests and eggs are described, as they
often lead to the identity of a bird. We would suggest that you neatly,
and with ink, make a cross against the name of each bird that you see in
your locality, and also that you write at the top of the page the date of
the arrival and departure of each bird as you note it; these dates vary
so much in different localities that we have not attempted to give them.

As many will not wish to soil their books, we would suggest that they
have a leather-covered copy for the library and a cloth one for pocket
use.



                               BIRD GUIDE


[Illustration: ]

                     LAND BIRDS EAST OF THE ROCKIES

[Illustration: ]


                           CAROLINA PAROQUET
            382.     Conuropsis carolinensis.     12½ inches

Adults have the fore part of the head orange, while young birds have the
head entirely green, with only a trifle orange on the forehead.

With the exception of the Thick-Billed Parrot, which is very rarely found
in southern Arizona, these are the only members of the Parrot family in
the United States. They were once abundant throughout the southern
states, but are now nearly extinct. They are found in heavily timbered
regions, usually along the banks of streams, where they feed upon seeds
and berries.

Note.—A sharp, rolling “kr-r-r-r-r.” (Chapman.)

Nest.—Supposed to be in hollow trees, where they lay from three to five
white eggs (1.31 × 1.06).

Range.—Formerly the southern states, but now confined to the interior of
Florida and, possibly, Indian Territory.

[Illustration: ]


                           GROOVE-BILLED ANI
            384.     Crotophaga sulcirostris.     14½ inches

Anis are fairly abundant in southern Texas along the Rio Grande. Like all
the members of the family of Cuckoos, their nesting habits are very
irregular; ofttimes a number of them will unite and form one large nest
in a bush, in which all deposit their eggs. The eggs are bluish-green,
covered with a white chalky deposit (1.25 × .95).


                              ROAD-RUNNER
            385.     Geococcyx californianus.     23 inches

In the southwestern portions of our country, from Texas and Kansas west
to the Pacific, these curious birds are commonly found. They are locally
known as “Ground Cuckoos,” “Snake-killers,” “Chaparral Cocks.” They are
very fond of lizards and small snakes, which form a large part of their
fare. They are very fleet runners, but fly only indifferently well. Their
four to ten white eggs are laid on frail nests of twigs, in bushes.

[Illustration: ]


                            MANGROVE CUCKOO
                386.     Coccyzus minor.     13 inches.

These buff-breasted Cuckoos are natives of Cuba and Central America,
being found in southern Florida only during the summer. The habits of all
the American Cuckoos are practically identical and their notes or songs
can only be distinguished from one another by long familiarity.


                          YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO
              387.     Coccyzus americanus.     12¼ inches

This species is the most abundant in the southern part of its range,
while the Black-bill is the most common in the North. Notice that the
lower mandible is yellowish, that the wings are largely rufous, and that
the outer tail feathers are black, with broad white tips, these points
readily distinguishing this species from the next. The eggs of this
species are large and paler colored than the next (1.20 × .90). They
breed from the Gulf to southern Canada and winter in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                          BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO
           388.     Coccyzus erythropthalmus.     11¾ inches

Cuckoos are of quiet and retiring habits, but on account of their
mournful notes are often regarded with awe by the superstitious. They are
one of our most valuable birds, for they consume quantities of the fuzzy
Tent Caterpillars, that are so destructive.

Their short, rounded wings and long, broad tails give them a silent,
gliding flight that often enables them to escape unnoticed.

Note.—A low guttural croak, “cow,” “cow,” etc., repeated a great many
times and sometimes varied with “cow-uh,” also repeated many times.

Nest.—Flat, shabby platforms of twigs placed at low elevations in
thickets or on the lower branches of trees. The four greenish-blue eggs
are 1.15 × .85.

Range.—United States and southern Canada, east of the Rockies. Arrives in
May and leaves in September for northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                           BELTED KINGFISHER
                 390.     Ceryle aleyon.     13 inches

The male has the breast band and sides blue-gray, like the back, while
the female has chestnut-colored sides and breast band in addition to a
gray band.

Kingfishers may be found about ponds, lakes, rivers, the seaside or small
creeks; anywhere that small fish may be obtained. Their food is entirely
of fish that they catch by diving for, from their perches on dead
branches, or by hovering over the water until the fish are in proper
positions and then plunging after them.

Note.—A very loud, harsh rattle, easily heard half a mile away on a
clear, quiet day.

Nest.—At the end of a two or three foot tunnel in a sand bank. The tunnel
terminates in an enlarged chamber where the five to eight glossy white
eggs (1.35 × 1.05) are laid upon the sand.

Range.—Whole of North America north to the Arctic regions. Winters from
southern United States southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            TEXAS KINGFISHER
        391.     Ceryle americana septentrionalis.     8 inches

The adult male of this species has a rufous breast band, while the female
has only a greenish one.

The Texan Green Kingfisher is the smallest member of the family found
within our borders. You will notice that all Kingfishers have the two
outer toes on each foot joined together for about two thirds of their
length. This has been brought about through their habit of excavating in
sand banks for nesting sites. It is quite probable that at some future
distant period the three forward toes may be connected for their whole
length, so as to give them a still more perfect shovel.

Note.—A rattling cry, more shrill than that of the Belted Kingfisher.

Nest.—The four to six glossy white eggs are laid on the sand at the end
of a horizontal burrow in a bank, the end being enlarged into a chamber
sufficiently large to allow the parent bird to turn about.

Range.—Southwestern border of the United States, from southern Texas to
Arizona.

[Illustration: ]


                        IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER
            392.     Campephilus principalis.     20 inches

Male with a scarlet crest, female with a black one.

These are the largest and most rare of the Woodpeckers found within our
borders. Their decline in numbers is due, to a certain extent, to the
killing of them because of their size and beauty, but chiefly on account
of cutting off of a great deal of the heavy timber where they nest. They
are very powerful birds and often scale the bark off the greater portion
of a tree in search for insects and grubs, while they will bore into the
heart of a living tree to make their home.

Note.—A shrill two-syllabled shriek or whistle.

Nest.—In holes of large trees in impenetrable swamps. On the chips at the
bottom of the cavity, they lay from three to six glossy, pure white eggs
(1.45 × 1.00).

Range.—Formerly the South Atlantic States and west to Texas and Indian
Territory, but now confined to a few isolated portions of Florida and,
possibly, Indian Territory.

[Illustration: ]


                            HAIRY WOODPECKER
               393.     Dryobates villosus.     9 inches

In summer these Woodpeckers are found in heavy woods, where they breed,
but in Winter they are often seen on trees about houses, even in the
larger cities, hunting in all the crevices of the bark in the hope of
locating the larva of some insect. They usually are more shy than the
Downy, from which they can readily be distinguished by their much larger
size.

Note.—A sharp whistled “peenk.”

Nest.—In holes in trees in deep woods; three to six glossy white eggs
(59. × .70).

Range.—Eastern U. S. from Canada to North Carolina.

Sub-Species.—393a. Northern Hairy Woodpecker (leucomelas), British
America and Alaska; larger, 393b. Southern Hairy Woodpecker (audubonii),
South Atlantic and Gulf States; smaller. The difference between these
birds is small and chiefly in size, although the southern bird often has
fewer white marks on the wing coverts. Other sub-species are found west
of the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                       SOUTHERN DOWNY WOODPECKER
               394.     Dryobates pubescens.     6 inches

The male has a red nuchal patch while the female has none. Downies are
one of the commonest of our Woodpeckers and are usually tame, allowing a
very close approach before flying. They remain in orchards and open woods
throughout the summer, and in winter often come to the windows in places
where they are fed, as many people are in the habit of doing now. Their
food, as does that of nearly all the Woodpeckers, consists entirely of
insects, grubs and larvæ.

Note.—A sharp “peenk” or a rapid series of the same note, usually not as
loud as that of the Hairy Woodpecker.

Nest.—In holes in trees in orchards or woods; the four to six white eggs
being laid on the bare wood; size .75 × .60.

Range.—South Atlantic and Gulf States.

Sub-Species.—Northern Downy Woodpecker (medianus) North America east of
the Rockies and north of the Carolinas. This variety is slightly larger
than the southern, others are found west of the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                        RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER
               395.     Dryobates borealis.     8¼ inches

Male with a small patch of scarlet on both sides of the head; female
without. The actions and habits are very similar to those of the Downy.
The birds can readily be identified at a distance by the cross-barring of
white on the back. Their notes are harsher than those of the Downy and
have more of the nasal quality, like those of the nuthatches.

Range.—Southeastern United States, west to Texas and north to Virginia.


                            TEXAN WOODPECKER
           396.     Dryobates scalaris bairdi.     7¼ inches

On account of its numerous cross-bars, this species is often known as the
Ladder-backed Woodpecker. They are quite similar to the Nuttall
Woodpecker that is found on the Pacific Coast, but differ in having the
underparts brownish-white instead of white, and the outer tail feathers
heavily barred. They are found from Texas to southeastern California and
north to Colorado.

[Illustration: ]


                      ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER
               400.     Picoides arcticus.     9.5 inches

Back glossy black, without any white. Only three toes, two in front and
one behind. This is the most common of the two species found within the
United States. They breed from the northern edge of the Union north to
the limit of trees.


                     AMERICAN THREE-TOED WOODPECKER
              401.     Picoides americanus.     8¾ inches

Back barred with white; outer tail feathers barred with black; yellow
crown patch on male mixed with white. Except on some of the higher
mountain ranges these birds appear in the United States only during
winter. They are very hardy and commence nesting before snow leaves.

Note.—A shrill, loud, nasal shriek, sometimes repeated.

Nest.—In holes of trees as is usual with Woodpeckers. The white eggs
measure .95 × .70.

[Illustration: ]


                        YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER
               402.     Sphyrapicus varius.     8½ inches

Male with a scarlet crown and throat; female with a scarlet crown and
white throat; young with the head and neck mottled gray and white, with a
few scarlet feathers.

This species has gained some ill-repute because of its supposed habit of
boring through the bark of trees in order to get at the sap, and thus
killing the trees. However, I very much doubt if they do any appreciable
damage in this manner. I have watched a great many of them in the spring
and fall and have clearly seen that they were feeding upon insects in the
same way as the Downy.

Note.—A loud whining “whee,” and other harsh calls similar to the scream
of a Blue Jay.

Nest.—In holes in trees, at heights from the ground varying from eight to
fifty feet. Late in May they lay from four to seven white eggs (.85 ×
.60).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies, breeding from Virginia and Missouri to
Hudson Bay, and wintering in southern U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          PILEATED WOODPECKER
              405.     Phlœotomus pileatus.     17 inches

Male with a scarlet crown and crest, and a red moustache or mark
extending back from the bill; female with scarlet crest but a blackish
forehead and no moustache.

Next to the Ivory-bills, these are the largest of our Woodpeckers. Like
that species it is very destructive to trees in its search for food.
While engaged in this pursuit, they often drill large holes several
inches into sound wood to reach the object of their search. Like all the
Woodpeckers, they delight in playing tattoos on dry, resonant limbs with
their bills.

Note.—A whistled “cuk,” “cuk,” “cuk,” slowly repeated many times, also a
“wick-up” repeated several times.

Nest.—In large cavities in trees, in which they lay four to six white
eggs (1.30 × 1.00).

Range.—Southern United States. The Northern Pileated Woodpecker
(abietocola) is locally found in temperate N. A.

[Illustration: ]


                         RED-HEADED WOODPECKER
           406.     Melanerpes erytrocephalus.     9¾ inches

Adults with entire head and breast red; young with a gray head and back,
streaked with darker.

This very handsome species is common and very well known in the Middle
and Central States. They are the ruffians of the family, very noisy and
quarrelsome. One of their worst traits is the devouring of the eggs and
young of other birds. To partially offset this, they also eat insects and
grubs and a great deal of fruit.

Note.—A loud, whining “charr,” “charr,” besides numerous other calls and
imitations.

Nest.—Holes in trees in woods, orchards, or along roadsides and also in
fence posts or telegraph poles. In May and June they lay four to six
glossy white eggs (1.00 × .75).

Range.—United States east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to New
York and Minnesota. Winters in southern United States.

[Illustration: ]


                         RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER
               409.     Centurus carolinus.     9½ inches

Male with whole top of head and back of neck red; female with forehead
and hind head red but crown gray. Both sexes have the centre of the belly
reddish, and have red eyes.

Like the Red-heads, these birds are noisy, but they have few of the bad
qualities of the others. Besides the regular Woodpecker fare, they get a
great many ants and beetles from the ground and fruit and acorns from the
trees. They are also said to be fond of orange juice. In most of their
range they are regarded as rather shy and retiring birds.

Note.—A sharp, resonant “cha,” “cha,” “cha,” repeated.

Nest.—In holes bored usually in live trees and at any height from the
ground. Their five or six eggs are glossy white (1.00 × .75).

Range.—United States east of the Plains, breeding from Florida and Texas
to southern Pennsylvania and Minnesota. Winters along the Gulf coast;
occasionally strays to Massachusetts.

[Illustration: ]


                                FLICKER
                412.     Colaptes auratus.     13 inches

Male with a black moustache mark; female without, although young females
in the first plumage show some black.

These birds are very often known as “Golden-winged Woodpeckers,”
“High-holes” and about a hundred other names in different localities.
Flickers are found commonly in woods, orchards, or trees by the roadside;
on pleasant days their rapidly uttered, rolling whistle may be heard at
all hours of the day.

Note.—A rapidly repeated whistle, “cuk,” “cuk,” “cuk”; an emphatic
“quit-u,” “quit-u,” and several others of a similar nature.

Nest.—A cavity in a tree, at any distance from the ground. The white eggs
usually vary in number from five to ten, but they have been known to lay
as many as seventy-one, where an egg was taken from the nest each day.

Range.—South Atlantic States. The Northern Flicker (luteus) is found in
North America east of the Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: ]


                          RED-SHAFTED FLICKER
            413.     Colaptes cafer collaris.     13 inches

Crown brown and throat gray, these colors being just reversed from those
of the common Flicker.

The male is distinguished by a red moustache mark, which the female
lacks. The typical male Red-shafted Flicker lacks the red crescent on the
back of the head, but it is often present on individuals, as there are
numerous hybrids between this species and the preceding. Flickers are
more terrestrial in their habits than are any others of the family; their
food consists largely of ants which they get from the ground.

Note.—Same as those of the last; both species often utter a purring
whistle when they are startled from the ground.

Nest.—The nesting habits are identical with those of the last and the
eggs cannot be distinguished.

Range.—From the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific.

[Illustration: ]


                           CHUCK-WILL’S-WIDOW
            416.     Antrostomus carolinensis.     12 inches

Male with the end half of the outer tail feathers white, and the edge of
the outer vanes rusty; female with no white ends to the feathers. Birds
of this family have small bills, but extremely large mouths adapted to
catching night-flying moths and other insects. They remain sleeping
during the day, either perched lengthwise on a limb or concealed beside a
stump or rock on the ground, their colors harmonizing with the
surroundings in either case. They fly, of their own accord, only at dusk
or in the early morning. This species, which is much the largest of our
Goatsuckers, is known to, at times, devour small birds, as such have been
found in their stomachs.

Note.—A loudly whistled and repeated “chuck-will’s-widow.”

Nest.—None, the two eggs being laid on the ground or dead leaves in
underbrush. Eggs white, blotched with gray and lavender (1.40 × 1.00).

Range.—South Atlantic and Gulf States, breeding north to Virginia and
Missouri, west to Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                             WHIP-POOR-WILL
             417.     Antrostomus vociferus.     9¾ inches

Male with broad white tips to outer tail feathers; female with narrow
buffy tips. These birds are often confounded with the Nighthawk, but are
very easily distinguished by the long bristles from the base of bill, the
black chin, the chestnut and black barred wing feathers and the rounded
tail. Whip-poor-wills are more nocturnal than Nighthawks and on moonlight
nights continue the whistled repetition of their name throughout the
night. They capture and devour a great many of the large-bodied moths
that are found in the woods, but are never seen flying over cities like
Nighthawks.

Note.—An emphatically whistled repetition of “whip-poor-will,”
“whip-poor-will.”

Nest.—In June they lay two grayish or creamy white eggs (1.15 × .85),
mottled with pale brown, gray and lilac. These are deposited on the
ground in woods.

Range.—East of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba and New
Brunswick. Winters south of the United States.

[Illustration: ]


                               POOR-WILL
             418.     Phalænoptilus nuttalli.     7½ inches

The female of this beautiful little Night-jar differs from the male only
in having narrow buffy tips to the outer tail feathers instead of broad
white ones. Like all the members of this family these birds are dusk
fliers, remaining at rest on the ground in daylight. Their frosted gray
plumage harmonizes so perfectly with their surroundings that it is almost
impossible to see them. Their eggs are nearly immaculate, but usually
show traces of the lavender blotches that mark others of the family.
Their call is a mournful “poor-will-ee.” They are found from the Plains
to the Pacific, but are not common east of the Rockies.


                            MERRILL PARAQUE
        419.     Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli.     13 inches

As usual with birds of this family, sexual difference in the plumage
occurs chiefly on the tips of the outer tail feathers. These birds are
common in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. Their eggs differ from
any of the preceding in having a salmon-colored ground.

[Illustration: ]


                               NIGHTHAWK
             420.     Chordeiles virginianus.     10 inches

Male with white throat and white band across tail; female with rusty
throat and no white on tail. Notice that the Nighthawk has a forked tail
and white band across the wings, thus being readily distinguished at a
distance from the Whip-poor-will.

Note.—A loud nasal “peent.”

Nest.—None, the two mottled gray and white eggs being laid on bare rocks
in pastures, on the ground or underbrush, or on gravel roofs in cities;
size 1.20 × .85.

Range.—United States east of the Plains, breeding from Florida to
Labrador; winters south of United States. Three sub-species occur: 420a.
Western Nighthawk (henryi), west of the Plains; 420b. Florida Nighthawk
(chapmani); 420c. Sennett Nighthawk (sennetti), a pale race found on the
Plains north to Saskatchewan.


                            TEXAN NIGHTHAWK
                421.     Chordeiles acutipennis texensis

This species is found in southern Texas and New Mexico. It differs from
the last in having the primaries spotted with rusty, like those of the
whip-poor-will.

[Illustration: ]


                             CHIMNEY SWIFT
                423.     Chætura pelagica.     5½ inches

Unused chimneys of old dwellings make favorite roosting and nesting
places for these smoke-colored birds. They originally dwelt in hollow
trees until the advent of man furnished more convenient places, although
we would scarcely consider the soot-lined brick surface as good as a
clean hollow tree. Spines on the end of each tail feather enable them to
hang to their upright walls, and to slowly hitch their way to the outer
world. Throughout the day numbers of them are scouring the air for their
fare of insects, but as night approaches, they return to the chimney.

Note.—A continuous and not unmusical twittering uttered while on the wing
and also within the depths of the chimney.

Nest.—Made of small twigs or sticks glued to the sides of a chimney and
each other by the bird’s saliva. The three to five white eggs are long
and narrow (.75 × .50).

Range.—N. A. east to the Plains, breeding from Florida to Labrador;
winters south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          WHITE-THROATED SWIFT
            425.     Aeronautes melanoleucus.     6½ inches

This beautiful swift is one of the most graceful of winged creatures. Its
flight is extremely rapid and its evolutions remarkable. They nest in
communities, thousands of them often congregating about the tops of
inaccessible cliffs, in the crevices of which they make their homes. No
bird has a more appropriate generic name than this species—“aeronautes,”
meaning sailor of the air; he is a sailor of the air and a complete
master of the art.

Note.—Loud, shrill twittering, uttered chiefly while on the wing.

Nest.—Placed at the end of burrows in earthy cliffs or as far back as
possible between crevices in rocks; usually in inaccessible places and as
high as possible from the ground. It is a saucer-shaped structure made of
vegetable materials cemented together with saliva, and lined with
feathers. The four white eggs measure .87 × .52.

Range.—From the eastern foothills of the Rockies to the Pacific; north to
Montana and northern California.

[Illustration: ]


                       RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD
              428.     Archilochus colubris.     3½ inches

This little gem is the only one of the family found within the territory
included in this book. Owners of flower gardens have the best
opportunities to study these winged jewels, on their many trips to and
fro for honey, or the insects that are also attracted thereby. With
whirring wings, they remain suspended before a blossom, then—buzz—and
they are examining the next, with bill lost within the sweet depths.
Their temper is all out of proportion to their size, for they will dash
at an intruder about their moss-covered home as though they would pierce
him like a bullet. Their angry twitters and squeaks are amusing and
surprising, as are their excitable actions.

Nest.—A most beautiful creation of plant fibres and cobwebs adorned with
lichens and resembling a little tuft of moss upon the bough on which it
is placed. In June two tiny white eggs are laid (.50 × .35).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf north to
Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                       SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER
              443.     Muscivora forficata.     14½ inches

This pretty creature is the most graceful in appearance of the Flycatcher
family, if not of the whole order of perching birds. In the southwest it
is frequently known as the “Texan Bird of Paradise.” Its habits are very
much like those of the Kingbird; as it gracefully swings through the air
in pursuit of insects, it frequently opens and shuts its scissor-like
tail. They are usually found in open country or on the borders of
woodland. They rarely alight on the ground, for their long tails make
them walk very awkwardly, but when they are a-wing they are the
embodiment of grace.

Note.—A shrill “tzip,” “tzip,” similar to notes of Kingbirds.

Nest.—Quite large; built of all kinds of trash, such as twigs, grasses,
paper, rags, string, etc.; placed in any kind of a tree or bush and at
any height. The four or five creamy white eggs are spotted with brown
(.90 × .67).

Range.—Breeds from Texas north to Kansas; winters south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                                KINGBIRD
               444.     Tyrannus tyrannus.     8½ inches.

Adults with a concealed orange crown patch; young with none. From the
time of their arrival in May until they leave us in August, Kingbirds are
much in evidence in farmyards and orchards. They are one of the most
noisy birds, always quarreling about something, and usually coming off
victorious in whatever they may undertake. Crows are objects of hatred to
them, and they always drive them from the neighborhood, vigorously
dashing upon and picking them from above and often following them for a
great distance. They have their favorite perches from which they watch
for insects, usually a dead branch, a fence post, or a tall stalk in the
field.

Note.—A series of shrill, harsh sounds like “thsee,” “thsee.”

Nest.—Of sticks, rootlets, grass, string, etc., placed in orchard trees
or open woods at any height. Four or five creamy white eggs, specked and
spotted with reddish brown (.95 × .70).

Range.—Breeds from the Gulf to southern Canada.

[Illustration: ]


                             GRAY KINGBIRD
              445.     Tyrannus dominicensis.     9 inches

Differs from the common Kingbird in being larger and gray above; has
black ear coverts, and no white tip to tail.

Like the last species, these are very noisy and pugnacious, and rule
their domains with the hand of a tyrant. After they have mated they
quarrel very little among themselves, and often several may use the same
lookout twig from which to dash after passing flies or moths.

Note.—A rapidly repeated, shrill shriek: “pe-che-ri,” “pe-che-ri.”

Nest.—Rather more shabbily built but of the same materials as those used
by our common Kingbird. Placed in all kinds of trees, but more often in
mangroves, where they are commonly found. Three to five pinkish-white
eggs, profusely blotched with brown (1.00 × .72).

Range.—West Indies and Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. Winters in
the West Indies and Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                           ARKANSAS KINGBIRD
               447.     Tyrannus verticalis.     9 inches

These tyrant flycatchers are abundant west of the Mississippi, where they
are often, and perhaps more aptly, known as the Western Kingbirds. If
possible, they are even more noisy and pugnacious than the eastern
species. They have a great variety of notes, all rather unpleasant to the
ear. Their food, like that of the other Kingbirds, consists of moths,
butterflies, ants, grasshoppers, crickets, etc., etc., most of which they
catch on the wing.

Note.—A shrill, metallic squeak; a low twittering and a harsh, discordant
scream, all impossible to print.

Nest.—Quite large and clumsily made of paper, rags, twigs, rootlets, and
grasses, placed in all sorts of locations, frequently in eave troughs or
above windows. The eggs are creamy white, spotted with brown (.95 × .65).

