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Title: The Cherries of New York
Author: Hedrick, U. P.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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(CHLA), Cornell University)



[Transcriber's Note:

Bold text denoted by equal signs.

Italics denoted with underscores.]


[Illustration: CHARLES DOWNING]


  STATE OF NEW YORK--DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  Twenty-second Annual Report--Vol. 2--Part II



  THE

  CHERRIES OF NEW YORK


  BY

  U. P. HEDRICK

  ASSISTED BY

  G. H. HOWE
  O. M. TAYLOR
  C. B. TUBERGEN
  R. WELLINGTON

  Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1914
  II

  ALBANY
  J. B. LYON COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS
  1915


  NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,

  GENEVA, N. Y., _January 12, 1915_

_To the Honorable Board of Control of the New York Agricultural Experiment
Station_:

GENTLEMEN:--I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript copy
for Part II of the 33d Annual Report of this Station. This contribution
is the fourth monograph on the fruits of New York State, prepared under
your direction by the Horticulturist of this institution and his
associates.

The cherry, which this manuscript discusses, is undoubtedly most widely
grown of the tree-fruits of the State; for within easy reach of every
rural housewife--in orchard or garden, along roadside or lane--the "pie
cherry" will be found; and many a lawn, even in village or city, is
graced by the stately trees which bear the delicious Yellow Spanish or
Black Tartarian. In many parts of the State, also, cherry growing is an
industry of much commercial importance, with orchards exceeded in value
by those of the apple and peach alone.

Because of its widespread popularity and commercial importance the
cherry well merits treatment in this place in the series of monographs.
It is hoped and believed that the growers and lovers of the fruit will
appreciate and utilize to good advantage the result here presented of
years of painstaking work by the authors. The discussions are based not
alone on Station experience with hundreds of the thousand or more
varieties described, but as well upon the collected observations of many
cherry growers and the expressed judgments of the leading pomologists
who have been interested in this fruit.

  W. H. JORDAN,

  _Director_



PREFACE


This is the fourth of the monographs on the fruits of temperate North
America published by the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. The
nature and purposes of these treatises have been set forth in the
prefaces of preceding volumes, but a summary of the purposes, with
needed emphasis on several, is given for the convenience of all readers
and the enlightenment of those who may not have the first three books.

_The Cherries of New York_ contains an historical account of cultivated
cherries, the botany of this fruit, a statement of its present economic
status in America, descriptions of all known varieties of cherries, the
synonymy and bibliography of the species and varieties, and biographical
sketches of the persons who have contributed materially to cherry
culture in America. The most important varieties are illustrated in
colors. Everything that was thought would be helpful in breeding
cherries has been included, and special search has been made for such
material. So, too, whatever was thought to be of interest to students of
ecology and of plant distribution has been added.

In the monographs on grapes and plums it was necessary to devote much
space to the botanical relationship of these fruits since each contains
more than a score of species under cultivation, some of which are
scarcely known and most of which are extremely variable. The botany of
cultivated cherries is comparatively simple and has been made plain by
botanical writers. Yet the contemplation of the several species from a
horticultural standpoint adds something, we believe, to the botany of
cherries, especially as concerns the forms of the Sweet Cherry and the
Sour Cherry which have been variously treated by botanists.

As compared with their congeners, especially the plums, the economic
species of cherries are remarkably well delimited, showing far less
responsiveness to environment and having seemingly less inherent
variation, so that there need be little confusion in botanical
classification. On the other hand varieties are so similar that it is
only with the greatest difficulty that closely related sorts are
distinguished and there is great confusion in the synonymy, the chief
task of the present work being to distinguish the true names from the
synonyms of the varieties described.

In _The Cherries of New York_, as in the preceding fruit books from
this Station, effort has been made to give as accurately as possible
the region in which the species and varieties grow best and to set forth
fully the local prejudices of the fruits. Such knowledge cannot but be
of value in determining the factors which govern the distribution of
plants. The establishment of community relationships and description of
plant communities now constitute an important part of botany on the one
side and of geography on the other. No phenomena give better expression
of the climate and the soil of a region than plant communities. When
monographs of several of the fruits of temperate North America shall
have been completed, with statements of likes and dislikes of the fruits
and their varieties as to climate and soil, material should be available
to establish plant communities from which can be drawn valuable
generalizations.

All, howsoever interested in pomology, are dependent upon descriptions
of fruits. A well-made description of a fruit, to one mentally equipped
to interpret it, is second only, in the study of pomology, to having the
fruit itself. With but few exceptions the descriptions of the major
varieties are made first hand from cherries growing on the Station
grounds, though in many cases fruits from different localities have been
compared with those home-grown.

Since there are fewer varieties of cherries than of plums, it has been
possible to describe and illustrate a greater proportion of the sorts
under cultivation than in the book on plums, yet a selection has had to
be made of the worthiest of the many kinds. The choice of sorts for full
descriptions and color-plates has been determined: (1) By the present
value of the variety; (2) the probable value if the variety be a
novelty; (3) by the value of the data to the cherry breeder; (4) because
of historical value--to show what the trend of cherry evolution has
been; (5) to show the relationships of species and varieties. The
varieties not illustrated nor fully described are divided into two
further groups in accordance with the same considerations.

In botanical nomenclature the code adopted by the International
Botanical Congress, held at Vienna in 1905, has been used. In the use of
horticultural names we have followed somewhat closely the rules of the
American Pomological Society, though in many cases strict observance of
these rules, poor at best, would have added to rather than lessened the
confusion in horticultural nomenclature and, therefore, they have been
honored in the breach rather than in the observance.

The references given are those that have been of use in ascertaining the
history, the economic status, or the description of the variety that
follows--no more, no fewer. These constitute a very small proportion of
the references that have been read--a tremendous task involving two or
three years' work for several persons.

So, too, it has been a herculean task to search out the synonyms of
cherries. French, German, English and American books on pomology
overflow with such synonyms and all in a state of "confusion worse
confounded." An enormous amount of work has been done in trying to bring
order out of this confusion. Many of the synonyms of varieties have been
given in times past because of adaptations to local environment. Such
naming of ecologic forms is not an unmixed evil, since it draws
attention to variable varieties and characters which otherwise might be
overlooked.

Under the ferment of Mendelian and De Vriesian ideas we seem to be at
the beginning of an era of great improvement of plants. There have never
been well-directed efforts to improve fruits, yet something has been
done with all. Now, when there is an onrush of new discoveries in
plant-breeding, seems to be a particularly opportune time to tell all
that can be learned about how cherries have been brought from their wild
state to their present perfection. This we try to do in giving the
origin and history of varieties, especially as to parentage and manner
of origin, though such information is scant and very fragmentary.

As in the previous fruit books some prominence is given in foot-notes to
biography. A knowledge of the career of those who have been giants in
their day in the development of any industry is most helpful to the best
understanding, indeed, is almost indispensable to the fullest
comprehension, of the industry. The short foot-notes, it is hoped, will
serve to give some conception of what the master builders in pomology
were like in training, character, and methods of work. From the
reception which these sketches in former fruit books have received, the
writers feel that the considerable expenditure of time and thought that
these biographical notices have required is amply justified and that the
effort to give credit due and some small honor to the promoters of
pomology has been well worth while.

For aid in the preparation of _The Cherries of New York_ I am especially
indebted to those whose names appear on the title page, to my associate,
Mr. R. D. Anthony, for reading proof; to the Station editor, Mr. F. H.
Hall, who has had charge of the proof reading; to Zeese-Wilkinson
Company, New York City, who have had an especially difficult task in
making the color-plates and who have done the work well; and to the J.
B. Lyon Company, Albany, New York, for their painstaking work in
printing the book.

  U. P. HEDRICK,

  _Horticulturist, New York Agricultural Experiment Station._



  TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                           PAGE

  PREFACE                                                     v

  INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS                                     xi

  CHAPTER I.--CULTIVATED CHERRIES                             1

  CHAPTER II.--THE HISTORY OF CULTIVATED CHERRIES            39

  CHAPTER III.--CHERRY CULTURE                               65

  CHAPTER IV.--LEADING VARIETIES OF CHERRIES                 97

  CHAPTER V.--MINOR VARIETIES OF CHERRIES                   205

  BIBLIOGRAPHY, REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS                337

  INDEX                                                     347



  INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS


  PORTRAIT OF CHARLES DOWNING                    _Frontispiece_

                                                    FACING PAGE
  ABBESSE D'OIGNIES                                          98

  ARCH DUKE                                                 100

  BING                                                      104

  BLACK TARTARIAN                                           108

  BOURGUEIL                                                 110

  BRUSSELER BRAUNE                                          112

  CARNATION                                                 114

  COE                                                       120

  DOUBLE NATTE                                              124

  DOWNER                                                    126

  DYEHOUSE                                                  126

  EAGLE                                                     128

  EARLY PURPLE                                              130

  EARLY RICHMOND                                            132

  ELTON                                                     136

  EMPRESS EUGENIE                                           138

  ENGLISH MORELLO                                           140

  FLORENCE                                                  140

  GEORGE GLASS                                              142

  IDA                                                       144

  KIRTLAND                                                  148

  KNIGHT                                                    150

  LAMBERT                                                   152

  LARGE MONTMORENCY                                         154

  LATE DUKE                                                 156

  Louis PHILIPPE                                            158

  MAY DUKE                                                  164

  MEZEL                                                     168

  MONTMORENCY                                               170

  NAPOLEON                                                  172

  NOUVELLE ROYALE                                           174

  OLIVET                                                    176

  OSTHEIM                                                   178

  _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (DOUBLE FLOWERING),
       BLOSSOMS OF                                           30

  _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (MAZZARD)                                   72

  _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (MAZZARD), BLOSSOMS OF                      68

  _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (YELLOW SPANISH), BLOSSOMS OF               28

  _PRUNUS AVIUM_ × _PRUNUS CERASUS_
       (REINE HORTENSE), BLOSSOMS OF                         32

  _PRUNUS CERASUS_ (AMARELLE GROUP), BLOSSOMS OF             24

  _PRUNUS CERASUS_ (MORELLO GROUP), BLOSSOMS OF              26

  _PRUNUS MAHALEB_                                           74

  _PRUNUS MAHALEB_, BLOSSOMS OF                              70

  _PRUNUS TOMENTOSA_                                         34

  REINE HORTENSE                                            180

  REPUBLICAN                                                182

  ROCKPORT                                                  182

  ROYAL DUKE                                                184

  SCHMIDT                                                   186

  SHORT-STEM MONTMORENCY                                    188

  SKLANKA                                                   188

  SUDA                                                      192

  TIMME                                                     192

  VLADIMIR                                                  194

  WINDSOR                                                   198

  WOOD                                                      200

  YELLOW SPANISH                                            202



THE CHERRIES OF NEW YORK



CHAPTER I

CULTIVATED CHERRIES

CHERRIES AND THEIR KINDRED

The genus Prunus plays a very important part in horticulture. It
furnishes, in temperate climates, the stone-fruits, plants of ancient
and modern agriculture of which there are a score or more commonly
cultivated and at least as many more sparingly grown for their edible
fruits. Of these stone-fruits the species of cherries rank with those of
the plum and the peach in commercial importance while the several
botanical groups of the apricot and almond are less important, but
hardly less well-known, members of this notable genus. Prunus is of
interest, too, because the history of its edible species follows step by
step the history of agriculture. The domestication of its fruits from
wild progenitors, most of which are still subjects of common
observation, illustrates well the influences and conditions under which
plants have generally been brought into domestication. The genus is also
of more than ordinary note because the number of its economic species is
being increased almost yearly by new-found treasures from North America
and Asia, not varieties but species, which promise under future
domestication still further to enrich horticulture.

The plum and the peach surpass the cherry in diversity of flavor, aroma,
texture, color, form and size, characters which make fruits pleasant to
the palate and beautiful to the eye; but the cherry, perhaps, plays a
more important part than the plum or the peach in domestic economy. It
has fewer prejudices as to soil and climate, hence is much more widely
distributed and is more easily grown, being better represented in the
orchards and gardens in the regions where the three fruits grow. The
cherry, too, fruits more quickly after planting, ripens earlier in the
season and its varieties are more regular in bearing and usually more
fruitful--characters that greatly commend it to fruit-growing people.
Probably it is the most popular of all fruits for the garden, dooryard,
roadside and small orchard. All in all, while adorning a somewhat
humbler place in pomology, it is more generally useful than the showier
and more delicate plum and peach.

Though placed by most botanists in the same genus, each of the
stone-fruits constitutes a natural group so distinct that neither
botanist nor fruit-grower could possibly take one for another as the
trees and fruits of the different groups are called to mind. But there
are outstanding forms which seem to establish connections between the
many species and the several groups of fruits and through these
outliers the characters are so confounded in attempting to separate
species that it becomes quickly apparent that there are few distinct
lines of cleavage within the genus. For several centuries systematists
have disputed as to whether the stone-fruits fall most naturally into
one, two, or three genera--indeed have not been able to agree as to
whether some species are plums or cherries, or others apricots or
plums. Hybridization between the cultivated divisions of the
genus--unquestionably it has taken place in nature as well--has added
to the perplexities of classification. Accepting, then, for the
present at least, the very artificial classification which, rather
paradoxically, places in one genus a number of fruits commonly thought
of as quite distinct, let us briefly note the characters which best
distinguish cherries from their congeners.

The cherry is nearest of kin to the plum. These two are roughly
separated from the other cultivated members of the genus to which they
belong by bearing their fruits on stems in fascicles while the others
are practically stemless and are solitary or borne in pairs. The fruits
of plums and cherries are globular or oblong, succulent and smooth or
nearly so. Peaches, apricots, nectarines and almonds are more sulcate
than plums and cherries and the almond has a drier flesh, splitting at
maturity to liberate the stone; and, with the exception of nectarines
and a few varieties of apricots, all are very pubescent. The stones of
cherries and plums are smooth, or nearly so, while those of the other
fruits are sculptured and pitted, though those of the apricot are often
somewhat plum-like.

Cherries are separated from plums by their smaller size and distinctive
color of skin, juice and flesh; by the texture and distinct flavor of
the flesh; by growth in corymbose rather than umbelliferous fascicles;
by the more globular stone; and by the arrangement of the leaves in the
bud. Leaves of the plum are usually convolute, or rolled up, in the bud,
while those of the cherry are conduplicate, or folded lengthwise along
the midrib.

We have been discussing the cherries of common cultivation--the Sweet
Cherry and Sour Cherry of the orchards, the fascicled cherries to which
the botanists give the group name, Cerasus. But there is another group,
the Padus cherries, well worthy of brief mention. The most noteworthy
representatives of Padus are the bird cherry (_Prunus padus_) of the Old
World and the choke cherry (_Prunus virginiana_) of the New World. These
Padus cherries are distinguished botanically in having their flowers
borne in racemes, that is, in long clusters of which those nearest the
base of the shoot open first--rather than in the short-clustered
fascicles of the Cerasus group. The cherries are small and almost or
quite black. The Padus cherries are but sparingly cultivated but
undoubtedly they are capable of some improvement under more thorough
cultivation.


DISTRIBUTION OF CULTIVATED CHERRIES

The cherry is one of the most commonly cultivated of all fruits and the
many varieties of its several forms encircle the globe in the North
Temperate Zone and are being rapidly disseminated throughout the
temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere. For centuries it has been,
as we shall see in the history of the species, one of the most valuable
fruit-producing trees of Europe and Asia--an inhabitant of nearly every
orchard and garden as well as a common roadside tree in temperate
climates in both continents. From Europe, as a center of distribution,
the cherry has played an important part in the orcharding in temperate
regions of other continents. In North America varieties of the cherry
are grown from Newfoundland to Vancouver Island on the north, to the
Gulf of California, Texas and Florida on the south, yielding fruit in a
greater diversity of soils and climates in Canada and the States of the
Union than any other tree-fruit.

The Sour Cherry is very cosmopolitan, thriving in many soils; is able to
withstand heat, cold and great atmospheric dryness, if the soil contain
moisture; and, though it responds to good care, it grows under neglect
better than any other tree-fruit. The Sour Cherry, too, is rather less
inviting to insects and fungi than most other stone-fruits, being
practically immune to the dreaded San José scale. On the other hand the
Sweet Cherry is very fastidious as to soils, is lacking in hardiness to
both heat and cold and is prey to many insects and subject to all the
ills to which stone-fruits are heir; it is grown at its best in but few
and comparatively limited areas, though these are very widely
distributed.


USES OF THE CHERRY

The cherry is a delectable early-summer fruit, especially grateful
as a refreshing dessert and much valued in cookery, when fresh,
canned, preserved or dried, for the making of pies, tarts, sauces
and confections. During the last few years, in America at least, the
consumption of cherries has been enormously increased by the fashion
of adding preserved cherries, as much for ornament as to give flavor,
to many drinks and ices. The great bulk of the cherry crop now grown
in America for commercial purposes is canned, the industry being more
or less specialized in a few fruit regions. The demand for cherries
for canning seems to be increasing greatly but unfortunately it calls
for but few varieties, the Montmorency being the sort sought for among
the Sour Cherries, while the hard-fleshed varieties of the Bigarreau
type are in greatest demand among the Sweet Cherries.

The cherry, while a very common fruit in nearly all agricultural
regions of America, does not hold the place in American markets as
a fresh fruit that it does in the towns and cities of Europe. The
great abundance of strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries,
dewberries, blackberries, as well as early varieties of tree fruits,
makes keener here than abroad the competition in the fruit markets
during cherry time. The fact, too, that market fruits in America
are shipped long distances, for which the cherry is not well
adapted, helps to explain the relatively small regard in which this
fruit has been held for commercial purposes in the fresh state. In
recent years, however, both Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries, the
former in particular, have been sent to the markets in far greater
abundance, the impetus to their market value being due to a better
product--better varieties, hence greater demand--and to greatly
improved facilities for shipping and holding for sale.

In Europe several liqueurs are very commonly made from cherries both
for home and commercial uses. Such is not the case in America, where,
except in very limited quantities in which unfermented cherry juices
are used in the home, this fruit is not used in liqueur-making. In
some of the countries of Europe, wine is made from the juice; a
spirit, kirschwasser,[1] is distilled from the fermented pulp as an
article for both home and commerce; and ratafias and cordials are
very generally flavored with cherries. In the Austrian province of
Dalmatia a liqueur or cordial called maraschino[2] is made by a secret
process of fermentation and distillation. This liqueur is imported in
America in considerable quantities to flavor preservatives in which
the home-grown cherries are prepared for use in various drinks and
confections. No attempts have been made to grow the Marasca cherry
on a commercial scale in America but undoubtedly it could be grown
and, with the process of making maraschino discovered, an important
use would be developed for cherries--all the more to be desired since
the foreign maraschino is now grossly adulterated and imitated in
this country. Both the fruits and seeds of cherries, especially of
the Mahaleb, are steeped in spirits for food, drink and medicinal
purposes. An oil used in making perfumes for scenting soaps and
confectionery is also extracted from the seeds of the Mahaleb because
of which use this species is often called the "Perfumed Cherry."


In the old herbals and pomologies much is made of the value of
cherries for medicinal purposes. The fruit was supposed to be a
sovereign remedy for various ailments of the digestive tract as
well as for nervous disorders and epilepsy. The astringent leaves
and bark, or extracts from them, were much used by the ancients in
medicine and are still more or less employed both as home remedies
and in the practice of medicine as mild tonics and sedatives. One of
the active chemicals of the leaf, seed and bark is hydrocyanic acid
to which is largely due the peculiar odor of these structures. A gum
is secreted from the trunks of cherry trees, known in commerce as
cerasin, which has some use in medicine and in various trades as well,
especially as a substitute and as an adulterant of gum arabic.

At least three cultivated cherry trees produce wood of considerable
value. The wood of the cherry is hard, close-grained, solid, durable,
a handsome pale red, or brown tinged with red. _Prunus avium_, the
Sweet Cherry, furnishes a wood which, if sufficient care be taken to
season it, is of much value in cabinet-making and for the manufacture
of musical instruments. _Prunus mahaleb_ is a much smaller tree than
the former but its wood, as much as there is of it, is even more
valuable, being very hard and fragrant and dark enough in color to
take on a beautiful mahogany-like polish. In France the wood of
the Mahaleb cherry is held in high esteem, under the name _Bois
de St. Lucie_, in cabinet-making and for toys, canes, handles and
especially for the making of tobacco pipes. In Japan the wood of
_Prunus pseudocerasus_ is said to be in great demand for engraving
and in making the blocks used in printing cloth and wall-paper. In
America the wood of the orchard species of cherries is seldom used for
domestic purposes, that of the wild species being so much more cheaply
obtainable and serving all purposes quite as well.

To people who know it only for its fruit, the cherry does not appear
particularly desirable as an ornamental. But wild and cultivated
cherries furnish many beautiful trees in a genus peculiar for the
beauty of its species. The color and abundance of the flowers, fruits
and leaves of the cultivated cherries and the fact that they are
prolific of forms with double flowers, weeping, fastigiate or other
ornamental habits, make the several species of this plant valuable as
ornamentals. Besides, they are vigorous and rapid in growth, hardy,
easy of culture, comparatively free from pests and adapted to a great
diversity of soils and climates. Both the ornamental and the edible
cherries are very beautiful in spring when abundantly covered with
flowers, which usually open with the unfolding leaves, as well as
throughout the summer when overspread with lustrous green foliage and
most of them are quite as conspicuously beautiful in the autumn when
the leaves turn from green to light and dark tints of red. All will
agree that a cherry tree in full fruit is a most beautiful object. In
the winter when the leaves have fallen, some of the trees, especially
of the ornamental varieties, are very graceful and beautiful, others
are often picturesque, and even the somewhat stiff and formal Sweet
Cherries are attractive plants in the garden or along the roadside.

Very acceptable jellies, sauces and preserves are made from several
of the wild cherries in the Padus group. The peasantry of the Eastern
Hemisphere have in times of need found them important foods as have
also the American Indians at all times. The fruits of some of the
species of Padus are quite commonly used in flavoring liqueurs and on
both continents are sometimes fermented and distilled into a liqueur
similar to kirschwasser. The bark of different parts of the trees of
this group is valuable in medicine--at least is largely used. The
trees of several species form handsome ornamentals and some of them
are in commerce for the purpose. _Prunus serotina_, one of the group,
because of the strength of its wood and the beautiful satiny polish
which its surface is capable of receiving, is a valuable timber tree
of American forests. For the products of the members of this group,
as just set forth, the domestication of some of the species of Padus
might well be pushed.

    [1] Kirschwasser as a commercial article is made chiefly on the
    upper Rhine from the wild black Sweet Cherry (_Prunus avium_). In
    its manufacture, fruit--flesh and kernels--is mashed into a pulp
    which is allowed to ferment. By distillation from this fermented
    pulp a colorless liqueur is obtained.

    [2] Maraschino is a liqueur, or cordial, made from the fruit and
    leaves of the small, sour, black Marasca cherry. The product
    comes chiefly from Zara, the capital of the Austrian province
    of Dalmatia, where it has been made and exported for over 200
    years. Such accounts of the process of making maraschino as have
    become public seem to agree that the liqueur is a distillation
    of a compote made from the fruit and young leaves. When ripe
    the cherries are picked early in the morning and sent at once
    to the distillery where the stones are extracted by machinery.
    The leaves are cut, pressed and added to the fruit with sugar
    and alcohol. This mixture is allowed to ferment for six months
    or thereabouts and from it is then distilled maraschino. It is
    then stored in cellars for three years before being placed on the
    markets. In both Europe and America there are many imitations of
    the maraschino liqueur in which neither fruit nor foliage of the
    Marasca nor any other cherry has any part.

    According to the Dalmatians all attempts to improve the Marasca
    cherry by culture have failed. They say, too, that it will not
    thrive elsewhere than in Dalmatia. Under culture, the fruits and
    leaves lose their distinctive aroma and taste as they do on any
    but the native soil of the variety. The poorer, sparser and more
    rocky the ferruginous soil, the wilder the tree, the smaller and
    sourer the cherries, the better the maraschino liqueur--so the
    present makers say.

    Since considerable quantities of cherries are put up in America
    in maraschino, or its imitation, and the manufacture of such
    products is a growing industry, the following ruling by the Board
    of Food and Drug Inspection of the United States Department of
    Agriculture, taken from Food Inspection Decision 141, is of
    interest to growers, canners and users of cherries:

    "In considering the products prepared from the large light-colored
    cherry of the Napoleon Bigarreau, or Royal Anne type, which
    are artificially colored and flavored and put up in a sugar
    sirup, flavored with various materials, the Board has reached
    the conclusion that this product is not properly entitled to be
    called 'Maraschino Cherries,' or 'Cherries in Maraschino.' If,
    however, these cherries are packed in a sirup, flavored with
    maraschino alone, it is the opinion of the Board that they would
    not be misbranded, if labeled 'Cherries, Maraschino Flavor,' or
    'Maraschino Flavored Cherries.' If these cherries are packed in
    maraschino liqueur there would be no objection to the phrase
    'Cherries in Maraschino.' When these artificially colored cherries
    are put up in a sirup flavored in imitation of maraschino, even
    though the flavoring may consist in part of maraschino, it would
    not be proper to use the word 'Maraschino' in connection with
    the product unless preceded by the word 'Imitation.' They may,
    however, be labeled to show that they are a preserved cherry,
    artificially colored and flavored.

    "The presence of artificial coloring or flavoring matter, of any
    substitute for cane sugar, and the presence and amount of benzoate
    of soda, when used in these products must be plainly stated upon
    the label in the manner provided in Food Inspection Decisions Nos.
    52 and 104."


LITERATURE OF THE CHERRY

Despite the important part they have played in orcharding since the
domestication of fruits in temperate zones, as shown by their history
and their present popularity, pomological writers have singularly
neglected cherries. There are relatively few European books devoted
to them and in America, while there are treatises on all others of
the common tree-fruits, the cherry alone seems not to have inspired
some pomologist to print a book. Neither are the discussions in
general pomologies as full and accurate as for other fruits. The
reason for this neglect is that the cherry, until the last decade
or two, has scarcely been a fruit of commerce, having been grown
almost entirely for home use or at most for the local market. As a
result of this neglect of the cherry by students of pomology, we have
no authoritative nor serviceable system of classification of the
varieties of cherries and the nomenclature of this fruit is in an
appalling state of confusion, as a glance at the synonymy of some of
the older varieties discussed in _The Cherries of New York_ will show.


AMELIORATION OF THE CHERRY

The amelioration of the cherry has been in progress almost since
the dawn of civilization, yet few men have directed their efforts
toward the improvement of this fruit. The histories of the varieties
described in _The Cherries of New York_ show that nearly all of them
have come from chance seedlings. Possibly there has been little
interest in improving cherries because this fruit is comparatively
immutable in its characters.

In spite of the fact that there are a great number of varieties,
1,145 being described in _The Cherries of New York_, this of all
stone-fruits is most fixed in its characters. The differences between
tree and fruit in the many varieties are less marked than in the
other fruits of Prunus and the varieties come more nearly true to
seed. Though probably domesticated as long ago as any other of the
tree-fruits, the cherry is now most of all like its wild progenitors.
The plum is very closely related to the cherry but it has varied
in nature and under cultivation much more than the cherry and in
accordance with different environments has developed more marked
differences in its species to endure the conditions brought about by
the topographical and climatic changes through which the earth has
passed. Under domestication more than twice as many orchard varieties
of the plum have come into being as of the cherry. In spite of this
stability, there are ample rewards in breeding cherries to those
who will put in practice rightly directed efforts to improve this
fruit--a statement substantiated by the histories of some of the
best varieties, described later in this text, which were originated
through what was passing as current coin in plant-breeding before the
far better methods of the present time, brought about by Mendel's
discovery, came into being.

The cherry, as the histories of its many diverse kinds show, has been
improved only through new varieties. There is no evidence, whatever,
to show that any one of the several hundred cherries described in this
text has been improved by selection as a cumulative process, or, on
the other hand, that any one of them has cumulatively degenerated.
Of varieties cultivated for their fruits there are no records of
mutations either from the seed or from bud, though of the ornamental
cherries not a few have arisen as bud-mutations, as, for example, the
several double-flowered cherries and those of weeping or fastigiate
habit of growth and the many sorts with abnormally colored foliage.
Since improvement depends upon the bringing into being of new cherries
it becomes highly important to know how the varieties we are dealing
with in _The Cherries of New York_ have come into existence. The
following is a summary of their manner of origin:--

No case is recorded in _The Cherries of New York_ of a variety known
to have come from self-fertilized seed.

The seed parent is given for 61 varieties. The statements as to seed
parents are probably accurate, for a man planting cherry seeds would
record the name of the seed parent correctly if he knew it.

The seed and pollen parents of twenty of the cherries described in
this work are given. Sixteen of these are hybrids originating with
Professor N. E. Hansen of South Dakota, leaving but four sorts the
parents of which were known before the recent work of Professor Hansen.

No cherry cultivated for its fruit is reported to have come from a
sport or a bud-mutation.

Cherries arising from seed sown without knowledge of either parent
or from natural seedlings are put down as chance seedlings; of these
there are 147.

The origin of 917 of the varieties here described is unknown.

The total number of cherries under discussion is 1,145.

To improve the cherry the breeder must know the material with which he
is working. The following is a brief discussion of the characters of
this fruit to be found in the technical descriptions of species and
varieties.


TREE AND FRUIT CHARACTERS OF THE CHERRY

Species of cherries have very characteristic trees. The merest
glance at the tree enables one to tell the Sweet Cherry, _Prunus
avium_, from the Sour Cherry, _Prunus cerasus_. The first named is
the larger of the two, especially reaching a greater height, is
pyramidal in shape, with branches erect and bearing much less foliage
than the Sour Cherry. The Sweet Cherry often lives for a century or
more--the Sour Cherry attains but the three score years and ten of
man. _Prunus cerasus_ is easily distinguished from _Prunus avium_ by
its comparatively low, roundish and never pyramidal head. So, too,
many of the varieties of either of these two species are readily
told in the orchard by the size or habit of the plant. Other species
are either shrubby or tree-like and their varieties may often be
identified from the spaciousness or dwarfness of its trees. Size
is rather more variable than other gross characters because of the
influence of environment--food, moisture, light, isolation, pests
and the like--yet size in a plant, or in the parts of a plant, is
a very reliable character when proper allowances have been made for
environment.

Habit of growth, unlike size, varies but little with changing
conditions and thus becomes a most important means of distinguishing
species and varieties and not infrequently sets the seal and sign of
desirability for an orchard cherry. More than any other character,
habit of growth gives what is called "aspect" to a cherry tree. Thus,
a species or a variety may be upright, spreading, round-topped,
drooping or weeping in habit of growth; the head may be open or dense
and may be formed by a central shaft with several whorls of branches
or by three or four trunk-like stems each with its scaffolding
branches. The trees may grow rapidly or slowly and may be long-lived
or short-lived. The trunks may be short and stocky, or long and
slender, straight or crooked, gnarled or smooth, these characters
often determining whether a cherry is manageable or unmanageable in
the orchard.

The degree of hardiness is a very important diagnostic character
for groups of cherries and often wholly indicates their value for
agriculture. Thus, the varieties of _Prunus avium_ are but little
hardier than the peach while those of _Prunus cerasus_ are as hardy
or hardier than the apple. The range of varieties as to hardiness
falls within that of the species and it is interesting to note that
in Europe, where the wild _Prunus avium_ is very common, in the many
centuries since the fruit has been under domestication, a cultivated
variety hardier than the wild Sweet Cherry has not been developed.
Cherries are designated in the technical descriptions as hardy,
half-hardy and tender.

Productiveness, age of bearing, and regularity of bearing are
distinctive and valuable characters of orchard cherries but not
of wild cherries. The care given the tree greatly influences
fruitfulness, yet the quantity of fruit produced is often a helpful
means of identifying a variety and is a character that must always
be considered by the plant-breeder. Age of bearing and regularity
of bearing are most important characters with the pome fruits, the
apple, in particular, but while worth considering with the drupes are
of relatively little value, all drupaceous fruits coming in bearing
at about the same time for the species and all bearing regularly, as
a rule, unless interfered with by some outside agency preventing the
setting or causing the dropping of fruit.

Immunity and susceptibility to diseases and insects are valuable
taxonomic characters of both species and varieties of cultivated
cherries. Thus, the varieties of _Prunus cerasus_ are very
susceptible to black knot (_Plowrightia morbosa_), while those of
_Prunus avium_ are almost immune. On the other hand, _Prunus avium_
is an inviting prey to San José scale (_Aspidiotus perniciosus_),
while _Prunus cerasus_ is but little injured, indeed, seldom attacked;
_Prunus mahaleb_ appears to be almost wholly immune to the powdery
mildew (_Podosphaera oxyacanthae_), while _Prunus avium_ and _Prunus
cerasus_ are much attacked, though Wood, a variety of _Prunus
avium_, is almost immune. The English Morello, a variety of _Prunus
cerasus_, is very subject to leaf spot (_Cylindrosporium padi_), while
Montmorency, of the same species, is nearly immune. These examples
can be multiplied many times by references to the discussions of
varieties, and represent only observations on the grounds and in the
neighborhood of this Station. They serve to show the great importance,
to the fruit-grower, the plant-breeder and the systematist, of natural
resistance to disease and insects.

Both the outer and the inner bark have considerable value in
determining species but are of little importance in identifying
varieties and have no economic value to the fruit-grower and hence
but little to the breeder. Smoothness, color, thickness and manner
of exfoliation are the attributes of the outer bark to be noted,
while the color of the inner bark is the only determinant and that
relatively unimportant. In young trees the bark of the cherry of all
species is smooth, glossy or even brilliant; but later it becomes
uneven, scaly and dull, usually ash-gray but varying in all of these
characters to an extent well worth noting for taxonomic purposes.
Cherries, in common with most trees, have a lighter colored bark in
cold than in warm regions, and in dry than in wet areas.

Branches and branchlets are very characteristic in both species
and varieties. The length, thickness, direction, rigidity and the
branching angle are valuable determining characters and very stable
ones, changing but little even with marked variations of soil and
climate. Thus, a Sweet Cherry tree can be told from a tree of the Sour
Cherry, or the English Morello can be distinguished from Montmorency
by branch characters as far as the outlines of the trees are
discernible. Few cherries bear spines but all are more or less spurred
and these spurs are quite characteristic even in varieties. With the
branchlets the length of the internodes should be considered and their
direction, whether straight or zigzag; also color, smoothness, amount
of pubescence, size and appearance of the lenticels, the presence
of excrescences, are all to be noted in careful study though all
are more or less variable, pubescence especially so, this character
being too often relied upon in descriptions by European botanists and
pomologists.

Leaf-buds vary greatly in different species in size, shape, color of
the buds and of their outer and inner scales and in the outline of the
scales. The angle at which the bud stands out from the branchlet is of
some taxonomic value. Vernation, or the disposition of the leaf-blade
in the bud, is a fine mark of distinction in separating the cherry
from other stone-fruits and while all cherry leaves are supposed to
be conduplicate, that is, folded by the midrib so that the two halves
are face to face, yet there are slight but important differences in
the conduplication of the leaves in both species and varieties. The
manner of bearing buds--whether single, in pairs, or in rosettes--must
be taken into account, with species at least, and differences in shape
and position of leaf and fruit-buds must be noted.

Leaves in their season are very evident and either collectively or
individually are valuable determinants of species and varieties.
Fruit-growers take little note of leaves, however, though they should
be taken into practical account, since their size and number often
indicate the degree of vigor. The variability of leaves is usually
within limits easily set and occurs most often in young plants,
in extremes of soil and climate, and on very succulent growths or
water-sprouts. Leaf-size is the most variable character of this
organ but is yet dependable in separating several species, as, for
example, _Prunus avium_ from _Prunus cerasus_, the leaves being very
much larger in the former than in the latter species. Leaf-forms are
very constant in species and varieties, hence especially valuable in
classification.

Much care has been taken to illustrate accurately the size and form of
cherry leaves in the color-plates in this text but it is impossible to
reproduce by color-printing the tints of the leaves, though these are
quite constant in both species and varieties.

Other characters of leaves taken into account in describing cherries
are thickness, roughness, and pubescence, all of which are somewhat
variable, being greatly influenced by climate and soil. Quite too much
stress is laid upon the value of pubescence on leaves in determining
groups, unless comparisons can be made between plants growing in
the same habitat. Possibly more important than any other part of
the leaf-blade, in the study of species at least, is the margin.
This in the cherry is always serrated and often sub-serrated. These
serrations are best studied at the middle of the sides of the leaves,
those at the base and apex often being crowded or wanting.

The petiole may be used to good advantage in distinguishing both
species and varieties. Thus, in consequence of the great length and
slenderness of the petiole of leaves of Sweet Cherries, the leaves
are always more or less drooping, while those of the Sour Cherry are
usually erect by reason of the petiole being short and strong. The
color of the petiole is said by some to be correlated with that of
the fruit--a statement that needs verification. The pubescence of the
petiole must be noted.

The position, size, shape and color of the glands on cherry leaves
must be noted as they are fairly constant guides. They are usually
on the petiole at the base of the leaf but are sometimes on the leaf
itself. The glands are commonly given as globular or reniform in shape
but there are often intermediate forms the shape of which is hard to
classify.

Stipules in this plant have considerable taxonomic value, having
some distinguishing marks not possessed by the leaves. Cherry leaves
springing from dormant leaf-buds have very small stipules, sometimes
so minute as hardly to be seen, but on the current year's growth the
stipules are larger, being largest at the tip of the branchlet. There
is considerable difference in the size of these organs in varieties
of the same species. Stipules of the cherry are nearly always borne
in pairs. The small stipules, appearing with the first leaves, drop,
at this Station, about the middle of June while those accompanying
the later leaves on the wood growth of the current year remain until
in July, there being a difference in varieties as to how long they
remain. All stipules are deeply toothed and bear glands of varying
color and shape on the serrations, the characters of both serrations
and glands offering some distinguishing marks for species and
varieties.

The flowers of cherries are very characteristic, as a study of the
color-plates of blossoms will show, furnishing a wholly distinctive
mark of species and helping to distinguish varieties. The flowers
are hermaphrodites and are borne in more or less dense, corymbose
clusters. Individual flowers in species and varieties vary in size,
shape, color and odor. The peduncles are long or short, as the case
may be; the corolla furnishes distinctions in size, shape and color
of petals; the calyces are chiefly distinguished by their glands and
the amount and character of the pubescence; while stamens and pistils
offer differences in size, color of their different parts and in the
number of stamens. In plums the reproductive organs differ greatly in
ability to perform their functions, some varieties being self-sterile.
In New York there seem to be no marked differences in fecundity in
cherries nor are there so frequently the malformations of reproductive
organs which are found in plums. The season of flowering is a fine
mark of distinction between species and varieties, a fact well brought
out by the chart on pages 80-81.

Of all organs, the fruit of the cherry is most responsive to
changed conditions and hence most variable, yet the fruits furnish
very valuable taxonomic characters in both botany and pomology. In
pomology, in particular, the fruits must be closely studied. Size,
shape, color, bloom, stem, cavity, apex, suture and skin are the
outward characters of which note must be made; while the color, aroma,
flavor and texture of the flesh are usually very characteristic. Both
species and varieties are well distinguished by the time of ripening
though there is much variation in ripening dates. The keeping quality
is scarcely taken into account with cherries but varies a great
deal, chiefly in accordance with firmness of the flesh. The flesh
of cherries, as in all drupaceous fruits, clings to the stone or is
wholly or partly free--a character of interest both to the systematist
and to the fruit-grower. The color of the juice, whether colorless
or red, is a plain and certain dividing line in both species and
varieties.

The pits of cherries are rather more lacking in distinction than in
other stone-fruits, plums for example, yet they must be accounted of
considerable value in determination and for this reason have been
included in all of the color-plates of varieties. Cherry-pits from
individual trees are almost lacking in differences except in size but
between species and varieties show many distinctions not only in size
but in shape, surfaces, grooves and ridges, in the ends and more or
less in the seeds within. Cherries of any variety grown on poor soils
or in incongenial climates tend to have large stones and little flesh,
while the pits are smaller and there is more flesh with the opposite
extremes in environment. As will be pointed out in the discussion of
the group of cherries known as the Dukes, many varieties have pits
with shrunken and abortive seeds coming, as we think, from the hybrid
origin of these cherries.

The several pages given to the discussion of the characters of
cherries are in preparation for a proper understanding of the
classifications and descriptions of species and varieties. We are
now ready for the classification of the species of cherries which
contribute or may contribute forms for cultivation either for their
fruits or as stocks upon which to grow edible cherries. The following
is a brief conspectus of the edible species of Prunus followed by a
fuller conspectus of the sub-genus Cerasus to which cherries belong.


A CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVATED CHERRIES

The genus Prunus is variously delimited and divided by systematic
botanists. A simple, and from a horticultural point of view, a very
satisfactory classification, is to put almonds and peaches in one
sub-genus (Amygdalus), cherries in a second (Cerasus), plums and
apricots in a third (Euprunus), and to place the racemose cherries and
cherry-laurels, usually considered in Prunus, in another genus, Padus.
In this division of Prunus into three sub-genera we may assign to each
the following characters.

     A. Leaves convolute, _i. e._, rolled in the bud (showing best in
            the opening buds).[3]

                _Euprunus._ Plums and apricots.

   A.A. Leaves conduplicate, _i. e._, folded lengthwise along the midrib
       in the bud.

         B. Fruit more or less dry and hirsute; if juicy or glabrous the
            blossoms appear long before the opening of the leaves;
            fruits without stems.

                _Amygdalus._ Almonds and peaches.

       B.B. Fruit always juicy and usually glabrous; blooms appearing
            with the leaves.

                _Cerasus._ Cherries.

Of these several divisions we are here concerned only with Cerasus, to
which belong all fascicled cherries, the racemose, or Padus, cherries as
yet having little or no value as esculents. The genus Prunus is from
year to year being enlarged by the discovery of new species, the
additions to Cerasus in particular being numerous. Thus, a decade ago,
botanists placed in this sub-genus, at the outside, not more than a
score of species but Koehne, the most recent monographer of Cerasus,
describes 119 species. Of Koehne's species at least a dozen are more or
less cultivated for their fruits and a score or more are grown as
ornamentals.

The following species are listed by Koehne:[4]

SPECIES OF CHERRIES

  Div. I. TYPOCERASUS Koehne.

      Sect. 1 CREMASTOSEPALUM Koehne.

          Subsect. 1. MAHALEB Koehne.

      _Cerasus_ sect. _Mahaleb_ Roemer. _Fam. Nat. Syn._ =3=:79. 1847.

      _Prunus_ subgen. _Cerasus_ sect. _Mahaleb_ Koehne. _Deutsche
          Dendr._ 305. 1893.

              Ser. 1. EUMAHALEB Koehne.

   =1. Prunus mahaleb= Linnaeus. _Sp. Pl._ 472. 1753. Europe, Western
           Asia.

              Ser. 2. PARAMAHALEB Koehne.

   =2. Prunus mollis= Walpers. _Rep._ =2=:9. Western North America.

   =3. Prunus emarginata= Walpers. _Rep._ =2=:9. Western North America.

      _Cerasus californica_ Greene. _Fl. Francis_ =1=:50.

   =4. Prunus pennsylvanica= Linnaeus. _Syst._ ed 13 Suppl. 252. Eastern
           North America.

          Subsect. 2. EUCERASUS Koehne.

      _Prunus_ sect. _Eucerasus_ Koehne. _Deutsche Dendr._ 306. 1893.

   =5. Prunus fruticosa= Pallas. _Fl. Ross._ =1=:19. 1784. Europe to
           Siberia.

   =6. Prunus acida= C. Koch. _Dendr._ =1=:112. 1869. Southern Europe.

   =7. Prunus cerasus= Linnaeus. _Sp. Pl_. 474. 1753. Europe, Western
           Asia.

   =8. Prunus avium= Linnaeus. _Fl. Svec._ ed =2=:165. 1755. Europe,
           Western Asia.

          Subsect. 3. PHYLLOMAHALEB Koehne.

                Ser. 1. APHANADENIUM KOEHNE.

   =9. Prunus maximowiczii= Ruprecht. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
          =15=:131. 1857.

      _Prunus bracteata_ Franchet & Savatier. _Enum. Pl. Jap_. =2=:329.
          1879.

      _Prunus apetala_ Zabel. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._ =13=:60 (not
          Franchet & Savatier) 1904. Amur,
          eastern Manchuria, Korea, Saghalin, Japan from Hokkaido to
          Kiushiu.

      =Prunus maximowiczii= aperta Komarow. _Act. Hort. Petrop._ =22=:5,
          48. 1904. Manchuria from the Ussuri through Kirin to Mukden
          and northern Korea

  =10. Prunus pulchella= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:197. 1912.
          Western Hupeh.

              Ser. 2. MACRADENIUM Koehne.

  =11. Prunus conadenia= Koehne. _l. c._ 197. Western Szechuan.

  =12. Prunus pleiocerasus= Koehne. _l. c._ 198. Western Szechuan.

  =13. Prunus macradenia= Koehne. _l. c._ 199. Western Szechuan.

  =14. Prunus discadenia= Koehne. _l. c._ 200. Western Hupeh.

  =15. Prunus szechuanica= Batalin. _Act. Hort. Petrop._ =14=:167. 1895.
           Szechuan.

          Subsect. 4. PHYLLOCERASUS Koehne.

  =16. Prunus tatsienensis= Batalin. _Act. Hort. Petrop._ =14=:322.
           1897. Szechuan.

      =Prunus tatsienensis= adenophora (Franchet) Koehne. _Plant. Wils._
          Pt. =2=:238. 1912.

      _Prunus maximowiczii adenophora_ Franchet. _Pl. Delavay._ 195.
          1889. Yunnan.

      =Prunus tatsienensis= stenadenia Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
          =2=:201. 1912. Western Szechuan.

  =17. Prunus variabilis= Koehne. _l. c._ 201. Western Hupeh.

  =18. Prunus pilosiuscula= (Schneider) Koehne. _l. c._ 202.

      _Prunus tatsienensis pilosiuscula_ Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov.
          Sp._ =1=:66. 1905. Western Hupeh and Szechuan.

  =19. Prunus polytricha= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:204. 1912.
           Western Hupeh.

  =20. Prunus rehderiana= Koehne. _l. c._ 205. Western Hupeh.

  =21. Prunus venusta= Koehne. _l. c._ 239. Western Hupeh.

  =22. Prunus litigiosa= Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =1=:65. 1905.
           Hupeh.

      =Prunus litigiosa abbreviata= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:205.
          1912. Western Hupeh.

  =23. Prunus clarofolia= Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =1=:67. 1905.
           Szechuan.

       Subsect. 5. PSEUDOMAHALEB Koehne.

  =24. Prunus yunnanensis= Franchet. _Pl. Delavay._ 195. 1889. Yunnan.

  =25. Prunus macgregoriana= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=240. 1912.
           Western Hupeh.

  =26. Prunus henryi= (Schneider) Koehne. _l. c._ 240.

      _Prunus yunnanensis henryi_ C. K. Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._
          =1:=66 (in part) 1905. Yunnan.

  =27. Prunus neglecta= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=241. 1912.

        _Prunus yunnanensis henryi_ C. K. Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov.
            Sp._ =1:=66 (in part) 1905. Yunnan.

          Subsect. 6. LOBOPETALUM Koehne.

  Ser. 1. HETEROCALYX Koehne.

  =28. Prunus scopulorum= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=241. 1912.
       Western Hupeh.

  =29. Prunus glabra= (Pampanini) Koehne.

      _Prunus hirtipes glabra_ Pampanini. _Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital._
          =17=:293. 1910; =18:=122. 1911. Hupeh.

  =30. Prunus involucrata= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=206. 1912.
       Western Hupeh.

  =31. Prunus hirtipes= Hemsley. _Jour. Linn. Soc._ =23:=218. 1887.

  =32. Prunus schneideriana= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=242. 1912.
       Chekiang.

  =33. Prunus duclouxii= Koehne. _l. c._ 242. Yunnan.

  =34. Prunus ampla= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=243. 1912. Szechuan.

  =35. Prunus malifolia= Koehne. _l. c._ 207. Western Hupeh.

       =Prunus malifolia rosthornii= Koehne. _l. c._ 243. Szechuan.

                Ser. 2. CYCLAMINIUM Koehne.

  =36. Prunus cyclamina= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=207. 1912.
       Western Hupeh.

  =Prunus cyclamina biflora= Koehne. _l. c._ 243. Western China.

  =37. Prunus dielsiana= Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =1:=68. 1905.

       "_P. szechuanica_, var.?" or "_P. szechuanica dielsiana_
            Schneider," _l. c._, not _P. szechuanica_ Batalin. Hupeh.

      =Prunus dielsiana laxa= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=208. 1912.
          Western Hupeh.

      =Prunus dielsiana conferta= Koehne. _l. c._ 244. Western Hupeh.

  =38. Prunus plurinervis= Koehne. _l. c._ 208. Western Szechuan.

  =39. Prunus rufoides= Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =1:=55. 1905.
       Szechuan.

  =40. Prunus hirtifolia= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2:=209. 1912.
       Western Szechuan.

          Sect. 2. =PSEUDOCERASUS= Koehne.

      _Prunus_ subgen. _Cerasus_ sect. _Yamasakura_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =25=:183. 1911.

          Subsect. 7. HYPADENIUM Koehne.

  =41. Prunus glandulifolia= Ruprecht & Maximowicz. _Mém. Sav. Étr.
       Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =9:=87 (_Prim. Fl. Amur._) 1859. Amur.

          Subsect. 8. SARGENTIELLA Koehne.

  =42. Prunus pseudocerasus= Lindley. _Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond._ =6:=90.
       1826. Cultivated in China.

      _Cerasus pseudocerasus_ G. Don. Loudon _Hort. Brit._ 200. 1830.

      _Prunus sieboldii_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =25:=184. 1911.

      =Prunus pseudocerasus sieboldii= Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St.
          Pétersburg_ =29:=102.

      _Prunus paniculata_ Ker. _Bot. Reg._ =10:= t. 800. 1824, not
          _Prunus paniculata_ Thunberg.

      _Cerasus paniculata_ De Candolle. _Prodr._ =2:=539. 1825.

      _Cerasus sieboldtii_ Carrière. _Rev. Hort._ 371. 1866.

      _Prunus sieboldii_ Wittmack. _Gartenfl._ =51:=272. 1902.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata sieboldtii_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot.
          Mag._ =22:=102. 1908?

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata sieboldtii_ Makino. _l. c._ =23:=74.
          1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus typica sieboldii_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ 182.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus flore roseo pleno_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus pseudocerasus naden_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus pseudocerasus watereri= Koehne. _l. c._ 172. 1909.

      _Cerasus wattererii_, cited by Lavallée _Icon. Arb. Segrez._ 119.
          1885, as a synonym under _Cerasus pseudocerasus_?

      _Cerasus watereri_ Goldring. _Garden_ =33:=416, fig. p. 420. 1888?

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata wattererii_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =23:=75. 1909? (Horticultural)

      =Prunus pseudocerasus virescens= Koehne.

      _Prunus donarium_ Siebold. Rijks-Herbarium, Leyden.

  =43. Prunus paracerasus= Koehne. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =7:=133. 1909.
       Japan. (Horticultural)

  =44. Prunus serrulata= Lindley. _Trans. Hort. Soc. London_ =7=:138.
       1830.

      _Prunus cerasus flore simplici_ Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 201. 1784.

      _Prunus donarium_ Siebold. _Verh. Batav. Genoot._ =12:= No. 1. 68
          (_Syn. Pl. Oecon._) 1827.

      _Prunus jamasakura_ Siebold. _l. c._ 1827.

      _Cerasus serrulata_ G. Don. Loudon _Hort. Brit_. 480. 1830.

      _Prunus puddum_ Miquel. _Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat._ =2=:90, (in part,
          not Wallich) 1865.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura glabra_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =22=:93. 1809.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura præcox_ Makino. _l. c._ 98.
          1908.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura glabra præcox_ Makino. _l. c._
          113.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra_ Makino. _l. c._ 101.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea hortensis_ Koidzumi. _l. c._
          =23=:183. 1909.

      _Prunus cerasus flore pleno_ Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 201. 1784.

      _Prunus serrulata_ Lindley. cf. supra.

      _Cerasus serrulata_ G. Don. Loudon Arb. Brit. =2=:701, fig. 407.
          1833.

      _Cerasus pseudocerasus_ Lavallée. _Icon. Arb. Segrez._ 119, t. 36.
          1885, (ubi citatur: _Cerasus maeda_ h.).

      _Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra fugenzo_ Makino. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =22=:73. 1908.

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata fugenzo rosea_ Makino. _l. c._
          =23=:74. 1909.

      _Prunus jamasakura elegans glabra_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =25=:185.
          1911.

      _Prunus jamasakura speciosa_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ 186. Japan, Korea.

      =Prunus serrulata albida= (Makino) Koehne.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore simplici albo_ Maximowicz.
          _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus_ Stapf. _Bot. Mag._ 131: t. 8012. 1905.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata sieboldii albida_ Makino. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =22=:102. 1908.

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata albida_ Makino. _l. c._ =23=:74. 1909.

      _Prunus serrulata yashino_ Koehne. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._
          =18=:167. 1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus yoshino_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus serrulata lannesiana= (Carrière) Koehne. _Mitt. Deutsch.
          Dendr. Ges._ =18=:167. 1909.

      _Cerasus lannesiana_ Carrière. _Rev. Hort._ 198. 1872.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore simplici carneo_ Maximowicz.
          _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata lannesiana_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =23=:74. 1909.

      _Prunus jamasakura speciosa nobilis_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =25=:187.
          1911.

      =Prunus serrulata kriegeri= Koehne. _Gartenfl._ =52=:2 (nomen
          nudum) 1902.

      _Cerasus pendula kriegeri_ F. Späth ex Koehne.

      =Prunus serrulata grandiflora= A. Wagner. _Gartenfl._ =52=:169, t.
          1513a. 1903.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore pleno viridi_ Maximowicz.
          _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra viridiflora_ Makino. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =22=:102 1908.

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata viridiflora_ Makino. _l. c._ =23=:74.
          1909.

      _Cerasus donarium_ Siebold. Rijks-Herbarium, Leyden.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus ukon_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus serrulata ochichima= Koehne. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._
          =18=:169. 1909.

      _Prunus serrulata serrulata fugenzo, 2. alborosea_ Makino. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =23=:74. 1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus ochichima_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus pseudocerasus shirofugen_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus serrulata hisakura= Koehne. _Gartenfl_. =51=:2, t. 1494 b.
          1902.

      _Cerasus caproniana flore roseo pleno_ Van Houtte. _Fl. des.
          Serres_ =21=:141, t. 2238. 1875.

      _Cerasus serratifolia rosea_ Carrière. _Rev. Hort._ 889, t. fig.
          B. 1877.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore semipleno roseo_ Maximowicz.
          _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =11=:699. 1883.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hisakura_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus pseudocerasus benifugen_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus pseudocerasus "New Red_." Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus serrulata "W. Kou."_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus jamasakura speciosa nobilis donarium_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo
          Bot. Mag._ =25=:187. 1911.

      =Prunus serrulata veitchiana= Koehne. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._
          =9=:122. 1911.

      _Cerasus pseudocerasus "James Veitch." Gartenfl._ =51=:497.
          1902. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus serrulata mucronata= Koehne. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._
          =18=:170. 1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore pulcherrimo pleno candido_
          Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus cerasus flore roseo pleno_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      _Prunus serrulata flore pleno_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      =Prunus serrulata shidare-sakura= Koehne. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr.
          Ges._ =18=:170. 1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore carneo suffuso_ Maximowicz.
          _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus shidare-sakura_ Koehne. (Horticultural)

      44 × 88? =Prunus affinis= Makino. =Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura
          ×n incisa?= Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =22=:99. 1908. Japan.

      =45. Prunus sargentii= Rehder. _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._
          =17=:159. 1908.

      _Prunus puddum_ Miquel. _Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat._ =2=:90 (in part,
          not Wallich) 1865.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus sachalinensis_ F. Schmidt. _Mém. Acad.
          Sci. St. Pétersburg sér._ 7, 12: No. 2. 124.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St.
          Pétersburg_ =29=:102.

      _Prunus mume crasseglandulosa_ Miquel. Rijks-Herbarium, Leyden.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus_ Sargent. _Garden and Forest_ =10=:462, fig.
          58 (not Lindley) 1897.

      _Prunus Sp. Zabel_. Beissner, Schelle & Zabel _Handb.
          Laubholz-Ben._ 241. 1903.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus borealis_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =22=:99.
          1908.

      _Prunus serrulata borealis_ Makino. _l. c._ =23=:75. 1909.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ 182.

      _Prunus jamasakura elegans compta_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =25=:186.
          1911.

      _Prunus jamasakura borealis_ Koidzumi. l. c. 187. Korea, Saghalin,
          Japan.

  =46. Prunus tenuiflora= Koehne. _Plant Wils._ Pt. =2=:209. 1912.
      Western Hupeh.

  =47. Prunus wildeniana= Koehne. _l. c._ 249. Hupeh.

  =48. Prunus leveilleana= Koehne. _l. c._ 250. Korea.

  =49. Prunus sontagiæ= Koehne. _l. c._ 250. Korea.

  =50. Prunus mesadenia= Koehne. _l. c._ 250. Nippon.

  =51. Prunus parvifolia= (Matsumura) Koehne. _l. c._ 251.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus parvifolia_ Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =15=:101. 1901.

      _Prunus pseudocerasus typica parvifolia_ Koidzumi. _l. c._
          =23=:182. 1909.

      _Prunus jamasakura elegans parvifolia_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =25=:186.
          1911. Japan.

      =Prunus parvifolia aomoriensis= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
          =2=:251. 1912. Northern Nippon.

  =52. Prunus concinna= Koehne. _l. c._ 210. Western Hupeh.

  =53. Prunus twymaniana= Koehne. _l. c._ 211. Western Szechuan.

          Subsect. 9. CONRADINIA Koehne.

  =54. Prunus conradinæ= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:211. 1912.
       Western Hupeh.

  =55. Prunus helenæ= Koehne. _l. c._ 212. Western Hupeh.

  =56. Prunus saltuum= Koehne. _l. c._ 213. Western Hupeh.

  =57. Prunus pauciflora= Bunge._ Mém. Étr. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
       =2=:97 (_Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor._) 1835. Chili.

  =58. Prunus sprengeri= Pampanini. _Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital_. =18=:230.
       1911. Hupeh.

  =59. Prunus yedoensis= Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =15=:100. 1901.
       Cultivated in the gardens of Tokyo.

          Subsect. 10. SERRULA Koehne.

  =60. Prunus majestica= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:252. 1912.

      _Prunus puddum_ Franchet. _Pl. Delavay._ 197 (not Roxburgh
          following Brandis) 1889.

      _Prunus cerasoides tibetica_ Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._
          =1=:54 (in part) 1905. Yunnan.

  =61. Prunus serrula= Franchet. _Pl. Delavay_. 196. 1889. Yunnan.

      =Prunus serrula tibetica= (Batalin) Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
          =2=:213. 1912. Western Szechuan.

          Subsect. 11. PUDDUM Koehne.

  =62. Prunus campanulata= Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
       29. 103.

      _Prunus cerasoides_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =23=:181 (in part,
          not D. Don) 1909. Fokien.

          Cultivated in Japan.

  =63. Prunus hosseusii= Diels. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =4=:289. 1907.
       Siam.

  =64. Prunus cerasoides= D. Don. _Prodr. Fl. Nepal._ 239. 1825.

      _Prunus silvatica_ Roxburgh. _Hort. Beng._ 92. 1814.

      _Cerasus phoshia_ Hamilton. De Candolle _Prodr._ =2=:535. 1825.

      _Cerasus puddum_ Seringe. De Candolle _Prodr._ =2=:537. 1825.

      _Prunus puddum_ Roxburgh. _Forest Fl. Brit._ Ind. 194. 1874.
          Nepal.

  =65. Prunus rufa= Steudel. _Nomencl_. Bot. =2=:404. 1841.

      _Cerasus rufa_ Wallich. _Cat._ No. 721. 1829. Eastern Himalaya.

  =66. Prunus trichantha= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:254. 1912.

      _Prunus rufa_ Hooker. _Fl. Brit. Ind._ =2=:314 (in part) 1878.
          Eastern Himalaya.

          Subsect. 12. MICROCALYMMA Koehne.

  =67. Prunus herincquiana= Lavallée. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:214. 1912.
       Western Hupeh.

      =Prunus herincquiana biloba= (Franchet) Koehne. Western Hupeh.

      _Prunus biloba_ Franchet in Herb. Paris. China.

  =68. Prunus subhirtella= Miquel. _Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat._ =2=:91.
       1865.

      _Prunus subhirtella oblongifolia_ Miquel. _l. c._

      _Prunus incisa_ Maximowicz. Bul. _Sci. Acad. St. Pétersburg_
          =29=:99.

      _Prunus pendula ascendens_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =7=:103.
          1893?

      _Prunus herincquiana ascendens_ Schneider. _Ill. Handb.
          Laubholzk._ =1=:608. 1906.

      _Prunus itosakra subhirtella_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =23=:180. 1908. Japan.

      =Prunus subhirtella fukubana= Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =22=:118.
          1908.

      _Prunus itosakra ascendens amabilis_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =23=:181.
          1909?

  =69. Prunus pendula= Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
       =29=:98.

      _Prunus itosakura_ Siebold. _Verh. Batav. Genoot._ 12: No. 1. 68.
          1830.

      _Cerasus pendula flore roseo_ Siebold. _Cat._ =5=:31. 1863,
          Maximowicz.

      _Cerasus pendula rosea_ Dombrain. _Floral Mag._ 10. t. 536. 1871.

      _Prunus subhirtella pendula_ Tanaka. _Useful Pl. Jap._ 153, fig.
          620. 1895.

      _Cerasus itosakura_ Siebold. Herb., Maximowicz. _l. c._

      _Cerasus herincquiana_ Lavallée. _Icon. Arb. Segrez_, 117. 1885.

      _Prunus miqueliana_ Schneider. _Ill. Handb. Laubholzk_, =1=:609
         (not Maximowicz) 1906.

      _Prunus herincquiana_ Schneider. _l. c._ 608.

      _Cerasus pendula_ Siebold in herb., Koehne. _l. c._

      _Prunus cerasus pendula flore roseo_ Koehne. _l. c._
          (Horticultural)

      _Prunus itosakra pendula_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =23=:180.
          1909. Japan.

  =70. Prunus taiwaniana= Hayata. _Jour. Coll. Sci. Tokyo_ =30=:87.
       1911. Formosa.

  =71. Prunus microlepis= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:256. 1912.
       Hondo.

      =Prunus microlepis ternata= Koehne. _l. c._ 256. Hondo.

          Subsect. 13. CERASEIDOS (Siebold & Zuccarini) Koehne.

      _Ceraseidos_ Siebold & Zuccarini. _Abh. Akad. Münch._ =3=:743
          t. 5. 1843.

          Ser. 1. PHYLLOPODIUM.

  =72. Prunus setulosa= Batalin. _Act. Hort. Petrop._ =12=:165. 1892.
       Eastern Kansu.

  =73. Prunus phyllopoda= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:257. 1912.
       Northern Shensi.

  =74. Prunus canescens= Bois. _l. c._ 215. Western Hupeh.

  =75. Prunus veitchii= Koehne. _l. c._.257. Western Hupeh.

          Ser. 2. DROSERINA.

  =76. Prunus giraldiana= Schneider. _Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp._ =1=:65.
       1905. Northern Shensi.

  =77. Prunus droseracea= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:215. 1912.
       Western Szechuan.

          Ser. 3. OXYODON.

  =78. Prunus trichostoma= Koehne. _l. c._ 216. Western Szechuan.

  =79. Prunus latidentata= Koehne. _l. c._ 217. Western Szechuan.

  =80. Prunus micromeloides= Koehne. _l. c._ 218. Western Szechuan.

  =81. Prunus oxyodonta= Koehne. _l. c._ 218. Western Szechuan.

  =82. Prunus glyptocarya= Koehne. _l. c._ 219. Western Szechuan.

  =83. Prunus podadenia= Koehne. _l. c._ 258. Western China.

  =84. Prunus lobulata= Koehne. _l. c._ 220. Western Szechuan.

  =85. Prunus stipulacea= Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
       =11=:689. 1883. Kansu.

  =86. Prunus pleuroptera= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:221. 1912.
       Western Szechuan.

  =87. Prunus zappeyana= Koehne. _l. c._ 221. Western Hupeh.

      =Prunus zappeyana? subsimplex= Koehne. _l. c._ 222. Western Hupeh.

  =88. Prunus incisa= Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 202. 1784.

      _Cerasus incisa_ Loiseleur. _Nouveau Duhamel_ =5=:33. 1812.

      _Ceraseidos apetala_ Miquel. _Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat._ =2=:93 1865
          (in part). Japan.

          Ser. 4. EUCERASEIDOS.

  =89. Prunus caudata= Franchet. _Pl. Delavay._ 196. 1889. Yunnan.

  =90. Prunus iwagiensis= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:259. 1912.
       Hondo.

  91. Prunus nipponica Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag_. =15=:99. 1901.

      _Prunus miqueliana_ Koidzumi. _l. c._ =23=:184 (not Maximowicz)
          1909.

      _Prunus ceraseidos_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
          =29=:103.

      _Prunus apetala typica_ Schneider. _Ill. Handb. Laubholzk._
          =1=:608. 1906. Japan.

  =92. Prunus autumnalis= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:259. 1912.

      _Prunus subhirtella autumnalis_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
          =22=:117. 1908. Hondo.

  =93. Prunus kurilensis= Miyabe. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =24=:11. 1910.

      _Prunus ceraseidos kurilensis_ Miyabe. _Mem. Boston Soc. Nat.
          Hist._ =4=:226 (Fl. Kurile Isl.) 1890.

      _Prunus incisa kurilensis_ Koidzumi. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =23=:184.
          1909.

  =94. Prunus nikkoensis= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:260. 1912.
       Japan.

  =95. Prunus miqueliana= Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
       =11=:692 (not Schneider) 1883. Japan.

  =96. Prunus tschonoskii= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:261. 1912.

      _Prunus ceraseidos_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
          =29=:103.

      _Prunus apetala iwozana_ Schneider. _Ill. Handb. Laubholzk._
          =1=:608. 1906. Japan.

   =97. Prunus apetala= (Siebold & Zuccarini) Franchet & Savatier.
       _Enum. Pl. Jap._ =2=:329. 1879 (not Zabel, cf. _P. maximowiczii_,
       No. 9).

       _Ceraseidos apetala_ Siebold & Zuccarini. _Abh. Akad. Münch._
           =3=:743. t. 5. 1843.

       _Prunus ceraseidos_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
           =29=:103. Japan.

           Ser. 5. AMBLYODON.

   _98. Prunus gracilifolia_ Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:223. 1912.
        Western Hupeh.

   =99. Prunus rossiana= Koehne. _l. c._ 223. Western Hupeh.


   Div. II. MICROCERASUS (Spach, Roemer) Koehne.

       _Cerasus_ sect. Microcerasus Spach. _Hist. Vég._ =1=:423. 1834.

       _Microcerasus_ Webb. _Phytogr. Canar._ =2=:19. 1836-40.

       Sect. 1. SPIRAEOPSIS Koehne.

          Subsect. 1. MYRICOCERASUS Koehne.

  =100. Prunus pumila= Linnaeus. _Mant. Pl._ 75. 1767. Eastern North
        America.

  =101. Prunus besseyi= Bailey. _Bul. Cor. Ex. Sta._ =70=:261. 1894.
        Eastern North America.

         Subsect. 2. SPIRAEOCERASUS Koehne.

  =102. Prunus dictyoneura= Diels. _Bot. Jahrb._ 36, Beibl. 82, 57.
        1905. Shensi.

  =103. Prunus humilis= Bunge. _Mém. Étr. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
        =2=:97 (_Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor._) 1833.

       _Prunus salicina_ Lindley. _Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond._ =7=:239.
           1830.

       _Prunus bungei_ Walpers. _Rep._ =2=:9 (not Moris) 1893. China.

  =104. Prunus glandulosa= Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 202. 1784.

       _Amygdalus pumila_ Linnaeus. _Mant._ =1=:74. 1767.

       _Cerasus glandulosa_ Loiseleur. _Nouv. Duhamel_ =5=:33. 1825.

       =Prunus glandulosa glabra= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:263.
           1912.

       _Prunus japonica glandulosa_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc._
           =54=:13. 1879. Japan.

       =Prunus glandulosa glabra alba= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
           =2=:263. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica_ Lindley. _Bot. Reg._ 8:t. 1801. 1835.

       =Prunus glandulosa glabra rosea= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
           =2=:263. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica typica flore roseo_ Maximowicz, in sched.

       _Prunus japonica flor. simp._ Tanaka. _Useful Pl. Jap._ 153,
           fig. 621. 1895.

       _Prunus japonica glandulosa_ Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._
           =14=:136. 1900. Japan.

       =Prunus glandulosa glabra albiplena= Koehne. _Plant Wils._ Pt.
           =2=:264. 1912.

       _Cerasus japonica multiplex_ Seringe. De Candolle _Prodr._
           =2=:539 (in part) 1825.

       _Prunus japonica flore pleno_ Siebold & Zuccarini. _Fl. Jap._
           =1=:172 t. 90 f. 111. (in part) 1826.

       _Prunus japonica_ Oudemans. _Neerlands Plantentuin_ t. 2. 1865.

       _Prunus japonica flore albo pleno_ Lemaire. _Ill. Hort._ 5:
           t. 183. 1858.

       _Prunus japonica_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc._ 54. 14
           (in part) 1879.

       _Prunus japonica multiplex_ Makino. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =22=:72
           (in part) 1908. Japan.

       =Prunus glandulosa purdomii= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:264.
           1912. Northern China.

       =Prunus glandulosa trichostyla= Koehne. _l. c._ 224.

       =Prunus glandulosa trichostyla faberi= Koehne. _l. c._ 224.

       _Prunus japonica_ J. Hutchinson. _Bot. Mag._ 135: t. 8260 (not
           Thunberg) 1909. Shantung.

       =Prunus glandulosa trichostyla paokangensis= (Schneider) Koehne.
           _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:264. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica packangensis_ Schneider. _Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp._
           =1=:53. 1905. Western Hupeh.

       =Prunus glandulosa trichostyla sinensis= (Persoon) Koehne.
           _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:265. 1912.

       _Amygdalus indica nana_ Plukenett. _Phytogr._ 1: t. 11. f. 4
           (1691, new edit. 1769).

       _Prunus sinensis_ Persoon. _Syn._ =2=:36. 1807.

       _Cerasus japonica_ Seringe. De Candolle _Prodr._ =2=:539
           (in part) 1825.

       _Prunus japonica flore pleno_ Siebold & Zuccarini. _Fl. Jap._
           =1=:172 t. 90 f. 111. (in part) 1826.

       _Prunus japonica_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc._ =54=:14
           (in part) 1883. Northern Shensi.

       =Prunus glandulosa salicifoli= (Komarov) Koehne. _Plant. Wils._
           Pt. =2=:265. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica salicifolia_ Komarov. _Act. Hort. Petrop._
           =22=:754. 1904. Shing-king.

  =105. Prunus pogonostyla= Maximowicz. _Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc._
      =54=:11. 1879.

       _Prunus formosana_ Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =15=:86. 1901.

       =Prunus pogonostyla globosa= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:265.
           1912. Formosa.

       =Prunus pogonostyla obovata= Koehne. _l. c._ 265. Formosa.

  =106. Prunus japonica= Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 201. 1784.

       _Prunus japonica japonica_ Maximowicz. _Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc._
           =54=:12. 1879.

       _Prunus japonica typica_ Matsumura. _Tokyo Bot. Mag._ =14=:135.
           1900.

       =Prunus japonica eujaponica= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:266.
           1912.

       =Prunus japonica eujaponica fauriei= Koehne. _l. c._ 266. Japan.

       =Prunus japonica eujaponica oldhamii= Koehne. _l. c._ 266. Hupeh.

       =Prunus japonica gracillima= Koehne. _l. c._ 266.

       =Prunus japonica gracillima thunbergii= Koehne. _l. c._ 266.

       _Prunus japonica thunbergii_ Koehne. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._
           =8=:23. 1910. Cultivated in the Späth Arboretum near Berlin,
           received from St. Petersburg.

       =Prunus japonica gracillima engleri= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt.
           =2=:266. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica engleri_ Koehne. _l. c._ 266. Manchuria.

       =Prunus japonica gracillima minor= Koehne. _l. c._ 267.
           Cultivated in the Späth Arboretum, Berlin.

       =Prunus japonica gracillima sphaerica= (Carrière) Koehne.
           _l. c._ 267.

       _Prunus japonica sphaerica_ Carrière. _Rev. Hort._ 468, fig.
           163. 1890.

       =Prunus japonica kerii= (Steudel) Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt.
           2=:267. 1912.

       _Prunus japonica_ Ker-Gawler. _Bot. Reg._= 1=: t. 27. 1815.

       _Amygdalus pumila_ Sims. _Bot. Mag._ =47=: t. 2176. 1820.

       _Prunus kerii_ Steudel. _Nomencl. Bot._ ed. 2, 403. 1841, which
           cites "_Cerasus" japonica_ Ker-Gawler.

       _Prunus japonica typica flore pleno_ Zabel. Beissner, Schelle &
           Zabel _Handb. Laubholz-Ben._ 238. 1903. Chekiang. Cultivated
           in England.

       ? =Prunus praecox= Carrière. _Rev. Hort._ 488, fig. 142, 143.
           1892. Originated from sowings of _Prunus japonica sphaerica_
           and supposed to be _Prunus japonica_ × _domestica._

  =107. Prunus nakaii= Léveillé. Fedde _Rep. Nov. Sp._ =7=:198. 1909.
      Korea.

  =108. Prunus carcharias= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:267. 1912.
      Szechuan.

       Sect. 2. =AMYGDALOCERASUS= Koehne.

       _Cerasus_ sect. _Microcerasus_ Spach.

       _Microcerasus_ Webb. _Phytogr. Canar._ =2=:19 (1836-50);
           Schneider _Ill. Handb. Laubholzk._ =1=:601. 1906.

       _Prunus_ subgen. _Microcerasus_ Focke. Engler & Prantl _Natürl.
           Pflanzenfam._ =3=:3, 54. 1888.

       _Prunus_ sect. _Trichocerasus_ et subgen. _Microcerasus_ Koehne.
           _Deutsche Dendr._ 302, 306. 1893.

  =109. Prunus tomentosa= Thunberg. _Fl. Jap._ 203. 1784.--Siebold &
      Zuccarini _Fl. Jap._ =1=:51, t. 22. 1826. Japan, western and
      northern China.

       =Prunus tomentosa spaethiana= Koehne. _Plant. Wils._ =Pt. 2=:269.
           1912. Cultivated in European gardens.

       =Prunus tomentosa graebneriana= Koehne. _l. c._ 269. Cultivated
           near the Botanic Garden, Berlin-Dahlem.

       =Prunus tomentosa insularis= Koehne. _l. c._ 269. Japan.
           Cultivated in Japan.

       =Prunus tomentosa souliei= Koehne. _l. c._ 269. Szechuan.

       =Prunus tomentosa kashkarovii= Koehne. _l. c._ 269. Tibet.

       =Prunus tomentosa endotricha= Koehne. _l. c._ 225. Western Hupeh.

       =Prunus tomentosa breviflora= Koehne. _l. c._ 270. Northern
           Shensi.

       =Prunus tomentosa trichocarpa= (Bunge) Koehne. _Plant. Wils._
           =Pt. 2=:270. 1912.

       _Prunus trichocarpa_ Bunge. _Mém. Étr. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersburg_
           =2=:96 (_Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor._) 1833. Northern China.

       =Prunus tomentosa tsuluensis Koehne.= _Plant. Wils._ Pt. =2=:270.
           1912. Northern Shensi.

       =Prunus tomentosa heteromera Koehne.= _l. c._ 270. Szechuan.

  =110. Prunus batalinii= (Schneider) Koehne. _l. c._ 270.

       _Prunus tomentosa_, (?) _Batalinii_ Schneider. Fedde _Rep. Nov.
           Sp._ =1=:52. 1905. Szechuan.

  =111. Prunus cinerascens= Franchet. _Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris._ sér. 2,
      =8=:216 (_Pl. David._ II. 34) 1885. Western Szechuan.

  =112. Prunus jacquemontii= (Edgeworth) Hooke. _Fl. Brit. Ind._
      =2=:314. 1878. Afghanistan, Northwestern Himalaya, Tibet.

  =113. Prunus incana= (Pallas) Steven. _Mém. Soc. Nat. Mosc._ =3=:263.
      1812. Armenia, Georgia, Himalaya? Cf. =Cerasus hippophaeoides=
      Bornmüller. _Oester. Bot. Zeit._ =49=:15. 1899. Cappadocia.

  =114. Prunus griffithii= (Boissier) Schneider. _Ill. Handb.
      Laubholzk._ =1=:606. 1906. Afghanistan.

  =115. Prunus prostrata= Labillardière. _Icon. Pl. Syr._ =1=:15, t. 6.
      1791. Southern Europe, Crete, Algier, Western Asia to Persia and
      Syria. Cf. =Prunus bifrons= Fritsch. _Sitz. Akad. Wien_ =101=: pt.
      1. 636, t. 3, fig. 1. 1892. Himalaya?

  =116. Prunus brachypetala= (Boissier) Walpers. _Ann._ =1=:272.
      1848-49. Southern Persia.

  =117. Prunus microcarpa= C. A. Meyer. _Verz. Pfl. Caucas. Casp._ 166.
      1831. Caucasia, Northern Persia. Cf. =Cerasus tortuosa= Boissier &
      Haussknecht. Boissier _Fl. Or._ =2=:647. 1872. Antilibanon,
      Cappadocia, Kurdistan.

  =118. Prunus verrucosa= Franchet. _Ann. Sci. Nat. sér._ 6, =16=:280.
      1883. Turkestan. Cf. =Prunus calycosus= Aitchison & Hemsley.
      _Trans. Linn. Soc._ =3=:61, t. 8. 1888. Afghanistan.

  =119. Prunus diffusa= (Boissier & Haussknecht) Schneider. _Ill. Handb.
      Laubholzk._ =1=:606. 1906. Southwestern Persia.

The geographical distribution of these cherries is most interesting.[5]
From North America come but five species of cherries but two of which,
_Prunus besseyi_ and _Prunus pumila_, furnish food and these two as yet
are but sparingly grown; all five, however, are more or less used as
stocks.

Greene[6] has described, in addition to the five accepted ones, eleven
new species of true cherries from the far west of the type of _Prunus
emarginata_, some of which at least have furnished food to the Indians,
miners and trappers and may have horticultural possibilities for the
desert regions in which they are found either for fruit or as stocks.

From the western portion of the Old World, including all of Europe,
northern Africa, Asia Minor, Persia, Turkestan and Afghanistan come 14
species. From this region, though the number of species as compared with
East Asia is small, we have all of the cultivated esculent cherries, if
possibly _Prunus tomentosa_ be excepted. Though nearly all of the
species of this large territory are found--possibly all originated
there--in the southeastern part of Europe and the adjoining southwestern
part of Asia, yet they seem, with one or two exceptions, to be quite
distinct from the species of the eastern half of the Old World--the
Himalaya Mountains separating the two regions. It is probable that when
west central Asia has been as well explored botanically as the east
central part of the continent, many new species will be added to Prunus
and its sub-genus Cerasus.

It is in the eastern half of the Old World that the cherry flora is
richest. More than 100 of the 119 species of Cerasus recognized by
Koehne are found in the Himalaya Mountains and the region to the east
including Japan and the Kuril Islands. Yet out of all of this wealth of
raw material only _Prunus tomentosa_ has been truly domesticated as an
esculent though possibly a score of these species are well-known
ornamentals. Of the 100 eastern Asiatic species about 75 belong to
China--the remainder to Formosa, Siam and Japan with its islands.
Happily these Chinese cherries are being introduced, but a few at a
time, it is true, to Europe and America and it can hardly be otherwise
than that they will enrich horticulture as they are domesticated,
hybridized or used as a consort upon which to grow the cherries now
known to cultivation. In particular, it may be expected that cherries
for the cold north and the bleak plains of our continent will be evolved
from the Asiatic species better suited to these regions than the
cultivated cherries we now grow.

The number and diversity of the species of cherries which this brief
review of Cerasus shows to exist suggest that our cultivated cherry
flora is but begun. There can be no question but that others of these
species than the few that have been domesticated will yield to
improvement under cultivation and furnish refreshing fruits. It is just
as certain that new types, as valuable perhaps as the hybrid Dukes we
now have, can be produced through hybridization. In North America, we
have no satisfactory stock for cultivated Sweet and Sour Cherries. Both
of the stocks now commonly used, the Mazzard and the Mahaleb, as we
shall see, have weaknesses that unfit them for general use. Surely out
of the great number of forms we have just listed a better stock than
either of the two named can be found. No doubt, too, many of these new
species, even though they do not furnish food, will prove valuable
timber or ornamental trees.

We are ready now for a more detailed discussion of the cultivated
species of cherries.

    [3] The leaves are conduplicate in vernation in a few species of
    American plums; these species are intermediate between plums and
    cherries.

    [4] The species are given as classified by Koehne, _Plantae
    Wilsonianae_ Pt. =2=:237-271. 1912. The liberty has been taken of
    changing the form of Koehne's citations to conform to that used
    at this Station. For the sake of brevity some of the citations
    of the original author have been omitted. Space does not permit
    the publication of Koehne's system of classification. This may be
    found in _Plantae Wilsonianae_ Pt. =2=:226-237. 1912.

    Conservative botanists will hardly accept all of Koehne's species,
    in describing which the author tells us he labored under the
    difficulty of paucity of material and that as more material comes
    to hand there must, therefore, be revisions. These species are
    provisionally accepted in _The Cherries of New York_ under the
    belief that botany and horticulture are best served by giving
    names freely so that all forms to which reference may need to be
    made may thus be better identified.

    The botanical student of Cerasus is referred to Schneider's
    comprehensive discussion of Prunus in his _Handbuch der
    Laubholzkunde_ =1=:589-637. 1906 and =2=:973-993; also Koehne's
    monographs of Cerasus, Sargent, C. S., _Plantae Wilsonianae_ Pt.
    =2=:197-271. 1912. Profitable though it might be, space does not
    permit in _The Cherries of New York_ a botanical discussion of
    other than the species cultivated for their fruits.

    [5] Koehne has presented the results of a careful study of the
    distribution of cherries in _Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges._ 168-183.
    1912.

    [6] Greene (_Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash._ =18=:55-60. 1905), preferring
    Cerasus to Prunus as a generic name for racemose cherries, gives
    the following new species: _Cerasus californica_ (_Fl. Francis_.
    50. 1891) from the hills of middle western California; _Cerasus
    crenulata_ from the Mongolian Mountains, New Mexico; _Cerasus
    arida_ inhabiting the borders of the desert at the eastern base
    of the San Bernardino Mountain, California; _Cerasus prunifolia_
    found in the mountains of Fresno County, California; _Cerasus
    rhamnoides_ collected at Mud Springs, Amador County, California;
    _Cerasus kelloggiana_ from the middle Sierra Nevada Mountains in
    California; _Cerasus padifolia_ collected in the foothills near
    Carson City, Nevada; _Cerasus obliqua_ described from a single
    specimen from Oroville, California; _Cerasus parviflora_ known
    only from Mt. Shasta, California; _Cerasus obtusa_ from the arid
    interior of southeastern Oregon; and _Cerasus trichopetala_ found
    at Columbia Falls, Montana. The type specimens of these eleven
    species are in the National Herbarium at Washington.


PRUNUS CERASUS Linnaeus.

    I. Linnaeus _Spec. Pl._ 474. 1753.

    _P. austera._ 2. Ehrhart _Beitr._ =5=:160. 1790.

    _P. acida._ 3. Ehrhart _l. c._ 1790.

    _P. aestiva._ 4. Salisbury _Prodr._ 356. 1796.

    _P. plena._ 5. Poiret, in Lamarck _Enc. Méth. Bot._ =5=:671. 1804.

    _P. rosea._ 6. Poiret, in Lamarck _l. c._ 1804.

    _P. Juliana._ 7. Reichenbach _Fl. Germ. Exc._ 643. 1832, not
    Poiret in Lamarck, 1805.

    _P. hortensis._ 8. Persoon _Syn. Pl._ =2=:34. 1807.

    _P. Marasca._ 9. Reichenbach _Fl. Germ. Exc._ 644. 1832.

    _P. oxycarpa._ 10. Bechstein _Forst. Bot._ =5=:424. 1843.

    _P. vulgaris._ 11. Schur _Enum. Pl. Transsilv._ 954. 1866.

    _Cerasus vulgaris._ 12. Miller _Gard. Dict._ ed. 8:No. 1. 1768.

    _C. hortenses._ 13. Miller _l. c._ No. 3. 1768.

    _C. acida._ 14. Borkhausen, in Roemer _Arch. Bot._ =1=:11, 38.
    1796.

    _C. austera._ 15. Borkhausen, in Roemer _l. c._ 1796.

    _C. Caproniana._ 16. De Candolle _Fl. Fran._ ed. 3, =4=:842. 1805.

    _C. nicotianaefolia._ 17. Hort. ex De Candolle _Prodr._ =2=:536.
    1825.

    _C. bigarella._ 18. Dumortier _Fl. Belg._ 91. 1827.

    _C. effusa._ 19. Host _Fl. Austr._ =2=:6. 1831.

    _C. Marasca._ 20. Host _l. c._ 1831.

    _C. Bungei._ 21. Walpers _Rep._ =2=:9. 1843.

    _C. Heaumiana._ 22. Roemer _Syn. Rosifl._ 69. 1847.

    _C. tridentina._ 23. Roemer _l. c._ 76. 1847.

    _C. Rhexii._ 24. Hort. Gall. ex Van Houtte _Fl. Serres, sér._ 2,
    =7=:159. 1868.

  _C. cucullata._ 25. Hort. ex Koch _Dendrol._ =1=:6. 1869.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS CERASUS_ (AMARELLE GROUP)]

    Tree low, reaching a height of twenty to thirty feet, diffuse,
    open-headed, round-topped or spreading, often without a central
    leader; trunk at maturity a foot in diameter; bark reddish-brown
    overlaid with ashy-gray, smooth or sometimes roughened; branches
    spreading, slender and more or less drooping; branchlets slender
    and willowy, glabrous, reddish-brown becoming darker and
    overspread with ashy-gray; lenticels small, numerous, conspicuous,
    raised.

    Leaves resinous at opening, more or less erect, very numerous,
    three to four inches long and from one-half to two inches wide,
    obovate to oval, folded upward, thick and firm in texture; upper
    surface dark green, smooth, the lower surface paler green, with
    more or less pubescence; apex taper-pointed or acute, base abrupt
    or acute; margins finely serrate, often doubly so, teeth tipped
    with small, dark glands; petioles from a half-inch to two inches
    long, slender, grooved, with a few hairs on the upper surface,
    tinged with red; glands from one to four, usually small, variously
    colored, globose or reniform, usually at the base of the blade;
    stipules small, lanceolate, narrow, finely serrate, early caducous.

    Winter-buds small, short, obtuse or pointed, plump and free,
    arranged singly or in clusters; leaf-scars usually prominent;
    flowers appearing with or after the leaves, showy, an inch
    across, white; borne in dense or scattered, very scaly clusters
    and in twos, threes and fours on one-year-old wood; pedicels
    from a half to an inch and a half in length, slender, green and
    glabrous; calyx-tube obconic, glabrous, green or tinged with red;
    calyx-lobes broadly obtuse or acute, glabrous on both surfaces,
    reflexed, margin serrate, faintly red; petals white, roundish or
    oval to obovate, entire or crenate, sessile or nearly so; stamens
    about thirty, filaments one-fourth of an inch in length; anthers
    yellow; pistils about as long as the stamens, glabrous.

    Fruit roundish-oblate or cordate, sides slightly compressed,
    about three-fourths of an inch in diameter; suture lacking or
    indistinct; cavity well marked, usually abrupt; apex usually
    depressed; color from light to dark red; dots numerous, small,
    russet, more or less conspicuous; stem slender, from a half-inch
    to two inches in length, glabrous, without bloom; skin usually
    separating readily from the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark
    colored juice or pale yellow with colorless juice, tender,
    melting, sprightly, more or less acidulous, sometimes astringent;
    stone free or more or less clinging, roundish, pointed or blunt,
    smooth, less than a half inch in diameter; ventral suture usually
    ridged, sometimes smooth.

The numerous synonyms of _Prunus cerasus_ indicate the state of
confusion which prevails in the scientific nomenclature of the Sour
Cherry. Yet the names given are scarcely a tithe of those that have been
discarded or superseded for a whole or a part of this species by
botanists. Happily, there is no language in which there is a
possibility of confusing the Sour Cherry with the other two or three
species of cultivated cherries if the common names be used. That men,
learned or unlearned, speaking in their mother tongues distinguish
species of cherries so readily by their common names, is ample excuse
for not attempting to give in a pomological work all of the Latin names
of the Sour Cherry that have been used by the many men who have at one
time or another attempted to classify the plants in Prunus. Those here
published are from botanists who have contributed most to the knowledge
of the species.

_Prunus cerasus_ is the Sour Cherry, or Pie Cherry, of many
languages--grown and esteemed in temperate climates the world over and
probably the most widely distributed of all tree fruits. The species
is found truly wild, as we have set forth in detail in the following
chapter, in southwestern Asia and southeastern Europe. It is a frequent
escape from cultivation, multiplying from seed distributed by birds
or human agencies or growing from suckers which spring so freely from
the roots as to make the species unfit for a stock in orchard work.
The number of cultivated varieties of _Prunus cerasus_ listed in _The
Cherries of New York_ is 270. Sour Cherries cultivated for their fruits
constitute two distinct groups, each of which is again divided into
many varieties. The two groups vary more or less in both tree and
fruit but have a constant difference only in a single, very easily
distinguished character--the juice in the fruits of one is red, in the
other it is colorless.

The cherries with colorless juice are the Amarelles, from the Latin for
bitter, a term probably first used by the Germans but now in general use
wherever these cherries are grown, though the English often designate
them as Kentish cherries and the French as Cerisier Commun. These
Amarelles are pale red fruits, more or less flattened at the ends.
Despite the derivation of the name Amarelle, they have less bitterness
than the other group of varieties of the Sour Cherry. They are also less
acid than the darker colored cherries and are therefore more suitable
for eating out of hand while the dark colored cherries are almost
exclusively culinary fruits. The common representatives of this group
are Early Richmond, Montmorency and the various cherries to which the
word Amarelle is affixed, as the King Amarelle and the Späte Amarelle.

The second group, varieties with reddish juice and usually with very
dark fruits which are more spherical or cordate in shape than the
Amarelles, comprises the Morellos of several languages or the Griottes
of [Illustration: _PRUNUS CERASUS_ (MORELLO GROUP)] the French. The
first of these terms has reference to the color, the word Morello coming
from the Italian meaning blackish while Griotte, from the French,
probably is derived through agriotte from aigre, meaning sharp, in
reference to the acidity of these cherries. Weichsel is the German group
name for these cherries, rather less commonly used than the other two
terms. The trees of the Morello-like varieties are usually smaller,
bushier and more compact than those of the Amarelles. The branches, as a
rule, are more horizontal, often drooping, are less regularly arranged
and are more slender. The leaves, in typical varieties, are smaller,
thinner, a darker green and are pendant while those of the Amarelles are
either inclined to be upright or horizontal; the leaves are also toothed
less deeply and more regularly. These differences in the leaves are well
shown in the color-plates of the varieties of the two groups. There are
differences, also, in the inflorescence and the floral organs in the
extreme types but these disappear in the varieties that connect the two
forms. The typical varieties of this group are English Morello, Ostheim,
Olivet, Brusseler Braune, Vladimir and Riga.

Attempts to give precise distinctions between the fruits and trees of
the two groups fail because the varieties constituting them hybridize
freely making it impossible, with the more or less blended characters,
to classify accurately. The group name indicates but little more than
whether the cherries have a colored or a colorless juice--a distinction
well worth while for the fruit-grower.

Ehrhart called Sour Cherries with colorless juice _Prunus acida_ and
those with dark colored juice _Prunus austera_. To some extent botanists
have followed Ehrhart's designations. Linnaeus thought the two groups
sufficiently distinct to be botanical varieties of the species and
denominated the cherry with colorless juice _Prunus cerasus caproniana_
and the one with colored juice _Prunus cerasus austera_.

A third division of the species is the Marasca cherry from which is made
maraschino, a distilled liqueur much used in Europe as a drink and in
Europe and America in the manufacture of maraschino cherries. The
Marasca cherry is a native of the province of Dalmatia, Austria, where
the trees grow wild and are now sparingly cultivated. In 1831 Host gave
this form the name _Cerasus marasca_ and a year later Reichenbach
described it as _Prunus marasca_. Botanists now very generally include
it in the species under discussion and Schneider[7] makes it a botanical
variety, _Prunus cerasus marasca_, a disposition which we believe to be
the best. The Marasca cherries differ from the other cultivated forms
chiefly in the greater vigor of the trees, relatively finer serrations
of the leaves, longer stipules and a more compact inflorescence. The
fruits are much smaller than in the common Sour Cherries, are deep red
or almost black in color and have intensely red flesh and juice. The
cherries are very acid with a bitter taste that gives flavor to the
maraschino made from them.

Besides these divisions of the species cultivated for their fruits
botanists describe several botanical forms which either have no
horticultural value or are cultivated exclusively as ornamentals. It is
not necessary to discuss these in a pomological work. Of these botanical
derivatives of _Prunus cerasus_, Schneider enumerates nine and three
hybrids between this and other species.[8]

    [7] Schneider, C. K. _Handb. Laubh_. =1=:615. 1906.

    [8] Schneider, C. K. _Handb. Laubh._ =1=:1906; =2=:1912.


PRUNUS AVIUM Linnaeus.

    1. Linnaeus _Fl. Suec._ ed. =2=:165. 1755.

    _P. nigricans_. 2. Ehrhart _Beitr._ =7=:126. 1792.

    _P. varia_. 3. Ehrhart _l. c._ 127. 1792.

    _P. sylvestris_. 4. Persoon _Syn. Pl._ =2=:35. 1807.

    _P. dulcis_. 5. Miller ex Reichenbach _Fl. Germ. Exc._ 644. 1832.

    _Cerasus nigra_. 6. Miller _Gard. Dict._ ed. 8: No. 2. 1768.

    _C. Avium_. 7. Moench _Méth._ 672. 1794.

    _C. varia_. 8. Borkhausen, in Roemer _Arch._ 1., =2=:38. 1796.

    _C. Juliana_. 9. De Candolle _Fl. Fran._ =4=:483. 1805.

    _C. duracina_. 10. De Candolle _l. c._ 1805.

    _C. rubicunda_. 11. Bechstein _Forstb._ 160, 335. 1810.

    _C. intermedia_. 12. Host _Fl. Austr._ =2=:7. 1831, not Loisel. in
    Duham. 1812.

    _C. decumana_. 13. Delaunay ex Seringe, in De Candolle _Prodr._
    =2=:536. 1825.

    _C. macrophylla_. 14. Sweet Hort. _Brit. ed._ =1=:485. 1827.

    _C. dulcis_. 15. Borkhausen ex Steudel _Nom. Bot._ ed. sec.,
    =1=:331. 1840.

    _C. pallida_. 16. Roemer _Syn. Rosifl._ 69. 1847.

    _C. heterophylla_. 17. Hort. ex Koch _Dendrol._ =1=:106. 1869.

    _C. asplenifolia_. 18. Hort. ex Koch _l. c._ 1869.

    _C. salicifolia_. 19. Hort. ex Koch _l. c._ 1869, not Ser. in De
    Candolle. 1825.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (YELLOW SPANISH)]

[Illustration: _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (DOUBLE FLOWERING)]

    Tree reaching a height of thirty to forty feet, vigorous,
    upright-spreading, open-topped, semi-hardy, usually with a central
    leader; trunk a foot or more in diameter roughened; branches
    rather stocky, smooth, dull ash-gray, with few small lenticels;
    branchlets thick, long, with long internodes, grayish-brown,
    smooth, with small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves resinous at opening, more or less drooping, numerous,
    four to six inches long, two to three inches wide, strongly
    conduplicate, oblong-ovate, thin; upper surface dark green, rugose
    or sometimes smooth; lower surface dull green, more or less
    pubescent; apex acute, base more or less abrupt; margin coarsely
    and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and three-fourths
    inches long, slender, dull red, with from one to three small,
    globose, reddish glands on the stalk; stipules small, lanceolate,
    finely serrate, early caducous.

    Buds rather small, of medium length, pointed, appressed or
    free, arranged singly or in small, scaly clusters at the tips
    of branchlets or on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; blooming
    with or after the leaves; flowers white, one and one-quarter
    inches across; in clusters of two or three; pedicels one inch
    long, slender, glabrous; calyx-tube green or with a faint red
    tinge, brownish-yellow within, campanulate; calyx-lobes faintly
    tinged with red, long, acute, margin serrate, glabrous within and
    without, reflexed; petals oval, entire or crenate, tapering to a
    short, blunt claw; stamens nearly one-half inch long, thirty-five
    or thirty-six; anthers yellow; pistil glabrous, shorter than the
    stamens.

    Fruit ripening in early July; about an inch in diameter, cordate;
    cavity deep, wide, abrupt; suture a line; apex roundish or
    pointed; color ranging from yellow through red to purplish-black;
    dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem tinged with
    red, one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin
    toughish, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, red, or dark purple
    with colorless or colored juice, tender to firm, sweet; stone
    semi-clinging, three-eighths of an inch long, not as wide as long,
    elliptical, flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces.

Through its cultivated varieties _Prunus avium_ is everywhere known in
temperate climates as the Sweet Cherry. In the wild state it is
variously called Mazzard, Bird, Wild, Crab and the Gean cherry. It is
not as hardy a species as _Prunus cerasus_ and is, therefore, less
generally grown but still is a favorite orchard, dooryard and roadside
plant in all mid-temperate regions. It refuses to grow, however, in the
warmest and coldest parts of the temperate zones. Wherever the species
thrives as an orchard plant it is to be found growing spontaneously
along fences and roadsides and in open woods from seeds distributed by
birds. The fruits of these wild Sweet Cherries are usually small and the
flesh thin and dry, often unpalatable; but, on the other hand, trees are
sometimes found as escapes from cultivation which rival in their
products the orchard-grown cherries. It is from reverted seedlings that
the description of the species herewith given has been made. The number
of cultivated varieties of _Prunus avium_ listed in _The Cherries of New
York_ is 549.

The habitat of the species and its history as a cultivated plant are
given in the following chapter. A further point of horticultural
interest as regards its habitat is that wherever found truly wild, as in
its original home in southern and central Europe and Asia Minor, it is
to be found in moderately dry, calcareous soils and seldom in the shade,
preferring always warm, sunny sites, as gravelly or stony hillsides.
These predilections cling to the species in its cultivated varieties.
_Prunus avium_ differs from _Prunus cerasus_ in an important
horticultural character as the two species grow spontaneously--the
former suckers from the root little or not at all, making it a suitable
plant for a stock in orchard work, while the latter suckers so much as
to make it unfit for use as a stock.

_Prunus avium_ is variously divided by botanists and pomologists.
Whatever distinct forms of the species may exist in the wild state, they
are now interminably confused by hybridization under cultivation. It is
impossible to divide the species into botanical varieties from the
characters of the horticultural varieties, as many botanists have
attempted to do. The species can be roughly divided into two pomological
groups, the distinguishing character being the texture of the flesh.

Sweet Cherries with soft, tender flesh form one group known by
pomologists under the French group name Guigne or the English Gean.
These are also the Heart cherries of common parlance. These soft-fruited
cherries may again be divided into dark colored varieties with reddish
juice and light colored sorts with colorless juice. Typical light
colored Geans are Coe, Ida, Elton and Waterloo; dark colored ones are
Black Tartarian, Early Purple and Eagle. It is to this group of cherries
that Linnaeus gave the varietal name _Juliana_ and De Candolle the
specific name _Cerasus Juliana_.

The second group is distinguished by the firm, breaking flesh of the
fruits--the Bigarreaus of several languages, the name originally having
reference to the diverse colors of the fruits. This group is further
divisible in accordance with color of fruit and juice into black
Bigarreaus and light Bigarreaus. Chief of the black cherries falling
into this division are Windsor, Schmidt and Mezel; of the light ones,
which are much more numerous, Yellow Spanish and Napoleon are
representative sorts. Linnaeus called these hard-fleshed cherries
_Prunus avium duracina_; De Candolle called them _Cerasus duracina_; K.
Koch, _Prunus avium decumana_; and Roemer, _Cerasus bigarella_.

Besides these two orchard forms of _Prunus avium_ several other
horticultural forms, quite as distinct or even more so, are grown as
ornamentals, some of which are listed as distinct species or as
botanical varieties of _Prunus avium_. To add to the confusion, a number
of Latinized garden names are more or less commonly applied to these
ornamental Sweet Cherries. Schneider,[9] in revising the genus Prunus,
names four botanical forms of _Prunus avium_ and two natural hybrids
with other species.

    [9] Schneider, C. K. _Handb. Laubh._ =1=:1906; =2=:1912.


PRUNUS AVIUM × PRUNUS CERASUS

The Duke cherries, long placed by most pomologists and botanists in a
botanical variety of _Prunus avium_, are unquestionably hybrids between
the Sweet Cherry and the Sour Cherry. A study of the characters of the
varieties of the Duke cherries shows all gradations between _Prunus
cerasus_ and _Prunus avium_, though, in the main, they resemble the
latter more than the former, differing from the Sweet Cherries most
noticeably in having an acid flesh. Sterility is a common attribute of
hybridism. In this respect the Dukes behave like most hybrids. In
several Duke cherries all of the seeds collected at this Station are
sterile; in others, most of them are sterile and in none are the seeds
as fertile as in varieties known to be pure bred as to species. So, too,
shrunken pollen grains indicate hybridity. A study of the pollen of the
Duke cherries shows many grains, the greater proportion, to be abnormal,
a condition not found in the pollen of varieties true to species. May
Duke, Reine Hortense and Late Duke are the leading hybrid varieties.

[Illustration: PRUNUS AVIUM × PRUNUS CERASUS (REINE HORTENSE)]

There are dark colored Duke cherries with reddish juice and light
colored sorts with uncolored juice, just as in the two parent species.
May Duke is a typical variety with colored juice while Reine Hortense is
probably the best-known cherry among these hybrids with uncolored juice.
About 65 of the cherries listed in _The Cherries of New York_ are
"Dukes," or hybrids between the Sweet and the Sour Cherry.

The name Duke comes from the variety May Duke which is a corruption of
Médoc, a district in the department of Geronde, France, from whence this
variety came. The cherries of this group are known as Dukes only in
England; in France the name Royale is similarly used.

These hybrid cherries have been placed in a distinct botanical group by
several botanists. They constitute the _Cerasus regalis_ Poiteau and
Turpin (_Traite des Arb. Fruit_. 123); the _Cerasus bigarella regalis_
Roemer (_Syn. Monogr_. =3=:69); and the _Prunus avium regalis_ Bailey
(Cyc. _Am. Hort_. 1453. 1901).


PRUNUS MAHALEB Linnaeus.

    1. Linnaeus _Sp. Pl._ 474. 1753. 2. Bailey _Cyc. Am. Hort._
    =3=:1451. 1901. 3. Schneider _Handb. Laubh._ =1=:617. 1906.

    _Cerasus mahaleb._ 4. Miller _Gard. Dict._ ed. 8: No. 4. 1759.

    _Padus mahaleb._ 5. Borkhausen _Handb. Forstb._ =2=:1434. 1803.

    Tree small, slender, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped;
    branches roughened, ash-gray over reddish-brown; branchlets
    numerous, slender and firm-wooded, with short internodes, dull
    gray, glabrous, with very numerous large, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, an inch in length, one and one-fourth inches
    wide, ovate to obovate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green,
    glossy, smooth; lower surface light green, slightly pubescent
    along the midrib; apex and base abrupt; margin finely crenate,
    with reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, slender,
    greenish, with none or with from one to three small, globose,
    greenish glands variable in position.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, appressed or free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds and in clusters on small, slender spurs; flowers
    appearing late, after the leaves, small, averaging one-half
    inch across, white, fragrant; borne in clusters of six to eight
    scattered on a main stem an inch in length, with the terminal
    pedicels one-quarter inch long and basal pedicels one-half inch
    long; pedicels slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green,
    campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, entire, glabrous,
    reflexed; petals white, small, separated, ovate, tapering to
    short, narrow claws; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, about equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures about the middle of July; very small, one-fourth
    inch long, one-third inch wide, roundish-ovate; cavity shallow
    and abrupt; suture shallow or a mere line; apex roundish to
    slightly pointed, with stigma usually adherent; color black;
    stem slender, length of corymb about one and one-half inches;
    length of fruit-stem about one-quarter inch; skin thick, tough;
    flesh reddish-black, with scant reddish-black juice, tender and
    soft, very astringent, sour, not edible; stone free or nearly so,
    very small, averaging nine thirty-seconds inch long and seven
    thirty-seconds inch wide, ovate, slightly flattened, with pointed
    apex; ventral suture prominent.

_Prunus mahaleb_ is now a wild inhabitant of all southern Europe as far
north as central France, southern Germany, Austria-Hungary and eastward
through Asia Minor and Caucasia to and within the borders of Turkestan.
Wherever it grows spontaneously in the Old World it is said to prefer
rocky, gravelly, sunny slopes and the climate in which the grape thrives
best. Wild or cultivated, the Mahaleb is a shallow-rooted plant, a fact
that must be taken into consideration in its use as a stock. _Prunus
mahaleb_ is a common escape from cultivation in eastern North America
especially about the nursery centers of central New York.

The Mahaleb, or St. Lucie cherry, is of no importance to fruit-growers
for its fruit but as a consort with nearly all of the Sweet and Sour
Cherries now being propagated in North America it becomes of prime
importance and so receives botanical consideration here. According to
Schneider, in the reference cited, there are several spontaneous forms
of _Prunus mahaleb_ and also several horticultural varieties grown as
ornamentals. None of these, wild or cultivated, are of interest to
fruit-growers, unless, perchance some one of them should prove to be a
better stock upon which to work orchard cherries. Mahaleb stocks are
usually grown as seedlings but may also be propagated from root
cuttings.

The wood of the Mahaleb tree is of value in cabinet making, possessing
among other good qualities a pleasant and lasting odor. The leaves, too,
are odoriferous and are more or less used in France in the manufacture
of perfumes and in cookery to give savor to sauces.


PRUNUS TOMENTOSA Thunberg.

    1. Thunberg _Fl. Jap._ 203. 1784. 2. _Jack Garden & Forest_
    =5=:580, fig. 99. 1892. 3. Bailey _Cyc. Am. Hort._ =3=:1451. 1901.
    4. Schneider _Handb. Laubh._ =1=:601. 1906. 5. Koehne _Plantae
    Wilsonianae_ Pt. =2=:268. 1912.

    _Cerasus tomentosa._ 6. Wallich _Cat._ No. 715. 1829.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS TOMENTOSA_]

    A dwarfish, bush-like plant attaining a height of ten or twelve
    feet, vigorous, dense-topped, hardy; trunk and branches stocky;
    branches smooth, grayish-brown; branchlets many, of medium
    thickness and length, thickly overspread with short pubescence,
    with short internodes, roughish, with a few large, raised
    lenticels near the base.