Range.—Western United States, breeding from Texas to Manitoba and west to
the Pacific; winters south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                            DERBY FLYCATCHER
        449.     Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus.     10½ inches

This imposing flycatcher is the largest of the family that is found in
North America. As usual with members of the family it is of a quarrelsome
disposition, but hardly so much so as either the common or Arkansas
Kingbirds. Their large, heavy bodies render them considerably less active
than the smaller members of the family. On account of the size of the
head and bill, they are often known as Bull-headed Flycatchers.

Note.—Very varied, but similar in character to those of the eastern
Kingbird.

Nest.—It is said to build its nest at low elevations in trees or in
thorny bushes—a large structure of twigs and rubbish with an entrance on
the side. The three to five eggs have a cream-colored ground and are
prominently specked about the large end with brown (1.15 × .82).

Range.—A Mexican species that is fairly common in the Lower Rio Grande
Valley of Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                           CRESTED FLYCATCHER
               452.     Myiarchus crinitus.     9 inches

These large flycatchers are very noisy in the mating season, but their
notes are rather more musical than those of the Kingbirds. They appear to
be of a quarrelsome disposition, for rarely will more than one pair be
found in a single piece of woods. They also frequently chase smaller
birds, but never attack larger ones, as do the Kingbirds. They have a
queer habit of placing a piece of snakeskin in the hole in which their
nest is located, for what purpose, unless to scare away intruders, is not
known, but it seems to be a universal practice.

Note.—A clear whistle, “wit-whit,” “wit-whit,” repeated several times.
This is the most common call; they have many others less musical.

Nest.—Of straw, etc., in holes of dead limbs. Eggs four to six in number;
buffy white, streaked and blotched with brown.

Range.—Eastern N. A. from the Plains to the Atlantic, breeding north to
southern Canada.

[Illustration: ]


                                 PHŒBE
                 456.     Sayornis phœbe.     7 inches

A Phœbe is always associated, in my mind, with old bridges and bubbling
brooks. Nearly every bridge which is at all adapted for the purpose has
its Phœbe home beneath it, to which the same pair of birds will return
year after year, sometimes building a new nest, sometimes repairing the
old. They seem to be of a nervous temperament, for, as they sit upon
their usual lookout perch, their tails are continually twitching as
though in anticipation of the insects that are sure to pass sooner or
later.

Note.—A jerky, emphatic “phœ-be,” with the accent on the second syllable,
and still further accented by a vigorous flirt of the tail.

Nest.—Of mud, grasses, and moss, plastered to the sides of beams or logs
under bridges, culverts, or barns. In May or June four or five white eggs
are laid (.75 × .55).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, north to southern Canada; winters in
southern U. S. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                         OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER
             459.     Nuttallornis borealis.     7½ inches

These birds can scarcely be called common any where, but single pairs of
them may be found, in their breeding range, in suitable pieces of
woodland. I have always found them in dead pine swamps, where the trees
were covered with hanging moss, making it very difficult to locate their
small nests. Their peculiar, loud, clear whistle can be heard for a long
distance and serves as a guide-board to their location.

Note.—A loud, clear whistle, “whip-wheeu,” the first syllable short and
sharp, the last long and drawn out into a plaintive ending.

Nest.—A small structure for the size of the bird, made of twigs and
mosses firmly anchored to horizontal limbs or forks. Three to five eggs
are laid; a rich creamy ground, spotted about the large end with brown
and lavender (.85 × .65).

Range.—N. A., breeding from the latitude of Massachusetts, and farther
south in mountainous regions, north to Labrador and Alaska.

[Illustration: ]


                               WOOD PEWEE
               461.     Myiochanes virens.     6½ inches

In life, the Pewee can best be distinguished from the larger Phœbe, with
which it is often confounded, by its sad, plaintive “pe-ah-wee,”
“pee-wee” which is strikingly different from the brusque call of the
Phœbe. Pewees are also found more in high, dry woods where they build
their little moss-covered homes on horizontal boughs at quite a height
from the ground. Like the other flycatchers they always perch on dead
twigs, where their view is as little obstructed as possible.

Note.—A clear, plaintive whistle, “pe-ah-whee,” “pee-wee.”

Nest.—One of the most exquisite of bird creations, composed of plant
fibres quilted together and ornamented with rock lichens; situated at
varying heights on horizontal limbs, preferably oak or chestnut, and
sometimes in apple trees in orchards. Eggs creamy white, specked with
brown (.80 × .55).

Range.—U. S. from the Plains to the Atlantic and north to Manitoba and
New Brunswick; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                       YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER
             463.     Empidonax flaviventris.     5½ inches

These strange little Flycatchers are found in swamps such as those
usually frequented by Olive-sided Flycatchers and Parula Warblers. They
are one of the few of the family to nest on the ground or very close to
it. Their homes are made in the moss-covered mounds or stumps found in
these swamps.

Range.—N. A. east of the Plains north to Labrador, breeding from northern
U. S. northward.


                  GREEN-CRESTED OR ACADIAN FLYCATCHER
              465.     Empidonax virescens.     5½ inches

This bird is very similar to the last, but the lower mandible is light,
and the throat and belly white. Their favorite resorts are shady woods
not far from water. Here they nest in the outer branches of bushes or
trees at heights of from four to twenty feet from the ground. The nests
are shallow and composed of twigs and moss. Eggs creamy with brown spots.

Range.—U. S. east of Plains, breeding from the Gulf to New England and
Manitoba; winters in the Tropics.

[Illustration: ]


                            ALDER FLYCATCHER
           466a.     Empidonas trailli alnorum.     6 inches

This species is very similar to, but larger, than the well-known Least
Flycatcher or Chebec. They are found in swampy pastures or around the
edges of ponds or lakes, where they nest in low bushes.

Range.—U. S. east of the Mississippi, breeding from New York to New
Brunswick.


                            LEAST FLYCATCHER
               467.     Empidonax minimus.     5½ inches

Smaller than the last and with the tail slightly forked. Common
everywhere in orchards, swamps, or along roadsides. They are very often
known by the name of “Chebec,” because their notes resemble that word.
Their nests are placed in upright forks of any kind of trees or bushes;
they are made of plant fibres and grasses closely felted together. The
eggs range from three to five in number and are creamy white, without
markings; size .65 × .50.

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from middle U. S. north to New
Brunswick and Manitoba.

[Illustration: ]


                          VERMILION FLYCATCHER
         471.     Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus.     6 inches

Female with only a slight tinge of pink, where the male is brilliant
vermilion.

This is the most gorgeously plumed species of the American Flycatchers.
It has all the active traits of the family and, to those who are only
accustomed to the demure gray plumage of most eastern species, the first
sight of this one as he dashes after an insect is a sight never to be
forgotten.

Note.—During the mating season the male often gives a twittering song
while poised in the air, accompanying it by loud snapping of the
mandibles.

Nest.—Saddled on limbs of trees at low elevations from the ground;
composed of small twigs and vegetable fibres closely felted together and
often adorned on the outside with lichens similar to the nests of the
Wood Pewee. The four eggs are of a creamy-buff color with bold spots of
brown and lilac, in a wreath around the large end (.73 × .54).

Range.—Mexican border of the United States, from Texas to Arizona.

[Illustration: ]


                              HORNED LARK
               474.     Otocoris alpestris.     7¾ inches

This variety, which is larger than its sub-species, is only found in the
U. S. in winter, but several of the sub-species are residents in our
limits. During the mating season they have a sweet song that is uttered
on the wing, like that of the Bobolink.

Note.—Alarm note and call a whistled “tseet,” “tseet”; song a low, sweet,
and continued warble.

Nest.—A hollow in the ground lined with grass; placed in fields and
usually partially concealed by an overhanging sod or stone. The three to
five eggs have a grayish ground color and are profusely specked and
blotched with gray and brownish. (.85 × .60).

Range.—Breeds in Labrador and about Hudson Bay; south in winter to South
Carolina and Illinois.

Sub-Species.—474b. Prairie Horned Lark (praticola). A paler form usually
with the line over the eye white, found in the Mississippi Valley. 474c.
Desert Horned Lark (leucolæma). Paler and less distinctly streaked above
than the Prairie; found west of the Mississippi and north to Alberta.

[Illustration: ]


                            AMERICAN MAGPIE
               475.     Pica pica hudsonia.     20 inches

This handsome member of the Crow family is sure to attract the attention
of all who may see him. He is very pert in all his actions, both in trees
and on the ground, and is always ready for mischief. In a high wind their
long tail often makes traveling a laborious operation for them, and at
such times they usually remain quite quiet. They are very impudent and
always on the lookout for something to steal; they are also very noisy
and forever scolding and chattering among themselves.

Note.—A loud, harsh “cack,” “cack,” and an endless variety of whistles
and imitations.

Nest.—A large, globular heap of sticks placed in bushes or trees from
four to fifty feet from the ground. The entrance to the nest is on one
side and the interior is made of grass and mud. The four to six eggs are
white, thickly specked with yellowish brown (1.25 × .90).

Range.—Western North America, east to the Plains and north to Alaska;
resident.

[Illustration: ]


                                BLUE JAY
              477.     Cyanocitta cristata.     11½ inches

These are one of the best known and most beautiful birds that we have,
but, unfortunately, they have a very bad reputation. They often rob other
birds of their eggs and young as well as food and nesting material. They
are very active birds and are always engaged in gathering food, usually
acorns or other nuts, and hiding them away for future use.

Note.—A two-syllabled whistle or a harsh, discordant scream. Besides
these two common notes they make an endless variety of sounds mimicking
other birds.

Nest.—Of twigs and sticks in bushes or low trees, preferably young pines.
The four eggs are pale greenish blue specked with brown (1.10 × .80).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies from the Gulf to Labrador, resident in
the U. S. The Florida Blue Jay (florincola) is smaller and has less white
on wings and tail.

[Illustration: ]


                              FLORIDA JAY
               479.     Aphelocoma cyanea.     11½ inches

This Jay is locally distributed chiefly in the southern parts of Florida,
being found principally in scrub oaks. Like the Blue Jay, their food
consists of animal matter and some seeds, berries, and acorns. Their
habits are very similar to those of the northern bird and their calls
resemble those of our bird, too. They are rather slow in flight and pass
a great deal of their time upon the ground.

Note.—A “jay,” “jay,” similar to that of the Blue Jay, and a great
variety of other calls.

Nest.—In the latter part of March and in April they build their flat
nests of twigs, usually in bushes or scrub oaks, and lay three or four
greenish-blue eggs, with brown spots; size 1.05 × .80.

Range.—Middle and southern portions of Florida chiefly along the coasts.

[Illustration: ]


                               GREEN JAY
         483.     Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens.     12 inches

These Jays are very beautiful, and we are sorry to have to admit that,
like all the other members of the family, they are merciless in their
treatment of smaller birds. During the summer their diet consists of raw
eggs with young birds “on the side,” or vice versa; later they live upon
nuts, berries, insects; in fact, anything that is edible.

Note.—Practically unlimited, being imitations of those of most of the
birds in the vicinity.

Nest.—Not easily found, as it is usually concealed in dense thickets. The
nests are like those of other Jays, loosely made of twigs and lined with
black rootlets. The four eggs that are laid in May have a grayish ground
color and are thickly spotted with several shades of brown and lilac.
They measure 1.05 × .80.

Range.—Fairly common in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                               CANADA JAY
             484.     Perisoreus canadensis.     11½ inches

These birds are well known to hunters, trappers, and campers in the
northern woods. They are great friends, especially of the lumbermen, as
some of the pranks that they play serve to enliven an otherwise tedious
day. They seem to be devoid of fear and enter camp and carry off
everything, edible or not, that they can get hold of. They are called by
guides and lumbermen by various names, such as Whiskey Jack, Moose Bird,
etc.

Note.—A harsh “ca-ca-ca,” and various other sounds.

Nest.—Usually in coniferous trees at low elevations; made of twigs, moss,
and feathers. The three or four eggs are gray, specked and spotted with
darker (1.15 × .80). They nest early, usually before the snow begins to
leave the ground and often when the mercury is below zero.

Range.—Eastern North America from northern United States northward. 484c.
Labrador Jay (nigricapillus), which is found in Labrador, has the black
on the hind head deeper and extending forward around the eye.

[Illustration: ]


                             NORTHERN RAVEN
           486a.     Corvus corax principalis.     25 inches

The habits of all the ravens and crows are identical and are too well
known to need mention. They are all very destructive to young birds and
eggs. The Raven can be known by its large size, its very large bill, and
lanceolate feathers on the throat. They are found in the mountains from
Georgia and on the coast from Maine northward.


                           WHITE-NECKED RAVEN
              487.     Corvus cryptoleucus.     18½ inches

This species has the bases of the feathers on the back of the neck white.
Found in southwestern United States.


                             AMERICAN CROW
             488.     Corvus brachyrhynchos.     19 inches

The common Crow of North America, replaced in Florida by the very similar
Florida Crow (pascuus).


                               FISH CROW
               490.     Corvus ossifragus.     16 inches

This small species is found on the Atlantic Coast north to Massachusetts.

[Illustration: ]


                           CLARKE NUTCRACKER
             491.     Nucifraga columbiana.     12½ inches

Clarke Crows are found abundantly in all coniferous forest on the higher
mountains in their range. They are very peculiar birds, having some of
the traits of Woodpeckers, but more of those of the Jays.

They are very active, very noisy, and very inquisitive, sharing with the
Rocky Mountain Jay the names of “Camp Robber,” “Moose Bird,” etc. They
are great travellers and may, one season, be absent where they were
abundant the preceding one.

Notes.—Various calls and imitations like those of all others of the Jay
family.

Nest.—Of sticks, at high elevations on horizontal boughs of coniferous
trees. The four eggs have a pale greenish-gray ground, thickly sprinkled
with darker (1.25 × .92).

Range.—Mountains of western North America, casually east to Kansas.

[Illustration: ]


                                STARLING
                493.     Sturnus vulgaris.     8½ inches

Plumage metallic green and purple, heavily spotted above and below with
buffy or white.

These European birds were introduced into New York a number of years ago,
and are now common there and spreading to other localities in Connecticut
and about New York City. They live about the streets and in the parks,
building their nests in crevices of buildings and especially in the
framework of the elevated railroads of the city, and less often in trees.
They lay from four to six pale-blue, unspotted eggs (1.15 × .85). How
they will affect other bird life, in case they eventually become common
throughout the country, is a matter of conjecture, but from what I have
seen of them they are quarrelsome and are masters of the English Sparrow,
and may continue their domineering tactics to the extent of driving more
of our song birds from the cities.

[Illustration: ]


                                BOBOLINK
             494.     Dolichonyx oryzivorus.     7¼ inches

Bobolinks are to be found in rich grass meadows, from whence their sweet,
wild music is often borne to us by the breeze. While his mate is feeding
in the grass or attending to their domestic affairs, Mr. Bobolink is
usually to be found perched on the tip of a tree, weed stalk, or even on
a tall blade of grass, if no other spot of vantage is available, singing
while he stands guard to see that no enemies approach. He is a good
watchman and it is a difficult matter to flush his mate from the nest,
for she leaves at his first warning.

Song.—A wild, sweet, rippling repetition of his name with many additional
trills and notes. Alarm note a harsh “chah” like that of the Blackbird.

Nest.—Of grasses in a hollow on the ground, in meadows. They lay four to
six eggs with a white ground color, heavily spotted, clouded and blotched
with brown (.85 × .62).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from New Jersey and Kansas
north to Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in South America.

[Illustration: ]


                                COWBIRD
                 495.     Molothrus ater.     7¾ inches

Male glossy greenish black, with a brown head; female and young, dull
gray.

Groups of these birds are often seen walking sedately about among the
cows in the pasture, hence their name. They are the only birds that we
have that neither make a nest of their own nor care for their young. The
female slyly deposits her egg in the nest of a smaller bird when the
owner is absent, leaving further care of it to its new owner. Warblers,
Sparrows and Vireos seem to be most imposed upon in this manner.

Notes.—A low “chack,” and by the male a liquid, wiry squeak accompanied
by a spreading of the wings and tail.

Range.—U. S., chiefly east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to
Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in southern U. S. A sub-species, the
Dwarf Cowbird (obscurus), is found in southwestern United States; it is
slightly smaller.

[Illustration: ]


                        YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD
         497.     Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus.     10 inches

Male black, with head and breast bright yellow; female more brownish and
with head paler and mixed with brown.

These handsome birds are common locally on the prairies, frequenting
sloughs and extensive marshes and borders of lakes. They are very
sociable birds and breed in large colonies, sometimes composed of
thousands of birds.

Notes.—A harsh “chack,” and what is intended for a song, consisting of
numerous, queer-sounding squeaks, they being produced during seemingly
painful contortions of the singer.

Nest.—Of rushes woven around upright canes over water, in ponds and
sloughs. The nest is placed at from four inches to two feet from the
water and is quite deep inside. The four to six eggs are grayish,
profusely specked with pale brown (1.00 × .70).

Range.—U. S., chiefly west of the Mississippi, north to British Columbia
and Hudson Bay; winters on southwestern border of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD
               498.     Agelaius phœniceus.     9½ inches

Male black, with scarlet and buff shoulders; female brownish black above
and streaked below. Nearly all our ponds or wet meadows have their pair
or colony of Blackbirds.

Note.—A harsh “cack”; a pleasing liquid song, “conk-err-ee,” given with
much bowing and spreading of the wings and tail.

Nest.—Usually at low elevations in bushes, in swamps or around the edges
of ponds or frequently on the ground or on hummocks in wet pastures. The
nest is made of woven grasses and rushes, and is usually partially
suspended from the rim when placed in bushes. The three to five eggs are
bluish white, scrawled, chiefly around the large end, with blackish (1.00
× .70).

Range.—East of the Rockies, breeding north to Manitoba and New Brunswick;
winters in southern U. S.

Sub-Species.—498b. Bahaman Redwing (bryanti). 498c. Florida Redwing
(floridanus).

[Illustration: ]


                               MEADOWLARK
                501.     Sturnella magna.     10¾ inches

Meadowlarks are familiar friends of the hillside and meadow; their clear
fife-like whistle is often heard, while they are perched on a fence-post
or tree-top, as well as their sputtering alarm note when they fly up
before us as we cross the field.

Song.—A clear, flute-like “tseeu-tseeer,” and a rapid sputtering alarm
note.

Nest.—Of grasses, on the ground in fields, usually partially arched over.
Three to five white eggs specked with brown (1.10 × .80).

Range.—N. A. east of the Plains and north to southern Canada; winters
from Massachusetts and Illinois southward.

Sub-Species.—501.1. Western Meadowlark (neglecta). This race has the
yellow on the throat extended on the sides; its song is much more
brilliant and varied than the eastern bird. It is found from the Plains
to the Pacific. 501c. Florida Meadowlark (argutula) is smaller and darker
than the common.

[Illustration: ]


                             AUDUBON ORIOLE
        503.     Icterus melanocephalus audubonii.     9½ inches

Within the United States, these large Orioles are found only in southern
Texas. They are not uncommon there and are resident. Their notes are
loud, mellow whistles like those of the other Orioles. Their nests are
semi-pensile and usually placed in mesquite trees not more than ten or
fifteen feet from the ground.


                              SCOTT ORIOLE
                    504. Icterus parisorum. 8 inches

These beautiful birds are found in southwestern United States, from
California to western Texas.

They are said to sing more freely than other members of the family, but
the song, while loud and clear, is of short duration. Their nests, which
are semi-pensile, are often placed in giant yucca trees, or in vines that
are suspended from cacti. The three or four eggs are pale blue, scrawled
and spotted with black and lavender (.95 × .65).

[Illustration: ]


                             HOODED ORIOLE
           505.     Icterus cucullatus sennetti.     8 inches

This very brilliantly plumaged Oriole is, perhaps, the most abundant of
the family in southern Texas. It is not as shy a bird as the two
preceding species and is more often found in the neighborhood of houses.

With the exception of a few kinds of fruits, their food consists almost
entirely of insects; all the Orioles are regarded as among our most
beneficial birds.

Notes.—A harsher and more grating whistle than that of most of the
Orioles.

Nest.—Usually in bunches of hanging moss, being made by hollowing out and
matting the moss together and lining it with finer wiry moss. Others are
placed in yucca trees, such nests being made of the fiber of the tree.
Eggs dull white, scrawled about the large end with black and lavender
(.85 × .60).

Range.—Found only in southern Texas. A sub-species (nelsoni) is found in
New Mexico, Arizona and southern California.

[Illustration: ]


                             ORCHARD ORIOLE
                506.     Icterus spurius.     7¼ inches

Male chestnut and black; female dull yellowish and gray; young male,
second year, like female, but with black face and throat. These Orioles
are usually found in open country and, as their name suggests, have a
preference for orchards. They are also found abundantly in shrubbery
along streams and roadsides. They feed chiefly upon worms, caterpillars,
beetles, grasshoppers, etc., and are one of the most beneficial birds
that we have.

Song.—A rich, loud and rapid warble, cheery and pleasing but impossible
to describe; a chattering note of alarm.

Nest.—A beautiful basket of grasses woven into a deeply cupped ball and
situated in forks of trees or bushes; often they are made of green
grasses. Four to six white eggs, specked, scrawled and spotted with black
and brown (.80 × .55).

Range.—U. S. east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts
and Michigan; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                            BALTIMORE ORIOLE
                507.     Icterus galbula.     7½ inches

Male orange and black; female dull yellowish and gray.

They are sociable birds and seem to like the company of mankind, for
their nests are, from choice, built as near as possible to houses, often
being where they can be reached from windows. As they use a great deal of
string in the construction of their nests, children often get amusement
by placing bright-colored pieces of yarn where the birds will get them,
and watch them weave them into their homes.

Song.—A clear, querulous, varied whistle or warble; call, a plaintive
whistle.

Nest.—A pensile structure, often hanging eight or ten inches below the
supporting rim, and swaying to and fro with every breeze. They lay five
or six white eggs, curiously scrawled with blackish brown (.90 × .60).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies and breeding north to New Brunswick and
Manitoba. Winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                            RUSTY BLACKBIRD
               510.     Euphagus carolinus.     9½ inches

Male glossy black, female grayish; both sexes in winter with most of the
head and breast feathers tipped with rusty. In the United States we know
these birds chiefly as emigrants; but a few of them remain to breed in
the Northern parts. Their songs are rather squeaky efforts, but still not
unmusical. These birds are found east of the Rockies.


                            BREWER BLACKBIRD
            510.     Euphagus cyaneocephalus.     10 inches

Male with a glossy purplish head and greenish black body; female grayish
brown. This is the Western representative of the preceding; it is most
abundant west of the Rockies, but is also found on the Plains. Its
distribution is not so northerly and it nests commonly in its United
States range. Their eggs are whitish, very profusely spotted and blotched
with various shades of brown (1. × .75).

[Illustration: ]


                             PURPLE GRACKLE
               511.     Quiscalus quiscula.     12 inches

Male with purple head and greenish back; female brownish gray. All the
Grackles are very similar in appearance, the colors varying with
different individuals of the same species. Their habits are alike, too,
and I consider them one of the most destructive of our birds.

Note.—A harsh “tchack,” and a squeaky song.

Nest.—Of sticks and twigs, usually in pines in the North and bushes in
the South. Four eggs, pale bluish gray with black scrawls (1.10 × .80).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding north to Mass.

Sub-Species.—511a. Florida Grackle (aglæus), slightly smaller. 511b.
Bronzed Grackle (æneus), with a purple head and usually a brassy back.
Eastern U. S., breeding north to Labrador and Manitoba.


                          BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE
              513.     Megaquiscalus major.     15 inches

Similar in color to the last but much larger, and having the same habits.
Eggs also larger (1.25 × .95). Southeastern U. S. The Great-tailed
Grackle (macrourus), found in Texas, is still larger.

[Illustration: ]


                            EVENING GROSBEAK
             514.     Hesperiphona vespertina.     8 inches

Female paler and with white on upper tail coverts. As would be judged
from the large bills that these birds have, their food consists almost
entirely of seeds, with occasionally a few berries and perhaps insects.
In certain localities they are not uncommon, but, except in winter, they
are rare anywhere in the U. S., and east of the Mississippi they can only
be regarded as accidental even in winter. They have been taken several
times in Massachusetts. In winter they usually travel about in small
bands, visiting localities where the food supply is the most abundant.

Song.—A clear, Robin-like whistle; call, a short whistle.

Nest.—A flat structure of twigs and rootlets placed at low elevations in
trees or bushes. Four eggs, greenish white, spotted with brown (.90 ×
.65).

Range.—Breeds in mountains of western British America and northwestern U.
S. South and east in winter to the Mississippi and rarely farther.

[Illustration: ]


                             PINE GROSBEAK
          515.     Pinicola enucleator leucura.     8½ inches

Male rosy red; female gray and yellowish.

These pretty birds visit us every winter, coming from Canada and northern
New England, where they are found in summer. They are very fearless birds
and might almost be regarded as stupid; when they are feeding you can
easily approach within a few feet of them, and they have often been
caught in butterfly nets. They may, at times, be found in any kind of
trees or woods, but they show a preference for small growth pines, where
they feed upon the seeds and upon seeds of weeds that project above the
snow.

Song.—A low sweet warble; call, a clear, repeated whistle.

Nest.—In coniferous trees, of twigs, rootlets and strips of bark; eggs
three to four in number, greenish blue spotted with brown and lilac (1.00
× .70).

Range.—Breeds in eastern British America and northern New England;
winters south to New York and Ohio. Several sub-species are found west of
the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                              PURPLE FINCH
              517.     Carpodacus purpureus.     6¼ inches

Male dull rosy red; female streaked brownish gray.

These beautiful songsters are common in the northern tier of states and
in Canada. In spring the males are usually seen on, or heard from, tree
tops in orchards or parks, giving forth their glad carols. They are
especially musical in spring when the snow is just leaving the ground and
the air is bracing. After family cares come upon them, they are quite
silent, the male only occasionally indulging in a burst of song.

Song.—A loud, long-continued and very sweet warble; call, a querulous
whistle.

Nest.—Of strips of bark, twigs, rootlets and grasses, placed at any
height in evergreens or orchard trees. The eggs resemble, somewhat, large
specimens of those of the Chipping Sparrow. They are three or four in
number and are greenish blue with strong blackish specks (.85 × .65).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from Pennsylvania and Illinois
northward; winters throughout the United States.

[Illustration: ]


                           AMERICAN CROSSBILL
             521.     Loxia curvirostra minor.     6 inches

These curious creatures appear in flocks on the outskirts of our cities
every winter, where they will be found almost exclusively in coniferous
trees. They cling to the cones, upon which they are feeding, in every
conceivable attitude, and a shower of seeds and broken cones rattling
through the branches below shows that they are busily working. They are
very eccentric birds and the whole flock often takes flight, without
apparent cause, only to circle about again to the same trees. The
flute-like whistle that they utter when in flight sounds quite pleasing
when coming from all the individuals in the flock.

Song.—A low twittering; call, a short, flute-like whistle.

Nest.—In coniferous trees, of spruce twigs, shreds of bark and some moss
or grass. The three or four eggs are greenish white spotted with brown
(.75 × .55).

Range.—Breeds from northern New England northward and westward, and south
in mountains to Georgia; winters in the northern half of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                         WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL
                522.     Loxia leucoptera.     6 inches

Male, rosy; female, with yellowish.

This species seems to be of a more roving disposition, and even more
eccentric than the last. They are not nearly as common and are usually
seen in smaller flocks; occasionally one or two individuals of this
species will be found with a flock of the American Crossbills, but they
usually keep by themselves. While they may be seen in a certain locality
one season, they may be absent for several seasons after, for some reason
or other. They feed upon the seeds of pine cones, prying the cones open
with their peculiar bills.

Notes.—Do not differ appreciably from those of the last.

Nest.—The nesting habits of this species are like those of the last, but
the eggs differ in being slightly larger and in having the markings of a
more blotchy character (.80 × .55).

Range.—Breeds from the northern parts of the northern tier of states
northward. Winters in the northern half of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                        GRAY-CROWNED LEUCOSTICTE
            524.     Leucosticte tephrocotis.     6½ inches

Female similar to, but duller colored than, the male.

All the members of this genus are western and northern, this one only
being found east of the Rockies and then only in winter, when it
occasionally is found east of the Mississippi. They wander about in rocky
mountainous regions, feeding upon seeds and berries. They are very
restless and stop in a place but a short time before flying swiftly away,
in a compact flock, to another feeding ground.

Note.—An alarm note of a short, quick whistle.

Nest.—Built on the ground, usually beside a rock or in a crevice;
composed of weeds and grass, lined with finer grass. They lay three or
four unmarked white eggs in June.

Range.—Western U. S., breeding in the higher mountain ranges; in winter
sometimes wandering east to the Mississippi.

[Illustration: ]


                                REDPOLL
                528.     Acanthis linaria.     5¼ inches

Male with a rosy breast; female without.

In winter these northern birds may be found in flocks gathering seeds
from weeds by the roadside and stone walls. Their actions greatly
resemble those of our Goldfinch, but their flight is more rapid.

Song.—Strong, sweet and canary-like.

Nest.—At low elevations in bushes or trees; eggs three to five, pale
greenish blue with brown specks.

Range.—Breeds in the extreme north; winters south to northern U. S.

Sub-Species.—528a. Holboell Redpoll (holboelli), slightly larger. 528b.
Greater Redpoll (rostrata), larger and darker.


                           GREENLAND REDPOLL
              527.     Acanthis hornemannii.     6 inches

A larger and much whiter species found in Greenland and migrating to
Labrador in winter. 527b. Hoary Redpoll (exilipes), smaller and darker,
but still lighter than the Redpoll; winters south to Massachusetts.

[Illustration: ]


                           AMERICAN GOLDFINCH
              529.     Astragalinus tristis.     5¼ inches

These beautiful little creatures are often known as Thistle-birds and
Wild Canaries, the former name because they are often seen on thistles,
from the down of which their nests are largely made, and the latter name
because of the sweet canary-like song. Their flight is a peculiar series
of undulations accompanied by an intermittent twitter. They are very
sociable and breed usually in communities as well as travel in flocks in
the winter. Their food is chiefly of seeds and they often come to gardens
in fall and winter to partake of sunflower seeds, these flowers often
being raised for the sole purpose of furnishing food for the finches in
the winter.

Song.—Sweet, prolonged and canary-like; call, a musical “tcheer,” and a
twittering in flight.

Nest.—Of thistledown, plant fibres and grasses, in forks of bushes, most
often willows or alders near water. Four or five unmarked, pale bluish
eggs.

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies; breeds from Virginia and Missouri north
to Labrador; winters in U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                           WESTERN GOLDFINCH
             530.     Astragalinus psaltria.     4¼ inches

Cap, wings and tail black; sides of head and back greenish. Female much
duller and with no black in the crown. These little Goldfinches are very
abundant throughout the West. Their flight is undulatory like that of the
preceding, and all their habits are very similar. They spend the winter
in bands, roving about the country, feeding on weed seeds; in summer they
repair, either in small bands or by single pairs, to the edges of swamps
or woodland near water, where they construct their compact homes in the
forks of bushes. Their eggs are pale blue like those of the American
Goldfinch, but of course are much smaller (.62 × .45). They are laid in
May or June, or even earlier in the western portions of their range.

Song.—Sweet and musical, almost like that of the last species.

Range.—Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific, being
abundant west of the Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: ]


                          PINE FINCH OR SISKIN
                  533.     Spinus pinus.     5 inches

These are also northern birds, being found in the U. S., with the
exception of the extreme northern parts, only in winter and early spring.
Their habits are just like those of the Goldfinches, for which species
they are often mistaken, as the latter are dull-colored in winter. Their
song and call-notes are like those of the Goldfinch, but have a slight
nasal twang that will identify them at a distance, after becoming
accustomed to it. They are often seen hanging head downward from the ends
of branches as they feed upon the seeds or buds and when thus engaged
they are very tame.

Song.—Quite similar to that of the Goldfinch.

Nest.—In coniferous trees at any elevation from the ground. They are made
of rootlets and grasses, lined with pine needles and hair; the three to
five eggs are greenish white, specked with reddish brown (.65 × .45).

Range.—North America, breeding northward from the northern boundary of
the U. S. and farther south in mountain ranges; winters throughout the U.
S.

[Illustration: ]


                               SNOWFLAKE
              534.     Plectrophenax nivalis.     7 inches

Adults in summer black and white; in winter, washed with brownish.

When winter storms sweep across our land, these birds blow in like true
snowflakes, settling down upon hillsides and feeding upon seeds from the
weed stalks that are sure to be found above the snow somewhere. They are
usually found in large flocks, and are very restless, starting up, as one
bird, at the slightest noise, or continually wheeling about from one hill
to another, of their own accord.

Song.—A low twittering while feeding and a short whistle when in flight.

Nest.—Of grass and moss lined with feathers and sunk in the sphagnum moss
with which much of Arctic America is covered. Three to five eggs, pale
greenish white, specked with brown. Size .90 × .65.

Range.—Breeds from Labrador and Hudson Bay northward; winters in northern
United States.

[Illustration: ]


                            LAPLAND LONGSPUR
              536.     Calcarius lapponicus.     6¼ inches

Male in summer with black crown and throat and chestnut nape; female
similar but duller; winter plumage, with feathers of head and neck tipped
with grayish so as to conceal the bright markings.

As indicated by its name, this is a Northern species, which spends the
cold months in northern U. S., traveling in flocks and resting and
feeding on side hills, often with Snowflakes, or on lower ground with
Horned Larks.

Song.—A sweet trill or warble, frequently given while in flight; call, a
sharp chip.

Nest.—Of mosses, grasses and feathers placed on the ground in tussocks or
on grassy hummocks. In June and July they lay from four to six eggs
having a grayish ground color, which is nearly obscured by the numerous
blotches of brown and lavender (.80 × .60).

Range.—Breeds from Labrador northward and winters south to South Carolina
and Texas. A sub-species is found in the West.

[Illustration: ]


                             SMITH LONGSPUR
                537.     Calcarius pictus.     6½ inches

Male in summer with the underparts buffy and sides of head marked with
black; female, and male in winter, much duller with all bright markings
covered with a brownish-gray wash.

Like the last species, these are Arctic birds found in winter, on the
plains and prairies of middle U. S. They are rarely found within our
limits when in their beautiful spring plumage. They are most always found
in company with the following species feeding upon seeds, buds and small
berries.

Song.—A sweet warble rarely heard in the United States; a clear
“cheer-up” constantly uttered while on the wing.

Nest.—Of grasses, weeds and moss, lined with feathers; located on the
ground in similar locations to those of the last species. The four or
five eggs are similar to those of the last but lighter (.80 × .60).

Range.—Breeds about Hudson Bay and northward; winters in middle United
States.

[Illustration: ]


                       CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR
               538.     Calcarius ornatus.     6¼ inches

Male in summer with a black breast and crown, and chestnut nape; female,
and male in winter, much duller and with all bright markings covered with
grayish.

Unlike the preceding Longspurs, these are constant residents in the
greater part of the Western Plains, in some localities being classed as
one of the most abundant birds. They have a short, sweet song that, in
springtime, is frequently given as the bird mounts into the air after the
fashion of the Horned Larks. They commonly feed about ploughed fields,
along the edges of which they build their nests.

Song.—A short, sweet trill; alarm note a sharp chip, and call note a more
musical chirp.

Nest.—Of fine grasses, placed on the ground in open prairies or along the
edges of cultivated fields, often being concealed beside a tussock; their
four or five eggs are clay color marked with reddish brown and lavender
(.75 × .55).

Range.—Breeds in the Great Plains from Kansas and Colorado north to
Manitoba; winters south to Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                            M’COWN LONGSPUR
             539.     Rhynchophanes mccownii.     6 inches

Male with a black crown and patch on breast, and chestnut shoulders;
female, and male in winter, dull colored with all bright markings
obscured by brownish gray.

These are also common birds on the plains of middle U. S., but perhaps
not so much so as the last species, with which species they are often
found breeding. These finches show their close relationship to the famous
Skylark of Europe by frequently indulging in the same practice of soaring
aloft and descending on set wings, rapturously uttering their sweet song.

Song.—A shrill, twittering warble; call, a musical chirp.

Nest.—A neat cup of grasses in a hollow in the ground on prairies or in
fields. Their four to six eggs are dull whitish clouded with brownish,
the marking not being as distinct as in those of the last species (.75 ×
.55).

Range.—Breeds on the Great Plains from Kansas north to Saskatchewan;
winters south to Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                            ENGLISH SPARROW
                ***     Passer domesticus.     6¼ inches

These street urchins were introduced into our country from Europe about
1850, and have since multiplied and spread out so that they now are found
in all parts of our land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Heretofore
they have confined themselves chiefly in the immediate vicinity of the
larger cities and towns, but it is now noted with alarm that they are
apparently spreading out into the surrounding country. They are very
hardy creatures, able to stand our most rigorous winters. They are
fighters and bullies from the time they leave the egg, and few of our
native birds will attempt to live in the neighborhood with them.

Notes.—A harsh, discordant sound, which they commence early in the
morning and continue until night.

Nest.—Of straw and rubbish piled behind blinds, in the tops of electric
lights or crevices of buildings, and sometimes large, unsightly heaps of
straw in trees. They raise three or four broods a year and in all
seasons; five to seven whitish eggs scratched with black.

Range.—Whole of U. S. and southern Canada.

[Illustration: ]


                             VESPER SPARROW
               540.     Poœcetes gramineus.     6 inches

The chestnut shoulders and white outer tail feathers distinguish this
from any other of our Sparrows.

The name Vesper Sparrow is given this bird because of its habit of tuning
up along toward evening; it is perhaps more often known as the
“Bay-winged Sparrow” or “Grass Finch.”

They are found chiefly in dry pastures or along dusty roadsides, where
they start from the ground in front of us, their white tail feathers
showing prominently as they fly, so that there will be no mistake as to
their identity.

Song.—A clear, ascending series of whistles, given from a fence post or
bush top; call, a sharp chirp.

Nest.—Of grasses in weedy fields or pastures; four or five whitish eggs
marked and blotched with brownish (.80 × .60).

Range.—Eastern N. A. from Virginia to southern Canada; winters in
southern U. S. The similar Western Vesper Sparrow (confinis) is found
from the Plains to the Pacific coast ranges.

[Illustration: ]


                            IPSWICH SPARROW
              541.     Passerculus princeps.     6¼ inches

This species is larger and paler colored, but very similar to the more
common and better known Savannah Sparrow. Its habits are the same. It
breeds on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and winters along the Atlantic coast
to Virginia.


                            SAVANNAH SPARROW
       542a.     Passerculus sandwichensis savanna.     5½ inches

Breast and sides streaked with brownish, and yellow before the eye and
also on bend of wing.

These finches are very abundant in eastern U. S. during migrations and a
few remain in the northern parts through the summer.

Song.—A weak trill or twitter; a short chip.

Nest.—Of grasses in hollows in the ground and concealed by grass or
weeds. The four grayish eggs are spotted with brown (.75 × .55).

Range.—Winters in southern U. S.; breeds from northern U. S. northward.
542b. Western Savannah Sparrow (alaudinus) is found from the Plains west
to the coast ranges. It is slightly paler.

[Illustration: ]


                             BAIRD SPARROW
               545.     Ammodramus bairdi.     5¾ inches

Crown and nape brownish yellow streaked with black; underparts white,
streaked on the throat, breast and sides with blackish; tail slightly
forked and the feathers pointed.

In summer the western plains and prairie ring with the tinkling songs of
these little Sparrows; they are especially abundant in Dakota and
Montana.


                          GRASSHOPPER SPARROW
        546.     Ammodramus savannarum australis.     5½ inches

Crown blackish with a central buffy stripe; nape brown and gray; sides of
head, breast and flanks, buffy without streaks.

Song.—A weak, insect-like “zee-e-e-e-e.”

Nest.—A grass-lined hollow in a field, with the top arched over so as to
keep off the sun and conceal the eggs. In June four or five white,
brown-specked eggs are laid (.75 × .55).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies; winters in southern U. S.

546b. Florida Grasshopper Sparrow (floridanus), a darker race found on
the plains of interior Florida.

[Illustration: ]


                            HENSLOW SPARROW
            547.     Passerherbulus henslowii.     5 inches

Crown and nape greenish, streaked with black; breast and sides buffy,
streaked with black; tail feathers narrow and pointed.

This species is of a more southern distribution than the last, being
rarely found in New England, but quite common in favorable localities
south of Virginia.


                            LECONTE SPARROW
             548.     Passerherbulus lecontei.     5 inches

Hind head chestnut and gray; sides of head, throat, breast and flanks a
rich buff color.

Song.—A grasshopper-like squeaking.

Nest.—Of grasses in hollows of the ground on prairies; eggs greenish
white thickly specked with brownish (.65 × .50).

Range.—Breeds in the Great Plains from Dakota to Manitoba, and winters
southeastward to the South Atlantic and Gulf States.

[Illustration: ]


                          SHARP-TAILED SPARROW
           549.     Passerherbulus caudacutus.     5¾ inches

Back of head greenish; sides of head, breast, and flanks buff with black
streaks; tail feathers sharp.

Salt marshes along the seacoast or along streams emptying into the ocean
are the dwelling-places of these finches. They creep about like mice in
the salt grass, now running across an open space, now threading their way
through the upright stalks.

Song.—A rather weak, squeaky trill.

Nest.—Of seaweed and marsh grass, attached to the grass stalks several
inches above ground and often covered by a mass of dry seaweed. Eggs
greenish white specked with brown (.78 × .56).

Range.—Atlantic coast of the U. S.


                             NELSON SPARROW
            549a.     Passerherbulus nelsoni.     5½ inches

Similar to the last but brighter colored and not streaked below. In the
Mississippi Valley north to Manitoba. 549a. Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow
(sub-virgatus), Atlantic coast, breeding from Maine to New Brunswick.

[Illustration: ]


                            SEASIDE SPARROW
            550.     Passerherbulus maritimus.     6 inches

Yellow spot before the eye. General plumage above grayish green with no
black markings. All the habits of the Seaside Sparrows are precisely like
those of the Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The nests and eggs are
indistinguishable and are often found in the same marshes.

Sub-Species.—550a. Scott Seaside Sparrow (peninsulæ), slightly smaller
and with the back marked with black and brownish green; South Atlantic
coast. 550b. Texas Seaside Sparrow (sennetti), greener above than No.
550; coast of Texas. 550c. Fisher Seaside Sparrow (fisheri), darker above
than scotti and with the breast and sides heavily washed with rusty and
streaked with black; coast of Louisiana. 550d. Macgillivray Seaside
Sparrow (macgillivrayii), coast of South Carolina.


                         DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW
            551.     Passerherbulus nigrescens.     6 inches

Darkest of the Seaside Sparrows. Found only in marshes at head of Indian
River, Florida.

[Illustration: ]


                              LARK SPARROW
              552.     Chondestes grammacus.     6¼ inches

These handsome Sparrows are very abundant in the Mississippi Valley;
their favorite resorts are fields, pastures, and prairie lands, or along
dusty roadsides. Their song is one of the sweetest of any of the
Sparrows, and is freely given throughout the summer.

Song.—A hurried gush of silvery tremulous notes.

Nest.—Sometimes in bushes but usually on the ground; of grasses arranged
in a hollow to form a little cup, and usually concealed under a tuft of
grass or bunch of clover. The birds usually run some distance from the
nest before flying, so that they are quite hard to find. They lay three
to five eggs, white, specked and scrawled sparingly with blackish (.80 ×
.60), wholly different from those of any other Sparrow.

Range.—Mississippi Valley, breeding from Texas to Manitoba; winters in
southern U. S. and Mexico.

Sub-Species.—552a. Western Lark Sparrow (strigatus) is slightly paler and
less heavily marked; found from the Plains to the Pacific.

[Illustration: ]


                             HARRIS SPARROW
              553.     Zonotrichia querula.     7½ inches

Adults in summer with the crown face, and throat black; in winter with
the black areas mottled with gray.

This species is one of the largest of the Sparrows. It is found
abundantly on the prairies during migrations, but about nesting time they
all seem to disappear and no one has, as yet, been able to locate their
exact breeding range. It is supposed to be among some of the foothills of
North Dakota and northward through Manitoba and Saskatchewan, as they
have been found during the summer in all these localities. Nests supposed
to belong to this species have been found, but they lack positive
identification.

Song.—A series of musical, piping whistles.

Nest.—Supposed to be of grass and bark, a few inches above the ground in
weed stalks or small shrubs; eggs whitish, thickly spotted with brown
(.95 × .65).

Range.—Interior U. S. from Texas (in winter) north through the Plains and
Mississippi to Manitoba.

[Illustration: ]


                         WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW
             554.     Zonotrichia leucophrys.     7 inches

Adults with a white crown bordered by black, the black covering the lores
or space before the eye (the sub-species found west of the Rockies have
the lores white).

We know these birds in the U. S., except in mountain ranges or in the
extreme northern parts, only as migrants, they then being found in brushy
woodlots or along roadsides. In the north they are found in deeply wooded
ravines and on side hills. While with us they rarely if ever sing, but in
their summer home they have a clear tinkling song like that of the
White-throated Sparrow, with which we see them associated here.

Song.—A clear, sweet, piping “see-dee-dee-dee-de-e”; call note, a sharp
chip.

Nest.—Usually on the ground under patches of brush or bushes. The four or
five eggs are whitish profusely spotted with brown (.90 × .63).

Range.—N. A., breeding from northern U. S. northward and in high ranges
south to Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                         WHITE-THROATED SPARROW
             558.     Zonotrichia albicollis.     6¾ inches

In thick underbrush we hear these birds scratching about among the
leaves; occasionally one of them will hop up on a twig and give his clear
peabody song, or, hearing or seeing you, give a sharp chirp and dash out
of sight again. They are birds of the ground, always busy and always
happy. I think that without any exception, they are the handsomest of our
Sparrows, their colors are so rich and harmonize and blend together so
well.

Song.—A high-pitched, very clear and sweet whistle, “pea-bo-dy-bird.”
Call and note of alarm, a metallic chirp.

Nest.—Usually on the ground on the borders of woods or in swamps; of
grass and leaves, similar to, but larger than, that of the Song Sparrow.
Four or five eggs, pale greenish blue, thickly spotted with brown (.85 ×
.63).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from northern U. S. to
Labrador and Hudson Ray; winters in the southern half of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                              TREE SPARROW
               559.     Spizella monticola.     6¼ inches

A blackish-brown spot in middle of breast; crown reddish brown with no
black about the head; back and wings with considerable brown.

These Sparrows are summer residents of the Arctic region, passing the
winter in the northern half of the U. S. They bear considerable
resemblance to our common Chipping Sparrow, but are larger and have
characteristic markings as noted above. They appear in the U. S. in
October and many of them pass the winter in the fields and gardens in our
northern states.

Note.—A musical chirp; song, strong, sweet, and musical and ending in a
low warble.

Nest.—Usually on the ground, but sometimes at low elevations in bushes.
Eggs pale greenish blue with brown specks over the whole surface, thus
being very different from those of the Chipping Sparrow (.80 × .60).

Range.—N. A. east of the Plains, breeding in Labrador and about Hudson
Bay; winters in northern half of the U. S. A sub-species, 559a. Western
Tree Sparrow (ochracea) is paler; it is found from the Plains to the
Pacific, breeding in the north.

[Illustration: ]


                            CHIPPING SPARROW
               560.     Spizella passerina.     5¼ inches

Crown chestnut; forehead black; line through the eye black.

One of the commonest and most useful of our Sparrows, frequenting
orchards, yards, and bushy pastures. They are not at all timid and
frequently nest in vines, covering porches or the side of the house,
provided that English Sparrows are not too plenty. They eat great
quantities of insects and worms, and some seeds, feeding their young
wholly upon the former.