    Leaves numerous, two and one-eighth inches long, one and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward or flattened, broad-oval to obovate,
    velvety; upper surface dull, dark green, rugose; lower surface
    thickly pubescent, with a prominent midrib and veins; apex
    abruptly pointed; margin serrate; petiole three-sixteenths inch in
    length, reddish, pubescent, of medium thickness, with from twelve
    to fourteen small, globose, yellow glands, usually at the base of
    the blade.

    Buds very small, short, pointed, free, arranged as lateral buds
    and in clusters on small, short spurs; leaf-scars not prominent;
    season of bloom early; flowers appear with the leaves, white,
    thirteen-sixteenths inch across; borne singly or in pairs;
    pedicels short, thick, glabrous; calyx-tube reddish, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, serrate, slightly pubescent,
    erect; petals white, roundish-ovate, entire, with short claws;
    anthers tinged with red; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than
    the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; a half-inch in diameter, roundish,
    slightly compressed; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow;
    apex depressed, with adherent stigma; color currant-red; dots
    numerous, small, grayish, obscure; stem thickish, one-eighth to
    one-quarter of an inch in length, pubescent; skin thick, tender,
    adheres slightly to the pulp, covered with light pubescence; flesh
    light red, with light red juice, stringy, melting, sprightly,
    sour; good in quality; stone clinging, one-quarter of an inch
    long, one-eighth inch wide, oval, slightly pointed, with smooth
    surfaces.

The habitat of _Prunus tomentosa_ is probably Central Asia though it is
now to be found growing spontaneously in East Tibet and the Chinese
provinces of Setschuan, Hupe, Kansu and perhaps Tochlii.

This shrub-like cherry is very generally cultivated in central, eastern
and northern China and in Japan for its fruit and as an ornamental. It
has been introduced into cultivation in many widely separated places in
North America and appears to be promising for cold regions, both bud and
wood withstanding perfectly the most rigorous climates of the United
States. As it grows in America it is a bush and never a true tree. It is
a twiggy, close-jointed plant, usually with many stems springing from
the ground and these bearing branches quite to the base. Frequently
these low-growing branches bend to the ground and take root forming new
plants. The bushes are thickly clothed with leaves densely tomentose on
the underside, in this respect and in shape, as well, very unlike the
foliage of common cultivated cherries. The flowers appear in great
abundance with the leaves, making a handsome ornamental; they are white,
becoming rose-colored as they fall away. The fruit ripens in mid-season
for cherries, setting profusely from the many blossoms. The cherries are
a half-inch in diameter, bright currant-red, covered with inconspicuous
hairs and contain a stone of medium size. They are pleasantly acid, very
juicy and withal a decided addition to cultivated cherries. _Prunus
tomentosa_ seems a most promising plant for domestication and of
particular merit for small gardens and cold regions.

Koehne, in his list of cherries, names ten botanical varieties of
_Prunus tomentosa_. From this the species seems to be most variable and
under cultivation would probably break up into many forms some of which
might prove superior to the type species. Koehne's botanical varieties
are given under the species on page 22.


PRUNUS PUMILA Linnaeus.

    1. Linnaeus _Mant. Pl._ 75. 1768. 2. Bailey _Cor. Bul. Ex. Sta_.
    =38=:96. 1892. Bailey _l. c_. =70=:260. 1894. 3. Bailey _Cyc. Am.
    Hort._ =3=:1450. 1901.

    _P. Susquehanae._ 4. Willdenow _Enum. Pl._ 519. 1809.

    _P. depressa._ 5. Pursh _Fl. Am._ =1=:332. 1814.

    _P. incana._ 6. Schweinitz Long's Expedition by Keating =2=:387.
    1824.

    _Cerasus glauca._ 7. Moench _Meth._ 672. 1794.

    _C. pumila._ 8. Michaux _Fl. Bor. Am._ =2=:286. 1803.

    _C. depressa._ 9. Seringe, in De Candolle _Prod._ =2=:538. 1825.

    Plant a small shrub, five to eight feet in height, willow-like
    habit, weak, upright when young but becoming decumbent,
    slow-growing, hardy; trunk slender, smooth except for the raised
    lenticels; branches slender, smooth, twiggy, very dark, dull
    reddish-black with a tinge of gray; lenticels numerous, small,
    conspicuous; branchlets very slender, short, twiggy, with short
    internodes, dull grayish-brown, glabrous, with conspicuous, very
    small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves hanging late in the season, small, averaging one and
    three-fourths inches long, one inch wide, flat, abruptly pointed,
    narrowly oblanceolate to obovate, thin; upper surface dark, dull
    green, smooth; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent on
    the midrib and veins; midrib small, straight; veins very minute;
    margin serrate, teeth tipped with very small glands; petiole
    short, one-fourth inch in length, glandless.

    Flowers small, in two- to five-flowered umbels, white, appearing
    with the leaves; pedicels slender, a half-inch in length.
    Fruit nearly round, pendulous, variable in color but usually
    purple-black, without bloom, nearly a half-inch in diameter; flesh
    thin, variable in quality but often sour and astringent; season
    late July; stone turgid, nearly round.

_Prunus pumila_, the Sand Cherry, or Dwarf Cherry, of eastern America,
is found on sandy and rocky inland shores from Maine to the District of
Columbia and northwestward to the Lake of the Woods in Canada. In
particular it is common on the sand dunes of the Great Lakes. Everywhere
in the wild state it grows in light sands suggesting its use in arid
soils and especially on poor soils in cold climates.

As yet there seem to be no named varieties of this cherry known to
fruit-growers, its nearly related species, _Prunus besseyi_, offering
greater opportunities to both the fruit-grower and the experimenter.
Both the plants and fruits are so variable, the size, color and quality
of the crop on some plants being quite attractive, that it is certain an
opportunity to domesticate a worthy native plant is being overlooked.
The species ought to have value, too, as a stock on which to work other
cherries for sandy soils, dwarf trees and exacting climates.


PRUNUS CUNEATA Rafinesque.

    1. Rafinesque _Ann. Nat._ 11. 1820. 2. Bailey _Cor. Ex. Sta. Bul._
    =38=:101. 1892. 3. Britton and Brown _Ill. Flora_ =2=:250. 1897.
    4. Gray _Man. Bot._ ed. =7=:498. 1908.

    _P. pumila cuneata._ 5. Bailey _Cyc. Am. Hort._ =3=:1451. 1901.

_Prunus cuneata_, sometimes called the Appalachian cherry, is not
growing at this Station but is described in the references given as very
similar to the Sand Cherry, differing in the following respects:

The plant is dwarfer but is more erect never having prostrate branches;
the branches are smoother and lighter colored; the leaves are shorter,
more oval, more obtuse, thinner, less conspicuously veined, teeth fewer
and the points more appressed; the flowers are larger, petals broader
and are borne on slightly curled stems in umbels of two to four; the
fruit and stone in the two species are much the same, possibly averaging
smaller in this species.

The habitat of _Prunus cuneata_ is from Maine to North Carolina and
northwest to Minnesota, being most commonly found in wet, stiff soils
near lakes and bogs but often found on rocky hills if the soil be not
too dry.

It is doubtful if this cherry is as promising for cultivation as the
foregoing species and not nearly as worthy attention as the next cherry.


PRUNUS BESSEYI Bailey.

    1. Bailey _Cor. Ex. Sta. Bul._ =70=:261. 1894. 2. _Contrib. U. S.
    Nat. Herb._ =3=:156. 1895. 3. Bessey _Neb. Hort. Soc._ =26=:168.
    1895. Bessey _l. c._ =37=:121. 1906. 4. Britton and Brown _Ill.
    Flora_ =3=:251. 1897.

    _P. pumila Besseyi._ 5. Waugh _Vt. Ex. Sta. Rpt._ =12=:239.
    1898-99. 6. Bailey _Cyc. Am. Hort._ 3:1451. 1901.

    Plant a small shrub, spreading or diffuse, one to four feet in
    height, open-centered, slow-growing, hardy; trunk slender, smooth;
    branches slender, smooth, very dark brownish-black, with numerous
    lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with short internodes,
    dull grayish-brown becoming almost black, smooth, glabrous, with
    conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves hanging late, numerous, small, two and three-eighths inches
    long, one inch wide, thick, stiff, slightly folded upward or
    nearly flat; apex with a short taper-point, broadly lanceolate to
    nearly oval-lanceolate; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth;
    lower surface very light green, not pubescent; midrib distinct,
    glabrous; veins small but distinct; margin serrate, teeth
    appressed, tipped with indistinct, sharp glands; petiole thick,
    three-eighths inch in length, glandless or with from one to two
    very small, light colored, globose glands on the petiole at the
    base of the leaf; stipules very prominent, almost leaf-like.

    Flowers appearing with the leaves in sessile umbels, small, less
    than a half-inch across, white; fruit more than a half-inch in
    diameter, globose, sometimes oblong-pointed, yellowish, mottled or
    more often purple-black; variable in quality but always more or
    less astringent; ripening in early August; stone large, globose,
    slightly flattened.

The habitat of _Prunus besseyi_ is not yet definitely bounded but it
can, at least, be said that this species is to be found on the prairies
from Manitoba and Minnesota to southern Kansas and westward into
Montana, Wyoming and Utah. In its natural range it undoubtedly runs into
that of _Prunus pumila_ to the east, and Waugh, in the reference given,
holds that the two species grade into each other and he, therefore,
makes this a variety of the eastern species. Certainly _Prunus pumila_
and _Prunus besseyi_ are as distinct as are many other of the more or
less indefinite species of this genus--few, indeed, are the species of
Prunus that do not have outliers which overlap other types and, as we
shall see, there are hybrids between this and species of other cherries,
plums and even peaches and apricots, showing that the lines of
demarcation between the members of this genus are difficult to define.

Although _Prunus besseyi_ has received attention from horticulturists
less than a quarter-century it has aroused much interest, best
indicated by the fact that now a considerable number of varieties of
the species are under cultivation and there are more than a score of
hybrids disseminated in which it is one of the parents. Indians,
trappers and early settlers have long used the wild fruit under the name
of Western Sand Cherry, Bessey's Cherry and Rocky Mountain Cherry. Among
pioneers this cherry was held in high esteem for sauces, pies and
preserves and, where there was a dearth of cultivated cherries, was
eaten with relish out of hand. The flesh is tender, juicy and, while
astringent as commonly found, plants bearing aromatic and very palatable
cherries are often found growing wild while some of the domesticated
plants bear very well-flavored fruits. All speak of the Sand Cherry as
wonderful in productiveness and as having remarkable capacity to
withstand the vicissitudes of the exacting climate in which it grows. A
valuable asset of _Prunus besseyi_ is its great variability. Fruit from
different plants varies in size, color and flavor suggesting that, under
cultivation, amelioration will proceed rapidly. The plants of this
species root freely from layers or root-cuttings and are therefore
easily propagated and multiplied.

But it is in its hybrids that this western cherry has proved most
valuable in horticulture. There are now hybrids under cultivation
between this species and the Sand plum (_Prunus augustifolia watsoni_),
the Hortulana plum (_Prunus hortulana_), the Simonii plum (_Prunus
simonii_), the Japanese plum (_Prunus triflora_), the American plum
(_Prunus americana_), the Cherry plum (_Prunus cerasifera_), the Sweet
Cherry (_Prunus avium_), the peach (_Prunus persica_), the apricots
_(Prunus armeniaca_ and _Prunus mume_), and the common plum _(Prunus
domestica_). It would almost seem that this species is the "go-between"
of the many and varied types of the genus Prunus. It is true that few of
these hybrids yet shine as orchard plants but, given time, it seems
certain that some will prove valuable in general horticulture and that
many will be grown in the special horticulture of the northern
Mississippi Valley and the adjoining plains to the west. Credit must be
given to Professor N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station
for most of our present knowledge of hybridism between this and other
species.[10]

In his work with this species Hansen has also found that _Prunus
besseyi_ makes a very good stock for peaches, apricots, Japanese and
native plums and that, while it does not so readily consort with the
true cherries, yet it can be used as a stock for them. On the other
hand larger fruits of the Sand Cherry can be grown when it is budded on
stocks of the Americana.

    [10] See bulletins 87 (1904), 88 (1904), 108 (1908) and 130 (1911)
    from the South Dakota Experiment Station, Brookings, S. D.


MINOR SPECIES

Besides these well-recognized species of cultivated cherries there are
several others that play a much less conspicuous part in horticulture.
_Prunus fruticosa_ Pallas, the Dwarf Cherry of Europe, is much
cultivated, more especially its botanical variety _pendula_, as an
ornamental and somewhat for its fruit. According to Wilson,[11] _Prunus
involucrata_ Koehne is grown for its fruit in the gardens of China; the
fruits, he says, are "small and lacking in flavour." The fruits of
_Prunus emarginata_ Walpers are eaten by the Indians on the Pacific
Coast and the early settlers used the species as a stock for orchard
cherries. _Prunus jacquemontii_ Hooker, the Dwarf Cherry of Afghanistan
and Tibet, is occasionally in culture for its fruit and as a park plant;
so also is another dwarf cherry from southwestern Asia, _Prunus incana_
Steven. _Prunus pseudocerasus_ Lindley, the Flowering Cherry of Japan,
is a well-known ornamental the world over and in Japan is used as a
stock for orchard cherries for which purpose, as we have suggested in
the discussion of stocks, it ought to be tried in America.

    [11] Wilson, E. H. _A Naturalist in Western China_ =2=:27. 1913.



CHAPTER II

THE HISTORY OF CULTIVATED CHERRIES


THE ANCIENT USE OF CHERRIES

History casts no direct light upon the period when the cherry first came
under cultivation. Undoubtedly primitive men in all parts of the North
Temperate Zone enlivened their scanty fruit fare with wild cherries.
Cultivated cherries, we know, had their origin in the Old World. But
history tells us nothing of the period when Europe and Asia were
unbroken forests inhabitated by savages who eked out a precarious
subsistence by the pursuit of the chase and from meagre harvests of wild
grains, fruits and vegetables. On these continents agriculture and rude
civilization began in ages immemorial and cultivated plants diversified,
enriched and adorned the landscapes long before the first written
records. Our knowledge of how wild cherries have been remodeled into the
orchard and garden varieties of today--of what the methods and
processes of domestication have been--is, therefore, doubtful and
limited, for the mind and hand of man had been deeply impressed upon the
cherry long before the faint traditions which have been transmitted to
our day could possibly have arisen.

The history of the cherry, then, goes back to primitive man. Direct
proof of the ancient use of cherries is furnished by the finding of
cherry-pits of several species in the deposits of Swiss lake-dwellings,
in the mounds and cliff-caves of prehistoric inhabitants of America and
in the ancient rubbish-heaps of Scandinavian countries. There are but
few regions in which cultivated cherries are grown in which the
inhabitants in times of stress, or by choice in times of plenty, do not
now use as food wild cherries, some species of which grow in abundance
and under the most varied conditions, almost from the Arctic Circle to
within a few degrees of the Tropic of Cancer in a belt encircling the
globe. It is probable that all of the wild species which have furnished
fruit to the aborigines or to the modern inhabitants of a region have
been sparingly cultivated--at the very least if they possessed any
considerable food value they have been more or less widely distributed
by the hand of man. But, curiously enough, out of the score or more of
species of which the fruit is used as food as the plants grow wild, but
two may be said to be truly domesticated. These are the Sour, or Pie
Cherry, _Prunus cerasus_, and the Sweet Cherry, _Prunus avium_, with
the histories of which we are now to be concerned.

Pliny is generally accredited as the first historian of the cherry.
Nearly eighteen and a half centuries ago he gave an account of the
cherries of Rome with the statement that Lucullus, the Roman soldier and
gourmet, had brought them to Rome 65 years before Christ[12] from the
region of the Black Sea. This particular in the account proves to be a
good illustration of the adage that old errors strike root deeply.
Though disproved beyond all question of doubt time and time again by
botanists and historians, Pliny's inadvertence is still everywhere
current in text-books, pomologies and cyclopaedias--a mis-statement
started, repeated and perpetuated from medieval days when to be printed
in Pliny was sufficient proof. That Lucullus brought to Italy a cherry
and one which the Romans did not know there is no reason to doubt, but
other cherries there must have been, not only wild but cultivated, of
_Prunus cerasus_ at least and probably of _Prunus avium_, and in
comparative abundance long before Lucullus, returning from the war in
Pontus with Mithridates, brought to Rome a cherry. With this brief
mention of Pliny's inaccuracy, we pass to more substantial facts in the
history of the cherry.

The domestication of one or the other of the two generally cultivated
species of cherries followed step by step the changes from savagery to
civilization in the countries of Europe and of western Asia. For, as one
sorts the accumulated stores of botanical and historical evidence, it
becomes quickly apparent that both the Sweet and the Sour Cherry now
grow wild and long have done so in the region named and that, from the
time tillage of plants was first practiced in the Old World, this fruit
has been under cultivation, feeble, obscure, and interrupted by war and
chase though its cultivation may have been. Certainly the history of the
cherry is as old as that of agriculture in the southern European
countries and is interwritten with it.

In beginning the history of a cultivated plant the first step is to
ascertain where it grows spontaneously--where it may be found unplanted
and unattended by man. This is the task now before us for _Prunus
cerasus_ and _Prunus avium_, discussing them in the order named.

    [12] See quotation on page 45.


THE ORIGIN OF CULTIVATED CHERRIES

_Prunus cerasus_, of which the Montmorency is the commonest
representative in America, is now to be found wild wherever Sour
Cherries are much grown, for it is a favorite food of many birds which
quickly scatter its seeds from centers of cultivation. Nearly all of the
botanies of temperate regions in which agriculture is carried on name
this cherry as an escape from cultivation into woods and hedgerows and
along roadsides. The Sour Cherry, then, is now to be found truly wild in
many parts of several continents. It is not so easy to say where the
habitat and what the condition before the species was cultivated. But
botany, archaeology, history and philology indicate that the original
habitat of the Sour Cherry is southeastern Europe and the nearby
countries in Asia.

After saying that this cherry has been found wild in the forests of Asia
Minor, the plains of Macedonia, on Mount Olympus and in neighboring
territories, De Candolle, however, limits its habitat to the region
"from the Caspian Sea to the environments of Constantinople."[13] But as
a wild plant this cherry must have spread over a far greater area. Even
the broadest boundaries of the habitat of _Prunus cerasus_ as set by De
Candolle show over-caution. Thus, the Marasca cherry, a botanical
variety of _Prunus cerasus_, is most certainly wild in the Province of
Dalmatia on the Adriatic Sea in Austria; so, too, it is certain that
this species is feral as far away from De Candolle's center of
distribution as northern Austria and southern Germany and has been so
for untold ages. It is safe to say that the original source of the Sour
Cherry was the territory lying between Switzerland and the Adriatic Sea
on the west and the Caspian Sea and probably somewhat farther north on
the east. That is, our savage forefathers must have found this cherry in
the region thus outlined, probably in a much more extended territory,
into which it was brought in more or less remote times by agencies other
than human from De Candolle's smaller area of origin.

It is easier to define the geographic range of the wild Sweet Cherry.
Botanists very generally agree that _Prunus avium_ as a wild plant
inhabits all of the mainland of Europe in which the cultivated varieties
of the species can be grown--that is, most of the continent south of
Sweden, and may be found wild well into southern Russia. The species is
reported sparingly wild in northern Africa and is a very common wild
plant in southern Asia as far east as northern India. It must not be
thought that the plant is everywhere abundant in the great area outlined
as its habitat. To the contrary, the Sweet Cherry is an uncommon wild
plant in Spain, Italy and other parts of southern Europe. All
authorities agree that the region of greatest communal intensity for
_Prunus avium_ is between the Caspian and Black Seas and south of these
bodies of water. It might suffice to say that from about these seas the
Sweet Cherry came--that here grew the trunk from which branches were
spread into other lands by birds and animals carrying the seeds from
place to place. The most important fact to be established, however, is
that this cherry has long grown spontaneously over a widely extended
territory and may, therefore, have been domesticated in several widely
separated regions.

    [13] De Candolle, _Origin of Cultivated Plants_ 207. 1885.


THE CHERRY IN GREECE; THE FIRST RECORD OF CULTURE AND THE NAME

Having established the habitats of the two cultivated cherries we may
next ask when and where their cultivation began. The domestication of
plants probably began in China--certainly Chinese agriculture long
antedates that of any other nation now in existence of which we have
records. Agriculture in China, historians roughly approximate, goes back
4,000 years. But while the Chinese have many other species of cherry, as
we have seen, some of which may be said to be partially domesticated,
_Prunus cerasus_ and _Prunus avium_ are not found wild in China and were
only in recent years introduced there as cultivated plants. Neither does
the cherry of our civilization seem to have been known in the second
great agricultural region of the world--Egypt and the extreme southwest
of Asia. At least there are no words for the cherry in the languages of
the peoples of that region and cherry pits have not been found with the
remains of other plants in the tombs and ruins of Egypt, Assyria and
Babylon. Nor does the cherry seem to have been cultivated in India until
comparatively recent times.

These very brief and general statements show that cherries were not
cultivated in the first agricultural civilizations and serve to fix the
time and the place of the domestication of the cherry a little more
definitely. Records of cherries as cultivated plants begin, so far as
the researches of botanical historians now show, with Greek civilization
though it is probable, for several reasons, that some cultivated
cherries came to Greece from Asia Minor.

Theophrastus, to whom Linnaeus gave the title "Father of Botany,"
writing about 300 years before the Christian era in his _History of
Plants_, is, according to botanical historians, the first of the Greek
writers to mention the cherry. His statement is as follows:--

"The cherry is a peculiar tree, of large size, some attaining the height
of twenty-four cubits, rather thick, so that they may measure two cubits
in circumference at the base. The leaf is like that of the mespilus,
rather firm and broader, the color of the foliage such that the tree may
be distinguished from others at a good distance. The bark, by its color,
smoothness and thickness, is like that of tilia. The flower [meaning,
the cluster of flowers] is white, resembling that of the pear and
mespilus, consisting of small [separate] flowers. The fruit is red,
similar to that of diospyros [but what his diospyros was no one knows]
of the size of a faba [perhaps nelumbo seed], which is hard, but the
cherry is soft. The tree grows in the same situations as tilia; by
streams."[14]

From this passage we gather that the cherry Theophrastus knew was the
Sweet Cherry, _Prunus avium_; the description shows it to be the same
large, tall tree now naturalized in open woods and along roadsides in
many parts of the United States. From the fact that Theophrastus
describes the tree and the bark in more detail than the fruit we may
assume that the cherry was more esteemed in ancient Greece as a
timber-tree than as a fruit-tree. Curiously enough the name the Greeks
at this time used for the Sweet Cherry is now applied to _Prunus
cerasus_, the Sour Cherry.

"Kerasos" was the Sweet Cherry in ancient Greece and from kerasos came
_cerasus_, used by many botanists as the name of the genus. That the
Sweet Cherry should by the use of _avium_ be denominated the "bird
cherry" is clear since birds show much discrimination between cherries,
but why the Sour Cherry should be given the specific name _cerasus_,
first applied to the Sweet Cherry, is not apparent.

Pages are written in the old pomologies and botanical histories as to
the origin of the word _cerasus_. Pliny's statement that Lucullus called
the cherry _cerasus_ from the town from which he obtained it, Kerasun in
Pontus, on the Black Sea, is, in the light of all who have since looked
into the matter, a misconception. To the contrary, commentators now
agree that the town received its name from the cherry which grows most
abundantly in the forests in that part of Asia Minor. The name,
according to all authorities, is very ancient--a linguistic proof of the
antiquity of the cherry.

To sum up, the cherry comes into literature first from Greece in the
writings of Theophrastus. There can be but little doubt, however, but
that it had been cultivated for centuries before Theophrastus wrote.
Whether one or both of the two cherries were domesticated by the Greeks,
beginning with their civilization, or whether cultivated cherries came
to Greece from Asia Minor, is not now known. It is very probable that
some of the several varieties grown in Greece came under cultivation
through domestication of wild plants; others were introduced from
regions farther east.

    [14] Theophrastus, Book III, Chap. 13.


THE SWEET CHERRY POSSIBLY THE PARENT OF THE SOUR CHERRY

A digression may be permitted here to state a hypothesis suggested by De
Candolle[15] which should interest both fruit-growers and
plant-breeders. De Candolle, while considering the two species of
cultivated cherries to be now quite distinct, suggests that, since they
differ essentially but little in their characters and since their
original habitats were in the same region, it is probable that one
species came from the other. He surmises, since _Prunus avium_ is the
commoner in the original home, is generally the more vigorous of the
two, has spread much farther and probably at a much earlier date from
the primal habitation in Asia Minor than _Prunus cerasus_, that the
latter, the Sour Cherry, is derived from the Sweet Cherry. In the future
breeding of cherries confirmatory evidence of such a relationship may be
obtained though, should none be found, the negation should go for naught
and the supposition can only remain an interesting and plausible
hypothesis.

    [15] De Candolle, Alphonse _Origin of Cultivated Plants_ 210. 1885.


THE CHERRY IN ITALY

Pliny attempts to give the first full account of cultivated cherries
and, even though among his statements are several inaccuracies, yet he
may be said to have made a very good beginning of a flora of cultivated
cherries for he names and describes ten varieties. The fact that there
were as many as ten cherries in Italy at the time Pliny wrote, less than
a century after the return of Lucullus from Pontus, is strong evidence
that the cherry in Italy antedates Lucullus. Besides, it is hardly
probable that Pliny knew and described all of the cherries to be found
in the whole of his country. But even if these ten comprise the entire
number, those who know how extremely difficult it is to introduce new
plants in a country with the facilities we have in our day, will doubt
that all of the cherries in Pliny's account could have been introduced
in Italy 1900 years ago and have come under general cultivation, as
according to Pliny they had, within the short space of a century. The
following quotation, then, must be taken as an account of the cherries
grown in Italy in the first century after Christ with little weight
given to the historical evidence presented.[16]

"The cherry did not exist in Italy before the period of the victory
gained over Mithridates by L. Lucullus, in the year of the City 680. He
was the first to introduce this tree from Pontus, and now, in the course
of one hundred and twenty years, it has travelled beyond the Ocean, and
arrived in Britannia even. The cherry, as we have already stated, in
spite of every care, has been found impossible to rear in Egypt. Of this
fruit, that known as the "Apronian" is the reddest variety, the Lutatian
being the blackest, and the Caecilian perfectly round. The Junian cherry
has an agreeable flavour, but only, so to say, when eaten beneath the
tree, as they are so remarkably delicate that they will not bear
carrying. The highest rank, however, has been awarded to the Duracinus
variety, known in Campania as the "Plinian" cherry, and in Belgica to
the Lusitanian cherry, as also to one that grows on the banks of the
Rhenus. This last kind has a third colour, being a mixture of black,
red, and green, and has always the appearance of being just on the turn
to ripening. It is less than five years since the kind known as the
"laurel-cherry" was introduced, of a bitter but not unpleasant flavour,
the produce of a graft upon the laurel. The Macedonian cherry grows on a
tree that is very small, and rarely exceeds three cubits in height;
while the chamaecerasus is still smaller, being but a mere shrub. The
cherry is one of the first trees to recompense the cultivator with its
yearly growth; it loves cold localities and a site exposed to the north.
The fruits are sometimes dried in the sun, and preserved, like olives,
in casks."

How are the cherries described in the passage from Pliny related to
those of modern culture? A score or more of commentators have tried to
tell but when the comments are compared Pliny's disorder becomes
confusion worse confounded. Here, as in his historical statements, Pliny
seems to have prepared the ground for a fine crop of misunderstandings.
The speculations as to what particular cherry each of the descriptions
fits quickly show the futility of specification. A few generalizations
only are warranted.

Thus, if we assume, as most commentators do, that Apronian, the first
of Pliny's varieties, was named after Apronius, a Roman praetor of
Pliny's day, there is nothing to indicate the character of the cherry
except the word "reddest" which means but little for it is no more
possible to distinguish cherries by redness than by its blackness to
tell a pot from a kettle.

It is as impossible to distinguish the second variety as the first. The
name given is Lutatian, the variety having been dedicated, as all
commentators agree, to Lutatius Catulus, a contemporary of Lucullus,
revered by Romans for having rebuilt the capitol after it had been
destroyed by fire. It is described as "being the blackest" but whether
_Prunus avium_ or _Prunus cerasus_, sweet or sour, who can tell?

The third variety is called the Caecilian cherry, which we are told is
"perfectly round"--a character possessed in like degree by many
cherries. The name, on the authority of Latin scholars, commemorates the
Caecilius family, rich and powerful Romans, friends of Lucullus at the
time he was promoting cherry culture.

We may be a little more certain of the identity of the fourth cherry,
called the Junian, and said to have been possessed of "an agreeable
flavor but only, so to say, when eaten beneath the tree, as they are so
remarkably delicate that they will not bear carrying." Whether the name
was given in honor of the Roman Republican, Junius Brutus, who died 42
A. D. or from Junius, the month of their ripening, cannot be said. The
description, as practically all agree, fits very well the French Guigne
or English Gean group of cherries. It is probable that "Guigne" is a
perversion of "Junian."

There can be little question as to the cherry Pliny next describes, "the
Duracinus variety" which he says has been awarded "highest rank" and to
which he paid the compliment of giving it his own name, for he tells us
that it is "known in Campania as the Plinian cherry." This hard-fleshed
cherry of delectable quality can be no other than a Bigarreau--some
protean Napoleon, Yellow Spanish, Windsor or the older Oxheart and
Elkhorn.

The sixth cherry is the Lusitanian, which, if the translations read
aright, the Belgians rank highest. Ancient Lusitania is modern Portugal
and the Lusitanian cherry may be the Griotte of Portugal grown from time
immemorial in that country. The identity of the variety is not so
important in this passage as is the connection that Pliny establishes in
cherry culture at this early time between Portugal, Italy and Belgium.
By such tokens does our author cast doubt upon his statement that
Lucullus had but yesterday, as it were, brought the cherry from Pontus.

The seventh cherry is one "that grows on the banks of the Rhenus"
(Rhine), further described as "being a mixture of black, red and green,"
and of having "always the appearance of being just on the turn to
ripening." It is useless to add another guess to those of the many
commentators as to what this tri-colored cherry from the banks of the
Rhine may be.

The eighth description, that of the "laurel-cherry," applies to a graft
and not to a variety. Of it, Pliny says, "It is less than five years
since the kind known as the laurel-cherry was introduced, of a bitter,
but not unpleasant flavor, the produce of a graft upon the laurel." It
is barely possible that a cherry could be made to grow on a laurel five
years but it is extremely doubtful, as all modern horticulturists who
have tried it say, and it is impossible to have such a graft bear fruit.
Pliny was misinformed.

The ninth and tenth of Pliny's cherries, the Macedonian and the
Chamaecerasus, are probably one and the same, since but one cherry that
could possibly answer to the descriptions given could have been in Italy
at the time Pliny wrote. The cherry described, then, was almost beyond
doubt _Prunus fruticosa_ Pallas, a synonym of which is _Prunus
chamaecerasus_ Jacquin, perpetuating the name used by Pliny. This is the
European Dwarf Cherry, or Ground Cherry, which is now and was probably
then a wild plant in parts of Italy and which is very well described by
"a tree that is very small, and rarely exceeds three cubits in height."

We have accredited Pliny with having first described cherries in Italy
and discredited his account of their introduction in his own country,
but chiefly on inferential evidence. Just a few words of direct proof
that the cherry was long in cultivation by the Romans before Lucullus
and we have done with the introduction of the cherry into Italy and have
filled another gap between Theophrastus and our own times. Marcus
Terentius Varro (B. C. 117-27), one of the illustrious scholars of
ancient Rome, sometimes called the father of Roman learning, in his
eightieth year, as he tells us in his first chapter, wrote a book on
farming--one, which, by the way, may be read with profit by modern
farmers.[17] In book 1, chapter XXXIX, he tells when to graft cherries,
discussing the process not as if it or the cherry were new or little
known but as if the cherry were as commonplace as the other
agricultural crops of the times. Varro effectually disproves Pliny to
whose mis-statement we have given so much space only because for nearly
2000 years it has been generally accepted as the truth.

The gaps in the history of the cherry are long. Athenaeus,[18]
Tertullian,[19] Ammianus,[20] and St. Jerome,[21] Roman writers of the
Third and Fourth Centuries, mention cherries but chiefly to repeat and
perpetuate Pliny's errors. It was not until the Sixteenth Century--a
lapse of 1400 years--that an attempt was again made to describe in full
cultivated cherries. Sometime in this century, Matthiolus (1487-1577), a
Tuscan and one of the eminent naturalists not only of Italy but of the
world in the Middle Ages, in translating and annotating the medical
works of the Greek writer Dioscorides, made a list of the fruit-trees
then grown in Italy. As the second descriptive list of cherries this
contribution of Matthiolus might be worth reprinting were it not, as in
Pliny, that but few of his varieties can be certainly made out. He does,
however, make a number of additions to Pliny's list but space does not
permit a consideration of these; especially since Gerarde, writing less
than a century later in English, so well amplifies Matthiolus that we
shall print his account.

    [16] Bostock and Riley _Nat. History of Pliny_ =3=:322. 1855.

    [17] A very good translation of Varro on farming is one by Lloyd
    Starr-Best, published by G. Bell & Sons, London. 1912.

    [18] Athenaeus _Dipnosophistæ_ Book II, Chap. XXXIV-V.

    [19] Tertullian _Apologeticum_ Chap. XI.

    [20] Ammianus _History of the Roman Emperors_ Book 22, Chap. XVI.

    [21] St. Jerome _Epistulae_ Book I, Letter XXXV.


CHERRIES IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Pliny mentions the cherry as growing in several countries and, by
reading between lines, we may assume that cultivated cherries were
distributed throughout all parts of Europe where agriculture was
practiced, by Christ's time or shortly thereafter. Pliny speaks of the
cherry in some connection with England, Germany, Belgium and Portugal.
Surely we may assume that the cherry was being grown at the same time in
at least the countries in Europe which are between or border on those
named. But from Pliny to the Sixteenth Century the current of progress
in cherry culture was immeasurably slow. In the intervening 1600 years
not a score of new cherries were brought under cultivation. Attention
was probably given during these dark ages to this and to all fruits as
species and as divisions of species which came nearly or quite true to
seed. It was only in the refinements of horticulture and botany brought
about by the herbalists that true horticultural varieties came into
common cultivation.

Thus, the first of the German herbals, the _Herbarius_, printed at Mainz
in 1491, does not describe or even name varieties of cherries but groups
them in the two species as Sweets and Sours, the statement running:[22]
"The cherries are some sweet, some sour, like the wild apple; the sours
bring to the stomach gas and make the mouth fresh (frisch), those too
sweet or too sour are of little use." A wood-cut in this old herbal
illustrates a Sour Cherry.

According to Müller,[23] not until 1569 did the Germans attempt to give
names to varieties, when, in a medical herbal, the _Gart der
Gesundheit_, cherries were roughly divided into four groups: (1) The
Amarellen, sour, dark red cherries with long stems. (2) The
Weichselkirschen, red cherries with white juice and short stems. (3) The
Süsskirschen, red or black Sweet Cherries with long stems. (4) "Beside
these yet more" distinguished by their shape and the province in which
they are grown. Not until well into the Eighteenth Century do the
Germans seem to have given names to more than a few of the most distinct
varieties of cherries. Yet the cherry was more largely cultivated in
Germany, one, two, or three centuries ago, as it is now, than in any
other European country. This, one readily gleans from what has been
written on cherries in different countries and from the acknowledgments
of foreign pomologists to those of Germany for most of what has been
printed regarding cherries. Not only has the cherry been a favorite
orchard plant in Germany but since the Sixteenth Century it has been
largely planted along the public roads.

Of cherries on the continent, for this brief history, nothing more need
be said. Most of the varieties that have been imported from Europe to
America have come from England and we must, therefore, devote rather
more attention to the history of the cherry in England than in other
European countries.

    [22] Quoted from Müller, Hugo M. _Obstzüchter_ =8=:3. 1910.

    [23] _Ibid._


CHERRIES IN ENGLAND

Cultivated cherries came to England with the Romans. _Prunus avium_ is
indigenous in Great Britain but probably no care worthy the name
cultivation was given these wild trees by the ancient Britons. Pliny
states that the cherry was carried from Rome to Britain before the
middle of the First Century--meaning probably some improved variety. In
no part of the world does the cherry take more kindly to the soil than
in England and no doubt this fruit became firmly established in Kent,
where the Romans settled, before the downfall of the southern invaders.
With the expulsion of the Romans and the subsequent influx of
barbarians, agriculture, especially gardening and fruit-growing, became
almost a lost art but still it is not probable that the cherry was
wholly lost to cultivation during the Teutonic invasions of Britain.

Fruit-growing could not have greatly prospered, however, in the
centuries of strife with the barbarians which succeeded Roman rule in
England; and a revival of cherry culture did not take place until the
reintroduction of Christianity and the establishment of monasteries
where, undisturbed by wars, the monks became notable horticulturists.
They not only had opportunity in the comparative peace in which their
lives were cast to grow fruit but many of them were men of superior
intelligence and skill and from intercourse with the continental
countries learned what plants were worth growing and how to grow
them--the monasteries were the experiment stations of the times.
Undoubtedly the monks in bringing to England treasures from the
continent did not forget fruits and among them cherries.

Passing by a considerable number of references which could be cited to
show that cherries of one kind and another were cultivated in Britain
from at least as early a date as the Ninth Century, we come to the
discussion of this fruit by the herbalists of the Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries. Of the three great English herbalists, Turner
published his work in 1538; Gerarde's, printed in 1596, was revised and
greatly improved by Johnson in 1633; Parkinson's _Paradisi in Sole
Paradisus Terrestris_, or Park-in-Suns Earthly Paradise--the author
evidently a punster--was published in 1629. All of these contain as full
botanical and pomological discussions of cherries as knowledge then
permitted.

It must not be thought, by those unacquainted with the plant-lore of the
times, that the cherry received consideration only from the pens of
Turner, Gerarde, and Parkinson. During the time covered by the lives of
these three men a score or more of books were written in English on
botany and pomology in which accounts were given of the cherry, all
showing the esteem in which this fruit was held in England during and
before the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Space permits comments on the
account of the cherry given by but one of these Elizabethan herbalists,
and of the several Gerarde's seems best suited to our purpose.

We have chosen Gerarde because he treats the cherry more fully than do
the other writers of the period and because he was a compiler and a
translator, having, as he quaintly says, "perused divers Herbals set
fourth in other languages;" thus from Gerarde we obtain a conception of
cherries growing on the continent as well as those growing in England.
Students of the English herbals say that Gerarde translated, copied and
adapted from Matthiolus, whose book we have noted, but more particularly
from Dodoens who in 1554 published in Antwerp _A History of Plants_.
These two worthies, in turn, had borrowed very freely from still more
ancient writers--Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Columella and others. As
might be suspected, errors centuries old were passed down, yet each new
translation or compilation contains much added information and is far
freer from error. In particular, Gerarde seems to have been a wise
compiler and adapter and to have combined a large measure of first-hand
practical knowledge with his borrowings from others. This is especially
true of what he writes concerning cherries, a fruit with which he seems
to have been very familiar.

The following is Gerarde's account, with interpolations by the author:

    "The ancient Herbalists have set down four kinds of Cherry trees;
    the first is great and wild, the second tame or of the garden, the
    third hath sour fruit, the fourth is that which is called in Latin
    Chamaecerasus, or the dwarfe Cherry tree. The later writers have
    found divers sorts more, some bringing forth great fruit, others
    lesser; some with white fruit, some with blacke, others of the
    colour of black bloud, varying infinitely according to the clymat
    and country where they grow."

The four cherries which Gerarde says the "ancient herbalists have set
down" are, it is easy to see: first, the wild _Prunus avium_; second,
cultivated sweet varieties of _Prunus avium_; third, the sour _Prunus
cerasus_; fourth, the Dwarf Cherry, _Prunus fruticosa_.

    "The English Cherry tree groweth to a high and great tree, the
    body whereof is of a mean bignesse, which is parted above into
    very many boughes, with a barke somewhat smooth, of a brown
    crimson colour, tough and pliable; the substance or timber is
    also brown in the middle, and the outer part is somewhat white:
    the leaves be great, broad, long, set with veins or nerves, and
    sleightly nicked about the edges: the floures are white, of a mean
    bigness, consisting of five leaves, and having certain threds in
    the middle of the like colour. The Cherries be round, hanging
    upon long stems or footstalks, with a stone in the middest which
    is covered with a pulp or soft meat; the kernell thereof is not
    unpleasant to the taste, though somewhat bitter."

This is _Prunus avium_, which is very generally wild in Britain--the
Gean of the English.

    "The Flanders Cherry tree differeth not from our English Cherry
    tree in Stature or form of leaves or floures, the only difference
    is, that this tree brings forth his fruit sooner and greater than
    the other, wherefore it may be called in Latine, _Cerasus praecox,
    sive Belgica_."

A cherry which "brings forth his fruit sooner and greater than the
other" can be no other than one of the early varieties of the Sweet
Cherry.

    "The Spanish Cherry tree groweth up to the height of our common
    Cherry tree, the wood or timber is soft and loose, covered with a
    whitish scaly barke, the branches are knotty, greater and fuller
    of substance than any other Cherry tree; the leaves are likewise
    greater and longer than any of the rest, in shape like those of
    the Chestnut tree: the floures are like the others in form, but
    whiter of colour; the fruit is greater and longer than any, white
    for the most part all over, except those that stand in the hottest
    place where the sun hath some reflexion against a wall: they are
    also white within, and of a pleasant taste."

We have in this description a very good pen picture of Yellow Spanish,
one of the Bigarreaus, of which there must have been several in common
cultivation in Gerarde's time.

    "The Gascoin Cherry tree groweth very like to the Spanish Cherry
    tree in stature, flours and leaves: it differeth in that it
    bringeth forth very great Cherries, long, sharp pointed, with a
    certain hollownesse upon one side, and spotted here and there with
    certain prickles of purple color as smal as sand. The taste is
    most pleasant, and excelleth in beauty."

Gascoin, sometimes "Gaskin" in England, is a corruption of Gascoigne, a
name applied by the French to cherries produced in Gascony and said to
have been brought to England by Joan of Kent when her husband, the Black
Prince, was commanding in Guienne and Gascony. The variety is a very
good Sweet Cherry, no doubt the one described in this text under the
name Bleeding Heart.

    "The late ripe Cherry tree groweth up like unto our wild English
    Cherry tree, with the like leaves, branches and floures, saving
    that they are sometimes once doubled; the fruit is small,
    round, and of a darke bloudy colour when they be ripe, which
    the Frenchmen gather with their stalkes, and hang them up in
    their houses in bunches or handfulls against Winter, which the
    Physitions do give unto their patients in hot and burning fevers,
    being first steeped in a little warme water, that causeth them to
    swell and plumpe as full and fresh as when they did grow upon the
    tree.

    "The Cluster Cherry tree differeth not from the last described
    either in leaves, branches, or stature: the floures are also like,
    but never commeth any one of them to be double. The fruit is
    round, red when they be ripe, and many growing upon one stem or
    foot-stalke in clusters, like as the Grapes do. The taste is not
    unpleasant although somewhat soure."

These two cherries, one sees at once, are varieties of _Prunus cerasus_.
The first, Gerarde identifies for us on a succeeding page as the
Morello. He says of it: "The late ripe cherries which the Frenchmen
keepe dried against the winter, and are by them called Morelle, and wee
after the same name call them Morell Cherries.

    "This Cherrie-tree with double floures growes up unto a small
    tree, not unlike to the common Cherrie-tree in each respect,
    saving that the floures are somewhat double, that is to say, three
    or foure times double; after which commeth fruit (though in small
    quantitie) like the other common Cherry.

    "The double floured Cherry-tree growes up like unto an hedge bush,
    but not so great nor high as any of the others, the leaves and
    branches differ not from the rest of the Cherry-tree. The floures
    hereof are exceeding double, as are the flours of Marigolds,
    but of a white colour, and smelling somewhat like the Hawthorne
    floures; after which come seldome or never any fruit, although
    some Authors have said that it beareth sometimes fruit, which my
    selfe have not at any time seen; notwithstanding the tree hath
    growne in my Garden many yeeres, and that in an excellent good
    place by a bricke wall, where it hath the reflection of the South
    Sunne, fit for a tree that is not willing to beare fruit in our
    cold climat."

These two are double-flowered cherries, several of which seem to have
been grown as ornamentals. Both belong to _Prunus cerasus_ and as we
gather rather better elsewhere than here, both are of the Amarelle type
of tree.

    "The Birds Cherry-tree, or the blacke Cherry-tree, that bringeth
    forth very much fruit upon one branch (which better may be
    understood by sight of the figure, than by words) springeth up
    like an Hedge tree of small stature, it groweth in the wilde woods
    of Kent, and are there used for stockes to graft other Cherries
    upon, of better tast, and more profit, as especially those called
    the Flanders Cherries: this wilde tree growes very plentifully
    in the North of England, especially at a place called Heggdale,
    neere unto Rosgill in Westmerland, and in divers other places
    about Crosbie Ravenswaith, and there called Hegberrie-tree: it
    groweth likewise in Martome Parke, foure miles from Blackeburne,
    and in Harward neere thereunto; in Lancashire almost in every
    hedge; the leaves and branches differ not from those of the
    wilde Cherry-tree: the floures grow alongst the small branches,
    consisting of five small white leaves, with some greenish and
    yellow thrums in the middle: after which come the fruit, greene at
    the first, blacke when they be ripe, and of the bignesse of Sloes;
    of an harsh and unpleasant taste.

    "The other birds Cherry-tree differeth not from the former in any
    respect, but in the colour of the berries; for as they are blacke;
    so on the contrary, these are red when they be ripe, wherein they
    differ."

The cherries described in these two paragraphs, one black and one red,
"that bringeth forth very much fruit upon one branch" and "groweth in
the wilde woods" and "of an harsh and unpleasant taste" are of course
the _Prunus padus_ of Britain and most of Europe--not a true cherry but
the racemose Bird Cherry, or Choke Cherry.

    "The common blacke Cherry-tree growes up in some places to
    great stature: there is no difference between it and our common
    Cherry-tree, saving that the fruit hereof is very little in
    respect of other Cherries, and of a blacke colour."

This must be some wild Gean or Mazzard.

    "The dwarfe Cherry-tree groweth very seldome to the height of
    three cubits: the trunke or body small, covered with a darke
    coloured blacke: whereupon do grow very limber and pliant twiggie
    branches: the leaves are very small, not much unlike to those of
    the Privite bush: the floures are small and white: after which
    come Cherries of a deepe red colour when they be ripe, of taste
    somewhat sharpe, but not greatly unpleasant: the branches laid
    downe in the earth, quickely take root, whereby it is greatly
    increased."

Here we have _Prunus fruticosa_ very well described.

    "My selfe with divers others have sundry other sorts in our
    gardens, one called the Hart Cherry, the greater and the lesser;
    one of the great bignesse, and most pleasant in taste, which we
    call _Luke Wardes_ Cherry, because he was the first that brought
    the same out of Italy; another we have called the Naples Cherry,
    because it was first brought into these parts from Naples: the
    fruit is very great, sharpe pointed, somewhat like a man's heart
    in shape, of a pleasant taste, and of a deepe blackish colour when
    it is ripe, as it were of the colour of dried bloud."

Gerarde's Hart is probably one of the Heart cherries, while "Luke Wardes
Cherry" is one of the oldest named Sweet Cherries known in England,
having been mentioned by Parkinson and other of the herbalists as well
as in this list.

    "We have another that bringeth forth Cherries also very great,
    bigger than any Flanders Cherrie, of the colour of Jet, or
    burnished horn, and of a most pleasant taste, as witnesseth
    Mr. Bull, the Queenes Majesties Clockmaker, who did taste of the
    fruit (the tree bearing onely one cherry, which he did eat; but my
    selfe never tasted of it) at the impression hereof. We have also
    another, called the Agriot Cherry, of a reasonable good taste.
    Another we have with fruit of a dun colour, tending to a watchet.
    We have one of the Dwarfe Cherries, that bringeth forth fruit as
    great as most of our Flanders Cherries, whereas the common sort
    hath very small Cherries, and those of an harsh taste. These and
    many sorts more we have in our London gardens, whereof to write
    particularly would greatly enlarge our volume, and to small
    purpose: therefore, what hath beene said shall suffice. I must
    here (as I have formerly done, in Peares, Apples, and other such
    fruites) refer you to my two friends, Mr. _John Parkinson_, and
    Mr. _John Millen_, the one to furnish you with the history, and
    the other with the things themselves, if you desire them."

One can only roughly surmise as to what the cherries mentioned in this
paragraph are with the exception of the Agriot which is, if the synonymy
of several European pomologists be correct, the Griotte Commune, a sort
supposed to have been brought from Syria by the crusaders and to have
been recorded under the last name in France as early as 1485.

The end of the Seventeenth Century saw a great revival of agriculture in
all of its branches on the continent; in England the revival began with
the fall of the commonwealth. From this time the progress of cherry
culture has been so rapid and so great that it would be an endless task
to give even a cursory view of it--a task unnecessary, too, for
succeeding the herbalists a great number of botanies, pomologies and
works on agriculture were published to many of which reference is still
easy. Moreover, the histories of varieties in this text carry us back
quite to the beginning of the Eighteenth Century.

There now remains for the history of the cherry but to sketch its
introduction and culture in North America, an undertaking that can be
done briefly and to the point, for the data are abundant, recent and
reliable. Here, too, accounts of the origin of varieties and the
development of the cherry may be looked for in the chapters which
comprise the main part of the book.


CHERRIES IN AMERICA

The cherry was one of the first fruits planted in the fields cleared and
enriched by our hardy American ancestry. From Canada to Florida the
colonists, though of several nationalities and those from one nation
often representing several quite distinct classes, were forced alike to
turn at once to the cultivation of the soil as a means of subsistence.
And while in all of the colonies the early settlers must have been
busily engaged in the cultivation of cereals for the staff of life, in
the South in growing cotton and tobacco for money and for purposes of
barter, in the North in harvesting forest and fish products for
bartering; yet the historians of the colonies notice so often and
describe so fully and with such warmth of feeling the vegetables,
flowers and fruits in the orchards and gardens of the New World that it
is certain that the ground was tilled not only as a means of subsistence
but because the tillers loved the luxuries of the land.

What fruit better adapted to the uses of colonists than the cherry? It
possesses in a high degree, especially the Sour Cherry, the power of
adaptation to new environment and thrives under a greater variety of
conditions than any other of our fruits unless it be the apple, which it
at least equals in this respect. The cherry is easily propagated; it
comes in bearing early and bears regularly; of all fruits it requires
least care--gives the greatest returns under neglect; and the product is
delectable and adapted to many purposes. We shall expect, then, in
examining the early records of fruit-growing in America to find the
cherry one of the first planted and one of the most widely disseminated
of fruits.


CHERRIES PLANTED BY THE FRENCH IN AMERICA

While written records are lacking, the plantations of old trees and the
development of cherry culture indicate that the French early planted
cherries in Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and in the
early settlements on the St. Lawrence River. The cherry is a favorite
fruit of the French and the venerable trees that survived on the sites
of their settlements when the English came into possession of Canada are
proof sufficient that the émigrés from Provence or Normandy, fruit
districts of France from which many French settlers came, brought with
them seeds of the cherry with those of other fruits. Peter Kalm in his
_Travels into North America_ in 1771,[24] records the very general
culture of all the hardy fruits in Canada and leaves the impression that
such had been the case from the first settlements.

    [24] Kalm, Peter _Travels into North America_ 1771.


CHERRIES IN NEW ENGLAND

The cherry came to New England with the first settlers. This we are told
in all the records of early New England in which the conditions of the
country are described and of it we have confirmatory proof in many
enormous cherry trees, Sweet and Sour, both about ancient habitations
and as escapes from cultivation in woods, fields and fence rows, all
pointing to the early cultivation of this fruit. The early records are
very specific. Thus, to quote a few out of an embarrassment of
references: Francis Higginson writing in 1629, after naming the several
other fruits then under cultivation in Massachusetts, notes that the Red
Kentish is the only cherry cultivated.[25] In the same year, the 16th of
March, 1629, a memorandum of the Massachusetts Company shows that
"Stones of all sorts of fruites, as peaches, plums, filberts, cherries,
pear, aple, quince kernells" were to be sent to New England.[26]

These seeds, provided by the home company with forethought of the need
of orchards in the colony, evidently produced fruit trees sufficient to
supply both hunger and thirst; for John Josselyn, who made voyages to
New England in 1638, 1639 and 1663, writing of "New England's Rarities
Discovered," says:[27] "Our fruit Trees prosper abundantly, Apple-trees,
Pear-trees, Quince-trees, Cherry-trees, Plum-trees, Barberry-trees. I
have observed with admiration, that the Kernels sown or the Succors
planted produce as fair and good fruit, without grafting, as the tree
from whence they were taken: the Countrey is replenished with fair and
large Orchards. It was affirmed by one Mr. Woolcut (a magistrate in
Connecticut Colony) at the Captains Messe (of which I was) aboard the
Ship I came home in, that he made Five hundred Hogsheads of Syder out of
his own Orchard in one year. Syder is very plentiful in the Countrey,
ordinarily sold for ten shillings a Hogshead.

"The Quinces, Cherries, Damsons, set the Dames a work, Marmalad and
preserved Damsons are to be met with in every house. It was not long
before I left the Countrey that I made Cherry wine, and so may others,
for there are good store of them both red and black. Their fruit trees
are subject to two diseases, the Meazels, which is when they are burned
and scorched with the Sun, and lowsiness, when the woodpeckers jab holes
in their bark: the way to cure them when they are lowsie is to bore a
hole in the main root with an Augur, and pour in a quantity of Brandie
or Rhum, and then stop it up with a pin made of the same Tree."

As early as 1641, a nursery had been started in Massachusetts and was
selling among other trees those of the cherry. Troublesome pests had
made their appearance, too, as may be seen from the following letter,
probably from the first American nurseryman. The letter is written by
George Fenwith of Saybrook, Connecticut, under date of May 6, 1641,[28]
to Governor John Winthrop, Jr.

    "I haue receaued the trees yow sent me, for which I hartily thanke
    yow. If I had any thing heare that could pleasure yow, yow should
    frely command it. I am prettie well storred with chirrie & peach
    trees, & did hope I had had a good nurserie of aples, of the aples
    yow sent me last yeare, but the wormes have in a manner distroyed
    them all as they came vp. I pray informe me if yow know any way to
    preuent the like mischiefe for the future."

These early plantations of cherries in New England were undoubtedly
grown from seed; for buds, cions and trees could not have been imported
unless the latter were brought over potted out as was not commonly done
until a century and a half later--at least, the records make mention of
seeds and not of trees as was the case just before and after the
Revolutionary War. A statement left by one of the Chief Justices of
Massachusetts, Paul Dudley, living at Roxbury, at as late a date as
1726, indicates that varieties were few. In a paper in the
_Philosophical Transactions_[29] on agricultural conditions in
Massachusetts, among many other interesting things, Justice Dudley says:

    "Our apples are without doubt as good as those of England, and
    much fairer to look to, and so are the pears, but we have not got
    all the sorts. Our peaches do rather excel those of England, and
    then we have not the trouble or expence of walls for them; for our
    peach trees are all standards, and I have had in my own garden
    seven or eight hundred fine peaches of the Rare-ripes, growing at
    a time on one tree. Our people, of late years, have run so much
    upon orchards, that in a village near Boston, consisting of about
    forty families, they made near three thousand barrels of cyder.
    This was in the year 1721. And in another town of two hundred
    families, in the same year I am credibly informed they made near
    ten thousand barrels. Our peach trees are large and fruitful, and
    bear commonly in three years from the stone. Our common cherries
    are not so good as the Kentish cherries of England, and we have no
    Dukes or Heart cherries, unless in two or three gardens."

    [25] _Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections_ 1st Ser. =I=:118.

    [26] _Mass. Records_ =I=:24.

    [27] _Mass. Hist. Collections_ 3d Ser. =23=:337.

    [28] _Mass. Hist. Collections_ 4th Ser. =VI=:499.

    [29] Abridgment =6=:pt. =II=:341, in _Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc._
    14-15. 1829-1878.


CHERRIES IN NEW YORK

Though settled at about the same time and having a more congenial
climate, New York made progress in fruit-growing more slowly than
Massachusetts. The early Dutch settlers in New York were transient
traders and not home makers. Actual settlement with homes in view did
not begin until after the historical bargain in which thrifty Peter
Minuit had acquired Manhattan Island for $24.00 and the country became
New Amsterdam. But troublesome times followed under the rule of Minuit,
Wouter Van Twiller and Kieft, quarrels and actual war, or the fear of
it, with colonists to the north and south as well as with the savages,
preventing the planting of orchards and farms until in 1647 when the
reins of government were taken in hand by Peter Stuyvesant.

Governor Stuyvesant was a farmer as well as a soldier and there is
something in history and much in tradition of the Bowery Farm, which
flourished on the site of the present Bowery in New York. This farm was
planted and tended by "Peter, the Headstrong" when he was not disputing
with his burgomasters, watching the Yankees and fighting Swedes and
Indians. The orchards and gardens, according to all accounts, were
remarkably fine and were kept in a high state of cultivation. Stuyvesant
founded the farm during the stormy times of his governorship but did not
live on it until the English took possession of New Amsterdam in 1664
when he retired to the land and devoted the eighteen remaining years of
his life to agriculture. From the neighboring colonies and from abroad
he brought many fruits, flowers, farm and truck crops. Fruits came to
him also from Holland and were disseminated from his orchard up the
Hudson.

The cherry was one of the fruits much grown by the Dutch. It would be
wearisome and would serve little purpose even to attempt a cursory
review of the literature of colonial days in New York showing the spread
and the extent of fruit culture by the Dutch. Travel up the Hudson and
its branches was easy and within a century after the settlement of New
York by the Dutch, cherries were not only cultivated by the whites,
according to the records of travelers, naturalists and missionaries, but
were rudely tilled by the Indians.

For a long time after its introduction in New York, the cherry, in
common with other fruits, was grown as a species--varieties and budded
or grafted trees were probably not known. Fruit-growing as an industry
began in New York and in America, with the establishment of a nursery
at Flushing, Long Island, in 1730, by Robert Prince, founder of the
nursery which afterwards became the famous Linnæan Botanic Garden. At
what date this nursery began to offer named cherries for sale cannot be
said but advertisements appearing in 1767, 1774 and 1794 show that
budded or grafted named cherries were being offered for sale by the
Princes. In 1804, William Prince, third proprietor of the famous
Flushing nursery, prepared a list of the named cherries then under
cultivation in America for Willich's _Domestic Encyclopaedia_, an
English work which was being edited and made "applicable to the present
situation of the United States" by Dr. James Mease. The following is
Prince's list:[30]

"May Duke, ripe in May and June: long stem, round and red, an excellent
cherry, and bears well.

Black Heart, ripe in June: a fine cherry.

White Heart (or Sugar Cherry) ripe in June: white and red.

Bleeding Heart, ripe in June; a very large cherry of a long form and
dark colour; it has a pleasant taste.

Ox Heart, ripe in June: a large, firm, fine cherry.

Spanish Heart, ripe in June.

Carnation, ripe in July, it takes its name from its colour, being red
and white, a large round cherry, but not very sweet.

Amber, ripe in July.

Red Heart, do.

Late Duke, do.

Cluster, planted more for ornament, or curiosity than any other purpose.

Double Blossoms, ripe in July.

Honey Cherry, do. small sweet cherry.

Kentish cherry, ripe in July.

Mazarine, do.

Morello, do. and August; a red, acid cherry, the best for preserving,
and for making cherry-brandy.

Early Richmond Cherry. This fruit originated near Richmond in Virginia,
and is the earliest cherry in America, and valuable on that account; it
is the size of a May Duke, and resembles it in form.

Red Bigereau, a very fine cherry, ripe in July, of a heart shape.

White Bigereau, ripe in July and August: remarkably firm, heart shaped.

Large Double Flowering Cherry. This tree produces no fruit but makes a
handsome appearance in the spring, when it is covered with clusters of
double flowers as large as the cinnamon rose; it differs from the
common double flowering cherry which never forms a large tree, and has
small pointed leaves.

The three last were imported from Bordeaux in 1798.

Small Morello Cherry, called also Salem Cherry, because it came
originally from Salem County, N. J., is cultivated by Mr. Cooper of that
state, who values it highly. The fruit has a lively acid taste. The tree
produces abundantly, and is the least subject to worms of any cherry
trees.

Mr. C. says that the Bleeding Heart suits a sandy soil, but that the
May-duke will not flourish in it."

     [30] Willich _Domestic Encyclopaedia_ 105. 1804.


CHERRIES IN THE SOUTH

It would be interesting but hardly of sufficient profit to trace further
the history of cultivated cherries in the states of the Atlantic
seaboard. References to the cherry abound in the colonial records of
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware but they bring out no facts
differing materially from those abstracted from the records of the
northern colonies. The Quakers and the Swedes in the states watered by
the Delaware and the English in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina,
all early grew cherries as one of the easiest fruits to propagate and
cultivate.

Space can be spared for but two brief quotations to show the condition
of cherry culture in the South in Colonial days. The first is from
Bruce's Economic History of Virginia.[31]

    "In the closing years of the seventeenth century, there were few
    plantations in Virginia which did not possess orchards of apple
    and peach trees, pear, plum, apricot and quince.[32] The number
    of trees was often very large. The orchard of Robert Hide of
    York[33] contained three hundred peach and three hundred apple
    trees. There were twenty-five hundred apple trees in the orchard
    of Colonel Fitzhugh.[34] Each species of fruit was represented by
    many varieties; thus, of the apple, there were mains, pippins,
    russentens, costards, marigolds, kings, magitens and bachelors;
    of the pear, bergamy and warden. The quince was greater in size,
    but less acidulated than the English quince; on the other hand,
    the apricot and plum were inferior in quality to the English, not
    ripening in the same perfection.[35] Cherries grew in notable
    abundance. So great was the productive capacity of the peach
    that some of the landowners planted orchards of the tree for
    the mere purpose of using the fruit to fatten their hogs;[36] on
    some plantations, as many as forty bushels are said to have been
    knocked down to the swine in the course of a single season."[37]

The second quotation is from Lawson's History of Carolina.[38]

    "We have the common, red and black cherry, which bear well. I
    never saw any grafted in this country, the common excepted, which
    was grafted on an indian plum stock, and bore well. This is a good
    way, because our common cherry trees are very apt to put scions
    all around the tree for a great distance, which must needs be
    prejudicial to the tree and fruit. Not only our cherries are apt
    to do so, but our apples and most other fruit trees, which may
    chiefly be imputed to the negligence and unskillfulness of the
    gardner. Our cherries are ripe a month sooner than in Virginia."

    [31] Bruce _Economic History of Virginia_ =1=:468. 1895.

    [32] Glover _Philo. Trans. Royal Soc._ 1676-1678, vols. XI-XII, p.
    628.

    [33] _Records of York County_ vol. 1694-1697, p. 71, Va. State
    Library.

    [34] _Letters of William Fitzhugh_ April 22, 1686.

    [35] Glover _Philo. Trans. Royal Soc._ 1676-1678, vols. XI-XII, p.
    628.

    [36] Beverley _History of Virginia_ p. 260.

    [37] Glover _Philo. Trans. Royal Soc._ 1676-1678, vols. XI-XII, p.
    628.

    [38] Lawson _History of Carolina_ 183. 1714. (Reprint of 1860.)


CHERRIES IN THE MIDDLE WEST

At a surprisingly early date the cherry, with the apple, peach, pear and
plum, was being grown far inland in the New World. Southeastern Michigan
was settled in 1701 at Detroit and within a half-century settlements had
been made at Vincennes, Indiana; Kaskaskia and Cahokia, Illinois; and at
Saint Louis and several other points in Missouri. The orchards and
gardens of the early French settlers in these states live in the
traditions of all the settlements; but much more substantial evidence
was to be found a century ago, and in the case of the apple and pear may
still be found, in the venerable trees of all the tree-fruit in and
about these old French posts. "The homes of these pioneers," so good an
authority as Parkman tells us, "were generally placed in gardens
surrounded by fruit trees of apples, pears, cherries and peaches." Were
proof lacking of these early plantations, it might be assumed that
people so fond of horticulture as the French would not long be unmindful
of the value to themselves and their posterity of plantations of fruit
trees.


CHERRIES ON THE PACIFIC COAST

The history of the cherry in America is not complete without some
mention of its introduction, culture and the development of new
varieties on the Pacific coast. Indeed, it is not too much to say that
at no time nor at any place in its whole history has the cherry made
greater advancement than during the last half-century in Oregon,
California and Washington--naming the states in order of their
contribution to cherry culture.

At about the time the colonies were beginning their struggle with the
mother country for independence, Franciscan monks were establishing
missions in California. To these they brought seeds of fruits, grains,
flowers and vegetables, as several historians of the missions tell us,
and as the trees found by Americans a few decades later make certain as
regards fruits. It is probable that by the close of the Revolutionary
war all subtropical and temperate fruits of Europe were to be found
cultivated in the missions of California. Among these, in an enumeration
of the products of the missions, the cherry is listed by E. S.
Capson.[39] From its introduction at approximately the close of the
Eighteenth Century, the cherry continued to be cultivated, at times more
or less sparsely to be sure, until, by conquest in the war with Mexico,
California passed into the possession of the United States. A new era in
horticulture began in California soon after the influx of gold-seekers
in 1849, some of whom, noting the opportunities of fruit-growing, at
once began the importation of seeds and plants.

Modern fruit-growing on the Pacific Coast, however, began in Oregon. The
California Argonauts of '49 were much too busily engaged in digging gold
to think of getting it indirectly by tilling the soil, whereas the men
who were then crossing the plains from Missouri or sailing around the
Horn from New England to Oregon were home-makers and true tillers of the
soil. These early Oregonians were the forerunners in the zeal and
enterprise which have made horticulture on this coast the marvel of
modern agriculture. But one of the several early horticulturists of
Oregon can be mentioned here, he deserving special mention by virtue of
his work with cherries.

Until 1847 the few cultivated fruits to be found in Oregon were
seedlings mostly grown by employees of the Hudson Bay Fur Company. In
that year there was a notable importation of cultivated fruits across
the plains--a venture which quickly proved pregnant with results in
fruit harvests which have not ceased and give promise long to continue.
Henderson Lewelling crossed the plains from Henry County, Iowa, and
brought with him a choice selection of grafted fruits. These he
transported in boxes of soil which he hauled in a wagon drawn by oxen.
Arriving in Oregon late in the fall of 1847 he found that he had 300
trees alive which he planted at what is now Milwaukee, a few miles south
of Portland on the east side of the Willamette River. Later, seeds were
brought for stocks, though for the cherry the wild species, _Prunus
emarginata_ and _Prunus virginiana_, were used and very successfully,
until Mazzard and Mahaleb seeds could be obtained. In this travelling
nursery, Lewelling brought to Oregon cherries of the Bigarreau, the
English Morello and probably of several other types. The label of one of
the cherries was lost and this unknown was renamed Royal Ann.
Unfortunately, it was one of the best known of all cherries that for the
time being lost its identity--the Napoleon, which probably has been
cultivated for three centuries and since 1820 has borne the name of the
great General. With dogged perseverance the West Coast fruit-growers
continue the name "Royal Ann" to the great confusion of systematic
pomology.

But of chief import to cherry culture were the subsequent operations in
the Lewelling nursery at Milwaukee. Lacking proper stocks, Seth
Lewelling, who had succeeded Henderson in the nursery business, grew a
great many cherries from seeds. From these he afterward selected and
disseminated varieties that have made Oregon famous not only for what
are probably the finest sweet cherries in the world but for a long list
of new and desirable varieties--as Republican, Lincoln, Willamette
Seedling and Bing. We call to mind no greater success in bringing into
being new fruits from a few lots of seedlings than in the case of
Lewelling and his cherries. Lewelling's work stimulated others to breed
cherries and among many seedlings that have since been named in the
Northwest the Lambert and Oregon are well worthy of mention.

The facts of time and place in the beginning of cherry culture which we
have tried to set forth in this chapter have, we think, some historical
and narrative interest. Yet, the main value of the facts are not in
history and story. Rather, at least so we hope they will be interpreted,
these brief records show what the crude material was out of which our
present cultivated cherry flora has been developed; what the steps were
in the domestication and development of the cherry; what economic
purposes they have served; and who the peoples are and what the methods
were in bringing the cherry to its present state of development. In a
word, the chapter will not have served the purpose for which it is
mainly intended if it does not furnish facts and inspirations toward the
further evolution of the cherry.

    [39] _History of California_ 111. 1854.



Chapter III

CHERRY CULTURE


The magnitude of the cherry industry in the United States is not
generally appreciated. This is because cherries are very largely grown
in small home plantations and the product is either consumed at home and
in local markets, or is sent to canning factories and is therefore
disposed of without the display attending the production and marketing
of fruits sold in the general market. The following figures from the
last census show the importance of the industry. There were in 1909,
according to the census taken in 1910, 11,822,044 bearing cherry trees
in the United States and 5,621,660 trees not of bearing age. The bearing
trees bore 4,126,099 bushels of fruit valued at $7,231,160. When this,
the thirteenth census, was taken, the cherry ranked fifth in commercial
value among orchard fruits, being surpassed in the order named by the
apple, peach, plum and pear.

The yield of fruit was 43.6 per centum greater in 1909 than in 1899.
This high percentage of increase has been brought about in several ways.
The recent development of rapid transportation, refrigerator service and
of marketing facilities has greatly stimulated the culture of this as of
all other fruits in the United States. An increased demand for canned
and preserved cherries has sprung up so that cherries are much more used
now than formerly, the trade in preserved cherries for confections and
various drinks in particular having greatly increased. Lastly, better
care of orchards and better means of combating insects and fungi have
increased the yields during the last decade.

Cherries are grown in greater or less quantities in every state in the
Union but commercially the industry is confined to a few states having
especial advantages in climate, soil and markets. In but six states,
according to the last census, was the value of the cherry crop more than
a half-million dollars, the states being: California $951,654,
Pennsylvania $909,975, Ohio $657,406, Michigan $590,829, New York
$544,508, Indiana $508,516. In New York in particular, recent plantings
of this fruit have been so great that at this writing, July, 1914, the
figures given for this State could be increased by a quarter at the very
least, and no doubt they could be largely increased also for California
and Michigan. The great growth of the canning industry is most largely
responsible for the large plantings of cherries in recent years in
regions especially suited to this fruit.

In the several states named, the cherry industry is further localized.
Thus, in the 61 counties in New York, the cherry is grown largely in but
12, the number of trees in each of these being: Columbia 78,526, Niagara
61,786, Monroe 49,831, Ontario 36,394, Wayne 35,385, Erie 29,483,
Onondaga 25,932, Seneca 27,063, Chautauqua 24,483, Steuben 15,412,
Orleans 14,682 and Cayuga 14,319. If the figures just given, the total
number being 413,296, are compared with the number of trees in the
State, 674,000, it will be seen that the industry is quite localized,
two-thirds of the cherries being grown in 12 of the 61 counties, though
the fact is brought out in the census that cherries are grown on 59,408
farms in New York, showing that this fruit is much grown for home use.
Further figures of interest as regards New York are that the cherry crop
in 1909 amounted to 271,597 bushels which sold for $544,508. The
plantings in the State cover in the neighborhood of 9,500 acres.

A canvass of the leading cherry-growers and nurserymen in the United
States shows that, in all parts of the country excepting California,
Oregon and Washington, Sour Cherries are much more commonly grown than
Sweet Cherries. In New York at least 90 per cent of the cherry trees are
of sour varieties and this proportion will hold for the region east of
the Rockies. The leading commercial varieties of Sour Cherries, in order
named, are Montmorency, Early Richmond and English Morello. No other
variety is nearly as commonly grown as is even the least well known of
these three. No one of the Duke cherries is mentioned as of commercial
importance, but May Duke, Late Duke and Reine Hortense are frequently
grown in home plantations.

Growers of Sweet Cherries are not nearly as closely in accord as to the
best varieties as are those who grow sour sorts. The most popular Sweet
Cherries in the East seem to be Windsor, Black Tartarian, Napoleon and
Wood with a very insistent statement of the few who have tried it that
Schmidt is better than any of these for the market. On the Pacific Coast
honors go to Napoleon, which the Westerners continue to call Royal Ann
despite the fact that it has been cultivated for three centuries and had
been called Napoleon for nearly a half-century before Lewelling took it
to Oregon in 1847. Other popular sorts on the Pacific seaboard are Bing,
Lambert and Republican--all western productions.

Rather more important than the information obtained from growers of
cherry trees as to varieties was that as to the stocks on which
cherries are grown in America. This brings us to a discussion of the
whole subject of stocks for cherries.


STOCKS FOR CHERRIES

Cherries have been grown in America for over 200 years and for 50 years
the crop has been important commercially. Yet despite the extent and the
importance of the industry and the years it has been in existence,
curiously enough so fundamental a question as the best stock upon which
to grow cherries has not yet been settled; indeed, though cherries
behave markedly different on the several stocks, interest as to which is
the best seems but recently to have been aroused. Now there is a rather
warm controversy as to which is the better of the two leading stocks,
the Mazzard or the Mahaleb.

Fruit-growers on one side hold that the Mazzard is the best stock for
all orchard varieties of this fruit while nurserymen controvert this
view and say that the Mahaleb is at least a fit stock for sweet sorts
and is the best one for Sour Cherries, and, moreover, that it is now
impossible to grow cherries on Mazzard roots at prices that
fruit-growers are willing to pay. Since no systematic attempts seem to
have been made to determine the peculiarities and values of these two
and other cherry stocks both sides dispute without many facts.
Meanwhile, a fine crop of misunderstandings has grown up about the whole
matter of cherry stocks. It is worth while to attempt to clear up some
of the misunderstandings. The first step toward this end is to describe
and give the botanical and horticultural relationships of the Mazzard
and Mahaleb cherries to orchard cherries.

The Mazzard, as we have seen, is a common name, of uncertain origin, of
the wild Sweet Cherry, _Prunus avium_, from which has come all
cultivated Sweet Cherries. It is important to recall that the trees of
the Mazzard reach a height of thirty or forty feet and the trunk often
attains a diameter of eighteen or twenty inches. Other characters to be
kept in mind are that the Mazzard lacks hardiness to cold but grows
vigorously and is usually healthy, though susceptible to several fungi,
one of which, the shot-hole fungus, _Cylindrosporium padi_, makes it a
most difficult plant to grow in the nursery. Trees and fruit coming from
the Mazzard used as a stock are very uniform, a fact easy to ascertain
in New York where this stock has been largely used for nearly a century.
The Mazzard is almost always grown from seed for stocks though suckers
are occasionally used--a poor practice.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (MAZZARD)]

The Mazzard, or at least the Sweet Cherry, has probably been more or
less used as a stock since the earliest cultivation of this fruit. The
Greeks and Romans practiced budding and grafting centuries before
Christ's time and when the cherry came to them as a domesticated fruit,
at least three or four centuries before Christ, they undoubtedly made
use of budding and grafting[40] to maintain varieties and in the case of
the Sour Cherry, if they had it, and they probably did, to avoid the
suckers that spring from the roots of the trees. The literature of
fruit-growing is scant and fragmentary during the Middle Ages but
beginning with the herbals in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
there are many treatises on fruits and botany and in several of these
the use of the wild Sweet Cherry, the Mazzard, is mentioned.[41]

In America the Mazzard as a stock probably came into use soon after the
establishment of Prince's nursery at Flushing, Long Island, about 1730,
budding and grafting seeming to have been little practiced in the New
World before the founding of this nursery.[42] The use of the Mazzard as
a stock is mentioned probably for the first in Coxe's _Fruit Trees_,[43]
the second American treatise on fruits, published in 1817, and again in
Thacher's _American Orchardist_, published in 1822.[44] Both authors, as
the foot-notes show, speak of the use of this stock as if it were in
common use in American nurseries. Neither mentions the Mahaleb.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (MAZZARD)]

The Mahaleb, _Prunus mahaleb_, it will be remembered from the
description previously given, is a bush or bush-like cherry, sometimes
but not often attaining the height and port of a tree. The top is thick,
with rather slender ramifying branches bearing small, green, smooth,
glossy leaves, which resemble those of the apricot more than they do the
leaves of either species of orchard cherries. The fruits are at first
green, then yellowish, turning to red and at full maturity are shining,
black and so hard, bitter and astringent as to be scarcely edible. This
brief description of _Prunus mahaleb_ shows that it is quite distinct
from either our commonly cultivated Sweet Cherry, _Prunus avium_, or the
Sour Cherry, _Prunus cerasus_, differing from either much more than the
two edible species differ from each other. It is quite as far removed
from the Sweet or the Sour Cherry botanically as the apple is from the
pear, the quince, or the thorn and if anything more distantly related
than orchard cherries are to plums. One would expect the wood structure
of the Mahaleb to differ from that of Sweet or Sour Cherries very
materially and that even if the union proved in budding or grafting
wholly normal that there would be some difficulty in the proper passage
of nutritive solutions between stock and cion. This cherry, as we have
seen, is propagated almost entirely from seed though it may easily be
grown from layers, cuttings and suckers. The American supply of Mahaleb
stock comes from France.

The Mahaleb seems to have come into use as a stock for other cherries
in France having been first mentioned for this purpose by Duhamel du
Monceau in his _Traite des Arbres Fruitiers_ in 1768.[45]

Miller in his _Gardener's Dictionary_, 1754, describes the Mahaleb
cherry and says it was "Cultivated in 1714 by the Duchess of Beaufort."
This seems to be the first mention of its culture in England though
Gerarde in _The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes_ describes it.
Neither mentions its use as a stock. In fact, it seems not to have been
mentioned as a stock in England until 1824 when Loudon in the
_Encyclopedia of Gardening_ speaks of it as "the most effectual dwarfing
stock."[46]

It was not until after the middle of the Nineteenth Century that the
Mahaleb came into use in America, none of the horticultural writers in
the first half of the last century, as Cobbett, 1803; McMahon, 1806;
Coxe, 1817; Thacher, 1822; Prince, 1828; Kenrick, 1833; Manning, 1838;
Thomas, 1846; Floy, 1846, nor Cole, 1849, having mentioned the Mahaleb
though nearly all speak of the Mazzard as the stock upon which cherries
are budded. Downing, in 1845, makes first mention of the Mahaleb as a
stock in the New World;[47] Thomas in his second edition, 1851,
recommends it as a stock to dwarf cherries;[48] Barry, 1852, says that
Mahaleb stock is imported from Europe;[49] while Elliott, in 1854, also
speaks of it as a dwarfing stock.[50] From this date on the Mahaleb is
mentioned in all American works on pomology in which stocks for cherries
are discussed.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS MAHALEB_]

Pains have been taken to show the exact date the Mahaleb began to be
used as a stock in America. The quotations show that this was about
1850. They show, too, that at first and for a long time its only use was
as a dwarfing stock. But now the Mahaleb has almost wholly superseded
the Mazzard as a stock for all Sweet and Sour Cherries. Not many
cherries were propagated on the new stock until after 1860 when its use,
if we may judge from the accounts of fruit-growing, began to be general
and it grew so rapidly in favor that by 1880 it was more popular than
the Mazzard and in another decade had almost wholly taken the place of
the latter. Probably 95 per centum of the cherries grown in this country
are budded on the Mahaleb. Why has the Mahaleb supplanted the Mazzard?
This is the question that immediately comes to mind and to the
discussion of which we proceed.

There is no question but that it is much easier to grow cherry trees on
Mahaleb stock in the nursery than on Mazzard and that usually a better
looking tree can be delivered to the fruit-grower on the first-named
stock. Seedlings of both stocks are imported from Europe and those of
the Mahaleb are usually cheaper. These reasons are sufficient for the
exclusive use of Mahaleb by nurserymen, and, were it certain that the
Mahaleb is the best stock for the fruit-grower, all hands might
forthwith renounce the Mazzard. In what respects is it easier to grow
cherries on the Mahaleb in the nursery than on the Mazzard?

All know that the Sweet Cherry is a little difficult to grow--is
capricious as to soils, climates, cultivation and pruning, and as to
diseases and insects. The Mazzard now used for stocks has the faults of
the species to which it belongs. The Mahaleb, on the other hand, is
adapted to a greater diversity of soils; is hardier to either heat or
cold; less particular about cultivation; will stand more cutting in the
nursery if pruning be necessary; is less susceptible to aphids which in
many parts of the United States trouble cherries in the nursery row;
and, more to the point than all else, in New York at least, is not
nearly as badly infested with the shot-hole fungus, _Cylindrosporium
padi_, which often ruins plantations of Mazzard stock. Mahaleb stock,
too, is more easily "worked" than the Mazzard both in the actual work of
budding and in having a longer season for this nursery operation.
Cherries on Mahaleb ripen their wood earlier than those on Mazzard and
may thus be dug earlier in the fall.

Nurserymen and fruit-growers alike agree to this statement of the
superior merits of the Mahaleb as a nursery plant. The facts set forth
are matters of common observation--so well known that it is not
necessary to verify them experimentally. A half-century of experience in
America on many soils, in many climates and under widely varied
conditions has demonstrated that it is easier to grow cherries in the
nursery on the Mahaleb than on the Mazzard stock.

From experience in the orchard, fruit-growers have established several
facts as to the relative value of Mazzard and Mahaleb stocks from their
standpoint. These are:

1. Cherries on Mahaleb are hardier to cold than those on Mazzard stocks.
This hardiness is due, in part at least, to the fact that cherry wood on
Mahaleb ripens sooner than on Mazzard. This superior hardiness of the
Mahaleb is evident in the nursery-row as well as in the orchard and is a
matter of great importance in northern nursery regions. In this
connection it should be said that the Mahaleb is not as hardy as might
be wished and that there are, as we shall later show, still hardier
stocks.

2. There is no question but that the Mahaleb is a dwarfing stock. It
came into use and in Europe continues to serve almost the sole purpose
of dwarfing varieties worked upon it. This retarding effect is not fully
realized by American cherry-growers because for the first few years the
diminution in size is not apparent and even at the close of a decade the
difference in size is not as marked as it would be between standard and
dwarf apples or pears of the same age.

3. Cherry-growers who have tried both stocks agree that most varieties
come in bearing earlier on Mahaleb than on Mazzard stocks. From the
known effects of dwarfing on other fruit trees this would be expected.

4. The size of the cherries is the same on trees grown on the two
stocks. The claim is made that apples and pears are a little larger on
dwarf trees and that when peaches and plums are dwarfed the fruit is
smaller. No one seems to have seen or to have thought that there are
differences in the size of cherries grown on Mazzard or Mahaleb stock.

[Illustration: _PRUNUS AVIUM_ (MAZZARD)]

5. Better unions are made with Mazzard than with the Mahaleb.
This would be expected because of the close relationship of the Mazzard
to orchard cherries.

6. The Mahaleb is probably the more cosmopolitan stock--will thrive
on a greater diversity of soils than the Mazzard stock. In particular it
is somewhat better adapted to sandy, light, stony, and arid soils that are
not well adapted to growing cherries. Its root system is much nearer
the surface of the ground and it is, therefore, better adapted to shallow
soils than the Mazzard.

7. Though the evidence is somewhat conflicting on this point it is
probable that cherries on Mazzard live longer than on Mahaleb. It may be
that the frequent statements to this effect arise from the knowledge
that dwarf fruit-trees are generally shorter lived than standard trees
since there seem to be no records of actual comparisons.

8. Lastly, in climates where the cherry can be grown with reasonable
certainty and in soils to which this fruit is adapted, varieties on
Mazzard are more productive and profitable than on the Mahaleb stock.
This seems to be the concensus of opinion among growers in the great
cherry regions of California, Oregon, Washington, Michigan and New York.

Several other stocks have been more or less successfully used for
cherries and a great number have never been tried that might make good
stocks. In a country as diversified as ours and in a state as variable in
soil and climate as New York and with the manifold varieties of Sweet
and Sour Cherries, it is almost certain that under some conditions there
are stocks more desirable than either Mazzard or Mahaleb. The resources
of the cherry-grower in this direction are so great that in this account
we can but briefly outline them, describing but a few of the many stocks
that might be used.

In the colder parts of New York and of the United States, undoubtedly
seedlings of Russian cherries would make hardy and in most other
respects very desirable stocks. These Russian cherries, too, as a rule,
come nearly or quite true to seed, making very good orchard plants on
their own roots. Some of them, if not most of them, sprout rather
badly--not so serious a fault as one might think, especially in a
cultivated orchard. For budding over to other varieties only sour sorts
should be used, taking for trial such varieties as Bessarabian,
Brusseler Braune, Double Natte, George Glass, Lutovka, Early Morello,
Ostheim and Vladimir. Probably most of these would dwarf standard
varieties more or less but in no case is it to be supposed that they
would have the dwarfing effect of Mahaleb. In the North Mississippi
Valley some of these, especially of the Ostheim or Morello type, have
been very successfully used as stocks.

The small, wild, red cherry locally known as the Bird, Pin and as
the Pigeon Cherry, _Prunus pennsylvanica_, found from the Atlantic to
the eastern slopes of the Coast Range on the Pacific in northern United
States and southern Canada, is often used as a hardy stock. The writer
has seen it so used in northern Michigan but from his observation can
recommend it only for cold regions and as a makeshift since it dwarfs
standard varieties and usually suckers badly. W. T. Macoun, Ottawa,
Canada, Dominion Horticulturist, states that this stock is commonly
used in the colder parts of Canada and with good results. This cherry
is not as distantly related to orchard varieties as the Mahaleb and unites
with Sour Cherries at least as readily as does the Mahaleb.

In the West and Northwest the Sand Cherry, _Prunus pumila_, is used
very successfully in cold, dry regions as a stock for Sour Cherries. The
following is a very good account of its behavior from the pen of the late
Professor J. L. Budd, a pioneer cherry grower in the Middle West.[51]

    "Those who have seen acres of the Sandy Cherry in the northwest
    loaded with fruit have not been ready to believe it a good stock
    for the cherry on account of its sprawling bushy habits of growth.
    But those who have watched its growth when young under culture on
    rich soil can comprehend the fact that it is as easy to work as
    the Mahaleb. As with the Mahaleb the seedlings grown in seed bed
    will be large enough to set in nursery row the next spring, and
    of good size for August budding. To illustrate its rapidity and
    uprightness of growth I will state that we rooted a few cuttings
    in plant house last winter. When set in nursery they had made a
    show of growth of from two to four inches, yet at budding time,
    the middle of August, they were fully as large, stocky and upright
    as the Mahalebs, and in all respects in as perfect condition for
    budding.

    "This hardiest of all cherries is very closely related to our
    garden cherries, so nearly indeed that our botanists long ago
    decided that valuable crosses on it might be made.

    "As yet its use for stocks is somewhat experimental, but we
    can say positively that it united well with our hardy sorts in
    budding, and it does not dwarf the sorts worked upon it to a
    greater extent during the first five years of growth than does the
    Mahaleb."

[Illustration: _PRUNUS MAHALEB_]

There are records of the Choke Cherry, _Prunus virginiana_,[52] and of
the Rum, or wild Black Cherry, _Prunus serotina_, having been used as
stocks but these long-bunch, or racemose, cherries are so distantly
related to the short-bunch, or fascicled, orchard cherries that it would
seem that their use would be desirable only under great stress.

In Japan a horticultural variety of _Prunus pseudocerasus_ is used as a
stock. Of this cherry for this purpose, Professor Yugo Hoshino of the
Tohoku Imperial University at Sapporo, Japan, writes as follows:

    "You wish to know about the cherry stocks used in this country. It
    is very rare to use our common wild cherry as a stock for European
    cherries. In Hokkaido (Yozo Island), we commonly use the seedlings
    of European Sweet and Sour Cherries as stocks. But in the northern
    part of Japan proper (Main Island), it is a common practice to
    graft European cherries on a special kind of our cherry. This
    cherry has particular characters which fit it for propagation;
    namely, it roots very easily either from cuttings or by layering
    (mound). Its botanical position is not certain, but it is probable
    that it is a cultural variety of Pseudocerasus, especially bred
    for stock purposes. It is grown by nurserymen only and called
    Dai-Sakura. (_Dai_ means stock: _Sakura_ means cherry.) It has a
    somewhat dwarfing influence on cions and hastens their fruiting
    age."

This stock ought to be tried in America if, indeed, it is not already
under cultivation from introductions made by the United States
Department of Agriculture.

These are but a few of many cherries that have been or might be tried as
stocks for orchard varieties. There are many species of cherries more
closely related to the cultivated edible sorts than the Mahaleb. Many of
the cherries from Asia, not now known to growers, will eventually find
their way to America; a few have already been introduced by the United
States Department of Agriculture; some of them can undoubtedly be used
as stocks and from them we may hope to find a better stock than either
the Mazzard or Mahaleb.

Cherries are now grown almost wholly as budded trees but they can be
more or less readily root-grafted, depending upon the variety. Under
some circumstances it might be profitable to propagate them by grafting.
Usually it is necessary to use a whole root and to graft at the crown of
the stock. Budd recommends this practice for Iowa, using Mazzard stock
but with the expectation that the cion will take root and eventually the
tree will stand on its own roots.[53] We cannot believe, however, that
grafting can ever take the place of budding as a nursery practice or
that it can be profitably used except in very exceptional cases.

Buds in propagating are usually taken from nursery stock, a practice of
decades, and there is no wearing out of varieties. Old varieties have
lost none of the characters accredited to them a century, or several
centuries, ago by pomological writers. Nor does it seem to matter, in
respect to trueness to type, whether the buds be taken from a vigorous,
young stripling, a mature tree in the heyday of life or some
struggling, lichen-covered ancient--all alike reproduce the variety. The
hypothesis that fruit-trees degenerate or, on the other hand, that they
may be improved by bud-selection, finds no substantiation in this fruit.
There seems to be no limit to the number of times its varieties can be
propagated true to type from buds.

    [40] Varro (B. C. 117-27), as we have seen on page 47, tells
    when to graft cherries and discusses the process as if grafting
    cherries were a common operation.

    [41] In _The Country-Man's New Art of Planting and Grafting_,
    written by Leonard Mascall, 1652, the writer says, "Sower Cherries
    ... will grow of stones, but better it shall be to take of the
    small Cions which do come from the roots; then plant them.

    "Ye must have respect unto the Healme Cherry, [a sweet cherry of
    the time] which is graft on the wild Gomire [Mazzard] which is
    another kind of great Cherry, and whether you do prune them or
    not, it is not materiall; for they dure a long time."

    R. A. Austen, in his _Treatise of Fruit Trees_, 1653, writes,
    "Concerning Stocks fit for Cherry-trees, I account the black
    Cherry stock (Mazzard) the best to graft any kind of Cherry upon.
    Yet some say the red Cherry stock is best for May-Cherries. But
    the black Cherry stocks are goodly straight Plants full of sap and
    become greater trees than the red Cherry trees."

    John Reid, _The Scots Gard'ner_, 1683, writes, "Dwarfe Cherries
    on the Morella, or on the common Red Cherrie. Or on that Red geen
    which is more Dwarffish than the black."

    John Lawrence, _The Clergyman's Recreation_, 1714, declared that,
    "Black Cherries (Mazzard) are the only Stocks, whereon to raise
    all, the several sorts of Cherries."

    [42] "The practice of grafting and inoculating in America is but
    of modern date. It was introduced by Mr. _Prince_, a native of
    New York, who erected a Nursery in its neighborhood about forty
    years ago. But since the late American revolution, others have
    been instituted in this and some other parts of the United States.
    Mr. _Livingston_ has lately established one, not far from the city
    of New York, which can vie with some of the most celebrated ones
    in Europe. May he, and others, who have undertaken in that useful
    branch of business, meet with encouragement and success. Nothing
    in the extensive field of Horticulture can afford more agreeable
    amusement or yield more solid satisfaction and advantage." Forsyth
    on _Fruit Trees_, Albany, N. Y., =1803=:278.

    [43] "The cherry is propagated by budding and ingrafting--from
    its disposition to throw out gum from wounds in the vessels of
    the bark, the former mode is most generally adopted. The heart
    cherries do not succeed well on any but the black Mazard stocks,
    but round or duke cherries do as well on Morello stocks, which are
    often preferred from their being less liable to the cracks in the
    bark, from frost and sun on the southwest side; this injury may
    be almost effectually prevented by planting on the east side of
    board fences or buildings, or by fixing an upright board on the
    southwest side of each tree in open situations.

    "The best stocks are raised from stones planted in the nursery.
    Stocks raised from suckers of old trees, will always generate
    suckers, which are injurious and very troublesome in gardens:
    diseases of old or worn out varieties, are likewise perpetuated by
    the use of suckers for stocks." Coxe _Fruit Trees_ =1817=:253.

    [44] "The cultivated cherry, when reared from the seed, is much
    disposed to deviate from the variety of the original fruit, and,
    of course, they are propagated by budding or grafting on cherry
    stocks: budding is most generally preferred, as the tree is less
    apt to suffer from oozing of the gum than when grafted. The stocks
    are obtained by planting the seeds in a nursery, and the seedlings
    are afterwards transplanted. Those kinds which are called heart
    cherries are said to succeed best on the black mazard stock;
    but for the round kind, the Morello stocks are preferred, on
    account of their being the least subject to worms, or to cracks
    in the bark, from frost and heat of the sun." Thacher _American
    Orchardist_ =1822=:212.

    [45] "So the good species and their varieties are perpetuated and
    multiplied by grafting upon the Merisier, upon the Cerisier with
    round fruit, and upon the Cerisier de Sainte-Lucie [Mahaleb].
    All the Cerisiers succeed well upon the Merisier and it is the
    only subject which is suited to the high-headed trees. It has
    the advantage of not sending forth any or very few suckers. The
    Cerisier de Sainte-Lucie has the same advantage. It receives very
    well the graft of all species of cherries and adapts itself to the
    worst soils." Duhamel _Traite des Arbres Fruitiers_ =1=:197. 1768.

    [46] "Varieties of the cherry are continued by grafting or budding
    on stocks of the black or wild red cherries, which are strong
    shooters, and of a longer duration than any of the garden kinds.
    Some graft on the Morello for the purpose of dwarfing the tree,
    and rendering it more prolific; but the most effectual dwarfing
    stock is the mahaleb, which, however, will not succeed in the
    generality of soils in Britain. Dubreuil of Rouen recommends the
    wild cherry for clayey and light soils, and the mahaleb for soils
    of a light, sandy or chalky nature. The stones of the cultivated
    cherry are commonly, but improperly, substituted for those of the
    wild sort, as being more easily procured." Loudon _Enc. of Gard._
    =1824=:924.

    [47] "When dwarf trees are required, the _Morello_ seedlings are
    used as stocks; or when very dwarf trees are wished the Perfumed
    Cherry, (Cerasus Mahaleb) is employed; but as standards are almost
    universally preferred, these are seldom seen here. Dwarfs in the
    nursery must be headed back the second year, in order to form
    lateral shoots near the ground." Downing _Fruit Trees of America_
    =1845=:164.

    [48] "The stocks used for this purpose (to dwarf cherries) are
    the "Perfumed Cherry" or _Prunus Mahaleb_, which also possesses
    the advantage of flourishing on heavy clay ground. The grafts
    will usually grow quite vigorously for two or three seasons, but
    they soon form dwarf, prolific bushes." Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._
    =1849=:351.

    [49] "The principal stocks used for the cherry are the _mazzard_
    for standard orchard trees, and the mahaleb for garden pyramids
    and dwarfs.

    "The _Mahaleb_ (Cerasus mahaleb) is a small tree with glossy, deep
    green foliage. The fruit is black, about the size of a marrow-fat
    pea, and quite bitter. It blossoms and bears fruit when about
    three years old. It is considerably cultivated in many parts of
    Europe, as an ornamental lawn tree. There are very few bearing
    trees in this country yet; consequently nearly all the stocks used
    are imported, or grown from imported seeds." Barry _The Fruit
    Garden_ =1851=:115, 117.

    [50] "_Dwarf Trees._--Are produced by propagating the Sweet or
    Duke varieties on the Mahaleb, or Morello roots. They should in
    all cases be worked just at the crown of the root, as it is there
    a union is best formed; and also, by means of pruning, (see page
    30) they should be made to form heads branching immediately from
    the ground." Elliott _Fr. Book_ =1854=:185.

    [51] _Iowa Sta. Bul._ =10=:425. 1890.

    [52] _Prunus virginiana_ was used as a stock in Oregon in 1850 as
    there were no other stocks available. The union was very good but
    the stock was condemned because of suckering. Seth Lewelling _N.
    W. Horticulturist_ Nov. 1887.

    [53] "I will here say that one year with another we succeed as
    well in grafting on Mazzard roots as we do with pear on pear
    roots, and nearly as well as with apple on apple roots. In some
    cases since the appearance of the graft-box fungus our success
    has been more complete with the cherry than with the apple. This
    success is due to careful compliance with two main guiding rules,
    founded on the nature of cherry wood: (1) Keep the scions dry
    until used. If given an opportunity they will absorb water enough
    to start the buds and form a callus at the base. In this condition
    they will fail to unite with the root. (2) After grafting, pack in
    boxes with sand or moss and store in a root cave, kept uniformly
    cool by opening at night and keeping closed during the day. If
    the buds start prior to the time of planting in nursery they will
    usually fail to grow. It may prove useful to add, that the sprouts
    from deeply set trees on Mazzard root will always be true to the
    varieties planted, and the surface roots can be utilized for root
    cuttings, as noted on a future page." _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =10=:424.
    1890.


CHERRY CLIMATES AND CHERRY SOILS

Climate and soil have been the chief determinants of location for
cherry-growing in New York. Both Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries are
profoundly influenced by the natural environment in which they are
grown--Sweet Cherries rather more so than any other fruit, either
climate or soil dictating whether they may or may not be grown.

The Sour Cherry is at home in a great variety of climates, the vagaries
of weather affecting it but little. It is probably the hardiest to cold,
in some of its varieties at least, of all our tree fruits, thriving
almost to the Arctic Circle and from there southward, in some of its
forms, quite to the limits of the Temperate Zone. The blossoming season
is relatively late so that fruit-setting is seldom prevented by spring
frosts. Yet, even with this hardy fruit, it is necessary to take thought
of heat and cold in growing commercial crops; for spring frosts may
wither the bloom or summer heat and wind blast the crop if the orchard
site be not well selected as regards local weather.

The Sweet Cherry, on the other hand, must be coddled in every turn of
the season, in climatic requirements being particularly sensitive to
heat and cold. This cherry stands with the peach in not being able to
survive temperatures much below zero and in suffering greatly from
spring frosts because of early blooming. It is even more susceptible to
heat than the peach, and especially cannot endure long-continued heat,
both fruit and foliage suffering. The Sweet Cherry is at its best in a
warm, sunny, genial, equable climate. The Duke cherries, hybrids between
the Sweet and the Sour species, in the matter of hardiness are midway
between the hardy Sours and the tender Sweets though this is but a very
general statement applying to the group as a whole and not to individual
varieties. Some of these withstand cold and heat well while others are
tender in either extreme.

Cherries are more at the mercy of moisture than of temperature
conditions. Continued rain at blossoming time will almost surely prevent
a proper setting of fruit; and the cherries crack, and brown-rot becomes
exceedingly aggressive if there is wet weather in harvest time. Late
summer rainfall to supply moisture to the trees is a matter of small
concern to the cherry-grower, for growth begins early and the crop is
off the trees before summer droughts usually begin. Where irrigation is
practiced water for the cherry is safely supplied at most seasons of the
year except when harvest is in swing at which time the cherries will
swell and crack if there be too much water.

As with all fruits the direction, temperature and humidity of winds are
factors which decree whether or not cherries can be grown profitably
either in a locality or a region. A pocket in the hills filled with dead
air or a wind-swept highland would be unsatisfactory extremes; for, in
the first case, fungi, especially the dreaded brown-rot, would take too
great toll, and, in the second, blossoms would be blasted or foliage
frazzled and the fruit whipped. The harsh, drying winds of winter, too,
would be disastrous to Sweet Cherry culture and if extreme, as on the
Great Plains, wood and buds of Sour Cherries would suffer. Artificial
wind-breaks have not been found profitable in the hilly and wooded East,
entailing too many disadvantages, but if cherries be planted at all in
the prairies of the Middle West, some protection from the winds must
usually be provided.

The two species from which cultivated cherries come grow with proper
vigor in quite different soils. The Sour Cherry and most of its hybrid
offspring, the Dukes, may be made to grow in almost any arable soil, but
the Sweet Cherry is fastidious--to be pleased only by particular soils.

Sour Cherry orchards in New York most excel on strong, even-tempered,
loamy soils, naturally or artificially well drained yet retentive of
moisture. There is possibly a shade of difference in favor of clay loams
and some thriving plantations may be found on stiff clays having good
depth and good drainage. Wet, sticky clays underlaid with a cold, clammy
subsoil--a combination all too common in Central New York--furnish
conditions which defy the best of care and culture.

Sweet Cherry orchards are found excelling on lighter, and less fertile
soils than those we have described for the grosser feeding Sours.
Growers of Sweet Cherries conceive a perfect soil for this fruit to be a
naturally dry, warm, deep, free-working, gravelly or sandy loam. If the
soil is not naturally dry, it must be made so by artificial drainage,
for this fruit is most impatient of too much moisture or a root-run
restricted by water. In Sweet Cherry soils, as will be surmised, it is
difficult to supply humus yet this must be done either by cover crops or
by manure to make the soil sufficiently retentive of moisture. Sweet
Cherries can be grown on other soils than those under discussion but,
for a large, firm, finely finished product for the markets, only the
soils described are suitable.

The conditions of soil and climate, as we have briefly defined them,
that favor cherry culture are to be found in several parts of New York.
Briefly we may name and describe the cherry regions of the State as
follows:

The undulating, maritime plains of Long Island, covered with a thick
deposit of sand, are very well adapted to cherries where the soil is
rich enough to come under the plow. The genial climate, with its rather
heavy rainfall, is precisely that in which the cherry thrives, the
region falling short in the poorness of the soil--a fault easily
remedied, where there is good bottom, by manuring. Despite the fact that
occasional trees and plantations show that this fruit thrives on Long
Island the cherry is not much grown here, the industry needing some
leader to show the way.

The valley of the Hudson from where the river leaves the mountains on
the north to its entrance into the highlands of its lower stretch is
admirably adapted to cherry-growing, both climate and soil meeting the
requirements of this fruit. In parts of the valley the industry has been
developed, Columbia County taking first place among the counties of the
State, with its 78,526 trees in 1909. The product of this region goes
chiefly to the great city market near at hand. Unfortunately the
standard of cultivation is low in the Hudson Valley and the handling
and marketing of the crop is also on a lower level than westward in the
State. The cherry harvest is earlier here than elsewhere in New York, if
we except the small crop of Long Island, an advantage, for prices
usually fall rather than stiffen as the season advances.

The great basin in which lie the Central Lakes of New York is far famed
for its Sour Cherry industry, the product going largely to canneries.
Some Sweet Cherries are grown--more and more are being planted--about
these lakes; but the rich, heavy soils which mostly prevail hereabouts
are more fit for varieties of the Sour Cherry; though the equable
climate makes almost certain the Sweet Cherry crop on soils suited to
its culture. Here, as elsewhere in the State, the acreage at this
writing is greatly on the increase though it is doubtful if the advance
will much longer weather the present depression in prices. All through
this region, as in that to the north, the Sweet Cherry grows wild,
thriving like the Biblical bay--seemingly a sheer gift of the soil and,
like other gifts, generally neglected.

The high plain along the shore of Lake Ontario from the St. Lawrence
River to the Niagara River, extending from the lake on the north from
ten to fifteen miles inland, is the region of greatest possibilities for
the cherry in New York. The climate of this great stretch of territory
is nearly perfect for this fruit and the soils are sufficiently
diversified to furnish a suitable habitat for any of the many varieties
of either Sweet or Sour cherries. In the past there have been so many
ups and downs in the cherry industry that fruit-growers in this favored
belt have given more attention to other fruits but for the last decade,
until the recent downward turn in the cherry market, the plantings have
been greatly increased, both Sweet and Sour cherries finding favor.

Not unlike the Ontario shore in climate, but quite unlike it in its
soils, is the shore of Lake Erie, the most westward topographical
division of New York in which cherries are grown. The mainstay of this
region is the grape, but, in seeking for a more diversified agriculture,
Sour Cherry culture was introduced some twenty years ago and has become
a thriving industry with prospects of continued growth. Here, as is so
often the case in agriculture, credit must be given to some one leader
for the development of a crop and the cherry orchards that dot the
landscape for miles about the home of the late John Spencer speak
eloquently of his leadership in this region.

A necessary accompaniment to a discussion of climate is a statement of
the dates of blooming of the various sorts of cherries; for often,
through selection with reference to this life event of the plant,
injurious climatal influences may be escaped at blooming-time. In the
accompanying table averages of the blooming dates of varieties of
cherries for the years just past, 1912 to 1914, are given.

In making use of these dates, consideration must be given to the
environment of the orchards at Geneva. The latitude of the Smith
Astronomical Observatory, a quarter of a mile from the Station orchards,
is 42° 52' 46.2"; the altitude of the orchards is from five hundred to
five hundred and twenty-five feet above the sea level. The soil is a
stiff and rather cold clay; the orchards lie about a mile west of Seneca
Lake, a body of water forty miles in length and from one to three and
one-half miles in width and more than six hundred feet deep. The lake
has frozen over but a few times since the region was settled, over a
hundred years ago, and has a very beneficial influence on the adjacent
country in lessening the cold of winter and the heat of summer and in
preventing early blooming.

The dates are those of full bloom. They were taken from trees grown
under normal conditions as to pruning, distance apart, and as to all
other factors which might influence the blooming period. An inspection
of the table shows that there is a variation of several days between the
time of full bloom of the different varieties of the same species. These
differences can be utilized in selecting sorts to avoid injury from
frost.