Song.—A very rapidly chanted chip, chip, chip, chip, continued for
several seconds; call, a sharp chip.

Nest.—A small cup-shaped structure of rootlets, lined with horsehair;
placed in bushes, trees, or vines; eggs three to five, bluish green,
specked, chiefly around the large end, with blackish brown (.65 × .50).

Range.—N. A. east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf of Mexico north
to Newfoundland and Hudson Bay; winters in the Gulf States. A sub-species
is found west of the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                          CLAY-COLORED SPARROW
                561.     Spizella pallida.     5½ inches

No reddish brown in the plumage; crown largely black, with a whitish
stripe in centre. The habits of these birds are the same as those of the
Chippy; they are abundant on the Plains north to Saskatchewan and breed
south to the northern portion of the United States. They spend the winter
in Mexico. Their nests and eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the
preceding except, perhaps, by the fact that the nest has more grass than
hair.


                             BREWER SPARROW
                562.     Spizella breweri.     5½ inches

Like the last species, the general tone of plumage of this is gray. It
differs, though, in having the crown finely streaked with blackish. It is
a more western species than the last and is rarely found east of the
Rockies. It ranges from British Columbia southward into Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                             FIELD SPARROW
                563.     Spizella pusilla.     5½ inches

Bill pinkish brown; crown and ear covert brown with no black markings;
back reddish brown and breast and sides washed with brown.

You will find these birds in dry pastures, stubble fields, and side
hills. The hotter and dryer a place is, the better they seem to like it.
They are often the only birds that will be found nesting on tracts of
land recently burned over, upon which the sun beats down with stifling
heat.

Song.—A series of shrill piping whistles on an ascending scale and
terminating in a little trill, “swee-see-see-se-e-e.”

Nest.—A frail structure of grasses and weeds, lined with finer grasses;
placed either on the ground or in bushes, briars or weed patches; four or
five whitish eggs marked with reddish brown (.68 × .50).

Range.—Breeds from the Gulf States north to southern Canada; winters in
southern United States.

Sub-Species.—563a. Western Field Sparrow (arenacea), a paler race found
on the Great Plains.

[Illustration: ]


                           WHITE-WINGED JUNCO
                  566.     Junco aikeni.     6½ inches

Slightly larger than the common eastern Junco, and with two white bars on
the wing and more white on the tail.

This species cannot be regarded as common anywhere, even locally, and in
most sections of its range it is rare. There are no peculiarities in its
habits, and I believe that its nests and eggs have not, as yet, been
discovered.

Range.—Breeds in Wyoming and the Dakotas and winters in Colorado and
eastward to Kansas.

[Illustration: ]


                          SLATE-COLORED JUNCO
                 567.     Junco hyemalis.     6¼ inches

These are one of our most common winter birds, easily recognized, while
perching or on the ground, by the white or pinkish bill, and when flying
by the white outer tail feathers and the gray and white plumage. They are
very common about houses as well as on the edges of woods and in pine
groves, being very tame and coming into the dooryard to feed upon crumbs
or chaff which is often thrown out for them.

Song.—A sweet simple trill, which has a beautiful effect when given by a
whole flock in unison.

Nest.—Of grasses, on the ground, usually beside a stone, in a bunch of
weeds or under a small shrub, where it is well concealed. The three or
four eggs are whitish, sprinkled with reddish brown (.75 × .55).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the northern parts of the northern
tier of states northward; winters south to the Gulf.

Sub-Species.—567e. Carolina Junco (carolinensis), found in the
Alleghanies from Virginia to Georgia; there are several races found west
of the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                         BLACK-THROATED SPARROW
              573.     Amphispiza bilineata.     5½ inches

These little Sparrows are entirely unlike any other North American
species. They are found in the southwestern deserts, where they are not
uncommon in certain localities, being found in mesquite or chaparral
brush.

Note.—An ordinary Sparrow chip; song, a rich metallic
“zip-zip-zip-zee-zee-zee,” the first three ascending, the second three
notes descending.

Nest.—In bushes or cacti at low elevations; eggs plain bluish white (.70
× .50).

Range.—From Texas north to Kansas in summer. A paler sub-species, the
Desert Sparrow (deserticola), is found westward to southern California.


                              SAGE SPARROW
             574.1     Amphispiza nevadensis.     6¼ inches

These birds are found in arid regions, frequenting the sage brush that is
found in the Great Basin region, from western Texas to California.

[Illustration: ]


                           PINE-WOODS SPARROW
                575.     Peucæa æstivalis.     5¾ inches

Upper parts streaked with black; back chestnut and gray; under parts
buffy white; tail rounded.

These dull-colored birds are abundant on some of the southern pine
barrens. Their habits are similar to those of the Henslow Sparrow; they
are quite shy and it is almost impossible to make one show itself above
the grass, through which it runs and dodges with great swiftness. If it
is surprised into taking wing it goes but a few feet, then drops out of
sight again.

Note.—A metallic chip; song, similar to that of the Field Sparrow, but
reversed; that is, with the trill first.

Nest.—Of grasses, on the ground, under shrubs or in tufts of grass; not
usually arched as those of Bachman Sparrow seem to always be; four or
five pure white eggs (.72 × .60).

Range.—Georgia and Florida. 575a. Bachman Sparrow (bachmannii) is
brighter above but has fewer black streaks; found in the South Atlantic
and Gulf States and north to Indiana.

[Illustration: ]


                              SONG SPARROW
               581.     Melospiza melodia.     6¼ inches

This is probably the best known, most abundant, and most widely
distributed (in its numerous sub-species) of all our birds. They are
quite hardy and many of them winter in the northern states, but the
majority go farther south, returning to their summer homes about the
first of March. They may be found anywhere where there are bushes, vines,
or hedges, and often about houses, even in large cities.

Song.—Very pleasing and musical, strongly resembling brilliant measures
from that of the Canary.

Nest.—Of grass, either on the ground or in bushes; three to five
bluish-white eggs, profusely spotted with brown (.80 × .58).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Virginia and Missouri north to
southern Canada. Winters from Massachusetts and Ohio southward. Many
local races are found west of the Rockies, but only one east of there.
581j. Dakota Song Sparrow (juddi) is found in the vicinity of Turtle
Mountains, North Dakota; it is said to be lighter above and brighter
below.

[Illustration: ]


                            LINCOLN SPARROW
              583.     Melospiza lincolnii.     5¾ inches

Upper parts extensively brown and black, breast and sides bright buff
with fine black streaks.

These finches are quite abundant in the West, especially during
migrations, but are rather uncommon in the eastern states. Their habits
are similar in some respects to both those of the Song Sparrow and of the
Grasshopper Sparrow. They are very lively at all times and in the mating
season quite pugnacious. They sit for minutes at a time upon the top of a
bush pouring forth their melody, and they have one of the most brilliant
songs of any of the family.

Song.—Loud, clear, and gurgling, after the style of the House Wren; call,
a metallic chirp.

Nest.—Of grass, on the ground, in tufts of grass or under small shrubs;
eggs pale greenish white, heavily marked with chestnut (.80 × .58).

Range.—N. A., breeding from northern U. S. to Labrador and Alaska;
winters in southern half of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                             SWAMP SPARROW
              584.     Melospiza georgiana.     5¾ inches

Forehead black; crown chestnut with a gray median stripe; whole upper
parts very dark; under parts grayish with brown sides.

A very quiet and unobtrusive species that dwells, as its name implies,
chiefly in swamps. They creep about under the rank weeds and underbrush
like so many mice; they are especially fond of the soft mires where
walking is so difficult for human beings; they patter around on the soft
mud with evident enjoyment, occasionally walking across an open space of
water on what floating débris they may find available.

Song.—A feeble chant; call, a sharp metallic cheep.

Nest.—Of grasses, on the ground in damp places; four or five eggs, having
a pale greenish-blue color heavily blotched and clouded with shades of
brown (.80 × .55).

Range.—N. A. east of the Plains, breeding from New Jersey and Missouri
north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in southern half of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                              FOX SPARROW
               585.     Passerella iliaca.     7¼ inches

Above bright reddish brown and gray; rump and tail wholly reddish brown,
and spots on the breast and sides of the same color.

In winter we find these large sparrows in quiet swamps and open woods,
where they scratch about among the fallen leaves, after the manner of
domestic fowls; they will scratch energetically for a few seconds, then
pause to see what they have uncovered. They have a short but loud and
joyful song, with which they greet you on clear frosty mornings, and the
effect is very beautiful when a large flock of them are singing in
chorus.

Song.—A loud, clear, and melodious carol; call, a soft chip.

Nest.—Of grass and moss, lined with fine grass and feathers; four or five
pale bluish-green eggs, spotted with reddish brown and chestnut (.90 ×
.65).

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from New Brunswick and
Manitoba northward; winters in the southern states.

[Illustration: ]


                           TOWHEE OR CHEWINK
             587.     Pipilo erythrophthalmus.     8 inches

A bird of swamps, brushy pastures, and open woodlands. They are ground
birds and usually found scratching among the leaves; the male, with his
black, white and brown clothes, makes a conspicuous object, while the
female, with her brown and white dress, harmonizes with the leaves so
that it is difficult to see her. While his mate is sitting on her nest,
the male will frequently sit in a tree top and persistently sing for many
minutes at a time.

Song.—Loud and clear, “tow-hee-e-e” or “see-tow-hee-e-e,” with the last
notes tremulous; call, a sharp “cherink.”

Nest.—Usually on the ground, but rarely in bushes; of strips of bark,
grass, and leaves; eggs white with reddish-brown dots over the whole
surface (.90 × .70).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the Gulf States to southern Canada;
winters in southern U. S.

Sub-Species.—587a. White-eyed Towhee (alleni) has white eyes instead of
red and less white on the tail; found on the South Atlantic coast.

[Illustration: ]


                          GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE
               592.1     Oreospiza chlorura.     7 inches

These are characteristic birds of the Western mountains. They are typical
brush birds, satisfied in living a life of security in their own way, and
rarely appear above the surface of the thick shrubbery except to mount to
a conspicuous twig, pour forth their sweet melodies, and then retreat
again.

Note.—A loud chip; a soft, mewing note; song, finch-like, musical but
rather simple.

Nest.—Either on the ground or in bushes near the ground. Made of grasses
the same as that of any of the sparrows. Eggs pale bluish gray, thickly
speckled with reddish brown. The nests are built in very thickly tangled
underbrush and are difficult to locate.

Range.—Western United States, from the eastern base of the Rockies west
to the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevadas.

[Illustration: ]


                                CARDINAL
              593.     Cardinalis cardinalis.     9 inches

Noble in carriage, beautiful of plumage, amiable in disposition and
excellent singers are some of the qualifications of these large-billed
birds. They are southern birds, rarely seen in northern U. S. unless in
cages, for large numbers of them are trapped for this purpose, a practice
that is being stopped as rapidly as possible by enforcing the laws which
protect them. They are hardy birds, often passing the winter in the
northern parts of their range when the ground is covered with snow. They
frequent gardens, plantations, and open woods, where they glean their
food of seeds, berries, fruit, and insects.

Song.—A loud, clear, and lively warble; call, a low chip.

Nest.—A frail structure of twigs, in thickets or bushes; eggs greenish
blue with reddish-brown spots (1.00 × .73).

Range.—Resident and breeding from the Gulf to New York and Iowa. 593.
Florida Cardinal (floridanus) is supposed to be slightly smaller and
brighter.

[Illustration: ]


                      TEXAN CARDINAL; PYRRHULOXIA
          594a.     Pyrrhuloxia sinuata texana.     8½ inches

Notice that the bill of this species is very stout and short, more like
that of a parrot. The crest is also composed of fewer feathers than that
of the Cardinal. It is only in the highest of plumages that the red on
the underparts is continuous from bill to tail; usually it is broken into
patches. The female is much duller in color than the male, but always has
a strong tinge of rose color. They frequent more open and exposed
positions than do Cardinals and are more shy in their disposition.

Nest.—Shabby platforms of twigs and grasses placed at low elevations in
thickets. The three or four eggs are whitish, specked with dark brown,
most profusely at the large end (.90 × .70).

Range.—Abundant in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                         ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK
              595.     Zamelodia ludoviciana.     8 inches

Male, black and white with rose breast and under wing coverts; female
resembling a large striped Sparrow in color.

The centre of abundance of these beautiful creatures is in the northern
half of eastern U. S. In beauty and song he fully atones for what we
Northerners lose because of the southerly distribution of the Cardinal.
We find them in swamps, small patches of woods, and, sometimes, in
orchards. They are rather quiet birds, that is they do not move about
much, but they can easily be found by their song.

Song.—A rich, full, whistling carol, almost without exception immediately
preceded with a sharp chip. Call, a deep-toned chirp.

Nest.—A loose, frail cradle of twigs at low elevations in trees or
thickets; eggs bluish green spotted with brown (1.00 × .75).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies, breeding in the northern half and in
southern Canada; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                             BLUE GROSBEAK
                 597.     Guiraca cærulea.     7 inches

Male, deep blue with chestnut shoulders; female, grayish brown above and
grayish white below.

Open woods, small groves, and roadsides are the locations in which these
birds will be apt to be found. In some places they are fairly common, but
nowhere abundant. Their habits are very similar to those of the
Rose-breasted Grosbeak.

Song.—A rapid varied warble, similar to but louder and stronger than that
of the Indigo Bunting.

Nest.—Of twigs, weeds, and grasses, lined with fine rootlets; placed in
thickets, bushes, or low trees; four or five plain bluish-white eggs (.85
× .62).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf to Maryland and Illinois;
winters south of U. S.

Sub-Species.—597a. Western Blue Grosbeak (lazula). Male of a brighter
shade of blue than the eastern; found from the Mississippi to the
Pacific, breeding north to Kansas, Colorado, and northern California.

[Illustration: ]


                             INDIGO BUNTING
                598.     Passerina cyanea.     5½ inches

Male, indigo blue; female, brownish but usually with a faint indication
of blue on the wings or tail.

A jolly summer songster, dwelling with us from the latter part of May
until September. You will meet with these Buntings along roadsides lined
with scrubby trees or bushes, or in pastures or along the edges of
swamps. The male usually has some favorite perch upon which he spends a
large portion of his time singing; it is nearly always the top of a tall
bush or tree.

Song.—A sprightly little warble with many canary-like notes. Call, a
sharp chip.

Nest.—Of grasses at low elevations in shrubs or bushes; eggs four or five
in number, very pale bluish white (.75 × .52).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies, and most abundant east of the
Mississippi; breeds north to Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in
Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                             LAZULI BUNTING
                599.     Passerina amœna.     5½ inches

This species replaces the preceding one west of the Plains. While the
plumage of the males is entirely distinctive, that of the females is
often confusing. The present species has quite a conspicuous band of
rusty buff across the breast and lacks any sign of stripes on the sides,
such as show faintly on the last species. Its habits are just like those
of the Indigo and it frequents the same kind of territory.

Nest.—Built in a bush or on the lower branches of trees, only a few feet
from the ground. The eggs are very pale bluish white (.75 × .58).

Range.—Western United States from the Great Plains to the Pacific coast;
north along the coast to British Columbia; south in winter to Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                             VARIED BUNTING
              600.     Passerina versicolor.     5½ inches

This beautiful species is less common than any others of the genus and
has a very restricted range in the United States. The plumage of the male
birds varies a great deal; that shown in the accompanying illustration is
from a brightly colored specimen. They will average duller than this.
These birds frequent thickets or brush-studded pasture land. Their song
is described as weaker than that of the Indigo Bunting, but having much
of the same character.

Nest.—Built of grasses, bark and fine rootlets; a cup-shaped structure
placed in forks of bushes, usually in tangled thickets. The three or four
eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the last species.

Range.—The Lower Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas. A sub-species
(pulchra) is also found in Lower California and southern Arizona.

[Illustration: ]


                            PAINTED BUNTING
                601.     Passerina ciris.     5½ inches

Male, vari-colored; female, greenish gray.

Without any exception, these are the most gaudily plumaged North American
birds, but their colors have a harshness of contrast that renders them
far less pleasing to the eye than many others of our birds. They are
often caged, but in confinement soon lose the natural brilliancy of their
plumage. Like the Indigo Bunting, they are found in thickets and hedges;
their habits seem to be precisely like those of the last species.

Song.—Similar to that of the Indigo but lacking the brilliancy of that of
the latter bird.

Nest.—Of grasses, leaves, strips of bark and rootlets, compactly
compressed and woven together, situated at low elevations in thickets and
low bushes; eggs whitish, specked and blotched with reddish brown (.78 ×
.58).

Range.—Southeastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf north to Virginia, Ohio
and Kansas; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                          MORELLET SEED-EATER
          602.     Sporophila morelleti sharpei.     4½ inches

The male of this interesting little species requires at least three years
in which to obtain the perfect plumage as shown in our illustration. The
majority of birds seen will be in intermediate stages of plumage between
that of the adult female and this one. These little fellows are usually
found in thickets or patches of briars and are quite tame.

Note.—During the breeding season the male has a sprightly song similar to
that of the Indigo Bunting.

Nest.—The nests are made of fine grass and placed in bushes or young
trees. The eggs are bluish green spotted rather evenly with brown (.65 ×
.48).

Range.—Southeastern Texas and southward into Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                               DICKCISSEL
                604.     Spiza americana.     6¼ inches

Male beautifully blended with yellow, white and gray, and with a black
throat patch and brown shoulders; female duller.

In the middle portions of the U. S. these birds, or Black-throated
Buntings, as they are commonly called, are very numerous, frequenting
dry, bushy fields or prairies. They are very persistent songsters,
although their song is weak and has little melody. In July and August,
when many birds are silent, they continue their plaintive chant even on
the most sultry days.

Song.—A simple chanting “chip, chip, che-che-che.”

Nest.—Either on the ground, in bushes or thistles, or in trees; of weeds,
grasses, rootlets, corn husks, etc.; eggs four or five in number, plain
bluish white and hardly distinguishable from those of the Bluebird; size
.80 × .60.

Range.—N. A. east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf States north to
northern U. S.; rare in the Atlantic States north to Connecticut.

[Illustration: ]


                              LARK BUNTING
             605.     Calamospiza melanocorys.     7 inches

Male, black and white; female, brown and gray.

This species is often known as the White-winged Blackbird, not because it
bears any resemblance to any of the Blackbirds, nor because any of the
habits are the same, but simply because of its plumage. They are very
gregarious and usually fly in flocks even in nesting time.

They seem to be very methodical and well trained; if one of a flock takes
wing, the entire flock rises simultaneously and in a very compact body
they fly until some leader chooses the next stopping place, when they as
suddenly alight. They have the habit of Skylarks in mounting into the air
while singing and then descending on set wings.

Song.—A very lively, sweetly modulated warble.

Nest.—On the ground, usually under a tuft of grass or small bush; four or
five eggs of a bluish color (.85 × .65), brighter than those of the
Dickcissel.

Range.—Western U. S., most abundant from Kansas to Colorado and north to
Assiniboia.

[Illustration: ]


                            SCARLET TANAGER
              608.     Piranga erythromelas.     7½ inches

Male, scarlet and black; female, greenish yellow and blackish.

These beautiful birds are found in open woods, but they often come out in
fields, parks, orchards and sometimes in yards when feeding; one of the
prettiest sights that I ever saw was of about a dozen of these birds
tripping along the furrows of a ploughed field, where they were feeding
on insects. Besides berries and seeds, they live upon quantities of
insects, frequently catching them on the wing in true Flycatcher style.

Song.—Resembling that of the Robin, but harsher, less varied and higher
pitched. Call, a sharp chip or “chip-churr.”

Nest.—Loosely made of twigs and rootlets, on lower branches of trees;
eggs four, pale bluish green, spotted with brown (.95 × .65).

Range.—Breeds in the northern parts of the U. S. from the Atlantic to the
Plains; winters in the tropics, whence it arrives about May 15.

[Illustration: ]


                             SUMMER TANAGER
                 610.     Piranga rubra.     7½ inches

Male, rosy red; female, greenish yellow.

These Tanagers have a more southerly distribution than the Scarlet
variety, but are found in the same kind of territory. In its localities
it is rather more abundant and less retiring than is the latter bird in
the north, and more often dwells in public parks. This bird is often
called the Redbird and in localities where both the Scarlet Tanager and
this species are found, they are frequently known by the same name, as
their habits and notes are similar.

Song.—Similar to that of the Scarlet Tanager but said to be sweeter and
clearer, and to more nearly resemble that of the Robin.

Nest.—On the outer horizontal limbs of trees in open woods or groves;
nest of twigs and rootlets; eggs bluish green, spotted with brown (.95 ×
.65).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to New Jersey
and Kansas; winters in Central America. A subspecies is found west of the
Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                             PURPLE MARTIN
                  611.     Progne subis.     7¾ inches

Male, blue black; female, dull black and grayish.

These large, jolly Swallows are commonly seen about cities and towns
within their range. Originally they dwelt in hollow trees, and some do
yet, but the majority have recognized the superiority of man’s dwelling
and now live in houses built especially for them or in cornices of houses
or barns. It is no uncommon sight to see a handsome gabled structure of
many rooms, perched upon a twelve-foot pole, on the lawns of many wealthy
residents; others less bountifully supplied with this world’s goods use
plain soap boxes for the same purpose, and the Martins seem to like the
one as well as the other.

Song.—A strong, varied grating warble or twitter, more forcible than
melodious.

Nest.—Of straw, paper, rags, etc., in bird houses, gables or hollow
trees; eggs dull white (.98 × .72).

Range.—N. A., breeding from the Gulf to New Brunswick and Saskatchewan;
winters in northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                             CLIFF SWALLOW
            612.     Petrochelidon lunifrons.     5½ inches

Adults similar in plumage but the female slightly paler. Easily
distinguished from the Barn Swallow by the square tail and light buffy
forehead and rump.

This is what is commonly called the Eave Swallow in the East, because of
its habit of plastering its nests on the outside of barns or other
buildings, up under the eaves. In the West they usually resort to cliffs
where, sometimes, large sections of the face will be completely covered
with the little mud flasks; often colonies of several thousand will build
their nests together.

Song.—A continuous twitter, uttered while on the wing or at rest.

Nest.—A flask or gourd-shaped structure of mud, lined with straw and
feathers, attached under the eaves to the outside of buildings or on the
faces of cliffs; five to seven eggs are laid; white dotted and spotted
with reddish brown (.80 × .55).

Range.—N. A., breeding from the Gulf to Greenland and Alaska; winters in
the Tropics.

[Illustration: ]


                              BARN SWALLOW
             613.     Hirundo erythrogastra.     7½ inches

Female duller plumaged and with a less deeply forked tail than the male.
Forehead and throat chestnut and entire under parts buffy; tail deeply
forked and with a white spot on the inner web of each feather except the
central pair.

This is the most graceful and beautiful of all our swallows, and is the
most common about farmhouses, the inside beams and rafters of which they
appropriate for their own use. They delight in skimming over the rolling
meadows or the surface of ponds, now rising with the wind, now swooping
downward with the speed of an arrow.

Song.—A continuous, rapid twitter.

Nest.—A bowl-shaped structure made up of pellets of mud cemented together
with the birds’ saliva, and lined with feathers; attached to rafters in
barns, the opening being at the top and not at the side as in the last;
eggs exactly like those of the last.

Range.—N. A., breeding north to the limit of trees; winters in northern
South America.

[Illustration: ]


                              TREE SWALLOW
               614.     Iridoprocne bicolor.     6 inches

Male, steely blue or greenish above; female, duller and often plain gray
above, but both sexes always entirely white below.

These Swallows are also abundant about farmyards; except when they are
skimming over ponds, they are almost always scouring the air above
buildings or fields, at higher elevations than the Barn Swallows. When
weary they roost on dead twigs or telephone wires, hundreds often being
seen in rows on the latter. Like the Martins, these birds frequently nest
in bird boxes, but usually not more than one or two pairs in a single
house.

Notes.—A twittering like that of the other Swallows.

Nest.—Of grass, lined with feathers, in hollow trees on the border of
water or in orchards, or in bird boxes erected for their use; eggs white
(.75 × .52).

Range.—Breeds in the northern half of the U. S. and northward to Labrador
and Alaska; winters in southern U. S. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                              BANK SWALLOW
                616.     Riparia riparia.     5¼ inches

These are the smallest of our Swallows; this species can be
distinguished, even at a distance, by the conspicuous band across the
breast, showing in bold relief against the lighter throat. They are found
throughout North America, breeding from the middle of the U. S. north to
the Arctic regions.

They nest in colonies in holes in banks, laying the four to seven white
eggs on a grass nest in an enlarged chamber at the end of the tunnel.


                          ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW
           617.     Stelgidopteryx serripennis.     5½ inches

In this species the throat is gray as well as the breast. The outer vane
of the outer primary is stiff and bristly, thus giving the species its
name. These birds breed from the Gulf north to Massachusetts and
Washington, in banks or in crevices of stone bridges. The eggs cannot
with certainty be distinguished from those of the Bank Swallow. They
measure .75 × .52.

[Illustration: ]


                            BOHEMIAN WAXWING
               618.     Bombycilla garrula.     8 inches

Larger and grayer than our common Cedar Waxwing and with yellow and white
on the wing; it is a northern species and is only casually found in
eastern U. S. They nest within the Arctic Circle and only a few of their
nests have ever been found. In winter they are found in flocks, roving
restlessly about the country, often appearing where least expected and
utterly deserting other places where they are usually found.

Nest.—Of small twigs and moss, lined with feathers, usually placed at low
elevations in spruce or coniferous trees; eggs dull bluish white specked
sparingly with black (1.00 × .70), similar to those of the Cedar Waxwing
but larger.

Range.—Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, breeding within the
Arctic Circle and wintering casually south to Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Kansas and California.

[Illustration: ]


                             CEDAR WAXWING
               619.     Bombycilla cedrorum.     7 inches

Plumage very soft colored with a general brownish tone, shading to gray
on the rump. The Waxwings are named from the curious wax-like appendages
attached to the tips of the secondaries, and rarely to the tail feathers.
They are very sociable and usually feed in flocks. They live chiefly upon
fruit and are especially fond of cherries, for which reason they are very
often known as Cherry-birds. They are very tame and allow any one to
almost touch them while they are feeding or sitting upon their nests.

Note.—An insignificant lisping hiss.

Nest.—A substantial structure of twigs, mosses, twine, etc., lined with
fine grasses; placed in cedar trees or, when near habitations, usually in
orchard trees; the four or five eggs are dull bluish white specked with
black (.85 × .60).

Range.—N. A., breeding from Virginia, Missouri and northern California
north to Labrador and southern Alaska; winters throughout the United
States.

[Illustration: ]


                            NORTHERN SHRIKE
                621.     Lanius borealis.     10 inches

This shrike is larger than any of the species found in summer in the
United States and has the breast quite distinctly barred.

Shrikes are cruel, rapacious and carnivorous birds, feeding upon insects,
grasshoppers, lizards and small birds. As they have passerine feet, the
same as all our small birds, they are unable to hold their prey between
the feet while tearing it to pieces, so they impale it upon thorns or the
barbs of a wire fence so they may tear it to shreds with their hooked
bill.

Song.—Loud snatches consisting of various whistles and imitations
suggesting that of a Catbird.

Nest.—They breed chiefly north of the U. S., placing their rude, bulky
structures of twigs and weeds in thorny trees or hedges; their four to
six eggs are grayish white with spots of light brown and darker gray
(1.08 × .80).

Range.—N. A., breeding chiefly in the northern parts of Canada; winters
south to Pennsylvania, Kansas and California.

[Illustration: ]


                           LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE
               622.     Lanius ludovicianus.     9 inches

Pure white below and with the markings above, intense black instead of
the brownish or grayish black of the last species. Although smaller,
these Shrikes have the same destructive habits of the northern species.
All the Shrikes do considerable good to mankind, for they eat quantities
of grasshoppers and mice, and probably resort to their diet of small
birds when other food is unusually scarce. It cannot be denied that they
are cruel, for they often kill more than they can eat and leave it
impaled on thorns to decay.

Song.—Of harsh, discordant whistles.

Nest.—In scrubby hedges and thickets; of twigs, weeds, leaves, etc.; eggs
four to seven in number, grayish white, spotted with shades of brown and
gray.

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf to southern New England and
Manitoba; winters in southern states.

Sub-Species.—622a. White-rumped Shrike (excubitorides), paler and with a
white rump; found from the Plains to the Pacific in the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                             RED-EYED VIREO
               624.     Vireosylva olivacea.     6 inches

Crown slaty gray with a black border; white stripe above eye; eye reddish
brown.

Throughout the United States this is one of the most abundant of the
family. All through the spring and summer months their warble is heard
from woodland and roadside, often becoming so monotonous as to be
irritating. Oftentimes during the spring migrations of Warblers, Vireos
are so numerous and singing so lustily that it is impossible to hear or
distinguish the songs of any of the smaller birds.

Song.—Delivered in parts with intermission of a few seconds between, from
morning until night; a short varied warble; call, a petulant mew.

Nest.—A basket woven of strips of bark and fibres, and often with pieces
of newspaper worked in, lined with fine grass; eggs white with a few
blackish-brown specks on the large end (.85 × .55).

Range.—U. S. east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to Labrador and
Manitoba; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                           PHILADELPHIA VIREO
            626.     Vireosylva philadelphica.     5 inches

This is one of the least common of the eastern Vireos, although it is
more common than most people know; its song is not distinctive and it
keeps high up in trees, so it is not usually noticed. Their nests are
swung from branches at high altitudes and are seldom found.


                             WARBLING VIREO
                627.     Vireosylva gilva.     5 inches

Above olive-green; crown grayer but with no black border. These are among
the most common of the Vireos and may be found even in the hearts of
large cities, swinging their pretty little nests high up in shade trees.
Their song is after the style of that of the Purple Finch, very different
from that of the Red-eye. The eggs are white with a few brown specks on
the large end. These birds breed throughout the U. S. and southern
Canada.

[Illustration: ]


                         YELLOW-THROATED VIREO
              628.     Lanivireo flavifrons.     5¾ inches

Upper parts greenish; throat, breast and line over eye yellow; two
prominent whitish wing bars.

A handsome Vireo found in localities such as are frequented by the
Red-eyed species. Nowhere do they appear to be as abundant as that
species, however; they are more abundant than many suppose, but the
difficulty of clearly seeing the yellow breast when they are feeding in
the tree tops, combined with the similarity of their songs, usually
caused them to be passed by without inspection.

Song.—Similar to that of the Red-eye, but louder and more nasal, less
varied and not uttered as often.

Nest.—A pensile structure of strips of bark, grasses, etc., with the
outside often ornamented with lichens; three to five eggs with a creamy
or rosy-white tint, specked, more profusely than those of the Red-eye,
with reddish brown (.82 × .60).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada; winters
in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                           BLUE-HEADED VIREO
              629.     Lanivere solitarius.     5¾ inches

Crown and sides of head bluish slate; lores, eye-ring and underparts
white; back and flanks greenish yellow; two whitish wing bars.

This species, to my eye, is the prettiest of the Vireos, all the colors
being in just the right proportion and blending and harmonizing
perfectly. They are solitary, in that they are usually found in deep
woods, glens or ravines, and seldom is more than one pair found in a
single woods.

Song.—Similar to that of the Yellow-throated Vireo but longer and more
varied.

Nest.—A handsome, finely woven basket, with the outside covered with
spider webs and often with lichens; eggs pale creamy white with chestnut
specks.

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the Gulf to New Brunswick and
Manitoba; winters south of the United States.

Sub-Species.—629c. Mountain Solitary Vireo (alticola), head darker and
back less greenish; Alleghanies from North Carolina to Georgia.

[Illustration: ]


                           BLACK-CAPPED VIREO
               630.     Vireo atricapillus.     4½ inches

Male, with crown and sides of head glossy black, lores and eye-ring
white; female, duller colored.

This strange and comparatively rare Vireo frequents brushwood on the
prairies of Kansas, Indian Territory and central and western Texas. Their
habits in all respects resemble those of the more common Vireos or
Greenlets as they are otherwise called.

Notes.—Similar to those of the White-eyed Vireo.

Nest.—Suspended as usual from forked branches at low elevations; made of
fibres and bark strips closely woven together with spider webs. The four
eggs are pure white, unmarked (.70 × .52).

Range.—Breeds from central and western Texas north to southern Kansas;
winters in Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                            WHITE-EYED VIREO
                  631.     Vireo griseus.     5 inches

This species shows a partiality for low, swampy places, covered with
briars or tangled thickets of blackberry vines. Their habits are entirely
different from any of the preceding Vireos. They do not seem to sing as
they eat, but feed in silence, then, the task ended, mount to the tops of
the brush and indulge in an endless variety of calls and whistles.

Song.—A great variety of clear whistles and squeaky notes.

Nest.—A bulky structure of strips of bark, leaves, paper, etc., either
placed in the branches or partially suspended in a fork; eggs white with
minute brown specks (.75 × .55).

Range.—Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts and
Manitoba; winters in Mexico.

Sub-Species.—631a. Key West Vireo (maynardi), southern Florida. 631b.
Bermuda White-eyed Vireo (bermudianus), resident in the Bermudas. 631c.
Small White-eyed Vireo (micrus); southeastern Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                        BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER
                636.     Mniotilta varia.     5¼ inches

Male, heavily streaked with black below; female, with only a few streaks
on the sides.

These Warblers are usually known as Black and White Creepers because of
their habit of creeping along the limbs and branches of trees. They are
abundant in northern United States, being found in open woods, swamps and
often in parks, gleaning insects and grubs from crevices in the bark.

Song.—A weak, thin, wiry “tsee, tsee, tsee.”

Nest.—Of grasses and strips of bark on the ground at the foot of a stump
or tree trunk or beside a rock; they lay four or five eggs, white with a
wreath of reddish brown around the large end (.65 × .55).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Virginia and Louisiana north to
Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                          PROTHONOTARY WARBLER
              637.     Protonotaria citrea.     5¼ inches

Whole head and underparts intense yellow, almost orange on the head of
the male; tail with white spots near the tip; female, duller.

A common species in the interior, found in bushy swamps and the willows
around the borders of pools and lakes; they are found in the latter
localities with Tree Swallows and often Chickadees all nesting in holes
in hollow stubs along the bank, they being one of the few members of this
family to make use of such locations for their nests.

Song.—A loud, ringing “tweet, tweet, tweet.”

Nest.—In hollow stubs near or over water, the cavity of the stump being
partially filled with moss, leaves and grasses hollowed on the top to
receive the four to six creamy-white eggs which are heavily spotted over
the entire surface with reddish brown (.72 × .55).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf north to Virginia, Illinois
and Minnesota; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                            SWAINSON WARBLER
               638.     Helinaia swainsonii.     5 inches

Upper parts brownish; underparts whitish; a white superciliary stripe and
a brown stripe through the eye.

Some of the habits of this species are similar to those of the last but
they are even more aquatic; they like swamps or stagnant pools thickly
grown with rushes and tangled underbrush; unless cognizant of their
habits, one would never look for a Warbler in the places frequented by
these birds in company with Least Bitterns and Marsh Wrens. Until within
a few years these were regarded as rare birds but are now found to be not
uncommon in certain of the South Atlantic states, notably Georgia.

Song.—A series of descending, loud, clear whistles with a ventriloquial
effect.

Nest.—Quite large structures consisting mostly of leaves with strips of
bark, roots and pine needles. The four or five eggs are plain white,
being the only eggs of American Warblers that are unmarked.

Range.—Southeastern U. S. from Georgia to Louisiana and north to North
Carolina and Missouri.

[Illustration: ]


                          WORM-EATING WARBLER
             639.     Helmitheros vermivorus.     5½ inches

Crown buffy with two black stripes; back, wings and tail olive green with
no white markings; below buffy white.

These birds are very unsuspicious and easy to approach; they spend the
greater portion of their time on or near the ground; they are very fond
of spiders and find quantities by overturning bits of bark and leaves.
They also glean part of their living from the underside of the foliage
much as do the Vireos. They are met with in open woods and brush-grown
pastures.

Song.—A weak, rapid chipping.

Nest.—On the ground in depressions under logs, stones or bushes; of
leaves and grass, lined with fine grass or hair; eggs four or five in
number, white, spotted principally around the large end with brownish
(.70 × .55).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf north to Connecticut, Ohio
and Iowa; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                            BACHMAN WARBLER
               640.     Vermivora bachmani.     4¼ inches

Male, with a yellow forehead, shoulders and underparts; black cap and
breast patch; female, duller and with less black.

This species was first discovered by Dr. John Bachman near Charleston, S.
C.

Song.—An insignificant warble or twitter, similar to the song of the
Parula.

Nest.—In low bushes or briers, one to three feet above ground. Made of
fine grasses and leaf skeletons, lined with black fibres. Found breeding
by Widmann in Missouri, by Embody in Kentucky and by Wayne in South
Carolina. Eggs four in number; pure white (.63 × .48).

Range.—Southeastern U. S., north to North Carolina and west to Missouri.
Rare and local in distribution.

[Illustration: ]


                          BLUE-WINGED WARBLER
                641.     Vermivora pinus.     4¾ inches

Crown and underparts yellow; a narrow black line through the eyes; two
broad whitish wing bars.

A common bird of the southeastern states and north to Connecticut,
frequenting open woods, thickets and gardens. They are ground birds,
spending most of their time on the ground or in low bushes which they
clean of the insects which are destructive.

Song.—A loud, rapid chirrup, similar to that of the Grasshopper Sparrow
but loud and distinct.

Nest.—Of leaves and strips of bark, lined with fine grasses; on the
ground in clumps of weeds or blackberry vines; eggs white, sparingly
spotted around the large end with rufous (65. × .50).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding north to southern Connecticut and
Wisconsin; winters in the tropics.

Hybrids.—Lawrence Warbler, which is a hybrid between this species and the
next; it has the general plumage of this species with the black ear
patches and throat of the Golden-winged Warbler. It is found chiefly in
southwestern Connecticut and New York.

[Illustration: ]


                         GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER
              642.     Vermivora chrysoptera.     5 inches

Crown and two large wing bars yellow; throat and ear patches black; rest
of plumage gray and white; female with less black.

The distribution of this beautiful Warbler is about the same as that of
the last, with which it seems to have many habits in common. It seems to
prefer low ridges and side hills covered with small bushes.

Song.—A buzzing “zwee-ze-ze.”

Nest.—Of leaves, rootlets, strips of bark and grass; located on the
ground among clumps of weeds, usually in moist places; eggs white with
brown specks (.62 × .48).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding north to Connecticut and Michigan; winters
in Central America.

Hybrid.—Brewster Warbler is a hybrid between this species and the last.
It resembles the Golden-winged Warbler without the black, but with a
yellow patch on the breast and the black line of the Blue-wing through
the eye.

[Illustration: ]


                           NASHVILLE WARBLER
             645.     Vermivora rubricapilla.     4¾ inches

Male with a brown crown patch; female duller colored and with no crown
patch. Dry side hills covered with young trees are favorite resorts
for the Warblers. They conceal their nests on the ground under tufts
of dead grass or overhanging stones. They are often rather shy and
hard to sight, but you can usually hear their song, a lazy sounding
“ker-chip-chip-chip-cherr-wee-e-e,” ending in a short trill. These birds
breed in the northern half of the U. S. and southern Canada, wintering in
Central America. A sub-species is found on the Pacific Coast.


                         ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER
                646.     Vermivora celata.     5 inches

This species is fairly common in the Mississippi Valley but is rare in
New England. Its habits are much like those of the last species and it is
often mistaken for that bird. These birds breed only north of the U. S.
and winter in Mexico. A sub-species, the Lutescent Warblers, nests from
California to Alaska.

[Illustration: ]


                           TENNESSEE WARBLER
               647.     Vermivora peregrina.     5 inches

Male, with a gray head and greenish back; female, with the top of the
head the same color as the back.

A dull-colored bird that, with the exception of the bill, bears a strong
resemblance to some of the Vireos. Like many others of our birds, this
one has received an inappropriate name, because the first specimen was
shot on the banks of the Cumberland River, while the bird is no more
abundant in Tennessee than in other states during migration.

Song.—A simple ditty similar to that of the Chipping Sparrow.

Nest.—Either on the ground or at low elevations in bushes; of grasses and
fibres lined with hair; eggs white, sparsely specked with reddish brown
(.62 × .45).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the northern parts of the northern
tier of states northward to the limit of trees; winters in Central and
South America.

[Illustration: ]


                             PARULA WARBLER
            648.     Compsothlypis americana.     4½ inches

In the summer Parulas are found in wet swamps where the ground is covered
with a carpeting of moss which only partially keeps your feet from the
water below; the dead trees are covered with a growth of long, drooping
moss; the ends of this moss are turned up and formed into a neat cradle
within which the eggs are laid.

Song.—A little lisping trill.

Range.—Breeds in the southern half of the U. S. The Northern Parula
(usnea), No. 648a, breeds in the northern half of the U. S. and southern
Canada; it is brighter colored than the southern form. Both varieties
winter from the Gulf States southward.


                            SENNETT WARBLER
       649.     Compsothlypis pitiayumi nigrilora.     4½ inches

A smaller similar bird from southern Texas. Note the black ear patches
and lack of black on breast.

[Illustration: ]


                            CAPE MAY WARBLER
                650.     Dendroica tigrina.     5 inches

Male, with a chestnut wash on the ears and throat; female, duller and
with little or no chestnut.

In the greater part of eastern North America, Cape May Warblers are
regarded as rare birds; they appear to migrate in compact bodies, not
spreading out over the country as do most of the others; consequently
they may be very common in restricted areas while lacking entirely in
others. I have never met with but two specimens in Massachusetts. While
passing through the United States you may meet with them in open woods,
parks or in shade trees along the streets of cities.

Song.—A thin, high-pitched whistle repeated several times.

Nest.—Of small cedar twigs lined with horse hair, placed within a few
feet of the ground in small cedar trees; eggs white spotted with brown
(.68 × .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding in eastern Canada and, rarely, northern
New England; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                             YELLOW WARBLER
                652.     Dendroica æstiva.     5 inches

Male, with chestnut streaks on the sides; female, duller and without the
streaks.

An abundant bird everywhere in woodland, park, orchard or garden and one
of the most vivacious of the family. Arrives in the north soon after May
first and is seen flitting about like a gleam of sunshine snatching
insects from the foliage or darting after them in the air. Often known as
the Summer Yellow-bird. It frequently nests in garden or orchard trees,
where it is a most welcome tenant.

Song.—A sharp, vigorous “che-wee, che-wee, che-wee.”

Nest.—A beautiful and compact structure of vegetable or plant fibres
firmly quilted together, and fastened to upright forks of bushes or trees
at low elevations. Willows along creeks, ponds or rivers are favorite
resorts.

Range.—N. A., breeding from the Gulf to Labrador and Alaska; winters in
Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                      BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER
             654.     Dendroica cærulescens.     5¼ inches

Male, grayish blue above and with a black face, throat, breast and sides;
female, grayish olive above, whitish below. Both sexes always have a
white patch or speck at the base of the primaries.

You will find these birds in damp woods or swamps, or less often in parks
or open woods. They are usually seen at low elevations in scrubby
underbrush. Their notes are very peculiar and will draw attention to them
anywhere.

Song.—A deep grating whistle with a sharply rising inflection,
“zee-zee-zwee.”

Nest.—In deep, swampy woods, especially common in laurel; of grapevine
bark and rootlets lined with fine black roots and hair; the four eggs are
white or buffy white with reddish brown spots and blotches.

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Connecticut (sparingly) and Michigan
north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America. 654a.
Cairns Warbler (cairnsi) is said to be darker on the back; found in the
southern Alleghanies.

[Illustration: ]


                             MYRTLE WARBLER
               655.     Dendroica coronata.     5½ inches

Yellow patches on crown, sides and rump; outer tail feathers with large
white spots; female duller and browner.

During migrations these pretty birds are very abundant in the United
States. They usually travel in large flocks so that a small piece of
woodland is literally flooded with them when they pause in the flight to
feed upon insects or small berries. They are often known as Yellow-rumped
Warblers.

Song.—A clear, broken trill or warble.

Nest.—Usually in coniferous trees, though sometimes in others, and at low
elevations; of plant fibres and grasses; the four or five eggs are white,
spotted and blotched with reddish brown (.70 × .54).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from northern New England and Minnesota
northward; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                            MAGNOLIA WARBLER
               657.     Dendroica magnolia.     5 inches.

Male, with black ear patch, back, and necklace; female, with the black
replaced with grayish; both sexes have a yellow rump and white spots
midway of the tail feathers.

One of the prettiest of the Warblers and one of the least timid. I have
often had one or more of these birds follow me the whole length of a
piece of woods apparently out of curiosity, coming down to the nearest
twigs within arms’ reach of me. Birch woods are their favorites during
migrations, although a few of them will be found almost anywhere.

Song.—A short, rapidly uttered warble.

Nest.—Usually in coniferous trees, far out on the longer branches, where
they are often difficult to get at, of rootlets lined with fine black
rootlets and hair; four or five white eggs with small spots of chestnut
around the large end (.60 × .48).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Massachusetts and Michigan northward;
winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                            CERULEAN WARBLER
                658.     Dendroica cærulea.     5 inches

Above grayish blue with black streaks, below white with a bluish breast
band and streaks on the sides; female washed with greenish above and
yellowish below; both have white patches near the ends of the tail
feathers.

These dainty little Warblers are not abundant anywhere, but seem to be
most so in the central states. They are birds of the tree tops, rarely
coming down so that they can be distinctly seen. They may be more common
than supposed, for so small a body at such heights can readily be
overlooked.

Song.—A little warbling trill, “zee-zee-ze-ee-eep.”

Nest.—In the higher outer branches of large trees usually in deep woods;
compactly made of dry grasses and cobwebs, adorned with a few lichens;
eggs white specked at the large end with brownish (.65 × .50).

Range.—Interior portions of the U. S., breeding north to Michigan and
Minnesota; east to western New York and, rarely, southern New England;
winters in northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                         CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER
             659.     Dendroica pennsylvanica.     5 inches

Yellow crown, black line through eye and on side of throat and broad
chestnut stripe on sides; female, paler and with less chestnut; young
greenish yellow above and with no chestnut.

Nearly every swamp or bush-covered pasture within their range shelters
one or more pairs of these Warblers. While they sometimes feed in the
tree tops, they are birds of the lower foliage and are usually seen in
low bushes.

Song.—Similar to that of the Yellow Warbler but more choppy.

Nest.—In low bushes or weeds, and often in sweet fern or briars; similar
to that of the Yellow Warbler but coarser, being made more with grasses
than with fibres, situated in upright forks or attached to several weed
stalks; eggs white, specked around the large end with reddish brown (.68
× .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from New Jersey and Ohio north to Manitoba
and New Brunswick; winters south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          BAY-BREASTED WARBLER
               660.     Dendroica castanea.     5½ inches

Male, with crown, throat and sides rich chestnut; female, paler; young
and adults in winter, greenish above, streaked with black and with a
trace of chestnut on the flanks.

These Warblers are only locally abundant during migrations, while in
eastern New England they are rare. They are active insect hunters,
darting rapidly about the tree tops or, less often, in brush; their
habits most nearly resemble those of the Chestnut-sided Warbler.

Song.—A low, liquid warble.

Nest.—At low elevations in trees in swampy woods; compact, cup-shaped
structures made of fine shreds of bark, rootlets and grass; eggs bluish
white, finely specked around the large end with reddish brown (.70 ×
.50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the northern edge of the U. S.
northward; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER
                662.     Dendroica fusca.     5¼ inches

Male, black above with large white patch on wing, and bases of outer tail
feathers white; throat and breast intense orange; female duller and with
the orange replaced by dull yellow.

Without exception, this is the most exquisite of the whole family; it is
the most eagerly sought bird by bird lovers, in the spring. Some years
they are very abundant, while others few are seen, their routes of
migration evidently varying. They arrive about the time that apple trees
are in bloom, and are frequently seen among the blossoms, dashing after
insects.