  TABLE SHOWING BLOOMING DATES AND SEASON OF RIPENING

  ------------------+--------------------------------------+-----------------
                    |            Blooming date             | Season of
                    +--------------------------------------+ ripening
                    |                 May                  |
                    +--------------------------------------+-----+------+----
                    |                                      |     |Mid- |
                    |4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18|Early|season|Late
  ------------------+--------------------------------------+-----+------+----
  _P. avium_        |                                      |     |      |
   Bing             |                      *               |     |  *   |
   Black Tartarian  |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   California       |                                      |     |      |
            Advance | *                                    |  *  |      |
   Centennial       | *                                    |     |      |  *
   Cleveland        |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Coe              | *                                    |  *  |      |
   Dikeman          | *                                    |     |      |  *
   Downer           |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Eagle            |      *                               |     |  *   |
   Early Purple     |*                                     |  *  |      |
   Elkhorn          |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Elton            |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Florence         |          *                           |  *  |      |
  _P. avium_        |                                      |     |      |
   Ida              |    *                                 |  *  |      |
   Kirtland         |        *                             |     |  *   |
   Knight           |    *                                 |  *  |      |
   Lamaurie         |    *                                 |  *  |      |
   Lambert          |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Lyons            |      *                               |     |  *   |
   Mercer           |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Mezel            |    *                                 |     |  *   |
   Napoleon         | *                                    |     |      |  *
   Republican       | *                                    |     |      |  *
   Rockport         | *                                    |     |  *   |
   Schmidt          |      *                               |     |  *   |
   Sparhawk         | *                                    |     |  *   |
   Stuart           |      *                               |     |      |  *
   Windsor          | *                                    |     |      |  *
   Wood             |    *                                 |  *  |      |
   Yellow Spanish   | *                                    |     |      |  *
                    |                                      |     |      |
  _P. cerasus_      |                                      |     |      |
   Bourgueil        |                *                     |     |      |  *
   Brusseler Braune |                   *                  |     |      |  *
   Carnation        |        *                             |     |  *   |
   Dyehouse         |                *                     |     |  *   |
   Early Morello    |                   *                  |     |  *   |
   Early Richmond   |                *                     |     |  *   |
   English Morello  |             *                        |     |      |  *
   George Glass     |             *                        |     |  *   |
   Heart-Shaped     |                                      |     |      |
           Weichsel |                      *               |     |  *   |
   King Amarelle    |                *                     |     |  *   |
   Large Montmorency|                *                     |     |  *   |
   Louis Philippe   |          *                           |     |  *   |
   Magnifique       |                                     *|     |      |  *
   Montmorency      |                   *                  |     |  *   |
   Olivet           |          *                           |     |  *   |
   Ostheim          |             *                        |     |      |  *
   Sklanka          |                   *                  |     |  *   |
   Späte Amarelle   |                   *                  |     |      |  *
   Suda             |                   *                  |     |      |  *
   Timme            |                *                     |     |  *   |
   Vladimir         |                   *                  |     |      |  *
                    |                                      |     |      |
  _P. avium_ ×      |                                      |     |      |
       _P. cerasus_ |                                      |     |      |
   Abbesse d'Oignies|                   *                  |     |  *   |
   Double Natte     |          *                           |     |  *   |
   Empress Eugenie  |             *                        |     |  *   |
   Late Duke        |                         *            |     |      |  *
   May Duke         |             *                        |     |  *   |
   Nouvelle Royale  |          *                           |     |  *   |
   Reine Hortense   |        *                             |     |  *   |
   Royal Duke       |          *                           |     |  *   |
  ------------------+--------------------------------------+-----+------+----


THE POLLINATION OF CHERRIES

We cannot complain in New York of much uncertainty in the setting of the
cherry crop. Late spring frosts occasionally catch the blossoms of Sweet
varieties but seldom those of the Sour sorts. Cold weather, especially
if accompanied by wet weather, not unfrequently cuts short the cherry
crop by preventing proper setting. There is, however, no general
complaint of poor crops through self-sterility. In fact from the
behavior of perfectly isolated trees in all parts of the State it would
be premised that the cherry is most nearly self-fertile of all
tree-fruits.

Yet there may be orchards or seasons in which cross-pollination cuts a
figure, for Gardner[54], of the Oregon Station, found in experiments
carried on by him in various parts of Oregon that many varieties of
Sweet Cherries in the Pacific Coast environment are self-sterile. The
work seems to have been very carefully done and the conclusions are
worth reprinting in full, bearing in mind that they would be much
modified under New York conditions. Gardener found:

    "1. All the varieties of the Sweet Cherry tested are self-sterile.
    This self-sterility is in no case due to a lack of germinability
    of the pollen produced. On the other hand, the pollen of each
    of the varieties studied is capable of producing a set of fruit
    on the variety or varieties with which it is inter-fertile. The
    list includes Bing, Black Republican, Black Tartarian, Coe, Early
    Purple, Elton, Knight, Lambert, Major Francis, May Duke, Napoleon,
    Rockport, Waterhouse, Willamette, Windsor, Wood.

    "2. Certain of these varieties--Bing, Lambert, and Napoleon are
    mentioned especially--are inter-sterile. Mixed plantings of
    these three varieties cannot be expected to set fruit unless the
    trees are within the range of influence of some other variety or
    varieties that are inter-fertile with them.

    "3. Among those studied, Black Republican, Black Tartarian, and
    Waterhouse seem to be the most efficient pollenizers for this
    group of varieties.

    "4. Other good pollenizers that may be mentioned are: Elton, Wood,
    Coe, Major Francis, Early Purple. These, however, proved somewhat
    variable in their pollenizing abilities.

    "5. _Some_ of the seedling trees found in and about cherry
    orchards are efficient pollenizers for the three varieties--Bing,
    Lambert, Napoleon. Probably _many_ of these seedling trees are
    efficient pollenizers, though the value of any particular seedling
    can be determined only by experiment or very careful observation.

    "6. At least some members of the Duke group of cherries are
    capable of pollinating some of the Bigarreaus.

    "7. At least some of the varieties of the Sour Cherry (P. cerasus)
    are capable of pollinating some of the Bigarreaus.

    "8. Inter-sterility of Sweet Cherry varieties is apparently not
    correlated with their closeness of relationship.

    "9. The ability of a variety of cherry to set fruit is
    not entirely dependent upon the kind of pollen available.
    Environmental factors are important."

It is doubtful if New York cherry-growers will need to pay much
attention to cross-pollination but, in case cherry trees are not setting
full crops, and for no other apparent reason, the fertility of the
blossoms may well receive attention. Should varieties be found
self-sterile, sorts must be chosen which come into blossom at the same
time, in which case the preceding table shows the sorts which bloom
together or nearly enough so to make cross-pollination possible.

    [54] Gardner, V. R. Pollination of the Sweet Cherry, _Ore. Sta.
    Bul_. =116=:36. 1913


CHERRY ORCHARDS AND THEIR CARE

It is patent to the eye of every passer-by that cherry trees are
commonly set too thickly in most of the orchards in New York. While
close planting is a universal fault, the amount of room differs greatly
in different cherry centers, depending mostly upon the custom in the
community, though, as all confess, it should depend upon the variety and
the soil. The very erroneous notion seems to have prevailed in setting
the plantations now reaching maturity that a large return could be
skimmed from a small area by close setting, Sour Cherries often being
put only twelve feet apart each way and Sweet Cherries, considering
their great size, even closer, at sixteen feet. Experienced growers now
put such dwarf kinds as the Morellos at from sixteen to eighteen, the
Montmorencies and their kind at eighteen to twenty-two; and the large
growing Sweet Cherries at from twenty-four to thirty feet.

Cherries are usually planted two years from the bud. Spring is the
season for setting, though the hardy Sour sorts might often be set
advantageously in late autumn. The losses at setting time are greater
with the cherry than with any other fruit, old hands in fruit-growing
losing trees as well as beginners. An experiment at the Station shows
that these losses are greatly mitigated by a change in the usual method
of transplanting. The custom is to shorten-in all branches of
transplanted fruit-trees but this, with the cherry in particular,
removes the largest and presumably the best nourished buds--certainly
those from which would soonest develop the leaves so necessary to
sustain the breath of life in the young plant and to give it a start. In
the experiment at this Station it was found that, if the top of the
young tree was reduced by thinning the branches instead of cutting all
back, a much larger proportion of the trees would strike root and live
through our parching summers.

Cherry trees in the past have been headed three or four feet above the
ground but in new plantations they are now usually started lower--at
half of the above distances. Two forms of top are in vogue, the
spire-shape and the vase-shape. Sour Cherries are almost universally
grown with closed centers but some growers prefer the form of the vase
for Sweet varieties, though the majority hold to trees with central
trunks and many subsidiary branches. Little pruning is done in cherry
orchards after the first two or three years, by which time the sapling
has been shaped. Subsequent pruning consists in removing dead, injured
or crowded branches and an occasional superfluous one. Heading-in finds
little favor with experienced growers. These few statements indicate
that the cherry, as now grown, is pruned but little, and that that
little must be done very carefully, the pruning knife in the hands of a
careless man being, with this fruit, "a sword in the hands of a child."

The general tuning-up in the cultivation of fruits during the past
quarter-century has had its influence on cherry culture. Commercial
orchards are no longer kept in sod and the clean, purposeful cultivation
that has taken the place of grass has doubled the output of cherries,
tree for tree, throughout the State, the difference in yield being
especially noticeable in seasons when drought lies heavy on the land.
Cultivation, as practiced by the best growers, consists of plowing the
land in the spring and then frequently stirring the soil until the first
of August, at which time a cover-crop is sown. If the soil is light, and
therefore hungry and thirsty, the plowing should be done early and the
cultivator kept constantly at work until cherry-picking. Cherry orchards
often, without apparent cause, have an indefinable air of malaise--look
dingy and unhappy--such require almost week-to-week cultivation to tide
them over their period of indisposition.

Grain, as well as grass, is discountenanced in cherry orchards, but
cultivated truck and farm crops in young plantations, or, under some
conditions, small fruits, are looked upon as permissible and often pay
for the keep of the young trees until they come into profitable
bearing. Cover-crops are in common vogue in cherry orchards in New York
and, since with this fruit they can be sown earlier in the season, are
used to better advantage than in other orchards to furnish a full supply
of humus and to provide nitrogen. Brown-rot, an annual scourge in most
cherry orchards, takes less toll from trees cultivated and
cover-cropped, these operations covering the mummied fruits and keeping
the spores they carry from coming to light and life.

Cherry growers as a rule are not now using fertilizers for their crops.
It would seem that this is not doing duty by the land; but it must be
remembered that the cherry grows vigorously and that over-feeding may
stimulate the growth too much, laying the orchard open not only to
unfruitfulness but to winter injury of bud and tree. Among those who use
fertilizers there is little accord as to what fertilizing compounds are
best or as to what the results have been. There is common agreement,
however, that Sour Cherries respond more generally to fertilizers than
the Sweet sorts. Until there are carefully carried out fertilizer
experiments with this fruit the vexatious problems of fertilization
cannot be solved. Nitrate of soda seems to be a great rejuvenator in
orchards laid down to grass. Whatever the cause, when leaves lack color
and hang limp, this fertilizer is a sovereign tonic. Heavy dressings of
stable manure are much used in grassed-over orchards, as they are, also,
in such as have had none or but scant crops.


THE COMMERCIAL STATUS OF CHERRY-GROWING IN NEW YORK

Cherry growing is a specialist's business in which, under the best of
conditions, there are more ups and downs than with other fruits. Because
of the great profits that have come to a few in the years just past many
growers have been drawn into the business in a small way or have planted
an acreage beyond their means to manage. The inevitable depression that
follows over-planting is, at this writing, at hand and spells ruin to
some and disgust and discouragement in the industry to others. Perhaps
no fruit can better be left to men of reserve capital than the cherry,
and even with men of substance cherry-growing should largely be
incidental to the culture of other fruits--an industry to fit in to keep
land, labor and machinery employed.

Cherry trees begin to bear in the climate of New York when set from
three to five years. The varieties of _Prunus cerasus_ first produce
profitable crops but, at from six to eight years from setting, both
Sweet and Sour sorts are in full swing as money-making crops. The
limits of profitable age are not set by the life of the tree but,
rather, by its size. Thus, cherry trees of either of the species
commonly cultivated are not infrequently centenarians but the profitable
age of an orchard is not often more than from thirty to forty years.
After this time the trees become large and the expense of caring for
them and of picking the fruit becomes so great as to prevent profits.
Moreover, disease, injuries and inevitable accidents will have thinned
the ranks of trees until the orchard is below profit-making.

Cherry-picking begins in New York about the first of July, following the
rush in harvesting strawberries, and lasts, if the orchard contains both
Sweet and Sour varieties, from four to six weeks. Workers may in this
way fill in a gap between small-fruits and other tree-fruits and the
crop becomes one in which the grower may often take small profits to
keep his help employed; though, in the long run, if the more or less
frequent depressions can be weathered, the cherry may prove as
profitable as other fruits.

The problem of labor is a most vexatious one under present conditions,
it being impossible to obtain casual men laborers for cherry-picking and
women and children are unsatisfactory, since the fruit must be carefully
picked or both cherries and trees suffer. The problem is solved,
unsatisfactorily in most cases, in various ways by different growers.
Most of the crop is now picked by children in the teens under the eyes
of men or women supervisors. In picking for the market the stem is left
on and only the stem is touched by the fingers. Cherries for canning
factories are less laboriously picked. The picking package is usually an
eight-pound basket. The rate paid is one cent per pound. Pickers earn
$1.50 to $2.00 per day in good seasons. Close watch is kept on pickers
to prevent the breaking off of fruit-spurs, thereby destroying the
succeeding year's crop, varieties fruiting in clusters suffering
especially from carelessness in this respect. Cherries are picked a few
days before full ripeness.

Cherries are sent to canneries in various packages but chiefly in
half-bushel baskets or paper-lined bushel crates, the container being
often supplied by the cannery. The six- and eight-pound baskets are the
favored receptacles for Sour Cherries in city markets but the Sweet
sorts are rather oftener sent in four-pound baskets and still more
frequently in quart boxes. In the larger packages not much effort is
made to make the fruit attractive but in the smaller ones, stemless and
bruised cherries are thrown out and the package filled, stem down, with
the best fruits. In fancy grades all of the fruit in the box is layered.
The demands of the market, of course, determine the package and the
manner of packing. Cherries are seldom stored longer than a few days at
most in common storage and a week or two weeks in cold storage.

There is a marked difference in the shipping and keeping qualities of
varieties of cherries, the sorts that keep longest and ship best, quite
at the expense of quality, having the call of the markets. Undoubtedly
this must remain so, though it is to be desired that local markets, at
least, be supplied with the best, irrespective of handling qualities. A
further factor that prevents the placing of choicely good cherries in
distant markets at all times is brown-rot, to be discussed later, which
more often attacks the juicy and usually the best-flavored varieties,
oftentimes ruining the pack on the way to market--one of the most
discouraging events incidental to cherry-growing.

Marketing machinery for cherries is at present very costly, inadequate
and frequently sadly out of gear. The fruit passes first from the grower
to a local buyer who ships to a center of consumption, transportation
companies taking heavy toll on the way. Jobbers or commission companies,
who in some cases receive the fruit direct from the grower, then
distribute the crop to retailers in the consuming centers. Lastly, the
retailer parcels out the quantities and the qualities demanded by the
housewife. The whole business of selling the crop is speculative and the
grower is fortunate to receive half of what the consumer pays and not
infrequently has all of his pains for nothing or may even be forced to
dip into his pocket for transportation. The perishableness of the
product and the present defects of distribution go far to make the crop
the hazardous one it is but all look forward to better times coming
under an improved system of marketing.

Up to the present, it must be said, but little effort has been made in
New York to ship far and to develop a trade in cherries other than at
the canneries. The canners have until the last year or two taken the
cream of the crop but with recent greatly increased plantings are now
over-supplied. The average grower, possessing a mixture of mental
inertia and business caution, has not sought other sources for the
surplus fruit. Bolder and more energetic spirits are now developing new
markets and opening up those to which other tree-fruits more generally
go so that the present over-production may prove a blessing in disguise.
The greatly increased demand, for Sour Cherries in particular, brought
about by the development of markets in 1913-14, are most hopeful signs
for the future of the cherry industry.


CHERRY DISEASES

Cherries, without preventive or remedial intervention, are at the mercy
of two or three fungus diseases and sometimes several others are
virulent, depending upon locality, season, weather and variety. One of
these diseases, brown-rot, in spite of the great advances in plant
pathology of recent years, is almost beyond the control of preventive or
remedial measures. Happily, all the others yield better to treatment.

Brown-rot[55] (_Sclerotinia fructigena_ (Persoon) Schroeter), sometimes
known as fruit-mold or ripe-rot, very frequently attacks flowers and
shoots but is most conspicuous on the ripe or ripening cherries where
its presence is quickly detected by a dark discoloration of the skin
which is afterwards partly or wholly covered with pustule-like
aggregations of gray spores. The decayed fruits usually fall to the
ground but sometimes hang to the tree, becoming shriveled mummies, each
mummy being a storehouse of fungus threads and spores from which
infestation spreads to the next crop. The disease, in some seasons, like
a withering blight, attacks twigs, flowers and leaves early in the
spring doing great damage to the young growth and often wholly
preventing the setting of fruit. The rot spreads with surprising
rapidity on the fruits in warm, damp weather either before the fruit is
picked or in baskets while being shipped or stored. Preventive remedies
have so far met with but indifferent success; probably the best method
of control is to destroy the mummy-like fruits and all other sources of
infection either by picking them from the trees, or much better by
plowing them under deeply. Varieties of cherries show various degrees of
susceptibility to brown-rot. All Sweet Cherries are more subject to the
disease than the Sour sorts. But with either of the two species there
are great variations in the susceptibility of the varietal hosts--a
matter specially noted in a later chapter in the discussion of
varieties.

Another serious disease of the cherry, and probably the most striking
one in appearance, is the black-knot[56] (_Plowrightia morbosa_
(Schweinitz) Saccardo), characterized by wart-like excrescences on
shoots and branches. Black-knot looks more like the work of an insect
than a fungus and was long supposed to be such even by those who were
studying the trouble. The knots begin to form early in the summer and
are of characteristic color and texture--dark green, soft and velvety,
but in the fall, as the fungus ripens, the color changes to coal-black
and the knots become hard and more or less brittle. The excrescences
usually form on one side of a twig or branch so that death seldom
follows quickly. The disease attacks both wild and cultivated plants in
every part of this continent where cherries are grown but is epidemic
only in the East, the cherry regions of the West being practically free
from the disease. Up to the present time the fungus has not been found
elsewhere than in America. Happily, black-knot may be controlled by
cutting out the diseased wood. To completely eradicate the fungus, if it
is especially virulent, however, the orchard must be gone over several
times during a season. In New York the removal of black-knot is ordered
by law, the results showing that when the law is obeyed, especially if
there be hearty co-operation among growers, eradication is usually
possible. Sweet Cherries are much less attacked by black-knot than the
Sour sorts but the differences in immunity between varieties in either
of the two species are not very marked--at least such is the case on the
grounds of this Station where the disease is always present and is often
very prevalent.

_Exoascus cerasi_ Fuckel[57] is the cause of a very striking deformity
of the cherry in Europe, both _Prunus avium_ and _Prunus cerasus_ being
attacked. The disease has been reported in America but has not yet
become virulent. The fungus attacks the branches, causing a clustering
of the twigs in the form of a broom, giving it the name witches' broom.
The leaves on the diseased twigs usually take on a crinkled shape and a
reddish color. The malady may be readily prevented by the destruction of
affected branches.

In common with other species of Prunus the foliage of cherries
is attacked by several fungi which produce diseased spots on
the leaves, the dead areas usually dropping out leaving holes as
if punctured by shot. Thus we have "shot-hole fungus," "leaf-spot"
and "leaf-blight" as effects of these diseases. Three fungi are in the
main responsible for these leaf troubles; these are _Cylindrosporium
padi_ Karsten,[58] _Mycosphærella cerasella_ Aderhold[59] and
_Cercospora circumscissa_[60] Saccardo. The ravages of these fungi are
prevented by the proper use of bordeaux mixture and lime and sulphur,
remedies which, however, must be used with some care to avoid spray
injury. With these, as with other fungi, cultivation has a salutary
effect as it destroys diseased leaves which harbor the fungi during
their resting period.

Cherry leaves are often covered with a grayish powder which in severe
cases causes them to curl and crinkle and sometimes to drop. This
powdery substance consists of the spore-bearing organs of a mildew[61]
(_Podosphæra oxyacanthæ_ De Bary). Powdery mildew is much more common on
nursery stock than on fruiting trees and in New York is a serious pest
on young cherry trees. In the nursery, injury may be prevented by the
use of copper sprays or lime and sulphur, either of which is also an
efficient preventive in the orchard but the mildew is seldom prevalent
enough on orchard plants to require treatment.

Wherever cherries are grown in either the nursery or orchard, crown
gall[62] (_Bacterium tumefaciens_ Smith and Townsend) has obtained a
footing. In the North at least, it seldom greatly injures old trees, but
if the galls girdle a nursery plant serious injury results. Therefore,
badly infected young trees showing galls should not be planted. However,
but little harm is liable to result under most conditions. When infected
plants have been planted it has been found that galls vary greatly in
duration, sometimes disappearing within a year or two and at other times
persisting indefinitely. The tumor-like structures are usually at the
collar of the plant and vary from the size of a pea to that of a man's
fist, forming at maturity rough, knotty, dark-colored masses. Neither
prevention nor cure has been discovered, though it is known that soils
may be inoculated with the disease from infected stock and that,
therefore, diseased trees should not be planted in soils virgin to the
galls. It is probable that there are differences in the susceptibility
of Sweet and Sour cherries to the fungus and that the varieties of the
two species vary in their resistance but as yet no one seems to have
reported on the differences in susceptibility of cherries to the
disease.

The leaf-rust[63] (_Puccinia pruni-spinosæ_ Persoon) of stone-fruits,
occurring rarely on the fruit, sometimes attacks cultivated cherries and
is a rather common disease of the wild _Prunus serotina_. This rust is
troublesome only, however, in warm, moist climates. It is most apparent
in the fall and is easily recognized through its numerous rust-colored
sori on the underside of the leaves. Defoliation takes place in severe
infestations. Either bordeaux mixture or lime and sulphur may be used as
a preventive.

Old cherry trees are often attacked by a fleshy fungus or
"toadstool"[64] (_Polyporus sulphureus_ (Bulliard) Fries). This fungus
is said to be world-wide in its distribution and to occur upon a large
variety of trees. It is very striking in appearance, the clusters
appearing during late summer or early autumn in large, shelving
branches, the sporophores fleshy and of cheese-like consistency when
young but becoming hard and woody with age. At first the "toadstools"
are all yellow but later only the under surfaces are yellow while the
upper surface is orange-red. The plants are more or less odoriferous,
the odor increasing with age. Happily, the fungus is not very virulent
but is often the cause of decay in the tree-trunk--the brown-rot of the
wood of this and other orchard and forest plants. In localities where
the fungus thrives it may usually be controlled by covering all wounds
with tar or other antiseptic materials.

At least two other fleshy fungi have been found injuring cherries. These
are _Clitocybe parasitica_ Wilcox[65] and _Armillaria mellea_ Vahl.,[66]
the latter the honey agaric, more or less abundant in both Europe and
America. Both are associated with and are probably a cause of the
root-rot of the cherry and other orchard fruits. Neither is a common
enough pest in this country, however, to receive extensive description
in texts on diseases of plants. Control measures are different in
localities where fungi occur, consisting in the main of getting rid of
stumps and roots in orchard lands and planting to field crops before
using for orchard purposes. Infected trees should be removed or isolated
by trenching about them.

All stone-fruits suffer more or less from an excessive flow of gum. The
name gummosis[67] is generally applied to these troubles. Gumming is
much more prevalent in the far West than in the East but is to be found
wherever stone-fruits are grown. This excessive gumming is a secondary
effect of injuries caused by fungi, bacteria, insects, frost, sunscald,
and mechanical agencies. There is a good deal of difference in the
susceptibilities of varieties and species to this trouble, the Sweet
Cherry suffering much more than the Sour sorts and varieties of other
species having hard wood suffering less than those having softer wood.
There is less gummosis, too, on trees in soils favoring the maturity of
wood; under conditions where sun and frost are not injurious; and,
obviously, in orchards where by good care the primary causes of the
diseases are kept out.

A number of diseases of the trunk arise from mechanical injuries from
wind, sun, frost and hail. Few, indeed, are the fruit-growers whose
trees are not occasionally damaged in one way or another in the
vicissitudes of a trying climate. Very often these mechanical injuries
are followed by fungal parasites or insects so as to make it difficult
to distinguish the primary from the secondary trouble. There is a wide
difference in the susceptibility of _Prunus avium_ and _Prunus cerasus_
to such injuries, the Sweet Cherry, with its softer wood, being much
more easily injured by any and all stresses of weather than the Sour
Cherry. In the main the elements cannot be combated but low heading of
the trees is a preventive from sunscald, at least, and sometimes may
have a favorable effect in preventing wind and frost injuries.

    [55] Smith, E. F. Peach Rot and Peach Blight, _Journ. Myc._
    =5=:123-134. 1889. Quaintance, A. L. The Brown Rot, etc., _Ga.
    Sta. Bul._ =50=:237-269, figs. 1-9. 1900.

    [56] Farlow, W. G. The Black Knot, _Bulletin Bussey Institution_
    440-453. 1876. Halsted, B. D. Destroy the Black Knot, etc., _N. J.
    Sta. Bul._ =78=:1-14. 1891.

    [57] Duggar, B. M. _Fungous Diseases of Plants_ 185, fig. 68. 1909.

    [58] Higgins, B. B. Contributions to the Life History and
    Physiology of Cylindrosporium on Stone Fruits, _Am. Jour. Bot._
    =1=:145-173. 1914.

    [59] Aderhold, R. Mycosphaerella cerasella n. spec., die
    Perithecienform von Cercospora cerasella Sacc. und ihre
    Entwicklung, _Ber. d. deut. bot. Ges._ =18=:246-249. 1900.

    [60] Duggar, B. M. _Fungous Diseases of Plants_ 314. 1909. Pierce,
    N. B. A Disease of Almond Trees, _Jour. Myc._ =7=:66-67, Pls.
    11-14. 1892.

    [61] Duggar, B. M. _Fungous Diseases of Plants_ 226. 1909.

    [62] Smith, E. F. and Townsend, C. O. A Plant Tumor of Bacterial
    Origin, _Science_ =25=:671-673. 1907. Toumey, J. W. Cause and
    Nature of Crown Gall, _Ariz. Sta. Bul._ =33=:1-64, figs. 1-31.
    1900. Hedgcock, G. C. Crown Gall, etc., _U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl.
    Ind. Bul._ =90=:15-17, Pls. 3-5. 1906.

    [63] Scribner, F. L. Leaf Rust of the Cherry, etc., _U. S. Dept.
    Agr. Rpt._ 353-355, Pl. 3. 1887.

    [64] Atkinson, Geo. F. Studies of Some Shade Tree and Timber
    Destroying Fungi, _Cor. Agl. Exp. Sta. Bul._ =193=:208-214. 1901.
    Schrenk, H. von. Div. Veg. Phys. and Path., _U. S. Dept. Agl._
    =25=:40-52, Pls. 11 (in part), 13. 1900.

    [65] Wilcox, E. M. A Rhizomorphic Root-Rot of Fruit Trees, _Okla.
    Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul._ =49=:1-32, Pls. 1-11. 1901.

    [66] Duggar, B. M. _Fungous Diseases of Plants_ 473. 1909.

    [67] Hedrick, U. P. Gumming of the Prune Tree, _Ore. Sta. Bul._
    =45=:68-72. 1897.


CHERRY INSECTS

Insects troubling cherries are numerous but hardly as destructive as
with other tree-fruits. Entomologists list about 40 species of insects
attacking cherries and about as many more occasionally attack the
varieties of one or the other of the two cultivated species. The
majority of these pests came with the tree from its habitat over the sea
but several have come from the wild cherries of this continent.

Of the pests peculiar to the cherry alone, possibly the cherry fruit
maggot[68] (_Rhagoletis cingulata_ Loew) is, the country over, as
troublesome as any. The adult insect is a small fly with barred wings
which lays eggs under the skin of the cherry in mid-summer. From these
eggs small, whitish maggots about one-third of an inch long hatch and
eat out a cavity in the ripening fruit. These maggots when full grown
pupate in the ground and remain there until the following season. The
only effective preventive or remedial measure to take against the pest
in large orchards is to spray with a sweetened arsenical, but in small
plantations chickens are fairly effective in scratching up and eating
the pupating maggots.

The cherry fruit maggot is probably responsible for most of the "wormy"
cherries in New York but the plum curculio is also a cause of "wormy"
fruits and in some seasons is a most formidable pest. This curculio[69]
(_Conotrachelus nenuphar_ Herbst) is a rough, grayish snout-beetle
somewhat less than a quarter of an inch in length, so familiar an insect
as scarcely to need further description. The female beetle pierces the
skin of the young cherries and places an egg in the puncture. About this
cavity she gouges out a crescent-shaped trench, this cut or sting being
a most discouraging sign to the cherry-grower, for he well knows that
from the eggs come, within a week or two, white and footless grubs which
burrow to the stone and make "wormy fruit." Some of the infested
cherries drop but many remain eventually to distract the housewife and
those who eat cherries out of hand. Jarring the beetles from the trees,
a method employed by plum-growers, is quite too expensive and
ineffective for the cherry-grower and poisoning with an arsenate is the
only practical means of combating the pest. Rubbish and vegetation offer
hiding places for the insects and, therefore, cultivated orchards are
freer from curculio than those laid down to grass. There are no
curculio-proof cherries but, as with plums, the thin-skinned varieties
are damaged most by the insect.

The grub of the plum curculio is easily distinguished from the cherry
fruit maggot. This "worm" is the larva of a beetle, a true grub,
footless and with a brownish, horny head while the cherry fruit maggot,
the larva of a two-winged insect, is a true maggot like that which comes
from the common house-fly and hardly to be distinguished from the apple
maggot. It is important to be able to distinguish in wormy cherries the
grub of the curculio from the cherry fruit maggot in order to know and
understand the nature of the two enemies in combating them.

Another pest of this fruit is the cherry leaf-beetle (_Galerucella
cavicollis_ Le Conte) the larvae of which sometimes do much damage to
cherry foliage. The adult insect is an oval, reddish beetle about
one-fourth of an inch long with black legs and antennae. Both the adult
and the larvae feed on the leaves and do much damage if abundant.
Usually there are two broods, the insect pupating in the ground.
Fortunately the pest is easily controlled with the arsenical sprays.

The cherry scale (_Aspidiotus forbesi_ Johnson) is commonly found on
this fruit and occasionally on others as well. To the unaided eye it is
very similar to the well-known San José scale, differing chiefly in
being lighter in color. The remedy is the same as for the San José
scale, which we next discuss.

The dreaded San José scale[70] (_Aspidiotus perniciosus_ Comstock) is
rather less harmful to cherries than to other tree-fruits and yet is
sometimes a serious pest on Sweet Cherries. Sour Cherries are almost
immune. The insect is now so well known in all fruit-growing regions
that it needs no description. It is usually first recognized by its
work, evidence of its presence being dead or dying twigs--oftentimes the
whole tree is moribund. Examination shows the twigs or trees to be
covered with myriads of minute scales, the size of a small pin-head,
which give the infested bark a scurfy, ashy look. If the bark be cut or
scraped a reddish discoloration is found. Leaves and fruit as well as
bark are infested, the insidious pest, however, usually first gaining a
foothold on the trunks or a large branch. Cherry-growers, in common with
all fruit-growers, find the lime and sulphur solution the most effective
spray in combating this insect.

Several other scale insects feed on the cherries and, now and then,
become pestiferous; among these the following may be named: The European
fruit lecanium[71] (_Lecanium corni_ Bouché) occasionally does a great
deal of damage in New York and now and then destroys the whole crop in
an orchard. The winter treatment for San José scale is used to control
this pest, but usually such treatment is supplemented by a summer spray
about July first with such contact sprays as whale oil soap and kerosene
emulsion. The fruit pulvinaria (_Pulvinaria amygdali_ Cockerell), the
mealy bug (_Pseudococcus longispinus_ Targioni), the scurfy scale
(_Chionaspis furfura_ Fitch), the West Indian peach scale (_Aulacaspis
pentagona_ Targioni), the Putnam scale (_Aspidiotus ancylus_ Putnam),
the walnut scale (_Aspidiotus juglans-regiæ_ Comstock), Howard's scale
(_Aspidiotus howardii_ Cockerell), the European fruit scale (_Aspidiotus
ostreæformis_ Curtis), the red scale of California (_Chrysomphalus
aurantii_ Maskell), the oyster-shell scale (_Lepidosaphes ulmi_
Linnaeus), and the soft scale (_Coccus hesperidum_ Linnaeus), are all
more or less common.

Several borers occasionally infest cherry trees of which the peach
borer[72] (_Sanninoidea exitiosa_ Say.) is the most troublesome. Larvae
of the peach borer are frequently found in both Sweet and Sour Cherries,
more particularly in Sweet Cherries, in eastern orchards. Fortunately
this pest is not as rife with the cherry as with peaches and plums. Its
work may be prevented by thorough cultivation, by mounding the trees
and, according to some, by the use of a covering of tar or of obnoxious
or poisonous washes. Usually preventive measures are not effective,
however, and the borer must be destroyed--best done by digging it out
with a knife and wire. Since the pest is easily discovered through the
exudation of gum mixed with sawdust or excreta, close to the surface or
just beneath the ground, its presence can be detected in time to prevent
its doing much damage. The lesser peach borer[73] (_Sesia pictipes_
Grote & Robinson) often attacks old or weakened cherry trees, working in
the growing tissues of the trunk anywhere from the ground to the main
branches. The worm is much like the common peach borer, known by all,
but is smaller, rarely reaching the length of four-fifths of an inch
when full grown. The flat-headed apple tree borer[74] (_Chrysobothris
femorata_ Fabricius) is a common pest in wild cherries and sometimes
seriously attacks the cultivated species. It is treated as is the peach
borer.

The shot-hole borer[75] (_Eccoptogaster rugulosus_ Ratzeburg), though
seldom injuring healthy trees, is very often a serious menace in old or
decrepit cherry trees. It may be looked upon, however, as an effect
rather than a cause. The peach bark-beetle[76] (_Phlæotribus liminaris_
Harris) is very similar in its work to the shot-hole borer and like it
attacks only diseased and decrepit trees.

All cherry-growers are familiar with the small, dark green, slimy slugs
which feed on the surface of the leaves of the cherry, possibly more
common on the foliage of pears, eating out the soft tissues and leaving
but the skeleton of the leaf. If the slugs are numerous the tree may be
defoliated or if the leaves remain the foliage looks as if scorched. The
adult of this slug is a sawfly (_Caliroa_ (_Eriocampoides_) _cerasi_
Linnaeus) which lays its eggs within the tissue of the leaves. Despite
the fact that it is easily destroyed by any of the arsenical sprays or
by dusting with lime this slug everywhere does much damage to cherries.

Wild cherries suffer severely from the tent caterpillar[77] (_Malacosoma
americana_ Fabricius) and occasionally cultivated trees are attacked.
The arsenical sprays are fatal to the pest. The spring canker-worm[78]
(_Paleacrita vernata_ Peck) and the fall canker-worm[79] (_Alsophila
pometaria_ Harris), the white-marked tussock moth (_Hemerocampa
leucostigma_ Smith and Abbot), the rusty tussock moth (_Hemerocampa
antiqua_ Linnaeus), and the definite-marked tussock moth (_Hemerocampa
definita_ Packard) are all occasional cherry pests and all succumb to
poisonous sprays. The two now notorious European pests recently
introduced into America, gypsy moth (_Porthetria dispar_ Linnaeus) and
the browntail moth (_Euproctis chrysorrhæa_ Linnaeus), attack cherry
trees in common with other deciduous trees and may often do considerable
damage. Sometimes, but not often, the buds of the cherry are attacked by
the bud-moth (_Spilonota_ (_Tmetocera_) _ocellana_ Schiffermüller), the
caterpillars of which bind the young leaves together as they expand so
that small, dead, brown clusters of foliage are to be seen here and
there where the pests are at work. Spraying with arsenicals is effective
if done just as the buds begin to open.

In sandy soils the cherry is sometimes attacked by hordes of the common
rose-chafer (_Macrodactylus subspinosus_ Fabricius), leaves, flowers and
even the fruit suffering from the pest. It is a difficult insect to
control but a spray of arsenate of lead with molasses is fairly
effective. It is important to know that the insect does not often breed
in ground kept in clean cultivation.

    [68] Slingerland, M. V. _Bul. Cor. Ag. Ex. Sta._ =172=: 1899.

    [69] Riley, C. V. _An. Rpt. State Entom. Mo._ =1=:50-56. 1869;
    =3=:11-29. 1871.

    [70] Marlatt, C. L. The San José or Chinese Scale, _U. S. D. A.
    Bur. Ent. Bul._ =62=:1-89. 1906.

    [71] Lowe, V. H. The New York Plum Lecanium, _N. Y. Sta. Bul._
    =136=:583. 1897.

    [72] Beutenmüller, _W. Sesiidae of America_, etc. 266-271. 1901.

    [73] _Ibid._ 291-292. 1901.

    [74] Riley, C. V. _An. Rpt. State Entoml. Mo._ =1=:46-47. 1869.

    [75] Lowe, V. H. _N. Y. Sta. Bul._ =180=:112-128. 1900.

    [76] Wilson, W. F. The Peach-tree Bark-beetle, _U. S. D. A. Bur.
    Ent. Bul._ =68=:91-108. 1909.

    [77] Lowe, V. H. The Apple-tree Tent Caterpillar, _N. Y. Sta.
    Bul._ =152=:279-293. 1898.

    [78] Riley, C. V. _An. Rpt. State Entom. Mo._ =2=:94-103. 1870.

    [79] _Ibid._ =7=:83-90. 1875.



CHAPTER IV

LEADING VARIETIES OF CHERRIES


ABBESSE D'OIGNIES

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:182. 1866. =2.= Leroy _Dict.
    Pom._ =5=:161, 162 fig. 1877. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 276, 277.
    1884. =4.= _Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 329. 1888. =5.= Budd-Hansen _Am.
    Hort. Man._ =2=:284. 1903. =6.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:62 fig. 1907.
    =7.= _N. Y. Sta. Bul._ =385=:307, 308, Pl. 1914.

Abbesse d'Oignies has so many good characters that it is well worth
trying commercially wherever cherries are grown in the United States.
Curiously enough, it seems so far to have been tried only in the Middle
West, Professor Budd having introduced it in Iowa from Russia in 1883.
In the unfavorable soil and climatic conditions of the Mississippi
Valley, Abbesse d'Oignies grows as well as any cherry of its class, if
we may judge from the accounts of it. We do not know of its having been
tried elsewhere in the East than on our grounds and here we find it, in
competition with practically all of the varieties of its class, one of
the best of the Dukes. At this Station it does so well that we described
it, in the reference given, as one of the noteworthy fruits in our
collection. The trees are large, vigorous, hardy, fruitful and very free
from fungus diseases. The cherries are large, dark red, of most
excellent quality, combining the flavor of the Dukes with a firmer and
yet tenderer flesh than the Montmorency. The high quality, handsome
appearance and good shipping qualities of the fruit, combined with the
splendid characters of the tree, ought to make Abbesse d'Oignies a very
good commercial variety.

This cherry probably originated in Belgium about the middle of the
Nineteenth Century. At least it was first listed in Belgian nursery
catalogs in 1854. It is now a greater or less favorite wherever cherries
are grown in the Old World, Professor Budd having found it, as we have
said, in 1883, in Russia and immediately transported it to America.

[Illustration: ABBESSE d'OIGNIES]

    Tree characteristically large and vigorous, upright-spreading,
    round-topped but with drooping branchlets, hardy, productive;
    trunk stocky, with shaggy bark; branches thick, smooth, ash-gray
    over reddish-brown, with many lenticels; branchlets short, with
    short internodes, brownish, roughened by transverse wrinkles and
    by numerous conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves two and one-half inches wide, five and one-half inches
    long, folded upward, obovate, thick; upper surface glossy, dark
    green; lower surface light green, slightly pubescent, distinctly
    ribbed by the larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin
    with small, black glands, coarsely and doubly serrate; petiole
    one and one-quarter inches long, thick, lightly tinged with red,
    grooved, with one or two small, globose, reddish-orange glands.

    Buds rather long, pointed, free, arranged often in elongated
    clusters at the ends of long spurs; leaf-scars very prominent;
    season of bloom medium, averaging five days in length; flowers
    white, one and three-sixteenths inches across; borne in dense
    clusters at the ends of long spurs or spur-like branches, well
    distributed, varying from one to three; pedicels one-half inch
    long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube reddish, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged red, long, narrow, somewhat
    acuminate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    roundish-oval, entire, nearly sessile, with a broad, shallow notch
    at the apex; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous,
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit late; three-fourths inch long, seven-eighths inch thick,
    roundish-oblate, slightly compressed; cavity of medium depth,
    wide, regular; suture a line; apex roundish, slightly depressed;
    color dark red; dots numerous, small, light russet, conspicuous;
    stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adhering to the fruit;
    skin tough; flesh yellowish-white, with colorless juice, slightly
    stringy, tender and soft, sprightly subacid; of very good quality;
    stone free, about three-eighths inch in diameter, roundish,
    turgid, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces; ridged along the
    ventral suture.


ARCH DUKE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571. 1629. =2.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676.
    =3.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2:=135. 1832. =4.= Downing _Fr. Trees
    Am._ 189, 190. 1845. =5.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 97,
    98. 1846. =6.= _Mag. Hort._ =13=:398 fig. 1847. =7.= Elliott _Fr.
    Book_ 203. 1854. =8.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 135. 1867. =9.= _Am. Pom.
    Soc. Cat._ 12. 1871. =10.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 278, 279. 1884.

    _Griotte de Portugal._ =11.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:190,
    191, Pl. XIII. 1768. =12.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:297, 298 fig.
    1877.

    _Portugiesischer Griottier Weichselbaum._ =13.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
    =1=:6, Tab. 16 fig. 1. 1792.

    _Herzogskirsche._ =14.= Christ _Handb._ 670. 1797. =15.= Christ
    _Wörterb._ 282. 1802. =16.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    371-376. 1819.

    _Portugiesische Griotte._ =17.= Christ _Handb._ 674. 1797.

    _Cerise Royale de Hollande._ =18.= _Ann. Pom. Belge._ =1=:81, Pl.
    1853.

    _Cerise de Portugal._ =19.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:148 fig.
    37, 149, 150. 1866.

Parkinson, nearly three hundred years ago, thought the Arch Duke "one of
the fairest and best of cherries." It is now, however, quite surpassed
by several others of the Dukes. The concensus of opinion of those who
have known the true fruit of this name is that either May Duke or Late
Duke is better. We give it prominence only because of its worthy past
and that it may be better distinguished from May Duke with which it is
often confused. As compared with the last-named variety it is two weeks
later; the tree is more vigorous but not as productive; and the
branches are larger, more divergent and more pendulous. The cherries
are not as well flavored but are larger and have a shorter stalk.

This old English variety was first mentioned by Parkinson in _Paradisus
Terrestris_, 1629. For many years previous to the middle of the last
century the true Arch Duke cherry was very scarce and was often confused
with other varieties, some writers asserting that it was the May Duke;
others, the Late Duke. In 1847, however, the true Arch Duke cherry was
discovered in the nurseries of Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England,
having been grown there, according to Mr. Rivers, by his ancestors for
nearly a century. It was then found that the fruit was quite unlike that
of either May Duke or Late Duke, though the habit of the tree was
similar. It is not known when Arch Duke was introduced into America but
the American Pomological Society placed it upon its fruit list in 1871.

[Illustration: ARCH DUKE]

    Tree medium in size, vigorous, somewhat upright, hardy,
    productive; trunk stocky, smooth; branches slender, long, smooth,
    reddish-brown, marked with considerable scarf-skin, with numerous,
    rather large lenticels; branchlets of medium length, curved, with
    short internodes, brown mottled with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous,
    with few small, slightly raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, about two inches wide, three inches long, folded
    upward, short-oval to obovate, of medium thickness; upper surface
    dark green; lower surface light green, very slightly pubescent;
    apex acutely pointed; margin finely and doubly serrate, glandular;
    petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red, slender, with one or
    two, rarely three small, globose, brownish glands at the base of
    the blade.

    Buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds or in clusters of variable size; leaf-scars rather
    prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers white, one and
    one-sixteenth inches across; borne in clusters of twos and threes;
    pedicels three-fourths inch long, rather slender, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube with a faint tinge of red, obconic, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes with a trace of red, of medium length and breadth,
    acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    roundish, entire, nearly sessile, the apex entire or with a
    shallow, wide notch; anthers yellowish; filaments three-sixteenths
    inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; one and one-eighth inches in
    diameter, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed, flattened at the
    extremities; cavity of medium depth, narrow, somewhat obtuse;
    suture distinct; apex flattened or depressed; color light red
    becoming dark red or almost black at full maturity; dots numerous,
    of medium size, russet, rather inconspicuous; stem slender, one
    and one-half inches long, rather stout at its point of insertion
    in the fruit, adherent to the fruit; skin moderately thick; flesh
    light to dark red, firm, crisp, slightly astringent at first,
    becoming a very pleasant subacid at full maturity, juicy, good
    to very good in quality; stone semi-clinging, seven-sixteenths
    inch long, three-eighths inch wide, oval, compressed, with smooth
    surfaces.


BALDWIN

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ =23=:81. 1898. =2.= Kan. Hort. Soc.
    _Cherry, The_, 15, 16, Pl. 1900. =3.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:63.
    1903. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Baldwin is supposed to have grown from a sprout of a stock on which
Early Richmond had been budded on the farm of S. J. Baldwin, Seneca,
Kansas. The Early Richmond bud was in some manner broken off and the
sprout, springing from the stock, was allowed to grow and first fruited
in 1891. On the grounds of this Station Baldwin trees which came fairly
direct from the originator turned out to be Olivet. The published
descriptions that can be found are so scant and fragmentary that we
cannot make out whether the variety is really distinct or, as in the
case of our trees, is Olivet renamed. The variety has been rather widely
disseminated in the Middle West but has not shown much merit either for
home or for commercial orchards in the rather lengthy probationary
period it has had in the East. The American Pomological Society added
Baldwin to its fruit list in 1909. The description we give is a
compilation.

    Tree vigorous, upright, round-topped; leaves large, broad; flowers
    white, changing to pink.

    Fruit ripens early; usually borne in pairs; large, round; stem
    of medium length, rather thick; color very dark red, yet almost
    transparent; flavor slightly acid, yet considered one of the
    sweetest and richest of the Morello class.


BAUMANN MAY

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 168 fig. 60. 1845. =2.= _Am. Pom.
    Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 279. 1884.

    _Frühe Maiherzkirsche._ =4.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:1, Tab. 1.
    1792. =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 140, 141, 142. 1819.
    =6.= _Ill. Handb._ 49 fig., 50. 1860. =7.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
    348, 349. 1889.

    _Süsse Maiherzkirsche._ =8.= Christ _Handb._ 662. 1797.

    _May Bigarreau._ =9.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 234. 1841. =10.= _Mag.
    Hort._ =7=:288. 1841. =11.= _Cultivator_ N. S. =4=:280 fig. 1.
    1847. =12.= Hovey _Fr. Am._ =1=:55, 56, Pl. 1851.

    _Guigne Précoce de Mai._ =13.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:54 fig.
    2, 55, 56. 1866. =14.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:51, 52, fig. 26. 1882.

    _Bigarreau Baumann._ =15.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:176 fig., 177.
    1877.

    _Guigne de Mai._ =16.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 102 fig.,
    103. 1904.

Baumann May is an early Sweet Cherry which at one time held high place
among its kind but a century of culture proved that it had little value
except for extreme earliness and it is now but sparingly or not at all
grown either in America or abroad. If the variety could be obtained it
might be worth growing for breeding work because of its earliness and
great productiveness. At one time this variety was rather largely grown
in central and western New York and specimens of it must yet remain in
this region.

From the latter part of the Eighteenth Century, when we first find an
account of this variety in Kraft's _Pomona Austriaca_, to the last of
the Nineteenth, writers have described Baumann May under many different
names. From all accounts it originated toward the latter part of the
Eighteenth Century, in Germany. From Germany it was introduced into
Alsace where F. J. Baumann, a nurseryman at Bollweiler, grew it in his
nursery under the name Bigarreau Baumann and disseminated it throughout
the French provinces. The cherry was received in America, with several
others, by Colonel M. P. Wilder of Boston, Massachusetts, from Messrs.
Baumann, about the year 1838. The American Pomological Society listed
the variety, in 1862, in its fruit catalog as Bauman's May but dropped
it again in 1871. The following description is a compilation:

    Tree vigorous, somewhat spreading, regular in form, compact, very
    productive; branches stocky, nearly horizontal but often curved
    downward; branchlets with short internodes, reddish-brown nearly
    covered with silver-gray scarf-skin; leaves medium to large, dark
    green, ovate-oblong, coarsely and deeply serrate; petiole rather
    short, with two large, reniform glands near the base of the leaf;
    buds large, ovate; flowers of medium size, opening very early.

    Fruit matures very early; medium to rather small, ovate-cordate,
    angular, irregular in outline; color dark red becoming nearly
    black when fully ripe; stem one and three-quarters inches long,
    rather thick; flesh purplish-red, with abundant juice, soft and
    tender, sweet, well flavored; of good quality; stone medium in
    size, roundish-ovate.


BESSARABIAN

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Agr. Col. Bul._ 53. 1885. =2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =2=:38.
    1888. =3.= _Ibid._ =19=:549. 1892. =4.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._
    =17=:6. 1892. =5.= _Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 244. 1894. =6.= _U. S.
    D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 39, 40. 1895. =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 17. 1897.
    =8.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:122, 123 fig. 8, 124. 1900. =9.=
    _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:12. 1910.

By general consent Bessarabian has a place in home orchards in the
colder parts of the Mississippi Valley and the Great Plains. It is very
hardy and is said to thrive even under neglect--standing as much abuse
as a forest tree. As compared with standard commercial cherries of the
East the fruit is distinctly inferior in size and quality, being hardly
fit to eat out of hand, and is sour and astringent even when cooked. The
trees, though hardy and healthy, are dwarfish and not productive because
of the smallness of the cherries. It is an early cherry but the fruit
hangs long. The variety is said to root well from cuttings, which, if
true, might make it worth while trying as a stock. Bessarabian is a
variant of English Morello, the fruit of which sort greatly excels it
wherever the trees can be equally well grown.

This variety was brought to America from Russia about 1883, by Professor
J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, who believed it to belong to a race of
cherries originally found in central Asia.

    Tree of medium size, upright, becoming somewhat spreading,
    compact, healthy, unproductive, very hardy; branches somewhat
    drooping, long, slender; leaves abundant, medium to small, oval,
    coarsely serrate, dark green, broad, flat; glands few, usually on
    the stalk at the base of the leaf.

    Fruit matures medium early, remaining on the tree a long time
    in good condition; medium in size, roundish-oblate to cordate,
    irregular, bright red becoming dark red; stem long, varying
    from one and three-fourths to two inches in length, slender,
    curved; skin tender; flesh light to dark red, with abundant
    colored juice, variable in firmness, sprightly subacid becoming
    milder when fully ripe; fair in quality; stone variable in size,
    roundish-oval, semi-clinging.


BIGARREAU PÉLISSIER

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 92 fig., 93. 1904. =2.= _Cat.
    Cong. Pom. France_ 30 fig. 1906.

    _Pélissiers Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

This variety originated in France as a chance seedling about 1883 and
fruited first in 1891. It was introduced a few years later by M. Auguste
Pélissier, a nurseryman at Château-Renard, Bouches-du-Rhône, France.
Although not yet well established even in France, this cherry is
considered promising for market, because of its firm flesh, handsome
appearance, high quality and good tree-characters. It is included among
the major varieties in _The Cherries of New York_ that the attention of
American cherry-growers may be called to it. As yet it seems not to have
been tried in this country. The following description is compiled:

    Tree upright, vigorous, very productive; branches rather long,
    large, bearing large, oval leaves; flowers large, semi-open;
    blooming season early.

    Fruit matures from early June to the last of June; large or very
    large, obtuse-cordate, slightly depressed at the apex, with a
    shallow yet distinct suture; stem short, thick; skin rather thick,
    firm, yellowish almost entirely overspread with vivid red which
    becomes darker at maturity but often showing streaks of clear red;
    flesh fine-grained, firm, juicy, red with streaks of white, sweet,
    aromatic; quality good to very good; stone of medium size, oval,
    with a pronounced suture.


BING

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262, Pl. 4 fig. a. 1892. =2.= _Wash. Bd.
    Hort. Rpt._ 126, 128. 1893. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899.
    =4.= _W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 112. 1900. =5.= _Ibid._ 26. 1904.
    =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 192. 1907. =7.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_
    187. 1908. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909. =9.= _Wash. Sta.
    Bul._ =92=:23. 1910.

Bing is one of the best of the several very good cherries from the
Pacific Northwest. But few Sweet Cherries equal it in size and
attractiveness and none surpass it in quality, so that it may be said to
be as good as any of the dessert cherries. It is, too, a very good
shipping fruit, ranking with the best of the Bigarreaus, to which group
it belongs, as a cherry for distant markets. Another quality commending
the variety is that it hangs well on the trees and the crop ripens at
one time so that the harvest consists of but one picking. While many
cherry-growers speak well of the trees, unfortunately we cannot do so
from their behavior on the grounds of this Station. They have not been
as vigorous, as healthy or as productive as cherry trees should be in a
commercial variety of first rank. The cause, however, may be in the
location rather than in the variety, for in an orchard but a few miles
distant Bing does much better than on these grounds. The variety, though
comparatively new, is no longer on probation. It has a niche in the
cherry flora of the country, deserving a place in the collection of
every amateur by virtue of its splendid fruit. When it is happy in soil
and climate, Bing is bound to be one of the leading commercial cherries.

Seth Lewelling of Milwaukee, Oregon, the originator of several of our
finest cherries, grew Bing from the seed of Republican in 1875. The
variety was named after a Chinese workman. In 1899 the American
Pomological Society placed the variety on its fruit list.

    Tree large, vigorous, erect becoming upright-spreading, rather
    open, productive; trunk and branches thick, smooth; branches
    brownish with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets thick, long,
    with long internodes, greenish-brown, smooth, pubescent, with
    small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves abundant, large, folded upward, ovate to obovate of medium
    thickness; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light
    green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, or acute, base abrupt;
    margin slightly serrate, glandular; petiole long, pubescent,
    thickish, tinged red, with from one to three large, reniform,
    reddish glands on the stalk.

    Fruit matures in mid-season or later; very large, one inch in
    diameter, broadly cordate, somewhat compressed, slightly angular;
    cavity deep, of medium width, abrupt, regular; suture a dark
    line; apex roundish or slightly depressed; color very dark red,
    almost black; dots small, russet, inconspicuous; stem variable
    in thickness, one and one-fourth inches long; skin of medium
    thickness, tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh purplish-red with
    dark purple juice, rather coarse, firm, very meaty, brittle,
    sweet; of very good quality; stone semi-free, large, ovate to
    oval, blunt, with smooth surfaces.


BLACK GUIGNE

    _Prunus avium_

    =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:112. 1832.

    _Scheur-Kers._ =2.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 43. 1771.

    _Frühe Schwarze Herzkirsche._ =3.= _Christ Wörterb._ 274. 1802.

    _Guigne Bigaudelle_. =4.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:113. 1832.

    _Coburger Maiherzkirsche._ =5.= _Ill. Handb._ 51 fig., 52. 1860.
    =6.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 377. 1881. =7.= Lauche _Deut. Pom._
    =III=:No. 1, Pl. 1882.

    _Guigne Noire Commune._ =8.= _Leroy Dict. Pom._ =5=:328, 329 fig.,
    330. 1877.

    _Noire Hâtive de Cobourg._ =9.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:123, 124,
    fig. 62. 1882.

There is much confusion in the history of this old cherry. It
undoubtedly originated in France and in that part of the country later
conquered by the Germans, though Mas, in his _Pomologie Générale_,
mentioned it as probably of German origin. In the time of Louis XIII
this variety was known as the Guigne Noire Commune and was cultivated
quite extensively in France and northern Italy. It was esteemed both for
its earliness and its fine quality and was known as Guigne Guindoulle by
the peasants of central France and by the Tuscans in Italy as Corbini
because of the color of its skin. Black Guigne, Black Heart, and Early
Purple, which, while similar in many characters, are entirely distinct,
have been badly confused by both French and German writers and it is
only with the greatest difficulty that the three can be separated. While
this cherry was formerly considered of worth in Continental Europe, it
is scarcely recognized there now and was probably never brought to
America. The following description is compiled from European
fruit-books:

[Illustration: BING]

    Tree very large, round-topped, spreading, irregular in outline,
    productive; branches long, large, straight, brownish, mottled with
    gray scarf-skin; internodes long and unequal; leaves large, oval
    or oblong, acuminate; margin irregularly serrate; petiole long,
    slender, with large glands; blooming season late; flowers small.

    Fruit matures the last of June to the middle of July, usually
    attached in pairs but sometimes in threes; medium to large in
    size, obtuse-cordate; color bright reddish-black changing to deep
    purple; suture indistinct; stem slender, inserted in a deep,
    broad cavity; skin thin, tender; flesh dark purple, with abundant
    colored juice, half-tender, somewhat stringy, sweet yet sprightly,
    pleasantly flavored; quality good; stone small, oval.


BLACK HAWK

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Horticulturist_ =6=:360, 361 fig. 1851. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc.
    Rpt._ 45, 235. 1854. =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 190 fig. 1854. =4.=
    Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 258, 270, 271. 1857. =5.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._
    382. 1875.

    _Épervier Noir._ =6.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:41, 42, fig. 21. 1882.

Despite the fact that Black Hawk was lauded by the horticulturists in
the middle of the last century as one of the best of all black Sweet
Cherries, it is now almost unknown. According to the older pomologists
it was unsurpassed for eating out of hand but was only mediocre in all
other characters of either fruit or tree. In particular it was surpassed
in many ways by the better-known Eagle which fills about the same place
in cherry culture. The variety was very popular in southern Ohio about
Cincinnati where many trees may still be found and where it is still
more or less planted. Possibly because of the excellent quality of the
fruit, the amateur might well try a tree or two. The description is
compiled.

Black Hawk originated with Professor J. P. Kirtland of Cleveland, Ohio,
sometime previous to 1845. It is one of the best of the many seedlings
fruited by him. The American Pomological Society in 1854 named this sort
as one of the promising new fruits and it still remains on the
fruit-list of this organization.

    Tree large, vigorous, spreading, round-topped, resembling Yellow
    Spanish in habit, productive, healthy; branches stout, smooth,
    dark reddish-brown, straight; branchlets slender, with short
    internodes.

    Leaves large, folded upward, obovate, rather thick; upper surface
    dark green; lower surface pale green; apex abruptly pointed;
    margin coarsely and deeply serrate; petiole short, stout, bright
    red, with two or more orange-red, reniform glands.

    Buds of medium size, rather short, free; flowers small or medium
    in size; pedicels long, very slender; calyx-lobes straight, finely
    serrate, obtuse; petals roundish, broadly and deeply notched at
    the tip.

    Fruit matures about the middle of June, a few days later than
    Black Tartarian; medium to large, obtuse-cordate, surface uneven,
    sides compressed; cavity deep, broad, abrupt, nearly regular;
    color glossy, dark purplish-black changing to almost black
    at complete maturity; stem usually thick but often variable,
    of medium length; skin thick, adhering to the pulp; flesh
    purplish-black, tender, with abundant colored juice, aromatic,
    well flavored, sweet; of very good quality; stone of medium size,
    with uneven surfaces.


BLACK HEART

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:115. 1832.
    =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 169 fig. 1845. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc.
    Rpt._ 195. 1854. =5.= Thompson _Gard. Ass't_ 526. 1859. =6.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

    _Guignier à Fruit Noir._ =7.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:158,
    159, 160, Pl. 1 fig. 1. 1768.

    _Frühe Schwarze Herzkirsche._ =8.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    116-119. 1819. =9.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 340, 349. 1889.

    _Guigne Noire Ancienne._ =10.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:66 fig.
    7, 67, 68. 1866.

    _Bigarreau Noir d'Espagne._ =11.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:223 fig.,
    224. 1877.

Although one of the oldest cherries under cultivation, Black Heart is
still largely grown the world over. Prince, in 1832, said that it was
more widely cultivated in the United States than any other variety and
Downing, in 1845, said Black Heart was then better known than any other
cherry in the country. While neither of these two statements would hold
for Black Heart now, it having long since passed its heyday of
popularity, it is still, because of the fruitfulness of the tree and the
high quality and beauty of the fruit, a variety of much merit. Black
Heart fails in the commercial fruit growing of nowadays, as compared
with the cherry culture of the fruit connoisseurs of a generation ago,
because it does not meet market demands, failing to do so through two
defects: it does not ship well and when brown-rot is rife it quickly
succumbs to this fungus. It is, too, now difficult to obtain the variety
true to name, the trees at this Station, as an example, in several
attempts, turning out untrue, which forces the use of a compiled
description in this text.

This cherry was mentioned by John Rea in 1676 but there can be no doubt
but that it originated many years previous to this date. Probably it is
the cherry mentioned by Robert Dodonée, a naturalist of Malines,
Belgium, in 1552. When or by whom it was introduced to America is not
known but it was being grown here very early in the Nineteenth Century
and ever since has been considered a valuable variety for general
planting. Nearly every nurseryman throughout the United States lists
Black Heart, a fact attesting its popularity. The American Pomological
Society placed Black Heart on its catalog of fruits in 1862, a place
which it has since retained.

    Tree large, very vigorous, tall, wide-spreading, productive;
    branches stout, brownish, mingled with yellow, mottled with gray
    scarf-skin; lenticels numerous, small.

    Leaves very large, oblong, waved, acuminate, nearly flat; upper
    surface dark green; margin deeply and coarsely serrate; petiole of
    medium length, lightly tinged with red, with greenish glands.

    Buds large, oval, pointed; season of bloom early or very early;
    flowers medium in size; petals roundish, imbricated.

    Fruit matures early, season long; large, obtuse-cordate, somewhat
    compressed; cavity broad; suture deep; surface somewhat irregular;
    color dark purple becoming black; stem one and three-fourths
    inches long, slender; skin slightly shrivelled; flesh dark
    red, firm to very firm becoming tender at full maturity, with
    abundant colored juice, sweet; good in quality; stone large,
    roundish-ovate; dorsal suture deep.


BLACK TARTARIAN

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 130-132. 1819. =2.= _Pom.
    Mag._ =1=:44, Pl. 1828. =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831.
    =4.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:113, 114. 1832. =5.= _Proc. Nat. Con.
    Fr. Gr._ 52. 1848. =6.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:21. 1858.
    =7.= _Ill. Handb._ 61 fig., 62. 1860. =8.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
    =5=:228, 229 fig., 230. 1877. =9.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 377, 378.
    1889. =10.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 37. 1906.

    _Ronald's Large Black Heart._ =11.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 42,
    43. 1803.

    _Guigne Noire à Gros Fruit._ =12.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 36.
    1906.

    _Tartarian._ =13.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

Black Tartarian is probably the favorite dooryard and roadside Sweet
Cherry in New York and ranks second or third among commercial cherries
in the State, as it probably does for the whole region east of the
Mississippi. It is known by all who grow or eat cherries. The
preeminently meritorious characters which give it so high a place in
cherry culture are: first, and most important, the elasticity of its
constitution whereby it adapts itself to widely different soils and
climates; second, the fruitfulness, healthfulness and robustness of the
trees which also bear regularly, live to an old age and grow to a
prodigious size, oftentimes attaining a diameter of two feet; third,
this variety is comparatively free from the worst of cherry diseases,
brown-rot; lastly, the cherries, though not as large as some similar
sorts, are tempting to the eye through their rotund form and glossy
black color and are a delight to the palate, the handsome purplish-red
flesh being firm and crisp, yet juicy, with a sweet, rich flavor which
all agree gives the quality the rank of "very good to best." It is a
virile variety and from it have come several promising seedlings and it
is one of the parents of a number of cross-bred cherries. Black
Tartarian is earlier than most of the Sweet Cherries with which it must
compete--under most conditions a help in marketing. Unfortunately it is
a little too soft to handle well in harvesting and marketing or to hold
its shape as a canned product. Its small size is also against it for the
canner's trade. The several defects noted prevent Black Tartarian from
taking first rank in commercial orchards but for the home plantation it
is one of the best.

Black Tartarian came originally from Russia. It was introduced into
England in 1794 from Circassia, by Hugh Ronalds of Brentford, Middlesex,
as Ronald's Large Black Heart. Two years later, John Fraser introduced a
variety, a native of Crimea, which he purchased in St. Petersburg, as
Fraser's Black Tartarian. This turned out to be the same as the cherry
from Circassia. Some go farther back and say that Black Tartarian was
carried to Russia from Spain, thence to England. It owes its
introduction into this country to William Prince of Flushing, Long
Island, probably in the early part of the Nineteenth Century. It was
recognized in 1848 and placed on the schedule of fruits at the National
Convention of Fruit Growers which later became the present American
Pomological Society. The variety still retains a place among the
recommended cherries but under the name Tartarian. The variety quickly
became popular in America, finding a place in every orchard and in the
lists of all nurserymen. Some nurserymen claim to have superior strains
of the old variety; as, Green's Tartarian and Black Tartarian Improved.
Comparisons show no differences. Black Russian, listed by some firms, is
probably Black Tartarian as it is used many times as a synonym by
foreign writers.

[Illustration: BLACK TARTARIAN]

    Tree characteristically large, vigorous, upright, vasiform,
    productive; trunk of medium thickness, smooth; branches smooth,
    reddish-brown, slightly overspread with ash-gray, with large
    lenticels; branchlets rather long, brown almost entirely
    overspread with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with inconspicuous,
    slightly raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate to elliptical, thin; upper
    surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, slightly
    pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin varies from serrate to
    crenate; petiole two inches long, thick, tinged with red, with
    a few hairs, with from one to three reniform, reddish glands of
    medium size usually on the stalk.

    Buds pointed or obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds, or in small clusters on spurs of variable length; leaf-scars
    very prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers white, one and
    one-fourth inches across, borne in scattering well-distributed
    clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender,
    glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube faintly tinged with red,
    campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, long,
    broad, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    roundish, entire, with short, blunt claws; anthers yellowish;
    filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than
    the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; less than one inch in diameter, cordate,
    compressed; cavity intermediate in depth and width, flaring;
    suture indistinct; apex pointed and slightly depressed; color
    purplish-black; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; stem
    slender, one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin
    thin, separating readily from the pulp; flesh purplish-red, with
    dark colored juice, firm, meaty, crisp, pleasant flavored, mild,
    sweet; of very good quality; stone free, ovate, slightly flattened
    and oblique, with smooth surfaces.


BLEEDING HEART

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676. =2.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 42.
    1803. =3.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 104. 1846. =4.=
    Elliott _Fr. Book_ 215. 1854.

    _Gascoigne._ =5.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571, 572. 1629. =6.=
    Gerarde _Herball_ 1504. 1636. =7.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 298. 1884.

    _Red Heart._ =8.= Rea _Flora_ 206. 1676. =9.= Brookshaw _Hort.
    Reposit._ =2:=183, Pl. 96 fig. 1. 1823.

    _Blutherzkirsche._ =10.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 224, 225,
    226. 1819.

    _Gascoigne's Heart._ =11.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 174. 1845.

    _Blutrothe Molkenkirsche._ =12.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
    =3:=29. 1858.

    _Guigne Rouge Hâtive._ =13.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5:=338 fig., 339.
    1877.

Bleeding Heart goes back almost as far as the history of cultivated
cherries. It is only of historical interest now and this chiefly because
it has been the parent of many sorts of present worth. According to the
old writers it took highest rank in the cherry lists of a century and
more ago by virtue of its high quality and handsome appearance, the name
being indicative of color and form. So far as can be made out at this
late date the variety has been grown but little or not at all in
America, the description here given coming from old pomologies.

This, like the preceding sort, is a cherry of several names, having been
mentioned first by Parkinson in 1629 as the Gascoign Cherry. In England
three different names have been applied to this variety, Gascoigne, Red
Heart and Bleeding Heart. At least there seems to be little doubt that
the Bleeding Heart and Red Heart listed by John Rea in 1676 were the
Gascoign of Parkinson and Gerarde.

    Tree of largest size, very vigorous, not very productive; branches
    numerous, large, long, diverging, brownish-red, mottled with gray
    scarf-skin; leaves very large, oblong, acuminate; margin crenate;
    petiole thick, long, reddish, with well-developed glands; blooming
    season early.

    Fruit matures the latter half of July; usually in pairs, large,
    elongated heart-shaped, with pointed apex; color bright red
    changing to dark red, somewhat mottled; stem two inches long,
    slender; flesh reddish, rather tender although firm, with abundant
    juice, highly flavored, sweetish; good in quality; stone large,
    oblong.


BOURGUEIL

_Prunus cerasus_

    _Cerise de Bourgueil._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:205. 1866.

    _Montmorency de Bourgueil._ =2.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:123, 124,
    fig. 60. 1866-73. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5:=364, 365 fig. 1877.

Bourgueil is a variant form of Montmorency hardly differing enough in
fruit from Large Montmorency to be distinguished from it and yet since
it seems to be more productive than the last-named sort it is possibly
worth adding to the cherry flora of the country. The variety, it must be
remembered, is still on probation, but if trees true to name can be
obtained it is worth planting in small numbers where growers want a
cherry of the Montmorency type.

This variety was found by a Doctor Bretonneau about 1844 in Bourgueil,
Indre-et-Loire, France. It is known by the name of the finder as well as
that of the locality in which it originated and through having the same
place of origin is often confused with Cerise Rouge Pale. The United
States Department of Agriculture received this variety in 1905 from
Ferdinand Jamin, Bourg-la-Reine, Seine, France, and in turn forwarded it
to this Station where it has been fruiting for the past few seasons.
Nurserymen do not as yet offer it for sale and it is doubtful if it is
known in more than a few places in America.

[Illustration: BOURGUEIL]

    Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, vasiform, productive; branches
    slender, smooth, reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with
    numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, brown, with some
    ash-gray, smooth, with numerous inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four inches long, two inches wide, folded upward,
    obovate to ovate, thick; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower
    surface light green, pubescent along the veins; apex and base
    variable in shape; margin doubly crenate; petiole one inch long,
    thick, with a dull tinge of red, pubescent, with none or with from
    one to three globose, yellow or brownish glands on the base of the
    blade.

    Buds small, short, variable in shape, plump, free, arranged singly
    as lateral buds and on short spurs in clusters variable in size;
    leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late; flowers white, one and
    one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering, well-distributed
    clusters, usually in threes; pedicels short, one-half inch
    long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube faintly tinged with red,
    campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, broad,
    serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals crinkled,
    roundish, entire, sessile, with apex entire; filaments one-fourth
    inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths inch long, one inch
    wide, nearly oblate, somewhat compressed; cavity deep, wide,
    medium flaring, regular; suture indistinct; apex roundish to
    flattened; color bright red; dots small, russet, inconspicuous;
    stem stout, one and one-eighth inches long, adherent to the fruit;
    skin tender, free; flesh yellowish-white with colorless juice,
    tender and melting, sprightly, sour; of good quality; stone free,
    large, roundish-ovate, pointed, with smooth surfaces, tinged with
    red, with a prominent ventral suture.


BRUSSELER BRAUNE

_Prunus cerasus_

    1. Christ _Handb._ 676. 1797. 2. Christ _Wörterb._ 288. 1802. 3.
    Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 533-536. 1819. 4. Dochnahl _Führ.
    Obstkunde_ =3=:63, 64. 1858. 5. Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 333, 341.
    1889. 6. _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899. 7. _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._
    =12=:124, 125, fig. 8. 1900.

    _Brüsselsche Bruyn_. 8. Krünitz _Enc._ 75, 76. 1790.

    _Zweite Grösser Herzkirschweichsel._ 9. Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:9,
    Tab. 22 fig. 1. 1792.

     _Ratafia._ 10. Hogg _Fruit Man._ 309, 310. 1884.

From the standpoint of commercial cherry culture, Brusseler Braune has
little value. The trees are uncertain in bearing; the cherries are
small, sour, and astringent; and, worse than the faults named, the crop
ripens very unevenly. It is of the English Morello type but in New York,
at least, is far inferior to this well-known sort. Brusseler Braune has
been much advertised for cold climates but there are many better
cherries that stand cold nearly or quite as well and are better in both
tree and fruit characters and, in particular, that will not vex the
souls of growers by ripening so unevenly. The variety has two marked
peculiarities: the leaves on the two-year-old wood are very small and
the fruit-stems bear a small leaflet at their base. These leaflets on
the fruit-stem would have to be removed in marketing the crop--another
serious defect.

No doubt Brusseler Braune originated in Holland but there is nothing
definite as to the time though Truchsess, a German, writes of having
received it in 1785 as Brüsselsche Bruyn. The synonyms of this variety
are more or less confused with those of English Morello. This cherry was
brought to America in 1883 by the late J. L. Budd with several other
varieties. In the collection of trees sent out from the original
importation, of which this was one, or from trees budded from them, were
Griotte du Nord, Large Long Late, Shadow Amarelle, Lutovka, George
Glass, Orel No. 27, or Gibb, and Bessarabian. Unfortunately the
varieties were badly mixed and much confusion has resulted. It is not
impossible that the first three are synonyms but the Lutovka, George
Glass, Bessarabian and possibly the Gibb are distinct varieties. In
1895, this Station recommended a new cherry for trial for home and
market and distributed buds throughout the state under the name Lutovka.
Later it was found that an error had been made regarding the trees sent
us as Lutovka, they being the Brusseler Braune. The American Pomological
Society added Brusseler Braune to its fruit catalog list in 1899 but
dropped it in 1909.

[Illustration: BRUSSELER BRAUNE]

    Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading but with drooping
    branchlets, dense, round-topped, unproductive; trunk and branches
    smooth, stout; branches brownish, overspread with ash-gray,
    with numerous small lenticels; branchlets slender, with short
    internodes, nearly covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with
    small, lightly raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves three and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick, grooved along the
    midrib; upper surface very dark, dull green; lower surface light
    green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin finely
    and doubly serrate; petiole one and one-eighth inches long, tinged
    with dull, dark red, grooved along the upper surface, with from
    one to four small, globose, yellowish-green glands.

    Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds and in
    clusters on scattering, short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season
    of bloom late; flowers one inch across, white; borne in scattering
    clusters in threes and fours; pedicels one and one-eighth inches
    long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube furrowed, tinted
    with red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red,
    acuminate, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals oval to obovate, entire, nearly sessile, with a shallow,
    wide notch at the apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures very late; nearly one inch in diameter, although
    variable in size, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity
    of medium depth, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow, indistinct;
    apex roundish, with a small depression at the center; color light
    red changing to dark red as the season advances; dots numerous,
    small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem two and one-fourth inches
    long, with small leaflets at the base, strongly adherent to the
    fruit; skin thin, tender, separates readily from the pulp; flesh
    dark red, with dark colored juice, tender and melting, somewhat
    astringent, sour; of fair quality; stone nearly free when fully
    mature, fifteen-thirty-seconds inch long, roundish-oval, rather
    plump, blunt-pointed; surfaces smooth; ventral suture slightly
    enlarged near the base.


BUNTE AMARELLE

_Prunus cerasus_

    1. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 652-655. 1819. 2. _Ia. Hort.
    Soc. Rpt._ 330. 1885. 3. _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =2=:40. 1888. 4.
    Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:272. 1903.

So far Bunte Amarelle has found a place only in the trying cherry
climate of Iowa and neighboring States. It is not attractive enough in
appearance, good enough in quality, or certain and fruitful enough in
bearing to compete with other Amarelles, to which group this variety
belongs. Its saving grace is extreme hardiness of tree, though vigor and
health help make it somewhat desirable in cold, prairie regions of the
Mid-West where cherry growing is more or less precarious. There has been
much uncertainty as to the true variety and we have had to discard the
trees on the Station grounds and compile a description.

This variety probably originated in Germany in the latter part of the
Eighteenth Century. Truchsess, a German, in 1819, called the cherry
Bunte Amarelle because of its variegated color before full maturity. The
variety was introduced from Poland to America sometime previous to 1885
and has usually gone under the name of Amarelle Bunte. From all accounts
Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, the authority on these hardy
cherries during his time, had two different cherries under the name
Amarelle Bunte; for in his report at the Iowa Horticultural Society in
1885, he mentioned a variety under that name as being a large, dark
purple and nearly sweet sort which could not have been the true Bunte
Amarelle of Truchsess. Budd and Hansen in 1903 described a variety
which agrees very closely with the true variety of Truchsess which we
herewith describe.

    Tree vigorous, upright, hardy; foliage large, coarse.

    Fruit matures the second week in June; medium to large, roundish,
    flattened at the base; cavity variable in depth; suture shallow,
    indistinct; apex depressed; color yellow overspread with light
    red; stem green, straight, rather slender, one and one-half to
    two inches long; flesh slightly colored, juicy, firm but tender,
    pleasantly subacid; very good in quality; stone variable in size,
    broad.


CALIFORNIA ADVANCE

_Prunus avium_

    1. Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 289, 292. 1889. 2. _Wash. Sta. Bul_.
    =92=:25. 1910.

    _Advance_. 3. _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt_. 130. 1897.

    _Ulatis_. 4. _Mich. Sta. Bul_. =177=:32. 1899.

California Advance is a Sweet Cherry, one of the "Hearts" of common
parlance, distinguished and worth growing only because it is extra
early, though when fully ripe it is of very good quality. It is usually
described as a cherry of "large size" but on the grounds of this Station
the cherries run small, as they are occasionally reported elsewhere to
do, suggesting that the variety requires good care and a choice cherry
soil for a finely finished product. On these grounds the variety seems
to be preeminently free from fungus diseases but the robin and other
birds take greater toll from it than from almost any other cherry,
beginning their harvest long before the fruit is fit for human fare.
California Advance might well be planted in a small way for a local
market in New York, or a tree or two for home use, but it has no place
in large numbers in this State.

California Advance came from a seed of Early Purple sown by W. H.
Chapman of Napa, California, the seedling being saved because the
cherries were larger and ripened earlier than those of its parent. It
has sometimes been confused with the Chapman cherry, of somewhat similar
characteristics, which also originated in Napa, but the two are quite
distinct.

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, productive; trunk
    and branches stout, smooth; branchlets of medium thickness,
    brownish-bronze partly covered with ash-gray, glabrous; leaves
    numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches
    wide, long-obovate to elliptical, thin, medium green, slightly
    rugose; margin serrate, glandular; petiole nearly two inches long,
    slender, tinged with red, pubescent along the upper side and with
    a shallow groove, with from two to four large, reniform, reddish
    glands, usually on the stalk; buds large, obtuse or pointed,
    plump, arranged singly as lateral buds or in clusters of variable
    size on numerous short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of
    bloom early; flowers one and one-eighth inches across; pistil
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit ripens very early, season averaging eleven days; about
    three-fourths inch in diameter, roundish-cordate, compressed;
    color purplish-black; stem of medium thickness, often one
    and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin,
    tender, separates from the pulp; flesh reddish, with dark red
    juice, meaty, tender, mild, sweet; of very good quality; stone
    semi-clinging, three-eighths inch by eleven-thirty-seconds inch in
    size, roundish-oval, compressed, oblique, with smooth surfaces.


CARNATION

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676. =2.= Langley _Pomona_ 86, Pl. 16 fig.
    3. 1729. =3.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 42. 1803. =4.= Coxe
    _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 251. 1817. =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:138, 139.
    1832. =6.= Downing

    _Fr. Trees Am._ 194 fig. 83. 1845. =7.= Thompson _Gard. Ass't_
    529. 1859. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =9.= Mas _Le
    Verger_ =8=:91, 92, fig. 44. 1866-73. =10.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 289.
    1884.

    _Cerise d'Orange._ =11.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 41. 1771.

    _Rothe Oranienkirsche._ =12.= Krünitz _Enc._ 55, 56. 1790. =13.=
    Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 456-463. 1819. =14.= _Ill. Handb._
    175 fig., 176. 1860.

Carnation is a conspicuous cherry because of its beautiful color--red, a
little variegated with white or yellow, hence the name. It is one of the
Amarelles, similar to Montmorency except in color in which character it
is more pleasing than the better-known sort. The stone separates from
the pulp very readily leaving the flesh unusually bright and clean.
Because of their sprightly refreshing flavor, the cherries are pleasing
to the palate, as well as attractive to the eye. Unfortunately the trees
are but moderately vigorous and fruitful and these qualities count so
heavily against it as a commercial cherry that Carnation cannot be more
than a fruit for amateurs unless under exceptional conditions. For a
home plantation, however, it would be hard to name a better cherry of
its kind.

Carnation is another of the choicely good, old cherries, being first
mentioned by John Rea in 1676 and later by Langley in 1729. Having been
cultivated for so long and disseminated among so many growers who kept
meagre records in early days, this sort became badly confused with other
varieties, especially with the "Cerisier à gros fruit rouge-pale,"
mentioned by Duhamel in 1768. How old the variety truly is or where it
originated cannot be said. Carnation seems to have been first mentioned
in America by William Coxe in 1817 and a few years later it was growing
on the grounds of William Prince, Flushing, New York. Since that time it
has been quite widely disseminated throughout the United States but is
grown less extensively now than formerly. The American Pomological
Society, in 1862, placed Carnation on its list of recommended fruits
where it still holds a place.

[Illustration: CARNATION]

    Tree medium in size, spreading, becoming drooping, not
    very productive; trunk intermediate in thickness; branches
    reddish-brown overspread with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels
    variable in size; branchlets brown or ash-gray, smooth, with
    numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves very numerous, four inches long, two inches wide, folded
    upward, oval to obovate, thin; upper surface dark green,
    roughened; lower surface dull, light green, thinly pubescent; apex
    acute; margin finely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole two
    inches long, slender, dull red on the upper surface, with one or
    two large, reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds, or in small clusters on numerous, short spurs; season of
    bloom late; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across;
    borne in scattered clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one inch
    long, of medium thickness, glabrous, green; calyx-tube light
    reddish-green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with
    red, of medium length, broad, acute, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals roundish-oval, entire, with short, broad claws,
    the apex notched; filaments in four series, the longest averaging
    one-half inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season or later; three-fourths of an inch
    long, one inch in thickness, roundish-oblate, compressed; cavity
    deep, abrupt; suture indistinct; apex flattened or with a deep
    depression; color medium to dark red; dots numerous, small,
    russet, inconspicuous; stem one and one-half inches long, adherent
    to the fruit; skin tender, separating readily from the pulp;
    flesh yellowish-white, with abundant colorless juice, tender and
    melting, sprightly; of very good quality; stone free, nearly
    one-half inch in diameter, roundish, blunt, with smooth surfaces.


CENTENNIAL

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 17, 159. 1885. =2.= Wickson _Cal.
    Fruits_ 289. 1889. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899.

In California, Centennial is passing from the period of probation to one
of general acceptance as a standard variety. Unfortunately it has not
been well tested in the East but trees growing in a commercial orchard
at Geneva show the variety to be a close competitor, in this instance at
least, with its parent, Napoleon, the mainstay of Sweet Cherry growers
in New York. In some respects it quite surpasses Napoleon. It is larger,
sweeter and better flavored and has a smaller pit. The trees fall short
of those of its well-known parent, however, in being less fruitful. Even
more serious defects are, in the orchard under observation, that
Centennial cracks and is less successful in resisting brown-rot than
Napoleon though it surpasses many other well-known sorts in these
respects. The two varieties under comparison may be further
distinguished by the more oblate fruits of Centennial, by a more
mottled color and by the pits which are longer and more pointed in the
newer variety. Centennial is recommended for home orchards and
experimentally for commercial plantations.

Centennial is a seedling of Napoleon grown by Henry Chapman, Napa,
California. It came in fruit in 1876 but was not introduced until 1885,
Leonard Coates of Napa, California, being the introducer. Despite its
many merits, Centennial did not win a place on the fruit list of the
American Pomological Society until 1899.

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive;
    trunk thick, roughish; branches stout, smooth, brownish, with
    many large lenticels; branchlets thick, with internodes of medium
    length.

    Leaves numerous, large, flattened, long-oval to obovate, thick;
    upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface pale green, thinly
    pubescent; apex taper-pointed; margin coarsely serrate, with small
    and inconspicuous glands; petiole one and one-fourth inches long,
    pubescent, tinged with red, with from two to four large, reniform,
    greenish-red, flattened glands, usually on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds or in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars
    prominent; blooming season about the middle of May; flowers one
    and one-fourth inches across, usually arranged in twos and threes;
    pedicels variable in length averaging one and one-eighth inches,
    slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube faintly tinged with red,
    obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, acute, glabrous on both
    surfaces, reflexed; petals oval, entire, tapering to short, narrow
    claws, with a slightly crenate apex; anthers greenish; filaments
    one-eighth inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil glabrous,
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures the last week in June, length of season rather
    short; very large, short-cordate, compressed; cavity deep, wide;
    suture distinct, broad, shallow; apex roundish or slightly
    depressed; color amber-yellow, speckled and overlaid with crimson;
    dots whitish, inconspicuous; stem thick, one and one-fourth
    inches long, adherent to the pulp; skin thin, tender, cracks
    badly, adherent to the pulp; flesh whitish, with colorless juice,
    meaty, crackling, sprightly, sweet; of very good quality; stone
    semi-clinging, three-eighths inch in length, eleven-thirty-seconds
    inch in width, ovate, plump, oblique, with smooth surfaces; ridged
    on the ventral suture.


CHOISY

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    _Cerisier à Fruit Ambré, à Fruit Blanc._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb.
    Fr._ =1=:185, 186, 187, Pl. XI. 1768.

    _Schöne von Choisy._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 452-455.
    1819. =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 333, 334, 376. 1889.

     _Belle de Choisy._ =4.= _Pom. Mag._ =1=:42, Pl. 1828. =5.=
    Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:137. 1832. =6.= _Cultivator_ =10=:150 fig.
    1843. =7.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 190 fig. 79. 1845. =8.= Poiteau
    _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 27, Pl. 1846. =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 37,
    38, 102. 1852. =10.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =1=:63, fig. 2. 1853. =11.=
    Elliott =Fr. Book= 189. 1854. =12.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.
    =13.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:169, 170 fig. 45, 171, 172.
    1866. =14.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:113, 114, fig. 55. 1866-73. =15.=
    Hogg _Fruit Man._ 276, 280. 1884. =16.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France
    Pom._ 80 fig., 81. 1904. =17.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 18. 1906.

It seems to be the consensus of opinion of a score or more of European
and American pomologists who have known Choisy that it is the handsomest
and most delicious of all Duke cherries--one of the very best of all
dessert cherries. In it are delicately combined the richness of the
Sweet Cherry and the sprightliness of the Sour Cherry. Unfortunately,
while it bears early and regularly, the trees are seldom fruitful. As an
offset to unfruitfulness, however, the trees are vigorous, hardy and
healthy. The cherries keep and stand the wear and tear of marketing as
well as those of any other Duke. Its qualities all commend it for the
home orchard and for a local market. In particular it may be recommended
for cold climates where a true Sweet Cherry is not quite hardy, this
hybrid being nearly as hardy as the other parent, the Sour Cherry.
Unfortunately suitable specimens of this beautiful cherry could not be
obtained for a color-plate and the description has had to be compiled in
part.

Duhamel describes two amber-colored cherries, one of which is listed by
Leroy as Belle de Choisy. The Cerise Blanche, or Cerise Ambrée (Grosse),
according to Leroy, was cultivated in Central France as early as 1628
and in 1667 Merlet wrote of it as the most curious and rare of all
cherries. Kenrick, _American Orchardist_, 1832, lists a variety, Ambrée,
which according to Floy-Lindley's and Duhamel's descriptions must be
Choisy. Some writers, however, say that Choisy was first grown by M.
Gondouin, a gardener for Louis XV, in 1760, at the village of Choisy
near Paris. The American Pomological Society, in its report for 1852,
mentioned this variety as having promise and ten years later listed it
in the Society's fruit catalog where it has since remained.

    Tree large, vigorous, spreading, somewhat open, hardy, but
    moderately productive; branches thick, of a clear grayish color
    with brownish-red tips; lenticels very numerous, large, roundish.

    Leaves numerous, very broad, obovate, rather abruptly pointed;
    upper surface shining dark green, deeply and regularly serrate to
    rather dentate.

    Buds large, thick, conical, clear brown somewhat covered with
    gray; season of bloom rather early; flowers white, large,
    numerous, borne in large clusters; petioles short, scarcely an
    inch in length; petals broadly round, edges dentate; calyx-lobes
    short, large; pistil longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in some localities just before May Duke, in others
    just after that variety, ordinarily ripe, however, at the end of
    June; usually attached in pairs, large, roundish to somewhat oval,
    flattened toward the base; cavity shallow, wide; suture shallow,
    indistinct; apex depressed; color attractive bright red mottled
    with yellow and amber; stem thick at the base, one and one-half
    to two inches long, generally forking at about one-half inch
    from the base; skin thin, somewhat firm, semi-transparent showing
    the netted texture of the pulp beneath; flesh pale amber, with
    abundant colorless juice, tender, melting, sweet, pleasant flavor;
    very good in quality; stone medium to small, roundish, pointed at
    the apex; dorsal suture indistinct; surfaces nearly smooth.


CLEVELAND

_Prunus avium_

    1. _Horticulturist_ =2=:60 fig. 1847-48. 2. Elliott _Fr. Book_ 191
    fig., 192. 1854. 3. _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. 4. Mortillet
    _Le Cerisier_ =2=:131. 1866.

    _Knorpelkirsche von Cleveland_. 5. _Ill. Handb_. 45 fig., 46. 1867.

Cleveland is a Bigarreau which falls so far short of its near kin, as it
grows in New York at least, as not to be worth planting except as an
early cherry of its type--earliness being its one saving asset. The
cherries closely resemble Rockport in size, color, shape and flavor, are
in no way better than that somewhat mediocre sort and are even more
subject to brown-rot. It ripens with Black Tartarian and can never
compete in orchard or market with that sort. Possibly Cleveland has too
much merit to be wholly neglected yet it certainly is not worth planting
in New York unless in a locality where it does exceptionally well and
when an early cherry of its kind is wanted.

Cleveland is said by its introducer, Professor J. P. Kirtland, to be a
seedling from Yellow Spanish. Its close similarity to Rockport suggests
that it may have come from a pit of that variety. It was brought out in
1842 but was not adopted by the American Pomological Society for its
fruit list until 1862. Despite rapidly passing popularity it is still on
this list.

    Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open, very
    productive; trunk of medium diameter and smoothness; branches
    smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with many
    small lenticels; branchlets slender, brown partly overspread with
    ash-gray, smooth, with numerous small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and one-half inches wide,
    folded upward, obovate to long-elliptical, thin; upper surface
    medium green, slightly rugose; lower surface light green, lightly
    pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly
    serrate, glandular; petiole often two inches long, reddish, rather
    slender, hairy, grooved, glandless or with from one to four
    reniform, reddish glands, usually on the stalk.

    Buds small, short, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds or in clusters of variable size on rather short
    spurs; leaf-scars prominent; flowers white, one and one-fourth
    inches across; borne in scattered clusters, usually in twos;
    pedicels three-fourths inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube
    green, tinged with red, light green within, broadly campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, broad, acute, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with
    short, broad claws, notched and crinkled at the apex; filaments in
    four series, the longest averaging one-half inch in length; pistil
    glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    cordate, compressed, cavity wide, flaring, irregular; suture
    shallow, indistinct; apex somewhat obtusely-pointed; color light
    red overspreading yellow; dots numerous, small, yellowish,
    obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adherent to
    the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily from the pulp;
    flesh light yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting,
    sweet; of good quality; stone clinging, large, one-half inch long,
    oval, flattened at the base, plump, with smooth surfaces.


CLUSTER

_Prunus cerasus_

    1. Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572, fig. 10. 1629. 2. Gerarde _Herball_
    1505 fig. 6. 1636. 3. Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:132, 133. 1832. 4.
    Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 194 fig., 195. 1845. 5. Hogg _Fruit Man._
    290. 1884.

    _Flanders Cluster_. 6. Ray _Hist. Plant._ 1539. 1688.

    _Cerisier à Bouquet._ 7. Duhamel _Trait Arb. Fr._ =1=:176, 177,
    178, Pl. VI. 1768. 8. Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ 2: No. 16, Pl. 1846.
    9. Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:47, 48, fig. 22. 1866-73.

    _Tros-Kers._ 10. Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:43. 1771.

    _Trauben oder Bouquet Amarelle._ 11. Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort._ 621-629. 1819. 12. Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
    =3=:70, 71. 1858. 13. Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 340. 1889.

    _Griotte à Bouquet._ 14. Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:278, 279 fig.,
    280, 281. 1877.

Cluster is a curiosity, characterized by fruits borne in clusters at the
extremity of a single peduncle. The pistils vary from one to a dozen,
setting from one to five perfect fruits in the cluster or from eight to
twelve as the trees become older. The variety is little known in America
but is well known in Europe, having first been described by Daléchamp in
1586, according to Leroy. Its origin is uncertain. Parkinson speaks of
it as Flanders Cluster, in 1629, and as it was cultivated in Germany
before 1613 and nearly as soon in Switzerland it may be assumed that
either South Germany or Flanders is its native home. It appears under
several names in European fruit books, the terms trochet, bouquet,
buschel, and trauben all signifying that the fruits are borne in
clusters and usually referring to this variety. The Cerisier à Trochet
of Duhamel is probably a distinct variety. The fruit has little value
and is cultivated chiefly as a curiosity. The following description is
compiled:

    Tree small and bushy, moderately vigorous, dense, productive;
    branches numerous, long, slender, somewhat curved, drooping and
    often breaking under a load of fruit; internodes long; leaves
    small, oblong, acuminate; margin doubly serrate; petiole thick,
    short, rigid, with small, roundish, conspicuous glands; blooming
    season late; flowers small.

    Fruit matures the last of June, attached in twos or threes, with
    from two to eight fruits per cluster; variable in size, roundish,
    flattened at the extremities; suture prominent; color clear red
    becoming darker at maturity; skin tough, transparent; stem long,
    inserted in a deep cavity; flesh nearly white, transparent, with
    abundant juice which is usually uncolored but sometimes tinged
    red, very tender, sour, yet agreeable; quality fair; stone small,
    roundish, compressed.


COE

_Prunus avium_

    1. _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Coe's Transparent._ 2. _Horticulturist_ =2=:71, 72 fig. 1847-48.
    3. _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 211. 1856. 4. Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
    =2=:87 fig., 88. 1866. 5. _Cult. & Count. Gent._ =36=:326. 1871.
    6. Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15, 206. 1876.

    _Guigne Coé._ 7. Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:319 fig., 320. 1877.

    _Coe's Bunte Transparent._ 8. Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 343. 1889.

Even earlier and certainly better than Cleveland, which we have just
discussed, is Coe, long known as Coe's Transparent. This is the first of
the light-colored cherries to ripen and is a splendid fruit in quality
and appearance. The color-plate shows this variety very well--possibly
too well, since one of its defects is variability in color, the variant
usually being very light colored and not as attractive as the type. A
second defect is that the fruit runs rather small. The tree-characters
are in the main very good. The variety can be distinguished, as a rule,
by the large, spreading tree and to a lesser extent by its hardiness,
vigor, healthfulness and fruitfulness. Coe is worthy of a place in every
home plantation, in orchards for local markets and in favored localities
as an early cherry for the general market.

Curtis Coe of Middletown, Connecticut, grew this variety early in the
Nineteenth Century from a pit of what he supposed to be Ox Heart. The
American Pomological Society included Coe in its list of recommended
fruits in 1856.

[Illustration: COE]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open, very productive;
    trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, smooth, dark reddish-brown
    overlaid with ash-gray, with many raised lenticels; branchlets
    stout, short, brown nearly covered with gray, smooth, glabrous,
    with numerous small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-fourth inches long, two
    and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward or flattened,
    long-elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface medium green;
    lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex acute, base
    abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, with small, black glands;
    petiole one and three-fourths inches long, thick, tinged with
    red, grooved, hairy, with from one to three large, reniform,
    greenish-yellow or reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, conical, plump, free, in clusters on spurs
    variable in length; leaf-scars very prominent; season of bloom
    intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white;
    borne in dense clusters, thickly distributed over the tree in twos
    and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, green;
    calyx-tube green, broadly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    tinged with red, broad, obtuse, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with a shallow notch at the
    apex; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to
    the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early; nearly one inch in diameter,
    roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity regular, abrupt;
    suture indistinct; apex blunt-pointed or slightly depressed;
    color pale amber faintly mottled with red; dots small, light
    yellow, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-half inches long,
    adherent to the fruit; skin thin, of medium toughness, separating
    from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender,
    meaty, mild, sweet; good to very good in quality; stone semi-free
    or free, one-half inch long, less than one-half inch wide,
    roundish, somewhat flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces; ridged
    along the ventral suture.


DIKEMAN

_Prunus avium_

    1. _Del. Sta. Bul._ =35=:16, 17 fig. 1897.

Dikeman has some merit as a very late Sweet Cherry but here its
usefulness ends. The cherries are too small and the pits too large for
this variety to have great worth. The tree is somewhat remarkable for
its spreading habit and stout branches. Plant-breeders seeking for a
very late sort might well choose Dikeman as a parent.

Two very similar cherries, with a variation in the spelling, pass under
this name. Late in the Eighteenth Century there appeared a cherry on the
Dyckman farm near New York City. Some thought it to be identical with
Black Tartarian; others said it was distinct and called it Dyckman. It
was never more than of local note. Some few years ago the late S. D.
Willard of Geneva introduced the Dikeman cherry from the farm of George
B. Dikeman, Oceana County, Michigan. This variety often goes under the
name Dykeman but from the information at hand we feel certain that
Dikeman is the correct spelling. On our grounds this variety and Black
Tartarian, although similar, are two distinct sorts, the Dikeman being
later, firmer and a clingstone.

    Tree large, vigorous, broadly-spreading, open-topped, productive;
    trunk and branches thick, smooth; branches reddish-brown covered
    with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels which are variable in size;
    branchlets short, brown, partly covered with ash-gray, smooth,
    glabrous, with inconspicuous, slightly raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate to long-elliptical, thin;
    upper surface medium green, slightly rugose; lower surface light
    green, faintly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely
    and doubly serrate; petiole about one and one-half inches long,
    tinged with red, with a few hairs, with from one to four reniform,
    reddish glands, usually on the stalk.

    Buds large, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds or in clusters variable in size on short spurs; leaf-scars
    prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and
    three-eighths inches across; borne in scattering clusters, in
    ones, twos or threes; pedicels one and one-fourth inches long,
    glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube tinged with red, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes with reddish tinge, broad, acute, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly
    sessile, with a shallow notch at the apex; filaments one-half inch
    long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures late; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    cordate; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow, indistinct; apex
    slightly pointed, with a small depression at the center; color
    purplish-black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous;
    stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the
    fruit; skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh dark red,
    with dark colored juice, very meaty, crisp, mild, somewhat
    aromatic, sweet; of good quality; stone clinging, longer than
    wide, ovate, flattened, with smooth surfaces, somewhat marked with
    a reddish tinge.


DOUBLE GLASS

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    1. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 440-451, 487-490, 689. 1819. 2.
    Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:51, 52. 1858. 3. _Ill. Handb._ 163
    fig., 164. 1860. 4. _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 329. 1888. 5. _Ia.
    Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 80. 1890. 6. _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:7. 1892.
    7. Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:274. 1903.

    _Amarelle Double de Verre._ 8. Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
    =2=:197-201, fig. 55. 1866.

    _Great Cornelian._ 9. Hogg _Fruit Man._ 299. 1884.

    _Glass._ 10. _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:70. 1903.

Double Glass is a Duke, a hybrid more nearly resembling the Sweet Cherry
than the Sour Cherry. The trees grow remarkably well in nursery and
orchard and their behavior so pleased growers when the variety was
brought to notice that it became for a time quite the vogue. But the
trees turned out to be unproductive and the cherries so mediocre that
the variety rapidly passed through its heyday of popularity. The fruits
are curiously marked, the suture being so deep as to make them appear
double--hence the name. The variety has no value where sweet sorts are
hardy but possibly might find a niche somewhere in regions where a more
tender Sweet Cherry cannot be grown.

This variety, of ancient and unknown origin, dates back at least to 1792
when Truchsess received it from Christ under the names Grosse
Frühkirsche and Englische Erzherzogskirsche, both of which were
incorrect, the first because it was not characteristic since the fruit
did not ripen early, and the second because it denoted a class of
dark-fleshed cherries. In France, Double Glass has long been cultivated
under the name Amarelle Double de Verre. The variety was brought to
America from Russia in 1883 by Professor J. L. Budd. While grown for a
time in the Central States it was never highly regarded and has now
nearly passed from cultivation. The following description is a
compilation:

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading becoming divergent with
    age, usually hardy, rather unproductive; branchlets thick,
    reddish-brown; leaves healthy, small to medium, ovate, with
    serrated margins; buds large, prominent.

    Fruit matures the latter part of June; usually large,
    roundish-oblate, with a very deep suture; color light red becoming
    much darker at maturity; stem long, thick; skin thin, tough,
    translucent; flesh yellowish, with abundant uncolored juice, firm,
    tender, sprightly; good in quality; stone medium in size, roundish.


DOUBLE NATTE

_Prunus cerasus_

    1. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 538, 539. 1819. 2. Hogg _Fruit
    Man._ 292. 1884. 3. _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 327. 1888. 4._Ia. Sta.
    Bul._ =73=:67. 1903.

    _Cerise van der Nat._ 5. Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:41. 1771.

    _Kirsche von der Natte._ 6. Krünitz _Enc._ 69, 70. 1790. 7.
    Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 539-542. 1819. 8. _Ill. Handb._ 509
    fig., 510. 1861.

Budd's importations of Russian cherries, to which reference is so often
made in this text, brought forth almost universal praise for any and all
of the foreign sorts. Cultural tests soon demonstrated, however, that
most of the varieties were comparatively worthless; Double Natte is one
of these. It is a very mediocre cherry of the Morello group in nowise
equal to English Morello except when earliness is a prime requisite,
this sort being one of the earliest of the Morellos. In flavor it is
equal to English Morello but is no better. At Geneva the trees are
seldom very fruitful. From the eulogistic reports of its behavior in the
Middle West it would seem that it was better adapted to Iowa, for
instance, than for New York.

This variety was first mentioned by Knoop, the Dutch pomologist, in
1771--origin not given. Some years ago Professor J. L. Budd also
imported from Russia a cherry under the name Riga No. 18. This cherry
has been grown as a separate variety under the name Riga but the
descriptions of it are all identical with those of Double Natte and
there can be no doubt but that they are one and the same.

[Illustration: DOUBLE NATTE]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, somewhat
    vasiform, productive; trunk and branches smooth; branches brown
    nearly covered with ash-gray, with a few large lenticels;
    branchlets long, with short internodes, brown partly covered with
    ash-gray, smooth, with a few very large, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and three-eighths inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, short-obovate, thick,
    stiff; upper surface glossy, slightly rugose; lower surface pale
    green, thinly pubescent; apex sharp-pointed, tapering toward the
    base; margin coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole thick, dull red,
    grooved on the upper surface, nearly one inch long, glandless or
    with one or two small glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds and in small clusters on spurs; leaf-scars inconspicuous;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth
    inches across; borne in scattering clusters in twos and threes;
    pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube
    with a faint reddish tinge, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    tinged red, long, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals obovate, entire, tapering to short, narrow claws, with a
    broad but shallow notch at the apex; filaments about one-fourth
    inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    cordate to conical, compressed; cavity somewhat abrupt, regular;
    suture deep, distinct, often extending entirely around the fruit;
    apex depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small, brownish,
    obscure; stem slender, one and three-fourths inches long, adheres
    strongly to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating readily from
    the pulp; flesh dark red, with reddish juice, tender and melting,
    sprightly, sour; good to very good in quality; stone nearly free,
    longer than wide, nearly round, slightly flattened, with smooth
    surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.


DOWNER

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 218. 1835. =2.= Hovey _Fr. Am._ =2=:93,
    94, Pl. 1851.

    _Downer's Red Heart._ =3.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 276. 1832.

    _Downer's Late._ =4.= _Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr._ 52. 1848. =5.=
    _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =2=:65, Pl. 1854.

    _Guigne Tardive de Downer._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:95
    fig., 96, 97. 1866.

Downer is a Sweet Cherry, one of the so-called "Hearts" much prized by
those who know it as a late cherry delicately and richly flavored.
Possibly it is the best of the late Sweet Cherries. Several defects keep
it from being of any considerable worth; it thrives only in the choicest
soils; the trees are often unhealthy as well as lacking in vigor; the
flesh is thin and the stone is large; and, though the cherries set
abundantly, the yield is small because the fruits are small. So, while
the variety is almost indispensable in a home orchard, ripening after
almost all of the dessert cherries have gone, Downer has small place in
a commercial plantation. It should be said further in its favor,
however, as a commercial fruit, that it stands harvesting and shipping
very well.

Downer takes the name of Samuel Downer, Dorchester, Massachusetts, who
grew it some time before 1832 when it first found a place in pomological
works. It was included by the American Pomological Society in its
schedule of fruits in 1848 as Downer's Late. It now appears as Downer
with Downer's Late Red as a synonym in accordance with the rules of the
Society.

[Illustration: DOWNER]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive;
    trunk thick, with shaggy bark; branches thick, roughened, dark
    brown overspread with dark gray, with numerous large lenticels;
    branchlets slender, long, brown partly covered with ash-gray,
    smooth, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches
    wide, folded upward, obovate, rather stiff; upper surface dark
    green; lower surface light green, hairy along the veins; apex
    acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one
    inch long, thick, dark red, grooved, glandless or with from one to
    three large, globose or reniform glands on the stalk.

    Buds small, except the terminals which are large, pointed, plump,
    free, arranged singly as lateral buds, or in small clusters
    on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; flowers white, one and
    one-fourth inches across; borne in thin clusters in ones and in
    twos; pedicels variable in length often one inch long, glabrous;
    calyx-tube faintly tinged with red, campanulate, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes tinged with red, acuminate, glabrous within and
    without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, somewhat sessile, with
    a shallow notch at the apex; pistil glabrous, nearly equal to the
    stamens in length, often defective.

    Fruit matures among the latest; three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity very
    shallow, flaring; suture obscure; apex variable in shape usually
    somewhat pointed; color light to dark red frequently showing an
    amber background on the shaded side; dots numerous, small, russet,
    inconspicuous; stem one and three-fourths inches long, adherent
    to the fruit; skin tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale
    yellow, with colorless juice, somewhat stringy, tender, with soft
    flesh, mild and pleasant, sweet when fully ripe; good to very
    good in quality; stone large, free, ovate, flattened, with smooth
    surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.


DYEHOUSE

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Horticulturist_ =25=:176, 177. 1870. =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees
    Am._ 3rd App. 161. 1881. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 17. 1897.

Dyehouse is conspicuous among cherries for its earliness and for the
beauty of its fruit. Early Richmond is the standard early cherry yet
Dyehouse is a week earlier, just as attractive in appearance and equally
well flavored. It is near of kin to Early Richmond but the two may be
distinguished by the difference in time of ripening and by its brighter,
clearer color, greater opaqueness, more highly colored juice and
slightly smaller size. Possibly this cherry would supersede the
better-known Early Richmond were it not for the defect in size and for
the further faults of being less productive and more capricious to
environment, as it fails to thrive in localities where the older sort
is quite at home. It is a worthy rival of Early Richmond, however, and
ought to be grown both for home and commercial purposes far more than it
is.

To H. T. Harris of Stamford, Kentucky, belongs the honor of introducing
this well-known cherry. Although its parentage is unknown, it is almost
certain that a Mr. Dyehouse, Lincoln County, Kentucky, raised the tree
from a pit sixty or more years ago. At the time of its introduction its
characteristics were not clearly drawn and many believed it to be the
Early Richmond. In time, however, differences were shown, as we have set
forth in the preceding paragraph. It was added to the fruit list of the
American Pomological Society in 1897.

[Illustration: DYEHOUSE]

    Tree small, vigorous, spreading, with drooping branchlets, dense,
    round-topped, productive; trunk and branches slightly roughened;
    branches reddish-brown covered with dark ash-gray, with large,
    elongated, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, variable
    in length, brown overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with a few
    small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and one-half inches wide,
    slightly folded upward, obovate to long-oval; upper surface
    very dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, with a few
    hairs along the midrib; apex acute, base variable in shape;
    margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one-half
    inch long, tinged with dull red, with a few hairs along the
    grooved upper surface, with from one to three small, globose,
    greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly and in
    clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom
    intermediate; flowers one inch across, white; borne in dense
    but well-distributed clusters, usually at the ends of spur-like
    branches, in twos, threes or fours; pedicels one and one-half
    inches long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, serrate, glabrous within
    and without, reflexed; petals roundish-obovate, entire, almost
    sessile, with entire apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, nearly equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early; more than one-half inch in diameter,
    oblate, slightly compressed; cavity of medium depth, narrow,
    abrupt, regular; suture indistinct; apex flattened, with a small
    depression at the center; color dark red; dots numerous, small,
    obscure; stem one inch long, adhering to the pulp; skin thin,
    tough; flesh light yellowish-white, with pinkish juice, tender,
    sprightly, tart; of very good quality; stone nearly free, ovate,
    slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along
    the ventral suture.


EAGLE

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =104=:84. 1894. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    17. 1897.

    _Black Eagle._ =3.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 31. 1828. =4.= _Pom.
    Mag._ =3=:127, Pl. 127. 1830. =5.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 274,
    275. 1832. =6.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 170 fig. 62. 1845.
    =7.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 102. 1846. =8.= _Mag.
    Hort._ =14=:386, 387 fig. 37. 1848. =9.= _Proc. Nat. Con. Fr.
    Gr._ 52. 1848. =10.= Hovey _Fr. Am._ =1=:85, Pl. 1851. =11.=
    _Horticulturist_ N. S. =4=:287. 1854. =12.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._
    108, 186. 1856. =13.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:77-79, fig. 12.
    1866. =14.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:83, 84, fig. 42. 1882. =15.= Hogg
    _Fruit Man._ 285, 286. 1884. =16.= _Cornell Sta. Bul._ =98=:491
    fig. 86. 1895.

We hesitatingly follow the American Pomological Society in calling this
variety Eagle when it has so long been known as Black Eagle, the name
given it by the great pomologist, Knight. Were this choicely good cherry
larger in size, it would still be a prime favorite with growers for in
many respects it is one of the best varieties of its species. Its flavor
is excellent; the trees are usually fruitful; it ripens at a good time
in the cherry season, just after Black Tartarian; the cherries are less
liable to crack than many of its rivals; and the trees are as hardy,
healthy and vigorous as those of any Sweet Cherry. Some complain that
the trees do not bear well at first but are productive only with age.
But, after all, it is its high quality that gives Eagle so much merit
that it ought not to be forgotten--makes it worth a place in every home
orchard and commends it highly to commercial growers of cherries who
want a finely finished product for either local or general market. The
fruit-stems of this variety are characteristically long.

Eagle was grown about 1806 by Sir Thomas Andrew Knight at Downton
Castle, Wiltshire, England, by fertilizing the Bigarreau of the old
writers, our Yellow Spanish, with pollen of the May Duke. The
correctness of the parentage as given has been questioned because of its
inherited characteristics. But if the May Duke is a hybrid between a
Sweet and a Sour, a pure Sweet offspring is not an impossibility. In
1823, Honorable John Lowell of Massachusetts received Eagle from Knight.
Prince mentioned this cherry in his _Treatise of Horticulture_, 1828,
but the exact date of its introduction into New York is unknown. In 1848
it was placed on the list of fruits adopted by the National Convention
of Fruit Growers and since then it has been retained on the fruit list
of the American Pomological Society.

[Illustration: EAGLE]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, unproductive at
    first but improving with age; trunk and branches thick, smooth;
    branches reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with numerous
    small lenticels; branchlets thick, brownish partly covered with
    light ash-gray, the surface slightly ribbed and with small,
    raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and one-half inches wide,
    folded upward, long, obovate to elliptical, thin; upper surface
    dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent;
    apex variable in shape; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, with
    dark glands; petiole nearly two inches long, tinged with red,
    with a few hairs, with from two to four reniform, brownish glands
    usually on the stalk.

    Buds large, conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly
    as lateral buds and in clusters on spurs of medium length;
    leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers white, one
    and one-eighth inches across; borne in scattered clusters in twos
    and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish;
    calyx-tube green faintly tinged with red, campanulate; calyx-lobes
    with a trace of red, obtuse, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals irregular-oval, crenate, with short, blunt claws
    and with a crenate apex; anthers yellowish; filaments one-fourth
    inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, oblate,
    somewhat cordate, compressed; cavity regular, flaring; suture a
    faint groove; apex pointed or slightly depressed; color dark red
    almost black; dots small, russet, medium in number, obscure; stem
    slender, two inches long; skin thin, tender; flesh dark red, with
    wine-colored juice, meaty, tender, crisp, pleasant flavored, mild,
    sweet; very good to best in quality; stone free except along the
    ventral suture, rather small, ovate, slightly flattened, blunt,
    with smooth surfaces; ridged along the ventral suture.


EARLY MAY

_Prunus fruticosa_

    =1.= Langley _Pomona_ 86, Pl. 17 fig. 2. 1729. =2.= Prince _Pom.
    Man._ =2=:131. 1832. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 479. 1869. =4.=
    Hogg _Fruit Man._ 295. 1884.

    _May._ =5.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571. 1629.

    _Cerisier Nain à Fruit Rond Précoce._ =6.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb.
    Fr._ =1=:168, 169, 170, Pl. III. 1768.

    _Frühe Zwergweichsel._ =7.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    492-498. 1819. =8.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 349, 350, 372. 1889.

    _Amarell-Weichsel._ =9.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:57, 58.
    1858.

    _Précoce de Montreuil._ =10.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:141, 142, fig.
    69. 1866-73.

    _Griottier Nain Précoce._ =11.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:293 fig.,
    294. 1877.

As the only cultivated representative of the European Dwarf Cherry,
Early May should be of especial interest to cherry-growers. It is a true
dwarf variety, the trees seldom attaining a height of more than six or
seven feet. Both tree and branches are very flexible so that Early May
is well adapted to the wall-training of European countries. It has
further value in its earliness, being the earliest of all cherries. It
is doubtful whether the variety can now be obtained in America but it
ought to be reintroduced both for the fruit and because it is a handsome
ornamental. Early May has several characters to recommend it to
plant-breeders. The description herewith given is compiled from European
fruit-books.

Pliny in his _Natural History_ mentions the Macedonian and the
Chamaecerasus cherries, both of which we now believe to have been
_Prunus fruticosa_, the European Dwarf Cherry. Early May, according to
European botanists, is a variety of this dwarf species and may be the
identical cherry that Pliny described. Following Pliny it was mentioned
by Estienne, a Frenchman, in 1540, by Knoop, the Dutch pomologist, in
1771, by Parkinson, the English herbalist, in 1629, and, as the
references show, by most pomologists since. The names May and Early May
have been applied to several varieties, and especially in the West to
the Early Richmond but all are distinct and ought not to be confused
with this, the true variety.

    Tree very small, rather weak; branches numerous, slender, somewhat
    curved, flexible, branchlets slender, pendant; leaves abundant,
    very small, obovate or oblong, acuminate; margin irregularly and
    deeply serrate; petiole short, slender, without glands; blooming
    season very early; flowers small; petals oval.

    Fruit matures very early, usually attached in pairs; small,
    roundish, slightly flattened; suture indistinct; color bright red
    becoming dark red at full maturity; stem one inch long, slender,
    set in a small, regular cavity; skin thin; flesh yellowish-white,
    sometimes tinged red under the skin, tender, juicy, brisk but
    pleasant subacid; quality fair; stone very small, roundish.


EARLY MORELLO

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:118. 1900. =2.= Budd-Hansen _Am.
    Hort. Man._ =2=:275. 1903.

    _Orel No. 23._ =3.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 327. 1888. =4.= _Ia.
    Sta. Bul._ =73=:68, 77 fig. 17. 1903.

This, which we think is the true Early Morello, is worthy an extended
description in _The Cherries of New York_ chiefly because there are
several cherries of this name. The confusion results in much vexation to
cherry-growers in the West where, only, these cherries have been
planted. The full description should make clear at least the character
of the variety which is being grown at this Station as Early Morello.
About all that can be said of the variety as it grows here is that the
trees are hardy, healthy, vigorous, fruitful and regular in bearing. The
cherries show the variety to be of the Amarelle group but are such as to
make it far inferior to Montmorency and other well-known Amarelles. The
name is misleading, as the variety has little in common, in tree or
fruit, with the true Morellos.

The cherry described here as Early Morello was introduced by Professor
J. L. Budd from Orel, Russia, as Orel No. 23. It has proved very
productive and hardy throughout the West and resembles Early Richmond,
though smaller, a trifle darker, less acid and a week later. A
dark-fleshed variety from Erfurt, Prussia, was sent out from Rosedale,
Kansas, where it is known as Early Morello. This, and one by D. U. Reed,
Blue Springs, Nebraska, appear to be very similar to the Northwest, or
Wier No. 29.

    Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, very productive;
    trunk rather thick, shaggy; branches with numerous large
    lenticels; branchlets slender, short; leaves two and three-fourths
    inches long, one and one-half inches wide, thick, stiff, dark
    green, rather glossy, smooth; margin finely and doubly serrate,
    with small, dark glands; petiole glandless or with from one to
    three small, globose, brown or yellowish glands variable in
    position; buds small, short, obtuse, in small clusters at the ends
    of slender, branchlike spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of
    bloom late; flowers one inch across; pistil equal to or slightly
    longer than the stamens, sometimes defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; about three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, oblate, compressed; color attractive dark red; stem one
    inch long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating
    from the pulp; flesh light yellow, with pinkish juice, tender and
    melting, sprightly, tart; of very good quality; stone free, ovate,
    flattened, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces, somewhat tinged
    with red.


EARLY PURPLE

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Purple Cherry._ =2.= Ray _Hist. Plant._ 1540. 1688.

    _Early Purple Guigne._ =3.= _Cultivator_ N. S. =4=:280 fig. 2.
    1847. =4.= Hovey _Fr. Am._ =1=:93, 94, Pl. 1851. =5.= _Am. Pom.
    Soc. Rpt._ 55. 1852. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 211. 1856. =7.=
    Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:129, 130, fig. 63. 1866-73. =8.= Mortillet
    _Le Cerisier_ =2=:57 fig. 3, 58, 59. 1866. =9.= _Horticulturist_
    =25=:71 fig. 1870. =10.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:334, 335 fig.,
    336. 1877. =11.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 295. 1884. =12.= _Guide Prat._
    6, 193. 1895.

    _Purple Guigne_. =13.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 195 fig. 1854.

Early Purple is a valuable cherry on account of its earliness, its
attractive color and high quality. The trees bear well and regularly
after having become established in the orchard. The variety has the
reputation of being a poor grower in the nursery and as a young tree in
the orchard but with age it takes on vigor and at all times is as
healthy as those of any Sweet Cherry. More than most cherries, this
variety responds to good care and a choice cherry soil--a warm,
free-working loam being best. A rather unusual and serious defect of
this variety is that the fruit-spurs are easily broken during picking
and the crop of the next season thereby cut short. Another fault is that
it is the favorite food of the robin where this, the worst of all cherry
pests, abounds. The cherries of this variety do not attain their rich
purple color until full maturity is reached. Hogg, the English
pomologist, maintains that Early Purple does better on the Mahaleb than
on the Mazzard stock. No home collection should be without this variety
and it can often be profitably grown as an early cherry for the local
market.

Early Purple is the Early Purple Guigne of most fruit-books, the name
having been shortened by the American Pomological Society, though, since
the variety goes back to the Early Purple of Ray in 1688, the name here
used has the right of precedence. As to what the origin and history of
the variety were before Ray mentioned it, we can find no record. Early
Purple was brought to America over a hundred years ago. According to
Elliott, eastern growers received it directly from England, while in the
West it was brought over by a party of German emigrants, under the name
"German May Duke" and as such it is still much grown in localities in
the Central West. In 1852, the American Pomological Society listed Early
Purple as one of the promising new fruits and later, in 1856, it was
given a place, which it has since retained, on the Society's catalog of
fruits recommended for general cultivation.

[Illustration: EARLY PURPLE]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very
    productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches smooth, reddish-brown
    partly covered with ash-gray, with large lenticels; branchlets
    short, brown partly covered with ash-gray, roughened, with a few
    small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four inches long, one and three-fourths inches
    wide, folded upward, oval to obovate, thin; upper surface dark
    green, rugose; lower surface light green, very lightly pubescent;
    apex and base acute; margin finely serrate, with small, dark
    colored glands; petiole one and three-fourths inches long,
    slender, tinged with red, with few hairs, with two or three small,
    globose, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds variable in size and shape, rather long, plump, free,
    arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on spurs
    variable in length; season of bloom early; flowers white, one and
    one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering clusters, usually in
    twos; pedicels characteristically long, often one and one-fourth
    inches, slender, glabrous; calyx-tube with a faint tinge of red,
    campanulate; calyx-lobes tinged with red, long, acute, serrate,
    glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals broadly oval,
    serrate, with short, blunt claws and a shallow, notched apex;
    filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the
    stamens.

    Fruit matures very early; one inch in diameter, cordate, slightly
    compressed; cavity regular; suture a faint line; apex pointed;
    color purplish-black; dots numerous, small, grayish, obscure; stem
    tinged with red, slender, nearly two inches long, adhering to the
    fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily from the pulp; flesh
    dark reddish-purple, with dark colored juice, tender, melting,
    mild, sweet; of very good quality; stone free except along the
    ventral suture, rather large, broadly oval, compressed near the
    apex, with smooth surfaces.


EARLY RICHMOND

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Thacher _Am. Orch._ 217. 1822. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._
    =2=:142. 1832. =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 194, 195 fig. 1854. =4.=
    _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 12. 1871. =5.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:115
    fig., 116. 1900.

    _Flanders._ =6.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571. 1629.

    _Kentish._ =7.= Miller _Gard. Kal._ 154. 1734. =8.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort._ 660, 661. 1819. =9.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 196
    fig., 197. 1845. =10.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =11.= Mas
    _Le Verger_ =8=:25, 26, fig. 11. 1866-73.

    _Cerisier Hâtif._ =12.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:170, 171,
    Pl. IV. 1768. =13.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 657, 658, 691.
    1819. =14.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 13, Pl. 1846. =15.=
    Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:343, 344 fig., 345. 1877.

    _Cerise de Volger._ =16.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 43. 1771.

    _Frühzeitige Amarelle._ =17.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    616-618. 1819. =18.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:70. 1858.

    _Early Griotte._ =19.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:131, 132. 1832.

    _French._ =20.= _Quebec Pom. & Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt._ 122, 123. 1906.

Early Richmond has long been the leading Sour Cherry of its season--the
first of its kind in the markets. It is not a remarkable variety in its
fruit-characters, the cherries being but medium in size, mediocre in
quality and not handsomer than other Amarelles with which it belongs. It
is, however, a very good culinary fruit and when well ripened may be
eaten out of hand with relish by those who like the refreshing acidity
of a Sour Cherry. Though not in nearly as great demand for canning as
Montmorency it still makes a very good canned product, being used more
than it otherwise would be to prolong the canning season because of its
earliness. Before cherries were largely canned for the markets, Early
Richmond was much used in making dried cherries, the product, rightly
cured, making a delicious sweetmeat which would keep for several months.
The cherries are remarkable for the tenacity with which the stone clings
to the stem. It is the tree in which the Early Richmond particularly
surpasses. It thrives in varied soils and climates from the St. Lawrence
to the Carolinas and from the Atlantic to the Pacific--possibly the most
cosmopolitan of all cherries--and everywhere vigorous, healthy and
fruitful. For the many purposes for which it may be used and because of
the characters of the tree, Early Richmond is indispensable in every
home and commercial orchard for an early cherry. After Montmorency it is
more largely grown than any other cherry, Sweet or Sour, in New York.

Early Richmond is the old Kentish of English writers, confused more or
less with the different Montmorencies. Whether or not this variety was
introduced into Kent, England, by the Romans and became thus early the
Kentish or whether it came from Flanders or Holland where it was called
Cerise de Volger, is not now certain. Probably, however, it is one of
the many seedlings of the Cerise Commune, as are the Montmorencies, and
was first known as Cerisier Hâtif. Early in the Sixteenth Century the
gardener of Henry VIII made extensive plantings in Kent with trees
supposed to have come from Flanders, and Parkinson, in 1629, mentions a
variety as Flanders which was probably this cherry. The variety, soon
known by many English writers as Kentish, was confused by the French who
seem to have had two Kentish cherries. In English nurseries Kentish was
soon confused with Montmorency. In this way the terms Kentish, Flanders,
Flemish and Montmorency came into use for this sort. It was early
brought to America where it became known as Early Richmond but even here
it has several names. The belief that it originated at Richmond,
Virginia, was due to the fact that William Prince secured his first
trees from that source. By whom the variety was introduced into this
country is unknown, although Thacher speaks of it as early as 1822. In
the South it became known as Virginia May, while in the West it has been
called Early May. The variety appeared on the fruit list of the American
Pomological Society as Kentish in 1862 but in 1871 the name was changed
to Early Richmond. It is listed by all prominent nurseries in this
country as Richmond or Early Richmond while in England it is still known
as Kentish. The French cherry, often spoken of as "the common French
cherry," introduced into the lower St. Lawrence region, is very similar
to Early Richmond. This strain, propagated from seed or sprouts, seems
to be somewhat hardier than Early Richmond and varies slightly from it
in size and quality.

[Illustration: EARLY RICHMOND]

    Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense,
    round-topped, productive; trunk and branches smooth; branches
    reddish-brown lightly overspread with dull gray, with numerous
    lenticels; branchlets slender, long, grayish, smooth, with
    numerous small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick;
    upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green;
    apex variable in shape, base abrupt; margin finely and doubly
    serrate, glandular; petiole glandless or with one or two globose,
    greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, very plump, free, arranged singly and
    in clusters on very short spurs; blooms appearing in mid-season;
    flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white; borne in
    scattering clusters, usually in twos and threes; pedicels
    five-eighths inch long, glabrous; calyx-tube green or faintly
    tinged with red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of
    red, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals roundish, entire, sessile, with a shallow, wide notch at
    the apex; filaments over one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous,
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths inch in diameter,
    roundish-oblate, compressed; cavity abrupt, regular; suture
    indistinct; apex roundish or flattened, with a slight depression
    at the center; color light red changing to dark red; dots
    numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one inch
    long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, rather tough, separating
    from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with light pinkish juice,
    stringy, tender and melting, sprightly, pleasant flavored; good to
    very good in quality; stone free, small, roundish-ovate, slightly
    pointed, with smooth surfaces; somewhat roughened along the
    ventral suture.


ELKHORN

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:117. 1832. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_
    213. 1854. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899.

    _John Tradescantes Cherrie._ =4.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629.

    _Hertogs-Kers._ =5.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 40. 1771.

    _Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche._ =6.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort._ 180-192. 1819. =7.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
    =3=:36. 1858. =8.= _Ill. Handb._ 89 fig., 90. 1860. =9.= Lauche
    _Deut. Pom._ =III=: No. 6, Pl. 1882. =10.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
    357, 358. 1889.

    _Tradescant's Black Heart._ =11.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 188
    fig., 189. 1845. =12.= Thompson _Gard. Ass't_ 526. 1859. =13.=
    _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

    _Gros Bigarreau Noir._ =14.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:108-111,
    fig. 24. 1866. =15.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:224, 225 fig., 226.
    1877.

    _St. Margaret's Cherry._ =16.= _Flor. & Pom._ 105, Pl. 542. 1881.

Elkhorn has served its day and is now being rapidly superseded by other
cherries of the Bigarreau group to which it belongs. It was valued by
the old pomologists because of the large size of the fruit, the firm
flesh, late ripening, rich flavor, and because it hangs well on the tree
long after maturity. But it fails in competition with other Bigarreaus
in bearing cherries quite variable in size, in the diminishing size of
the fruit as the trees attain age and more than all else in being but
moderately productive. The bark of the trunk and main branches is so
heavily overspread with gray as to make this a distinguishing mark. The
fruit, too, is distinct in appearance by reason of the irregular surface
of the skin. The variety possesses no characters, as it usually grows,
to make it worth planting either for home or market.

The history of this old cherry was almost hopelessly confused by the
early horticulturists by the vast number of names they used for it, many
of which belonged to other varieties. Elkhorn is supposed to have been
raised by John Tradescant, gardener to Charles I of England, under the
name Tradescant's Black Heart. Of this cherry, John Parkinson in 1629
says: "John Tradescantes Cherrie is most usually sold by our Nursery
Gardiners, for the Archdukes cherrie, because they have more plenty
thereof, and will better be increased, and because it is so faire and
good a cherrie that it may be obtruded without much discontent: it is a
reasonably good bearer, a faire great berrie, deepe coloured, and a
little pointed." It is not known when or how Elkhorn got to America.
The first cherry-grower in this country to mention it was William
Prince, in 1832, who says that his father noticed the variety growing in
a garden next to a hotel in Maryland about 1797 and brought cions of it
to New York afterwards propagating and selling it under the name Elkhorn
given to the cherry by the hotel proprietor. Elkhorn was at one time
very popular and well disseminated throughout the United States and is
sold now by a large number of nurserymen either under the name
Tradescant's Black Heart or as Elkhorn. In 1862, the American
Pomological Society listed in its fruit catalog Tradescant's Black Heart
but dropped it in 1877. In 1899 this Society placed the variety in its
catalog under the name Elkhorn and it still remains on its list of
recommended fruits. From its history it is apparent that this cherry is
rightly called Tradescant or Black Heart or by some combination of these
terms but Elkhorn has been adopted by the American Pomological Society,
is everywhere in common use on this continent and is so distinctive that
we choose for this text the newer name.

    Tree large, very vigorous, upright, open-topped, moderately
    productive; trunk stocky, smooth; branches stout, smooth, with
    numerous small lenticels, reddish-brown heavily overspread with
    ash-gray; branchlets thick.

    Leaves numerous, three and three-fourths inches long, two and
    one-fourth inches wide, short-oval to obovate, thin; upper surface
    medium green, roughish; lower surface dull, light green, lightly
    pubescent; apex acute; margin coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole
    with from one to three raised glands of medium size, variable in
    shape, usually on the stalk.

    Fruit matures in late mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, cordate to conical, slightly compressed; cavity deep,
    wide, flaring; suture indistinct; apex roundish or pointed,
    with a slight depression at the center; color purplish-black;
    dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem one and
    three-eighths inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin,
    tender, adhering somewhat to the pulp; flesh a characteristically
    dark purplish-red, with very dark colored juice, meaty, firm,
    crisp, mild, sweet; of good quality; stone semi-free, ovate,
    flattened, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.


ELTON

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._
    =2=:121, 122. 1832. =3.= _Pom. Mag._ =2=:92, Pl 1839. =4.= Downing
    _Fr. Trees Am._ 186 fig. 77. 1845. =5.= _Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr._
    52. 1848. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 75. 1850. =7.= _Am. Pom.
    Soc. Cat._ 54. 1852. =8.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 194 fig. 1854. =9.=
    Thompson _Gard. Ass't_ 528. 1859. =10.= _Ill. Handb._ 105 fig.,
    106. 1860. =11.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:91 fig. 17, 92, 93.
    1866. =12.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 463 fig. 1869. =13.= Leroy
    _Dict. Pom._ =5=:196, 197 fig. 1877.

     _Flesh Coloured Bigarreau._ =14.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:128.
    1832. =15.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 182 fig. 74. 1845. =16.= Leroy
    _Dict. Pom._ =5=:192, 193 fig. 1877.

Elton has been freely recommended and widely cultivated in Europe and
America for the past century and probably no cherry has given
more general satisfaction. The variety is distinguished by the
form, color, flesh and flavor of its fruit. The cherries are
oblong-heart-shaped--possibly too much drawn out for best appearance and
often too oblique; the color, very well shown in the color-plate, is
most attractive and makes up for any defect in shape--a dark red mottled
with amber, very bright, clear and glossy; the flesh, a little too soft
to ship well, is delicate and most pleasing to the palate; the flavor is
peculiarly rich and luscious being hardly surpassed by that of any other
cherry. The trees may be as readily told as the fruit, by the unusually
dark red color of the petioles of the leaves. The branches are stout and
bear the crop thickly placed close to the wood and in prodigious
quantities. Unfortunately it has a fault which in America, at least,
makes it almost unfit for a commercial plantation. Brown-rot, the
scourge of the Sweet Cherry, attacks this variety more aggressively than
almost any other sort and for this reason, while its merits can hardly
be too highly spoken of, Elton must remain for most part a variety for
the home orchard. The tree, perfect in most respects, is a little tender
to cold. Leroy, the French pomologist, thinks it does better on Mahaleb
than on the Mazzard stock.

This is another cherry from Thomas Andrew Knight, the great English
pomologist. Knight fruited it first about 1806, the tree coming from a
pit of Yellow Spanish, the paternal parent being White Heart. From the
first it took a high place in English and continental pomology as it did
also in America upon being brought here in 1823. The variety is
everywhere known and grown in America and is for sale by many
nurserymen. Elton was one of the fruits to receive attention at the
first meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1848, and in 1852
was put on the list of recommended fruits where it still remains.

[Illustration: ELTON]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very
    productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches smooth, reddish-brown
    covered with ash-gray, with small lenticels; branchlets long,
    brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous,
    raised lenticels, intermediate in number and size.

    Leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, long-obovate to elliptical, thin;
    upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green,
    thinly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate,
    with small, dark glands; petiole two inches long, heavily tinged
    with red, with a few scattering hairs along the upper surface,
    with from two to four reniform or globose, reddish-brown glands on
    the stalk.

    Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds and on very short spurs variable in size; leaf-scars
    prominent; mid-season in blooming; flowers one and one-half
    inches across, white; borne in twos and threes; pedicels one inch
    long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, long, broad, acute,
    serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish,
    entire, nearly sessile, with a shallow notch at the apex;
    filaments about one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than
    the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; about one inch long, three-fourths inch wide,
    cordate to conical, somewhat compressed and oblique; cavity rather
    abrupt, regular; suture indistinct; apex distinctly pointed; color
    dark red with an amber tinge, faintly mottled; dots numerous,
    small, light yellow, obscure; stem slender, one and three-fourths
    inches long; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh
    white with a tinge of yellow, with colorless juice, slightly
    stringy, tender, very mild, sweet; of good quality; stone free
    except along the ventral suture, one-half inch long, long-ovate,
    slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along
    the ventral suture.


EMPRESS EUGENIE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =7=:277. 1865. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
    =2=:159 fig. 41, 160. 1866. =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:5, 6, fig. 1.
    1866-73. =4.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 10, Pl. 10. 1871. =5.= _U. S.
    D. A. Rpt._ 383. 1875. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 20. 1877. =7.=
    Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:348 fig., 349. 1877. =8.= Hogg _Fruit Man._
    296, 297. 1884. =9.= Gaucher _Pom. Prak. Obst._ No. 78, Pl. 29.
    1894.

    _Eugenie._ =10.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 22. 1883.

This old French cherry, for many years largely advertised and widely
sold in America, does not thrive in the New World as well as the reports
say it does in the Old World. The two faults that condemn it, as it
grows here, are that the cherries ripen very unevenly making several
pickings necessary and the trees are so small that, though loaded with
fruit, the total yield is not large. Lesser faults are that the cherries
are not uniform in shape and are borne thickly in close clusters so that
when brown-rot is rife this variety suffers greatly. The short stem,
too, prevents easy picking. To offset these faults Empress Eugenie has
to its credit the reputation of being about the most refreshing and
delicious Duke. In a home plantation where the unevenness in ripening
can be utilized to prolong the season and where dwarfness may not be
undesirable, Empress Eugenie may well find a place.

This cherry appeared in 1845 as a chance seedling on the grounds of M.
Varenne at Belleville, near Paris, France. It first fruited about 1850
and four years later the Horticultural Society of Paris placed it, under
the name Impératrice Eugenie, on its list of recommended fruits. M. A.
Gontier, a nurseryman at Fontenay-aux-Roses introduced it to commerce
in 1855. Empress Eugenie soon became quite generally disseminated
throughout Europe and was considered nearly as good as May Duke, with
which it has occasionally been confused. It must have been brought to
America towards the beginning of the last quarter of the Nineteenth
Century and here it gradually became widely distributed until today it
is found in all the leading cherry plantations and is propagated by a
large number of nurserymen throughout the United States. The American
Pomological Society added this cherry to its fruit catalog list in 1877
under the name Empress Eugenie. In 1883 this name was shortened to
Eugenie under which term it has since appeared in the Society's catalog.
In _The Cherries of New York_ we have not adopted the shortened name as,
by such a change, all trace is lost of the person after whom the cherry
was christened.

[Illustration: EMPRESS EUGENIE]

    Tree small, not very vigorous, upright, becoming round-topped,
    very productive; trunk slender, roughish; branches slender, much
    roughened, reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with
    numerous small lenticels; branchlets with short internodes, brown
    slightly covered with ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous
    small, conspicuous, much-raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick; upper
    surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface light green,
    thinly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base variable in
    shape; margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole
    three-fourths of an inch long, tinged with red, with a few hairs
    along the upper surface, glandless or with one or two small,
    globose, greenish-yellow or reddish glands, usually at the base of
    the blade.

    Buds obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and on
    long or short spurs, in clusters variable in size; leaf-scars
    obscure; blooming in mid-season; flowers one and one-fourth inches
    across, white; borne in very dense clusters, in threes and fours;
    pedicels one inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a
    faint tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace
    of red, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    roundish, entire, with short but distinct claws; apex nearly
    entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to
    the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    roundish-conic to oblate-conic, compressed; cavity narrow; suture
    very shallow, indistinct; apex flattened or depressed; color
    dark red; dots numerous, small, dark russet, obscure; stem one
    and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tough,
    separating from the pulp; flesh pale red, with pinkish juice,
    tender, meaty, sprightly, pleasant flavored, tart; of good
    quality; stone semi-clinging, small, ovate, flattened, somewhat
    oblique, with smooth surfaces.


ENGLISH MORELLO

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629. =2.= Langley _Pomona_ 85.
    1729. =3.= Christ _Handb._ 677. 1797. =4.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
    54. 1831. =5.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 197, 198 fig. 1845. =6.=
    _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =7.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 306, 307.
    1884. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

    _Grosse Cerise à Ratafia._ =9.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:189.
    1768.

    _Grosse Lange Lothkirsche._ =10.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    599, 600, 601. 1819. =11.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 326. 1888.
    =12.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 356, 357. 1889.

    _Large Morello._ =13.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:144. 1832.

    _Ratafia Griotte._ =14.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:147. 1832. =15.=
    Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 17, Pl. 1846. =16.= Leroy _Dict.
    Pom._ =5=:299, 300 fig., 301. 1877.

    _Northern Griotte._ =17.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:146. 1832. 18.
    Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 18, Pl. 1846. =19.= Mortillet _Le
    Cerisier_ =2=:188 fig. 189, 190. 1866. =20.= _Pom. France_ =7=:
    No. 15, Pl. 15. 1871. =21.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 195. 1876.
    =22.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 331. 1885.

    _Colorado Morello._ =23.= Rogers _Cat._ 18. 1900.

English Morello is the best of all its group and is the standard late
Sour Cherry in North America, occupying at the close of the season the
place held by Montmorency in mid-season for home, market and cannery. It
is not a table fruit and can hardly be eaten out of hand until it loses
some of its astringency and acidity by thorough ripening. In any way the
cherries are prepared by cooking, however, it is one of the best,
culinary processes giving the fruits a rich, dark wine color, very
attractive in appearance, and a most pleasant, sprightly, aromatic
flavor. The fruit is handsome in appearance, bears harvesting and
shipping well, is resistant to brown-rot and hangs long on the trees
after ripening, often until the last of August if robins can be kept
away. Once seen, one may always know the trees. They are small,
round-headed, with branches that distinctly droop. To be sufficiently
productive an English Morello orchard must be closely set; for, though
the trees are vigorous and productive for their size, they are too dwarf
to yield heavily. The trees are hardy but not always healthy and are not
adapted to as great a diversity of soils as might be wished. The variety
distinctly fails in its tree-characters. The demand for English Morello
has recently decreased and it is doubtful if it ever regains its
popularity of a decade ago. There is a place for a late cherry which
English Morello now fills but not sufficiently well.

All of the early pomologists describe a Morello or a Morella but no one
of them definitely gives its place of origin. The concensus of opinion
is that it originated in either Holland or Germany from whence it was
introduced into England and later into France. The early German writers
listed a Grosse Lange Lothkirsche which is English Morello. Preceding
them, Duhamel described the Grosse Cerise à Ratafia "as one praised for
confitures and preserving," which is probably this cherry. Leroy
believed English Morello to be the cherry that Mortillet brought to
Paris from Holland calling it Griotte du Nord though he thought the
variety had been grown in France for many years previous but under
another name. It is possible that the term Du Nord originated through
its being widely grown as an espalier demanding a northern exposure,
rather than as some have thought, because it came from northern Germany.
In 1862 English Morello was put on the fruit list of the American
Pomological Society where it still remains. Wragg is thought to be
identical with this cherry by some and, if not, it differs but little.
Northern Griotte and Grosse Lange Lothkirsche, introduced by Budd from
Russia, are English Morello. Morris, or Colorado Morello, put out by
John Morris of Golden, Colorado, once thought to be distinct, is also
English Morello.

[Illustration: ENGLISH MORELLO]

    Tree small, upright-spreading, with drooping branchlets,
    dense-topped, productive; trunk slender, rough; branches slender,
    smooth, dark brown overlaid with dark ash-gray, with numerous
    small lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, with short
    internodes, brownish, smooth, with numerous conspicuous, small,
    slightly raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, two and three-fourths inches long, one and
    one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval; upper
    surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green; apex acute,
    base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, with small, dark
    glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged with dull red, grooved,
    with from one to three small, globose or reniform, greenish-yellow
    glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds; leaf-scars obscure; season of bloom late; flowers one inch
    across, white; borne in scattering clusters in twos and threes;
    pedicels nearly one inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with
    a faint tinge of red, somewhat campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    with a trace of red, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals distinctly veined, roundish, crenate, sessile,
    with crenate apex; filaments one-fourth of an inch long; pistil
    glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures very late; about three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, sometimes running larger, roundish-cordate, slightly
    compressed; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring, regular; suture a
    shallow groove; apex roundish, with a small depression at the
    center; color very dark red becoming almost black; dots numerous,
    small, dark russet, conspicuous; stem slender, one inch long,
    adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from the
    pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, tender and melting,
    sprightly, tart; of good quality; stone free, small, ovate,
    slightly flattened and pointed, with smooth surfaces, slightly
    tinged with red.


FLORENCE

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 29. 1828. =2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 277.
    1832. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 187. 1845. =4.= Thomas _Am.
    Fruit Cult._ 365. 1849. =5.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 22. 1885.

    _Knevett's Late Bigarreau._ =6.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

    _Bigarreau de Florence._ =7.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:204 fig.,
    205. 1877.

    _Florence Heart._ =8.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 43. 1904.

Florence is a Bigarreau so similar to Yellow Spanish as to be hardly
worth planting, since it is, all and all, surpassed by its better-known
rival. The fruit hangs on the tree in edible condition an almost
phenomenal length of time which has given rise to much divergence of
opinion as to its season, some pomologists rating it as early, others as
mid-season and still others as late. At Geneva the trees of this variety
are not as healthful, vigorous or as fruitful as those of Yellow
Spanish, with which it must compete, nor are the cherries quite as fine
in appearance or quality.

This variety was found in Florence, Italy, early in the Nineteenth
Century by John Houblon, who took it to England from whence it was
brought to America. It found a place in 1885 on the fruit list of the
American Pomological Society where it remained until 1891, when it was
discarded, with quite sufficient reason.

[Illustration: FLORENCE]

    Tree vigorous, upright, open-topped, productive; trunk and
    branches thick, smooth; branches reddish-brown partly overspread
    with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets thick, long,
    brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous,
    raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging four and one-fourth
    inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward,
    long-oval to obovate, thin; upper surface rather dark green,
    rugose; lower surface dull light green, thinly pubescent; apex
    acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular;
    petiole one and three-fourths inches long, thick, pubescent, dull
    red, with from two to four large, reniform, reddish glands on the
    stalk.

    Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds and grouped
    in large clusters on numerous short spurs; season of bloom
    intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white;
    borne in dense clusters in twos and threes; pedicels three-fourths
    of an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green,
    obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes greenish, acute, glabrous within
    and without, reflexed; petals broad-obovate to oval, entire, with
    very short, blunt claws, distinctly notched at the apex; filaments
    nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, usually shorter than
    the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; one inch in diameter, cordate, compressed;
    cavity deep, wide; suture very shallow; apex somewhat pointed;
    color reddish over an amber background, marked with indistinct,
    whitish spots and streaks; dots numerous, small, whitish,
    inconspicuous; stem one and one-half inches long, adherent to the
    fruit; skin thin, separating from the pulp; flesh yellowish-white,
    with colorless juice, tender, meaty, crisp, sprightly, sweet; of
    very good quality; stone clinging, cordate, flattened, blunt, with
    roughish surfaces; enlarged along the ventral suture.


GEORGE GLASS

_Prunus cerasus_

     =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328, 329. 1888. =2.= _Ia. Hort.
    Soc. Rpt._ 79. 1890. =3.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 245. 1894.
    =4.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =31=:341. 1895. =5.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._
    =12=:125. 1900. =6.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:276, 277.
    1903. =7.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:70. 1903.

George Glass has been widely heralded as a desirable variety in the
Middle West but in New York, where it has passed through a rather
lengthy probationary period, practically all who have tried it are ready
to declare it worthless. It is of the Amarelle group and cannot compete
with the many good varieties of its kinship, as the Early Richmond or
the several Montmorencies. Its season is between Early Richmond and
Montmorency. As compared with the last-named variety, the standard Sour
Cherry, the fruit of George Glass is smaller, sourer, less attractive in
appearance and the trees are far less fruitful. Possibly the trees are
more hardy, this character commending it for the colder parts of the
Mississippi Valley.

The origin of this variety is uncertain but it is supposed to have been
introduced into Iowa by immigrants from northeastern Germany. In
American collections it has often been confused with Brusseler Braune
and Bessarabian and by some is declared to be identical with the latter
sort. It is supposed to be a cross between a Duke and a Morello cherry.

[Illustration: GEORGE GLASS]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, rather open, hardy,
    appears unproductive; trunk thick; branches thick, roughened,
    with numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels; leaves numerous,
    four inches long, two inches wide, obovate, thick, stiff, dark
    green; petiole three-fourths of an inch long, tinged with red,
    with a few hairs along the upper surface, with one or two small,
    globose, reddish-orange glands, usually at the base of the blade;
    buds intermediate in size and length; leaf-scars prominent; season
    of bloom intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across;
    borne in dense clusters.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch long,
    one inch wide, oblate, compressed; cavity deep; color light
    red changing to dark red; stem one and one-eighth inches long,
    adherent to the fruit; skin separating from the pulp; flesh
    yellowish-white, with abundant colorless juice, stringy, tender
    and melting, rather mild for a sour cherry; good to very good in
    quality; stone free, roundish or slightly oblate, plump, blunt,
    with smooth surfaces; ventral suture prominent.


HEART-SHAPED WEICHSEL

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 573-577. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl
    _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:60, 61. 1858. =3.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._
    328. 1888. =4.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:17. 1910.

    _Herzförmige Sauerkirsche_. =5.= Christ _Wörterb._ 288. 1802.

    _Heart-Shaped Griotte_. =6.= Prince _Pom. Man._. =2=:149. 1832.
    =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:103, 104, fig. 50. 1866-73.

This Sour Cherry, of the Morello group, is too poor in quality to
recommend it for any purpose. The fruit is scarcely edible until dead
ripe and even then is too puckering to eat out of hand with relish. The
cherries are very attractive, being large for the kind, heart-shaped,
of a handsome, clear, glossy dark purple color and very uniform in all
characters. The tree is conspicuous because of its symmetrical shape,
large size, round head and its many branches and branchlets. The leaves
are characteristically small, as are the flowers, which are further
distinguished by very narrow petals. The tree is hardy and productive
and quite worth a place on a lawn as an ornamental if not in the garden
for its fruit. The variety has several characters to commend it to
plant-breeders.

This variety came to light in written records in the early part of the
Nineteenth Century in German fruit-books under the name Saure
Herzkirsche or Herzkirschweichsel and was highly recommended for its
fine flavor. Professor J. L. Budd of Iowa, in one of his European trips,
was impressed with its symmetrical habit of growth and its abundant
foliage where he found it growing in eastern Europe as a lawn tree. He
included it among his importations but it has not proved valuable in the
New World.

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped,
    unproductive; branches rather slender, smooth except for the
    large, conspicuous lenticels; branchlets slender, long; leaves
    numerous, two and three-fourths inches long, one and three-eighths
    inches wide, obovate to oval, thin, dark green, smooth; petiole
    over one-half inch long, tinged with red, with from one to three
    small, globose, greenish-yellow or brownish glands at the base of
    the blade; buds intermediate in size and length, usually obtuse;
    season of bloom late; flowers one inch across; borne in scattered
    clusters; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil slightly shorter
    than the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; about three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, roundish-conic, slightly compressed; color very dark,
    dull red; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adhering
    to the fruit; skin thin, tough; flesh very dark red, with dark
    wine-colored juice, tender, rather meaty, very astringent, sour;
    of poor quality; stone nearly free, small, ovate, flattened,
    pointed, with roughish and colored surfaces.


HILDESHEIM

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:131. 1832. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_
    196. 1854.

    _Guignier à Fruit Rouge Tardif._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
    =1=:162. 1768.

    _Agathe._ =4.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:37. 1771.

    _Doppelttragende Kleine Rothe Spätkirsche._ =5.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 281, 282, 283. 1819.

    _Hildesheimer Ganz Späte Knorpelkirsche._ =6.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 321, 322, 323. 1819.

    _Late Red Guigne._ =7.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:113. 1832.

    _Bigarreau Tardif de Hildesheim._ =8.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._
    184. 1845.

    _Merveille de September._ =9.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 210. 1854.

    _Belle Agathe de Novembre._ =10.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =3=:9, Pl.
    1855.

    _Hildesheimer Späte Knorpelkirsche._ =11.= _Ill. Handb._ 139 fig.,
    140. 1860.

    _Kratos Knorpelkirsche._ =12.= _Ill. Handb._ 59 fig., 60. 1867.

    _Schöne Agathe._ =13.= _Ill. Handb._ 63 fig., 64. 1867.

    _Bigarreau de Fer._ =14.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:199, 200 fig.
    1877.

    _Belle Agathe._ =15.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:99, 100, fig. 50. 1882.

    _Bigarreau de Hildesheim._ =16.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 282. 1884.

This variety, one of the oldest, has been called by a great number of
names by European writers. The cherry mentioned by Duhamel, in 1768, as
a late Guigne with red fruit, otherwise known as Guigne de Fer, can be
no other than Hildesheim. The exact origin of the variety has never been
known, though it is supposed to have sprung up in the neighborhood of
Hildesheim, Prussia. It was brought to America early in the Nineteenth
Century, probably by William Prince. With it came some of the numerous
foreign names. It seems certain that Late Red Guigne mentioned by Prince
was Hildesheim. Ripening late and being small and of rather undesirable
texture, Hildesheim did not meet with much favor in America, never being
widely disseminated, and has long since passed from cultivation. This
variety, under the name Belle Agathe, was propagated in Belgium by M.
Thiery about 1852 and for some time was supposed to be a separate sort.
The following description is compiled:

    Tree very large, vigorous, upright, hardy, an annual bearer,
    unproductive while young producing good crops later; branches
    thick, large, long, straight; leaves numerous, of medium size,
    oval or elongated-oval, acuminate; margin finely and regularly
    serrate; petiole slender, rather short, tinged red, with large,
    flattened glands; blooming season early.

    Fruit matures very late, usually attached in fives but sometimes
    in threes and fours; small to medium, roundish-cordate, flattened
    on one side, somewhat irregular; color yellowish, mottled and
    marbled with dark red; stem two inches long, slender, somewhat
    curved; skin thick; flesh pale yellow, slightly tinged with red at
    the pit, firm, somewhat stringy, rather dry, with uncolored juice,
    pleasant flavored, sweet; quality good; stone medium to large,
    with reddish surface, long, compressed.


IDA

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =20=:270, 271. 1878. =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees
    Am._ 3rd App. 162. 1881. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

Ida is a handsome, large, light red cherry resembling Napoleon in
shape and Rockport in color, but differing from both in having soft
flesh which places it among the Hearts rather than the Bigarreaus.
Because of beauty of the fruit, earliness and good tree-characters,
Ida promises to become a rather general favorite in home orchards
though it falls short of several others of its near of kin in flavor
and flesh-characters. It can never take a high place among commercial
kinds because the cherries are too soft to handle well, show bruises
plainly, are somewhat susceptible to brown-rot and come when better
cherries are plentiful. The trees are vigorous, hardy and bear full
crops regularly and in various environments. The variety is readily
told by the upright habit of growth and by the large lenticels on
trunk and branches. Ida has been very well tried as a commercial
variety in this State but in the ups and downs of the industry has not
held its own with other sorts and can be recommended only for home
plantations.

E. H. Cocklin of Shepherdstown, Pennsylvania, grew this variety as a
seedling of Cocklin's Favorite, another of his cherries. The cherry
was named after his daughter, Ida. It seems to have proved worthy of
general culture, as it is now listed by many nurserymen. The American
Pomological Society placed Ida on its fruit list in 1909.

[Illustration: IDA]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright, open-topped, somewhat vasiform,
    very productive; trunk stout; branches very stocky, smooth, light
    ash-gray over brown, with large, much-raised lenticels; branchlets
    very stout, short, brown partly covered with ash-gray, roughish,
    with a few raised lenticels.

    Leaves five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches
    wide, folded upward, elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface
    dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent along
    the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base acute;
    margin doubly crenate, with small, black glands; petiole two and
    one-fourth inches long, thick, tinged with red, somewhat hairy
    along the grooved upper surface, usually with two large, reniform,
    reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds and in dense clusters on numerous short spurs, also with
    many small, round, lateral leaf-buds on the secondary growth;
    leaf-scars not prominent; blooming in mid-season; flowers white,
    one and one-fourth inches across; borne in clusters usually
    in twos; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube green, whitish within, campanulate, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes with a tinge of red, acute, reflexed; petals roundish,
    entire, dentate at the apex, nearly sessile; filaments nearly
    one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    cordate, slightly compressed; cavity deep, flaring, regular;
    suture a distinct line; apex variable in shape; color amber
    overspread with light red, mottled; dots numerous, rather large,
    yellowish, somewhat conspicuous; stem one and one-half inches
    long; skin thin, separating readily from the pulp; flesh whitish,
    with colorless juice, tender and melting, mild, sweet; of good
    quality; stone free or semi-free, roundish, slightly flattened,
    blunt, with smooth surfaces; with distinct ridges along the
    ventral suture.


JEFFREY DUKE

_Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831. =2.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:204.
    1843. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 190, 191. 1845. =4.= _Am. Pom.
    Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =5.= _Mas Pom. Gen._ =11=:119, 120, fig. 60.
    1882. =6.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 302. 1884.

    _Royale._ =7.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:193, 194, Pl. XV.
    1768. =8.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 482-484. 1819. =9.=
    Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:386, 387 fig., 388. 1877.

    _Königliche Süssweichsel._ =10.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
    427-429. 1819. =11.= _Ill. Handb._ 73 fig., 74. 1867.

    _Jeffrey's Royal._ =12.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 99. 1846.

    _Royale Hâtive._ =13.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:134-138, fig.
    32. 1866.

This old variety, which has almost passed from cultivation, may have
had its origin in France about the middle of the Eighteenth Century,
though more likely it originated in England much earlier. Leroy
mentions a Royale cherry which was introduced from England to France
about 1730 and was first grown by M. le Normand in the garden of Louis
XV. The name Royale was first used by the French about 1735 from the
fact that it was grown in the royal gardens and since that time this
name has clung to the variety in most of the French plantations.
According to English writers, the variety was brought to notice in
England by Jeffrey, proprietor of the Brompton Nursery at Brompton
Park, England, and from that time it was known as Jeffrey's Duke.
English pomologists maintain that Jeffrey renamed the old Cherry Duke
of England, giving it his name. Jeffrey Duke appeared on the American
Pomological Society's fruit catalog list in 1862 but was dropped in
1871. It is doubtful if the variety can now be found in America. The
following description is compiled from the authors given in the
references:

    Tree large, vigorous, very upright, unusually compact,
    slow-growing, productive; branches very numerous, stocky,
    straight, thickly set with fruit-spurs; internodes short;
    branchlets very short; buds closely set; leaves numerous, medium
    in size, oval or obovate, acuminate; margin finely and irregularly
    serrate; petiole short, slender, with small, flattened or globose
    glands; blooming season late; flowers small, very open.

    Fruit matures in mid-season, usually attached in pairs; medium
    in size, roundish, slightly flattened at the apex and base;
    suture a well-marked line; color lively red becoming dark red
    or almost black when fully ripe; stem slender, inserted in a
    moderately broad, deep cavity; skin thin; flesh firm but tender,
    yellowish-amber, with abundant colored juice, slightly stringy,
    highly flavored; good in quality; stone small, roundish, tinged
    with red.


KING AMARELLE

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Christ Wörterb._ 293. 1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 610-615. 1819. =3.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 174.
    1825. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 533 fig., 534. 1861. =5.= Lauche _Deut.
    Pom._ =III=: No. 23, Pl. 1882. =6.= _Am. Gard._ =9=:264. 1888.
    =7.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:62. 1900. 8. _Ia. Sta.
    Bul._ =73=:72. 1903. =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

    _King's Cherry._ =10.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676.

King Amarelle is an old European cherry that has taken on new life in
America. It is of the Early Richmond type, differing from this
standard Amarelle in bearing fruit a little earlier, lighter in color
and with a longer stem. The fault which all but condemns the variety
as a commercial cherry is the small size of the fruit, the cherries
running smaller than those of Early Richmond which, in its turn, is
rather too small. The tree is very like that of Early Richmond--quite
as vigorous and productive, the same in size and shape and, if
anything, a little more hardy. The variety is told from afar in
blossoming-time by the peculiar distribution of the flower-clusters,
which are numerous and dense but always separated by several inches or
a foot of bare wood. King Amarelle can never displace Early Richmond
but might be tried where a somewhat hardier cherry is wanted or it
might be planted as a substitute where the better-known sort fails.

This variety, of old and uncertain origin, sprang up in France about
the same time as the Montmorencies and became confused with them. In
both fruit and tree-characters, however, King Amarelle is very
different from the Montmorencies, being more like Early May but
ripening later and making a larger tree. The cultivation of King
Amarelle never became extended in Europe because of the inferior
quality of the fruit and poor tree-characters. Professor J. L. Budd
brought the variety to America from Russia about 1883. The Royal
Amarelle, grown on the Canadian Experiment Station grounds in 1900, is
undoubtedly King Amarelle. The American Pomological Society placed it
on its list of recommended fruits in 1909.

    Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped,
    very productive; trunk roughish; branches rather slender, smooth,
    reddish-brown overlaid with dark ash-gray; branchlets slender,
    of medium length, with short internodes, brown partly covered
    with ash-gray, smooth, with numerous conspicuous, small, raised
    lenticels.

    Leaves three and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches
    wide, folded upward, obovate, somewhat glossy, thick; upper
    surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, with a
    few scattering hairs; apex acute, base abrupt; margin finely and
    doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one inch long,
    somewhat slender, lightly tinged with red, with a few hairs on the
    grooved upper surface and with from one to three small, globose,
    greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, very free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds and in clusters on few, short spurs; leaf-scars prominent;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth
    inches across; borne in dense clusters usually in threes; pedicels
    over one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with
    a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes faintly tinged
    with red, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals somewhat obovate, entire, with an entire apex; filaments
    one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in
    length.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths inch in diameter,
    roundish-oblate, compressed; cavity regular, somewhat abrupt;
    suture indistinct; apex roundish or flattened; color bright red;
    dots numerous, small, light russet, rather conspicuous; stem one
    inch long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating
    from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender and
    melting, sprightly; fair to good in quality; stone free, ovate,
    somewhat flattened, pointed, with smooth surfaces, faintly tinged
    with red; ridged along the ventral suture.


KIRTLAND

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 22. 1904-05.

    _Kirtland's Mary._ =2.= _Horticulturist_ =2=:123, 124 fig. 21.
    1847-48. =3.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 365. 1849. =4.= Cole _Am.
    Fr. Book_ 231. 1849. =5.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 39. 1852. =6.=
    _Ibid._ 235. 1854. =7.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 198 fig. 1854. =8.=
    Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 262, 263. 1857. =9.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:55,
    56, fig. 26. 1866-73.

    _Mary._ =10.= _Hogg Fruit Man._ 69, 86, 87. 1866.

In the collection of cherries at this Station, Kirtland stands among
the best of the Bigarreaus in quality of fruit--in fact is hardly
surpassed in richness and delicacy of flavor. The fruit, too, as may
be seen from the color-plate, is handsome, the cherries resembling the
well-known Napoleon but being a little darker in color. The flesh is
firm and meaty and stands handling well and also resists the brown-rot
as well as any other cherry. With these splendid qualities of fruit,
Kirtland would long ago have been one of the standard commercial
cherries were its tree-characters better. Wherever tried, the
complaint comes that the trees lack vigor and can be grown
successfully only on choice cherry soils and under the best of care.
With these faults the variety can be recommended only for home
orchards and for local markets where there is demand for a very early
Bigarreau, since this variety ripens before most other cherries of its
kind.

Kirtland was grown in 1842 by Professor J. P. Kirtland of Cleveland,
Ohio, and ranks foremost in quality and appearance of all the
seedlings raised by this well-known cherry-breeder. The American
Pomological Society, in 1852, mentioned this sort as deserving of
further trial and, in 1854, listed it among the varieties of promising
fruits. Elliott, in his _Fruit Book_, noted this cherry under the name
Kirtland's Mary, in honor of Professor Kirtland's daughter, and
classed it as a variety worthy of general cultivation. Hogg, in 1866,
dropped the name Kirtland and listed it as Mary, while in the
_American Pomological Society's Special Report_ for 1905 it is called
Kirtland. According to the rules of pomological nomenclature, Hogg was
correct in holding the name Mary but, since there is another Mary and
no worthy sort bearing the name of so eminent a horticulturist as
Professor Kirtland, this Station follows the American Pomological
Society in the use of Kirtland.

[Illustration: KIRTLAND]

    Tree small, rather weak, upright-spreading, open-topped,
    productive; trunk and branches slender, smooth; branches
    reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous
    lenticels; branchlets thick, brown almost entirely overspread with
    ash-gray, smooth except for the longitudinal, conspicuous, raised
    lenticels.

    Leaves five inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded
    upward, elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface medium green,
    somewhat glossy, smooth; lower surface light green, thinly
    pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, with
    small, dark glands; petiole one and three-fourths inches long,
    slender, tinged with red, lightly pubescent along the upper side,
    with two or three reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or
    on numerous, very short spurs in clusters variable in size;
    leaf-scars prominent; blooming in mid-season; flowers white, one
    and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters; pedicels
    one inch long, pubescent, reddish-green; calyx-tube tinged with
    red, light green within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    reddish, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    roundish-oval, entire, with short, broad claws and a notched
    apex; filaments in four series, the longest one-half inch; pistil
    glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    cordate, compressed; cavity wide, flaring; suture a more or less
    distinct line; apex roundish or pointed, with a small depression
    at the center; color amber overspread with bright red; dots
    numerous, small, grayish, conspicuous; stem one and three-fourths
    inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin tough; flesh whitish,
    with colorless juice, tender, meaty, with a pleasant and
    refreshing flavor; very good to best in quality; stone free,
    small, roundish-ovate, with smooth surfaces; ridged along the
    ventral suture.


KNIGHT

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Knight's Early Black._ =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.
    =3.= _Prince Pom. Man._ =2=:120. 1832. =4.= _Proc. Nat. Con. Fr._
    Gr. 52. 1848. =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde._ =3=:19. 1858.
    =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:83. 1866. =7.= _Mas Pom. Gen._
    =11=:85, 86, fig. 43. 1882.

     _Knights Frühe Herzkirsche._ =8.= _Ill. Handb._ 3 fig., =4.=
    1867.

This old English variety has long been popular in America, where it is
generally known as Knight's Early Black, this name having been shortened
by the American Pomological Society to Knight. Possibly Knight is to be
found in dooryards and home gardens in Eastern United States as often as
any other Sweet Cherry with the exception of Black Tartarian. The
characters which give it popularity are excellent quality, handsome
appearance because of its glossy, dark purple color and uniformity in
color, shape and size, and its earliness, it being the earliest good
Sweet Cherry. Unfortunately, even in the best soil and under the most
painstaking treatment, the cherries run small, a defect for American
markets. The small size also leads to comparatively low yields even
though the fruits are often borne in prodigious numbers. Knight, in
size, color and flavor, is much like Black Tartarian but the cherries
are smaller and ripen earlier. As the trees grow on the grounds of this
Station they are about all that could be desired in a Sweet Cherry. The
trees are characteristically marked by smooth bark which is dotted with
large lenticels. There are now better sweet varieties than Knight for
most purposes but still this old variety has too many merits, especially
for home grounds, to be wholly forgotten.

Knight comes from a seed of May Duke crossed with Yellow Spanish by T.
A. Knight, Downton Castle, Wiltshire, England, about 1810. The new
variety sprang into prominence almost immediately, being mentioned by
French, German and English writers. Knight is still one of the
well-recognized sorts in Europe and America and has appeared
continuously on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society since
1848. Mathieu has included several synonyms under this head which we
question as we believe they belong to the Guigne Noir Hâtive, a distinct
variety though very similar.

[Illustration: KNIGHT]

    Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, open-topped, very
    productive; trunk stocky, variable in smoothness; branches smooth,
    light reddish-brown nearly overspread with ash-gray, with small
    lenticels; branchlets thick, brown lightly covered with ash-gray,
    variable in smoothness, with small, raised, inconspicuous
    lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate to long-oval, thin; upper
    surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, thinly
    pubescent; apex and base variable in shape; margin doubly serrate,
    with small, dark glands; petiole two inches long, slender, tinged
    with red, with a shallow groove and with few hairs, with two or
    three large, reniform, reddish glands, usually on the stalk.

    Buds long, conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds and in small clusters on spurs variable in length;
    leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white,
    one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters, usually
    in twos; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous; calyx-tube
    green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes lightly tinged with red,
    long, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals oval,
    entire, deeply notched at the apex; filaments nearly one-half inch
    long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate
    to conical; cavity wide, rather abrupt; suture indistinct; apex
    flattened, with a small depression at the center; color dark
    reddish-black, obscurely mottled; dots numerous, small, russet,
    obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adhering well
    to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh
    dark red, with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, mild, sweet; of
    good quality; stone free except along the ventral suture, small,
    roundish-ovate, with smooth surfaces.


LAMBERT

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 24. 1894. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    24. 1899. =3.= _U. S. D. A. Yearbook_ 307-309, Pl. 31. 1907.

Nowhere else in America, possibly nowhere else in the world, can the
Sweet Cherry be grown as well as in Oregon and Washington. From these
States, more particularly Oregon, several meritorious cherries have been
added to pomology. One of the best of these is Lambert, now a standard
sort in its native State but still on probation in Eastern America.
Lambert is a Bigarreau, a seedling of Napoleon by Black Heart, and a
worthy rival of its parents in most respects and superior in some. In
appearance, Lambert is more like its male than its female parent, having
much the same shape and color, but it is larger, more rotund, smoother,
clearer and brighter--one of the handsomest of the dark-colored Sweets.
The flesh and flavor leave little to be desired; the flesh is
purplish-red marbled with lighter red, firm, meaty and juicy, with a
sweet, rich flavor that at the first taste one marks very good. The tree
is strong, vigorous, healthy and usually fruitful and regular in
bearing. The fruit sets in great, loose clusters--often a dozen or more
cherries to the fruit-spur. The leaves are remarkably large and dark
green, the foliage betokening the vigor of the variety. Lambert is well
worthy thorough testing for either home or market wherever the Sweet
Cherry can be grown.

Lambert originated as a seedling under a Napoleon tree which was planted
by the late Henderson Lewelling[80] about 1848 in the orchard of J. H.
Lambert, Milwaukee, Oregon. This seedling, supposed to have been a cross
between Napoleon and Black Heart, was grafted to May Duke and later
transplanted. About 1880, the top died and a sprout from the seedling
stock formed a new top. Mr. Lambert gave the new variety his name and in
1895 turned over his stock to the Oregon Horticultural Society with the
exclusive right to propagate. The variety was placed on the fruit list
of the American Pomological Society in 1899 where it still remains.


[Illustration: LAMBERT]

    Tree medium to large in size and vigor, upright-spreading, very
    productive; branches smooth, dull reddish-brown, with numerous
    small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, dark reddish-brown nearly
    covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with a few inconspicuous
    lenticels.

    Leaves four and one-fourth inches long, two and one-half inches
    wide, folded upward, oval to obovate, thin; upper surface medium
    green, smooth; lower surface light green, lightly pubescent; apex
    acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one
    and one-half inches long, dull red, glandless, or with from one to
    three rather small, globose, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds large, pointed or conical, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds or in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars
    prominent; season of bloom intermediate, short; flowers one and
    one-fourth inches across, white; borne usually in twos; pedicels
    three-fourths of an inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube
    green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, broad, obtuse,
    finely serrate; petals roundish, entire, with short claws and with
    dentate apex; filaments one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, equal
    to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; one inch in diameter,
    roundish-cordate, compressed; cavity rather deep, slightly
    flaring; suture shallow, often a mere line; apex roundish,
    depressed at the center; color very dark red changing to
    reddish-black; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; stem tinged
    with red, slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to
    the fruit; skin thin, adhering to the pulp; flesh dark red, with
    scant dark red juice, meaty, firm, pleasant flavored, sweet; of
    very good quality; stone clinging, large, wide, ovate, flattened,
    blunt, oblique, with smooth surfaces; prominently ridged along the
    ventral suture.

    [80] Little is known of the early life of Seth and Henderson
    Lewelling. They were of Welsh ancestry and both were born in
    Salem, North Carolina, Henderson on the 25th of April, 1809, and
    Seth on the 6th day of March, 1819. Henderson died in California
    December 28th, 1878, while Seth died in Milwaukee, continued:
    Oregon, February 21st, 1897. When the boys were still very young
    their parents moved from North Carolina to Ohio and founded the
    town of Salem in Ross County; later they moved to Indiana where
    their father established a nursery and became one of the pioneer
    fruit-growers of what was then the West and here again they
    founded a town of Salem. We next hear of Henderson Lewelling
    in Salem, Henry County, Iowa, the town of his naming, with the
    statement that in 1837 he planted a small nursery of 35 varieties
    of apples and some peach, plum and cherry trees.

    The history of the Lewellings now becomes more definite for we
    have it from Seth Lewelling[81] (we spell the name as does he
    and not "Luelling" as do many in writing of him) that in March,
    1847, Henderson Lewelling planted an assortment of apples, pears,
    peaches, plums and cherries and loaded them into two wagons and
    started to Oregon. This traveling nursery was on the road from
    March to November and one can imagine the labor of watering and
    caring for the trees in this trip across mountains and plains.
    Henderson Lewelling formed a partnership with William Meek under
    the firm name of Meek & Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon. Seth joined
    his brother in the fall of 1850 bringing with him from the East
    a considerable quantity of fruit seed. For the next few years
    their nursery operations were on a large scale, over 100,000
    grafts being planted in 1853. From time to time they made new
    importations of plants and fruit seeds from the East. Seth says
    that his brother quit the business and moved to California in
    1853 and we hear no more of him until his death in 1878. In 1857,
    the partnership between Meek and Seth Lewelling was dissolved
    leaving the latter the owner of the Milwaukee nurseries. It was
    in 1860 that Seth Lewelling raised his first seedling cherry,
    the Republican, called by him Black Republican, which was sold
    to George Walling of Oswego and Mr. Hanson of East Portland,
    the proceeds bringing Lewelling $500. Mr. Lewelling counts the
    Republican and Bing cherries and the Golden Prune as his most
    notable contributions to pomology.

    The Lewellings are types of fruit-breeders who have done noble
    work for pomology in the settlement of all our states--men of
    for indomitable courage and will who have bred and grown fruits
    throughout their lives in spite of every adversity. Few other men
    labored longer and more devotedly to improve the cherry than Seth
    Lewelling.

    [81] _Oregon St. Bd. Hort. An. Rpt._ =2=:242. 1893.


LARGE MONTMORENCY

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 22. 1885. =2.= _Ibid._ 25. 1899. =3.=
    _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:110, 114. 1900. =4.= _Am. Gard._
    =22=:266, 267. 1901.

    _Flemish._ =5.= Bradley _Gard._ 211. 1739. =6.= _Lond. Hort. Soc.
    Cat._ 49. 1831. =7.= Thompson _Gard. Ass't_ 530. 1859.

    _Grosse Glaskirsche von Montmorency._ =8.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 465-470. 1819. =8.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
    =3=:54, 55. 1858. =10.= _Ill. Handb._ 165 fig., 166. 1860.

    _Short Stem Montmorency._ =11.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:139, 140.
    1832. =12.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:75. 1903.

    _Grosser Gobet._ =13.= _Ill. Handb._ 543 fig., 544. 1861.

    _Montmorency._ =14.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:195 fig. 54, 196,
    197. 1866.

As its synonyms show, Large Montmorency has been grown under various
names in Europe and America--a testimony to its merits. Were it not that
the true Montmorency is so much more fruitful than this larger-fruited
offshoot of the same race of Amarelle cherries, Large Montmorency would
be a leading commercial Sour Cherry, for it is equal to the
smaller-fruited strain in all other characters with the advantage of
size. The relationship between this and the other Montmorencies is
apparent but Large Montmorency is easily distinguished by several marked
characters from the common Montmorency, known by all, with which it is
most often confused. Its fruits are more often borne singly, are larger,
have a shorter, thicker stem, are more oblate and ripen a little
earlier. The trees are more upright, with stouter branches and are far
less fruitful. The flesh-characters of the two kinds are much the
same--excellent in both, the flavor being particularly refreshing to
those who like the acidity of the Sour Cherry. Large Montmorency has
been tried and found so wanting in productiveness that it can rarely be
recommended as a commercial variety but it is much too good a fruit to
be wholly lost and should be grown by connoisseurs who want a large,
finely flavored Sour Cherry.

This variety has been much confused with other cherries, particularly
Montmorency, Early Richmond and Short Stem Montmorency. Bradley, in
1739, mentioned a Flemish cherry which undoubtedly was the Large
Montmorency of today, for the name Flemish has rather commonly been
applied to this sort since Bradley's time. There is no doubt but that
Large Montmorency sprang up about the same time as the true Montmorency,
in the Montmorency Valley in France. It may have been a seedling of the
Cerise Hâtive, afterwards known as Early Richmond, though some writers
are of the opinion that the Montmorencies and Cerise Hâtive were all
seedlings of the old Cerise Commune. At any rate, there have come to be
at least three distinct types of Montmorency: the true Montmorency with
long stems and moderate-sized fruit, called Montmorency à Longue Queue
or, in America, Montmorency Ordinaire; the Large Montmorency with its
large fruit and shorter, thicker stems, commonly known by the French and
German writers as Montmorency à Gros Fruit, Gros Gobet, Grosse
Glaskirsche von Montmorency and sometimes as Montmorency à Courte Queue;
and the Short-Stem Montmorency, often called Montmorency à Courte Queue
and sometimes Gros Gobet. Large Montmorency has often been sold for
Montmorency, or for Early Richmond, hence the three varieties are more
or less confused. Large Montmorency probably came to America about the
same time as Montmorency and Early Richmond, early in the Nineteenth
Century. In 1875, Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York, disseminated
this sort quite extensively but later it proved too unproductive for
commercial use. It was soon replaced by the true Montmorency but often
the names were interchanged and large forms of the Montmorency were
thought to be this variety. The unproductiveness of this cherry has been
consistently mentioned by nearly every writer from Duhamel's time to the
present. Large Montmorency was added to the American Pomological
Society's catalog list of fruits in 1885 as Montmorency Large but in
1899 this name was changed to Large Montmorency.

[Illustration: LARGE MONTMORENCY]

    Tree rather large, vigorous, upright, vasiform, unproductive;
    trunk thick, roughened; branches stocky, nearly smooth,
    reddish-brown overspread with dark ash-gray, with numerous
    large, raised, conspicuous lenticels; branchlets thick, short,
    brown tinged with bronze, smooth except for the large, numerous
    yellowish, conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, broad-oval to obovate,
    thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; apex
    acute, base variable in shape; margin serrate, glandular; petiole
    one inch long, tinged with dull red, glandless or with from one to
    three globose, yellow or brownish glands, usually at the base of
    the blade.

    Buds usually pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds
    and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season
    of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one inch across; borne in
    scattering clusters, usually in threes; pedicels five-eighths
    inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube tinged with red, obconic,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, long, broad, acute,
    serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate,
    entire or slightly crenate, sessile, with a crenate apex;
    filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to or
    longer than the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    oblate, compressed; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow; apex
    flattened or depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small,
    russet, somewhat conspicuous; stem thick, one inch long, adhering
    fairly well to the fruit; skin thick, separating from the pulp;
    flesh whitish, showing distinctly the fibers in the pulp, with
    abundant colorless or slightly tinged juice, tender and melting,
    sprightly, pleasant flavored, tart; of very good quality; stone
    free, roundish, plump, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.


LATE DUKE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Pom. Mag._ =1=:45, Pl. 1828. =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
    48, 49, 55, 56. 1831. =3.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:134, 135. 1832.
    =4.= _Hort. Reg._ (Eng.) =1=:257, fig. 1833. =5.= Downing _Fr.
    Trees Am._ 191 fig. 80. 1845. =6.= _Mag. Hort._ =13=:397 fig. 33,
    398. 1847. =7.= _Gard. Chron._ 556. 1848. =8.= Hovey _Fr. Am._
    =1=:37, 38, Pl. 1851. =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

    _Wahre Englische Kirsche._ =10.= Christ _Handb._ 682. 1797. =11.=
    Christ _Wörterb._ 284. 1802. =12.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
    405-410. 1819. =13.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:50. 1858.
    =14.= _Ill. Handb._ 499 fig., 500. 1861.

    _Späte Herzogenkirsche._ =15.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
    434-437. 1819.

    _Anglaise Tardive._ =16.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:179-181,
    fig. 48. 1866. =17.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:67, 68, fig. 32. 1866-73.

Late Duke is a variant of the well-known May Duke, ripening from two
weeks to a month later. The size, color, flavor and season of the fruit
all commend it, as do the vigor, health and fruitfulness of the trees.
The cherries are not quite as sweet as those of May Duke, a little more
marbled in color of skin and ripen through a longer season. The trees
are readily told from those of the earlier Duke, being more open and
spreading, scanter of foliage, with slender branches and with fruit more
thickly clustered along the branchlets. Ripening in a season when hybrid
varieties are gone or rapidly going, Late Duke is a valuable acquisition
in the home orchard and for nearby markets to which tender-fleshed
varieties can be shipped. If those who want late cherries will plant
this variety on a northern slope, against a northern wall or where in
any way shaded or in a cool soil, these delicious cherries can be had
until well toward August. The tree is hardy and its blossoming-time is
late so that the variety is well adapted to northern latitudes.

The origin of this variety is unknown. In 1797, Christ mentions "a true
English cherry" which is probably Late Duke. At least Oberdieck, in
1861, states that the true English cherry is identical with the Late
Duke, or Anglaise Tardive. In 1823, Late Duke was introduced into
England by the London Horticultural Society from M. Vilmorin, of Paris,
under the name Anglaise Tardive. Though the French name of this variety
seems to indicate an English origin, the old English writers were not
aware of any cherry of this kind being in existence in England previous
to its introduction by the Horticultural Society. Because of the close
resemblance of Late Duke to May Duke it has often been confused with
that sort and by some writers was supposed to be a late strain of May
Duke. The American Pomological Society listed Late Duke in its fruit
catalog in 1862.

[Illustration: LATE DUKE]

    Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, becoming spreading at
    maturity, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches slender;
    branches brown overlaid with dark ash-gray, with numerous small
    lenticels; branchlets slender, short, reddish-brown, with ash-gray
    scarf-skin, with numerous conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches
    wide, folded upward, obovate, thick; upper surface very dark
    green, smooth; lower surface light green, with a few scattering
    hairs; apex abruptly pointed; margin doubly crenate, with small,
    dark glands; petiole one inch long, lightly tinged with red,
    grooved and somewhat hairy on the upper surface, glandless or with
    one or two small, reniform, greenish glands, usually at the base
    of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse or conical, plump, free, arranged singly
    and in clusters; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late;
    flowers white, one inch across; borne in numerous, dense clusters,
    in twos, threes and fours; pedicels one inch long, slender,
    glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish, campanulate; calyx-lobes
    broad, obtuse, serrate, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, almost
    sessile; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to
    the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures very late; one inch in diameter, blunt-cordate,
    somewhat compressed; cavity wide; suture shallow; color dark
    red; stem slender, one and one-half inches to two inches long,
    deeply inserted; flesh amber-colored, with abundant juice, tender,
    rich, sprightly subacid; stone semi-clinging, medium to large,
    roundish-ovate, compressed.


LATE KENTISH

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees. Am._ 197. 1845. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    27. 1909.

    _Kentish Red._ =3.= Coxe _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 249. 1817.

    _Pie Cherry._ =4.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 371. 1849.

    _Red Pie Cherry._ =5.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 103. 1852.

    _Kentish._ =6.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 217. 1854.

This old cherry served well the needs of Americans in colonial times
when all cherries were grown from pits or suckers. Though but little
improvement on the wild _Prunus cerasus_, the trees were so hardy,
vigorous, healthy and productive that any who had a bit of spare land
could have cherries. This, therefore, became preeminently the "pie
cherry" of New England and the North Atlantic States. The trees are
long-lived and even so late as a generation ago Downing says that this
variety is "better known among us than any other acid cherry, especially
abundant on the Hudson and near New York." The variety is never planted
now, having long since been superseded by better sorts, Early Richmond
and Montmorency in particular, but it is still to be found as old trees
or self-sown near where a tree of the variety formerly stood.

Late Kentish and Early Richmond, the latter the Kentish of some authors,
are much confused. Late Kentish is the old Pie Cherry of Colonial times.
It is a seedling sort belonging to America, having been planted along
fences and roadsides in the earliest times. This cherry is mentioned by
the Pilgrims in 1620 and this and the May Duke were listed as market
varieties in Massachusetts. Many believe it to be a seedling of Early
Richmond, sometimes, as we have seen, called Kentish, but this variety
being two weeks later, received the name Late Kentish. The name was put
on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1873. The
following description is a compilation:

    Tree small, bears annually, very productive, hardy.

    Fruit matures about two weeks after Early Richmond; medium or
    below in size, roundish, flattened; stem one inch to one and
    one-half inches in length, stout, straight; color deep, lively
    red; flesh light colored, with abundant colorless juice, very
    tender, sour, remaining quite acid even when fully ripe; stone
    does not adhere to the stalk.


LITHAUER

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1888. =2.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._
    =17=:9. 1892. =3.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 245. 1894. =4.= _Del.
    Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:128. 1900. =5.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 33.
    1904-05. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

It is barely possible that Lithauer, if the trees can be obtained, may
have some value in the coldest and bleakest parts of New York where less
hardy sorts cannot be grown. The variety is too poor in quality to be
worth planting where the better but less hardy cherries will grow. We
greatly doubt whether it is worthy a place in the recommended list of
fruits of the American Pomological Society. It is included here only
because of the prominence given it by a place in the fruit list named.

This is one of the varieties imported from Russia by Professor J. L.
Budd of Iowa, who reported that it was much grown in southwest Russia
for drying and in making cherry wine. As tested in various parts of this
country Lithauer has proved of little value except in the extreme north.
The American Pomological Society, in 1909, listed this sort in its
catalog of recommended fruits for northern fruit regions. The following
description is compiled:

    Tree large, vigorous, tall, weeping, hardy.

    Fruit matures from the middle to the last of July; small,
    roundish, slightly oblate; stem long, averaging one and one-half
    inches, slender; color dark purplish-red becoming almost black at
    maturity; skin thick, tough; flesh dark red, with reddish juice,
    firm, meaty, quite acid or bitter even when fully ripe; poor in
    quality; stone variable in size, roundish.


LOUIS PHILIPPE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 218. 1854. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74.
    1862. =3.= _Horticulturist_ =22=:289, 290 fig. 1867. =4.= Thomas
    _Guide Prat._ 26, 195. 1876. =5.= _Cult. & Count. Gent._ =42=:378.
    1877. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Here again we have a very evident hybrid between some Sweet Cherry and a
Sour Cherry of the Morello type in which Morello characters are most
prominent. If the description and color-plates of this variety and
Olivet be compared it will be found that the two cherries are nearly
identical. They differ only in season of ripening and in minor
tree-characters which may be best summarized by the statement that this
cherry has in the tree more of the aspect of a Morello than has Olivet.
It may be suspected that one or the other of the two varieties on our
grounds is misnamed but the descriptions of all who have described the
two show that they are very similar, if not identical. The history of
Louis Philippe, long known in America but little or not at all known in
Europe, throws some light on the question of its distinctness from
Olivet, the origin of which is known, inasmuch as Louis Philippe seems
to be the older of the two. The value of the two varieties to
cherry-growers is the same and is indicated in the discussion of Olivet.

Elliott,[82] the American pomologist, imported Louis Philippe from
France in 1846 but the cherry does not seem to have been known at that
time in Europe and it is possible that Elliott gave it its name. For the
first few years the variety was not given the recognition it deserved
but, in 1862, it was recognized by the American Pomological Society by a
place on its list of recommended fruits which it still holds under the
name, Philippe.

[Illustration: LOUIS PHILLIPE]

    Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped; trunk and branches
    intermediate in thickness; branches with numerous very large,
    elongated, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-eighth
    inches wide, oval to obovate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark,
    shiny green, smooth; lower surface olive-green, with a large,
    prominent midrib; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate, with
    reddish-brown glands; petiole one inch long, usually with one or
    two large, globose, yellowish-red, glands, variable in position.

    Flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white, well distributed,
    mostly in threes; pedicels one inch long, thick, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad,
    obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals slightly
    obovate, entire, broad, slightly notched at the apex; stamens
    one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal in length to the
    stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season or later; nearly one inch in diameter,
    roundish-ovate; cavity abrupt; suture very shallow to a mere line;
    apex flattened, depressed; color very dark red; dots numerous,
    unusually small, obscure; stem one and one-fourth inches to one
    and one-half inches long, adhering well to the fruit; flesh light
    red, with much wine-colored juice, fine-grained, tender and
    melting, sour at first, becoming pleasantly tart at full maturity;
    good in quality; stone separates readily from the flesh, small,
    roundish-ovate, plump; ventral suture grooved; dorsal suture with
    a small ridge.

    [82] Elliott's _American Fruit Growers Guide_, published in
    1858 and dedicated to Professor Jared P. Kirtland, was one of
    the notable pomological books of its day. Cherry growers, in
    particular, owe Elliott a debt of gratitude for the publicity that
    he gave to Kirtland's cherries, having described in his book 20
    of the sorts originated by Professor Kirtland. Beside his fruit
    book he published _Popular Deciduous and Evergreen Trees_ (1868),
    _Handbook for Fruit-growers_ (1876) and _Handbook of Practical
    Landscape Gardening_ (1877). He also served pomologists well for
    many years, at various times, from 1850 to 1873, as the secretary
    of the American Pomological Society. Franklin Reuben Elliott
    was born in Guilford, Connecticut, April 27, 1817. We know,
    from complimentary speeches, accepted by Elliott, that he was a
    descendant of John Eliot, "The Apostle of the Indians." As a young
    man he engaged with a brother in New York as an importer of dry
    goods, the firm being rated at half a million dollars. Financial
    ruin came through a disastrous fire and, in 1836, Elliott went to
    Newburgh and was employed by A. J. Downing from whom he imbibed
    his knowledge and much of his love for pomology and horticulture.
    A roving disposition and dissipated habits led him to leave
    Downing for a position with a relative near Cincinnati who was
    a market-gardener. A ready pen seems from this time on to have
    been his chief means of livelihood for we find him successively
    in Cleveland, Ohio, and St. Louis, Missouri, in newspaper work;
    after a few years in each place he wandered to Washington where he
    was employed in the Agricultural Department of the Patent Office
    illustrating American fruits. From his hand in the Patent Office
    reports and from his fruit book, came some of the most accurate
    and beautiful representations of the fruits of this continent.
    It is probable that while in Washington he began work on his
    _Fruit Growers Guide_, the time for which, he tells us in his
    preface, took ten years. Social infirmities seem to have cost him
    his position in Washington and his last employment was with the
    _Cleveland Herald_, after which comes the record of his death
    and burial in a pauper's grave January 10, 1878. One of the most
    brilliant pomologists of his time, his career seems again and
    again to have been checked by the weaknesses of his life; even so,
    he rendered horticulture valuable services for which we must give
    him gratitude and honor.


LUTOVKA

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1885. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    17. 1897. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 32, 33. 1904-05. =4.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

    _Galopin._ =5.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21. 1876. =6.= _Kan. Sta.
    Bul._ =73=:189. 1897.

For a time Lutovka and Galopin were listed as two distinct varieties.
Unquestionably they are the same despite the seeming difference in
origin. All we know of Galopin is that it was said to have been
originated by a nurseryman in Belgium whose name it bears. The Lutovka
was introduced into this country by J. L. Budd of Iowa, in 1883, and,
according to the introducer, was well known in Poland and Silesia as a
roadside tree. Nothing is said of it in foreign literature. As was the
case with many of Budd's importations, this variety did not stand the
test of culture. It is a shy bearer and is now seldom recommended,
although it was placed on the list of desirable fruits of the American
Pomological Society in 1897 where it still remains. The variety has no
value in New York. In 1895, this Station sent out buds which they had
been led to believe were the Lutovka and which they later found to be
Brusseler Braune. The following description is compiled:

    Tree large, upright, slightly spreading; leaves large, ovate,
    leathery, produced from short spurs along the main branches.

    Fruit ripens the forepart of July; medium to above in size,
    roundish-oblate; suture often a line, sometimes lacking; stem
    short, stout, set in a large, deep cavity; skin dark, clear red,
    thin, tough, translucent; flesh colorless, meaty, juicy, slightly
    acid; quality good; pit large, roundish, free.


LYONS

_Prunus avium_

    _Bigarreau de Lyon._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =16=:358. 1850. =2.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 61, 62 fig. 1854.

    _Bigarreau Jaboulay._ =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 74. 1866. =4.=
    Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:100 fig. 20, 101. 1866. =5.= Mas _Le
    Verger_ =8=:17, 18, fig. 7. 1866-73. =6.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No.
    16, Pl. 16. 1871. =7.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:213 fig., 214. 1877.
    =8.= _Flor. & Pom._ 117. 1878.

    _Early Lyons_. =9.= _Flor. & Pom._ 193, fig. 1. 1875. =10.= Hogg
    _Fruit Man._ 294, 295. 1884.

    _Early Jaboulay._ =11.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 294. 1884.

Of the one hundred and twenty-five cherries tested on the grounds of
this Station during the past ten years, Lyons is one of the best. Though
grown for nearly a century in Europe it seems never to have been well
tried in America probably because it has not been considered
particularly valuable in the Old World. From its behavior at this
Station it appears to deserve extensive trial as an extra early market
cherry for dessert purposes, as it is one of the few tender-fleshed
cherries that give promise of standing handling for distant markets.
Though commonly classed as a hard-fleshed Bigarreau it is really an
intermediate between the firm-of-flesh cherries and the soft-fleshed
Hearts. In the tree it is a typical Bigarreau. Besides being one of the
earliest of the Heart-like cherries it is one of the largest, handsomest
and best flavored. Unfortunately, because of an accident, we cannot show
a color-plate of this splendid cherry. On these grounds the
tree-characters are about all that could be desired, though we are
making allowance for a slight lack of productiveness in the young tree
which is one of the faults commonly attributed to Lyons by European
writers; however, all agree that the trees become fruitful with age. The
blossoms of this variety are conspicuously large and showy, with pistils
unusual in being longer than the stamens. The merits of Lyons have been
so pronounced in the several years we have watched it that we feel quite
warranted in recommending it for both home and commercial orchards.

About 1822, M. Jaboulay, a nurseryman at Oullins, near Lyons, France,
grafted over a number of seedling cherries which had sprung up on his
grounds. Five years later, having decided to dig out the trees, he was
attracted by the superb growth made by one of them upon which the graft
had not started and ordered the tree to be saved. This tree produced a
full crop of exceedingly large and attractive fruit which matured far in
advance of other varieties. Jaboulay decided to save all the grafts for
propagation the succeeding year but found upon going to the tree the
following spring that the wood had been stolen. About five years later
M. Riviére, also a nurseryman at Oullins, placed upon the market at
Lyons a very early cherry which he called Bigarreau Anglaise but which
was recognized as the same as the one found by Jaboulay. Thus have come
the several names given in the synonyms. Lyons has never been much grown
in this country. Lewis B. Eaton of Buffalo, New York, in importing
cherry trees from France in 1841 and 1842, found among them one without
a label which turned out to be Bigarreau de Lyon, later the Lyons. Trees
of this variety were received for testing at this Station from the
United States Department of Agriculture under the name Hâtive de Lyons.
These, as grown here, have proved identical in both tree and fruit
characters with the many descriptions of Bigarreau Jaboulay, or
Bigarreau de Lyon.

    Tree vigorous, a rapid grower, upright-spreading; branches
    straggling, reddish-brown; branchlets thick, long, with
    long internodes, grayish-brown, with numerous rather large,
    conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging five and one-half
    inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward,
    long-elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface dark green,
    smooth; lower surface light green, with few hairs; apex distinctly
    elongated, base abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, with small, dark
    glands; petiole often two inches long, thickish, pubescent on the
    upper surface, glandless or with from one to six large, reniform,
    reddish glands usually on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, conical, free, arranged singly as lateral buds
    and in small, scattering clusters; leaf-scars obscure; season
    of bloom intermediate; flowers large, often one and one-half
    inches across, white; borne in dense clusters, in twos and
    threes; pedicels one inch long, glabrous, green with a trace of
    red; calyx-tube distinctly reddish, somewhat obconic, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes strongly tinged with red, broad, acute, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, tapering
    to distinct but short claws; apex entire or with a shallow, wide
    notch; filaments five-sixteenths of an inch long; pistil glabrous,
    equal to or longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; one inch in diameter, cordate, compressed;
    cavity flaring; suture shallow, or a mere line, often extending
    around the fruit; apex roundish or pointed; color very dark red;
    dots numerous, small, russet; stem thick, one and one-half inches
    long; skin thin, rather tender, separating from the pulp; flesh
    reddish, with dark colored juice, meaty, sprightly, sweet; of
    very good quality; stone semi-clinging, large, ovate, plump, with
    smooth surfaces; ridged along the ventral suture.


MAGNIFIQUE

_Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

    _Belle et Magnifique._ =2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 279, 280. 1832.
    =3.= _Ibid._ 239. 1841.

    _Belle Magnifique._ =4.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 193. 1845. =5.=
    _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1852. =6.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 191. 1854.
    =7.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 272. 1857. =8.= _Soc. Nat. Hort.
    France Pom._ 82 fig., 83. 1904.

    _Belle de Magnifique._ =9.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =1=:61, fig. 1.
    1853. =10.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 19, Pl. 19. 1871.

    _Belle de Chatenay._ =11.= _Ill. Handb._ 179 fig., 180. 1860.
    =12.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:175-178, fig. 48. 1866. =12.=
    Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:57, 58, fig. 27. 1866-73. =13.= Mathieu _Nom.
    Pom._ 334, 343. 1889. =14.= _Guide Prat._ 9, 181. 1895.

This good, old cherry has never been considered a commercial fruit in
the United States; yet it is, and has been, surprisingly popular with
nurserymen, most of whom for nearly a century have offered it for sale.
A generation ago, when American fruit-growing was in the hands of
connoisseurs, Magnifique was more popular than now. It has failed as a
commercial cherry because the crop ripens very unevenly, there being
sometimes green and fully ripe cherries on the tree at the same time,
though the season is usually given as very late. This is one of the
lightest in color of the hybrid Dukes, the Sour Cherry parent very
evidently having been an Amarelle--a conclusion to which both fruit and
tree point. The quality is usually counted as very good though it is too
acid to be a first-rate dessert cherry for some. The trees are very
vigorous and usually are fruitful. Magnifique has been grown so long
that its place in the orchard would seem to have been fixed by
experience; yet it might be made more than a cherry for the home orchard
if some commercial grower would plant it in a shaded place and a cool
soil and thereby retard ripening time until other cherries were gone.

This valuable cherry was brought to notice in 1795 by Chatenay,
surnamed Magnifique, a nurseryman near Paris. It seems, at first, to
have been quite commonly called Belle de Chatenay but Belle de
Magnifique became the commoner appellation ending in America at least
with the universal name "Belle Magnifique." The variety was introduced
into America from France sometime before 1830, by General H. A. S.
Dearborn, Boston, Massachusetts, President of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society. The cherry is typically a Duke sort and is so
listed by most writers, though Downing in 1845 placed it with the
Morello cherries. Magnifique was placed upon the fruit list of the
American Pomological Society in 1852 where it has since remained.

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, productive; trunk
    and branches stocky, brown overlaid with dark gray; branchlets
    with many, small conspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, two inches wide,
    obovate to oval, thickish; upper surface dark green, slightly
    rugose; lower surface finely pubescent; apex abruptly pointed,
    base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, with small, dark
    glands; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red, grooved on
    the upper surface and with a few hairs, glandless or with one or
    two small, reniform, greenish glands usually at the base of the
    leaf.

    Buds obtuse or conical, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds
    or in rather dense clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars obscure;
    season of bloom late; flowers white, one inch across, wide open;
    borne in dense clusters on short spurs, usually in threes or
    fours; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, light green;
    calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broadly
    and shallowly dentate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals obovate, entire, with very short claws, indented at the
    apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to
    the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures late; nearly one inch in diameter, cordate; cavity
    rather deep; suture very shallow; color pale red changing to
    bright red; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; stem one
    and one-fourth inches long; skin thick, tough, adherent to the
    pulp; flesh whitish, with abundant colorless juice, fine-grained,
    meaty but tender, pleasantly tart, sprightly; very good in
    quality; stone free, small, oval, plump, slightly pointed, with
    smooth surfaces; slightly notched near the base of the ventral
    suture.


MAY DUKE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Bradley Gard._ 211. 1739. =2.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
    =1=:194. 1768. =3.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:133, 134. 1832. =4.=
    _Gard. Chron._ 57. 1843. =5.= Cultivator N. S. =2=:319 fig. 93.
    1845. =6.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 191, 192 fig. 81. 1845. =7.=
    Bridgeman _Gard. Ass't Pt._ =3=: 53, 54. 1847. =8.= _Proc. Nat.
    Con. Fr. Gr._ 52. 1848. =9.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 211. 1854. =10.=
    McIntosh _Bk. Gard._ =2=:542, 543. 1855. =11.= _Mas Le Verger_
    =8=:133, 134, fig. 65. 1866-73. =12.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 305, 306.
    1884. =13.= _Guide Prat._ 8, 195, 196. 1895.

    _Duke Cherry._ =14.= Ray _Hist. Plant._ =2=:1540. 1688.

    _May Cherry._ =15.= Miller _Gard. Dict._ =1=:1754. =16.= Mortillet
    _Le Cerisier_ =2=:138-140, fig. 33. 1866.

    _Rothe Maikirsche._ =17.= Christ _Handb._ 669. 1797. =18.= Christ
    _Wörterb._ 282. 1802. =19.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
    377-389. 1819. =20.= _Ill. Handb._ 151 fig., 152. 1860. =21.= Mas
    _Le Verger_ =8=:135, 136, fig. 66. 1866-73. =22.= _Lauche Deut._
    Pom. III: No. 16, Pl. 1882. =23.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 374. 1889.

    _Royale Hâtive._ =24.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: Nos. 23, 24, Pl.
    1846. =25.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 4, Pl. 4. 1871. =26.= Leroy
    _Dict. Pom._ =5=:389 fig., 390, 391. 1877.

    _Royale Cherry Duke._ =27.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:127, 128, fig.
    64. 1882.

    _Esel Kirsche._ =28.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 22. 1892-93.

    _Anglaise Hâtive._ =29.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 78 fig.,
    79. 1904.

May Duke is one of the oldest and, the world over, one of the most
popular cherries. There are several reasons why it has attained and
holds its popularity. It is finely flavored, especially when prepared
for the table, and even before ripe; it is also delicious to eat out
of hand if the cherries are dead ripe, when it is one of the best of the
subacid cherries; while one of the earliest of its class, it may be left
to hang for a month or six weeks, becoming daily sweeter and more
aromatic; few or no cherries thrive in greater variations of soil and
climates, this fact accounting in greatest measure for its world-wide
distribution in temperate regions; despite its tender flesh, it ships
well though it is grown only for local markets since its long period of
ripening makes necessary several pickings--a fatal defect for a canning
cherry or one for the general trade; lastly, the trees are as fruitful
as any, and are hardy, vigorous and healthy. The fruit is remarkably
well distributed in dense clusters on trees characteristically upright
and vasiform and bearing a heavy canopy of dark green, luxuriant
foliage. May Duke fills a particular place in the cherry orchard as a
fruit for the local market and hundreds of new-comers have not been able
to supplant it. The fact that it has lost none of its pristine vigor,
health and productiveness in the two hundred and more years it has been
known contradicts the idea that varieties of fruit degenerate or wear
out with age. When we pass in review all of the varieties of cherries,
all characters and purposes considered, May Duke remains one of the
best.

This variety seems to have been first mentioned by Ray in 1688. May Duke
is supposed by some English writers to have originated in a district in
France known as Médoc and the name to have been derived from the place.
When this cherry first received attention, the old style of reckoning
time was in vogue and the 11th of June was the last day of May. It may,
therefore, be presumed that the variety derived its name from its season
of ripening rather than from a corruption of Médoc. A few years ago
Professor J. L. Budd of Iowa imported from Russia several cherries among
which was one called Esel Kirsche. Later this cherry was distributed by
the United States Department of Agriculture. As grown on the grounds of
this Station, Esel Kirsche has proved to be May Duke. In Ohio the two
could not be distinguished and with this evidence we have listed Esel
Kirsche as a synonym of May Duke. In 1832, William Prince mentioned May
Duke as being among the first of the cherries introduced to America from
Europe. From the references to this variety in the horticultural
literature and in the nursery catalogs throughout the United States we
may say that it is one of the most widely distributed and best-known
cherries in the country. The American Pomological Society placed May
Duke on its fruit catalog list in 1848.

[Illustration: MAY DUKE]

    Tree large, upright becoming somewhat vasiform and spreading with
    age, open-topped, very productive; trunk of medium thickness,
    somewhat shaggy; branches smooth or roughish, reddish-brown partly
    covered with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels variable in size;
    branchlets short, brown partly covered with light gray, smooth,
    with small, inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, two inches wide,
    folded upward, obovate; upper surface very dark green, rugose;
    lower surface thinly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute;
    margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one inch
    long, slender, tinged with red, grooved, glandless or with one or
    two small, globose, brownish glands, usually at the base of the
    blade.

    Buds obtuse, plump, free, in large clusters on short spurs;
    leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white,
    one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters, in twos
    and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish;
    calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    with a trace of red, rather long, narrow, acuminate, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals broad-oval, entire, nearly
    sessile; apex crenate; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early, although variable in habit; three-fourths
    of an inch in diameter, cordate to conical, compressed; cavity
    abrupt, regular; suture indistinct; apex roundish, with a small
    depression at the center; color light changing to dark red at full
    maturity; dots numerous, russet, obscure; stem slender, one and
    one-half inches long, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thin,
    tender, separating from the pulp; flesh medium to dark red, with
    pinkish juice, tender and melting, sprightly subacid, pleasant
    flavored; of very good quality; stone nearly free, small, roundish
    to elliptical, with smooth surfaces; slightly ridged along the
    ventral suture.


MERCER

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262, Pl. 5. 1892. =2.= _Am. Gard._ =14=:39
    fig. 1893. =3.= _Can. Hort._ =17=:322 fig. 693. 1894. =4.= Black &
    Son _Cat._ 22 fig. 1909.

This comparatively new Bigarreau is on probation in many parts of the
State and country, otherwise we should not give it prominence in _The
Cherries of New York_, as the variety is all but worthless as it grows
on the grounds of this Station. The trees are not sufficiently fruitful,
the cherries are too small, the flavor in none too good and the fruit is
not at all resistant to brown-rot--four fatal defects for a commercial
cherry.

This variety is reported to have sprung from a pit of a Mazzard tree and
was introduced several years ago by Black & Son of Hightstown, New
Jersey. The name, Mercer, after the county in New Jersey from which it
was introduced, was given the cherry by H. E. Van Deman, then United
States Pomologist.

    Tree vigorous, healthy, not always productive; branches long,
    grayish-brown, smooth, with a few small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth
    inches wide, folded upward, long-oval, leathery; upper surface
    dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent, grooved
    along the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely
    and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-half inches
    long, tinged with dull red, thick, with from two to five very
    large, reniform, reddish glands, variable in position.

    Buds of medium size and length, conical, plump, free; leaf-scars
    rather prominent; season of bloom early; flowers one and
    one-fourth inches across, in scattering clusters in twos and
    threes; pedicels three-fourths inch long, glabrous; calyx-tube
    green or faintly tinged red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    greenish streaked with red along the edges, long, obtuse, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals broad-oval, entire, slightly
    indented at the apex, tapering to short, blunt claws; filaments
    one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil glabrous,
    shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; small, cordate to blunt-conic,
    compressed; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture an indistinct
    line; apex flattened or depressed; color black; dots small,
    numerous, obscure; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches
    long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, rather tender; flesh
    reddish, with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, crisp, aromatic,
    mild flavored, sweet; fair to good in quality; stone free or
    semi-clinging, variable in size, ovate, flattened, blunt-pointed,
    with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.


MEZEL

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Bigarreau Monstrueux._ =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

    _Bigarreau of Mezel._ =3.= _Horticulturist_ =1=:475 fig., 476.
    1846-47. =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:107 fig., 108. 1866.
    =5.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 454. 1869. =6.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
    =5=:218 fig., 219. 1877.

    _Great Bigarreau._ =7.= _Horticulturist_ =6=:20 fig., 21. 1851.
    =8.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 253. 1857.

    _Monstreuse de Mezel._ =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

    _Schwarze Knorpel von Mezel._ =10.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 377. 1889.

Mezel seems to have made a stir in pomological circles in the middle of
the Nineteenth Century by reason of the great size and beautiful
appearance of the cherries. Though on the recommended list of the
American Pomological Society and frequently spoken of in the pomological
works of the day and offered by some nurserymen, we have not been able
to find many trees of this variety now growing in New York. We glean
from the literature that Mezel pleased the eye more than the palate and
that the trees, while vigorous and healthy, were not productive. At any
rate after a decade or two of much advertising and what would seem to
have been a very thorough trial, Mezel failed to receive very general
approbation from cherry-growers and has now almost passed from
cultivation. Contrary to the general behavior of the variety in New
York, the tree and fruit from which the accompanying description was
made have so many merits that one can well wish that the variety will
not wholly pass out of cultivation.

This variety was found at Mezel, Puy-de-Dôme, France, by M. Ligier
sometime prior to 1846 when it was brought to notice. Even so, it had
grown in a vineyard at that place for thirty years and was only made
public after an excursion of several members of a horticultural society
to the vineyard. It was immediately heralded as a coming variety and
grafts were distributed. Great Bigarreau, which made its appearance a
few years later, is here included as a synonym though many writers list
it as a distinct sort. Bigarreau Monstrueux, first listed in the London
Horticultural Society catalog for 1831, is held by many pomologists to
be identical with Mezel which, if true, casts some doubt on the
generally accepted history of the variety. Mezel appeared on the fruit
list of the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was discarded in
1869; it was replaced in 1883 and is still on the list though it is
scarcely known in any part of the United States.

[Illustration: MEZEL]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, variable in
    productiveness; trunk stocky, nearly smooth; branches thick,
    smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with dark ash-gray,
    with lenticels medium in number and size; branchlets of average
    thickness, variable in length, with internodes of medium length,
    brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with small,
    inconspicuous, raised lenticels medium in number.

    Leaves numerous, five inches long, often two and one-half inches
    wide, long-oval, thin; upper surface dark green, strongly rugose
    giving a crumpled appearance; lower surface dull, light green,
    with slight pubescence; apex varies from abrupt to taper-pointed,
    base abrupt; margin glandular, coarsely serrate; petiole long,
    averaging one and one-half inches, slender, tinged with red, with
    from one to four reniform glands of medium size on the petiole.

    Buds intermediate in size and length, plump, pointed, arranged
    singly as lateral buds or in clusters of various sizes on both
    long and short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom
    intermediate; flowers one and seven-sixteenths inches across, well
    distributed in scattering clusters in twos and threes; pedicels
    one and one-eighth inches long, medium in thickness, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube with a slight tinge of red, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes long, medium in width, acute, slightly
    serrate, glabrous within and without; petals somewhat obovate,
    crenate, nearly sessile, with a very shallow notch at the apex;
    anthers yellow; filaments shorter than the petals; pistil
    glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; large, seven-eighths inch long,
    thirteen-sixteenths inch wide, cordate, compressed, the surface
    markedly irregular and broken into ridges; cavity very deep,
    wide, irregular, abrupt; suture variable, shallow to very deep
    and wide and at times double; apex blunt-pointed, usually not
    depressed; color attractive purplish-black; dots numerous, very
    small, somewhat russet, obscure; stem medium in thickness, long,
    averaging two and one-eighth inches, adheres well to the fruit;
    skin medium in thickness, rather tender but not inclined to crack,
    adheres slightly to the pulp; flesh purplish-red, with abundant
    dark red juice, tender, meaty, mild, very pleasant, sweet; very
    good to best in quality; stone clinging, large, strongly ovate,
    with slightly roughish surface.


MONTMORENCY

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:181, 182. 1768. =2.= Kraft
    _Pom. Aust._ =1=:6, Tab. 15 fig. 1. 1792. =3.= Christ _Wörterb._
    292. 1802. =4.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 656, 657, 691.
    1819. =5.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 281. 1832. =6.= Poiteau _Pom.
    Franc._ =2=: No. 14, Pl. 1846. =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:53, 54,
    fig. 25. 1866-73. =8.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 3, Pl. 3. 1871.
    =9.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:361, 362 fig., 363, 364. 1877. =10.=
    Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 369. 1889. =11.= _Guide Prat._ 9, 196. 1895.
    =12.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:112 fig. 4, 113, 114. 1900. =13.=
    _Am. Gard._ =22=:266, 267. 1901. =14.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27.
    1909.

    _Kleine Glaskirsche von Montmorency._ =15.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 463, 464, 465. 1819.

    _Long Stem Montmorency._ =16.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:139. 1832.

    _Amarelle Royale._ =17.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:191-195, fig.
    53. 1866.

    _Montmorency Ordinaire._ =18.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 17. 1897.
    =19.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:75, fig. 15. 1903. =20.= _Am. Pom. Soc.
    Sp. Rpt._ 33, 34, Pl. 2. 1904-05.

Montmorency is the most popular Sour Cherry grown in America. No one
questions its supremacy. Probably half of the cherry trees in New York,
Sweet or Sour, are Montmorencies and at least three-fourths of all the
trees of the Sour Cherry are of this variety. It leads in the demands
for this fruit in the markets, for the cannery and for home use as a
culinary cherry. Several characters give it first place. It is surpassed
by no other Sour Cherry, in New York at least, in vigor, health and
productiveness of tree. In the last character, in particular, it is
supreme. Year in and year out, Montmorency trees are fruitful. Possibly,
too, no other Sour Cherry is adapted to a greater diversity of soils
than Montmorency, which, with capacity to stand heat and cold, makes the
variety suitable to wide variations in environment. The cherries are in
no way remarkable--not much above the average for an Amarelle in size,
appearance or quality, in all of these characters being much inferior to
Large Montmorency. The fruit has the advantage of being presentable in
appearance and fit for culinary purposes several days before it is fully
ripe and this adds to the value of the variety for the market. Brown-rot
takes less toll from this cherry than of others of its kind probably
because of relatively firm flesh and thick skin. These characters, also,
make the fruit stand handling well in harvesting, shipping and on the
markets. The preserved product, whether canned at home or commercially,
is attractive in appearance and very good. Montmorency is not a dessert
cherry but for those who like Sour Cherries it may be eaten out of hand
with relish when it is fully matured. Some maintain that the variety
falls short in the size of the tree, which is seldom more than medium,
but the head is spreading and much-branched and the fruit is borne in
clusters thickly scattered throughout the whole head so that the total
yield from a tree is greater than would be thought from its size. For
any and all purposes to which Sour Cherries are put Montmorency may be
recommended as the best in its season.

Unfortunately several quite distinct cherries bear the name Montmorency
and it has been most difficult to separate them in pomological
literature. To make matters worse, all of them have been much confused
with other varieties, Early Richmond in particular. The different
Montmorencies and Early Richmond originated in the Montmorency Valley,
France, several centuries ago, at least before the Seventeenth Century,
probably as seedlings of Cerise Hâtive or of Cerise Commune. These
Montmorency cherries differ from each other principally in their stems
and fruit, one having long stems and moderate-sized, regular fruit; one
shorter stems and larger fruit; and the third, very short, thick stems
and oblate, irregular fruit showing a distinct suture. The first cherry
has been generally known, particularly among the French, as Montmorency
à Longue Queue or sometimes Cerise de Montmorency. This is the
Montmorency of this sketch. Duhamel, in 1768, was the first writer to
mention this cherry directly and according to his statement it was then
esteemed around Paris, being superior in productiveness to the Large
Montmorency.

Montmorency early found its way into England, where it soon became
confused with its probable parent, the French Cerise Hâtive or the
English Kentish. In a short time it had replaced Kentish in many
nurseries and came to be called Kentish in much of the literature of the
time. Just when Montmorency was introduced to this country is not known
but it has been cultivated here under various names for many years.
William Prince spoke of it in 1832 as the Long Stem Montmorency and it
has long and commonly been known here as Montmorency Ordinaire.
Montmorency is to be found in nearly every nursery in the United States
under various names, some nurserymen using the French name, others the
English, while still others are selling the variety as Large
Montmorency. Many supposed strains have been given new names but it is
doubtful if any distinct strains of this cherry exist. The American
Pomological Society added Montmorency to its fruit catalog list in
1897 using the qualifying term Ordinaire which was dropped in 1909.