Song.—A high-pitched lisping “zwe-zwe-zwe-see-ee-ee,” ending in a thin,
wiry tone, almost a hiss; it is very distinct from the song of any other
bird.

Nest.—In coniferous trees at any height from the ground; of shreds of
bark, fine cedar twigs, rootlets, etc.; eggs greenish white blotched with
brown.

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Massachusetts (rarely) and Minnesota
northward; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                           BLACK-POLL WARBLER
               661.     Dendroica striata.     5½ inches

Whole crown black; female, without black cap, greenish gray above
streaked with black; young paler than the female.

These birds are one of the latest of the migrants to arrive, reaching
northern United States about the last of May, but coming in such numbers
that they are found everywhere. While their plumage somewhat resembles
that of the Black and White Warbler, their habits are entirely different.

Song.—A high-pitched, hissing whistle similar to that of the Black and
White Warbler but uttered more deliberately and with an instant’s pause
between each note.

Nest.—At low elevations in thick coniferous trees; made of slender twigs,
rootlets and lichens, lined with hair or feathers; eggs whitish, thickly
spotted with brown (.75 × .52).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from northern New England, Minnesota and
Wyoming north to the Arctic regions; winters south of the United States.

[Illustration: ]


                        YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER
               663.     Dendroica dominica.     5¼ inches

Throat, breast and line from eye to bill yellow.

This species has habits very similar to those of the Black and White
Creeper, being often seen creeping around the trunks or over the branches
of trees with almost as much facility as the Nuthatches. They are
southern birds and are only rarely or accidentally found in the northern
half of the U. S., and they are one of the few members of the family that
winter in the southern parts of our country.

Song.—Loud and similar to that of the Indigo Bunting, but shorter.

Nest.—Usually high up in pines and often concealed in tufts of moss; made
of fine twigs and strips of bark, held together with cobwebs and Spanish
moss; eggs greenish white, spotted with various shades of brown.

Range.—Southeastern U. S., breeding north to Virginia; winters in the
West Indies. 663a. Sycamore Warbler (albilora) is like the
Yellow-throated, but is white before the eye; found in the Mississippi
Valley north to Illinois and Iowa; winters in Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                         GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER
             666.     Dendroica chrysoparia.     4¾ inches

In some plumages these birds may be confused with the Black-throated
Green. Notice that the adult male has a short median line of yellow on
the crown, otherwise the top of head and entire back are intense black.
Young birds, which bear the closest resemblance to the next species, can
be distinguished because their underparts are white, those of the
Black-throated green being tinged with yellow.

These rare Warblers have a very restricted distribution, but are said to
be not uncommon within their range.

Notes.—Song with the usual Warbler quality, but entirely distinctive:
“sweah-sweah-swee-e-e.”

Nest.—Of strips of bark, usually located in juniper trees six to twenty
feet above ground. Eggs white, splashed about the large end with reddish
brown (.65 × .50).

Range.—Central Texas southward into Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                      BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER
                667.     Dendroica virens.     5 inches

Throat black; two wing bars and outer tail feathers white; female with
little black on the throat.

A common bird in pine groves in northern United States, or during
migrations in birch woods. I have found them most abundant on side hills
covered with low-growth pines. They seem to be very nervous and are
greatly excited if you appear near their nests. They often have the habit
of building several nests, whether with the deliberate intent to deceive
or whether because the first was not satisfactory as to location is not
known.

Song.—Entirely different from that of any other bird; a rather harsh
“zee” repeated six times, with the fourth and fifth syllables lower.

Nest.—Of rootlets and fine grasses, lined with hair; placed high up in
pine trees; eggs white with fine brown specks around the large end (.60 ×
.50).

Range.—Eastern North America, breeding from southern New England and
Illinois north to Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America.

[Illustration: ]


                            KIRTLAND WARBLER
              670.     Dendroica kirtlandi.     5½ inches

Above bluish gray streaked with black; underparts pale yellow streaked on
the side with black.

This is one of the rarest of American Warblers, and until 1903 but little
was known of their habits or range; in that year they were discovered
nesting in Oscoda County, Michigan. They were found near the banks of a
river in Jack pines, building on the ground and remaining in the
underbrush near it.

Song.—Loud and clear and said to resemble that of the Maryland
Yellow-throat.

Nest.—In depressions in the ground at the foot of pine trees and probably
also under bushes; made of strips of bark and vegetable fibres; eggs
white, wreathed about the large end with brown (.72 × .56).

Range.—Breeds in Michigan and migrates southeast through Ohio, Missouri,
Tennessee, Virginia, the Carolinas and Florida to the Bahamas.

[Illustration: ]


                              PINE WARBLER
               671.     Dendroica vigorsi.     5½ inches

Greenish yellow above, brighter below; two white wing bars and white
spots on outer tail feathers; female, duller and grayer.

Found only in tracts of coniferous trees, except during migrations, when
they are often in company with other kinds of Warblers. They like dry
hillsides covered with scrub pines and are often quite abundant in such
localities. They are rather quiet in their manners, creeping about among
the tree tops like Black and White Warblers and occasionally giving their
clear little trill.

Song.—Nearest like that of the Chipping Sparrow, but easily
distinguishable; a long, clear trill.

Nest.—A small, compact structure of black rootlets lined with hair;
placed in the extreme tops of scrub pines, where it is very difficult to
see them; eggs white specked with reddish brown (.62 × .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the Gulf north to southern Canada;
winters in southern U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                              PALM WARBLER
               672.     Dendroica palmarum.     5¼ inches

No wing bars, but white spots on the outer tail feathers; crown, cheeks
and streaks on the sides chestnut.

During migrations you will find these Warblers along roadsides, in open
woods and scrubby pastures. They are of a very nervous temperament and,
when at rest or when walking, are continually flirting their tail, a
habit which none of the Warblers, except the Water-thrush, seem to have.
They are one of the earliest of the family to appear in the spring,
reaching northern United States in April.

Song.—A short trill; an ordinary Warbler chirp.

Nest.—On the ground under shrubs, or sunken in moss; made of fine
grasses, bark and moss; the four eggs are creamy white with reddish-brown
spots.

Range.—Interior of N. A., breeding in the interior of British America;
winters in southern U. S. 672a. Yellow Palm Warbler (hypochrysea) is
brighter yellow below; it is found in eastern N. A., breeding north of
Nova Scotia; winters along the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]


                            PRAIRIE WARBLER
               673.     Dendroica discolor.     4¾ inches

Above greenish with chestnut spots on the back; below yellow with black
markings; female paler.

These are very locally distributed birds and will often be found breeding
abundantly in a small patch of brush-covered pasture, while many others
apparently just as well suited for their purposes will be shunned by
them. They are very active, flitting rapidly from one bush to another,
the male occasionally mounting to a bush top to hurriedly deliver his
song, then diving out of sight below the foliage.

Song.—An energetic, rather harsh “zee-zee-zee-ee” on an ascending scale.

Nest.—A neat cup of grasses and vegetable fibres, lined with black
rootlets or horsehair; located in low shrubs or bushes from one to two
feet above ground; eggs whitish with blackish-brown specks about the
large end (.65 × .48).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts and
southern Michigan; winters in the West Indies.

[Illustration: ]


                               OVEN-BIRD
              674.     Seiurus aurocapillus.     6 inches

Crown orange brown bordered by black; no white in wings or tail.

This bird is found in open woods, where it builds its arched nest on the
ground among the leaves or pine needles. It is the peculiar oven-like
construction of their nests that gives them their name. They are
essentially ground birds, only mounting to the lower branches of trees to
sing or when scolding an intruder.

Song.—A peculiar ascending song resembling the word teacher, repeated
five or six times and gathering strength and volume with each syllable;
call, a sharp chip.

Nest.—Of leaves, strips of bark and grass arched over the top so as to
leave a very small opening; placed on the ground in woods; four to six
white eggs spotted with reddish brown (.78 × .58).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding in the northern half of the U. S. and
north to Labrador; winters chiefly south of U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                              WATER-THRUSH
             675.     Seiurus noveboracensis.     6 inches

This species always has a yellowish tinge to the underparts and the
stripes beneath are narrow, but prominent. These Warblers are found
in tangled underbrush near water. They have a habit of continually
flirting their tails, thus giving them the local name of Water-Wagtail.
Their call is a sharp metallic “chink”; their song a loud, liquid
“quit-quit-quit-que-quewe-u.” Breeds from the northern edge of the U. S.
northward; winters south of U. S.


                         LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH
               676.     Seiurus motacilla.     6¼ inches

Larger, grayer above and whiter below than the preceding; stripes fewer
and broader. This is a more southern species and breeds from the Gulf to
Connecticut and southern Minnesota. Its notes are wild and ringing, like
those of the last. They build their nests under the roots of trees or
under the edges of overhanging banks. The eggs are creamy white, boldly
blotched with brown.

[Illustration: ]


                            KENTUCKY WARBLER
               677.     Oporornis formosa.     5½ inches

Crown and ear coverts black, underparts and line over eye yellow; no
white in the plumage.

These birds are found in about such localities as are frequented by
Oven-birds, but with a preference for woods which are low and damp. They
are locally common in some of the southern and central states. They are
active gleaners of the underbrush, keeping well within the depths of
tangled thickets. Like the Maryland Yellow-throat, which has similar
habits to those of this bird, they are quite inquisitive and frequently
come close to you to investigate or to scold.

Song.—A loud, musical, Wren-like warble.

Nest.—A bulky structure of leaves, bark and grasses, lined with black
rootlets or horsehair; placed on the ground in bunches of weeds or at the
foot of a small bush; the four or five eggs are quite heavily speckled,
chiefly at the large end, with reddish brown.

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf north to New York and
southern Michigan; winters in northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                          CONNECTICUT WARBLER
                678.     Oporornis agilis.     5½ inches

Male with a bluish slate-colored head; eye ring white and completely
encircling the eye; female with a saffron-colored head.

In the United States we find this Warbler only in spring and fall
migrations. They appear to be much more rare in the spring than in the
fall; while I have seen perhaps a hundred in the fall I have never seen
but one in spring. They frequent wild tangled thickets, such as you often
find Maryland Yellow-throats in. As they do most of their feeding upon
the ground and remain in the depths of the thickets, they are rarely seen
unless attention is drawn to them.

Song.—Somewhat like that of the Maryland Yellow-throat; call, a sharp,
metallic “peenk.”

Nest.—In thickets or clumps of briars, either on the ground or just above
it; made of strips of bark and skeletons of leaves lined with hair; eggs
whitish sparingly specked at the large end with brown (.75 × .56).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding north of the U. S.; winters in northern
South America.

[Illustration: ]


                            MOURNING WARBLER
             679.     Oporornis Philadelphia.     5½ inches

Similar to the last, but with no eye ring and with a black patch on the
breast.

These birds are found in swamps and thickets, as well as among the bushes
and weeds along walls, fences and the edges of woods. Their habits are
like those of the Maryland Yellow-throats, they being found on or near
the ground, scratching about among the leaves or gleaning insects from
the foliage of the low shrubbery. They appear to be the most abundant in
the middle states and northward.

Song.—Similar to the liquid song of the Water-Thrush; call, a sharp
“peenk,” like that of the last.

Nest.—On or near the ground in thickets or tangled vines; made of fine
bark strips and fibres, lined with hair; eggs white specked with reddish
brown (.71 × .54).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from northern New England, Ohio and
Michigan north to southern Canada; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                         MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT
               681.     Geothlypis trichas.     5¼ inches

One of our most common birds in swamps and also in shrubbery along
roadsides or walls. They are very inquisitive, and their bright eyes will
peek at you from behind some leaf or shrub as long as you are in sight.

Song.—A lively “witchity-witchity-witch”; call, a deep chip; also a
rattling note of alarm.

Nest.—Of grapevine and grasses, located in clumps of weeds on or nearly
touching the ground; eggs white with brown specks (.70 × .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the Gulf to New Jersey.

Sub-Species.—681a. Western Yellow-throat (occidentalis), said to be
brighter; found chiefly west of the Rockies, but east to the Plains.
681b. Florida Yellow-throat (ignota), South Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
68ld. Northern Yellow-throat (brachidactyla), slightly larger and deeper
colored; found in northeastern U. S. and southeastern Canada, west to
Dakota and south through the Mississippi Valley to the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]


                          YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT
                 683.     Icteria virens.     7½ inches

Breast yellow, lores black, line over the eye and underparts white; no
white on wings or tail.

Dry side hills and ravines covered with thick underbrush are the places
to look for Chats. Usually if they are present they will make themselves
heard long before you see them. They are one of the most odd birds both
in action and song. They are mimics of the highest order and can make any
kind of whistle or squawk, but all their vocal efforts seem to require a
great deal of flirting of the tail and twisting of the head. They even
jerk their tail up and down while flying, this making them appear
extremely ludicrous.

Song.—A varied medley of whistles and calls.

Nest.—Near the ground in tangled thickets; of grass, weeds, etc.; eggs
whitish plentifully specked with reddish brown (.90 × .70).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding north to Massachusetts and southern
Minnesota; winters in Central America. 683a. Long-tailed Chat
(longicauda) is found in the U. S. from the Plains to the Pacific.

[Illustration: ]


                             HOODED WARBLER
                684.     Wilsonia citrina.     5½ inches

Male with yellow forehead and cheeks, the rest of the head and throat
being black; female much duller with little or no black; both sexes have
white spots on the outer tail feathers, but no bars on the wings.

This is one of the liveliest of the family, being very active in catching
insects on the wing like a true Flycatcher; because of this habit all the
members of this genus are often called Fly-catching Warblers. They also
have a habit of often spreading and folding the tail as they flit through
the underbrush that they frequent.

Song.—A clear, liquid series of whistles; call, a sharp “chip.”

Nest.—Within a few inches of the ground in low underbrush or vines; made
of leaves, bark, etc., held firmly together with cobwebs; the four or
five eggs are white, profusely spotted with reddish brown.

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf to southern Connecticut and
Michigan; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                             WILSON WARBLER
                685.     Wilsonia pusilla.     5 inches

Male, with black crown patch; female, with the crown greenish like the
back.

These little fly-catching Warblers are abundant in the United States
during migrations, being found in woods or swamps, and very often in
apple trees when they are in bloom. They fly about among the outer
branches snatching insects from the foliage or blossoms, and often
dashing out to catch one that is flying by. Their natural quickness is
intensified by their very attractive plumage which harmonizes perfectly
with green leaves.

Song.—A simple and rather weak trill.

Nest.—Of leaves and bark, imbedded in the ground under bushes on the
edges of swamps or woods; eggs white, specked with reddish brown (.60 ×
48).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the northern edge of the U. S.
northward; winters in Central America. Two subspecies are found west of
the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                            CANADIAN WARBLER
              686.     Wilsonia canadensis.     5½ inches

Male, with a necklace of black spots, white eye ring and lores; female,
and young, with only a slight indication of the necklace.

These Warblers travel northward in company with many other kinds, always
keeping in the underbrush near the ground, except when they come out into
orchards and parks. Like the two last, they are very lively, rarely
remaining still for more than a few seconds, before they must dash after
some tempting morsel that is flying by.

Song.—A loud liquid warble, most nearly resembling that of the
Water-Thrush; call, a sharp, querulous chip.

Nest.—Of rootlets and strips of bark, under roots of trees or shrubs or
at the foot of stumps in the moss; the four eggs are white with a wreath
of chestnut spots around the large end (.68 × .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from Massachusetts and Michigan northward;
winters in northern South America.

[Illustration: ]


                           AMERICAN REDSTART
              687.     Setophaga ruticilla.     5½ inches

Male, black, orange and white; female, grayish, yellow and white; it
requires two or three years to attain the black plumage of the male, in
the intermediate stages they are sometimes strangely mottled.

In the northeastern half of the United States, these are one of the
commonest and most active of the species. Both the males and females seem
to be proud of their handsome plumage and are continually spreading and
closing their tails. They are equally happy whether in the tree tops or
near the ground, and are as often found in the one place as the other.

Song.—“Che-wee, che-wee, che-wee,” very similar to that of the Yellow
Warbler and also the Chestnut-sided Warbler.

Nest.—Of plant fibres and grasses in forks of bushes or trees, usually at
greater heights than those of the Yellow Warbler; eggs whitish specked
with brown.

Range.—N. A., rare west of the Rockies, breeding from North Carolina and
Missouri northward; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                        AMERICAN PIPIT; TITLARK
                697.     Anthus rubescens.     6½ inches

These are Arctic birds that spend the winter months in the United States.
We find them in flocks along roadsides or in fields, feeding upon weed
seeds. They are shy and take wing readily, uttering sharp whistles as
they wheel about in the air. They are always restless and stay in a place
but a short time. They nest on the ground in northern Canada. Eggs
grayish, profusely specked with brown.


                             SPRAGUE PIPIT
                700.     Anthus spraguei.     6¼ inches

Upper parts streaked with buff and blackish; below pale buffy with black
markings. These birds are found on the Plains from the Dakotas to Hudson
Bay in summer, migrating to Mexico in winter. They resemble the European
Skylark in their habit of soaring to a great height while singing. Their
song is very melodious, resembling that of the Bobolink. Their nests are
depressions in the ground, lined with grasses. Eggs grayish, finely
specked with purplish gray (.87 × .67).

[Illustration: ]


                             SAGE THRASHER
              702.     Oreoscoptes montanus.     8¾ inches

This species is often known as the Mountain Mockingbird because of the
brilliance of its song, a very varied performance, long continued and
mocking that of many other species. They inhabit sage-brush regions and
are partial to the lower portions of the country, although frequently met
in open mountains. They are not shy and can readily be located by their
voices.

Nest.—In bushes, especially the sage and cactus; a loose structure made
of bark strips, small twigs and coarse grasses, lined with fine rootlets.
The three or four eggs have a rich greenish-blue ground, spotted with
bright reddish brown (.95 × .70).

Range.—Sage-brush regions of western United States from the Plains to the
Pacific; winters in Mexico and Lower California.

[Illustration: ]


                              MOCKINGBIRD
               703.     Mimus polyglottos.     10½ inches

General colors, gray and white; bases of primaries and outer tail
feathers with white.

This is the great vocalist of the south, and by many is considered to be
the most versatile singer in America. It is found in gardens, pastures
and open woods. All its habits are similar to our Catbird, and like that
species, it is given to imitating the notes of other birds.

Song.—An indescribable medley, sometimes very sweet and pleasing, at
others, harsh and unmusical.

Nest.—Usually built in impenetrable thickets or hedges, or again in more
open situation in the garden; made of twigs and rootlets, lined with
black rootlets; the four or five eggs are bluish green with blotches of
reddish brown (95 × .70).

Range.—Southern U. S., breeding north to New Jersey (and casually
farther) and Ohio; winters in the South Atlantic and Gulf states. 703a.
Western Mockingbird (leucopterus) is found in southwestern U. S., north
to Indian Territory and California.

[Illustration: ]


                                CATBIRD
             704.     Dumetella carolinensis.     9 inches

General color dark gray with a black cap and chestnut under tail coverts.

This is one of the most common birds throughout the United States, being
found equally abundantly in gardens, swamps and scrubby pastures. They
are very persistent songsters and have a large repertoire of notes, as
well as being able to imitate those of many other birds. They delight in
spending an hour or more at a time, perched in a bush or tree top,
singing, and apparently making their song up as they go along, for it is
an indescribable medley interspersed with various mews and cat calls.

Song.—A medley like that of the Mockingbird; sometimes pleasing,
sometimes not.

Nest.—In hedges or thickets; made of twigs, rootlets and grass, lined
with fine black roots; the four eggs are plain greenish blue (.95 × .70).

Range.—N. A., breeding from the Gulf to New Brunswick and Hudson Bay;
rare west of the Rockies; winters from the Gulf States southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             BROWN THRASHER
                705.     Toxostoma rufum.     11½ inches

Above bright reddish brown; below white with black spots.

Taken as a whole I think that the song of this Thrasher is the most
musical and pleasing of any that I have ever heard. It has a similarity
to that of the Catbird, but is rounder, fuller and has none of the
grating qualities of the song of that species. They apparently have a
song of their own and do not deign to copy that of others. They are one
of the most useful and desirable birds that we have.

Song.—A bright and cheerful carol, often long continued, but always clear
and sweet; call, a clear whistled “wheuu.”

Nest.—Of twigs and rootlets, in hedges, thickets or thorn bushes; the
four or five eggs are bluish white with numerous fine dots or reddish
brown over the entire surface (1.08 × .80).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada; winters
in the southern half of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                              CACTUS WREN
           713.     Heleodytes brunneicapillus.     8½ inches

Cactus groves are the favorite resorts of these large Wrens. Often a bed
of cactus not more than thirty feet square will contain the homes of half
a dozen pairs of them. Like all the members of the family, they are very
sprightly and have violent tempers, scolding any one or anything that
incurs their displeasure.

Nest.—Their nests are placed in cactus or other thorny shrubs; they are
very large, purse-shaped affairs with an entrance on the side; they are
made of little thorny twigs and grasses woven together, and the interior
is warmly lined with feathers. The four or five eggs are creamy white,
finely sprinkled with reddish brown (.95 × .65). Two or three broods are
often raised in a season.

Range.—Southwestern border of the United States, ranging from southern
Texas to California.

[Illustration: ]


                               ROCK WREN
              715.     Salpinctes obsoletus.     5¾ inches

Upper parts stone color, specked with black; rump brownish; underparts
whitish with indistinct streaks on the throat.

A common bird on the dry, rocky foothills of the Rockies and westward.
They are well named, for their favorite places are among the rocks, where
they are always busily engaged in hunting insects or spiders in the
crevices. Owing to their colors and their habits of slinking away behind
the rocks they are quite difficult to see, but their sweet song is always
heard if any of the birds are in the vicinity.

Song.—Very sweet and varied, almost canary-like, but impossible to
describe; call, a harsh grating note.

Nest.—Of sticks, weeds, grasses, etc., concealed in crevices among the
rocks; the five or six eggs are white, sparingly specked with reddish
brown (.72 × .54).

Range.—Western U. S. from the western border of the Plains to the
Pacific, north to Dakota and British Columbia; winters from southwestern
U. S. southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             CAROLINA WREN
            718.     Thryothorus ludovicianus.     5½ inches

Above rusty brown and below washed with the same, the throat and line
over the eye being white.

Like all the Wrens, this one commonly sits or flits about in the brush,
with the tail erect over the body; only when singing it is held downward.
Their flight is usually only for a short distance, accomplished by rapid
wing beats and with a jerking motion of the tail.

Song.—Loud and tinkling, and utterly impossible to describe.

Nest.—In brush heaps, holes in trees, bird boxes or bushes; made of
weeds, grass and any trash that they may pick up; eggs, five to seven in
number, white, specked with reddish brown (.74 × .60).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from the Gulf north to Connecticut and
Illinois; resident. 718a. Florida Wren (miamensis) is found in southern
Florida. 718b. Lomita Wren (lomitensis), found in southern Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                              BEWICK WREN
               719.     Thryomanes bewickii.     5 inches

Above dark brown; below and line over eye whitish; tail blackish with the
outer feathers barred with white.

Like all the Wrens, these seem to be very restless and are continually
creeping about in brush heaps or along stone walls, fences or over fallen
trees or stumps. They are locally abundant in interior United States, in
some sections entirely replacing the House Wren.

Song.—A sweet chant of liquid melodious notes.

Nest.—In any location that happens to take the bird’s fancy, such as
holes in trees, bird boxes, in barns, sheds, etc.; made of straw, grass
and trash; eggs white profusely specked with reddish brown.

Range.—Mississippi Valley and the Plains north to South Dakota; east to
the Alleghanies and casually to the South Atlantic States. 719c. Texas
Bewick Wren (crythus) is found from Texas north to Indian Territory.

[Illustration: ]


                               HOUSE WREN
                721.     Troglodytes ædon.     4¾ inches

Above brownish with tail and wings barred; below dull grayish, barred on
the flanks with brown.