[Illustration: MONTMORENCY]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, with the lower branches
    inclined to droop, round-topped, productive; trunk and branches
    smooth; branches reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray, with a
    few lenticels of medium size; branchlets slender, reddish-brown
    partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with a few small,
    inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves three inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded
    upwards or flattened, oval to obovate, leathery; upper surface
    dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, with a few
    scattering hairs; apex and base variable in shape; margin doubly
    crenate, glandular; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red,
    glandless or with from one to three small, globose, brownish or
    yellowish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

    Buds obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly or in clusters on short
    spurs; leaf-scars obscure; season of bloom intermediate; flowers
    white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in scattered
    clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged
    with red, broad, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals roundish to obovate, crenate, with short, blunt claws and
    shallow, crenate apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, equal to or slightly longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    roundish-oblate, slightly compressed; cavity abrupt; suture very
    shallow; apex roundish; color light to rather dark red; dots
    numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem thick, usually with
    a faint tinge of red, one inch long, adhering well to the fruit;
    skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow,
    with a reddish tinge, with abundant light pink juice, tender and
    melting, sprightly, tart; of very good quality; stone free, small,
    roundish-ovate, flattened, pointed, with smooth surfaces which are
    tinged with red.


NAPOLEON

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 30. 1828. =2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 273,
    274. 1832. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 183. 1845. =4.= Thomas
    _Am. Fruit Cult._ 365. 1849. =5.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =1=:27, 28,
    fig. 2. 1853. =6.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 215. 1859. =7.= Thompson
    _Gard. Ass't_ 527. 1859. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =9.=
    Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:132. 1866. =10.= Downing _Fr. Trees
    Am._ 470. 1869. =11.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 9, Pl. 9. 1871. =12.=
    Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:219, 220 fig., 221. 1877. =13.= _Flor. &
    Pom._ 57, Pl. 465. 1878. =14.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:109, 110, fig.
    55. 1882. =15.= _Cornell Sta. Bul._ =98=:493, fig. 87. 1895. =16.=
    _Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt._ =5=:38 fig. 1898.

    _Gros Bigarreau Blanc._ =17.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr_. =1=:165.
    1768. =18.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 308-310. 1819. =19.=
    Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:123-126, fig. 29. 1866. =20.= Leroy
    _Dict. Pom._ =5=:179, 180 fig., 181. 1877. =21.= Mathieu _Nom.
    Pom._ 354. 1889.

    _Lauermannskirsche._ =22.= Christ _Handb._ 664. 1797. =23.=
    Christ _Wörterb._ 280. 1802. =24.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
    292-295, 323-328. 1819. =25.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889.

    _Lange Marmorkirsche._ =26.= Christ _Handb._ 655. 1797. =27.=
    Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 330-333. 1819.

    _Holländische Grosse Prinzessinkirsche._ =28.= Christ _Wörterb._
    281. 1802. =29.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 295-299. 1819.
    =30.= _Ill. Handb._ 125 fig., 126. 1860. =31.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
    =11=:117, 118, fig. 59. 1882. =32.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 357. 1889.

    _Harrison's Heart._ =33.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 42. 1803.
    =34.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:69, 70, Pl. 34 fig. 2. 1823.
    =35.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:145, 146, fig. 71. 1866-73. =36.=
    Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 362. 1889.

    _Grosse Weisse Marmorkirsche._ =37.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 316, 317, 682. 1819.

    _Holland Bigarreau._ =38.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 181 fig., 182.
    1845.

    _Bigarreau d'Esperen._ =39.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:119, 120
    fig., 121. 1866. =40.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 463. 1869. =41.=
    Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:11, 12, fig. 4. 1866-73. =42.= Leroy _Dict.
    Pom._ =5=:198 fig., 199. 1877. =43.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 347.
    1889. =44.= _Rev. Hort._ 321, 322. 1912.

    _Bigarreau Gros Coeuret._ =45.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
    =2=:126-129, fig. 30. 1866. =46.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 23, Pl.
    23. 1871. =47.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:208, 209 fig., 210. 1877.

    _Royal Ann._ =48.= _Cal. Bd. Hort. Rpt._ 59, Pl. 18. 1893-94.
    =49.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 192. 1907. =50.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._
    =92=:31, fig. 8. 1910.

Napoleon is the leading firm-fleshed Sweet Cherry. It takes its place by
virtue of the large size, handsome appearance and high quality of the
fruit and the phenomenal productiveness of the trees. The accompanying
plate shows well the large size and beautiful color of the
cherries--unsurpassed in either character by any other Bigarreau and
possibly by any other cherry. The flavor is rich and sweet which, with
the abundant juice and firm, crackling flesh, makes this a most
delicious and refreshing cherry for dessert and, with the great size and
attractive color, gives it preference over all other Sweet Cherries for
culinary purposes. In particular, cherry-canners find that Napoleon
makes a finely finished product. The cherries carry well and keep long
and are, therefore, well thought of by fruit-dealers. Besides being very
productive, the trees come in bearing early and are as vigorous, hardy
and healthy as those of any other Sweet Cherry. They may usually be
known by their upright growth and large, sturdy limbs. Napoleon,
however, is not without its faults. The cherries crack badly in wet
weather and the variety can be grown with certainty only in the dry
summer climate of the Pacific Coast, where, especially in Oregon and
Washington, it reaches truly wonderful perfection. In the East, too,
Napoleon is more susceptible to brown-rot than several of its rivals.
Possibly the greatest fault, however, is in the tree, which is very
fastidious as to soils, thriving only in choice cherry land and in a
congenial cherry climate. Despite these rather serious faults,
cherry-growers agree that Napoleon takes first place among Sweet
Cherries for both home and commercial plantings.

Napoleon is of unknown origin. Early in the Eighteenth Century it was
grown by the Germans, French, Dutch and English, proof that it is a very
old variety. Leroy believes that it was described by Merlet in 1667 but
under another name. The great number of synonyms in several languages
gives some idea of the countries in which the variety has been grown
as well as the esteem in which it has been held. There are several
accounts as to when the cherry was given the name Napoleon. Probably the
best authenticated is that in which it is held that Parmentier, a
Belgian, gave the cherry the name of the famous emperor in 1820. When
the variety was taken to England, where at that time Napoleon was not in
good repute, the name of his conqueror, Wellington, was substituted but
seems to have been little used. As if not content with the score or more
of European names, cherry-growers in America have added at least two
more. In many parts of the country it is locally called the Ox Heart. On
the Pacific Coast it is grown and sold by nurserymen and fruit-growers
alike as Royal Ann, a name given it by its introducer, Seth Lewelling,
of Milwaukee, Oregon, who lost the label bearing the old name in taking
it across the Continent in early days and gave it a new name. With
incomprehensible persistency Western horticulturists maintain this
synonym to the confusion of horticultural nomenclature. The American
Pomological Society placed Napoleon on its fruit list in 1862, it having
been grown in America for at least 40 years before receiving this honor.

[Illustration: NAPOLEON]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very
    productive; trunk thick, shaggy; branches thick, roughened by the
    lenticels, dull brown overlaid with ash-gray, with numerous large,
    raised lenticels; branchlets thick, long, light brown overspread
    with gray, smooth, with a few inconspicuous, small lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five and three-fourths inches long, two and
    one-half inches wide, folded upward, elliptical to obovate; upper
    surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, somewhat
    pubescent; apex acute, base variable in shape; margin doubly
    serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one and one-fourth
    inches long, thick, tinged with dull red, hairy along the upper
    surface, with from one to three large, reniform, reddish-orange
    glands, usually on the stalk.

    Buds variable in size, conical, free, arranged singly or in thin
    clusters from lateral buds and from spurs; leaf-scars prominent;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-half
    inches across; borne in scattering clusters in ones or in twos;
    pedicels variable in length, averaging one inch long, glabrous,
    greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    tinged with red, long, rather narrow, acuminate, serrate,
    reflexed; petals oval, entire, dentate at the apex, with short,
    narrow claws; filaments one-half inch long; pistil glabrous,
    shorter than the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; over one inch in diameter, conical
    to long-cordate, compressed; cavity deep, wide, flaring; suture a
    distinct line; apex much pointed; color, varying shades of bright
    red over a yellowish background, distinctly mottled; dots obscure;
    stem slender, more than one inch long, adherent to the fruit; skin
    thin, rather adherent; flesh whitish, with a faint yellow tinge,
    with colorless juice, tender, meaty, crisp, mild, the flavor
    improving as the season advances, sweet; good to very good in
    quality; stone semi-clinging, small, ovate, flattened, pointed,
    with smooth surfaces.


NOUVELLE ROYALE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 72, Pl. 1862. =2.= _Gard. Mon._ =7=:248.
    1865. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 70, 88. 1866. =4.= Mas _Le Verger_
    =8=:147, 148, fig. 72. 1866-73. =5.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 484.
    1869. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 31. 1875. =7.= Gaucher _Pom. Prak.
    Obst._ No. 80, Tab. 33. 1894. =8.= _Guide Prat._ 9. 1895.

If this cherry were to be judged by its behavior on the grounds of this
Station, it would be called one of the best of the hybrid Dukes. In
particular, it would be commended by its product, the trees not making
as good a showing as the fruit. The cherries are distinguished by their
large size, dark red color, glossy surface, good quality, lateness in
maturity and, even more particularly, sweetness, keeping in mind that
the variety is a hybrid and not a true Sweet Cherry. The shape, too,
offers a distinguishing character, the fruits being more oblate than in
any other Duke. The long, stout stem is still another characteristic.
Unfortunately the tree, while satisfactory in all other respects, is
unproductive--a fatal fault in these days of commercial fruit-growing.
Nouvelle Royale is not widely known in America and may well be given
trial by those who want a late Duke.

This variety is supposed from its fruit- and tree-characters to be a
hybrid between Early Richmond and May Duke but where, how and when it
came to light is not known. Downing, in 1869, mentions the Nouvelle
Royale as having recently been introduced into this country and it was
noted in the Report of the American Pomological Society for 1875 but has
never received a place upon the Society's fruit catalog list.

[Illustration: NOUVELLE ROYALE]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright, compact, moderately productive;
    trunk of medium size; branches upright, thickish; branchlets
    slender, long, brown partly covered with ash-gray, with very
    numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, two inches wide,
    folded upward, obovate; upper surface dark green, glossy, rugose;
    lower surface light green, lightly pubescent; apex abruptly
    pointed, base acute; margin finely and doubly serrate, glandular;
    petiole one and one-fourth inches long, slender, tinged with dull
    red, grooved and with few hairs along the upper surface, glandless
    or with from one to four globose, greenish-yellow or reddish
    glands variable in size usually at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds and on short spurs in clusters variable in size; leaf-scars
    obscure; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one inch
    across; borne in dense clusters in threes and fours; pedicels
    three-fourths of an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish;
    calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes
    somewhat reddish, broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within and
    without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, apex
    entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, longer
    than the stamens.


    Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, oblate,
    strongly compressed; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow;
    apex flattened or slightly depressed; color dark red; dots
    numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem one and three-fourths
    inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating
    from the pulp; flesh pale yellowish or with a tinge of red, with
    light pink juice, slightly stringy, tender and melting, pleasantly
    flavored, mildly tart; of very good quality; stone free,
    roundish-oval, plump, blunt, oblique, with smooth surfaces often
    tinged with red, with small ridges radiating from the base.


OLIVET

_Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =19=:19. 1877. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 20.
    1881. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 164. 1881. =4.= _Can.
    Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:11. 1892. =5.= _Cal. Sta. An. Rpt._ 316.
    1895-97. =6.= _Va. Sta. Bul._ =133=:27. 1902. =7.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._
    =73=:76, 77. 1903. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 24. 1904-05. =9.=
    _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:21. 1910.

Olivet is a large, globular, deep red, glossy cherry with a rich,
vinous, subacid flavor. Some writers call Olivet a Duke while others
place it with the Morellos. The fruit, on the grounds of this Station,
shows many characteristics of the Morellos while the tree appears to be
a Duke, suggesting that it is a hybrid between trees of the two groups.
The fruit, eaten out of hand, would be rated as a very good Morello or a
subacid and somewhat mediocre Duke, a fruit hardly good enough for
dessert and not as good as some of the sourer cherries for culinary
purposes. It is one of the earliest of the Morello-like cherries and
this may give it a place in the cherry flora of the country. The trees
are large and vigorous and their much-branched, round tops would seem to
give the maximum amount of bearing surface, but, unfortunately, the
cherries do not set abundantly. On the grounds of this Station the
variety is not fruitful, this being its chief defect. In other parts of
the country, however, it is reported to be either very productive or
moderately so. The descriptions of this cherry as given by American
experiment stations and nurserymen show plainly that there are several
distinct sorts passing under the name Olivet in this country.

Olivet, of comparatively recent origin, was found at Olivet, Loire,
France. American nurserymen introduced this variety sometime previous to
1877, for in that year the _Gardener's Monthly_ mentioned the cherry as
being "a valuable Duke sort filling an unoccupied place among the list
of early cherries in central New York." Olivet was entered on the
American Pomological Society's catalog list of fruits in 1881 where it
is still retained.

[Illustration: OLIVET]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped,
    unproductive; trunk thickish, rather rough; branches thick,
    smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with
    numerous small lenticels; branchlets short, brown partly
    overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with numerous raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval, thin;
    upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green,
    glossy, with a few scattering hairs; apex acute; margin doubly
    serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-fourth inches long,
    greenish, glandless or with one or two globose, brownish glands
    variable in position.

    Buds usually pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds
    and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season
    of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one inch across; borne in
    dense clusters, usually in threes; pedicels one-half inch long,
    glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, long, of medium width,
    acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
    oval to slightly obovate, entire, nearly sessile; apex entire;
    filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the
    stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, roundish
    to slightly oblate, somewhat compressed; cavity abrupt, regular;
    suture a line; apex roundish, with a small depression at the
    center; color bright red; dots russet, obscure; stem thickish,
    one and one-fourth inches long, adhering well to the fruit; skin
    tough, separating from the pulp; flesh light red, with abundant
    light red or wine-colored juice, tender and melting, sprightly,
    astringent, tart; of fairly good quality; stone free, small,
    roundish, slightly flattened, somewhat pointed at the apex, with
    smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.


OSTHEIM

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159. 1791. =2.= Christ _Handb._ 676. 1797.
    =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 512-517. 1819. =4.= Prince
    _Pom. Man._ =2=:145. 1832 =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:60.
    1858. =6.= _Ill. Handb._ 187 fig., 188. 1860. =7.= Leroy _Dict.
    Pom._ =5=:295, 296 fig. 1877. =8.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 371. 1889.
    =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 25. 1899. =10.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._
    =12=:121, 122. 1900. =11.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:78 fig. 18, 79.
    1903. =12.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:14, 21, 22. 1910.

Ostheim finds considerable favor in the prairie states of the Middle
West but is all but worthless as grown in New York and other eastern
states. It is one of the Morellos and falls far short of the best of its
group, the cherries being too small and of but mediocre quality. The
trees are typical Morellos, round-headed, with slender, drooping
branches and branchlets and very dark green foliage. The fruit is borne
toward the ends of short branches which are not well distributed over
the main branches, leaving much bare wood. Like all Morellos the fruit
hangs long after maturity and since the ripening season is late the
variety may be worth growing because of its lateness; as it may, also,
in cold climates because of great hardiness. The trees on their own
roots throw up many suckers which are often used in propagation. The
variety has the reputation, too, of coming true to name from seeds.

Ostheim is a native of Spain and not of Germany as many have supposed.
The trees were found in the region of the Sierra Morena Mountains,
Spain, and were taken to Germany by a Dr. Klinghammer after the Wars of
the Succession, 1701-1713. The cherry took the name Ostheim from the
German town of that name where it was widely grown. The variety, being
easily propagated, spread throughout Germany and soon became one of the
best-known cherries. Later, the name seems to have come to be a class
term for all cherries similar to the original Ostheim. The names
Ostheim, Ostheimer, Griotte Ostheim and Ostheimer Weichsel are used
interchangeably by foreign writers for this variety. American writers,
however, have given these names to two very similar but distinct
varieties. Ostheim was brought to the United States by William Robert
Prince of the Linnean Botanical Gardens early in the Nineteenth Century.
It has proved very satisfactory in some sections of the West and Canada,
while in the East it is but a mediocre variety at best. At different
times either buds or trees of so-called Ostheims have been imported to
this country which have turned out not to be the true variety. What
these sorts really are will remain uncertain until the several forms can
be brought together and compared. Professor Budd imported a variety in
1883, which since has become known as Ostheim, carrying Griotte
d'Ostheim as a synonym. Whether or not this is the old variety or a
distinct strain of the Ostheim class we are unable to say. The Cerise
d'Ostheim received by this Station has proved identical with this
variety. Ostheim was first listed by the American Pomological Society in
1899. A cherry known as Minnesota Ostheim, introduced into Minnesota
from Germany, is now recognized as a distinct sort. The variety as it is
known in Kansas and Missouri is often called the German Ostheimer though
some believe this to be different from the true sort.

[Illustration: OSTHEIM]

    Tree below medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading,
    with drooping branchlets, dense, very productive; trunk
    smooth; branches rather slender, smooth, dark ash-gray partly
    overspreading reddish-brown, with small, raised lenticels;
    branchlets slender, willowy, long, brown partly overspread with
    ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with small, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves very numerous, three and one-fourth inches long, one and
    one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval; upper
    surface very dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, with a
    few scattering hairs; apex taper-pointed, base variable in shape;
    margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole slender,
    one-half inch long, short, tinged with dull red, grooved, with
    a few scattering hairs, with from one to three small, globose,
    greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, usually obtuse, plump, free, arranged as
    lateral buds and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars
    prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers one inch across,
    white; borne in scattering clusters, in twos and threes; pedicels
    five-eighths of an inch long, rather slender, glabrous, greenish;
    calyx-tube green with a faint tinge of red, obconic, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes with a trace of red, rather long, serrate, glabrous
    within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, nearly
    sessile, apex entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, nearly equal in length to the stamens.

    Fruit matures very late; nearly three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, roundish to slightly oblate, compressed; cavity very
    shallow and narrow, flaring; suture indistinct; apex roundish with
    a small depression at the center; color very dark red approaching
    black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem
    slender, one and one-fourth inches long, but slightly adherent to
    the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily from the pulp;
    flesh dark red, with much very dark colored juice, tender and
    melting, sprightly, tart, losing its astringency when fully ripe;
    of fair quality; stone free, nearly one-half inch in diameter,
    roundish-oblate, somewhat pointed, with smooth surfaces slightly
    stained with red.


OX HEART

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Miller _Gard. Kal._ 154, 1734. =2.= Christ _Handb._ 663.
    1797. =3.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:36, Pl. 18 fig. 2.
    1817. =4.= Coxe _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 249. 1817. =5.= Truchsess-Heim
    _Kirschensort_. 132-135. 1819. =6.= Downing Fr. _Trees Am._ 176.
    1845. =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 244. 1858. =8.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
    =11=:57, 58, fig. 29. 1882. =9.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 365, 366.
    1882. =10.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 339, 371. 1889.

    _Bigarreau Gros Commun._ =11.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:203. 1843.

Ox Heart is very commonly used as a class name for the large, meaty
varieties of cherries which are cordate in shape. In America the name is
most often given to the light-fleshed cherries, such as Yellow Spanish,
Napoleon or White Bigarreau. At one time, however, the name was applied
to a distinct variety known throughout England, Germany and America,
being first mentioned by Miller, an Englishman, in 1734. Coxe, in 1817,
was the first American writer to list the variety but it never became
popular in the New World. Ox Heart appeared among the fruits rejected by
the American Pomological Society in 1858 and from then on it gradually
gave way to better varieties. The synonyms of the true Ox Heart are
badly confused not only with other dark-fleshed varieties but with those
of the Yellow Spanish type. As some of these varieties are merely listed
while others have but a meager description, it is impossible to separate
or group them with any degree of certainty. In the 1909 catalog of the
American Pomological Society there appears an Ox Heart of American
origin and of recent introduction, known in the West as Major Francis.
There are also in several nursery catalogs a "white-fleshed Ox Heart."
What this variety is we are unable to say. The following is a
description of Ox Heart compiled from European fruit books:

    Tree medium in vigor, round-topped, spherical, productive;
    branches somewhat curved; internodes of medium length; leaves
    obovate, obtusely pointed, margin finely serrate; petiole short,
    rather slender, flexible, tinged red, with two reniform glands;
    flowers small; petals irregularly elliptical.

    Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; medium to large,
    cordate, pointed, sides unevenly compressed; color lively red
    changing to intense purple or nearly black; stem of medium length
    and thickness, usually tinged red, inserted in a broad, deep
    cavity; skin tough; flesh dark red, with abundant colored juice,
    half-tender but firmer than most Hearts, sweet though slightly
    bitter before complete maturity; quality good; stone medium in
    size, broadly cordate, adhering to the flesh along the ventral
    suture.


REINE HORTENSE

_Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Gen. Farmer_ =11=:191 fig. 1850. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._
    55. 1856. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 211. 1856. =3.= Dochnahl
    _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:54. 1858. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 167 fig., 168.
    1860. =5.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 17, 204. 1876. =6.= Leroy _Dict.
    Pom._ =5=:379-382, fig. 1877.

    _D'Aremberg._ =7.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 45. 1831. =8.= Kenrick
    _Am. Orch._ 215. 1835.

    _Hortense._ =9.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 196, 197 fig. 1854. =10.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Were there not so many good Duke varieties of its season Reine Hortense
would take high rank among hybrid cherries. Several qualities fit it
admirably for home and somewhat for commercial plantations. To begin
with, it is most excellent in quality, its flavor being a commingling of
the refreshing acidity of the Sour Cherry and the richness of the Sweet
Cherry, though to some there may be a little too much acidity for a
first-class dessert fruit. The cherries are also handsome--large, round,
bright, glossy red with a shade of amber and very uniform in size, color
and shape. The fruit is especially attractive on the tree as it hangs on
long stems in twos and threes thickly scattered and never much
clustered. Unfortunately the fruit does not stand handling in harvesting
and marketing quite as well as that of some other Dukes and is a little
too susceptible to brown-rot for a good commercial cherry. The chief
faults of the variety, however, are in the trees rather than in the
fruit. The trees are but of medium size, are not as productive as some
others of the hybrid sorts, are at their best only in choice cherry
soils and demand good care. In Europe, Reine Hortense is much used as a
dwarf and for training on walls. It would seem that its merits and
faults, as it grows in America, are such as fit it preeminently well
only for the amateur.

Of the several accounts of the origin of Reine Hortense the one giving
France as its home and Larose as its originator is here accepted as
authentic. M. Larose of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Seine, a gardener of the
imperial court, grew the original tree early in the Nineteenth Century
from a seed of the Cerise Larose, a seedling of his introduction. Soon
after the first mention of this variety, about 1841, there appeared the
Louis XVIII, Morestin, Guigne de Petit-Brie and several others. The
variety was seemingly rechristened by every nurseryman who got hold of
it. At one time the name Monstreuse de Bavay was acceptable to many, it
having been given to the variety by a Mr. Bavay of Vilvorde, Brabant,
Belgium, about 1826. The theory that Reine Hortense comes true to seed
and therefore has several strains has been discredited. The American
Pomological Society recognized Reine Hortense in 1856, only a few years
after being introduced into this country, by placing it on the
recommended fruit list. In 1909, the Society shortened the name from
Reine Hortense to Hortense but in this text we prefer to use the full
name, thereby indicating clearly the person for whom the cherry was
christened.

[Illustration: REINE HORTENSE]

    Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, productive; trunk shaggy;
    branches smooth, dark reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with
    a few large lenticels; branchlets rather slender, with short
    internodes, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with
    inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate, thin; upper surface
    dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, pubescent along
    the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely
    serrate, with dark glands; petiole one inch long, tinged with red,
    pubescent along the grooved upper surface, with none or with from
    one to four small, globose, greenish-yellow or brownish glands,
    usually at the base of the blade.

    Buds large, long-pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
    buds and in small clusters on few long spurs; blooms appearing
    in mid-season; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across;
    borne in dense clusters usually in threes; pedicels one inch long,
    slender, glabrous; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes long, acuminate, glabrous within and
    without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, sessile, with entire
    apex; filaments one-fourth of an inch long; pistil glabrous,
    shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter,
    oblong-conic to obtuse-conic, compressed; cavity somewhat shallow,
    narrow, abrupt, often lipped; suture indistinct; apex roundish
    with a small depression at the center; color amber-red; dots
    numerous, light russet, conspicuous; stem tortuous, slender, one
    and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tender,
    separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice,
    tender and melting, sprightly subacid; of very good quality; stone
    free, rather large, oblong to oval, flattened, blunt, with smooth
    surfaces.


REPUBLICAN

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Black Republican._ =2.= _Cult. & Count. Gent._ =35=:534. 1870.
    =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 20. 1875. =4.= _Am. Gard._ =9=:357 fig.
    1888. =5.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 289. 1889. =6.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._
    =92=:23, 25. 1910.

    _Lewelling._ =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 127. 1875. =8.= _Gard.
    Mon._ =17=:336. 1875. =9.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909. =10.=
    _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:28, 29, fig. 7. 1910.

For some reason Republican does not make headway in the favor of
cherry-growers though all who have described it speak well of it. Judged
by the palate, Republican is one of the best of the Bigarreaus. The
cherries are rich and sweet in flavor, firm of flesh and with an
abundance of refreshing juice. Judged by the eye, too, it holds its own
with the best of its class, the fruit having a pleasing rotundness of
shape and a beautiful dark red, almost black, glossy color. In size the
variety very often falls short; for, though often given as one of the
largest, it turns out to be, in many orchards, but of medium size and
sometimes is small. Here seems to be its fatal defect. It is exceedingly
capricious as to soils, failing wholly or in part in all but the very
choicest cherry environments. The trees are large, spreading and
vigorous but on the grounds of this Station are more susceptible to the
shot-hole fungus than any other Sweet Cherry. It has been reported to be
very subject to this disease at the Washington Station also. The failure
of this cherry to meet the demands of commercial cherry-growers during a
probationary period of nearly a half a century means that it is, at
most, of but local value.

This variety, known under two other names, Black Republican and
Lewelling, originated about the middle of the Nineteenth Century in the
orchard of Seth Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon. In traveling across the
continent in 1849, Mr. Lewelling took with him to Oregon, Bigarreau,
Morello and Mahaleb cherries and from seeds of one of the Bigarreaus
sprang several seedlings, among them one which was named Black
Republican. The parentage of the sort is not known though it was thought
to be a cross between Napoleon and Black Tartarian, having sprung up
near these two trees. Some cherry-growers and nurserymen describe a
cherry which they call Lewelling but in every case the descriptions
agree very closely with Republican. Many list the two names separately
as designating two distinct varieties of diverse origin. Of these, some
have supposed Republican to be a seedling of Eagle originating in 1860.
The American Pomological Society for many years listed Black Republican
alone beginning in its catalog of 1875 but in 1909 the catalog contained
the two names, Republican and Lewelling. Inasmuch as the consensus of
opinion is that both names apply to a single cherry this Station has
decided to list Republican only.

[Illustration: REPUBLICAN]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very
    productive; trunk thick, somewhat shaggy; branches stout,
    roughened, brown covered with ash-gray, with large, raised
    lenticels; branchlets stout, with long internodes, brown nearly
    overspread with ash-gray, smooth except near the base, with a few
    small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and five-eighths inches
    wide, folded upward, obovate to oval, thin; upper surface dark
    green, smooth; lower surface slightly hairy; apex acute, base
    abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one
    and one-fourth inches long, thick, tinged with dull red, with two
    or three large, reniform, light green or reddish glands on the
    stalk.

    Buds pointed or obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly on the
    branchlets, or in small clusters on spurs of medium length;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-half
    inches across; borne in scattering clusters in ones and
    twos; pedicels variable in length, averaging one inch long,
    characteristically thick, glabrous; calyx-tube tinged with red,
    campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes variable in width, tinged
    with red, long-obovate to acute, finely serrate, glabrous within
    and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, with short, blunt
    claws, with shallow, notched apex; filaments five-sixteenths of an
    inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, often
    defective.

    Fruit matures late; about one inch in diameter, wide, variable
    in shape, cordate or roundish-cordate, compressed, with angular
    and uneven surfaces; cavity deep, wide, flaring; suture a shallow
    groove, often extending around the fruit; apex with a small
    depression at the center; color purplish-black; dots numerous,
    small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem thick, one and one-eighth
    inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin; flesh purplish-red,
    with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet or with
    slight astringency before fully mature; of good quality; stone
    semi-free, small, ovate, flattened, rather blunt, with smooth
    surfaces.


ROCKPORT

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Horticulturist_ =2=:59 fig., 60. 1847-48. =2.= Elliott _Fr.
    Book_ 201, 202 fig. 1854. =3.= Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 270, 271.
    1857. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =5.= Mortillet _Le
    Cerisier_ =2=:131. 1866. =6.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 372. 1881.

Rockport is of very doubtful commercial value and has too many faults to
be included with the best sweet sorts for a home orchard. It is more
easily characterized by its faults than its merits. Compared with the
well-known Yellow Spanish, of which it is a seedling and to which it is
similar, the cherries are smaller and the pits are larger than those of
the parent variety,--quite too large for the amount of pulp. Worst of
the faults of the variety is, however, that the cherries are not
sufficiently firm of flesh to withstand harvesting, shipping and the
attacks of the brown-rot fungus. To offset the defects of the fruit the
flesh is rich, sweet and tender, making it, all in all, as good as any
other Sweet Cherry for dessert. The trees, too, are very satisfactory,
being large, vigorous and very fruitful, though with the reputation of
requiring good soil and the best of care, of lacking a little in
hardiness to cold, and of having the period of maturing the crop more or
less changed by soil and culture. Rockport has been, and is, more or
less popular in New York but it can be recommended only for a home
orchard.

Rockport is another of Professor Kirtland's introductions, having been
raised by him at Cleveland, Ohio, about 1842, from a seed of Yellow
Spanish. It soon won a place, in 1862, on the fruit list of the American
Pomological Society where it still remains. It is mentioned by several
foreign authors and many American nurserymen offer it for sale. Swedish
is given as a synonym of Rockport by Hooper.

[Illustration: ROCKPORT]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright, very productive; trunk somewhat
    slender, roughish; branches smooth, reddish-brown, with numerous
    small lenticels; branchlets stout, variable in length, with long
    internodes, brown almost entirely overspread with ash-gray,
    smooth, with conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, long-oval to obovate;
    upper surface dark green, somewhat rugose; lower surface
    dull, light green, pubescent along the veins; apex acute to
    taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, glandular;
    petiole two inches long, tinged with red, with a few hairs on the
    upper surface, glandless or with from one to four large, reniform,
    reddish glands variable in position.

    Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly and in
    clusters from lateral buds and short spurs; leaf-scars prominent;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth
    inches across; borne in clusters usually in twos; pedicels one
    inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals roundish, entire, dentate at the apex, nearly
    sessile; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous,
    shorter than the stamens, often defective.

    Fruit matures early; one inch in diameter, cordate to conical,
    compressed; cavity shallow, wide, flaring, regular; suture a
    distinct line; apex roundish, with a small depression at the
    center; color bright red over an amber-yellow background, mottled;
    dots very numerous, small, light yellowish, somewhat conspicuous;
    stem one and one-half inches long, adhering well to the fruit;
    skin thin, tender; flesh pale yellowish-white, with colorless
    juice, tender, somewhat melting, aromatic, mild, sweet; good
    to very good in quality; stone free, ovate, plump, with smooth
    surfaces.


ROYAL DUKE

_Prunus avium_ × _Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:204, 205. 1843. =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._
    192. 1845. =3.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 369. 1849. =4.= McIntosh
    _Bk. Gard._ =2=:543. 1855. =5.= Thompson _Gard. Ass't_ 530. 1859.
    =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 12. 1871. =7.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:125,
    126, fig. 63. 1882. =8.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 311. 1884.

    _Royale d'Angleterre._ =9.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159. 1791.

    _Cerise Royale._ =10.= Christ _Wörterb._ 284. 1802. =11.= _Cat.
    Cong. Pom. France_ 40 fig. 1906.

    _Königskirsche._ =12.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 422, 423,
    424. 1819.

    _Ungarische Süssweichsel._ =13.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
    =3=:51. 1858.

    _Anglaise Hâtive._. =14.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:161-163,
    fig. 42. 1866. =15.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:83, 84, fig. 40. 1866-73.
    =16.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 24, Pl. 24. 1871. =17.= _Guide Prat._
    17, 180. 1895.

    _Belle de Worsery._ =18.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:181. 1866.
    =19.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:39, 40, fig. 20. 1882.

Royal Duke has a place in the cherry flora to follow in season the
well-known May Duke and to precede another standard sort, Late Duke. It
is so nearly like these two sorts, except in season, and so similar to
Arch Duke, as well, that there is much difficulty in getting the variety
true to name. It is more often taken for May Duke than for the other
kinds named but it differs from this well-known sort in being a little
later in season, and the cherries are larger, a little lighter in color,
do not hang as thickly, being scattered along the branches, often
singly, and are more oblate. The trees are markedly upright and the
foliage is very dense. None of the Dukes are popular in America for
market fruits and this is no exception though, among all, Royal Duke is
as good as any--pleasantly flavored, juicy, refreshing and very good.
The trees, too, are very satisfactory. The variety has a place in home
orchards and for local markets. The French say that the tree makes a
very weak growth budded on the Mahaleb and that it should be worked on
the Mazzard, which is generally true of all Dukes. The buyer will have
difficulty in getting the true Royal Duke in America.

The origin of this variety is unknown but the Royale d'Angleterre,
mentioned by Christ in 1791, was probably the variety now known as Royal
Duke, although the description is too meager to be certain. According to
Thompson, Royal Duke was one of the varieties formerly cultivated in
England under the names Late Duke, Arch Duke, or Late Arch Duke and was
probably introduced by the London Horticultural Society from France
under the name of Anglaise Tardive. When or by whom this variety was
introduced into America is not known but according to Downing it was
very rarely found here in the first half of the Nineteenth Century.
The American Pomological Society placed Royal Duke upon its catalog list
of recommended fruits in 1871.

[Illustration: ROYAL DUKE]

    Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright, vasiform, unproductive
    at this Station; trunk slender, roughish; branches stocky, with
    roughened surface, dark reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with
    lenticels of medium number and size; branchlets stout, long, brown
    partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth except for the lenticels
    which are inconspicuous.

    Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging four and one-half
    inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate;
    upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface medium
    green, pubescent along the midrib; apex abruptly pointed, base
    acute; margin serrate or crenate; petiole variable in length,
    often one and one-half inches long, not uniform in thickness,
    tinged with red, glandless or with one or two small, reniform,
    greenish-yellow or reddish glands, usually at the base of the
    blade.

    Buds rather small, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds and in very dense clusters on numerous short spurs;
    leaf-scars obscure; time of bloom mid-season; flowers white,
    one inch across; borne in very dense clusters, closely grouped
    in fours and fives; pedicels over one-half inch long, glabrous,
    green; calyx-tube green or with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes with a trace of red, acute, serrate, glabrous within
    and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, sessile, apex
    entire; filaments nearly one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous,
    longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures early; three-fourths inch in diameter, oblate,
    compressed; cavity rather narrow, abrupt, regular; suture a mere
    line; apex flattened or depressed; color bright red becoming
    darker at maturity; dots few, small, obscure; stem one and
    one-half inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, rather
    tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellowish-white with
    tinge of red, pinkish juice, tender, sprightly, pleasantly acid;
    good to very good in quality; stone semi-free, small, ovate,
    slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces.


SCHMIDT

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:38. 1858. =2.= _Ill. Handb._
    37 fig., 38. 1867. =3.= _Jour. Hort._ N. S. =23=:169 fig. 1872.
    =4.= _Flor. & Pom._ 121, fig. 2. 1874. =5.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    17. 1897. =6.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:290. 1903.

    _Smith._ =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

Schmidt, shortened in accordance with the rules of the American
Pomological Society from Schmidt's Bigarreau, is not new nor can it be
said to be little known, since it has been rather widely planted in
America for a score of years. Yet in New York, at least, it is not
receiving the attention that it deserves from commercial cherry-growers,
being relegated to the rear of ten or a dozen kinds when it should be in
the front rank. Indeed, about Geneva, where many Sweet Cherries are
grown, while not the leading market variety, it is one of the best. The
characters which entitle it to a high place as a money-maker are: large
size, being unsurpassed in this respect by any other black cherry in
this region; its round, plump form and glossy, black color which tempt
the eye; crisp, firm, juicy flesh and sweet, rich flavor, delicious to
the taste; dark ruby-red color under the skin which makes it as pleasing
inwardly as outwardly; freedom from brown-rot, in this respect excelling
any other market sort; and a vigorous, healthy, productive tree. The
tree is further characterized by its abundant, large leaves of dark,
luxuriant green. The fruit is often picked before it is ripe, at which
time it is dark red and not black. There is a good deal of enthusiasm in
New York over several new Sweet Cherries from the Pacific Coast but in
this vicinity none of these is equal to Schmidt.

Schmidt is a seedling of Festfleischige Schwarze Knorpelkirsche and was
raised by Herr Schmidt, Forester at Casekow, Prussia, Germany, about
1841. It was introduced into England by Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth
and eventually found its way to America but how and when is not known.
Schmidt appeared on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society
in 1897 but only for two years when for some reason it was dropped. In
1909, a Smith was listed, with Smith's Bigarreau as a synonym.
Budd-Hansen in the publication of 1903 also mentioned a Smith which is
probably Schmidt. We are inclined to hold to the German spelling,
Schmidt.

[Illustration: SCHMIDT]

    Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive;
    trunk and branches stocky, smooth; branches dull reddish-brown
    covered with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets thick,
    short, smooth, with rather conspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, six inches long, three inches wide, folded
    upward, obovate; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface
    pale green, pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex
    acute, base abrupt; margin serrate, glandular; petiole one and
    one-half inches long, thick, dull red, with a narrow, deep groove
    along the upper surface, glandless or with one or two large,
    reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, obtuse to conical, plump, free, arranged singly
    as lateral buds and in numerous small clusters; leaf-scars
    prominent; time of blooming mid-season; flowers white, one and
    one-half inches across; borne in scattering clusters in twos and
    threes; pedicels one inch long, thick, glabrous; calyx-tube green
    or with a tinge of red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long,
    broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed;
    petals oval, crenate, with short, narrow claws; filaments
    three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; one inch in diameter, cordate,
    compressed, often slightly oblique; cavity deep, wide, flaring;
    suture indistinct; apex bluntly pointed; color purplish-black;
    dots numerous, small, dark russet, obscure; stem slender, one
    and one-half inches long, strongly adherent to the fruit; skin
    tough, separating from the pulp; flesh purplish-red, with dark
    colored juice, very meaty, crisp, firm, mild, sweet; of good
    quality; stone semi-clinging, ovate, slightly oblique, with smooth
    surfaces; ventral suture prominent.


SHORT-STEM MONTMORENCY

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Christ. _Handb._ 679. 1797. =2.= _Prince Pom. Man._ =2=:141,
    142. 1832. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:365, 366 fig., 367. 1877.

    _Gobet à Courte Queue._ =4.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:180,
    181, Pl. VIII. 1768. =5.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:7, Tab. 18 fig.
    1. 1792.

    _Gros Gobet._ =6.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 634-638. 1819.
    =7.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:71, 72. 1858. =8.= Mortillet
    _Le Cerisier_ =2=:204, 308. 1866. =9.= _Mas Le Verger_ =8=:51, 52,
    fig. 24. 1866-73. =10.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 299, 300. 1884. =11.=
    Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 358. 1889. =12.= _Guide Prat._ 9, 190. 1895.

    _Flemish._ =13.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 195 fig. 85, 196. 1845.

    _Cerise à Courte Queue._ 1=4.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 15,
    Pl. 1846.

    _Cerise Gros Fruit._ =15.= _Pom. France_ =7=: No. 11, Pl. 11. 1871.

In tracing the history of the Montmorency cherries from Duhamel's time
to the present we have been led to conclude that three distinct types
are now being cultivated. Of these closely related strains, all of which
probably originated about the same time in Montmorency Valley, France,
Montmorency is by far the most important and the one now grown
commercially in all parts of the country. Large Montmorency, while quite
similar to Montmorency, is much less grown because of its
unproductiveness, although in quality it is quite equal or perhaps
superior to Montmorency. Short-Stem Montmorency, under discussion here,
varies considerably both in tree and fruit from either of the other two,
although it is frequently taken for Large Montmorency. The tree is
smaller and more drooping but usually very productive. The fruit,
similar in size to Large Montmorency, differs from it by being more
oblate and irregular, and in having a very deep, wide suture which
becomes an indistinct line towards the apex. The skin seldom becomes as
dark red even at perfect maturity. The flavor is more sprightly but its
quality is not as high. All three varieties have long lists of synonyms,
many of which have been used for each of the three sorts. Many writers
believe that only two distinct strains of Montmorency exist and that
Short-Stem Montmorency is identical with Large Montmorency. The variety
is little grown in North America and is not as worthy for any purpose as
either of the other two better-known sorts.

[Illustration: SHORT-STEM MONTMORENCY]

    Tree upright-spreading, round-topped, productive; trunk shaggy;
    branches roughish, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with
    numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, brown partly
    overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with conspicuous, numerous,
    small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging four inches long,
    one and three-fourths inches wide, long-oval to obovate, thick;
    upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface medium green, with
    a prominent midrib; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin doubly
    crenate, glandular; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red,
    variable in thickness, lightly pubescent, glandless or with from
    one to three large, raised, reniform glands on the stalk.

    Buds small, short, variable in shape, free, arranged as lateral
    buds and on few, if any, spurs; leaf-scars obscure; season of
    bloom late; flowers white, one inch across; borne in a few
    scattering clusters, variable in number of flowers per cluster;
    pedicels one-half inch long, thick, greenish; calyx-tube green
    or with a tinge of red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with
    a trace of red, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals roundish-oval, crenate, sessile, with a
    distinctly notched apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, often defective.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; over three-fourths of an inch in
    diameter, decidedly oblate, irregular in outline, slightly
    compressed; cavity deep, wide, irregular, flaring; suture very
    deep near the stem but shallow at the apex which is flattened or
    depressed; color light to dark red; dots numerous, small, russet,
    inconspicuous; stem very thick, less than three-fourths of an
    inch long, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin rather tender,
    separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice,
    tender and melting, sprightly, sour; of fair quality; stone
    clinging along the ventral suture, small, roundish, plump, blunt,
    with smooth surfaces, faintly tinged with red; ventral suture very
    prominent.


SKLANKA

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 330. 1885. =2.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._
    327. 1888. =3.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 40, 41. 1895. =4.= _Del.
    Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:116 fig. 6, 117. 1900. =5.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._
    =73=:83 fig. 21, 84. 1903.

Sklanka is evidently a cross between a cherry of the Amarelle group and
one of the Morellos--another indication of the frequency of
hybridization in this fruit. The cherries of Sklanka have the
light-colored skin and juice of the Amarelles while the dwarfish,
round-topped trees with pendant branches and abundant, small leaves are
typical of the Morellos. The variety is in no way remarkable unless it
be in hardiness, the pomologists of the colder parts of the Mississippi
Valley holding that it is one of the hardiest of cherries. The fruit is
not on a par with that of a score of other Amarelles and the trees, in
New York at least, are too small and unproductive to be worth planting.
The cherry has value, then, only where hardiness is a prime requisite.

Sklanka was imported to this country from Russia in 1883 by Professor J.
L. Budd of Ames, Iowa. Its parentage and origin are uncertain. It does
not seem to have been grown in continental Europe outside of Russia but
in certain sections of that country it is reported as being one of the
hardiest and most productive of the Sour Cherries. As grown in our
Northern Central States it has proved one of the hardiest of all
varieties but has not, as yet, gained much reputation commercially even
in these cold regions. It is mentioned but seldom in the literature and
is listed by but few nurserymen.

[Illustration: SKLANKA]

    Tree of medium size, vigorous, spreading, with drooping
    branchlets, open-topped, unproductive; trunk thick and smooth;
    branches rather slender, long, slightly roughened, reddish-brown
    partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous rather small
    lenticels; branchlets slender and willowy, with short internodes,
    brown nearly covered with ash-gray, smooth except for the
    lenticels, which are small, numerous, raised, conspicuous.

    Leaves of medium number, three and one-fourth inches long, one and
    three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate to elliptical,
    thick, stiff; upper surface very dark green, glossy, smooth; lower
    surface medium green, finely pubescent along the midrib and larger
    veins; apex and base acute; margin finely and doubly serrate, with
    small, dark glands; petiole three-fourths of an inch long, thick,
    tinged with dull red, grooved, with a few hairs along the upper
    surface, with from one to four small, globose, orange-colored
    glands usually at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, short, variable in shape, plump, free, arranged singly
    as lateral buds and in few, very small clusters; time of blooming
    mid-season; flowers one and three-sixteenths inches across, white;
    borne in dense clusters usually at the ends of branches or spurs,
    well distributed, usually in threes; pedicels over one-half inch
    long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous;
    calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, with almost
    entire apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous,
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures early; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
    oblate, not compressed; cavity of medium depth, narrow, abrupt;
    suture lacking; apex flattened or strongly depressed; color bright
    currant-red; dots numerous, light colored, slightly conspicuous;
    stem thick, less than one inch long, adherent to the fruit; skin
    rather tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with
    colorless juice, tender and melting, sour; of good quality; stone
    semi-free, clinging only along the ventral suture, about one-third
    inch in diameter, roundish, slightly flattened, blunt, with smooth
    surfaces.


SPARHAWK

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 219, 220. 1835.

    _Sparhawk's Honey._ =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 177. 1845. =3.=
    _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =4.= _Mas Le Verger_ =8=:143, 144,
    fig. 70. 1866-73.

    _Honey Heart._ =5.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 234 fig. 37, 235. 1849.

Sparhawk has little to recommend it for either a home or commercial
orchard; but the rich and honeyed sweetness of the cherries, scarcely
surpassed in flavor, might make it worth planting by plant-breeders and
connoisseurs of choicely good fruits. The name "honey" which appears in
several of the synonyms is indicative of the flavor of the fruit. The
cherries are quite too small and the pits altogether too large for a
commercial product. The tree is upright-spreading, with numerous thick
branches over which the cherries are rather thickly scattered in ones,
twos and threes and never in clusters. The fruit-stems are
characteristically long and slender. Though of the Bigarreau group the
flesh is too tender to well withstand harvesting, shipping and the
brown-rot.

This cherry was introduced by Edward Sparhawk, for whom it was named, of
Brighton, Massachusetts. The variety has been known under a number of
different names, the number being no measure of its merit, however, for
it has never been extensively cultivated. The American Pomological
Society placed it in its fruit catalog list of recommended varieties in
1862 but dropped it in 1871 and for many years but little attention has
been given it. It is now for sale in but few of the nurseries of the
country.

    Tree large, vigorous, upright, rather open-topped, hardy,
    unproductive; trunk stocky, slightly shaggy; branches thick;
    branchlets medium in thickness and length; leaves numerous, five
    inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, long-oval to obovate,
    thin, medium green; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular;
    petiole two inches long, thick, overlaid with red, with one or two
    large, reniform, reddish glands on the stalk; buds intermediate in
    size and length; season of bloom intermediate, average length five
    days; flowers one and one-fourth inches across; pistil shorter
    than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season, average length about nineteen
    days; nearly seven-eighths inch in diameter, somewhat conical,
    compressed; color dark red over a yellowish background, finely
    mottled; stem of medium thickness, one and three-eighths inches
    long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separates from
    the pulp; flesh pale yellowish-white, with colorless juice,
    tender, crisp, highly flavored, mild, aromatic, sweet; very good
    in quality; stone nearly free, large for the size of the fruit,
    ovate, flattened, slightly oblique, with smooth surfaces.


SPÄTE AMARELLE

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= Christ _Handb._ 679. 1797. =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 294. 1802.
    =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 629-632. 1819. =4.= Dochnahl
    _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:67, 68. 1858. =5.= _Ill. Handb._ 541 fig.,
    542. 1861. =6.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:149, 150, fig. 73. 1866-73.
    =7.= Lauche _Deut. Pom._ =III=: No. 24, Pl. 1882. =8.= _Am. Gard._
    =9=:264. 1888. =9.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =2=:36. 1888. =10.= _Del. Sta.
    An. Rpt._ =12=:126, 127. 1900.

    _Späte Morello._ =11.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 78. 1890. =12.=
    Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:282, 283. 1903.

This is another variety with Amarelle fruit and a Morello-like tree and
is unquestionably a hybrid between varieties of the two groups. Several
references from the Middle West mention Späte Amarelle as very promising
but in New York, where such sorts as Early Richmond and the
Montmorencies thrive, it is unpromising for any purpose. The cherries
are quite too poor in quality, being very sour, and the trees too
unproductive to make the variety even a poor rival of a score or more of
Amarelles and Dukes with which it would have to compete in this State.

The origin of this cherry is unknown but according to Truchsess it was
sent out from Hanover as Späte Morelle in 1785. In 1797, Christ mentions
a cherry under this name the description of which agrees with that of
Späte Amarelle. Lauche states that Truchsess received the variety from
Hanover under the name Späte Morelle and later changed the name to Späte
Amarelle. This cherry was grown in the Paris National Nursery under the
name Cerise Amarelle Tardive and at one time was commonly grown in
gardens in France. In the spring of 1883, Professor J. L. Budd of Iowa
brought to America a large number of cherries from central and eastern
Europe. Somehow there was confusion in the description of these imported
cherries and two kinds were described under the name Späte Amarelle, one
a light-fleshed sort, the other with red flesh and colored juice. The
true variety has light flesh and juice and a pleasant, acid flavor and
is probably identical with the old French sort, Cerise Amarelle Tardive.
The cherry sometimes called Späte Morello can be no other than the Späte
Amarelle.

    Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped,
    rather unproductive; trunk stocky, somewhat shaggy; branches
    smooth, dark brown overspread by ash-gray, with numerous lenticels
    variable in size; branchlets slender, rather short, brown nearly
    covered with ash-gray, smooth, with slightly raised, inconspicuous
    lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, small, folded upward, oval to somewhat obovate,
    rather stiff; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface
    medium green, pubescent only on the midrib and larger veins; apex
    acute, base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, glandular;
    petiole greenish or with a slight bronze tinge, glandless or with
    from one to four small, globose, brown or yellowish glands usually
    at the base of the blade.

    Buds small, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds
    and in clusters on long or short spurs; leaf-scars prominent;
    season of bloom late; flowers one inch across, white; borne in
    scattered clusters, usually in threes; pedicels three-fourths of
    an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green with
    a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of
    red, rather narrow, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without,
    reflexed; petals broad-oval, entire, slightly crenate at the apex;
    filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to or
    longer than the stamens.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; one-half inch long, oblate, slightly
    compressed; cavity shallow, narrow; suture indistinct; apex
    roundish or depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, very small,
    obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long; skin thin,
    tender; flesh light red, with light colored juice, tender, tart;
    of good quality; stone free, roundish, flattened, with smooth
    surfaces; distinctly ridged along the ventral suture.


SUDA

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

    _Suda Hardy._ =2.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 21. 1892-93. =3.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Cat._ 25. 1899. =4.= Stark Brothers _Cat._ 1899. =5.=
    _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:84 fig., 85. 1903. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc._ Sp.
    Rpt. 36. 1904-05.

Suda has been widely advertised as an improved English Morello but,
while there seem to be some slight differences between the two, the new
variety is not an improvement on the old so far as can be discovered at
this Station. The trees of Suda in general aspect are more upright and
the stems of the cherries longer and more slender than those of English
Morello, being but an inch in length in the one variety and an inch and
three-fourths in the other. The trees on the grounds of this Station are
not as productive as those of English Morello. The cherries, if
anything, are not as high in quality as those of the older and probably
the parent variety. It is doubtful if there is a place for Suda in the
cherry industry of New York.

This cherry originated in the garden of a Captain Suda, Louisiana,
Missouri, about 1880. The American Pomological Society listed Suda in
its fruit catalog of 1899 as Suda Hardy but in 1909 shortened the name
to Suda, a change which has generally been accepted.

[Illustration: SUDA]

    Tree vigorous, rather unproductive; branches slender, with
    numerous small lenticels; branchlets slender, long; leaves
    numerous, four inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide,
    obovate to oval, dull, dark green; margin doubly serrate,
    with dark glands; petiole one inch long, of medium thickness,
    tinged with dull red, glandless or with one or two reniform,
    yellowish-brown glands usually at the base of the blade; buds
    small, short, obtuse, arranged singly as lateral buds and on but
    very few, if any, spurs; season of bloom late; flowers white, one
    inch across; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil shorter than
    the stamens.

    Fruit matures very late; three-fourths inch in diameter,
    roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity flaring; suture
    indistinct; color dark purplish-red; stem slender, one and
    three-fourths inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin separating
    from the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, tender,
    somewhat meaty, sprightly, astringent, very sour; poor in quality;
    stone free or nearly so, ovate, slightly pointed, with smooth
    surfaces.


TIMME

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:85, 86. 1903. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._
    27. 1909.

Timme can hardly be distinguished from Early Richmond, differing only in
smaller fruits, and probably is a seed variation of that variety. On the
grounds of this Station the trees of Timme are even more productive
than those of Early Richmond, one of the most fruitful of all cherries,
but the greater fruitfulness of the tree hardly offsets the smaller size
of the cherries. It is doubtful if this new strain can displace the
older Early Richmond, which is well established in the favor of
cherry-growers everywhere.

This variety is supposed to have been brought to America from Germany by
a Mr. Timme of Omaha, Nebraska. It is of some local importance in Iowa
and Nebraska but as yet has not been widely distributed in America.
Possibly it will be found in time that it is some old German variety
renamed. It was placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological
Society in 1909.

[Illustration: TIMME]

    Tree medium in size, rather vigorous, upright-spreading,
    open-topped, healthy; trunk and branches thick, with numerous
    large lenticels; branchlets slender, long, willowy; leaves three
    and one-half inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, ovate
    to obovate, thick, stiff, leathery, dark green; margin finely
    serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-fourths
    of an inch in length, with one or two large, globose glands
    variable in position; flowers one inch across, in dense clusters.

    Fruit matures medium early; over one-half inch in diameter,
    roundish-oblate; color light red becoming dark red at full
    maturity; stem one inch long; flesh yellowish-white, with abundant
    pinkish juice, tender and melting, pleasant flavored, sprightly;
    good in quality; stone semi-clinging, roundish-ovate, plump;
    prominently ridged along the ventral suture.


TOUSSAINT

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:178-180, Pl. VII. 1768. =2.=
    Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:7, Tab. 18 fig. 2. 1792. =3.= Poiteau _Pom.
    Franc._ =2=: No. 21, Pl. 1846. =4.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =1=:103,
    104, Pl. 1853. =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:205, 308. 1866.
    =6.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:305, 306 fig., 307, 308. 1877. =7.=
    _Rev. Hort._ 250. 1906.

    _Stäts Blühender Kirschbaum._ =8.= Krünitz _Enc._ 42, 43. 1790.

    _All Saints._ =9.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 661-668. 1819.
    =10.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:152, 153. 1832. =11.= Dochnahl _Führ.
    Obstkunde_ =3=:72. 1858. =12.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 277. 1884. =13.=
    Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 332. 1889.

Toussaint is a marked deviation from its species. Instead of bearing
blossoms normally this variety sends out small branches from the buds.
In the axis of the first four leaves are borne the buds destined to
produce similar branches the following spring. As the branches elongate
these buds remain dormant but others are borne which produce flowers in
umbel-like clusters of two or three. The trees begin blooming three or
four weeks later than other cherries and new buds and flowers appear
continually until August or thereabouts. The tree, too, is most striking
in appearance, being dwarfish in stature, thickly set with pendant
branchlets and, all in all, attractive enough to make it a rather
handsome ornamental. The cherries are of little or no value, being quite
too acid to eat out of hand but furnishing very late fruit which may be
used for culinary purposes. The description given is compiled.

The history of the variety is uncertain. Leroy says that it was
mentioned by Daléchamp, a French writer, as early as 1586. Duhamel seems
to have been the first pomologist to describe it which he did in 1768
under the name Cerisier de la Toussaint. The variety is well known in
Europe, being widely distributed in Austria, Germany, Belgium, France
and England, pomologists and nurserymen in all these countries seeming
to be well acquainted with it. There are no records of its culture in
America, although Prince and Elliott describe it from European fruit
books.

    Tree small, hardy, moderately productive; branches slender,
    numerous, pendant.

    Fruit small, flattened on the ends and sides; stem long; color
    clear red, darker on maturing, rather transparent; flesh white
    somewhat red at the center, with reddish juice; flavor, if mature,
    sour, though not excellent; stone large, long, clings to the flesh
    more than to the stem. The fruit borne in October never reaches
    maturity.


VLADIMIR

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 84, 85. 1882. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._
    75. 1883. =3.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 327, 328. 1885. =4.= _Ia.
    Sta. Bul._ =19=:550. 1892. =5.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 454. 1895.
    =6.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ 12:128, 129. 1900. =7.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._
    =73=:87. 1903. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Vladimir is a Morello-like cherry not more promising in New York, at
least in the orchard of this Station, than any other of the many
competitors of English Morello. The cherries are large, very similar in
size and appearance to those of English Morello; the pit is small, the
skin very thin and separating readily from the pulp. The variety is
further characterized by the very dark red flesh and dark colored juice
which is too astringent and sour to eat out of hand but does very well
for culinary purposes. The tree is much like that of English Morello but
is far more dwarfish and not as productive, these being fatal faults for
commercial planting in New York. It falls short of English Morello in
another respect--the fruit ripens very unevenly. Vladimir has the
reputation of being one of the hardiest of all cherries. It is said to
come true from seed and does better on its own roots than on either
Mazzard or Mahaleb. The Russians, according to Budd, succeed best with
it when it is propagated from sprouts and allowed to form a bushy plant
with several stems, the oldest of which are cut from time to time.
There seems to be little in the variety to commend it for either home or
commercial plantings in New York.

Vladimir is a generic name for a group of varieties grown in Russia,
principally in the province of Vladimir east of Moscow. Most of these
cherries are large, black fruits with highly colored juice and good
quality, much valued for market use in their native country. Professor
J. L. Budd imported a number of these Vladimir cherries from Orel in
Central Russia and grew them at the Experiment Station grounds in Iowa,
giving to each a seedling number as a distinguishing characteristic.
One, Orel No. 25, was selected as being superior in many respects to the
others and was finally named Vladimir. This variety, typical of these
Russian cherries, has been considerably propagated and is generally
distributed throughout this country. The American Pomological Society
added Vladimir to its list of recommended fruits in 1909.

[Illustration: VLADIMIR]

    Tree dwarfish, round-topped, very hardy, productive; trunk medium
    or below in size; branches willowy, drooping, reddish-brown
    slightly overspread with ash-gray; branchlets slender, long,
    smooth, with a few small, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches
    wide, folded upward, oval, thick; upper surface dull, dark green,
    smooth; lower surface light green, with a few scattering hairs;
    apex acute, base slightly abrupt; margin finely serrate, with dark
    colored glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged with red, with
    a few scattering hairs along the stalk, glandless or with from one
    to four small, reniform, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the
    blade.

    Buds small, short, very obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds and in small clusters on small spurs; leaf-scars
    obscure; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and
    one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering clusters in twos,
    threes and fours; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, rather
    slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red,
    somewhat obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes reddish, broad, obtuse,
    serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish or
    slightly obovate, irregularly crenate, with short, blunt claws,
    apex entire; filaments over one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous,
    shorter than the stamens.

    Fruit matures very late; three-eighths of an inch long,
    seven-eighths of an inch wide, roundish-cordate, slightly
    compressed; cavity rather shallow; suture a line; apex roundish;
    color dark red almost black at full maturity; dots numerous,
    small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-half
    inches or more in length, adherent to the fruit; skin thin,
    separating from the pulp; flesh dark red, with very dark colored
    juice, slightly stringy, melting, sprightly, astringent, sour; of
    fair quality; stone semi-clinging, rather large, long-ovate to
    oval, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.


WATERLOO

_Prunus avium × (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus)_

    =1.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 29. 1828. =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
    56. 1831. =3.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:118. 1832. =4.= Downing
    _Fr. Trees Am._ 178. 1845. =5.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._
    101, 102. 1846. =6.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 213, 214. 1854. =7.= Hogg
    _Fruit Man._ 314. 1884.

This old sort, seemingly well thought of in Europe, has not been popular
in America and has only historical value to cherry-growers of this
country. It is an interesting cherry resembling the Bigarreaus in tree
and leaf-characters while the flowers are more like those of the Dukes,
the fruit, too, taking on more the aspect of the Dukes than of the Sweet
Cherry. The variety has long since passed from general cultivation in
the United States and can now be found only in collections or as an
occasional dooryard tree.

This cherry was raised early in the Nineteenth Century by T. A. Knight,
Downton Castle, Wiltshire, England, and first fruited in 1815, shortly
after the Battle of Waterloo, hence its name. It was supposed to be a
cross between Yellow Spanish and May Duke. The variety was brought to
this country by Honorable John Lowell of Newton, Massachusetts, though
it was described by Prince in 1828 from European fruit books. The
following description is compiled:

    Tree vigorous, thrifty, rather irregular and spreading,
    productive; branchlets thick, stocky, grayish; leaves large,
    drooping, wavy; margin slightly serrate; flowers large; stamens
    shorter than the pistil.

    Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; large,
    obtuse-cordate, broad at the base, convex on one side, flattened
    on the other; stem one and one-half to two inches in length,
    slender; color dark purplish-red becoming nearly black at
    maturity; skin thin; flesh purplish-red becoming darker next
    to the stone, firm but tender, juicy, fine flavored, sweet;
    good in quality; stone separating readily from the pulp, small,
    roundish-ovate, compressed.


WHITE BIGARREAU

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Thacher _Am. Orch._ 217. 1822. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._
    =2=:125. 1832. =3.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:283. 1842. =4.= Downing _Fr.
    Trees Am._ 180 fig., 181. 1845. =5.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 366.
    1849. =6.= McIntosh _Bk. Gard._ =2=:541. 1855.

    _Tradescant._ =7.= Coxe _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 250. 1817.

    _White Oxheart._ =8.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 278. 1832.

White Bigarreau is a cherry of the past, having been considered one of
the good sorts of a century ago. Rivers, the English pomologist,
believed it to have come originally from Russia. It is reputed to have
been brought to America from France by Chancellor Livingston of
Revolutionary fame. Thacher, in 1822, described the variety first under
its present name. The variety, as the synonymy shows, has been grown
under many names both in America and Europe. In 1845, according to
Downing, this cherry was common in the neighborhood of New York and
Philadelphia but since Downing's time no one seems to have mentioned it.
The variety is usually spoken of in the United States as neither hardy
nor productive. The fruit books describe it as follows:

    Tree medium in size, spreading, very tender, unproductive; leaves
    narrow, waved.

    Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; large to very
    large, heart-shaped, somewhat pointed; color yellowish-white with
    a bright red cheek, mottled; flesh very firm, breaking, pleasantly
    flavored, sweet; very good in quality; stone separating readily
    from the flesh.


WHITE HEART

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Bradley _Gard._ 211. 1739. =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._
    173, 174 fig. 1845. =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 216. 1854. =4.=
    _Horticulturist_ =15=:327, Pl. fig. 1. 1860. =5.= Hogg _Fruit
    Man._ 315. 1884.

    _Amber Heart._ =6.= Miller _Gard. Kal._ 154. 1734. =7.= _Jour. Roy
    Hort. Soc._ =21=:355. 1898.

    _Frühe Bernsteinkirsche._ =8.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 304,
    305. 1819. =9.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:39. 1858. =10.= Mas
    _Pom. Gen._ =11=:45, 46, fig. 23. 1882. =11.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
    348. 1889.

    _Kentish Bigarreau._ =12.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 43. 1904.

White Heart is mentioned in _The Cherries of New York_ only because of
its reputation in Europe and the frequent references, therefore, that
American cherry-growers see to it in European publications. Bunyard and
Thomas, in the reference given, speak of it as one of the best and most
profitable cherries grown in the famous Kent cherry orchards. Early
American horticulturists describe it but it seems not to have been
widely grown in America and has probably long since passed from
cultivation. It failed, according to Elliott, because it was a "variable
and uncertain bearer" and while an early cherry "not early enough to
compete with many new varieties."

White Heart seems to have been mentioned first by Miller in 1734. A
little later it is found to be described in both Germany and France,
indicating that it must have been known and widely distributed before
the time given. It seems to have been brought to America before the War
of the Revolution and to have been grown in this country under the
several different names which are given in the list of synonyms. The
following description is compiled:

    Tree large, vigorous, somewhat erect, very healthy, rather
    productive; branches stocky, somewhat angular, with large,
    roundish, light colored lenticels; internodes of unequal length;
    leaves medium in size, oval or obovate, sharply pointed; margin
    finely serrate; petiole short, slender, tipped with two reniform,
    orange-red glands; flowers medium in size; petals obovate.

    Fruit matures early in June; rather small, roundish-cordate,
    often one-sided, with a distinct suture; color whitish-yellow,
    tinged and speckled with pale red in the sun; stem long, slender,
    inserted in a wide, shallow cavity; skin firm; flesh light
    colored, firm, half-tender, breaking, juicy, sugary, pleasant;
    first quality; stone rather large, roundish-oval, with a pointed
    apex.


WINDSOR

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =24=:208. 1882. =2.= _Cult._ & _Count. Gent._
    =49=:636. 1884. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 22. 1885. =4.= _Del.
    Sta. Bul._ =35=:16 fig. 7. 1897. =5.= _Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt._
    =5=:41 fig. 1898. =6.= _Am. Gard._ 21:76. 1900. =7.= _Can. Hort._
    =25=:3, 262 fig., 263. 1902. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 56, 57.
    1907.

Windsor is the standard late Bigarreau and one of the most profitable of
the hard-fleshed cherries grown in New York. Both fruit and trees
deserve the approbation of cherry-growers. In color the cherries meet
the market demand, buyers preferring a dark-colored Sweet Cherry. None
would find fault with the appearance of Windsor. The flesh is firm and
the product stands harvesting and shipping well and at a season of the
year when brown-rot is usually rife this variety is fairly free from
this scourge of the Sweet Cherry. The quality is from good to very good,
equaled but not surpassed by others of its class. But it is in its
tree-characters that the superiority of Windsor is best shown. The trees
have the reputation of being the hardiest of the Bigarreaus and of
thriving in many soils. They are usually fruitful. To offset these
merits, the trees have two or three rather serious faults. Thus, they do
not come in bearing early; they are tall and upright in growth, being
almost fastigiate, making it difficult to harvest the crop; and the load
of fruit is too much clustered. Cherry-growers agree that the worst of
all pests of this fruit is the robin and that the Windsor, for some
reason or other, is the freest of its kind from this and other thieving
birds. From the behavior of the variety in New York, we can heartily
join with practically all who are growing this variety in recommending
it as a late, market Sweet Cherry.

Windsor originated in the latter half of the Nineteenth Century on the
farm of James Dougall, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, and was introduced to
fruit-growers in 1881 by Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York. It has
been planted extensively in many sections of this country for both
home and market use and is now offered for sale by a large number of
nurserymen. The American Pomological Society added Windsor to its fruit
catalog list in 1885 and the variety still holds a place there. Though
rather widely known in the United States the commercial culture of this
variety is almost wholly confined to New York. It seems as yet not to
have found its way to Europe, a fact to be regretted, for its many good
qualities would soon make it known in the Old World where the Sweet
Cherry is better grown and more appreciated than in America.

[Illustration: WINDSOR]

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive;
trunk thick, shaggy; branches stocky, very smooth, brown nearly
overspread with ash-gray, with large lenticels; branchlets thick,
rather short, brown overspread with light ash-gray, smooth, with few
small, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves four inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, obovate to
oval, thin; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface
light green, pubescent; margin doubly crenate, glandular; petiole one
and one-fourth inches long, tinged with dull red, with from one to
three globose, reddish glands of medium size on the stalk.

Buds conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral
buds and in very numerous clusters variable in size, on short spurs;
leaf-scars somewhat prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers
white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering clusters,
in ones and twos; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish;
calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes greenish or with
a tinge of red, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals
broad-oval, slightly crenate, with short, blunt claws; filaments
five-sixteenths of an inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the
stamens.

Fruit matures in late mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in
diameter, slightly oblong to conical, compressed; cavity deep, wide,
flaring; suture a line; apex roundish, with a depression at the
center; color very dark red becoming almost black; dots numerous,
small, russet, obscure; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches
long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, adhering to the pulp; flesh
light red, with reddish juice, tender, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet;
good to very good in quality; stone semi-free, ovate, flattened,
blunt-pointed, with smooth surfaces; ventral suture rather prominent
near the apex.


WOOD

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

    _Governor Wood._ =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 196 fig. 1854. =3.= _Am.
    Pom. Soc. Cat._ 108. 1856. =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:324 fig.
    1877.

Wood is preeminently a Sweet Cherry for the amateur, having many
qualities that fit it for the home orchard and but few to commend it to
commercial growers. The trees are a little tender to cold, are not quite
productive enough to make the variety profitable and are, too, somewhat
fastidious as to soils. To offset these defects, they are vigorous and
healthy and bear early. But the chief fault of the cherry from the
cherry-grower's standpoint is to be found in the fruit. The flesh is
soft and the cherries will not stand handling in harvesting and shipping
and are very susceptible to brown-rot and crack badly in wet weather.
Wood has special merit in the home collection, however, because of its
earliness, its beautiful appearance and delicious flavor. It is one of
the first of the Sweet Cherries, is large and, as the color-plate shows,
is a beautiful yellowish-white tinted with shades of crimson, with
conspicuous russet dots--a beautiful fruit. The flesh separates readily
from the skin, is tender, juicy, with an abundance of colorless juice
and a flavor that has given it the reputation, wherever grown in
America, of being one of the best in quality. It would be hard to name
another cherry better suited for small plantations and it is to be hoped
that it will long be kept in the gardens of connoisseurs of good fruit.

Wood is one of the best of Professor J. P. Kirtland's[83] seedlings. It
was raised by him in 1842 at Cleveland, Ohio, and named in honor of
Reuben Wood, at one time Governor of Ohio. In 1856, it was added to the
fruit list of the American Pomological Society where it still remains,
being changed in 1909 to Wood with Governor Wood as a synonym. Its
popularity is shown in the United States by the fact that practically
every nurseryman in this country lists this variety.

[Illustration: WOOD]

    Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, open, productive; trunk stout;
    branches thick, smooth, dull reddish-brown covered with ash-gray,
    with a few small lenticels; branchlets thick, reddish-brown
    slightly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with a few
    inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

    Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thin; upper surface light
    green, smooth; lower surface dull green, lightly pubescent; apex
    acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular;
    petiole one and one-half inches long, slender, tinged with dull
    red, with from one to three reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

    Buds large, long, pointed, very plump, free, arranged singly as
    lateral buds or in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars
    prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one inch
    across, arranged in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long,
    slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube tinged with red, obconic,
    glabrous; calyx-lobes reddish, long, acute, glabrous on both
    surfaces, reflexed; petals roundish, crenate, with short, blunt
    claws; anthers yellowish; filaments one-eighth inch long; pistil
    glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, sometimes defective.

    Fruit matures in early mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter,
    roundish-cordate, compressed; cavity of medium depth, wide,
    flaring; suture variable in depth, distinct, wide; apex roundish;
    color shades of crimson on a yellowish-white background; dots
    numerous, small, light russet, somewhat conspicuous, especially
    just before maturity; stem slender, one and one-half inches long,
    adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from
    the pulp; flesh whitish, with colorless juice, tender, meaty,
    mild, sweet; very good in quality; stone clinging, rather large,
    roundish, blunt, with smooth surfaces; with a broad, ventral
    suture.

    [83] Jared P. Kirtland, M. D., though now less well known than
    some of his contemporaries, was one of the great pomologists of
    his time and a man of notable achievements in other branches
    of natural history as well. Professor Kirtland was born at
    Wallingford, Connecticut, November 10, 1793, and died at East
    Rockport, near Cleveland, Ohio, December 11, 1877. For sixty
    years of a long life his avocation was the production of new
    varieties of fruits and flowers and, though a half century has
    passed since he ceased active work, the results of his labors
    are yet to be found in the gardens and orchards of the whole
    country. In pomology he gave special attention to breeding grapes,
    raspberries, pears and cherries. He achieved success, too, as a
    hybridizer of peonies and in the introduction of rare foreign
    magnolias. Professor Kirtland is given credit as being the first
    horticulturist successfully to bud and graft magnolias, an
    achievement which has made possible their cultivation under many
    conditions and to a degree of excellence that otherwise could
    not be obtained. He was the founder of the Cleveland Society of
    Natural History and was for many years its president. He was
    a member of the American Philosophical Society, the highest
    recognition for scientific work to be obtained in his time in this
    country. He served as professor in several medical schools and
    filled other places of honor and trust. From his boyhood we are
    told that he was interested in natural history and was intimately
    acquainted with the plants and animals of Ohio, having special
    knowledge of birds and fishes, the propagation of the latter being
    one of his hobbies. In pomology we owe him most for the many new
    cherries he has given us, thirty varieties described in _The
    Cherries of New York_ having come from his breeding grounds. Among
    these are Wood, Pontiac, Powhatan, Tecumseh, Osceola, Kirtland and
    Red Jacket, sorts scarcely surpassed for high quality and grown
    commonly in America and to some extent wherever Sweet Cherries
    will thrive. His 84 years seem to have been well ordered, given
    almost wholly for the good of the public, and his name should be
    cherished by pomologists among those who have done most for fruits
    and fruit-growing on this continent.


WRAGG

_Prunus cerasus_

    =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 171. 1884. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._
    95. 1887. =3.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:15 fig. 8. 1892. =4.=
    _Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 39. 1892. =5.= _Am. Gard._ =20=:178. 1899.
    =6.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:119, 120. 1900. =7.= _Ia. Sta.
    Bul._ =73=:89, fig. 26. 1903. =8.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 38.
    1904-05. =9.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:22, 23. 1910.

Wragg is either English Morello or a strain of that variety. Trees on
the grounds of this Station are identical with English Morello but it
may be that here, and occasionally elsewhere, the older sort has been
substituted for Wragg. In Iowa, where the new variety is most largely
grown, pomologists claim that it is distinct and that it is an
improvement on English Morello. Professor J. L. Budd, an authority on
Russian cherries, believed that this sort is distinct and of Russian
origin having, according to him, been brought to America by Ellwanger &
Barry of Rochester, New York, in an importation of Russian trees.
Captain C. L. Watrous of Des Moines, Iowa, another prominent pomologist
of that State, was of the opinion that Wragg came to light on the
grounds of J. Wragg, Waukee, Iowa, as a sprout from another tree.
Colonel G. B. Brackett, pomologist of the United States Department of
Agriculture, who visited Mr. Wragg's place some years ago and compared
the new cherry with the English Morello, could find no distinguishing
characters between the two. On the other hand, Mr. Wragg insisted that
they were distinct. The American Pomological Society calls Wragg and
English Morello the same. Those who believe that the two are distinct
say that the fruit of Wragg is larger, the trees hardier and that the
cherries ripen a little later than those of English Morello. With the
information now at hand it is impossible to say here whether or not
Wragg is distinct. A compiled description taken from the text describing
this cherry is so unsatisfactory that we offer none and refer the reader
to that of English Morello from which it differs but little, if at all.


YELLOW SPANISH

_Prunus avium_

    =1.= Miller _Gard. Dict._ =1=:1754. =2.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr.
    Trees_ 42. 1803. =3.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 28. 1828. =4.= Prince
    _Pom. Man._ =2=:125. 1832. =5.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 372.
    1867. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 17. 1897. =7.= Budd-Hansen _Am.
    Hort. Man._ =2=:291. 1903.

    _Biguarre Cherrie._ =8.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629. =9.=
    _Rea Flora_ 205. 1676.

    _Spanish._ =10.= Gerarde _Herball_ 1503, fig. 3. 1636.

    _Bigarreau Commun._ =11.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:167,
    168. 1768. =12.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:128. 1832. =13.= Poiteau
    _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No. 5, Pl. 1846. =14.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
    =2=:115-119, fig. 26. 1866. 15. _Pom. France_ 7: No. 2, Pl. 2.
    1871. 16. Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:188-191, fig. 1877. 17. _Cat.
    Cong. Pom. France_ 20, fig. 1906.

    _Gemeine Marmorkirsche._ =18.= Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort.
    301-303. 1819. =19.= _Ill. Handb._ 123 fig., 124. 1860.

    _Graffion._ =20.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 338-340. 1819.
    =21.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:69, Pl. 34 fig. 1. 1823.
    =22.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:137, 138. 1832. =23.= _Cultivator_ N.
    S. =6=:21, fig. 6. 1849. =24.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 208. 1854.

    _Bigarreau._ =25.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:202. 1843. =26.= Downing _Fr.
    Trees Am._ 179 fig., 180. 1845. =27.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch.
    Gard._ 102. 1846. =28.= _Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr._ 52. 1848. =29.=
    _Cole Am. Fr. Book_ 233 fig. 31. 1849. 30. Hogg _Fruit Man._ 281,
    282. 1884.

For centuries Yellow Spanish must have been the best of all the
Bigarreaus and it is only in comparatively late years that it has had
rivals. Even yet in tree-characters it is hardly equaled, surpassing
Windsor, which has a notable tree, in several respects and falling short
of it only in hardiness. The trees are large,--perhaps the largest of
all the varieties of _Prunus avium_,--having an upright-spreading top
which gives a large bearing surface and forms a canopy of splendid
foliage. The trees are vigorous, bear abundantly and regularly and come
in bearing young, with the crop well distributed and not in clusters as
is the case and the fault of Windsor. Unfortunately, the cherries,
though very good in most characters, do not come up to the trees in
points of superiority. They are rather smaller than those of Napoleon,
the greatest competitor of Yellow Spanish, and are more subject to
attacks of brown-rot than several others of the Bigarreaus. As may be
seen by comparing the color-plates, however, Yellow Spanish is rather
the handsomer of the two cherries, the crimson color being more evenly
distributed and the skin not having the mottled appearance of Napoleon.
In quality Yellow Spanish is the better of the two, having tenderer
flesh and a sweeter and richer flavor. Yellow Spanish is notable in the
nursery for its strong, upright growth and its large leaves, the leaves
of no other cherry attaining so great a size. In blossoming time the
variety may be distinguished by the whiteness of the blossoms as they
open and a reddish tint as they drop. It is a mid-season cherry,
ripening after Wood and a few days before Napoleon. Despite the great
age of the variety it still remains one of the best, furnishing proof,
by the way, that varieties of cherries do not degenerate with age. In
New York Yellow Spanish cannot be spared from either home or commercial
plantings.

Yellow Spanish is so old and so widely disseminated that its origin can
only be conjectured. From the name we naturally infer a Spanish nativity
and yet it is almost equally well known as Bigarreau, a word of French
derivation. Under the last name French pomologists believe that they
trace its history to the First Century of the Christian Era as the
variety described by Pliny under the name Cerasum Duracinum. The Germans
and Austrians certainly knew this variety in the Eighteenth Century and
probably much earlier, an inference to be drawn from the references
given. Parkinson, the English herbalist, described a cherry in 1629
which he called the Biguarre Cherrie which later came to be known as the
Bigarreau or Graffion by English writers and which we now know to be
Yellow Spanish. Seven years later Gerarde described a Spanish cherry the
description of which is not unlike our Yellow Spanish. Miller and
Forsyth, English writers, also at an early date described a Spanish
cherry which may be the fruit of this discussion.

Fortunately we are well informed as to the history of Yellow Spanish in
America. Prince, one of the most accurate of American pomologists, in
1832, gave the following historical account of the Graffion, or Yellow
Spanish: "This tree was imported from London by the father of the
author, in the year 1802, under the name Yellow Spanish, and one of the
original trees is now growing in his garden, where it produces
abundantly, and there is little doubt that from his stock have
originated most of the trees of this kind now in our country, as he has
taken much pains to recommend it." Why Prince and other Americans came
to call the variety introduced by the elder Prince of Europe as Yellow
Spanish, as Bigarreau and Graffion, does not appear unless the younger
Prince wanted to make the name in this country conform to that in most
common usage in England at the time. Besides the names already given,
Yellow Spanish has been rather widely grown in America as Ox Heart and
White Caroon. This variety was placed on the recommended list of the
National Congress of Fruit Growers, which afterwards became the American
Pomological Society, in 1848, under the name Bigarreau. The name was
changed in 1897 to Yellow Spanish and it now appears on the list of that
organization as Spanish.

[Illustration: YELLOW SPANISH]

    Tree very large and vigorous, upright-spreading, rather
    open-topped, productive; trunk thick, of medium smoothness;
    branches stocky, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, smooth
    except for the numerous large lenticels; branchlets short, brown
    nearly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with small, slightly
    raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

    Leaves numerous five and one-half inches long, two and one-half
    inches wide, folded upward, obovate to elliptical; upper surface
    dark green, nearly smooth, grooved along the midrib; lower
    surface light green, lightly pubescent; apex acute, base variable
    in shape; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, with small, dark
    glands; petiole one and three-fourths inches long, thick, heavily
    tinged with dull red, grooved along the upper surface, with from
    one to four large, reniform, reddish-yellow glands variable in
    position.

    Buds conical, plump, free, arranged singly or in small clusters
    as lateral buds and from short spurs; leaf-scars prominent;
    season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth
    inches across; borne in well-distributed clusters, in twos and in
    threes; pedicels about one inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube
    greenish, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, reflexed; petals
    oval, entire, strongly dentate at the apex, tapering to short,
    blunt claws; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous,
    equal to the stamens in length.

    Fruit matures in mid-season; one inch or over in diameter,
    cordate, compressed; cavity deep, wide, flaring; suture a mere
    line; apex roundish, not depressed; color bright amber-yellow
    with a reddish blush, slightly mottled; dots numerous, small,
    light russet, obscure; stem one and one-half inches long, adherent
    to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating from the pulp; flesh
    whitish, with colorless juice, tender, meaty, crisp, aromatic,
    sprightly, sweet; very good to best in quality; stone free, ovate,
    slightly flattened, oblique, with smooth surfaces; with two small,
    blunt ridges along the ventral suture near the apex.



CHAPTER V

THE MINOR VARIETIES OF CHERRIES


=À Coeur Hâtive.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Listed in this reference.


=À Feuilles de Pêcher Grosse.= _P. cerasus?_ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc.
Cat._ 49. 1831.

Merely mentioned; probably similar to Willow Leaved.


=Abels Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._
55. 1907.

Mentioned in this reference as a black, hard-fleshed, Sweet Cherry.


=Abundance= _P. avium._ =1.= Burbank _Cat._ 7. 1911-12.

Abundance is one of Burbank's seedlings from Napoleon. The tree is a
heavy, almost annual bearer. The fruit is large, never cracks, and
exceeds the parent in productiveness and beauty; it ripens a week later.


=Abbesse.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 80. 1890.
=2.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:284. 1903.

Abbesse was found in North Silesia and is supposed to be a Red Duke
cross. Fruit medium to large, cordate; stem long, thick at the base;
cavity shallow; suture distinct; skin dark red; flesh meaty, with
colored juice, mildly acid; quality good.


=Act Gillos.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 22. 1892-93.

Act Gillos was imported by Leo Weltz of Ohio, in a collection of sweet
varieties said to have come from Bokhara, Turkestan. Tree vigorous;
leaves large; fruit yellow, resembling Cleveland.


=Adams Crown.= _P. avium._ =1.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:45, Pl.
23 fig. 1. 1823. =2.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 275, 277. 1884. =3.=
Mawe-Abercrombie _Comp. Gard._ 632. 1829. =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:312 fig., 313. 1877.

_Adams Herzkirsche._ =5.= _Ill. Handb._ 99 fig., 100. 1860. =6.= Mathieu
_Nom. Pom._ 332. 1889.

_Adam._ =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:69, 70, fig. 33. 1866-73.

Adams Crown is supposed to have been raised by a man named Adams in the
vicinity of Sittingbourne, Kent, England. It was formerly grown in the
orchards near London for market trade. Tree large, vigorous, usually
productive, bears early; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate,
flattened at the base, slightly compressed; cavity wide, deep; suture
shallow, indistinct; stem slender, long; skin thin, transparent,
attractive pale red speckled with darker red deepening to carmine,
showing distinctly the fibers underneath; flesh whitish, juicy, tender,
somewhat stringy, sweet, sprightly, pleasant; very good in quality;
stone small, roundish-ovate, flattened at the base, plump; season early.


=Adlington.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 45. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Affane.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 45. 1831.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Afghanistan.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 315. 1897.
=2.= Van Lindley _Cat._ 371. 1899.

This variety is said by Van Lindley to have been introduced into North
Carolina by a missionary from South Africa. The fruit closely resembles
Windsor. Tree tall, spreading, vigorous; fruit large, cordate, often
swollen along the suture giving it an angular appearance; skin dark red
to reddish-black; flesh firm, tender, sweet; ships well; season the last
of May.


=Alaternblättrige Süssweichsel.= _P. avium_, =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:48. 1858.

Fruit medium large, roundish, flattened, with a faint suture; skin
glossy, brownish-red; stem mostly covered with leaves, greenish-yellow;
flesh soft, acidulated; stone heart-shaped.


=Albertine Millet.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Received from Belgium without description; its value is questioned in
_Guide Pratique._


=Alexandrine Béon.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 332. 1889.

Listed in this reference.


=Alfred Wesmael=. _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

This variety is similar to Montmorency according to _Guide Pratique_.


=Allen.= _P. avium._ =1.= Storrs & Harrison _Cat._ 137. 1899. =2.= Brown
_Cat._ 23. 1900.

A seedling cherry found in Lake County, Ohio. It is darker, later and
smaller than Windsor. The tree is healthy, very productive; fruit
somewhat heart-shaped, nearly black, glossy, smooth; flesh meaty, firm,
sweet; of small size.


=Allen Late Favourite.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:123.
1832.

Sent to the Prince nursery by Zachariah Allen of Providence, Rhode
Island. The tree is vigorous; fruit of fine quality, juicy, well
flavored; ripens in Rhode Island with Black Mazzard.


=Allerfrüheste Bunte Maiherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:19. 1858.

Tree productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem long, deeply
set; skin clear red, spotted with dark brown; flesh whitish, sweet;
stone oval; ripens in mid-June.


=Alte Königskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 158. 1791.
=2.= Christ _Handb._ 671. 1797. =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 422.
1819.

Tree large, very productive; fruit large, round, slightly heart-shaped;
stem long; skin reddish-black; flesh very delicate, tender, juicy,
sweet, with an aromatic, very pleasing sourness; stone small.


=Altenlander Frühkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Ill. _Handb._ 465 fig., 466.
1861. _Cerise précoce d'Altenlaud._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:301. 1866.

This variety is distinguished from Frühe Maiherzkirsche by its fruits
which are larger, deeper in color, sourer and more angular and a few
days later. Tree productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate,
sometimes angular; cavity wide, shallow; apex often widely depressed;
stem stout, of medium length; suture shallow; skin glossy, charcoal
black in some spots when fully ripe, rather tough; flesh reddish-black,
tender, very juicy, sweet with a pleasing sourness; stone short, oval;
season early.


=Amaranthkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 277. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 215-219. 1819. =3.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:28. 1858.

In 1790, this variety was reported to have been brought to Hanover,
Prussia, Germany, from England. Truchsess describes this cherry as
being of medium size, roundish-cordate, with a pronounced suture; stem
short; cavity shallow; apex abruptly rounded; skin red on the sunny
side, yellowish, flesh-colored on the shady side; flesh tender, light
yellowish-white, juicy, sweet yet without excellence; stone round,
rather broad, not long, nearly free; unproductive.


=Amarelle Hâtive.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:6 fig.
1892. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899. =3.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._
=12=:110. 1900. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

This variety was imported by Professor J. L. Budd of Iowa, in 1885. It
resembles Early Richmond but ripens ten days later. It appeared on the
fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1899 and in 1909
Morello Hâtive was given as a synonym. This variety, however, is of the
Amarelle type while Morello Hâtive is a true Morello.


=Amarelle mit Weissem Stempelpunct.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 655, 656. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:70.
1858.

_Amarelle à point pistillaire blanc._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159.
1882.

According to Truchsess, this variety was first mentioned by Christ as
early as 1795, under the name, Roque Cherydere. Fruit of medium size,
roundish, flattened; stem short; skin dark red; flesh white, with
colorless juice, although a glistening red when pressed out, subacid;
season early; medium productive; resembles Bunte Amarelle.


=Amber.= _P. avium._ =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 272. 1832.

This variety was found in an old garden in Providence, Rhode Island.
Fruit below medium in size, perfectly round; amber, delicate red towards
the sun; flesh melting, lively, very sweet; early.

=Amber Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 168. 1845. =2.=
_Gard. Chron._ 1068. 1861. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 277. 1884.

_Amber_? =4.= Rea _Flora_ 206. 1676.

_Late Amber Gean._ =5.= Fish _Hardy-Fr. Bk._ =2=:105. 1882.

This is probably the Amber of the old English writers--an attractive,
small Gean or Mazzard. Tree bears abundantly; fruit small,
obtuse-cordate, usually regular; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted;
skin very thin, pellucid, exhibiting the texture of the flesh, pale
yellow or amber, tinged with delicate red; flesh white, tender, juicy,
melting, with a rich, sweet, pleasant flavor; ripens the last of July.


=Ambrée de Guben.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:118,
119, 303. 1866. =2.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:99, 100, fig. 48. 1866-73.

_Gubener Bernsteinkirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 342,
685. 1819. =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:42. 1858.

This variety resembles Yellow Spanish; in fact the name is listed as a
synonym of Yellow Spanish by Mortillet. We feel sure, however, that it
is a distinct variety. Fruit large, roundish-cordate, truncate at the
base; suture shallow; stem long; cavity wide, shallow; skin glossy, pale
yellow washed with carmine in the sun; flesh firm, fibrous, sweet, with
a sourness that disappears if allowed to remain on the tree; quality
good; stone oval, slightly flattened at the base; ripens the first of
July in France.


=American Amber.= _P. avium._ =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 272. 1832. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 167. 1845. =3.= Bridgeman _Gard. Ass't_ Pt.
=3=:54. 1847. =4.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 359. 1849. =5.= Elliott _Fr.
Book_ 214. 1854. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

This variety was introduced some time previous to 1832 by the
originator, Daniel Bloodgood, Flushing, New York. It held a place on the
American Pomological Society's list of fruits from 1862 until 1869. It
resembles American Heart but differs in being a tender-fleshed fruit of
regular outline. Tree productive; fruit hanging in bunches for a long
time without rotting. Fruit borne in threes or fours, hangs well, of
medium size, roundish-cordate often nearly round; stem long, slender,
inserted in a slight, narrow cavity; skin very thin, smooth, glossy,
clear, light amber becoming mottled and overspread with clear bright
red; flesh amber, tender, sprightly, juicy, usually of only fair
quality; pit large; season the last of June to the middle of July.


=American Heart=. _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:202. 1843. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 178, 179 fig. 70. 1845. =3.= Bridgeman _Gard.
Ass't_ Pt. =3=:54. 1847.

According to Downing, this variety came from Long Island but its exact
origin is unknown. Tree vigorous, spreading, variable in productiveness;
fruit medium to large, cordate, often nearly angular and irregular in
outline; cavity small, shallow; stem long, slender; skin tough, adhering
to the pulp, pale yellow or amber-red; flesh very juicy, yellowish,
half-tender, sweet, pleasant; very good in quality; stone medium in
size.


=Amos Owen.= _P. avium._ =1.= _N. C. Sta. Bul._ =184=:121. 1903.

Amos Owen is a black Mazzard used by nurserymen as a stock for grafting.
The fruit is small and black; of poor quality.


=Andrews.= Species? =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 187. 1908.

Andrews is a seedling named after C. N. Andrews, Redlands, California,
who fruited it in 1896. It is grown in the mountain valley near Redlands
and is apparently a fine shipping variety.


=Anne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 204. 1854. =2.= Downing Fr.
_Trees Am._ 254. 1857.

This cherry is reported by Charles Downing to have originated at
Lexington, Kentucky; distributed by A. V. Bedford, Paris, Kentucky. Tree
moderate in growth; fruit of medium size, bright red; flesh tender,
juicy, very sweet; quality excellent; early.


=Annonay.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 28. 1882. =2.= Rivers _Cat._
18. 1898-99. =3.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 43. 1904.

_Annonayer Herzkirsche._ =4.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55. 1907.

A Heart cherry mentioned in 1882 as a promising new fruit because of its
extreme earliness and excellent quality. This variety, introduced by
Thomas Rivers & Son, Sawbridgeworth, England, should not be confused
with an older French sort often known by the same name but of a
reddish-brown color. Tree moderate in growth; fruit glossy, black,
round, of medium size, produced in clusters; flesh charcoal-black, very
rich in flavor.

=Anstad.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt._ 17. 1908.

A seedling from seeds planted in 1898 by A. P. Anstad, Trail, British
Columbia. The fruit is large, heart-shaped; cavity of medium depth and
width; stem long, slender; apex depressed; suture indistinct; skin
moderately thick, tender, dark red or blackish; dots obscure; flesh
dull red, meaty, juicy, sweet, pleasant; quality good; stone of medium
size, clinging; season in Ontario, the end of July.


=Argental Late.= _P. avium._ =1.= Barry _Fr. Garden_ 325. 1851. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 451. 1869.

Downing says this variety is of French origin and that the fruit is
unlike any other cherry in form. Tree spreading; branches slender,
irregular; fruit of medium size, elongated-oval, sides compressed;
suture narrow; stem medium in length, slender; cavity small; skin deep
purplish-black; flesh half-tender, juicy, sweet, of peculiar flavor;
quality very good; stone small, narrow, elongated-oval; ripens about
July 10th.


=Auburn Duke=. _P. avium × P. cerasus._

A stray variety not mentioned in cherry literature, occasionally grown
in western New York. The fruit, on the Station grounds, is above medium
size, roundish; skin glossy, amber-yellow with a dark red cheek, often
wholly suffused with red, sometimes mottled with translucent spots
underneath the skin; suture a distinct line; stem slender, one and
one-half inches long, inserted in a broad cavity; flesh white, very
tender, juicy, nearly sweet; quality good but not rich; stone small,
adhering to the stem; season late June. The fruit cracks in wet weather.


=August Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Cultivator_ 3rd Ser.
=1=:248 fig., 249. 1853.

_Vail's August Duke._ =2.= _Horticulturist_ =4=:264 fig., 265. 1849-50.
=3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 213. 1854.

This variety originated with Henry Vail of Troy, New York. It is valued
for its lateness, maturing three weeks after Downer, generally about the
tenth of August. Tree hardy, healthy, moderate in growth; fruit borne in
pairs, hanging in thick clusters along the branches, of medium size,
obtuse-cordate; stem of medium length, thickening where it joins the
fruit, set in a deep, narrow cavity; skin bright red; flesh tender,
subacid, much like May Duke in flavor; pit oval.


=Augustine de Vigny=. Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 333. 1889. =2.=
_Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 54. 1856.

Mentioned in the references given.


=Aurischotte.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
589-591. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:65. 1858.

According to Truchsess, this cherry was described in 1802 by Christ who
states that it originated in Wanfred, Prussia, Germany. Truchsess
believed, however, that the name was a corruption of Sauriotte, a sour
or Weichsel cherry. Fruit round, somewhat flattened, above medium in
size; suture indistinct; apex slightly depressed, gray; stem strong;
skin dark red; flesh and juice of a slight reddish cast, sour, rather
repulsive; stone large.

=Badacsony.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =177=:31. 1899. =2.=
_Ibid._ =187=:62. 1901.

_Géanie de Badacson._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27, 194. 1876.

_Badacsoner Riesenkirsche._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 333. 1889.

_Badacconyi._ =5.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =169=:198. 1899.

_Badacsoner Schwarze Riesenkirsche._ =6.= _Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift_
122. 1910.

_Badacsonyer Knorpelkirsche._ =7.= _Obstzüchter_ =8=:74. 1910.

A strong-growing variety of the Bigarreau group which originated in the
volcanic regions near Balaton Lake, Hungary. Tree spreading, productive,
subject to shot-hole fungus; fruit very large, heart-shaped, compressed;
stem long, slender; cavity deep, wide; skin dark red, mottled with
purple; flesh crisp, breaking, pinkish, juicy, sweet; quality good;
ripens in July.


=Baender.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =88=:20. 1892. =2.=
_Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:12. 1910.

An unproductive Morello. Tree medium in size, upright, round-topped;
fruit medium to large, round, flattened; stem stout, long; skin dark
red, thin, tender; flesh firm, meaty, slightly stained, rich acid; stone
long, smooth; ripens the last of July in Washington.


=Baltavar.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 39. 1895. =2.=
Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:284. 1903.

_Bigarreau monstreux de Baltava._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27. 1876.

_Baltavari._ =4.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =169=:199. 1899.

_Baltavaer Knorpelkirsche._ =5.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ =55.= 1907.

Baltavar was introduced from Hungary by the United States Department of
Agriculture. Tree upright, somewhat spreading; fruit resembles Napoleon
in size and shape; cavity medium in depth, irregular, flaring; stem
variable, slender; suture shallow; skin thick, glossy, light red
changing to dark crimson on a yellow ground; dots numerous, minute,
golden; flesh melting, yellowish, meaty, translucent, juicy, sprightly,
mild subacid; quality good to very good; stone large, long, clinging;
ripens the forepart of July.


=Baluder Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Kan. Sta. Bul._ =73=:189. 1897.

Tree upright, unproductive; fruit medium to large; stem slender; skin
dull red, tough; flesh red, tender, juicy, acid, lacking in richness;
ripens unevenly about June 18th; not a commercial variety.


=Barnhart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =18=:242. 1876. =2.= Downing
_Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 161. 1881.

This variety originated with Louis Shepler, Belle Vernon, Pennsylvania.
Tree healthy, vigorous, bears abundantly; fruit of the Bigarreau type,
large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity large, deep; stem
rather long, slender; suture shallow; skin whitish-yellow, shaded and
mottled with light and dark, rich red; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, with a
rich, rather sprightly flavor; ripens the last of June.


=Baseler Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876.

A medium-sized cherry of little value.


=Bates.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Green _Cat._ 28 fig. 1906.

Said to have originated with S. J. Bates, Shelby, Michigan; introduced
by C. A. Green, Rochester, New York; not propagated at present. As grown
on our grounds it is identical with Olivet but our trees may not be
correctly named.


=Bay State.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Adams _Cat._ 11. 1894. =2.= Sweet _Cat._
18. 1907.

Bay State on the Station grounds resembles Reine Hortense and may be
identical. (See description of Reine Hortense.) In 1894 it was listed by
J. W. Adams of Springfield, Massachusetts, under the name Bay State and
in 1907 was offered for sale by The George A. Sweet Nursery Company of
Dansville, New York.


=Baylor.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Bedford Prolific.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876. =2.=
_Flor. & Pom._ 41, Pl. fig. 1. 1882.

Bedford Prolific is similar to its parent, Black Tartarian, but has the
advantage of being much hardier and more productive. It is inferior in
quality to its parent. Many writers confuse it with Black Tartarian.


=Belle Audigeoise.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_
=5=:65, Pl. 1857.

_Schöne Audigeoise._ =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 376. 1889.

Very similar to Choisy. Tree vigorous, but moderately productive; fruit
large, roundish, flattened at the ends; stem of medium length; cavity
large, round; skin glossy, transparent, almost entirely washed with red
at complete maturity; flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet, acidulated; ripens
in France late in July.


=Belle Bosc.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 45. 1831.

Listed in the reference given.


=Belle de Boskoop.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Listed in this reference without description.


=Belle de Caux.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Listed as similar to Duchess de Palluau.


=Belle de Couchey.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 412. 1866. 2. Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11=:137, 138, fig. 69. 1882.

_Schöne von Couchey._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

Raton, a laborer, found this variety in 1715, growing in a garden in
Cote d'Or, France. Here and in the surrounding country it was commonly
known as Cerise Raton. Tree vigorous, abundantly productive; fruit
large, heart-shaped, irregular, often flattened; stem long, slender,
inserted in a large, deep cavity; apex conical; skin tender, at first
clear purple changing to blackish-purple; flesh tender, rather
succulent, intense purple, juicy, sweet, sugary, very pleasing; stone
small for the size of the fruit, ovate, short, broad, turgid; ripens the
last of June. In France, one of the best fruits of the season standing
shipment well notwithstanding its tender flesh.


=Belle Defay.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 334. 1889.

Listed without a description in this reference.


=Belle de Franconville.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 463. 1891. =2.=
_Ibid._ 14, 15 fig. 1892.

This variety is a chance seedling found in the forests of Seine-et-Oise,
France, and propagated by M. Arthur Nienard, a nurseryman of the same
place. The variety is valued for its lateness and its good shipping
qualities. Fruit elongated-cordate, slightly depressed; suture rather
deep; cavity rather large, regular; stem slender, long; skin glossy,
brilliant purplish-red, firm; flesh clear yellow, rather transparent,
juicy, sprightly yet sugary, agreeable but slightly strong; pit oblong,
tapering at the top, truncate, partly adherent; season late September in
France.


=Belle l'Herissier.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 470, Pl. 1875.

This cherry was raised from seed in 1865 by M. Doublet, horticulturist
at Montrichard, Loir-et-Cher, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit
large, usually borne in clusters, depressed on the side, with a faint
suture; stem very long, slender, adhering strongly to the pit; skin a
brilliant red but never black; flesh pale red, juicy, sweet, slightly
sprightly; quality very good; pit irregular, very small, elongated;
ripens the middle of June in France.


=Belle de Kis-Oers.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27. 1876.
=2.= _Guide Prat._ 13. 1895.

This is a Hungarian cherry. Fruit of medium size, elongated, marbled
with red; flesh white, sugary; in France it ripens the middle of July.


=Belle de Loche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25,
187. 1876.

This name is wrongly used as a synonym of Magnifique. Distributed by
Jacquement-Bonnefont, nurseryman at Annonay, Ardèche, France, who
described it as a very good, large, productive fruit, ripening in June.


=Belle d'Orleans.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =16=:358, 540 fig.
1850. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 211. 1856. =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:84, 85 fig., 86. 1866. =4.= _Leroy Dict. Pom._ =5=:314 fig., 315.
1877.

_Beauty of Orleans._ =5.= _Ill. Handb._ 15 fig., 16. 1867. =6.= _Can.
Exp. Farms Rpt._ 415. 1899.

_Belle de Bruxelles._ =7.= _Guide Prat._ 10, 17, 181. 1895.

Some writers state that Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England,
originated this variety about 1852; others hold that it is of French
origin. Tree large, very vigorous, productive; fruit usually attached in
pairs, medium to above in size, roundish-oval or often cordate; stem
medium in length, rather slender; skin transparent, clear pale yellow
with a light red cheek, occasionally slightly mottled; flesh pale amber,
juicy, tender, sweet; good in quality; stone large, roundish-obovate;
season early.


=Belle de Ribeaucourt.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =20=:269. 1854.
=2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ 2:181, 210. 1866. 3. Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:170 fig., 171. 1877.

_Schöne von Ribeaucourt._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 335, 377. 1889.

This variety probably originated in Northern France. Fruit globular,
flattened at the ends, large, usually borne in twos; stem long; cavity
large, deep; skin transparent, red, more intense in the sun; flesh
yellow, rose-colored under the skin, sweet, juicy, acidulated; pit
small, oval, round; ripens about the middle of June.


=Belle de Rochelle.= Species? =1.= _Gard. Chron._ 1068. 1861.

Mentioned as remarkable for its size, its abundant juice and rich flavor
which are said to make it one of the best fruits of its season. Its long
stems facilitate picking.


=Belle de Rocmont.= _P. avium_ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:167,
168. 1768.

_Glanzende goldgelb und roth marmorirte Kramelkirsche._ =2.= Kraft Pom.
Aust. =1=:3, Tab. 5 fig. 2. 1792.

_Schöne von Rocmont._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 311-316. 1819.

_Pigeon's Heart._ =4.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 30. 1828.

_Bigarreau belle de Rocmond._ =5.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

_Coeur de Pigeon Gros._ =6.= _Ibid._ 48. 1831.

_Pigeon Heart Bigarreau._ =7.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:127. 1832.

_Bigarreau de Rocmont._ =8.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No. 6, Pl. 1846.

_Rocmonter Marmorkirsche._ =9.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:39. 1858.

_Rothe Spanische Marmorkirsche._ =10.= _Ibid._ 39, 40. 1858.

Belle de Rocmont is so similar to Yellow Spanish that some writers
consider them the same. If not the same they are so nearly so that a
description of this variety is unnecessary.


=Belle de Saint Tronc.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27. 1876.
=2.= _Flor. & Pom._ 117. 1878. =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 334, 359. 1889.

This Heart cherry was introduced in 1873 by M. Antonie, Marseilles,
Bouches-du-Rhône, France. It is described by the French as a
brownish-black cherry but Rivers lists it as a light red sort. Fruit
cordate; stem short; brownish-black; flesh deep red, juicy; first
quality; early; productive.


=Belle Vezzouris.= Species? =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 278. 1857. =2.=
Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 664. 1897.

A medium to large, light red, somewhat transparent cherry with a subacid
flavor; quality good; ripens with Downer.


=Belle de Voisery.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 334. 1889. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Similar to Duchesse de Palluau according to _Guide Pratique._


=Bender= (of Michigan). _P. cerasus._ =1.= Wood _Cat._ 32. 1912.

This is a seedling found by a man named Bender near Shelby, Michigan. It
ripens between Early Richmond and Montmorency, surpassing the latter in
size, color and quality; sour.


=Bender= (of New York). _P. avium × P. cerasus._

_Marguerite._ =1.= McKay _Cat._ 7. 1912.

This variety is an accidental seedling found by J. O. Bender,
Fayetteville, New York, about 1875. It is a late cherry of the Duke
group. The fruit is attractive both in size and color, making a valuable
market sort. Fruit roundish-cordate to oblate, compressed; cavity
medium, flaring; suture very shallow; stem slender, above medium in
length; skin of medium thickness and toughness, separating from the
pulp, light red, yellowish on the shaded side; flesh pale yellow,
somewhat coarse and stringy, tender, melting, subacid, juicy; good in
quality; stone large, slightly clinging along the ventral suture. Very
similar to Late Duke.


=Berlin Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

A vigorous variety received from L. Spath, Berlin, Germany. Fruit medium
to large, oval; skin glossy red; flesh tender, juicy, pleasingly acid;
season from the middle to the last of July in Canada.


=Bernard.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Am. Hort. An._ 88. 1869.

Described by D. B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, as a seedling of the Morello
group. Tree vigorous, pyramidal in growth; fruit the size, shape, color
and flavor of English Morello but with a smaller pit.


=Bettenburger Glaskirsche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 445, 446, 689. 1819. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 171 fig., 172.
1860.

_Transparent de Bettenburg._ =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:77, 78, fig. 37.
1866-73.

_Belle Allemande._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.

Truchsess, a German, grew this variety from a stone of the Prager
Muscateller, in 1794. The tree has a close growth and with its large,
wide leaves is easily recognized from other light Duke cherries. The
fruit is often confused with Double Glass but the color is darker, the
stem longer and thicker, the flavor sweeter, and the season from eight
to ten days later. Tree moderately vigorous; fruit large, cordate,
rather obtuse, with a pronounced suture extending into the cavity; stem
long, set in a smooth, shallow cavity; skin tough, clear purple changing
to dark red; flesh yellowish-white, transparent, juicy, not colored
unless well ripened, sweetish-sour, slightly aromatic; stone of medium
size, globular, plump, truncate at the base; season late.


=Bettenburger Herzkirsche.= _P. avium_. =1.= _Ill. Handb_. 65 fig., 66.
1860.

_Bettenburger Schwarze Herzkirsche._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
115, 116. 1819.

_Guigne de Bettenbourg._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301. 1866.

This variety is a seedling of a worthless black Heart cherry, raised by
Truchsess in 1794. Fruit very large, flattened, heart-shaped, sides
compressed; stem short, set in a shallow cavity; apex slightly
depressed; skin tough, deep dark-brown with light spots. turning black
when ripe; flesh tender, juicy, very sweet; stone almost small, plump,
roundish; season the last of June in Germany.


=Bettenburger Kirsche von der Natte.= _P. cerasus_. =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 507-511. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:61.
1858.

A variety received by Truchsess as Kirsche von der Natte and
disseminated by him as such. After a few years he found that it was not
true to name and to avoid further confusion added the word Bettenburger.
Fruit large, roundish, flattened at the base; suture indistinct; stem
short, slender, shallowly inserted; skin tough, dull, dark brown,
inclined to black; flesh dark red, juicy, aromatic, subacid; stone not
large, plump; ripens the middle of July in Germany.


=Bettenburger Weichsel.= _P. cerasus_. =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:62, 63. 1858.

_Bettenburger Weichsel Grosser Gobet_. =2.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 521, 522, 523. 1819.

_Bettenburger Weichsel von der Natte_. =3.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit_. 171.
1825.

_Griotte de Bettenbourg_. =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat_. 22, 194. 1876.

This German variety came from seeds of Grosse Gobet planted by Truchsess
in 1794. Fruit very large, sides compressed; skin tough, dark
brownish-red; flesh and juice dark, pleasingly sour, improves if left on
the tree; stone large, cordate, pointed.


=Bicolor Van Mons.= Species? =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:99, 208.
1866.

Fruit medium in size, slightly elongated; attractively variegated with
red; of mediocre quality; matures the last fortnight of June.


=Bigarreau Abbesse de Mouland.= _P. avium_. =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom_.
334. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=Bigarreau Antoine Nomblot.= _P. avium_. =1.= _Rev. Hort_. 569, 570, Pl.
1912.

In 1903, Alfred Nomblot planted what he believed to be a seed of
Bigarreau Dönnissen but the resulting tree in many of its characters
resembled Bigarreau Noir de Kruger which stood near the supposed parent.
A cross between these varieties might result in a dark fruit similar to
this. Tree vigorous, upright, very productive; fruit above medium in
size, cordate, attached in ones, twos and threes; stem long; skin
marbled with purple changing to black; flesh firm, sugary, juicy, high
flavored; pit small, ovoid; early. Recommended by the Société
Pomologique de France as a good, early cherry.


=Bigarreau Blanc Précoce.= _P. avium. 1._ Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:144.
1882.

A short description of the tree-characters is given in this reference.


=Bigarreau Blanc-Rosé de Piémont.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
22. 1876. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Matures late; according to _Guide Pratique_, 1895, it is very similar to
Napoleon.


=Bigarreau Bordan.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:183, 184
fig. 1877.

_Bordans frühe weisse Herzkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:27. 1858.

_Bordans Herzkirsche._ =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 97 fig., 98. 1860. =4.= Thomas
_Guide Prat._ 18, 197. 1876.

_Guigne Blanche de Bordan._ =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:97, 98,
208. 1866.

This variety was raised by M. Bordan of Guben, Prussia, Germany, and was
first described by Oberdieck. Leroy lists it as a Bigarreau as he
believes the flesh is too firm for a Guigne as many Germans have
described it. Tree hardy, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs,
elongated-cordate, sides and base often compressed; suture shallow; stem
long, slender, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, yellowish,
spotted and streaked with red, becoming almost entirely washed with red
in the sun; flesh tender, whitish, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated,
pleasing; stone medium, oval, turgid; season early.


=Bigarreau de Bourget.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 335. 1889.

Listed without a description by Mathieu.


=Bigarreau Brun.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35. 1771.

Not described.


=Bigarreau de Capucins.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Chron._ N. S. =19=:255.
1883.

_Kapuziner Knorpel._ =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 364. 1889.

This variety is little known out of Belgium. Tree vigorous, productive;
fruit large, obtuse-oblong, regular, depressed at the ends; skin
amber-yellow, blushed with red; flesh white, crisp, juicy.


=Bigarreau de la Caserne.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Chron._ 663. 1866.

According to the reference this variety is spoken of in _La Belgique
Horticole_ as a variety with prodigious leaves, yellow fruit dashed with
red and of good quality.


=Bigarreau Cayenne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876.
=2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:186 fig. 1877.

_Cayenner Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55. 1907.

This variety was received by Leroy in 1857 from Angouleme, Charente,
France. Fruit generally borne in pairs; of medium size, oval, somewhat
cylindrical, compressed at the extremities, with a large, rather deep
suture; apex generally prominent; stem long; cavity broad and regular;
skin thick, yellow, washed with pale red changing to lively red in the
sun; flesh yellowish, firm, brittle, juicy, sweet, slightly sugary and
aromatic; pit large, oval, slightly convex; ripens the last of June to
the first of July.

=Bigarreau de Châlons.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:131, 132, 209. 1866.

A local variety, widely known in the departments of Jura and
Saône-et-Loire, France, as Châlonnaise. Fruit large, roundish-cordate,
depressed at the base, one face flattened, the other bulged; suture
slight; stem short; skin a deep purple tint in the sun, spotted with
clear red in the shade; flesh white or of a slight rose color, with
uncolored juice, sugary, aromatic; pit small; season the middle of June.


=Bigarreau de Champvans.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27.
1876. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

This is an excellent cherry of the Bigarreau type with colored juice and
transparent skin, which originated in the department of Saône-et-Loire,
France; said in the second reference to be similar to Napoleon.


=Bigarreau Corniola.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:191, 192
fig. 1877.

The name Corniola is derived from cornaline, the French for cornelian.
Tree medium in size and productiveness; fruit attached in twos or
threes, large, roundish, slightly compressed at the ends and faces;
suture deep; stem short, set in a rather deep cavity; skin
whitish-yellow, largely washed with rose color and spotted with deep
carmine; flesh yellowish, firm, not fibrous, juicy, sugary, slightly
acidulated; first quality; season early June.


=Bigarreau Court Picout Hâtif.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:159. 1882.

Listed in this reference.


=Bigarreau Court Picout Tardif.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:159. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Bigarreau Dönnissen.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 16, 189.
1876.

_Dönnissens gelbe Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 162.
1825. =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:44. 1858. =4.= _Ill. Handb._
145 fig., 146. 1860.

_Bigarreau jaune de Dönissen._ =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:304.
1866.

This variety is a seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, named for the
originator; it fruited first about 1824. Tree vigorous, productive;
fruit attached in twos, sometimes threes, large, roundish-cordate;
suture slight; stem long, rather stout; cavity broad, shallow; skin
glossy, transparent, yellowish-orange when ripe; flesh whitish, firm,
slightly fibrous, moderately juicy, sugary, pleasingly acidulated; first
quality; pit large, ovoid, plump; ripens the last of June to the first
of July.


=Bigarreau Doré.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 15. 1895.

Fruit yellow, round.


=Bigarreau Double Royale.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:195
fig., 196. 1877.

_Königliche Fleischkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:34.
1858.

_Königliche Herzkirsche._ =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 467 fig., 468. 1861.

_Guigne Royale._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301. 1866.

The fact that Oberdieck received this variety from the Société Horticole
de Prague under the French name Double Royale leads us to believe, as
does Leroy, that it is of French rather than of Austrian origin as many
German writers hold. Tree vigorous; fruit usually borne in pairs, large,
cordate, rather abrupt at the ends; stem long, slender; cavity shallow;
suture almost indistinct; skin glossy, reddish-brown to nearly black;
flesh moderately tender, red, juicy, vinous, sweet; quality very good;
pit small, ovoid, turgid; ripens about the middle of June.

=Bigarreau Dur.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

Listed in this reference without description.


=Bigarreau Duranno.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:191. 1877.

This variety is first mentioned by Leroy in 1868, appearing in his
catalog of 1875 incorrectly as Bigarreau Duracino. The trees are used
for stocks. Fruit large, roundish-cordate, uneven; suture narrow; stem
long, slender; skin deep red in the sun; flesh firm, dry, acidulated,
sugary; matures early in July.


=Bigarreau Galopin.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Bigarreau Glady.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:206 fig.
1877.

This variety was sent from the Jumard nursery about 1850 to Eugène
Glady, Bordeaux, France. Fruit above medium in size, cordate, elongated;
stem of medium length, set in a straight, deep cavity; skin
brownish-red, striped with carmine; flesh a light rose color, firm,
crisp, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated; first quality; pit of medium
size; ripens the first of June.

=Bigarreau Grand.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Pom. France_ =7=:No. 13, Pl. 13.
1871. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 15. 1895.

This cherry was introduced into the vicinity of Lyons, France, in 1849
by M. Grand who probably brought it from his nurseries in Italy. It has
many characters in common with Lyons. Tree moderately vigorous,
productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, truncate at the base; suture
wide, deep; stem medium, straight, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin
thin, smooth, changing from a whitish-green to a rose-red and later to a
deep crimson; flesh fine, half-tender, rose-colored, lighter near pit,
with pale juice, sugary, aromatic; good; pit large, oval; season very
early.

=Bigarreau Groll.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 135 fig., 136. 1860.
=2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:207 fig., 208. 1877.

_Grolls bunte Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 328,
329. 1819.

_Bigarreau blanc de Groll._ =4.= _Guide Prat._ 17, 182. 1895.

This seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, bearing the name of its
originator, has been known and rather widely written about since early
in the Nineteenth Century. Tree of moderate vigor; fruit generally borne
in pairs, large, cordate, truncate at the base; sides compressed and
marked by a suture; stem long, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin red,
becoming darker, spotted and streaked; flesh yellowish, somewhat firm,
juicy, aromatic; first quality; stone large, oval; ripens in June and
hangs for a long time.

=Bigarreau Gros Noir de Luther.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
22. 1876.

Listed in the reference given.

=Bigarreau Hâtif de Champagne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
27. 1876. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Found at Champagne, Ain, France, and introduced in 1873 by M. Fandon.
The tree is an erect, vigorous grower; fruit large, brownish-black,
ripening two weeks before Lyons; of little value.


=Bigarreau Hâtif de Saint-Laud.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:107, 108, fig. 54. 1882. =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 337. 1889.

Fruit large, cordate, slightly irregular in outline; stem rather short,
set in a wide, round cavity; skin clear red, striped with deeper red
changing to purple; flesh rather tender, tinged red, with abundant
colored juice, sugary, vinous; good; pit small, ovoid, slightly
compressed; matures the middle of June.


=Bigarreau d'Italie.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:102-104, 219, fig. 21. 1866. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:211, 212
fig. 1877.

_Bohemian Black Bigarreau._ =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 76, 94. 1866.

_Black Bohemian._ =4.= Fish _Hardy-Fr. Bk._ =2=:104. 1882.

This old variety was much esteemed by the Italians and later by the
Belgians who grew it as early as 1815; it is of more recent introduction
into France and England. It is sometimes confused with the Florence of
Hogg and Downing. Fruit roundish, slightly heart-shaped, flattened at
both ends; suture distinct; stem thick, short, inserted in an acute,
deep cavity; skin firm, thick, glossy, very deep purple changing to
black; flesh firm, dark, juicy, sugary, aromatic; pit medium,
roundish-oval, convex, suture and grooves prominent; season the last two
weeks of June.


=Bigarreau Jacquet.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 337. 1889.

Listed in this reference.


=Bigarreau Jumard.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict Pom._ =5=: 206. 1877.

Mentioned as having been received by Eugène Glady, Bordeaux, Gironde,
France, in a shipment of trees received about 1850 from the Jumard
nursery.


=Bigarreau Krüger.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:215, 216
fig. 1877.

_Bigarreau noir de Krüger._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22, 190. 1876.

_Krüger's Schwarze Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 366. 1889.

This variety was introduced into France by M. Eugène Glady, 1858, from
Guben, Prussia, Germany, and is thought to have been originated by one
of the Krüger family. Tree vigorous, bears early; fruit large to above,
cordate, more or less roundish, faces compressed; suture wide; stem
long, slender, set in a large cavity; skin yellowish-white, mingled with
red, changing to brownish; flesh pale yellow, rather firm, slightly
fibrous, juicy, sweet though sprightly; pit large, elongated-oval, flat;
ripens toward the middle of June.


=Bigarreau Legrey.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 74. 1866.

A small, cordate-shaped Bigarreau, more curious than useful.


=Bigarreau de Lory.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
205. 1819.

_Bigarreau de Loire._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Mentioned as a medium-sized, dark brownish-red, firm-fleshed fruit.


=Bigarreau Marjolet.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 7. 1895.

_Guigne Marjolet._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:135, 136, fig. 68. 1882.
=3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 360. 1889.

_Bigarreau Marjeollais._ =4.= _Ibid._ 337. 1889.

_Marjolets Knorpelkirsche._ =5.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

The descriptions of the Guigne Marjolet and the Bigarreau Marjolet are
identical and we have combined the two. The variety was named after its
originator, M. Marjolet; tree vigorous, productive; fruit large,
roundish-cordate, dark red; flesh tender, red, vinous, pleasing; ripens
the middle of June.


=Bigarreau Mongin.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 482. 1904.

Tree of medium growth; fruit medium in size, cordate; stem long,
inserted in a deep cavity; skin clear yellow blushed with red; flesh
yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, pleasant; ripens in July in
Canada.


=Bigarreau Monstreuse de Bavay.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._
235. 1854.

Spoken of, in 1854, as promising but evidently it has been discarded as
no reference has been made to it since that date. It may be Reine
Hortense.


=Bigarreau Moreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 552, 553, Pl. 1913.

This cherry recently originated as a chance seedling near Lyons, France,
several persons claiming the honor of its discovery. Its value was
discussed at the meetings of the Société Pomologique de France in 1909
and 1911 when it was adjudged by leading French pomologists to be one of
the earliest of all varieties, earlier than Lyons, and showing high
commercial possibilities. Tree handsome in type of growth, with open,
somewhat erect branches; leaves large, deeply serrate; fruit very large;
color beautiful clear red becoming darker at maturity; flesh white,
breaking, very firm, with uncolored juice, sweet, very refreshing; stone
medium to small; season in France very early.


=Bigarreau Napoléon Noir.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22.
1876.

_Bigarreau Noir Napoléon III._ =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:227 fig.,
228. 1877.

_Napoléon Noir._ =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 307. 1884.

_Herzkirsche Napoléon III._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 362. 1889.

The origin of this cherry is uncertain. Leroy first noted it in the
Simon-Louis catalog in 1867. To avoid confusion with the well-known
Napoleon, he added the number III. Fruit usually attached in pairs,
large, varying from elongated-oval to cylindrical; stem long, set in a
large cavity; color dull red changing to deep maroon; flesh
rose-colored, moderately firm, very juicy, sweet; ripens the last of
June.


=Bigarreau Noir d'Ecully.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 338.
1889. =2.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 522. 1906.

_Ecullyer Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55. 1907.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit medium in size, black at maturity;
flesh firm, crisp, dark, vinous, sugary, juicy, good; late.


=Bigarreau Noir à Gros Fruits.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Le Bon Jard._ 345.
1882.

Fruit large, flattened; flesh firm, sweet; first quality; ripens early
in June.


=Bigarreau Noir de Heintzen.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22,
190. 1876.

_Heintzen's (Heintze's) Schwarze Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= Mathieu _Nom.
Pom._ 362. 1889.

This is said to be a very good and productive cherry ripening in the
fifth week of the cherry season.


=Bigarreau Noir de Tabor.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 19,
190. 1876.

_Tabors schwarze Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 79 fig., 80. 1860.

Tree vigorous, upright; fruit of medium size, cordate, often obtuse;
sides compressed; suture but a line; stem medium long; cavity variable;
skin glossy, dark reddish-brown; flesh firm, dark red, sweet, rich;
stone small, roundish; ripens the last of June.


=Bigarreau d'Octobre.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 243. 1858.

_Oktober-Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:38. 1858.

This variety was refused a place on the American Pomological Society's
fruit list in 1858. Fruit small, oval to roundish-cordate, flattened at
the cavity; stem short; skin black, glossy; stone large, oval; good.


=Bigarreau de l'Once.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190.
1876. =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:5, 6, fig. 3. 1882.

It is thought that this variety originated in the vicinity of Nice,
Alpes-Maritimes, France. Fruit very large, elongated-cordate; suture
distinct on one side, a colored line on the other side; stem very long,
slender; cavity deep, large; skin a clear cherry-red on a yellow ground;
flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, sweet, refreshing, with abundant,
uncolored juice; quality good; pit large; season the first of July.


=Bigarreau Pourpré.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190.
1876.

_Gros Bigarreau pourpré._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:212, 215,
218. 1866.

Tree vigorous; fruit large, roundish-cordate; skin deep reddish-brown;
flesh firm, good; ripens early in July.


=Bigarreau Printanier d'Oullins.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:159. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Bigarreau Reverchon.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:133.
1866. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:235 fig., 382. 1877. =3.= Hogg _Fruit
Man._ 285. 1884.

M. Paul Reverchon introduced this variety about 1855, into France from
Italy, where it had long been known about Florence as Bigarreau Papal.
Tree vigorous, moderately productive; fruit attached in ones or twos,
large, obtuse-cordate, marked distinctly on one side by the suture; stem
thick, short, set in a prominent cavity; skin smooth, glossy, tough,
rose-yellow streaked with purple in the sun and with red in the shade;
flesh light red, crisp, fibrous, moderately juicy, rather sweet; pit
small, ovoid, plump; season the last of June to the first of July.


=Bigarreau Richelieu.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:235, 236
fig. 1877.

This variety, says Leroy, was introduced into France from
Nikita, Crimea, Russia, about 1858. Fruit borne in pairs, large,
elongated-cordate, with one side flattened; stem long, inserted in a
small mamelonated cavity; skin glossy, yellowish-amber, with a
rose-colored blush in the sun; flesh firm, breaking, filamentose, juicy,
sweet, aromatic; first quality; stone of medium size, elongated-cordate;
ripens the last of June.


=Bigarreau Rosa.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:239 fig. 1877.

Tree moderately productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large,
elongated-cordate, faces flattened; suture wide, deep; stem long, rather
stout, set in a wide cavity; skin yellowish on rose-colored ground,
amply washed with brilliant red on which are scattered small, white
dots; flesh yellowish-white, firm, compact, filamentose, juicy,
uncolored, rather sugary, acidulated, aromatic; second quality; pit
large, turgid; ripens the last of June.


=Bigarreau Rose Dragon.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 96. 1877.

Reported by the Committee on Foreign Fruits in 1877 as worthy of trial
but not grown at present. Fruit large, pale yellow, with a red cheek;
flesh firm, juicy, sweet, good; season the middle of July.


=Bigarreau de Schrecken.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190.
1876. _Schreckens Kirsche._ =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 377. 1889.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; brownish-black,
glossy; flesh moderately firm; first quality; matures in mid-June.


=Bigarreau Strié.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:114,
115, 208. 1866.

Fruit large, elongated-cordate, faces compressed; suture wide; stem
short, rather stout; skin many shades of red and purple on a
rose-colored ground with flesh-colored spots; flesh reddish, firm,
crisp, sweet; juice slightly colored; quality fair; stone small; season
early; deteriorates rapidly.


=Bigarreau de Trie.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 13. 1887.

Origin unknown, but rather widely cultivated around Trie,
Hautes-Pryénées, France. Tree vigorous; fruit of medium size, roundish,
compressed, slightly cordate; stem long, slender; skin tough, deep red,
transparent, with a slight blush of amber; flesh whitish-yellow, very
firm, juicy, uncolored, sugary, aromatic; good; season early July.


=Bigarreau à Trochets.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22. 1876.

An extremely productive variety distributed in some parts of France;
fruit large, red; flesh brittle; ripens in late June.


=Bigarreau Turca.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:247, 248 fig.
1877.

This old cherry was described in 1785 as Heaume Rouge but was found in
1862 by Leroy in Florence, Italy, as Bigarreau Turca by which name it
was well known. It is probably not of Turkish origin as the name would
indicate. Fruit often borne in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate; suture
noticeable but not deep; stem short; cavity spacious; color deep red,
lightly spotted with gray; flesh rather firm, fibrous, mottled with
light red becoming darker near the pit, juicy, sweet, sprightly; pit
large, ovoid, plump; ripens late in June.


=Bigarreau de Walpurgis.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:250
fig. 1877.

_St. Walpurgiskirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:35. 1858.

_Walpurgiskirsche._ =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 41 fig., 42. 1867.

_Cerise Walpurgis._ =4.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:157, 158, fig. 77. 1866-73.

This variety is a seedling from the village of Walpurgisburg, near
Cologne, Germany, originating about 1845. Tree vigorous, productive;
fruit attached in pairs, very large, roundish-cordate, compressed;
suture shallow, extending entirely around the fruit; stem slender,
rather long; cavity wide, shallow, sides only slightly raised; skin
firm, adherent, glossy, dark cherry-red changing to almost black; flesh
firm, dark red, juicy, aromatic, vinous; pit of medium size, oval, dark
red; ripens late in July.


=Bigarreau de Zeisberg.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190.
1876.

_Zeisbergische Kirsche._ =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 31 fig., 32. 1867.

_Cerise de Zeisberg._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:35, 36, fig. 18. 1882.

Oberdieck received this variety, which bears the name of its originator,
from Hanover, Prussia, Germany, in 1857. Fruit very large,
obtuse-cordate; suture wide, flat on the dorsal side, extending slightly
beyond the apex; stem long, rather slender, set in a flaring cavity;
skin glossy, brownish-black, later becoming black, adhering to the pulp;
flesh firm, dark red, juicy, pleasant, with an aromatic sweetness when
mature; season the last of June.


=Bigarreau Zschedowitzer Schwarze.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide
Prat._ 23. 1876. Listed in the reference given.


=Bigarreautier à Petit Fruit Noir.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man.
Comp. Jard._ =2=:503. 1860. A mediocre but productive cherry ripening in
August.

=Bigarreautier à Petit Fruit Rose.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man.
Comp. Jard._ =2=:503. 1860.

A variety raised from seed in 1824; tree vigorous; stem long; flesh
tender, white, sugary; quality fair; July.

=Bill and Coo.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 454. 1869.

Two lovers made the original tree their haunt, hence, the name "Bill and
Coo." This variety originated on the grounds of Professor J. P.
Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit of medium size, regular heart-shaped,
flattened at the apex; stem long, slender; cavity deep; suture broad on
one side, the opposite side knobby; color amber-yellow, marbled with
clear red; flesh rich, delicate, sweet; ripens early in June.

=Bismarck.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hoopes, Bro. & Thomas _Cat._ 20. 1907.

This variety is a Sweet Cherry from near Baltimore, Maryland. Fruit very
large, dark red, firm, sweet, juicy and rich; vigorous and productive;
ripens the first of July.

=Black American.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.

Listed without description in this reference.

=Black Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Knoop Fructologie_ =2=:35, 37, 38.
1771. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:130. 1832.

_Bigarreau hâtif._ =3.= _Le Bond Jard_. 345. 1882.

_Bigarreau noir Hâtif._ =4.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 285. 1884.

Black Bigarreau is an old variety of unknown origin quite distinct from
any others of its class. Tree productive; fruit medium to large,
heart-shaped, obscurely flattened; stem long; skin at first dotted with
red, later becoming black, glossy; flesh firm, rather dry, with dark
colored juice, breaking, sweet; not high in quality; ripens the last of
June and the first of July.

=Black Bigarreau of Savoy.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._
185. 1845. =2.= _Ibid._ 256. 1857.

_New Large Black Bigarreau._ =3.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 234, 235. 1841.
=4.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 185. 1845. =5.= _Mag. Hort._ =16=:538 fig.,
539. 1850.

_Large Black Bigarreau of Savoy._ =6.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:251. 1842.

_Walsh Seedling._ =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 196, 197. 1854.

_Bigarreau noir de Savoie._ =8.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:33, 34, fig. 15.
1866-73.

The original tree of this variety was brought from the south of France
by the father of George Walsh, Charlestown, Massachusetts. The tree came
into bearing about 1840. In 1841, fruits were exhibited from trees
introduced into American collections from Italy as New Large Black
Bigarreau, and were thought by several people to be the Black Bigarreau
of Savoy. Until 1857, all writers held these two varieties to be
distinct but Downing then declared them to be the same and on his
authority we combine the two. Tree vigorous, handsome; fruit large,
regular, cordate, slightly obtuse; stem long, rather stout, set in a
narrow, even cavity; skin smooth, not very glossy, nearly black when
mature; flesh dark purplish-red, firm, juicy, sweet, rich, slightly
adherent to the stone; pit rather large; ripens the middle of July.

=Black Hungarian Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50.
1831.

A round, black Guigne of second quality with tender, transparent flesh;
used for dessert.


=Black Margaret.= Species? =1.= Watkins _Cat._ 32. 1892.

Described as a fine, black, very late, English cherry.


=Black Prolific.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831.

Listed in the reference given.


=Black Spanish.= _P. avium._ =1.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 177-180. 1819.

_Schwarze oder Späte Herzkirsche._ =3.= Krünitz _Enc._ 60, 61. 1790.

_Spanish._ =4.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 217. 1835.

_Schwarze Spanische Knorpelkirsche._ =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:37. 1858.

_Bigarreau noir d'Espagne._ =6.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23, 189. 1876.

This is an old variety first mentioned by the English and in all
probability is of English origin. It has been greatly confused by some
German writers with other black cherries but Truchsess maintains that if
placed beside the Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche and the Grosse Schwarze
Knorpelkirsche mit Festem Fleische, the two with which it is most often
confused, differences could be noted especially as to firmness of flesh
and smallness of pit. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture
distinct; stem slender, short; cavity small, smooth, shallow; skin dark
reddish-brown changing to black, lighter along the suture; flesh more
tender than in most hard-fleshed sorts, dark red, sweet; stone small,
adhering before fully mature, colored; ripens early in July or earlier.


=Black Turkey Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Watkins _Cat._ 32. 1892.

Fruit large, black, late; suitable for market and home use.


=Blasse Johanni Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23. 1876.

Received by Thomas with a recommendation from Baron Emanuel Trauttenberg
of Prague.


=Bocage.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876. =2.= _Guide
Prat._ 17. 1895.

This variety is said, in _Guide Pratique_, 1895, to be similar to
Carnation, a Sour Cherry, while Thomas says it is similar to Reine
Hortense, a hybrid sort.


=Bohemian Queen.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Hort._ =13=:104. 1890.

This variety is said to come true to seed; to be similar in
fruit-characters to Ostheim, though larger and more fleshy; to be
productive and a cherry of good flavor; and to succeed well in moist
land.


=Bon Bon.= Species? =1.= Childs _Cat._ 153 fig. 1893.

A very early, large, dark red, juicy cherry; ships well and bears
regularly.


=Book.= Species? =1.= _Pa. Dept. Agr. Rpt._ Pt. =1=:427. 1902.

This is a local variety recommended by John Weitzel, Bethesda, Lancaster
County, Pennsylvania. Fruit medium to large, dark red; ripens the middle
of June.


=Boppard.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 415. 1899.

_Boppard's Early._ =2.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:58. 1900.

_Bopparder Frühkirsche._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55. 1907.

Tree vigorous; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; skin glossy, dark red; flesh
red, firm, juicy, sweet.


=Boquet Morello.= P. _cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 78. 1890.

_Amarelle Boquet._ =2.= _Ibid._ 331. 1885. =3.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._
=12=:110. 1900.

This is one of Budd's importations of 1883, according to the third
reference. It is often confused with the Boquet Amarelle of the French.
The fruit resembles Early Richmond in size, shape, season and color,
differing only in its flesh being more firm, its pit smaller, and the
tree less productive; of no value commercially.


=Boreatton.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 215. 1854.

A small, roundish-cordate, nearly black Sweet Cherry, with half-tender
flesh; poor quality; ripens in mid-July.


=Boughton Early Black Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort.
Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Boulebonner Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 47 fig., 48. 1867.

_Bigarreau Hâtif Boulbon._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:103, 104, fig. 52.
1882.

This cherry was introduced into Belgium from France some years previous
to 1867. Tree not vigorous, but productive; fruit large, broadly
cordate, variable in size and form, sides compressed; suture distinct,
deepest near the cavity; apex slightly depressed; stem slender, usually
long, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin a glossy, rose-red color with
a yellowish tinge, dotted and streaked with clear blood-red and washed
with dark purplish-red; flesh yellowish-white, reddish-white under the
skin, firm, juicy, rich, pleasing; stone large, oval, somewhat
flattened, with a short point; partially clinging; ripens the last of
June and, according to Oberdieck, hangs during wet seasons without
cracking.


=Bount Dantzic.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Bouquet-Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:23. 1858. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 7 fig., 8. 1867.

The tree of this variety has the growth of a Sweet Cherry with small,
black, Heart fruits borne like the cluster cherries, one, two, three and
four on the stem. The single fruits are roundish-cordate, with flattened
ends while the double and triple fruits are more narrow and elongated;
the fruit matures unevenly, having green, red and black fruits at the
same time; pit roundish-oval, slightly pointed at the base, somewhat
larger in the double fruits.


=Bouquetweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 291. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 519, 520, 521. 1819.

This cherry was received by Truchsess in 1796 from Mayer under the name
Bouquet-kirsche. Many of the flowers have six, seven, eight, and
occasionally as high as twelve petals, with two or three pistils. Fruit
usually very small, attached to a long, stiff, woody stem shallowly
inserted; round, flattened beneath; suture shallow; flesh and juice
reddish-black, with a bitterish-sour flavor, which it loses if allowed
to remain on the tree; pit of medium size.


=Boussieuer Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55.
1907.

A variegated Sweet Cherry.


=Bowers' Seedlings.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:64. 1903.

Three seedlings originated with John Bowers, Sigourney, Iowa. No.
1.--Fruit medium, dark red; juice colorless; quality fair. No. 2.--Tree
hardy; bears regularly; fruit large, oblate, roundish; stem long,
slender; skin dark red; juice colorless; fair in quality; late. No.
3.--Fruit large, red to dark red; juice slightly colored, mild subacid;
of very good quality.


=Bowyer Early Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.
=2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 234. 1841. =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:15, 16,
fig. 8. 1882.

_Boyer's Early._ =4.= Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 269. 1857. =5.= Thomas _Am.
Fruit Cult. 665._ 1897.

_Roberts' Red._ =6.= Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 269. 1857.

This variety probably originated in England nearly a century ago. Some
writers confuse it with Early White Heart but the two are undoubtedly
distinct. Tree vigorous, round-topped, hardy, productive; fruit medium
in size, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity shallow, wide;
suture distinct; stem variable in length; skin of medium thickness, pale
amber-yellow overspread with light red; flesh whitish, tender, juicy,
sweet, sprightly, refreshing; very good in quality; stone of medium
size, short-ovate, plump, blunt at the apex; season early.


=Boyd Early Black.= Species? =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 138. 1881.

Mentioned in a report from Ohio as a variety of great superiority and
value.


=Brandon.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

A prolific seedling of _Prunus pumila_; introduced by the Manitoba
Station.


=Brandywine.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Horticulturist_ N. S.
=5=:492, Pl. 1855. Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 258. 1857.

John R. Brinckle, Wilmington, Delaware, produced this variety from a
seed of White Bigarreau grown near May Duke. It fruited for the first
time in 1851. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; fruit above medium
in size, roundish, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long,
slender; cavity shallow, small; skin yellowish, mottled and marbled with
light crimson, glossy; flesh semi-transparent, tender, very juicy,
sprightly, acidulous; stone rather large; season the last of June;
recommended for culinary uses.


=Brant.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.= Elliott
_Fr. Book_ 191 fig. 1854. 3. Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 258. 1857.

Brant was grown by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, about the
middle of the Nineteenth Century, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree
vigorous, spreading; fruit large, roundish-cordate, uneven, sides
slightly compressed; stem medium, set in an angular cavity; skin thin,
lively purplish-red changing to dark purplish; flesh dark purplish-red
with indistinct white lines radiating from the center, tender, with
abundant, colored juice, sweet and richly flavored; pit medium in size,
roundish-oval, nearly smooth; season from the middle of June to the
first of July.


=Brassington.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Call _Cat._ 5, fig. 1913.

A chance seedling found in Oceana County, Michigan. Fruit large, dark
red, sprightly subacid; ripens with Early Richmond; productive.


=Braunauer Glaskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 168.
1825.

_Braunauer Amarelle._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:72. 1858.

This variety originated about 1825. Tree large, moderately productive,
with large, Sour Cherry leaves. Often classed as an Amarelle because of
the resemblance in the branches. Fruit very large, round, compressed;
suture distinct; stem very long, shallowly inserted; color dark red,
rather cloudy; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, pleasing subacid when
fully ripe; stone of medium size; ripens in August.


=Braune Soodkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 287. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 583, 584, 585. 1819.

Tree of medium growth; branches drooping; fruit large to very large,
flattened, slightly depressed; stem long, set in a rather deep cavity;
skin brownish-red; flesh dark red at the stone becoming clear red
beneath the skin, tender, with abundant, red juice, pleasing subacid;
stone roundish-elongated, one-half an inch long; season the last of
July.


=Braune Spanische Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 275.
1802.

_Späte braune Spanische Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Handb._ 660. 1797.

_Braune Spanische Herzkirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:22.
1858.

This cherry differs from the black Hearts in being smaller, more
compressed and sweeter, the flesh softer and more melting. Tree small,
productive; fruit small, roundish, compressed on both sides; black,
somewhat red on one side; ripens at the end of June.


=Braunrote Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
544, 545. 1819.

_Braune rothe Sauerkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 289. 1802.

_Griotte rouge foncé._ 3. Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:306. 1866.

This variety was found in Bernburg, Prussia, Germany. It is
distinguished from the other Sour Cherries ripening with it by its
lingering brownish-red color, its pleasing, mild sourness, its tender
flesh, and by its wood. Tree not large, making a close growth,
productive; branches erect; fruit bunch-like, large, almost round,
flattened at the ends, sides slightly compressed; stem long, stout,
inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; color remains brownish-red for
quite a period, later becoming almost black; flesh tender, with
abundant, colored juice, pleasingly sour; stone egg-shaped, almost oval;
season the last of July.


=Briggs Sweet.= _P. avium._ =1.= Green-River Nur. _Cat._ 22. 1899.

Briggs Sweet was raised from seed in the garden of Dr. J. A. Briggs,
South Union, Kentucky, where it has fruited for twenty years. The tree
is thrifty, a regular bearer and resembles Wood in appearance of both
tree and fruit but is much hardier.


=Brindilles.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 424. 1903.

This is a vigorous cherry with a low, slender habit of growth, blooming
the middle of June and ripening late in August. Fruit of medium size,
round, depressed or oblate; stem long, set in a narrow cavity; skin
light, clear red; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly.


=Brown Best.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Brown Bros. _Cat._ 24. 1900.

Brown Best was introduced some twenty-five years ago by Brown Brothers,
Rochester, New York, having been budded from an old tree. Fruit large,
dark red, tender, sour, rich; quality good; very late; productive.


=Brown Seedling.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 214. 1854. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 457. 1869.

Originated in Connecticut. Tree vigorous, upright; fruit medium in size,
obtuse-cordate, compressed with a line and a light suture; cavity broad;
skin whitish, shaded and mottled with red; flesh half-tender, juicy,
sweet; quality fair; season early July.


=Buckatzsch Weisse Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 277, 278, 677, 678. 1819.

A medium-sized cherry of fair quality from Guben, Prussia, Germany,
where it first fruited in 1816.


=Buckatzsch Weisse Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 341, 685. 1819.

This is another seedling from Prussia, Germany; stem of medium length;
flesh somewhat tender and light.


=Budd No. 533.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:14. 1910.

This is probably a Russian seedling sent out by Professor J. L. Budd,
Ames, Iowa. Tree small, round-topped, with slender, recumbent branches;
foliage scant, mostly on the tips of the branches; fruit very large,
roundish heart-shaped; stem short, thick; skin tough, thin, dark,
mottled red; flesh firm, yellow, slightly stained with red, astringent,
subacid; quality fair; stone large, round; season the last of July.


=Buffalo.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =13=:150. 1871.

This cherry was received from Buffalo, New York, by Smiley Shepard of
Hennepen, Illinois, in the "fifties." The fruit with him proved very
hardy and productive and promised to become a valuable sweet variety for
prairie orchards. Mr. Shepard sent cions to different localities for
testing but nothing has been heard further about the variety.


=Bunte Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =19=:551. 1892. =2.=
Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:273. 1903.

This is not a Morello, though grown in North Silesia under this name.
Tree vigorous and hardy, but a late bloomer; fruit large, cordate,
reddish; flesh light-colored, juicy.


=Burbank.= _P. avium._ =1.= Burbank _Cat._ 4, 19. 1911.

_Burbank Early._ =2.= Leonard Coates _Cat._ 1911.

This is another of Burbank's cherries, trees of which have not yet
fruited at the Station. Trees described as vigorous, sure croppers;
foliage very large; fruit very large, attractive deep crimson; season
very early. Its large leaves, it is claimed, protect the fruit from the
birds and from cracking during late spring rains.


=Burchardts Schwarze Rosenobel.= _P. avium._ 1. Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 166, 167, 1819. =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:91, 92, fig.
46. 1882.

This cherry was raised by the German pomologist Burchardt from a seed of
Rosenobel. Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem medium in length,
set in a deep, straight cavity; skin purple, changing to almost black;
flesh purple, rather tender, juice slightly colored, sweet; first
quality; season the first of June.


=Burghley Park.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 229, 230.
1870. =2.= _Gard. Chron._ 1057. 1870.

Burghley Park is a seedling, raised by R. Gilbert, Burghley Park,
Stanford, England; it was placed on the list of new fruits of the Royal
Horticultural Society in July, 1871. There is a question as to whether
it is distinct, some believing it to be Reine Hortense. Fruit very
large, usually oval, often flattened, with an obscure suture; stem long,
rather slender; skin very thin, transparent, a brilliant dark red if
left hanging; flesh dull yellowish-red, veined or netted, very juicy,
melting, with a pleasing astringency; ripens in mid-season.


=Burr.= _P. avium._ =1.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 233. 1849. =2.= Mathieu
_Nom. Pom._ 342. 1889.

_Semis de Burr._ =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:163, 164, fig. 80. 1866-73.

Burr originated about 1844, with Zera Burr, of Perrinton, New York. Tree
vigorous, erect, round-topped, very productive, not always hardy; fruit
medium to large, obtuse-cordate with a pointed apex; stem long, slender;
skin thin, mottled with light and dark red; flesh whitish, rather
tender, juicy, sprightly, agreeably sweet; very good in quality; stone
small, irregularly ovate, short, thick; ripens in early mid-season.


=Büttner Gelbe Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 361, 362, 363. 1819. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:129, 130 fig. 31. 1866. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:214 fig., 215.
1877.

_Büttner's Yellow._ =4.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 185. 1845. =5.= _Am.
Pom. Soc. Cat._ 20. 1875.

_Wachsknorpelkirsche._ =6.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:44, 45. 1858.

Büttner, at Halle, Prussia, Germany, raised this cherry as a seedling
and it is probably superior to any of the varieties originated by this
horticulturist. It fruited for the first time about 1800 and was
introduced shortly after. It was grown in America as Büttner's Yellow in
the first half of the Nineteenth Century and was listed in the American
Pomological Society's fruit catalog in 1875 but was dropped in 1899.
Tree strong, vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit of medium size,
roundish-cordate, flattened at the base; suture indistinct; stem thick,
inserted in a broad, shallow cavity; skin firm, thick, pale yellow,
slightly spotted with brownish-red; flesh pale yellow, firm, breaking,
juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a rich, lively flavor; quality good; stone
small, roundish-ovate, free; ripens early in July.


=Büttner Rothe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 236, 237. 1819.

_Büttner's rothe Molkenkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:29.
1858.

Another seedling raised by Büttner about 1797 and later tested by
Truchsess. Tree vigorous, very productive; fruit of medium size,
heart-shaped, with sides somewhat compressed; stem long; skin
yellowish-white mingled with clear red, sometimes dark red; flesh
yellowish-white, very soft, juicy, sweet; quality fair; stone small,
heart-shaped; matures the first half of July.


=Büttner Rothe Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 299, 300, 301. 1819.

_Büttner's rothe Marmorkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:43.
1858.

_Bigarreau rouge de Büttner._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:132.
1866. =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:240 fig., 241. 1877.

Grown from seed about 1795, by Büttner. Büttner Späte Rote, one of
Büttner's seedlings is similar to this one. Tree vigorous, productive;
fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a shallow suture; skin thick, lively
red on one side and shaded with carmine on the other; flesh yellowish,
firm, breaking, strongly adhering to the pit, sweet, aromatic; quality
good; stone of medium size, round; matures the last of June or the first
of July.


=Büttner Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 122, 123, 124. 1819. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 204, 205.
1854. =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:64 fig., 65, 66. 1866.

_Büttner's schwarze neue Herzkirsche._ =4.= Christ _Wörterb._ 275. 1802.

_Bigarreau Noir Büttner._ =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:222 fig. 1877.

Still another variety obtained from seed by Büttner in 1795. With
several others it was sent to Truchsess, about 1801, for testing. Tree
strong, vigorous, erect, hardy, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate,
compressed; suture prominent; stem of medium length, set in a deep
cavity; skin firm, glossy, deep reddish-black; flesh dark red,
moderately firm, juicy, sweet and pleasant; quality good; stone of
medium size, roundish-oval; ripens early in July.


=Büttner Schwarze Sauerkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 601, 602, 603. 1819.

_Büttner's schwarze neue Sauerkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 289.
1802.

Raised from seed by Büttner and sent to Truchsess for testing about
1797. Fruit round, of medium size, glossy, black; flesh firm, red,
moderately juicy, agreeably acid; quality fair; ripens in August.


=Büttner Späte Rothe Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 329, 330, 682, 683. 1819.

_Büttner's harte Marmorkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:43.
1858.

_Bigarreau Rouge Tardif de Büttner._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:11, 12,
fig. 6. 1882.

_Büttner's Late Red._ =4.= _Can. Exp. Farm. Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:59. 1900.

Another seedling raised by Büttner early in the Nineteenth Century and
quite similar to Büttner Rote, except in its time of ripening, which is
later. Tree of medium vigor, erect; fruit large, heart-shaped, flattened
at the base, compressed at the apex; suture medium in depth; skin thick
and firm, yellowish-white mingled with red, changing to dark red; flesh
yellowish, firm, breaking, sweet, aromatic, with abundant, uncolored
juice; quality good; stone large, oval, slightly clinging to the flesh;
matures the last of July.


=Büttner Späte Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 531 fig.,
532. 1861.

_Büttner's September und Octoberweichsel._ =2=. Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 609. 1819.

_Büttner's October Zucker Weichsel._ =3=. _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47.
1831.

_Büttner's Sehrspäte._ =4.= _Ibid._ 47. 1831.

_Büttner's October Morello._ =5.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 193, 194.
1845. =6.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

_Griotte Tardive de Büttner._ =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:95, 96, fig. 46.
1866-73.

_Bigarreau Tardif Büttner._ =8.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:245 fig., 246.
1877.

_Büttner's October._ =9.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 288. 1884.

Produced from seed about 1800, by Büttner. As one of the latest of all
cherries, it was at one time considered of value for culinary purposes
and for a time was grown to a limited extent in this country. The
American Pomological Society placed it on its fruit catalog list in 1862
but dropped it in 1869. Tree hardy, productive; fruit often hangs to the
tree till October, large, round, somewhat oblate; suture indistinct;
apex depressed; stem long, slender; cavity shallow; skin thin but firm,
reddish-brown, separating easily from the pulp; flesh light red,
reticulated with whitish fibers, firm, breaking, juicy, sweet, rich,
mingled with pleasant subacid; quality good; stone large, oval,
semi-clinging; ripens the last of August and early September.


=Byrnville.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed in this reference.


=Cameleon.= Species? =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629.

A strange cherry, changeable in color, spoken of by Parkinson because of
its peculiarities. The fruit is very red in color and of good taste, but
varies greatly in color, shape and arrangement. It also bears blossoms,
green and ripe fruit at the same time.


=Cardinalskirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159. 1791. =2.=
Christ _Wörterb._ 284. 1802.

A cherry similar to the Doctorkirsche in both tree- and
fruit-characters; fruit dark brown, with a subacid flavor.


=Carmine Stripe.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 206. 1854. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 258. 1857.

_Cerise Carminée._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:23, 24, fig. 12. 1882.

Carmine Stripe is a seedling from Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland,
Ohio. Tree vigorous, spreading, very productive; fruit above medium in
size, heart-shaped, compressed on the sides, surface often uneven, with
a suture on one side, followed by a line of carmine; stem variable; skin
amber-yellow, shaded and mottled with bright, lively carmine; flesh
tender, juicy, sweet, with agreeable sprightliness; pit small; season
the last of June.


=Caroline.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 206. 1854.

Originated by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree
upright-spreading, vigorous; fruit above medium in size,
roundish-oblong, one side slightly compressed; color pale amber,
mottled with clear, light red, becoming rich red in the sun; flesh
tinged with pale red, translucent, tender, juicy, sweet; pit of medium
size, oblong, oval; season the last of June. Delicious for dessert.


=Catskill.= Species? =1.= Chase _Cat._ 1888.

This variety, sent out by R. G. Chase, Geneva, New York, in 1888, is
probably now extinct. Fruit of medium size, heart-shaped; skin light
yellow, nearly covered with light carmine; stem slender, long; flesh
light yellow, juicy, sprightly, mild subacid; good.


=Cerise Albanes.= Species? =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 284. 1861.

Introduced from Revel, Haute-Garonne, France. It is a fruit of first
size, excellent quality, with dark green leaves, productive; fruit white
with more or less yellow.


=Cerise d'Angleterre Précoce.= Species? =1.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._
=2=:No. 25, Pl. 1846.

According to Poiteau, this cherry, sometimes called Cerise Nouvelle
d'Angleterre, was confused by Duhamel with his Cerise Guigne. Fruit
small in the first stages of ripening, later becoming larger, flattened
at the base and apex; color clear red changing to almost black at
complete maturity.

=Cerise de l'Ardèche.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.

_Belle grosse d'Ardèche._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

_Schöne von Ardêche._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 376. 1889.

Distinct from other varieties in its manner of growth, according to
Thomas.

=Cerise Bellon.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Cerise de la Besnardière.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:181. 1866. =2.= Leroy.

_Dict. Pom._ =5=:172 fig. 1877.

_Kirsche von Bénardière._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 334. 1889.

In 1841, Leroy mentioned this variety in his catalog stating that it was
found in the gardens of the Baron of Besnardière. Mortillet believed it
to be Carnation not being convinced of the contrary until after he had
published his description of the Carnation. Tree strong, moderately
productive; fruit attached singly, large, globular, compressed at the
ends; suture apparent; stem of medium length, inserted in a rather wide,
deep cavity; skin clear red, brilliant; flesh reddish at the surface,
whitish near the center, tender, with abundant, slightly colored juice,
pleasantly acidulated and sweet; first quality; stone small, round,
plump; season the end of June in France.


=Cerise du Bicentenaire.= _P. avium_ X _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._
284, 285, Pl. 1903.

_Bicentenaireweichsel._ =2.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 58. 1907.

This variety is supposed to be a bud variation of Royal Duke found in a
garden at Lieusaint, France. The trees resemble those of Royal Duke but
the fruit is superior in size and ripens from three weeks to a month
later. Said to be valuable on northern exposures which increase the
advantages of late maturity.


=Cerise Blanche à Petit Fruit.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp.
Jard._ =2=:507. 1860.

Similar to the Cerisier à Gros Fruit Blanc but smaller.

=Cerise Commune.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No. 11,
Pl. 1846. =2.= Le Bon Jard. 346. 1882.

One of the French varieties of cherries grown in the neighborhood of
Paris to supply the early market trade. Sometimes called La Grosse
Cerise Commune.

=Cerise à Côtes.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:258, 259
fig. 1877.

This cherry is similar in tree and fruit to Large Montmorency but the
fruit is traversed on both sides by a prominent suture. Fruit attached
in threes, of medium size, globular, compressed at the ends; suture
deep, completely encircling the fruit; stem variable in length, inserted
in a large, deep cavity; apex slightly depressed; skin clear red; flesh
yellowish, transparent, tender, juicy, sugary, acidulated; pit of medium
size, round; second quality; season the end of June; moderately
productive.


=Cerise d'Espagne.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.

Fruit large, deep red, delicious, acidulated, ripening from June to
July.

=Cerise à la Feuille.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:174, 175. 1768.

The fruit is of medium size, roundish-cordate, faces flattened; stem
long; cavity deep and straight; skin deep reddish-brown; flesh red, with
an acid flavor which it loses somewhat at complete maturity; stone
large, lightly tinted; ripens the middle of July.

=Cerise de Gembloux.= _P. avium._ =1.= Ann. _Pom. Belge_ =8=:91, Pl.
1860.

M. Staquet Berger of Gembloux, Belgium, grew this cherry from seed. Tree
productive, vigorous; fruit large, roundish, slightly cordate; suture
pronounced; stem long, slender; skin thin, glossy, nearly black; flesh
red, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulated; stone small, oval; ripens
the last of July.

=Cerise Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:195,
196, Pl. 16 fig. 1. 1768. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:140, 141 fig.
34, 142. 1866. =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:159, 160, fig. 78. 1866-73. =4.=
Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:254, 255 fig., 256. 1877.

_Griotte Guigne._ =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:149. 1832.

_Cerise Anglaise._ =6.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No. 26, Pl. 1846.

_Rothe Muskateller._ =7.= _Ill. Handb._ 159 fig., 160. 1860.

This cherry is now of historical interest only. It has been called
Cerise Guigne since Duhamel described it in 1768, and may be the variety
known long ago by the Romans as Cecilienne. There is no record to show
that Cerise Guigne was ever brought to America. Tree large, vigorous,
productive; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, flattened at the
base; suture distinct; stem of medium thickness and length; skin thin;
color clear red becoming reddish-brown; flesh clear red, with abundant,
colored juice, tender, slightly stringy, sweet, sprightly, agreeable;
quality good; ripens early.


=Cerise de Mai Double.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 40.
1771.

Briefly discussed by Knoop.


=Cerise de Mai Simple.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 40,
41. 1771.

Resembles Cerise de Mai Double but smaller.


=Cerise de Martigné.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:147. 1882.

The tree-characters are briefly described in this reference.


=Cerise de Ostheim.=_ P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 78. 1890.

_Ostheim._ =2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:79, fig. 18. 1903.

In 1883, Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, brought this variety to
Iowa. It is very similar to the Minnesota Ostheim but a few days later.
Fruit of medium size, round, occasionally cordate; stem of medium
length, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin firm, deep red, with
highly colored juice, mildly subacid; quality very good.


=Cerise du Prince Maurice.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36,
41. 1771.

Tree vigorous, erect, productive; fruit scarlet, with whitish dots.

=Cerise de Prusse.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:151
fig., 152, 153, 221, 304. 1866.

_Guindoux de Provence._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 429, 430.
1819.

_Prussian Cherry._ =3.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:150. 1832.

_Provencer Süssweichsel._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:50. 1858.

_Cerise de l'Esvière._ =5.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

_Cerise de Prusse noire?_ =6.= _Ibid._ =11=:160. 1882.

This old variety is supposed to be of French origin. It is distinguished
from other sorts by its cordate form, its more or less distinct suture,
its thick skin, and its heart-shaped pit. Tree vigorous, moderately
productive; fruit rather large, partially cordate, marked by a suture on
both sides, more pronounced towards the base; stem of medium length,
inserted in a rather deep cavity; skin thick, tough, separating from the
pulp, deep reddish, almost black; flesh rather firm, deep red, juicy,
sprightly, vinous, with a pronounced acidity; stone rather large,
oval-pointed, turgid; ripens early in July.


=Cerise de Rouen Double.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36,
42. 1771.

Tree vigorous and productive; fruit cordate, marked with a suture of
moderate depth; color streaked with clear red on a yellow ground; flesh
brittle, sweet, very agreeable.

=Cerise de Rouen Simple.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:42.
1771.

Resembles the preceding variety in form, color and quality but is
somewhat smaller.


=Cerise Rouge Pale.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:89, 90, fig.
43. 1866-73. 2. Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:383, 384 fig., 385. 1877.

_Cerisier à Gros Fruit Rouge-pâle._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb._ Fr.
=1=:182, 183, 184, Pl. 9. 1768. =4.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:5, Tab. 14
fig. 1. 1792.

_Villennes._ =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:140. 1832.

_Bleichrothe Glaskirsche._ =6.= _Ill. Handb._ 75 fig., 76. 1867.

This cherry is of interest only because of its past. Of its origin no
record can be found. It is first mentioned by Duhamel, in 1768, under a
somewhat longer name, "Cerisier à Gros Fruit Rouge-pâle," which many
later writers have confused with Carnation. Tree large, vigorous,
productive; fruit large, roundish, flattened; stem long, thick; cavity
deep, broad; skin thin; color a clear, brilliant red growing darker as
maturity advances; flesh transparent, juicy, firm, tender, sweet, yet
sprightly; of very good quality; season late.


=Cerise Rouge Sanguine.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed in this reference.


=Cerise Royale Ordinaire.= Species? =1.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No.
22, Pl. 1846.

This variety is known in Normandy as Cerise Musquée because of its
slight musky taste. Fruit small, sides compressed; skin red; flesh
yellowish, juicy, sugary; quality fair.


=Cerise de Soissons.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55.
1831.

_Französiche Süssweichsel._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:51.
1858.

_Admirable de Soissons._ =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 476. 1869.

Cerise de Soissons is described as a Morello, medium to above in size,
broadly cordate, slightly compressed, with a slight suture; stem short;
skin dark red; flesh red, tender, juicy, brisk subacid; ripens the
middle of July.


=Cerise de Tiercé.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Cerise de Xavier.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =17=:363. 1851. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 215. 1854.

A Morello cherry, first shown in 1851, by M. P. Wilder, Dorchester,
Massachusetts. Fruit medium in size, round, dark red, acid.


=Cerisier Commun à Fruit Rond.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb.
Fr._ =1=:172, 173. 1768. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 658, 659.
1819.

Under this heading are grouped many wild cherries in France, grown from
seeds, whose trees, leaves and flowers vary as well as the size, taste
and time of ripening of the fruits. One of the best of these is grown
around Paris, the fruit being small; stem long; pit large; quality and
flavor variable.


=Cerisier Commun Pleureur.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 397. 1888.

This cherry was found in a Sour Cherry plantation. It resembles
Montmorency in habit of growth and the Heart cherries in texture of
flesh. The tree is used for ornamental planting and its fruit for
culinary purposes. Tree very productive, bushy, branches inclined to
droop; fruit large, oblong; stem long, inserted in a large cavity; skin
glossy, dark red; flesh rose-colored, transparent, sugary, juicy; pit of
medium size, elongated-oval; ripens early in June.


=Cerisier à Feuilles Laciniées.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:267, 268 fig. 1877.

This is a chance seedling first mentioned by Leroy in his catalog in
1860. Because of its foliage it is often used as an ornamental. Tree
strong, moderately productive; fruit generally attached singly, small,
oval; suture apparent; stem long; cavity moderately large; skin clear
red, marbled with reddish-brown; flesh firm, yellowish-white, with
abundant, uncolored juice, sugary, slightly acidulated; pit of medium
size, elongated-oval, plump.


=Cerisier à Gros Fruit Blanc.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp.
Jard._ =2=:507. 1860.

A cherry ripening in July but described as very sugary and very good;
flesh watery, aromatic; productive.


=Cerisier Royal Tardif à Fruit Noir.= Species? =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp.
Jard._ =2=:506. 1860.

The fruit ripens in July, becoming deep black.


=Cerisier Très-fertile.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:175, 176. 1768.

_Weichselbaum mit bündelförmigen Früchten._ =2.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:5, Tab. 12 fig. 1. 1792.

_Cerise à Trochet._ =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 56. 1831. =4.= Leroy
_Dict. Pom._ =5=:397, 398 fig. 1877.

_Prolific Cherry._ =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:132. 1832.

_Amarelle très-fertile._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:201 fig., 202,
203. 1866.

Leroy states that this variety was long ago well known in France.
Because it was grown in the neighborhood of Angers and Saint-Laud, and
was of the Montmorency type, Leroy says it was locally named Cerisier
Montmorency Hâtif de Saint Laud. He is doubtful whether it existed
before the Eighteenth Century; Duhamel was the first to describe it in
1768. The tree resembles the Cluster cherry and is probably but a
variation of the Cerise Commune type. Tree small; fruit generally
attached in threes, of medium size, globular, compressed at the stem;
cavity rather deep; apex small, somewhat prominent; stem of medium size,
unequal in length; skin transparent, clear red, deeper when mature;
flesh tender, white, juicy, sugary, strongly acidulated; stone medium in
size, roundish, turgid; ripens the middle of June. Its graceful habit
and productiveness make it a favorite for ornamental purposes.


=Cerisier de Varenne.= Species? =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._
=2=:507. 1860.

_Belle de Varennes._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Tree erect, very vigorous; fruit large, compressed; stem long; color
bright red.


=Challenge.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

Challenge is a Sand Cherry seedling grown in Canada; fair flavor and of
medium size.


=Champagne.= Species? =1.= _Horticulturist_ =5=:76, 77 fig. 1850. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 205. 1854.

Champagne is a seedling raised by Charles Downing,[84] Newburgh, New
York, and so named because of the peculiar and lively mingling of sweet
and acid in its flavor. Tree very hardy, vigorous, bearing regularly,
and withstanding the attacks of rot and blight. Fruit of medium size,
roundish-cordate, slightly angular; stem moderately long; cavity
shallow, flat; skin lively brick-red, inclining to pink; flesh amber,
juicy, sprightly, rich; ripens the middle of June.


=Champion.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 307. 1898.

Champion is one of many seedlings of the Manitoba Sand, a native
Canadian cherry named and described in 1898, by Wm. Saunders of the
Canadian Experimental Farms. Fruit large, very dark red, nearly black
when ripe; flesh sweet, nearly free from astringency; quality good;
ripens in Manitoba the last of August.


=Chapman.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 130. 1897. =2.= _Cal.
Nur. Cat._ =1=:14. 1898. =3.= _Ore. Nur. Cat._ 21. 1903. =4.= _Am. Pom.
Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

Chapman was grown by W. H. Chapman of Napa, California, and is supposed
to be a seedling of Black Tartarian, surpassing that variety in size and
earliness. By some horticulturists Chapman and California Advance are
considered identical, but most growers, particularly in California,
declare the two to be distinct. Fruit matures early; very large,
roundish, purplish-black; stem long, slender; flesh slightly tender;
very good in quality; stone small.


=Cheresoto.= _P. pumila × P. americana._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=130=:184, Pl. 10, Pl. 11, 185. 1911.

Cheresoto is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the De Soto plum from
the South Dakota Experiment Station. The tree resembles the plum in
growth but the fruit, in looks and flavor, is like that of the Sand
Cherry. Fruit rather long with a prickle at the apex; about one and
three-eighths inches in diameter; skin black with a bluish bloom, thin,
free from acerbity; flesh yellowish-green, sprightly; pit clinging.


=China Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:126. 1832.

_China Heart._ =2.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 30. 1828. =3.= _Lond. Hort.
Soc. Cat._ 48. 1831.

This variety was raised from the seed of an Ox Heart by William Prince,
Flushing, New York, and at first was called China Heart. W. R. Prince in
his _Pomological Manual_ of 1832, calls it China Bigarreau as it is more
of the Bigarreau than of the Heart type of cherries. Tree vigorous,
large; fruit medium in size, roundish or oval-cordate, with a distinct
suture; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin when fully
ripe, glossy red mottled with lighter red; flesh firm, somewhat melting,
with a sweet, rich, peculiar flavor; ripens just after Black Tartarian
and forms a link between it and the later varieties; very productive.


=Choque.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15, 191. 1876. =2.= Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11=:141, 142. 1882.

_Guigne Choque._ =3.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 482. 1904.

Originated near Metz, Lorraine, Germany. Tree vigorous, productive;
fruit rather large; of a deep red color at maturity; flesh white,
slightly tinted with a rose color, firm, very juicy, sweet; ripens the
last of June.


=Christbauer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 42. 1892.

A sort reported to ripen before Early Richmond.


=Christiana.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 206.
1854.

This variety was raised by B. B. Kirtland, Greenbush, New York, and
resembles May Duke in character of tree and fruit. The fruit is borne in
clusters, is of a bright, lively red color, and has a sprightly subacid
flavor.


=Churchill Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 48. 1831.
=2.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 290. 1884.

Tree hardy, productive; fruit large, heart-shaped; stem long; cavity
shallow; skin glossy, of a clear, waxen, pale yellow, bright red when
exposed to the sun, mottled with dark red and orange; flesh pale yellow,
firm, sweet, rich, moderately juicy; season the end of July.


=Cistena.= _P. pumila × P. pissardi._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=130=:190, 191. 1911.

Cistena is a cross between the Sand Cherry and _Prunus pissardi_,
interesting only because of its beautiful purple foliage.


=Clark September.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt._
=22=:XVIII. 1890.

Clark September is a local sort from Lower Granville, Nova Scotia. The
fruits are of medium size and when fully ripe are of a dark red color;
flesh firm, of a sweet and agreeable flavor.

=Cluster Black Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 481.
1904.

Tree vigorous; fruit small or of medium size, cordate; stem long; skin
glossy, black; flesh very dark red, tender, juicy, agreeably mild acid;
ripens in July.

=Cocklin Favorite.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =3=:249 fig., 1861.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 458. 1869.

_Late Amber._ =3.= _Horticulturist_ =17=:381. 1862.

This seedling was introduced by E. H. Cocklin, Shepherdstown,
Pennsylvania, but its origin is unknown. Tree upright, conical, very
productive; fruit large, roundish, regular, slightly compressed,
somewhat flattened at the base, almost without a suture; apex depressed;
stem long, slender; cavity deep; skin yellowish shaded and mottled in
the sun with a light crimson; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, vinous;
quality good; stone very small for the size of the fruit; season late.


=Coe Late Carnation.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 216. 1854.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 275. 1857.

_Coe's Späte Rote Kirsche._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 343, 344. 1889.

This is a late variety of unknown origin--possibly a seedling of
Carnation. Fruit medium to large, cordate; suture shallow; color
yellowish-amber mottled with clear red; flesh tender, juicy, subacid;
quality fair; season the last of July.


=Coeur de Pigeon Noir.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:148. 1882.

Fruit of medium size, cordate, slightly elongated.


=Coeur de Poule.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:124. 1832.

_Gros Bigarreau coeur-de-Poule_ =2.= _Rev. Hort._ 65. 1881.

According to Prince, this variety was rather extensively cultivated in
the south of France especially in the vicinity of Toulouse, where it was
known as Cor dè Galino. The fruit ripens in July, has the form of the
Hearts; its vivid red changes to nearly black as does also the juice.


=Cole.= _P. cerasus._

Cole is a rather small-sized Morello of little value and no doubt now
out of cultivation. Fruit cordate, compressed along the sutures; stem
long, slender, set in a wide cavity; skin nearly black; flesh tender,
rather meaty, dark red, lighter near the pit, having abundant,
wine-colored juice, sour, sprightly; stone clings; season late.


=Columbia.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 459. 1869.

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; fruit of medium size,
heart-shaped, inclining to a point, surface angular and uneven, sides
compressed; suture deep, narrow; stem long, slender; cavity large, deep;
skin whitish-yellow, blushed and mottled with light red; flesh whitish,
stained with pink, tender, juicy, pleasant; season the last of June.


=Common Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:143, 144.
1832. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 103. 1852.

_Wild Morello._ =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1831.

_Common Red Morello._ =4.= _Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 144. 1886.

This variety must not be confused with the well-known English Morello.
Through self-propagation, it is widely known, as are its many seedlings
which oft-times surpass it in size and quality.


=Como.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Comtesse de Médicis Spada.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160.
1882.

Listed without a description.


=Condé.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35. 1771.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Conestoga.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:423. 1853. =2.=
_Horticulturist_ =17=:381. 1862.

Conestoga was introduced by Casper Hiller, Conestoga, Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania. Tree a rampant, spreading grower, very productive; fruit
very large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed and indented at the
apex; suture shallow; stem very long, inserted in an open cavity; skin
deep red, purplish, somewhat mottled; flesh firm, rather tender, juicy,
sugary, brisk; quality good; season early July.


=Constance Maisin.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.
=2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

This is a Belgian variety, which, according to _Guide Pratique_, 1895,
is very similar to Montmorency.


=Cook Imperial.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt._ 25. 1904-05.

This variety, a seedling of Napoleon, originated with Steven Cook,
Benton Harbor, Michigan. It is mentioned as a promising new sort,
resembling Black Tartarian in shape, flavor, color, and length of stem
but earlier and larger.


=Cornelia.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 459. 1869.

Cornelia originated with Charles Pease, near Cleveland, Ohio. Tree
vigorous, upright-spreading, very productive; fruit medium to above in
size, compressed, heart-shaped; suture slight; stem long; cavity narrow,
deep; skin whitish-yellow, shaded with bright crimson on the sunny side;
flesh light yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, rather lively; quality good;
stone small; season the last of June.


=Corning.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 72. 1899. =2.= _Ia.
Sta. Bul._ =73=:66 fig. 1903.

Corning is a cross between the Wragg and Lutovka and originated with A.
F. Collman, Corning, Iowa. Fruit oblate-cordate, above medium in size;
suture lacking; stem of medium length, stout, inserted in a medium deep,
narrow cavity; skin rather thick, tender, red; flesh firm, breaking;
juice slightly colored, briskly subacid; quality good; stone medium
large, ovate; ripens in August.


=Corone.= _P. avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629. =2.= Rea
_Flora_ 205. 1676. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 291. 1884.

_Englische Schwarze Kronherzkirsche._ =4.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 149-152. 1819. =5.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 347. 1889.

Corone, as the references show, is one of the oldest-named varieties,
though strictly speaking, since it was largely grown from seed,
according to the old writers, it is a type and not a variety. In
character of fruit it seems to be midway between Black Mazzard and Black
Tartarian. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit below medium in size,
roundish-cordate, compressed and often roughened; suture deep; stem
slender, long; cavity deep, round, narrow; color a deep, shining black;
flesh dark purple, very firm, sweet; ripens late.


=Corwin.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Elliott Fr. _Book_ 216. 1854.

This is a medium-sized, roundish, red Morello with tender, acid flesh
and a large stone; season July.


=Coularde.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 424-427.
1819.

_Cerisier de Hollande._ =2.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:184, 185, Pl.
10. 1768. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:298, 346. 1877. =4.= Mathieu _Nom.
Pom._ 363. 1889.

_Holländische Weichselbaum mit sehr grosser Frucht_ [or] _Coulard._ =5.=
Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:5, Tab. 12 fig. 2. 1792.

_Holländische grosse Kirsche Coulard._ =6.= Christ _Handb._ 670. 1797.

_Holländische grosse Weichsel [or] Coulard._ =7.= Christ Wörterb. 284.
1802.

_Holland Griotte._ =8.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:141. 1832. =9.= Kenrick
_Am. Orch._ 280. 1832.

_Holländische Süssweichsel._ =10.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3:=51.
1858.

_Cerisier coulard de Holland._ =11.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._
=2:=505. 1860.

Leroy states that Coularde has been known since 1740 but is often
confused with other cherries. According to Leroy, this variety was
reintroduced as a novelty about 1864, under the name Belle d'Orleans.
American writers, however, list a Belle d'Orleans as early as 1850,
which is of the Guigne type rather than the Griotte. Tree the largest of
its class; branches strong and straight; blooms profusely; fruit large,
round; skin red; flesh firm, reddish-white, sweet, agreeable; ripens the
end of June. The pistils being much longer than the stamens, many
flowers are never fertilized which gives the blossoms a blighted
appearance.


=Courte-queue de Gaiberg.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23, 192.
1876.

_Courte-pendu de Gaiberg._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed as having been received from Germany on the recommendation of
Oberdieck.


=Crawford.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11:=160. 1882.

Listed, not described.


=Crown Prince.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 465. 1900.

Tree vigorous; fruit above medium in size, cordate; skin yellow with a
light red blush; flesh whitish, juicy, tender, refreshing; quality good;
ripens the last of May.

=Cserszeger Honigkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55.
1907.

A yellow Heart cherry.


=Cullen Cherrie.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629.

"The Cullen Cherrie is a darke red cherrie like the Agriot, which they
of those parts neere Cullen and Vtrecht &c. vse to put into their
drinke, to give it the deeper colour."


=Cumberland.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 205. 1854.

_Triumph of Cumberland._ =2.= _Horticulturist_ =7=:100. 1852. =3.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 267, 268. 1857. =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11:=87,
88, fig. 44. 1882.

_Cumberland Heart._ =5.= _Gard. Mon._ =2=:118. 1860.

_Cumberland Spice._ =6.= _Horticulturist_ =17=:498. 1862.

Cumberland is a chance seedling found in Cumberland County,
Pennsylvania; introduced by David Miller of Carlisle. Tree strong in
growth, erect, vigorous, productive; fruit obtuse-cordate, sides
compressed; stem rather long, slender, set in a broad, open cavity; apex
slightly depressed; suture entirely around the fruit, but a line on one
side; skin medium thick, tough, clear purple changing to a
purplish-black; flesh deep purple, crisp, aromatic, with abundant,
colored juice; quality good; pit roundish-oval, compressed, slightly
clinging; ripens the middle of June.


=Cyclone.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Nova Scotia Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt._ 23. 1894.

This variety is said in Nova Scotia to be somewhat similar to Wood and
Rockport but to be superior to either in size and quality.


=Dacotah.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =26=:402, 403. 1860. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 459. 1869.

Dacotah is a seedling of one of Professor J. P. Kirtland's sorts,
originated by his son-in-law, Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. In growth
it resembles Rockport; in fruit, Black Tartarian although it is later.
The fruit is borne on spurs on the body as well as on the limbs, thus
being protected from birds by the foliage. Fruit medium to large,
heart-shaped, compressed; suture shallow; stem long, slender; cavity
deep, narrow; skin rich dark red, almost black, slightly roughened;
flesh rather tender, purplish, juicy, sweet; of high quality; stone of
medium size; productive.


=Daiber Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
344. 1889.

Listed by Mathieu.


=Dankelmannskirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
242-246, 677. 1819.

_Schwefelkirsche._ =2.= Krünitz _Enc._ 72, 73. 1790.

_Agatkirsche._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 666. 1797.

_Dankelmann's Weisse Herzkirsche._ =4.= _Ibid._ 666. 1797.

_Kleine weisse Perlkirsche._ =5.= _Ibid._ 683. 1797.

_Dankelmann's Molkenkirsche._ =6.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:28.
1858.

_Bigarreautier à fruit jaune?_ =7.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:504.
1860.

_Bigarreau jaune._ =8.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:133. 1866.

In 1791, Truchsess received grafts of what he thought were several
distinct varieties and disseminated them as such. Later, they were found
to be identical with the Dankelmann. The fruit is recognized from others
of its class by its small size, its honey sweetness, its peculiar color
and its transparent skin. Fruit more round than cordate, with a shallow
suture; stem slender, inserted in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin yellow
washed with red, transparent allowing the pit to be visible; flesh
yellowish-white, tender, very juicy, very sweet if ripened thoroughly;
stone small, round, almost free when ripe; season the last of June to
July.


=Datge.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:59. 1900.

Mentioned in this reference as being moderate in growth.


=Davenport.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:154. 1832.

_Davenport's Early Red._ =2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 218. 1835.

_Davenport's Early Black._ =3.= _Ibid._ 233. 1841.

_Davenport's Early._ =4.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 172, 173. 1845.

This early cherry, resembling somewhat Black Heart, was originated
nearly a century ago by Edward Davenport, Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Tree medium in size, productive; fruit above medium to large,
roundish-cordate; stem long, rather thick; skin bright red becoming
purplish-black; flesh firm but tender, sprightly, pleasant, juicy,
sweet; very good in quality; season early.


=De Belleu.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:59. 1900.

Mentioned in this reference as being a variety of moderate growth.


=De Jacap.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=De Ravaene.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=De Sibérie à gros fruit et à rameaux pendans.= Species? =1.= Noisette
_Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:508. 1860.

This is a dwarf ornamental tree bearing small, oval, mediocre fruits
ripening in August and September.


=De Spa.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =17=:363. 1851. =2.= Downing
_Fr. Trees Am._ 278. 1857.

De Spa is a medium-sized, dark red, acid Morello forming a prolific
bush, ripening soon after May Duke.


=De Vaux.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm. Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:59. 1900.

Listed in the reference given.


=Dearborn Red French.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._
280. 1832.

This is a Duke cherry imported from France by H. A. S. Dearborn,
Roxbury, Massachusetts. The name having been lost, the importer renamed
it.


=Dechenaut.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 78. 1866.

Fruit large, roundish-cordate, broad at the base, rather flattened;
suture faint; skin bright cornelian-red, becoming darker red when ripe,
glossy; stem long, set in a wide, deep cavity; flesh tender, succulent;
resembling May Duke in flavor and season.


=Delaware Bleeding Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 61.
1898.

This is a medium-sized, dark red, nearly black fruit with solid flesh
and good flavor.


=Delicate.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 193 fig. 1854.

Delicate was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in
1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with Black
Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree moderately vigorous,
upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to large, roundish-oblate;
suture rather pronounced; stem medium in length; skin thin, translucent,
amber-yellow overspread and mottled with light carmine; flesh pale
yellow, juicy, pleasant, sweet; very good in quality; stone small,
roundish-oval; season the last of June and the first of July.


=Délicieuse.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed by Mas.


=Denner Black.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 48. 1831.

Listed but not described.


=Des Cheneaux.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Deutsche Belzweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 290. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 603, 604, 605. 1819.

Probably this is but a wild seedling used in grafting. Fruit of medium
size, round; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, set in a shallow
cavity; skin glossy, dark brown; flesh firm, dark, reddish directly
under the skin, juicy, with a sourish wine-flavor; stone small, oval;
ripens the middle of July.

=Disnoder Gewürzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 55.
1907.

Listed as a black Bigarreau.


=Ditst.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=: 160. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Dobbeete Moreller.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1831.

Listed in this reference.


=Doctay.= Species? =1.= _Horticulturist_ =17=:498. 1862.

Reported in the reference as a good, late cherry of second size as grown
by E. Manning, Harrisburg, Ohio.


=Doctor.= _P. avium._ 1. _Horticulturist_ =2=:123 fig. 1847-48. =2.=
_Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:37, 38, fig.
17. 1866-73. _American Doctor._ =4.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 71. 1866.

Doctor was originated by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in
1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with Black
Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Hogg called it American Doctor to
distinguish it from the German Doctorkirsche. Tree of medium vigor,
upright-spreading, healthy, very productive; fruit medium to large,
roundish-cordate; stem long, rather slender; skin light yellow, mottled,
blushed and at times almost entirely overspread with red; flesh pale
yellow, juicy, tender, aromatic, sweet; good in quality; stone small.


=Dr. Flynn.= _P. avium._ =1.= Coates _Cat._ 1911-12.

Dr. Flynn is a chance seedling which originated in Portland, Oregon,
with a Dr. Flynn. Fruit large, dark red; similar to Lambert in shape;
preceding Napoleon.


=Dr. Wiseman.= _P. avium._ =1.= Van Lindley _Cat._ 23. 1892. =2.= Thomas
_Am. Fruit Cult._ 321. 1897.

This cherry was named after Dr. Wiseman, Davie County, North Carolina,
who claimed it to be the earliest Sweet Cherry. Van Lindley believes it
to be the Doctor which originated with Professor Kirtland. Fruit of
medium size, light yellow, shaded with bright red, resembling Wood.


=Doctorkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 161. 1791. =2.=
Christ _Handb._ 674. 1797. =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 402-405.
1819. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 497 fig., 498. 1861.

This variety was first mentioned in 1791. It should not be confused with
another sort mentioned by Büttner and Truchsess as Doctorknorpelkirsche.
Fruit large, roundish, somewhat compressed; stem long; cavity rather
deep; skin tough, brownish-red changing to reddish-black; flesh dark
red, melting, juicy, sweet yet with a sprightly flavor; pit round,
slightly pointed; ripens the middle of July.


=Doctorknorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
201, 202, 203. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:37. 1858.

According to Truchsess, this sort was received by him in 1797, from
Büttner at Leipzig under the name of Doctorkirsche. Because one or two
other sorts were growing at that time under this name, Christ changed
this one, following Büttner's description, to Doctorkirsche mit Hartem
Fleisch, which has since been shortened to Doctorknorpelkirsche. Fruit
large, slightly compressed; stem long and slender; color black; flesh
firm, clear red, juicy, agreeably sweet; ripens the middle of August.


=Dollaner Schwarze.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 9 fig., 10. 1867.

According to Oberdieck, this variety originated at Dollan, Bohemia,
Austria, the home of the Dollaner prune. Fruit above medium in size,
truncate-cordate, traversed entirely by a suture; stem slender, long,
set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tough, brownish-black with light
spots, wholly black when ripe; flesh and juice dark red, flesh firm, but
tender enough to be classed among the Hearts, sweet, aromatic, with a
slight sourness before fully ripe; stone elongated-oval; season late.


=Donna Maria.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Barry _Fr. Garden_ 326. 1851. =2.=
_Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =3.= _Am. Hort. An._ 84 fig. 41, 85.
1869.

This is a Morello cherry, probably of French origin. It is distinct from
the Early May grown in the West with which it has been confused. Donna
Maria held a place on the American Pomological Society's catalog of
fruits from 1862 until 1899. Tree small, productive; fruit medium in
size, roundish, dark red; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly; good in
quality; season late.


=Doppelte Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 673. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 505, 506, 507. 1819.

_Doppelte Amarelle._ =3.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 158. 1791.

Christ first described this variety as Doppelte Amarelle but in his
later writings changed it to Doppelte Weichsel. It is distinguished from
the Spanische Frühweichsel in being larger, longer in stem, and sourer.
Fruit above medium in size, globular; suture shallow; stem long, rather
stout, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark brownish-red, thin, not glossy
in wet years; flesh dark, firm for a Weichsel, juicy, light colored,
pleasing subacid; pit small, more round than broad, free; season the end
of June.


=Dorotheenkirsche.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 347. 1889.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Dörrells Neue Himbeerkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl Führ.
_Obstkunde_ =3=:27. 1858.

Tree productive; fruit large, cordate, flattened; stem stout; skin dark
red; flesh firm, whitish, sweet, aromatic; stone small; ripens at the
end of June.


=Doty.= Species? =1.= _Am. Inst. An. Rpt._ 212. 1867.

This is a small but pleasantly flavored seedling exhibited by William M.
Doty, Star Landing, New Jersey.


=Double Yellow Spanish.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 331.
1885.

This variety was imported to America by Professor J. L. Budd of Ames,
Iowa. The tree has a drooping habit, large foliage and sweet fruit of
best quality.


=Douce de Bardowick.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Dougall.= Species? =1.= _Cult. & Count. Gent._ =39=:454. 1874.

Dougall is a large, black, seedling fruit introduced by James Dougall,
Amherstburgh, Canada. Ripens before Early Purple.


=Doulin Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 460. 1869.

This is a foreign variety which may not be distinct. Tree a rapid,
spreading grower, bears early; fruit large, heart-shaped, compressed on
one side; stem slender, curved, set in a deep cavity; suture slight;
skin dark purplish-red; flesh pinkish, rather tender, juicy, sweet,
pleasant; quality good; season early June.


=Dove Bank.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Downing Red Cheek.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 186 fig.
76. 1845. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 205. 1854.

_Rouge de Downing._ =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:85, 86, fig. 41. 1866-73.

_Downing's Sämling._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 346. 1889.

This attractive cherry, resembling Yellow Spanish, was raised by A. J.
Downing,[85] Newburgh, New York, about 1840; its exact parentage is
unknown. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to
large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; stem long, slender, inserted
in a shallow cavity; skin thin, yellowish-white blushed and mottled with
attractive dark crimson; flesh yellowish but often very nearly white,
half-tender, juicy, delicate, sweet; good in quality; stone medium in
size; ripens from the middle to the last of June.


=Downton.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Pom. Mag._ =3=:138 Pl. 1830. =2.= Prince
_Pom. Man._ =2=:124. 1832. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =4.=
_Ill. Handb._ 485 fig., 486. 1861.

_Downtoner Molkenkirsche._ =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:30. 1858.

_Guigne Downton._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:98, 303. 1866. =7.=
Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:321 fig. 1877.

_Impératrice Downton_? =8.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =II=:161. 1882.

Downton was raised early in the Nineteenth Century by T. A. Knight,
Downton Castle, England, from a seed of Elton. Tree strong in growth,
spreading; fruit attached in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate, roundish;
stem rather long, slender; skin pale yellowish, heavily specked with
red, which often merges into a blush on the sunny side; flesh light
yellow, very tender, juicy; high in quality; stone slightly adherent;
ripens after May Duke.


=Dresdener Mai Herzkirsche.= _P. Avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23.
1876.

A very early Heart cherry received by Thomas from Germany.


=Drogan White Bigarreau.= _P. Avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 79.
1866. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 188. 1876.

_Drogan's Weisse Knorpelkirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
341, 684. 1819. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 55 fig., 56. 1867.

This is one of Drogan's seedlings from Guben, Prussia, Germany, 1809.
Leroy includes Drogan's White and Yellow Bigarreaus with his Guigne
Blanche (Grosse) but the three are distinct varieties. Tree vigorous,
productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, flattened on one side; suture
distinct; stem rather short, stout; cavity wide, deep; apex pointed;
skin tough, pale yellow, mottled and blushed with red where much
exposed; flesh firm, pale yellow, juicy, sweet; stone plump, ovate to
oval; desirable for table and kitchen use; late.


=Drogan Yellow Bigarreau.= _P. Avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 147 fig., 148.
1860. =2.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 79, 80. 1866. =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:111,
112, fig. 54. 1866-73. Bigarreau (Golden)? =4.= Fell _Cat._ 41. 1893-94.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large to very large, oblate-cordate,
resembling May Duke, compressed on the faces, truncate at the base,
traversed by a shallow suture; stem long, stout, inserted in a wide,
deep cavity; skin rather glossy, clear yellow, golden in the sun; flesh
firm, yellowish, having abundant, uncolored juice, with a sweetness
which increases as the season advances; quality high; pit small, turgid,
roundish-oval, truncate at the base; ripens late.


=Drogans Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. Avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 206, 207, 677. 1819.

A Prussian seedling from Guben, Germany, which in favorable years is of
good size and pleasant flavor; skin black; flesh firm, juicy, colored;
ripens the middle of July.


=Drooping Guigne.= _P. Avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:119. 1832.

_Guignier à rameaux pendans._ =2.= Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. =2=:503.
1860.

Noisette lists this variety under the Merisiers while others take it to
be Toussaint which it resembles in habit of growth. Fruit large,
roundish or heart-shaped, glossy black, with a long stem; flesh
reddish-black, watery, sweet; season July; very productive.


=Du Comte Egger.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Listed, not described.


=Du Nord Nouvelle.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Barry _Fr. Garden_ 326. 1851.

Mentioned as a Morello from France ripening in August. Fruit of medium
size, bright red, tender, acid; useful because of its lateness.


=Duchesse d'Angoulême.= _P. Cerasus._ =1.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:155, 156,
fig. 76. 1866-73. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:261. 1877. =3.= Ia. _Sta.
Bul._ =73=:67, fig. 12. 1903.

_Herzogin von Angouleme._ =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 535 fig., 536. 1861.

Duchesse d'Angoulême is supposed to have come from the vicinity of
Vienna, Austria, although some writers give France as its place of
origin. It is often confused with other sorts. Tree large, vigorous,
upright, slightly spreading, productive; fruit medium to above in size,
roundish-oblate; stem rather long and thick, set in a large, deep
cavity; skin firm, bright red; flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy,
sprightly, agreeably aromatic at extreme maturity; quality fair to good;
stone nearly round, slightly compressed; ripens from the middle to the
end of June.


=Duchesse de Palluau.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._
=19=:407 fig. 28. 1853. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:261, 262 fig. 1877.
=3.= _Rev. Hort._ 236, 237, Pl. 1901.

_Herzogin von Paluau._ =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 169 fig., 170. 1860.

_Précoce Lemercier_ incor. =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:142-146,
fig. 1866.

Duchesse de Palluau was raised about 1840 by M. Pierre Bretonneau near
Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France. In 1844 he gave cions of this variety,
under the name Duchesse de Palluau, to Leroy who propagated and probably
disseminated the sort. Tree large, productive; fruit medium to large,
heart-shaped, compressed; stem long, slender; skin thin, dark purple
becoming almost black; flesh tinged with red, juicy, brisk subacid
becoming sweet; good in quality; stone nearly free, oblong-ovate, small;
ripens in early mid-season.


=Duke of Edinburgh.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales_ =19=:998.
1908.

Tree stunted, upright; fruit too small and soft for market; similar to
Belle d'Orleans; ripens in November in Australia.


=Dumas.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Dunkelrothe Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensor_. 680-682. 1819.

_Bigarreau à Longue Queue._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:121, 122
fig., 123, 219. 1866.

_Bigarreau Rouge Foncé._ =3.= _Ibid._ =2=:302. 1866.

_Bigarreau Violet._ =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:249 fig. 1877.

This variety probably originated with Van Mons in Belgium about 1790. It
was received by Truchsess a little later as a French sort under the name
Bigarreau Violet. Fruit large, elongated-cordate, sides compressed;
suture very distinct dividing the fruit into halves; stem very long,
more deeply inserted in unripe fruits; skin firm but not tough,
yellowish, overspread with dark red, verging to violet; flesh yellowish,
firm, juicy; quality excellent; stone free, small, roundish-oval; apex
acutely pointed; ripens the middle of June.


=Duraccia.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 292. 1893. =2.= _Am.
Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 175. 1895.

E. E. Goodrich, Santa Clara, California, received cions of this variety
from Lucca, Italy, thinking it to be the famous "Pistojese" used
extensively in Italy for brandying. Fruit above medium in size, cordate;
stem long, slender, set in a large, deep, regular cavity; suture deep,
extending beyond the apex; skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, finely
pitted, dark purple to almost black; flesh red with lighter veinings,
firm, meaty, rich, sweet; quality very good; pit of medium size, plump,
partially adherent; season at Santa Clara the last of July to August;
ships well; has not been reported from the eastern states.


=Dure Noir Grosse.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Not described.


=Dwarf Siberian.= _P.fruticosa._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:153. 1832.

_Dutch Weeping._ =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 48. 1831.

_De Sibérie._ =3.= _Ibid._ 55. 1831. =4.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No.
20, Pl. 1846.

_Weeping._ =5.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 283. 1832.

_De Sibérie à fruit rond_? =6.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:508.
1860.

Dwarf Siberian belongs to _Prunus fruticosa_, the dwarf cherry of the
Old World, of which _Cerasus chamaecerasus_ is a synonym. This cherry
was introduced into America by Prince of Flushing, New York, and was
thought by him to be the most suitable species to furnish stocks for
dwarf trees. At best the variety reaches a height of from three to four
feet with branches very numerous, forming a dense shrub. The flowers
have long peduncles, often solitary but are usually united in umbels of
from three to five each, which are sessile and axillary; fruit globular,
red, small; flesh red, very acid, tender.


=Early Amarella.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Albertson & Hobbs _Cat._ 26. 1904.
=2.= Vincennes _Nur. Cat._ 26. 1906.

Tree upright, hardy, very productive; fruit large, brilliant red
becoming darker as it gets riper; stem very long.


=Early Amber.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69. 80. 1866, =2.=
_Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 45. 1831.

_River's Early Amber Heart._ =3.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 234. 1841. =4.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 177. 1845.

_Guigne panachée précoce._ =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:97, 208.
1866.

_Bigarreau Ambré Précoce._ =6.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:49, 50, fig. 23.
1866-73. =7.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:174, 175 fig. 1877.

Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, England, is given credit for this
variety as a strain of the old Early White Heart. Leroy, however, states
that his grandfather propagated this cherry under the name Cerise
Panache or Suisse, as early as 1790 but without knowing its origin. He
dropped the _précoce_ because other varieties ripened long before this
one. Tree vigorous, erect, productive; fruit borne in threes, medium in
size, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; suture wide; stem long,
slender, set in a straight, deep cavity; skin firm, medium thick,
changing from lively red to reddish-brown; flesh yellowish, tender,
cracking, with uncolored juice, sweet, aromatic; pit large for the
fruit; season early.


=Early Black Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 80.
1866. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866.

Fruit large, distinctly heart-shaped; stem long; color jet black; flesh
dark purple, firm, rich, sweet; excellent; season the last of June and
the first of July.


=Early Eugene.= Species? =1.= _Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 437. 1898.

Reported by H. L. McGee, Villa Ridge, Illinois, as being a hardy and
productive variety.


=Early May.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rural N. Y._ =12=:375. 1861. =2.=
_Trans. Ill. Agr. Soc._ =5=:199. 1861-64. =3.= _Am. Jour. Hort._
=1=:123. 1867. =4.= _Ibid._ =3=:18-22. 1868. =5.= _Am. Hort. An._ 84.
1869. =6.= _Country Gent._ =39=:118. 1874.

This variety originated a generation or more ago in Virginia and was
known there and in neighboring states as Early May. Later, it became
widely disseminated in the Middle West where it was often confused with
Early Richmond, Late Kentish and Montmorency. Early May should not be
confused with a European cherry of the same name formerly grown upon the
continent but now seldom seen. The fruit of the American sort is much
like Early Richmond though of inferior quality and is now probably
wholly replaced by the latter variety.


=Early Prolific.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 193, 194. 1854.

Early Prolific was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio,
in 1842. Tree healthy, vigorous, upright, slightly spreading; fruit
large, round, obtuse-cordate; suture distinct; stem variable; skin
bright carmine-red mottled on a light amber-yellow ground; flesh rather
tender, firm, juicy, rich, sweet; very productive; season early June.


=Early Red Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:130.
1832. =2.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 81, 94. 1866. =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
23. 1876.


=Bigarreau Rouge de Guben.= =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:242 fig., 243.
1877.

This variety originated about 1845, from seed in the garden of the
Pomological Society, at Guben, Prussia, Germany. The Russians, who were
growing it in 1858, sent the variety from Crimea to M. Eugène Glady, who
in turn gave cions of it to Leroy. Tree moderately vigorous, productive;
fruit usually attached in pairs; above medium to large, obtuse-cordate,
more or less irregular, compressed; suture indistinct; stem long,
slender, inserted in a deep cavity; skin thick, dark red changing to
reddish-brown; flesh dark colored, firm, breaking, juicy, sweet,
pleasant; quality excellent; stone rather large, ovate; ripens the last
of June.


=Early Red Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23. 1876. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 17. 1895. =3.= Rivers _Cat._ 18. 1898-99.

This cherry, of unknown origin, was propagated by Thomas Rivers of
Sawbridgeworth, England. It is thought by some to be Elton. Fruit large,
pale red; flesh very tender, rich and good; ripens in early June.


=Early Red and Yellow.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:282. 1842.

This variety was raised by Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, from
the seed of a white Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate;
light red on a yellow ground; sweet, juicy; good; ripe the last of June.


=Early Rivers.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 5 fig., 6. 1872. =2.=
Thomas _Guide Prat._ 28, 204. 1876. =3.= _Flor. & Pom._ 117. 1878. =4.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 162. 1881. =5.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 296.
1884.

_Guigne Early Rivers._ =6.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 104 fig., 105.
1904.

Early Rivers is a seedling of Early Purple raised by Thomas Rivers,
Sawbridgeworth, England; first fruited in 1869. Tree large, vigorous,
upright-spreading, hardy, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate,
somewhat uneven and indented on the surface; stem long, rather slender;
skin thin, deep red changing to glossy black; flesh reddish, juicy, very
tender, rich, sweet; very good in quality; stone very small, elongated;
season early.


=Early York.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 666. 1897.

Fruit medium in size; flesh greenish-white, tender, juicy, subacid.


=Ebenter Cherry.= Species? =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 111. 1879. =2.= Mathieu
_Nom. Pom._ 347. 1889.

This cherry is said to be cultivated on the shores of Lake Constance,
Germany, notably at Lindau and Tettnang, and is distinguished for its
firm flesh, large size and small stone. Ripens after all other table
cherries.


=Edouard Seneclause.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Not described.


=Elfner Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 347. 1889.

Listed by Mathieu.


=Elizabeth.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 207. 1854. =2.= Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Elizabeth is a seedling from Caleb Atwater, Portage County, Ohio, 1823.
Tree vigorous, upright, prolific; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped,
flattened on the sides; stem of medium length, set in a regular cavity;
skin rich, dark red; flesh yellowish, slightly tinged with red, rather
tender, juicy, pleasantly sweet; pit roundish-ovate; season the middle
of June.


=Emperor Francis.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:111, 112, fig.
56. 1882. =2.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 42. 1904. =3.= _Jour. Roy.
Hort. Soc._ =30=:133. 1906.

_Bigarreau Empereur-Francois._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 16. 1876.

_Kaiser Franz Josef._ =5.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56. 1907. =6.= _Reut.
Pom. Inst. Festschrift_ 122. 1910.

The origin of Emperor Francis is not given in any of the references
though the variety seems to be quite well known in both France and
England. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; stem
rather short; cavity medium in size; skin marbled with red on a
yellowish-white ground; flesh firm, crisp, sweet, high flavored; stone
small, bluntly pointed; ripens rather late.


=English Amber.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 207, 208. 1854.

Probably this is an old variety known under some other name. Tree
vigorous, strong in growth, very productive; fruit of medium size,
roundish-cordate, regular; stem long; skin delicate amber, mottled with
pale red; flesh whitish-yellow, half-tender, delicate, juicy, very
sweet; pit of medium size; ripens the last of June.


=English Bearer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Brookshaw _Pom. Brit_ Pl. 9. 1817.
=2.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =2=:131, Pl. 71 fig. 3. 1823.

_English Preserve._ =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831.

This variety is grown in Kent, England, where it is known as English
Preserver. It is distinguished from the Kentish only by its larger size
and the dark, irregular spots under the skin. Ripens early in July.


=English Gaskin.= Species? =1.= _U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt._ 309. 1854.

An almost worthless sort mentioned in the reference given.


=Englische Weinkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 284. 1819.

Fruit large, roundish; stem long; skin tender, ground-color milky-white,
crimson where exposed, on maturity the white changes to yellowish;
juicy, vinous, aromatic; ripens in July.


=Englische Weisse Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:27. 1858.

_Englische weisse ganz frühe Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Handb._ 683.
1797. =3.= Christ _Wörterb._ 280. 1802. =4.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 251, 252, 253. 1819.

Possibly this is the same as the White Heart of England. It is without a
doubt a separate variety from the Guignier à gros fruit blanc of
Duhamel. Fruit above medium in size, elongated-cordate; stem very long,
slender, set in a deep cavity; suture a line, skin yellowish-white,
tinged with red in the sun, uneven, glossy, transparent; flesh white,
not very tender, juicy, sweet; quality good; stone of medium size,
cordate, acute; ripens at the end of June.


=Enopa.= _P. pumila × P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =108=:1908.
=2.= _Ibid._ =130=:178 Pl. 8. 1911.

Enopa, a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum, was sent
out in 1908 by the South Dakota Station. Fruit one and one-sixteenths
inches in diameter, round, with a minute prickle at the apex; skin thin,
free from acerbity, dark red, with blue bloom; flesh green.


=Episcopale.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25, 193. 1876.
=2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:265 fig. 1877.

This variety, according to Leroy, was found in the vicinity of Paris and
was introduced by M. Jamin-Durand, Bourg-la-Reine, in 1846. The tree is
distinguished from that of Montmorency in being more erect, less dense,
less productive; the fruit is more acid and later in ripening.


=Eppers Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:67.
1858.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, oval, flattened at the base,
brownish-red, with a deep suture; flesh clear red, juicy, strongly
subacid; pit elongated; ripens in September.


=Erfurter Augustkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159.
1791. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 550-554. 1819.

_D'Aout Erfurt._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:89, 90, fig. 45. 1882.

_Délices d'Erfurt._ =4.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

_Erfurt Delicious._ =5.= _Gard. Chron._ =19=:429. 1896.

_Hochgenuss Von Erfurt._ =6.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

This cherry is well known in and about Thuringia forest, Germany, where
it is propagated by suckers and is valued for its lateness. Tree
vigorous; fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate, flattened; stem
of medium length, set in a noticeable cavity; suture indistinct; skin
tender, glossy, brownish-red changing to purplish-black; flesh tender,
reddish, juicy, sugary, acidulated; stone free, small, pea-shaped;
ripens the last of July.


=Etopa.= _P. pumila × P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =108=:1908.
=2.= _Ibid._ =130=:179. 1911.

Etopa is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum. Said to
be excellent in quality and remarkable for its intense black, purplish
color of skin, flesh and juice; skin thin, free from acerbity; ripens
there about September twelfth.


=Eugène Furst.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 18. 1895.

_Fürst's Herzkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:23. 1858.

Fruit above medium in size, elongated-cordate; stem of medium length,
slender; skin black; flesh red, sugary, acidulated; matures the last of
June to July. Said to be similar to May Duke.


=Everbearing.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Okla. Sta. Bul._ =2=:13. 1892. =2.=
Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:276. 1903.

Fruit large, roundish-oblate, somewhat compressed; stem long, inserted
in a broad, shallow cavity; skin dull red to dark red when ripe; flesh
quite tender, juicy, mildly acid; quality good.


=Excellente Douce Tardive.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =2=:101,
102, Pl. 1854.

This cherry was produced from seed, in France in 1839. Tree vigorous,
productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, flattened at the ends;
stem long, stout, inserted in a deep, wide cavity; skin thin, glossy,
deep red mottled with clear red changing to reddish-black, often
yellowish-amber in the shade; flesh yellowish, melting, sugary, slightly
acidulated; quality very good; pit small, yellowish, roundish, apex
pointed; ripens in August.


=Eyami.= _P. pumila X P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =108=:1908.
=2.= _Ibid._ =130=:179. 1911.

Eyami is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum and was
sent out by the South Dakota Station in 1908. Fruit one and
three-sixteenths by one and five-sixteenths inches in size, round; skin
thin, dark red, semi-transparent; flesh green, pleasant; pit large.


=Ezaptan.= _P. pumila X P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =130=:180
Pl. 9, 181. 1911.

Ezaptan, a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum, was
introduced in 1911 by the South Dakota Station. It is remarkable for its
early and heavy bearing; skin thin, free from acerbity, dark purple;
flesh black purplish-red to the pit.


=Faversham Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Favorite.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 207 fig. 1854.

_Elliott's Favorite._ =2.= _Horticulturist_ =2=:124. 1847-48. =3.=
Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 361. 1849. =4.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168.
1853.

Favorite is one of Professor J. P. Kirtland's cherries originating in
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed
with Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. The tree resembles
American Heart while the fruit is similar to Choisy in flavor and
texture but larger. Tree vigorous, half-spreading, productive; fruit
medium in size, round, regular, slightly compressed; stem long, set in
an even and regular cavity; skin pale amber-yellow, with a bright,
marbled, carmine-red cheek; flesh pale amber, translucent, tender,
delicate, juicy, with a sweet, fine flavor; pit small, angular, smooth.


=Festfleischige Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._
35 fig., 36. 1867.

_Grosse dunkel braunrothe Kramelkirsche._ =2.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:3,
Tab. 7 fig. 1. 1792.

_Grosse schwarze Knorpelkirsche mit festem Fleisch._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 193-195. 1819.

_Bigarreau-noir à chair très-ferme._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 189.
1876.

This cherry has the hardest flesh of all the black, hard-fleshed
cherries, differing from the Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche in its
firmer flesh. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit rather large, plump,
truncate at the apex, sides compressed; suture not prominent; stem
stout, long, set in a variable cavity; skin tough, almost black at
maturity; flesh very firm, juicy, colored, very sweet, although with a
mixture of sourness; stone small, turgid, cordate, sides compressed,
clinging; ripens late.


=Flagg.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Cult. & Count. Gent._ =41=:502. 1876. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 164. 1881.

Flagg was introduced by its originator, D. B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, as
Wier's Early Kentish, a selected seedling of Early Richmond, hardier and
ten days earlier. Tree slender, short-jointed, regularly conical,
moderate in growth; at its best in high, dry, airy situations, with
light soil; fruit medium in size, heart-shaped; skin black, firm; flesh
tender, purplish-red, juicy, changing from a rich subacid to a very
sweet, rich flavor; pit small; adapted to kitchen and table use.


=Flamentine.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 211-215.
1819. =2.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:137, 138, fig. 67. 1866-73.

_Bigarreautier à petit fruit hâtif._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:165, 166. 1768.

_Bigarreau à petit fruit blanc._ =4.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

_Early Guigne._ =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:111, 112. 1832.

_Early White Bigarreau._ =6.= _Ibid._ =2=:129. 1832.

_Petite Bigarreau hâtif._ =7.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:130, 131.
1866.

_Bigarreau Blanc_ (Petit). =8.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:182 fig., 183.
1877.

_Türkine_? =9.= _Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift_ 121. 1910.

This cherry probably originated more than a century ago in the vicinity
of Angers, France. Names of wholly distinct varieties have sometimes
been attached to it causing much confusion in the nomenclature. Tree
strong, vigorous, productive; fruit usually in threes, above medium in
size, obtuse-cordate, flattened at the base, compressed; suture often a
line; stem long, almost stout, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity; skin
thin, glossy, whitish-yellow, mottled with dark red; flesh
yellowish-white, transparent, rather firm, juicy, aromatic, sugary;
first quality; stone small, oval; ripens the middle of June.

=Flemish Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

A small, red, obtuse-cordate fruit of fair quality and tender flesh,
ripening early in July.


=Fleurs Doubles.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:174.
1768. =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831.

_Great rose._ =3.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 402, 574. 1629.

_Double Floured Cherry._ =4.= Gerarde _Herball_ 1505 fig. 8. 1636.

_Bloem-kers double._ =5.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35, 38. 1771.

_Weichselbaum mit sehr gross gefüllter Blüthe._ =6.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:5, Tab. 11 fig. 1. 1792.

_Glaskirsche mit dickgefüllter Blüthe._ =7.= Christ _Handb._ 680. 1797.

_Amarellenbaum mit ganz gefüllter Blüte._ =8.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 640-644. 1819.

_Small Double Flowering._ =9.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 31. 1828.

_Dwarf Double Flowering._ =10.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:151, 152. 1832.

_Gefülltblühende Amarelle._ =11.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:68.
1858.

The tree of this variety, unlike many other double-flowering sorts,
attains but moderate size, in many cases is but a bush or shrub. The
blossoms are exceedingly double, very showy, with a slight tinge of pink
on opening, the blooming season extending over three or four weeks.
Frequently the blossoms have small leaflets intermingled with the
petals, while often a smaller flower appears to rise out of the center
of another. The trees very seldom, if ever, bear. Truchsess reports
having fruited it twice in ten years. The early English writers make
brief mention of several double-flowering sorts which have been included
under this variety.


=Fleurs Semi-doubles.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:173, Pl. V. 1768. =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831.

_Lesser rose._ =3.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 402, 574. 1629.

_Red-flowered._ =4.= Ray _Hist. Plant._ 1538. 1688.

_Bloem-kers double._ =5.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35, 38. 1771.

_Gefüllter Kirschbaume._ =6.= Krünitz _Enc._ 43, 44. 1790.

_Weichsel mit halbgefüllter Blüthe._ =7.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:9, Tab.
21 fig. 1. 1792.

_Glaskirsche mit halbgefüllter Blüthe._ =8.= Christ _Handb._ 680. 1797.

_Gedoppelte Amarelle mit halbgefüllter Blüte._ =9.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 646-649. 1819.

_Halbgefülltblühende Amarelle._ =10.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:68.
1858.

_Amarelle mit halbgefüllter Blüthe._ =11.= _Ill. Handb._ 93 fig., 94.
1867.

The home of this cherry is not known, it having been greatly confused
with other double-flowering sorts. The flowers have a double row of from
fifteen to twenty petals and often have two pistils, especially on the
older trees. These generally bear twin-fruits though often the pistils
are changed into small, green leaves, in which case the flowers are
neither large nor attractive. The tree is of the Amarelle type, small,
blooming profusely; fruit moderately round, compressed on one side with
a shallow suture; stem long, stout; cavity wide; skin clear red,
becoming darker and flecked with brown; flesh whitish, tender, juicy,
sweet, pleasing, subacid at first; stone oval, bluntly pointed, often
small and round, free when fully ripe; ripens the middle of July.


=Florianer Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:34.
1858.

A productive seedling Bigarreau of medium size, elongated, angular; stem
short, stout; skin black; flesh sweet, aromatic; second quality; ripens
at the end of June.


=Folgerkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 283. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 415-419. 1819.

_Holländische Folgerkirsche_ incor. =3.= Christ _Handb._ 673. 1797.

_Cerise de Folger._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:158, 209. 1866.

A few authors describe this cherry as Volgers; the Volger described by
Knoop in 1771, however, is a distinct variety. Duhamel's variety,
Cerise-Guigne, is possibly the same. Fruit large, roundish, truncate at
the base, in unfavorable seasons the apex and sides are strongly
compressed, with a noticeable suture; stem stout, long, set in a wide
cavity; skin deep reddish-purple, glossy, tender; flesh delicate, sweet
with a piquant taste; stone small, turgid, roundish-oval.


=Folgers Swolfe.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 292. 1802.

According to Christ, Salzman says that in Holland several Sour Cherries
were known as Folgers. This is a large, black, pleasant subacid fruit
with a very characteristic growth.


=Fouche Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Am. Gard._ =9=:264. 1888. =2.=
_Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:75. 1903.

This variety is said to have been imported by Professor J. L. Budd,
Ames, Iowa, from Riga, Russia, where it was found planted along walks
and drives. Tree rather small; fruit small, roundish-oblate; cavity
shallow, broad; stem slender, rather long; suture a line; skin thin,
rather tough, dark red changing to crimson; flesh firm, breaking, juicy,
colored, sprightly subacid; quality fair; stone nearly round, of medium
size; ripens early in July.


=Frauendorfer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:125. 1900.

_Frauendorfer Weichsel._ =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 513 fig., 514. 1861. =3.=
_Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 103. 1886-87.

_Griotte de Frauendorf._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22, 194. 1876.

This variety was imported into this country by Professor J. L. Budd in
1883 from North Silesia. The Montreal Horticultural Society believes two
forms exist, one from North Silesia being perfectly hardy while another
from Metz, Germany, is far less so. Tree productive; branches drooping;
fruit above medium in size, roundish-oblate; suture shallow; stem long;
cavity small; skin thin, glossy, dark red at maturity; flesh tender,
tinted with abundant, uncolored juice, acidulated; stone large; matures
the last of June and the first of July.


=French Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rural N. Y._ =49=:453. 1890.

Trees thrifty and tall but set fruit sparingly; fruit large, yellow with
a blush, two weeks later than Early Richmond.


=French Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Tex. Sta. Bul._ =16=:99. 1891.

In the reference this cherry is listed as a Russian variety introduced
by Professor J. L. Budd. If so, it was probably under some other name,
as it seems not to be mentioned by Budd.


=Frogmore Early Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Chron._ 606. 1865.
=2.= _Hogg Fruit Man._ 298. 1884. =3.= _Flor. & Pom._ 148 fig. 1867.
=4.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 43. 1904.

_Frogmore Early Prolific._ =5.= Daniels Bros. _Cat._ 51. 1895.

_Frogmore Bigarreau._ =6.= _Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales._ 998. 1908.