These are bold, sociable and confiding birds, seeming to prefer men’s
society, building their nests in bird boxes that are erected for them, or
in the most unexpected situations about buildings. They are one of the
most beneficial birds that can be attracted to one’s yard, feeding wholly
upon insects.

Song.—Loud, clear and bubbling over with enthusiasm.

Nest.—Of grass or weeds, stuffed into any crevice that takes their fancy,
frequently in bird boxes and holes in orchard trees; eggs white, so
minutely and thickly dotted with pinkish brown as to nearly conceal the
ground color (.64 × .52).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding north to Maine and Manitoba; winters along
the Gulf coast. 721b. Western House Wren (aztecus) is found from the
Plains to the Pacific Coast ranges.

[Illustration: ]


                              WINTER WREN
                 722.     Nannus hiemalis.     4 inches

Above bright cinnamon, below paler; sides, wings and tail heavily barred
with black.

This is the shortest and most stoutly built Wren that we have. They look
very pert with their little stubby tail erect over their back. In most of
the United States we only see them in the winter, and they are
associated, in my mind, with brush heaps in woods and gardens. They will
hide in a small pile of brush, running from side to side, so that it is
almost impossible to make them leave it.

Song.—A rippling flow of melody, not as loud, but more musical than that
of the House Wren.

Nest.—In brush heaps, tin cans, hollow stumps or crevices in unoccupied
buildings; made of piles of grass, weeds, etc., lined with feathers; eggs
white, sparingly specked with reddish brown (.65 × .50).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the northern edge of the U. S.
northward; winters from its breeding range to the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]


                        SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN
             724.     Cistothorus stellaris.     5¼ inches

This species can readily be distinguished from the next, as the whole
crown is streaked with black and white, whereas that of the Long-bill is
uniformly colored. Both species are marsh birds, at home among the reeds,
to which they attach their globular woven nests, with the little entrance
in the side. The eggs of this species are pure white. It is found in
eastern N. A. from the Gulf to southern Canada.


                         LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN
             725.     Telmatodytes palustris.     5¼ inches

The bill of this species is .5 inch or more in length; that of the last
is .4 inch or less. This species is by far the most abundant. Its eggs
are so profusely dotted with dark brown as to appear a chocolate color.
Breeds from the Gulf to Massachusetts and Manitoba.

[Illustration: ]


                             BROWN CREEPER
          726.     Certhia familiaris americana.     5½ inches

Tail feathers stiffened and pointed; rump rusty.

These odd birds are fairly common throughout the United States in winter.
They will be found in woods always climbing up tree trunks, carefully
investigating every crevice in the bark for larvæ or grubs. When they
reach the top of one tree, they drop to the foot of the next and continue
the operation. They are very tame, not seeming to comprehend that danger
can befall them, for they will allow any one to approach very closely, so
that they have been caught under a hat.

Song.—A very faint trill; call, a weak “tseep,” hardly noticeable unless
very near them.

Nest.—Of twigs, moss and bark, behind loose bark on dead trees or stumps,
usually not high above the ground; eggs white, specked with reddish
brown.

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from northern New England and Minnesota
northward; winters throughout the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                        WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH
               727.     Sitta carolinensis.     6 inches

Male with the crown bluish black; female with the crown gray; both sexes
with chestnut under tail coverts.

These birds seem to be the very opposite of the Brown Creepers. Their
tails are short and square, and nearly always pointed toward the zenith,
for Nuthatches usually clamber among the branches and down the tree
trunks, head first.

Note.—A nasal “yank-yank,” and a repeated “ya-ya,” all on the same tone.

Nest.—In cavities of hollow limbs and trunks of trees at any elevation
from the ground; the cavity is filled with leaves and usually lined with
feathers; eggs white, spotted with reddish brown (.75 × .55).

Range.—Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada;
resident in most of its range. 727b. Florida White-breasted Nuthatch
(atkinsi) is slightly smaller; other races are found west of the Rockies.

[Illustration: ]


                         RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH
                728.     Sitta canadensis.     4½ inches

These birds have the same habits as the larger Nuthatch, but are often
found in flocks, while the White-breasted are usually in pairs and in the
fall accompanied by their young. In the winter we usually find them in
coniferous trees, where we can locate them by their nasal calls or by the
shower of bark that they pry from the tree in their quest for grubs.

Song.—A nasal “yank-yank,” like that of the last, but not so loud, and
usually repeated more times.

Nest.—In hollow stumps and limbs, the area about the opening nearly
always being coated with fir balsam, for what purpose is not known; the
cavity is lined with grasses and feathers; they lay from four to seven
white eggs, which are very thickly spotted with reddish brown (.60 ×
.50).

Range.—N. A., breeding from the northern parts of the northern tier of
states, northward; winters south nearly to the Gulf and southern
California.

[Illustration: ]


                         BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH
                 729.     Sitta pusilla.     4¼ inches

Crown brownish with a white patch on the nape.

These diminutive Nuthatches are found in the southern states. Their
general habits do not appear to differ from those of other members of the
family. They nest very early, commencing to excavate their holes in
January and having complete sets of eggs as early as the middle of
February.

They usually are found in small flocks and at night they will often be
seen flying to the top of a pine where they sleep, all huddled together.

Note.—A continued twittering “nya-nya.”

Nest.—In cavities of dead limbs or stumps, sometimes only a few inches
from the ground, and again as high as fifty feet; they lay five or six
eggs, white with numerous spots of reddish brown (.62 × .49).

Range.—South Atlantic and Gulf states, breeding north to Virginia.

[Illustration: ]


                            TUFTED TITMOUSE
                731.     Bæolophus bicolor.     6 inches

Head crested, forehead black, flanks brownish. The habits of this large
Titmouse are almost identical with those of Chickadees. They swing from
the ends of twigs in all manner of positions and creep about trunks,
peering in crevices of the bark for insects. They are common in the
southern states, breeding from the Gulf to New York and Illinois; they
are resident in the southern portion of their range. Their eggs are laid
in soft nests of down and feathers in hollow stumps. Their notes are
loud, clear whistles.


                         BLACK-CRESTED TITMOUSE
             732.     Bæolophus atricristatus.     6 inches

Crest black, forehead white, flanks rusty. The habits of this species are
just like those of the very similar preceding one. The birds are very
tame, especially so during the nesting season, when they will allow
themselves to be lifted from the nest by hand. They are found in southern
and western Texas.

[Illustration: ]


                         BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE
            735.     Penthestes atricapillus.     5¼ inches

The Chickadees are one of the most popular birds that we have, owing to
their uniform good nature even in the coldest weather, and their
confiding disposition. They are common about farms, and even on the
outskirts of large cities they will come to feasts prepared for them on
the window sill.

Notes.—A clear “phe-be”; a “chick-a-dee-dee-dee” or “dee-dee-dee,” and
several scolding or chuckling notes.

Nest.—In hollow stumps at any elevation from the ground but usually near
the ground, and most often in birch stubs; eggs white, sparingly specked
with reddish brown.

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding in the northern half of the U. S. and
northward; resident.

736. Carolina Chickadee (Parus carolinensis) is similar to the last but
smaller and with no white edges to the wing feathers; length 4½ inches;
found in southeastern U. S., breeding north to Virginia and Ohio.

[Illustration: ]


                          HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE
              740.     Penthestes hudsonicus.     5 inches

Crown and back brownish.

The habits of this little northerner are like those of the bird that we
know so well; if anything they are even more tame than our bird,
especially in the vicinity of lumbermen’s camps. They are only met with
along our northern border or casually farther south; I have seen one
individual in company with other Chickadees in Massachusetts.

Song.—Not distinguishable from that of our Chickadee, but uttered more
incessantly.

Nest.—In cavities of stumps, trees, posts or telephone poles, the cavity
being lined with grass, feathers and fur; the six or seven eggs are white
sprinkled with brown (.60 × .46).

Range.—Resident in Canada and the northern border of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                       VERDIN; YELLOW-HEADED TIT
              746.     Auriparus flaviceps.     4¼ inches

Adult male with the head and throat yellow, usually with some concealed
orange brown on the forehead; lesser wing-coverts reddish brown. The
female is colored very similarly, but is much duller. These are among the
smallest of N. A. birds; they are even smaller than their length would
indicate, for their bodies are slender. The birds are usually found in
high dry portions of the country where cacti and thorny bushes
predominate.

Nest.—Their nests are remarkable structures for so diminutive birds;
flask-shaped, the outside being a mass of thorny twigs and stems
interwoven; this is lined with feathers and the entrance is a small
circular hole near the top. The eggs are bluish white specked around the
large end with reddish brown.

Range.—Mexican border of the United States from southern Texas to Arizona
and Lower California.

[Illustration: ]


                         GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET
                 748.     Regulus satrapa.     4 inches

Male with crown orange and yellow, bordered with black; female with
yellow crown.

Although very small, these birds are very rugged and endure the severe
storm and low temperatures of our northern states apparently with little
concern, for they always seem to be happy. They are always busily engaged
among the underbrush of side hills and along the banks of brooks, hunting
for the scanty fare that awaits them.

Song.—A few weak chips, chirps and trills.

Nest.—A large ball of soft green mosses and feathers, suspended from the
small twigs in the tops of coniferous trees; it is neatly hollowed out
for the reception of the six to nine eggs that are laid; eggs creamy
white, minutely but profusely specked with brown (.56 × .44).

Range.—N. A., breeding from Northern U. S. northward and farther south in
mountain ranges; winters throughout the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                          RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET
               749.     Regulus calendula.     4¼ inches

Male with a concealed patch of red on the crown; female with no red.

Like the last, these are chiefly winter visitants in the United States
and they do not remain with us in the coldest weather, but pass on to the
southern half of our country. They are nearly always met with in pine or
other coniferous trees, being very abundant in spring in open pine woods
and parks.

Song.—A clear warble, surprisingly loud and varied for so small a bird;
call, a grating chatter.

Nest.—A ball of moss, grass and feathers, deeply cupped, like that of the
last; partially suspended among the small twigs in the tops of coniferous
trees; eggs white more sparingly marked than those of the last (.55 ×
.43).

Range.—N. A., breeding northward from the northern boundary of the U. S.
and farther south in mountains; winters in the southern half of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                         BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER
               751.     Polioptila cærulea.     4½ inches

Forehead black; tail black with white edges and tips to the outer ones.

Their food is chiefly insects, which they are very expert in catching,
taking them on the wing with great celerity. Their movements are all very
rapid, flitting from one part of a tree to another, but usually among the
upper branches. Their nests are among the most beautiful of bird
architecture, even surpassing that of the Hummingbird.

Song.—Sweet, but very faint.

Nest.—Situated on horizontal limbs of trees at medium heights; made of
plant fibres, woolly substances and cobwebs, adorned with handsome
lichens; the walls are very high and thick, the bird sitting so low
inside that only her tail is visible; the four or five eggs are bluish
white specked with reddish brown (.56 × .44).

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding north to New Jersey and Illinois.

[Illustration: ]


                              WOOD THRUSH
              755.     Hylocichla mustelina.     8 inches

Reddish brown above, brightest on the head; below white heavily spotted
with black.

These large Thrushes are locally abundant in swamps and moist woodland.
They are one of our best songsters, their tones being very rich and
flute-like, and, like most of the Thrushes, their songs are most often
heard along toward night.

Song.—Very clear and flute-like, containing many notes of the scale;
often two or more birds answer back and forth from different parts of the
woods; calls, a sharp “quit, quit,” and a liquid “quirt.”

Nest.—Either in forks or on horizontal boughs of bushes or trees, usually
not more than ten feet from the ground; made of grass, weeds, leaves and
some mud; the three or four eggs are bluish green (1.02 × .75)

Range.—Eastern U. S., breeding from Virginia and Missouri north to Maine,
Ontario and Minnesota; winters south of the U. S.

[Illustration: ]


                         WILSON THRUSH OR VEERY
             756.     Hylocichla fuscescens.     7½ inches

Entire upper parts a uniform reddish brown; below soiled white with a few
faint marks on the breast.

This species is more abundant than the last. It is found in swamps and
also in dry open woods, they being especially numerous where ferns grow
luxuriantly.

Song.—Very peculiar and not nearly as melodious as that of
the Wood Thrush, but still attractive; a slightly descending
“too-whe-u-whe-u-whe-u”; call, a clear “whee-you.”

Nest.—On the ground among the leaves, on hummocks, or in tangled masses
of briars; made of strips of bark and leaves; eggs greenish blue, darker
and smaller than those of the Wood Thrush (.88 × .65).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding in the northern half of the United States
and southern Canada; winters in Central America. 756a. Willow Thrush
(salicicola) is more olive above; it is found in the Rockies and eastward
to the Mississippi River.

[Illustration: ]


                          GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH
               757.     Hylocichla aliciæ.     7½ inches

Quite similar to the following but with the eye ring white and the sides
of head and breast much paler.

Breeds in northern Canada and migrates through the eastern states to
Central America. 757a. Bicknell Thrush (bicknelli) is similar to the
Gray-cheeked but smaller. It breeds in Nova Scotia.


                          OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH
        758a.     Hylocichla ustulata swainsonii.     7¼ inches

Upper parts woolly olive gray, with no brownish tinge; eye ring, sides of
head and breast distinctly buff; breast spotted with blackish.

Song.—Quite similar to that of the Veery.

Nest.—Composed of leaves, grass and strips of bark, located in bushes or
small trees near the ground; the four eggs are greenish blue spotted with
reddish brown (.90 × .65).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from northern U. S. to New Brunswick and
Manitoba.

[Illustration: ]


                             HERMIT THRUSH
          759b.     Hylocichla guttata pallasii.     6¾ inches

Tail reddish brown, much brighter than the back and head; breast quite
heavily spotted with black.

During its migrations it rarely sings, but in its summer home it is
regarded as a remarkable musician. Its song has the sweetness and purity
of tone of that of the Wood Thrush, and is, perhaps, more varied, but it
is not nearly as powerful, and has a ventriloquial effect. I watched one
that was perched on a dead stump, about twenty feet from me, for several
minutes with a pair of glasses before I could make sure that he was the
author of the song I heard, for it sounded as though coming from across
the next field.

Nest.—Similar to that of the Wilson Thrush and like that, placed on the
ground or very near it; the eggs are plain greenish blue (.85 × .65).

Range.—Breeds from northern U. S. northward, and farther south in
mountains; winters in the Gulf States.

[Illustration: ]


                             AMERICAN ROBIN
            761.     Planesticus migratorius.     10 inches

Male with a black head and bright reddish-brown breast; female with a
gray head and much paler breast; young intermediate between the two and
with a reddish-brown breast spotted with black.

These well-known birds are very abundant in the northern half of the
United States, being found most commonly about farms and dwellings in the
country, and also in cities if they are not persecuted too severely by
English Sparrows.

Song.—A loud cheery carol, “cheerily-cheerup, cheerily-cheerup,” often
long continued.

Nest.—A coarse but substantial structure of mud and grass, placed on
horizontal boughs or in forks at any height, or in any odd place about
dwellings; the four or five eggs are bluish green (1.15 × .80).

Range.—Eastern N. A., breeding from the middle of the U. S. northward;
winters throughout the U. S. 761b. Southern Robin (achrustera) is a paler
form found in the Carolinas and Georgia.

[Illustration: ]


                           GREENLAND WHEATEAR
          765a.     Saxicola œnanthe leucorrhoa.     6 inches

The Wheatear is a European bird, but this sub-species is found in
Greenland and occasionally in Labrador.

Their habits are about the same as those of the Bluebird. They feed upon
insects, larvæ, fruits, berries and some seeds. They are essentially
ground birds and are usually found in rocky country.

Nest.—Their nests are made of grasses, hair or any rubbish obtainable,
and are hidden in the innermost recesses of crevices among rocks, in
deserted Bank Swallow nests or even in rabbit burrows.

The four to six eggs are pale greenish blue, a little brighter in shade
than those of the Bluebird. They measure .94 × .60

[Illustration: ]


                                BLUEBIRD
                  766.     Sialia sialis.     7 inches

These beautiful, gentle and well-known birds spend the winter in the
southern parts of the United States and north to the snow line; some more
hardy than the rest are found throughout the winter in southern New
England.

Call.—A short sweet warble; song, a continued warbling.

Nest.—In holes in trees, particularly in orchards, in bird boxes or
crannies about the buildings. The bottom of the cavity is lined with
grasses for the reception of the four or five pale bluish eggs, which
measure .84 × .62.

Range.—Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New Brunswick and
Manitoba; winters chiefly in the southern parts of the United States.
766a. Azure Bluebird (azurea) is found in the mountains of eastern Mexico
and north casually to southern Arizona. It is paler both above and below
than our eastern bird.



   FIELD KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF EASTERN LAND BIRDS BY CONSPICUOUS
                                MARKINGS


We have added this key at the request of many of our readers for a color
scheme for identification. It includes all the birds that have markings
of sufficient prominence to be readily noticed in the field.


                  1. BIRDS WITH RED OR ORANGE MARKINGS

  Scarlet body; black wings and tail; 7½ in.—SCARLET TANAGER.
  Red; darker above; crested; black face; 9 in.—CARDINAL.
  Rosy-red; wings and tail slightly darker; 7½ in.—SUMMER TANAGER.
  Rosy-red; white wing bars; crossed bill; 6 in.—WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL.
  Rosy-red; gray back, wings and tail; stout bill; 8½ in.—PINE GROSBEAK.
  Brick-red; wings and tail darker; crossed bill; 6 in.—CROSSBILL.
  Purplish-red, streaked with darker; dark wings and tail.—PURPLE FINCH.
  Red below; blue head; yellow back; 5½ in.—PAINTED BUNTING.
  Red patch on crown (concealed); greenish back; 4½ in.—KINGLET.
  Red cap; black chin; rosy breast; streaked; 5¼ in.—REDPOLL.
  Pink breast and under wings; black head and back; 8 in.—ROSE-BREASTED
          GROSBEAK.
  Ruby throat; metallic green back; tiny birds—HUMMINGBIRD.
  Orange-red under wings and patch on crown; long forked
          rail.—SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
  Orange; black head, wings and tail (marked with yellow)—BALTIMORE
          ORIOLE.
  Orange breast, crown patch and above eye; black and white back, wings
          and tail—BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER.
  Orange crown patch, edged with black; green back; 4 in.—KINGLET.
  Orange on sides, wings and tail; black above; 5½ in.—REDSTART.
  Orange-brown crown edged with black; green back; spotted
          breast—OVEN-BIRD.


                 2. BIRDS PROMINENTLY MARKED WITH BLUE

  Blue, shading to purplish on head; 5½ in.—INDIGO BUNTING.
  Blue; chestnut shoulders; black face; 7 in.—BLUE GROSBEAK.
  Blue above; brownish breast; 7 in.—BLUEBIRD.
  Blue above; black collar, bars on wings and tail (also white)—BLUE JAY.
  Pale blue above and streaks below; white on wings and tail—CERULEAN
          WARBLER.
  Dark blue above; black throat and sides; white on wing—BLACK-THROATED
          BLUE WARBLER.
  Light blue head and back; brown breast; 5½ in.—LAZULI BUNTING.


                3. BIRDS WITH YELLOW AS PROMINENT COLOR

  Yellow below; green back; black mask—MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT.
  Yellow below; gray head and breast; 5½ in.—MOURNING WARBLER.
  Yellow below; gray head and breast; white eye ring—CONNECTICUT WARBLER.
  Yellow below; black crown and ears; yellow over eye—KENTUCKY WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; brown spots on back; black stripes on
          side—PRAIRIE WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; brown crown and streaks on side; white on
          tail—PALM WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; yellow crown; brown stripes on sides—YELLOW
          WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; brown ear patch and streaks on sides—CAPE MAY
          WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; brown patch on crown; head gray
          above—NASHVILLE WARBLER.
  Yellow below; green back; orange-yellow head; white on
          tail—PROTHONOTARY WARBLER.
  Yellow forehead, ears and below; green back; cap and throat
          black—HOODED WARBLER.
  Yellow breast; gray black spotted necklace—CANADIAN WARBLER.
  Yellow breast; green back; gray head; white over eye—YELLOW-BREASTED
          CHAT.
  Yellow breast; gray back; black through eye and down
          sides—YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER.
  Yellow breast; yellowish patch on back; brown on throat—PARULA WARBLER.
  Yellow breast; green above; black throat and down sides—BLACK-THROATED
          GREEN WARBLER.
  Yellow breast with black crescent; streaked above; 11 in.—MEADOWLARK.
  Yellow above and below; black cap, wings and tail—GOLDFINCH.
  Yellow head; black body; white patch on wing—YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD.
  Yellow head; gray body; brown on shoulders; 4½ in.—VERDIN.
  Yellow crown; chestnut on sides; streaked above—CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER.
  Yellow below and on rump; black back and spots on breast—MAGNOLIA
          WARBLER.
  Yellow patch on crown, rump and side; streaked with gray above—MYRTLE
          WARBLER.


              4. BIRDS WITH BROWN MARKINGS MOST PROMINENT

  Small brown birds (4 to 6 in.) with barred wings and tail—WRENS.
  Uniform brown above, gray below; long broad tails—CUCKOOS.
  Bright reddish brown above; spotted breast; 11½ in.—BROWN THRASHER.
  Brown body; black head, wings and tail; 7½ in.—ORCHARD ORIOLE.
  Reddish brown breast; slate back; dark head; 10 in.—ROBIN.
  Dull brown back; grayish, more or less spotted breasts—THRUSHES.
  Brown belly; black crown and stripe through eye; gray back—NUTHATCH.
  Streaked brown and white; curved bill; climbs up trees—BROWN CREEPER.
  Brownish gray; crested; yellow tip to tail; black through eye—WAXWING.
  Brown crown, throat and streaks on sides; black mask—BAY-BREASTED
          WARBLER.
  Brown sides; black head, throat and back; white on wings and
          tail—TOWHEE.
  Brown rump and tail; gray back; streaked above and below—FOX SPARROW.
  Brown shoulder, yellow breast patch; black on throat—DICKCISSEL.
  Brown shoulder; streaked above; white outer tail feathers—VESPER
          SPARROW.
  Brown shoulder; black cap and patch on breast—McCOWN LONGSPUR.
  Brown nape; black breast and cap; light throat—CHESTNUT-COLLARED
          LONGSPUR.


              5. SHARPLY DEFINED BLACK AND WHITE MARKINGS

  Black crown and throat; gray back; 5 in.—CHICKADEE.
  Black and white streaked bird; black crown; 5 in.—BLACK POLL WARBLER.
  Black and white streaked bird; striped crown—BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER.
  Slate head, breast and back; white below and outer tail feathers—JUNCO.
  White throat; gray breast; crown striped black and white—WHITE-THROATED
          SPARROW.
  Large white crown patch edged with black; light below—WHITE-CROWNED
          SPARROW.
  Black body; yellowish nape; white rump and on wings—BOBOLINK.
  Black crown; gray back; climbs down trees—WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH.
  Dull gray birds with no markings may be FLYCATCHERS.
  Dull brownish, streaked birds are probably species of SPARROWS.
  Plain greenish backs and dull white underparts denote VIREOS.
  Glossy blackbirds are GRACKLES or CROWS; if with red shoulders,
          RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD; with dull brown head, COWBIRD.



                 CLASSIFIED TABLE OF EASTERN LAND BIRDS
 Showing Divisions into Orders, Families and Genera, as Adopted by the
                    American Ornithologists’ Union.