Unlike the rest of its class, this cherry has tender flesh but is a
Bigarreau in tree-habit, leaf and in appearance of fruit, and is
therefore classified as such. The variety is a seedling raised by Thomas
Ingram of the Frogmore Royal Gardens at Windsor, Berkshire, England.
Tree bears freely in clusters; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, slightly
compressed, with a faint suture; stem long, set in a small cavity; skin
waxen, orange-yellow, with a network of red and a blush of deeper red on
the sunny side; flesh of a primrose color, very tender, translucent,
rich, sweet; stone spoon-shaped, indented on one side; season early but
short.


=Frogmore Early Crown.= Species? =1.= _Gard. Chron._ 364. 1866.

Also a seedling from Mr. Ingram. It is a small, red fruit about ten days
earlier than May Duke, of a rich flavor when fully ripe.


=Frogmore Late Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 229, Pl. fig.
1. 1874. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 15. 1895.

Still another seedling raised by Ingram of the Frogmore Royal Gardens.
Fruit large, bluntly heart-shaped, hanging long without cracking; suture
slight; stem very long; skin pale, waxy-yellow, bright red on the sunny
side; flesh tender, juicy; season very late.


=Frogmore Morrelo.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Thomas Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.

_New Frogmore Morello._ =2.= McIntosh _Bk. Gard._ =2=:543. 1885.

This variety attracted notice on account of the perfection to which it
had been brought in the Royal Gardens at Frogmore, Berkshire, England,
where it is believed to have originated. For productiveness and size it
is said to far surpass the old Morello.


=Fromm Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 63 fig., 64. 1860. =2.=
Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:68, 69 fig., 70. 1866. =3.= Leroy _Dict.
Pom._ =5=:322, 323 fig. 1877. =4.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

_Fromms Schwarze Herzkirsche._ =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 164,
674. 1819. =6.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 150, 151. 1825.

Fromm Heart was obtained from seed in 1806 by Fromm, at Guben, Prussia,
Germany. In sandy soils and favorable years the trees are very
productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, above medium in size,
truncate-cordate, sides compressed; suture shallow; stem of single
fruits long, stout, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin dark
reddish-brown to glossy black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, sugary,
pleasingly acidulated, aromatic; second quality; pit medium in size,
turgid, roundish; ripens the third week of the cherry season.


=Frühe bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 222, 223, 224. 1819.

_Frühe Lange Weisse Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 278. 1802.

_Guigne panachée longue précoce._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 199.
1876.

This cherry is easily recognized by its elongated, cylindrical form and
should not be confused with several others of similar type. It was found
near Weinberge, Germany, by Büttner who sent it to Truchsess in 1797.
Fruit medium in size, cylindrical, flattened on both sides, slightly
drawn in at the apex and base; suture distinct on one side; stem long,
inserted in a shallow cavity; skin yellow, blushed and faintly splashed
with red where exposed; flesh pale yellow with a slight red tinge
underneath the skin, moderately firm, juicy, without much sweetness;
stone small, elongated, pointed at the apex; ripens early.


=Frühe Kurzstielige Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer
Obstsort._ 55. 1907.

Mentioned as a black, hard-fleshed cherry.


=Frühe Maikirsche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 391-394. 1819.

Frühe Maikirsche differs from May Duke in being darker of skin and
juice, smaller in size, sweeter, and less distinct in suture.


=Frühe Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 185 fig., 186. 1860.
=2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:306. 1866. =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:47, 48 fig. 24. 1882. =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 349. 1889.

An old variety of uncertain origin. Tree large, spreading; fruit often
large, roundish, flattened; suture indistinct; stem slender, shallowly
inserted; skin tender, nearly black when mature; flesh tender, juicy,
dark red, acidulated; stone round, plump; ripens the first of June in
France.


=Frühe Sauerkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._
554, 555. 1819.

This cherry is thought to be a sub-variety of Kirsche von der Natte.
Tree medium in growth; branches slender; fruit medium in size, round,
sides compressed; stem long; cavity shallow; skin tough, black; flesh
tender, dark red, juicy, sour, without a trace of sweetness; ripens the
middle of July.


=Frühe Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 277.
1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 197, 198, 674, 675. 1819.

Obtained by Büttner in 1797 who later sent it to Truchsess. Tree
productive; fruit small, roundish-cordate, compressed; suture distinct;
stem of medium length; skin glossy, reddish-black deepening to black;
flesh hard, reddish-black, juicy, sweet, with a slight bitterness; stone
ovate, rather large; ripens the first half of July.


=Frühe von der Natte.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 153
fig., 154. 1860.

_Frühe Natte aus Samen._ =2.= Christ _Handb._ 671. 1797. =3.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 413, 414, 415. 1819.

_Frühe Süssweichsel von der Natt._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:49. 1858.

_Hâtive de Nattes._ =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:158, 304. 1866.

_Natte hâtive de semis._ =6.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Christ received this cherry in 1793, as Frühe von der Natte aus Saamen.
Fruit above medium in size, cordate, flattened on one side; suture
distinct; stem long, often dividing about an inch down into two, three,
or four stems; apex depressed; skin glossy, dark brown when ripe; flesh
dark red, soft, tender, juicy, refreshing, subacid; stone medium, oval;
ripens early.


=Früher Gobet.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
619-621. 1819.

_Gobet Hâtif._ =2.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:125, 126, fig. 61. 1866-73.

Truchsess received this variety from Mayer as Gros Gobet which it
resembles very closely in size, form, and flavor but is much earlier and
not as flattened. Fruit of medium size, flattened; suture but a line;
stem one inch long, often shorter, straight; cavity shallow; color clear
red, becoming darker; flesh whitish with a reddish cast, tender, juicy,
pleasingly acid; stone small, round, free but hanging to the stem.


=Früheste Bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 207-210. 1819.

_Weiss und rothe grosse Herzkirsche._ =2.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:2,
Tab. 3 fig. 1. 1792. =3.= Christ _Wörterb._ 277. 1802.

_Frühkirsche_? =4.= Christ _Handb._ 672. 1797.

_Früheste bunte Molkenkirsche._ =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:26.
1858.

_Guigne panachée très-précoce._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302.
1866. =7.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:13, 14, fig. 7. 1882.

The origin of this variety is unknown although it probably originated in
Austria, as the celebrated Austrian pomologist, Kraft, was the first to
mention it. Tree vigorous and in favorable seasons productive; fruit of
medium size, obtuse-cordate, compressed, with a suture; stem medium, set
in a deep, narrow cavity; skin tender, yellowish-white, striped with
red around the base, spotted about the apex; flesh yellowish-white, with
clear juice, sweet, pleasing, deteriorates on hanging; stone small,
oval-cordate, clinging; ripens the last of May.


=Früheste der Mark.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 350. 1889. =2.=
Lucas _Handb. Obst._ 121. 1893. =3.= Lange _Allgem. Garten._ 440. 1897.

Fruit medium to above, truncate-cordate; stem very long, slender, set in
a wide, deep cavity; skin purplish, glossy; flesh reddish, firm,
pleasing; ripens early.


=Fürst Schwarze Septemberkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Liegel _Syst.
Anleit._ 153. 1825.

Discovered by Liegel in Braunau, Bohemia, Austria, and named for his
friend I. E. Fürst. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit small, oblate; stem
very long; skin black; flesh firm, sweet, aromatic; stone large; one of
the last to ripen, September to October.


=Galusha.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 165.
1881.

This cherry is seedling No. 11 from D. B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois. Tree
hardy, vigorous, an abundant bearer; fruit above medium in size, light
red changing to a very dark, bright red; subacid becoming a rich sweet;
ripens three days before Early Richmond.


=Gamdale.= Species? =1.= _Horticulturist_ =17=:498. 1862.

A cherry described by E. Manning, Harrisburg, Ohio, as of second rank in
size and quality.


=Garcine.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:75 fig., 76, 77.
1866. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24, 198. 1876.

Garcine was obtained from seed about 1808 by M. Garcine, near Grenoble,
Isère, France. It is propagated in that locality by suckers, hence it
was called by some, Aventurière. Tree pyramidal, productive; fruit
large, oblate, ends drawn in and flattened, sides convex; stem long,
inserted in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy black; flesh dark, firm,
sugary, aromatic, juicy; stone large, turgid; ripens the middle of June.


=Gardiner.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Me. Sta. An. Rpt._ =22=:175. 1906.

Gardiner is a seedling of Black Tartarian. It is frequently killed back
by severe winters in Maine.


=Gaskins.= Species? =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 298. 1884.

Gaskins is a corruption of Gascoignes. About Rye, Sussex, England, the
name is still in general use, the people believing the variety was
brought from Gascony, France.


=Gauchers Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56.
1907.

Listed in this reference.


=Geer.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 156. 1897.

Geer is a new cherry from eastern Oregon said to be later than Napoleon
and to surpass it in size and quality.


=Gelbe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 161. 1791. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 342-349. 1819.

_Grosser weisser glänzender Herzkirschbaum._ =3.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:2, Tab. 4 fig. 1. 1792.

_Guigne Jaune._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:99, 303. 1866.

_Guigne Grosse ambrée._ =5.= _Le Bon Jard._ 345. 1882.

First mentioned in 1786 as Gelbe or Weisse Herzkirsche. It is
distinguished from Goldgelbe Herzkirsche through its cordate form,
lighter color and earlier ripening. Fruit above medium in size, borne in
twos and threes, cordate, sides compressed; suture shallow; stem long,
slender, slightly inserted; skin pale yellow, glossy, tough, adherent,
blushed with red on the sides; flesh clear, not tender, juicy,
acidulated; stone free, small, elongated-cordate; ripens in July.


=Gelbe Wachskirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
355, 685, 686. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:33. 1858.

An unproductive seedling from the North Sea, ripening later than Gelbe
Herzkirsche which it resembles. Fruit medium in size, round, flattened;
stem long; skin glossy, clear waxy-yellow, transparent; flesh yellowish,
firm, moderately sweet, without aroma; ripens from the middle to the end
of July.


=Gemeine Glaskirsche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ 1. Christ _Wörterb._
292. 1802.

This is a well-known Duke cherry in Germany. Tree large; fruit large,
almost round; skin clear, light red on a yellow ground; flesh melting,
with uncolored juice, pleasant sourness; ripens early in July and lasts
a long while.


=Genesee.= _P. avium._

A chance seedling of the Bigarreau type originating about twenty-five
years ago and recently introduced by J. A. Morgan of Scottsville, New
York. The fruit is above medium in size, cordate, compressed; cavity
shallow, wide, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish; stem slender,
long; skin medium thick, tender, adherent, dark red mottled with amber;
dots numerous, small, obscure; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, meaty,
crisp, mild, sweet; quality good; stone clinging, medium, ovate,
flattened, smooth, slightly tinged red; use late market.


=German.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =169=:199. 1899.

_German_ (Kraus). =2.= _Ibid._ =143=:181. 1897.

German is said to have been introduced into Michigan from New York. Tree
vigorous, though not productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate; stem
long, slender, set in a broad, moderately deep cavity; color very dark
red, nearly black; flesh firm, red, sweet, slightly bitter, with dark
juice; ripens early in July.


=German Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:147. 1832.

_Griotte d'Allemagne._ =2.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:192, 193, Pl.
XIV. 1768. =3.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159. 1791. =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:276, 277 fig. 1877.

_Deutscher Griottier Weichselbaum._ =5.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:6, Tab.
16 fig. 2. 1792.

_Deutsche Griotte._ =6.= Christ _Handb._ 675. 1797. =7.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 569, 570, 571. 1819.

_Grosse Deutsche Belzkirsche._ =8.= _Ibid._ 421. 1819.

_Griotte de Chaux._ =9.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

_German Duke._ =10.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 280. 1832.

_Deutsche Weichsel._ =11.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:62. 1858.

_Süssweichsel von Chaux._ =12.= _Ill. Handb._ 71 fig., 72. 1867.

_De Chaux._ =13.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 478. 1869.

_Cerise d'Allemagne._ =14.= _Le Bon Jard._ 346. 1882.

This old variety is badly confused with other cherries and its origin is
uncertain. Fruit large, roundish-oblate; stem long, slender; cavity
deep, wide; skin glossy, tough, brownish, almost black; flesh firm, dark
red, juicy, with pleasing acidity, sweet if in a dry, warm soil; stone
large, oval-pointed; ripens the middle of July; productive.


=Germersdorf.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:60.
1900.

_Bigarreau noir de Germersdorf._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 22, 189.
1876.

_Germersdorfer Grosse Kirsche._ =3.= _Lauche Deut. Pom._ =III=: No. 7,
Pl. 1882.

A seedling of German origin. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit
very large, roundish-cordate; suture distinct; stem medium, set in a
deep, wide cavity; skin dark brown with dark spots and streaks; flesh
rather firm, light red, juice tinted, sweet, pleasingly acidulated;
stone of medium size, oval; ripens the fifth week of the season.


=Geschiltztblättrige Süssweichsel.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:47. 1858.

An ornamental cherry distinguished from May Duke through its smaller
fruit and laciniated leaves.


=Gestriefte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 259, 260. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:30.
1858.

Fruit cordate; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin thin,
tender, white, streaked with red, which, if allowed to remain on the
tree, becomes nearly solid red; flesh tender, soft, fibrous under the
skin, juicy, colorless, honey-sweet, refreshing; ripens in July lasting
about three weeks.


=Gewöhnliche Muskatellerkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._
672. 1797.

Fruit smaller than that of the Black or Red Muskateller, roundish, very
dark brown, almost black; flesh red, pleasant subacid; ripens at the end
of June.


=Giant.= _P. avium._ =1.= Burbank _Cat._ 8. 1914.

Giant was grown in 1900 by Luther Burbank and introduced by The Luther
Burbank Company in 1914. It is claimed by its introducer that it is the
largest cherry grown. Tree rapid in growth, with large and heavy
foliage; fruit glossy black, rich, sweet, delicious; ripens in
California about June 20th.


=Gibb.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =2=:39. 1888. =2.= _Ia. Hort.
Soc. Rpt._ 79. 1890. =3.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:17. 1910.

Gibb was imported from Orel, Central Russia, without a name. It is much
like Brusseler Braune in tree, fruit, and in habit of bearing a double
crop of blossoms and fruit, but is hardier. Fruit large,
roundish-cordate; stem stout; skin thick, tender, dark crimson changing
to purplish-red; flesh dark red, meaty; quality good; stone large,
oblong; ripens the last of July to early August.


=Gifford.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing_ Fr. Trees Am._ 270. 1857.

Fruit small, light red, roundish-cordate, very sweet; productive; season
the last of June.


=Glasherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
246-248. 1819. _Grosse Glas-Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 281.
1802.


=Glas-Molkenkirsche.= =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:30, 31. 1858.

This cherry differs from others of its class in being rounder, darker,
and later. Fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, convex on one side,
compressed on the other, with a shallow suture; stem long, slender,
shallowly inserted; skin mingled with dull red and clear white, often
streaked; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, but not high;
stone large, acutely pointed; ripens the middle of July.


=Glaskirsche von der Natte.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 470-473, 689. 1819.

According to Truchsess this variety is very similar to, and often taken
for Double Natte, Frühe von der Natte, and Double Glass.


=Glasskirsche Kurzstielige.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 331.
1885.

This Sweet Cherry is supposed to have come from Vilna, Russia.


=Gloire de France.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat_. 26, 194.
1876. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom_. =5=:271, 272 fig. 1877. =3.= Downing _Fr.
Trees Am._ 3rd App. 162. 1881.

_Bonnemain_. =4.= _Guide Prat._ 9, 184. 1895.

Originated from seed by Auguste Bonnemain, Etamps, Seine-et-Oise,
France, fruiting in 1845 for the first time. On Mazzard stock the tree
never reaches full size but on Mahaleb it grows large and regular and is
more globular in form. At best it is only moderately productive. Fruit
borne in threes, medium in size, roundish-oblate, somewhat depressed;
suture broad, shallow, often indistinct; apex rather large, slightly
depressed; stem short, thick, inserted in a wide cavity; skin a
reddish-brick color, occasionally mottled with greenish-brown in the
shade and red on the sunny side; flesh pale red, grayish, transparent,
rather tender and fibrous, with abundant juice, sprightly acidulated,
agreeable; pit of medium size, roundish-oval, convex; season the first
of July.


=Golden Knob.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

Golden Knob is a worthless, medium-sized, oval cherry ripening the
middle of July; skin yellow and flesh firm.


=Goldgelbe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
350-354. 1819.

_Kleine Ambra_, [or] _Goldgelber Herzkirschbaum_. =2.= Kraft _Pom.
Aust._ =1=:2, Tab. 4 fig. 2. 1792.

_Kleine Ambra._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 665. 1797.

Distinguished from other yellow Heart cherries by its round form, dark
yellow color, and rather firm flesh. Fruit of medium size, roundish;
suture a line; stem very long, slender, deeply inserted; skin thin,
tough, readily removed, transparent, glossy, golden-yellow; flesh
moderately tender, yellowish, with darker spots showing through the
skin, very juicy, with a pleasing sweetness when ripe; stone of medium
size, oval, slightly adherent; ripens the last of June.


=Goldsmith Black Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47.
1831.

Mentioned but not described in this reference.


=Goodspeed.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:70. 1903.

Goodspeed is of the Montmorency type ripening just after Early Richmond.
The trees are long-lived and regular bearers. Fruit of medium size,
oblate, slightly cordate; cavity deep, broad; suture shallow; stem
short, stout; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh moderately firm,
tender, with uncolored juice, slightly subacid; quality good; stone
free, of medium size, roundish-ovate.


=Gormley.= Species? =1.= _Can. Hort._ =20=:317. 1897. =2.= _Ibid_.
=21=:297. 1897.

This hardy seedling, now about twenty-five years old, was found by John
Gormley of Pickering, Canada. It resembles Montmorency in color,
English Morello in shape, and a Bigarreau in texture. Its firm,
yellowish flesh parts readily from the pit.


=Gottorper.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 289, 290,
291. 1819. =2.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 159. 1825.

_Gottorper Marmorkirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:41. 1858.

_Cerise de Gottorpe._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:117-119. 1866.

Originated in the vicinity of Coburg, Germany, toward the latter part of
the Eighteenth Century. It resembles Yellow Spanish. Tree above medium
in size, very productive; fruit abruptly cordate to roundish; stem
short, slender; cavity shallow; skin tough, red, mottled with yellow;
flesh yellowish-white, not very firm, juicy, usually very sweet,
slightly aromatic; stone small, oblate, free; ripens the fourth week of
the cherry season; cracks in the rain when nearly mature; excellent for
home use.


=Gould No. X.= Species? =1.= _Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 211. 1896.

Reported by the Illinois Horticultural Society in 1896.


=Governor Luce.= Species? =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =143=:181. 1897.

Listed as growing at the Michigan Station.


=Grafenburger Frühkirsche.= Species? =1.= _Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift_
121. 1910.

A very productive, strong-growing cherry recommended for table and
market use; fruit large, truncate-cordate, red, early.


=Graham.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:28. 1910.

The Washington Experiment Station lists this variety as: Tree of medium
size, upright, with abundant foliage; fruit small, round; skin thin,
tender, dark red; flesh light red, juicy, rich, sweet; good; season the
last of July; productive.


=Grande Ronde.= Species? =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 156. 1897.

A new, early, large, black cherry recommended in eastern Oregon; ships
well.


=Great Bearing.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rea Flora_ 205. 1676.

Fruit large, blackish-red on the outer side when ripe, blood-red within.
Ripens late, with a sharp taste; bears well.


=Great Leafed.= Species? =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571. 1629.

This is a variety with very large leaves; relatively unproductive,
bearing pale red fruit of only medium size.


=Gridley.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:123, 124. 1832.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 187. 1845. =3.= _Gard. Mon._ =11=:219.
1869. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 12. 1871.

Apple. =5.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 234. 1849.

This variety was discovered by William Maccarty about the beginning of
the Nineteenth Century, growing in the garden of Deacon Samuel Gridley,
Roxbury, Massachusetts. For a good many years it was considered a
valuable cherry but later was supplanted by better sorts. Tree upright,
vigorous, very productive; fruit medium in size, roundish; stem short;
color black; flesh firm, purplish-red, medium juicy, sprightly, rather
acid at first becoming milder when fully ripe; stone small; matures in
mid-season.


=Grenner Glas.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Ont. Dept. Agr. _Fr. Ont._ 94. 1914.

Tree upright, vigorous, moderately productive; fruit borne in clusters,
large, oblate, one-sided; suture distinct on one side; stem long; cavity
broad, shallow; apex a small depression; skin bright red; flesh
yellowish, tender, very juicy, tart; quality good; season the middle of
July.


=Griotte Acher.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:275 fig.,
276. 1877. =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:67, 68, fig. 34. 1882. =3.= _Can.
Exp. Farms Rpt._ 482. 1904.

_Griotte Double._ =4.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35, 38, 39. 1771.

_Ächer's Weichsel_. =5.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 332. 1889.

The origin of Griotte Acher is not known but it may have sprung up by
chance in Holland a century and a half ago. Tree medium in growth,
productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, medium to large, flattened
heart-shaped with truncate sides; cavity narrow; suture distinct; stem
variable, usually long, medium thick; skin rather firm, vivid purple
shading to almost purplish-black; flesh tender, slightly stringy,
reddish-purple, medium sweet, somewhat pleasing because of a slight
tart, acid flavor, with abundant, violet juice; stone medium in size,
ovoid, truncate at the base, turgid; ripens the last of July and the
first of August.


=Griotte de Büttner.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Am. Gard._ =9=:264. 1888.

A dwarf sort that blossoms and ripens late; much like Imperial Morello.


=Griotte Commune.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._
=2=:508. 1860. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26, 194. 1876. =3.= Leroy
_Dict. Pom._ =5=:282 fig., 283. 1877.

_Griotte._ =4.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:187-189, Pl. XII. 1768.
=5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 431, 432. 1819.

_Griotte simple._ =6.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 39. 1771.

_Griottier Weichselbaum._ =7.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:6, Tab. 15 fig. 2.
1792.

_Common French Griotte._ =8.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:148. 1832.

_Gemeine Süssweichsel._. =9.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3:=49. 1858.

_Cerise Commune._ =10.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:146 fig., 147, 148,
220. 1866.

The origin of this variety is unknown but according to French writers it
was brought from Syria by the Crusaders about 1485. Tree large,
productive; fruit medium in size, usually borne in pairs, distinguished
from others of its class by its firm flesh, its black skin, and its
colored juice, oblate, flattened at the base; suture slight; stem long,
rather stout, set in a broad, shallow cavity; skin thin, glossy, dark
red, changing to black; flesh colored, firm, vinous, aromatic, juicy;
first quality; pit small, turgid, round; ripens the first of July.


=Griotte Douce Précoce.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35,
39. 1771. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21, 194. 1876. =3.= _Del. Sta. An.
Rpt._ =12=:118. 1900.

_Süsse Frühweichsel._ =4.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 170. 1825. =5.= _Ill.
Handb._ 183 fig., 184. 1860.

_Liegel's Süsse Frühweichsel_. =6.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:58.
1858.

This variety is often confused with Süsse Frühweichsel. The two are
distinct, however, in that the latter has light colored flesh while the
former is a dark fleshed sort. Tree vigorous, drooping, productive;
fruit often borne in twos or threes, of medium size, roundish,
compressed; suture shallow; stem rather slender, variable, medium to
above in length, inserted in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin dark
brownish-red changing to reddish-black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy,
subacid, becoming milder at maturity; stone small, roundish; ripens the
forepart of June.


=Griotte de Kleparow.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50.
1831. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:186 fig., 187, 221. 1866.

_Polnische grosse Weichsel._ =3.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:8, Tab. 20 fig.
2. 1792.

_Pohlnische Kirsche._ =4.= Christ _Handb._ 682. 1797.

_Polnische Weichsel._ =5.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:60. 1858.

_Kleparower Süssweichsel._ =6.= _Ill. Handb._ 69 fig., 70. 1867.

_Kleparavoska._ =7.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 75. 1883.

_Griotte Kleparite._ =8.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:277. 1903.
=9.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:71 fig. 1903.

Budd found this variety very hardy about Galicia, Austria, and Warsaw,
Russia, and imported it for central and southern Iowa. It is grown from
seed in the forests of Poland. The Griotte Kleparite of Budd-Hansen is
probably the same variety. Tree strong in growth, large, productive;
fruit of medium size, generally attached in pairs, roundish-cordate,
sides often compressed; suture shallow, often a line; stem long,
slender, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin tough, clinging to the flesh,
glossy, dark brownish-red, deep black when ripe; flesh tender, fibrous,
lightly colored, juicy, acid, although sugary, aromatic; quality fair;
pit small, turgid, almost spherical; ripens the last of July.


=Griotte Lodigiana.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:290, 291
fig. 1877.

Introduced into France from Florence, Italy, by Leroy about 1864. Fruit
of medium size, globular, compressed at the ends; stem of medium length,
inserted in a wide cavity; apex depressed; skin deep red; flesh pale
yellow, tender, slightly fibrous, juicy, very sugary, slightly
acidulated; second quality; stone of medium size, round, turgid; ripens
the last of June.


=Griotte Noire.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26. 1876.

Listed as a large, blackish-red, acidulated fruit, ripening in July.


=Griotte Noire de Piémont.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:294, 295 fig. 1877.

_Griotte à gros fruit noir de Piémont._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26.
1876.

This variety, probably from Piedmont, Italy, was received by Leroy in
1864. Fruit generally borne in pairs, above medium in size, globular,
compressed at the ends; suture indistinct; stem long, set in a deep
cavity; skin uniformly blackish-red; flesh tender, reddish, very juicy,
acidulated, slightly sweet; quality fair; stone of medium size,
roundish-oval, swollen; ripens the middle of June.


=Griotte du Nord Améliorée.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27.
1876.

Mentioned as possibly larger and better than Griotte du Nord.


=Griotte à Petit Fruit.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50.
1831.

Listed in the reference given.


=Griotte Précoce.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 329. 1885.
=2.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:277. 1903.

According to the first reference, this variety was brought into Spain
from Central Asia and was known in parts of Europe as "Early Spanish."
It was imported to America from Russia. Tree hardy; fruit large,
flattened; suture distinct; stem medium in size, curved, set in a deep
cavity; skin bright, glossy red; flesh soft, breaking, uncolored;
quality very good; ripens the middle of June.


=Griotte Rouge de Piémont.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:303 fig., 304, 385. 1877.

_Griotte à gros fruit rouge de Piémont._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26.
1876.

According to Leroy, it is not at all improbable that this cherry is the
one spoken of by Pliny under the name, "Apronian." Fruit attached in
pairs, above medium in size, globular, compressed at the ends; suture
indistinct; stem short, stout, set in a small cavity; skin lively red;
flesh whitish, tender, juicy, acidulated, somewhat bitter yet sugary;
second quality; stone of medium size, roundish-oval, swollen; ripens the
last of June.


=Griotte de Schaarbeck.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 353. 1889.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Griotte Tardive d'Annecy.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160.
1882.

Listed in this reference.


=Griotte Tardive de Plombières= _P. avium._ =1.= Rev. Hort. 503. 1888.

This variety is recommended because of its lateness but it remains a
local variety, little known outside of Plombières, Vosges, France, where
it was found. Fruit oval-cordate, elongated at the apex; skin glossy,
brownish at complete maturity; flesh firm, adherent to the stone,
whitish-gray, very sweet, agreeable; pit cordate; ripens the last of
August, remaining on the tree during September.


=Griotte de Toscane.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:304, 305
fig., 396. 1877.

Leroy brought this cherry from Florence, Italy, to France about 1864.
Fruit globular, more or less compressed at the ends; suture very
shallow; stem long, set in a pronounced cavity; skin intense red
changing to blackish; flesh of a garnet color, tender, juicy, sugary,
slightly bitter; second quality; stone of medium size, round, turgid;
ripens in early July.


=Griotte de Turquie.= _P. avium X P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc.
Cat._ 51. 1831.

Fruit large, round, red; flesh tender, ripens early in July. Similar to
Choisy.


=Griottier à Feuilles Cucullées.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:267, 286 fig., 287. 1877.

_Cerisier cuculle_? =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Originated at Tours, Inde-et-Loire, France. Its only point of merit is
in its cucullated foliage. Fruit small, globular, compressed at the
ends; suture imperceptible; stem short; cavity variable; skin almost
clear red; flesh tender, light rose-colored, juicy, acidulated, mildly
sweet; quality hardly fair; pit very small, round, more or less swollen;
ripens at the end of June.


=Griottier à Fruit Aigre.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp.
Jard._ =2=:508. 1860.

Tree of medium size, rather vigorous; fruit small, oval-roundish,
blackish; flesh tender, juicy; mediocre quality; ripens in September and
October in France.


=Griottier à Longues Feuilles.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:291, 292 fig. 1877.

Leroy grew this cherry as early as 1845 but did not know its origin.
Fruit above medium in size, globular, slightly compressed at the ends;
stem very short, inserted in a pronounced cavity; skin deep red, with
gray dots; flesh tender, fibrous, yellowish-white, juicy, acidulated,
slightly sweet, agreeable; second quality; stone of medium size,
roundish-oval, turgid; ripens the first of July.


=Groll Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
354. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=Gros Bigarreau Rond.= P. _avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:114,
208. 1866.

Fruit large, even, roundish, though often larger and less flattened than
Bigarreau d'Italie; stem medium in length; color becoming black; flesh
red, firm, sweet, pleasing; pit small and slightly elongated; ripens the
last of May.


=Gros Guindoul Hâtif.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 335. 1870-71.

Tree large; fruit of first size, superior quality, large, dark red,
juicy, sprightly; ripens in June-July.


=Grosse Blanche Carrée.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:204. 1843.

A firm, red, heart-shaped cherry of second size and quality, used
principally for the table, ripening in July.


=Grosse Bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 226, 227, 228. 1819.

_Weiss Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 161. 1791.

_Grosse bunte Molkenkirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:28.
1858.

This cherry is distinguished from others of its class by its peculiar
coloring. At one time it was recommended because of its size, flavor,
and length of season. Fruit large, thick at the base, both sides
compressed and marked by a suture; stem long, slender, set in a shallow
opening; ground color a dingy pale yellow more or less covered with red;
flesh tender, melting, pleasing; ripens at the end of June.


=Grosse Friedrichskirsche.= Species? =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:39. 1858.

Fruit large, compressed, roundish-cordate, pale yellow, washed with
crimson; flesh slightly aromatic; ripens the end of June; productive.


=Grosse Glaskirsche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 57,
58. 1790. =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 292. 1802. =3.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 473-475. 1819.

_Grosse Cerise Transparente._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:172-175,
fig. 1866. =5.= _Guide Prat._ 18, 190. 1895.

Through an error which he later rectified, Truchsess described the
Double Glass as this variety. This cherry differs in having a shorter
stem, larger size and in ripening later. Fruit very large, almost round,
flattened at the ends, depressed at the apex; stem stout, short,
inserted in a large cavity; skin glossy, becoming dark red; flesh pale
yellowish, melting, juicy, mild yet with a piquant, pleasing sourness;
stone roundish, turgid, clinging to the flesh more than to the stem;
ripens in August.


=Grosse Gomballoise.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:150, 151.
1882.

_Bigarreau Grosse Gomballoise._ =2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Fruit large to very large, thickly cordate, often elongated, truncate at
the ends; suture deep, but a colored line on one side; stem long, stout,
set in a large, deep cavity; skin thick, firm, intense purple changing
to almost black; flesh purple, firm, juicy, sugary, vinous, aromatic;
pit of medium size; ripens at the end of June.


=Grosse Guigne Blanche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
258. 1819. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:315, 316 fig. 1877.

_Guigne a gros fruit blanc._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:161, Pl.
1 fig. 3. 1768. =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:98, 99. 1866.

_Kleine weisse Frühkirsche._ =5.= Christ _Wörterb._ 278. 1802.

_Guigne Blanche._ =6.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 51. 1831. =7.= _Pom.
France_ =7=:No. 20, Pl. 20. 1871.

_Early White Guigne._ =8.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:112. 1832.

_White Heart._ =9.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 107. 1846.

An old variety, probably of French origin, which, according to Leroy,
was described by Merlet in 1667. Fruit large, attached in pairs,
cordate, slightly elongated; stem medium in length, set in a wide
cavity; skin dull yellow, tinged and mottled with dull red; flesh
whitish, tender, juicy, slightly acidulated; quality fair, insipid in
wet seasons; stone large, ovoid, clinging; ripens the last of June.


=Grosse Guigne Noire à Court Pédicelle.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man.
Comp. Jard._ =2=:503. 1860.

_Guignier à Gros Fruit Noir et Court Pédoncule._ =2.= _Pom. France_
=7=:No. 28, Pl. 28. 1871.

An old variety of uncertain origin. Fruit large, roundish-cordate;
suture broad; stem short, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tender
but firm, beautiful black at maturity; flesh soft, juicy, agreeable;
quality good; stone of medium size, oval, reddish; ripens the last of
June.


=Grosse Höckerige Marmorkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:42. 1858.

Fruit very large, uneven, roughened, dark red; flesh hard, rather sweet;
ripens at the end of July; not very productive.


=Grosse Mogulkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 160. 1791.

Fruit large, cordate, red, dotted here and there with white; flesh mild;
excellent; pit small.


=Grosse Morelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1=. Christ _Wörterb._ 284. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 545-548. 1819.

_Grosse Morelle double?_ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Fruit large, globular; stem medium in length, slender, set in a smooth
cavity; skin glossy, smooth, inky-black; flesh blood-red, veined, juicy,
wine-sour, not unpleasant; stone of medium size, blood-red; ripens from
the end of June to July; often dried.


=Grosse Nonnenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 287. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 517, 518, 519. 1819.

_Varrenne, De._ =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 56. 1831.

_Grosse Cerise des Religieuses._ =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:97, 98, fig.
49. 1882.

Probably of French origin. Tree moderately productive; fruit of medium
size, round, sides unevenly compressed, with a shallow suture; stem
long, set in a wide cavity; skin brownish-black, glossy; flesh tender,
colored, juicy, subacid; stone small, very broad, clinging to the stem;
ripens the middle of July.


=Grosse Picarde.= _P. cerasus._

The United States Department of Agriculture received this variety from
F. Jamin, Bourg-la-Reine, France, in 1905, after which trees were sent
to this Station for testing. Tree vigorous, rapid in growth; fruit of
the Montmorency type, above medium in size, roundish-cordate, slightly
compressed; cavity intermediate in depth and width, abrupt; suture a
line; apex roundish; stem slender, long; skin moderately thick, tough,
separating readily from the pulp, very dark red; dots numerous, small,
obscure; flesh dark red, stringy, tender, melting, astringent, sour,
juicy; poor to fair in quality; stone of medium size, ovate, slightly
pointed, smooth, tinged with purple; season very late.


=Grosse Schwarze Frühe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:2, Tab. 2 fig. 2. 1792. =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 274. 1802. =3.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 158. 1819.

_Guigne à Gros Fruit Noir Hâtif._ =4.= _Pom. France_ =7=:No. 25, Pl. 25.
1871.

This cherry differs from Frühe Maiherzkirsche in having a firmer flesh.
Fruit above medium in size, cordate, pointed, black; suture distinct on
one side; stem long, slender, deeply set; ripens in June.


=Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 275.
1802._Gemeine Schwarze Herzkirsche._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
142-145, 156, 157. 1819.

_Gemeine Schwarze Herzkische._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
142-145, 156, 157, 1819.

_Guignier à gros fruit noir_? =5.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:502.
1860.

Fruit large, cordate, flattened on one side; stem long, set in a deep
cavity; skin thick, dark red changing to black, pitted; flesh rather
firm, tender, fibrous, dark red, juicy, exceedingly sweet and
refreshing, with a slightly bitterish after-taste; stone clinging;
ripens in July.


=Grosse Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ
_Wörterb._ 277. 1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 200, 201.
1819.

Found in a German garden in 1797; distinguished from Elkhorn in ripening
later. Fruit large, round, flattened on the sides and apex; skin black,
glossy; stem thick; flesh firm, juicy; ripens early in August.


=Grosse Süsse Maiherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 126-130. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:20.
1858.

_Grosse Süsse Maikirsche._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 662. 1797.

Fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate, sides compressed; stem of
medium length, stout, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tough,
almost black; flesh tender, reddish-black, juicy, sprightly, rich; stone
of medium size, broadly cordate, with a faint point; ripens at the end
of June; used for table and kitchen.


=Grosse Tardive.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 17. 1876.

_Grosse späte Amarelle._ =2.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 58. 1907.

Grosse Tardive is thought to have originated near Paris, France. It
ripens the first of August when all other sweet, black cherries are
gone. The tree resembles Montmorency.


=Grosse Transparente.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser.
=3=:60. 1900.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Grosse Ungarische Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 66-68.
1790.

_Ungarische Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Handb._ 661. 1797.

_Grosse schwarze ungarische Herzkirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:20. 1858.

Fruit large, oval, rather angular; stem medium in length; cavity deep,
irregular; suture distinct; skin glossy, black; flesh dark red,
fine-grained, aromatic, sweet; stone large, oval; ripens early in July;
productive.


=Grosse de Verrières.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 71, 72, Pl.
1870-71.

This cherry is extensively grown at Verrières, France, where it is often
called, "La Grosse." The fruit, however, is but a trifle larger than
Cerise Commune from which it differs only in its slightly
elongated-cordate form; stem medium in length; skin deep red; flesh red,
juicy, sweet; season the middle of July.


=Grosse de Wagnellee.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 465.
1869.

A vigorous, productive cherry of Belgian origin; fruit large, oval; skin
yellow, washed and spotted with red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; ripens
in July.


=Grosse Weinkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 385.
1881.

_Grosse-Griotte à vin._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21, 196. 1876.

Fruit flattened, roundish, rather large; stem rather long; suture
indistinct; skin very dark, glossy red; flesh tender, dark red, juicy,
sprightly, acid; pit egg-oval; ripens in July; used for conserves and
coloring wines.


=Grosse Weisse Frühkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 285, 679, 680. 1819.

Fruit large, truncate-cordate, one side compressed, with a shallow
suture; stem long, stout, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin firm,
tough, pale yellow, washed with deep red; flesh firm, juicy, sweet,
pleasing; stone small, round, plump, partly clinging; ripens the middle
of July.


=Groth Braune Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 358.
1889.

Listed without description in this reference.


=Groth Gelbe Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56.
1907.

_Bigarreau jaune de Groth._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27, 189. 1876.

_Groth's Wachskirsche._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 337, 358. 1889.

Tree vigorous and very productive; fruit rather large, truncate-cordate;
skin transparent, brilliant yellow; flesh rather firm, very sweet,
agreeable; first quality; matures early in July.


=Grünstiel-Kirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:22. 1858.

Fruit black, of medium size, obtuse-cordate, noticeably furrowed; stem
long, shallowly inserted; flesh firm, colored, subacid; pit of medium
size, round, somewhat clinging; ripens the middle of July.


=Guben.= _P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

_Bigarreau noir de Guben._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190. 1876.

_Gubener Schwarze Knorpel._ =3.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 369. 1881.

_Late Black Bigarreau_? =4.= _Guide Prat._ 18. 1895.

Guben originated near the town of the same name in Prussia, Germany.
Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides slightly compressed; suture
indistinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; skin firm, glossy, nearly
black; flesh firm, dark red, sweet, with a pleasing sourness; pit
roundish; ripens the last of June.


=Gubens Ehre.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 358. 1889. =2.= Lange
_Allgem. Garten._ 423. 1897.

Fruit large, dark red, with a slightly aromatic flavor.


=Guigne Anglaise Blanche Précoce.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:161. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Guigne d'Argovie.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 51. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Blanche Précoce.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:316.
1877.

Received by Leroy from Germany in 1860 and said by him to lack size and
quality.


=Guigne Bonne Alostoise.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 359.
1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne de Buxeuil.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Guigne Carnée Winkler.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:317,
318 fig., 319. 1877.

_Winkler weisse Herzkirsche._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 278,
279. 1819.

_Guigne Blanche de Winkler._ =3.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:161, 162, fig. 79.
1866-73.

_Guigne de Winkler._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15, 199. 1876.

This variety is said to be a seedling raised by a Herr Winkler at Guben,
Prussia, Germany, about 1816. Fruit attached in pairs, large,
roundish-cordate, compressed; suture not prominent; stem long, inserted
in a deep, narrow cavity; skin flesh-colored; flesh tender, slightly
fibrous, light yellow, juicy, sweet, pleasingly aromatic; pit of medium
size, plump, oval; ripens the second week of the cherry season.


=Guigne de Chamblondes.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 359. 1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Chamonale.= _P. avium._=1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:151. 1882.

Flowers and foliage only described.


=Guigne Chavanne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882. =2.=
Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 359. 1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Courte-queue d'Oullins.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le
Cerisier_ =2=:62 fig., 63, 218. 1866.

_Guigne à courte queue_? =2.= _Cat. Cong. Pom. France_ 20. 1887.

This variety is said to have originated at Oullins, near Lyons, France.
Tree vigorous, upright, productive; fruit rather large, obtuse-cordate,
truncate; stem short to very short, inserted in a shallow, narrow
cavity; suture a well-marked line; skin rather thick, glossy, shaded
with red changing to deep black; flesh red, tender but not soft, sweet
with some acidity, agreeable; quality excellent; pit large for the size
of the fruit, ovoid; ripens early in June.

=Guigne Ecarlate.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 51. 1831.

A worthless, medium-sized, red, oval fruit, with firm flesh, ripening in
July.


=Guigne de l'Escalier.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Thomas Guide Prat._ 24. 1876.
=2.= _Guide Prat._ 11. 1895.

This is a large, brownish-black, French cherry of the Heart class. Fruit
with an uneven surface; flesh red, sugary, sweet; first quality; ripens
the first of July.

=Guigne de Gland.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 213. 1880.

Guigne de Gland received its name from the small community of Gland,
Aisne, France, where it appears to have been first cultivated. It is one
of the first to be found on the markets; is very productive, and of good
quality; fruit large, clear red, very sweet.

=Guigne Grosse Rouge Hâtive.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
51. 1831.

A firm, red, cordate cherry of second quality for table use; ripens in
July.


=Guigne Grosse Rouge Tardive.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
51. 1831.

Listed in this reference.


=Guigne Guindole.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 198. 1876.

Many writers, including Leroy, believe this cherry to be identical with
the Flamentine. Tree vigorous, productive; grown for market; fruit
large, elongated-cordate; skin deep red with carmine mottling on a
yellowish ground; flesh tender, soft, juicy, sugary; matures the last
part of June.


=Guigne Hâtive d'Elsdorf.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27,
198. 1876.

A German variety "much recommended."


=Guigne Marbrée.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Pom. France_ =7=:No. 18. Pl. 18.
1871. =2.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits._ 286. 1889. =3.= _Cat. Cong. Pom.
France_ 523. 1906.

The origin of this variety is uncertain. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate;
suture wide, shallow; stem of medium length, set in a shallow, wide
cavity; skin glossy, white, washed with a rose color changing to
carmine, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellowish, firm, sweet, faintly
aromatic; pit small, roundish; ripens early in July.


=Guigne Marie Besnard.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15. 1876.

A large, oblong, Heart cherry of good quality; skin light yellow
overspread with red; flesh tender, juicy; late.


=Guigne de Nice.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24. 1876. =2.=
_Guide Prat._ 11. 1895.

Fruit very large, oblong, light red; season early in warm years; trees
rather tender.


=Guigne Noir Luisante.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 208. 1854.
=2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

_Guignier à gros fruit noir luisant._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait Arb. Fr._
=1=:162, 163. 1768.

_Grosse glänzende schwarze Herkirsche._ =4.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:2,
Tab. 3 fig. 2. 1792. =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 146, 147. 1819.

_Grosse Guigne noire luisante._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:72 fig.
73, 74, 218. 1866.

_Guigne Reinette noire._ =7.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24. 1876.

_Guigne noire hâtive à gros fruits._ =8.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._
108 fig., 109. 1904.

This variety should not be mistaken for the Black Spanish of the Germans
although Elliott speaks of it as such with the statement that it was
grown in New Jersey about 1823, from whence it was introduced into Ohio.
It was known as Guigne Reinette Noire about the provinces of Main and
Anjou, France, where it is said to have originated. Some authors have
confused it with Hogg's Black Heart from which it differs in being more
firm. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit large, usually attached in
threes, obtuse-cordate, plump; suture wide; stem medium in length,
inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; skin thick, glossy, brownish-red
changing to black; flesh colored, tender, fibrous, juicy, sweet, vinous;
quality good; pit small, roundish-oval, turgid; ripens the last of June.


=Guigne Noire Hâtive.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 51.
1831.

_Guignier à Gros Fruit noir hâtif._ =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:330
fig., 331. 1877.

This old variety originated in France early in the Sixteenth Century.
Tree moderately productive; fruit attached in threes, large,
obtuse-cordate, irregular; stem long, stout; cavity large; skin becomes
reddish-black; flesh deep red, fibrous, juicy, acidulated, sweet;
quality fair; pit above medium, ovoid, plump; ripens the last of May.


=Guigne Noire de Monstreux.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24.
1876.

Described by M. M. Vérilhac, nurseryman at Annonay, France, as a large,
good, productive cherry ripening the first part of June.


=Guigne Nouvelle Espéce.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort Soc. Cat._ 51.
1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Olive.= P. _avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:79, 80
fig., 81, 220. 1866.

Fruit large, elongated-oval, more pointed at the cavity; suture wide;
stem long, slender, set in a slightly deep, abrupt cavity; skin at first
rose-colored, marbled with red changing to almost black; flesh tender,
colored, agreeably acid, with a slight bitterness; pit very large, oval,
resembling the pit of an olive; ripens at the beginning of July.


=Guigne Petite Blanche.= _P. vium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort Soc. Cat._ 51.
1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Petite Rouge.= P. _avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort Soc. Cat._ 51. 1831.

Listed in this reference.


=Guigne la Plus Hâtive.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:51-54, fig. 1866.

_Guigne marbrée précoce._ =2.= _Mas Le Verger_ =8=:115, 116, fig. 56.
1866-73.

_Guigne d'Annonay._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15, 197. 1876.

Fruit of medium size, cordate, often slightly elongated; skin thin,
mottled with red changing to almost black; stem moderately slender, set
in a rather deep, wide cavity; flesh purplish, tender, juicy, agreeably
acidulated; pit small, ovoid; ripens the last of May.


=Guigne Précoce Leo d'Ounons.= P. _avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 65. 1881.

This variety was found in an orchard near Vigne, France. The fruit is
large and sweet with an agreeably aromatic juice; ripens the first half
of June.


=Guigne Précoce de Mathère.= P. _avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27.
1876.

_Early Mathere._ =2.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 416. 1899.

Tree vigorous; fruit of medium size, roundish-oval; stem short; skin
red; flesh yellowish-red, juicy, sweet; stone small, clinging; early.


=Guigne Précoce Ponctuée.= P. _avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:208. 1866.

A variegated cherry with uncolored juice, mentioned by Mortillet.


=Guigne de Provence.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18. 1876.
=2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:152. 1882. =3.= _Guide Prat._ 18. 1895.

Although very similar to Transparente de Coë, according to _Guide
Pratique_, 1895, Guigne de Provence is a distinct variety. Tree
vigorous, productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; skin
reddish-carmine; flesh rather firm, sweet; first quality; matures the
last half of June.


=Guigne Ramon Oliva.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 355. 1888. =2.=
_Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 112 fig., 113. 1904.

A chance seedling noticed first by M. Charozé, horticulturist, at
Pyramide-Trelazé, near Angers, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit
large, usually borne in twos or threes, roundish-cordate; suture
indistinct; stem long; color brownish-black, glossy; flesh fine, juicy,
sweet; pit large, oval; ripens early in June.


=Guigne Rose Hâtive.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24, 199.
1876.

_Kleine frühe rothe Herzkirsche._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
164. 1819.

_Rosenrothe Maikirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:18. 1858.
=4.= _Ill. Handb._ 55 fig., 56. 1860.

_Guignier à fruit rose hâtif._ =5.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:503.
1860.

Guigne Rose Hâtive was received by Jahn from Dochnahl who believed
Rheinpfalz, a former palatinate in Germany, to be its home. Tree
productive, drooping; fruit of medium size, uneven particularly about
the stem, roundish-cordate, sides flattened; suture indistinct; stem
medium in length; cavity shallow; skin rose-colored in the middle of
May, later changing to a reddish-purple or black; flesh tender, with
colored juice, sweet if ripe; stone rather large, ovate to oval; ripens
at the end of May or the beginning of June.


=Guigne Rouge Commune.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:152. 1882.

The flowers and foliage only are described.


=Guigne Rouge Ponctuée.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:89
fig., 90, 91, 218. 1866.

This cherry is similar to Rothe Molkenkirsche but is different in pit.
It was found in the province of l'Isere, France. Fruit large to above,
depressed at both extremities, flattened on both sides, one of which is
traversed by a wide, shallow suture; stem above medium in length, set in
a shallow, rather narrow cavity; skin firm, thick, brilliant, changing
to deep red, mottled; flesh white, faintly rose-colored especially about
the pit, moderately firm, at maturity it loses its sourness becoming
sugary and aromatic; pit large, oblong-oval; ripens at the beginning of
June.


=Guigne de Russie à Fruit Blanc.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc.
Cat._ 52. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Guigne Très Précoce.= _P. avium._ 1. Hogg _Fruit Man._ 275, 301. 1884.

A very early, black cherry, a week earlier than the Early Purple. Fruit
rather small, obtuse-cordate, irregular in outline; stem long, slender,
deeply inserted in a wide cavity; skin quite black; flesh very tender;
juice colored; good.


=Guigne van der Broek.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:39, 40.
1771.

A very small, juicy cherry similar to the Black Guigne in form, color
and taste; somewhat oblong; dark, brownish-black; of a very sweet,
agreeable taste.


=Guigne Villeneuve.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 15, 1876.

_Villeneuver Herzkirsche._ =2.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

This variety is believed to be native to the region around the Auvergne
mountains, France. Fruit very large, quadrangular; skin a vivid rose
color overspreading a whitish ground; ripens late in June.


=Guignier à Fruit Noir et Très-long Pédoncule.= _P. avium._ =1.=
Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:503. 1860.

Obtained from seed and fruited first in 1824. Tree erect, vigorous;
fruit small, conical, black; stem nearly four inches long; flesh watery,
colored, sweet, agreeably acidulated.


=Guignier à Petit Fruit Noir.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp.
Jard._ =2=:502. 1860.

This variety differs from the Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche only in size
of fruit.


=Guindoux Noir de Faix.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26. 1876.

Mentioned by Thomas without description.


=Gunsleber Späte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 320, 321. 1819.

A seedling of White Spanish ripening early in August. Fruit small,
blushed with light and dark red on a white ground; flesh firm, sweet;
unproductive.


=Halbgefülltblühende Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:66, 67. 1858.

_Schwarze Weichsel mit halb gefüllter Blüte._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 606, 607, 608. 1819.

Truchsess says that only the semi-doubles have perfect pistils and the
other flowers do not produce fruit. Fruit oblate; stem long, inserted in
a shallow cavity; skin thin, tough, glossy, black; flesh tender, fibrous
near the stem, with dark juice, pleasing.


=Halifax.= Species? =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 94. 1854.

Halifax is an old variety reported from Maryland.


=Hallock.= _P. avium._

Hallock is a supposed seedling of Downer found by Nicholas Hallock,
Milton, New York; not disseminated. It resembles Downer in color but is
slightly smaller and about two weeks later.


=Hallowell.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Me. Sta. An. Rpt._ =22=:175. 1906.

Hallowell is a seedling of Black Tartarian.


=Hamell Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Hamels Arissen.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Hartlib.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Hartlippe.= Species? =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

"The Hartlippe Cherrie is so called of the place where the best of this
kinde is noursed up, being betweene Sittingbourne and Chattam in Kent,
and is the biggest of our English kindes."


=Hartz Mountain.= Species? =1.= _Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 48. 1874.

This variety was brought from Germany by a Mr. Meyer of St. Peter,
Minnesota, with whom it has proved hardy and productive.


=Hâtive de Balis.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 362. 1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Hâtive ou Précoce.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Hâtive de Prin.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 280, 281, Pl. 1893.
=2.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

_Priner Frühweichsel._ =3.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

This variety was introduced by M. Maquerlot of Fismes, Marne, France. It
resembles Montmorency in shape, with a longer stem. Fruit often borne in
fours; cavity deep; skin thin, deep red; flesh of a rose color,
transparent, sugary, acidulated, juicy; pit of medium size, orbiculated.


=Hâtive de St. Jean.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Headley.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Healy.= _P. avium._ =1.= Sweet _Cat._ II. 1897.

Healy is an old, sweet variety thought to have come from Pennsylvania;
introduced by George A. Sweet, Dansville, New York.


=Hedelfingen.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

_Hedelfingen Risenkirsche._ =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 77 fig., 78. 1860.

_Colassale d'Hedelfingen._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301. 1866.

_Géante d'Hedelfingen._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 194. 1876.

_Monstrueuse d'Hedelfingen._ =5.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:59, 60, fig. 30.
1882.

_Bigarreau de Hedelfingen._ =6.= _Gard. Chron._ =20=:160. 1896.

This variety probably originated in the village of Hedelfingen, Germany.
Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit very large, obtuse-cordate;
suture noticeable on both sides; stem very long; cavity deep, narrow;
skin glossy, tough, dark brown changing to black, with light red dots;
flesh fibrous, dark red, more tender than many Bigarreaus, yet firm,
juicy, pleasing, aromatic; stone of medium size, long, truncate at the
base; ripens in July; good for table, kitchen and market.


=Hedwigs Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882. =2.=
Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 362. 1889.

Listed but not described.


=Heidelberger Kirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 290. 1802.

A very dark, black, small, short-stemmed Sour Cherry ripening at the
beginning of September.


=Heiges.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 40. 1895.

Heiges is a seedling of the Bigarreau type, from C. E. Hoskins,
Springbrook, Oregon, ripening there the last of June. Fruit large,
heart-shaped, very smooth; cavity medium in size and depth, regular,
flaring; stem short, slender; suture shallow, narrow; skin thin,
tenacious, dark purplish-black, with minute golden, indented dots; flesh
very dark, purplish-black, with a few light veins, meaty, tender, juicy,
sweet, aromatic; quality best; pit large, oval, semi-clinging.


=Heintzen (Heintze's) Frühe Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
362. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=Henneberger Grafenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 675.
1797. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 548, 549, 550. 1819. =3.=
Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:64. 1858. =4.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 159.
1790.

_Cerise du Comte de Henneberg._ =5.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:307.
1866.

Fruit of medium size, flattened, without a suture; black when ripe; stem
long, slender, shallowly inserted; flesh tender, with a pleasant
sourness; ripens in July.


=Hensel Early.= Species? =1.= _Horticulturist_ =22=:233 fig. 1867.

Hensel is an accidental seedling found on the grounds of G. W. Zahm,
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and named after the former owner of the
property. Tree moderate in growth, hardy, productive; fruit roundish,
obtuse at the base; stem slender; flesh half-tender, juicy; good; ripens
the first part of June; not disposed to rot.


=Herzkirsche Léona Quesnel.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 62. 1889.

Mentioned but not described by Mathieu.


=Herzkirsche Trauben.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:153. 1882.

The flowers and foliage only are described.


=Herzkirsche Wils Frühe.= Species? =1.= Lange _Allgem. Garten._ 439.
1897. Listed without a description.


=Herzkirschweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 673. 1797.

According to Christ, this cherry is a Morello; fruit large, with an
indistinct suture; stem rather long, deeply set; color reddish-black;
flesh tender, subacid; stone cordate; ripens the middle of July.


=Herzog May.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 330.
1885. =2.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 22. 1892-93.

Imported by Professor J. L. Budd from Southwestern Russia where it does
well on wet, unfavorable soil. Tree open and upright, a true Duke of the
best quality.


=Hoadley.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 209 fig. 1854.

Hoadley was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in
1842, and was named by Elliott in honor of George Hoadley of Cleveland.
Tree healthy, vigorous, with a round, spreading head; fruit above medium
in size, roundish-cordate; stem of medium length; cavity shallow; skin
pale yellow, mottled and striped with clear carmine; flesh yellowish,
tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, almost translucent; pit of medium size;
season the last of June; valuable for table use but will not stand
shipment.


=Hockenberg.= _P. cerasus._

Mentioned in a letter from H. Back & Sons, New Trenton, Indiana, as
resembling an Amarelle; of no particular value.


=Hogg Black Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 84. 1866. =2.=
Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem long; skin black, glossy;
flesh and juice dark, rich, sweet, tender; season at the beginning of
July.


=Hogg Red Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 84. 1866.

Fruit medium large, roundish, inclined to heart-shape; stem long; skin
red, mottled with amber-yellow; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet, rich,
with uncolored juice; ripens the first of July.


=Hoke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 24. 1894.

Hoke is a Duke, long known in York County, Pennsylvania, and regarded as
worthy of wider dissemination. It originated at Hanover, Pennsylvania,
with Henry Wirt, and was known as Wirt until the farm changed hands in
1848, when it became known as Hoke. The fruit, as grown at this Station,
is large, obtuse-cordate; cavity large, deep; skin thick, tough,
resisting rot in rainy weather, dark, mottled with red; stem long,
moderately thick, swollen at either end; flesh firm, meaty, dark pink,
subacid, sprightly; quality very good; stone medium; season the last of
June.


=Höllandische Späte Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 677.
1797. =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 288. 1802.

_Höllandische Kirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 597-599.
1819.

_Höllandische Weichsel._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:65. 1858.

This variety is distinguished from others of its class by its smaller
stone, tender flesh, longer stem and later ripening. Tree never large,
productive; fruit large, nearly round, sides slightly compressed; suture
distinct; stem long; color brownish-red; flesh tender, colored, juicy,
very sour; ripens in August but hangs until September.


=Holman Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Langley _Pomona_ 86, Pl. 17
fig. 1. 1729. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:135, 136. 1832. =3.=
Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._ 99. 1846. =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._
=5=:346, 347 fig. 1877.

_Cerise Royale Tardive D'Angleterre._ =5.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =1=:107,
108, Pl. 1853.

_Cherry-Duck._ =6.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:507. 1860.

_Royale Tardive._ =7.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:155, 156 fig., 157,
158, 305. 1866. =8.= _Pom. France_ =7=:No. 1, Pl. 1. 1871. =9.= Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Holman Duke is thought to be of English origin and a seedling of May
Duke. The name, Royale Tardive, a synonym of Holman Duke, has been used
interchangeably for several Duke cherries. Fruit large to above,
roundish-cordate; suture moderate; stem above medium in size, set in a
rather deep, narrow, irregular cavity; skin thin, brownish-red changing
to nearly black when fully mature; flesh red, fibrous, juicy, vinous,
acidulated; pit of medium size, ovoid; dorsal suture not very apparent;
ripens the middle of July.


=Holme Late Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
27. 1876.

Mentioned by Thomas without a description.


=Holstein.= Species? =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =17=:363. 1851.

A medium-sized, round, red, seedling cherry.


=Homer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:71, 72. 1903. =2.=
Jewell _Cat._ 35. 1906. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Homer is a seedling of the Morello type from New Haven, Connecticut,
introduced from Homer, Minnesota; said to be valuable in the Northwest.
Fruit medium to large, roundish-oblate; stem short, stout; cavity
shallow, moderately broad; skin red, becoming darker, thin, rather
tough; flesh tender, uncolored, juicy, mildly subacid; pit round,
semi-clinging; ripens the last of June.


=Honey.= _P. avium._ =1.= Coxe _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 251. 1817. =2.= Elliott
_Fr. Book_ 217. 1854. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 243. 1858.

_Large Honey._ =4.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

_Yellow Honey._ =5.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:110. 1832.

_Cream._ =6.= _Horticulturist_ =1=:148. 1846-47.

_Summer's Honey_? =7.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 228. 1849.

_Late Honey_? =8.= _Ibid._ 235, 236. 1849.

Honey, though grown only in America, is probably of foreign origin--an
old sort renamed. Tree similar to Black Mazzard but more spreading.
Fruit small, roundish-oval, yellowish, mottled with red, becoming deep
amber-red; stem long, slender; flesh tender, melting, juicy, sweet; pit
large; season the middle of July.


=Honey Dew.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Conn. Bd. Agr. Rpt._ =11=:340. 1877.

Spoken of as a valuable variety originating in Connecticut.


=Honeywood.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831. =2.=
_Mag. Hort._ =9=:205. 1843.

Mentioned as unworthy of cultivation.


=Hoppock Yellow.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =12=:164. 1886.

This variety originated in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from seed sown by
Cornelius Hoppock. Fruit of medium size, cordate, sweet; very
productive.


=Hoskins.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262. 1892. =2.= _Ibid._
292, Pl. VI. 1893. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 150. 1895. =4.= _Am. Pom.
Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899.

Hoskins originated with C. E. Hoskins,[86] Newberg, Oregon, about 1880,
as a seedling of Napoleon. Tree vigorous, upright, somewhat spreading;
fruit large, roundish-cordate suture a line; stem short, set in a
roundish cavity; color dull purplish-red; flesh purple, fibrous, firm,
sprightly, sweet; quality good; ripens in mid-season.


=Hovey.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hovey _Fr. Am._ =2=:25, 26, Pl. 1851. =2.=
_Mag. Hort._ =19=:405, 406 fig. 27. 1853. =3.= Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74.
1862.

Hovey originated with C. M. Hovey, Boston, Massachusetts, being selected
from a bed of seedlings in 1839; first fruited in 1848. For a time it
was considered a cherry of considerable value but at present it is but
little known. Tree very vigorous, upright, spreading, productive; fruit
large, obtuse-cordate; stem short, rather stout; skin rich amber mottled
with brilliant red; flesh pale amber, rather firm but tender, sprightly
becoming sweet; very good in quality; stone slightly adherent to the
pulp, small, oval.


=Hoy.= _P. avium._ =1.= Chase _Cat._ 12. 1909. =2.= _Ibid._ Pl. 1910.

A new cherry recently found in one of the suburbs of Philadelphia and
introduced in 1909 by the Chase Nursery Company, Geneva, New York, as a
very valuable Sweet Cherry. As grown at the Geneva Station it is smaller
and no better than Napoleon. Tree vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive
on the Station grounds. Fruit large, roundish-cordate, slightly
flattened, with irregular surfaces; cavity deep; suture a line; stem of
medium thickness and length, adhering to the fruit; skin rather thin, of
medium toughness, adhering to the pulp, amber covered with light red,
sometimes spotted; flesh whitish, juicy, stringy, tender, somewhat
meaty, crisp, sprightly, sweet; quality good; stone clinging, roundish,
plump; ripens in mid-season.

    [86] Oregon has given to pomology two notable breeders of cherries,
    Seth Lewelling and C. E. Hoskins, the subject of this sketch.
    Cyrus Edwin Hoskins was born on a farm in Clinton County, Ohio,
    July 3, 1842, and there he grew to manhood. Almost at the first
    call for men to defend the Union in the Civil War, Mr. Hoskins
    responded and joined the 13th Ohio regiment, serving until the
    close of the war. Returning to Ohio, he gave attention to fruit
    culture, testing many varieties of several fruits and producing
    some new grapes and berries. In 1877 Mr. Hoskins moved to Newberg,
    Yamhill County, Oregon, settling on new land and thus becoming a
    pioneer in the Northwest. His first pomological venture in Oregon
    was in growing prunes, his orchard of this fruit being one of
    the first, and he is credited with having built one of the first
    evaporators for the curing of prunes in America. For some years he
    maintained his prune ranch and evaporator, developing a product
    that gave him the highest reputation in prune markets and made him
    one of the leading authorities on this fruit in the United States.
    Early in his orchard work in Oregon Mr. Hoskins began to produce
    new varieties of cherries and soon offered for sale a number of
    promising seedlings of which Vesta, Lake, Occident, Stryker and
    Hoskins were most worthy. Unfortunately, ill health in the family
    compelled Mr. Hoskins to move from Yamhill County, to which place,
    after having spent several years in Jackson County, Oregon, and in
    the Hawaiian Islands, he returned with the expectation of taking
    up his work in breeding cherries and prunes, but his death, August
    18, 1908, occurred before his work had been again well begun. The
    Pacific Northwest owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Hoskins for the
    spendid part he played in developing the fruit industry of that
    region and pomologists the country over owe him much for his labors
    in breeding cherries.


=Hubbard.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 437. 1898.

Hubbard is a variety of the Morello class grown about Villa Ridge,
Illinois. Tree dwarfish, drooping, bears early, productive; fruit large,
cordate, nearly black; precedes Early Richmond.


=Hungarian Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.
=2.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 302. 1884.

_Hungarian Cherry of Zwerts._ =3.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629. =4.=
Rea _Flora_ 206. 1676.

Although there seems to be a discrepancy in the size of the cherry
mentioned by Parkinson and Rea and the one described by Hogg, all three
writers undoubtedly referred to the same sort. While the first two
references describe the variety as exceptionally large no definite
statements are made, thus giving strength to the following description
made by Hogg many years later. Tree productive; fruit rather below
medium in size, obtuse-cordate; skin amber, mottled with red on the
sunny side; flesh white, half-tender, mildly sweet; quality fair; stone
large, ovate; ripens in July.


=Hyde Late Black.= _P. avium._ =1.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 237. 1849. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 262. 1857.

This variety originated with T. & G. Hyde, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree
strong in growth, productive; fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate,
purplish-black; flesh half-firm, melting, juicy; resembles Eagle but is
later.


=Hyde Red Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:284. 1842. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 175. 1845.

_Hyde's Seedling._ =3.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 232. 1849.

Another seedling from T. & G. Hyde, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree
vigorous, hardy, spreading, productive; fruit of medium size, cordate;
stem short; skin pale yellow, becoming lively red; flesh tender, with a
pleasant sprightliness, juicy; season early July.


=Imperial Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 279.
1857.

_Poitou griotte._ =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:148. 1832.

_Imperial._ =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 209. 1854.

_Griotte Impériale._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 17, 195. 1876. =5.= _Can.
Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:9. 1892.

_Griotte à Courte Queue._ =6.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:284 fig., 285.
1877.

_Guindoux du Poitou._ =7.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:113, 114, fig. 57. 1882.

_Kaiserliche Weichsel._ =8.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 364. 1889.

An old variety recently introduced into the Northwest where it has
proved very hardy. Tree small, low-headed, productive, bears early;
fruit medium to large, roundish-oval; stem very short, shallowly
inserted; skin very dark red; flesh tender, juicy, pleasantly acid when
ripe; pit small, long, pointed; ripens the middle of July.


=Incomparable en Beauté.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Intorka.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 667. 1897.

Intorka is an importation from Russia. Fruit of medium size, round,
yellow and red; flesh firm, yellowish, subacid.


=Jaune de Prusse.= _P. avium._ =1.= McIntosh _Bk. Gard._ =2=:544. 1855.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 466. 1869. =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:93,
94, fig. 47. 1882.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit small, obtuse-cordate; stem long,
slender, inserted in a narrow cavity; skin firm, light yellow,
translucent; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet but slightly
bitter before it is fully ripe; pit large for the size of the fruit;
ripens after Downer.


=Jean Arendsen.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:37. 1771.

According to Knoop, it closely resembles the round Pragische Muskateller
in both form and color but is not as good in quality.


=Jenkin Black Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.

Mentioned without description.


=Jerusalem Kirsche von der Natte.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:153, 154. 1882.

Flowers and leaves only are described.


=Jerusalemskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
557-561. 1819.

_Späte Königliche Weichsel._ =2.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:8, Tab. 19 fig.
2. 1792. =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 561-563. 1819.

_Späte grosse königliche Weichsel._ =4.= Christ _Handb._ 683. 1797.

_Pyramidenkirsche._ =5.= Christ _Wörterb._ 291. 1802.

_Pyramidenweichsel._ =6.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 529-531. 1819.

The origin of this old variety is unknown but it was chiefly grown in
Germany. Tree unproductive; fruit large, oval, with a shallow suture;
stem long, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark red, changing to black,
glossy; flesh moderately firm, juicy, pleasing subacid; pit large,
walnut-shaped, clinging; ripens the last of July in Germany.


=Jocosot.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168, 404. 1853. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 197 fig. 1854.

_Jockotos._ =3.= Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 270. 1857.

Jocosot was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in
1842, from a pit of the Yellow Spanish and named after an Indian chief.
Tree thrifty, round-topped, productive; fruit large, regular,
obtuse-cordate, indented at the apex, sides compressed; suture broad;
stem long, set in a cavity of medium size; skin glossy, of a dark-liver
color, almost black; flesh tender, with indistinct radiating lines,
juicy, sweet; pit below medium in size, smooth; ripens the last of June.


=Joel Keil Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl
_Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:22. 1858.

Fruit small, roundish-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender,
shallowly inserted; skin black; flesh rather firm, sweet, juicy,
colored; pit oval, clinging; ripens the middle of July to the middle of
August.


=June Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 330. 1885.
=2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:72. 1903.

_Cerisier juniat._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 649, 650, 691.
1819.

_Junius Amarelle._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:70. 1858.

_Juniat Amarelle._ =5.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882. =6.= _Mich.
Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1888. =7.= _Vt. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:243. 1898-99.

_June Morello._ =8.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =19=:548. 1892.

Truchsess refers to this cherry as having been described by Sickler in
1805. Budd, in his importations of 1883, from Russia, included this
variety. Tree of medium size, vigorous, rather unproductive; fruit above
medium in size, roundish-oblate; stem stout, of medium length; suture
indistinct; skin thin, rather tough, separating readily from the pulp,
light red; flesh firm, meaty, yellowish, juicy; flavor subacid; quality
fair; stone of medium size, somewhat round; season that of Early
Richmond which it resembles in size, flavor and color.


=June Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Hooper _W. Fr. Book_ 269.
1857.

_Shippen._ =2.= Coxe _Cult. Fr. Trees_ 248. 1817.

A tart variety similar to May Duke, known about Philadelphia as Shippen
and Wetherill. Tree vigorous; fruit large and pleasing; ripens late in
June.


=Justinische Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 291. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 523, 524. 1819.

_Justinische Amarelle._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 683. 1797.

This variety is separated from other Sour Cherries ripening with it,
through its firm flesh, its straight, shallowly set stem and its
astringent, sour flavor. Fruit of medium size, roundish, sides broadly
compressed; stem of medium length, rather stout; suture shallow; skin
tough, brownish-red; flesh dark red, with clear red juice.


=Kamdesa.= _P. pumila × P. persica._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=108=:1908.

Noted in the reference as a cross between the Sand Cherry and the
Opulent peach. "The blossoms show a tendency to double."


=Kappenblättrige Süssweichsel.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Dochnahl
_Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:47. 1858.

Distinguished from May Duke through its smaller fruit and rolled leaves.


=Kassin Frühe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Lauche _Ergänzungsband_
601. 1883. =2.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:60. 1900.

Kassin, a vineyardist, in Potsdam, Prussia, Germany, raised this sort
from seed. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; suture
indistinct; stem of medium length, thick, set in a small cavity; skin
dark brown changing to reddish-black, dotted; flesh dark, juicy, sweet;
excellent; stone roundish-oval; ripens the first week of the season.


=Katie.= _(P. avium × P. cerasus) × P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Hort. An._ 86
fig. 1869.

Katie is a seedling of Louis Philippe crossed with a Mazzard. The tree
has the Mazzard habit of growth, yet produces fruit resembling May Duke
in form and size but deeper in color; flesh tender; matures with Downer.


=Kaufmann.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 345. 1906.

Kaufmann is a stray seedling of English Morello from Minnesota. It is
larger and a little longer in stem than the supposed parent and ripens
with the last of the Early Richmond.


=Kazan Seedling.= Species? =1.= _Vt. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:240. 1898-99.

Listed in the reference given.

=Kelly.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 253. 1903.

A Sweet Cherry from Berrien County, Michigan.


=Kennicott.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 210 fig. 1854.

Kennicott was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland and named by Elliott
after Dr. J. A. Kennicott of Northfield, Illinois. Tree vigorous, hardy,
spreading, productive; fruit large, oval-cordate, compressed; suture
shallow; stem short, inserted in an irregular cavity; skin amber-yellow,
mottled with bright, clear, glossy red; flesh yellowish-white, firm,
juicy, sweet; pit below medium in size, smooth; ripens about the middle
of July.


=Kentish Drier.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

A medium-sized, red cherry of first quality used for culinary purposes;
ripening in July. Confused by some with Early Richmond.


=Kentish Preserve.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Keokuk.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 210 fig. 1854.

Keokuk is another seedling raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland,
Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with
Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree vigorous, strong;
fruit large, cordate; stem stout; skin dark purplish-black; flesh
half-tender, purple, rather coarse; deficient in flavor; pit of medium
size; season early in July.


=Kesterter Früh Kirsche.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 364. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=King George the Second.= _P. avium._ =1.= Brookshaw _Pom. Brit._ Pl. 6.
1817. =2.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:3, Pl. II fig. 1. 1823.

This variety is distinguished from other black cherries by its uneven
surface. Fruit large, with a rich, sweet flavor; ripens the first of
June and hangs for six weeks.


=King Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 78. 1890. =2.=
_Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:60. 1900. =3.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort.
Man._ =2=:277. 1903.

King Morello is another of Budd's importations from Russia. Tree very
hardy, moderate in growth; fruit large, oblate; stem variable; skin dark
red; flesh yellowish-white, firm, sprightly, juicy, good; pit very
small; ripens with Early Richmond.


=Kirsche von Basel.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 19 fig., 20. 1867.

Jahn, in his _Handbuch_, calls attention to the error in calling this
variety Bigarreau Hâtif de Bale as it is not a Bigarreau but a
variegated Heart. Fruit compressed unevenly giving it a cordate
appearance, small; suture shallow; apex slightly depressed; stem long,
slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin thin, bright yellow washed with
pale red, mottled and streaked; flesh pale yellow, soft, with abundant,
uncolored juice, pleasing but not high in quality; stone large,
roundish, slightly pointed; ripens the middle of July.


=Kirchheimer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 290. 1802. =2.=
_Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

_Kirchheimer Weichsel._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 580-583.
1819. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 85 fig., 86. 1867.

This old cherry is from Kirchheim, Erfurt, Prussia, Germany. It is
propagated by root cuttings and is used for wine and for canning. It is
mentioned as growing in British Columbia but is otherwise not spoken of
by American writers. Tree large, vigorous, drooping; fruit of medium
size, round; suture a line; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; skin
thin, glossy, almost black when ripe; flesh mild subacid, pleasing,
juicy; stone small, oval, turgid; ripens at the end of July.


=Kirtland Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Horticulturist_ =22=:292, 293
fig. 1867.

_Kirtland's Large Morello_. =2.= _Horticulturist_ N. S. =3=:123. 1853.

_Large Morello._ =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 210. 1854.

A seedling originated by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio; it
thrives in sections of the south and west where Sweet Cherries are
generally unsuccessful. Tree vigorous, spreading; fruit uniformly
distributed, borne in pairs, large, uniform, roundish; stem short;
cavity round, narrow; skin glossy, dark red; flesh tender, juicy, acid;
high quality; pit small; ripens early in July.


=Kleindienst Braune Knorpel.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 365.
1889.

_Bigarreau Brun Kleindienst._ =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:184, 185 fig.
1877.

Leroy, in 1866, stated that this variety was raised from seed by M.
Kleindienst, a vineyardist at Guben, Prussia, Germany. Tree moderately
productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, cordate, flattened;
stem long, moderately stout; skin vivid red, changing from grayish-red
to almost black; flesh of a whitish-rose color, firm, filamentose,
juicy, sugary, acidulated, aromatic; first quality; pit large, ovoid;
ripens the last of June.


=Kleine Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
644-646. 1819.

Truchsess states that this variety was described by Büttner in 1797, as
Kleine Glaskirsche but that it belongs to the Amarelles. Tree
productive; fruit small, globular, pale reddish-yellow; flesh melting,
watery; ripens the middle of July.


=Kleine Bunte Frühkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 248-251. 1819.

_Bigarreau à petit fruit rouge hâtif._ =2.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:166, 167. 1768. =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 47. 1831.

_Bigarreautier à petit fruit rouge._ =4.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
308-310. 1819.

_Bigarreau rouge hâtif (petit)._ =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:243 fig.,
244. 1877.

_Petit Bigarreau Hâtif_? =6.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:105, 106, fig. 53.
1882.

Fruit of medium size, usually attached in pairs, irregular, cordate,
flattened on both faces; stem long, slender; skin almost wholly red,
occasionally showing streaks of yellow; flesh yellowish, firm, juicy,
aromatic; pit of medium size, ovoid; ripens about the middle of June.


=Kleine Bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 219-222. 1819.

_Kleine bunte Molkenkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:28.
1858.

Fruit small, nearly round, sides compressed; suture distinct; stem long,
slender, deeply inserted; skin dull blood-red, with yellow spots; flesh
tender, pale yellow, juicy, honey sweet; stone small; ripens at the end
of June.


=Kleine Frühe Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 650-652. 1819.

Fruit small, round, flattened; stem short; suture a line; skin clear
red, transparent, tender; flesh tender, pleasant subacid; stone small,
adhering more to the stem than to the flesh; ripens the last half of
July.


=Kleine Natte.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 365. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=Kleine Nonnenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ 1. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_
585-588. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:65, 66. 1858.

This variety is a seedling of the common wild Sour Cherry. The fruit is
the smallest of the Sour Cherries and resembles the black Bird cherries
but has a shorter stem. Tree of medium size, drooping; fruit very small,
oblate; stem short, shallowly inserted; skin glossy, black, thin but
tough; flesh firm, tender, juicy, with a peculiar sourness; stone small,
round, adhering to the flesh more than to the stem, stained violet;
ripens early in August continuing for three weeks.


=Kleine Schwarze Frühe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 155, 156. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:20.
1858.

No doubt this variety, the Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche, and the Black
Heart greatly resemble each other and some writers combine them.


=Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 275.
1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 148, 149. 1819.

_Mayer's kleine schwarze Herzkirsche._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:22. 1858.

This variety is distinguished from the Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche only
through its size and later ripening; fruit regular, cordate, somewhat
flattened; skin brownish-black; flesh soft, tender; ripens the latter
part of July.


=Kleine Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._
277. 1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 195-197, 674. 1819.

Distinguished from others of its class through its smallness and
firmness. Fruit small, variable, flattened at the ends; suture often
lacking; skin very dark brown; flesh firm, dark red, juicy, not
unpleasant but not excellent; stone small; ripens early in August;
productive.


=Kleine Weisse Frühkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort._ 256-258. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:27.
1858.

Described as one of the first to ripen. Fruit of medium size, oblate,
compressed; stem long, inserted in a shallow basin; skin tough,
yellowish-white, shaded with red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; ripens
early in June.


=Kleiner Früher May Herzkirschbaum.= _P. avium._ =1.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:1, Tab. 2 fig. 1. 1792.

Distinguished from the Grosser Früher Mai-Herzkirschbaum by its inferior
size and lighter flesh and juice; ripens at the end of May.


=Knapp.= Species? =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 290. 1889.

This cherry is a seedling from George Knapp, Lafayette, Oregon;
introduced by E. R. Poppleton, 1885; fruit of medium size, round, black.


=Knight Late Black.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52. 1831.
=2.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:204. 1843.

_Bigarreau-noir de Knight._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190. 1876.

Fruit large, black, obtuse-cordate, firm; second quality; ripens at the
end of July.


=Knudson.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._

According to a letter from the Utah Experiment Station, this variety was
discovered by William O. Knudson, Brigham City, Utah, in 1896. Although
similar to Late Duke, further testing may prove it distinct. Tree bears
early, hardy; fruit medium to large, bright scarlet; ripens over a long
period; used for pies and canning.


=Knyasnaia Sjevera.= _P. cerasus × P. avium._ =1.= _S. P. I. Bul._
=72=:519. 1912. =2.= _Ibid._ =73=:536 Pl. 1912.

This is a large-fruited cherry, originated in 1888 by the Russian
plant-breeder, I. V. Mijurin, at Kozlov, Central Russia, and named
"Knyasnaia Sjevera," meaning "Queen of the North." The United States
Department of Agriculture introduced it into this country under the
number 32674. It is claimed to be a hybrid between an early Vladimir and
a variety of Sweet Cherry called "White Winkler." It possesses excellent
shipping and keeping qualities. This cherry has stood the severe winters
of Central Russia very well and may be expected to thrive in parts of
the Middle West and where the climate is more or less semi-arid. Tree
vigorous, upright, with few side branches; trunk smooth and clean; fruit
large, pale red, with a fresh sour-sweet flavor; ripening about the end
of June.


=Koch Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:38. 1858. =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 365. 1889.

Originated about 1851. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture shallow; stem
medium long, shallowly inserted; skin glossy, black; flesh firm,
piquant; quality high; stone small, roundish-oval; ripens at the end of
August.


=Kochs Ostheimer Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59.
1907.

_Kochs verbesserte Ostheimer Weichsel._ =2.= _Reut. Pom. Inst.
Festschrift_ 122. 1910.

A strong-growing, productive variety, said to exceed its parent,
Ostheim, in size, color, and flavor.


=Koeper.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 341. 1893.

Listed in the reference given.


=Kolaki.= _P. avium._ 1. Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:29, 30, fig. 15. 1882.

According to Oberdieck, this variety is of Bohemian origin. Fruit of
medium size, cordate, slightly elongated; apex obtuse; suture distinct;
stem medium long, slender, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin
moderately firm, transparent, yellow in the sun, purplish in the shade;
flesh tinged yellow, tender, juicy, somewhat sugary; first quality; pit
small, oval, flattened at the base, obtuse at the apex; ripens the first
of June.


=Korkovanyer Kirsche.= Species? =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56. 1907.

Listed but not described.


=Koslov.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:278. 1903.

_Koslov bush Morello._ =2.= _Can. Hort._ =12=:216, fig. 58, 218. 1889.

_Koslov-Morello._ =3.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:128. 1900.

The Koslov cherries are seedlings, not a single variety. A number of
seedlings were imported by the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association in
1889, from Koslov, Crimea, Russia, where they were grown by Russian
peasants, being propagated from pits. The trees are low, bush-shaped,
slow in coming into bearing and most of the fruit is worthless. The one
most grown is moderately large, roundish, pointed at the apex; suture
barely traceable; stem long, set in a slight depression; skin dark red,
turning black; flesh dark red, tender, juicy, acid; ripens from the last
of July to the last of August.


=Kostelnice.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:19, 20, fig. 10.
1882.

Originated in Neustadt, Prussia, Germany. Tree moderately vigorous;
fruit medium to below in size, obtuse-cordate; stem short, set in a
straight, rather deep cavity; skin tough, vivid purple changing to
almost black; flesh tender, juicy, vinous, agreeably acidulated; good;
stone very small, ovoid, turgid; ripens early in June.


=Kostelniti.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Kriek van den Broek.= Species? =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 165,
166. 1819.

This variety, coming to Truchsess in 1808, from Holland, was confused
with several others received at the same time.


=Kritzendorfer Einsiedekirsche.= Species? =1.= _Obstzüchter_ =8=:52.
1910.

An intensely black, large, late cherry which is valued for market
because of its color.


=Kronberger Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 274. 1802.

_Kronkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Handb._ 663. 1797.

_Kronberg Black Heart._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 124-126.
1819. =4.= _Mag. Hort._ =9=:203. 1843.

_Kronberger Herzkirsche._ =5.= _Lond. Hort. Soc._ Cat. 48. 1831.

_Wildling von Kronberg._ =6.= Ill. _Handb._ 29 fig., 30. 1867.

_Bigarreau de Kronberg._ =7.= _Guide Prat._ 15, 182. 1895.

According to German pomologists, this variety was raised from seed at
Kronberg, Prussia, Germany. Tree productive; fruit of medium size,
obtuse-cordate, sides unevenly compressed; suture indistinct; stem long,
stout, set in a shallow cavity; skin tough, glossy, black when mature,
lighter along the suture; flesh firmer than others of its class, dark
red, aromatic, sweet; pit broadly cordate, somewhat adherent; ripens at
the end of June.


=Kronprinz von Hannover.= _P. avium._ =1.= Ill. _Handb._ 479 fig., 480.
1861.

_Prince Royal du Hanovre._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866.

_Bigarreau Prince Royal de Hanovre._ =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:232
fig. 1877.

_Prince de Hanovre._ =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:43, 44, fig. 22. 1882.

Grown by M. Lieke, a nurseryman at Hildesheim, Prussia, Germany,
fruiting for the first time in 1854. Tree moderately vigorous,
productive; fruit large, usually attached in pairs, roundish to
pointed-cordate; suture shallow; stem long, slender, inserted in a
rather deep cavity; skin rather tender, glossy, yellowish, streaked and
mottled with red; flesh firm, yellowish, juicy, pleasingly acidulated;
pit medium large, ovate, plump; ripens early in June.


=Krüger Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Ill. _Handb._ 67 fig., 68. 1860.

_Krügers schwarze Herzkirsche._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 161,
162. 1819.

_Krügers Herzkirsche zu Frankfurt._ =3.= Lond. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ 52.
1831.

_Guigne de Kruger._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 198. 1876. =5.= Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11:=77, 78, fig. 39. 1882.

This cherry was first heard of at Guben, Prussia, Germany, in 1810. It
is distinguished from Eagle in being larger, shorter stemmed, lighter in
color, and less tender in flesh. Tree vigorous, productive, upright;
fruit large, obtuse-cordate, oblate; suture shallow; stem medium long,
rather deeply inserted; skin dark brown or black; flesh dark red,
juicy, vinous, tender, yet often firm; stone small, roundish-oval,
plump, adhering slightly to the flesh on one side; ripens about the
middle of July.


=La Nappe.= Species? =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

Listed in this reference.


=Lacure (Large).= _P. avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

"The great Lacure or Hart Cherrie differeth not in forme, but in
greatnesse, being usually twice as great as the former [Lacure (Small)],
and of a reddish blacke colour also: both of them are of a firme
substance, and reasonable sweete. Some doe call the white cherrie, the
White hart cherrie."


=Lacure= (=Small=). _P. avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

"The smaller Lacure or Hart Cherrie is a reasonable faire Cherrie, full
above, and a little pointing downward, after the fashion of a heart, as
it is usually pointed, blackish when it is full ripe, and lesser than
the next" [Lacure (Large)].


=Ladé Late.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:60.
1900.

_Von Lade's Späte Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= Lauche _Ergänzungsband_ 605.
1883.

_Bigarreau Tardif de Ladé._ =3.= _Guide Prat._ 15, 184. 1895.

A German variety probably raised from seed by M. Ladé. Fruit of medium
size, long, cordate, compressed at the stem, roundish at the apex;
suture indistinct; stem long, thin, slightly curved; cavity shallow;
skin yellowish overspread with glossy light red, darker in the sun,
faintly streaked; flesh firm, yellowish, sweet, vinous; excellent; stone
long, oval; ripens in September lasting a month; productive.


=Lady of the Lake.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Country Gent._ =28=:398. 1866-67.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 467. 1869.

Lady of the Lake is a seedling from Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree
vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to large,
roundish-obtuse-conic, compressed, with a shallow suture; stem medium,
inserted in a deep cavity; skin light yellow, shaded and mottled with
bright crimson; flesh half-tender, pale yellow, juicy, sweet, rich;
season according to the climate, early May to late June.


=Lady Southampton.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 85. 1866.

_Lady Southampton's Yellow. =2.= Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831. =3.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 187. 1845.

According to the reference, this is an almost worthless yellow
Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, heart-shaped; skin yellow; flesh pale,
firm, rather dry, with uncolored juice, season the middle of July.


=Laeder Kirsebaer.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

Mentioned but not described.


=Lake.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 26. 1909.

Lake was named in honor of Professor E. R. Lake, then of the Oregon
Agricultural College, by the originator, C. E. Hoskins, Springbrook,
Oregon. The tree came into bearing about 1892 and is reported in the
American Pomological Society's fruit list of 1909 as succeeding well in
the northwest. Fruit large, sweet, and very good.


=Laker= or =Loker Bunte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom.
Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Lamaurie.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =177=:31. 1899.

_Early Lamaurie._ =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 461. 1869. =3.= Wickson
_Cal. Fruits_ 286, 291. 1889.

The chief asset of this variety is its earliness for which it is
cultivated in England, France and America. The parentage and originator
are unknown. Tree of medium vigor and productiveness; fruit large,
roundish-cordate, compressed; stem slender; skin thin, moderately tough;
color dark reddish-purple; flesh dark red, juicy, stringy, tender, mild,
sweet; of very good quality; season very early.


=Lampen Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 204, 205, 676. 1819.

_Lampers Knorpel-Kirsche._ =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

_Bigarreau noir de Lampé._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866.
=4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190. 1876. =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:226
fig., 227, 352. 1877.

A German cherry raised from seed at Guben, Prussia, Germany, in 1810,
and named for its originator. Fruit above medium in size, attached in
twos and threes, obtuse-cordate; stem slender, set in a wide, shallow
cavity; skin thin, rather dark reddish-brown; flesh dark red, rather
firm, juicy, sugary, wine-like; second quality; pit large, oval; ripens
early in June.


=Lancaster.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 163.
1881. =2.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:111. 1900.

Lancaster is an accidental seedling on the grounds of Daniel Smeych,
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Tree moderately vigorous, more open and
spreading than Early Richmond; fruit medium large, heart-shaped to
oblate, slightly roundish; cavity deep, broad; stem long, slender;
suture very slight; apex small; skin light red, very thin, tender; flesh
white, moderately soft, juicy, sweet with a sprightly flavor; stone
roundish, slightly ovate, partially free; season June.


=Langsurer Prachtweichsel.= Species? =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59.
1907.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Large Black Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

A medium-sized, firm, black Heart cherry of poor quality, ripening early
in July.


=Large Double Flowering.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thacher _Am. Orch._ 217.
1822. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:111. 1832. =3.= Downing Fr. _Trees
Am._ 199. 1845.

_Merisziere._ =4.= Rea _Flora_ 20. 1676.

_Merise à Fleur Double._ =5.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:157. 1768.
=6.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

_Kramelkirschenbaum mit gross gefüllter Blüthe._ =7.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._
=1=:4, Tab. 8. 1792.

_Herzkirschenbaum mit grosse gefüllter Blüthe._ =8.= Christ _Handb._
668. 1797.

_Süsskirschenbaum mit ganz gefüllter Blüte._ =9.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 363-370. 1819.

_Gefülltblühende Süsskirsche._ =10.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:18.
1858.

This variety in growth and foliage resembles the Mazzard and Black Heart
and not the common double-flowering cherry with its small tree and
small, pointed leaves. The flowers which appear at the usual season are
produced in the most showy profusion being from one to one and one-half
inches in diameter; they are composed of about forty white petals
disposed in the form of a rose, with about thirty stamens and a large,
abortive pistil. The numerous double flowers, resembling clusters of
small, white roses, make the tree a very useful ornamental.


=Large Griotte.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:148. 1832.

Large Griotte resembles Griotte Commune but is larger and earlier; skin
glossy black; flesh dark red, firm, sweet, pleasing.


=Large Guindolle.= Species? =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:149, 150. 1832.

Leaves are deeply indented, double-toothed; fruit large, flattened at
the ends, pale red; flesh white, melting, juicy; ripens at the end of
June or beginning of July.


=Large Heart-shaped Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._
=2=:129. 1832. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 199 fig. 1854.

_Bigarreau Gros Monstrueux._ =3.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 46. 1831.

_Bigarreau Gros Coeuret._ =4.= _Ibid._ 46. 1831. =5.= Downing _Fr. Trees
Am._ 453. 1869.

_Monstrous Heart._ =6.= _Hogg Fruit Man._ 78, 87. 1866.

A variety of French origin which was never extensively grown in America.
Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate; suture
often raised; stem variable, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark, glossy
red, nearly black, surface uneven; flesh firm but tender, reddish,
pleasant, moderately juicy; good in quality; stone large, oval; ripens
the first of July.


=Large Late Red Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:128,
129. 1832. _Bigarreau à gros Fruit Rouge Tardif._ =2.= _Lond. Hort. Soc.
Cat._ 46. 1831.

The fruit is somewhat smaller and much later in maturity than that of
the Large Red Bigarreau. The color is dark red on the shaded side and on
the other a brownish-red, almost black which has given it the name Black
Bigarreau; flesh firm, juicy and of excellent flavor.


=Large Spanish.= Species? =1.= Miller _Gard. Dict._ =1=:1754.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Laroses Glaskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 177 fig., 178.
1860.

_Larose._ =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:352 fig., 353. 1877.

This cherry was raised from seed in 1826 by M. Larose, of
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit usually
borne in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate; sides compressed; suture shallow;
stem medium in length, set in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy, tough,
mottled with pale red becoming darker; flesh yellowish, tender, slightly
fibrous, juicy, mildly acid; pit rather large, plump, oval, flattened at
the base; ripens the last of July.


=Late Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Horticulturist_ =2=:124. 1847-48.
=2.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 235. 1849. =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 199. 1854.

Late Bigarreau was raised in 1842 by Professor J. P. Kirtland,
Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, round-topped, very productive; fruit
large, obtuse-cordate, occasionally somewhat angular; stem long; skin
attractive yellow, occasionally nearly overspread with crimson-red,
delicately blotched or mottled; flesh yellowish, with distinct radiating
lines, juicy, firm, crisp, sweet, pleasant; very good in quality; stone
rather small, roundish; season late, the same as Downer.


=Late Black Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:130.
1832. =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:112 fig. 25, 113, 114. 1866. =3.=
Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 338. 1889.

This variety differs from Black Bigarreau in being smaller, less
heart-shaped, and in ripening later. It was first known as Bigarreau
Noir Tardif but Prince, in 1832, at which time he possibly brought it to
America, translated the name into English and called it Late Black
Bigarreau under which name it is now known in English and American
pomologies. Tree large, vigorous, upright, productive; fruit medium to
large, cordate; suture indistinct; color dark brownish-red changing to
glossy black; flesh purplish-red, with abundant, highly colored juice,
very firm, crisp, sweet yet sprightly, aromatic; quality good; ripens in
mid-season or later.


=Late Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

According to the reference, this is a small, black Heart of poor quality
ripening early in July.


=Late Large Black Griotte.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._
=2=:145, 146. 1832.

Worthy of consideration because of its beauty and lateness, often
remaining on the tree until October. Tree of medium size; branches
numerous, slender; fruit large, roundish; stem very long; skin dark red,
nearly black; flesh red, very acid and bitter, somewhat milder at
maturity.


=Late Purple Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 85. 1866.
=2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 468. 1869. =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24.
1876.

A large, dark red, German variety ripening the latter part of July;
flesh firm, juicy, agreeable.


=Late Richmond.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:111. 1900.
=2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:73. 1903.

The origin of this variety is uncertain but it seems to have been grown
in the Middle West about forty years ago. It is supposed to be a
seedling of Early Richmond differing from its parent in ripening later,
being of better quality, and more upright in growth. Fruit round,
conical; stem thick, moderately long; cavity shallow, broad; skin thin;
flesh tender, with abundant, colorless juice, acid; quality good; ripens
a week or ten days later than Early Richmond; unproductive.


=Late Ripe.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Gerarde _Herball_ 1504, 1505, fig. 5.
1636.

According to Gerarde, this cherry is similar to the wild English cherry
in branches and foliage but the flowers are often doubled; fruit small,
round, dark red, often dried with the stems on; used by physicians.


=Late White Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:113. 1832.

Fruit nearly round, with a deep suture; skin whitish or very pale amber,
tinged with light red; flesh firm, agreeable; ripens in France in
September.


=Latham.= Species? =1.= _Ont. Sta. An. Rpt._ =3=:45. 1896.

Listed as having been grown at the Simcoe Station.


=Laura.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing Fr. _Trees Am._ 468. 1869.

Laura originated with Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree spreading,
upright, productive; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, globular,
often one-sided; stem medium, inserted in a shallow depression; skin
pale yellow, largely overspread with rich, bright red; flesh white,
juicy, sweet, rich, half-tender; pit medium to small; ripens early in
June and hangs well.


=Leather Stocking.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853.
=2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 211, 212. 1854.

Leather Stocking was grown by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio,
in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, hardy, moderately
productive; fruit large, heart-shaped, often obtuse; skin faint red
becoming a rich reddish-black when fully ripe, with irregular stripes
and blotches of black; cavity deep, open; flesh firm, tinged with red,
sweet, fair; pit of medium size; season the last of July.


=Leib.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =14=:28. 1872. =2.=
_Horticulturist_ =29=:256. 1874. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App.
163. 1881.

This variety was brought from Germany about 1850 and planted in the
garden of a Mr. Leib, Galena, Illinois. It resembles Early Richmond and
was claimed to be very productive and hardy at the time of its
introduction; it has not been widely disseminated. Tree hardy, healthy,
upright in growth, bearing abundantly; fruit of a crimson color, sweet;
quality good; season the end of June, following Early Richmond.


=Leitzkauer.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 287. 1802.

_Sauer Einmach_ and _Backkirsche._ =2.= Krünitz _Enc._ 73, 74. 1790.

_Leitzkauer Einmachweichsel._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
567-569. 1819.

No doubt the name of this cherry arises from the cloister, Leitzkau, in
Magdeburg, Prussia, Germany, where it is widely planted. It is
propagated by root cuttings and if not pruned, grows tall, weak and
drooping. Fruit medium to small, roundish; stem long; skin dark brown to
glossy black; flesh reddish, juicy, sour; stone small, red; ripens in
August; of little value.


=Lemercier.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Hort. Reg._ (Am.) =1=:343,
344. 1835. =2.= _Mag. Hort._ =13=:399 fig., 400. 1847. =3.= Hogg _Fruit
Man._ 85. 1866. =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876. =5.= Leroy _Dict.
Pom._ =5=:353, 354 fig. 1877.

_Frühe Lemercier._ =6.= _Ill. Handb._ 157 fig., 158. 1860.

Discovered by M. Lemercier in Brabant, Belgium, about 1830; introduced
into Paris in 1835 and into America in 1842. It resembles Late Duke with
which it ripens. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture shallow; stem long,
inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, transparent, mottled with
red; flesh yellowish before ripe, becoming red, firm but melting, juicy,
slightly acidulated, with a peculiar fragrance; stone rather large,
roundish, truncate at the base, slightly clinging; ripens the last of
July.


=Léopold (II).= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889.

Mentioned but not described.


=Leopoldskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 674. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 564-566. 1819.

_Griotte de Léopold._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26, 195. 1876.

This variety was received by Truchsess in 1796 from Pastor Winter as
Brusseler Bruyn by which name it was called by a few German pomologists.
It should not be confused with the present Brusseler Braune. Fruit
large, almost round, compressed on one side; skin dark brown changing to
nearly black; flesh dark red, juicy, melting, mild when mature; stone
almost round; ripens toward the end of July. The drooping branches, the
small, sour cherry leaves which turn yellow and drop and the sweetness
in flavor separate it from the Grosse Morelle.


=Leschken (Leschke's) Schwarze Knorpel Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.=
Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Lethe.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 40. 1895.

Lethe was grown by C. E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. Fruit of the
Bigarreau type, large, heart-shaped, surface smooth, glossy; cavity
medium in size and depth, irregular, flaring, marked by irregular waves;
suture shallow; stem very long, slender, curved; skin thin, tenacious,
purplish-black; dots minute, indented; flesh very dark purplish-red,
firm, meaty, juicy, mild subacid, almost sweet; quality good; pit large,
oval, semi-clinging; ripens the last of June in Oregon.


=Liefeld Braune.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889.

_Guigne brune de Liefeld._ =2.= _Guide Prat._ 6, 191. 1895.

Tree of medium size, very vigorous and productive; fruit large, cordate,
brownish, mottled; flesh red, sweet; of first quality; matures early in
June.


=Lieke Bunte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 61 fig.,
62. 1867. =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889.

_Bigarreau Tardi de Lieke._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21, 190. 1876.

Originated with Herr Lieke of Hildesheim, Prussia, Germany, fruiting for
the first time in 1851. The fruit is one of the latest to ripen; large,
obtuse-cordate, compressed; stem long, slender, inserted in a rather
wide, deep cavity; suture indistinct; skin glossy, tough, yellow,
streaked and spotted with a mild red; flesh faintly yellow, firm, sweet
with a pleasing sourness; stone small, oval; season late.


=Lincoln (I).= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 468. 1869.

Lincoln is a vigorous, spreading variety, found near Cleveland, Ohio.
Fruit large, oblong-cordate, pointed; suture broad, shallow; stem long;
cavity deep; skin dark brown when ripe; flesh firm, veined and mottled
with shades of red, juicy, sprightly, sweet, pleasant; pit above medium
in size; season the first to the middle of July.


=Lincoln (II).= P. _avium._ =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 289. 1889. =2.=
_Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:29. 1910.

Seth Lewelling of Milwaukee, Oregon, raised this variety in 1865
probably from a seed of Eagle. Tree large, spreading, with an open top,
seriously affected with black aphis; fruit of medium size,
roundish-cordate; skin very dark, thick, tough; stem short; flesh firm,
deep red, juicy; good quality; pit small, round.


=Lindley.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 211. 1854.

Lindley was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland from seeds given him by
M. Lindley, Euclid, Ohio. Tree vigorous, moderately prolific; fruit
large, heart-shaped, surface uneven; skin dark purplish-red; flesh
almost firm, tinged red, juicy, deficient in richness; season the first
of July.


=Lipp.= _P. avium._ =1.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ ==2:279. 1903.

_Lipp Late Blood._ =2.= Green _Cat._ 29. 1906.

Lipp originated in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Fruit large, dark red or
crimson; stem long; flesh and juice very dark, meaty; late.


=Litham.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Stone & Wellington _Cat._ 33. 1907.

This is a Russian cherry introduced by Stone & Wellington, Toronto,
Ontario. Fruit of medium size; color red; flesh firm.


=Little Phil.= Species? =1.= _Wyo. Sta. Bul._ =34=:129. 1897.

Mentioned as not hardy in Wyoming.


=Logan.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.= Elliott
_Fr. Book_ 200 fig. 1854. =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24, 201. 1876.

Logan is another of Professor J. P. Kirtland's cherries originating in
1842 from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree hardly healthy, somewhat
spreading; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a shallow depression at the
apex; stem variable, set in a deep cavity; skin purplish-black when
ripe; flesh firm, dark red, with white, radiating lines, juicy, sweet,
rich; pit above medium in size, oval; mid-season.


=Long Finger.= Species? =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629.

"The long finger Cherry is another small long red one, being long and
round like a finger, whereof it took the name:...."


=Look No Further.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. Pat Off. Rpt._ 294. 1853.

This variety was introduced into this country in 1815, from the Royal
Gardens of Luxembourg, Paris, by Samson V. S. Wilder of Bolton,
Massachusetts. Said to be very productive, sweet, large and attractive.


=Lord Belhaven White Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
56. 1831.

Mentioned but not described.


=Lothaunner Erfurter.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Lothkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 288. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 595-597. 1819. =3.= Dochnahl Führ.
_Obstkunde_ =3=:65. 1858.

Fruit large, nearly round, flattened on one side; stem long; skin
reddish-black; flesh very tender, red, sour; ripens the first of August.


=Louise.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Chase Bros. _Cat._ 20. 1907.

Louise was found about 1887 by the late Lewis Chase in the vicinity of
Rochester, New York. Tree hardy, productive; fruit large, dark red,
sour; ripens in June.


=Louisiana Iron Clad.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _La. Sta. Bul._ =2=:682. 1893.
=2.= _Ibid._ =112=:11. 1908.

This cherry originated in Louisiana about 1900 with A. K. Clingman. It
is said to be the only cherry which will produce fruit in Louisiana; of
the Morello type.


=Löwener Frühkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 359.
1881.

_Frühe Englische Kirsche aus Löwen._ =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 79 fig., 80.
1867.

_Hâtive de Louvain._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 17, 200. 1876.

_Lowener Frühweichsel._ =4.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

This variety probably originated in Belgium nearly half a century ago.
Fruit variable in size, often large, sides and ends compressed giving it
a square appearance; suture shallow; stem long, strongly inserted in a
wide, regular, deep cavity; skin rather glossy, dark brownish-red; flesh
dark red, tender, juicy, acidulated, refreshing; stone plump, almost
round, base abrupt, with a slight depression; early.


=Lucien.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 228, 229.
1819. =2.= Liegel _Syst. Anleit._ 157. 1825. =3.= Mas _Le Verger_
=8=:79, 80, fig. 38. 1866-73. =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367. 1889. =5.=
_Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:61. 1900.

_Guigne Lucien._ =6.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 198. 1876.

This foreign variety is planted in Canada but is not known in the United
States. It was found by Uellner in Lüneburg, Prussia, about 1806. Leroy
is of the opinion that this is the cherry he calls Guigne Carnée Winkler
which came out a few years later as a seedling of Winkler from Guben,
Prussia.


=Ludwig Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 86. 1866.

_Guigne Ludwig._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 198. 1876. =3.= Leroy
_Dict. Pom._ =5=:326 fig. 1877.

_Ludwig's Bunte Herzkirsche._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 367, 368. 1889.

Ludwig is a seedling obtained by Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth,
England, about 1860. Fruit large, cordate, terminating in a sharp point;
suture slightly indistinct; stem very long, slender, inserted in a wide
cavity; skin glossy, bright red, paler on the shaded side; flesh pale
yellow, tender, melting; pit small, roundish, plump; ripens the last of
June.


=Lukeward.= _P. avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629. =2.=
Phillips _Comp. Gard._ 79. 1831. =3.= Floy-Lindley _Guide Orch. Gard._
106. 1846.

_Lukeward's Heart._ =4.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:125. 1832.

A variety supposed to have come from Italy which has long since passed
from cultivation. Fruit cordate, dark brown or nearly black; ripens
early in August.


=Lundie Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 43. 1803.
=2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:118. 1832. =3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 218.
1854.

Lundie Guigne is an old English cherry first spoken of by Forsyth in
1803. Tree vigorous, large; fruit medium in size, roundish-elongated,
dark purplish-black; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant; season
July.


=McAdow.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Hort. An._ 88 fig. 1869. =2.= _Ohio
Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 32. 1869.

McAdow is supposed to be a cross between Black Tartarian and Elton,
grown from seed by Dr. McAdow, Chillicothe, Ohio. Tree vigorous,
productive, bears early; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, compressed,
without a suture; stem slender, deeply inserted; skin light, pale
yellow, overspread and mottled indistinctly with light, clear red; flesh
firm, yellowish, tender, juicy, pleasant but not rich; quality good;
stone medium to large, oval.


=MacRoach.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1=. _Green-River Nur. Cat._ 23.
1899.

This cherry was found near Guthrie, Kentucky, on the farm of John
MacRoach, where it has fruited for many years and is considered a very
good cherry of the May Duke type.


=Madame Courtois.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rev. Hort._ 335. 1870-71.

Found by Bonamy, a nurseryman, in 1860, upon a farm belonging to the
Château of Lamothe, near Puylaurens, Tarn, France. Tree productive;
fruit large; skin clear red; flesh tinted with a rose color, sweet, very
agreeable; ripens in June-July.


=Madame Grégoire.= _P. avium. × P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
26. 1876. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 18. 1895.

This variety is said in _Guide Pratique_, 1895, to be very similar to
Reine Hortense.


=Madeleine.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26, 201. 1876.

_Cerise Commune (de la Madeleine_). =2.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No.
12, Pl. 1846.

_Cerisier de la Madleine._ =3.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:507.
1860.

_Amarelle de la Madleine._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:205. 1866.

Madeleine is probably a late strain of the old Cerise Commune formerly
extensively grown about Paris. Fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened
at the ends; suture a line; stem medium in length; skin clear red
changing to brownish-red; flesh whitish, tender, acid; pit small; ripens
the last of July; productive.


=Madison.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 211, 1854.