  ORDER PSITTACI. Parrots, Macaws, etc.
    Family PSITTACIDÆ. Genus
                      CONUROPSIS      Carolina Paroquet
  ORDER COCCYGES. Cuckoos, Kingfishers, etc.
    Family CUCULIDÆ. Genus
                      CROTOPHAGA      Anis
                      GEOCOCCYX       Road-runner
                      COCCYZUS        Cuckoos
    Family ALCEDINIDÆ. Genus
                      CERYLE          Kingfishers
  ORDER PICI. Woodpeckers.
    Family PICIDÆ. Genus
                      CAMPEPHILUS     Ivory-billed Woodpecker
                      DRYOBATES       Hairy to Texan Woodpecker
                      PICOIDES        Three-toed Woodpeckers
                      SPHYRAPICUS     Sapsuckers
                      PHILŒOTOMUS     Pileated Woodpeckers
                      MELANERPES      Red-headed Woodpeckers
                      CENTURUS        Red-bellied Woodpeckers
                      COLAPTES        Flickers
  ORDER MACROCHIRES. Goatsuckers, Swifts, Hummingbirds, etc.
    Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ. Genus
                      ANTROSTOMUS     Whip-poor-will
                      PHALÆNOPTILUS   Poorwill
                      NYCTIDROMUS     Paraque
                      CHORDEILES      Nighthawks
    Family MICROPODIDÆ. Genus
                      CHÆTURA         Chimney Swift
                      ÆRONAUTES       White-throated Swift
    Family TROCHILIDÆ. Genus
                      TROCHILUS       Ruby-thr. Hummer
  ORDER PASSERES. Perching Birds.
    Family TYRANNIDÆ. Genus
                      MUSCIVORA       Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
                      TYRANNUS        Kingbirds
                      PITANGUS        Derby Flycatchers
                      MYIARCHUS       Crested Flycatchers
                      SAYORNIS        Phoebes
                      NUTTALLORNIS    Olive-sided Flycatchers
                      MYIOCHANES      Pewees
                      EMPIDONAX       Least Flycatchers
                      PYROCEPHALUS    Vermilion Flycatchers
    Family ALAUDIDÆ. Genus
                      OTOCORIS        Horned Larks
    Family CORVIDÆ. Genus
                      PICA            Magpie
                      CYANOCITTA      Blue Jays
                      APHLECOMA       Non-crested Jays
                      XANTHOURA       Green Jay
                      PERISOREUS      Canada Jay
                      CORVUS          Crows and Ravens
                      NUCIFRAGA       Clarke Nutcracker
    Family STURNIDÆ. Genus
                      STURNUS         Starling
    Family ICTERIDÆ. Genus
                      DOLICHONYX      Bobolink
                      MOLOTHRUS       Cowbirds
                      XANTHOCEPHALUS  Yellow-headed Blackbird
                      AGELAIUS        Red-winged Blackbirds
                      STURNELLA       Meadowlarks
                      ICTERUS         Orioles
                      SCOLECOPHAGUS   Rusty Blackbirds
                      QUISCALUS       Grackles
    Family FRINGILLIDÆ. Genus
                      HESPERIPHONA    Evening Grosbeak
                      PINICOLA        Pine Grosbeaks
                      CARPODACUS      Purple Finches
                      LOXIA           Crossbills
                      LEUCOSTICTE     Leucostictes
                      ACANTHIS        Redpolls
                      ASTRAGALINUS    Goldfinches
                      SPINUS          Pine Siskin
                      PLECTROPHENAX   Snowflakes
                      CALCARIUS       Longspurs
                      RHYNCOPHANES    McCown Longspurs
                      POŒCETES        Vesper Sparrow
                      PASSER          English Sparrow
                      PASSERCULUS     Ipswich Sparrow
                      COTURNICULUS    Grasshopper, Leconte
                      AMMODRAMUS      Sharp-tail, Seaside
                      CHONDESTES      Lark Sparrow
                      ZONOTRICHIA     Harris and White-Crowned Sparrow
                      SPIZELLA        Chippy, Tree, Field
                      JUNCO           Juncos
                      AMPHISPIZA      Black-throated, Bell
                      PEUCÆA          Pine-woods Sparrow
                      MELOSPIZA       Song, Swamp Sparrow
                      PASSERELLA      Fox Sparrow
                      PIPILO          Towhees
                      OREOSPIZA       Green-tailed Towhee
                      CARDINALIS      Cardinal
                      PYRRHULOXIA     Pyrrhuloxia
                      ZAMELODIA       Rose-breasted Grosbeak
                      GUIRACA         Blue Grosbeak
                      PASSERINA       Buntings
                      SPOROPHILA      Seed-eater
                      SPIZA           Dickcissel
                      CALAMOSPIZA     Lark Bunting
    Family TANAGRIDÆ. Genus
                      PIRANGA         Tanagers
    Family HIRUNDINIDÆ. Genus
                      PROGNE          Purple Martin
                      PETROCHELIDON   Cliff Swallow
                      HIRUNDO         Barn Swallow
                      IRIDOPROCNE     Tree Swallow
                      RIPARIA         Bank Swallow
                      STELGIDOPTERYX  Rough-winged Swallow
    Family BOMBYCILLIDÆ. Genus
                      BOMBYCILLA      Waxwings
    Family LANIIDÆ. Genus
                      LANIUS          Shrikes
    Family VIREONIDÆ. Genus
                      VIREOSYLYA      Red-eye., Warbling Vireo
                      LANIVIREO       Yell.-thr., Blue-head
                      VIREO           White-eyed Vireo
    Family MNIOTILTIDÆ. Genus
                      MNIOTILTA       Black and White Warbler
                      PROTONOTARIA    Prothonotary
                      HELINAIA        Swainson Warbler
                      HELMITHEROS     Worm-eating Warbler
                      HELMINTHOPHILA  Bachman to Tennessee
                      COMPSOTHLYPIS   Parula Warbler
                      DENDROICA       Cape May to Palm Warbler
                      SEIURUS         Oven-bird, Water-Thrush
                      OPORORNIS       Ky., Conn., and Mourning
                      GEOTHLYPIS      Yellow-throats
                      ICTERIA         Chat
                      WILSONIA        Hooded to Canadian
                      SETOPHAGA       Redstarts
    Family MOTACILLIDÆ. Genus
                      ANTHUS          Pipits
    Family TROGLODYTIDÆ. Genus
                      OROSCOPTES      Sage Thrasher
                      MIMUS           Mockingbird
                      DUMATELLA       Catbird
                      TOXOSTOMA       Thrashers
                      HELEODYTES      Cactus Wren
                      SALPINCTES      Rock Wren
                      THRYOTHORUS     Carolina Wren
                      THRYOMANES      Bewick Wren
                      TROGLODYTES     House Wren
                      NANNUS          Winter Wren
                      CISTOTHORUS     Short-billed Marsh Wren
                      TELMATODYTES    Long-billed Marsh Wren
    Family CERTHIDÆ. Genus
                      CERTHIA         Brown Creeper
    Family PARIDÆ. Genus
                      SITTA           Nuthatches
                      BÆOLOPHUS       Titmice
                      PENTHESTES      Chickadees
                      AURIPARUS       Verdin
    Family SYLLVIIDÆ. Genus
                      REGULUS         Kinglets
                      POLIOPTILA      Gnatcatchers
    Family TURDIDÆ. Genus
                      HYLOCICHLA      Thrushes
                      PLANESTICUS     Robins
                      SAXICOLA        Wheatear
                      SIALIA          Bluebird



                                 INDEX


                                   A
  Ani, Grooved-billed, 18


                                   B
  Blackbird, Brewer, 71
  Blackbird, Red-winged, 65
  Blackbird, Florida, 65
  Blackbird, Rusty, 71
  Blackbird, Yellow-headed, 64
  Bluebird, 208
  Bluebird, Azure, 208
  Bunting, Black-throated, 122
  Bunting, Indigo, 117
  Bunting, Lark, 123
  Bunting, Lazuli, 118
  Bunting, Varied, 119
  Bunting, Painted, 120
  Bobolink, 62


                                   C
  Cardinal, 113
  Catbird, 182
  Chat, Yellow-breasted, 174
  Chebec, 51
  Chewink, 111
  Chickadee, Black-capped, 196
  Chickadee, Carolina, 196
  Chickadee, Hudsonian, 197
  Chuckwill’s Widow, 34
  Cowbird, 63
  Creeper, Brown, 191
  Crossbill, American, 77
  Crossbill, White-winged, 76
  Crow, American, 59
  Crow, Clarke, 60
  Crow, Fish, 59
  Crow, Florida, 59
  Cuckoo, Black-billed, 20
  Cuckoo, Mangrove, 19
  Cuckoo, Yellow-billed, 19


                                   D
  Dickcissel, 122


                                   F
  Finch, Purple, 75
  Flicker, 32
  Flicker, Red-shafted, 33
  Flycatcher, Acadian, 50
  Flycatcher, Crested, 46
  Flycatcher, Derby, 45
  Flycatcher, Green-crested, 50
  Flycatcher, Least, 51
  Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 48
  Flycatcher, Scissor-tailed, 41
  Flycatcher, Vermilion, 52
  Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied, 50


                                   G
  Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 201
  Goldfinch, American, 80
  Goldfinch, Arkansas, 81
  Grackle, Boat-tailed, 72
  Grackle, Bronzed, 72
  Grackle, Florida, 72
  Grackle, Great-tailed, 72
  Grackle, Purple, 72
  Grosbeak, Blue, 116
  Grosbeak, Western, 116
  Grosbeak, Evening, 73
  Grosbeak, Pine, 74
  Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, 115


                                   H
  Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 40


                                   J
  Jay, Blue, 55
  Jay, Blue Florida, 55
  Jay, Canada, 58
  Jay, Florida, 56
  Jay, Green, 57
  Jay, Labrador, 58
  Junco, Carolina, 104
  Junco, Slate-colored, 104
  Junco, White-winged, 103


                                   K
  Kingbird, 42
  Kingbird, Arkansas, 44
  Kingfisher, Belted, 21
  Kingbird, Gray, 43
  Kingfisher, Texan, 22
  Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 199
  Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 200


                                   L
  Lark, Horned, 53
  Lark, Horned Desert, 53
  Lark, Horned Hoyt, 53
  Lark, Horned Prairie, 53
  Leucosticte, Gray-crowned, 78
  Longspur, Chestnut-collared, 86
  Longspur, Lapland, 84
  Longspur, McCown, 87
  Longspur, Smith, 85


                                   M
  Magpie, American, 54
  Martin, Purple, 126
  Meadowlark, 66
  Meadowlark, Florida, 66
  Meadowlark, Western, 66
  Mockingbird, 181


                                   N
  Nighthawk, 37
  Nighthawk, Florida, 37
  Nighthawk, Texan, 37
  Nighthawk, Western, 37
  Nonpareil, 120
  Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 194
  Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 193
  Nuthatch, White-breasted, 192
  Nuthatch, Florida White, 192


                                   O
  Oriole, Audubon, 67
  Oriole, Baltimore, 70
  Oriole, Hooded, 68
  Oriole, Orchard, 69
  Oven-bird, 168


                                   P
  Paraque, Merrill, 36
  Pyrrhuloxia, 114
  Paroquet, Carolina, 17
  Pewee, Wood, 49
  Phoebe, 47
  Pipit, American, 179
  Pipit, Sprague, 179
  Poorwill, 36


                                   R
  Raven, Northern, 59
  Raven, White-necked, 59
  Redpoll, 79
  Redpoll, Greater, 79
  Redpoll, Greenland, 79
  Redpoll, Hoary, 79
  Redpoll, Holboell, 79
  Redstart, American, 178
  Road-runner, 18
  Robin, 206
  Robin, Southern, 206


                                   S
  Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 28
  Seed-eater, Sharp, 134
  Shrike, Loggerhead, 134
  Shrike, Northern, 133
  Shrike, White-rumped, 134
  Siskin, Pine, 82
  Snowflake, 83
  Sparrow, Bachman, 106
  Sparrow, Baird, 91
  Sparrow, Black-throated, 105
  Sparrow, Chipping, 100
  Sparrow, Clay-colored, 101
  Sparrow, English, 88
  Sparrow, Field, 102
  Sparrow, Field Western, 102
  Sparrow, Fox, 110
  Sparrow, Grasshopper, 91
  Sparrow, Harris, 96
  Sparrow, Henslow, 92
  Sparrow, Henslow Western, 92
  Sparrow, Ipswich, 90
  Sparrow, Lark, 95
  Sparrow, Lark Western, 95
  Sparrow, Leconte, 92
  Sparrow, Lincoln, 108
  Sparrow, Pine-woods, 106
  Sparrow, Savannah, 90
  Sparrow, Seaside, 94
  Sparrow, Seaside Dusky, 94
  Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, 93
  Sparrow, Sharp-tailed Acadian, 93
  Sparrow, Sharp-tailed Nelson, 93
  Sparrow, Song, 107
  Sparrow, Song Dakota, 107
  Sparrow, Swamp, 109
  Sparrow, Tree, 99
  Sparrow, Tree Western, 99
  Sparrow, Vesper, 89
  Sparrow, White-crowned, 97
  Sparrow, White-throated, 98
  Starling, 61
  Swallow, Bank, 130
  Swallow, Barn, 128
  Swallow, Cliff, 127
  Swallow, Rough-winged, 130
  Swallow, Tree, 129
  Swift, Chimney, 38
  Swift, White-throated, 39


                                   T
  Tanager, Scarlet, 124
  Tanager, Summer, 125
  Thrasher, Brown, 183
  Thrasher, Sage, 180
  Thrush, Bicknell, 205
  Thrush, Gray-cheeked, 204
  Thrush, Hermit, 205
  Thrush, Olive-backed, 204
  Thrush, Wilson, 203
  Thrush, Wood, 202
  Titlark, American, 179
  Titmouse, Tufted, 195
  Titmouse, Black-crested, 195
  Towhee, 111
  Towhee, Green-tailed, 112


                                   V
  Veery, 203
  Verdin, 198
  Vireo, Blue-headed, 138
  Vireo, Black-capped, 139
  Vireo, Philadelphia, 136
  Vireo, Red-eyed, 135
  Vireo, Solitary, 138
  Vireo, Solitary Mountain, 138
  Vireo, Warbling, 136
  Vireo, White-eyed, 140
  Vireo, Yellow-throated, 137


                                   W
  Warbler, Bachman, 145
  Warbler, Bay-breasted, 158
  Warbler, Black and White, 141
  Warbler, Blackburnian, 160
  Warbler, Black-poll, 159
  Warbler, Black-throated Blue, 153
  Warbler, Black-throated Green, 163
  Warbler, Blue-winged, 146
  Warbler, Brewster, 146
  Warbler, Cairns, 153
  Warbler, Canadian, 177
  Warbler, Cape May, 151
  Warbler, Cerulean, 156
  Warbler, Chestnut-sided, 157
  Warbler, Connecticut, 171
  Warbler, Golden-cheeked, 162
  Warbler, Golden-winged, 147
  Warbler, Hooded, 175
  Warbler, Kentucky, 170
  Warbler, Kirtland, 164
  Warbler, Lawrence, 147
  Warbler, Magnolia, 155
  Warbler, Mourning, 172
  Warbler, Myrtle, 154
  Warbler, Nashville, 148
  Warbler, Orange-crowned, 148
  Warbler, Palm, 166
  Warbler, Palm Yellow, 166
  Warbler, Parula, 150
  Warbler, Parula Northern, 150
  Warbler, Pine, 165
  Warbler, Prairie, 167
  Warbler, Prothonotary, 142
  Warbler, Sennett, 150
  Warbler, Swainson, 143
  Warbler, Sycamore, 161
  Warbler, Tennessee, 149
  Warbler, Wilson, 176
  Warbler, Worm-eating, 144
  Warbler, Yellow, 152
  Warbler, Yellow-throated, 161
  Water Thrush, 169
  Water Thrush, Louisiana, 169
  Waxwing, Bohemian, 131
  Waxwing, Cedar, 132
  Wheatear, Greenland, 207
  Whip-poor-will, 35
  Woodpecker, American Three-toed, 27
  Woodpecker, Arctic Three-toed, 27
  Woodpecker, Downy, 25
  Woodpecker, Downy Northern, 25
  Woodpecker, Downy Southern, 25
  Woodpecker, Golden-winged, 32
  Woodpecker, Hairy, 24
  Woodpecker, Hairy Northern, 24
  Woodpecker, Hairy Southern, 24
  Woodpecker, Ivory-billed, 23
  Woodpecker, Pileated, 29
  Woodpecker, Pileated Northern, 29
  Woodpecker, Red-bellied, 31
  Woodpecker, Red-cockaded, 26
  Woodpecker, Red-headed, 30
  Woodpecker, Texan, 26
  Wren, Bewick, 187
  Wren, Cactus, 184
  Wren, Carolina, 186
  Wren, House, 188
  Wren, House Western, 188
  Wren, Long-billed Marsh, 190
  Wren, Rock, 185
  Wren, Short-billed Marsh, 190
  Wren, Winter, 189


                                   Y
  Yellow-throat, Florida, 173
  Yellow-throat, Maryland, 173
  Yellow-throat, Northern, 173
  Yellow-throat, Western, 173


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published. It makes the identification of our common butterflies a simple
matter for amateurs.

Illustrations of 250 butterflies in their natural colors.

Index. Boxed. Flexible Linen, net, $1.00; Full Limp Leather, net, $1.25


                              FLOWER GUIDE

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

A guide to the common wild flowers found in the Eastern and Middle
States. Wild Flower Guide is the same size and scope as Bird Guide. It
has had an extraordinary sale and has been adopted and used in quantities
in many of our leading colleges and schools.

The COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS, 192 in number, are beautiful, artistic and
accurate reproductions from oil paintings; the finest series ever made.
The text tells where each is found, when it blooms, whether in woods,
fields, swamps, etc., the height that the plant attains, whether it is
self-fertilized or cross fertilized by insects and how; in fact it gives
a great deal more information than one would think possible in a book to
fit comfortably in the pocket.

          Bound in Cloth, 75c.; in Leather, $1.00; postage 5c.


                    NATURE STUDIES—IN FIELD AND WOOD

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This book is destined to be one of the most important that the author has
written. Absorbingly interesting in itself, yet its greatest value will
lie in the fact that it will lead the reader to realize how blind he has
been to the many wonderful things that are happening on every hand.

112 pages; size—5½ × 7½ in. 40 illustrations in color, and black and
white.

                         60c. net; postage 10c.


                              WATER BIRDS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This book is uniform in size and scope with LAND BIRDS. It includes all
of the Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey, east of the Rockies.
Each species is ILLUSTRATED IN COLOR from oil paintings; the bird, its
habits and nesting habits are described.

The pictures show more than 230 birds in color, every species found in
our range. They exceed in number those in any other bird book. In quality
they cannot be surpassed—exquisite gems, each with an attractive
background, typical of the habitat of the species.

“LAND BIRDS” and “WATER BIRDS” are the only books regardless of price,
that describe and show in color every bird. 250 pages, neatly boxed.

Bound in Flexible Linen, net, $1.00; in Leather, net, $1.25; postage 5c.


                          NATURE STUDIES—BIRDS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

Just the sort of reading that will start the young folks along the right
paths in the study of birds. True stories of bird life as narrated in an
interesting form by Uncle George to Dorothy and Dick.

Size—5½ × 7½ in.; 112 pages. Illustrations—Forty in color.

           Neatly bound in Gray Cloth. 60c. net; postage 10c.


                           WESTERN BIRD GUIDE

              BIRDS OF THE ROCKIES AND WEST TO THE PACIFIC

A companion volume to the Eastern Pocket Guides. With notes on all the
land and water birds in the Rockies and west to the Pacific Coast, and a
colored illustration of each bird. It completes the Pocket Bird Guide
Series for the United States. 255 pages, neatly boxed.

  Bound in Sock Cloth, net, $1.00; in Leather, net, $1.25; postage 5c.


                     ILLUSTRATED BIRD DICTIONARIES

Giving a description and an accurate pen and ink illustration of every
bird found east of the Rocky Mountains. With a space after each bird for
the student to make his own marginal notes.

                             _TWO VOLUMES_
                “_Land Birds of Eastern North America_”
             “_Water Birds, Game Birds, and Birds of Prey_”

     Each Volume bound in strong, paper covers, 35 cents postpaid.


                           GUIDE TO TAXIDERMY

A practical and thorough instructor in the art of mounting birds,
mammals, heads, fish, etc. We have an illustrated prospectus for those
interested. Fully illustrated; cloth bound; 310 pages. $1.65 postpaid.


              CAMERA STUDIES OF WILD BIRDS IN THEIR HOMES

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

“CAMERA STUDIES” has 250 photographs of events right in birds’ homes.
These pictures are selected from the author’s collection of over 2,000
bird photographs, this being one of the best collections of pictures of
free, living wild birds in existence.

Many rare and interesting poses are faithfully shown by the camera. For
instance, a pair of adult Chipping Sparrows, standing on a branch by the
sides of their four young, are engaged in pulling apart a large worm that
was too large to be given whole.

The stories accompanying these pictures are as interesting as the
photographs and above all they are actual facts.

300 pages, 5½ × 7½ in.; 250 photographs of living, wild birds.

           Handsomely bound in Cloth, $2.00 net; postage 20c.


                              WILD FLOWERS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

A larger and more complete work than Flower Guide, with full-page plates
showing 320 Wild Flowers in NATURAL COLORS. An original; beautiful,
complete, interesting and accurate work on this most interesting of
subjects.

     450 pages. Handsomely bound in Cloth, $2.50 net; postage 15c.


                       NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS’ EGGS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This is the only book on the market that gives illustrations of the eggs
of all North American birds. Each egg is shown FULL SIZE, photographed
directly from an authentic and well-marked specimen. There are a great
many full-page plates of nests and eggs in their natural situations.

The habitat and habits of each bird are given.

It is finely printed on the best of paper and handsomely bound in cloth.
350 pages—6 × 9 inches. $2.50 net; postage 25c.


                         GUIDE TO THE MUSHROOMS

                          By EMMA TAYLOR COLE

Tells HOW, WHEN, and WHERE they grow; how to collect and prepare them for
the table; describes the common kinds, both edible and poisonous.
Handsomely illustrated with about 70 halftones from photographs of living
mushrooms and five PLATES IN COLOR. Uniform with “Wild Flowers.” $1.50
net; postage 10c.


                    GOLDFISH, AQUARIA AND FERNERIES

How to make aquaria. How to fit them up; all about goldfish and fresh
water fish that are suitable for the aquarium. Water plants are
described, as well as many curiosities that can be kept in the tanks. All
these things are FINELY ILLUSTRATED. Cloth bound, 50c.; postage 5c.


                     BIRDS OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This will undoubtedly be THE BIRD BOOK of the year. It is authentic. The
author KNOWS birds. He has studied them for thirty years—in the hand, for
plumage, and in their haunts, for habits. He has studied them in their
homes and has photographed hundreds as they were actually feeding their
young. Besides being able to write about these things in an interesting
and instructive manner, he is classed as one of the foremost bird artists
in America. This rare combination of Artist-Author-Naturalist has
produced, in “Birds of Eastern North America,” the ultimate bird book.

The descriptive text gives the important and characteristic features in
the lives of the various species.

The illustrations—well, there are 408 PICTURES IN NATURAL COLORS; they
show practically every species, including male, female and young when the
plumages differ, and they are perfectly made by the best process. No
other one bird book ever had anywhere near as many accurately colored
pictures.

Bound in cloth, handsomely illuminated in gold; 464 pages (4½ × 6½); 408
colored illustrations; every bird described and pictured.

                        $3.00 net; postage 15c.


                          AMERICAN GAME BIRDS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

Certain species and families of our wild birds are classed as game and
can, at certain seasons, be legally hunted for sport or for food. A great
number of books have been written for sportsmen and by sportsmen, most of
them containing but a very few black and white illustrations of some of
the species mentioned. As far as we know, AMERICAN GAME BIRDS is the
_only_ sportsman’s book illustrating nearly all of these birds in NATURAL
COLORS. With it, the novice can identify any game bird he secures or
sees, and the old-timer, as well, can see just what sportsmen in other
sections of the country are shooting. The illustrations are excellent
reproductions by the very best process from water-color paintings made
directly from the birds.

The text portrays their habits just as truly as the pictures do their
appearance, and the two together give the reader a correct impression of
each species, such as can be gained in no other way except by long
association with the birds. Mr. Reed knows birds as few others do, and
has hunted, studied and photographed them from Labrador to Florida, and
from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

More than 100 species illustrated in natural colors.

            In handsome Paper Covers, 60c. net; postage 5c.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors were corrected.

The spelling of some bird names (e.g., “Redwing Blackbird” vs.
“Red-winged Black-bird”) was made consistent.





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