_Madison Bigarreau._ =2.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 235. 1841. 3. Thomas _Am.
Fruit Cult._ 367. 1849.

_Madison's Bunte Herzkirsche._ =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 368. 1889.

Madison is a seedling of the White Bigarreau, raised by Robert Manning,
Salem, Massachusetts. Tree healthy, productive, moderate in growth,
spreading; fruit of medium size, regular, heart-shaped; stem rather
short, slender; skin heavily dotted and mottled with rich red on
amber-yellow ground; flesh yellowish, rather tender, juicy, with
agreeable sprightliness; pit small, oval; season the last of June.


=Magann.= _P. avium._ =1.= _New Haven Nur. Cat._ 12. 1899-1900.

Magann is a hardy, Sweet Cherry originating in Franklin County,
Missouri; fruit large, nearly black, borne in large clusters.


=Magèse.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24. 1876. =2.= Leroy
_Dict. Pom._ =5=:327 fig. 1877.

Magèse was received by Leroy from Florence, Italy, about 1864. Fruit
large, attached in twos and threes, obtuse-cordate; stem stout, short,
inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin yellow, washed with carmine; flesh
yellowish, moderately tender, juicy, sugary, acidulated; first quality;
stone small, round, plump; ripens the first of June.


=Magnifique de Daval.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:154. 1882.
=2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 368. 1889.

The flowers and foliage are described by Mas in his _Pomologie
Générale_.


=Magog.= Species? =1.= _Okla. Sta. Bul._ =2=:13. 1892.

Listed in the reference given.


=Mammoth.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ohio Pom. Soc. Rpt._ =10=:44. 1862.

_Kirtland's Mammoth._ =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 198 fig. 1854. =3.= Mas
_Pom. Gen._ =11=:31, 32, fig. 16. 1882.

_Mammuthkirsche._ =4.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56. 1907.

Mammoth was raised, probably about 1842, by Professor J. P. Kirtland of
Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of a Yellow Spanish tree grown apart from
other cherries. Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, usually
unproductive; fruit of the largest size, often averaging three and
one-half inches in circumference, obtuse-cordate, with a large,
prominent suture; stem of medium thickness, long; skin moderately thick,
attractive clear yellow, blushed or mottled with light red; flesh
whitish, with abundant, uncolored juice, fine-grained, with distinct
radiating lines, nearly tender, sweet yet almost sprightly; very good in
quality; stone roundish-oval, regular; season early.


=Mammoth Oxheart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Pioneer Nur. Cat._ 16. 1905-06.

Listed, probably not propagated at present.


=Manger.= Species? =1.= _Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 211. 1896.

Mentioned without a description.


=Manning Early Black.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:282. 1842. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 218. 1854.

This variety was grown from a pit of Black Heart by Robert Manning,
Salem, Massachusetts. It differs from the parent only in time of
ripening, which is ten days earlier, and in form of tree, which is more
spreading.


=Manning Early White Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 243.
1841.

Still another seedling raised by Robert Manning, this one coming from a
seed of White Turkey Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, cordate, pale red,
amber in the sun, sweet, fine; ripens in June.


=Manning Late Black.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:284. 1842. =2.=
Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 234. 1849.

_Manning Black Bigarreau._ =3.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 235. 1841.

_Black Bigarreau._ =4.= Bridgeman _Gard. Ass't_ Pt. =3=:54. 1847.

This is another of Robert Manning's seedlings of the Black Heart. Tree
vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate;
skin deep purple, nearly black; stem long; flesh purplish-red, firm,
rather juicy, sprightly, with a pleasant, luscious flavor; ripens the
second week in July.


=Manning Mottled.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 176. 1845.
=2.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 361. 1849.

_Mottled Bigarreau._ =3.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:283, 1842.

Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, raised this cherry from a seed of
White Bigarreau. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit rather large,
roundish-cordate, flattened on one side, with a distinct suture; stem
slender, inserted in a shallow cavity; skin amber, shaded and mottled
with red, with a semi-transparent, glossy appearance; flesh yellow when
fully ripe, tender, with a sweet, delicious juice; stone large; season
at the end of June.


=Maple Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Brookshaw _Pom. Brit._ Pl. 8. 1817. =2.=
_Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

This a rather firm-fleshed, red Heart of second size and third quality,
ripening in July.


=Marells Royal.= Species? =1.= _Ariz. Sta. Bul._ =15=:65. 1895.

Mentioned as having been planted in Arizona.


=Maria Gaucher.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

Listed as a variegated, hard-fleshed cherry.


=Marie de Châteauneuf.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18. 1876.

Probably named after the wife of the Marquis de Châteauneuf; fruit very
large, obtuse-cordate, purplish-black; flesh rose-colored, moderately
firm, juicy, sugary, agreeable; ripens the middle of June.


=Marie Thérèse.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:358 fig. 1877.

This variety originated with M. de Luigné near Châteaugontier, Mayenne,
France, and was named after his daughter Marie Thérèse. Tree strong,
vigorous, moderately productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish,
flattened at the ends; suture broad; stem long, slender; cavity small;
skin transparent, firm, red, dotted with whitish-gray; flesh yellow,
compact, melting, juicy, aromatic; first quality; ripens the last of
June.


=Markirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:29, 30. 1910.

Tree large, upright, open-topped, productive; foliage frequently
attacked by aphis; fruit large, dark red, cordate, with a short stem;
skin thick, tender, while the flesh is meaty and deeply stained; stone
round, smooth; ripens the third week in July, often hanging on the trees
until the middle of August.


=Marsotte.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 12. 1895.

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit medium in size; stem of medium length;
skin black; flesh juicy, sugary; used in making Kirschwasser.


=Mary.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 211. 1854.

Mary was raised by B. B. Kirtland, Greenbush, New York. Fruit borne in
clusters, having a bright, lively red color and a sprightly subacid
flavor.


=Master White Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 56. 1831.

Listed in this reference.


=Mastodon.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 185. 1894.

_Black Mastodon._ =2.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 289. 1889.

Mastodon is a seedling of Pontiac and originated with W. H. Chapman,
Napa, California; introduced by Leonard Coates, then of the same place.
Fruit very large, obtuse-cordate, base very broad; cavity large, deep;
stem stout, long; skin entirely mottled with pinkish or heavy red; flesh
firm, yellowish, tinged with red, meaty, moderately juicy, with a rich,
lively sweet flavor.


=Matilda.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262. 1892.

Matilda originated with C. E. Hoskins, formerly of Newburg, Oregon.
Fruit medium to large, broad-cordate, surface smooth; skin glossy, dark
red, nearly black; dots very fine; flesh dark red, firm, sprightly,
sweet; very good; ripens in Oregon about the middle of June.


=Matts.= _P. avium._

J. G. Youngken, Richlandtown, Pennsylvania, writes that this cherry is a
seedling of Black Tartarian. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large.


=Mayo.= _P. avium._ =1.= Samuels & Co. _Cat._ 22. 1892.

The original tree of Mayo is on the farm of a Mr. Mayo near Jackson,
Tennessee. Tree vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit large, amber shaded
with red, tender; resembles Wood.


=Mazarine.= Species? =1.= Thacher _Am. Orch._ 216. 1822.

Listed as one of the twenty principal varieties in the United States.


=Mednyansky.= _P. avium._ =1=. _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =177=:31. 1899.

_Moduyansky._ =2.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 185. 1894.

This Hungarian variety was introduced to this country in 1894. In the
second reference the name is spelled Moduyansky but in the first it is
given Mednyansky which form is deemed best to follow here. Tree upright,
spreading, rather vigorous; fruit cordate; suture variable, indistinct
on some specimens but a noticeable ridge from the cavity to the apex on
others; stem stout, long, inserted in a narrow, deep, irregular cavity;
skin very dark purple turning black; flesh firm, rich, sweet, sprightly;
quality very good.


=Meininger Späte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 137
fig., 138. 1860; =2.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 370. 1881.

_Bigarreau-tardif de Meiningen._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21, 190.
1876.

Tree vigorous, productive, blooming late; fruit of medium size, cordate,
sides compressed; suture shallow; stem slender, variable in length, set
in a narrow, shallow cavity; color pale golden-yellow, spotted with pale
red, which often conceals the ground color; flesh firm, whitish-yellow,
reddish-yellow under the skin, juicy; stone large, oval, usually
somewhat adherent; ripens in August lasting until September.


=Meissener Weisse.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Merise Grosse Rose Oblongue.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53.
1831.

Probably a small, wild variety.


=Merise Petite Ronda.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Merisier Fastigié.= Species? =1.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=:No. 3, P1.
1846.

Poiteau was uncertain as to the name of this variety which he noticed in
the gardens of M. Cels. Tree very pyramidal; fruit yellowish-amber.


=Michigan.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 17. 1885.

Michigan is a supposed cross between Black Tartarian and Yellow Spanish
fruiting for the first time in 1877. It was grown by Stephen Cook,
Benton Harbor, Michigan. Fruit large, cordate, slightly compressed; stem
long; suture lacking; skin deep red, nearly black; flesh firm, juicy,
sweet; ripens early in July. Said to be nearly rot proof.


=Miller.= Species? =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

Listed but not described.


=Millet.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Brookshaw _Pom. Brit._ PL. 7.
1817. =2.= Brookshaw _Hort. Reposit._ =1=:45, P1. 23 fig. 2. 1823.

Described as one of the best black, heart-shaped late Dukes, ripening
the last of June and continuing until September; flesh moderately firm;
stone small; excellent.


=Minnesota.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:280.
1903. =2.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =205=:27. 1903.

Sprouts of this variety were brought from Sweden to Professor J. L.
Budd, Ames, Iowa. Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, slightly
compressed; stem long; skin dark red; flesh dark, tender, juicy,
subacid; very good.


=Minnesota Ostheim.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:120.
1900.

_Ostheim._ =2.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 371. 1881.

This variety was introduced into Minnesota from North Germany by E.
Meyer, St. Petersburg, Minnesota. It is well adapted to cold regions
where the Montmorency group does not flourish. Tree upright, dense;
fruit large, roundish-oblate, dark red; flesh dark, tender, sweet
subacid; good in quality; stone roundish, slightly flattened; ripens the
middle of July.


=Minnie.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

Minnie is a vigorous seedling of _Prunus pumila_ grown in Manitoba,
Canada; fruit large and good.


=Monkirsche Rote.= Species? =1.= _Mas. Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Monstrous Duke.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Leroy Dict. Pom._
=5=:360 fig., 361. 1877.

Monstrous Duke is mentioned by MM. Simon-Louis in 1866 as a new sort of
the Anglaise hâtive. It is probably of English origin, but the name is
misleading as the fruit is only moderately large; attached in pairs,
globular; stem stout, short, shallowly inserted; skin transparent,
yellowish, partly covered with red; flesh yellowish, tender, slightly
fibrous, very juicy, sugary, sprightly; pit small, roundish, plump,
adhering to the stem; ripens the last of June.


=Monstrueuse Hennequine.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54.
1831.

Listed without description.


=Montmorency Pleureur.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 17, 196. 1895.

Described as a handsome tree with drooping branches. Its fruit is
somewhat similar to that of the Montmorency.


=Montmorency de Sauvigny.= _P. cerasus._ 1. _Soc. Nat. Hort. France
Pom._ 120 fig., 121. 1904.

_Cerise de Sauvigny._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27. 1876.

_Belle de Sauvigny._ =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 334. 1889.

_Schöne aus Sauvigny._ =4.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

This cherry is a popular fruit about Paris where it is used for
confitures and brandy. Fruit large, roundish, attached in twos or
threes; stem short; cavity large, shallow; color dark red; flesh yellow,
transparent, slightly fibrous, acidulated; stone small, round; ripens
the second half of July.


=Montmorency Stark.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Stark Bros. _Cat._ =4=:46. 1913.

Montmorency Stark is described as having been produced on the Stark
Brothers Nursery grounds, Louisiana, Missouri, from a select tree which
bore large fruit.


=Montreuil.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =80=:23. 1892. =2.=
_Ibid._ =194=:41. 1901. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

_Belle de Montreuil._ =4.= _Rev. Hort._ 451. 1875.

_Schöne von Montreuil._ =5.= _Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift_ 123. 1910.

This variety was mentioned by European writers as early as 1875 but was
not known in America until recently. It is a valuable cherry and was
placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1909.
Tree upright, spreading, vigorous, more productive than Reine Hortense;
fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate; stem long, stout; skin mottled
red approaching black; flesh tender, light red, with abundant, colored
juice, subacid, pleasing; quality good; season July; valuable for
dessert and culinary purposes.


=Moorhouse.= _P. avium._ =1.= Leonard Coates _Cat._ 10. 1911.

Moorhouse is no longer propagated, being inferior to its parent,
Napoleon.


=Morella Extra Noir.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54.
1831.

Listed without a description.


=Morella Wye.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:61.
1900.

Listed in this reference.


=Morelle von Wilhelmshöhe.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 16. 1895.

A very good table cherry ripening the seventh week of the season.


=Moreller Langstilkede Sode.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._
54. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Morisco.= Species? =1.= Langley _Pomona_ 86. 1729.

Mentioned without description.


=Morocco.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

"The Morocco Cherrie hath a large white blossome, and an indifferent big
berrie, long and round, with a long stalke of a darke reddish purple
colour, a little tending to a blew when it is full ripe, of a firme
substance; the juice is of a blackish red, discolouring the hands or
lips, and of a pleasant taste: some doe thinke that this and the Morello
be both one."


=Morten Seedling.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed but not described.


=Mosler Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:23. 1858.

Fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; stem long,
slender; skin black, tough; flesh dark, tender, very sweet; pit
oblong-cordate; ripens the middle of July; productive.


=Moyer Honey Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Horticulturist_ N. S. =8=:22.
1858. =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees_ Am. 469, 470. 1869.

This variety was grown by Josiah G. Youngken, Allentown, Pennsylvania.
Tree healthy, vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate,
slightly compressed; suture small; stem long, slender; skin whitish,
shaded and mottled with rich red; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, pleasant;
often partially clinging; ripens the middle of June.


=Mückelberger Grosse.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 24. 1876.

A Sweet Cherry originating in Guben, Prussia, Germany.


=Murdock.= _P. avium._ =1.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:289. 1903.
_Murdock's Bigarreau._ =2.= _Gard. Mon._ =28=:240, 241. 1886. =3.= Reid
_Cat._ 35. 1892.

Murdock is thought to have originated in 1887 with John R. and A.
Murdock, then of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Tree large, vigorous,
upright-spreading; fruit large, roundish-cordate; cavity deep, wide,
rather abrupt; stem long, slender; skin thin, moderately tough, amber
overlaid and mottled with light red; flesh whitish, firm, crisp,
somewhat sprightly, juicy, sweet; quality very good; stone clinging,
large, ovate, flattened, smooth; ripens early in July, hanging long on
the trees; not susceptible to rot.


=Nancy.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 470. 1869.

Nancy originated with Charles Pease, Sr., Cleveland, Ohio. Tree
upright-spreading; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; stem long, stout,
inserted in a large cavity; suture slight; skin pale yellow, shaded and
mottled with crimson; flesh tender, juicy, rich, sweet; very good; stone
small; ripens the last of June.


=Naples.= P. _avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

_Neapolitanische Knorpelkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:35. 1858. =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 39 fig., 40. 1867.

_Bigarreau de Naples._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 189. 1876.

This is an Italian cherry introduced into Germany, France and England
from Florence, Italy. It is very productive and is distinguished by its
color and its lateness. Tree vigorous, bears early; fruit large,
obtuse-cordate, sides only faintly compressed; suture indistinct; stem
of medium length, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin tough, firm, glossy,
becoming dark brown or black; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, vinous; stone
oval, plump; ripens the sixth week of the season.


=Ne Plus Ultra.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =22=:208. 1880.

Ne Plus Ultra was raised by John Mosely of Goodrich, Ontario. It
resembles Napoleon but is inferior.


=Neapolitanische Molkenkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:33. 1858.

_Bigarreautier de Naples._ =2.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:504.
1860.

_Napolitaine._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

This is a large, lemon-colored, rather firm-fleshed variety that should
not be confused with Naples. Tree small, vigorous; flesh sweet,
pleasing; ripens late in July.


=Nebraska Sweet.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gage County Nur. Cat._ 8. 1906.

Listed in this reference as a dark, Sweet Cherry doing remarkably well
in Nebraska.


=Nelson Kentish.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 23. 1892-93.

Said to be more vigorous in growth and more hardy in bud than Early
Richmond.


=Neue Englische Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 542, 543. 1819. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 83 fig., 84. 1867.

_Neue Englische Kirsche._ =3.= Christ _Wörterb._ 286. 1802.

According to Truchsess, Mayer grew this cherry about 1775. Tree of
medium height, moderately productive; fruit often large, roundish, more
or less compressed; suture faint; stem straight, medium in length;
cavity wide, deep; skin glossy, tender, black; flesh tender, dark red,
juicy, pleasing subacid; pit plump, small, oval; ripens early in July.


=Neue Ochsenherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 73 fig., 74.
1860.

_Herrnhäuser neue Ochsenherzkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:22. 1858.

_Nouvelle Guigne des Boeufs._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301.
1866.

Fruit very large, acute-cordate, irregular near the apex; stem long,
slender; skin glossy, brownish-black; flesh dark red, tender, sweet,
vinous; stone cordate-oblong; ripens the middle of July; not very
productive.


=Neumann Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
370. 1889.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=New Century.= _P. cerasus × (P. avium × P. cerasus)._ =1.= _Texas Nur.
Cat._ 10. 1907.

New Century is thought to be a cross originating in Grayson County,
Texas, between English Morello and some Duke; it was introduced by the
Texas Nursery Company. Tree of the Duke type, upright; fruit medium to
above in size; light red; good. The trees are free from mildew in Texas
but do not hold their fruit well.


=New Royal.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Nienburger Frühe Bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:27. 1858.

Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; stem of medium length,
stout, straight; skin yellowish, spotted and streaked; flesh
aromatically sweet; pit oval; ripens the middle of June.


=Noble.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Am. Gard._ =20=:576. 1899. =2.=
Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 44. 1904.

This variety is said to resemble May Duke. Fruit large; color deep
crimson to darker; flesh firm, colored, rich; late; productive.


=Noire des Vosges.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:105, 106,
fig. 51. 1866-73.

_Griotte Noire des Vosges. =2.= Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 98 fig.,
99. 1904.

This old variety is probably a native of eastern France. The fruit is
used for confections and liquors. Fruit attached in pairs, medium in
size, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, set in a
shallow cavity; color almost black at maturity; flesh dark, tender,
vinous, acidulated; stone small, oval, obtuse at the apex; ripens late
in July.


=Nonpareil.= Species? =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 187. 1908.

Nonpareil is a black cherry which originated at Vacaville, California.


=Norfolk.= Species? =1.= _Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 87. 1872.

Mentioned as a seedling cherry grown by J. H. Fenno; not described.


=Norma.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Fruit Grower_ =19=:368. 1908.

Norma is a black cherry grown by R. H. Weber, The Dalles, Oregon; it is
earlier than Napoleon.


=Northeast.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul._ =27=:11. 1904.

Northeast is a rather dwarf cherry of the Morello type; very productive.
Said to be valuable as a late market variety but the trees are lacking
in vigor and subject to leaf blight.


=Northwest.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 165.
1881. =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 25. 1899. =3.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:76
fig. 16, 88. 1903.

This is one of the varieties originated by D. B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois,
and first distributed by Professor J. L. Budd as Wier's No. 29; the
fruit resembles Baldwin. The American Pomological Society placed
Northwest on its fruit catalog in 1899 but dropped it in 1909. Tree
medium in size, resembling English Morello closely both in size and
habit, very productive; fruit medium to large, roundish, obscurely
heart-shaped; stem long, adhering quite firmly to the fruit; skin tough,
medium in thickness, dark attractive red, becoming nearly black; flesh
deeply colored, firm, brisk but pleasant acid, mingled with a slight
astringency; good in quality; stone small, roundish; season early.


=Occident.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 40. 1895.

Occident is a seedling of Napoleon which originated with C. E. Hoskins,
Springbrook, Oregon. Fruit heart-shaped, above medium in size, smooth;
stem long, slender; cavity large, regular, deep, flaring, shaded with
pink; suture shallow; skin very dark purplish-red, thick, tenacious;
dots numerous, small, russet, indented; flesh dark reddish, translucent,
with white veining, firm, meaty, juicy, mild subacid, rich; good to very
good; season late in June; a good shipper.


=Ohio Beauty.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Horticulturist_ =2=:123 fig. 19.
1847-48. =2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 212. 1854. =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_
=2=:93 fig. 18, 94, 95. 1866. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 12. 1871.

_Bigarreau Bauté de l'Ohio._ =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:177, 178 fig.
1877.

Ohio Beauty probably originated in 1842 with Professor J. P. Kirtland,
Cleveland, Ohio; first disseminated in 1847. The American Pomological
Society listed it on its fruit catalog in 1871 but dropped it in 1895.
Tree large, vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit medium to large,
cordate, compressed; cavity of medium depth, wide; stem slender, long;
skin thin, of medium toughness, light yellow overspread with crimson;
dots numerous, light russet, conspicuous; flesh whitish, with colorless
juice, tender, meaty, mild, sweet; good in quality; stone clinging,
irregular-ovate; season early.


=Okiya.= _P. pumila × P. americana._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=108=:1908. =2.= _Ibid._ =130=:176, Pl. 6. 1911.

Okiya is a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plum. Fruit roundish,
dark red; flesh green; excellent quality.


=Oliver.= Species? =1.= _Ariz. Sta. Bul._ =15=:65. 1895. =2.= _Neb.
Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 18. 1900.

Oliver is said to be a valuable cherry for home use in Nebraska; slow in
coming into bearing.


=Opata.= _P. pumila × P. americana._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=108=:1908. =2.= _Ibid._ =130=:173, 174 Pl. 4, 175, 176. 1911.

Opata, a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plum which was sent out
in 1908. It is a plum in habit of growth, vigorous; foliage large,
glossy; fruit one and three-sixteenths inches in diameter, roundish;
skin thin, tender, dark purplish-red with blue bloom; flesh green, firm;
flavor very pleasant combining the sprightly acid of the Sand Cherry
with the rich sweetness of the Gold plum; pit very small; season early,
the middle of August.


=Oregon.= _P. avium._ =1.= Wickson _Cat. Fruits_ 290. 1889. 2. _Am. Pom.
Soc. Rpt._ 150. 1895.

Oregon is a seedling of Napoleon originated by H. W. Prettyman, East
Portland, Oregon, and named by the Oregon Horticultural Society in 1888.
W. S. Failing of Portland introduced it the same year. Tree vigorous,
upright; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, irregularly flattened
along the suture; stem medium in length, stout, set in a deep, irregular
cavity; skin black; flesh firm, very dark, juicy, sweet; later than
Napoleon.


=Orel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 327. 1888. =2.=
_Maine Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 145. 1889.

This name is given to a dwarf cherry similar to Vladimir from Orel,
Russia. It has small leaves and a close habit of growth; comes into
bearing when from three to four feet in height; fruit larger than
Montmorency, nearly black when ripe, mildly subacid.


=Orel No. 24. _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1888. =2.=
_Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:77, 78. 1903.

This variety was imported by Budd but the name was lost. Some believe it
to be Lutovka but as grown at the Iowa Station it is more like Early
Morello in form and size of tree and fruit. Tree smaller and more open
than Lutovka; fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; cavity deep; stem
medium in length, stout; suture a faint line; skin thin, translucent,
cornelian-red; flesh firm, colored, juicy, pleasingly acid; good; pit
round, angular; season the latter part of June.


=Orel Sweet.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =19=:549. 1892. =2.=
_Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:21. 1910.

_Orel No._ 26. =3.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1888.

Orel Sweet is known in Europe as Lianzkaja Black; it was introduced into
America by Budd as Orel 26; one of the hardiest of Sweet Cherries. Tree
large, with a spreading top; fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; stem
long, slender; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh soft, subacid; pit
small, round, stained; ripens the last of July in Washington.


=Orleans.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Brown Bros. _Cat._ 19. 1906.

Orleans originated in Orleans County, New York. Probably not propagated
at present, although known to many as an improved Montmorency.


=Orléa Smith.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Mentioned but not described.


=Osceola.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 200 fig. 1854. =3.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862.

Professor J. P. Kirtland of Cleveland, Ohio, originated the Osceola in
1842, from a pit of the Yellow Spanish. It was placed on the fruit list
of the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was taken from the list
in 189=1.= Tree round, spreading, hardy, healthy, productive; fruit
medium to large, cordate; stem moderately stout inserted in a deep
cavity; suture deep, broad; color dark purplish-red, inclining to black;
flesh dark red, juicy, rich, sweet; pit medium or small, ovate, rounded;
season the last of June and early July.


=Ostheim (of Morris).= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 75.
1890.

This is a small, dark colored cherry differing from the Minnesota
Ostheim in being later and slightly inferior in quality. Fruit round,
compressed; quality fair, lacking in juiciness; pit large; ripens about
August 6th in Ottawa, Canada.


=Othello.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

One of the Canada Experiment Farm's seedlings of _Prunus pumila_, the
Sand Cherry; fruit large, very black, fair.


=Owanka.= _P. pumila × P. americana._ =1.= S. _Dak. Sta. Bul._
=108=:1908. =2.= _Ibid._ =130=:176. 1911.

Owanka, a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plum, was discarded
soon after it was sent out because of its bitter skin; tree hardy,
productive; fruit one and three-eighths inches in diameter; apex
terminated by a minute prickle; skin dark red, with blue bloom; flesh
yellow.


=Ox Heart (of America).= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 24. 1899.

_Major Francis._ =2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 127. 1875. =3.= _Wash. Sta.
Bul._ =92=:29. 1910.

_Coeur de Boeuf nouveau_? =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

This cherry originated with G. W. Walling, Oswego, Oregon, about 1865,
and was renamed in honor of Major Francis of Portland. As yet it is
known only in the Northwest. The fruit is of good quality, attractive
color, ripening with Black Tartarian, but is readily sought by the
birds. Tree very large, vigorous, upright, productive; fruit large,
heart-shaped, dark red; flesh deeply stained with red, juicy, sweet;
quality good; too tender for long shipment; season early.


=Pandys Glaskirsche.= Species? 1. _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

Listed but not described.


=Paramdam.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 308. 1884.

This variety was found nearly a century and a half ago in Paramdam,
England. Tree small; fruit small, round; skin pale red; stem an inch
long; flesh pale, tender, lively acid, agreeable; ripens the last of
July.


=Parent.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 302. 1890.

Listed in the reference given.


=Paretzer Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed in this reference.


=Pariser Griotte.= _P. cerasus._ 1. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort._ 430.
1819. =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882. =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 371.
1889.

This cherry is thought by some to be Duhamel's Griotte but it differs in
its more tender flesh, sweeter taste, and smaller stone.


=Parisian Guindoux.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:140. 1832.

Tree moderately large; fruit large, pale red; flesh sweet; excellent;
ripens the middle of June.


=Paul.= _P. avium._ =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 185. 1908.

Paul was found by E. V. D. Paul of Ukiah, Oregon; it was propagated and
introduced by the Leonard Coates Nursery Company, Morganhill,
California, in 1908. Fruit large, black, mottled with dark red; late; a
good shipper.


=Pauline de Vigny.= Species? =1.= Mas. _Pom. Gen._ =11=:161. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Peach-Blossomed.= Species? =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:151. 1832.

An ornamental cherry with rose-colored flowers.


=Pease.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Hort. An._ 86, 87. 1869.

Pease is a black, sweet seedling from Charles Pease, Sr., Cleveland,
Ohio. Tree upright; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; flesh purplish, juicy,
rich; follows Black Tartarian in ripening.


=Perlkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 667. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 237-242. 1819. =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 111
fig., 112. 1860. =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:25, 26, fig. 13. 1882. =5.=
Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 371. 1889.

This variety is often taken for the Yellow Spanish but is distinct. Tree
strong, vigorous, productive; fruit usually large, roundish-cordate,
sides compressed; suture distinct; stem short, shallowly but firmly
inserted; skin tough, glossy, resembling Yellow Spanish; flesh
moderately tender, juicy, pleasing, sweet; stone rather large,
elongated-cordate, nearly free; ripens about the middle of July.


=Perlknorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
305-308. 1819. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 129 fig., 130. 1860.

_Espagne bigarrée._ =3.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35, 38. 1771.

_Perlmarmorkirsche._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:43. 1858.

This Bigarreau, though called a Heart by some, should not be confused
with Perlkirsche. Fruit medium to above, roundish-cordate; suture
indistinct; stem medium short, shallowly inserted; skin tough, glossy,
resembling Yellow Spanish; flesh firm, fibrous, juicy, pleasing, sweet;
stone medium in size, plump, oval; ripens the last of July to first part
of August.


=Petite Morelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:182
fig., 183, 184, 216. 1866.

This is a small, acid cherry used in northern Germany for wine-making
and in the kitchen. Tree vigorous, small, bushy; fruit small, round;
suture indistinct; stem short, set in a straight, shallow cavity; color
dark red changing to black; flesh red, tender, always acid; pit small,
reddish, oval, plump; ripens the fourth week of the season.


=Pfitzmann Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
372. 1889.

Listed in the reference given.


=Pierce Late.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =20=:89, 134. 1854. =2.=
_Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 45. 1854. =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 265. 1857.

This variety originated with Amos Pierce but was introduced by James
Hyde and Son, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree upright, free, round-topped;
fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, dark red, mottled with light
amber; stem slender, rather short; flesh soft, tender, very juicy,
sweet, rich; stone small; ripens the last of July.


=Pink Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 219. 1854.

Pink Heart is a small, pinkish-red, oval Mazzard; stem short; ripens in
July.


=Planchoury.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =7=:248. 1865. =2.= Mas _Le
Verger_ =8=:61, 62, fig. 29. 1866-73. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:374,
375 fig. 1877.

_Cerise de Planchouri._ =4.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =6=:71, Pl. 1858.

_Kirsch von Planchoury._ =5.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 372. 1889.

A Dr. Bretonneau grew this variety on his grounds near the River Loire,
France. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, flattened at the base, slightly
compressed on the sides, completely transversed by a suture; stem long,
set in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy, clear red changing to darker
red, uniform; flesh tinged with red, semi-tender, sugary, juicy,
agreeably acidulated; first quality; stone large, oval, free; ripens
early in July.


=Plattgedrückte Schattenmorelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide
Prat._ 26. 1876.

Differs from the English Morello in being more compressed in form.


=Plumstone.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 27. 1909.

_Plumstone Morello._ =2.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 29. 1828. =3.= Downing
_Fr. Trees Am._ 198 fig. 1845. =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =5.=
_Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:120. 1900.

The origin of this variety is unknown but it was found in Virginia early
in the Nineteenth Century by William Prince who brought it to Flushing,
New York. Its name seems to have arisen from the form of the stone.
According to Prince, this variety surpasses all of the European Morellos
for culinary purposes. Tree vigorous, medium in size, productive; fruit
very large, roundish or inclined to obtuse-cordate; stem long, rather
slender, straight; skin dark red becoming nearly black; flesh reddish,
tender, juicy, highly flavored, sprightly, with pleasant acidity when
fully mature; stone long, resembling a plum; season late July.


=Plymouth Rock.= _P. avium._ =1.= Lovett _Cat._ 25 fig. 1895. =2.=
_Mich. Sta. Bul._ =169=:200. 1899.

_Plymouth._ =3.= Ont. Dept. Agr. _Fr. Ont._ 102. 1914.

Plymouth Rock is generally believed to have originated with J. H. Black,
Hightstown, New Jersey. Tree vigorous, upright, round-topped; fruit
above medium in size, heart-shaped, roundish; skin tender,
reddish-amber, with a bright red blush; stem long, slender; cavity
narrow, shallow; flesh rather tender, light colored, juicy; pit round,
plump, small; season early July.


=Podiebrad.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27. 1876.

_Podiebrad Bunte Herzkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:29.
1858. =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 21 fig., 22. 1867.

Probably a seedling from Podiebrad, Hungary. Tree vigorous, productive,
bears early; fruit above medium in size, obtuse-cordate; suture
indistinct; stem long; cavity wide, moderately deep; skin tender,
translucent, sulphur-yellow, nearly entirely washed and spotted with
red; flesh tender, pale yellow, juicy, sweet, without sourness; stone
medium egg-shaped; ripens early in July.


=Pointed Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:119. 1832.

This cherry is so named because part of the style becomes hard and
ligneous forming a sharp point at the apex of the fruit. Fruit cordate;
color red on a yellow ground; flesh firm, crisp, rich, tinged with a
slight bitterness; early.


=Polsted.= Species? =1.= _Jour. Hort._ N. S. =24=:412. 1873.

Polsted received its name from a parish in Suffolk, England, where it
was extensively grown.


=Polton Gean.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 50. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Pomeranzen.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 479-482.
1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:53, 54. 1858.

_Cerise Orange._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:306. 1866.

The name was given this cherry because of the appearance of the tree
which resembles that of the orange. Tree round with a globular head;
fruit large, broadly oblate; stem of medium length, firmly set in a deep
cavity; suture a line; skin clear, almost brick-red, becoming glossy,
darker, and transparent with many white spots; flesh clear, tinged red,
with yellowish-white veins, juicy, sweetly acidulated; first quality;
stone medium in size, round, turgid, sharply pointed; ripens the middle
of July.


=Pontiac.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 201 fig. 1854. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 69, 89. 1866.

Pontiac originated in 1842, with Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland,
Ohio, from =a= pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, upright, somewhat
spreading, healthy, productive; fruit medium to large, obtuse-cordate,
with sides compressed; stem long, slender, inserted in a broad, shallow
cavity; skin moderately firm, dark purplish-red, becoming nearly black
at maturity; flesh purplish-red, with dark colored juice, rather tender,
juicy, pleasant, aromatic, sweet; good in quality; stone medium in size,
smooth, separating readily from the flesh; ripens in mid-season.


=Pope.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:150. 1832.

Some of the fruits of this cherry are green in the middle of July
whereas the majority are quite ripe; introduced into France from Italy.
Fruit large, round, red; stem very long; flesh similar to but more firm
than that of the Montmorency.


=Portugal.= Species? =1.= _Rea Flora_ 205. 1676. =2.= Coxe _Cult. Fr.
Trees_ 247. 1817.

Tree productive; fruit cordate, red; flavor rich and pleasant; ripens
early in June.


=Powhattan.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =2.=
Elliott Fr. _Book_ 201. 1854. =3.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =67=:23. 1890.

This is one of the numerous seedlings originated by Professor J. P.
Kirtland, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Fruit roundish-cordate, uneven
in outline, compressed on the sides; stem medium to long; skin
brownish-red, glossy; flesh purplish-red, half-tender, juicy, sweet;
stone small.


=Pragische Muskateller.= _P. avium._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 51, 52, 53.
1790. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 398-402. 1819.

_Cerise de Prague tardive._ =3.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 42. 1771.

_Muscat de Prague._ =4.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1831.

The cherry, introduced into Germany from Holland about 1785 under the
name Prager Muskateller, was undoubtedly the variety mentioned by Knoop
in 1771, as Cerise de Prague Tardive. With this variety three other
sorts were confused; the Cerise Blanche, Cerise Guigne, and the Grosse
Ungarische Kirsche, but when fruit was obtained from all, separation was
comparatively easy. Tree very productive; fruit large, globular; suture
a line; stem rather thick, of medium length; cavity narrow, shallow;
skin thin, brownish-red changing to black; flesh tender, melting, juicy,
light red, sweet, wine-like; stone oval or roundish; ripens the middle
of July.


=Précoce de Marest.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 28. 1876.

Of doubtful value according to the reference.


=Précoce de Sabaret.= Species? =1.= _Gard. Chron._ 1068. 1861. =2.=
_Rev. Hort._ 335. 1870.

There seem to be several strains of this cherry; it is one of the
earliest cultivated sorts in France, ripening at the beginning of June
and lasting a month.


=President.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 212. 1854. =2.= Downing
_Fr. Trees Am._ 471. 1869.

President is another of Professor J. P. Kirtland's cherries raised in
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; fruit
medium to large, regular, cordate, slightly compressed; stem stout,
slender; suture indistinct; skin red, slightly mottled with yellow;
flesh yellowish-white, half-tender, juicy, sweet; good; pit medium in
size; ripens from the middle to the last of June.


=Pride of Washington.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Wash. Hort. Assoc.
Rpt._ 95. 1905.

This variety is a seedling of the Late Duke grown by J. F. Strong,
Spokane, Washington. The tree is more productive and less disposed to
seaming of limbs where connecting with the body than its parent and its
fruit is also larger, earlier and of better quality.


=Priesche Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:162. 1882.

Listed but not described.


=Prince.= Species? =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36. 1771.

Listed but not described by Knoop.


=Prince Black Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 471.
1869.

This variety was originated by William R. Prince, Flushing, New York.
Tree vigorous, upright-spreading; fruit medium to large, cordate,
slightly compressed; suture small; flesh purplish, rather tender, juicy,
sweet; good to very good; ripens the last of June.


=Prince Duke.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 29. 1828. =2.=
Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:136. 1832.

Prince Duke was raised by William Prince, Flushing, New York, from a
seed of Carnation which it resembles in tree-characters and in time of
ripening. The fruit is red, more compressed than the parent and
possesses the peculiar bitterness of Carnation before it is full ripe.


=Prince Englebert.= Species? =1.= _Okla. Sta. Bul._ =2=:13. 1892.

Listed as grown at the Oklahoma Station.


=Prince Royal.= Species? =1.= Rea _Flora_ 205. 1676.

According to Rea, this is a large, late ripe cherry, good to preserve.


=Princess.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36. 1771. =2.=
Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866. =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:75, 76,
fig. 38. 1882.

_Prinzesskirsche._ =4.= Christ _Wörterb._ 279. 1802. =5.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 261, 262. 1819.

This is a variegated Heart originating in Germany. Tree of moderate
vigor; fruit medium to large, cordate, sides compressed; apex acutely
pointed; suture indistinct; stem very long; color yellow overlaid with
red; flesh tender, juicy, bitterish at first; stone oval; ripens the
fourth week of the season.


=Prinzenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 289. 1802.

_Grosse schwarze Glanzkirsche_ incor. =2.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 577-580. 1819.

A Morello cherry of German origin. Fruit of medium size, roundish;
suture indistinct; cavity shallow; skin tough, firm, glossy, black;
flesh firm, fibrous, dark red, subacid; pit adherent, almost cordate;
ripens at the end of July.


=Prödlitzer Elitekirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Obstzüchter_ =8=:Pl. 1910.
=2.= _Ibid._ =8=:51, 52. 1910.

This cherry originated on the estate of Hugo Graf Kálnokyschen in
Prodek, Moravia, Austria. Trees upright when young; fruit large to very
large, blackish-brown, obtuse-cordate; suture distinct; stem long,
slender; flesh dark, sweet with a touch of sourness; ripens in July.


=Progress.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

A seedling of _Prunus pumila_ raised by the Manitoba Station.


=Proskauer Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57.
1907.

A dark, hard-fleshed cherry mentioned in this reference.


=Proudfoot.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 212. 1854.

This variety was grown by D. Proudfoot, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous,
spreading, moderately productive; fruit large, cordate, flattened at
the base; skin dark purplish-red; cavity open; flesh yellowish, firm,
juicy, sweet; pit large; season the middle of July.


=Puhlmann Frühe.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 373. 1889. =2.=
_Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

Listed as an early black Heart.


=Punktirte Marmorkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:42. 1858.

_Punctirte Süsskirsche mit festem Fleische._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 281.
1802. =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 333-336. 1819.

_Bigarreau Ponctué._ =4.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:81, 82, fig. 39. 1866-73.

_Punktirte Knorpelkirsche._ =5.= _Ill. Handb._ 57 fig., 58. 1867.

Tree vigorous, upright; fruit roundish-cordate, large; suture deep; stem
long, adhering to the stone; cavity deep; color yellowish-white
overspread with clear red; flesh rather tender but firm, fibrous,
translucent, sweet; pit round, often rather large; ripens at the end of
July.


=Punktirte Molkenkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:29. 1858.

Tree very large, branches long; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture
indistinct; color yellow more or less overspread with red; flesh sweet;
stone small, cordate; ripens early in July.


=Purity (I).= _P. avium._ =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 289. 1889. =2.=
_Mich. Sta. Bul._ =177=:31. 1899.

Purity (I) is a seedling of Elton which originated with W. H. Chapman,
Napa, California, and was propagated by Leonard Coates of that place.
Tree upright-spreading, fairly vigorous; fruit heart-shaped, compressed;
suture broad, rather indistinct; stem long, slender; cavity broad,
shallow; skin amber, shaded and mottled with bright red, waxy,
transparent, thin; flesh rich, sweet, tender, juicy, melting; very good;
season early; rather too tender for market.


=Purity (II).= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Ont. Dept. Agr. _Fr. Ont._ 101. 1914.

This is a productive cherry of the Morello class which resembles
Dyehouse and ripens a little earlier than Early Richmond. Tree
moderately vigorous, healthy, bears early; fruit of medium size,
roundish; stem long; cavity deep; apex noticeably depressed; skin very
dark red; flesh yellowish, tender, very juicy, pleasant subacid; quality
good; season late June to early July.


=Quaker.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262. 1892.

Quaker originated with C. E. Hoskins, Newberg, Oregon. Fruit of medium
size, heart-shaped, dark red, almost black; dots numerous; flesh firm,
dark purple, sprightly, sweet; quality very good; season early July.


=Rainier French.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Red Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Knoop Fructologie_ =2=:35, 38. 1771.
=3.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 219. 1854.

_Bigarreau à Gros Fruit Rouge._ =4.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._
=1=:163-165, Pl. II. 1768. =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 308.
1819. =6.= _Pom. France_ =7=:No. 7, Pl. 7. 1871.

_Purpurrothe Knorpelkirsche._ =7.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 340,
683, 684. 1819. _Large Red Bigarreau._ =8.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 273.
1832. =9.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:127. 1832. =10.= Mortillet _Le
Cerisier_ =2=:104, 105 fig., 106, 301. 1866.

Red Bigarreau is probably an old French variety. Fruit very large,
roundish-cordate, irregular, swollen on one side; suture distinct; stem
slender, long, set in a deep, wide cavity; color glossy, tough, dark
red; flesh firm, sweet, rose-colored especially near the pit, juicy; pit
small, oval, adherent along the suture; ripens in July.


=Red Canada.= Species? =1.= _Ariz. Sta. Bul._ =15=:72. 1895.

Listed without a description.


=Red Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36. 1771. =2.=
Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:112. 1832.

Fruit more oblong than the Early Guigne and somewhat larger; skin
entirely red; flesh soft but not high in quality; ripens in June.


=Red Jacket.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 202 fig. 1854. =2.=
_U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 148, Pl. 13 fig. 1. 1864. =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._
19, 204. 1876.

Red Jacket was raised in 1842 by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland,
Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, crossed with Black Tartarian, Black
Mazzard, or May Duke. It was formerly grown commercially in this country
and Europe because of its productiveness and quality. Tree very
vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; fruit large, long,
obtuse-cordate; stem rather long, slender; skin thin, pale red becoming
rather bright red; flesh yellowish-white, half-tender, juicy, pleasant,
somewhat astringent until fully ripe when it becomes sweet; good in
quality; stone medium in size; ripens in late mid-season.


=Red Muscatel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 330. 1885. =2.=
_Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 329. 1888.

A variety from North Silesia where it is said to be commonly grown;
fruit large, of good quality.


=Red Oranien.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._
329. 1888. =2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =19=:551. 1892.

This name has been given by some writers as a synonym of Carnation but
Red Oranien as introduced into America from Russia appears to be
distinct and is probably another of the Duke hybrids. Tree productive;
fruit large, dark red, mildly subacid.


=Red Rock.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 434. 1905.

Fruit of the Morello type, round; stem long, inserted in a noticeable
cavity; skin clear red; flesh reddish-yellow with colored juice, mild
but pleasantly acid, refreshing; ripens late in July.


=Red Russian.= Species? =1.= Kenrick _Am. Orch._ 237. 1841.

The original name of this variety was lost in importing it from Russia
to Brooklyn, New York, about 1800. Fruit large, dark red, good;
productive; ripens in August.


=Reichart.= Species? =1.= _Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt._ 11. 1881.

Recommended as valuable in Pennsylvania.


=Reine-Hortense Hâtive.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide
Prat._ 28. 1876.

A seedling of Reine Hortense introduced in 1873. It resembles the parent
in many respects, differing, however, in earlier ripening and in having
red flesh.


=Remington.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing Fr. _Trees Am._ 188. 1845.
_Remington Heart_ =2.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 30. 1828. =3.= _Lond. Hort.
Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831. =4.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:117, 118. 1832.

Remington originated in 1823 from a pit planted by Zachariah Allen,
Providence, Rhode Island. Its only merit is lateness, not ripening until
August; fruit small, cordate, yellow, tinged with red; flesh firm; bears
abundantly.


=Rentz Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mo. Bd. Agr. Rpt._ 243. 1878.

Mentioned as succeeding fairly well in Missouri.


=Resacks Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 373.
1889.

Listed without a description.


=Richardson.= _P. avium._ =1.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 238. 1849. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 212. 1854.

Originated in the garden of J. R. Richardson, Boston, Massachusetts.
Tree upright, hardy, productive; fruit large, heart-shaped, rather
short, tapering to a point; stem short, slender; skin dark red,
inclining to black; flesh deep red, half-tender, rich, luscious, sweet;
ripens the last of June to July.


=Richardson Late Black.= Species? =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:285. 1842.

Originated in the garden of Dr. William P. Richardson, Salem,
Massachusetts. A small, round, black cherry, ripening late in July; very
juicy and productive.


=Richter Sämling.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 373. 1889.

Listed but not described.


=Riga No. 108.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Tex. Sta. Bul._ =16=:99. 1891.

Listed among the Russian fruits growing at the Texas Station.


=Riga No. 109.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Kan. Sta. Bul._ =73=:189. 1897.

Received from Professor J. L. Budd in 1890. Tree upright, unproductive;
fruit borne singly, large; stem short; color dark red; flesh and juice
colored, pleasant, but lacking in quality; ripens the middle of June.


=Rival.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =7=:248. 1865. =2.= Hogg _Fruit
Man._ 69, 90. 1866. =3.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 373. 1889.

_Bigarreau Rival._ =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:236, 237 fig. 1877.

This cherry probably came from M. Rival, Saint-Genis-Laval, Rhône,
France. Fruit of medium size, borne in clusters, never less than four in
a cluster, obtuse-cordate, flattened on one side; suture a colored line;
apex shallow, eccentric; stem long, slender; cavity shallow; skin
moderately firm, yellow, mottled with red becoming darker, nearly black
when mature; ripens the last of July to August.


=Rivers Early Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 177.
1845. =2.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 204. 1846.

A seedling raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, which he
says originated about the same time as his Early Amber. The fruit is of
the Heart class, medium in size and season.


=Roberts Red Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:285. 1842. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 176. 1845. =3.= _Horticulturist_ =5=:76 fig.
1850. =4.= _Ibid._ =6=:21 fig. 1851. =5.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:119, 120,
fig. 58. 1866-73.

This variety originated with David Roberts, Salem, Massachusetts, and
was first brought to notice by Robert Manning. Fruit of medium size,
roundish-cordate, slightly obtuse; suture distinct; stem long, slender,
set in a moderate cavity; skin pale amber overspread with pale red,
mottled with deeper red and pale amber specks; flesh white, tender,
juicy, sweet, sprightly; season at the end of July.


=Rochaline.= _P. avium_ =1.= Leonard Coates _Cat._ 10. 1911.

Rochaline, a seedling of Napoleon, is no longer propagated, being
inferior to its parent.


=Rock.= Species? =1.= Ray _Hist. Plant._ 1539. 1688. =2.= Miller _Gard.
Dict._ =1=:1754.

Mentioned as a perfumed cherry.


=Rockland.= Species? =1.= _Mass. (Hatch) Sta. An. Rpt._ =1=:33. 1889.

Mentioned as growing at the Massachusetts Station.


=Rocky Hill Honey Heart.= _P. avium_ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =13=:424. 1847.

A variety originating near Wethersfield, Connecticut, late in the
Eighteenth Century.


=Rocky Mountain.= _P. besseyi._ =1.= _Country Gent._ =26=:238. 1865.
=2.= _Rural N. Y._ =52=:138, 330, fig. 46. 1893. =3.= _Cornell Sta.
Bul._ =70=:261, Pl. 1 fig. =2.= 1894. =4.= Storrs & Harrison _Cat._ 136
fig. 1896. =5.= _Wis. Sta. An. Rpt._ =13=:229, 230. 1896.

Rocky Mountain, a variety of Prunus besseyi, is a native of the
mountains of Colorado having been discovered there many years ago. It is
chiefly used as a dwarf ornamental, being adapted to a great variety of
soils. Tree small, bushy, averaging about four feet high, very hardy and
productive; fruit ripens after all other cherries are gone, small,
variable in shape, from roundish to nearly oblong; color almost jet
black; flavor sweet with some astringency but edible when fully mature.


=Roe.= _P. avium_ =1.= _Better Fruit_ =5=:No. =11=:49. 1911.

Roe is a seedling from Yamhill County, Oregon, being introduced by the
Oregon Nursery Company, Salem, Oregon; it is said to resemble Napoleon
but is much firmer and later.


=Romaine.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 26. 1876.

A variety of doubtful value; ripens in July.


=Ronald.= Species? =1.= Bunyard-Thomas _Fr. Gard._ 44. 1904.

According to the reference, this is a valuable late variety. Tree small,
compact; fruit very large, bright red, transparent; flesh yellowish,
tender, juicy.


=Röschers Kirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 1 fig., =2.= 1867.
=2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:9, 10, fig. =5.= 1882.

A chance seedling found by a peasant, Röschers, near Heidelberg, Baden,
Germany. Fruit medium, oblate-cordate; sides compressed, angular; stem
long; cavity wide, deep; skin tough, black; flesh dark red, juicy,
vinous; pit small, oval; ripens very early.


=Rose Charmeux.= Species? =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 75. 1883.

A Polish variety introduced by Professor J. L. Budd, Ames, Iowa; fruit
large, red, delicate, watery and mild-flavored.


=Rosenobel.= _P. avium_ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 280, 678.
1819. =2.= Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde =3=:27. 1858.

An old German variety fruiting for the first time in 1815. Fruit large,
obtuse-cordate, yellow, streaked with red around the cavity; stem long;
flesh white, tender, sweet; stone oval; ripens the last of June.


=Rostraver Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Gard. Mon._ =28=:240, 241.
1886.

This variety was introduced in 1887, by the originators, John R. and A.
Murdoch, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. The trees, as grown on the Station
grounds, are vigorous, moderately spreading; fruit large, blunt
heart-shaped; suture indistinct; stem long, set in a large, deep cavity;
skin thin, tough, rich yellow, mottled with red, similar to Napoleon;
flesh meaty, firm, white, sweet, moderately juicy; season the middle of
July.


=Rothe Glanzkirsche.= Species? =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
490-492, 689. 1819.

Fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; suture distinct; stem slender, of
medium length, set in a shallow cavity; color clear red mixed with
darker red, glossy; flesh tender, white, fibrous; excellent; stone
large, oval, smooth; ripens from the end of June to the middle of July.


=Rothe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 58, 59. 1790. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 437, 438, 439. 1819.

_Herzförmige Süssweichsel._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:48.
1858.

Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; skin clear red
changing to darker red, thin, tough; stem medium in length, set in a
deep, narrow cavity; flesh tender, red near the stone, fibrous, vinous;
stone broadly oblong, clinging to the flesh; ripens at the beginning of
July.


=Rothe Maiknorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 286, 287. 1819.

Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, compressed on both sides; suture
distinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; color wholly red on a yellow
ground; flesh yellowish-white, rather tender, pleasing; excellent; stone
large, cordate, plump; ripens at the beginning of June.


=Rothe Molkenkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 667. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 229-233. 1819.

_Cerise de petit-lait rouge._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302.
1866.

Christ grew this variety from seed at Kronberg, Prussia, Germany. Tree
productive; fruit of medium size, flattened at the ends and sides;
ventral suture distinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; skin thin,
glossy, overspread with light red, darker in the sun; flesh tender,
light yellow, juicy, bitter before ripe, sweet when mature; stone
roundish, free, tinged with red along the suture; ripens with Black
Tartarian.


=Rothe Soodkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 294. 1802.

_Soodamarelle._ =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 632-634. 1819. =3.=
Thomas _Guide Prat._ 27, 206. 1876.

The fruit is borne in twos and threes, below medium in size, roundish,
compressed on one side; apex shallow; stem long; color dull blood red,
lighter near the suture; flesh melting, dull yellow; juice reddish,
abundant, tart; stone small, broad, free.


=Rouaanse Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 340.
1819.

A Heart cherry, clear, light red spotted with red in color; flesh firm.


=Rouge Pâle Tardive.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Rouge des Vosges.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:107, 108,
fig. 52. 1866-73. =2.= _Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom._ 100 fig., 101.
1904.

Cultivated in the region of Fougerolle, Haute-Saône, France, as the
Noire des Vosges and largely used in the manufacture of a liqueur.
Fruit usually borne in pairs, large, elongated-cordate; suture distinct;
stem long; cavity of medium size; skin glossy, dark red; flesh
yellowish, tender, sprightly; stone small, roundish, with a small point
at the apex; ripens the last half of July.


=Round Sweet.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:61.
1900.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Royal American.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:62.
1900.

Tree strong in growth; fruit large; skin light red becoming darker in
the sun; flesh yellowish-white, firm, juicy, agreeable; ripens in July.


=Royal Hâtif.= _P. avium._ =1.= Noisette _Man. Comp. Jard._ =2=:505.
1860.

Tree very productive, of medium size; fruit large, compressed at the
apex and base; stem green, short, often with stipules; flavor sweet;
very good; ripens at the end of May.


=Rumsey.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:122. 1900.

_Rumsey's Late Morello._ =2.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 199 fig. 1845.

This very late cherry was grown by Dr. J. S. Rumsey, Fishkill Landing,
New York, about 1835. Fruit usually borne in pairs, large,
roundish-cordate; suture distinct; stem long; cavity narrow, deep; skin
glossy, a rich, lively red; flesh juicy, melting, acid; stone long;
ripens from the first part of August until frosts.


=Runde Marmorirte Süsskirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 280.
1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 336, 683. 1819. =3.= Oberdieck
_Obst-Sort._ 382. 1881. =4.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 375. 1889.

_Weiss und hellroth geflekte grosse Kramelkirsche._ 5. Kraft _Pom.
Aust._ =1=:3, Tab. 6 fig. =1.= 1792.

Runde Marmorirte Süsskirsche is one of the varieties which has been
confused with Napoleon and Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, very
productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; suture
shallow; stem long; cavity shallow, wide, depressed on the ventral side;
skin yellow, streaked, dotted and overlaid with red--the amount
depending on the exposure to the sun; flesh whitish-yellow, medium firm,
juicy, very sweet, sprightly, excellent; stone ovate to oval; matures
usually with Napoleon.


=Rupert.= _P. pumila × P.?_ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 435. 1901.

Mentioned in this reference as being a cross between the _Prunus
pumila_, the Sand Cherry, and a plum.


=Rupp.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 40, Pl. 3.
1895. =2.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =187=:62. 1901.

Rupp is supposed to have originated with Solomon Rupp, York County,
Pennsylvania. It was sent to several Experiment Stations for testing by
the United States Department of Agriculture. As grown at the Michigan
and Geneva Stations it cannot be distinguished from Reine Hortense and
we are inclined to believe that the old variety has been overshadowed by
a new name.


=Russian Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Ont. Dept. Agr. _Fr. Ont._ 103.
1914. _Russian_ 207. =2.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 76. 1890.

Tree upright, vigorous; fruit above medium in size, round, flattened at
the base; stem long; skin bright red; juicy; fair quality; ripens the
first of August.


=Russian Seedlings Nos. 8, 42, 49, 54, 109, 128, 169, 199.= _P.
cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:80, 81. 1903.

These seedlings were grown at the Iowa Experiment Station from selected
seeds of Russian varieties. They show every variation from a low,
compact, spreading tree to a tall, conical one, while the fruit varies
in season from early June to late July.


=Russie à Fruit Blanc.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55. 1831.

Listed without a description.


=Ryley Black Tartarian.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 55.
1831.

Listed in the reference given.


=Sächsische Frühe Maikirsche.= Species? =1.= Christ _Handb._ 683. 1797.

Listed without a description.


=Sacramento.= Species? =1.= _Green River Nur. Cat._ 23. 1899.

This is a productive variety, resembling May Duke, found near
Sacramento, Kentucky.


=Saint-Laurent.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Sansoto.= _P. pumila × P. americana._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=130=:184, Pl. 10, Pl. 11, 185. 1911.

Sansoto is a cross from the South Dakota Experiment Station between the
Sand Cherry and the De Soto plum. In growth the tree resembles that of
the plum but the fruit in looks and flavor is more like the Sand Cherry,
Fruit is round, about three-eighths inch in diameter; skin black with a
bluish bloom, thin, free from acerbity; flesh yellowish-green,
sprightly; pit clinging.


=Sapa.= _P. pumila × P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =108=:Pl. 9.
1908. =2.= _Ibid._ =130=:176, 177 Pl. 7, 178. 1911.

Sapa, a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum, was
introduced in 1908 by the South Dakota Station. Tree plum-like in habit;
fruit-buds numerous; fruit about one and three-eighths inches in
diameter; skin glossy, dark purple; flesh rich, dark purple; season
extremely early.


=Sappington.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 22. 1892-93. =2.=
Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._ =2=:282. 1903.

Grown about St. Louis, Missouri, where it originated. The tree resembles
Mazzard in growth, vigor and productiveness; fruit sweet; early.


=Sauerjotte.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 17. 1895.

Listed as a variety of doubtful value.


=Saure Herzkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 161. 1791.

Described as a black, Sour Cherry of the first rank, with tender flesh
and excellent juice.


=Sauvigny Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 91 fig., 92.
1860.

_Bigarreau de Sauvigny._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866.

_Dure de Sauvigny._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:160. 1882.

Fruit large, elongated, obtuse-cordate, compressed more strongly upon
the side showing a suture; stem variable, usually of medium length;
cavity narrow, deep; skin glossy, dark brownish-red, mottled with
lighter red; flesh very firm, dark red, juicy; quality very good; pit
small, oval, acutely-pointed at the apex, free; ripens in late July.


=Scharlachkirsche.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 669.
1797.

This variety is supposed by some to be May Duke. Usually borne in twos
and threes; fruit medium in size; stem above medium in length, slender;
suture indistinct; ripens the latter part of June.


=Schleihahn Sweet.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Press Bul._ =28=:1911.

_Bigarreau de Schleihahn._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 20, 190. 1876.

A variety of German origin, introduced into Iowa about 1892 and
described as a desirable variety for that State by the Iowa Agricultural
College. It follows Early Richmond and has a long season. Tree
productive, hardy for a sweet variety; fruit of medium size, cordate,
sides flattened; stem long, slender, set in a rather deep, wide cavity;
skin firm, glossy, surface often pitted; dots numerous, obscure; suture
often lacking; color bright deep red, becoming dark red or black; flesh
dark red, very firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good; pit above medium in
size, pointed, oval, turgid, nearly free; season at Ames, Iowa, from
June 20th to July 1st.


=Schlössers Schattenmorelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Reut. Pom. Inst.
Festschrift_ 123. 1910. =2.= _Pom. Inst. Reut._ 31. 1911-12.

Tree vigorous; fruit large, round, dark brownish-red, similar to the
Brusseler Braune but larger; sour.


=Schmehls.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

Tree vigorous; fruit large obtuse-cordate; skin mottled with yellow and
pale red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, pleasing; ripens the middle of
July.


=Schmidt Bigarreau No. 2.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farm Bul._ 2nd
Ser. =3=:62. 1900.

Tree vigorous; fruit large, nearly round; skin dark red; flesh red,
firm, juicy, sweet; season late June.


=Schmidt Frühe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Lauche _Ergänzungsband_
603. 1883.

F. Schmidt, Potsdam, Prussia, Germany, grew this variety. Tree fruitful
and succeeds in all soils; fruit large, abruptly cordate; suture
indistinct; stem medium in length; cavity wide, deep; color glossy dark
brown changing to black; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; good; stone medium,
roundish; early.


=Schneeberger Kirsche.= Species? =1.= _Obstzüchter_ =8=:52. 1910.

This is a market cherry grown about Vienna, Austria, ripening about the
middle of July and lasting for a month. Some fruits are round, others
cordate, depending on the altitude in which it is grown; stem slender;
color black; flesh moderately firm, adhering to the pit.


=Schneider Frühe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 376.
1889.

_Guigne-hâtive de Schneider._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 198. 1876.

Tree vigorous and productive; fruit large, cordate, truncate; skin a
brilliant brownish-black; flesh firm; of first quality; matures early in
June.


=Schneider Späte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Oberdieck
_Obst-Sort._ 370, 371. 1881. =2.= Lauche _Deut. Pom._ =III=:No. 8, Pl.
1882.

Origin, Guben, Prussia, Germany. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit very
large, oval, often cordate, sides compressed; suture indistinct; stem
long, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, cherry-red changing
to dark brown, with numerous flecks; flesh firm, yellowish, sweet, with
slightly colored juice; stone elongated-ovate, large, plump; late.


=Schöne von Brügge.= Species? =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 376. 1889.

_Belle Brugeoise Saint-Pierre._ =2.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Listed but not described in the reference given.


=Schöne von Marienhohe.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 57 fig., 58.
1860. =2.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 57. 1907.

_Belle glorie de Marie._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:300. 1866.

_Belle de Marienhöhe._ =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 19, 187. 1876.

_Beauty of Marienhohe._ =5.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 549. 1901.

This old variety originated in 1836 from pits planted in the Royal
nursery of Marienhöhe near Weimar, Saxe-Weimar, Germany. Trees strong,
healthy and productive; fruit medium in size, heart-shaped, often
variable; sides plump; cavity noticeable; apex a small yellowish-brown
point in a slight depression; stem slender, green; skin thin, glossy,
reddish-black; flesh and juice dark red, tender, sweet; quality very
good; pit egg-shaped, smooth without a point, turgid; ripens the first
of July.


=Schröcks Späte Bunte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:43. 1858.

Fruit large, elongated-cordate, compressed, often uneven; suture
noticeable; stem long, slender; skin dark red, variegated; flesh firm,
vinous, sweet; stone elongated-cordate, adherent; ripens at the end of
July.


=Schwarze Forellenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 70, 7=1.=
1790. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 593, 594. 1819.

Tree productive, not large; fruit large, roundish, slightly flattened;
stem very long, set in a cavity of medium size; skin glossy, dark
brownish-black becoming almost black; flesh very red, melting, juicy,
sour; stone reddish, one-half inch long; ripens early in August.


=Schwarze Maiweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 285. 1802.
=2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:58. 1858.

_Schwarze Maikirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 498, 499,
500. 1819.

This variety differs from other Morellos in its very short stem. Tree
small, not productive; fruit usually small, roundish, flattened; suture
indistinct; stem short; color black when ripe; flesh dark red, juice
lighter, sour, becoming aromatic on hanging; stone very small, round;
ripens the middle of June.


=Schwarze Muskateller.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 67=1.= 1797.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 419, 420, 42=1.= 1819.

Fruit round, somewhat flattened on one side; stem short; skin and flesh
dark red; flesh soft, juicy, mingled with a slight sourness; ripens the
latter part of July.


=Schwarze Oranienkirsche.= Species? =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 56. 1790. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 43=2.= 1819. _Schwarze Malvasierkirsche._
=3.= Ibid. 433, 434. 1819.

Fruit large, pitch-black, aromatic; from Holland.


=Schwarze Soodkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 286. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 556, 557. 1819.

Branches slender, drooping; fruit of medium size, oblate, sides
flattened; stem slender; cavity shallow; suture a fine line; color
almost black; flesh tender, slightly fibrous, dark red at the stone,
juicy, pleasingly subacid; stone small, roundish; season the middle of
July.


=Schwarzbraune Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 198, 199, 200, 675. 1819.

Of German origin and first mentioned in 1797. Fruit moderately large,
uneven, flattened at the base and sides; stem slender, rather long,
deeply inserted; skin brownish-red approaching black, tough,
leather-like; flesh firm, sweet, with violet juice when ripe; ripens
early in August.


=Schwarzes Taubenherz.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
147, 148. 1819.

This variety is peculiar in that its stem is green and its fruit has a
deep suture on the compressed side; skin very dark brown; flesh tender,
soft, bitter, sweet when fully ripe but insipid; ripens early in July.


=Sebril.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =152=:192. 1898.

Listed as a Sweet Cherry.


=Seckbacher.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 167-174.
1819. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 475 fig., 476. 1861.

_Späte Maikirsche._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 660. 1797.

_Seckbacher Knorpelkirsche._ =4.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:34.
1858.

_Cerise de Seckbach._ =5.= Mas. _Pom. Gen._ =11=:55, 56, fig. 28. 1882.

This variety probably originated in Prussia, Germany. Fruit small, round
or cordate, compressed, with a faint suture; stem long, shallowly
inserted; color glossy, black, lighter along the suture; flesh dark red,
firm, juicy, aromatic, piquant; stone large; ripens the middle of June.


=Seederberger.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 31. 1892.

Listed as a sweet variety from Virginia and said to resemble Yellow
Spanish but the fruit is larger and the tree more vigorous.


=Select Beauty.= Species? =1.= Prince _Treat. Hort._ 30. 1828.

A large, red, well-flavored cherry with a long stem; not very
productive; ripens in July.


=Shadow Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 326. 1888.
=2.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:82 fig. 1903.


=Frühe Schattenmorelle.= =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:64. 1858.

_Schatten Amarelle._ =4.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 75. 1883. =5.= _Ia. Hort.
Soc. Rpt._ 329. 1885. =6=. _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:126. 1900.

_Shadow Morello._ =7.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 78. 1890. =8.= Lucas
_Handb. Obst._ 3rd Ed. 122. 1893.

Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, in 1893, imported this variety from
south-central Asia. It is very similar to the Brusseler Braune and Lucas
gives it as the same. Whether or not they are identical we cannot
determine, as the variety is not grown on the Station grounds. The name
Schatten is derived from the mirror-like reflection of the glossy skin
when exposed to the sun. From the description it seems to differ from
the Brusseler Braune in being smaller in size, not so globular, nor as
dark in color, a few days earlier, and the tree is more spreading in
growth.


=Shailer.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ =55.= 1831. A
yellowish-red, hard-fleshed Heart cherry of inferior quality; ripens in
July.


=Shannon.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Elliott Fr. Book 202, 203. 1854. =2.= Mag.
Hort. =19=:167, 168. 1853.

_Shannon Morello._ =3.= _Hogg Fruit Man._ 70, 91. 1866.

_Gov. Shannon._ =4.= _Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 33. 1873.

Shannon was raised by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, 1829,
and described in 1849, being named after Wilson Shannon, once Governor
of Ohio. It sprung from a Morello tree standing near a Carnation cherry
tree and bears fruit of the Morello type. Tree very hardy; fruit above
medium in size, globular, flattened at the base; stem long, slender;
cavity open; flesh tender, reddish-purple, juicy, acid; pit small.


=Shelton.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Milton Cat._ 10. 1911.

Shelton is a seedling of Napoleon grown by Judge William Shelton of
Walla Walla, Washington. Tree hardy, vigorous, upright; fruit smaller
than Napoleon; skin pale yellow with a red cheek; flesh sweet, tender,
juicy; ripens two weeks before Napoleon.


=Short-stem May.= Species? =1.= _Continental Plant Cat._ 22. 1914.

Merely listed as an old, well-known, productive cherry.


=Shubianka.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 327. 1888. =2.=
_Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:83. 1903.

Shubianka is an inferior small-fruited cherry of the Vladimir family
imported from Russia in 1883 by Professor J. L. Budd, Ames, Iowa. Tree
dwarf, round-topped; fruit small, round; stem long, slender; cavity
broad, shallow; skin tough, thick, deep red; flesh firm, juicy, colored,
sprightly, astringent with a bitter after-taste; stone round, rather
large; season at the end of June; worthless.


=Sibrel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Greening Bros. Cat._ 74 fig. 1899.

Sibrel is of the Morello type and originated at Bettsville, Ohio;
distinguished for its productiveness, lateness, size and quality.


=Silver Thorne.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:83. 1903.

Silver Thorne is supposed to have originated in Muscatine County, Iowa,
about sixty years ago. It resembles Early Richmond in tree and fruit but
the cherries have firmer flesh and are less acid.


=Skublics Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 59. 1907.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Sleinhaus.= Species? =1.= Mas. _Pom. Gen._ =11=:16_2._ 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Small Black Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:112. 1832.

This cherry differs from Black Guigne in being shorter and inferior in
quality.


=Small Morello.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thacher _Am. Orch._ 217. 1822.

A cherry from Salem County, New Jersey; the fruit has a lively acid
taste.


=Smidt Yellow.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Am. Fruit Cult._ 669. 1897.

A good, early, prolific, southern variety. Fruit medium in size, yellow,
mottled with red.


=Socsany.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 41. 1895.

Socsany was received from Hungary by the United States Department of
Agriculture in 1893 and was sent to C. E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon,
for testing. Fruit small, smooth, cordate; suture shallow; stem long,
slender; cavity medium in size, irregular, flaring; skin thick,
tenacious, yellow, well covered with red, with numerous, subcutaneous,
oblong dots; flesh yellowish, translucent, meaty, with whitish veins,
juicy, sweet, aromatic; stone large, oval, clinging; very good; season
the first of July.


=Soft-stone Cherry.= Species? =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:145. 1832.

_Soft Sheld._ =2.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 574. 1629.

_Cerise à Noyau tendre._ =3.= Duhamel _Trait. Arb. Fr._ =1=:174, 175.
1768.

Many writers mention a seedless cherry but Duhamel doubts its existence.
He does, however, describe one with a tender, ligneous pit that is
easily broken by the fingers. The fruit is round, almost an inch in
diameter and very good.


=Souths Breite Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 164. 1819. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 25. 1876.

A large, black, glossy Heart cherry.


=Souvenir d'Essonnes.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas. _Le Verger_ =8=:109, 110,
fig. 53. 1866-73.

This cherry was obtained by M. Courtin, a nurseryman at Essonnes,
Seine-et-Oise, France, about 1860. Fruit of medium size, oval, slightly
compressed; suture indistinct; stem medium; cavity of medium size,
regular; skin tender, mottled on a red ground; flesh whitish, tender,
sweet though sprightly; pit small, oval; ripens the middle of June.


=Spanische Frühkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 149 fig., 150.
1860.

_Spanische Herzkirsche._ =2.= Christ _Obstbäume_ 160. 1791.

_Schwarze Spanische Frühkirsche._ =3.= Christ _Handb._ 662. 1797. =4.=
Christ _Wörterb._ 282. 1802. =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
410-413. 1819.

_Précoce d'Espagne._ =6.= Mas. _Le Verger_ =8=:73, 74, fig. 35. 1866-73.
=7.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 16, 204. 1876.

Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, sides compressed; suture wide,
deep, often only a line on the dorsal side; stem long, slender, inserted
in a shallow, narrow cavity; skin glossy, tough, deep red changing to
black; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, with a pleasing sourness,
brownish-red; pit elongated-oval, not plump, rather smooth; season the
middle of June.


=Spanische Frühweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 674. 1797.
=2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 289. 1802. =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
500, 501, 502. 1819.

_Griotte Précoce d'Espagne._ =4.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:41, 42, fig. 19.
1866-73.

Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish,
truncate at the base; suture marked on the side most compressed; stem
long, moderately stout, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity; skin tender,
purplish-brown, changing to black, somewhat lighter near the suture;
flesh tender, juicy, dark red, with a pleasing acidity; first quality;
stone small, roundish-oval, apex pointed; season the last of June.


=Spanische Glaskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 503 fig., 504.
1861.

_Grosse Spanische Weichsel_? =2.= Christ _Handb._ 683. 1797.

_Transparente d'Espagne._ =3.= Mas. _Le Verger_ =8=:101, 102, fig. 49.
1866-73.

Fruit large, oblate, compressed on the dorsal side; suture lacking; stem
rather long; cavity deep; color dark red; flesh yellowish, tender,
juicy, acidulated; stone small, nearly round; ripens from the middle to
the end of June.


=Spanish Griotte.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._
=2=:136. 1832.

Prince believed this variety to be a sub-variety of Arch Duke which it
resembles. The fruit is larger than the Arch Duke, oblong, somewhat
flattened along the sides; stem very large, of medium length; skin
brownish-red approaching black; flesh red, firm, slightly melting,
sweet; ripens at the beginning of July.


=Spätblühende Glaskirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 683.
1797.

_Weichselbaum mit gelb, weiss, und röthlich marmorirte Frucht._ =2.=
Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:7, Tab. 17 fig. 2. 1792. =3.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 477-479, 690. 1819.

Fruit of medium size; stem long, slender; color red; flesh pleasingly
subacid; ripens the middle of July; blooms very late.


=Späte Maulbeerkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 276. 1802.
=2.= _Ill. Handb._ 75 fig., 76. 1860.

_Späte Maulbeerherzkirsche._ =3.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
135-140. 1819.

_Guigne mûre de Paris._ 4. Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:83, 207. 1866.

Tree vigorous, with a broad crown, productive; fruit variable in size,
flattened somewhat squarely; stem long, stout, straight; cavity wide,
shallow; skin tough, black, rather dull; flesh tender, reddish-black,
with abundant, colored juice, sweet with a piquant sourness; pit round;
season the last of July.


=Späte Rote Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 378.
1889.

Listed without a description.


=Späte Schwarze Forellenkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._
291. 1802. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 605, 606. 1819.

This variety was found in Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany. Tree medium in
height, with branches drooping; fruit large, dark brownish-red; very
sour; stone very long; ripens in September with a few fruits remaining
until October.


=Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 43 fig.,
44. 1867.

Fruit very large, roundish, flattened, angular; suture but a line; stem
rather long; cavity shallow; skin glossy, dark red, becoming black,
streaked; flesh dark red, firm, sweet, aromatic, with a slight
bitterness; stone oval; ripens in late August.


=Späte Schwarze Spanische Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._
664. 1797. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 152, 153. 1819.

This variety is distinguished from all others of its class by its soft,
tender stone; it differs from the Soft-stone Cherry in shape. Fruit
elongated, tapering-cordate; skin glossy, dark brown, changing to black;
flesh tender, dark red, juicy, aromatic; stone medium in size,
flattened, often abortive, with a thin covering over the kernel easily
broken by the hand; ripens in late August.


=Speckkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 665. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 287-289. 1819.

_Cerise Graisseuse._ =3.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:303. 1866.

_Cerise Lard._ =4.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:81, 82, fig. 41. 1882.

This cherry is sometimes mistaken for Corone. It differs from other
Bigarreaus in its variable form. Tree productive; fruit medium to
large; stem rather long, set in a shallow cavity; color dark red with
lighter red flecks; flesh firm, pale yellow, subacid; stone rather
large, nearly free; ripens the middle of July.


=Spitzens Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
160, 161, 673. 1819. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 71 fig., 72. 1860. =3.=
Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301. 1866. =4.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18,
199. 1876.

_Guigne noire Spitz._ =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:333 fig. 1877.

_Bigarreau noire de Spitz._ =6.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

Spitzens Herzkirsche is a seedling found in Guben, Prussia, Germany,
about 1790. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs,
large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture shallow; stem short; cavity
shallow; skin glossy, tender, dark reddish-brown changing to black,
lighter along the suture; flesh dark red, tender, fibrous, sweet,
aromatic when fully ripe; stone of medium size, plump, oval, slightly
adherent; season late.


=Srdcovka v Skalka.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Obstzüchter_ =8=:51. 1910.

A Heart cherry found in the markets of Brünn, Moravia, Austria.


=Stanapa.= _P. pumila × P. pissardi._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=130=:190, 191. 1911.

Stanapa is a cross between the Sand Cherry and Prunus pissardi,
interesting only because of its beautiful purple foliage.


=Standard.= _P. pumila._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 353. 1896.

Standard is a seedling of _Prunus pumila_, the Sand Cherry, grown by the
Experiment Station at Manitoba, Canada; fruit large, astringent.

=Starr Prolific.= Species? =1.= _Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt._ =1=:22. 1894.

Mentioned as growing on the grounds of L. Woolverton, Grimsby, Ontario,
Canada.


=Strass Early Black.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees
Am._ 473. 1869. =2.= _Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales_ =19=:996. 1908.

Many writers believe Strass Early Black to be Reine Hortense. Tree
vigorous, productive; fruit small, partly cordate, flattened on one
side; stem of medium length, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark red
becoming almost black; flesh reddish-pink, rather soft, sweet, with
pinkish juice; stone large.


=Strauss.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Del. Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:127. 1900.

_Strauss Weichsel._ =2.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 328. 1885. =3.= _Can.
Exp. Farm Bul._ =17=:11. 1892.

This is not the Strauss Weichsel of Europe but one of Budd's
importations. Tree upright, hardy, round-topped, vigorous, unproductive;
fruit medium to large, truncate, flattened at both ends; cavity medium;
apex smooth; stem short, slender; flesh dark red almost black, firm,
juicy, sprightly, acid, astringent; stone small, round; season the last
of June.


=Strauss Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 289. 1802. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 502-505. 1819. =3.= Dochnahl _Führ._
_Obstkunde_ =3=:59. 1858. =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 81 fig., 82. 1867.

Tree dwarfish, unproductive; fruit on a single stem but several come out
of one bud and the buds are closely set; fruit large, flattened at both
ends; apex slightly rounded; stem long, thin, straight; color
brownish-black; flesh tender, dark red, with abundant, colored juice;
quality good; ripens the middle of June.


=Striker.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 41. 1895.

Striker is a seedling of Napoleon grown by C. E. Hoskins, Springbrook,
Oregon. Fruit large, cordate; cavity wide, deep, flaring, pink; stem of
medium length, slender; suture shallow; skin thick, tender, glossy,
yellow, washed and mottled with red; dots minute, russet, elongated;
flesh yellowish, translucent, fibrous, firm, juicy, mild, sprightly;
very good; pit of medium size, oval, semi-clinging; season the last of
June to early July.


=Striped-Leaved.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:151. 1832.

_Cerasus hortensis foliis eleganter variegatis._ =2.= Miller _Gard.
Dict._ =1=:1754.

Cultivated as an ornamental.


=Stuart.= _P. avium._

Stuart originated from nursery-sown pits and was propagated by C. W.
Stuart of Newark, New York, who sent trees to this Station for testing
in 1900. Tree of medium size, vigorous, productive; fruit large, cordate
or inclined to conic, compressed; suture indistinct; stem long, slender;
cavity deep, wide, obtuse; skin thin, tender; color light red over a
yellowish background changing to dark, glossy red; flesh whitish, juicy,
tender, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet; quality good; ripens in mid-season.


=Sucrée Léon Leclerc.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 19, 206.
1876

_Guigne sucrée de Léon Leclerc._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:98.
1866. =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:339, 340 fig. 1877.

_Léon Leclercs Herzkirsche._ =4.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 56. 1907.

This variety originated with Léon Leclerc of Laval, Mayenne, France,
about 1853. Tree small, productive; fruit of medium size, borne in twos
or threes, cordate-ovoid; stem long, slender, inserted in a cavity of
medium size; skin deep rose-carmine; flesh whitish, semi-tender, very
sugary, aromatic; pit medium in size, elongated-oval; ripens about the
end of June.


=Summit.= _P. avium._

Summit is a seedling sent this Station by Isaiah Lower, Barberton, Ohio.
According to Mr. Lower, the tree is vigorous and bears large, dark red
cherries, very rich in juice and of a pleasing taste.


=Süsse Amarelle.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Kraft _Pom. Aust._ =1=:8, Tab. 20
fig. 1. 1792. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 618, 619. 1819. =3.=
_Ill. Handb._ 89 fig., 90. 1867. =4.= Oberdieck _Obst-Sort._ 356, 357.
1881.

_Späte Amarelle_ incor. =5.= Christ _Wörterb._ 294. 1802.

This variety is probably of French origin. Tree medium in height, bushy,
productive; fruit large, flattened on both ends and on one side giving
it a four-angled appearance; stem short, stout; cavity flat, shallow;
apex slightly depressed; suture short, slightly prominent; skin dark
red, thin, tough, separating readily from the pulp; flesh tender, juicy,
white, sweet; stone large, thick, round, free; season the middle of
June.


=Süsse Frühherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
154, 155, 672. 1819.

Fruit rather small, round, compressed and marked by a suture; stem long,
slender; color dark brown, becoming black; flesh tender, sweet, piquant;
stone large, adherent; season the end of June.


=Süsse Frühweichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Christ _Wörterb._ 288. 1802.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 536-538. 1819. =3.= Mathieu _Nom.
Pom._ 379. 1889.

_Cerise Hâtive._ =4.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:23, 24, fig. 10. 1866-73.

This cherry should not be confused with the dark-fleshed variety,
Griotte Douce Précoce. Branches long, flexible; fruit usually borne in
twos or threes, of medium size, roundish, flattened; suture rather
distinct; stem short, set in a large cavity; skin tender, clear red
becoming darker; flesh whitish, mild; stone small, roundish; ripens
early in June.


=Süsse Maiherzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 662. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 111-115. 1819. =3.= Dochnahl _Führ.
Obstkunde_ =3=:19. 1858.

Fruit round, medium in size; suture indistinct; skin black; flesh dark
red, piquant; stone small, plump, roundish, adherent along the suture;
season the middle of June to July.


=Süsse Spanische.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_.
233-235. 1819. =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 206. 1876.

_Douce d'Espagne._ =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:21, 22, fig. 11. 1882.

This cherry was sent out by Pastor Winter of Germany in 1796 as a
seedling of White Spanish. Fruit above medium to large, cordate; sides
compressed and marked by a suture; stem rather long, slender, set in a
narrow cavity; skin dull yellow, spotted with red, often dull; flesh
whitish-yellow with a reddish tinge near the skin, tender, sweet; stone
small, broadly cordate, adherent; season late.


=Süsskirsche mit Gefurster Blüthe.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._
=11=:162. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Sweedish.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Cultivator_ N. S. =7=:270. 1850.

Sweedish is one of Professor J. P. Kirtland's varieties, possibly
identical with White Heart. Its strikingly rugose or wrinkled surface
distinguishes it from other cherries.


=Sweet Montmorency.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =8=:284. 1842. =2.=
Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 193 fig. 1845.

_Allen's Sweet Montmorency._ =3.= Bridgeman _Gard. Ass't_ Pt. =3=:183.
1847.

The fruit of this variety resembles Montmorency in external appearance
but it is of a sweet, delicate flavor and the growth and habit of the
tree is that of a Heart. Probably it is a hybrid between a Heart and a
Morello or Montmorency. It was raised by J. F. Allen, Salem,
Massachusetts. Tree vigorous, somewhat spreading; fruit rather small,
nearly round; suture shallow; stem short; cavity shallow; skin pale
amber in the shade, deep orange in the sun, becoming darker, and mottled
with yellow; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, high quality; stone
small, round, slightly adherent; season the last of July to August.


=Sweet Morello.= Species? =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 54. 1831.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Tarascon Kirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 5 fig., 6. 1867.

_Guigne de Tarascon._ =2.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:59-61, fig. 4,
219. 1866. =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 18, 199. 1876. =4.= Leroy _Dict.
Pom._ =5=:336, 337 fig. 1877.

Tarascon Kirsche originated in Bouches-du-Rhône, France. Tree of medium
height, moderately vigorous; fruit rather large, usually attached by
fours, obtuse-cordate, surface irregular; suture indistinct; stem
rather slender, medium in length; cavity often shallow; skin glossy,
changing to nearly black; flesh colored, juicy, tender, sweet; ripens
late in June.


=Tardive d'Avignon.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:153,
154 fig. 39, 155. 1866. =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:395, 396 fig. 1877.

This variety is grown at Avignon, Vaucluse, France. Tree vigorous,
large; fruit usually attached in pairs, of medium size, compressed at
the base, mamelon at the apex; suture indistinct; stem very long,
slender, set in a broad, shallow cavity; apex prominent; skin thin but
firm, dark glossy red, never becoming black, easily detached from the
pulp; flesh clear blood-red netted with white, tender, juicy, sweet,
with pronounced acidity; first quality; pit small, roundish, moderately
grooved; matures at the beginning of July.


=Tardive de Brederode.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:156. 1882.

Leaves and flowers described.


=Tardive Noire d'Espagne.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Tardive de Peine.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Tecumseh.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 203. 1854. =2.= _Mag.
Hort._ =19=:167, 168. 1853. =3.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:65, 66, fig. 33.
1882.

Tecumseh was raised in 1842 by Professor J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland,
Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably fertilized by Black
Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree moderately vigorous,
spreading, hardy, productive; fruit medium to large, obtuse-cordate,
compressed, with a broad, shallow suture; stem long, moderately thick;
skin thin, tender, deep reddish-purple changing to purplish-black,
glossy, sometimes mottled with red; flesh reddish-purple, rather tender,
very juicy, sweet yet sprightly but not high flavored; quality good;
stone medium in size, smooth, round, slightly elongated; ripens from the
middle to the end of July.


=Temple.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 31.
1892.

Temple is a large Duke, subacid in flavor, ripening about June 10th.
Tree an upright grower.


=Terry.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 168. 1897. =2.= _Del.
Sta. An. Rpt._ =12=:122. 1900. =3.= Budd-Hansen _Am. Hort. Man._
=2=:283. 1903.

_Terry Early._ =4.= Stark Bros. _Cat._ 21. 1910.

Terry was probably imported by H. A. Terry, Crescent, Iowa, from Russia.
Tree moderately upright, hardy; fruit of medium size, roundish,
flattened laterally; suture indistinct; stem medium long; cavity
shallow; skin tough, slightly astringent, deep red; flesh meaty,
subacid, colored; stone small, roundish; ripens the middle of June.


=Thirty Day.= Species? =1.= _Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 9. 1890.

Thirty Day is said to ripen thirty days from the time of blossoming. It
was grown by a Mr. Irwin of Fairfield County, Ohio; fruit large and of
excellent quality.


=Thompson.= _P. avium._ =1.= Wickson _Cal. Fruits_ 290. 1889.

Thompson is a seedling of Black Tartarian, which it closely resembles,
from Napa County, California. Tree hardier and the fruit firmer than
Black Tartarian.


=Thränen Muskatellerkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 683.
1797. =2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 174-177. 1819. =3.= Dochnahl
_Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:35. 1858.

_Bigarreautier à rameaux pendants._ =4.= _Ann. Pom. Belge_ =4=:85, 86,
Pl. 1856. =5.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:233 fig., 234. 1877.

_Muscat des Larmes._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:301. 1866.

This old variety is said to have been introduced into Germany and France
from the Island of Minorca in the Mediterranean. The branches very soon
take on a drooping habit whence its name; leaves long and narrow,
peach-like; fruit large, often borne in pairs, flattened at the stem as
well as at the sides, marked by a suture; skin dark brownish-red; flesh
dark red, firm, juicy; excellent; stone plump, oval; ripens the middle
of July.


=Tilgner Rothe Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 254, 255. 1819. =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:27.
1858. =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 103 fig., 104. 1860.

_Guigne de Tilgener._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:302. 1866.

_Bigarreau rouge de Tilgener_? =5.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:159. 1882.

This variety is a seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany. Tree large,
productive; fruit above medium in size, cordate; suture shallow; stem
medium to above in length, rather deeply inserted; color yellowish,
spotted and streaked with red often becoming wholly red; flesh pale
white, juicy, tender, sweet, aromatic; quality very good; stone oval,
acutely pointed, plump, grooved; ripens at the end of June.


=Tilgner Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ill. Handb._ 33
fig., 34. 1867. =2.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._ 380. 1889.

_Bigarreau noir de Tilgner._ =3.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:230 fig. 1877.

Another seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, originating about 1852.
Tree vigorous, healthy, productive; fruit usually borne in threes, very
large, obtuse-cordate, often pointed, compressed; suture indistinct;
stem short, stout, set in a deep, rather wide cavity; skin moderately
tender, glossy, black when ripe; flesh rather tender, dark red,
aromatic, pleasing; stone of medium size, oval; season late.


=Tobacco-Leaved.= _P. avium._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:122, 123.
1832.

_Ounce._ 2. Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 571. 1629.

_Cerise à Feuilles bigarrées._ 3. Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:35. 1771.

_Four to the Pound._ 4. Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 267-277. 1819.
=5.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 49. 1831.

_Ächte (sein sollende) Kirsche Vier auf ein Pfund._ =6.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 283, 284, 679. 1819.

_Bigarreautier à grandes feuilles._ =7.= Poiteau _Pom. Franc._ =2=: No.
10, Pl. 1846.

_Gross blättrige Molkenkirsche._ =8.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:31.
1858.

_Bigarreau à Feuilles de Tabac._ =9.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:201 fig.,
202, 203, 204. 1877.

The foliage is an object of curiosity in this variety, the leaves often
measuring a foot in length and from five to eight inches in width. The
fruits are rather below medium in size. The young shoots present a much
undulated appearance. The variety is evidently of English origin, being
mentioned in 1629, by Parkinson. Fruit below medium in size,
heart-shaped; stem long, slender; skin tender, glossy, yellow
overspread with red; flesh firm, transparent, juicy, rich, sweet; stone
of medium size, ovate; ripens early in August.


=Toctonne Précoce.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:156. 1882.

The fruit is not described.


=Tokeya.= _P. pumila × P. simonii._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._ =108=:Pl.
4. 1908. =2.= _Ibid._ =130=:188 Pl. 13, 189. 1911.

Tokeya is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Simon plum and was
introduced as South Dakota No. 7 by the South Dakota Station. The early
fruiting and the dwarfing habit of the Sand Cherries are very evident;
fruit one and three-eighths inches in diameter, flat, dark red; flesh
green, sprightly subacid, intermediate between that of the two parents;
of good quality; pit very small.


=Tomato.= _P. avium × P. cerasus._ =1.= _Hogg Fruit Man._ 92. 1866.

_Pomme-d'Amour._ =2.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 21, 203. 1876.

_Love Apple._ =3.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 3rd App. 163. 1881.

Tomato is a Duke cherry of Spanish origin. Fruit large, roundish-oblate,
often depressed or tomato-shaped; suture shallow; apex a dot; stem long,
slender, set in a large, broad, moderately deep cavity; skin yellowish,
shaded with red; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid;
quality very good; ripens early in July.


=Toronto.= Species? =1.= _Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 22. 1892-93. =2.=
_Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales_ =19=:998. 1908.

Tree upright, fairly vigorous, productive; fruit borne in twos and
threes, small, cordate, flattened on the sides, dark red; flesh and
juice dark red, soft.

=Toupie.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =20=:270. 1854. =2.= Mas _Pom.
Gen._ =11=:17, 18, fig. 9. 1882.

_Kreiselkirsche._ =3.= _Ill. Handb._ 25 fig., 26. 1867.

_Bigarreau Toupie._ =4.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:246, 247 fig. 1877.

A peculiar top-shaped fruit raised by M. Denis Henrard of the University
of Liege, Belgium. Tree vigorous, moderately productive; fruit large,
elongated, pointed-cordate, sides slightly compressed; suture
indistinct; stem moderately long, slender, often curved, inserted in a
narrow, shallow cavity; skin pale red becoming darker; flesh
half-tender, juicy, dark red where exposed, sweet, acidulated; pit
large, oval, tapering toward the apex, plump; ripens at the last of
June.


=Townsend.= _P. cerasus._

Townsend is a strong, vigorous, productive cherry grown by W. P.
Townsend, Lockport, New York. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a high
shoulder, compressed; suture distinct; stem long, rather slender, set in
a broad, somewhat deep cavity; skin light amber, mottled and shaded with
carmine; flesh almost tender, juicy, sprightly, refreshing; pit small;
ripens late in June.


=Transparent.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 92. 1866.

Transparent was grown by M. De Jonghe of Brussels, Belgium, from seed of
Montmorency. Fruit above medium in size, oblate, with a faint suture
which is distinctly marked at the apex; skin pale red, thin,
transparent, showing the fibrous flesh beneath; flesh tender, melting,
sweet, delicious.


=Transparent Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Forsyth _Treat. Fr. Trees_ 43.
1803. =2.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:119. 1832. =3=. Downing _Fr. Trees
Am._ 177. 1845.

_Jahns Durchsichtige._ =4.= _Ill. Handb._ 143 fig., 144. 1860.

_Transparent de Jahn._ =5.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:65, 66, fig. 31.
1866-73.

This is a European cherry formerly grown to some extent in America. Tree
moderately vigorous, erect at first; fruit small, borne in pairs,
regular, oval-cordate; stem rather long, inserted in a narrow cavity;
suture a wide, dark line; skin thin, glossy, pellucid, showing the
stone, yellowish-white, blotched with fine red; flesh yellowish-white,
with a reddish cast, tender, juicy, aromatic; stone medium in size,
oval, free; ripens late in June.


=Transparente de Meylan.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 28.
1876.

Fruit large, round, transparent; flesh delicate, fine, acid at first
becoming sugary; ripens at the end of May.


=Transparente de Rivers.= _P. avium._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 17, 207.
1876.

This is an English variety introduced into France about 1865. Fruit
large, spherical, depressed, with a spotted rose-carmine color; flesh
firm, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated; first quality; ripens early in
July.


=Transparente de Siebenfreund.= Species? =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 28.
1876. =2.= _Guide Prat._ 11. 1895.

A large, beautiful cherry ripening the last of June from M.
Siebenfreund, a druggist at Tyrnau, northwestern Hungary.


=Triomphe de Fausin.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Listed in the reference given.


=Troprichters Schwarze Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Truchsess-Heim
_Kirschensort_. 206, 676, 677. 1819.

_Guigne Troprichtz._ =2.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:340, 341 fig. 1877.

An old German variety. Fruit large, roundish-oval; skin clear red
becoming more intense; flesh juicy, sweet, aromatic; of good quality;
ripens early in June.


=Truchsess Schwarze Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
380. 1889.

Listed but not described.


=Tubbs.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:86. 1903.

Tubbs originated in Iowa City, Iowa. Fruit of medium size, oblate,
slightly cordate; stem long, rather stout, inserted in a deep, narrow
opening; suture very indistinct; apex convex; skin thick, dark red;
flesh colored, crisp, meaty, slightly acid, juicy; quality very good;
stone small, round; ripens late in June.


=Türkine.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ _Handb._ 667. 1797. =2.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 265-267. 1819. 3. _Ill. Handb._ 109 fig.,
110. 1860.

Christ once labeled the Flamentiner, Türkine, which has given rise to
some confusion. The true Türkine was sent out by Sello as Runde Weisse
Späte Kirsche. Tree not very vigorous or productive; fruit of medium
size, very broad, cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender; cavity
variable; skin spotted with red and yellow; flesh softer than most
Hearts, white, juicy; quality very good; stone plump, roundish; ripens
late in July.


=Turkirsche Grosse.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Guide Prat._ 11. 1895.

A German variety which resembles Elton; fruit large, pointed; flesh
white, sweet; first quality; ripens throughout July.


=Turner Late.= Species? =1=. Van Lindley _Cat._ 37. 1899.

A productive black cherry of medium size ripening the middle of June.


=Twyford.= Species? =1.= _Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales_ =19=:997. 1908.

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit borne singly and in
pairs, above medium in size, roundish-cordate, flattened; stem slender,
long; skin yellow, mottled with bright, light red; flesh rather firm,
whitish, tinged red near the skin, with clear juice; good; ripens in New
South Wales in November.


=Uhlhorns Trauerkirsche.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 28.
1876.

Thomas states that this is a weeping cherry from Germany; fruit large
and very good.


=Ungarische Weichsel.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_
=3=:61. 1858.

_Schwarze Ungarische Kirsche._ =2.= Christ _Wörterb._ 284. 1802. =3.=
Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 588, 589. 1819.

This cherry should not be confused with the Grosse Ungarische Kirsche
which is a Heart while this is a Morello. Fruit large, round,
compressed; suture indistinct; stem slender, long, shallowly inserted;
color black; flesh firm, tender, subacid, with dark red juice; pit
small, elongated-oval; ripens the middle of July.


=Urinall.= _P. avium._ =1.= Parkinson _Par. Ter._ 572. 1629.

"The Urinall Cherrie in a most fruitfull yeare is a small bearer, having
many yeares none, and the best but a few; yet doth blossome plentifully
every yeare for the most part: the cherrie is long and round, like unto
an Urinall, from whence it tooke his name; reddish when it is full ripe,
and of an indifferent sweete rellish."


=Utha.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 57. 1894.

Spoken of by Joseph Wood, Windom, Minnesota, as a hardy but almost
worthless fruit; unproductive.

=Van Gaasbeck.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 67. 1875.

A seedling cherry of extrordinary keeping quality exhibited by W. Van
Gaasbeck, Hudson, New York. The fruit is of medium size with firm, sweet
flesh.


=Vanskike.= Species? =1.= _Trans. Cal. Agr. Soc._ 472. 1873.

A flesh-colored cherry listed as being cultivated successfully in
California.


=Vaughn.= Species? 1. _Can. Exp. Farm. Bul._ 2nd Ser. =3=:62. 1900.

Listed as medium in growth; fruit not described.


=Velser.= _P. avium X P. cerasus._ =1.= Krünitz _Enc._ 54, 55. 1790.
=2.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 394-398. 1819.

_Prague Tardif (Muscadét de)._ =3.= Knoop _Fructologie_ =2=:36, 42.
1771.

_Wanfrieder Weichsel._ =4.= Christ _Handb._ 672. 1797.

_Douce de Palatinat._ =5.= _Mag. Hort._ =20=:270. 1854.

_Pfälzer Süssweichsel._ =6.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:49. 1858.

_Cerise du Palatinat._ =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:153, 154, fig. 75.
1866-73.

Tree of medium growth; branches long, straight; fruit above medium in
size, obtuse-cordate, distinguishing it from other dark Dukes,
compressed; suture distinct; stem long; color dark red; flesh colored,
fibrous, juicy, sweet with a pleasing subacid flavor; stone small,
broad, cordate, adhering to both stem and flesh.


=Very Large Heart.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 53. 1831.

Mentioned in this reference.


=Vesta.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Rpt._ 262. 1892. =2.= _Am. Pom.
Soc. Rpt._ 150. 1895.

Vesta is a seedling of Napoleon which originated with C. E. Hoskins,
Newberg, Oregon; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, very dark; flesh
firm, sweet; quality good; ripens the middle of June.


=Vilna Sweet.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt._ 330. 1885. =2.=
_Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:31. 1910.

Vilna Sweet was imported by Professor J. L. Budd from Vilna, Russia.
This variety shows much promise in the West as a local sort but is too
tender to ship. Tree of medium size, upright, very hardy, free from
diseases; fruit large, roundish to oblong, compressed; stem long,
slender; cavity rather deep, narrow, often lipped on the side showing a
suture; color red, often entirely covering the yellow ground; flesh
whitish, tinged with pink, tender but meaty, sprightly, subacid becoming
sweet; pit free, large, ovate, plump, smooth; ripens the middle of July
hanging to the tree until the last of August.


=Violet.= _P. cerasus._

According to a letter from H. Back & Sons, New Trenton, Indiana, Violet
resembles English Morello but is more round and not as acid.


=Virginia May Duke.= _P. avium._ =1.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 220. 1854. =2.=
Hooper _W. Fr. Book 269._ 1857.

A small, cordate, bright red, second rate Mazzard cherry.


=Vistula.= Species? =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 149. 1896.

Mentioned as planted and as having been killed by the winter.


=Voronezh No. 27.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Can. Exp. Farms Rpt._ 76. 1890.

A promising, vigorous variety imported under this number from Voronezh,
Russia; Fruit very large, bright red, round, somewhat flattened; flesh
juicy, subacid; pit small. season very late.


=Wabash.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 41. 1895.

Wabash was introduced by Samuel Kinsey, Kinsey, Ohio, the original tree
having stood since 1848 on the grounds of Mrs. Ellen Pawlings, Wabash,
Indiana. Fruit borne singly, of the Morello type, roundish-oblate, above
medium in size, surface smooth; cavity large, wide, deep, flaring; stem
long, slender, curved; suture a shallow line; skin thin, tough, glossy,
bright crimson turning to dark red; dots very small, indented; flesh
yellowish, veined, translucent, tender, melting, subacid, rich; quality
very good; season a week later than Early Richmond.


=Wachampa.= _P. pumila × P. triflora._ =1.= _S. Dak. Sta. Bul._
=130=:181. 1911.

Wachampa is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum. Fruit
an inch to an inch and one quarter in diameter; skin bitter, dark
purple; flesh and juice dark purple.


=Wagner.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Wash. Sta. Bul._ =92=:31. 1910.

Tree upright, round-topped, with long branches; fruit medium to large,
roundish-oblate; stem short, stout; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh
yellow, meaty, melting, sweet, with a slight acidity; quality good;
ripens the middle of July.


=Warner.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Rural N. Y._ =10=:247. 1859.

Warner is a supposed seedling of American Amber grown by Mathew G.
Warner, Rochester, New York; fruit amber to very dark red where exposed;
stem long, slender; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; ripens late in July.


=Warren Transparent.= Species? =1.= Cole _Am. Fr. Book_ 237. 1849.

Originated with a Mr. Warren, Brighton, Massachusetts. Fruit
roundish-cordate; skin pale yellow and red; flesh very tender,
transparent; ripens early in July.


=Washington Purple.= Species? =1.= Mas _Pom. Gen._ =11=:162. 1882.

Listed without a description.


=Waterhouse.= _P. avium._ =1.= _U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt._ 25. 1894.

This variety was originated by Dr. Warren Waterhouse, 1873, of Monmouth,
Oregon. Fruit of the Bigarreau class, large, compressed, heart-shaped;
cavity large, round; stem long, slender; suture a line; skin firm,
smooth, glistening, yellowish-white with a bright red cheek, often
nearly solid red; dots numerous, very small; flesh whitish, tinged
yellow, firm, juicy, vinous, sprightly; quality very good.


=Weeping.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= Prince _Pom. Man._ =2=:153. 1832.

_Weeping or Pendulous Morello._ =2.= Fish _Hardy-Fr. Bk._ =2=:106. 1882.

Under the name Weeping are included many varieties with a drooping or
pendulant habit and mostly of ornamental value only. This variety,
listed by Prince, although much like Toussaint, has branches more
pendant than those of other weeping cherries. The Weeping or Pendulous
Morello of Fish is included here. The head in this variety seldom
exceeds four or five feet in diameter, and the slender branches droop on
all sides until they trail on the ground; the fruit is of medium size
and when fully ripe is of a pleasant acid flavor.


=Weeping Black Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Flor. & Pom._ 16. 1879.

_Trauerknorpelkirsche._ =2.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:40. 1858.

_Bigarreau pleureur._ =3.= Thomas _Guide Prat._ 23. 1876.

One of the earliest black Bigarreaus. It differs from other sorts of its
class in the weeping habit of the tree; very ornamental.


=Weeping Napoleon.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt._ 53. 1871.

A seedling of Napoleon introduced by a Mr. Dougall, Windsor, Ontario. If
budded high the branches are pendulous, which, with the large, dark
fruit, makes a handsome ornamental.


=Weis, Roth und Rosenfarbig Marmorirte Kramelkirsche.= Species? =1.=
_Kraft Pom. Aust._ =1=:3, Tab. 6 fig. 2. 1792.

Flesh white, breaking, firm, with colorless juice, pleasing; ripens the
middle of July.

=Weisse Rosenroth Marmorirte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Christ
_Wörterb._ 280. 1802.

_Weiss und hellroth gefleckte grosse Kramelkirsche._ =2.= Kraft _Pom.
Aust._ =1=:3, Tab. 6 fig. 1. 1792.

Flesh white, less firm than others of this class; juice colorless; stone
yellowish; ripens the middle of July.


=Weisse Mandelkirsche.= Species? =1.= _Proskauer Obstsort._ 58. 1907.

Listed, not described.


=Wellington.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat._ 56. 1831. =2.=
Elliott _Fr. Book_ 220. 1854.

_Wellington's Weichsel._ =3.= Dochnahl _Führ. Obstkunde_ =3=:60. 1858.

_Griotte de Wellington._ =4.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:307. 1866.

Mentioned by Elliott in 1854 as unworthy of further culture. Bigarreau
Wellington, often used as a synonym of Napoleon, should not be mistaken
for this Morello of supposedly English origin. Fruit of medium size,
cordate; stem long; skin thin, glossy, black; flesh firm, dark red,
moderately juicy, pleasant subacid; stone elongated, cordate, free;
ripens the middle of July.


=Wendell Mottled.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mag. Hort._ =13=:494 fig. 1847.
=2.= Elliott _Fr. Book_ 213. 1854. =3.= Hoffy _N. Am. Pom._ Pl. 1860.

Wendell Mottled was raised from a seed of Yellow Spanish planted in
1840, by Dr. Herman Wendell, Albany, New York. Tree upright, thrifty,
bears early and abundantly; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a distinct
suture; stem long, rather stout, set in a moderately deep cavity; skin
dark purplish-red, mottled and streaked, nearly black; flesh deep
crimson, firm, crisp, juicy; stone small; ripens the middle of July.


=Wenzlecks Bunte Knorpelkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mas Pom. Gen._
=11=:162. 1882.

Mentioned in the reference given.


=Werder Early Black.= _P. avium._ =1.= Downing _Fr. Trees Am._ 169.
1845. =2.= _Ill. Handb._ 53 fig., 54. 1860. =3.= Hogg _Fruit Man._ 93.
1866.

_Werdersche Schwarze Allerfrüheste Herzkirsche._ =4.= Christ _Handb._
683. 1797. =5.= Truchsess-Heim _Kirschensort_. 109-111. 1819.

_Guigne Hâtive de Werder._ =6.= Mortillet _Le Cerisier_ =2=:82, 300.
1866. =7.= Mas _Le Verger_ =8=:27, 28, fig. 12. 1866-73.

_Bigarreau Werder._ =8.= Leroy _Dict. Pom._ =5=:251 fig. 1877.

This cherry was received by Truchsess in 1794, from Christ; of unknown
origin. Tree strong and upright in growth, very productive; fruit
valuable for its earliness, rather large, flattened-cordate, with a deep
suture on one side; stem of medium length and thickness, inserted in a
rather small cavity; skin thin, rather deep purple changing to
purplish-black; flesh deep purple, with abundant colored juice, firm,
tender, sweet, yet moderately sprightly and aromatic; quality good;
stone large, ovate, flattened at the base; ripens from the last of May
to the first of June.


=Werder'sche Bunte Herzkirsche.= _P. avium._ =1.= Mathieu _Nom. Pom._
382. 1889.

Listed without a description.


=Wheeler.= _P. cerasus._ =1.= _Ia. Sta. Bul._ =73=:87. 1903.

A hardy seedling of English Morello originating with H. J. Wheeler,
Carnforth, Iowa.


=White Bigarreau.= _P. avium._ =1.= _Mich. Sta. Bul._ =205=:28. 1903.

This variety was received by the Michigan Station from the United States
Department of Agriculture in 1895; it is between the Duke and the
Morello in type. Tree low, slow in growth; fruit large, light red,
slightly darker on one side; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly subacid.


=White French.= Species? =1.= _Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt._ 11. 1881.

Spoken of as doing well in Pennsylvania.


=White French Guigne.= _P. avium._ =1.= Barry _Fr. Garden_ 323. 1851.
=2.= _Am. Pom. Soc. Cat._ 74. 1862. =3.= Garvin & Son _Cat._ 18. 1892.

A distinct, rather large cherry listed in the fruit catalog of the
American Pomological Society for 1862. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit
creamy-white; flesh tender,